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Sample records for hand based biometrics

  1. Hand-Based Biometric Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebis, George (Inventor); Amayeh, Gholamreza (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Hand-based biometric analysis systems and techniques are described which provide robust hand-based identification and verification. An image of a hand is obtained, which is then segmented into a palm region and separate finger regions. Acquisition of the image is performed without requiring particular orientation or placement restrictions. Segmentation is performed without the use of reference points on the images. Each segment is analyzed by calculating a set of Zernike moment descriptors for the segment. The feature parameters thus obtained are then fused and compared to stored sets of descriptors in enrollment templates to arrive at an identity decision. By using Zernike moments, and through additional manipulation, the biometric analysis is invariant to rotation, scale, or translation or an in put image. Additionally, the analysis utilizes re-use of commonly-seen terms in Zernike calculations to achieve additional efficiencies over traditional Zernike moment calculation.

  2. Hand Biometric Recognition Based on Fused Hand Geometry and Vascular Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, GiTae; Kim, Soowon

    2013-01-01

    A hand biometric authentication method based on measurements of the user's hand geometry and vascular pattern is proposed. To acquire the hand geometry, the thickness of the side view of the hand, the K-curvature with a hand-shaped chain code, the lengths and angles of the finger valleys, and the lengths and profiles of the fingers were used, and for the vascular pattern, the direction-based vascular-pattern extraction method was used, and thus, a new multimodal biometric approach is proposed. The proposed multimodal biometric system uses only one image to extract the feature points. This system can be configured for low-cost devices. Our multimodal biometric-approach hand-geometry (the side view of the hand and the back of hand) and vascular-pattern recognition method performs at the score level. The results of our study showed that the equal error rate of the proposed system was 0.06%. PMID:23449119

  3. Hand biometric recognition based on fused hand geometry and vascular patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, GiTae; Kim, Soowon

    2013-02-28

    A hand biometric authentication method based on measurements of the user's hand geometry and vascular pattern is proposed. To acquire the hand geometry, the thickness of the side view of the hand, the K-curvature with a hand-shaped chain code, the lengths and angles of the finger valleys, and the lengths and profiles of the fingers were used, and for the vascular pattern, the direction-based vascular-pattern extraction method was used, and thus, a new multimodal biometric approach is proposed. The proposed multimodal biometric system uses only one image to extract the feature points. This system can be configured for low-cost devices. Our multimodal biometric-approach hand-geometry (the side view of the hand and the back of hand) and vascular-pattern recognition method performs at the score level. The results of our study showed that the equal error rate of the proposed system was 0.06%.

  4. Hand Grasping Synergies As Biometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vrajeshri; Thukral, Poojita; Burns, Martin K; Florescu, Ionut; Chandramouli, Rajarathnam; Vinjamuri, Ramana

    2017-01-01

    Recently, the need for more secure identity verification systems has driven researchers to explore other sources of biometrics. This includes iris patterns, palm print, hand geometry, facial recognition, and movement patterns (hand motion, gait, and eye movements). Identity verification systems may benefit from the complexity of human movement that integrates multiple levels of control (neural, muscular, and kinematic). Using principal component analysis, we extracted spatiotemporal hand synergies (movement synergies) from an object grasping dataset to explore their use as a potential biometric. These movement synergies are in the form of joint angular velocity profiles of 10 joints. We explored the effect of joint type, digit, number of objects, and grasp type. In its best configuration, movement synergies achieved an equal error rate of 8.19%. While movement synergies can be integrated into an identity verification system with motion capture ability, we also explored a camera-ready version of hand synergies-postural synergies. In this proof of concept system, postural synergies performed well, but only when specific postures were chosen. Based on these results, hand synergies show promise as a potential biometric that can be combined with other hand-based biometrics for improved security.

  5. Hand Grasping Synergies As Biometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramana Vinjamuri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the need for more secure identity verification systems has driven researchers to explore other sources of biometrics. This includes iris patterns, palm print, hand geometry, facial recognition, and movement patterns (hand motion, gait, and eye movements. Identity verification systems may benefit from the complexity of human movement that integrates multiple levels of control (neural, muscular, and kinematic. Using principal component analysis, we extracted spatiotemporal hand synergies (movement synergies from an object grasping dataset to explore their use as a potential biometric. These movement synergies are in the form of joint angular velocity profiles of 10 joints. We explored the effect of joint type, digit, number of objects, and grasp type. In its best configuration, movement synergies achieved an equal error rate of 8.19%. While movement synergies can be integrated into an identity verification system with motion capture ability, we also explored a camera-ready version of hand synergies—postural synergies. In this proof of concept system, postural synergies performed well, but only when specific postures were chosen. Based on these results, hand synergies show promise as a potential biometric that can be combined with other hand-based biometrics for improved security.

  6. Template security analysis of multimodal biometric frameworks based on fingerprint and hand geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind Selwal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Biometric systems are automatic tools used to provide authentication during various applications of modern computing. In this work, three different design frameworks for multimodal biometric systems based on fingerprint and hand geometry modalities are proposed. An analysis is also presented to diagnose various types of template security issues in the proposed system. Fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP is applied with five decision parameters on all the designs and framework 1 is found to be better in terms of template data security, templates fusion and computational efficiency. It is noticed that template data security before storage in database is a challenging task. An important observation is that a template may be secured at feature fusion level and an indexing technique may be used to improve the size of secured templates.

  7. Automatic Access Control Based on Face and Hand Biometrics in A Non-Cooperative Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahromi, Mohammad Naser Sabet; Bonderup, Morten Bojesen; Nasrollahi, Kamal

    2018-01-01

    Automatic access control systems (ACS) based on the human biometrics or physical tokens are widely employed in public and private areas. Yet these systems, in their conventional forms, are restricted to active interaction from the users. In scenarios where users are not cooperating with the system......, these systems are challenged. Failure in cooperation with the biometric systems might be intentional or because the users are incapable of handling the interaction procedure with the biometric system or simply forget to cooperate with it, due to for example, illness like dementia. This work introduces...

  8. Unconstrained and contactless hand geometry biometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de-Santos-Sierra, Alberto; Sánchez-Ávila, Carmen; Del Pozo, Gonzalo Bailador; Guerra-Casanova, Javier

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a hand biometric system for contact-less, platform-free scenarios, proposing innovative methods in feature extraction, template creation and template matching. The evaluation of the proposed method considers both the use of three contact-less publicly available hand databases, and the comparison of the performance to two competitive pattern recognition techniques existing in literature: namely support vector machines (SVM) and k-nearest neighbour (k-NN). Results highlight the fact that the proposed method outcomes existing approaches in literature in terms of computational cost, accuracy in human identification, number of extracted features and number of samples for template creation. The proposed method is a suitable solution for human identification in contact-less scenarios based on hand biometrics, providing a feasible solution to devices with limited hardware requirements like mobile devices.

  9. Unconstrained and Contactless Hand Geometry Biometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Sánchez-Ávila

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a hand biometric system for contact-less, platform-free scenarios, proposing innovative methods in feature extraction, template creation and template matching. The evaluation of the proposed method considers both the use of three contact-less publicly available hand databases, and the comparison of the performance to two competitive pattern recognition techniques existing in literature: namely Support Vector Machines (SVM and k-Nearest Neighbour (k-NN. Results highlight the fact that the proposed method outcomes existing approaches in literature in terms of computational cost, accuracy in human identification, number of extracted features and number of samples for template creation. The proposed method is a suitable solution for human identification in contact-less scenarios based on hand biometrics, providing a feasible solution to devices with limited hardware requirements like mobile devices.

  10. A biometric authentication model using hand gesture images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Simon; Zhuang, Yan; Fister, Iztok; Fister, Iztok

    2013-10-30

    A novel hand biometric authentication method based on measurements of the user's stationary hand gesture of hand sign language is proposed. The measurement of hand gestures could be sequentially acquired by a low-cost video camera. There could possibly be another level of contextual information, associated with these hand signs to be used in biometric authentication. As an analogue, instead of typing a password 'iloveu' in text which is relatively vulnerable over a communication network, a signer can encode a biometric password using a sequence of hand signs, 'i' , 'l' , 'o' , 'v' , 'e' , and 'u'. Subsequently the features from the hand gesture images are extracted which are integrally fuzzy in nature, to be recognized by a classification model for telling if this signer is who he claimed himself to be, by examining over his hand shape and the postures in doing those signs. It is believed that everybody has certain slight but unique behavioral characteristics in sign language, so are the different hand shape compositions. Simple and efficient image processing algorithms are used in hand sign recognition, including intensity profiling, color histogram and dimensionality analysis, coupled with several popular machine learning algorithms. Computer simulation is conducted for investigating the efficacy of this novel biometric authentication model which shows up to 93.75% recognition accuracy.

  11. On the Feasibility of Interoperable Schemes in Hand Biometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Ferrer

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Personal recognition through hand-based biometrics has attracted the interest of many researchers in the last twenty years. A significant number of proposals based on different procedures and acquisition devices have been published in the literature. However, comparisons between devices and their interoperability have not been thoroughly studied. This paper tries to fill this gap by proposing procedures to improve the interoperability among different hand biometric schemes. The experiments were conducted on a database made up of 8,320 hand images acquired from six different hand biometric schemes, including a flat scanner, webcams at different wavelengths, high quality cameras, and contactless devices. Acquisitions on both sides of the hand were included. Our experiment includes four feature extraction methods which determine the best performance among the different scenarios for two of the most popular hand biometrics: hand shape and palm print. We propose smoothing techniques at the image and feature levels to reduce interdevice variability. Results suggest that comparative hand shape offers better performance in terms of interoperability than palm prints, but palm prints can be more effective when using similar sensors.

  12. On the feasibility of interoperable schemes in hand biometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Aythami; González, Ester; Ferrer, Miguel A

    2012-01-01

    Personal recognition through hand-based biometrics has attracted the interest of many researchers in the last twenty years. A significant number of proposals based on different procedures and acquisition devices have been published in the literature. However, comparisons between devices and their interoperability have not been thoroughly studied. This paper tries to fill this gap by proposing procedures to improve the interoperability among different hand biometric schemes. The experiments were conducted on a database made up of 8,320 hand images acquired from six different hand biometric schemes, including a flat scanner, webcams at different wavelengths, high quality cameras, and contactless devices. Acquisitions on both sides of the hand were included. Our experiment includes four feature extraction methods which determine the best performance among the different scenarios for two of the most popular hand biometrics: hand shape and palm print. We propose smoothing techniques at the image and feature levels to reduce interdevice variability. Results suggest that comparative hand shape offers better performance in terms of interoperability than palm prints, but palm prints can be more effective when using similar sensors.

  13. On the Feasibility of Interoperable Schemes in Hand Biometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Aythami; González, Ester; Ferrer, Miguel A.

    2012-01-01

    Personal recognition through hand-based biometrics has attracted the interest of many researchers in the last twenty years. A significant number of proposals based on different procedures and acquisition devices have been published in the literature. However, comparisons between devices and their interoperability have not been thoroughly studied. This paper tries to fill this gap by proposing procedures to improve the interoperability among different hand biometric schemes. The experiments were conducted on a database made up of 8,320 hand images acquired from six different hand biometric schemes, including a flat scanner, webcams at different wavelengths, high quality cameras, and contactless devices. Acquisitions on both sides of the hand were included. Our experiment includes four feature extraction methods which determine the best performance among the different scenarios for two of the most popular hand biometrics: hand shape and palm print. We propose smoothing techniques at the image and feature levels to reduce interdevice variability. Results suggest that comparative hand shape offers better performance in terms of interoperability than palm prints, but palm prints can be more effective when using similar sensors. PMID:22438714

  14. Automatic Access Control Based on Face and Hand Biometrics in A Non-Cooperative Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahromi, Mohammad Naser Sabet; Bonderup, Morten Bojesen; Nasrollahi, Kamal

    2018-01-01

    a challenging bimodal database, including face and hand information of the users when they approach a door to open it by its handle in a noncooperative context. We have defined two (an easy and a challenging) protocols on how to use the database. We have reported results on many baseline methods, including deep...... learning techniques as well as conventional methods on the database. The obtained results show the merit of the proposed database and the challenging nature of access control with non-cooperative users....

  15. Gaussian multiscale aggregation applied to segmentation in hand biometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Santos Sierra, Alberto; Avila, Carmen Sánchez; Casanova, Javier Guerra; del Pozo, Gonzalo Bailador

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an image segmentation algorithm based on Gaussian multiscale aggregation oriented to hand biometric applications. The method is able to isolate the hand from a wide variety of background textures such as carpets, fabric, glass, grass, soil or stones. The evaluation was carried out by using a publicly available synthetic database with 408,000 hand images in different backgrounds, comparing the performance in terms of accuracy and computational cost to two competitive segmentation methods existing in literature, namely Lossy Data Compression (LDC) and Normalized Cuts (NCuts). The results highlight that the proposed method outperforms current competitive segmentation methods with regard to computational cost, time performance, accuracy and memory usage.

  16. Contactless and pose invariant biometric identification using hand surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanhangad, Vivek; Kumar, Ajay; Zhang, David

    2011-05-01

    This paper presents a novel approach for hand matching that achieves significantly improved performance even in the presence of large hand pose variations. The proposed method utilizes a 3-D digitizer to simultaneously acquire intensity and range images of the user's hand presented to the system in an arbitrary pose. The approach involves determination of the orientation of the hand in 3-D space followed by pose normalization of the acquired 3-D and 2-D hand images. Multimodal (2-D as well as 3-D) palmprint and hand geometry features, which are simultaneously extracted from the user's pose normalized textured 3-D hand, are used for matching. Individual matching scores are then combined using a new dynamic fusion strategy. Our experimental results on the database of 114 subjects with significant pose variations yielded encouraging results. Consistent (across various hand features considered) performance improvement achieved with the pose correction demonstrates the usefulness of the proposed approach for hand based biometric systems with unconstrained and contact-free imaging. The experimental results also suggest that the dynamic fusion approach employed in this work helps to achieve performance improvement of 60% (in terms of EER) over the case when matching scores are combined using the weighted sum rule.

  17. Gaussian Multiscale Aggregation Applied to Segmentation in Hand Biometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Bailador del Pozo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an image segmentation algorithm based on Gaussian multiscale aggregation oriented to hand biometric applications. The method is able to isolate the hand from a wide variety of background textures such as carpets, fabric, glass, grass, soil or stones. The evaluation was carried out by using a publicly available synthetic database with 408,000 hand images in different backgrounds, comparing the performance in terms of accuracy and computational cost to two competitive segmentation methods existing in literature, namely Lossy Data Compression (LDC and Normalized Cuts (NCuts. The results highlight that the proposed method outperforms current competitive segmentation methods with regard to computational cost, time performance, accuracy and memory usage.

  18. Biometric identification using infrared dorsum hand vein images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar Fernando Motato Toro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The evident need for improving access and safety controls has orientated the development of new personal identification systems towards using biometric, physiological and behavioral features guaranteeing increasing greater levels of performance. Motivated by this trend, the development and implementation of a computational tool for recording and validating people’s identity using dorsum hand vein images is presented here. A low-cost hardware module for acquiring infrared images was thus designed; it consisted of a conventional video-camera, optical lenses, controlled infrared illumination sources and a frame grabber. The accompanying software module was concerned with visualizing and capturing images, selecting regions of interest, pattern seg-mentation in the region and extracting, describing and classifying these features. An artificial neuron network approach was im-plemented for pattern recognition, resulting in it proving the biometric indicator to be sufficiently discriminating, and a corre-lation-based approach using a 100 image database for static characterisation, determined the system’s maximum efficiency to be 95.72% at a threshold equal to 65. False acceptance rate (FAR was 8.57% and false rejection rate (FRR was 0% at this threshold.

  19. A new concept in biometric identification 3-dimensional hand geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidlauskas, D.P.

    1987-01-01

    A new type of biometric identifier which utilizes hand outline measurements made in three dimensions is described. This device uses solid state imaging with no moving parts. The important characteristics of accuracy, speed, user tolerability, small template size, low power, portability and reliability are discussed. A complete stand-alone biometric access control station with sufficient memory for 10,000 users and weighing less than 10 pounds has been built and tested. A test was conducted involving daily use by 112 users over a seven week period during which over 6300 access attempts were made. The single try equal error rate was found to be 0.4%. There were no false rejects when three tries were allowed before access was denied. Defeat with an artifact is difficult because the hand must be copied in all three dimensions

  20. Encryption Technology based on Human Biometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The research progress of encryption technologies based on human biometrics is reviewed in this paper.The technologies that utilize human biometrics to make information encryption and identity authentication,and the technologies which combine biometrics encryption with optical encryption methods are introduced in detail.The advantages and disadvantages of these encryption systems are discussed,and the obstacles in practical applications are pointed out.Finally,the prospect of the new encryption technologies that are based on human biometrics are predicted.

  1. Feature level fusion of hand and face biometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Arun A.; Govindarajan, Rohin

    2005-03-01

    Multibiometric systems utilize the evidence presented by multiple biometric sources (e.g., face and fingerprint, multiple fingers of a user, multiple matchers, etc.) in order to determine or verify the identity of an individual. Information from multiple sources can be consolidated in several distinct levels, including the feature extraction level, match score level and decision level. While fusion at the match score and decision levels have been extensively studied in the literature, fusion at the feature level is a relatively understudied problem. In this paper we discuss fusion at the feature level in 3 different scenarios: (i) fusion of PCA and LDA coefficients of face; (ii) fusion of LDA coefficients corresponding to the R,G,B channels of a face image; (iii) fusion of face and hand modalities. Preliminary results are encouraging and help in highlighting the pros and cons of performing fusion at this level. The primary motivation of this work is to demonstrate the viability of such a fusion and to underscore the importance of pursuing further research in this direction.

  2. Biometric security based on ECG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, L.; Groot, de J.A.; Linnartz, J.P.M.G.

    2011-01-01

    Recently the electrocardiogram (ECG) has been proposed as a novel biometric. This paper aims to construct a reliable ECG verification system, in terms of privacy protection. To this end, an improved expression to estimate the capacity in the autocorrelation (AC) of the ECG is derived, which not only

  3. Development of a biometric method to estimate age on hand radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remy, Floriane; Hossu, Gabriela; Cendre, Romain; Micard, Emilien; Mainard-Simard, Laurence; Felblinger, Jacques; Martrille, Laurent; Lalys, Loïc

    2017-02-01

    Age estimation of living individuals aged less than 13, 18 or 21 years, which are some relevant legal ages in most European countries, is currently problematic in the forensic context. Thus, numerous methods are available for legal authorities, although their efficiency can be discussed. For those reasons, we aimed to propose a new method, based on the biometric analysis of hand bones. 451 hand radiographs of French individuals under the age of 21 were retrospectively analyzed. This total sample was divided into three subgroups bounded by the relevant legal ages previously mentioned: 0-13, 13-18 and 18-21 years. On these radiographs, we numerically applied the osteometric board method used in anthropology, by including each metacarpal and proximal phalange of the five hand rays in the smallest rectangle possible. In that we can access their length and width information thanks to a measurement protocol developed precisely for our treatment with the ORS Visual ® software. Then, a statistical analysis was performed from these biometric data: a Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) evaluated the probability for an individual to belong to one of the age group (0-13, 13-18 or 18-21); and several multivariate regression models were tested for the establishment of age estimation formulas for each of these age groups. The mean Correlation Coefficient between chronological age and both lengths and widths of hand bones is equal to 0.90 for the total sample. Repeatability and reproducibility were assessed. The LDA could more easily predict the belonging to the 0-13 age group. Age can be estimated with a mean standard error which never exceeds 1 year for the 95% confidence interval. Finally, compared to the literature, we can conclude that estimating an age from the biometric information of metacarpals and proximal phalanges is promising. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Enrollment Time as a Requirement for Biometric Hand Recognition Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, João; Sá, Vítor; Tenreiro de Magalhães, Sérgio; Santos, Henrique

    2015-01-01

    Biometric systems are increasingly being used as a means for authentication to provide system security in modern technologies. The performance of a biometric system depends on the accuracy, the processing speed, the template size, and the time necessary for enrollment. While much research has focused on the first three factors, enrollment time has not received as much attention. In this work, we present the findings of our research focused upon studying user’s behavior when enrolling in...

  5. A biometric identification system based on eigenpalm and eigenfinger features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribaric, Slobodan; Fratric, Ivan

    2005-11-01

    This paper presents a multimodal biometric identification system based on the features of the human hand. We describe a new biometric approach to personal identification using eigenfinger and eigenpalm features, with fusion applied at the matching-score level. The identification process can be divided into the following phases: capturing the image; preprocessing; extracting and normalizing the palm and strip-like finger subimages; extracting the eigenpalm and eigenfinger features based on the K-L transform; matching and fusion; and, finally, a decision based on the (k, l)-NN classifier and thresholding. The system was tested on a database of 237 people (1,820 hand images). The experimental results showed the effectiveness of the system in terms of the recognition rate (100 percent), the equal error rate (EER = 0.58 percent), and the total error rate (TER = 0.72 percent).

  6. Sensor-fusion-based biometric identity verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, J.J.; Bouchard, A.M.; Osbourn, G.C.; Martinez, R.F.; Bartholomew, J.W.; Jordan, J.B.; Flachs, G.M.; Bao, Z.; Zhu, L.

    1998-02-01

    Future generation automated human biometric identification and verification will require multiple features/sensors together with internal and external information sources to achieve high performance, accuracy, and reliability in uncontrolled environments. The primary objective of the proposed research is to develop a theoretical and practical basis for identifying and verifying people using standoff biometric features that can be obtained with minimal inconvenience during the verification process. The basic problem involves selecting sensors and discovering features that provide sufficient information to reliably verify a person's identity under the uncertainties caused by measurement errors and tactics of uncooperative subjects. A system was developed for discovering hand, face, ear, and voice features and fusing them to verify the identity of people. The system obtains its robustness and reliability by fusing many coarse and easily measured features into a near minimal probability of error decision algorithm

  7. Likelihood-ratio-based biometric verification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bazen, A.M.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents results on optimal similarity measures for biometric verification based on fixed-length feature vectors. First, we show that the verification of a single user is equivalent to the detection problem, which implies that for single-user verification the likelihood ratio is optimal.

  8. Likelihood Ratio-Based Biometric Verification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bazen, A.M.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    The paper presents results on optimal similarity measures for biometric verification based on fixed-length feature vectors. First, we show that the verification of a single user is equivalent to the detection problem, which implies that, for single-user verification, the likelihood ratio is optimal.

  9. Multi-biometrics based cryptographic key regeneration scheme

    OpenAIRE

    Kanade , Sanjay Ganesh; Petrovska-Delacrétaz , Dijana; Dorizzi , Bernadette

    2009-01-01

    International audience; Biometrics lack revocability and privacy while cryptography cannot detect the user's identity. By obtaining cryptographic keys using biometrics, one can achieve the properties such as revocability, assurance about user's identity, and privacy. In this paper, we propose a multi-biometric based cryptographic key regeneration scheme. Since left and right irises of a person are uncorrelated, we treat them as two independent biometrics and combine in our system. We propose ...

  10. Transformation of hand-shape features for a biometric identification approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travieso, Carlos M; Briceño, Juan Carlos; Alonso, Jesús B

    2012-01-01

    The present work presents a biometric identification system for hand shape identification. The different contours have been coded based on angular descriptions forming a Markov chain descriptor. Discrete Hidden Markov Models (DHMM), each representing a target identification class, have been trained with such chains. Features have been calculated from a kernel based on the HMM parameter descriptors. Finally, supervised Support Vector Machines were used to classify parameters from the DHMM kernel. First, the system was modelled using 60 users to tune the DHMM and DHMM_kernel+SVM configuration parameters and finally, the system was checked with the whole database (GPDS database, 144 users with 10 samples per class). Our experiments have obtained similar results in both cases, demonstrating a scalable, stable and robust system. Our experiments have achieved an upper success rate of 99.87% for the GPDS database using three hand samples per class in training mode, and seven hand samples in test mode. Secondly, the authors have verified their algorithms using another independent and public database (the UST database). Our approach has reached 100% and 99.92% success for right and left hand, respectively; showing the robustness and independence of our algorithms. This success was found using as features the transformation of 100 points hand shape with our DHMM kernel, and as classifier Support Vector Machines with linear separating functions, with similar success.

  11. Transformation of Hand-Shape Features for a Biometric Identification Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús B. Alonso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work presents a biometric identification system for hand shape identification. The different contours have been coded based on angular descriptions forming a Markov chain descriptor. Discrete Hidden Markov Models (DHMM, each representing a target identification class, have been trained with such chains. Features have been calculated from a kernel based on the HMM parameter descriptors. Finally, supervised Support Vector Machines were used to classify parameters from the DHMM kernel. First, the system was modelled using 60 users to tune the DHMM and DHMM_kernel+SVM configuration parameters and finally, the system was checked with the whole database (GPDS database, 144 users with 10 samples per class. Our experiments have obtained similar results in both cases, demonstrating a scalable, stable and robust system. Our experiments have achieved an upper success rate of 99.87% for the GPDS database using three hand samples per class in training mode, and seven hand samples in test mode. Secondly, the authors have verified their algorithms using another independent and public database (the UST database. Our approach has reached 100% and 99.92% success for right and left hand, respectively; showing the robustness and independence of our algorithms. This success was found using as features the transformation of 100 points hand shape with our DHMM kernel, and as classifier Support Vector Machines with linear separating functions, with similar success.

  12. ECG based biometrics verification system using LabVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Singla

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Biometric based authentication systems provide solutions to the problems in high security which remain with conventionalsecurity systems. In a biometric verification system, human’s biological parameters (such as voice, finger print,palm print or hand geometry, face, iris etc. are used to verify the authenticity of a person. These parameters are good to beused as biometric parameters but do not provide the guarantee that the person is present and alive. As voice can be copied,finger print can be picked from glass on synthetic skin and in face recognition system due to genetic factors identical twinsor father-son may have the same facial appearance. ECG does not have these problems. It can not be recorded without theknowledge of the person and ECG of every person is unique even identical twins have different ECG. In this paper an ECGbasedbiometrics verification system which was developed using Laboratory Virtual Instruments Engineering Workbench(LabVIEW version 7.1 is discussed. Experiments were conducted on the database stored in the laboratory of 20 individualshaving 10 samples each and the results revealed a false rejection rate (FRR of 3% and false acceptance rate (FAR of 3.21%.

  13. A robust probabilistic collaborative representation based classification for multimodal biometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Liu, Huanxi; Ding, Derui; Xiao, Jianli

    2018-04-01

    Most of the traditional biometric recognition systems perform recognition with a single biometric indicator. These systems have suffered noisy data, interclass variations, unacceptable error rates, forged identity, and so on. Due to these inherent problems, it is not valid that many researchers attempt to enhance the performance of unimodal biometric systems with single features. Thus, multimodal biometrics is investigated to reduce some of these defects. This paper proposes a new multimodal biometric recognition approach by fused faces and fingerprints. For more recognizable features, the proposed method extracts block local binary pattern features for all modalities, and then combines them into a single framework. For better classification, it employs the robust probabilistic collaborative representation based classifier to recognize individuals. Experimental results indicate that the proposed method has improved the recognition accuracy compared to the unimodal biometrics.

  14. Biometric technology authentication, biocryptography, and cloud-based architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    Most biometric books are either extraordinarily technical for technophiles or extremely elementary for the lay person. Striking a balance between the two, Biometric Technology: Authentication, Biocryptography, and Cloud-Based Architecture is ideal for business, IT, or security managers that are faced with the task of making purchasing, migration, or adoption decisions. It brings biometrics down to an understandable level, so that you can immediately begin to implement the concepts discussed.Exploring the technological and social implications of widespread biometric use, the book considers the

  15. A Study on EMG-based Biometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Su Kim

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Biometrics is a technology that recognizes user's information by using unique physical features of his or her body such as face, fingerprint, and iris. It also uses behavioral features such as signature, electrocardiogram (ECG, electromyogram (EMG, and electroencephalogram (EEG. Among them, the EMG signal is a sign generated when the muscles move, which can be used in various fields such as motion recognition, personal identification, and disease diagnosis. In this paper, we analyze EMG-based biometrics and implement a motion recognition and personal identification system. The system extracted features using non-uniform filter bank and Waveform Length (WL, and reduces the dimension using Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA. Afterward, it classified the features using Euclidean Distance (ED, Support Vector Machine (SVM and K Nearest Neighbors (KNN. As a result of the motion recognition experiment, 95% of acquired EMG data and 84.66% of UCI data were obtained and as a result of the personal recognition experiment, 85% of acquired EMG data and 88.66% of UCI data were obtained.

  16. The biometric-based module of smart grid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, E.; Kovalev, I. V.; Ermoshkina, A.

    2015-10-01

    Within Smart Grid concept the flexible biometric-based module base on Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and selective Neural Network is developed. The formation of the selective Neural Network the biometric-based module uses the method which includes three main stages: preliminary processing of the image, face localization and face recognition. Experiments on the Yale face database show that (i) selective Neural Network exhibits promising classification capability for face detection, recognition problems; and (ii) the proposed biometric-based module achieves near real-time face detection, recognition speed and the competitive performance, as compared to some existing subspaces-based methods.

  17. Testing the reliability of hands and ears as biometrics: the importance of viewpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenage, Sarah V; Walpole, Catherine; Neil, Greg J; Black, Sue M

    2015-11-01

    Two experiments are presented to explore the limits when matching a sample to a suspect utilising the hand as a novel biometric. The results of Experiment 1 revealed that novice participants were able to match hands at above-chance levels as viewpoint changed. Notably, a moderate change in viewpoint had no notable effect, but a more substantial change in viewpoint affected performance significantly. Importantly, the impact of viewpoint when matching hands was smaller than that when matching ears in a control condition. This was consistent with the suggestion that the flexibility of the hand may have minimised the negative impact of a sub-optimal view. The results of Experiment 2 confirmed that training via a 10-min expert video was sufficient to reduce the impact of viewpoint in the most difficult case but not to remove it entirely. The implications of these results were discussed in terms of the theoretical importance of function when considering the canonical view and in terms of the applied value of the hand as a reliable biometric across viewing conditions.

  18. Biometric identification based on novel frequency domain facial asymmetry measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Sinjini; Savvides, Marios; Vijaya Kumar, B. V. K.

    2005-03-01

    In the modern world, the ever-growing need to ensure a system's security has spurred the growth of the newly emerging technology of biometric identification. The present paper introduces a novel set of facial biometrics based on quantified facial asymmetry measures in the frequency domain. In particular, we show that these biometrics work well for face images showing expression variations and have the potential to do so in presence of illumination variations as well. A comparison of the recognition rates with those obtained from spatial domain asymmetry measures based on raw intensity values suggests that the frequency domain representation is more robust to intra-personal distortions and is a novel approach for performing biometric identification. In addition, some feature analysis based on statistical methods comparing the asymmetry measures across different individuals and across different expressions is presented.

  19. Biometrics and smart card based applications for nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishanth Reddy, J.; Dheeraj Reddy, J.; Narender Reddy, J.

    2004-01-01

    Biometrics has emerged as a convenient, foolproof and well-accepted technology for identification around the globe. Nucleonix has developed innovative solutions based on finger scan biometrics for various industries. This paper closely looks into the application areas for the nuclear industry and how it will benefit this industry, in terms of identification, access control, security of PCs and applications, attendance, machinery usage control and other custom applications. (author)

  20. ECG biometric identification: A compression based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bras, Susana; Pinho, Armando J

    2015-08-01

    Using the electrocardiogram signal (ECG) to identify and/or authenticate persons are problems still lacking satisfactory solutions. Yet, ECG possesses characteristics that are unique or difficult to get from other signals used in biometrics: (1) it requires contact and liveliness for acquisition (2) it changes under stress, rendering it potentially useless if acquired under threatening. Our main objective is to present an innovative and robust solution to the above-mentioned problem. To successfully conduct this goal, we rely on information-theoretic data models for data compression and on similarity metrics related to the approximation of the Kolmogorov complexity. The proposed measure allows the comparison of two (or more) ECG segments, without having to follow traditional approaches that require heartbeat segmentation (described as highly influenced by external or internal interferences). As a first approach, the method was able to cluster the data in three groups: identical record, same participant, different participant, by the stratification of the proposed measure with values near 0 for the same participant and closer to 1 for different participants. A leave-one-out strategy was implemented in order to identify the participant in the database based on his/her ECG. A 1NN classifier was implemented, using as distance measure the method proposed in this work. The classifier was able to identify correctly almost all participants, with an accuracy of 99% in the database used.

  1. User Authentication based on Continuous Touch Biometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina J Kroeze

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mobile devices such as smartphones have until now been protected by traditional authentication methods, including passwords or pattern locks. These authentication mechanisms are difficult to remember and are often disabled, leaving the device vulnerable if stolen. This paper investigates the possibility of unobtrusive, continuous authentication for smartphones based on biometric data collected using a touchscreen. The possibility of authenticating users on a smartphone was evaluated by conducting an experiment simulating real-world touch interaction. Touch data was collected from 30 participants during normal phone use. The touch features were analysed in terms of the information provided for authentication. It was found that features such as finger pressure, location of touch interaction and shape of the finger were important discriminators for authentication. The touch data was also analysed using two classification algorithms to measure the authentication accuracy. The results show that touch data is sufficiently distinct between users to be used in authentication without disrupting normal touch interaction. It is also shown that the raw touch data was more effective in authentication than the aggregated gesture data.

  2. A cancelable biometric scheme based on multi-lead ECGs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng-Tzu Chen; Shun-Chi Wu; Jui-Hsuan Hsieh

    2017-07-01

    Biometric technologies offer great advantages over other recognition methods, but there are concerns that they may compromise the privacy of individuals. In this paper, an electrocardiogram (ECG)-based cancelable biometric scheme is proposed to relieve such concerns. In this scheme, distinct biometric templates for a given beat bundle are constructed via "subspace collapsing." To determine the identity of any unknown beat bundle, the multiple signal classification (MUSIC) algorithm, incorporating a "suppression and poll" strategy, is adopted. Unlike the existing cancelable biometric schemes, knowledge of the distortion transform is not required for recognition. Experiments with real ECGs from 285 subjects are presented to illustrate the efficacy of the proposed scheme. The best recognition rate of 97.58 % was achieved under the test condition N train = 10 and N test = 10.

  3. Soft biometrics in conjunction with optics based biohashing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Nirmala; Sinha, Aloka

    2011-02-01

    Biometric systems are gaining importance because of increased reliability for authentication and identification. A biometric recognition technique has been proposed earlier, in which biohashing code has been generated by using a joint transform correlator. The main drawback of the base biohashing method is the low performance of the technique when an "impostor" steals the pseudo-random numbers of the genuine and tries to authenticate as genuine. In the proposed technique, soft biometrics of the same person has been used to improve the discrimination between the genuine and the impostor populations. The soft biometrics are those characteristics that provide some information about the individual, but lack the distinctiveness and permanence to sufficiently differentiate between any two individuals. In the enrolment process, biohash code of the target face images has been integrated with the different soft biometrics of the same person. The obtained code has been stored for verification. In the verification process, biohash code of the face image to be verified is again diffused with the soft biometric of the person. The obtained code is matched with the stored code of the target. The receiving operating characteristic (ROC) curve and the equal error rate (EER) have been used to evaluate the performance of the technique. A detailed study has been carried out to find out the optimum values of the weighting factor for the diffusion process.

  4. A Study on EMG-based Biometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Jin Su Kim; Sung Bum Pan

    2017-01-01

    Biometrics is a technology that recognizes user's information by using unique physical features of his or her body such as face, fingerprint, and iris. It also uses behavioral features such as signature, electrocardiogram (ECG), electromyogram (EMG), and electroencephalogram (EEG). Among them, the EMG signal is a sign generated when the muscles move, which can be used in various fields such as motion recognition, personal identification, and disease diagnosis. In this paper, we analyze EMG-ba...

  5. Selectively Encrypted Pull-Up Based Watermarking of Biometric data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinde, S. A.; Patel, Kushal S.

    2012-10-01

    Biometric authentication systems are becoming increasingly popular due to their potential usage in information security. However, digital biometric data (e.g. thumb impression) are themselves vulnerable to security attacks. There are various methods are available to secure biometric data. In biometric watermarking the data are embedded in an image container and are only retrieved if the secrete key is available. This container image is encrypted to have more security against the attack. As wireless devices are equipped with battery as their power supply, they have limited computational capabilities; therefore to reduce energy consumption we use the method of selective encryption of container image. The bit pull-up-based biometric watermarking scheme is based on amplitude modulation and bit priority which reduces the retrieval error rate to great extent. By using selective Encryption mechanism we expect more efficiency in time at the time of encryption as well as decryption. Significant reduction in error rate is expected to be achieved by the bit pull-up method.

  6. Enhanced ATM Security using Biometric Authentication and Wavelet Based AES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreedharan Ajish

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional ATM terminal customer recognition systems rely only on bank cards, passwords and such identity verification methods are not perfect and functions are too single. Biometrics-based authentication offers several advantages over other authentication methods, there has been a significant surge in the use of biometrics for user authentication in recent years. This paper presents a highly secured ATM banking system using biometric authentication and wavelet based Advanced Encryption Standard (AES algorithm. Two levels of security are provided in this proposed design. Firstly we consider the security level at the client side by providing biometric authentication scheme along with a password of 4-digit long. Biometric authentication is achieved by considering the fingerprint image of the client. Secondly we ensure a secured communication link between the client machine to the bank server using an optimized energy efficient and wavelet based AES processor. The fingerprint image is the data for encryption process and 4-digit long password is the symmetric key for the encryption process. The performance of ATM machine depends on ultra-high-speed encryption, very low power consumption, and algorithmic integrity. To get a low power consuming and ultra-high speed encryption at the ATM machine, an optimized and wavelet based AES algorithm is proposed. In this system biometric and cryptography techniques are used together for personal identity authentication to improve the security level. The design of the wavelet based AES processor is simulated and the design of the energy efficient AES processor is simulated in Quartus-II software. Simulation results ensure its proper functionality. A comparison among other research works proves its superiority.

  7. Chaotic secure content-based hidden transmission of biometric templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Muhammad Khurram; Zhang Jiashu; Tian Lei

    2007-01-01

    The large-scale proliferation of biometric verification systems creates a demand for effective and reliable security and privacy of its data. Like passwords and PIN codes, biometric data is also not secret and if it is compromised, the integrity of the whole verification system could be at high risk. To address these issues, this paper presents a novel chaotic secure content-based hidden transmission scheme of biometric data. Encryption and data hiding techniques are used to improve the security and secrecy of the transmitted templates. Secret keys are generated by the biometric image and used as the parameter value and initial condition of the chaotic map, and each transaction session has different secret keys to protect from the attacks. Two chaotic maps are incorporated for the encryption to resolve the finite word length effect and to improve the system's resistance against attacks. Encryption is applied on the biometric templates before hiding into the cover/host images to make them secure, and then templates are hidden into the cover image. Experimental results show that the security, performance, and accuracy of the presented scheme are encouraging comparable with other methods found in the current literature

  8. Chaotic secure content-based hidden transmission of biometric templates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Muhammad Khurram [Research Group for Biometrics and Security, Sichuan Province Key Lab of Signal and Information Processing, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031, Sichuan (China)]. E-mail: khurram.khan@scientist.com; Zhang Jiashu [Research Group for Biometrics and Security, Sichuan Province Key Lab of Signal and Information Processing, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031, Sichuan (China); Tian Lei [Research Group for Biometrics and Security, Sichuan Province Key Lab of Signal and Information Processing, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031, Sichuan (China)

    2007-06-15

    The large-scale proliferation of biometric verification systems creates a demand for effective and reliable security and privacy of its data. Like passwords and PIN codes, biometric data is also not secret and if it is compromised, the integrity of the whole verification system could be at high risk. To address these issues, this paper presents a novel chaotic secure content-based hidden transmission scheme of biometric data. Encryption and data hiding techniques are used to improve the security and secrecy of the transmitted templates. Secret keys are generated by the biometric image and used as the parameter value and initial condition of the chaotic map, and each transaction session has different secret keys to protect from the attacks. Two chaotic maps are incorporated for the encryption to resolve the finite word length effect and to improve the system's resistance against attacks. Encryption is applied on the biometric templates before hiding into the cover/host images to make them secure, and then templates are hidden into the cover image. Experimental results show that the security, performance, and accuracy of the presented scheme are encouraging comparable with other methods found in the current literature.

  9. BioTwist : overcoming severe distortions in ridge-based biometrics for succesful identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotzerke, J.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis focuses on ridge-based and highly distorted biometrics, the different chal-lenges involved in a verification of identity scenario, and how to overcome them. More specifically, we work on ridge-based biometrics in two different contexts: (i) newborn and infant biometrics and (ii) quality

  10. Securing Iris Templates using Combined User and Soft Biometric based Password Hardened Fuzzy Vault

    OpenAIRE

    Meenakshi, V. S.; Padmavathi, G.

    2010-01-01

    Personal identification and authentication is very crucial in the current scenario. Biometrics plays an important role in this area. Biometric based authentication has proved superior compared to traditional password based authentication. Anyhow biometrics is permanent feature of a person and cannot be reissued when compromised as passwords. To over come this problem, instead of storing the original biometric templates transformed templates can be stored. Whenever the transformation function ...

  11. Secure Method for Biometric-Based Recognition with Integrated Cryptographic Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Chiou, Shin-Yan

    2013-01-01

    Biometric systems refer to biometric technologies which can be used to achieve authentication. Unlike cryptography-based technologies, the ratio for certification in biometric systems needs not to achieve 100% accuracy. However, biometric data can only be directly compared through proximal access to the scanning device and cannot be combined with cryptographic techniques. Moreover, repeated use, improper storage, or transmission leaks may compromise security. Prior studies have attempted to c...

  12. The PLR-DTW method for ECG based biometric identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jun; Bao, Shu-Di; Yang, Li-Cai; Li, Ye

    2011-01-01

    There has been a surge of research on electrocardiogram (ECG) signal based biometric for person identification. Though most of the existing studies claimed that ECG signal is unique to an individual and can be a viable biometric, one of the main difficulties for real-world applications of ECG biometric is the accuracy performance. To address this problem, this study proposes a PLR-DTW method for ECG biometric, where the Piecewise Linear Representation (PLR) is used to keep important information of an ECG signal segment while reduce the data dimension at the same time if necessary, and the Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) is used for similarity measures between two signal segments. The performance evaluation was carried out on three ECG databases, and the existing method using wavelet coefficients, which was proved to have good accuracy performance, was selected for comparison. The analysis results show that the PLR-DTW method achieves an accuracy rate of 100% for identification, while the one using wavelet coefficients achieved only around 93%.

  13. Biometrics based authentication scheme for session initiation protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Qi; Tang, Zhixiong

    2016-01-01

    Many two-factor challenge-response based session initiation protocol (SIP) has been proposed, but most of them are vulnerable to smart card stolen attacks and password guessing attacks. In this paper, we propose a novel three-factor SIP authentication scheme using biometrics, password and smart card, and utilize the pi calculus-based formal verification tool ProVerif to prove that the proposed protocol achieves security and authentication. Furthermore, our protocol is highly efficient when co...

  14. Biometric features and privacy : condemned, based upon your finger print

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bullee, Jan-Willem; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    What information is available in biometric features besides that needed for the biometric recognition process? What if a biometric feature contains Personally Identifiable Information? Will the whole biometric system become a threat to privacy? This paper is an attempt to quantifiy the link between

  15. An Observed Voting System Based On Biometric Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Devikiruba

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This article describes a computational framework which can run almost on every computer connected to an IP based network to study biometric techniques. This paper discusses with a system protecting confidential information puts strong security demands on the identification. Biometry provides us with a user-friendly method for this identification and is becoming a competitor for current identification mechanisms. The experimentation section focuses on biometric verification specifically based on fingerprints. This article should be read as a warning to those thinking of using methods of identification without first examine the technical opportunities for compromising mechanisms and the associated legal consequences. The development is based on the java language that easily improves software packages that is useful to test new control techniques.

  16. Secure method for biometric-based recognition with integrated cryptographic functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Shin-Yan

    2013-01-01

    Biometric systems refer to biometric technologies which can be used to achieve authentication. Unlike cryptography-based technologies, the ratio for certification in biometric systems needs not to achieve 100% accuracy. However, biometric data can only be directly compared through proximal access to the scanning device and cannot be combined with cryptographic techniques. Moreover, repeated use, improper storage, or transmission leaks may compromise security. Prior studies have attempted to combine cryptography and biometrics, but these methods require the synchronization of internal systems and are vulnerable to power analysis attacks, fault-based cryptanalysis, and replay attacks. This paper presents a new secure cryptographic authentication method using biometric features. The proposed system combines the advantages of biometric identification and cryptographic techniques. By adding a subsystem to existing biometric recognition systems, we can simultaneously achieve the security of cryptographic technology and the error tolerance of biometric recognition. This method can be used for biometric data encryption, signatures, and other types of cryptographic computation. The method offers a high degree of security with protection against power analysis attacks, fault-based cryptanalysis, and replay attacks. Moreover, it can be used to improve the confidentiality of biological data storage and biodata identification processes. Remote biometric authentication can also be safely applied.

  17. Secure Method for Biometric-Based Recognition with Integrated Cryptographic Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-Yan Chiou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biometric systems refer to biometric technologies which can be used to achieve authentication. Unlike cryptography-based technologies, the ratio for certification in biometric systems needs not to achieve 100% accuracy. However, biometric data can only be directly compared through proximal access to the scanning device and cannot be combined with cryptographic techniques. Moreover, repeated use, improper storage, or transmission leaks may compromise security. Prior studies have attempted to combine cryptography and biometrics, but these methods require the synchronization of internal systems and are vulnerable to power analysis attacks, fault-based cryptanalysis, and replay attacks. This paper presents a new secure cryptographic authentication method using biometric features. The proposed system combines the advantages of biometric identification and cryptographic techniques. By adding a subsystem to existing biometric recognition systems, we can simultaneously achieve the security of cryptographic technology and the error tolerance of biometric recognition. This method can be used for biometric data encryption, signatures, and other types of cryptographic computation. The method offers a high degree of security with protection against power analysis attacks, fault-based cryptanalysis, and replay attacks. Moreover, it can be used to improve the confidentiality of biological data storage and biodata identification processes. Remote biometric authentication can also be safely applied.

  18. Retinal biometrics based on Iterative Closest Point algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatanaka, Yuji; Tajima, Mikiya; Kawasaki, Ryo; Saito, Koko; Ogohara, Kazunori; Muramatsu, Chisako; Sunayama, Wataru; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2017-07-01

    The pattern of blood vessels in the eye is unique to each person because it rarely changes over time. Therefore, it is well known that retinal blood vessels are useful for biometrics. This paper describes a biometrics method using the Jaccard similarity coefficient (JSC) based on blood vessel regions in retinal image pairs. The retinal image pairs were rough matched by the center of their optic discs. Moreover, the image pairs were aligned using the Iterative Closest Point algorithm based on detailed blood vessel skeletons. For registration, perspective transform was applied to the retinal images. Finally, the pairs were classified as either correct or incorrect using the JSC of the blood vessel region in the image pairs. The proposed method was applied to temporal retinal images, which were obtained in 2009 (695 images) and 2013 (87 images). The 87 images acquired in 2013 were all from persons already examined in 2009. The accuracy of the proposed method reached 100%.

  19. Cattle identification based in biometric features of the muzzle

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, Marta; Cadavez, Vasco; Monteiro, Fernando C.

    2015-01-01

    Cattle identification has been a serious problem for breeding association. Muzzle pattern or nose print has the same characteristic with the human fingerprint which is the most popular biometric marker. The identification accuracy and the processing time are two key challenges of any cattle identification methodology. This paper presents a robust and fast cattle identification scheme from muzzle images using Speed-up Robust Features matching. The matching refinement technique based on the mat...

  20. Reliability-Based Decision Fusion in Multimodal Biometric Verification Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kryszczuk Krzysztof

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a methodology of reliability estimation in the multimodal biometric verification scenario. Reliability estimation has shown to be an efficient and accurate way of predicting and correcting erroneous classification decisions in both unimodal (speech, face, online signature and multimodal (speech and face systems. While the initial research results indicate the high potential of the proposed methodology, the performance of the reliability estimation in a multimodal setting has not been sufficiently studied or evaluated. In this paper, we demonstrate the advantages of using the unimodal reliability information in order to perform an efficient biometric fusion of two modalities. We further show the presented method to be superior to state-of-the-art multimodal decision-level fusion schemes. The experimental evaluation presented in this paper is based on the popular benchmarking bimodal BANCA database.

  1. Performance Evaluation of a Biometric System Based on Acoustic Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo-Fuente, Alberto; del Val, Lara; Jiménez, María I.; Villacorta, Juan J.

    2011-01-01

    An acoustic electronic scanning array for acquiring images from a person using a biometric application is developed. Based on pulse-echo techniques, multifrequency acoustic images are obtained for a set of positions of a person (front, front with arms outstretched, back and side). Two Uniform Linear Arrays (ULA) with 15 λ/2-equispaced sensors have been employed, using different spatial apertures in order to reduce sidelobe levels. Working frequencies have been designed on the basis of the main lobe width, the grating lobe levels and the frequency responses of people and sensors. For a case-study with 10 people, the acoustic profiles, formed by all images acquired, are evaluated and compared in a mean square error sense. Finally, system performance, using False Match Rate (FMR)/False Non-Match Rate (FNMR) parameters and the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve, is evaluated. On the basis of the obtained results, this system could be used for biometric applications. PMID:22163708

  2. Performance Evaluation of a Biometric System Based on Acoustic Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan J. Villacorta

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available An acoustic electronic scanning array for acquiring images from a person using a biometric application is developed. Based on pulse-echo techniques, multifrequency acoustic images are obtained for a set of positions of a person (front, front with arms outstretched, back and side. Two Uniform Linear Arrays (ULA with 15 l/2-equispaced sensors have been employed, using different spatial apertures in order to reduce sidelobe levels. Working frequencies have been designed on the basis of the main lobe width, the grating lobe levels and the frequency responses of people and sensors. For a case-study with 10 people, the acoustic profiles, formed by all images acquired, are evaluated and compared in a mean square error sense. Finally, system performance, using False Match Rate (FMR/False Non-Match Rate (FNMR parameters and the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve, is evaluated. On the basis of the obtained results, this system could be used for biometric applications.

  3. Digital holographic-based cancellable biometric for personal authentication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, Gaurav; Sinha, Aloka

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new digital holographic-based cancellable biometric scheme for personal authentication and verification. The realization of cancellable biometric is presented by using an optoelectronic experimental approach, in which an optically recorded hologram of the fingerprint of a person is numerically reconstructed. Each reconstructed feature has its own perspective, which is utilized to generate user-specific fingerprint features by using a feature-extraction process. New representations of the user-specific fingerprint features can be obtained from the same hologram, by changing the reconstruction distance (d) by an amount Δd between the recording plane and the reconstruction plane. This parameter is the key to make the cancellable user-specific fingerprint features using a digital holographic technique, which allows us to choose different reconstruction distances when reissuing the user-specific fingerprint features in the event of compromise. We have shown theoretically that each user-specific fingerprint feature has a unique identity with a high discrimination ability, and the chances of a match between them are minimal. In this aspect, a recognition system has also been demonstrated using the fingerprint biometric of the enrolled person at a particular reconstruction distance. For the performance evaluation of a fingerprint recognition system—the false acceptance ratio, the false rejection ratio and the equal error rate are calculated using correlation. The obtained results show good discrimination ability between the genuine and the impostor populations with the highest recognition rate of 98.23%. (paper)

  4. Ranking Based Locality Sensitive Hashing Enabled Cancelable Biometrics: Index-of-Max Hashing

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Zhe; Lai, Yen-Lung; Hwang, Jung-Yeon; Kim, Soohyung; Teoh, Andrew Beng Jin

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a ranking based locality sensitive hashing inspired two-factor cancelable biometrics, dubbed "Index-of-Max" (IoM) hashing for biometric template protection. With externally generated random parameters, IoM hashing transforms a real-valued biometric feature vector into discrete index (max ranked) hashed code. We demonstrate two realizations from IoM hashing notion, namely Gaussian Random Projection based and Uniformly Random Permutation based hashing schemes. The disc...

  5. Heart Sound Biometric System Based on Marginal Spectrum Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhidong; Shen, Qinqin; Ren, Fangqin

    2013-01-01

    This work presents a heart sound biometric system based on marginal spectrum analysis, which is a new feature extraction technique for identification purposes. This heart sound identification system is comprised of signal acquisition, pre-processing, feature extraction, training, and identification. Experiments on the selection of the optimal values for the system parameters are conducted. The results indicate that the new spectrum coefficients result in a significant increase in the recognition rate of 94.40% compared with that of the traditional Fourier spectrum (84.32%) based on a database of 280 heart sounds from 40 participants. PMID:23429515

  6. Biometrics based authentication scheme for session initiation protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qi; Tang, Zhixiong

    2016-01-01

    Many two-factor challenge-response based session initiation protocol (SIP) has been proposed, but most of them are vulnerable to smart card stolen attacks and password guessing attacks. In this paper, we propose a novel three-factor SIP authentication scheme using biometrics, password and smart card, and utilize the pi calculus-based formal verification tool ProVerif to prove that the proposed protocol achieves security and authentication. Furthermore, our protocol is highly efficient when compared to other related protocols.

