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Sample records for hancornia speciosa apocynaceae

  1. Development of microsatellite markers for Hancornia speciosa Gomes (Apocynaceae).

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    Rodrigues, A J L; Yamaguishi, A T; Chaves, L J; Coelho, A S G; Lima, J S; Telles, M P C

    2015-07-03

    Herein, we describe 34 microsatellite loci developed using an enrichment genomic library for the tree species Hancornia speciosa Gomes (Apocynaceae). Thirty-five individuals were genotyped using 34 primers to analyze the polymorphisms at each locus. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 4 to 20. The average number of alleles was 8.11, and the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.62 to 0.94. These microsatellite primers will be useful in population genetics studies for this species.

  2. Identification of Phenolic Compounds from Hancornia speciosa (Apocynaceae) Leaves by UHPLC Orbitrap-HRMS.

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    Bastos, Katherine Xavier; Dias, Clarice Noleto; Nascimento, Yuri Mangueira; da Silva, Marcelo Sobral; Langassner, Silvana Maria Zucolotto; Wessjohann, Ludger A; Tavares, Josean Fechine

    2017-01-15

    Apocynaceae is a botanical family distributed mainly in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. In Brazil, they comprise about 90 genera and 850 species, inhabiting various types of vegetation. Within this large botanical family, the genus Hancornia is considered monotypic, with its only species Hancornia speciosa Gomes. Antihypertensive, antidiabetic, and antiviral activities are described for this species. Despite having been the target of some studies, knowledge of its chemical composition is still limited. In this study, the phenolics of H. speciosa leaves were analyzed using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). As a result, 14 compounds were identified viz. protocatechuic acid, catechin, and quercetin, and another 14 were putatively identified viz. B- and C-type procyanidins, while just one compound remained unknown. From the identified compounds, 17 are reported for the first time viz. coumaroylquinic acid isomers and eriodyctiol. The results show that Hancornia speciosa can serve as source of valuable phenolics.

  3. Hancornia speciosa Gomes (Apocynaceae) as a potential anti-diabetic drug.

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    Pereira, Aline C; Pereira, Ana Bárbara D; Moreira, Carolina C L; Botion, Leida M; Lemos, Virgínia S; Braga, Fernão C; Cortes, Steyner F

    2015-02-23

    The leaves of Hancornia speciosa Gomes are traditionally used to treat diabetes in Brazil. The aim of the study is to evaluate the potential anti-diabetic effect of Hancornia speciosa extract and derived fractions. The ethanolic extract from Hancornia speciosa leaves and chromatographic fractions thereof were evaluated on α-glucosidase assay, on hyperglycemic effect and glucose uptake. The chemical composition of the extract and its most active fraction was investigated by ESI-LC-MS. The ethanolic extract and derived fractions inhibited α-glucosidase in vitro. However, only the crude extract and the dichloromethane fraction inhibited the hyperglycemic effect induced by starch or glucose. Both the extract and dichloromethane fraction were also able to increase glucose uptake in adipocytes. Bornesitol, quinic acid, and chorogenic acid were identified in the extract, along with flavonoid glycosides, whereas the dichloromethane fraction is majorly composed by esters of lupeol and/or α/β-amirin. Hancornia speciosa has a potential anti-diabetic effect through a mechanism dependent on inhibition of α-glucosidase and increase on glucose uptake. These results give support to the use on traditional medicine of this medicinal plant. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous extract and bioactive compounds identified from the fruits of Hancornia speciosa Gomes (Apocynaceae).