  7. Study of Biometric Identification Method Based on Naked Footprint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raji Rafiu King

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The scale of deployment of biometric identity-verification systems has recently seen an enormous increase owing to the need for more secure and reliable way of identifying people. Footprint identification which can be defined as the measurement of footprint features for recognizing the identity of a user has surfaced recently. This study is based on a biometric personal identification method using static footprint features viz. friction ridge / texture and foot shape / silhouette. To begin with, naked footprints of users are captured; images then undergo pre processing followed by the extraction of two features; shape using Gradient Vector Flow (GVF) snake model and minutiae extraction respectively. Matching is then effected based on these two features followed by a fusion of these two results for either a reject or accept decision. Our shape matching feature is based on cosine similarity while the texture one is based on miniature score matching. The results from our research establish that the naked footprint is a credible biometric feature as two barefoot impressions of an individual match perfectly while that of two different persons shows a great deal of dissimilarity. Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Doi: 10.12777/ijse.5.2.29-35 How to cite this article: King

  8. [Biometric bases: basic concepts of probability calculation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinya, E

    1998-04-26

    The author gives or outline of the basic concepts of probability theory. The bases of the event algebra, definition of the probability, the classical probability model and the random variable are presented.

  9. Development of a Mobile EEG-based Biometric Authentication System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klonovs, Juris; Petersen, Christoffer Kjeldgaard; Olesen, Henning

    In recent years the need for greater security for storing personal and business data or accessing corporate networks on mobile devices is growing rapidly, and one of the potential solutions is to employ the innovative biometric authentication techniques. This paper presents the development...... and present a mobile prototype system capable of authenticating users based on the uniqueness of their brainwaves. Furthermore, we implement a novel authentication process, which leads the authentication system to be more secure. We also give suggestions for future improvements of the system....

  10. Body shape-based biometric recognition using millimeter wave images

    OpenAIRE

    González-Sosa, Ester; Vera-Rodríguez, Rubén; Fiérrez, Julián; Ortega-García, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works. González-Sosa, E. ; Vera-Rodríguez, R. ; Fierrez, J. ; Ortega-García, J. "Body shape-based biometric recognition using millime...

  11. Biometric image enhancement using decision rule based image fusion techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagayee, G. Mary Amirtha; Arumugam, S.

    2010-02-01

    Introducing biometrics into information systems may result in considerable benefits. Most of the researchers confirmed that the finger print is widely used than the iris or face and more over it is the primary choice for most privacy concerned applications. For finger prints applications, choosing proper sensor is at risk. The proposed work deals about, how the image quality can be improved by introducing image fusion technique at sensor levels. The results of the images after introducing the decision rule based image fusion technique are evaluated and analyzed with its entropy levels and root mean square error.

  12. Challenges at different stages of an iris based biometric system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Singla

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Iris recognition has been used for authentication for the past few years and is capable of positive/negative authenticationof an individual without any physical contact or intervention. This technique is being used mainly because of its uniqueness,stability, and reliability but still many challenges are being faced an the iris based recognition system. This paperpresents the difficulties faced in different modules, like the sensor module, preprocessing module, feature extraction module,and matching module of an iris biometric system.

  13. Content-based Image Hiding Method for Secure Network Biometric Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangjiu Che

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available For secure biometric verification, most existing methods embed biometric information directly into the cover image, but content correlation analysis between the biometric image and the cover image is often ignored. In this paper, we propose a novel biometric image hiding approach based on the content correlation analysis to protect the network-based transmitted image. By using principal component analysis (PCA, the content correlation between the biometric image and the cover image is firstly analyzed. Then based on particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm, some regions of the cover image are selected to represent the biometric image, in which the cover image can carry partial content of the biometric image. As a result of the correlation analysis, the unrepresented part of the biometric image is embedded into the cover image by using the discrete wavelet transform (DWT. Combined with human visual system (HVS model, this approach makes the hiding result perceptually invisible. The extensive experimental results demonstrate that the proposed hiding approach is robust against some common frequency and geometric attacks; it also provides an effective protection for the secure biometric verification.

  14. Estimation of biometric parameters from cattle rump using free-hand scanning and a 3D data processing algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Viana, Joao; Hinduja, Srichand; Da Silva Bartolo, Paulo Jorge

    2016-01-01

    The quantity and quality of phenotypic data recovered from farm animals became a bottleneck for breeding programmes, and new tools are required to overcome this problem. This study evaluated the use of a portable structured light scanner and a 3D modelling to recover biometric information of the rump region in cattle. Virtual 3D models were created based on coordinates extracted from the points-cloud obtained through reverse engineering. A MATLAB algorithm was implemented to identify referenc...

  15. Real-time Identification System using Mobile Hand-held Devices: Mobile Biometrics Evaluation Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    test server, transmit five test cases over both WIFI and 3G , and receive accurate results. The second Study output, the Mobile Biometrics Evaluation...wired (USB), near field (Bluetooth), wireless (802.11) and cellular ( 2G / 3G ) connectivity. Satellite (BGAN) devices have been deployed, in conjunction...Wireless Connectivity: 802.11b, 802.11g, Bluetooth Cellular Connectivity: GSM [ 2G ], UMTS [ 3G ] Internal RAM (GB): 128 Internal Storage (GB): 128

  16. Study on a Biometric Authentication Model based on ECG using a Fuzzy Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ho J.; Lim, Joon S.

    2018-03-01

    Traditional authentication methods use numbers or graphic passwords and thus involve the risk of loss or theft. Various studies are underway regarding biometric authentication because it uses the unique biometric data of a human being. Biometric authentication technology using ECG from biometric data involves signals that record electrical stimuli from the heart. It is difficult to manipulate and is advantageous in that it enables unrestrained measurements from sensors that are attached to the skin. This study is on biometric authentication methods using the neural network with weighted fuzzy membership functions (NEWFM). In the biometric authentication process, normalization and the ensemble average is applied during preprocessing, characteristics are extracted using Haar-wavelets, and a registration process called “training” is performed in the fuzzy neural network. In the experiment, biometric authentication was performed on 73 subjects in the Physionet Database. 10-40 ECG waveforms were tested for use in the registration process, and 15 ECG waveforms were deemed the appropriate number for registering ECG waveforms. 1 ECG waveforms were used during the authentication stage to conduct the biometric authentication test. Upon testing the proposed biometric authentication method based on 73 subjects from the Physionet Database, the TAR was 98.32% and FAR was 5.84%.

  17. Unveiling the Biometric Potential of Finger-Based ECG Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, André; Silva, Hugo; Fred, Ana

    2011-01-01

    The ECG signal has been shown to contain relevant information for human identification. Even though results validate the potential of these signals, data acquisition methods and apparatus explored so far compromise user acceptability, requiring the acquisition of ECG at the chest. In this paper, we propose a finger-based ECG biometric system, that uses signals collected at the fingers, through a minimally intrusive 1-lead ECG setup recurring to Ag/AgCl electrodes without gel as interface with the skin. The collected signal is significantly more noisy than the ECG acquired at the chest, motivating the application of feature extraction and signal processing techniques to the problem. Time domain ECG signal processing is performed, which comprises the usual steps of filtering, peak detection, heartbeat waveform segmentation, and amplitude normalization, plus an additional step of time normalization. Through a simple minimum distance criterion between the test patterns and the enrollment database, results have revealed this to be a promising technique for biometric applications. PMID:21837235

  18. Unveiling the biometric potential of finger-based ECG signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, André; Silva, Hugo; Fred, Ana

    2011-01-01

    The ECG signal has been shown to contain relevant information for human identification. Even though results validate the potential of these signals, data acquisition methods and apparatus explored so far compromise user acceptability, requiring the acquisition of ECG at the chest. In this paper, we propose a finger-based ECG biometric system, that uses signals collected at the fingers, through a minimally intrusive 1-lead ECG setup recurring to Ag/AgCl electrodes without gel as interface with the skin. The collected signal is significantly more noisy than the ECG acquired at the chest, motivating the application of feature extraction and signal processing techniques to the problem. Time domain ECG signal processing is performed, which comprises the usual steps of filtering, peak detection, heartbeat waveform segmentation, and amplitude normalization, plus an additional step of time normalization. Through a simple minimum distance criterion between the test patterns and the enrollment database, results have revealed this to be a promising technique for biometric applications.

  19. Feeling is Believing: a location limited channel based on grip pattern biometrics and cryptanalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buhan, I.R.; Doumen, J.M.; Hartel, Pieter H.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    We use grip pattern based biometrics as a location limited channel to achieve pre-authentication in a protocol that sets up a secure cannel between two handheld devices. The protocol efficiently calculates a shared secret key from biometric data using quantization and cryptanalysis. The protocol is

  20. Secure biometric image sensor and authentication scheme based on compressed sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Masamichi; Urabe, Takuya; Obi, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Ohyama, Nagaaki

    2013-11-20

    It is important to ensure the security of biometric authentication information, because its leakage causes serious risks, such as replay attacks using the stolen biometric data, and also because it is almost impossible to replace raw biometric information. In this paper, we propose a secure biometric authentication scheme that protects such information by employing an optical data ciphering technique based on compressed sensing. The proposed scheme is based on two-factor authentication, the biometric information being supplemented by secret information that is used as a random seed for a cipher key. In this scheme, a biometric image is optically encrypted at the time of image capture, and a pair of restored biometric images for enrollment and verification are verified in the authentication server. If any of the biometric information is exposed to risk, it can be reenrolled by changing the secret information. Through numerical experiments, we confirm that finger vein images can be restored from the compressed sensing measurement data. We also present results that verify the accuracy of the scheme.

  1. A new approach to hand-based authentication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amayeh, G.; Bebis, G.; Erol, A.; Nicolescu, M.

    2007-04-01

    Hand-based authentication is a key biometric technology with a wide range of potential applications both in industry and government. Traditionally, hand-based authentication is performed by extracting information from the whole hand. To account for hand and finger motion, guidance pegs are employed to fix the position and orientation of the hand. In this paper, we consider a component-based approach to hand-based verification. Our objective is to investigate the discrimination power of different parts of the hand in order to develop a simpler, faster, and possibly more accurate and robust verification system. Specifically, we propose a new approach which decomposes the hand in different regions, corresponding to the fingers and the back of the palm, and performs verification using information from certain parts of the hand only. Our approach operates on 2D images acquired by placing the hand on a flat lighting table. Using a part-based representation of the hand allows the system to compensate for hand and finger motion without using any guidance pegs. To decompose the hand in different regions, we use a robust methodology based on morphological operators which does not require detecting any landmark points on the hand. To capture the geometry of the back of the palm and the fingers in suffcient detail, we employ high-order Zernike moments which are computed using an effcient methodology. The proposed approach has been evaluated on a database of 100 subjects with 10 images per subject, illustrating promising performance. Comparisons with related approaches using the whole hand for verification illustrate the superiority of the proposed approach. Moreover, qualitative comparisons with state-of-the-art approaches indicate that the proposed approach has comparable or better performance.

  2. A MEMS-based, wireless, biometric-like security system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Joshua D.; Schneiter, John L.; Leiby, Grant A.; McCarter, Steven; Smith, Jeremiah; Budka, Thomas P.

    2010-04-01

    We present a system for secure identification applications that is based upon biometric-like MEMS chips. The MEMS chips have unique frequency signatures resulting from fabrication process variations. The MEMS chips possess something analogous to a "voiceprint". The chips are vacuum encapsulated, rugged, and suitable for low-cost, highvolume mass production. Furthermore, the fabrication process is fully integrated with standard CMOS fabrication methods. One is able to operate the MEMS-based identification system similarly to a conventional RFID system: the reader (essentially a custom network analyzer) detects the power reflected across a frequency spectrum from a MEMS chip in its vicinity. We demonstrate prototype "tags" - MEMS chips placed on a credit card-like substrate - to show how the system could be used in standard identification or authentication applications. We have integrated power scavenging to provide DC bias for the MEMS chips through the use of a 915 MHz source in the reader and a RF-DC conversion circuit on the tag. The system enables a high level of protection against typical RFID hacking attacks. There is no need for signal encryption, so back-end infrastructure is minimal. We believe this system would make a viable low-cost, high-security system for a variety of identification and authentication applications.

  3. Inference-Based Similarity Search in Randomized Montgomery Domains for Privacy-Preserving Biometric Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Wan, Jianwu; Guo, Jun; Cheung, Yiu-Ming; C Yuen, Pong

    2017-07-14

    Similarity search is essential to many important applications and often involves searching at scale on high-dimensional data based on their similarity to a query. In biometric applications, recent vulnerability studies have shown that adversarial machine learning can compromise biometric recognition systems by exploiting the biometric similarity information. Existing methods for biometric privacy protection are in general based on pairwise matching of secured biometric templates and have inherent limitations in search efficiency and scalability. In this paper, we propose an inference-based framework for privacy-preserving similarity search in Hamming space. Our approach builds on an obfuscated distance measure that can conceal Hamming distance in a dynamic interval. Such a mechanism enables us to systematically design statistically reliable methods for retrieving most likely candidates without knowing the exact distance values. We further propose to apply Montgomery multiplication for generating search indexes that can withstand adversarial similarity analysis, and show that information leakage in randomized Montgomery domains can be made negligibly small. Our experiments on public biometric datasets demonstrate that the inference-based approach can achieve a search accuracy close to the best performance possible with secure computation methods, but the associated cost is reduced by orders of magnitude compared to cryptographic primitives.

  4. Biometric identification based on feature fusion with PCA and SVM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefkovits, László; Lefkovits, Szidónia; Emerich, Simina

    2018-04-01

    Biometric identification is gaining ground compared to traditional identification methods. Many biometric measurements may be used for secure human identification. The most reliable among them is the iris pattern because of its uniqueness, stability, unforgeability and inalterability over time. The approach presented in this paper is a fusion of different feature descriptor methods such as HOG, LIOP, LBP, used for extracting iris texture information. The classifiers obtained through the SVM and PCA methods demonstrate the effectiveness of our system applied to one and both irises. The performances measured are highly accurate and foreshadow a fusion system with a rate of identification approaching 100% on the UPOL database.

  5. Complementarity of flux- and biometric-based data to constrain parameters in a terrestrial carbon model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenggang Du

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available To improve models for accurate projections, data assimilation, an emerging statistical approach to combine models with data, have recently been developed to probe initial conditions, parameters, data content, response functions and model uncertainties. Quantifying how many information contents are contained in different data streams is essential to predict future states of ecosystems and the climate. This study uses a data assimilation approach to examine the information contents contained in flux- and biometric-based data to constrain parameters in a terrestrial carbon (C model, which includes canopy photosynthesis and vegetation–soil C transfer submodels. Three assimilation experiments were constructed with either net ecosystem exchange (NEE data only or biometric data only [including foliage and woody biomass, litterfall, soil organic C (SOC and soil respiration], or both NEE and biometric data to constrain model parameters by a probabilistic inversion application. The results showed that NEE data mainly constrained parameters associated with gross primary production (GPP and ecosystem respiration (RE but were almost invalid for C transfer coefficients, while biometric data were more effective in constraining C transfer coefficients than other parameters. NEE and biometric data constrained about 26% (6 and 30% (7 of a total of 23 parameters, respectively, but their combined application constrained about 61% (14 of all parameters. The complementarity of NEE and biometric data was obvious in constraining most of parameters. The poor constraint by only NEE or biometric data was probably attributable to either the lack of long-term C dynamic data or errors from measurements. Overall, our results suggest that flux- and biometric-based data, containing different processes in ecosystem C dynamics, have different capacities to constrain parameters related to photosynthesis and C transfer coefficients, respectively. Multiple data sources could also

  6. Shape-based hand recognition approach using the morphological pattern spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Cortes, Juan Manuel; Gomez-Gil, Pilar; Sanchez-Perez, Gabriel; Prieto-Castro, Cesar

    2009-01-01

    We propose the use of the morphological pattern spectrum, or pecstrum, as the base of a biometric shape-based hand recognition system. The system receives an image of the right hand of a subject in an unconstrained pose, which is captured with a commercial flatbed scanner. According to pecstrum property of invariance to translation and rotation, the system does not require the use of pegs for a fixed hand position, which simplifies the image acquisition process. This novel feature-extraction method is tested using a Euclidean distance classifier for identification and verification cases, obtaining 97% correct identification, and an equal error rate (EER) of 0.0285 (2.85%) for the verification mode. The obtained results indicate that the pattern spectrum represents a good feature-extraction alternative for low- and medium-level hand-shape-based biometric applications.

  7. THRIVE: threshold homomorphic encryption based secure and privacy preserving biometric verification system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabat, Cagatay; Kiraz, Mehmet Sabir; Erdogan, Hakan; Savas, Erkay

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new biometric verification and template protection system which we call THRIVE. The system includes novel enrollment and authentication protocols based on threshold homomorphic encryption where a private key is shared between a user and a verifier. In the THRIVE system, only encrypted binary biometric templates are stored in a database and verification is performed via homomorphically randomized templates, thus, original templates are never revealed during authentication. Due to the underlying threshold homomorphic encryption scheme, a malicious database owner cannot perform full decryption on encrypted templates of the users in the database. In addition, security of the THRIVE system is enhanced using a two-factor authentication scheme involving user's private key and biometric data. Using simulation-based techniques, the proposed system is proven secure in the malicious model. The proposed system is suitable for applications where the user does not want to reveal her biometrics to the verifier in plain form, but needs to prove her identity by using biometrics. The system can be used with any biometric modality where a feature extraction method yields a fixed size binary template and a query template is verified when its Hamming distance to the database template is less than a threshold. The overall connection time for the proposed THRIVE system is estimated to be 336 ms on average for 256-bit biometric templates on a desktop PC running with quad core 3.2 GHz CPUs at 10 Mbit/s up/down link connection speed. Consequently, the proposed system can be efficiently used in real-life applications.

  8. Optimization of a Biometric System Based on Acoustic Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Izquierdo Fuente

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of an acoustic biometric system that captures 16 acoustic images of a person for 4 frequencies and 4 positions, a study was carried out to improve the performance of the system. On a first stage, an analysis to determine which images provide more information to the system was carried out showing that a set of 12 images allows the system to obtain results that are equivalent to using all of the 16 images. Finally, optimization techniques were used to obtain the set of weights associated with each acoustic image that maximizes the performance of the biometric system. These results improve significantly the performance of the preliminary system, while reducing the time of acquisition and computational burden, since the number of acoustic images was reduced.

  9. Optimization of a Biometric System Based on Acoustic Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo Fuente, Alberto; Del Val Puente, Lara; Villacorta Calvo, Juan J.; Raboso Mateos, Mariano

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of an acoustic biometric system that captures 16 acoustic images of a person for 4 frequencies and 4 positions, a study was carried out to improve the performance of the system. On a first stage, an analysis to determine which images provide more information to the system was carried out showing that a set of 12 images allows the system to obtain results that are equivalent to using all of the 16 images. Finally, optimization techniques were used to obtain the set of weights associated with each acoustic image that maximizes the performance of the biometric system. These results improve significantly the performance of the preliminary system, while reducing the time of acquisition and computational burden, since the number of acoustic images was reduced. PMID:24616643

  10. Biometric and Emotion Identification: An ECG Compression Based Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Brás

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We present an innovative and robust solution to both biometric and emotion identification using the electrocardiogram (ECG. The ECG represents the electrical signal that comes from the contraction of the heart muscles, indirectly representing the flow of blood inside the heart, it is known to convey a key that allows biometric identification. Moreover, due to its relationship with the nervous system, it also varies as a function of the emotional state. The use of information-theoretic data models, associated with data compression algorithms, allowed to effectively compare ECG records and infer the person identity, as well as emotional state at the time of data collection. The proposed method does not require ECG wave delineation or alignment, which reduces preprocessing error. The method is divided into three steps: (1 conversion of the real-valued ECG record into a symbolic time-series, using a quantization process; (2 conditional compression of the symbolic representation of the ECG, using the symbolic ECG records stored in the database as reference; (3 identification of the ECG record class, using a 1-NN (nearest neighbor classifier. We obtained over 98% of accuracy in biometric identification, whereas in emotion recognition we attained over 90%. Therefore, the method adequately identify the person, and his/her emotion. Also, the proposed method is flexible and may be adapted to different problems, by the alteration of the templates for training the model.

  11. Biometric and Emotion Identification: An ECG Compression Based Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brás, Susana; Ferreira, Jacqueline H T; Soares, Sandra C; Pinho, Armando J

    2018-01-01

    We present an innovative and robust solution to both biometric and emotion identification using the electrocardiogram (ECG). The ECG represents the electrical signal that comes from the contraction of the heart muscles, indirectly representing the flow of blood inside the heart, it is known to convey a key that allows biometric identification. Moreover, due to its relationship with the nervous system, it also varies as a function of the emotional state. The use of information-theoretic data models, associated with data compression algorithms, allowed to effectively compare ECG records and infer the person identity, as well as emotional state at the time of data collection. The proposed method does not require ECG wave delineation or alignment, which reduces preprocessing error. The method is divided into three steps: (1) conversion of the real-valued ECG record into a symbolic time-series, using a quantization process; (2) conditional compression of the symbolic representation of the ECG, using the symbolic ECG records stored in the database as reference; (3) identification of the ECG record class, using a 1-NN (nearest neighbor) classifier. We obtained over 98% of accuracy in biometric identification, whereas in emotion recognition we attained over 90%. Therefore, the method adequately identify the person, and his/her emotion. Also, the proposed method is flexible and may be adapted to different problems, by the alteration of the templates for training the model.

  12. Biometric and Emotion Identification: An ECG Compression Based Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brás, Susana; Ferreira, Jacqueline H. T.; Soares, Sandra C.; Pinho, Armando J.

    2018-01-01

    We present an innovative and robust solution to both biometric and emotion identification using the electrocardiogram (ECG). The ECG represents the electrical signal that comes from the contraction of the heart muscles, indirectly representing the flow of blood inside the heart, it is known to convey a key that allows biometric identification. Moreover, due to its relationship with the nervous system, it also varies as a function of the emotional state. The use of information-theoretic data models, associated with data compression algorithms, allowed to effectively compare ECG records and infer the person identity, as well as emotional state at the time of data collection. The proposed method does not require ECG wave delineation or alignment, which reduces preprocessing error. The method is divided into three steps: (1) conversion of the real-valued ECG record into a symbolic time-series, using a quantization process; (2) conditional compression of the symbolic representation of the ECG, using the symbolic ECG records stored in the database as reference; (3) identification of the ECG record class, using a 1-NN (nearest neighbor) classifier. We obtained over 98% of accuracy in biometric identification, whereas in emotion recognition we attained over 90%. Therefore, the method adequately identify the person, and his/her emotion. Also, the proposed method is flexible and may be adapted to different problems, by the alteration of the templates for training the model. PMID:29670564

  13. Resting State EEG-based biometrics for individual identification using convolutional neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan Ma; Minett, James W; Blu, Thierry; Wang, William S-Y

    2015-08-01

    Biometrics is a growing field, which permits identification of individuals by means of unique physical features. Electroencephalography (EEG)-based biometrics utilizes the small intra-personal differences and large inter-personal differences between individuals' brainwave patterns. In the past, such methods have used features derived from manually-designed procedures for this purpose. Another possibility is to use convolutional neural networks (CNN) to automatically extract an individual's best and most unique neural features and conduct classification, using EEG data derived from both Resting State with Open Eyes (REO) and Resting State with Closed Eyes (REC). Results indicate that this CNN-based joint-optimized EEG-based Biometric System yields a high degree of accuracy of identification (88%) for 10-class classification. Furthermore, rich inter-personal difference can be found using a very low frequency band (0-2Hz). Additionally, results suggest that the temporal portions over which subjects can be individualized is less than 200 ms.

  14. Acoustic Biometric System Based on Preprocessing Techniques and Linear Support Vector Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Val, Lara; Izquierdo-Fuente, Alberto; Villacorta, Juan J; Raboso, Mariano

    2015-06-17

    Drawing on the results of an acoustic biometric system based on a MSE classifier, a new biometric system has been implemented. This new system preprocesses acoustic images, extracts several parameters and finally classifies them, based on Support Vector Machine (SVM). The preprocessing techniques used are spatial filtering, segmentation-based on a Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) to separate the person from the background, masking-to reduce the dimensions of images-and binarization-to reduce the size of each image. An analysis of classification error and a study of the sensitivity of the error versus the computational burden of each implemented algorithm are presented. This allows the selection of the most relevant algorithms, according to the benefits required by the system. A significant improvement of the biometric system has been achieved by reducing the classification error, the computational burden and the storage requirements.

  15. Gaze Estimation for Off-Angle Iris Recognition Based on the Biometric Eye Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karakaya, Mahmut [ORNL; Barstow, Del R [ORNL; Santos-Villalobos, Hector J [ORNL; Thompson, Joseph W [ORNL; Bolme, David S [ORNL; Boehnen, Chris Bensing [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Iris recognition is among the highest accuracy biometrics. However, its accuracy relies on controlled high quality capture data and is negatively affected by several factors such as angle, occlusion, and dilation. Non-ideal iris recognition is a new research focus in biometrics. In this paper, we present a gaze estimation method designed for use in an off-angle iris recognition framework based on the ANONYMIZED biometric eye model. Gaze estimation is an important prerequisite step to correct an off-angle iris images. To achieve the accurate frontal reconstruction of an off-angle iris image, we first need to estimate the eye gaze direction from elliptical features of an iris image. Typically additional information such as well-controlled light sources, head mounted equipment, and multiple cameras are not available. Our approach utilizes only the iris and pupil boundary segmentation allowing it to be applicable to all iris capture hardware. We compare the boundaries with a look-up-table generated by using our biologically inspired biometric eye model and find the closest feature point in the look-up-table to estimate the gaze. Based on the results from real images, the proposed method shows effectiveness in gaze estimation accuracy for our biometric eye model with an average error of approximately 3.5 degrees over a 50 degree range.

  16. Cryptanalysis and Improvement of a Biometric-Based Multi-Server Authentication and Key Agreement Scheme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengqi Wang

    Full Text Available With the security requirements of networks, biometrics authenticated schemes which are applied in the multi-server environment come to be more crucial and widely deployed. In this paper, we propose a novel biometric-based multi-server authentication and key agreement scheme which is based on the cryptanalysis of Mishra et al.'s scheme. The informal and formal security analysis of our scheme are given, which demonstrate that our scheme satisfies the desirable security requirements. The presented scheme provides a variety of significant functionalities, in which some features are not considered in the most of existing authentication schemes, such as, user revocation or re-registration and biometric information protection. Compared with several related schemes, our scheme has more secure properties and lower computation cost. It is obviously more appropriate for practical applications in the remote distributed networks.

  17. Cryptanalysis and Improvement of a Biometric-Based Multi-Server Authentication and Key Agreement Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengqi; Zhang, Xiao; Zheng, Zhiming

    2016-01-01

    With the security requirements of networks, biometrics authenticated schemes which are applied in the multi-server environment come to be more crucial and widely deployed. In this paper, we propose a novel biometric-based multi-server authentication and key agreement scheme which is based on the cryptanalysis of Mishra et al.’s scheme. The informal and formal security analysis of our scheme are given, which demonstrate that our scheme satisfies the desirable security requirements. The presented scheme provides a variety of significant functionalities, in which some features are not considered in the most of existing authentication schemes, such as, user revocation or re-registration and biometric information protection. Compared with several related schemes, our scheme has more secure properties and lower computation cost. It is obviously more appropriate for practical applications in the remote distributed networks. PMID:26866606

  18. Cryptanalysis and Improvement of a Biometric-Based Multi-Server Authentication and Key Agreement Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengqi; Zhang, Xiao; Zheng, Zhiming

    2016-01-01

    With the security requirements of networks, biometrics authenticated schemes which are applied in the multi-server environment come to be more crucial and widely deployed. In this paper, we propose a novel biometric-based multi-server authentication and key agreement scheme which is based on the cryptanalysis of Mishra et al.'s scheme. The informal and formal security analysis of our scheme are given, which demonstrate that our scheme satisfies the desirable security requirements. The presented scheme provides a variety of significant functionalities, in which some features are not considered in the most of existing authentication schemes, such as, user revocation or re-registration and biometric information protection. Compared with several related schemes, our scheme has more secure properties and lower computation cost. It is obviously more appropriate for practical applications in the remote distributed networks.

  19. BossPro: a biometrics-based obfuscation scheme for software protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuseler, Torben; Lami, Ihsan A.; Al-Assam, Hisham

    2013-05-01

    This paper proposes to integrate biometric-based key generation into an obfuscated interpretation algorithm to protect authentication application software from illegitimate use or reverse-engineering. This is especially necessary for mCommerce because application programmes on mobile devices, such as Smartphones and Tablet-PCs are typically open for misuse by hackers. Therefore, the scheme proposed in this paper ensures that a correct interpretation / execution of the obfuscated program code of the authentication application requires a valid biometric generated key of the actual person to be authenticated, in real-time. Without this key, the real semantics of the program cannot be understood by an attacker even if he/she gains access to this application code. Furthermore, the security provided by this scheme can be a vital aspect in protecting any application running on mobile devices that are increasingly used to perform business/financial or other security related applications, but are easily lost or stolen. The scheme starts by creating a personalised copy of any application based on the biometric key generated during an enrolment process with the authenticator as well as a nuance created at the time of communication between the client and the authenticator. The obfuscated code is then shipped to the client's mobile devise and integrated with real-time biometric extracted data of the client to form the unlocking key during execution. The novelty of this scheme is achieved by the close binding of this application program to the biometric key of the client, thus making this application unusable for others. Trials and experimental results on biometric key generation, based on client's faces, and an implemented scheme prototype, based on the Android emulator, prove the concept and novelty of this proposed scheme.

  20. A new Watermarking System based on Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) in color biometric images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Sengul; Tuncer, Turker; Avci, Engin; Gulten, Arif

    2012-08-01

    This paper recommend a biometric color images hiding approach An Watermarking System based on Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT), which is used to protect the security and integrity of transmitted biometric color images. Watermarking is a very important hiding information (audio, video, color image, gray image) technique. It is commonly used on digital objects together with the developing technology in the last few years. One of the common methods used for hiding information on image files is DCT method which used in the frequency domain. In this study, DCT methods in order to embed watermark data into face images, without corrupting their features.

  1. Touchless fingerprint biometrics

    CERN Document Server

    Labati, Ruggero Donida; Scotti, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Offering the first comprehensive analysis of touchless fingerprint-recognition technologies, Touchless Fingerprint Biometrics gives an overview of the state of the art and describes relevant industrial applications. It also presents new techniques to efficiently and effectively implement advanced solutions based on touchless fingerprinting.The most accurate current biometric technologies in touch-based fingerprint-recognition systems require a relatively high level of user cooperation to acquire samples of the concerned biometric trait. With the potential for reduced constraints, reduced hardw

  2. Identification performance of evidential value estimation for ridge-based biometrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotzerke, Johannes; Hao, Hao; Davis, Stephen A.; Hayes, Robert; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Horadam, K.J.

    2016-01-01

    Law enforcement agencies around the world use ridge-based biometrics, especially fingerprints, to fight crime. Fingermarks that are left at a crime scene and identified as potentially having evidential value (EV) in a court of law are recorded for further forensic analysis. Here, we test our

  3. Extended feature-fusion guidelines to improve image-based multi-modal biometrics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Brown, Dane

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The feature-level, unlike the match score-level, lacks multi-modal fusion guidelines. This work demonstrates a practical approach for improved image-based biometric feature-fusion. The approach extracts and combines the face, fingerprint...

  4. An EEG-Based Biometric System Using Eigenvector Centrality in Resting State Brain Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraschini, M.; Hillebrand, A.; Demuru, M.; Didaci, L.; Marcialis, G.L.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, there has been a growing interest in the use of brain activity for biometric systems. However, so far these studies have focused mainly on basic features of the Electroencephalography. In this study we propose an approach based on phase synchronization, to investigate personal distinctive

  5. Multimodal Biometric System Based on the Recognition of Face and Both Irises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeong Gon Kim

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The performance of unimodal biometric systems (based on a single modality such as face or fingerprint has to contend with various problems, such as illumination variation, skin condition and environmental conditions, and device variations. Therefore, multimodal biometric systems have been used to overcome the limitations of unimodal biometrics and provide high accuracy recognition. In this paper, we propose a new multimodal biometric system based on score level fusion of face and both irises' recognition. Our study has the following novel features. First, the device proposed acquires images of the face and both irises simultaneously. The proposed device consists of a face camera, two iris cameras, near-infrared illuminators and cold mirrors. Second, fast and accurate iris detection is based on two circular edge detections, which are accomplished in the iris image on the basis of the size of the iris detected in the face image. Third, the combined accuracy is enhanced by combining each score for the face and both irises using a support vector machine. The experimental results show that the equal error rate for the proposed method is 0.131%, which is lower than that of face or iris recognition and other fusion methods.

  6. Advances in biometrics for secure human authentication and recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Kisku, Dakshina Ranjan; Sing, Jamuna Kanta

    2013-01-01

    GENERAL BIOMETRICSSecurity and Reliability Assessment for Biometric Systems; Gayatri MirajkarReview of Human Recognition Based on Retinal Images; Amin DehghaniADVANCED TOPICS IN BIOMETRICSVisual Speech as Behavioral Biometric; Preety Singh, Vijay Laxmi, and Manoj Singh GaurHuman Gait Signature for Biometric Authentication; Vijay JohnHand-Based Biometric for Personal Identification Using Correlation Filter Classifier; Mohammed Saigaa , Abdallah Meraoumia , Salim Chitroub, and Ahmed BouridaneOn Deciding the Dynamic Periocular Boundary for Human Recognition; Sambit Bakshi , Pankaj Kumar Sa, and Banshidhar MajhiRetention of Electrocardiogram Features Insignificantly Devalorized as an Effect of Watermarking for a Multimodal Biometric Authentication System; Nilanjan Dey, Bijurika Nandi, Poulami Das, Achintya Das, and Sheli Sinha ChaudhuriFacial Feature Point Extraction for Object Identification Using Discrete Contourlet Transform and Principal Component Analysis; N. G. Chitaliya and A. I. TrivediCASE STUDIES AND LA...

  7. Biometrics Theory, Methods, and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Boulgouris, N V; Micheli-Tzanakou, Evangelia

    2009-01-01

    An in-depth examination of the cutting edge of biometrics. This book fills a gap in the literature by detailing the recent advances and emerging theories, methods, and applications of biometric systems in a variety of infrastructures. Edited by a panel of experts, it provides comprehensive coverage of:. Multilinear discriminant analysis for biometric signal recognition;. Biometric identity authentication techniques based on neural networks;. Multimodal biometrics and design of classifiers for biometric fusion;. Feature selection and facial aging modeling for face recognition;. Geometrical and

  8. A Novel Multimodal Biometrics Recognition Model Based on Stacked ELM and CCA Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jucheng Yang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Multimodal biometrics combine a variety of biological features to have a significant impact on identification performance, which is a newly developed trend in biometrics identification technology. This study proposes a novel multimodal biometrics recognition model based on the stacked extreme learning machines (ELMs and canonical correlation analysis (CCA methods. The model, which has a symmetric structure, is found to have high potential for multimodal biometrics. The model works as follows. First, it learns the hidden-layer representation of biological images using extreme learning machines layer by layer. Second, the canonical correlation analysis method is applied to map the representation to a feature space, which is used to reconstruct the multimodal image feature representation. Third, the reconstructed features are used as the input of a classifier for supervised training and output. To verify the validity and efficiency of the method, we adopt it for new hybrid datasets obtained from typical face image datasets and finger-vein image datasets. Our experimental results demonstrate that our model performs better than traditional methods.

  9. Dynamic detection-rate-based bit allocation with genuine interval concealment for binary biometric representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Meng-Hui; Teoh, Andrew Beng Jin; Toh, Kar-Ann

    2013-06-01

    Biometric discretization is a key component in biometric cryptographic key generation. It converts an extracted biometric feature vector into a binary string via typical steps such as segmentation of each feature element into a number of labeled intervals, mapping of each interval-captured feature element onto a binary space, and concatenation of the resulted binary output of all feature elements into a binary string. Currently, the detection rate optimized bit allocation (DROBA) scheme is one of the most effective biometric discretization schemes in terms of its capability to assign binary bits dynamically to user-specific features with respect to their discriminability. However, we learn that DROBA suffers from potential discriminative feature misdetection and underdiscretization in its bit allocation process. This paper highlights such drawbacks and improves upon DROBA based on a novel two-stage algorithm: 1) a dynamic search method to efficiently recapture such misdetected features and to optimize the bit allocation of underdiscretized features and 2) a genuine interval concealment technique to alleviate crucial information leakage resulted from the dynamic search. Improvements in classification accuracy on two popular face data sets vindicate the feasibility of our approach compared with DROBA.

  10. A STUDY ON BIOMETRIC TEMPLATE SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Radha

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The increasing popularity of biometrics and cryptography is driven by the widespread stipulation on information security. Abundant efforts have been made in developing successful methods in these areas in order to accomplish an enhanced level of information security. There are two dominant issues in information security enhancement. One is to defend the user ownership and control the access to information by authenticating an individual’s identity. The other is to make sure the privacy and integrity of information and to secure communication. Cryptography is the science of writing in secret code. Secret-key cryptography and public-key cryptography are the two most important cryptographic architectures. The security of a cryptographic system is reliant on the secrecy of the cryptographic key. Biometric authentication or simply biometrics refers to establishing automatic personal recognition based on the physical and behavioral characteristics of an individual (e.g. face, voice, fingerprint, gait, hand geometry, iris, gene, etc.. Biometrics offers superior security and easier than traditional identity authentication systems (based on passwords and cryptographic keys.Since biometrics characteristics are naturally related with a particular individual, making them insusceptible to being stolen, forgotten, lost or attached. This paper presents a survey on various techniques proposed earlier in developing an authentication system for ensuring individual’s information security by combining biometric characteristics of that particular individual and the cryptographic techniques. In addition, it provides some fundamental idea for future research that may help in eliminating the problems associated with the present authentication systems.

  11. Biometric template revocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Craig M.

    2004-08-01

    Biometric are a powerful technology for identifying humans both locally and at a distance. In order to perform identification or verification biometric systems capture an image of some biometric of a user or subject. The image is then converted mathematical to representation of the person call a template. Since we know that every human in the world is different each human will have different biometric images (different fingerprints, or faces, etc.). This is what makes biometrics useful for identification. However unlike a credit card number or a password to can be given to a person and later revoked if it is compromised and biometric is with the person for life. The problem then is to develop biometric templates witch can be easily revoked and reissued which are also unique to the user and can be easily used for identification and verification. In this paper we develop and present a method to generate a set of templates which are fully unique to the individual and also revocable. By using bases set compression algorithms in an n-dimensional orthogonal space we can represent a give biometric image in an infinite number of equally valued and unique ways. The verification and biometric matching system would be presented with a given template and revocation code. The code will then representing where in the sequence of n-dimensional vectors to start the recognition.

  12. On the implementation of IP protection using biometrics based information hiding and firewall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Abhishek; Nandy, Kingshuk; Banerjee, Avishek; Giri, Supratick; Sarkar, Souvik; Sarkar, Subir Kumar

    2016-02-01

    System-on-chip-based design style creates a revolution in very large scale integration industry with design efficiency, operating speed and development time. To support this process, reuse and exchange of components are essential in electronic form called intellectual property (IP). This, however, increases the possibility of encroachment of IP of the design. So copyright protection of IP against piracy is the most important concern for IP vendors. The existing solutions for IP protection are still not secure enough with flexibility, cost, etc. This paper proposes an information-hiding-based solution for IP protection by embedding a biometric copyright information and firewall inside an IP in the form of a finite state machine with unique configuration. The scheme first introduces biometric signature-based copyright as ownership proof. Second, firewall interrupts the normal functionality of IP at the end of the user time period. The experimental outcomes of field-programmable-gate-array implementation illustrate the efficiency of the proposed method.

  13. On the Design of Forgiving Biometric Security Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Raphael C.-W.; Whitley, John N.; Parish, David J.

    This work aims to highlight the fundamental issue surrounding biometric security systems: it’s all very nice until a biometric is forged, but what do we do after that? Granted, biometric systems are by physical nature supposedly much harder to forge than other factors of authentication since biometrics on a human body are by right unique to the particular human person. Yet it is also due to this physical nature that makes it much more catastrophic when a forgery does occur, because it implies that this uniqueness has been forged as well, threatening the human individuality; and since crime has by convention relied on identifying suspects by biometric characteristics, loss of this biometric uniqueness has devastating consequences on the freedom and basic human rights of the victimized individual. This uniqueness forgery implication also raises the motivation on the adversary to forge since a successful forgery leads to much more impersonation situations when biometric systems are used i.e. physical presence at crime scenes, identification and access to security systems and premises, access to financial accounts and hence the ability to use the victim’s finances. Depending on the gains, a desperate highly motivated adversary may even resort to directly obtaining the victim’s biometric parts by force e.g. severing the parts from the victim’s body; this poses a risk and threat not just to the individual’s uniqueness claim but also to personal safety and well being. One may then wonder if it is worth putting one’s assets, property and safety into the hands of biometrics based systems when the consequences of biometric forgery far outweigh the consequences of system compromises when no biometrics are used.

  14. Efficient biometric authenticated key agreements based on extended chaotic maps for telecare medicine information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Der-Chyuan; Lee, Tian-Fu; Lin, Tsung-Hung

    2015-05-01

    Authenticated key agreements for telecare medicine information systems provide patients, doctors, nurses and health visitors with accessing medical information systems and getting remote services efficiently and conveniently through an open network. In order to have higher security, many authenticated key agreement schemes appended biometric keys to realize identification except for using passwords and smartcards. Due to too many transmissions and computational costs, these authenticated key agreement schemes are inefficient in communication and computation. This investigation develops two secure and efficient authenticated key agreement schemes for telecare medicine information systems by using biometric key and extended chaotic maps. One scheme is synchronization-based, while the other nonce-based. Compared to related approaches, the proposed schemes not only retain the same security properties with previous schemes, but also provide users with privacy protection and have fewer transmissions and lower computational cost.

  15. An improved biometrics-based authentication scheme for telecare medical information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Dianli; Wen, Qiaoyan; Li, Wenmin; Zhang, Hua; Jin, Zhengping

    2015-03-01

    Telecare medical information system (TMIS) offers healthcare delivery services and patients can acquire their desired medical services conveniently through public networks. The protection of patients' privacy and data confidentiality are significant. Very recently, Mishra et al. proposed a biometrics-based authentication scheme for telecare medical information system. Their scheme can protect user privacy and is believed to resist a range of network attacks. In this paper, we analyze Mishra et al.'s scheme and identify that their scheme is insecure to against known session key attack and impersonation attack. Thereby, we present a modified biometrics-based authentication scheme for TMIS to eliminate the aforementioned faults. Besides, we demonstrate the completeness of the proposed scheme through BAN-logic. Compared to the related schemes, our protocol can provide stronger security and it is more practical.

  16. Key exchange using biometric identity based encryption for sharing encrypted data in cloud environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Waleed K.; Al-Assam, Hisham

    2017-05-01

    The main problem associated with using symmetric/ asymmetric keys is how to securely store and exchange the keys between the parties over open networks particularly in the open environment such as cloud computing. Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) have been providing a practical solution for session key exchange for loads of web services. The key limitation of PKI solution is not only the need for a trusted third partly (e.g. certificate authority) but also the absent link between data owner and the encryption keys. The latter is arguably more important where accessing data needs to be linked with identify of the owner. Currently available key exchange protocols depend on using trusted couriers or secure channels, which can be subject to man-in-the-middle attack and various other attacks. This paper proposes a new protocol for Key Exchange using Biometric Identity Based Encryption (KE-BIBE) that enables parties to securely exchange cryptographic keys even an adversary is monitoring the communication channel between the parties. The proposed protocol combines biometrics with IBE in order to provide a secure way to access symmetric keys based on the identity of the users in unsecure environment. In the KE-BIOBE protocol, the message is first encrypted by the data owner using a traditional symmetric key before migrating it to a cloud storage. The symmetric key is then encrypted using public biometrics of the users selected by data owner to decrypt the message based on Fuzzy Identity-Based Encryption. Only the selected users will be able to decrypt the message by providing a fresh sample of their biometric data. The paper argues that the proposed solution eliminates the needs for a key distribution centre in traditional cryptography. It will also give data owner the power of finegrained sharing of encrypted data by control who can access their data.

  17. A SCHEME FOR TEMPLATE SECURITY AT FEATURE FUSION LEVEL IN MULTIMODAL BIOMETRIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind Selwal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Biometric is the science of human recognition based upon using their biological, chemical or behavioural traits. These systems are used in many real life applications simply from biometric based attendance system to providing security at very sophisticated level. A biometric system deals with raw data captured using a sensor and feature template extracted from raw image. One of the challenges being faced by designers of these systems is to secure template data extracted from the biometric modalities of the user and protect the raw images. To minimize spoof attacks on biometric systems by unauthorised users one of the solutions is to use multi-biometric systems. Multi-modal biometric system works by using fusion technique to merge feature templates generated from different modalities of the human. In this work a new scheme is proposed to secure template during feature fusion level. Scheme is based on union operation of fuzzy relations of templates of modalities during fusion process of multimodal biometric systems. This approach serves dual purpose of feature fusion as well as transformation of templates into a single secured non invertible template. The proposed technique is cancelable and experimentally tested on a bimodal biometric system comprising of fingerprint and hand geometry. Developed scheme removes the problem of an attacker learning the original minutia position in fingerprint and various measurements of hand geometry. Given scheme provides improved performance of the system with reduction in false accept rate and improvement in genuine accept rate.

  18. Trends in Biometric Health Indices Within an Employer-Sponsored Wellness Program With Outcome-Based Incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Patricia Lin; Bradley, Kent L; Viswanathan, Sheila; Chan, June M; Stampfer, Meir

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate changes in employees' biometrics over time relative to outcome-based incentive thresholds. Retrospective cohort analysis of biometric screening participants (n = 26 388). Large employer primarily in Western United States. Office, retail, and distribution workforce. A voluntary outcome-based biometric screening program, incentivized with health insurance premium discounts. Body mass index (BMI), cholesterol, blood glucose, blood pressure, and nicotine. Followed were participants from their first year of participation, evaluating changes in measures. On average, participants who did not meet the incentive threshold at baseline decreased their BMI (1%), glucose (8%), blood pressure (systolic 9%, diastolic 8%), and total cholesterol (8%) by year 2 with improvements generally sustained or continued during each additional year of participation. On average, individuals at high health risk who participated in a financially incentivized biometric assessment program improved their health indices over time. Further research is needed to understand key determinants that drive health improvement indicated here. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Bivariate empirical mode decomposition for ECG-based biometric identification with emotional data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdinando, Hany; Seppanen, Tapio; Alasaarela, Esko

    2017-07-01

    Emotions modulate ECG signals such that they might affect ECG-based biometric identification in real life application. It motivated in finding good feature extraction methods where the emotional state of the subjects has minimum impacts. This paper evaluates feature extraction based on bivariate empirical mode decomposition (BEMD) for biometric identification when emotion is considered. Using the ECG signal from the Mahnob-HCI database for affect recognition, the features were statistical distributions of dominant frequency after applying BEMD analysis to ECG signals. The achieved accuracy was 99.5% with high consistency using kNN classifier in 10-fold cross validation to identify 26 subjects when the emotional states of the subjects were ignored. When the emotional states of the subject were considered, the proposed method also delivered high accuracy, around 99.4%. We concluded that the proposed method offers emotion-independent features for ECG-based biometric identification. The proposed method needs more evaluation related to testing with other classifier and variation in ECG signals, e.g. normal ECG vs. ECG with arrhythmias, ECG from various ages, and ECG from other affective databases.

  20. Palmprint and Face Multi-Modal Biometric Recognition Based on SDA-GSVD and Its Kernelization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Yu Yang

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available When extracting discriminative features from multimodal data, current methods rarely concern themselves with the data distribution. In this paper, we present an assumption that is consistent with the viewpoint of discrimination, that is, a person’s overall biometric data should be regarded as one class in the input space, and his different biometric data can form different Gaussians distributions, i.e., different subclasses. Hence, we propose a novel multimodal feature extraction and recognition approach based on subclass discriminant analysis (SDA. Specifically, one person’s different bio-data are treated as different subclasses of one class, and a transformed space is calculated, where the difference among subclasses belonging to different persons is maximized, and the difference within each subclass is minimized. Then, the obtained multimodal features are used for classification. Two solutions are presented to overcome the singularity problem encountered in calculation, which are using PCA preprocessing, and employing the generalized singular value decomposition (GSVD technique, respectively. Further, we provide nonlinear extensions of SDA based multimodal feature extraction, that is, the feature fusion based on KPCA-SDA and KSDA-GSVD. In KPCA-SDA, we first apply Kernel PCA on each single modal before performing SDA. While in KSDA-GSVD, we directly perform Kernel SDA to fuse multimodal data by applying GSVD to avoid the singular problem. For simplicity two typical types of biometric data are considered in this paper, i.e., palmprint data and face data. Compared with several representative multimodal biometrics recognition methods, experimental results show that our approaches outperform related multimodal recognition methods and KSDA-GSVD achieves the best recognition performance.

  1. A robust anonymous biometric-based remote user authentication scheme using smart cards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Das

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Several biometric-based remote user authentication schemes using smart cards have been proposed in the literature in order to improve the security weaknesses in user authentication system. In 2012, An proposed an enhanced biometric-based remote user authentication scheme using smart cards. It was claimed that the proposed scheme is secure against the user impersonation attack, the server masquerading attack, the password guessing attack, and the insider attack and provides mutual authentication between the user and the server. In this paper, we first analyze the security of An’s scheme and we show that this scheme has three serious security flaws in the design of the scheme: (i flaw in user’s biometric verification during the login phase, (ii flaw in user’s password verification during the login and authentication phases, and (iii flaw in user’s password change locally at any time by the user. Due to these security flaws, An’s scheme cannot support mutual authentication between the user and the server. Further, we show that An’s scheme cannot prevent insider attack. In order to remedy the security weaknesses found in An’s scheme, we propose a new robust and secure anonymous biometric-based remote user authentication scheme using smart cards. Through the informal and formal security analysis, we show that our scheme is secure against all possible known attacks including the attacks found in An’s scheme. The simulation results of our scheme using the widely-accepted AVISPA (Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications tool ensure that our scheme is secure against passive and active attacks. In addition, our scheme is also comparable in terms of the communication and computational overheads with An’s scheme and other related existing schemes. As a result, our scheme is more appropriate for practical applications compared to other approaches.

  2. Palmprint and face multi-modal biometric recognition based on SDA-GSVD and its kernelization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Xiao-Yuan; Li, Sheng; Li, Wen-Qian; Yao, Yong-Fang; Lan, Chao; Lu, Jia-Sen; Yang, Jing-Yu

    2012-01-01

    When extracting discriminative features from multimodal data, current methods rarely concern themselves with the data distribution. In this paper, we present an assumption that is consistent with the viewpoint of discrimination, that is, a person's overall biometric data should be regarded as one class in the input space, and his different biometric data can form different Gaussians distributions, i.e., different subclasses. Hence, we propose a novel multimodal feature extraction and recognition approach based on subclass discriminant analysis (SDA). Specifically, one person's different bio-data are treated as different subclasses of one class, and a transformed space is calculated, where the difference among subclasses belonging to different persons is maximized, and the difference within each subclass is minimized. Then, the obtained multimodal features are used for classification. Two solutions are presented to overcome the singularity problem encountered in calculation, which are using PCA preprocessing, and employing the generalized singular value decomposition (GSVD) technique, respectively. Further, we provide nonlinear extensions of SDA based multimodal feature extraction, that is, the feature fusion based on KPCA-SDA and KSDA-GSVD. In KPCA-SDA, we first apply Kernel PCA on each single modal before performing SDA. While in KSDA-GSVD, we directly perform Kernel SDA to fuse multimodal data by applying GSVD to avoid the singular problem. For simplicity two typical types of biometric data are considered in this paper, i.e., palmprint data and face data. Compared with several representative multimodal biometrics recognition methods, experimental results show that our approaches outperform related multimodal recognition methods and KSDA-GSVD achieves the best recognition performance.

  3. Palmprint and Face Multi-Modal Biometric Recognition Based on SDA-GSVD and Its Kernelization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Xiao-Yuan; Li, Sheng; Li, Wen-Qian; Yao, Yong-Fang; Lan, Chao; Lu, Jia-Sen; Yang, Jing-Yu

    2012-01-01

    When extracting discriminative features from multimodal data, current methods rarely concern themselves with the data distribution. In this paper, we present an assumption that is consistent with the viewpoint of discrimination, that is, a person's overall biometric data should be regarded as one class in the input space, and his different biometric data can form different Gaussians distributions, i.e., different subclasses. Hence, we propose a novel multimodal feature extraction and recognition approach based on subclass discriminant analysis (SDA). Specifically, one person's different bio-data are treated as different subclasses of one class, and a transformed space is calculated, where the difference among subclasses belonging to different persons is maximized, and the difference within each subclass is minimized. Then, the obtained multimodal features are used for classification. Two solutions are presented to overcome the singularity problem encountered in calculation, which are using PCA preprocessing, and employing the generalized singular value decomposition (GSVD) technique, respectively. Further, we provide nonlinear extensions of SDA based multimodal feature extraction, that is, the feature fusion based on KPCA-SDA and KSDA-GSVD. In KPCA-SDA, we first apply Kernel PCA on each single modal before performing SDA. While in KSDA-GSVD, we directly perform Kernel SDA to fuse multimodal data by applying GSVD to avoid the singular problem. For simplicity two typical types of biometric data are considered in this paper, i.e., palmprint data and face data. Compared with several representative multimodal biometrics recognition methods, experimental results show that our approaches outperform related multimodal recognition methods and KSDA-GSVD achieves the best recognition performance. PMID:22778600

  4. Combining Biometric Fractal Pattern and Particle Swarm Optimization-Based Classifier for Fingerprint Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hung Lin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes combining the biometric fractal pattern and particle swarm optimization (PSO-based classifier for fingerprint recognition. Fingerprints have arch, loop, whorl, and accidental morphologies, and embed singular points, resulting in the establishment of fingerprint individuality. An automatic fingerprint identification system consists of two stages: digital image processing (DIP and pattern recognition. DIP is used to convert to binary images, refine out noise, and locate the reference point. For binary images, Katz's algorithm is employed to estimate the fractal dimension (FD from a two-dimensional (2D image. Biometric features are extracted as fractal patterns using different FDs. Probabilistic neural network (PNN as a classifier performs to compare the fractal patterns among the small-scale database. A PSO algorithm is used to tune the optimal parameters and heighten the accuracy. For 30 subjects in the laboratory, the proposed classifier demonstrates greater efficiency and higher accuracy in fingerprint recognition.

  5. Joint Feature Extraction and Classifier Design for ECG-Based Biometric Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutta, Sandeep; Cheng, Qi

    2016-03-01

    Traditional biometric recognition systems often utilize physiological traits such as fingerprint, face, iris, etc. Recent years have seen a growing interest in electrocardiogram (ECG)-based biometric recognition techniques, especially in the field of clinical medicine. In existing ECG-based biometric recognition methods, feature extraction and classifier design are usually performed separately. In this paper, a multitask learning approach is proposed, in which feature extraction and classifier design are carried out simultaneously. Weights are assigned to the features within the kernel of each task. We decompose the matrix consisting of all the feature weights into sparse and low-rank components. The sparse component determines the features that are relevant to identify each individual, and the low-rank component determines the common feature subspace that is relevant to identify all the subjects. A fast optimization algorithm is developed, which requires only the first-order information. The performance of the proposed approach is demonstrated through experiments using the MIT-BIH Normal Sinus Rhythm database.

  6. User-Authentication on Wearable Devices Based on Punch Gesture Biometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Guan-Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to commoditization and convenience, wearable technology are interwoven with our daily life. However, privacy sensitive data stored on those devices such as personal email, message can be easily stolen. Most devices require a PIN input to unlock. However, this mechanism is vulnerable to shoulder surfing attack. Thus many novel authentication approaches have been proposed to solve this problem. And biometric-based methods have been adopted by many researchers because of the efficiency and excellent performance. In this paper, we propose a new biometric-based authentication system. We focus on how the user performs a straight punch gesture subconsciously. By analysis the acceleration data from the smartwatch when user performing the gesture, we are able to profile the user. And we authenticate the user according to the biometrics of this action. This mechanism is light-weighted and do not require user to remember any secret code. We develop an authentication system on Samsung Gear Fit 2 and conducted a real-world experiment on 20 volunteers. And we collected 13000 gesture samples to evaluate our system. Results show that our system can achieve a classification accuracy of at least 95.45%. In attacking scenario, our system can achieve an equal error rate lower than 4%. The maximum number of samples required by a well-trained classifier is 25.

  7. Strong Authentication Scheme Based on Hand Geometry and Smart Card Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali A. Yassin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In 2009, Xu et al. presented a safe, dynamic, id-based on remote user authentication method that has several advantages such as freely chosen passwords and mutual authentication. In this paper, we review the Xu–Zhu–Feng scheme and indicate many shortcomings in their scheme. Impersonation attacks and insider attacks could be effective. To overcome these drawbacks, we propose a secure biometric-based remote authentication scheme using biometric characteristics of hand-geometry, which is aimed at withstanding well-known attacks and achieving good performance. Furthermore, our work contains many crucial merits such as mutual authentication, user anonymity, freely chosen passwords, secure password changes, session key agreements, revocation by using personal biometrics, and does not need extra device or software for hand geometry in the login phase. Additionally, our scheme is highly efficient and withstands existing known attacks like password guessing, server impersonation, insider attacks, denial of service (DOS attacks, replay attacks, and parallel-session attacks. Compared with the other related schemes, our work is powerful both in communications and computation costs.

  8. Comparative and Analysis of Biometric Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Manivannan,; Padma

    2011-01-01

    Biometric as the science of recognizing an individual based on his or her physical or behavioral traits, it is beginning to gain acceptance as a legitimate method for determining an individual identity.Biometric have now been deployed in various commercial, civilian, and national security applications. Biometric described overview of various biometric techniques and the need to be addressed form making biometric technology an effective tool for providing information security.

  9. DTIC Review: Biometric Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    ...: Biometrics, the study of methods for uniquely recognizing humans based upon one or more intrinsic physical or behavioral traits, is a critical tool used in law enforcement, computer security and homeland defense...

  10. Simplified Multimodal Biometric Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Shete

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Multibiometric systems are expected to be more reliable than unimodal biometric systems for personal identification due to the presence of multiple, fairly independent pieces of evidence e.g. Unique Identification Project "Aadhaar" of Government of India. In this paper, we present a novel wavelet based technique to perform fusion at the feature level and score level by considering two biometric modalities, face and fingerprint. The results indicate that the proposed technique can lead to substantial improvement in multimodal matching performance. The proposed technique is simple because of no preprocessing of raw biometric traits as well as no feature and score normalization.

  11. An Approach to Biometric Verification Based on Human Body Communication in Wearable Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingzhen Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an approach to biometric verification based on human body communication (HBC is presented for wearable devices. For this purpose, the transmission gain S21 of volunteer’s forearm is measured by vector network analyzer (VNA. Specifically, in order to determine the chosen frequency for biometric verification, 1800 groups of data are acquired from 10 volunteers in the frequency range 0.3 MHz to 1500 MHz, and each group includes 1601 sample data. In addition, to achieve the rapid verification, 30 groups of data for each volunteer are acquired at the chosen frequency, and each group contains only 21 sample data. Furthermore, a threshold-adaptive template matching (TATM algorithm based on weighted Euclidean distance is proposed for rapid verification in this work. The results indicate that the chosen frequency for biometric verification is from 650 MHz to 750 MHz. The false acceptance rate (FAR and false rejection rate (FRR based on TATM are approximately 5.79% and 6.74%, respectively. In contrast, the FAR and FRR were 4.17% and 37.5%, 3.37% and 33.33%, and 3.80% and 34.17% using K-nearest neighbor (KNN classification, support vector machines (SVM, and naive Bayesian method (NBM classification, respectively. In addition, the running time of TATM is 0.019 s, whereas the running times of KNN, SVM and NBM are 0.310 s, 0.0385 s, and 0.168 s, respectively. Therefore, TATM is suggested to be appropriate for rapid verification use in wearable devices.

  12. An Approach to Biometric Verification Based on Human Body Communication in Wearable Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingzhen; Liu, Yuhang; Nie, Zedong; Qin, Wenjian; Pang, Zengyao; Wang, Lei

    2017-01-10

    In this paper, an approach to biometric verification based on human body communication (HBC) is presented for wearable devices. For this purpose, the transmission gain S21 of volunteer's forearm is measured by vector network analyzer (VNA). Specifically, in order to determine the chosen frequency for biometric verification, 1800 groups of data are acquired from 10 volunteers in the frequency range 0.3 MHz to 1500 MHz, and each group includes 1601 sample data. In addition, to achieve the rapid verification, 30 groups of data for each volunteer are acquired at the chosen frequency, and each group contains only 21 sample data. Furthermore, a threshold-adaptive template matching (TATM) algorithm based on weighted Euclidean distance is proposed for rapid verification in this work. The results indicate that the chosen frequency for biometric verification is from 650 MHz to 750 MHz. The false acceptance rate (FAR) and false rejection rate (FRR) based on TATM are approximately 5.79% and 6.74%, respectively. In contrast, the FAR and FRR were 4.17% and 37.5%, 3.37% and 33.33%, and 3.80% and 34.17% using K-nearest neighbor (KNN) classification, support vector machines (SVM), and naive Bayesian method (NBM) classification, respectively. In addition, the running time of TATM is 0.019 s, whereas the running times of KNN, SVM and NBM are 0.310 s, 0.0385 s, and 0.168 s, respectively. Therefore, TATM is suggested to be appropriate for rapid verification use in wearable devices.

  13. An Approach to Biometric Verification Based on Human Body Communication in Wearable Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingzhen; Liu, Yuhang; Nie, Zedong; Qin, Wenjian; Pang, Zengyao; Wang, Lei

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, an approach to biometric verification based on human body communication (HBC) is presented for wearable devices. For this purpose, the transmission gain S21 of volunteer’s forearm is measured by vector network analyzer (VNA). Specifically, in order to determine the chosen frequency for biometric verification, 1800 groups of data are acquired from 10 volunteers in the frequency range 0.3 MHz to 1500 MHz, and each group includes 1601 sample data. In addition, to achieve the rapid verification, 30 groups of data for each volunteer are acquired at the chosen frequency, and each group contains only 21 sample data. Furthermore, a threshold-adaptive template matching (TATM) algorithm based on weighted Euclidean distance is proposed for rapid verification in this work. The results indicate that the chosen frequency for biometric verification is from 650 MHz to 750 MHz. The false acceptance rate (FAR) and false rejection rate (FRR) based on TATM are approximately 5.79% and 6.74%, respectively. In contrast, the FAR and FRR were 4.17% and 37.5%, 3.37% and 33.33%, and 3.80% and 34.17% using K-nearest neighbor (KNN) classification, support vector machines (SVM), and naive Bayesian method (NBM) classification, respectively. In addition, the running time of TATM is 0.019 s, whereas the running times of KNN, SVM and NBM are 0.310 s, 0.0385 s, and 0.168 s, respectively. Therefore, TATM is suggested to be appropriate for rapid verification use in wearable devices. PMID:28075375

  14. On the invariance of EEG-based signatures of individuality with application in biometric identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunqi Wang; Najafizadeh, Laleh

    2016-08-01

    One of the main challenges in EEG-based biometric systems is to extract reliable signatures of individuality from recorded EEG data that are also invariant against time. In this paper, we investigate the invariability of features that are extracted based on the spatial distribution of the spectral power of EEG data corresponding to 2-second eyes-closed resting-state (ECRS) recording, in different scenarios. Eyes-closed resting-state EEG signals in 4 healthy adults are recorded in two different sessions with an interval of at least one week between sessions. The performance in terms of correct recognition rate (CRR) is examined when the training and testing datasets are chosen from the same recording session, and when the training and testing datasets are chosen from different sessions. It is shown that an CRR of 92% can be achieved based on the proposed features when the training and testing datasets are taken from different sessions. To reduce the number of recording channels, principal component analysis (PCA) is also employed to identify channels that carry the most discriminatory information across individuals. High CRR is obtained based on the data from channels mostly covering the occipital region. The results suggest that features based on the spatial distribution of the spectral power of the short-time (e.g. 2 seconds) ECRS recordings can have great potentials in EEG-based biometric identification systems.

  15. Evaluation of Biometric Systems

    OpenAIRE

    El-Abed , Mohamad; Charrier , Christophe

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Biometrics is considered as a promising solution among traditional methods based on "what we own" (such as a key) or "what we know" (such as a password). It is based on "what we are" and "how we behave". Few people know that biometrics have been used for ages for identification or signature purposes. In 1928 for example, fingerprints were used for women clerical employees of Los Angeles police department as depicted in Figure 1. Fingerprints were also already used as a...

  16. An improved biometrics-based remote user authentication scheme with user anonymity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Khurram; Kumari, Saru

    2013-01-01

    The authors review the biometrics-based user authentication scheme proposed by An in 2012. The authors show that there exist loopholes in the scheme which are detrimental for its security. Therefore the authors propose an improved scheme eradicating the flaws of An's scheme. Then a detailed security analysis of the proposed scheme is presented followed by its efficiency comparison. The proposed scheme not only withstands security problems found in An's scheme but also provides some extra features with mere addition of only two hash operations. The proposed scheme allows user to freely change his password and also provides user anonymity with untraceability.

  17. An Improved Biometrics-Based Remote User Authentication Scheme with User Anonymity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Khurram Khan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors review the biometrics-based user authentication scheme proposed by An in 2012. The authors show that there exist loopholes in the scheme which are detrimental for its security. Therefore the authors propose an improved scheme eradicating the flaws of An’s scheme. Then a detailed security analysis of the proposed scheme is presented followed by its efficiency comparison. The proposed scheme not only withstands security problems found in An’s scheme but also provides some extra features with mere addition of only two hash operations. The proposed scheme allows user to freely change his password and also provides user anonymity with untraceability.

  18. Biometric verification based on grip-pattern recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Bazen, A.M.; Kauffman, J.A.; Hartel, Pieter H.; Delp, Edward J.; Wong, Ping W.

    This paper describes the design, implementation and evaluation of a user-verification system for a smart gun, which is based on grip-pattern recognition. An existing pressure sensor consisting of an array of 44 x 44 piezoresistive elements is used to measure the grip pattern. An interface has been

  19. Biometric verification based on grip-pattern recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Bazen, A.M.; Kauffman, J.A.; Hartel, Pieter H.

    This paper describes the design, implementation and evaluation of a user-verification system for a smart gun, which is based on grip-pattern recognition. An existing pressure sensor consisting of an array of 44 £ 44 piezoresistive elements is used to measure the grip pattern. An interface has been

  20. Beyond Biometrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon

    Throughout the last 40 years, the essence of automated identification of users has remained the same. In this article, a new class of biometrics is proposed that is founded on processing biosignals, as opposed to images. After a brief introduction on biometrics, biosignals are discussed, including

  1. Comparative analysis of the quality of biometric methods

    OpenAIRE

    Filipčík, Jan

    2010-01-01

    The main objective is to describe and analyze the types of biometric identification and selected biometric methods and identify their strengths and weaknesses compared to the current document type of identification and verification of persons and compared to other biometric methods and then focus on the relationships and support of biometric methods in terms of IS / ICT services. The work will consist of 5 types of biometric methods namely dactyloscopy, hand geometry scanning, facial scanning...

  2. Learning Global-Local Distance Metrics for Signature-Based Biometric Cryptosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George S. Eskander Ekladious

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Biometric traits, such as fingerprints, faces and signatures have been employed in bio-cryptosystems to secure cryptographic keys within digital security schemes. Reliable implementations of these systems employ error correction codes formulated as simple distance thresholds, although they may not effectively model the complex variability of behavioral biometrics like signatures. In this paper, a Global-Local Distance Metric (GLDM framework is proposed to learn cost-effective distance metrics, which reduce within-class variability and augment between-class variability, so that simple error correction thresholds of bio-cryptosystems provide high classification accuracy. First, a large number of samples from a development dataset are used to train a global distance metric that differentiates within-class from between-class samples of the population. Then, once user-specific samples are available for enrollment, the global metric is tuned to a local user-specific one. Proof-of-concept experiments on two reference offline signature databases confirm the viability of the proposed approach. Distance metrics are produced based on concise signature representations consisting of about 20 features and a single prototype. A signature-based bio-cryptosystem is designed using the produced metrics and has shown average classification error rates of about 7% and 17% for the PUCPR and the GPDS-300 databases, respectively. This level of performance is comparable to that obtained with complex state-of-the-art classifiers.

  3. Biometric National Identification Number Generation for Secure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biometric National Identification Number Generation for Secure Network Authentication Based Fingerprint. ... Username, Password, Remember me, or Register ... In this paper an authentication based finger print biometric system is proposed ...

  4. An Enhanced Biometric Based Authentication with Key-Agreement Protocol for Multi-Server Architecture Based on Elliptic Curve Cryptography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alavalapati Goutham Reddy

    Full Text Available Biometric based authentication protocols for multi-server architectures have gained momentum in recent times due to advancements in wireless technologies and associated constraints. Lu et al. recently proposed a robust biometric based authentication with key agreement protocol for a multi-server environment using smart cards. They claimed that their protocol is efficient and resistant to prominent security attacks. The careful investigation of this paper proves that Lu et al.'s protocol does not provide user anonymity, perfect forward secrecy and is susceptible to server and user impersonation attacks, man-in-middle attacks and clock synchronization problems. In addition, this paper proposes an enhanced biometric based authentication with key-agreement protocol for multi-server architecture based on elliptic curve cryptography using smartcards. We proved that the proposed protocol achieves mutual authentication using Burrows-Abadi-Needham (BAN logic. The formal security of the proposed protocol is verified using the AVISPA (Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications tool to show that our protocol can withstand active and passive attacks. The formal and informal security analyses and performance analysis demonstrates that the proposed protocol is robust and efficient compared to Lu et al.'s protocol and existing similar protocols.

  5. An Enhanced Biometric Based Authentication with Key-Agreement Protocol for Multi-Server Architecture Based on Elliptic Curve Cryptography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Alavalapati Goutham; Das, Ashok Kumar; Odelu, Vanga; Yoo, Kee-Young

    2016-01-01

    Biometric based authentication protocols for multi-server architectures have gained momentum in recent times due to advancements in wireless technologies and associated constraints. Lu et al. recently proposed a robust biometric based authentication with key agreement protocol for a multi-server environment using smart cards. They claimed that their protocol is efficient and resistant to prominent security attacks. The careful investigation of this paper proves that Lu et al.’s protocol does not provide user anonymity, perfect forward secrecy and is susceptible to server and user impersonation attacks, man-in-middle attacks and clock synchronization problems. In addition, this paper proposes an enhanced biometric based authentication with key-agreement protocol for multi-server architecture based on elliptic curve cryptography using smartcards. We proved that the proposed protocol achieves mutual authentication using Burrows-Abadi-Needham (BAN) logic. The formal security of the proposed protocol is verified using the AVISPA (Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications) tool to show that our protocol can withstand active and passive attacks. The formal and informal security analyses and performance analysis demonstrates that the proposed protocol is robust and efficient compared to Lu et al.’s protocol and existing similar protocols. PMID:27163786

  6. An Enhanced Biometric Based Authentication with Key-Agreement Protocol for Multi-Server Architecture Based on Elliptic Curve Cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Alavalapati Goutham; Das, Ashok Kumar; Odelu, Vanga; Yoo, Kee-Young

    2016-01-01

    Biometric based authentication protocols for multi-server architectures have gained momentum in recent times due to advancements in wireless technologies and associated constraints. Lu et al. recently proposed a robust biometric based authentication with key agreement protocol for a multi-server environment using smart cards. They claimed that their protocol is efficient and resistant to prominent security attacks. The careful investigation of this paper proves that Lu et al.'s protocol does not provide user anonymity, perfect forward secrecy and is susceptible to server and user impersonation attacks, man-in-middle attacks and clock synchronization problems. In addition, this paper proposes an enhanced biometric based authentication with key-agreement protocol for multi-server architecture based on elliptic curve cryptography using smartcards. We proved that the proposed protocol achieves mutual authentication using Burrows-Abadi-Needham (BAN) logic. The formal security of the proposed protocol is verified using the AVISPA (Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications) tool to show that our protocol can withstand active and passive attacks. The formal and informal security analyses and performance analysis demonstrates that the proposed protocol is robust and efficient compared to Lu et al.'s protocol and existing similar protocols.

  7. On Biometrics With Eye Movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Youming; Juhola, Martti

    2017-09-01

    Eye movements are a relatively novel data source for biometric identification. When video cameras applied to eye tracking become smaller and more efficient, this data source could offer interesting opportunities for the development of eye movement biometrics. In this paper, we study primarily biometric identification as seen as a classification task of multiple classes, and secondarily biometric verification considered as binary classification. Our research is based on the saccadic eye movement signal measurements from 109 young subjects. In order to test the data measured, we use a procedure of biometric identification according to the one-versus-one (subject) principle. In a development from our previous research, which also involved biometric verification based on saccadic eye movements, we now apply another eye movement tracker device with a higher sampling frequency of 250 Hz. The results obtained are good, with correct identification rates at 80-90% at their best.

  8. Feature-Fusion Guidelines for Image-Based Multi-Modal Biometric Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dane Brown

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The feature level, unlike the match score level, lacks multi-modal fusion guidelines. This work demonstrates a new approach for improved image-based biometric feature-fusion. The approach extracts and combines the face, fingerprint and palmprint at the feature level for improved human identification accuracy. Feature-fusion guidelines, proposed in our recent work, are extended by adding a new face segmentation method and the support vector machine classifier. The new face segmentation method improves the face identification equal error rate (EER by 10%. The support vector machine classifier combined with the new feature selection approach, proposed in our recent work, outperforms other classifiers when using a single training sample. Feature-fusion guidelines take the form of strengths and weaknesses as observed in the applied feature processing modules during preliminary experiments. The guidelines are used to implement an effective biometric fusion system at the feature level, using a novel feature-fusion methodology, reducing the EER of two groups of three datasets namely: SDUMLA face, SDUMLA fingerprint and IITD palmprint; MUCT Face, MCYT Fingerprint and CASIA Palmprint.

  9. Information fusion in personal biometric authentication based on the iris pattern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Fenghua; Han, Jiuqiang

    2009-01-01

    Information fusion in biometrics has received considerable attention. This paper focuses on the application of information fusion techniques in iris recognition. To improve the reliability and accuracy of personal identification based on the iris pattern, this paper proposes the schemes of multialgorithmic fusion and multiinstance fusion. Multialgorithmic fusion integrates the improved phase algorithm and the DCT-based algorithm, and multiinstance fusion combines information from the left iris and the right iris of an individual. Both multialgorithmic fusion and multiinstance fusion are carried out at the matching score level and the support vector machine (SVM)-based fusion rule is utilized to generate fused scores for final decision. The experimental results on the noisy iris database UBIRIS demonstrate that the proposed fusion schemes can perform better than the single recognition systems, and further prove that information fusion techniques are feasible and effective to improve the accuracy and robustness of iris recognition especially under noisy conditions

  10. Age factors in biometric processing

    CERN Document Server

    Fairhurst, Michael

    2013-01-01

    As biometrics-based identification and identity authentication become increasingly widespread in their deployment, it becomes correspondingly important to consider more carefully issues relating to reliability, usability and inclusion. One factor which is particularly important in this context is that of the relationship between the nature of the measurements extracted from a particular biometric modality and the age of the sample donor, and the effect which age has on physiological and behavioural characteristics invoked in a biometric transaction. In Age Factors in Biometric Processing an in

  11. Identity based Encryption and Biometric Authentication Scheme for Secure Data Access in Cloud Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Hongbing; Rong, Chunming; Tan, Zheng-Hua

    2012-01-01

    Cloud computing will be a main information infrastructure in the future; it consists of many large datacenters which are usually geographically distributed and heterogeneous. How to design a secure data access for cloud computing platform is a big challenge. In this paper, we propose a secure data...... access scheme based on identity-based encryption and biometric authentication for cloud computing. Firstly, we describe the security concern of cloud computing and then propose an integrated data access scheme for cloud computing, the procedure of the proposed scheme include parameter setup, key...... distribution, feature template creation, cloud data processing and secure data access control. Finally, we compare the proposed scheme with other schemes through comprehensive analysis and simulation. The results show that the proposed data access scheme is feasible and secure for cloud computing....

  12. Geometry and Gesture-Based Features from Saccadic Eye-Movement as a Biometric in Radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, Tracy [Texas A& M University, College Station; Tourassi, Georgia [ORNL; Yoon, Hong-Jun [ORNL; Alamudun, Folami T. [ORNL

    2017-07-01

    In this study, we present a novel application of sketch gesture recognition on eye-movement for biometric identification and estimating task expertise. The study was performed for the task of mammographic screening with simultaneous viewing of four coordinated breast views as typically done in clinical practice. Eye-tracking data and diagnostic decisions collected for 100 mammographic cases (25 normal, 25 benign, 50 malignant) and 10 readers (three board certified radiologists and seven radiology residents), formed the corpus for this study. Sketch gesture recognition techniques were employed to extract geometric and gesture-based features from saccadic eye-movements. Our results show that saccadic eye-movement, characterized using sketch-based features, result in more accurate models for predicting individual identity and level of expertise than more traditional eye-tracking features.

  13. Optical image encryption system using nonlinear approach based on biometric authentication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Gaurav; Sinha, Aloka

    2017-07-01

    A nonlinear image encryption scheme using phase-truncated Fourier transform (PTFT) and natural logarithms is proposed in this paper. With the help of the PTFT, the input image is truncated into phase and amplitude parts at the Fourier plane. The phase-only information is kept as the secret key for the decryption, and the amplitude distribution is modulated by adding an undercover amplitude random mask in the encryption process. Furthermore, the encrypted data is kept hidden inside the face biometric-based phase mask key using the base changing rule of logarithms for secure transmission. This phase mask is generated through principal component analysis. Numerical experiments show the feasibility and the validity of the proposed nonlinear scheme. The performance of the proposed scheme has been studied against the brute force attacks and the amplitude-phase retrieval attack. Simulation results are presented to illustrate the enhanced system performance with desired advantages in comparison to the linear cryptosystem.

  14. Feature Level Two -Dimensional Arrays Based Fusion in the Personal Authentication system using Physiological Biometric traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerusalin Carol .J

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The fingerprint, knuckle print and the retina are used to authenticate a person accurately because of the permanence in the features. These three biometric traits are fused for better security. The fingerprint and knuckle print images are pre-processed by morphological techniques and the features are extracted from the normalized image using gabor filter. The retinal image is converted to gray image and pre-processing is done using top hat and bottom hat filtering. Blood vessels are segmented and the features are extracted by locating the optic disk as the centre point. The extracted features from the fingerprint, knuckle print and the retina are fused together as one template and stored in the data base for authentication purpose, thus reducing the space and time complexity.

  15. Template characterization and correlation algorithm created from segmentation for the iris biometric authentication based on analysis of textures implemented on a FPGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giacometto, F J; Vilardy, J M; Torres, C O; Mattos, L

    2011-01-01

    Among the most used biometric signals to set personal security permissions, taker increasingly importance biometric iris recognition based on their textures and images of blood vessels due to the rich in these two unique characteristics that are unique to each individual. This paper presents an implementation of an algorithm characterization and correlation of templates created for biometric authentication based on iris texture analysis programmed on a FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array), authentication is based on processes like characterization methods based on frequency analysis of the sample, and frequency correlation to obtain the expected results of authentication.

  16. Comparison of DCT, SVD and BFOA based multimodal biometric watermarking system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Anu H. Nair

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Digital image watermarking is a major domain for hiding the biometric information, in which the watermark data are made to be concealed inside a host image imposing imperceptible change in the picture. Due to the advance in digital image watermarking, the majority of research aims to make a reliable improvement in robustness to prevent the attack. The reversible invisible watermarking scheme is used for fingerprint and iris multimodal biometric system. A novel approach is used for fusing different biometric modalities. Individual unique modalities of fingerprint and iris biometric are extracted and fused using different fusion techniques. The performance of different fusion techniques is evaluated and the Discrete Wavelet Transform fusion method is identified as the best. Then the best fused biometric template is watermarked into a cover image. The various watermarking techniques such as the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT, Singular Value Decomposition (SVD and Bacterial Foraging Optimization Algorithm (BFOA are implemented to the fused biometric feature image. Performance of watermarking systems is compared using different metrics. It is found that the watermarked images are found robust over different attacks and they are able to reverse the biometric template for Bacterial Foraging Optimization Algorithm (BFOA watermarking technique.

  17. SURVEY OF BIOMETRIC SYSTEMS USING IRIS RECOGNITION

    OpenAIRE

    S.PON SANGEETHA; DR.M.KARNAN

    2014-01-01

    The security plays an important role in any type of organization in today’s life. Iris recognition is one of the leading automatic biometric systems in the area of security which is used to identify the individual person. Biometric systems include fingerprints, facial features, voice recognition, hand geometry, handwriting, the eye retina and the most secured one presented in this paper, the iris recognition. Biometric systems has become very famous in security systems because it is not possi...

  18. Biometrics Technology : Attitudes & influencing factors when trying to adopt this technology in Blekinge healthcare

    OpenAIRE

    Iqbal, Irfan; Qadir, Bilal

    2012-01-01

    Context. Biometric technology is a secure and convenient identification method and it does not need to remember complex passwords, nor smart cards, keys, and the like. Biometrics is the measurable characteristics of individuals based on their behavioral patterns or physiological features that can be used to verify or recognize their identity. Physical characteristics include fingerprints, palm or hand geometry, iris, retina, and facial characteristics. Behavioral characteristics include signat...

  19. A bimodal biometric identification system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laghari, Mohammad S.; Khuwaja, Gulzar A.

    2013-03-01

    Biometrics consists of methods for uniquely recognizing humans based upon one or more intrinsic physical or behavioral traits. Physicals are related to the shape of the body. Behavioral are related to the behavior of a person. However, biometric authentication systems suffer from imprecision and difficulty in person recognition due to a number of reasons and no single biometrics is expected to effectively satisfy the requirements of all verification and/or identification applications. Bimodal biometric systems are expected to be more reliable due to the presence of two pieces of evidence and also be able to meet the severe performance requirements imposed by various applications. This paper presents a neural network based bimodal biometric identification system by using human face and handwritten signature features.

  20. Can soft biometric traits assist user recognition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Anil K.; Dass, Sarat C.; Nandakumar, Karthik

    2004-08-01

    Biometrics is rapidly gaining acceptance as the technology that can meet the ever increasing need for security in critical applications. Biometric systems automatically recognize individuals based on their physiological and behavioral characteristics. Hence, the fundamental requirement of any biometric recognition system is a human trait having several desirable properties like universality, distinctiveness, permanence, collectability, acceptability, and resistance to circumvention. However, a human characteristic that possesses all these properties has not yet been identified. As a result, none of the existing biometric systems provide perfect recognition and there is a scope for improving the performance of these systems. Although characteristics like gender, ethnicity, age, height, weight and eye color are not unique and reliable, they provide some information about the user. We refer to these characteristics as "soft" biometric traits and argue that these traits can complement the identity information provided by the primary biometric identifiers like fingerprint and face. This paper presents the motivation for utilizing soft biometric information and analyzes how the soft biometric traits can be automatically extracted and incorporated in the decision making process of the primary biometric system. Preliminary experiments were conducted on a fingerprint database of 160 users by synthetically generating soft biometric traits like gender, ethnicity, and height based on known statistics. The results show that the use of additional soft biometric user information significantly improves (approximately 6%) the recognition performance of the fingerprint biometric system.

  1. Optical Security System Based on the Biometrics Using Holographic Storage Technique with a Simple Data Format

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, An Won

    2006-01-01

    We implement a first practical holographic security system using electrical biometrics that combines optical encryption and digital holographic memory technologies. Optical information for identification includes a picture of face, a name, and a fingerprint, which has been spatially multiplexed by random phase mask used for a decryption key. For decryption in our biometric security system, a bit-error-detection method that compares the digital bit of live fingerprint with of fingerprint information extracted from hologram is used.

  2. Privacy-leakage codes for biometric authentication systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ignatenko, T.; Willems, F.M.J.

    2014-01-01

    In biometric privacy-preserving authentication systems that are based on key-binding, two terminals observe two correlated biometric sequences. The first terminal selects a secret key, which is independent of the biometric data, binds this secret key to the observed biometric sequence and

  3. Combining Cryptography with EEG Biometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damaševičius, Robertas; Maskeliūnas, Rytis; Kazanavičius, Egidijus; Woźniak, Marcin

    2018-01-01

    Cryptographic frameworks depend on key sharing for ensuring security of data. While the keys in cryptographic frameworks must be correctly reproducible and not unequivocally connected to the identity of a user, in biometric frameworks this is different. Joining cryptography techniques with biometrics can solve these issues. We present a biometric authentication method based on the discrete logarithm problem and Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem (BCH) codes, perform its security analysis, and demonstrate its security characteristics. We evaluate a biometric cryptosystem using our own dataset of electroencephalography (EEG) data collected from 42 subjects. The experimental results show that the described biometric user authentication system is effective, achieving an Equal Error Rate (ERR) of 0.024.

  4. Cryptanalysis and improvement of a biometrics-based authentication and key agreement scheme for multi-server environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li; Zheng, Zhiming

    2018-01-01

    According to advancements in the wireless technologies, study of biometrics-based multi-server authenticated key agreement schemes has acquired a lot of momentum. Recently, Wang et al. presented a three-factor authentication protocol with key agreement and claimed that their scheme was resistant to several prominent attacks. Unfortunately, this paper indicates that their protocol is still vulnerable to the user impersonation attack, privileged insider attack and server spoofing attack. Furthermore, their protocol cannot provide the perfect forward secrecy. As a remedy of these aforementioned problems, we propose a biometrics-based authentication and key agreement scheme for multi-server environments. Compared with various related schemes, our protocol achieves the stronger security and provides more functionality properties. Besides, the proposed protocol shows the satisfactory performances in respect of storage requirement, communication overhead and computational cost. Thus, our protocol is suitable for expert systems and other multi-server architectures. Consequently, the proposed protocol is more appropriate in the distributed networks.

  5. Security analysis and enhancements of an effective biometric-based remote user authentication scheme using smart cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Younghwa

    2012-01-01

    Recently, many biometrics-based user authentication schemes using smart cards have been proposed to improve the security weaknesses in user authentication system. In 2011, Das proposed an efficient biometric-based remote user authentication scheme using smart cards that can provide strong authentication and mutual authentication. In this paper, we analyze the security of Das's authentication scheme, and we have shown that Das's authentication scheme is still insecure against the various attacks. Also, we proposed the enhanced scheme to remove these security problems of Das's authentication scheme, even if the secret information stored in the smart card is revealed to an attacker. As a result of security analysis, we can see that the enhanced scheme is secure against the user impersonation attack, the server masquerading attack, the password guessing attack, and the insider attack and provides mutual authentication between the user and the server.

  6. Security Analysis and Enhancements of an Effective Biometric-Based Remote User Authentication Scheme Using Smart Cards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younghwa An

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, many biometrics-based user authentication schemes using smart cards have been proposed to improve the security weaknesses in user authentication system. In 2011, Das proposed an efficient biometric-based remote user authentication scheme using smart cards that can provide strong authentication and mutual authentication. In this paper, we analyze the security of Das’s authentication scheme, and we have shown that Das’s authentication scheme is still insecure against the various attacks. Also, we proposed the enhanced scheme to remove these security problems of Das’s authentication scheme, even if the secret information stored in the smart card is revealed to an attacker. As a result of security analysis, we can see that the enhanced scheme is secure against the user impersonation attack, the server masquerading attack, the password guessing attack, and the insider attack and provides mutual authentication between the user and the server.

  7. An Efficient Biometric-Based Algorithm Using Heart Rate Variability for Securing Body Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirbhulal, Sandeep; Zhang, Heye; Mukhopadhyay, Subhas Chandra; Li, Chunyue; Wang, Yumei; Li, Guanglin; Wu, Wanqing; Zhang, Yuan-Ting

    2015-06-26

    Body Sensor Network (BSN) is a network of several associated sensor nodes on, inside or around the human body to monitor vital signals, such as, Electroencephalogram (EEG), Photoplethysmography (PPG), Electrocardiogram (ECG), etc. Each sensor node in BSN delivers major information; therefore, it is very significant to provide data confidentiality and security. All existing approaches to secure BSN are based on complex cryptographic key generation procedures, which not only demands high resource utilization and computation time, but also consumes large amount of energy, power and memory during data transmission. However, it is indispensable to put forward energy efficient and computationally less complex authentication technique for BSN. In this paper, a novel biometric-based algorithm is proposed, which utilizes Heart Rate Variability (HRV) for simple key generation process to secure BSN. Our proposed algorithm is compared with three data authentication techniques, namely Physiological Signal based Key Agreement (PSKA), Data Encryption Standard (DES) and Rivest Shamir Adleman (RSA). Simulation is performed in Matlab and results suggest that proposed algorithm is quite efficient in terms of transmission time utilization, average remaining energy and total power consumption.

  8. An Efficient Biometric-Based Algorithm Using Heart Rate Variability for Securing Body Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Pirbhulal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Body Sensor Network (BSN is a network of several associated sensor nodes on, inside or around the human body to monitor vital signals, such as, Electroencephalogram (EEG, Photoplethysmography (PPG, Electrocardiogram (ECG, etc. Each sensor node in BSN delivers major information; therefore, it is very significant to provide data confidentiality and security. All existing approaches to secure BSN are based on complex cryptographic key generation procedures, which not only demands high resource utilization and computation time, but also consumes large amount of energy, power and memory during data transmission. However, it is indispensable to put forward energy efficient and computationally less complex authentication technique for BSN. In this paper, a novel biometric-based algorithm is proposed, which utilizes Heart Rate Variability (HRV for simple key generation process to secure BSN. Our proposed algorithm is compared with three data authentication techniques, namely Physiological Signal based Key Agreement (PSKA, Data Encryption Standard (DES and Rivest Shamir Adleman (RSA. Simulation is performed in Matlab and results suggest that proposed algorithm is quite efficient in terms of transmission time utilization, average remaining energy and total power consumption.

  9. An Efficient Biometric-Based Algorithm Using Heart Rate Variability for Securing Body Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirbhulal, Sandeep; Zhang, Heye; Mukhopadhyay, Subhas Chandra; Li, Chunyue; Wang, Yumei; Li, Guanglin; Wu, Wanqing; Zhang, Yuan-Ting

    2015-01-01

    Body Sensor Network (BSN) is a network of several associated sensor nodes on, inside or around the human body to monitor vital signals, such as, Electroencephalogram (EEG), Photoplethysmography (PPG), Electrocardiogram (ECG), etc. Each sensor node in BSN delivers major information; therefore, it is very significant to provide data confidentiality and security. All existing approaches to secure BSN are based on complex cryptographic key generation procedures, which not only demands high resource utilization and computation time, but also consumes large amount of energy, power and memory during data transmission. However, it is indispensable to put forward energy efficient and computationally less complex authentication technique for BSN. In this paper, a novel biometric-based algorithm is proposed, which utilizes Heart Rate Variability (HRV) for simple key generation process to secure BSN. Our proposed algorithm is compared with three data authentication techniques, namely Physiological Signal based Key Agreement (PSKA), Data Encryption Standard (DES) and Rivest Shamir Adleman (RSA). Simulation is performed in Matlab and results suggest that proposed algorithm is quite efficient in terms of transmission time utilization, average remaining energy and total power consumption. PMID:26131666

  10. Towards NIRS-based hand movement recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paleari, Marco; Luciani, Riccardo; Ariano, Paolo

    2017-07-01

    This work reports on preliminary results about on hand movement recognition with Near InfraRed Spectroscopy (NIRS) and surface ElectroMyoGraphy (sEMG). Either basing on physical contact (touchscreens, data-gloves, etc.), vision techniques (Microsoft Kinect, Sony PlayStation Move, etc.), or other modalities, hand movement recognition is a pervasive function in today environment and it is at the base of many gaming, social, and medical applications. Albeit, in recent years, the use of muscle information extracted by sEMG has spread out from the medical applications to contaminate the consumer world, this technique still falls short when dealing with movements of the hand. We tested NIRS as a technique to get another point of view on the muscle phenomena and proved that, within a specific movements selection, NIRS can be used to recognize movements and return information regarding muscles at different depths. Furthermore, we propose here three different multimodal movement recognition approaches and compare their performances.

  11. Modular biometric system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Charles; Viazanko, Michael; O'Looney, Jimmy; Szu, Harold

    2009-04-01

    Modularity Biometric System (MBS) is an approach to support AiTR of the cooperated and/or non-cooperated standoff biometric in an area persistent surveillance. Advanced active and passive EOIR and RF sensor suite is not considered here. Neither will we consider the ROC, PD vs. FAR, versus the standoff POT in this paper. Our goal is to catch the "most wanted (MW)" two dozens, separately furthermore ad hoc woman MW class from man MW class, given their archrivals sparse front face data basis, by means of various new instantaneous input called probing faces. We present an advanced algorithm: mini-Max classifier, a sparse sample realization of Cramer-Rao Fisher bound of the Maximum Likelihood classifier that minimize the dispersions among the same woman classes and maximize the separation among different man-woman classes, based on the simple feature space of MIT Petland eigen-faces. The original aspect consists of a modular structured design approach at the system-level with multi-level architectures, multiple computing paradigms, and adaptable/evolvable techniques to allow for achieving a scalable structure in terms of biometric algorithms, identification quality, sensors, database complexity, database integration, and component heterogenity. MBS consist of a number of biometric technologies including fingerprints, vein maps, voice and face recognitions with innovative DSP algorithm, and their hardware implementations such as using Field Programmable Gate arrays (FPGAs). Biometric technologies and the composed modularity biometric system are significant for governmental agencies, enterprises, banks and all other organizations to protect people or control access to critical resources.

  12. Towards a Continuous Biometric System Based on ECG Signals Acquired on the Steering Wheel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Ribeiro Pinto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Electrocardiogram signals acquired through a steering wheel could be the key to seamless, highly comfortable, and continuous human recognition in driving settings. This paper focuses on the enhancement of the unprecedented lesser quality of such signals, through the combination of Savitzky-Golay and moving average filters, followed by outlier detection and removal based on normalised cross-correlation and clustering, which was able to render ensemble heartbeats of significantly higher quality. Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT and Haar transform features were extracted and fed to decision methods based on Support Vector Machines (SVM, k-Nearest Neighbours (kNN, Multilayer Perceptrons (MLP, and Gaussian Mixture Models - Universal Background Models (GMM-UBM classifiers, for both identification and authentication tasks. Additional techniques of user-tuned authentication and past score weighting were also studied. The method’s performance was comparable to some of the best recent state-of-the-art methods (94.9% identification rate (IDR and 2.66% authentication equal error rate (EER, despite lesser results with scarce train data (70.9% IDR and 11.8% EER. It was concluded that the method was suitable for biometric recognition with driving electrocardiogram signals, and could, with future developments, be used on a continuous system in seamless and highly noisy settings.

  13. Towards a Continuous Biometric System Based on ECG Signals Acquired on the Steering Wheel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, João Ribeiro; Cardoso, Jaime S; Lourenço, André; Carreiras, Carlos

    2017-09-28

    Electrocardiogram signals acquired through a steering wheel could be the key to seamless, highly comfortable, and continuous human recognition in driving settings. This paper focuses on the enhancement of the unprecedented lesser quality of such signals, through the combination of Savitzky-Golay and moving average filters, followed by outlier detection and removal based on normalised cross-correlation and clustering, which was able to render ensemble heartbeats of significantly higher quality. Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) and Haar transform features were extracted and fed to decision methods based on Support Vector Machines (SVM), k-Nearest Neighbours (kNN), Multilayer Perceptrons (MLP), and Gaussian Mixture Models - Universal Background Models (GMM-UBM) classifiers, for both identification and authentication tasks. Additional techniques of user-tuned authentication and past score weighting were also studied. The method's performance was comparable to some of the best recent state-of-the-art methods (94.9% identification rate (IDR) and 2.66% authentication equal error rate (EER)), despite lesser results with scarce train data (70.9% IDR and 11.8% EER). It was concluded that the method was suitable for biometric recognition with driving electrocardiogram signals, and could, with future developments, be used on a continuous system in seamless and highly noisy settings.

  14. Design of Secure ECG-Based Biometric Authentication in Body Area Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Steffen; Reddy, Bhanu Pratap; Momtaz, Farshad; Givargis, Tony

    2016-04-22

    Body area sensor networks (BANs) utilize wireless communicating sensor nodes attached to a human body for convenience, safety, and health applications. Physiological characteristics of the body, such as the heart rate or Electrocardiogram (ECG) signals, are promising means to simplify the setup process and to improve security of BANs. This paper describes the design and implementation steps required to realize an ECG-based authentication protocol to identify sensor nodes attached to the same human body. Therefore, the first part of the paper addresses the design of a body-area sensor system, including the hardware setup, analogue and digital signal processing, and required ECG feature detection techniques. A model-based design flow is applied, and strengths and limitations of each design step are discussed. Real-world measured data originating from the implemented sensor system are then used to set up and parametrize a novel physiological authentication protocol for BANs. The authentication protocol utilizes statistical properties of expected and detected deviations to limit the number of false positive and false negative authentication attempts. The result of the described holistic design effort is the first practical implementation of biometric authentication in BANs that reflects timing and data uncertainties in the physical and cyber parts of the system.

  15. An enhanced biometric-based authentication scheme for telecare medicine information systems using elliptic curve cryptosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yanrong; Li, Lixiang; Peng, Haipeng; Yang, Yixian

    2015-03-01

    The telecare medical information systems (TMISs) enable patients to conveniently enjoy telecare services at home. The protection of patient's privacy is a key issue due to the openness of communication environment. Authentication as a typical approach is adopted to guarantee confidential and authorized interaction between the patient and remote server. In order to achieve the goals, numerous remote authentication schemes based on cryptography have been presented. Recently, Arshad et al. (J Med Syst 38(12): 2014) presented a secure and efficient three-factor authenticated key exchange scheme to remedy the weaknesses of Tan et al.'s scheme (J Med Syst 38(3): 2014). In this paper, we found that once a successful off-line password attack that results in an adversary could impersonate any user of the system in Arshad et al.'s scheme. In order to thwart these security attacks, an enhanced biometric and smart card based remote authentication scheme for TMISs is proposed. In addition, the BAN logic is applied to demonstrate the completeness of the enhanced scheme. Security and performance analyses show that our enhanced scheme satisfies more security properties and less computational cost compared with previously proposed schemes.

  16. Improving Biometric-Based Authentication Schemes with Smart Card Revocation/Reissue for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jongho; Lee, Donghoon; Lee, Youngsook; Won, Dongho

    2017-04-25

    User authentication in wireless sensor networks is more difficult than in traditional networks owing to sensor network characteristics such as unreliable communication, limited resources, and unattended operation. For these reasons, various authentication schemes have been proposed to provide secure and efficient communication. In 2016, Park et al. proposed a secure biometric-based authentication scheme with smart card revocation/reissue for wireless sensor networks. However, we found that their scheme was still insecure against impersonation attack, and had a problem in the smart card revocation/reissue phase. In this paper, we show how an adversary can impersonate a legitimate user or sensor node, illegal smart card revocation/reissue and prove that Park et al.'s scheme fails to provide revocation/reissue. In addition, we propose an enhanced scheme that provides efficiency, as well as anonymity and security. Finally, we provide security and performance analysis between previous schemes and the proposed scheme, and provide formal analysis based on the random oracle model. The results prove that the proposed scheme can solve the weaknesses of impersonation attack and other security flaws in the security analysis section. Furthermore, performance analysis shows that the computational cost is lower than the previous scheme.

  17. Face-iris multimodal biometric scheme based on feature level fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Guang; Liu, Yuanning; Zhu, Xiaodong; Dong, Hongxing; He, Fei

    2015-11-01

    Unlike score level fusion, feature level fusion demands all the features extracted from unimodal traits with high distinguishability, as well as homogeneity and compatibility, which is difficult to achieve. Therefore, most multimodal biometric research focuses on score level fusion, whereas few investigate feature level fusion. We propose a face-iris recognition method based on feature level fusion. We build a special two-dimensional-Gabor filter bank to extract local texture features from face and iris images, and then transform them by histogram statistics into an energy-orientation variance histogram feature with lower dimensions and higher distinguishability. Finally, through a fusion-recognition strategy based on principal components analysis and support vector machine (FRSPS), feature level fusion and one-to-n identification are accomplished. The experimental results demonstrate that this method can not only effectively extract face and iris features but also provide higher recognition accuracy. Compared with some state-of-the-art fusion methods, the proposed method has a significant performance advantage.

  18. Design of Secure ECG-Based Biometric Authentication in Body Area Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Steffen; Pratap Reddy, Bhanu; Momtaz, Farshad; Givargis, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Body area sensor networks (BANs) utilize wireless communicating sensor nodes attached to a human body for convenience, safety, and health applications. Physiological characteristics of the body, such as the heart rate or Electrocardiogram (ECG) signals, are promising means to simplify the setup process and to improve security of BANs. This paper describes the design and implementation steps required to realize an ECG-based authentication protocol to identify sensor nodes attached to the same human body. Therefore, the first part of the paper addresses the design of a body-area sensor system, including the hardware setup, analogue and digital signal processing, and required ECG feature detection techniques. A model-based design flow is applied, and strengths and limitations of each design step are discussed. Real-world measured data originating from the implemented sensor system are then used to set up and parametrize a novel physiological authentication protocol for BANs. The authentication protocol utilizes statistical properties of expected and detected deviations to limit the number of false positive and false negative authentication attempts. The result of the described holistic design effort is the first practical implementation of biometric authentication in BANs that reflects timing and data uncertainties in the physical and cyber parts of the system. PMID:27110785

  19. Design of Secure ECG-Based Biometric Authentication in Body Area Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Peter

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Body area sensor networks (BANs utilize wireless communicating sensor nodes attached to a human body for convenience, safety, and health applications. Physiological characteristics of the body, such as the heart rate or Electrocardiogram (ECG signals, are promising means to simplify the setup process and to improve security of BANs. This paper describes the design and implementation steps required to realize an ECG-based authentication protocol to identify sensor nodes attached to the same human body. Therefore, the first part of the paper addresses the design of a body-area sensor system, including the hardware setup, analogue and digital signal processing, and required ECG feature detection techniques. A model-based design flow is applied, and strengths and limitations of each design step are discussed. Real-world measured data originating from the implemented sensor system are then used to set up and parametrize a novel physiological authentication protocol for BANs. The authentication protocol utilizes statistical properties of expected and detected deviations to limit the number of false positive and false negative authentication attempts. The result of the described holistic design effort is the first practical implementation of biometric authentication in BANs that reflects timing and data uncertainties in the physical and cyber parts of the system.

  20. Biometrics based key management of double random phase encoding scheme using error control codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Nirmala; Sinha, Aloka

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, an optical security system has been proposed in which key of the double random phase encoding technique is linked to the biometrics of the user to make it user specific. The error in recognition due to the biometric variation is corrected by encoding the key using the BCH code. A user specific shuffling key is used to increase the separation between genuine and impostor Hamming distance distribution. This shuffling key is then further secured using the RSA public key encryption to enhance the security of the system. XOR operation is performed between the encoded key and the feature vector obtained from the biometrics. The RSA encoded shuffling key and the data obtained from the XOR operation are stored into a token. The main advantage of the present technique is that the key retrieval is possible only in the simultaneous presence of the token and the biometrics of the user which not only authenticates the presence of the original input but also secures the key of the system. Computational experiments showed the effectiveness of the proposed technique for key retrieval in the decryption process by using the live biometrics of the user.

  1. Fusion of Multimodal Biometrics using Feature and Score Level Fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Mohana Prakash, S.; Betty, P.; Sivanarulselvan, K.

    2016-01-01

    Biometrics is used to uniquely identify a person‘s individual based on physical and behavioural characteristics. Unimodal biometric system contains various problems such as degree of freedom, spoof attacks, non-universality, noisy data and error rates. Multimodal biometrics is introduced to overcome the limitations in Unimodal biometrics. The presented methodology extracts the features of four biometric traits such as fingerprint, palm, iris and retina. Then extracted features are fused in th...

  2. Comparing of athletic performance and biometric features of selected teenagers based on the specific talent identification pattern of Karate with elite athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    seyed Ehsan Naghibi

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: According to that no significant difference in both groups between athletic performance and biometric parameters except one variable, we can conclude that the process of talent identification in the club studied, in order to distinguish and talented people from other potentially effective. Also according to the native data used in the analysis of the tests in this process can be patterns of biometric indices based on talent and sport performance in karate developed.

  3. The research and application of multi-biometric acquisition embedded system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shichao; Liu, Tiegen; Guo, Jingjing; Li, Xiuyan

    2009-11-01

    The identification technology based on multi-biometric can greatly improve the applicability, reliability and antifalsification. This paper presents a multi-biometric system bases on embedded system, which includes: three capture daughter boards are applied to obtain different biometric: one each for fingerprint, iris and vein of the back of hand; FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) is designed as coprocessor, which uses to configure three daughter boards on request and provides data path between DSP (digital signal processor) and daughter boards; DSP is the master processor and its functions include: control the biometric information acquisition, extracts feature as required and responsible for compare the results with the local database or data server through network communication. The advantages of this system were it can acquire three different biometric in real time, extracts complexity feature flexibly in different biometrics' raw data according to different purposes and arithmetic and network interface on the core-board will be the solution of big data scale. Because this embedded system has high stability, reliability, flexibility and fit for different data scale, it can satisfy the demand of multi-biometric recognition.

  4. Motorcycle Start-stop System based on Intelligent Biometric Voice Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winda, A.; E Byan, W. R.; Sofyan; Armansyah; Zariantin, D. L.; Josep, B. G.

    2017-03-01

    Current mechanical key in the motorcycle is prone to bulgary, being stolen or misplaced. Intelligent biometric voice recognition as means to replace this mechanism is proposed as an alternative. The proposed system will decide whether the voice is belong to the user or not and the word utter by the user is ‘On’ or ‘Off’. The decision voice will be sent to Arduino in order to start or stop the engine. The recorded voice is processed in order to get some features which later be used as input to the proposed system. The Mel-Frequency Ceptral Coefficient (MFCC) is adopted as a feature extraction technique. The extracted feature is the used as input to the SVM-based identifier. Experimental results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed intelligent voice recognition and word recognition system. It show that the proposed method produces a good training and testing accuracy, 99.31% and 99.43%, respectively. Moreover, the proposed system shows the performance of false rejection rate (FRR) and false acceptance rate (FAR) accuracy of 0.18% and 17.58%, respectively. In the intelligent word recognition shows that the training and testing accuracy are 100% and 96.3%, respectively.

  5. Security enhancement of a biometric based authentication scheme for telecare medicine information systems with nonce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Dheerendra; Mukhopadhyay, Sourav; Kumari, Saru; Khan, Muhammad Khurram; Chaturvedi, Ankita

    2014-05-01

    Telecare medicine information systems (TMIS) present the platform to deliver clinical service door to door. The technological advances in mobile computing are enhancing the quality of healthcare and a user can access these services using its mobile device. However, user and Telecare system communicate via public channels in these online services which increase the security risk. Therefore, it is required to ensure that only authorized user is accessing the system and user is interacting with the correct system. The mutual authentication provides the way to achieve this. Although existing schemes are either vulnerable to attacks or they have higher computational cost while an scalable authentication scheme for mobile devices should be secure and efficient. Recently, Awasthi and Srivastava presented a biometric based authentication scheme for TMIS with nonce. Their scheme only requires the computation of the hash and XOR functions.pagebreak Thus, this scheme fits for TMIS. However, we observe that Awasthi and Srivastava's scheme does not achieve efficient password change phase. Moreover, their scheme does not resist off-line password guessing attack. Further, we propose an improvement of Awasthi and Srivastava's scheme with the aim to remove the drawbacks of their scheme.