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    Torres-Rêgo, Manoela; Furtado, Allanny Alves; Bitencourt, Mariana Angélica Oliveira; Lima, Maira Conceição Jerônimo de Souza; Andrade, Rafael Caetano Lisbôa Castro de; Azevedo, Eduardo Pereira de; Soares, Thaciane da Cunha; Tomaz, José Carlos; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; da Silva-Júnior, Arnóbio Antônio; Zucolotto, Silvana Maria; Fernandes-Pedrosa, Matheus de Freitas

    2016-08-05

    Hancornia speciosa Gomes (Apocynaceae), popularly known as "mangabeira," has been used in folk medicine to treat inflammatory disorders, hypertension, dermatitis, diabetes, liver diseases and gastric disorders. Although the ethnobotany indicates that its fruits can be used for the treatment of ulcers and inflammatory disorders, only few studies have been conducted to prove such biological activities. This study investigated the anti-inflammatory properties of the aqueous extract of the fruits of H. speciosa Gomes as well as its bioactive compounds using in vivo experimental models. The bioactive compounds were identified by High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) and Liquid Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS). The anti-inflammatory properties were investigated through in vivo tests, which comprised xylene-induced ear edema, carrageenan-induced peritonitis and zymosan-induced air pouch. The levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12 and TNF-α were determined using ELISA. Rutin and chlorogenic acid were identified in the extract as the main secondary metabolites. In addition, the extract as well as rutin and chlorogenic acid significantly inhibited the xilol-induced ear edema and also reduced the cell migration in both carrageenan-induced peritonitis and zymosan-induced air pouch models. Reduced levels of cytokines were also observed. This is the first study that demonstrated the anti-inflammatory activity of the extract of H. speciosa fruits against different inflammatory agents in animal models, suggesting that its bioactive molecules, especially rutin and chlorogenic acid are, at least in part, responsible for such activity. These findings support the widespread use of Hancornia speciosa in popular medicine and demonstrate that its aqueous extract has therapeutical potential for the development of herbal drugs with anti-inflammatory properties.

  5. Propagação de Hancornia speciosa Gomes – Apocynaceae, por alporquia e micropropagação

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    Reis, Luis Lessi dos [UNESP

    2011-01-01

    A mangabeira Hancornia speciosa Gomes, pertencente à família Apocynaceae, considerada uma frutífera nativa do Brasil e encontrada em várias regiões do país. A propagação via sementes é a mais utilizada, porém perdem o poder germinativo assim que são retiradas do fruto, em função de sua recalcitrância. A propagação vegetativa por meio da estaquia também não se consolidou, em função do baixo percentual de enraizamento. Desta forma essa pesquisa teve por objetivo aprimorar o conhecimento técnico...

  6. Do consecutive flower visits within a crown diminish fruit set in mass-flowering Hancornia speciosa (Apocynaceae)?

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    Pinto, C E; Oliveira, R; Schlindwein, C

    2008-05-01

    Hancornia speciosa is a self-incompatible, mass-flowering, sphingophilous fruit crop (mangaba) of northeast and central Brazil. The flowers have a precise pollination apparatus, which optimizes pollen transfer between flower and pollinator. While the pollination mechanism avoids self-pollination, mass-flowering promotes geitonogamy. During a flower visit, almost half of the exogenous pollen grains adhering to the proboscis are deposited on the stigma surface. A pollination experiment with a nylon thread simulating six consecutive flower visits within a crown revealed that only the first two flowers visited (positions 1 and 2) are highly likely to set fruit. Super-production of flowers, and consequently obligate low fruit set, seem to be part of the reproductive strategy of the obligate outcrossing plant, Hancornia speciosa.

  7. The Impact of Global Climate Change on the Geographic Distribution and Sustainable Harvest of Hancornia speciosa Gomes (Apocynaceae) in Brazil

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    Nabout, João Carlos; Magalhães, Mara Rúbia; de Amorim Gomes, Marcos Aurélio; da Cunha, Hélida Ferreira