  6. BARI+: A Biometric Based Distributed Key Management Approach for Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Muhammad Khaliq-ur-Rahman Raazi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Wireless body area networks (WBAN consist of resource constrained sensing devices just like other wireless sensor networks (WSN. However, they differ from WSN in topology, scale and security requirements. Due to these differences, key management schemes designed for WSN are inefficient and unnecessarily complex when applied to WBAN. Considering the key management issue, WBAN are also different from WPAN because WBAN can use random biometric measurements as keys. We highlight the differences between WSN and WBAN and propose an efficient key management scheme, which makes use of biometrics and is specifically designed for WBAN domain.

  7. BARI+: a biometric based distributed key management approach for wireless body area networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Khaliq-ur-Rahman Raazi Syed; Lee, Heejo; Lee, Sungyoung; Lee, Young-Koo

    2010-01-01

    Wireless body area networks (WBAN) consist of resource constrained sensing devices just like other wireless sensor networks (WSN). However, they differ from WSN in topology, scale and security requirements. Due to these differences, key management schemes designed for WSN are inefficient and unnecessarily complex when applied to WBAN. Considering the key management issue, WBAN are also different from WPAN because WBAN can use random biometric measurements as keys. We highlight the differences between WSN and WBAN and propose an efficient key management scheme, which makes use of biometrics and is specifically designed for WBAN domain.

  8. An enhanced PSO-DEFS based feature selection with biometric authentication for identification of diabetic retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umarani Balakrishnan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, automatic diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy (DR from the retinal image is the most significant research topic in the medical applications. Diabetic macular edema (DME is the major reason for the loss of vision in patients suffering from DR. Early identification of the DR enables to prevent the vision loss and encourage diabetic control activities. Many techniques are developed to diagnose the DR. The major drawbacks of the existing techniques are low accuracy and high time complexity. To overcome these issues, this paper proposes an enhanced particle swarm optimization-differential evolution feature selection (PSO-DEFS based feature selection approach with biometric authentication for the identification of DR. Initially, a hybrid median filter (HMF is used for pre-processing the input images. Then, the pre-processed images are embedded with each other by using least significant bit (LSB for authentication purpose. Simultaneously, the image features are extracted using convoluted local tetra pattern (CLTrP and Tamura features. Feature selection is performed using PSO-DEFS and PSO-gravitational search algorithm (PSO-GSA to reduce time complexity. Based on some performance metrics, the PSO-DEFS is chosen as a better choice for feature selection. The feature selection is performed based on the fitness value. A multi-relevance vector machine (M-RVM is introduced to classify the 13 normal and 62 abnormal images among 75 images from 60 patients. Finally, the DR patients are further classified by M-RVM. The experimental results exhibit that the proposed approach achieves better accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity than the existing techniques.

  9. A review of data acquisition and difficulties in sensor module of biometric systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Singla

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Biometrics refers to the recognition of individuals based on their physiological and/or behavioral characteristics. Thebiometric traits which may be considered for the authentication of a person are face, hand geometry, finger print, vein, iris,etc. A competent selection of a sensor, its mechanism and adaptability is required, as the absence of these will leave thebiometric sensor deceptive to information sensing. Selecting a sensor for a biometric application from the large number ofavailable sensors with different technologies always brought the issue of performance and accuracy. Therefore, various errorrates and sensibility contention differentiate the available biometric sensors. This paper presents the difficulties faced in thesensor module of the biometric system and the incomparable alternatives on the basis of availability of information at sensormodule of the various systems.

  10. BioTwist: overcoming severe distortions in ridge-based biometrics for successful identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotzerke, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Biometrics rely on a physical trait's permanence and stability over time, as well as its individuality, robustness and ease to be captured. Challenges arise when working with newborns or infants because of the tininess and fragility of an infant's features, their uncooperative nature and their rapid

  11. Anomaly based intrusion detection for a biometric identification system using neural networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mgabile, T

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available detection technique that analyses the fingerprint biometric network traffic for evidence of intrusion. The neural network algorithm that imitates the way a human brain works is used in this study to classify normal traffic and learn the correct traffic...

  12. A Formal Study of the Privacy Concerns in Biometric-Based Remote Authentication Schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Qiang; Bringer, Julien; Chabanne, Hervé; Pointcheval, David; Chen, L.; Mu, Y.; Susilo, W.

    With their increasing popularity in cryptosystems, biometrics have attracted more and more attention from the information security community. However, how to handle the relevant privacy concerns remains to be troublesome. In this paper, we propose a novel security model to formalize the privacy

  13. Hand Hygiene With Alcohol-Based Hand Rub: How Long Is Long Enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Daniela; Soule, Hervé; Bellissimo-Rodrigues, Fernando; Gayet-Ageron, Angèle; Pittet, Didier

    2017-05-01

    BACKGROUND Hand hygiene is the core element of infection prevention and control. The optimal hand-hygiene gesture, however, remains poorly defined. OBJECTIVE We aimed to evaluate the influence of hand-rubbing duration on the reduction of bacterial counts on the hands of healthcare personnel (HCP). METHODS We performed an experimental study based on the European Norm 1500. Hand rubbing was performed for 10, 15, 20, 30, 45, or 60 seconds, according to the WHO technique using 3 mL alcohol-based hand rub. Hand contamination with E. coli ATCC 10536 was followed by hand rubbing and sampling. A generalized linear mixed model with a random effect on the subject adjusted for hand size and gender was used to analyze the reduction in bacterial counts after each hand-rubbing action. In addition, hand-rubbing durations of 15 and 30 seconds were compared to assert non-inferiority (0.6 log10). RESULTS In total, 32 HCP performed 123 trials. All durations of hand rubbing led to significant reductions in bacterial counts (Phand rubbing were not significantly different from those obtained after 30 seconds. The mean bacterial reduction after 15 seconds of hand rubbing was 0.11 log10 lower (95% CI, -0.46 to 0.24) than after 30 seconds, demonstrating non-inferiority. CONCLUSIONS Hand rubbing for 15 seconds was not inferior to 30 seconds in reducing bacterial counts on hands under the described experimental conditions. There was no gain in reducing bacterial counts from hand rubbing longer than 30 seconds. Further studies are needed to assess the clinical significance of our findings. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:547-552.

  14. Classification of Eucalyptus urograndis hybrids under different water availability based on biometric traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia D. Silva

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The eucalyptus grows rapidly and is well suitable to edaphic and bioclimatic conditions in several regions of of the world. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of Eucalyptus urograndis hybrids grown under different water availability conditions.Area of study: The study was performed in south-eastern of BrazilMaterial and Methods: We evaluated five commercial hybrids cultivated in pots with the substrate maintained at 65, 50, 35 and 20% maximum water retention capacity. The evaluation was based on the following characteristics: total height (cm, diameter (mm, number of leaves, leaf area (dm2, and dry weight (g plant-1 of leaf, stem + branches,   root, shoot and total and root/shoot ratio.Main results: All the characteristics evaluated were adversely affected by reduced availability of water in the substrate. The hybrids assessed performed differently in terms of biometric characteristics, irrespective of water availability. Water deficit resulted in a greater reduction in the dry weight production compared to number of leaves, diameter and height. Hybrids H2 and H5 have favorable traits for tolerating drought. The hybrid H2 shows a stronger slowdown in growth as soil moisture levels drop, although its growth rate is low, and H5 increases the root/shoot ratio but maintains growth in terms of height, even under drought conditions.Research highlights: The results obtained in our experiment show that productive hybrids sensitive to drought could also perform better under water deficit conditions, maintaining satisfactory growth despite significant drops in these characteristics.Keywords: Eucalyptus urograndis; water deficit; drought tolerance. 

  15. Optical coherence tomography used for internal biometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shoude; Sherif, Sherif; Mao, Youxin; Flueraru, Costel

    2007-06-01

    Traditional biometric technologies used for security and person identification essentially deal with fingerprints, hand geometry and face images. However, because all these technologies use external features of human body, they can be easily fooled and tampered with by distorting, modifying or counterfeiting these features. Nowadays, internal biometrics which detects the internal ID features of an object is becoming increasingly important. Being capable of exploring under-skin structure, optical coherence tomography (OCT) system can be used as a powerful tool for internal biometrics. We have applied fiber-optic and full-field OCT systems to detect the multiple-layer 2D images and 3D profile of the fingerprints, which eventually result in a higher discrimination than the traditional 2D recognition methods. More importantly, the OCT based fingerprint recognition has the ability to easily distinguish artificial fingerprint dummies by analyzing the extracted layered surfaces. Experiments show that our OCT systems successfully detected the dummy, which was made of plasticene and was used to bypass the commercially available fingerprint scanning system with a false accept rate (FAR) of 100%.

  16. NIST biometric evaluations and developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garris, Michael D.; Wilson, Charles L.

    2005-05-01

    This paper presents an R&D framework used by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for biometric technology testing and evaluation. The focus of this paper is on fingerprint-based verification and identification. Since 9-11 the NIST Image Group has been mandated by Congress to run a program for biometric technology assessment and biometric systems certification. Four essential areas of activity are discussed: 1) developing test datasets, 2) conducting performance assessment; 3) technology development; and 4) standards participation. A description of activities and accomplishments are provided for each of these areas. In the process, methods of performance testing are described and results from specific biometric technology evaluations are presented. This framework is anticipated to have broad applicability to other technology and application domains.

  17. Biomarkers and biometric measures of adherence to use of ARV-based vaginal rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalter, Randy M; Moench, Thomas R; MacQueen, Kathleen M; Tolley, Elizabeth E; Owen, Derek H

    2016-01-01

    : intracellular drug levels, drug levels in hair, the accumulation of a vaginal analyte that diffuses into the ring, and the depletion of an intrinsic ring constituent. While some approaches show significant promise over others, it is recommended that a strategy of using complementary biometric and behavioural approaches be adopted to best understand participants' adherence to ARV-based ring products in clinical trials.

  18. A Novel Biometric Identification Based on a User's Input Pattern Analysis for Intelligent Mobile Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojin Seo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available As intelligent mobile devices become more popular, security threats targeting them are increasing. The resource constraints of mobile devices, such as battery life and computing power, however, make it harder to handle such threats effectively. The existing physical and behavioural biometric identification methods - looked upon as good alternatives - are unsuitable for the current mobile environment. This paper proposes a specially designed biometric identification method for intelligent mobile devices by analysing the user's input patterns, such as a finger's touch duration, pressure level and the touching width of the finger on the touch screen. We collected the input pattern data of individuals to empirically test our method. Our testing results show that this method effectively identifies users with near a 100% rate of accuracy.

  19. Secure Biometric Multi-Logon System Based on Current Authentication Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Bobby L.

    The need for accurate authentication in the current IT world is of utmost importance. Users rely on current IT technologies to facilitate in day to day interactions with nearly all environments. Strong authentication technologies like the various biometric technologies have been in existence for many years. Many of these technologies, for instance fingerprint biometrics, have reached maturity. However, passwords and pins are still the most commonly used authentication mechanisms at this stage. An average user has to be authenticated in various situations during daily interaction with his or her environment, by means of a pin or a password. This results in many different passwords and pins that the user has to remember. The user will eventually either start documenting these passwords and pins, or often, simply use the same password and pin for all authentication situations.

  20. Novel Iris Biometric Watermarking Based on Singular Value Decomposition and Discrete Cosine Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyu Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel iris biometric watermarking scheme is proposed focusing on iris recognition instead of the traditional watermark for increasing the security of the digital products. The preprocess of iris image is to be done firstly, which generates the iris biometric template from person's eye images. And then the templates are to be on discrete cosine transform; the value of the discrete cosine is encoded to BCH error control coding. The host image is divided into four areas equally correspondingly. The BCH codes are embedded in the singular values of each host image's coefficients which are obtained through discrete cosine transform (DCT. Numerical results reveal that proposed method can extract the watermark effectively and illustrate its security and robustness.

  1. [Disinfection efficacy of hand hygiene based on chlorhexidine gluconate content and usage of alcohol-based hand-rubbing solution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Ippei; Watanabe, Kiyoshi; Nakaminami, Hidemasa; Azuma, Chihiro; Noguchi, Norihisa

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the procedure for surgical hand hygiene has been switching to a two-stage method and hand-rubbing method from the traditional hand-scrubbing method. Both the two-stage and hand-rubbing methods use alcohol-based hand-rubbing after hand washing. The former requires 5 min of antiseptic hand washing, and the latter 1 min of nonantiseptic hand washing. For a prolonged bactericidal effect in terms of surgical hand hygiene, chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) has been noted due to its residual activity. However, no detailed study comparing the disinfection efficacy and prolonged effects according to different contents of CHG and the usage of alcohol-based hand-rubbing has been conducted. The glove juice method is able to evaluate disinfection efficacy and prolonged effects of the disinfectants more accurately because it can collect not only transitory bacteria but also normal inhabitants on hands. In the present study, we examined the disinfection efficacy and prolonged effects on alcohol-based hand-rubbing containing CHG by six hand-rubbing methods and three two-stage methods using the glove juice method. In both methods, 3 mL (one pump dispenser push volume) alcohol-based hand-rubbing solution containing 1% (w/v) CHG showed the highest disinfection efficacy and prolonged effects, and no significant difference was found between the hand-rubbing and two-stage methods. In the two methods of hand hygiene, the hand-rubbing method was able to save time and cost. Therefore, the data strongly suggest that the hand-rubbing method using a one pump dispenser push volume of alcohol-based hand-rubbing solution containing 1% (w/v) CHG is suitable for surgical hand hygiene.

  2. Biometrics Go Mainstream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Doug

    2006-01-01

    Authentication is based on something one knows (e.g., a password), something one has (e.g., a driver's license), or something one is (e.g., a fingerprint). The last of these refers to the use of biometrics for authentication. With the blink of an eye, the touch of a finger, or the uttering of a pass-phrase, colleges and schools can now get deadly…

  3. Robust and Secure Watermarking Using Sparse Information of Watermark for Biometric Data Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Rohit M Thanki; Ved Vyas Dwivedi; Komal Borisagar

    2016-01-01

    Biometric based human authentication system is used for security purpose in many organizations in the present world. This biometric authentication system has several vulnerable points. Two of vulnerable points are protection of biometric templates at system database and protection of biometric templates at communication channel between two modules of biometric authentication systems. In this paper proposed a robust watermarking scheme using the sparse information of watermark biometric to sec...

  4. A natural approach to convey numerical digits using hand activity recognition based on hand shape features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidananda, H.; Reddy, T. Hanumantha

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents a natural representation of numerical digit(s) using hand activity analysis based on number of fingers out stretched for each numerical digit in sequence extracted from a video. The analysis is based on determining a set of six features from a hand image. The most important features used from each frame in a video are the first fingertip from top, palm-line, palm-center, valley points between the fingers exists above the palm-line. Using this work user can convey any number of numerical digits using right or left or both the hands naturally in a video. Each numerical digit ranges from 0 to9. Hands (right/left/both) used to convey digits can be recognized accurately using the valley points and with this recognition whether the user is a right / left handed person in practice can be analyzed. In this work, first the hand(s) and face parts are detected by using YCbCr color space and face part is removed by using ellipse based method. Then, the hand(s) are analyzed to recognize the activity that represents a series of numerical digits in a video. This work uses pixel continuity algorithm using 2D coordinate geometry system and does not use regular use of calculus, contours, convex hull and datasets.

  5. Beat-ID: Towards a computationally low-cost single heartbeat biometric identity check system based on electrocardiogram wave morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Joana S.; Dias, Duarte

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, safer and more reliable biometric methods have been developed. Apart from the need for enhanced security, the media and entertainment sectors have also been applying biometrics in the emerging market of user-adaptable objects/systems to make these systems more user-friendly. However, the complexity of some state-of-the-art biometric systems (e.g., iris recognition) or their high false rejection rate (e.g., fingerprint recognition) is neither compatible with the simple hardware architecture required by reduced-size devices nor the new trend of implementing smart objects within the dynamic market of the Internet of Things (IoT). It was recently shown that an individual can be recognized by extracting features from their electrocardiogram (ECG). However, most current ECG-based biometric algorithms are computationally demanding and/or rely on relatively large (several seconds) ECG samples, which are incompatible with the aforementioned application fields. Here, we present a computationally low-cost method (patent pending), including simple mathematical operations, for identifying a person using only three ECG morphology-based characteristics from a single heartbeat. The algorithm was trained/tested using ECG signals of different duration from the Physionet database on more than 60 different training/test datasets. The proposed method achieved maximal averaged accuracy of 97.450% in distinguishing each subject from a ten-subject set and false acceptance and rejection rates (FAR and FRR) of 5.710±1.900% and 3.440±1.980%, respectively, placing Beat-ID in a very competitive position in terms of the FRR/FAR among state-of-the-art methods. Furthermore, the proposed method can identify a person using an average of 1.020 heartbeats. It therefore has FRR/FAR behavior similar to obtaining a fingerprint, yet it is simpler and requires less expensive hardware. This method targets low-computational/energy-cost scenarios, such as tiny wearable devices (e.g., a

  6. Efficacy of alcohol-based hand sanitizer on hands soiled with dirt and cooking oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Amy J; Davis, Jennifer; Boehm, Alexandria B

    2011-09-01

    Handwashing education and promotion are well established as effective strategies to reduce diarrhea and respiratory illness in countries around the world. However, access to reliable water supplies has been identified as an important barrier to regular handwashing in low-income countries. Alcohol-based hand sanitizer (ABHS) is an effective hand hygiene method that does not require water, but its use is not currently recommended when hands are visibly soiled. This study evaluated the efficacy of ABHS on volunteers' hands artificially contaminated with Escherichia coli in the presence of dirt (soil from Tanzania) and cooking oil. ABHS reduced levels of E. coli by a mean of 2.33 log colony forming units (CFU) per clean hand, 2.32 log CFU per dirt-covered hand, and 2.13 log CFU per oil-coated hand. No significant difference in efficacy was detected between hands that were clean versus dirty or oily. ABHS may be an appropriate hand hygiene method for hands that are moderately soiled, and an attractive option for field settings in which access to water and soap is limited.

  7. On Applicability of Tunable Filter Bank Based Feature for Ear Biometrics: A Study from Constrained to Unconstrained.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Debbrota Paul; Bakshi, Sambit; Guo, Guodong; Sa, Pankaj Kumar

    2017-11-27

    In this paper, an overall framework has been presented for person verification using ear biometric which uses tunable filter bank as local feature extractor. The tunable filter bank, based on a half-band polynomial of 14th order, extracts distinct features from ear images maintaining its frequency selectivity property. To advocate the applicability of tunable filter bank on ear biometrics, recognition test has been performed on available constrained databases like AMI, WPUT, IITD and unconstrained database like UERC. Experiments have been conducted applying tunable filter based feature extractor on subparts of the ear. Empirical experiments have been conducted with four and six subdivisions of the ear image. Analyzing the experimental results, it has been found that tunable filter moderately succeeds to distinguish ear features at par with the state-of-the-art features used for ear recognition. Accuracies of 70.58%, 67.01%, 81.98%, and 57.75% have been achieved on AMI, WPUT, IITD, and UERC databases through considering Canberra Distance as underlying measure of separation. The performances indicate that tunable filter is a candidate for recognizing human from ear images.

  8. Cryptanalysis and improvement of a biometrics-based authentication and key agreement scheme for multi-server environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhiming

    2018-01-01

    According to advancements in the wireless technologies, study of biometrics-based multi-server authenticated key agreement schemes has acquired a lot of momentum. Recently, Wang et al. presented a three-factor authentication protocol with key agreement and claimed that their scheme was resistant to several prominent attacks. Unfortunately, this paper indicates that their protocol is still vulnerable to the user impersonation attack, privileged insider attack and server spoofing attack. Furthermore, their protocol cannot provide the perfect forward secrecy. As a remedy of these aforementioned problems, we propose a biometrics-based authentication and key agreement scheme for multi-server environments. Compared with various related schemes, our protocol achieves the stronger security and provides more functionality properties. Besides, the proposed protocol shows the satisfactory performances in respect of storage requirement, communication overhead and computational cost. Thus, our protocol is suitable for expert systems and other multi-server architectures. Consequently, the proposed protocol is more appropriate in the distributed networks. PMID:29534085

  9. Biometric-based estimation of net ecosystem production in a mature Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) plantation beneath a flux tower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashiro, Yuichiro; Lee, Na-Yeon M; Ohtsuka, Toshiyuki; Shizu, Yoko; Saitoh, Taku M; Koizumi, Hiroshi

    2010-07-01

    Quantification of carbon budgets and cycling in Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) plantations is essential for understanding forest functions in Japan because these plantations occupy about 20% of the total forested area. We conducted a biometric estimate of net ecosystem production (NEP) in a mature Japanese cedar plantation beneath a flux tower over a 4-year period. Net primary production (NPP) was 7.9 Mg C ha(-1) year(-1) and consisted mainly of tree biomass increment and aboveground litter production. Respiration was calculated as 6.8 (soil) and 3.3 (root) Mg C ha(-1) year(-1). Thus, NEP in the plantation was 4.3 Mg C ha(-1) year(-1). In agreement with the tower-based flux findings, this result suggests that the Japanese cedar plantation was a strong carbon sink. The biometric-based NEP was higher among most other types of Japanese forests studied. Carbon sequestration in the mature plantation was characterized by a larger increment in tree biomass and lower mortality than in natural forests. Land-use change from natural forest to Japanese cedar plantation might, therefore, stimulate carbon sequestration and change the carbon allocation of NPP from an increment in coarse woody debris to an increase in tree biomass.

  10. iHand: an interactive bare-hand-based augmented reality interface on commercial mobile phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Junyeong; Park, Jungsik; Park, Hanhoon; Park, Jong-Il

    2013-02-01

    The performance of mobile phones has rapidly improved, and they are emerging as a powerful platform. In many vision-based applications, human hands play a key role in natural interaction. However, relatively little attention has been paid to the interaction between human hands and the mobile phone. Thus, we propose a vision- and hand gesture-based interface in which the user holds a mobile phone in one hand but sees the other hand's palm through a built-in camera. The virtual contents are faithfully rendered on the user's palm through palm pose estimation, and reaction with hand and finger movements is achieved that is recognized by hand shape recognition. Since the proposed interface is based on hand gestures familiar to humans and does not require any additional sensors or markers, the user can freely interact with virtual contents anytime and anywhere without any training. We demonstrate that the proposed interface works at over 15 fps on a commercial mobile phone with a 1.2-GHz dual core processor and 1 GB RAM.

  11. Hand-Geometry Recognition Based on Contour Parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Bazen, A.M.; Booij, W.D.T.; Hendrikse, A.J.; Jain, A.K.; Ratha, N.K.

    This paper demonstrates the feasibility of a new method of hand-geometry recognition based on parameters derived from the contour of the hand. The contour is completely determined by the black-and-white image of the hand and can be derived from it by means of simple image-processing techniques. It

  12. A lightweight approach for biometric template protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Assam, Hisham; Sellahewa, Harin; Jassim, Sabah

    2009-05-01

    Privacy and security are vital concerns for practical biometric systems. The concept of cancelable or revocable biometrics has been proposed as a solution for biometric template security. Revocable biometric means that biometric templates are no longer fixed over time and could be revoked in the same way as lost or stolen credit cards are. In this paper, we describe a novel and an efficient approach to biometric template protection that meets the revocability property. This scheme can be incorporated into any biometric verification scheme while maintaining, if not improving, the accuracy of the original biometric system. However, we shall demonstrate the result of applying such transforms on face biometric templates and compare the efficiency of our approach with that of the well-known random projection techniques. We shall also present the results of experimental work on recognition accuracy before and after applying the proposed transform on feature vectors that are generated by wavelet transforms. These results are based on experiments conducted on a number of well-known face image databases, e.g. Yale and ORL databases.

  13. [Study of biometric identification of heart sound base on Mel-Frequency cepstrum coefficient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Zhao, Yihua; Lei, Sheng; Zhao, Zikai; Pan, Min

    2012-12-01

    Heart sound is a physiological parameter with individual characteristics generated by heart beat. To do the individual classification and recognition, in this paper, we present our study of using wavelet transform in the signal denoising, with the Mel-Frequency cepstrum coefficients (MFCC) as the feature parameters, and propose a research of reducing the dimensionality through principal components analysis (PCA). We have done the preliminary study to test the feasibility of biometric identification method using heart sound. The results showed that under the selected experimental conditions, the system could reach a 90% recognition rate. This study can provide a reference for further research.

  14. FUSION BASED MULTIMODAL AUTHENTICATION IN BIOMETRICS USING CONTEXT-SENSITIVE EXPONENT ASSOCIATIVE MEMORY MODEL : A NOVEL APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    P. E. S. N. Krishna Prasad; Pavan Kumar K; M. V. Ramakrishna; B. D. C. N. Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Biometrics is one of the primary key concepts of real application domains such as aadhar card, passport, pan card, etc. In such applications user can provide two to three biometrics patterns like face, finger, palm, signature, iris data, and so on. We considered face and finger patterns for encoding and then also for verification. Using this data we proposed a novel model for authentication in multimodal biometrics often called Context-Sensitive Exponent Associative Memory Mode...

  15. Robotic Hand Controlling Based on Flexible Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Bilgin, Süleyman; Üser, Yavuz; Mercan, Muhammet

    2016-01-01

    Today's technology has increased the interest in robotic systems andincrease the number of studies realized in this area.  There are many studies on robotic systems inseveral fields to facilitate human life in the literature. In this study, arobot hand is designed to repeat finger movements depending upon flexiblesensors mounted on any wearable glove. In the literature, various sensors thatdetect the finger movement are used. The sensor that detects the angle of thefingers has b...

  16. Handwriting: Feature Correlation Analysis for Biometric Hashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vielhauer, Claus; Steinmetz, Ralf

    2004-12-01

    In the application domain of electronic commerce, biometric authentication can provide one possible solution for the key management problem. Besides server-based approaches, methods of deriving digital keys directly from biometric measures appear to be advantageous. In this paper, we analyze one of our recently published specific algorithms of this category based on behavioral biometrics of handwriting, the biometric hash. Our interest is to investigate to which degree each of the underlying feature parameters contributes to the overall intrapersonal stability and interpersonal value space. We will briefly discuss related work in feature evaluation and introduce a new methodology based on three components: the intrapersonal scatter (deviation), the interpersonal entropy, and the correlation between both measures. Evaluation of the technique is presented based on two data sets of different size. The method presented will allow determination of effects of parameterization of the biometric system, estimation of value space boundaries, and comparison with other feature selection approaches.

  17. Handwriting: Feature Correlation Analysis for Biometric Hashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Steinmetz

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available In the application domain of electronic commerce, biometric authentication can provide one possible solution for the key management problem. Besides server-based approaches, methods of deriving digital keys directly from biometric measures appear to be advantageous. In this paper, we analyze one of our recently published specific algorithms of this category based on behavioral biometrics of handwriting, the biometric hash. Our interest is to investigate to which degree each of the underlying feature parameters contributes to the overall intrapersonal stability and interpersonal value space. We will briefly discuss related work in feature evaluation and introduce a new methodology based on three components: the intrapersonal scatter (deviation, the interpersonal entropy, and the correlation between both measures. Evaluation of the technique is presented based on two data sets of different size. The method presented will allow determination of effects of parameterization of the biometric system, estimation of value space boundaries, and comparison with other feature selection approaches.

  18. Biometrics can help protect and safeguard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakes, Shaun

    2017-06-01

    Shaun Oakes, managing director at ievo, a north-east England-based manufacturer of biometric fingerprint readers, argues that growing use of biometrics technology can improve security and afford better protection to premises, valuable items, and people, across an ever-busier NHS.

  19. Biometric Template Security

    OpenAIRE

    Abhishek Nagar; Karthik Nandakumar; Anil K. Jain

    2008-01-01

    Biometric recognition offers a reliable solution to the problem of user authentication in identity management systems. With the widespread deployment of biometric systems in various applications, there are increasing concerns about the security and privacy of biometric technology. Public acceptance of biometrics technology will depend on the ability of system designers to demonstrate that these systems are robust, have low error rates, and are tamper proof. We present a high-level categorizat...

  20. Cancelable Biometrics - A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Indira Chakravarthy; VVSSS. Balaram; B. Eswara Reddy

    2011-01-01

    In recent times Biometrics has emerged as a reliable, convenient and effective method of user authentication. However, with the increasing use of biometrics in several diverse applications, concerns about the privacy and security of biometric data contained in the database systems has increased. It is therefore imperative that Biometric systems instill confidence in the general public, by demonstrating that, these systems are robust, have low error rates and are tamper proof. In this context,...

  1. Robust and Secure Watermarking Using Sparse Information of Watermark for Biometric Data Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit M Thanki

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Biometric based human authentication system is used for security purpose in many organizations in the present world. This biometric authentication system has several vulnerable points. Two of vulnerable points are protection of biometric templates at system database and protection of biometric templates at communication channel between two modules of biometric authentication systems. In this paper proposed a robust watermarking scheme using the sparse information of watermark biometric to secure vulnerable point like protection of biometric templates at the communication channel of biometric authentication systems. A compressive sensing theory procedure is used for generation of sparse information on watermark biometric data using detail wavelet coefficients. Then sparse information of watermark biometric data is embedded into DCT coefficients of host biometric data. This proposed scheme is robust to common signal processing and geometric attacks like JPEG compression, adding noise, filtering, and cropping, histogram equalization. This proposed scheme has more advantages and high quality measures compared to existing schemes in the literature.

  2. Multispectral biometrics systems and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, David; Gong, Yazhuo

    2016-01-01

    Describing several new biometric technologies, such as high-resolution fingerprint, finger-knuckle-print, multi-spectral backhand, 3D fingerprint, tongueprint, 3D ear, and multi-spectral iris recognition technologies, this book analyzes a number of efficient feature extraction, matching and fusion algorithms and how potential systems have been developed. Focusing on how to develop new biometric technologies based on the requirements of applications, and how to design efficient algorithms to deliver better performance, the work is based on the author’s research with experimental results under different challenging conditions described in the text. The book offers a valuable resource for researchers, professionals and postgraduate students working in the fields of computer vision, pattern recognition, biometrics, and security applications, amongst others.

  3. Recommendation on the Use of Biometric Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Niels Christian

    2013-01-01

    Biometric technology is based on the use of information linked to individuals. Hence, privacy and security in biometric applications becomes a concern and the need to assess such applications thoroughly becomes equally important. Guidelines for application of biometric technology must ensure...... a positive impact on both security and privacy. Based on two cases of biometric application, which have been assessed by the Danish Data Protecting Agency, this chapter present a set of recommendations to legislators, regulators, corporations and individuals on the appropriate use of biometric technologies...... put forward by the Danish Board of Technology. The recommendations are discussed and compared to the similar proposal put forward by the European Article 29 Data Protection Working Party....

  4. Robust biometrics based authentication and key agreement scheme for multi-server environments using smart cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yanrong; Li, Lixiang; Yang, Xing; Yang, Yixian

    2015-01-01

    Biometrics authenticated schemes using smart cards have attracted much attention in multi-server environments. Several schemes of this type where proposed in the past. However, many of them were found to have some design flaws. This paper concentrates on the security weaknesses of the three-factor authentication scheme by Mishra et al. After careful analysis, we find their scheme does not really resist replay attack while failing to provide an efficient password change phase. We further propose an improvement of Mishra et al.'s scheme with the purpose of preventing the security threats of their scheme. We demonstrate the proposed scheme is given to strong authentication against several attacks including attacks shown in the original scheme. In addition, we compare the performance and functionality with other multi-server authenticated key schemes.

  5. Robust biometrics based authentication and key agreement scheme for multi-server environments using smart cards.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanrong Lu

    Full Text Available Biometrics authenticated schemes using smart cards have attracted much attention in multi-server environments. Several schemes of this type where proposed in the past. However, many of them were found to have some design flaws. This paper concentrates on the security weaknesses of the three-factor authentication scheme by Mishra et al. After careful analysis, we find their scheme does not really resist replay attack while failing to provide an efficient password change phase. We further propose an improvement of Mishra et al.'s scheme with the purpose of preventing the security threats of their scheme. We demonstrate the proposed scheme is given to strong authentication against several attacks including attacks shown in the original scheme. In addition, we compare the performance and functionality with other multi-server authenticated key schemes.

  6. Hand eczema guidelines based on the Danish guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of hand eczema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne D; Sommerlund, Mette

    2011-01-01

    Background. Classification of hand eczema has traditionally been based both on aetiology and clinical appearance. For 20% of cases, the aetiology is unknown. Objectives. To suggest a classification based on well-defined aetiology as well as on predefined clinical patterns and on the dynamics of h...

  7. Biometrics and Identity Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    management. BIOID 2008. The papers are categorized in four classes. These classes represent the 4 working groups of the COST Action 2101. For more information, see http://www.cost2101.org/.   Biometric data quality and multimodal biometric templates, Unsupervised interactive interfaces for multimodal...... security and border control scenarios it is now apparent that the widespread availability of biometrics in everyday life will also spin out an ever increasing number of (private) applications in other domains. Crucial to this vision is the management of the user's identity, which does not only imply...... biometrics, Biometric attacks and countermeasures, Standards and privacy issues for biometrics in identity documents and smart cards. BIOID 2008 is an initiative of the COST Action 2101 on Biometrics for Identity Documents and Smart Cards. It is supported by the EU Framework 7 Programme. Other sponsors...

  8. A study of dorsal vein pattern for biometric security

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nafiisah

    ensure more reliable security, many biometric verification techniques have been developed .... 3.0 HA D DORSAL VEI PATTER AS A BIOMETRIC ... image for the back of the hand, and converted by a computer into a digital image that can be.

  9. Biometrics and smart cards combine to offer high security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidman, S.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses the Smart Card a plastic credit card sized package with an embedded computer chip which encompasses a level of technical sophistication which makes it virtually impossible to counterfeit. The question of legitimacy of the person using the Card for physical, computer, or network access can be answered by storing a biometric template of the authorized user in the Smart Card's unalterable memory. The bimetric template can be based upon a retina print, a hand print, a finger print, a wrist-vein print, a voice print, or pseudo-biometrics, such as signature dynamics, gait dynamics or keyboard typing patterns. These Cards will function only when they are being used by the authorized individuals to whom they are issued

  10. Bridging the gap: from biometrics to forensics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Anil K; Ross, Arun

    2015-08-05

    Biometric recognition, or simply biometrics, refers to automated recognition of individuals based on their behavioural and biological characteristics. The success of fingerprints in forensic science and law enforcement applications, coupled with growing concerns related to border control, financial fraud and cyber security, has generated a huge interest in using fingerprints, as well as other biological traits, for automated person recognition. It is, therefore, not surprising to see biometrics permeating various segments of our society. Applications include smartphone security, mobile payment, border crossing, national civil registry and access to restricted facilities. Despite these successful deployments in various fields, there are several existing challenges and new opportunities for person recognition using biometrics. In particular, when biometric data is acquired in an unconstrained environment or if the subject is uncooperative, the quality of the ensuing biometric data may not be amenable for automated person recognition. This is particularly true in crime-scene investigations, where the biological evidence gleaned from a scene may be of poor quality. In this article, we first discuss how biometrics evolved from forensic science and how its focus is shifting back to its origin in order to address some challenging problems. Next, we enumerate the similarities and differences between biometrics and forensics. We then present some applications where the principles of biometrics are being successfully leveraged into forensics in order to solve critical problems in the law enforcement domain. Finally, we discuss new collaborative opportunities for researchers in biometrics and forensics, in order to address hitherto unsolved problems that can benefit society at large. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Biometric Template Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Nagar

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Biometric recognition offers a reliable solution to the problem of user authentication in identity management systems. With the widespread deployment of biometric systems in various applications, there are increasing concerns about the security and privacy of biometric technology. Public acceptance of biometrics technology will depend on the ability of system designers to demonstrate that these systems are robust, have low error rates, and are tamper proof. We present a high-level categorization of the various vulnerabilities of a biometric system and discuss countermeasures that have been proposed to address these vulnerabilities. In particular, we focus on biometric template security which is an important issue because, unlike passwords and tokens, compromised biometric templates cannot be revoked and reissued. Protecting the template is a challenging task due to intrauser variability in the acquired biometric traits. We present an overview of various biometric template protection schemes and discuss their advantages and limitations in terms of security, revocability, and impact on matching accuracy. A template protection scheme with provable security and acceptable recognition performance has thus far remained elusive. Development of such a scheme is crucial as biometric systems are beginning to proliferate into the core physical and information infrastructure of our society.

  12. Biometric citizenship and alienage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenum, Helle

    . This paper asks if and how biometric techniques are the basis of a re-structuring of management of migration and mobility: Is the suggestion of biometric identifiers reflecting the withdrawal from the principle of rights applied to human beings as an abstract of the universal individual all being equal......, to the (re)introduction the concept of rights being engraved in your body, depended first and foremost on one’s birth, kinship and geography ? The paper will discuss biometric technology in a historical context and explore the apparent biometric divide between citizens and migrants, the latter positioned......Biometric identifiers (finger prints, face scans, iris scans etc.) have increasingly become a key element in technology of EU border and migration management. SIS II, EURODAC and VIS are centralized systems that contain fingerprints of different groups of non-EU citizen, and the biometric...

  13. Privacy-Preserving Biometric Authentication: Challenges and Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Pagnin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An emerging direction for authenticating people is the adoption of biometric authentication systems. Biometric credentials are becoming increasingly popular as a means of authenticating people due to the wide range of advantages that they provide with respect to classical authentication methods (e.g., password-based authentication. The most characteristic feature of this authentication method is the naturally strong bond between a user and her biometric credentials. This very same advantageous property, however, raises serious security and privacy concerns in case the biometric trait gets compromised. In this article, we present the most challenging issues that need to be taken into consideration when designing secure and privacy-preserving biometric authentication protocols. More precisely, we describe the main threats against privacy-preserving biometric authentication systems and give directions on possible countermeasures in order to design secure and privacy-preserving biometric authentication protocols.

  14. Antimicrobial efficacy of alcohol-based hand gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilhermetti, M; Marques Wiirzler, L A; Castanheira Facio, B; da Silva Furlan, M; Campo Meschial, W; Bronharo Tognim, M C; Botelho Garcia, L; Luiz Cardoso, C

    2010-03-01

    In recent years, several commercial alcohol-based hand gels have appeared on the market to improve the hand-cleansing compliance of healthcare workers. Although the antimicrobial efficacy of these products has been reported in different countries, few studies have investigated this subject in Brazil. In this study, we assessed the antimicrobial efficacy of 12 alcohol-based hand gels produced in Brazil, containing 70% w/w or v/v ethyl alcohol as the active ingredient, according to the European Standard EN 1500 (EN 1500). The following alcohol gels were tested: Hand Gel, Voga Gel, Solumax Solugel, Doctor Clean, Rio Gel, Clear Gel, Sevengel, Hand CHC, Gel Bac, WBL-50 Gel, Sanigel and Soft Care Gel. In addition, 70% w/w ethyl alcohol and three alcohol-based hand rubs (Sterillium, Sterillium Gel, and Spitaderm), commonly used in Europe and effective according to EN 1500, were also tested. All the products tested, except for two, were approved by the EN 1500 test protocol with a 60s application. The results confirmed the antimicrobial efficacy of the majority of the alcohol gels produced in Brazil for hand hygiene of healthcare workers. Copyright 2009 The Hospital Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Robust and efficient biometrics based password authentication scheme for telecare medicine information systems using extended chaotic maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yanrong; Li, Lixiang; Peng, Haipeng; Xie, Dong; Yang, Yixian

    2015-06-01

    The Telecare Medicine Information Systems (TMISs) provide an efficient communicating platform supporting the patients access health-care delivery services via internet or mobile networks. Authentication becomes an essential need when a remote patient logins into the telecare server. Recently, many extended chaotic maps based authentication schemes using smart cards for TMISs have been proposed. Li et al. proposed a secure smart cards based authentication scheme for TMISs using extended chaotic maps based on Lee's and Jiang et al.'s scheme. In this study, we show that Li et al.'s scheme has still some weaknesses such as violation the session key security, vulnerability to user impersonation attack and lack of local verification. To conquer these flaws, we propose a chaotic maps and smart cards based password authentication scheme by applying biometrics technique and hash function operations. Through the informal and formal security analyses, we demonstrate that our scheme is resilient possible known attacks including the attacks found in Li et al.'s scheme. As compared with the previous authentication schemes, the proposed scheme is more secure and efficient and hence more practical for telemedical environments.

  16. Chaotic maps and biometrics-based anonymous three-party authenticated key exchange protocol without using passwords

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Qi; Hu Bin; Chen Ke-Fei; Liu Wen-Hao; Tan Xiao

    2015-01-01

    In three-party password authenticated key exchange (AKE) protocol, since two users use their passwords to establish a secure session key over an insecure communication channel with the help of the trusted server, such a protocol may suffer the password guessing attacks and the server has to maintain the password table. To eliminate the shortages of password-based AKE protocol, very recently, according to chaotic maps, Lee et al. [2015 Nonlinear Dyn. 79 2485] proposed a first three-party-authenticated key exchange scheme without using passwords, and claimed its security by providing a well-organized BAN logic test. Unfortunately, their protocol cannot resist impersonation attack, which is demonstrated in the present paper. To overcome their security weakness, by using chaotic maps, we propose a biometrics-based anonymous three-party AKE protocol with the same advantages. Further, we use the pi calculus-based formal verification tool ProVerif to show that our AKE protocol achieves authentication, security and anonymity, and an acceptable efficiency. (paper)

  17. Chaotic maps and biometrics-based anonymous three-party authenticated key exchange protocol without using passwords

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qi; Hu, Bin; Chen, Ke-Fei; Liu, Wen-Hao; Tan, Xiao

    2015-11-01

    In three-party password authenticated key exchange (AKE) protocol, since two users use their passwords to establish a secure session key over an insecure communication channel with the help of the trusted server, such a protocol may suffer the password guessing attacks and the server has to maintain the password table. To eliminate the shortages of password-based AKE protocol, very recently, according to chaotic maps, Lee et al. [2015 Nonlinear Dyn. 79 2485] proposed a first three-party-authenticated key exchange scheme without using passwords, and claimed its security by providing a well-organized BAN logic test. Unfortunately, their protocol cannot resist impersonation attack, which is demonstrated in the present paper. To overcome their security weakness, by using chaotic maps, we propose a biometrics-based anonymous three-party AKE protocol with the same advantages. Further, we use the pi calculus-based formal verification tool ProVerif to show that our AKE protocol achieves authentication, security and anonymity, and an acceptable efficiency. Project supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Zhejiang Province, China (Grant No. LZ12F02005), the Major State Basic Research Development Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB834205), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61070153).

  18. An Improvement of Robust and Efficient Biometrics Based Password Authentication Scheme for Telecare Medicine Information Systems Using Extended Chaotic Maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jongho; Choi, Younsung; Kim, Jiye; Won, Dongho

    2016-03-01

    Recently, numerous extended chaotic map-based password authentication schemes that employ smart card technology were proposed for Telecare Medical Information Systems (TMISs). In 2015, Lu et al. used Li et al.'s scheme as a basis to propose a password authentication scheme for TMISs that is based on biometrics and smart card technology and employs extended chaotic maps. Lu et al. demonstrated that Li et al.'s scheme comprises some weaknesses such as those regarding a violation of the session-key security, a vulnerability to the user impersonation attack, and a lack of local verification. In this paper, however, we show that Lu et al.'s scheme is still insecure with respect to issues such as a violation of the session-key security, and that it is vulnerable to both the outsider attack and the impersonation attack. To overcome these drawbacks, we retain the useful properties of Lu et al.'s scheme to propose a new password authentication scheme that is based on smart card technology and requires the use of chaotic maps. Then, we show that our proposed scheme is more secure and efficient and supports security properties.

  19. Soft Biometrics; Human Identification Using Comparative Descriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Daniel A; Nixon, Mark S; Stevenage, Sarah V

    2014-06-01

    Soft biometrics are a new form of biometric identification which use physical or behavioral traits that can be naturally described by humans. Unlike other biometric approaches, this allows identification based solely on verbal descriptions, bridging the semantic gap between biometrics and human description. To permit soft biometric identification the description must be accurate, yet conventional human descriptions comprising of absolute labels and estimations are often unreliable. A novel method of obtaining human descriptions will be introduced which utilizes comparative categorical labels to describe differences between subjects. This innovative approach has been shown to address many problems associated with absolute categorical labels-most critically, the descriptions contain more objective information and have increased discriminatory capabilities. Relative measurements of the subjects' traits can be inferred from comparative human descriptions using the Elo rating system. The resulting soft biometric signatures have been demonstrated to be robust and allow accurate recognition of subjects. Relative measurements can also be obtained from other forms of human representation. This is demonstrated using a support vector machine to determine relative measurements from gait biometric signatures-allowing retrieval of subjects from video footage by using human comparisons, bridging the semantic gap.

  20. Ability of Hand Hygiene Interventions Using Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizers and Soap To Reduce Microbial Load on Farmworker Hands Soiled during Harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aceituno, Anna Fabiszewski; Bartz, Faith E; Hodge, Domonique Watson; Shumaker, David J; Grubb, James E; Arbogast, James W; Dávila-Aviña, Jorgé; Venegas, Fabiola; Heredia, Norma; García, Santos; Leon, Juan S

    2015-11-01

    Effective hand hygiene is essential to prevent the spread of pathogens on produce farms and reduce foodborne illness. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act Proposed Rule for Produce Safety recommends the use of soap and running water for hand hygiene of produce handlers. The use of alcohol-based hand sanitizer (ABHS) may be an effective alternative hygiene intervention where access to water is limited. There are no published data on the efficacy of either soap or ABHS-based interventions to reduce microbial contamination in agricultural settings. The goal of this study was to assess the ability of two soap-based (traditional or pumice) and two ABHS-based (label-use or two-step) hygiene interventions to reduce microbes (coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus spp.) and soil (absorbance of hand rinsate at 600 nm [A600]) on farmworker hands after harvesting produce, compared with the results for a no-hand-hygiene control. With no hand hygiene, farmworker hands were soiled (median A600, 0.48) and had high concentrations of coliforms (geometric mean, 3.4 log CFU per hand) and Enterococcus spp. (geometric mean, 5.3 log CFU per hand) after 1 to 2 h of harvesting tomatoes. Differences in microbial loads in comparison to the loads in the control group varied by indicator organism and hygiene intervention (0 to 2.3 log CFU per hand). All interventions yielded lower concentrations of Enterococcus spp. and E. coli (P hands (P hand washing with soap at reducing indicator organisms on farmworker hands. Based on these results, ABHS is an efficacious hand hygiene solution for produce handlers, even on soiled hands.

  1. Biometrics and privacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grijpink, J.H.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    Biometrics offers many alternatives for protecting our privacy and preventing us from falling victim to crime. Biometrics can even serve as a solid basis for safe anonymous and semi-anonymous legal transactions. In this article Jan Grijpink clarifies which concepts and practical applications this

  2. On Soft Biometrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nixon, Mark; Correia, Paulo; Nasrollahi, Kamal

    2015-01-01

    Innovation has formed much of the rich history in biometrics. The field of soft biometrics was originally aimed to augment the recognition process by fusion of metrics that were sufficient to discriminate populations rather than individuals. This was later refined to use measures that could be us...

  3. Iris and periocular biometrics

    CERN Document Server

    Rathgeb, Christian

    2017-01-01

    This book provides an overview of scientific fundamentals and principles of iris and periocular biometric recognition. It covers: an introduction to iris and periocular recognition; a selective overview of issues and challenges; soft biometric classification; security aspects; privacy protection and forensics; and future trends.

  4. Method for Improving EEG Based Emotion Recognition by Combining It with Synchronized Biometric and Eye Tracking Technologies in a Non-invasive and Low Cost Way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gil, Juan-Miguel; Virgili-Gomá, Jordi; Gil, Rosa; García, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Technical advances, particularly the integration of wearable and embedded sensors, facilitate tracking of physiological responses in a less intrusive way. Currently, there are many devices that allow gathering biometric measurements from human beings, such as EEG Headsets or Health Bracelets. The massive data sets generated by tracking of EEG and physiology may be used, among other things, to infer knowledge about human moods and emotions. Apart from direct biometric signal measurement, eye tracking systems are nowadays capable of determining the point of gaze of the users when interacting in ICT environments, which provides an added value research on many different areas, such as psychology or marketing. We present a process in which devices for eye tracking, biometric, and EEG signal measurements are synchronously used for studying both basic and complex emotions. We selected the least intrusive devices for different signal data collection given the study requirements and cost constraints, so users would behave in the most natural way possible. On the one hand, we have been able to determine basic emotions participants were experiencing by means of valence and arousal. On the other hand, a complex emotion such as empathy has also been detected. To validate the usefulness of this approach, a study involving forty-four people has been carried out, where they were exposed to a series of affective stimuli while their EEG activity, biometric signals, and eye position were synchronously recorded to detect self-regulation. The hypothesis of the work was that people who self-regulated would show significantly different results when analyzing their EEG data. Participants were divided into two groups depending on whether Electro Dermal Activity (EDA) data indicated they self-regulated or not. The comparison of the results obtained using different machine learning algorithms for emotion recognition shows that using EEG activity alone as a predictor for self-regulation does

  5. Method for Improving EEG Based Emotion Recognition by Combining It with Synchronized Biometric and Eye Tracking Technologies in a Non-invasive and Low Cost Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gil, Juan-Miguel; Virgili-Gomá, Jordi; Gil, Rosa; Guilera, Teresa; Batalla, Iolanda; Soler-González, Jorge; García, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Technical advances, particularly the integration of wearable and embedded sensors, facilitate tracking of physiological responses in a less intrusive way. Currently, there are many devices that allow gathering biometric measurements from human beings, such as EEG Headsets or Health Bracelets. The massive data sets generated by tracking of EEG and physiology may be used, among other things, to infer knowledge about human moods and emotions. Apart from direct biometric signal measurement, eye tracking systems are nowadays capable of determining the point of gaze of the users when interacting in ICT environments, which provides an added value research on many different areas, such as psychology or marketing. We present a process in which devices for eye tracking, biometric, and EEG signal measurements are synchronously used for studying both basic and complex emotions. We selected the least intrusive devices for different signal data collection given the study requirements and cost constraints, so users would behave in the most natural way possible. On the one hand, we have been able to determine basic emotions participants were experiencing by means of valence and arousal. On the other hand, a complex emotion such as empathy has also been detected. To validate the usefulness of this approach, a study involving forty-four people has been carried out, where they were exposed to a series of affective stimuli while their EEG activity, biometric signals, and eye position were synchronously recorded to detect self-regulation. The hypothesis of the work was that people who self-regulated would show significantly different results when analyzing their EEG data. Participants were divided into two groups depending on whether Electro Dermal Activity (EDA) data indicated they self-regulated or not. The comparison of the results obtained using different machine learning algorithms for emotion recognition shows that using EEG activity alone as a predictor for self-regulation does

  6. Analysis of low-dimensional radio-frequency impedance-based cardio-synchronous waveforms for biometric authentication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopalan, Shreyas; Savvides, Marios; Griofa, Marc O; Cohen, Ken

    2014-08-01

    Over the past two decades, there have been a lot of advances in the field of pattern analyses for biomedical signals, which have helped in both medical diagnoses and in furthering our understanding of the human body. A relatively recent area of interest is the utility of biomedical signals in the field of biometrics, i.e., for user identification. Seminal work in this domain has already been done using electrocardiograph (ECG) signals. In this paper, we discuss our ongoing work in using a relatively recent modality of biomedical signals-a cardio-synchronous waveform measured using a Radio-Frequency Impedance-Interrogation (RFII) device for the purpose of user identification. Compared to an ECG setup, this device is noninvasive and measurements can be obtained easily and quickly. Here, we discuss the feasibility of reducing the dimensions of these signals by projecting onto various subspaces while still preserving interuser discriminating information. We compare the classification performance using classical dimensionality reduction methods such as principal component analysis (PCA), independent component analysis (ICA), random projections, with more recent techniques such as K-SVD-based dictionary learning. We also report the reconstruction accuracies in these subspaces. Our results show that the dimensionality of the measured signals can be reduced by 60 fold while maintaining high user identification rates.

  7. An Improvement of Robust Biometrics-Based Authentication and Key Agreement Scheme for Multi-Server Environments Using Smart Cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jongho; Choi, Younsung; Jung, Jaewook; Won, Dongho

    2015-01-01

    In multi-server environments, user authentication is a very important issue because it provides the authorization that enables users to access their data and services; furthermore, remote user authentication schemes for multi-server environments have solved the problem that has arisen from user's management of different identities and passwords. For this reason, numerous user authentication schemes that are designed for multi-server environments have been proposed over recent years. In 2015, Lu et al. improved upon Mishra et al.'s scheme, claiming that their remote user authentication scheme is more secure and practical; however, we found that Lu et al.'s scheme is still insecure and incorrect. In this paper, we demonstrate that Lu et al.'s scheme is vulnerable to outsider attack and user impersonation attack, and we propose a new biometrics-based scheme for authentication and key agreement that can be used in multi-server environments; then, we show that our proposed scheme is more secure and supports the required security properties.

  8. An Improved and Secure Biometric Authentication Scheme for Telecare Medicine Information Systems Based on Elliptic Curve Cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Shehzad Ashraf; Mahmood, Khalid; Naqvi, Husnain; Khan, Muhammad Khurram

    2015-11-01

    Telecare medicine information system (TMIS) offers the patients convenient and expedite healthcare services remotely anywhere. Patient security and privacy has emerged as key issues during remote access because of underlying open architecture. An authentication scheme can verify patient's as well as TMIS server's legitimacy during remote healthcare services. To achieve security and privacy a number of authentication schemes have been proposed. Very recently Lu et al. (J. Med. Syst. 39(3):1-8, 2015) proposed a biometric based three factor authentication scheme for TMIS to confiscate the vulnerabilities of Arshad et al.'s (J. Med. Syst. 38(12):136, 2014) scheme. Further, they emphasized the robustness of their scheme against several attacks. However, in this paper we establish that Lu et al.'s scheme is vulnerable to numerous attacks including (1) Patient anonymity violation attack, (2) Patient impersonation attack, and (3) TMIS server impersonation attack. Furthermore, their scheme does not provide patient untraceability. We then, propose an improvement of Lu et al.'s scheme. We have analyzed the security of improved scheme using popular automated tool ProVerif. The proposed scheme while retaining the plusses of Lu et al.'s scheme is also robust against known attacks.

  9. An Improvement of Robust Biometrics-Based Authentication and Key Agreement Scheme for Multi-Server Environments Using Smart Cards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jongho; Choi, Younsung; Jung, Jaewook; Won, Dongho

    2015-01-01

    In multi-server environments, user authentication is a very important issue because it provides the authorization that enables users to access their data and services; furthermore, remote user authentication schemes for multi-server environments have solved the problem that has arisen from user’s management of different identities and passwords. For this reason, numerous user authentication schemes that are designed for multi-server environments have been proposed over recent years. In 2015, Lu et al. improved upon Mishra et al.’s scheme, claiming that their remote user authentication scheme is more secure and practical; however, we found that Lu et al.’s scheme is still insecure and incorrect. In this paper, we demonstrate that Lu et al.’s scheme is vulnerable to outsider attack and user impersonation attack, and we propose a new biometrics-based scheme for authentication and key agreement that can be used in multi-server environments; then, we show that our proposed scheme is more secure and supports the required security properties. PMID:26709702

  10. Web-based interactive drone control using hand gesture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhenfei; Luo, Hao; Song, Guang-Hua; Chen, Zhou; Lu, Zhe-Ming; Wu, Xiaofeng

    2018-01-01

    This paper develops a drone control prototype based on web technology with the aid of hand gesture. The uplink control command and downlink data (e.g., video) are transmitted by WiFi communication, and all the information exchange is realized on web. The control command is translated from various predetermined hand gestures. Specifically, the hardware of this friendly interactive control system is composed by a quadrotor drone, a computer vision-based hand gesture sensor, and a cost-effective computer. The software is simplified as a web-based user interface program. Aided by natural hand gestures, this system significantly reduces the complexity of traditional human-computer interaction, making remote drone operation more intuitive. Meanwhile, a web-based automatic control mode is provided in addition to the hand gesture control mode. For both operation modes, no extra application program is needed to be installed on the computer. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed system, including control accuracy, operation latency, etc. This system can be used in many applications such as controlling a drone in global positioning system denied environment or by handlers without professional drone control knowledge since it is easy to get started.

  11. Web-based interactive drone control using hand gesture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhenfei; Luo, Hao; Song, Guang-Hua; Chen, Zhou; Lu, Zhe-Ming; Wu, Xiaofeng

    2018-01-01

    This paper develops a drone control prototype based on web technology with the aid of hand gesture. The uplink control command and downlink data (e.g., video) are transmitted by WiFi communication, and all the information exchange is realized on web. The control command is translated from various predetermined hand gestures. Specifically, the hardware of this friendly interactive control system is composed by a quadrotor drone, a computer vision-based hand gesture sensor, and a cost-effective computer. The software is simplified as a web-based user interface program. Aided by natural hand gestures, this system significantly reduces the complexity of traditional human-computer interaction, making remote drone operation more intuitive. Meanwhile, a web-based automatic control mode is provided in addition to the hand gesture control mode. For both operation modes, no extra application program is needed to be installed on the computer. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed system, including control accuracy, operation latency, etc. This system can be used in many applications such as controlling a drone in global positioning system denied environment or by handlers without professional drone control knowledge since it is easy to get started.

  12. Practical biometrics from aspiration to implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Ashbourn, Julian

    2015-01-01

    This practically-focused text presents a hands-on guide to making biometric technology work in real-life scenarios. Extensively revised and updated, this new edition takes a fresh look at what it takes to integrate biometrics into wider applications. An emphasis is placed on the importance of a complete understanding of the broader scenario, covering technical, human and implementation factors. This understanding may then be exercised through interactive chapters dealing with educational software utilities and the BANTAM Program Manager. Topics and features: provides a concise introduction t

  13. Towards the Security Evaluation of Biometric Authentication Systems

    OpenAIRE

    El-Abed , Mohamad; Giot , Romain; Hemery , Baptiste; Rosenberger , Christophe; Schwartzmann , Jean-Jacques

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Despite the obvious advantages of biometric authentication systems over traditional security ones (based on tokens or passwords), they are vulnerable to attacks which may considerably decrease their security. In order to contribute in resolving such problematic, we propose a modality-independent evaluation methodology for the security evaluation of biometric systems. It is based on the use of a database of common threats and vulnerabilities of biometric systems, and th...

  14. BIOMETRIC AUTHENTICATION USING NONPARAMETRIC METHODS

    OpenAIRE

    S V Sheela; K R Radhika

    2010-01-01

    The physiological and behavioral trait is employed to develop biometric authentication systems. The proposed work deals with the authentication of iris and signature based on minimum variance criteria. The iris patterns are preprocessed based on area of the connected components. The segmented image used for authentication consists of the region with large variations in the gray level values. The image region is split into quadtree components. The components with minimum variance are determine...

  15. 2D Hand Tracking Based on Flocking with Obstacle Avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zihong Chen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Hand gesture-based interaction provides a natural and powerful means for human-computer interaction. It is also a good interface for human-robot interaction. However, most of the existing proposals are likely to fail when they meet some skin-coloured objects, especially the face region. In this paper, we present a novel hand tracking method which can track the features of the hand based on the obstacle avoidance flocking behaviour model to overcome skin-coloured distractions. It allows features to be split into two groups under severe distractions and merge later. The experiment results show that our method can track the hand in a cluttered background or when passing the face, while the Flocking of Features (FoF and the Mean Shift Embedded Particle Filter (MSEPF methods may fail. These results suggest that our method has better performance in comparison with the previous methods. It may therefore be helpful to promote the use of the hand gesture-based human-robot interaction method.

  16. Markerless Kinect-Based Hand Tracking for Robot Teleoperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanglong Du

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a real-time remote robot teleoperation method using markerless Kinect-based hand tracking. Using this tracking algorithm, the positions of index finger and thumb in 3D can be estimated by processing depth images from Kinect. The hand pose is used as a model to specify the pose of a real-time remote robot's end-effector. This method provides a way to send a whole task to a remote robot instead of sending limited motion commands like gesture-based approaches and this method has been tested in pick-and-place tasks.

  17. Attitudes and practices of Irish hospital-based physicians towards hand hygiene and hand rubbing using alcohol-based hand rub: a comparison between 2007 and 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, L M; Slevin, B L; O'Connell, N H; Dunne, C P

    2017-09-01

    Hand hygiene is the cornerstone of infection prevention and control practices, and reduces healthcare-associated infections significantly. However, international evidence suggests that medical doctors demonstrate poor compliance. To explore and compare practices and attitudes towards hand hygiene, particularly hand rubbing using alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR), among hospital-based physicians in Ireland between 2007 and 2015. In 2007, a random sample of doctors in a large teaching hospital was invited to complete a postal survey using a validated questionnaire. In 2015, the study was replicated among all doctors employed in a university hospital group, including the setting of the original study, using an online survey. Data were analysed using SPSS and Survey Monkey. Predominately positive and improving attitudes and practices were found, with 86% of doctors compliant with hand hygiene before patient contact in 2015, compared with 58% in 2007. Ninety-one percent of doctors were compliant after patient contact in 2015, compared with 76% in 2007. In 2015, only 39% of respondents reported that they 'almost always' used ABHR for hand hygiene. However, this represents 13.5% more than in 2007. Stated barriers to use of ABHR included dermatological issues, poor acceptance, tolerance and poor availability of ABHR products. Greater awareness of hand hygiene guidelines and greater governance appear to have had a positive impact on practice. However, despite this, practice remains suboptimal and there is scope for substantial improvement. Continued and sustained efforts are required in order to build on progress achieved since the World Health Organization hand hygiene guidelines were published in 2009. Copyright © 2017 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. 3D palmprint and hand imaging system based on full-field composite color sinusoidal fringe projection technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zonghua; Huang, Shujun; Xu, Yongjia; Chen, Chao; Zhao, Yan; Gao, Nan; Xiao, Yanjun

    2013-09-01

    Palmprint and hand shape, as two kinds of important biometric characteristics, have been widely studied and applied to human identity recognition. The existing research is based mainly on 2D images, which lose the third-dimensional information. The biological features extracted from 2D images are distorted by pressure and rolling, so the subsequent feature matching and recognition are inaccurate. This paper presents a method to acquire accurate 3D shapes of palmprint and hand by projecting full-field composite color sinusoidal fringe patterns and the corresponding color texture information. A 3D imaging system is designed to capture and process the full-field composite color fringe patterns on hand surface. Composite color fringe patterns having the optimum three fringe numbers are generated by software and projected onto the surface of human hand by a digital light processing projector. From another viewpoint, a color CCD camera captures the deformed fringe patterns and saves them for postprocessing. After compensating for the cross talk and chromatic aberration between color channels, three fringe patterns are extracted from three color channels of a captured composite color image. Wrapped phase information can be calculated from the sinusoidal fringe patterns with high precision. At the same time, the absolute phase of each pixel is determined by the optimum three-fringe selection method. After building up the relationship between absolute phase map and 3D shape data, the 3D palmprint and hand are obtained. Color texture information can be directly captured or demodulated from the captured composite fringe pattern images. Experimental results show that the proposed method and system can yield accurate 3D shape and color texture information of the palmprint and hand shape.

  19. Corneal topography measurements for biometric applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Nathan D.

    The term biometrics is used to describe the process of analyzing biological and behavioral traits that are unique to an individual in order to confirm or determine his or her identity. Many biometric modalities are currently being researched and implemented including, fingerprints, hand and facial geometry, iris recognition, vein structure recognition, gait, voice recognition, etc... This project explores the possibility of using corneal topography measurements as a trait for biometric identification. Two new corneal topographers were developed for this study. The first was designed to function as an operator-free device that will allow a user to approach the device and have his or her corneal topography measured. Human subject topography data were collected with this device and compared to measurements made with the commercially available Keratron Piccolo topographer (Optikon, Rome, Italy). A third topographer that departs from the standard Placido disk technology allows for arbitrary pattern illumination through the use of LCD monitors. This topographer was built and tested to be used in future research studies. Topography data was collected from 59 subjects and modeled using Zernike polynomials, which provide for a simple method of compressing topography data and comparing one topographical measurement with a database for biometric identification. The data were analyzed to determine the biometric error rates associated with corneal topography measurements. Reasonably accurate results, between three to eight percent simultaneous false match and false non-match rates, were achieved.

  20. BIOMETRIC CRYPTOGRAPHY AND NETWORK AUTHENTICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonimir Kišasondi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we will present some schemes for strengthening network authentification over insecure channels with biometric concepts or how to securely transfer or use biometric characteristics as cryptographic keys. We will show why some current authentification schemes are insufficient and we will present our concepts of biometric hashes and authentification that rely on unimodal and multimodal biometrics. Our concept can be applied on any biometric authentification scheme and is universal for all systems.

  1. Biometric systems - possibilities and dangers

    OpenAIRE

    Petržilka, Jakub

    2013-01-01

    This bachelor thesis is focused on biometric methods, particularly on fingerprint recognition. First part of thesis places biometric into other methods of people's identification. Identification by token and by knowledge. It also describes the beginning and evolution of biometric. The theoretical part also closely clarify working with data and different view on the biometric systems. The following part of the thesis defines the basic principles of using biometric systems, counting FAR and FRR...

  2. Modular Biometric Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmiel, Alan J. (Inventor); Humphreys, Bradley T. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A modular system for acquiring biometric data includes a plurality of data acquisition modules configured to sample biometric data from at least one respective input channel at a data acquisition rate. A representation of the sampled biometric data is stored in memory of each of the plurality of data acquisition modules. A central control system is in communication with each of the plurality of data acquisition modules through a bus. The central control system is configured to control communication of data, via the bus, with each of the plurality of data acquisition modules.

  3. Novel wearable-type biometric devices based on skin tissue optics with multispectral LED-photodiode matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Young Chang; Kim, Hae Na; Kang, Jae Hwan; Hong, Hyuck Ki; Choi, Yeon Shik; Jung, Suk Won; Kim, Sung Phil

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we examined the possibility of using a multispectral skin photomatrix (MSP) module as a novel biometric device. The MSP device measures optical patterns of the wrist skin tissue. Optical patterns consist of 2 × 8 photocurrent intensities of photodiode arrays, which are generated by optical transmission and diffuse reflection of photons from LED light sources with variable wavelengths into the wrist skin tissue. Optical patterns detected by the MSP device provide information on both the surface and subsurface characteristics of the human skin tissue. We found that in the 21 subjects we studied, they showed their unique characteristics, as determined using several wavelengths of light. The experimental results show that the best personal identification accuracy can be acquired using a combination of infrared light and yellow light. This novel biometric device, the MSP module, exhibited an excellent false acceptance rate (FAR) of 0.3% and a false rejection rate (FRR) of 0.0%, which are better than those of commercialized biometric devices such as a fingerprint biometric system. From these experimental results, we found that people exhibit unique optical patterns of their inner-wrist skin tissue and this uniqueness could be used for developing novel high-accuracy personal identification devices.

  4. Score level fusion scheme based on adaptive local Gabor features for face-iris-fingerprint multimodal biometric

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fei; Liu, Yuanning; Zhu, Xiaodong; Huang, Chun; Han, Ye; Chen, Ying

    2014-05-01

    A multimodal biometric system has been considered a promising technique to overcome the defects of unimodal biometric systems. We have introduced a fusion scheme to gain a better understanding and fusion method for a face-iris-fingerprint multimodal biometric system. In our case, we use particle swarm optimization to train a set of adaptive Gabor filters in order to achieve the proper Gabor basic functions for each modality. For a closer analysis of texture information, two different local Gabor features for each modality are produced by the corresponding Gabor coefficients. Next, all matching scores of the two Gabor features for each modality are projected to a single-scalar score via a trained, supported, vector regression model for a final decision. A large-scale dataset is formed to validate the proposed scheme using the Facial Recognition Technology database-fafb and CASIA-V3-Interval together with FVC2004-DB2a datasets. The experimental results demonstrate that as well as achieving further powerful local Gabor features of multimodalities and obtaining better recognition performance by their fusion strategy, our architecture also outperforms some state-of-the-art individual methods and other fusion approaches for face-iris-fingerprint multimodal biometric systems.

  5. On enabling secure applications through off-line biometric identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davida, G.I. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Frankel, Y. [CertCo LLC, New York, NY (United States); Matt, B.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-04-01

    In developing secure applications and systems, the designers often must incorporate secure user identification in the design specification. In this paper, the authors study secure off line authenticated user identification schemes based on a biometric system that can measure a user`s biometric accurately (up to some Hamming distance). The schemes presented here enhance identification and authorization in secure applications by binding a biometric template with authorization information on a token such as a magnetic strip. Also developed here are schemes specifically designed to minimize the compromise of a user`s private biometrics data, encapsulated in the authorization information, without requiring secure hardware tokens. In this paper the authors furthermore study the feasibility of biometrics performing as an enabling technology for secure system and application design. The authors investigate a new technology which allows a user`s biometrics to facilitate cryptographic mechanisms.

  6. On enabling secure applications through off-line biometric identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davida, G.I.; Frankel, Y.; Matt, B.J.

    1998-04-01

    In developing secure applications and systems, the designers often must incorporate secure user identification in the design specification. In this paper, the authors study secure off line authenticated user identification schemes based on a biometric system that can measure a user's biometric accurately (up to some Hamming distance). The schemes presented here enhance identification and authorization in secure applications by binding a biometric template with authorization information on a token such as a magnetic strip. Also developed here are schemes specifically designed to minimize the compromise of a user's private biometrics data, encapsulated in the authorization information, without requiring secure hardware tokens. In this paper the authors furthermore study the feasibility of biometrics performing as an enabling technology for secure system and application design. The authors investigate a new technology which allows a user's biometrics to facilitate cryptographic mechanisms

  7. Transfer learning for bimodal biometrics recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Zhiping; Sun, Shuifa; Chen, Yanfei; Gan, Haitao

    2013-10-01

    Biometrics recognition aims to identify and predict new personal identities based on their existing knowledge. As the use of multiple biometric traits of the individual may enables more information to be used for recognition, it has been proved that multi-biometrics can produce higher accuracy than single biometrics. However, a common problem with traditional machine learning is that the training and test data should be in the same feature space, and have the same underlying distribution. If the distributions and features are different between training and future data, the model performance often drops. In this paper, we propose a transfer learning method for face recognition on bimodal biometrics. The training and test samples of bimodal biometric images are composed of the visible light face images and the infrared face images. Our algorithm transfers the knowledge across feature spaces, relaxing the assumption of same feature space as well as same underlying distribution by automatically learning a mapping between two different but somewhat similar face images. According to the experiments in the face images, the results show that the accuracy of face recognition has been greatly improved by the proposed method compared with the other previous methods. It demonstrates the effectiveness and robustness of our method.

  8. Issues in Biometric Security

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ogechukwu Iloanusi

    Human recognition is required for certain ... automated systems is that some can be stolen, passwords and PIN ... WORKS. A biometric system can be viewed as a simple diagram in figure 1. ... Feature extraction is done with the help of some.

  9. Biometrics Technology Review 2002

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blackburn, T

    2003-01-01

    .... The report characterizes the main categories of biometric techniques, with a focus on face recognition, which is the least intrusive but most effective means of applying filters at access points to the country...

  10. Haar-like Rectangular Features for Biometric Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas B.; Rashidi, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Developing a reliable, fast, and robust biometric recognition system is still a challenging task. This is because the inputs to these systems can be noisy, occluded, poorly illuminated, rotated, and of very low-resolutions. This paper proposes a probabilistic classifier using Haar-like features......, which mostly have been used for detection, for biometric recognition. The proposed system has been tested for three different biometrics: ear, iris, and hand vein patterns and it is shown that it is robust against most of the mentioned degradations and it outperforms state-of-the-art systems...

  11. A SCHEME FOR TEMPLATE SECURITY AT FEATURE FUSION LEVEL IN MULTIMODAL BIOMETRIC SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Arvind Selwal; Sunil Kumar Gupta; Surender Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Biometric is the science of human recognition based upon using their biological, chemical or behavioural traits. These systems are used in many real life applications simply from biometric based attendance system to providing security at very sophisticated level. A biometric system deals with raw data captured using a sensor and feature template extracted from raw image. One of the challenges being faced by designers of these systems is to secure template data extracted from the biometric mod...

  12. Biometric Technologies and Verification Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Vacca, John R

    2007-01-01

    Biometric Technologies and Verification Systems is organized into nine parts composed of 30 chapters, including an extensive glossary of biometric terms and acronyms. It discusses the current state-of-the-art in biometric verification/authentication, identification and system design principles. It also provides a step-by-step discussion of how biometrics works; how biometric data in human beings can be collected and analyzed in a number of ways; how biometrics are currently being used as a method of personal identification in which people are recognized by their own unique corporal or behavior

  13. Biometric templates selection and update using quality measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboud, Ali J.; Jassim, Sabah A.

    2012-06-01

    To deal with severe variation in recording conditions, most biometric systems acquire multiple biometric samples, at the enrolment stage, for the same person and then extract their individual biometric feature vectors and store them in the gallery in the form of biometric template(s), labelled with the person's identity. The number of samples/templates and the choice of the most appropriate templates influence the performance of the system. The desired biometric template(s) selection technique must aim to control the run time and storage requirements while improving the recognition accuracy of the biometric system. This paper is devoted to elaborating on and discussing a new two stages approach for biometric templates selection and update. This approach uses a quality-based clustering, followed by a special criterion for the selection of an ultimate set of biometric templates from the various clusters. This approach is developed to select adaptively a specific number of templates for each individual. The number of biometric templates depends mainly on the performance of each individual (i.e. gallery size should be optimised to meet the needs of each target individual). These experiments have been conducted on two face image databases and their results will demonstrate the effectiveness of proposed quality-guided approach.

  14. Hand and goods judgment algorithm based on depth information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingzhu; Zhang, Jinsong; Yan, Dan; Wang, Qin; Zhang, Ruiqi; Han, Jing

    2016-03-01

    A tablet computer with a depth camera and a color camera is loaded on a traditional shopping cart. The inside information of the shopping cart is obtained by two cameras. In the shopping cart monitoring field, it is very important for us to determine whether the customer with goods in or out of the shopping cart. This paper establishes a basic framework for judging empty hand, it includes the hand extraction process based on the depth information, process of skin color model building based on WPCA (Weighted Principal Component Analysis), an algorithm for judging handheld products based on motion and skin color information, statistical process. Through this framework, the first step can ensure the integrity of the hand information, and effectively avoids the influence of sleeve and other debris, the second step can accurately extract skin color and eliminate the similar color interference, light has little effect on its results, it has the advantages of fast computation speed and high efficiency, and the third step has the advantage of greatly reducing the noise interference and improving the accuracy.

  15. A Biometric Face Recognition System Using an Algorithm Based on the Principal Component Analysis Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Gîlcă

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with a recognition system using an algorithm based on the Principal Component Analysis (PCA technique. The recognition system consists only of a PC and an integrated video camera. The algorithm is developed in MATLAB language and calculates the eigenfaces considered as features of the face. The PCA technique is based on the matching between the facial test image and the training prototype vectors. The mathcing score between the facial test image and the training prototype vectors is calculated between their coefficient vectors. If the matching is high, we have the best recognition. The results of the algorithm based on the PCA technique are very good, even if the person looks from one side at the video camera.

  16. Biometrics-based service marketing issues: exploring acceptability and risk factors of iris scans associated with registered travel programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alan D

    2008-01-01

    The marketability and viability of biometric technologies by companies marketing their own versions of pre-approved registered travel programmes have generated a number of controversies. Data were collected and analysed to formulate graphs, run regression and correlation analyses, and use Chi-square to formally test basic research propositions on a sample of 241 professionals in the Pittsburgh area. It was found that there was a significant relationship between the respondents' familiarity with new technology (namely web-enabled and internet sophistication) and knowledge of biometrics, in particular iris scans. Participants who frequently use the internet are more comfortable with innovative technology; although individuals with higher income levels have less trust in the government, it appeared that virtually everyone is concerned about trusting the government with their personal information. Healthcare professionals need to document the safety, CRM-related factors, and provide leadership in the international collaboration of biometric-related personal identification technologies, since they will be one of the main beneficiaries of the implementation of such technologies.

  17. Automated Biometric Voice-Based Access Control in Automatic Teller Machine (ATM)

    OpenAIRE

    Yekini N.A.; Itegboje A.O.; Oyeyinka I.K.; Akinwole A.K.

    2012-01-01

    An automatic teller machine requires a user to pass an identity test before any transaction can be granted. The current method available for access control in ATM is based on smartcard. Efforts were made to conduct an interview with structured questions among the ATM users and the result proofed that a lot of problems was associated with ATM smartcard for access control. Among the problems are; it is very difficult to prevent another person from attaining and using a legitimate persons card, ...

  18. Design of a MEMS-based retina scanning system for biometric authentication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woittennek, Franziska; Knobbe, Jens; Pügner, Tino; Schelinski, Uwe; Grüger, Heinrich

    2014-05-01

    There is an increasing need for reliable authentication for a number of applications such as e commerce. Common authentication methods based on ownership (ID card) or knowledge factors (password, PIN) are often prone to manipulations and may therefore be not safe enough. Various inherence factor based methods like fingerprint, retinal pattern or voice identifications are considered more secure. Retina scanning in particular offers both low false rejection rate (FRR) and low false acceptance rate (FAR) with about one in a million. Images of the retina with its characteristic pattern of blood vessels can be made with either a fundus camera or laser scanning methods. The present work describes the optical design of a new compact retina laser scanner which is based on MEMS (Micro Electric Mechanical System) technology. The use of a dual axis micro scanning mirror for laser beam deflection enables a more compact and robust design compared to classical systems. The scanner exhibits a full field of view of 10° which corresponds to an area of 4 mm2 on the retinal surface surrounding the optical disc. The system works in the near infrared and is designed for use under ambient light conditions, which implies a pupil diameter of 1.5 mm. Furthermore it features a long eye relief of 30 mm so that it can be conveniently used by persons wearing glasses. The optical design requirements and the optical performance are discussed in terms of spot diagrams and ray fan plots.

  19. Biometrics: libraries have begun to see the value of biometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Panneerselvam, Selvi, M. G.

    2007-01-01

    It explains the Biometric Technologies which are becoming the foundation of an extensive array of highly secure identification and personal verification solution. Biometric devices with special reference to finger print recognition is dealt in detail. The benefits of Biometrics in Libraries, its employees and members are highlighted.

  20. Measuring Biometric Sample Quality in terms of Biometric Feature Information in Iris Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Youmaran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops an approach to measure the information content in a biometric feature representation of iris images. In this context, the biometric feature information is calculated using the relative entropy between the intraclass and interclass feature distributions. The collected data is regularized using a Gaussian model of the feature covariances in order to practically measure the biometric information with limited data samples. An example of this method is shown for iris templates processed using Principal-Component Analysis- (PCA- and Independent-Component Analysis- (ICA- based feature decomposition schemes. From this, the biometric feature information is calculated to be approximately 278 bits for PCA and 288 bits for ICA iris features using Masek's iris recognition scheme. This value approximately matches previous estimates of iris information content.

  1. Embedded System for Biometric Identification

    OpenAIRE

    Rosli, Ahmad Nasir Che

    2010-01-01

    This chapter describes the design and implementation of an Embedded System for Biometric Identification from hardware and software perspectives. The first part of the chapter describes the idea of biometric identification. This includes the definition of

  2. Behavioral and physical biometric characteristics modeling used for ITS security improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav BAČA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Biometric technologies rely on specific biometric characteristics that are used for recognition. The particular characteristic for a given situation can be described through a serious of descriptive parameters including ease of collecting, permanence, measurably, acceptability, deceptiveness, universality, uniqueness, sample cost, system cost, database size, as well as environmental factors. By using our ontology-based framework for adequacy of biometric systems, we introduce a model for using biometric technologies in ITS. Such technologies increase security, safety and protection of ITS.

  3. Error checking and near matching in helper data systems for biometric authentication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papatsimpa, Charikleia; Linnartz, Jean-Paul; de Groot, Joep; Skoric, B.; Ignatenko, T.

    2014-01-01

    Helper data systems mitigate the risk that biometric templates are stolen from a biometric data base. Yet, current systems face the drawback that strong Error Correction is needed in order to mitigate variations in the measured biometric during verification. Error correction codes are not always

  4. Analytical template protection performance and maximum key size given a Gaussian-modeled biometric source

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelkboom, E.J.C.; Breebaart, Jeroen; Buhan, I.R.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Vijaya Kumar, B.V.K.; Prabhakar, Salil; Ross, Arun A.

    2010-01-01

    Template protection techniques are used within biometric systems in order to protect the stored biometric template against privacy and security threats. A great portion of template protection techniques are based on extracting a key from or binding a key to a biometric sample. The achieved

  5. Anti-deception: reliable EEG-based biometrics with real-time capability from the neural response of face rapid serial visual presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qunjian; Yan, Bin; Zeng, Ying; Zhang, Chi; Tong, Li

    2018-05-03

    The electroencephalogram (EEG) signal represents a subject's specific brain activity patterns and is considered as an ideal biometric given its superior invisibility, non-clonality, and non-coercion. In order to enhance its applicability in identity authentication, a novel EEG-based identity authentication method is proposed based on self- or non-self-face rapid serial visual presentation. In contrast to previous studies that extracted EEG features from rest state or motor imagery, the designed paradigm could obtain a distinct and stable biometric trait with a lower time cost. Channel selection was applied to select specific channels for each user to enhance system portability and improve discriminability between users and imposters. Two different imposter scenarios were designed to test system security, which demonstrate the capability of anti-deception. Fifteen users and thirty imposters participated in the experiment. The mean authentication accuracy values for the two scenarios were 91.31 and 91.61%, with 6 s time cost, which illustrated the precision and real-time capability of the system. Furthermore, in order to estimate the repeatability and stability of our paradigm, another data acquisition session is conducted for each user. Using the classification models generated from the previous sessions, a mean false rejected rate of 7.27% has been achieved, which demonstrates the robustness of our paradigm. Experimental results reveal that the proposed paradigm and methods are effective for EEG-based identity authentication.

  6. 3D face analysis for demographic biometrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokola, Ryan A [ORNL; Mikkilineni, Aravind K [ORNL; Boehnen, Chris Bensing [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Despite being increasingly easy to acquire, 3D data is rarely used for face-based biometrics applications beyond identification. Recent work in image-based demographic biometrics has enjoyed much success, but these approaches suffer from the well-known limitations of 2D representations, particularly variations in illumination, texture, and pose, as well as a fundamental inability to describe 3D shape. This paper shows that simple 3D shape features in a face-based coordinate system are capable of representing many biometric attributes without problem-specific models or specialized domain knowledge. The same feature vector achieves impressive results for problems as diverse as age estimation, gender classification, and race classification.

  7. A comparative study of hand hygiene and alcohol-based hand rub use among Irish nursing and medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, Liz M; O'Connell, Nuala H; Dunne, Colum P

    2018-04-01

    In Ireland, the setting for this study, the national prevalence rate of health care-associated infection (HCAI) in acute-care facilities is 5.2%. Hand hygiene and in particular hand rubbing using alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR) is highly efficacious in preventing HCAI transmission. Yet, compliance among healthcare professionals is sub-optimal. Less is known about the practices of nursing and medical students and no study comparing practices among these groups in Ireland was found. Hence, the aim of this study was to provide insight into the current hand hygiene and hand rubbing practices of nursing and medical students in Ireland and, by doing so, contribute to the broader understanding of this topic. This observational study employed a cross-sectional, self-reported design. An electronically administered questionnaire was sent to all nursing and medical students from one university. Data were analysed using appropriate software. The response rate was 37% (323/872). Higher compliance with the World Health Organisation 'my five moments for hand hygiene' model was reported among nursing students (NS) than medical students (MS), with scope for improvement in both disciplines identified. Hand hygiene compliance was highest after body fluid exposure (99.5% NS, 91% MS) and lowest after touching a patient's surroundings (61.5% NS, 57.5% MS). Attitudes towards hand rubbing were largely positive in both disciplines. 16% of NS were not aware of the clinical contraindications to ABHR use, compared to 45% of MS. 9% of NS did not know when to use soap and water and when to use ABHR, compared to 36% of MS. In contrast, more medical students (46%) than nursing students (22%) were routinely using alcohol-based hand rub for decontamination of hands as recommended. Results suggest scope to review current hand hygiene curricula focusing on the knowledge gaps, the practice deficits and the barriers to ABHR usage identified. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Entropy Measurement for Biometric Verification Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Meng-Hui; Yuen, Pong C

    2016-05-01

    Biometric verification systems are designed to accept multiple similar biometric measurements per user due to inherent intrauser variations in the biometric data. This is important to preserve reasonable acceptance rate of genuine queries and the overall feasibility of the recognition system. However, such acceptance of multiple similar measurements decreases the imposter's difficulty of obtaining a system-acceptable measurement, thus resulting in a degraded security level. This deteriorated security needs to be measurable to provide truthful security assurance to the users. Entropy is a standard measure of security. However, the entropy formula is applicable only when there is a single acceptable possibility. In this paper, we develop an entropy-measuring model for biometric systems that accepts multiple similar measurements per user. Based on the idea of guessing entropy, the proposed model quantifies biometric system security in terms of adversarial guessing effort for two practical attacks. Excellent agreement between analytic and experimental simulation-based measurement results on a synthetic and a benchmark face dataset justify the correctness of our model and thus the feasibility of the proposed entropy-measuring approach.

  9. Biometric Methods for Application in Biomedicine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schlenker, Anna; Šárek, Milan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2011), s. 37-43 ISSN 1801-5603 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : biometrics * data security * EHR ( electronic health record ) * fingerprints * hand geometry * face recognition * iris recognition * retinal scanning * keystroke dynamics * multi-factor authentification Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science http://www.ejbi.eu/images/2011-1/Schlenker_en.pdf

  10. Anatomy of Biometric Passports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Malčík

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Travelling is becoming available for more and more people. Millions of people are on a way every day. That is why a better control over global human transfer and a more reliable identity check is desired. A recent trend in a field of personal identification documents is to use RFID (Radio Frequency Identification technology and biometrics, especially (but not only in passports. This paper provides an insight into the electronic passports (also called e-passport or ePassport implementation chosen in the Czech Republic. Such a summary is needed for further studies of biometric passports implementation security and biometric passports analysis. A separate description of the Czech solution is a prerequisite for a planned analysis, because of the uniqueness of each implementation. (Each country can choose the implementation details within a range specified by the ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organisation; moreover, specific security mechanisms are optional and can be omitted.

  11. Anatomy of Biometric Passports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malčík, Dominik; Drahanský, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Travelling is becoming available for more and more people. Millions of people are on a way every day. That is why a better control over global human transfer and a more reliable identity check is desired. A recent trend in a field of personal identification documents is to use RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) technology and biometrics, especially (but not only) in passports. This paper provides an insight into the electronic passports (also called e-passport or ePassport) implementation chosen in the Czech Republic. Such a summary is needed for further studies of biometric passports implementation security and biometric passports analysis. A separate description of the Czech solution is a prerequisite for a planned analysis, because of the uniqueness of each implementation. (Each country can choose the implementation details within a range specified by the ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organisation); moreover, specific security mechanisms are optional and can be omitted). PMID:22969272

  12. Anatomy of biometric passports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malčík, Dominik; Drahanský, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Travelling is becoming available for more and more people. Millions of people are on a way every day. That is why a better control over global human transfer and a more reliable identity check is desired. A recent trend in a field of personal identification documents is to use RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) technology and biometrics, especially (but not only) in passports. This paper provides an insight into the electronic passports (also called e-passport or ePassport) implementation chosen in the Czech Republic. Such a summary is needed for further studies of biometric passports implementation security and biometric passports analysis. A separate description of the Czech solution is a prerequisite for a planned analysis, because of the uniqueness of each implementation. (Each country can choose the implementation details within a range specified by the ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organisation); moreover, specific security mechanisms are optional and can be omitted).

  13. Design and implementation of a contactless multiple hand feature acquisition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qiushi; Bu, Wei; Wu, Xiangqian; Zhang, David

    2012-06-01

    In this work, an integrated contactless multiple hand feature acquisition system is designed. The system can capture palmprint, palm vein, and palm dorsal vein images simultaneously. Moreover, the images are captured in a contactless manner, that is, users need not to touch any part of the device when capturing. Palmprint is imaged under visible illumination while palm vein and palm dorsal vein are imaged under near infrared (NIR) illumination. The capturing is controlled by computer and the whole process is less than 1 second, which is sufficient for online biometric systems. Based on this device, this paper also implements a contactless hand-based multimodal biometric system. Palmprint, palm vein, palm dorsal vein, finger vein, and hand geometry features are extracted from the captured images. After similarity measure, the matching scores are fused using weighted sum fusion rule. Experimental results show that although the verification accuracy of each uni-modality is not as high as that of state-of-the-art, the fusion result is superior to most of the existing hand-based biometric systems. This result indicates that the proposed device is competent in the application of contactless multimodal hand-based biometrics.

  14. Can visual evoked potentials be used in biometric identification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Alan J; Lalor, Edmund C; Reilly, Richard B

    2006-01-01

    Due to known differences in the anatomical structure of the visual pathways and generators in different individuals, the use of visual evoked potentials offers the possibility of an alternative to existing biometrics methods. A study based on visual evoked potentials from 13 individuals was carried out to assess the best combination of temporal, spectral and AR modeling features to realize a robust biometric. From the results it can be concluded that visual evoked potentials show considerable biometric qualities, with classification accuracies reaching a high of 86.54% and that a specific temporal and spectral combination was found to be optimal. Based on these results the visual evoked potential may be a useful tool in biometric identification when used in conjunction with more established biometric methods.

  15. Privacy Enhancements for Inexact Biometric Templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratha, Nalini; Chikkerur, Sharat; Connell, Jonathan; Bolle, Ruud

    Traditional authentication schemes utilize tokens or depend on some secret knowledge possessed by the user for verifying his or her identity. Although these techniques are widely used, they have several limitations. Both tokenand knowledge-based approaches cannot differentiate between an authorized user and an impersonator having access to the tokens or passwords. Biometrics-based authentication schemes overcome these limitations while offering usability advantages in the area of password management. However, despite its obvious advantages, the use of biometrics raises several security and privacy concerns.

  16. Securing information using optically generated biometric keys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Gaurav; Sinha, Aloka

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we present a new technique to obtain biometric keys by using the fingerprint of a person for an optical image encryption system. The key generation scheme uses the fingerprint biometric information in terms of the amplitude mask (AM) and the phase mask (PM) of the reconstructed fingerprint image that is implemented using the digital holographic technique. Statistical tests have been conducted to check the randomness of the fingerprint PM key that enables its usage as an image encryption key. To explore the utility of the generated biometric keys, an optical image encryption system has been further demonstrated based on the phase retrieval algorithm and the double random phase encoding scheme in which keys for the encryption are used as the AM and the PM key. The advantage associated with the proposed scheme is that the biometric keys’ retrieval requires the simultaneous presence of the fingerprint hologram and the correct knowledge of the reconstruction parameters at the decryption stage, which not only verifies the authenticity of the person but also protects the valuable fingerprint biometric features of the keys. Numerical results are carried out to prove the feasibility and the effectiveness of the proposed encryption system.

  17. Body, biometrics and identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordini, Emilio; Massari, Sonia

    2008-11-01

    According to a popular aphorism, biometrics are turning the human body into a passport or a password. As usual, aphorisms say more than they intend. Taking the dictum seriously, we would be two: ourself and our body. Who are we, if we are not our body? And what is our body without us? The endless history of identification systems teaches that identification is not a trivial fact but always involves a web of economic interests, political relations, symbolic networks, narratives and meanings. Certainly there are reasons for the ethical and political concerns surrounding biometrics but these reasons are probably quite different from those usually alleged.

  18. Improving Patient Safety, Health Data Accuracy, and Remote Self-Management of Health Through the Establishment of a Biometric-Based Global UHID.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hembroff, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare systems globally continue to face challenges surrounding patient identification. Consequences of misidentification include incomplete and inaccurate electronic patient health records potentially jeopardizing patients' safety, a significant amount of cases of medical fraud because of inadequate identification mechanisms, and difficulties affiliated with the value of remote health self-management application data being aggregated accurately into the user's Electronic Health Record (EHR). We introduce a new technique of user identification in healthcare capable of establishing a global identifier. Our research has developed algorithms capable of establishing a Unique Health Identifier (UHID) based on the user's fingerprint biometric, with the utilization of facial-recognition as a secondary validation step before health records can be accessed. Biometric captures are completed using standard smartphones and Web cameras in a touchless method. We present a series of experiments to demonstrate the formation of an accurate, consistent, and scalable UHID. We hope our solution will aid in the reduction of complexities associated with user misidentification in healthcare resulting in lowering costs, enhancing population health monitoring, and improving patient-safety.

  19. Efficient and privacy-preserving biometric identification in cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changhee Hahn

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid growth in the development of smart devices equipped with biometric sensors, client identification system using biometric traits are widely adopted across various applications. Among many biometric traits, fingerprint-based identification systems have been extensively studied and deployed. However, to adopt biometric identification systems in practical applications, two main obstacles in terms of efficiency and client privacy must be resolved simultaneously. That is, identification should be performed at an acceptable time, and only a client should have access to his/her biometric traits, which are not revocable if leaked. Until now, multiple studies have demonstrated successful protection of client biometric data; however, such systems lack efficiency that leads to excessive time utilization for identification. The most recently researched scheme shows efficiency improvements but reveals client biometric traits to other entities such as biometric database server. This violates client privacy. In this paper, we propose an efficient and privacy-preserving fingerprint identification scheme by using cloud systems. The proposed scheme extensively exploits the computation power of a cloud so that most of the laborious computations are performed by the cloud service provider. According to our experimental results on an Amazon EC2 cloud, the proposed scheme is faster than the existing schemes and guarantees client privacy by exploiting symmetric homomorphic encryption. Our security analysis shows that during identification, the client fingerprint data is not disclosed to the cloud service provider or fingerprint database server.

  20. Biometric identification using local iterated function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saidi, N. M. G.; Said, M. R. M.

    2014-06-01

    Biometric identification protocol has been received an increasing interest recently. It is a process that determines person identity by making use of their biometric features. A new biometric identification method is presented in this paper based on partial self-similarity that used to identify features within fingerprint images. This approach is already used in Fractal Image Compression (FIC) due to their ability to represent the images by a limited number of affine transformations, and its variation of scale, translation or rotation. These features give the recognition process high impact and good performance. To process data in a fingerprint image, it first converted into digital format using Optical Fingerprint Reader (OFR). The verification process is done by comparing these data with the server data. The system analysis shows that the proposed method is efficient in terms of memory and time complexity.

  1. Unobtrusive Multimodal Biometric Authentication: The HUMABIO Project Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos Bekiaris

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Human Monitoring and Authentication using Biodynamic Indicators and Behavioural Analysis (HUMABIO (2007 is an EU Specific Targeted Research Project (STREP where new types of biometrics are combined with state of the art sensorial technologies in order to enhance security in a wide spectrum of applications. The project aims to develop a modular, robust, multimodal biometrics security authentication and monitoring system which utilizes a biodynamic physiological profile, unique for each individual, and advancements of the state-of-the art in behavioural and other biometrics, such as face, speech, gait recognition, and seat-based anthropometrics. Several shortcomings in biometric authentication will be addressed in the course of HUMABIO which will provide the basis for improving existing sensors, develop new algorithms, and design applications, towards creating new, unobtrusive biometric authentication procedures in security sensitive, controlled environments. This paper presents the concept of this project, describes its unobtrusive authentication demonstrator, and reports some preliminary results.

  2. Evaluation of antibacterial efficacy of some alcohol-based Hand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hospital and community-acquired infections are a serious problem worldwide often leading to increased deaths, costs and other problems. Hand hygiene has been promoted as the most important way to prevent these infections. The use of hand sanitizers is one of the ways to address the barriers to effective hand hygiene.

  3. Mathematical and information maintenance of biometric systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boriev, Z.; Sokolov, S.; Nyrkov, A.; Nekrasova, A.

    2016-04-01

    This article describes the different mathematical methods for processing biometric data. A brief overview of methods for personality recognition by means of a signature is conducted. Mathematical solutions of a dynamic authentication method are considered. Recommendations on use of certain mathematical methods, depending on specific tasks, are provided. Based on the conducted analysis of software and the choice made in favor of the wavelet analysis, a brief basis for its use in the course of software development for biometric personal identification is given for the purpose of its practical application.

  4. Biometrics Foundation Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    adjudication ( legal ) process. Forensics usually requires days of processing (versus seconds for biometrics) and are held to much higher accuracy...Living Body,” Medicina Philosophica, 11:620-629, 1992. 2 K. Shimizu and K. Yamomoto,“Imaging of Physiological Functions By Laser Transillumination

  5. Biometric Borders and Counterterrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    licenses, credit cards, online retailers , and even military installations all rely on various methods to identify and authenticate individuals in... Malaysia ..................................................................................92 2. 2004—Pakistan and Belgium...first state to establish a national biometric screening program was Malaysia in 1998 with several others that followed suit in 2004–2006, many of which

  6. Analyzing personalized policies for online biometric verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhwani, Apaar; Yang, Yan; Wein, Lawrence M

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by India's nationwide biometric program for social inclusion, we analyze verification (i.e., one-to-one matching) in the case where we possess similarity scores for 10 fingerprints and two irises between a resident's biometric images at enrollment and his biometric images during his first verification. At subsequent verifications, we allow individualized strategies based on these 12 scores: we acquire a subset of the 12 images, get new scores for this subset that quantify the similarity to the corresponding enrollment images, and use the likelihood ratio (i.e., the likelihood of observing these scores if the resident is genuine divided by the corresponding likelihood if the resident is an imposter) to decide whether a resident is genuine or an imposter. We also consider two-stage policies, where additional images are acquired in a second stage if the first-stage results are inconclusive. Using performance data from India's program, we develop a new probabilistic model for the joint distribution of the 12 similarity scores and find near-optimal individualized strategies that minimize the false reject rate (FRR) subject to constraints on the false accept rate (FAR) and mean verification delay for each resident. Our individualized policies achieve the same FRR as a policy that acquires (and optimally fuses) 12 biometrics for each resident, which represents a five (four, respectively) log reduction in FRR relative to fingerprint (iris, respectively) policies previously proposed for India's biometric program. The mean delay is [Formula: see text] sec for our proposed policy, compared to 30 sec for a policy that acquires one fingerprint and 107 sec for a policy that acquires all 12 biometrics. This policy acquires iris scans from 32-41% of residents (depending on the FAR) and acquires an average of 1.3 fingerprints per resident.

  7. Grip Strength Survey Based on Hand Tool Usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erman ÇAKIT

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Hand grip strength is broadly used for performing tasks involving equipment in production and processing activities. Most professionals in this field rely on grip strength to perform their tasks. There were three main aims of this study: i determining various hand grip strength measurements for the group of hand tool users, ii investigating the effects of height, weight, age, hand dominance, body mass index, previous Cumulative Trauma Disorder (CTD diagnosis, and hand tool usage experience on hand grip strength, and iii comparing the obtained results with existing data for other populations. The study groups comprised 71 healthy male facility workers. The values of subjects’ ages was observed between 26 and 74 years. The data were statistically analyzed to assess the normality of data and the percentile values of grip strength. The results of this study demonstrate that there were no significance differences noted between dominant and non-dominant hands. However, there were highly significant differences between the CTD group and the other group. Hand grip strength for the dominant hand was positively correlated to height, weight, and body mass index, and negatively correlated to age and tool usage experience. Hand dominance, height, weight, body mass index, age and tool usage experience should be considered when establishing normal values for grip strength.

  8. Unobtrusive behavioral and activity-related multimodal biometrics: The ACTIBIO Authentication concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosou, A; Ioannidis, D; Moustakas, K; Tzovaras, D

    2011-03-01

    Unobtrusive Authentication Using ACTIvity-Related and Soft BIOmetrics (ACTIBIO) is an EU Specific Targeted Research Project (STREP) where new types of biometrics are combined with state-of-the-art unobtrusive technologies in order to enhance security in a wide spectrum of applications. The project aims to develop a modular, robust, multimodal biometrics security authentication and monitoring system, which uses a biodynamic physiological profile, unique for each individual, and advancements of the state of the art in unobtrusive behavioral and other biometrics, such as face, gait recognition, and seat-based anthropometrics. Several shortcomings of existing biometric recognition systems are addressed within this project, which have helped in improving existing sensors, in developing new algorithms, and in designing applications, towards creating new, unobtrusive, biometric authentication procedures in security-sensitive, Ambient Intelligence environments. This paper presents the concept of the ACTIBIO project and describes its unobtrusive authentication demonstrator in a real scenario by focusing on the vision-based biometric recognition modalities.

  9. Matching hand radiographs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kauffman, J.A.; Slump, Cornelis H.; Bernelot Moens, H.J.

    2005-01-01

    Biometric verification and identification methods of medical images can be used to find possible inconsistencies in patient records. Such methods may also be useful for forensic research. In this work we present a method for identifying patients by their hand radiographs. We use active appearance

  10. Analysis of eigenvalue correction applied to biometrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrikse, A.J.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Bazen, A.M.

    Eigenvalue estimation plays an important role in biometrics. However, if the number of samples is limited, estimates are significantly biased. In this article we analyse the influence of this bias on the error rates of PCA/LDA based verification systems, using both synthetic data with realistic

  11. Biometric authentication for a mobile personal device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tao, Q.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2006-01-01

    Secure access is prerequisite for a mobile personal device (MPD) in a personal network (PN). An authentication method using biometrics, specifically face, is proposed in this paper. A fast face detection and registration method based on a Viola-Jones detector is implemented, and a

  12. Reducing viral contamination from finger pads: handwashing is more effective than alcohol-based hand disinfectants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuladhar, E.; Hazeleger, W.C.; Koopmans, M.; Zwietering, M.H.; Duizer, E.

    2015-01-01

    Background - Hand hygiene is important for interrupting transmission of viruses through hands. Effectiveness of alcohol-based hand disinfectant has been shown for bacteria but their effectiveness in reducing transmission of viruses is ambiguous. Aim - To test efficacy of alcohol hand disinfectant

  13. Survey of attitudes and practices of Irish nursing students towards hand hygiene, including handrubbing with alcohol-based hand rub.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, Liz M; O'Connell, Nuala H; Dunne, Colum P

    2017-05-01

    Hand hygiene is widely recognised as the most important measure a healthcare worker can take in preventing the spread of healthcare associated infections. As a member of the healthcare team, nursing students have direct patient contact during clinical practice; hence, good hand hygiene practice among nursing students is essential. Low to moderate levels of hand hygiene knowledge and poor attitudes and practices are reported among nursing students. However, less is known about their attitudes and practices of handrubbing with ABHR, even though handrubbing is the recommended optimum practice in most situations. The aim of this study was to explore attitudes and practices of hand hygiene, in particular handrubbing with alcohol-based hand rub, among nursing students in Ireland. This survey employed a descriptive, self-report design using a questionnaire to gather data. It was administered electronically to all undergraduate nursing students (n=342) in the Department of Nursing and Midwifery at the University of Limerick, Ireland in March and April 2015. Response rate was 66%. Attitudes towards hand hygiene were generally positive. Compliance with hand hygiene after contact with body fluid was high (99.5%) and before a clean or aseptic procedure (98.5%). However, suboptimal practices emerged, before touching a patient (85%), after touching a patient (87%) and after touching patients' surroundings (61%), with first year students more compliant than fourth year students. 16% of students were not aware of the clinical contraindications for using alcohol-based hand rub and 9% did not know when to use soap and water and when to use alcohol-based hand rub. Educators and practitioners play an important role in ensuring that nursing students develop appropriate attitudes towards hand hygiene and engage in optimal handrubbing practices. Raising awareness among nursing students of their responsibility in preventing the occurrence and reducing the transmission of HCAI as an on

  14. Hand eczema in hairdressers: a Danish register-based study of the prevalence of hand eczema and its career consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysdal, Susan Hovmand; Søsted, Heidi; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2011-09-01

    Occupational hand eczema is common in hairdressers, owing to wet work and hairdressing chemicals. To estimate the prevalence of hand eczema and its career consequences among hairdressers in Denmark. A register-based study was conducted, comprising all graduates from hairdressing vocational schools from 1985 to 2007 (n = 7840). The participants received a self-administered postal questionnaire including questions on hand eczema, atopic dermatitis, and career change. A response rate of 67.9% (n = 5324) was obtained. Of the respondents, 44.3% no longer worked as hairdressers and had worked for an average of 8.4 years in the profession before leaving it. Hand eczema was more common among ex-hairdressers (48.4%) than among current hairdressers (37.6%) (p reason for career change. In this group, logistic regression analysis showed that chronic hand eczema contributed the most to the decision to change career (odds ratio 50.12; 95% confidence interval 18.3-137). Hairdressers work an average of 8.4 years in the profession before leaving it, and hand eczema contributes significantly to this career change. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. [Biometric identification method for ECG based on the piecewise linear representation (PLR) and dynamic time warping (DTW)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Licai; Shen, Jun; Bao, Shudi; Wei, Shoushui

    2013-10-01

    To treat the problem of identification performance and the complexity of the algorithm, we proposed a piecewise linear representation and dynamic time warping (PLR-DTW) method for ECG biometric identification. Firstly we detected R peaks to get the heartbeats after denoising preprocessing. Then we used the PLR method to keep important information of an ECG signal segment while reducing the data dimension at the same time. The improved DTW method was used for similarity measurements between the test data and the templates. The performance evaluation was carried out on the two ECG databases: PTB and MIT-BIH. The analystic results showed that compared to the discrete wavelet transform method, the proposed PLR-DTW method achieved a higher accuracy rate which is nearly 8% of rising, and saved about 30% operation time, and this demonstrated that the proposed method could provide a better performance.

  16. Developing a multimodal biometric authentication system using soft computing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcangi, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Robust personal authentication is becoming ever more important in computer-based applications. Among a variety of methods, biometric offers several advantages, mainly in embedded system applications. Hard and soft multi-biometric, combined with hard and soft computing methods, can be applied to improve the personal authentication process and to generalize the applicability. This chapter describes the embedded implementation of a multi-biometric (voiceprint and fingerprint) multimodal identification system based on hard computing methods (DSP) for feature extraction and matching, an artificial neural network (ANN) for soft feature pattern matching, and a fuzzy logic engine (FLE) for data fusion and decision.

  17. Bartus Iris biometrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, R.; Grace, W.

    1996-07-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). We won a 1994 R&D 100 Award for inventing the Bartas Iris Verification System. The system has been delivered to a sponsor and is no longer available to us. This technology can verify the identity of a person for purposes of access control, national security, law enforcement, forensics, counter-terrorism, and medical, financial, or scholastic records. The technique is non-invasive, psychologically acceptable, works in real-time, and obtains more biometric data than any other biometric except DNA analysis. This project sought to develop a new, second-generation prototype instrument.