    2016-04-01

    The global Climate change may affect biodiversity and the functioning of ecosystems by changing the appropriate locations for the development and establishment of the species. The Hancornia speciosa, popularly called Mangaba, is a plant species that has potential commercial value and contributes to rural economic activities in Brazil. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of global climate change on the potential geographic distribution, productivity, and value of production of H. speciosa in Brazil. We used MaxEnt to estimate the potential geographic distribution of the species in current and future (2050) climate scenarios. We obtained the productivity and value of production for 74 municipalities in Brazil. Moreover, to explain the variation the productivity and value of production, we constructed 15 models based on four variables: two ecological (ecological niche model and the presence of Unity of conservation) and two socio-economic (gross domestic product and human developed index). The models were selected using Akaike Information Criteria. Our results suggest that municipalities currently harvesting H. speciosa will have lower harvest rates in the future (mainly in northeastern Brazil). The best model to explain the productivity was ecological niche model; thus, municipalities with higher productivity are inserted in regions with higher environmental suitability (indicated by niche model). Thus, in the future, the municipalities harvesting H. speciosa will produce less because there will be less suitable habitat for H. speciosa, which in turn will affect the H. speciosa harvest and the local economy.

  8. Bacterial community associated with the trunk latex of Hancornia speciosa Gomes (Apocynaceae) grown in the northeast of Brazil.

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    Silva, Thais Freitas da; Coelho, Marcia Reed Rodrigues; Vollú, Renata Estebanez; de Vasconcelos Goulart, Fátima Regina; Alviano, Daniela Sales; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Seldin, Lucy

    2011-03-01

    Prevention or cure of different illnesses through the use of plant latex is a worldwide known concept. The antifungal activity of Hancornia speciosa latex has been observed against Candida albicans. However, H. speciosa latex is not a sterile plant exudate and secondary metabolites produced by bacteria could be involved in fungal inhibition. In the present study, the bacterial communities of the latex from three H. speciosa trees were characterized using traditional plating and molecular methods. Twelve strains isolated from the latex samples were clustered into four groups by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA). One representative of each group was sequenced and they were identified as belonging to the genera Bacillus, Klebsiella, Enterobacter and Escherichia. None of the 12 isolates showed antifungal activity against C. albicans. A lack of a microbial origin for the antifungal properties of latex was noted. DGGE profiles generated from each of the three latex samples showed unique patterns. Sequencing of the DGGE bands demonstrated the affiliation with the genera Klebsiella, Pantoea, Enterobacter and Burkholderia. In addition, clone libraries were generated and the phylogenetic distribution of the 50 analyzed clones was similar to that obtained using DGGE. The presence of some potential pathogens should be considered before using H. speciosa latex in folk medicine.

  9. Breeding sites of drosophilids (Diptera in the Brazilian Savanna. I. Fallen fruits of Emmotum nitens (Icacinaceae, Hancornia speciosa (Apocynaceae and Anacardium humile (Anacardiaceae Sítios de criação de drosofilídeos (Diptera no bioma Cerrado. I. Frutos caídos de Emmotum nitens (Icacinaceae, Hancornia speciosa (Apocynaceae e Anacardium humile (Anacardiaceae

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    Francisco Roque

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, drosophilids that bred in fruits of three common plant species of the Brazilian Savanna were investigated: Emmotum nitens, Hancornia speciosa and Anacardium humile, along with the temporal and spatial distribution of these insects among fruits obtained from six individuals of E. nitens. Fallen fruits were collected in natural environments, placed on moist sand in individual containers and all drosophilids that emerged from these resources during 15 days were collected, counted and identified. From 3,651 fruits collected (3,435 of E. nitens, 179 of A. humile and 37 of H. speciosa 4,541 flies emerged and were classified into 19 species of Drosophilidae. Their distribution was unequal among the three resources, also over time, and among the six individuals of E. nitens. Such fluctuations probably reflect the availability of resources in time and space and probably the action of selective factors such as larval competition.Neste estudo, são investigados os drosofilídeos que se criam em frutos de três espécies de plantas comuns do Cerrado brasileiro: Emmotum nitens, Hancornia speciosa e Anacardium humile, juntamente com a distribuição temporal e espacial desses insetos entre os frutos obtidos de seis indivíduos de E. nitens. Frutos recolhidos sobre a serrapilheira, em ambientes naturais, foram mantidos no laboratório e os drosofilídeos que deles emergiram foram contados e identificados. Dos 3.651 frutos coletados (3.435 de E. nitens, 179 de A. humile e 37 de H. speciosa emergiram 4.541 drosofilídeos, classificados em 19 espécies. A distribuição dessas espécies foi desigual entre os três tipos de recursos, ao longo do tempo, e também entre os seis indivíduos de E. nitens. Essas flutuações refletem a disponibilidade dos recursos no tempo e no espaço, e provavelmente a ação de forças seletivas como a competição entre as larvas.