  18. Environmental Testing Methodology in Biometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Saavedra, Belén; Sánchez Reíllo, Raúl; Alonso Moreno, Raúl; Miguel Hurtado, Óscar

    2010-01-01

    8 pages document + 5-slide presentation.-- Contributed to: 1st International Biometric Performance Conference (IBPC 2010, NIST, Gaithersburg, MD, US, Mar 1-5, 2010). Recently, biometrics is used in many security systems and these systems can be located in different environments. As many experts claim and previous works have demonstrated, environmental conditions influence biometric performance. Nevertheless, there is not a specific methodology for testing this influence at the moment...

  19. Analysis and comparison of biometric methods

    OpenAIRE

    Zatloukal, Filip

    2011-01-01

    The thesis deals with biometrics and biometric systems and the possibility to use these systems in the enterprise. Aim of this study is an analysis and description of selected types of biometric identification methods and their advantages and shortcomings. The work is divided into two parts. The first part is theoretical, describes the basic concepts of biometrics, biometric identification criteria, currently used identification systems, the ways of biometric systems use, performance measurem...

  20. Applying intelligent statistical methods on biometric systems

    OpenAIRE

    Betschart, Willie

    2005-01-01

    This master’s thesis work was performed at Optimum Biometric Labs, OBL, located in Karlskrona, Sweden. Optimum Biometric Labs perform independent scenario evaluations to companies who develop biometric devices. The company has a product Optimum preConTM which is surveillance and diagnosis tool for biometric systems. This thesis work’s objective was to develop a conceptual model and implement it as an additional layer above the biometric layer with intelligence about the biometric users. The l...

  1. Biometrics: Multi-Service Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for Tactical Employment of Biometrics in Support of Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Biometrics in Support of Operations Biometrics -at-Sea: Business Rules for South Florida United States...Intelligence Activities Biometrics -Enabled Intelligence USCG Biometrics -at-Sea: Business Rules for...Defense Biometrics United States Intelligence Activities Active Army,

  2. Quantum Biometrics with Retinal Photon Counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loulakis, M.; Blatsios, G.; Vrettou, C. S.; Kominis, I. K.

    2017-10-01

    It is known that the eye's scotopic photodetectors, rhodopsin molecules, and their associated phototransduction mechanism leading to light perception, are efficient single-photon counters. We here use the photon-counting principles of human rod vision to propose a secure quantum biometric identification based on the quantum-statistical properties of retinal photon detection. The photon path along the human eye until its detection by rod cells is modeled as a filter having a specific transmission coefficient. Precisely determining its value from the photodetection statistics registered by the conscious observer is a quantum parameter estimation problem that leads to a quantum secure identification method. The probabilities for false-positive and false-negative identification of this biometric technique can readily approach 10-10 and 10-4, respectively. The security of the biometric method can be further quantified by the physics of quantum measurements. An impostor must be able to perform quantum thermometry and quantum magnetometry with energy resolution better than 10-9ℏ , in order to foil the device by noninvasively monitoring the biometric activity of a user.

  3. Extracting forensic evidence from biometric devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geradts, Zeno J.; Ruifrok, Arnout C.

    2003-08-01

    Over the past few years, both large multinationals and governments have begun to contribute to even larger projects on biometric devices. Terrorist attacks in America and in other countries have highlighted the need for better identification systems for people as well as improved systems for controlling access to buildings. Another reason for investment in Research and Development in Biometric Devices, is the massive growth in internet-based systems -- whether for e-commerce, e-government or internal processes within organizations. The interface between the system and the user is routinely abused, as people have to remember many complex passwords and handle tokens of various types. In this paper an overview is given of the information that is important to know before an examination of such is systems can be done in a forensic proper way. In forensic evidence with biometric devices the forensic examiner should consider the possibilities of tampering with the biometric systems or the possibilities of unauthorized access before drawing conclusions.

  4. An Analysis of a Biometric Screening and Premium Incentive-Based Employee Wellness Program: Enrollment Patterns, Cost, and Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeng, Daniel D; Geng, Zhi; Marshall, Wendy M; Hess, Allison L; Tomcavage, Janet F

    2017-11-14

    Since 2012, a large health care system has offered an employee wellness program providing premium discounts for those who voluntarily undergo biometric screenings and meet goals. This study evaluates the program impact on care utilization and total cost of care, taking into account employee self-selection into the program. A retrospective claims data analysis of 6453 employees between 2011 and 2015 was conducted, categorizing the sample into 3 mutually exclusive subgroups: Subgroup 1 enrolled and met goals in all years, Subgroup 2 enrolled or met goals in some years but not all, and Subgroup 3 never enrolled. Each subgroup was compared to a cohort of employees in other employer groups (N = 24,061). Using a difference-in-difference method, significant reductions in total medical cost (14.2%; P = 0.014) and emergency department (ED) visits (11.2%; P = 0.058) were observed only among Subgroup 2 in 2015. No significant impact was detected among those in Subgroup 1. Those in Subgroup 1 were less likely to have chronic conditions at baseline. The results indicate that the wellness program enrollment was characterized by self-selection of healthier employees, among whom the program appeared to have no significant impact. Yet, cost savings and reductions in ED visits were observed among the subset of employees who enrolled or met goal in some years but not all, suggesting a potential link between the wellness program and positive behavior changes among certain subsets of the employee population.

  5. Remote Biometrics for Robust Persistent Authentication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingwar, Mads Ingerslew; Jensen, Christian D.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the problem of providing a robust non-invasive authentication service for mobile users in a smart environment. We base our work on the persistent authentication model (PAISE), which relies on available sensors to track principals from the location where they authenticate, e.......g., through a smart card based access control system, to the location where the authentication is required by a location-based service. The PAISE model is extended with remote biometrics to prevent the decay of authentication confidence when authenticated users encounter and interact with other users...... in the environment. The result is a calm approach to authentication, where mobile users are transparently authenticated towards the system, which allows the provision of location-based services. The output of the remote biometrics are fused using error-rate-based fusion to solve a common problem that occurs in score...

  6. Biometrics — Developments and Potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwly, Didier; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the use of biometric technology in forensic science, for the development of new methods and tools, improving the current forensic biometric applications, and allowing for the creation of new ones. The article begins with a definition and a summary of the development of this

  7. Logistic Map for Cancellable Biometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supriya, V. G., Dr; Manjunatha, Ramachandra, Dr

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents design and implementation of secured biometric template protection system by transforming the biometric template using binary chaotic signals and 3 different key streams to obtain another form of template and demonstrating its efficiency by the results and investigating on its security through analysis including, key space analysis, information entropy and key sensitivity analysis.

  8. Biometric Communication Research for Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, M. F.

    Biometric communication research is defined as research dealing with the information impact of a film or television show, photographic picture, painting, exhibition, display, or any literary or functional texts or verbal stimuli on human beings, both as individuals and in groups (mass audiences). Biometric communication research consists of a…

  9. Comparing of athletic performance and biometric features of selected teenagers based on the specific talent identification pattern of Karate with elite athletes

    OpenAIRE

    seyed Ehsan Naghibi; Mehrdad Anbarian; Mohammad Reza Mahmoodkhani

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to comparing the athletic performance and biometric features in elite karate players teenagers with a specific talent identification pattern of  karate in a professional gyms in Iran. Methods: Subjects available for sampling were divided into two groups teenagers karate athletes elite (n=19) and members developmental center and the Club Championship (n=19) for assessing the biometric data of the sport performance tests respectively. Shapiro-Wilk te...

  10. Comparative antibacterial effectiveness of alcohol and herbal based commercially available hand antiseptics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Vipin Jain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human skin is a reservoir of numerous microorganisms. Even though hand washing with soap and water alone reduces the microbial load, the complementary uses of hand antiseptics enhance the antimicrobial effect. Aim: To compare the antimicrobial effectiveness of two commercially available hand antiseptics, routinely used in dental practice, after hand washing with antiseptic soap. Method: A clinical trial with cross over design was carried out on 12 health care workers (HCWs. The antibacterial effectiveness of two hand antiseptics (Alcohol based -Sterillium and Herbal Based-Himalaya′s ′Pure Hands′ compared using fingerprint contact sampling on blood agar. Bacterial samples were obtained before and after hand washing (with antiseptic soap and after hand disinfection. The data was tabulated and analyzed using one way ANOVA and Tukey′s post hoc test for pair-wise comparison. Result: There was a slight decrease in the Colony forming units (CFUs count following use of antiseptic soap when compared to the baseline values. A statistically significant reduction (p<0.000 in the CFUs count was seen following use of both hand antiseptics but the mean number of CFUs reduction was more in case of alcohol based hand antiseptic(sterillium than herbal based hand antiseptic(Himalaya′s ′PureHands". Conclusion: Using alcohol based antiseptic soap before hygienic hand disinfection will provide maximum benefit in reducing the microbial count.

  11. Biometric Authentication Using the PPG: A Long-Term Feasibility Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Sancho

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The photoplethysmogram (PPG is a biomedical signal that can be used to estimate volumetric blood flow changes in the peripheral circulation. During the past few years, several works have been published in order to assess the potential for PPGs to be used in biometric authentication systems, but results are inconclusive. In this paper we perform an analysis of the feasibility of using the PPG as a realistic biometric alternative in the long term. Several feature extractors (based on the time domain and the Karhunen–Loève transform and matching metrics (Manhattan and Euclidean distances have been tested using four different PPG databases (PRRB, MIMIC-II, Berry, and Nonin. We show that the false match rate (FMR and false non-match rate (FNMR values remain constant in different time instances for a selected threshold, which is essential for using the PPG for biometric authentication purposes. On the other hand, obtained equal error rate (EER values for signals recorded during the same session range from 1.0% for high-quality signals recorded in controlled conditions to 8% for those recorded in conditions closer to real-world scenarios. Moreover, in certain scenarios, EER values rise up to 23.2% for signals recorded over different days, signaling that performance degradation could take place with time.

  12. Biometric Authentication Using the PPG: A Long-Term Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho, Jorge; Alesanco, Álvaro; García, José

    2018-05-11

    The photoplethysmogram (PPG) is a biomedical signal that can be used to estimate volumetric blood flow changes in the peripheral circulation. During the past few years, several works have been published in order to assess the potential for PPGs to be used in biometric authentication systems, but results are inconclusive. In this paper we perform an analysis of the feasibility of using the PPG as a realistic biometric alternative in the long term. Several feature extractors (based on the time domain and the Karhunen⁻Loève transform) and matching metrics (Manhattan and Euclidean distances) have been tested using four different PPG databases (PRRB, MIMIC-II, Berry, and Nonin). We show that the false match rate ( FMR ) and false non-match rate ( FNMR ) values remain constant in different time instances for a selected threshold, which is essential for using the PPG for biometric authentication purposes. On the other hand, obtained equal error rate (EER) values for signals recorded during the same session range from 1.0% for high-quality signals recorded in controlled conditions to 8% for those recorded in conditions closer to real-world scenarios. Moreover, in certain scenarios, EER values rise up to 23.2% for signals recorded over different days, signaling that performance degradation could take place with time.

  13. Hand based visual intent recognition algorithm for wheelchair motion

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Luhandjula, T

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an algorithm for a visual human-machine interface that infers a person’s intention from the motion of the hand. Work in progress shows a proof of concept tested on static images. The context for which this solution is intended...

  14. Evolutionary Algorithms Application Analysis in Biometric Systems

    OpenAIRE

    N. Goranin; A. Cenys

    2010-01-01

    Wide usage of biometric information for person identity verification purposes, terrorist acts prevention measures and authenticationprocess simplification in computer systems has raised significant attention to reliability and efficiency of biometricsystems. Modern biometric systems still face many reliability and efficiency related issues such as reference databasesearch speed, errors while recognizing of biometric information or automating biometric feature extraction. Current scientificinv...

  15. Joint sparse representation for robust multimodal biometrics recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhar, Sumit; Patel, Vishal M; Nasrabadi, Nasser M; Chellappa, Rama

    2014-01-01

    Traditional biometric recognition systems rely on a single biometric signature for authentication. While the advantage of using multiple sources of information for establishing the identity has been widely recognized, computational models for multimodal biometrics recognition have only recently received attention. We propose a multimodal sparse representation method, which represents the test data by a sparse linear combination of training data, while constraining the observations from different modalities of the test subject to share their sparse representations. Thus, we simultaneously take into account correlations as well as coupling information among biometric modalities. A multimodal quality measure is also proposed to weigh each modality as it gets fused. Furthermore, we also kernelize the algorithm to handle nonlinearity in data. The optimization problem is solved using an efficient alternative direction method. Various experiments show that the proposed method compares favorably with competing fusion-based methods.

  16. Demographic Analysis from Biometric Data: Achievements, Challenges, and New Frontiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yunlian; Zhang, Man; Sun, Zhenan; Tan, Tieniu

    2018-02-01

    Biometrics is the technique of automatically recognizing individuals based on their biological or behavioral characteristics. Various biometric traits have been introduced and widely investigated, including fingerprint, iris, face, voice, palmprint, gait and so forth. Apart from identity, biometric data may convey various other personal information, covering affect, age, gender, race, accent, handedness, height, weight, etc. Among these, analysis of demographics (age, gender, and race) has received tremendous attention owing to its wide real-world applications, with significant efforts devoted and great progress achieved. This survey first presents biometric demographic analysis from the standpoint of human perception, then provides a comprehensive overview of state-of-the-art advances in automated estimation from both academia and industry. Despite these advances, a number of challenging issues continue to inhibit its full potential. We second discuss these open problems, and finally provide an outlook into the future of this very active field of research by sharing some promising opportunities.

  17. Practical security and privacy attacks against biometric hashing using sparse recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topcu, Berkay; Karabat, Cagatay; Azadmanesh, Matin; Erdogan, Hakan

    2016-12-01

    Biometric hashing is a cancelable biometric verification method that has received research interest recently. This method can be considered as a two-factor authentication method which combines a personal password (or secret key) with a biometric to obtain a secure binary template which is used for authentication. We present novel practical security and privacy attacks against biometric hashing when the attacker is assumed to know the user's password in order to quantify the additional protection due to biometrics when the password is compromised. We present four methods that can reconstruct a biometric feature and/or the image from a hash and one method which can find the closest biometric data (i.e., face image) from a database. Two of the reconstruction methods are based on 1-bit compressed sensing signal reconstruction for which the data acquisition scenario is very similar to biometric hashing. Previous literature introduced simple attack methods, but we show that we can achieve higher level of security threats using compressed sensing recovery techniques. In addition, we present privacy attacks which reconstruct a biometric image which resembles the original image. We quantify the performance of the attacks using detection error tradeoff curves and equal error rates under advanced attack scenarios. We show that conventional biometric hashing methods suffer from high security and privacy leaks under practical attacks, and we believe more advanced hash generation methods are necessary to avoid these attacks.

  18. Biometric micromixer design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, C.T.; Hu, Z.Y. [National I-Lan Univ., Taiwan (China). Dept. of Mechanical and Electromechanical Engineering; Shaw, C.K. [California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Fluid mixing in microchannels has many applications, and is particularly important in microfluidic systems for biochemistry and biomedical analysis, or for the production or organic compounds in microreactors. Micromixer development should take into consideration a simple system design with a high mixing efficiency and effective techniques for examining mixing efficiency. Mechanical stirring methods are not suitable for fluid mixing in microchannels because the flow inside microchannels is predominantly laminar and the Reynolds numbers are usually lower than 10. Improving the flexibility and performance of microfluidic systems by incorporating different processes such as fluid handling and fluid motion that cause rapid mixing on micro scale can be challenging. To achieve optimal mixing, an efficient micromixer usually involves complex 3-dimensional geometries which are used to enhance the fluid lamination, stretching and folding. In this study, a biometric concept imitated from distribution of human blood vessel was applied to passive micromixers to promote mixing efficiency. Microchannels of different widths were used to construct the biometric structure. The main advantages of the new design were a high mixing performance and lower pressure drop. Mixing performance was evaluated using a mixing index. The mixing efficiencies in the micromixer under different Reynolds numbers ranging from 1 to 10 were evaluated with a 370 {mu}m device. The main mixing mechanics in this type of passive micromixer was the convection effect. The 2D numerical results revealed that the mixing efficiency of the mixer was 0.876 at Reynolds ratio of 0.85. 9 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

  19. Hand Gesture Based Wireless Robotic Arm Control for Agricultural Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan Megalingam, Rajesh; Bandhyopadhyay, Shiva; Vamsy Vivek, Gedela; Juned Rahi, Muhammad

    2017-08-01

    One of the major challenges in agriculture is harvesting. It is very hard and sometimes even unsafe for workers to go to each plant and pluck fruits. Robotic systems are increasingly combined with new technologies to automate or semi automate labour intensive work, such as e.g. grape harvesting. In this work we propose a semi-automatic method for aid in harvesting fruits and hence increase productivity per man hour. A robotic arm fixed to a rover roams in the in orchard and the user can control it remotely using the hand glove fixed with various sensors. These sensors can position the robotic arm remotely to harvest the fruits. In this paper we discuss the design of hand glove fixed with various sensors, design of 4 DoF robotic arm and the wireless control interface. In addition the setup of the system and the testing and evaluation under lab conditions are also presented in this paper.

  20. Basic Hand Gestures Classification Based on Surface Electromyography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Palkowski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an innovative classification system for hand gestures using 2-channel surface electromyography analysis. The system developed uses the Support Vector Machine classifier, for which the kernel function and parameter optimisation are conducted additionally by the Cuckoo Search swarm algorithm. The system developed is compared with standard Support Vector Machine classifiers with various kernel functions. The average classification rate of 98.12% has been achieved for the proposed method.

  1. Biometrics: Accessibility challenge or opportunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Gonzalo, Ramon; Lunerti, Chiara; Sanchez-Reillo, Raul; Guest, Richard Michael

    2018-01-01

    Biometric recognition is currently implemented in several authentication contexts, most recently in mobile devices where it is expected to complement or even replace traditional authentication modalities such as PIN (Personal Identification Number) or passwords. The assumed convenience characteristics of biometrics are transparency, reliability and ease-of-use, however, the question of whether biometric recognition is as intuitive and straightforward to use is open to debate. Can biometric systems make some tasks easier for people with accessibility concerns? To investigate this question, an accessibility evaluation of a mobile app was conducted where test subjects withdraw money from a fictitious ATM (Automated Teller Machine) scenario. The biometric authentication mechanisms used include face, voice, and fingerprint. Furthermore, we employed traditional modalities of PIN and pattern in order to check if biometric recognition is indeed a real improvement. The trial test subjects within this work were people with real-life accessibility concerns. A group of people without accessibility concerns also participated, providing a baseline performance. Experimental results are presented concerning performance, HCI (Human-Computer Interaction) and accessibility, grouped according to category of accessibility concern. Our results reveal links between individual modalities and user category establishing guidelines for future accessible biometric products.

  2. Biometrics: Accessibility challenge or opportunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunerti, Chiara; Sanchez-Reillo, Raul; Guest, Richard Michael

    2018-01-01

    Biometric recognition is currently implemented in several authentication contexts, most recently in mobile devices where it is expected to complement or even replace traditional authentication modalities such as PIN (Personal Identification Number) or passwords. The assumed convenience characteristics of biometrics are transparency, reliability and ease-of-use, however, the question of whether biometric recognition is as intuitive and straightforward to use is open to debate. Can biometric systems make some tasks easier for people with accessibility concerns? To investigate this question, an accessibility evaluation of a mobile app was conducted where test subjects withdraw money from a fictitious ATM (Automated Teller Machine) scenario. The biometric authentication mechanisms used include face, voice, and fingerprint. Furthermore, we employed traditional modalities of PIN and pattern in order to check if biometric recognition is indeed a real improvement. The trial test subjects within this work were people with real-life accessibility concerns. A group of people without accessibility concerns also participated, providing a baseline performance. Experimental results are presented concerning performance, HCI (Human-Computer Interaction) and accessibility, grouped according to category of accessibility concern. Our results reveal links between individual modalities and user category establishing guidelines for future accessible biometric products. PMID:29565989

  3. Biometrics: Accessibility challenge or opportunity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Blanco-Gonzalo

    Full Text Available Biometric recognition is currently implemented in several authentication contexts, most recently in mobile devices where it is expected to complement or even replace traditional authentication modalities such as PIN (Personal Identification Number or passwords. The assumed convenience characteristics of biometrics are transparency, reliability and ease-of-use, however, the question of whether biometric recognition is as intuitive and straightforward to use is open to debate. Can biometric systems make some tasks easier for people with accessibility concerns? To investigate this question, an accessibility evaluation of a mobile app was conducted where test subjects withdraw money from a fictitious ATM (Automated Teller Machine scenario. The biometric authentication mechanisms used include face, voice, and fingerprint. Furthermore, we employed traditional modalities of PIN and pattern in order to check if biometric recognition is indeed a real improvement. The trial test subjects within this work were people with real-life accessibility concerns. A group of people without accessibility concerns also participated, providing a baseline performance. Experimental results are presented concerning performance, HCI (Human-Computer Interaction and accessibility, grouped according to category of accessibility concern. Our results reveal links between individual modalities and user category establishing guidelines for future accessible biometric products.

  4. Do hospital visitors wash their hands? Assessing the use of alcohol-based hand sanitizer in a hospital lobby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnbach, David J; Nevo, Igal; Barnes, Susan; Fitzpatrick, Maureen; Rosen, Lisa F; Everett-Thomas, Ruth; Sanko, Jill S; Arheart, Kristopher L

    2012-05-01

    Reports regarding hand hygiene compliance (HHC) among hospital visitors are limited. Although there is an implicit assumption that the availability of alcohol-based hand sanitizer (AHS) promotes visitor HHC, the degree of AHS use by visitors remains unclear. To assess AHS use, we observed visitor HHC and how it is affected by visual cues in a private university hospital. Using an observational controlled study, we tested 3 interventions: a desk sign mandating all visitors to use AHS, a free-standing AHS dispenser directly in front of a security desk, and a combination of a freestanding AHS dispenser and a sign. HHC was 0.52% at baseline and did not improve significantly when the desk sign was provided as a cue 0.67% (P = .753). However, HHC did improve significantly with use of the freestanding AHS dispenser (9.33%) and the sign and dispenser combination (11.67%) (P hand hygiene behavior. Copyright © 2012 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Iris analysis for biometric recognition systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bodade, Rajesh M

    2014-01-01

    The book presents three most significant areas in Biometrics and Pattern Recognition. A step-by-step approach for design and implementation of Dual Tree Complex Wavelet Transform (DTCWT) plus Rotated Complex Wavelet Filters (RCWF) is discussed in detail. In addition to the above, the book provides detailed analysis of iris images and two methods of iris segmentation. It also discusses simplified study of some subspace-based methods and distance measures for iris recognition backed by empirical studies and statistical success verifications.

  6. Heart Electrical Actions as Biometric Indicia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipper, John F. (Inventor); Dusan, Sorin V. (Inventor); Jorgensen, Charles C. (Inventor); Belousof, Eugene (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method and associated system for use of statistical parameters based on peak amplitudes and/or time interval lengths and/or depolarization-repolarization vector angles and/or depolarization-repolarization vector lengths for PQRST electrical signals associated with heart waves, to identify a person. The statistical parameters, estimated to be at least 192, serve as biometric indicia, to authenticate, or to decline to authenticate, an asserted identity of a candidate person.

  7. Multimodal Biometric System- Fusion Of Face And Fingerprint Biometrics At Match Score Fusion Level

    OpenAIRE

    Grace Wangari Mwaura; Prof. Waweru Mwangi; Dr. Calvins Otieno

    2017-01-01

    Biometrics has developed to be one of the most relevant technologies used in Information Technology IT security. Unimodal biometric systems have a variety of problems which decreases the performance and accuracy of these system. One way to overcome the limitations of the unimodal biometric systems is through fusion to form a multimodal biometric system. Generally biometric fusion is defined as the use of multiple types of biometric data or ways of processing the data to improve the performanc...

  8. MULTIMODAL BIOMETRIC AUTHENTICATION USING PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION ALGORITHM WITH FINGERPRINT AND IRIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Muthukumar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In general, the identification and verification are done by passwords, pin number, etc., which is easily cracked by others. In order to overcome this issue biometrics is a unique tool for authenticate an individual person. Nevertheless, unimodal biometric is suffered due to noise, intra class variations, spoof attacks, non-universality and some other attacks. In order to avoid these attacks, the multimodal biometrics i.e. combining of more modalities is adapted. In a biometric authentication system, the acceptance or rejection of an entity is dependent on the similarity score falling above or below the threshold. Hence this paper has focused on the security of the biometric system, because compromised biometric templates cannot be revoked or reissued and also this paper has proposed a multimodal system based on an evolutionary algorithm, Particle Swarm Optimization that adapts for varying security environments. With these two concerns, this paper had developed a design incorporating adaptability, authenticity and security.

  9. The biometric recognition on contactless multi-spectrum finger images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Wenxiong; Chen, Xiaopeng; Wu, Qiuxia

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel multimodal biometric system based on contactless multi-spectrum finger images, which aims to deal with the limitations of unimodal biometrics. The chief merits of the system are the richness of the permissible texture and the ease of data access. We constructed a multi-spectrum instrument to simultaneously acquire three different types of biometrics from a finger: contactless fingerprint, finger vein, and knuckleprint. On the basis of the samples with these characteristics, a moderate database was built for the evaluation of our system. Considering the real-time requirements and the respective characteristics of the three biometrics, the block local binary patterns algorithm was used to extract features and match for the fingerprints and finger veins, while the Oriented FAST and Rotated BRIEF algorithm was applied for knuckleprints. Finally, score-level fusion was performed on the matching results from the aforementioned three types of biometrics. The experiments showed that our proposed multimodal biometric recognition system achieves an equal error rate of 0.109%, which is 88.9%, 94.6%, and 89.7% lower than the individual fingerprint, knuckleprint, and finger vein recognitions, respectively. Nevertheless, our proposed system also satisfies the real-time requirements of the applications.

  10. Multimodal biometric system using rank-level fusion approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monwar, Md Maruf; Gavrilova, Marina L

    2009-08-01

    In many real-world applications, unimodal biometric systems often face significant limitations due to sensitivity to noise, intraclass variability, data quality, nonuniversality, and other factors. Attempting to improve the performance of individual matchers in such situations may not prove to be highly effective. Multibiometric systems seek to alleviate some of these problems by providing multiple pieces of evidence of the same identity. These systems help achieve an increase in performance that may not be possible using a single-biometric indicator. This paper presents an effective fusion scheme that combines information presented by multiple domain experts based on the rank-level fusion integration method. The developed multimodal biometric system possesses a number of unique qualities, starting from utilizing principal component analysis and Fisher's linear discriminant methods for individual matchers (face, ear, and signature) identity authentication and utilizing the novel rank-level fusion method in order to consolidate the results obtained from different biometric matchers. The ranks of individual matchers are combined using the highest rank, Borda count, and logistic regression approaches. The results indicate that fusion of individual modalities can improve the overall performance of the biometric system, even in the presence of low quality data. Insights on multibiometric design using rank-level fusion and its performance on a variety of biometric databases are discussed in the concluding section.

  11. Multimodal biometric approach for cancelable face template generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Padma Polash; Gavrilova, Marina

    2012-06-01

    Due to the rapid growth of biometric technology, template protection becomes crucial to secure integrity of the biometric security system and prevent unauthorized access. Cancelable biometrics is emerging as one of the best solutions to secure the biometric identification and verification system. We present a novel technique for robust cancelable template generation algorithm that takes advantage of the multimodal biometric using feature level fusion. Feature level fusion of different facial features is applied to generate the cancelable template. A proposed algorithm based on the multi-fold random projection and fuzzy communication scheme is used for this purpose. In cancelable template generation, one of the main difficulties is keeping interclass variance of the feature. We have found that interclass variations of the features that are lost during multi fold random projection can be recovered using fusion of different feature subsets and projecting in a new feature domain. Applying the multimodal technique in feature level, we enhance the interclass variability hence improving the performance of the system. We have tested the system for classifier fusion for different feature subset and different cancelable template fusion. Experiments have shown that cancelable template improves the performance of the biometric system compared with the original template.

  12. Cross Disciplinary Biometric Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Chengjun

    2012-01-01

    Cross disciplinary biometric systems help boost the performance of the conventional systems. Not only is the recognition accuracy significantly improved, but also the robustness of the systems is greatly enhanced in the challenging environments, such as varying illumination conditions. By leveraging the cross disciplinary technologies, face recognition systems, fingerprint recognition systems, iris recognition systems, as well as image search systems all benefit in terms of recognition performance.  Take face recognition for an example, which is not only the most natural way human beings recognize the identity of each other, but also the least privacy-intrusive means because people show their face publicly every day. Face recognition systems display superb performance when they capitalize on the innovative ideas across color science, mathematics, and computer science (e.g., pattern recognition, machine learning, and image processing). The novel ideas lead to the development of new color models and effective ...

  13. Biometrics Research and Engineering Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — As the Department of Defense moves forward in its pursuit of integrating biometrics technology into facility access control, the Global War on Terrorism and weapon...

  14. Biometrics for home networks security

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Imran Shafique

    2009-01-01

    Hacking crimes committed to the home networks are increasing. Advanced network protection is not always possible for the home networks. In this paper we will study the ability of using biometric systems for authentication in home networks. ©2009 IEEE.

  15. Transforming Security Screening With Biometrics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hearnsberger, Brian J

    2003-01-01

    ... and identity theft to dramatically improve physical security. Today, biometric technology could be implemented to transform physical security by enhancing screening procedures currently in use at U.S...

  16. Biometrics for home networks security

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Imran Shafique; Ahmad, Qutbuddin S.

    2009-01-01

    Hacking crimes committed to the home networks are increasing. Advanced network protection is not always possible for the home networks. In this paper we will study the ability of using biometric systems for authentication in home networks. ©2009

  17. A definitional framework for the human/biometric sensor interaction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Stephen J.; Kukula, Eric P.

    2010-04-01

    Existing definitions for biometric testing and evaluation do not fully explain errors in a biometric system. This paper provides a definitional framework for the Human Biometric-Sensor Interaction (HBSI) model. This paper proposes six new definitions based around two classifications of presentations, erroneous and correct. The new terms are: defective interaction (DI), concealed interaction (CI), false interaction (FI), failure to detect (FTD), failure to extract (FTX), and successfully acquired samples (SAS). As with all definitions, the new terms require a modification to the general biometric model developed by Mansfield and Wayman [1].

  18. Signal and image processing for biometrics

    CERN Document Server

    Proença, Hugo; Du, Eliza

    2014-01-01

    This volume offers a guide to the state of the art in the fast evolving field of biometric recognition to newcomers and experienced practitioners. It is focused on the emerging strategies to perform biometric recognition under uncontrolled data acquisition conditions. The mainstream research work in this field is presented in an organized manner, so the reader can easily follow the trends that best suits her/his interests in this growing field. The book chapters cover the recent advances in less controlled / covert data acquisition frameworks, segmentation of poor quality biometric data, biometric data quality assessment, normalization of poor quality biometric data. contactless biometric recognition strategies, biometric recognition robustness, data resolution, illumination, distance, pose, motion, occlusions, multispectral biometric recognition, multimodal biometrics, fusion at different levels, high confidence automatic surveillance.

  19. BIOMETRIC AUTHENTICATION SYSTEM USING RPI

    OpenAIRE

    Fatema A. Shaikh*; Prof.S.O.Rajankar

    2016-01-01

    A biometric authentication system acquires biometric sample such as fingerprint. The fingerprint signifies physiological features of an individual.This is a system which maintains the attendance records of students automatically. In this designing of an efficient module that comprises of a fingerprint sensor to manage the attendance records of students. This module enrolls the student’s as well as staff’s fingerprints. This enrolling is a onetime process and their fingerprints will be stored...

  20. Can a school-based hand hygiene program reduce asthma exacerbations among elementary school children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald, Joe K.; Zhang, Bin; McClure, Leslie A.; Bailey, William C.; Harrington, Kathy F.

    2012-01-01

    Background Viral upper respiratory infections have been implicated as a major cause of asthma exacerbations among school age children. Regular hand washing is the most effective method to prevent the spread of viral respiratory infections but, effective hand washing practices are difficult to establish in schools. Objectives This randomized controlled trial evaluated whether a standardized regimen of hand washing plus alcohol-based hand sanitizer could reduce asthma exacerbations more than schools’ usual hand hygiene practices. Methods This was a two year, community-based, randomized controlled crossover trial. Schools were randomized to usual care then intervention (Sequence 1) or intervention then usual care (Sequence 2). Intervention schools were provided with alcohol-based hand sanitizer, hand soap, and hand hygiene education. The primary outcome was the proportion of students experiencing an asthma exacerbation each month. Generalized estimating equations were used to model the difference in the marginal rate of exacerbations between sequences while controlling for individual demographic factors and the correlation within each student and between students within each school. Results 527 students with asthma were enrolled among 31 schools. The hand hygiene intervention did not reduce the number of asthma exacerbations as compared to the schools’ usual hand hygiene practices (p=0.132). There was a strong temporal trend as both sequences experienced fewer exacerbations during Year 2 as compared to Year 1 (phand hygiene behaviors and resources in usual care schools. Therefore, these results should be viewed cautiously. PMID:23069487

  1. Comparative assessment of local tolerance of alcohols commonly used in alcohol-based hand rubs for hand hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manche, Monique; Foligné, Benoît; Sauty, Mathieu; Platel, Anne; Vercauteren, Eric; Rauwel, Gaétan; Catoire, Sophie; Ficheux, Hervé; Criquelion, Jacques; Nesslany, Fabrice

    2017-10-01

    Hand hygiene plays a key role in nosocomial infection prevention. To achieve users' adherence, products' dermal tolerance is essential. We aimed at making a comparative assessment of skin irritation and phototoxicity of the 3 alcohols commonly used in alcohol-based hand rubs (Ethanol, Propan-2-ol, Propan-1-ol) at 60, 70, 80 or 85% w/w in water or with co-formulates (hydrating, emollient and skin protective agents). In vitro validated OECD methods 439 and 432 were used. For irritation, EpiSkin™ Small Model was the chosen Reconstructed Human Epidermis (RhE). For phototoxicity, co-formulates alone or in mixture with and without alcohol were tested using BALB/c 3T3 cell cultures. Whilst Ethanol and Propan-2-ol could not be differentiated and displayed good skin tolerance profiles, Propan-1-ol based products lead to significant viability impairments of RhE at 60, 70 or 80% and at 60% in the presence of co-formulates. However, these results could not be reproduced in another RhE model. Taking also into account bibliographic data on Propan-1-ol, this suggests that our results are probably related to a lack of specificity of the used RhE. Therefore, it can be relevant in case of significant results to use two different RhE models before performing any classification and/or performing any complementary tests. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Two barriers to realizing the benefits of biometrics: a chain perspective on biometrics and identity fraud as biometrics' real challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grijpink, Jan

    2004-06-01

    Along at least twelve dimensions biometric systems might vary. We need to exploit this variety to manoeuvre biometrics into place to be able to realise its social potential. Subsequently, two perspectives on biometrics are proposed revealing that biometrics will probably be ineffective in combating identity fraud, organised crime and terrorism: (1) the value chain perspective explains the first barrier: our strong preference for large scale biometric systems for general compulsory use. These biometric systems cause successful infringements to spread unnoticed. A biometric system will only function adequately if biometrics is indispensable for solving the dominant chain problem. Multi-chain use of biometrics takes it beyond the boundaries of good manageability. (2) the identity fraud perspective exposes the second barrier: our traditional approach to identity verification. We focus on identity documents, neglecting the person and the situation involved. Moreover, western legal cultures have made identity verification procedures known, transparent, uniform and predictable. Thus, we have developed a blind spot to identity fraud. Biometrics provides good potential to better checking persons, but will probably be used to enhance identity documents. Biometrics will only pay off if it confronts the identity fraudster with less predictable verification processes and more risks of his identity fraud being spotted. Standardised large scale applications of biometrics for general compulsory use without countervailing measures will probably produce the reverse. This contribution tentatively presents a few headlines for an overall biometrics strategy that could better resist identity fraud.

  3. Evolutionary Algorithms Application Analysis in Biometric Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Goranin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wide usage of biometric information for person identity verification purposes, terrorist acts prevention measures and authenticationprocess simplification in computer systems has raised significant attention to reliability and efficiency of biometricsystems. Modern biometric systems still face many reliability and efficiency related issues such as reference databasesearch speed, errors while recognizing of biometric information or automating biometric feature extraction. Current scientificinvestigations show that application of evolutionary algorithms may significantly improve biometric systems. In thisarticle we provide a comprehensive review of main scientific research done in sphere of evolutionary algorithm applicationfor biometric system parameter improvement.

  4. NUI framework based on real-time head pose estimation and hand gesture recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Hyunduk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural user interface (NUI is used for the natural motion interface without using device or tool such as mice, keyboards, pens and markers. In this paper, we develop natural user interface framework based on two recognition module. First module is real-time head pose estimation module using random forests and second module is hand gesture recognition module, named Hand gesture Key Emulation Toolkit (HandGKET. Using the head pose estimation module, we can know where the user is looking and what the user’s focus of attention is. Moreover, using the hand gesture recognition module, we can also control the computer using the user’s hand gesture without mouse and keyboard. In proposed framework, the user’s head direction and hand gesture are mapped into mouse and keyboard event, respectively.

  5. Real-Time Hand Position Sensing Technology Based on Human Body Electrostatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Tang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Non-contact human-computer interactions (HCI based on hand gestures have been widely investigated. Here, we present a novel method to locate the real-time position of the hand using the electrostatics of the human body. This method has many advantages, including a delay of less than one millisecond, low cost, and does not require a camera or wearable devices. A formula is first created to sense array signals with five spherical electrodes. Next, a solving algorithm for the real-time measured hand position is introduced and solving equations for three-dimensional coordinates of hand position are obtained. A non-contact real-time hand position sensing system was established to perform verification experiments, and the principle error of the algorithm and the systematic noise were also analyzed. The results show that this novel technology can determine the dynamic parameters of hand movements with good robustness to meet the requirements of complicated HCI.

  6. Optimizing pattern recognition-based control for partial-hand prosthesis application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earley, Eric J; Adewuyi, Adenike A; Hargrove, Levi J

    2014-01-01

    Partial-hand amputees often retain good residual wrist motion, which is essential for functional activities involving use of the hand. Thus, a crucial design criterion for a myoelectric, partial-hand prosthesis control scheme is that it allows the user to retain residual wrist motion. Pattern recognition (PR) of electromyographic (EMG) signals is a well-studied method of controlling myoelectric prostheses. However, wrist motion degrades a PR system's ability to correctly predict hand-grasp patterns. We studied the effects of (1) window length and number of hand-grasps, (2) static and dynamic wrist motion, and (3) EMG muscle source on the ability of a PR-based control scheme to classify functional hand-grasp patterns. Our results show that training PR classifiers with both extrinsic and intrinsic muscle EMG yields a lower error rate than training with either group by itself (pgrasps available to the classifier significantly decrease classification error (pgrasp.

  7. Gaze as a biometric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hong-Jun; Carmichael, Tandy R.; Tourassi, Georgia

    2014-03-01

    Two people may analyze a visual scene in two completely different ways. Our study sought to determine whether human gaze may be used to establish the identity of an individual. To accomplish this objective we investigated the gaze pattern of twelve individuals viewing still images with different spatial relationships. Specifically, we created 5 visual "dotpattern" tests to be shown on a standard computer monitor. These tests challenged the viewer's capacity to distinguish proximity, alignment, and perceptual organization. Each test included 50 images of varying difficulty (total of 250 images). Eye-tracking data were collected from each individual while taking the tests. The eye-tracking data were converted into gaze velocities and analyzed with Hidden Markov Models to develop personalized gaze profiles. Using leave-one-out cross-validation, we observed that these personalized profiles could differentiate among the 12 users with classification accuracy ranging between 53% and 76%, depending on the test. This was statistically significantly better than random guessing (i.e., 8.3% or 1 out of 12). Classification accuracy was higher for the tests where the users' average gaze velocity per case was lower. The study findings support the feasibility of using gaze as a biometric or personalized biomarker. These findings could have implications in Radiology training and the development of personalized e-learning environments.

  8. Gaze as a biometric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hong-Jun [ORNL; Carmichael, Tandy [Tennessee Technological University; Tourassi, Georgia [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Two people may analyze a visual scene in two completely different ways. Our study sought to determine whether human gaze may be used to establish the identity of an individual. To accomplish this objective we investigated the gaze pattern of twelve individuals viewing different still images with different spatial relationships. Specifically, we created 5 visual dot-pattern tests to be shown on a standard computer monitor. These tests challenged the viewer s capacity to distinguish proximity, alignment, and perceptual organization. Each test included 50 images of varying difficulty (total of 250 images). Eye-tracking data were collected from each individual while taking the tests. The eye-tracking data were converted into gaze velocities and analyzed with Hidden Markov Models to develop personalized gaze profiles. Using leave-one-out cross-validation, we observed that these personalized profiles could differentiate among the 12 users with classification accuracy ranging between 53% and 76%, depending on the test. This was statistically significantly better than random guessing (i.e., 8.3% or 1 out of 12). Classification accuracy was higher for the tests where the users average gaze velocity per case was lower. The study findings support the feasibility of using gaze as a biometric or personalized biomarker. These findings could have implications in Radiology training and the development of personalized e-learning environments.

  9. eBiometrics: an enhanced multi-biometrics authentication technique for real-time remote applications on mobile devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuseler, Torben; Lami, Ihsan; Jassim, Sabah; Sellahewa, Harin

    2010-04-01

    The use of mobile communication devices with advance sensors is growing rapidly. These sensors are enabling functions such as Image capture, Location applications, and Biometric authentication such as Fingerprint verification and Face & Handwritten signature recognition. Such ubiquitous devices are essential tools in today's global economic activities enabling anywhere-anytime financial and business transactions. Cryptographic functions and biometric-based authentication can enhance the security and confidentiality of mobile transactions. Using Biometric template security techniques in real-time biometric-based authentication are key factors for successful identity verification solutions, but are venerable to determined attacks by both fraudulent software and hardware. The EU-funded SecurePhone project has designed and implemented a multimodal biometric user authentication system on a prototype mobile communication device. However, various implementations of this project have resulted in long verification times or reduced accuracy and/or security. This paper proposes to use built-in-self-test techniques to ensure no tampering has taken place on the verification process prior to performing the actual biometric authentication. These techniques utilises the user personal identification number as a seed to generate a unique signature. This signature is then used to test the integrity of the verification process. Also, this study proposes the use of a combination of biometric modalities to provide application specific authentication in a secure environment, thus achieving optimum security level with effective processing time. I.e. to ensure that the necessary authentication steps and algorithms running on the mobile device application processor can not be undermined or modified by an imposter to get unauthorized access to the secure system.

  10. Voice Biometrics for Information Assurance Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kang, George

    2002-01-01

    .... The ultimate goal of voice biometrics is to enable the use of voice as a password. Voice biometrics are "man-in-the-loop" systems in which system performance is significantly dependent on human performance...

  11. Biometric Authorization and Registration Systems and Methods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caulfield, H

    2002-01-01

    Biometric authorization and registration systems and methods are disclosed. In one embodiment, the system preferably comprises a firearm that includes a biometric authorization system, a plurality of training computers, and a server...

  12. A framework for biometric playtesting of games

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, Dirk; Calvi, Licia; Gualeni, Stefano; Foundation of Digital Games Conference

    2013-01-01

    The described framework is meant to assist game developers in using biometric (psychophysiological) methods while playtesting. Biometric methods can give developers a valuable additional window on the playtester's experience.

  13. Principal components analysis based control of a multi-dof underactuated prosthetic hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magenes Giovanni

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functionality, controllability and cosmetics are the key issues to be addressed in order to accomplish a successful functional substitution of the human hand by means of a prosthesis. Not only the prosthesis should duplicate the human hand in shape, functionality, sensorization, perception and sense of body-belonging, but it should also be controlled as the natural one, in the most intuitive and undemanding way. At present, prosthetic hands are controlled by means of non-invasive interfaces based on electromyography (EMG. Driving a multi degrees of freedom (DoF hand for achieving hand dexterity implies to selectively modulate many different EMG signals in order to make each joint move independently, and this could require significant cognitive effort to the user. Methods A Principal Components Analysis (PCA based algorithm is used to drive a 16 DoFs underactuated prosthetic hand prototype (called CyberHand with a two dimensional control input, in order to perform the three prehensile forms mostly used in Activities of Daily Living (ADLs. Such Principal Components set has been derived directly from the artificial hand by collecting its sensory data while performing 50 different grasps, and subsequently used for control. Results Trials have shown that two independent input signals can be successfully used to control the posture of a real robotic hand and that correct grasps (in terms of involved fingers, stability and posture may be achieved. Conclusions This work demonstrates the effectiveness of a bio-inspired system successfully conjugating the advantages of an underactuated, anthropomorphic hand with a PCA-based control strategy, and opens up promising possibilities for the development of an intuitively controllable hand prosthesis.

  14. Maximum Key Size and Classification Performance of Fuzzy Commitment for Gaussian Modeled Biometric Sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelkboom, E.J.C.; Breebaart, J.; Buhan, I.R.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    Template protection techniques are used within biometric systems in order to protect the stored biometric template against privacy and security threats. A great portion of template protection techniques are based on extracting a key from, or binding a key to the binary vector derived from the

  15. 75 FR 70290 - In the Matter of Certain Biometric Scanning Devices, Components Thereof, Associated Software, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Inv. No. 337-TA-720] In the Matter of Certain Biometric Scanning... Tariff Act of 1930, 19 U.S.C. 1337, based on a complaint filed by Cross Match Technologies, Inc. of Palm... for importation, and sale within the United States after importation of certain biometric scanning...

  16. 76 FR 52970 - In the Matter of Certain Biometric Scanning Devices, Components Thereof, Associated Software, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-24

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-720] In the Matter of Certain Biometric... 17, 2010 based on a complaint filed on May 11, 2010, by Cross Match Technologies, Inc. (``Cross Match... certain biometric scanning devices, components thereof, associated software, and products containing the...

  17. Biometrics for electronic health records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores Zuniga, Alejandro Enrique; Win, Khin Than; Susilo, Willy

    2010-10-01

    Securing electronic health records, in scenarios in which the provision of care services is share among multiple actors, could become a complex and costly activity. Correct identification of patients and physician, protection of privacy and confidentiality, assignment of access permissions for healthcare providers and resolutions of conflicts rise as main points of concern in the development of interconnected health information networks. Biometric technologies have been proposed as a possible technological solution for these issues due to its ability to provide a mechanism for unique verification of an individual identity. This paper presents an analysis of the benefit as well as disadvantages offered by biometric technology. A comparison between this technology and more traditional identification methods is used to determine the key benefits and flaws of the use biometric in health information systems. The comparison as been made considering the viability of the technologies for medical environments, global security needs, the contemplation of a share care environment and the costs involved in the implementation and maintenance of such technologies. This paper also discusses alternative uses for biometrics technologies in health care environments. The outcome of this analysis lays in the fact that even when biometric technologies offer several advantages over traditional method of identification, they are still in the early stages of providing a suitable solution for a health care environment.

  18. The use of biometrics in IT

    OpenAIRE

    Bílý, Petr

    2009-01-01

    Biometrics is increasingly applied in IT (biometric methods today generally use computer technology), mostly used to authenticate users. The aim of this thesis is to describe and compare two selected biometric methods. These methods are fingerprints and scanning of human face. The contribution of this work is to provide information on biometric identification methods, their advantages and disadvantages, and deployment options. If an organization decides to strengthen their security systems wi...

  19. Securing Biometric Images using Reversible Watermarking

    OpenAIRE

    Thampi, Sabu M.; Jacob, Ann Jisma

    2011-01-01

    Biometric security is a fast growing area. Protecting biometric data is very important since it can be misused by attackers. In order to increase security of biometric data there are different methods in which watermarking is widely accepted. A more acceptable, new important development in this area is reversible watermarking in which the original image can be completely restored and the watermark can be retrieved. But reversible watermarking in biometrics is an understudied area. Reversible ...

  20. Performance Evaluation Of Behavioral Biometric Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Cherifi , Fouad; Hemery , Baptiste; Giot , Romain; Pasquet , Marc; Rosenberger , Christophe

    2009-01-01

    We present in this chapter an overview of techniques for the performance evaluation of behavioral biometric systems. The BioAPI standard that defines the architecture of a biometric system is presented in the first part of the chapter... The general methodology for the evaluation of biometric systems is given including statistical metrics, definition of benchmark databases and subjective evaluation. These considerations rely with the ISO/IEC19795-1 standard describing the biometric performanc...

  1. Hand Motion-Based Remote Control Interface with Vibrotactile Feedback for Home Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Wu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and implementation of a hand-held interface system for the locomotion control of home robots. A handheld controller is proposed to implement hand motion recognition and hand motion-based robot control. The handheld controller can provide a ‘connect-and-play’ service for the users to control the home robot with visual and vibrotactile feedback. Six natural hand gestures are defined for navigating the home robots. A three-axis accelerometer is used to detect the hand motions of the user. The recorded acceleration data are analysed and classified to corresponding control commands according to their characteristic curves. A vibration motor is used to provide vibrotactile feedback to the user when an improper operation is performed. The performances of the proposed hand motion-based interface and the traditional keyboard and mouse interface have been compared in robot navigation experiments. The experimental results of home robot navigation show that the success rate of the handheld controller is 13.33% higher than the PC based controller. The precision of the handheld controller is 15.4% more than that of the PC and the execution time is 24.7% less than the PC based controller. This means that the proposed hand motion-based interface is more efficient and flexible.

  2. 3D biometrics systems and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, David

    2013-01-01

    Includes discussions on popular 3D imaging technologies, combines them with biometric applications, and then presents real 3D biometric systems Introduces many efficient 3D feature extraction, matching, and fusion algorithms Techniques presented have been supported by experimental results using various 3D biometric classifications

  3. Biometric Score Calibration for Forensic Face Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Tauseef

    2014-01-01

    When two biometric specimens are compared using an automatic biometric recognition system, a similarity metric called “score‿ can be computed. In forensics, one of the biometric specimens is from an unknown source, for example, from a CCTV footage or a fingermark found at a crime scene and the other

  4. Compressed ECG biometric: a fast, secured and efficient method for identification of CVD patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sufi, Fahim; Khalil, Ibrahim; Mahmood, Abdun

    2011-12-01

    Adoption of compression technology is often required for wireless cardiovascular monitoring, due to the enormous size of Electrocardiography (ECG) signal and limited bandwidth of Internet. However, compressed ECG must be decompressed before performing human identification using present research on ECG based biometric techniques. This additional step of decompression creates a significant processing delay for identification task. This becomes an obvious burden on a system, if this needs to be done for a trillion of compressed ECG per hour by the hospital. Even though the hospital might be able to come up with an expensive infrastructure to tame the exuberant processing, for small intermediate nodes in a multihop network identification preceded by decompression is confronting. In this paper, we report a technique by which a person can be identified directly from his / her compressed ECG. This technique completely obviates the step of decompression and therefore upholds biometric identification less intimidating for the smaller nodes in a multihop network. The biometric template created by this new technique is lower in size compared to the existing ECG based biometrics as well as other forms of biometrics like face, finger, retina etc. (up to 8302 times lower than face template and 9 times lower than existing ECG based biometric template). Lower size of the template substantially reduces the one-to-many matching time for biometric recognition, resulting in a faster biometric authentication mechanism.

  5. Self-reported hand hygiene practices, and feasibility and acceptability of alcohol-based hand rubs among village healthcare workers in Inner Mongolia, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Wang, Y; Yan, D; Rao, C Y

    2015-08-01

    Good hand hygiene is critical to reduce the risk of healthcare-associated infections. Limited data are available on hand hygiene practices from rural healthcare systems in China. To assess the feasibility and acceptability of sanitizing hands with alcohol-based hand rubs (ABHRs) among Chinese village healthcare workers, and to assess their hand hygiene practice. Five hundred bottles of ABHR were given to village healthcare workers in Inner Mongolia, China. Standardized questionnaires collected information on their work load, availability, and usage of hand hygiene facilities, and knowledge, attitudes, and practices of hand hygiene. In all, 369 (64.2%) participants completed the questionnaire. Although 84.5% of the ABHR recipients believed that receiving the ABHR improved their hand hygiene practice, 78.8% of recipients would pay no more than US$1.5 out of their own pocket (actual cost US$4). The majority (77.2%) who provided medical care at patients' homes never carried hand rubs with them outside their clinics. In general, self-reported hand hygiene compliance was suboptimal, and the lowest compliance was 'before touching a patient'. Reported top three complaints with using ABHR were skin irritation, splashing, and unpleasant residual. Village doctors with less experience practised less hand hygiene. The overall acceptance of ABHR among the village healthcare workers is high as long as it is provided to them for free/low cost, but their overall hand hygiene practice is suboptimal. Hand hygiene education and training is needed in settings outside of traditional healthcare facilities. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Multiple-stage pure phase encoding with biometric information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, many optical systems have been developed for securing information, and optical encryption/encoding has attracted more and more attention due to the marked advantages, such as parallel processing and multiple-dimensional characteristics. In this paper, an optical security method is presented based on pure phase encoding with biometric information. Biometric information (such as fingerprint) is employed as security keys rather than plaintext used in conventional optical security systems, and multiple-stage phase-encoding-based optical systems are designed for generating several phase-only masks with biometric information. Subsequently, the extracted phase-only masks are further used in an optical setup for encoding an input image (i.e., plaintext). Numerical simulations are conducted to illustrate the validity, and the results demonstrate that high flexibility and high security can be achieved.

  7. Gait biometrics under spoofing attacks: an experimental investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadid, Abdenour; Ghahramani, Mohammad; Kellokumpu, Vili; Feng, Xiaoyi; Bustard, John; Nixon, Mark

    2015-11-01

    Gait is a relatively biometric modality which has a precious advantage over other modalities, such as iris and voice, in that it can be easily captured from a distance. Although it has recently become a topic of great interest in biometric research, there has been little investigation into gait spoofing attacks where a person tries to imitate the clothing or walking style of someone else. We recently analyzed for the first time the effects of spoofing attacks on silhouette-based gait biometric systems and showed that it was indeed possible to spoof gait biometric systems by clothing impersonation and the deliberate selection of a target that has a similar build to the attacker. To gain deeper insight into the performance of current gait biometric systems under spoofing attacks, we provide a thorough investigation on how clothing can be used to spoof a target and evaluate the performance of two state-of-the-art recognition methods on a gait spoofing database recorded at the University of Southampton. Furthermore, we describe and evaluate an initial solution coping with gait spoofing attacks. The obtained results are very promising and point out interesting findings which can be used for future investigations.

  8. A motion-planning method for dexterous hand operating a tool based on bionic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Bo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to meet the needs of robot’s operating tools for different types and sizes, the dexterous hand is studied by many scientific research institutions. However, the large number of joints in a dexterous hand leads to the difficulty of motion planning. Aiming at this problem, this paper proposes a planning method abased on BPNN inspired by human hands. Firstly, this paper analyses the structure and function of the human hand and summarizes its typical strategy of operation. Secondly, based on the manual operation strategy, the tools are classified according to the shape and the operation mode of the dexterous hand is presented. Thirdly, the BPNN is used to train the humanoid operation, and then output the operation plan. Finally, the simulating experiments of grasping simple tools and operating complex tools are made by MATLAB and ADAMS. The simulation verifies the effectiveness of this method.

  9. Method and system for normalizing biometric variations to authenticate users from a public database and that ensures individual biometric data privacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strait, Robert S.; Pearson, Peter K.; Sengupta, Sailes K.

    2000-01-01

    A password system comprises a set of codewords spaced apart from one another by a Hamming distance (HD) that exceeds twice the variability that can be projected for a series of biometric measurements for a particular individual and that is less than the HD that can be encountered between two individuals. To enroll an individual, a biometric measurement is taken and exclusive-ORed with a random codeword to produce a "reference value." To verify the individual later, a biometric measurement is taken and exclusive-ORed with the reference value to reproduce the original random codeword or its approximation. If the reproduced value is not a codeword, the nearest codeword to it is found, and the bits that were corrected to produce the codeword to it is found, and the bits that were corrected to produce the codeword are also toggled in the biometric measurement taken and the codeword generated during enrollment. The correction scheme can be implemented by any conventional error correction code such as Reed-Muller code R(m,n). In the implementation using a hand geometry device an R(2,5) code has been used in this invention. Such codeword and biometric measurement can then be used to see if the individual is an authorized user. Conventional Diffie-Hellman public key encryption schemes and hashing procedures can then be used to secure the communications lines carrying the biometric information and to secure the database of authorized users.

  10. Method and system for normalizing biometric variations to authenticate users from a public database and that ensures individual biometric data privacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strait, R.S.; Pearson, P.K.; Sengupta, S.K.

    2000-01-01

    A password system comprises a set of codewords spaced apart from one another by a Hamming distance (HD) that exceeds twice the variability that can be projected for a series of biometric measurements for a particular individual and that is less than the HD that can be encountered between two individuals. To enroll an individual, a biometric measurement is taken and exclusive-ORed with a random codeword to produce a reference value. To verify the individual later, a biometric measurement is taken and exclusive-ORed with the reference value to reproduce the original random codeword or its approximation. If the reproduced value is not a codeword, the nearest codeword to it is found, and the bits that were corrected to produce the codeword to it is found, and the bits that were corrected to produce the codeword are also toggled in the biometric measurement taken and the codeword generated during enrollment. The correction scheme can be implemented by any conventional error correction code such as Reed-Muller code R(m,n). In the implementation using a hand geometry device an R(2,5) code has been used in this invention. Such codeword and biometric measurement can then be used to see if the individual is an authorized user. Conventional Diffie-Hellman public key encryption schemes and hashing procedures can then be used to secure the communications lines carrying the biometric information and to secure the database of authorized users

  11. Secure authentication system that generates seed from biometric information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeojin; Ahn, Jung-Ho; Byun, Hyeran

    2005-02-10

    As biometric recognition techniques are gradually improved, the stability of biometric authentication systems are enhanced. Although bioinformation has properties that make it resistant to fraud, biometric authentication systems are not immune to hacking. We show a secure biometric authentication system (1) to guarantee the integrity of biometric information by mixing data by use of a biometric key and (2) to raise recognition rates by use of bimodal biometrics.

  12. Biometric Features in Person Recognition Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgaras Ivanovas

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Lately a lot of research effort is devoted for recognition of a human being using his biometric characteristics. Biometric recognition systems are used in various applications, e. g., identification for state border crossing or firearm, which allows only enrolled persons to use it. In this paper biometric characteristics and their properties are reviewed. Development of high accuracy system requires distinctive and permanent characteristics, whereas development of user friendly system requires collectable and acceptable characteristics. It is showed that properties of biometric characteristics do not influence research effort significantly. Properties of biometric characteristic features and their influence are discussed.Article in Lithuanian

  13. Human body as a set of biometric features identified by means of optoelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podbielska, Halina; Bauer, Joanna

    2005-09-01

    Human body posses many unique, singular features that are impossible to copy or forge. Nowadays, to establish and to ensure the public security requires specially designed devices and systems. Biometrics is a field of science and technology, exploiting human body characteristics for people recognition. It identifies the most characteristic and unique ones in order to design and construct systems capable to recognize people. In this paper some overview is given, presenting the achievements in biometrics. The verification and identification process is explained, along with the way of evaluation of biometric recognition systems. The most frequently human biometrics used in practice are shortly presented, including fingerprints, facial imaging (including thermal characteristic), hand geometry and iris patterns.

  14. Multi-factor challenge/response approach for remote biometric authentication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Assam, Hisham; Jassim, Sabah A.

    2011-06-01

    Although biometric authentication is perceived to be more reliable than traditional authentication schemes, it becomes vulnerable to many attacks when it comes to remote authentication over open networks and raises serious privacy concerns. This paper proposes a biometric-based challenge-response approach to be used for remote authentication between two parties A and B over open networks. In the proposed approach, a remote authenticator system B (e.g. a bank) challenges its client A who wants to authenticate his/her self to the system by sending a one-time public random challenge. The client A responds by employing the random challenge along with secret information obtained from a password and a token to produce a one-time cancellable representation of his freshly captured biometric sample. The one-time biometric representation, which is based on multi-factor, is then sent back to B for matching. Here, we argue that eavesdropping of the one-time random challenge and/or the resulting one-time biometric representation does not compromise the security of the system, and no information about the original biometric data is leaked. In addition to securing biometric templates, the proposed protocol offers a practical solution for the replay attack on biometric systems. Moreover, we propose a new scheme for generating a password-based pseudo random numbers/permutation to be used as a building block in the proposed approach. The proposed scheme is also designed to provide protection against repudiation. We illustrate the viability and effectiveness of the proposed approach by experimental results based on two biometric modalities: fingerprint and face biometrics.

  15. Bat wing biometrics: using collagen–elastin bundles in bat wings as a unique individual identifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Sarah E.; Womack, Kathryn M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The ability to recognize individuals within an animal population is fundamental to conservation and management. Identification of individual bats has relied on artificial marking techniques that may negatively affect the survival and alter the behavior of individuals. Biometric systems use biological characteristics to identify individuals. The field of animal biometrics has expanded to include recognition of individuals based upon various morphologies and phenotypic variations including pelage patterns, tail flukes, and whisker arrangement. Biometric systems use 4 biologic measurement criteria: universality, distinctiveness, permanence, and collectability. Additionally, the system should not violate assumptions of capture–recapture methods that include no increased mortality or alterations of behavior. We evaluated whether individual bats could be uniquely identified based upon the collagen–elastin bundles that are visible with gross examination of their wings. We examined little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus), northern long-eared bats (M. septentrionalis), big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus), and tricolored bats (Perimyotis subflavus) to determine whether the “wing prints” from the bundle network would satisfy the biologic measurement criteria. We evaluated 1,212 photographs from 230 individual bats comparing week 0 photos with those taken at weeks 3 or 6 and were able to confirm identity of individuals over time. Two blinded evaluators were able to successfully match 170 individuals in hand to photographs taken at weeks 0, 3, and 6. This study suggests that bats can be successfully re-identified using photographs taken at previous times. We suggest further evaluation of this methodology for use in a standardized system that can be shared among bat conservationists. PMID:29674784

  16. Bat wing biometrics: using collagen-elastin bundles in bat wings as a unique individual identifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amelon, Sybill K; Hooper, Sarah E; Womack, Kathryn M

    2017-05-29

    The ability to recognize individuals within an animal population is fundamental to conservation and management. Identification of individual bats has relied on artificial marking techniques that may negatively affect the survival and alter the behavior of individuals. Biometric systems use biological characteristics to identify individuals. The field of animal biometrics has expanded to include recognition of individuals based upon various morphologies and phenotypic variations including pelage patterns, tail flukes, and whisker arrangement. Biometric systems use 4 biologic measurement criteria: universality, distinctiveness, permanence, and collectability. Additionally, the system should not violate assumptions of capture-recapture methods that include no increased mortality or alterations of behavior. We evaluated whether individual bats could be uniquely identified based upon the collagen-elastin bundles that are visible with gross examination of their wings. We examined little brown bats ( Myotis lucifugus ), northern long-eared bats ( M. septentrionalis ), big brown bats ( Eptesicus fuscus ), and tricolored bats ( Perimyotis subflavus ) to determine whether the "wing prints" from the bundle network would satisfy the biologic measurement criteria. We evaluated 1,212 photographs from 230 individual bats comparing week 0 photos with those taken at weeks 3 or 6 and were able to confirm identity of individuals over time. Two blinded evaluators were able to successfully match 170 individuals in hand to photographs taken at weeks 0, 3, and 6. This study suggests that bats can be successfully re-identified using photographs taken at previous times. We suggest further evaluation of this methodology for use in a standardized system that can be shared among bat conservationists.

  17. A novel biometric authentication approach using ECG and EMG signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belgacem, Noureddine; Fournier, Régis; Nait-Ali, Amine; Bereksi-Reguig, Fethi

    2015-05-01

    Security biometrics is a secure alternative to traditional methods of identity verification of individuals, such as authentication systems based on user name and password. Recently, it has been found that the electrocardiogram (ECG) signal formed by five successive waves (P, Q, R, S and T) is unique to each individual. In fact, better than any other biometrics' measures, it delivers proof of subject's being alive as extra information which other biometrics cannot deliver. The main purpose of this work is to present a low-cost method for online acquisition and processing of ECG signals for person authentication and to study the possibility of providing additional information and retrieve personal data from an electrocardiogram signal to yield a reliable decision. This study explores the effectiveness of a novel biometric system resulting from the fusion of information and knowledge provided by ECG and EMG (Electromyogram) physiological recordings. It is shown that biometrics based on these ECG/EMG signals offers a novel way to robustly authenticate subjects. Five ECG databases (MIT-BIH, ST-T, NSR, PTB and ECG-ID) and several ECG signals collected in-house from volunteers were exploited. A palm-based ECG biometric system was developed where the signals are collected from the palm of the subject through a minimally intrusive one-lead ECG set-up. A total of 3750 ECG beats were used in this work. Feature extraction was performed on ECG signals using Fourier descriptors (spectral coefficients). Optimum-Path Forest classifier was used to calculate the degree of similarity between individuals. The obtained results from the proposed approach look promising for individuals' authentication.

  18. Estimating Body Related Soft Biometric Traits in Video Frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olasimbo Ayodeji Arigbabu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Soft biometrics can be used as a prescreening filter, either by using single trait or by combining several traits to aid the performance of recognition systems in an unobtrusive way. In many practical visual surveillance scenarios, facial information becomes difficult to be effectively constructed due to several varying challenges. However, from distance the visual appearance of an object can be efficiently inferred, thereby providing the possibility of estimating body related information. This paper presents an approach for estimating body related soft biometrics; specifically we propose a new approach based on body measurement and artificial neural network for predicting body weight of subjects and incorporate the existing technique on single view metrology for height estimation in videos with low frame rate. Our evaluation on 1120 frame sets of 80 subjects from a newly compiled dataset shows that the mentioned soft biometric information of human subjects can be adequately predicted from set of frames.

  19. Modeling and prototyping of biometric systems using dataflow programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minakova, N.; Petrov, I.

    2018-01-01

    The development of biometric systems is one of the labor-intensive processes. Therefore, the creation and analysis of approaches and techniques is an urgent task at present. This article presents a technique of modeling and prototyping biometric systems based on dataflow programming. The technique includes three main stages: the development of functional blocks, the creation of a dataflow graph and the generation of a prototype. A specially developed software modeling environment that implements this technique is described. As an example of the use of this technique, an example of the implementation of the iris localization subsystem is demonstrated. A variant of modification of dataflow programming is suggested to solve the problem related to the undefined order of block activation. The main advantage of the presented technique is the ability to visually display and design the model of the biometric system, the rapid creation of a working prototype and the reuse of the previously developed functional blocks.

  20. Audiovisual Speech Synchrony Measure: Application to Biometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérard Chollet

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Speech is a means of communication which is intrinsically bimodal: the audio signal originates from the dynamics of the articulators. This paper reviews recent works in the field of audiovisual speech, and more specifically techniques developed to measure the level of correspondence between audio and visual speech. It overviews the most common audio and visual speech front-end processing, transformations performed on audio, visual, or joint audiovisual feature spaces, and the actual measure of correspondence between audio and visual speech. Finally, the use of synchrony measure for biometric identity verification based on talking faces is experimented on the BANCA database.

  1. Toward a consistency cross-check of eddy covariance flux–based and biometric estimates of ecosystem carbon balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luyssaert, S.; Reichstein, M.; Schulze, E.-D.

    2009-01-01

    Quantification of an ecosystem's carbon balance and its components is pivotal for understanding both ecosystem functioning and global cycling. Several methods are being applied in parallel to estimate the different components of the CO2 balance. However, different methods are subject to different...... sources of error. Therefore, it is necessary that site level component estimates are cross-checked against each other before being reported. Here we present a two-step approach for testing the accuracy and consistency of eddy covariance–based gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (Re...

  2. Modular finger and hand motion capturing system based on inertial and magnetic sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valtin Markus

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of hand posture and kinematics is increasingly important in various fields. This includes the rehabilitation of stroke survivors with restricted hand function. This paper presents a modular, ambulatory measurement system for the assement of the remaining hand function and for closed-loop controlled therapy. The device is based on inertial sensors and utilizes up to five interchangeable sensor strips to achieve modularity and to simplify the sensor attachment. We introduce the modular hardware design and describe algorithms used to calculate the joint angles. Measurements with two experimental setups demonstrate the feasibility and the potential of such a tracking device.

  3. Incidence of hand eczema in a population-based twin cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerbaek, A; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Ravn, H

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Population-based studies on the incidence of hand eczema are sparse. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this prospective follow-up study was to determine the incidence rate of hand eczema in a population-based twin cohort. Secondly, the role of genetic factors and other potential risk factors...... for hand eczema was investigated. METHODS: A questionnaire on self-reported hand eczema was answered by 5610 and 4128 twin individuals in 1996 and 2005, respectively. Data were analysed in a Poisson regression analysis. RESULTS: The crude incidence rate was 8.8 cases per 1000 person-years (95% confidence...... with an increased risk, whereas no association with age, sex, smoking or alcohol was found...

  4. [Hand osteoarthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šenolt, Ladislav

    Hand osteoarthritis (OA) is a common chronic disorder causing pain and limitation of mobility of affected joints. The prevalence of hand OA increases with age and more often affects females. Clinical signs obviously do not correlate with radiographic findings - symptomatic hand OA affects approximately 26 % of adult subjects, but radiographic changes can be found in up to two thirds of females and half of males older than 55 years.Disease course differ among individual patients. Hand OA is a heterogeneous disease. Nodal hand OA is the most common subtype affecting interphalangeal joints, thumb base OA affects first carpometacarpal joint. Erosive OA represents a specific subtype of hand OA, which is associated with joint inflammation, more pain, functional limitation and erosive findings on radiographs.Treatment of OA is limited. Analgesics and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are the only agents reducing symptoms. New insights into the pathogenesis of disease should contribute to the development of novel effective treatment of hand OA.

  5. NCI: DCTD: Biometric Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Biometric Research Program (BRP) is the statistical and biomathematical component of the Division of Cancer Treatment, Diagnosis and Centers (DCTDC). Its members provide statistical leadership for the national and international research programs of the division in developmental therapeutics, developmental diagnostics, diagnostic imaging and clinical trials.

  6. NCI: DCTD: Biometric Research Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Biometric Research Branch (BRB) is the statistical and biomathematical component of the Division of Cancer Treatment, Diagnosis and Centers (DCTDC). Its members provide statistical leadership for the national and international research programs of the division in developmental therapeutics, developmental diagnostics, diagnostic imaging and clinical trials.

  7. No age discrimination for biometrics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lessing, MM

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available . The research considers biometric advancements in the areas of travel and immigration, healthcare, law enforcement and banking. For the purpose of this study, adults are considered the individuals and groups in a working environment. Many of these applications...

  8. A real-time vision-based hand gesture interaction system for virtual EAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, K.R., E-mail: wangkr@mail.ustc.edu.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui (China); Xiao, B.J.; Xia, J.Y. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui (China); Li, Dan [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui (China); Luo, W.L. [709th Research Institute, Shipbuilding Industry Corporation (China)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Hand gesture interaction is first introduced to EAST model interaction. • We can interact with EAST model by a bared hand and a web camera. • We can interact with EAST model with a distance to screen. • Interaction is free, direct and effective. - Abstract: The virtual Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak device (VEAST) is a very complicated 3D model, to interact with which, the traditional interaction devices are limited and inefficient. However, with the development of human-computer interaction (HCI), the hand gesture interaction has become a much popular choice in recent years. In this paper, we propose a real-time vision-based hand gesture interaction system for VEAST. By using one web camera, we can use our bare hand to interact with VEAST at a certain distance, which proves to be more efficient and direct than mouse. The system is composed of four modules: initialization, hand gesture recognition, interaction control and system settings. The hand gesture recognition method is based on codebook (CB) background modeling and open finger counting. Firstly, we build a background model with CB algorithm. Then, we segment the hand region by detecting skin color regions with “elliptical boundary model” in CbCr flat of YCbCr color space. Open finger which is used as a key feature of gesture can be tracked by an improved curvature-based method. Based on the method, we define nine gestures for interaction control of VEAST. Finally, we design a test to demonstrate effectiveness of our system.

  9. A real-time vision-based hand gesture interaction system for virtual EAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, K.R.; Xiao, B.J.; Xia, J.Y.; Li, Dan; Luo, W.L.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Hand gesture interaction is first introduced to EAST model interaction. • We can interact with EAST model by a bared hand and a web camera. • We can interact with EAST model with a distance to screen. • Interaction is free, direct and effective. - Abstract: The virtual Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak device (VEAST) is a very complicated 3D model, to interact with which, the traditional interaction devices are limited and inefficient. However, with the development of human-computer interaction (HCI), the hand gesture interaction has become a much popular choice in recent years. In this paper, we propose a real-time vision-based hand gesture interaction system for VEAST. By using one web camera, we can use our bare hand to interact with VEAST at a certain distance, which proves to be more efficient and direct than mouse. The system is composed of four modules: initialization, hand gesture recognition, interaction control and system settings. The hand gesture recognition method is based on codebook (CB) background modeling and open finger counting. Firstly, we build a background model with CB algorithm. Then, we segment the hand region by detecting skin color regions with “elliptical boundary model” in CbCr flat of YCbCr color space. Open finger which is used as a key feature of gesture can be tracked by an improved curvature-based method. Based on the method, we define nine gestures for interaction control of VEAST. Finally, we design a test to demonstrate effectiveness of our system.

  10. Acute alcohol intoxication in a child following ingestion of an ethyl-alcohol-based hand sanitizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertzog, James H; Radwick, Allison

    2015-07-01

    While uncommon, ingestion of ethanol-based hand sanitizers by children may be associated with significant intoxication. We report the case of a 7-year-old with acute alcohol intoxication following hand sanitizer ingestion. Alcohol elimination in this patient followed zero-order kinetics with a clearance rate of 22.5 mg/kg/h, consistent with the limited pharmacokinetic information available for children who experience alcohol intoxication from more traditional sources.

  11. LOCALIZATION AND RECOGNITION OF DYNAMIC HAND GESTURES BASED ON HIERARCHY OF MANIFOLD CLASSIFIERS

    OpenAIRE

    M. Favorskaya; A. Nosov; A. Popov

    2015-01-01

    Generally, the dynamic hand gestures are captured in continuous video sequences, and a gesture recognition system ought to extract the robust features automatically. This task involves the highly challenging spatio-temporal variations of dynamic hand gestures. The proposed method is based on two-level manifold classifiers including the trajectory classifiers in any time instants and the posture classifiers of sub-gestures in selected time instants. The trajectory classifiers contain skin dete...

  12. Handbook of biometric anti-spoofing trusted biometrics under spoofing attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Marcel, Sébastien; Li, Stan Z

    2014-01-01

    As the plethora of approaches to biometrics and their deployment continues to grow, so too does the need to combat the techniques used to subvert the aim of such biometric systems. Presenting the first definitive study of the subject, this Handbook of Biometric Anti-Spoofing reviews the state of the art in covert attacks against biometric systems, and in deriving countermeasures to these attacks. Across a range of common biometrics, including face, iris, fingerprint, speaker and gait, the book describes spoofing methods and examines the vulnerabilities of biometric systems to these attacks.

  13. A synergy-based hand control is encoded in human motor cortical areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, Andrea; Handjaras, Giacomo; Bianchi, Matteo; Marino, Hamal; Gabiccini, Marco; Guidi, Andrea; Scilingo, Enzo Pasquale; Pietrini, Pietro; Bicchi, Antonio; Santello, Marco; Ricciardi, Emiliano

    2016-01-01

    How the human brain controls hand movements to carry out different tasks is still debated. The concept of synergy has been proposed to indicate functional modules that may simplify the control of hand postures by simultaneously recruiting sets of muscles and joints. However, whether and to what extent synergic hand postures are encoded as such at a cortical level remains unknown. Here, we combined kinematic, electromyography, and brain activity measures obtained by functional magnetic resonance imaging while subjects performed a variety of movements towards virtual objects. Hand postural information, encoded through kinematic synergies, were represented in cortical areas devoted to hand motor control and successfully discriminated individual grasping movements, significantly outperforming alternative somatotopic or muscle-based models. Importantly, hand postural synergies were predicted by neural activation patterns within primary motor cortex. These findings support a novel cortical organization for hand movement control and open potential applications for brain-computer interfaces and neuroprostheses. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13420.001 PMID:26880543

  14. Patient-centred hand hygiene information in orthopaedics units: an evidence-based implementation project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Arielle Yi Jia; Tan, Joanne; Yeo, Hui Ling; Goh, Mien Li

    2017-03-01

    This project aimed to improve patients' knowledge on the importance of hand hygiene. It involved providing patients with a patient and family education on the importance of hand hygiene using a patient information leaflet that introduces the rationale of hand hygiene, possible consequences of poor hand hygiene, and the seven steps of hand hygiene. This projected used a preimplementation and postimplementation audit strategy using the Joanna Briggs Institute Practical Application of Clinical Evidence System and Getting Research Into Practice programs. The implementation occurred in three phases over a period of 6 months from January 2014 to June 2014. The audits took place in two orthopaedic wards in a large acute care setting tertiary hospital in Singapore and involved a sample size of 54 patients. It involved going through the medical records of the cases, assessment of patient knowledge based on the audit criteria, and checking if the patients received the patient information leaflet on hand hygiene. The postimplementation audit found significant improvements in all three audit criteria. The percentage of patients who demonstrated knowledge in the importance of hand hygiene saw an improvement of 48.1%. There was an improvement of 44.5% in nurses' compliance to the documentation of patient education being carried out. The percentage of patients who received a patient information leaflet on hand hygiene saw an increase of 36.1%. This project demonstrated that a preimplementation and postimplementation audit is a viable method to implement change and translate evidence into practice. Through this project, patients gained an understanding on the importance of hand hygiene and could take better ownership of their well being. This may potentially improve hospitalization experience and benefit health outcomes. The positive results of this project are contributed by the enthusiastic involvement of all the stakeholders, from patients and their caregivers to the bedside

  15. [Personal identification with biometric and genetic methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanis, Emmanuel-Alain; Le Gall, Jean-Yves; Ardaillou, Raymond

    2007-11-01

    The need for personal identification is growing in many avenues of society. To "identify" a person is to establish a link between his or her observed characteristics and those previously stored in a database. To "authenticate" is to decide whether or not someone is the person he or she claims to be. These two objectives can now be achieved by analysing biometric data and genetic prints. All biometric techniques proceed in several stages: acquisition of an image or physical parameters, encoding them with a mathematical model, comparing the results of this model with those contained in the database, and calculating the error risk. These techniques must be usable worldwide and must examine specific and permanent personal data. The most widely used are facial recognition, digital prints (flexion folds and dermatoglyphs, that offer the advantage of leaving marks), and the surface and texture of the iris. Other biometric techniques analyse behaviours such as walking, signing, typing, or speaking. Implanted radio-transmitters are another means of identification. All these systems are evaluated on the basis of the same parameters, namely the false rejection rate, the false acceptance rate, and the failure-to-enrol rate. The uses of biometrics are increasing and diversifying, and now include national and international identification systems, control of access to protected sites, criminal and victim identification, and transaction security. Genetic methods can identify individuals almost infallibly, based on short tandem repeats of 2-5 nucleotides, or microsatellites. The most recent kits analyze 11-16 independent autosomal markers. Mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosome DNA can also be analyzed. These genetic tests are currently used to identify suspected criminals or their victims from biological samples, and to establish paternity. Personal identification raises many ethical questions, however, such as when to create and how to use a database while preserving personal freedom

  16. Tracking and Classification of In-Air Hand Gesture Based on Thermal Guided Joint Filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seongwan; Ban, Yuseok; Lee, Sangyoun

    2017-01-17

    The research on hand gestures has attracted many image processing-related studies, as it intuitively conveys the intention of a human as it pertains to motional meaning. Various sensors have been used to exploit the advantages of different modalities for the extraction of important information conveyed by the hand gesture of a user. Although many works have focused on learning the benefits of thermal information from thermal cameras, most have focused on face recognition or human body detection, rather than hand gesture recognition. Additionally, the majority of the works that take advantage of multiple modalities (e.g., the combination of a thermal sensor and a visual sensor), usually adopting simple fusion approaches between the two modalities. As both thermal sensors and visual sensors have their own shortcomings and strengths, we propose a novel joint filter-based hand gesture recognition method to simultaneously exploit the strengths and compensate the shortcomings of each. Our study is motivated by the investigation of the mutual supplementation between thermal and visual information in low feature level for the consistent representation of a hand in the presence of varying lighting conditions. Accordingly, our proposed method leverages the thermal sensor's stability against luminance and the visual sensors textural detail, while complementing the low resolution and halo effect of thermal sensors and the weakness against illumination of visual sensors. A conventional region tracking method and a deep convolutional neural network have been leveraged to track the trajectory of a hand gesture and to recognize the hand gesture, respectively. Our experimental results show stability in recognizing a hand gesture against varying lighting conditions based on the contribution of the joint kernels of spatial adjacency and thermal range similarity.

  17. Tracking and Classification of In-Air Hand Gesture Based on Thermal Guided Joint Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seongwan Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The research on hand gestures has attracted many image processing-related studies, as it intuitively conveys the intention of a human as it pertains to motional meaning. Various sensors have been used to exploit the advantages of different modalities for the extraction of important information conveyed by the hand gesture of a user. Although many works have focused on learning the benefits of thermal information from thermal cameras, most have focused on face recognition or human body detection, rather than hand gesture recognition. Additionally, the majority of the works that take advantage of multiple modalities (e.g., the combination of a thermal sensor and a visual sensor, usually adopting simple fusion approaches between the two modalities. As both thermal sensors and visual sensors have their own shortcomings and strengths, we propose a novel joint filter-based hand gesture recognition method to simultaneously exploit the strengths and compensate the shortcomings of each. Our study is motivated by the investigation of the mutual supplementation between thermal and visual information in low feature level for the consistent representation of a hand in the presence of varying lighting conditions. Accordingly, our proposed method leverages the thermal sensor’s stability against luminance and the visual sensors textural detail, while complementing the low resolution and halo effect of thermal sensors and the weakness against illumination of visual sensors. A conventional region tracking method and a deep convolutional neural network have been leveraged to track the trajectory of a hand gesture and to recognize the hand gesture, respectively. Our experimental results show stability in recognizing a hand gesture against varying lighting conditions based on the contribution of the joint kernels of spatial adjacency and thermal range similarity.

  18. Searching methods for biometric identification systems: Fundamental limits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, F.M.J.

    2009-01-01

    We study two-stage search procedures for biometric identification systems in an information-theoretical setting. Our main conclusion is that clustering based on vector-quantization achieves the optimum trade-off between the number of clusters (cluster rate) and the number of individuals within a

  19. Death caused by ingestion of an ethanol-based hand sanitizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneir, Aaron B; Clark, Richard F

    2013-09-01

    The use of hand sanitizer is effective in preventing the transmission of disease. Many hand sanitizers are alcohol-based, and significant intoxications have occurred, often in health care facilities, including the emergency department (ED). We present this case to highlight potential toxicity after the ingestion of an ethanol-based hand sanitizer. A 36-year-old man presented to the ED with ethanol intoxication. Ethanol breath analysis was measured at 278 mg/dL. After 4 h, the patient was less intoxicated and left the ED. Thirty minutes later, he was found apneic and pulseless in the ED waiting room bathroom after having ingested an ethanol-based hand sanitizer. Soon after a brief resuscitation, his serum ethanol was 526 mg/dL. He never regained consciousness and died 7 days later. No other cause of death was found. The case highlights the potential for significant toxicity after the ingestion of a product found throughout health care facilities. Balancing the benefit of hand sanitizers for preventing disease transmission and their potential misuse remains a challenge. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A Low-Cost Hand Trainer Device Based On Microcontroller Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabor, Muhammad Akmal Mohammad; Thamrin, Norashikin M.

    2018-03-01

    Conventionally, the rehabilitation equipment used in the hospital or recovery center to treat and train the muscle of the stroke patient is implementing the pneumatic or compressed air machine. The main problem caused by this equipment is that the arrangement of the machine is quite complex and the position of it has been locked and fixed, which can cause uncomfortable feeling to the patients throughout the recovery session. Furthermore, the harsh movement from the machine could harm the patient as it does not allow flexibility movement and the use of pneumatic actuator has increased the gripping force towards the patient which could hurt them. Therefore, the main aim of this paper is to propose the development of the Bionic Hand Trainer based on Arduino platform, for a low-cost solution for rehabilitation machine as well as allows flexibility and smooth hand movement for the patients during the healing process. The scope of this work is to replicate the structure of the hand only at the fingers structure that is the phalanges part, which inclusive the proximal, intermediate and distal of the fingers. In order to do this, a hand glove is designed by equipping with flex sensors at every finger and connected them to the Arduino platform. The movement of the hand will motorize the movement of the dummy hand that has been controlled by the servo motors, which have been equipped along the phalanges part. As a result, the bending flex sensors due to the movement of the fingers has doubled up the rotation of the servo motors to mimic this movement at the dummy hand. The voltage output from the bending sensors are ranging from 0 volt to 5 volts, which are suitable for low-cost hand trainer device implementation. Through this system, the patient will have the power to control their gripping operation slowly without having a painful force from the external actuators throughout the rehabilitation process.

  1. Hand Grip Strength: age and gender stratified normative data in a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Anne W

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The North West Adelaide Health Study is a representative longitudinal cohort study of people originally aged 18 years and over. The aim of this study was to describe normative data for hand grip strength in a community-based Australian population. Secondary aims were to investigate the relationship between body mass index (BMI and hand grip strength, and to compare Australian data with international hand grip strength norms. Methods The sample was randomly selected and recruited by telephone interview. Overall, 3 206 (81% of those recruited participants returned to the clinic during the second stage (2004-2006 which specifically focused on the collection of information relating to musculoskeletal conditions. Results Following the exclusion of 435 participants who had hand pain and/or arthritis, 1366 men and 1312 women participants provided hand grip strength measurement. The study population was relatively young, with 41.5% under 40 years; and their mean BMI was 28.1 kg/m2 (SD 5.5. Higher hand grip strength was weakly related to higher BMI in adults under the age of 30 and over the age of 70, but inversely related to higher BMI between these ages. Australian norms from this sample had amongst the lowest of the hand grip strength of the internationally published norms, except those from underweight populations. Conclusions This population demonstrated higher BMI and lower grip strength in younger participants than much of the international published, population data. A complete exploration of the relationship between BMI and hand grip strength was not fully explored as there were very few participants with BMI in the underweight range. The age and gender grip strength values are lower in younger adults than those reported in international literature.

  2. A concatenated coding scheme for biometric template protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shao, X.; Xu, H.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Slump, Cornelis H.

    2012-01-01

    Cryptography may mitigate the privacy problem in biometric recognition systems. However, cryptography technologies lack error-tolerance and biometric samples cannot be reproduced exactly, rising the robustness problem. The biometric template protection system needs a good feature extraction

  3. On the road to a neuroprosthetic hand: a novel hand grasp orthosis based on functional electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeb, Robert; Gubler, Miguel; Tavella, Michele; Miller, Heather; Del Millan, Jose R

    2010-01-01

    To patients who have lost the functionality of their hands as a result of a severe spinal cord injury or brain stroke, the development of new techniques for grasping is indispensable for reintegration and independency in daily life. Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) of residual muscles can reproduce the most dominant grasping tasks and can be initialized by brain signals. However, due to the very complex hand anatomy and current limitations in FES-technology with surface electrodes, these grasp patterns cannot be smoothly executed. In this paper, we present an adaptable passive hand orthosis which is capable of producing natural and smooth movements when coupled with FES. It evenly synchronizes the grasping movements and applied forces on all fingers, allowing for naturalistic gestures and functional grasps of everyday objects. The orthosis is also equipped with a lock, which allows it to remain in the desired position without the need for long-term stimulation. Furthermore, we quantify improvements offered by the orthosis compare them with natural grasps on healthy subjects.

  4. A randomized, controlled trial of a multifaceted intervention including alcohol-based hand sanitizer and hand-hygiene education to reduce illness transmission in the home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandora, Thomas J; Taveras, Elsie M; Shih, Mei-Chiung; Resnick, Elissa A; Lee, Grace M; Ross-Degnan, Dennis; Goldmann, Donald A

    2005-09-01

    Good hand hygiene may reduce the spread of infections in families with children who are in out-of-home child care. Alcohol-based hand sanitizers rapidly kill viruses that are commonly associated with respiratory and gastrointestinal (GI) infections. The objective of this study was to determine whether a multifactorial campaign centered on increasing alcohol-based hand sanitizer use and hand-hygiene education reduces illness transmission in the home. A cluster randomized, controlled trial was conducted of homes of 292 families with children who were enrolled in out-of-home child care in 26 child care centers. Eligible families had > or =1 child who was 6 months to 5 years of age and in child care for > or =10 hours/week. Intervention families received a supply of hand sanitizer and biweekly hand-hygiene educational materials for 5 months; control families received only materials promoting good nutrition. Primary caregivers were phoned biweekly and reported respiratory and GI illnesses in family members. Respiratory and GI-illness-transmission rates (measured as secondary illnesses per susceptible person-month) were compared between groups, adjusting for demographic variables, hand-hygiene practices, and previous experience using hand sanitizers. Baseline demographics were similar in the 2 groups. A total of 1802 respiratory illnesses occurred during the study; 443 (25%) were secondary illnesses. A total of 252 GI illnesses occurred during the study; 28 (11%) were secondary illnesses. The secondary GI-illness rate was significantly lower in intervention families compared with control families (incidence rate ratio [IRR]: 0.41; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.19-0.90). The overall rate of secondary respiratory illness was not significantly different between groups (IRR: 0.97; 95% CI: 0.72-1.30). However, families with higher sanitizer usage had a marginally lower secondary respiratory illness rate than those with less usage (IRR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.65-1.09). A

  5. Strategies for Exploiting Independent Cloud Implementations of Biometric Experts in Multibiometric Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Peer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing represents one of the fastest growing areas of technology and offers a new computing model for various applications and services. This model is particularly interesting for the area of biometric recognition, where scalability, processing power, and storage requirements are becoming a bigger and bigger issue with each new generation of recognition technology. Next to the availability of computing resources, another important aspect of cloud computing with respect to biometrics is accessibility. Since biometric cloud services are easily accessible, it is possible to combine different existing implementations and design new multibiometric services that next to almost unlimited resources also offer superior recognition performance and, consequently, ensure improved security to its client applications. Unfortunately, the literature on the best strategies of how to combine existing implementations of cloud-based biometric experts into a multibiometric service is virtually nonexistent. In this paper, we try to close this gap and evaluate different strategies for combining existing biometric experts into a multibiometric cloud service. We analyze the (fusion strategies from different perspectives such as performance gains, training complexity, or resource consumption and present results and findings important to software developers and other researchers working in the areas of biometrics and cloud computing. The analysis is conducted based on two biometric cloud services, which are also presented in the paper.

  6. Unobtrusive Behavioral and Activity-Related Multimodal Biometrics: The ACTIBIO Authentication Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Drosou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Unobtrusive Authentication Using ACTIvity-Related and Soft BIOmetrics (ACTIBIO is an EU Specific Targeted Research Project (STREP where new types of biometrics are combined with state-of-the-art unobtrusive technologies in order to enhance security in a wide spectrum of applications. The project aims to develop a modular, robust, multimodal biometrics security authentication and monitoring system, which uses a biodynamic physiological profile, unique for each individual, and advancements of the state of the art in unobtrusive behavioral and other biometrics, such as face, gait recognition, and seat-based anthropometrics. Several shortcomings of existing biometric recognition systems are addressed within this project, which have helped in improving existing sensors, in developing new algorithms, and in designing applications, towards creating new, unobtrusive, biometric authentication procedures in security-sensitive, Ambient Intelligence environments. This paper presents the concept of the ACTIBIO project and describes its unobtrusive authentication demonstrator in a real scenario by focusing on the vision-based biometric recognition modalities.

  7. Transfer Function Control for Biometric Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmiel, Alan J. (Inventor); Humphreys, Bradley T. (Inventor); Grodinsky, Carlos M. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A modular apparatus for acquiring biometric data may include circuitry operative to receive an input signal indicative of a biometric condition, the circuitry being configured to process the input signal according to a transfer function thereof and to provide a corresponding processed input signal. A controller is configured to provide at least one control signal to the circuitry to programmatically modify the transfer function of the modular system to facilitate acquisition of the biometric data.

  8. Recognition Errors Control in Biometric Identification Cryptosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Ivanovich Vasilyev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The method of biometric cryptosystem designed on the basis of fuzzy extractor, in which main disadvantages of biometric and cryptographic systems are absent, is considered. The main idea of this work is a control of identity recognition errors with use of fuzzy extractor which operates with Reed – Solomon correcting code. The fingerprint features vector is considered as a biometric user identifier.

  9. Towards a General Definition of Biometric Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Mirko Cubrilo; Miroslav Baca; Markus Schatten

    2009-01-01

    A foundation for closing the gap between biometrics in the narrower and the broader perspective is presented trough a conceptualization of biometric systems in both perspectives. A clear distinction between verification, identification and classification systems is made as well as shown that there are additional classes of biometric systems. In the end a Unified Modeling Language model is developed showing the connections between the two perspectives.

  10. RGBD Video Based Human Hand Trajectory Tracking and Gesture Recognition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The task of human hand trajectory tracking and gesture trajectory recognition based on synchronized color and depth video is considered. Toward this end, in the facet of hand tracking, a joint observation model with the hand cues of skin saliency, motion and depth is integrated into particle filter in order to move particles to local peak in the likelihood. The proposed hand tracking method, namely, salient skin, motion, and depth based particle filter (SSMD-PF, is capable of improving the tracking accuracy considerably, in the context of the signer performing the gesture toward the camera device and in front of moving, cluttered backgrounds. In the facet of gesture recognition, a shape-order context descriptor on the basis of shape context is introduced, which can describe the gesture in spatiotemporal domain. The efficient shape-order context descriptor can reveal the shape relationship and embed gesture sequence order information into descriptor. Moreover, the shape-order context leads to a robust score for gesture invariant. Our approach is complemented with experimental results on the settings of the challenging hand-signed digits datasets and American sign language dataset, which corroborate the performance of the novel techniques.

  11. Comprehensive bactericidal activity of an ethanol-based hand gel in 15 seconds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kampf Günter

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some studies indicate that the commonly recommended 30 s application time for the post contamination treatment of hands may not be necessary as the same effect may be achieved with some formulations in a shorter application time such as 15 s. Method We evaluated the bactericidal activity of an ethanol-based hand gel (Sterillium® Comfort Gel within 15 s in a time-kill-test against 11 Gram-positive, 16 Gram-negative bacteria and 11 emerging bacterial pathogens. Each strain was evaluated in quadruplicate. Results The hand gel (85% ethanol, w/w was found to reduce all 11 Gram-positive and all 16 Gram-negative bacteria by more than 5 log10 steps within 15 s, not only against the ATCC test strains but also against corresponding clinical isolates. In addition, a log10 reduction > 5 was observed against all tested emerging bacterial pathogens. Conclusion The ethanol-based hand gel was found to have a broad spectrum of bactericidal activity in only 15 s which includes the most common species causing nosocomial infections and the relevant emerging pathogens. Future research will hopefully help to find out if a shorter application time for the post contamination treatment of hands provides more benefits or more risks.

  12. A Survey On Biometric Security Technologies From Cloud Computing Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivashish Ratnam

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is one of the rising technologies that takes set of connections users to the next level. Cloud is a technology where resources are paid as per usage rather than owned. One of the major challenges in this technology is Security. Biometric systems provide the answer to ensure that the rendered services are accessed only by a legal user or an authorized user and no one else. Biometric systems recognize users based on behavioral or physiological characteristics. The advantages of such systems over traditional validation methods such as passwords and IDs are well known and hence biometric systems are progressively gaining ground in terms of usage. This paper brings about a new replica of a security system where in users have to offer multiple biometric finger prints during Enrollment for a service. These templates are stored at the cloud providers section. The users are authenticated based on these finger print designed templates which have to be provided in the order of arbitrary numbers or imaginary numbers that are generated every time continuously. Both finger prints templates and images are present and they provided every time duration are encrypted or modified for enhanced security.

  13. Machine Learning-Empowered Biometric Methods for Biomedicine Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingxue Zhang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, pervasive computing technologies are paving a promising way for advanced smart health applications. However, a key impediment faced by wide deployment of these assistive smart devices, is the increasing privacy and security issue, such as how to protect access to sensitive patient data in the health record. Focusing on this challenge, biometrics are attracting intense attention in terms of effective user identification to enable confidential health applications. In this paper, we take special interest in two bio-potential-based biometric modalities, electrocardiogram (ECG and electroencephalogram (EEG, considering that they are both unique to individuals, and more reliable than token (identity card and knowledge-based (username/password methods. After extracting effective features in multiple domains from ECG/EEG signals, several advanced machine learning algorithms are introduced to perform the user identification task, including Neural Network, K-nearest Neighbor, Bagging, Random Forest and AdaBoost. Experimental results on two public ECG and EEG datasets show that ECG is a more robust biometric modality compared to EEG, leveraging a higher signal to noise ratio and also more distinguishable morphological patterns. Among different machine learning classifiers, the random forest greatly outperforms the others and owns an identification rate as high as 98%. This study is expected to demonstrate that properly selected biometric empowered by an effective machine learner owns a great potential, to enable confidential biomedicine applications in the era of smart digital health.

  14. Mobile biometric device (MBD) technology :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldridge, Chris D.

    2013-06-01

    Mobile biometric devices (MBDs) capable of both enrolling individuals in databases and performing identification checks of subjects in the field are seen as an important capability for military, law enforcement, and homeland security operations. The technology is advancing rapidly. The Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Directorate through an Interagency Agreement with Sandia sponsored a series of pilot projects to obtain information for the first responder law enforcement community on further identification of requirements for mobile biometric device technology. Working with 62 different jurisdictions, including components of the Department of Homeland Security, Sandia delivered a series of reports on user operation of state-of-the-art mobile biometric devices. These reports included feedback information on MBD usage in both operational and exercise scenarios. The findings and conclusions of the project address both the limitations and possibilities of MBD technology to improve operations. Evidence of these possibilities can be found in the adoption of this technology by many agencies today and the cooperation of several law enforcement agencies in both participating in the pilot efforts and sharing of information about their own experiences in efforts undertaken separately.

  15. Emerging Biometric Modalities: Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafurov, Davrondzhon

    Recent advances in sensor technology and wide spread use of various electronics (computers, PDA, mobile phones etc.) provide new opportunities for capturing and analyses of novel physiological and behavioural traits of human beings for biometric authentication. This paper presents an overview of several such types of human characteristics that have been proposed as alternatives to traditional types of biometrics. We refer to these characteristics as emerging biometrics. We survey various types of emerging modalities and techniques, and discuss their pros and cons. Emerging biometrics faces several limitations and challenges which include subject population coverage (focusing mostly on adults); unavailability of benchmark databases; little research with respect to vulnerability/robustness against attacks; and some privacy concerns they may arise. In addition, recognition performance of emerging modalities are generally less accurate compared to the traditional biometrics. Despite all of these emerging biometrics posses their own benefits and advantages compared to traditional biometrics which makes them still attractive for research. First of all, emerging biometrics can always serve as a complementary source for identity information; they can be suitable in applications where traditional biometrics are difficult or impossible to adapt such as continuous or periodic re-verification of the user's identity etc.

  16. Identification and authentication. Common biometric methods review

    OpenAIRE

    Lysak, A.

    2012-01-01

    Major biometric methods used for identification and authentication purposes in modern computing systems are considered in the article. Basic classification, application areas and key differences are given.

  17. Biometric Collection, Transmission and Storage Standards. Version 1.1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2006-01-01

    This document provides a comprehensive technical reference that lists published biometric standards and describes their applicability to the biometric functions described in the Capstone Concept of Operations (CONOPS...

  18. E-learning may improve adherence to alcohol-based hand rubbing: a cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Sussie; Bibby, Bo Martin; Kristensen, Brian

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since 2004, we have promoted alcohol-based hand rubbing (HR) with an e-learning program (ELP) among hospital staff. This study sought to determine whether an ELP improves adherence to correct HR. METHODS: This was a cohort study of staff members at Aarhus University Hospital, Skejby, ...

  19. Object-based processes in the planning of goal-directed hand movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkering, H.; Pratt, J.

    2004-01-01

    Theories in motor control suggest that the parameters specified during the planning of goal-directed hand movements to a visual target are defined in spatial parameters like direction and amplitude. Recent findings in the visual attention literature, however, argue widely for early object-based

  20. Defense Hotline Allegations Concerning the Biometric Identification System for Access Omnibus Contract

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2008-01-01

    .... According to the Strategic Services Sourcing (S3) performance work statement the purpose of the BISA is to provide a biometric base access control system that can operate in a hostile environment...

  1. BioFoV - An open platform for forensic video analysis and biometric data extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeida, Miguel; Correia, Paulo Lobato; Larsen, Peter Kastmand

    2016-01-01

    to tailor-made software, based on state of art knowledge in fields such as soft biometrics, gait recognition, photogrammetry, etc. This paper proposes an open and extensible platform, BioFoV (Biometric Forensic Video tool), for forensic video analysis and biometric data extraction, aiming to host some...... of the developments that researchers come up with for solving specific problems, but that are often not shared with the community. BioFoV includes a simple to use Graphical User Interface (GUI), is implemented with open software that can run in multiple software platforms, and its implementation is publicly available....

  2. Biometric Screening and Future Employer Medical Costs: Is It Worth It to Know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanichkachorn, Greg; Marchese, Maya; Roy, Brad; Opel, Gordon

    2017-12-01

    To study the relationship between a biometric wellness data and future/actual medical costs. A relationship between total cholesterol to high density lipoprotein ratio, blood pressure, and blood glucose and medical costs, based on analysis of claims data, was explored in 1834 employees that had both wellness program biometric and claims data in 2016. Increased total cholesterol to HDL ratio is strongly associated with increased average costs (P biometric screening of full cholesterol and glucose profiles, medium-sized employers can identify high-risk employees who are expected to incur significantly higher healthcare costs, as compared with low-risk level employees, and improve treatment outcomes.

  3. Biometric iris image acquisition system with wavefront coding technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Sheng-Hsun; Yang, Hsi-Wen; Huang, Shao-Hung; Li, Yung-Hui; Tien, Chung-Hao

    2013-09-01

    Biometric signatures for identity recognition have been practiced for centuries. Basically, the personal attributes used for a biometric identification system can be classified into two areas: one is based on physiological attributes, such as DNA, facial features, retinal vasculature, fingerprint, hand geometry, iris texture and so on; the other scenario is dependent on the individual behavioral attributes, such as signature, keystroke, voice and gait style. Among these features, iris recognition is one of the most attractive approaches due to its nature of randomness, texture stability over a life time, high entropy density and non-invasive acquisition. While the performance of iris recognition on high quality image is well investigated, not too many studies addressed that how iris recognition performs subject to non-ideal image data, especially when the data is acquired in challenging conditions, such as long working distance, dynamical movement of subjects, uncontrolled illumination conditions and so on. There are three main contributions in this paper. Firstly, the optical system parameters, such as magnification and field of view, was optimally designed through the first-order optics. Secondly, the irradiance constraints was derived by optical conservation theorem. Through the relationship between the subject and the detector, we could estimate the limitation of working distance when the camera lens and CCD sensor were known. The working distance is set to 3m in our system with pupil diameter 86mm and CCD irradiance 0.3mW/cm2. Finally, We employed a hybrid scheme combining eye tracking with pan and tilt system, wavefront coding technology, filter optimization and post signal recognition to implement a robust iris recognition system in dynamic operation. The blurred image was restored to ensure recognition accuracy over 3m working distance with 400mm focal length and aperture F/6.3 optics. The simulation result as well as experiment validates the proposed code

  4. Biometric recognition via texture features of eye movement trajectories in a visual searching task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunyong; Xue, Jiguo; Quan, Cheng; Yue, Jingwei; Zhang, Chenggang

    2018-01-01

    Biometric recognition technology based on eye-movement dynamics has been in development for more than ten years. Different visual tasks, feature extraction and feature recognition methods are proposed to improve the performance of eye movement biometric system. However, the correct identification and verification rates, especially in long-term experiments, as well as the effects of visual tasks and eye trackers' temporal and spatial resolution are still the foremost considerations in eye movement biometrics. With a focus on these issues, we proposed a new visual searching task for eye movement data collection and a new class of eye movement features for biometric recognition. In order to demonstrate the improvement of this visual searching task being used in eye movement biometrics, three other eye movement feature extraction methods were also tested on our eye movement datasets. Compared with the original results, all three methods yielded better results as expected. In addition, the biometric performance of these four feature extraction methods was also compared using the equal error rate (EER) and Rank-1 identification rate (Rank-1 IR), and the texture features introduced in this paper were ultimately shown to offer some advantages with regard to long-term stability and robustness over time and spatial precision. Finally, the results of different combinations of these methods with a score-level fusion method indicated that multi-biometric methods perform better in most cases.

  5. The Effect of Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizer Vapors on Evidential Breath Alcohol Test Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawsine, Ellen; Lutmer, Brian

    2017-11-16

    This study was undertaken to determine if the application of alcohol-based hand sanitizers (ABHSs) to the hands of a breath test operator will affect the results obtained on evidential breath alcohol instruments (EBTs). This study obtained breath samples on three different EBTs immediately after application of either gel or foam ABHS to the operator's hands. A small, but significant, number of initial analyses (13 of 130, 10%) resulted in positive breath alcohol concentrations, while 41 samples (31.5%) resulted in a status code. These status codes were caused by ethanol vapors either in the room air or their inhalation by the subject, thereby causing a mouth alcohol effect. Replicate subject samples did not yield any consecutive positive numeric results. As ABHS application can cause a transitory mouth alcohol effect via inhalation of ABHS vapors, EBT operators should forego the use of ABHS in the 15 min preceding subject testing. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  6. Classification of right-hand grasp movement based on EMOTIV Epoc+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobing, T. A. M. L.; Prawito, Wijaya, S. K.

    2017-07-01

    Combinations of BCT elements for right-hand grasp movement have been obtained, providing the average value of their classification accuracy. The aim of this study is to find a suitable combination for best classification accuracy of right-hand grasp movement based on EEG headset, EMOTIV Epoc+. There are three movement classifications: grasping hand, relax, and opening hand. These classifications take advantage of Event-Related Desynchronization (ERD) phenomenon that makes it possible to differ relaxation, imagery, and movement state from each other. The combinations of elements are the usage of Independent Component Analysis (ICA), spectrum analysis by Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), maximum mu and beta power with their frequency as features, and also classifier Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN) and Radial Basis Function (RBF). The average values of classification accuracy are ± 83% for training and ± 57% for testing. To have a better understanding of the signal quality recorded by EMOTIV Epoc+, the result of classification accuracy of left or right-hand grasping movement EEG signal (provided by Physionet) also be given, i.e.± 85% for training and ± 70% for testing. The comparison of accuracy value from each combination, experiment condition, and external EEG data are provided for the purpose of value analysis of classification accuracy.

  7. Vision-Based Pose Estimation for Robot-Mediated Hand Telerehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Airò Farulla

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Vision-based Pose Estimation (VPE represents a non-invasive solution to allow a smooth and natural interaction between a human user and a robotic system, without requiring complex calibration procedures. Moreover, VPE interfaces are gaining momentum as they are highly intuitive, such that they can be used from untrained personnel (e.g., a generic caregiver even in delicate tasks as rehabilitation exercises. In this paper, we present a novel master–slave setup for hand telerehabilitation with an intuitive and simple interface for remote control of a wearable hand exoskeleton, named HX. While performing rehabilitative exercises, the master unit evaluates the 3D position of a human operator’s hand joints in real-time using only a RGB-D camera, and commands remotely the slave exoskeleton. Within the slave unit, the exoskeleton replicates hand movements and an external grip sensor records interaction forces, that are fed back to the operator-therapist, allowing a direct real-time assessment of the rehabilitative task. Experimental data collected with an operator and six volunteers are provided to show the feasibility of the proposed system and its performances. The results demonstrate that, leveraging on our system, the operator was able to directly control volunteers’ hands movements.

  8. Printable, scannable biometric templates for secure documents and materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambier, James L.; Musgrave, Clyde

    2000-04-01

    Biometric technology has been widely acknowledged as an effective means for enhancing private and public security through applications in physical access control, computer and computer network access control, medical records protection, banking security, public identification programs, and others. Nearly all of these applications involve use of a biometric token to control access to a physical entity or private information. There are also unique benefits to be derived from attaching a biometric template to a physical entity such as a document, package, laboratory sample, etc. Such an association allows fast, reliable, and highly accurate association of an individual person's identity to the physical entity, and can be used to enhance security, convenience, and privacy in many types of transactions. Examples include authentication of documents, tracking of laboratory samples in a testing environment, monitoring the movement of physical evidence within the criminal justice system, and authenticating the identity of both sending and receiving parties in shipment of high value parcels. A system is described which combines a biometric technology based on iris recognition with a printing and scanning technology for high-density bar codes.

  9. Machine learning techniques for gait biometric recognition using the ground reaction force

    CERN Document Server

    Mason, James Eric; Woungang, Isaac

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on how machine learning techniques can be used to analyze and make use of one particular category of behavioral biometrics known as the gait biometric. A comprehensive Ground Reaction Force (GRF)-based Gait Biometrics Recognition framework is proposed and validated by experiments. In addition, an in-depth analysis of existing recognition techniques that are best suited for performing footstep GRF-based person recognition is also proposed, as well as a comparison of feature extractors, normalizers, and classifiers configurations that were never directly compared with one another in any previous GRF recognition research. Finally, a detailed theoretical overview of many existing machine learning techniques is presented, leading to a proposal of two novel data processing techniques developed specifically for the purpose of gait biometric recognition using GRF. This book · introduces novel machine-learning-based temporal normalization techniques · bridges research gaps concerning the effect of ...

  10. Biometric Secured Result Processing Software For Nigerian Tertiary Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oladipo Oluwasegun

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract One of the challenges facing result processing in Nigerian tertiary institutions is the problem of insecurity. Untraceable changes are made to students result and this result to various disasters such as innocent people losing their jobs since their innocence cannot be proven. Biometric based systems operate on behavioral and physiological biometric data to identify a person and grant required access to a user. Physiological characteristics such as fingerprint remains unchanged throughout an individuals life time and thus it can serve as a viable means of identifying and authenticating users who are to access a system. In this study fingerprint biometric based result processing software is developed to ensure that users are well authenticated and are made to see only what they are pre-configured to see and work with. The fingerprint authentication system was developed using visual basic.net. Staff fingerprints were enrolled into the system to form a biometric template which the system validates against at every login attempt on the result processing software. The digital personal one touch ID sdk and other libraries were used in developing the authentication system. The result processing software also ensures that all write transactions to the database are confirmed and identified by forcing another biometric authentication at the point of making a write request to the web server and associated database. This ensures that the exact person initiating the transaction was the same user who logged in to the application. The users identified at login and various confirmation milestones set for write transactions are logged into a table for future reference and audit trail. Conclusively the developed system has helped to eradicate the problem of user impersonation by ensuring only authorized users are made to access the software and in-turn participate in result processing activities.

  11. Efficacy of soap and water and alcohol-based hand-rub preparations against live H1N1 influenza virus on the hands of human volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, M Lindsay; Melvani, Sharmila; Druce, Julian; Barr, Ian G; Ballard, Susan A; Johnson, Paul D R; Mastorakos, Tasoula; Birch, Christopher

    2009-02-01

    Although pandemic and avian influenza are known to be transmitted via human hands, there are minimal data regarding the effectiveness of routine hand hygiene (HH) protocols against pandemic and avian influenza. Twenty vaccinated, antibody-positive health care workers had their hands contaminated with 1 mL of 10(7) tissue culture infectious dose (TCID)(50)/0.1 mL live human influenza A virus (H1N1; A/New Caledonia/20/99) before undertaking 1 of 5 HH protocols (no HH [control], soap and water hand washing [SW], or use of 1 of 3 alcohol-based hand rubs [61.5% ethanol gel, 70% ethanol plus 0.5% chlorhexidine solution, or 70% isopropanol plus 0.5% chlorhexidine solution]). H1N1 concentrations were assessed before and after each intervention by viral culture and real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The natural viability of H1N1 on hands for >60 min without HH was also assessed. There was an immediate reduction in culture-detectable and PCR-detectable H1N1 after brief cutaneous air drying--14 of 20 health care workers had H1N1 detected by means of culture (mean reduction, 10(3-4) TCID(50)/0.1 mL), whereas 6 of 20 had no viable H1N1 recovered; all 20 health care workers had similar changes in PCR test results. Marked antiviral efficacy was noted for all 4 HH protocols, on the basis of culture results (14 of 14 had no culturable H1N1; (P< .002) and PCR results (P< .001; cycle threshold value range, 33.3-39.4), with SW statistically superior (P< .001) to all 3 alcohol-based hand rubs, although the actual difference was only 1-100 virus copies/microL. There was minimal reduction in H1N1 after 60 min without HH. HH with SW or alcohol-based hand rub is highly effective in reducing influenza A virus on human hands, although SW is the most effective intervention. Appropriate HH may be an important public health initiative to reduce pandemic and avian influenza transmission.

  12. Comparison of hand-craft feature based SVM and CNN based deep learning framework for automatic polyp classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younghak Shin; Balasingham, Ilangko

    2017-07-01

    Colonoscopy is a standard method for screening polyps by highly trained physicians. Miss-detected polyps in colonoscopy are potential risk factor for colorectal cancer. In this study, we investigate an automatic polyp classification framework. We aim to compare two different approaches named hand-craft feature method and convolutional neural network (CNN) based deep learning method. Combined shape and color features are used for hand craft feature extraction and support vector machine (SVM) method is adopted for classification. For CNN approach, three convolution and pooling based deep learning framework is used for classification purpose. The proposed framework is evaluated using three public polyp databases. From the experimental results, we have shown that the CNN based deep learning framework shows better classification performance than the hand-craft feature based methods. It achieves over 90% of classification accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and precision.

  13. SU-E-T-502: Biometrically Accepted Patient Records

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basavatia, A; Kalnicki, S; Garg, M; Lukaj, A; Hong, L; Fret, J; Yaparpalvi, R; Tome, W

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To implement a clinically useful palm vein pattern recognition biometric system to treat the correct treatment plan to the correct patient each and every time and to check-in the patient into the department to access the correct medical record. Methods: A commercially available hand vein scanning system was paired to Aria and utilized an ADT interface from the hospital electronic health system. Integration at two points in Aria, version 11 MR2, first at the appointment tracker screen for the front desk medical record access and second at the queue screen on the 4D treatment console took place for patient daily time-out. A test patient was utilized to check accuracy of identification as well as to check that no unintended interactions take place between the 4D treatment console and the hand vein scanning system. This system has been in clinical use since December 2013. Results: Since implementation, 445 patients have been enrolled into our biometric system. 95% of patients learn the correct methodology of hand placement on the scanner in the first try. We have had two instances of patient not found because of a bad initial scan. We simply erased the scanned metric and the patient enrolled again in those cases. The accuracy of the match is 100% for each patient, we have not had one patient misidentified. We can state this because we still use patient photo and date of birth as identifiers. A QA test patient is run monthly to check the integrity of the system. Conclusion: By utilizing palm vein scans along with the date of birth and patient photo, another means of patient identification now exits. This work indicates the successful implementation of technology in the area of patient safety by closing the gap of treating the wrong plan to a patient in radiation oncology. FOJP Service Corporation covered some of the costs of the hardware and software of the palm vein pattern recognition biometric system

  14. SU-E-T-502: Biometrically Accepted Patient Records

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basavatia, A; Kalnicki, S; Garg, M; Lukaj, A; Hong, L [Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY (United States); Fret, J [Montefiore Information Technology, Yonkers, NY (United States); Yaparpalvi, R [Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY (United States); Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY (United States); Tome, W [Montefiore Medical Center/Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To implement a clinically useful palm vein pattern recognition biometric system to treat the correct treatment plan to the correct patient each and every time and to check-in the patient into the department to access the correct medical record. Methods: A commercially available hand vein scanning system was paired to Aria and utilized an ADT interface from the hospital electronic health system. Integration at two points in Aria, version 11 MR2, first at the appointment tracker screen for the front desk medical record access and second at the queue screen on the 4D treatment console took place for patient daily time-out. A test patient was utilized to check accuracy of identification as well as to check that no unintended interactions take place between the 4D treatment console and the hand vein scanning system. This system has been in clinical use since December 2013. Results: Since implementation, 445 patients have been enrolled into our biometric system. 95% of patients learn the correct methodology of hand placement on the scanner in the first try. We have had two instances of patient not found because of a bad initial scan. We simply erased the scanned metric and the patient enrolled again in those cases. The accuracy of the match is 100% for each patient, we have not had one patient misidentified. We can state this because we still use patient photo and date of birth as identifiers. A QA test patient is run monthly to check the integrity of the system. Conclusion: By utilizing palm vein scans along with the date of birth and patient photo, another means of patient identification now exits. This work indicates the successful implementation of technology in the area of patient safety by closing the gap of treating the wrong plan to a patient in radiation oncology. FOJP Service Corporation covered some of the costs of the hardware and software of the palm vein pattern recognition biometric system.

  15. Impact of an alcohol-based hand sanitizer intervention on the spread of viruses in homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamimi, Akrum H; Carlino, Sheri; Edmonds, Sarah; Gerba, Charles P

    2014-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the movement of a virus throughout a household and the impact of an alcohol-based hand sanitizer (ABHS) on reducing the movement and exposure of the virus to household members. Bacterial virus MS-2 was used as the surrogate for human enteric and respiratory viruses. Seven households with families having at least two children in the age range of 2-18 living in the home were used in this study. The hands of one adult family member were contaminated with 1 × 10(8). MS-2 bacteriophage in each home. After 8 h, the hands of each family member (10 fingers) and 20 frequently touched fomites were sampled to determine baseline contamination without intervention. Within 8 h, MS-2 was detected on all of the family member's hands and most of the fomites. The intervention consisted of providing the families in all selected homes with bottles of an ABHS, which were placed in the kitchen, bathrooms, and nurseries. Smaller individual bottles were provided for each family member greater than 12 years old to place in purses, pockets, backpacks, etc. The families were instructed to use the ABHS one time or three times during the day. For one and three uses, a statistically significant reduction of virus on un-inoculated and inoculated hands of ~99% occurred within 8 h. Similar reductions occurred on fomites throughout the households (97-99%). These results demonstrate that the use of an ABHS can significantly reduce transfer of a virus to the hands, and to the commonly touched surfaces within the household.

  16. Teaching genetics using hands-on models, problem solving, and inquiry-based methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, Stephanie Ann

    Teaching genetics can be challenging because of the difficulty of the content and misconceptions students might hold. This thesis focused on using hands-on model activities, problem solving, and inquiry-based teaching/learning methods in order to increase student understanding in an introductory biology class in the area of genetics. Various activities using these three methods were implemented into the classes to address any misconceptions and increase student learning of the difficult concepts. The activities that were implemented were shown to be successful based on pre-post assessment score comparison. The students were assessed on the subjects of inheritance patterns, meiosis, and protein synthesis and demonstrated growth in all of the areas. It was found that hands-on models, problem solving, and inquiry-based activities were more successful in learning concepts in genetics and the students were more engaged than tradition styles of lecture.

  17. Analysis of alcohol-based hand sanitizer delivery systems: efficacy of foam, gel, and wipes against influenza A (H1N1) virus on hands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Elaine L; Cohen, Bevin; Baxter, Kathleen A

    2012-11-01

    Minimal research has been published evaluating the effectiveness of hand hygiene delivery systems (ie, rubs, foams, or wipes) at removing viruses from hands. The purposes of this study were to determine the effect of several alcohol-based hand sanitizers in removing influenza A (H1N1) virus, and to compare the effectiveness of foam, gel, and hand wipe products. Hands of 30 volunteers were inoculated with H1N1 and randomized to treatment with foam, gel, or hand wipe applied to half of each volunteer's finger pads. The log(10) count of each subject's treated and untreated finger pads were averaged. Log(10) reductions were calculated from these differences and averaged within treatment group. Between-treatment analysis compared changes from the untreated finger pads using analysis of covariance with treatment as a factor and the average log(10) untreated finger pads as the covariate. Log(10) counts on control finger pads were 2.7-5.3 log(10) of the 50% infectious dose for tissue culture (TCID(50)/0.1 mL) (mean, 3.8 ± 0.5 log(10) TCID(50)/0.1 mL), and treated finger pad counts for all test products were 0.5-1.9 log(10) TCID(50)/0.1 mL (mean, 0.53 ± 0.17 log(10) TCID(50)/0.1 mL). Treatments with all products resulted in a significant reduction in viral titers (>3 logs) at their respective exposure times that were statistically comparable. All 3 delivery systems (foam, gel, and wipe) produced significantly reduced viral counts on hands. Copyright © 2012 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Dual watermarking technique with multiple biometric watermarks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    affect the visual quality of the original art. On the contrary, removable visible watermarking .... Significant motivation for using biometric features such as face, voice and signature as a watermark is that face and ... These are the major reasons which motivated us to propose multimodal biometric watermarking. When the ...

  19. Controlling Leakage of Biometric Information using Dithering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buhan, I.R.; Doumen, J.M.; Hartel, Pieter H.; Buhan, I.R.; Doumen, J.M.; Hartel, P.H.

    Fuzzy extractors allow cryptographic keys to be generated from noisy, non-uniform biometric data. Fuzzy extractors can be used to authenticate a user to a server without storing her biometric data directly. However, in the Information Theoretic sense fuzzy extractors will leak information about the

  20. Semiparametric Copula Models for Biometric Score Level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caselli, M.

    2016-01-01

    In biometric recognition systems, biometric samples (images of faces, finger- prints, voices, gaits, etc.) of people are compared and classifiers (matchers) indicate the level of similarity between any pair of samples by a score. If two samples of the same person are compared, a genuine score is

  1. Behavioural Biometrics for Application in Biomedicine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schlenker, Anna; Šárek, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2013), s. 56-56 ISSN 1805-8698. [EFMI 2013 Special Topic Conference. 17.04.2013-19.04.2013, Prague] Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : biometrics * behavioural biometrics * keystroke dynamics * mouse dynamics Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  2. Occupational Exposure to Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizers: The Diagnostic Role of Alcohol Biomarkers in Hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomone, A; Bozzo, A; Di Corcia, D; Gerace, E; Vincenti, M

    2018-04-01

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in hair are effective direct biomarkers of ethanol ingestion, whose analytical determination can be used to discriminate between chronic and occasional ethanol intake. Ethanol is a compound widely used in some workplaces (e.g., clinics, hospitals) and is present in considerable amounts in mouthwash for oral cleaning, medications, cosmetic products, hydro-alcoholic disinfectants and antiseptics for hands. This study examined the ethyl alcohol exposure derived from hand disinfectants (in gel form) by simulating the typical occupational situation of medical-health workers (healthcare workers, nurses, surgeons, etc.) who frequently wash their hands with antiseptic sanitizer. Two types of hand disinfectants with 62% w/w of ethanol content were daily applied to the hands of a teetotaler for 20 times a day, for 4 consecutive weeks, thus simulating a typical workplace situation and a cumulative dermal exposure to ethanol of ~1,100 g. Different matrices (head, chest and beard hair, urine) were regularly sampled and analyzed using a ultra high-performance liquid chromatography tandem massspectrometry validated method for EtG and a (HS)SPME-GC-MS validated technique for FAEEs. The data obtained showed that a significant dermal absorption and/or inhalation of ethanol occurred, and that the use of detergents produce urinary EtG concentrations both higher than the cut-offs normally used for clinical and forensic analyses (either 100 and 500 ng/mL, depending on the context). The concentrations of the ethanol metabolites in the keratin matrices were, respectively, below the cut-off of 7 pg/mg for EtG and below 0.5 ng/mg for FAAEs (0.35 ng/mg for ethyl palmitate). In conclusion, the regular use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers can affect the concentration of urinary EtG and lead to positive analytical results, particularly when specimens are obtained shortly after sustained use of ethanol-containing hand sanitizer. On the

  3. Mobile networks for biometric data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Madrid, Natividad; Seepold, Ralf; Orcioni, Simone

    2016-01-01

    This book showcases new and innovative approaches to biometric data capture and analysis, focusing especially on those that are characterized by non-intrusiveness, reliable prediction algorithms, and high user acceptance. It comprises the peer-reviewed papers from the international workshop on the subject that was held in Ancona, Italy, in October 2014 and featured sessions on ICT for health care, biometric data in automotive and home applications, embedded systems for biometric data analysis, biometric data analysis: EMG and ECG, and ICT for gait analysis. The background to the book is the challenge posed by the prevention and treatment of common, widespread chronic diseases in modern, aging societies. Capture of biometric data is a cornerstone for any analysis and treatment strategy. The latest advances in sensor technology allow accurate data measurement in a non-intrusive way, and in many cases it is necessary to provide online monitoring and real-time data capturing to support a patient’s prevention pl...

  4. Biometric and intelligent decision making support

    CERN Document Server

    Kaklauskas, Arturas

    2015-01-01

    This book presents different methods for analyzing the body language (movement, position, use of personal space, silences, pauses and tone, the eyes, pupil dilation or constriction, smiles, body temperature and the like) for better understanding people’s needs and actions, including biometric data gathering and reading. Different studies described in this book indicate that sufficiently much data, information and knowledge can be gained by utilizing biometric technologies. This is the first, wide-ranging book that is devoted completely to the area of intelligent decision support systems, biometrics technologies and their integrations. This book is designated for scholars, practitioners and doctoral and master’s degree students in various areas and those who are interested in the latest biometric and intelligent decision making support problems and means for their resolutions, biometric and intelligent decision making support systems and the theory and practice of their integration and the opportunities fo...

  5. Measurements by A LEAP-Based Virtual Glove for the Hand Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Placidi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Hand rehabilitation is fundamental after stroke or surgery. Traditional rehabilitation requires a therapist and implies high costs, stress for the patient, and subjective evaluation of the therapy effectiveness. Alternative approaches, based on mechanical and tracking-based gloves, can be really effective when used in virtual reality (VR environments. Mechanical devices are often expensive, cumbersome, patient specific and hand specific, while tracking-based devices are not affected by these limitations but, especially if based on a single tracking sensor, could suffer from occlusions. In this paper, the implementation of a multi-sensors approach, the Virtual Glove (VG, based on the simultaneous use of two orthogonal LEAP motion controllers, is described. The VG is calibrated and static positioning measurements are compared with those collected with an accurate spatial positioning system. The positioning error is lower than 6 mm in a cylindrical region of interest of radius 10 cm and height 21 cm. Real-time hand tracking measurements are also performed, analysed and reported. Hand tracking measurements show that VG operated in real-time (60 fps, reduced occlusions, and managed two LEAP sensors correctly, without any temporal and spatial discontinuity when skipping from one sensor to the other. A video demonstrating the good performance of VG is also collected and presented in the Supplementary Materials. Results are promising but further work must be done to allow the calculation of the forces exerted by each finger when constrained by mechanical tools (e.g., peg-boards and for reducing occlusions when grasping these tools. Although the VG is proposed for rehabilitation purposes, it could also be used for tele-operation of tools and robots, and for other VR applications.

  6. Measurements by A LEAP-Based Virtual Glove for the Hand Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placidi, Giuseppe; Cinque, Luigi; Polsinelli, Matteo; Spezialetti, Matteo

    2018-03-10

    Hand rehabilitation is fundamental after stroke or surgery. Traditional rehabilitation requires a therapist and implies high costs, stress for the patient, and subjective evaluation of the therapy effectiveness. Alternative approaches, based on mechanical and tracking-based gloves, can be really effective when used in virtual reality (VR) environments. Mechanical devices are often expensive, cumbersome, patient specific and hand specific, while tracking-based devices are not affected by these limitations but, especially if based on a single tracking sensor, could suffer from occlusions. In this paper, the implementation of a multi-sensors approach, the Virtual Glove (VG), based on the simultaneous use of two orthogonal LEAP motion controllers, is described. The VG is calibrated and static positioning measurements are compared with those collected with an accurate spatial positioning system. The positioning error is lower than 6 mm in a cylindrical region of interest of radius 10 cm and height 21 cm. Real-time hand tracking measurements are also performed, analysed and reported. Hand tracking measurements show that VG operated in real-time (60 fps), reduced occlusions, and managed two LEAP sensors correctly, without any temporal and spatial discontinuity when skipping from one sensor to the other. A video demonstrating the good performance of VG is also collected and presented in the Supplementary Materials. Results are promising but further work must be done to allow the calculation of the forces exerted by each finger when constrained by mechanical tools (e.g., peg-boards) and for reducing occlusions when grasping these tools. Although the VG is proposed for rehabilitation purposes, it could also be used for tele-operation of tools and robots, and for other VR applications.

  7. Hand-Eye LRF-Based Iterative Plane Detection Method for Autonomous Robotic Welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungmin Lee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a hand-eye LRF-based (laser range finder welding plane-detection method for autonomous robotic welding in the field of shipbuilding. The hand-eye LRF system consists of a 6 DOF manipulator and an LRF attached to the wrist of the manipulator. The welding plane is detected by the LRF with only the wrist's rotation to minimize a mechanical error caused by the manipulator's motion. A position on the plane is determined as an average position of the detected points on the plane, and a normal vector to the plane is determined by applying PCA (principal component analysis to the detected points. In this case, the accuracy of the detected plane is analysed by simulations with respect to the wrist's angle interval and the plane angle. As a result of the analysis, an iterative plane-detection method with the manipulator's alignment motion is proposed to improve the performance of plane detection. For verifying the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed plane-detection method, experiments are carried out with a prototype of the hand-eye LRF-based system, which consists of a 1 DOF wrist's joint, an LRF system and a rotatable plane. In addition, the experimental results of the PCA-based plane detection method are compared with those of the two representative plane-detection methods, based on RANSAC (RANdom SAmple Consensus and the 3D Hough transform in both accuracy and computation time's points of view.

  8. Localization and Recognition of Dynamic Hand Gestures Based on Hierarchy of Manifold Classifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favorskaya, M.; Nosov, A.; Popov, A.

    2015-05-01

    Generally, the dynamic hand gestures are captured in continuous video sequences, and a gesture recognition system ought to extract the robust features automatically. This task involves the highly challenging spatio-temporal variations of dynamic hand gestures. The proposed method is based on two-level manifold classifiers including the trajectory classifiers in any time instants and the posture classifiers of sub-gestures in selected time instants. The trajectory classifiers contain skin detector, normalized skeleton representation of one or two hands, and motion history representing by motion vectors normalized through predetermined directions (8 and 16 in our case). Each dynamic gesture is separated into a set of sub-gestures in order to predict a trajectory and remove those samples of gestures, which do not satisfy to current trajectory. The posture classifiers involve the normalized skeleton representation of palm and fingers and relative finger positions using fingertips. The min-max criterion is used for trajectory recognition, and the decision tree technique was applied for posture recognition of sub-gestures. For experiments, a dataset "Multi-modal Gesture Recognition Challenge 2013: Dataset and Results" including 393 dynamic hand-gestures was chosen. The proposed method yielded 84-91% recognition accuracy, in average, for restricted set of dynamic gestures.

  9. LOCALIZATION AND RECOGNITION OF DYNAMIC HAND GESTURES BASED ON HIERARCHY OF MANIFOLD CLASSIFIERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Favorskaya

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Generally, the dynamic hand gestures are captured in continuous video sequences, and a gesture recognition system ought to extract the robust features automatically. This task involves the highly challenging spatio-temporal variations of dynamic hand gestures. The proposed method is based on two-level manifold classifiers including the trajectory classifiers in any time instants and the posture classifiers of sub-gestures in selected time instants. The trajectory classifiers contain skin detector, normalized skeleton representation of one or two hands, and motion history representing by motion vectors normalized through predetermined directions (8 and 16 in our case. Each dynamic gesture is separated into a set of sub-gestures in order to predict a trajectory and remove those samples of gestures, which do not satisfy to current trajectory. The posture classifiers involve the normalized skeleton representation of palm and fingers and relative finger positions using fingertips. The min-max criterion is used for trajectory recognition, and the decision tree technique was applied for posture recognition of sub-gestures. For experiments, a dataset “Multi-modal Gesture Recognition Challenge 2013: Dataset and Results” including 393 dynamic hand-gestures was chosen. The proposed method yielded 84–91% recognition accuracy, in average, for restricted set of dynamic gestures.

  10. Binocular Vision-Based Position and Pose of Hand Detection and Tracking in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Chen; Wenjun, Hou; Qing, Sheng

    After the study of image segmentation, CamShift target tracking algorithm and stereo vision model of space, an improved algorithm based of Frames Difference and a new space point positioning model were proposed, a binocular visual motion tracking system was constructed to verify the improved algorithm and the new model. The problem of the spatial location and pose of the hand detection and tracking have been solved.

  11. Simple Ontology of Manipulation Actions based on Hand-Object Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wörgötter, Florentin; Aksoy, E. E.; Krüger, Norbert

    2013-01-01

    and time. For this we use as temporal anchor points those moments where two objects (or hand and object) touch or un-touch each other during a manipulation. We show that by this one can define a relatively small tree-like manipulation ontology. We find less than 30 fundamental manipulations. The temporal...... and encoded. Examples of manipulations recognition and execution by a robot based on this representation are given at the end of this study....

  12. Multispectral imaging for biometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Robert K.; Corcoran, Stephen P.; Nixon, Kristin A.; Ostrom, Robert E.

    2005-03-01

    Automated identification systems based on fingerprint images are subject to two significant types of error: an incorrect decision about the identity of a person due to a poor quality fingerprint image and incorrectly accepting a fingerprint image generated from an artificial sample or altered finger. This paper discusses the use of multispectral sensing as a means to collect additional information about a finger that significantly augments the information collected using a conventional fingerprint imager based on total internal reflectance. In the context of this paper, "multispectral sensing" is used broadly to denote a collection of images taken under different polarization conditions and illumination configurations, as well as using multiple wavelengths. Background information is provided on conventional fingerprint imaging. A multispectral imager for fingerprint imaging is then described and a means to combine the two imaging systems into a single unit is discussed. Results from an early-stage prototype of such a system are shown.

  13. Study of left-handed characteristics of parallel microwires based metastructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olariu, C.S., E-mail: csolariu@phys-iasi.ro [National Institute of Research and Development for Technical Physics, Iasi (Romania); Ababei, G.; Lupu, N.; Chiriac, H. [National Institute of Research and Development for Technical Physics, Iasi (Romania)

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this work is to present a complex experimental and theoretical study of the ferromagnetic resonance frequencies and plasma behavior for CoFe-based, Co-based, Fe-based and FINEMET{sup TM} glass covered amorphous microwires (GCAWs), arranged in parallel configurations as free-standing systems, as well as combinations thereof, in order to obtain metastructures with tailored and enlarged left-handed frequency domain. The negative magnetic properties interval of the metastructures is expanded by alternating different types of GCAWs with close natural ferromagnetic resonance (NFMR) and natural antiferromagnetic resonance (NFMAR) domains, respectively.

  14. Object-Based Attention on Social Units: Visual Selection of Hands Performing a Social Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jun; Xu, Haokui; Duan, Jipeng; Shen, Mowei

    2018-05-01

    Traditionally, objects of attention are characterized either as full-fledged entities or either as elements grouped by Gestalt principles. Because humans appear to use social groups as units to explain social activities, we proposed that a socially defined group, according to social interaction information, would also be a possible object of attentional selection. This hypothesis was examined using displays with and without handshaking interactions. Results demonstrated that object-based attention, which was measured by an object-specific attentional advantage (i.e., shorter response times to targets on a single object), was extended to two hands performing a handshake but not to hands that did not perform meaningful social interactions, even when they did perform handshake-like actions. This finding cannot be attributed to the familiarity of the frequent co-occurrence of two handshaking hands. Hence, object-based attention can select a grouped object whose parts are connected within a meaningful social interaction. This finding implies that object-based attention is constrained by top-down information.

  15. Enhanced Motor Imagery-Based BCI Performance via Tactile Stimulation on Unilateral Hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaokang Shu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Brain-computer interface (BCI has attracted great interests for its effectiveness in assisting disabled people. However, due to the poor BCI performance, this technique is still far from daily-life applications. One of critical issues confronting BCI research is how to enhance BCI performance. This study aimed at improving the motor imagery (MI based BCI accuracy by integrating MI tasks with unilateral tactile stimulation (Uni-TS. The effects were tested on both healthy subjects and stroke patients in a controlled study. Twenty-two healthy subjects and four stroke patients were recruited and randomly divided into a control-group and an enhanced-group. In the control-group, subjects performed two blocks of conventional MI tasks (left hand vs. right hand, with 80 trials in each block. In the enhanced-group, subjects also performed two blocks of MI tasks, but constant tactile stimulation was applied on the non-dominant/paretic hand during MI tasks in the second block. We found the Uni-TS significantly enhanced the contralateral cortical activations during MI of the stimulated hand, whereas it had no influence on activation patterns during MI of the non-stimulated hand. The two-class BCI decoding accuracy was significantly increased from 72.5% (MI without Uni-TS to 84.7% (MI with Uni-TS in the enhanced-group (p < 0.001, paired t-test. Moreover, stroke patients in the enhanced-group achieved an accuracy >80% during MI with Uni-TS. This novel approach complements the conventional methods for BCI enhancement without increasing source information or complexity of signal processing. This enhancement via Uni-TS may facilitate clinical applications of MI-BCI.

  16. Quality dependent fusion of intramodal and multimodal biometric experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittler, J.; Poh, N.; Fatukasi, O.; Messer, K.; Kryszczuk, K.; Richiardi, J.; Drygajlo, A.

    2007-04-01

    We address the problem of score level fusion of intramodal and multimodal experts in the context of biometric identity verification. We investigate the merits of confidence based weighting of component experts. In contrast to the conventional approach where confidence values are derived from scores, we use instead raw measures of biometric data quality to control the influence of each expert on the final fused score. We show that quality based fusion gives better performance than quality free fusion. The use of quality weighted scores as features in the definition of the fusion functions leads to further improvements. We demonstrate that the achievable performance gain is also affected by the choice of fusion architecture. The evaluation of the proposed methodology involves 6 face and one speech verification experts. It is carried out on the XM2VTS data base.

  17. Hand veins feature extraction using DT-CNNS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malki, Suleyman; Spaanenburg, Lambert

    2007-05-01

    As the identification process is based on the unique patterns of the users, biometrics technologies are expected to provide highly secure authentication systems. The existing systems using fingerprints or retina patterns are, however, very vulnerable. One's fingerprints are accessible as soon as the person touches a surface, while a high resolution camera easily captures the retina pattern. Thus, both patterns can easily be "stolen" and forged. Beside, technical considerations decrease the usability for these methods. Due to the direct contact with the finger, the sensor gets dirty, which decreases the authentication success ratio. Aligning the eye with a camera to capture the retina pattern gives uncomfortable feeling. On the other hand, vein patterns of either a palm of the hand or a single finger offer stable, unique and repeatable biometrics features. A fingerprint-based identification system using Cellular Neural Networks has already been proposed by Gao. His system covers all stages of a typical fingerprint verification procedure from Image Preprocessing to Feature Matching. This paper performs a critical review of the individual algorithmic steps. Notably, the operation of False Feature Elimination is applied only once instead of 3 times. Furthermore, the number of iterations is limited to 1 for all used templates. Hence, the computational need of the feedback contribution is removed. Consequently the computational effort is drastically reduced without a notable chance in quality. This allows a full integration of the detection mechanism. The system is prototyped on a Xilinx Virtex II Pro P30 FPGA.

  18. Reported Adverse Health Effects in Children from Ingestion of Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizers - United States, 2011-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Cynthia; Kieszak, Stephanie; Wang, Alice; Law, Royal; Schier, Joshua; Wolkin, Amy

    2017-03-03

    Hand sanitizers are effective and inexpensive products that can reduce microorganisms on the skin, but ingestion or improper use can be associated with health risks. Many hand sanitizers contain up to 60%-95% ethanol or isopropyl alcohol by volume, and are often combined with scents that might be appealing to young children. Recent reports have identified serious consequences, including apnea, acidosis, and coma in young children who swallowed alcohol-based (alcohol) hand sanitizer (1-3). Poison control centers collect data on intentional and unintentional exposures to hand sanitizer solutions resulting from various routes of exposure, including ingestion, inhalation, and dermal and ocular exposures. To characterize exposures of children aged ≤12 years to alcohol hand sanitizers, CDC analyzed data reported to the National Poison Data System (NPDS).* The major route of exposure to both alcohol and nonalcohol-based (nonalcohol) hand sanitizers was ingestion. The majority of intentional exposures to alcohol hand sanitizers occurred in children aged 6-12 years. Alcohol hand sanitizer exposures were associated with worse outcomes than were nonalcohol hand sanitizer exposures. Caregivers and health care providers should be aware of the potential dangers associated with hand sanitizer ingestion. Children using alcohol hand sanitizers should be supervised and these products should be kept out of reach from children when not in use.

  19. A novel approach to transformed biometrics using successive projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopi, E. S.

    2010-02-01

    Unlike user created password, number of biometrics is limited for creating account in different organizations. Transformed biometrics attempts to solve the problem by transforming the biometric into another form, which is unique to the particular organization. This makes the availability of different transformed biometrics in different organizations transformed from the same biometrics and helps in foolproof transactions. In this article a novel approach to transformed biometrics using successive projection technique is suggested .In the proposed technique, the user can register up to 5*4n-1 organizations if the length of the biometric password is 'n'.

  20. Novel continuous authentication using biometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Prakash; Patidar, Rinku; Mishra, Vikas; Norman, Jasmine; Mangayarkarasi, R.

    2017-11-01

    We explore whether a classifier can consistent1y verify c1ients and interact with the computer using camera and behavior of users. In this paper we propose a new way of authentication of user which wi1l capture many images of user in random time and ana1ysis of its touch biometric behavior. In this system experiment the touch conduct of a c1ient/user between an en1istment stage is stored in the database and it is checked its mean time behavior during equa1 partition of time. This touch behavior wi1l ab1e to accept or reject the user. This wi1l modify the use of biometric more accurate to use. In this system the work p1an going to perform is the user wi1l ask single time to a1low to take it picture before 1ogin. Then it wi1l take images of user without permission of user automatica1ly and store in the database. This images and existing image of user wi1l be compare and reject or accept wi1l depend on its comparison. The user touch behavior wi1l keep storing with number of touch make in equa1 amount of time of the user. This touch behavior and image wi1l fina1ly perform authentication of the user automatically.

  1. Miniature Biometric Sensor Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falker, John; Terrier, Douglas; Clayton, Ronald; Hanson, Andrea; Cooper, Tommy; Downs, Meghan; Flint, Stephanie; Reyna, Baraquiel; Simon, Cory; Wilt, Grier

    2015-01-01

    Heart rate monitoring (HRM) is a critical need during exploration missions. Unlike the four separate systems used on ISS today, the single HRM system should perform as a diagnostic tool, perform well during exercise or high level activity, and be suitable for use during EVA. Currently available HRM technologies are dependent on uninterrupted contact with the skin and are prone to data drop-out and motion artifact when worn in the spacesuit or during exercise. Here, we seek an alternative to the chest strap and electrode based sensors currently in use on ISS today. This project aims to develop a single, high performance, robust biosensor with focused efforts on improved heart rate data quality collection during high intensity activity such as exercise or EVA.

  2. Repeatability of grasp recognition for robotic hand prosthesis control based on sEMG data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, Francesca; Cognolato, Matteo; Gijsberts, Arjan; Muller, Henning; Caputo, Barbara; Atzori, Manfredo

    2017-07-01

    Control methods based on sEMG obtained promising results for hand prosthetics. Control system robustness is still often inadequate and does not allow the amputees to perform a large number of movements useful for everyday life. Only few studies analyzed the repeatability of sEMG classification of hand grasps. The main goals of this paper are to explore repeatability in sEMG data and to release a repeatability database with the recorded experiments. The data are recorded from 10 intact subjects repeating 7 grasps 12 times, twice a day for 5 days. The data are publicly available on the Ninapro web page. The analysis for the repeatability is based on the comparison of movement classification accuracy in several data acquisitions and for different subjects. The analysis is performed using mean absolute value and waveform length features and a Random Forest classifier. The accuracy obtained by training and testing on acquisitions at different times is on average 27.03% lower than training and testing on the same acquisition. The results obtained by training and testing on different acquisitions suggest that previous acquisitions can be used to train the classification algorithms. The inter-subject variability is remarkable, suggesting that specific characteristics of the subjects can affect repeatibility and sEMG classification accuracy. In conclusion, the results of this paper can contribute to develop more robust control systems for hand prostheses, while the presented data allows researchers to test repeatability in further analyses.

  3. Using Biometric Characteristics to Increase ITS Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Bača

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Terrorist attacks in New York City and Washington, Districtof Columbia on the morning of September 11, 2001 havechanged our lives. The secwity problem became very importantregarding all spheres of human activities. Tracking persons(employees, customers etc. in ITS (Intelligent Transport Systemis a huge problem. Biometrics offers a very good solutionfor this problem and is today maybe one of the most promisingtechniques for person's secure verification and authentication;biometric system also features some advantages when comparedto other security systems. When using a biometric systemone has to be careful because the functionality of a biometricapplication can be dramatically aggravated if inappropriatebiometric features are selected. Classification of biometric featureson contact and contactless, or distinction between"strong" and "soft" biometric features gives a framework for usingbiometric features, but it does not ensure that biometric featŁtres are implemented at a satisfactory level. The usage ofmultimodal or unimodal biometric system can significantly increasethe system security but it also opens plenty of questionslike privacy etc. This paper describes the implementation ofbiometric features which can be used in ITS, and delineates anew model of usage.

  4. Optical coherence tomography based 1D to 6D eye-in-hand calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antoni, Sven Thomas; Otte, Christoph; Savarimuthu, Thiusius Rajeeth

    2017-01-01

    and based on this introduce pivot+d, a new 1D to 6D eye-in-hand calibration. We provide detailed results on the convergence and accuracy of our method and use translational and rotational ground truth to show that our methods allow for submillimeter positioning accuracy of an OCT beam with a robot.......e., it can be easily integrated with instruments. However, to use OCT for intra-operative guidance its spatial alignment needs to be established. Hence, we consider eye-in-hand calibration between the 1D OCT imaging and a 6D robotic position system. We present a method to perform pivot calibration for OCT....... For pivot calibration we observe a mean translational error of 0.5161 ± 0.4549 mm while pivot+d shows 0.3772 ± 0.2383 mm. Additionally, pivot+d improves rotation detection by about 8° when compared to pivot calibration....

  5. A video-based system for hand-driven stop-motion animation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiaoguang; Fu, Hongbo; Zheng, Hanlin; Liu, Ligang; Wang, Jue

    2013-01-01

    Stop-motion is a well-established animation technique but is often laborious and requires craft skills. A new video-based system can animate the vast majority of everyday objects in stop-motion style, more flexibly and intuitively. Animators can perform and capture motions continuously instead of breaking them into increments and shooting one still picture per increment. More important, the system permits direct hand manipulation without resorting to rigs, achieving more natural object control for beginners. The system's key component is two-phase keyframe-based capturing and processing, assisted by computer vision techniques. With this system, even amateurs can generate high-quality stop-motion animations.

  6. A Prosthetic Hand Body Area Controller Based on Efficient Pattern Recognition Control Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benatti, Simone; Milosevic, Bojan; Farella, Elisabetta; Gruppioni, Emanuele; Benini, Luca

    2017-04-15

    Poliarticulated prosthetic hands represent a powerful tool to restore functionality and improve quality of life for upper limb amputees. Such devices offer, on the same wearable node, sensing and actuation capabilities, which are not equally supported by natural interaction and control strategies. The control in state-of-the-art solutions is still performed mainly through complex encoding of gestures in bursts of contractions of the residual forearm muscles, resulting in a non-intuitive Human-Machine Interface (HMI). Recent research efforts explore the use of myoelectric gesture recognition for innovative interaction solutions, however there persists a considerable gap between research evaluation and implementation into successful complete systems. In this paper, we present the design of a wearable prosthetic hand controller, based on intuitive gesture recognition and a custom control strategy. The wearable node directly actuates a poliarticulated hand and wirelessly interacts with a personal gateway (i.e., a smartphone) for the training and personalization of the recognition algorithm. Through the whole system development, we address the challenge of integrating an efficient embedded gesture classifier with a control strategy tailored for an intuitive interaction between the user and the prosthesis. We demonstrate that this combined approach outperforms systems based on mere pattern recognition, since they target the accuracy of a classification algorithm rather than the control of a gesture. The system was fully implemented, tested on healthy and amputee subjects and compared against benchmark repositories. The proposed approach achieves an error rate of 1.6% in the end-to-end real time control of commonly used hand gestures, while complying with the power and performance budget of a low-cost microcontroller.

  7. Biometric identity management for standard mobile medical networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egner, Alexandru; Soceanu, Alexandru; Moldoveanu, Florica

    2012-01-01

    The explosion of healthcare costs over the last decade has prompted the ICT industry to respond with solutions for reducing costs while improving healthcare quality. The ISO/IEEE 11073 family of standards recently released is the first step towards interoperability of mobile medical devices used in patient environments. The standards do not, however, tackle security problems, such as identity management, or the secure exchange of medical data. This paper proposes an enhancement of the ISO/IEEE 11073-20601 protocol with an identity management system based on biometry. The paper describes a novel biometric-based authentication process, together with the biometric key generation algorithm. The proposed extension of the ISO/IEEE 11073-20601 is also presented.

  8. Heartbeat Signal from Facial Video for Biometric Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haque, Mohammad Ahsanul; Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2015-01-01

    Different biometric traits such as face appearance and heartbeat signal from Electrocardiogram (ECG)/Phonocardiogram (PCG) are widely used in the human identity recognition. Recent advances in facial video based measurement of cardio-physiological parameters such as heartbeat rate, respiratory rate......, and blood volume pressure provide the possibility of extracting heartbeat signal from facial video instead of using obtrusive ECG or PCG sensors in the body. This paper proposes the Heartbeat Signal from Facial Video (HSFV) as a new biometric trait for human identity recognition, for the first time...... to the best of our knowledge. Feature extraction from the HSFV is accomplished by employing Radon transform on a waterfall model of the replicated HSFV. The pairwise Minkowski distances are obtained from the Radon image as the features. The authentication is accomplished by a decision tree based supervised...

  9. An efficient biometric and password-based remote user authentication using smart card for Telecare Medical Information Systems in multi-server environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitra, Tanmoy; Giri, Debasis

    2014-12-01

    The medical organizations have introduced Telecare Medical Information System (TMIS) to provide a reliable facility by which a patient who is unable to go to a doctor in critical or urgent period, can communicate to a doctor through a medical server via internet from home. An authentication mechanism is needed in TMIS to hide the secret information of both parties, namely a server and a patient. Recent research includes patient's biometric information as well as password to design a remote user authentication scheme that enhances the security level. In a single server environment, one server is responsible for providing services to all the authorized remote patients. However, the problem arises if a patient wishes to access several branch servers, he/she needs to register to the branch servers individually. In 2014, Chuang and Chen proposed an remote user authentication scheme for multi-server environment. In this paper, we have shown that in their scheme, an non-register adversary can successfully logged-in into the system as a valid patient. To resist the weaknesses, we have proposed an authentication scheme for TMIS in multi-server environment where the patients can register to a root telecare server called registration center (RC) in one time to get services from all the telecare branch servers through their registered smart card. Security analysis and comparison shows that our proposed scheme provides better security with low computational and communication cost.

  10. Data Acquisition for Modular Biometric Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmiel, Alan J. (Inventor); Humphreys, Bradley T. (Inventor); Grodsinsky, Carlos M. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A modular system for acquiring biometric data includes a plurality of data acquisition modules configured to sample biometric data from at least one respective input channel at a data acquisition rate. A representation of the sampled biometric data is stored in memory of each of the plurality of data acquisition modules. A central control system is in communication with each of the plurality of data acquisition modules through a bus. The central control system is configured to collect data asynchronously, via the bus, from the memory of the plurality of data acquisition modules according to a relative fullness of the memory of the plurality of data acquisition modules.

  11. Biometric Systems Private by Design: Reasoning about privacy properties of biometric system architectures

    OpenAIRE

    Bringer, Julien; Chabanne, Herve; Metayer, Daniel Le; Lescuyer, Roch

    2017-01-01

    This work aims to show the applicability, and how, of privacy by design approach to biometric systems and the benefit of using formal methods to this end. Starting from a general framework that has been introduced at STM in 2014, that enables to define privacy architectures and to formally reason about their properties, we explain how it can be adapted to biometrics. The choice of particular techniques and the role of the components (central server, secure module, biometric terminal, smart ca...

  12. Does the use of alcohol-based hand gel sanitizer reduce travellers' diarrhea and gastrointestinal upset?: A preliminary survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriey, Delphine; Delmont, Jean; Gautret, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Use of alcohol-based hand sanitizer is recommended by the CDC to reduce the risk for travellers' diarrhoea, but its effectiveness has not been assessed. We investigated the potential protective effect of hand sanitizer use on the occurrence of diarrhoea and/or vomiting in 200 international travellers, who were returning home, at an international airport. We also conducted a knowledge, aptitude and practice survey about hand gel use among international travellers consulting for pre-travel advice at a specialized clinic. 200 returning travellers were included of which 32.5% declared having used alcohol-based hand sanitizer during travel. Travellers who used hand sanitizer reported diarrhoea and vomiting significantly less frequently than those who did not (17% vs. 30%, OR = 0.47; 95% CI [0.21-0.97], p = 0.04). A total of 257 travellers consulting for pre-travel advice were included. A majority of travellers knew that hand sanitizer may be used for hand hygiene and had already used hand sanitizer; 72% planned to bring hand sanitizer during their next travel. Use of hand sanitizer is highly acceptable by travellers and is associated with a reduction in the incidence of travellers' diarrhoea and/or vomiting. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A Novel Biometric Approach for Authentication In Pervasive Computing Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Rachappa,; Divyajyothi M G; D H Rao

    2016-01-01

    The paradigm of embedding computing devices in our surrounding environment has gained more interest in recent days. Along with contemporary technology comes challenges, the most important being the security and privacy aspect. Keeping the aspect of compactness and memory constraints of pervasive devices in mind, the biometric techniques proposed for identification should be robust and dynamic. In this work, we propose an emerging scheme that is based on few exclusive human traits and characte...

  14. Soft object deformation monitoring and learning for model-based robotic hand manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cretu, Ana-Maria; Payeur, Pierre; Petriu, Emil M

    2012-06-01

    This paper discusses the design and implementation of a framework that automatically extracts and monitors the shape deformations of soft objects from a video sequence and maps them with force measurements with the goal of providing the necessary information to the controller of a robotic hand to ensure safe model-based deformable object manipulation. Measurements corresponding to the interaction force at the level of the fingertips and to the position of the fingertips of a three-finger robotic hand are associated with the contours of a deformed object tracked in a series of images using neural-network approaches. The resulting model captures the behavior of the object and is able to predict its behavior for previously unseen interactions without any assumption on the object's material. The availability of such models can contribute to the improvement of a robotic hand controller, therefore allowing more accurate and stable grasp while providing more elaborate manipulation capabilities for deformable objects. Experiments performed for different objects, made of various materials, reveal that the method accurately captures and predicts the object's shape deformation while the object is submitted to external forces applied by the robot fingers. The proposed method is also fast and insensitive to severe contour deformations, as well as to smooth changes in lighting, contrast, and background.

  15. Comparison of 3 in vivo methods for assessment of alcohol-based hand rubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds-Wilson, Sarah; Campbell, Esther; Fox, Kyle; Macinga, David

    2015-05-01

    Alcohol-based hand rubs (ABHRs) are the primary method of hand hygiene in health-care settings. ICPs increasingly are assessing ABHR product efficacy data as improved products and test methods are developed. As a result, ICPs need better tools and recommendations for how to assess and compare ABHRs. Two ABHRs (70% ethanol) were tested according to 3 in vivo methods approved by ASTM International: E1174, E2755, and E2784. Log10 reductions were measured after a single test product use and after 10 consecutive uses at an application volume of 2 mL. The test method used had a significant influence on ABHR efficacy; however, in this study the test product (gel or foam) did not significantly influence efficacy. In addition, for all test methods, log10 reductions obtained after a single application were not predictive of results after 10 applications. Choice of test method can significantly influence efficacy results. Therefore, when assessing antimicrobial efficacy data of hand hygiene products, ICPs should pay close attention to the test method used, and ensure that product comparisons are made head to head in the same study using the same test methodology. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The relationship between refractive and biometric changes during Edinger–Westphal stimulated accommodation in rhesus monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilupuru, Abhiram S.; Glasser, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    Experiments were undertaken to understand the relationship between dynamic accommodative refractive and biometric (lens thickness (LT), anterior chamber depth (ACD) and anterior segment length (ASL=ACD+LT)) changes during Edinger–Westphal stimulated accommodation in rhesus monkeys. Experiments were conducted on three rhesus monkeys (aged 11·5, 4·75 and 4·75 years) which had undergone prior, bilateral, complete iridectomies and implantation of a stimulating electrode in the Edinger–Westphal (EW) nucleus. Accommodative refractive responses were first measured dynamically with video-based infrared photorefraction and then ocular biometric responses were measured dynamically with continuous ultrasound biometry (CUB) during EW stimulation. The same stimulus amplitudes were used for the refractive and biometric measurements to allow them to be compared. Main sequence relationships (ratio of peak velocity to amplitude) were calculated. Dynamic accommodative refractive changes are linearly correlated with the biometric changes and accommodative biometric changes in ACD, ASL and LT show systematic linear correlations with increasing accommodative amplitudes. The relationships are relatively similar for the eyes of the different monkeys. Dynamic analysis showed that main sequence relationships for both biometry and refraction are linear. Although accommodative refractive changes in the eye occur primarily due to changes in lens surface curvature, the refractive changes are well correlated with A-scan measured accommodative biometric changes. Accommodative changes in ACD, LT and ASL are all well correlated over the full extent of the accommodative response. PMID:15721617

  17. The biometric antecedents to happiness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petri Böckerman

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that biological markers are associated with human happiness. We contribute to the empirical literature by examining the independent association between various aspects of biometric wellbeing measured in childhood and happiness in adulthood. Using Young Finns Study data (n = 1905 and nationally representative linked data we examine whether eight biomarkers measured in childhood (1980 are associated with happiness in adulthood (2001. Using linked data we account for a very rich set of confounders including age, sex, body size, family background, nutritional intake, physical activity, income, education and labour market experiences. We find that there is a negative relationship between triglycerides and subjective well-being but it is both gender- and age-specific and the relationship does not prevail using the later measurements (1983/1986 on triglycerides. In summary, we conclude that none of the eight biomarkers measured in childhood predict happiness robustly in adulthood.

  18. The biometric antecedents to happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böckerman, Petri; Bryson, Alex; Viinikainen, Jutta; Hakulinen, Christian; Hintsanen, Mirka; Pehkonen, Jaakko; Viikari, Jorma; Raitakari, Olli

    2017-01-01

    It has been suggested that biological markers are associated with human happiness. We contribute to the empirical literature by examining the independent association between various aspects of biometric wellbeing measured in childhood and happiness in adulthood. Using Young Finns Study data (n = 1905) and nationally representative linked data we examine whether eight biomarkers measured in childhood (1980) are associated with happiness in adulthood (2001). Using linked data we account for a very rich set of confounders including age, sex, body size, family background, nutritional intake, physical activity, income, education and labour market experiences. We find that there is a negative relationship between triglycerides and subjective well-being but it is both gender- and age-specific and the relationship does not prevail using the later measurements (1983/1986) on triglycerides. In summary, we conclude that none of the eight biomarkers measured in childhood predict happiness robustly in adulthood.

  19. A Vein Map Biometric System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Fuentes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing demand world-wide, from government agencies and the private sector for cutting-edge biometric security technology that is difficult to breach but userfriendly at the same time. Some of the older tools, such as fingerprint, retina and iris scanning, and facial recognition software have all been found to have flaws and often viewed negatively because of many cultural and hygienic issues associated with them. Comparatively, mapping veins as a human barcode, a new technology, has many advantages over older technologies. Specifically, reproducing a three-dimensional model of a human vein system is impossible to replicate. Vein map technology is distinctive because of its state-of-the-art sensors are only able to recognize vein patterns if hemoglobin is actively flowing through the person

  20. Performance of biometric quality measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grother, Patrick; Tabassi, Elham

    2007-04-01

    We document methods for the quantitative evaluation of systems that produce a scalar summary of a biometric sample's quality. We are motivated by a need to test claims that quality measures are predictive of matching performance. We regard a quality measurement algorithm as a black box that converts an input sample to an output scalar. We evaluate it by quantifying the association between those values and observed matching results. We advance detection error trade-off and error versus reject characteristics as metrics for the comparative evaluation of sample quality measurement algorithms. We proceed this with a definition of sample quality, a description of the operational use of quality measures. We emphasize the performance goal by including a procedure for annotating the samples of a reference corpus with quality values derived from empirical recognition scores.