  10. Characterization of nutrient deficiency in Hancornia speciosa Gomes seedlings by omitting micronutrients from the nutrient solution

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    Layara Alexandre Bessa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Hancornia speciosa Gomes (Mangaba tree is a fruit tree belonging to the Apocynaceae family and is native to Brazil. The production of seedlings of this species is limited by a lack of technical and nutritional expertise. To address this deficiency, this study aimed to characterize the visual symptoms of micronutrient deficiency and to assess growth and leaf nutrient accumulation in H. speciosa seedlings supplied with nutrient solutions that lack individual micronutrients. H. speciosa plants were grown in nutrient solution in a greenhouse according to a randomized block design, with four replicates. The treatments consisted of a group receiving complete nutrient solution and groups treated with a nutrient solution lacking one of the following micronutrients: boron (B, copper (Cu, iron (Fe, manganese (Mn, zinc (Zn, and molybdenum (Mo. The visual symptoms of nutrient deficiency were generally easy to characterize. Dry matter production was affected by the omission of micronutrients, and the treatment lacking Fe most limited the stem length, stem diameter, root length, and number of leaves in H. speciosa seedlings as well as the dry weight of leaves, the total dry weight, and the relative growth in H. speciosa plants. The micronutrient contents of H. speciosa leaves from plants receiving the complete nutrient solution treatment were, in decreasing order, Fe>Mn>Cu>Zn>B.

  11. Genetic diversity of the Neotropical tree Hancornia speciosa Gomes in natural populations in Northeastern Brazil.

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    Jimenez, H J; Martins, L S S; Montarroyos, A V V; Silva Junior, J F; Alzate-Marin, A L; Moraes Filho, R M

    2015-12-22

    Mangabeira (Hancornia speciosa Gomes) is a fruit tree of the Apocynaceae family, which is native to Brazil and is a very important food resource for human populations in its areas of occurrence. Mangabeira fruit is collected as an extractive activity, and no domesticated varieties or breeding programs exist. Due to a reduction in the area of ecosystems where it occurs, mangabeira is threatened by genetic erosion in Brazil. The objective of this study was to characterize and evaluate the genetic diversity of 38 mangabeira individuals collected from natural populations in Pernambuco State using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) molecular markers. The ISSR methodology generated a total of 93 loci; 10 were monomorphic and 83 were polymorphic. The average number of loci per primer was 15.5, ranging from 9 (#UBC 866) to 21 (#UBC 834). The results showed a high level of genetic diversity (0.30), and found that only around 30% of genetic variability is distributed among populations (GST = 0.29, ФST = 0.30), with the remainder (ФCT = 70%) found within each population, as expected for forest outcrossing species. Estimates for historic gene flow (1.18) indicate that there is some isolation of these populations, and some degree of genetic differentiation.

  12. FLAVOR BIOGENERATION IN MANGABA (Hancornia speciosa Gomes FRUIT

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    Narenda Narain

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Most of the volatile flavoring substances are formed during maturation of fruit when it ripens. In this study, the mangaba (Hancornia speciosa Gomes fruit was harvested at half-ripe and ripe stages of maturity and analyzed for its volatile components. The extracts were obtained from the fruit pulp by using simultaneous distillation and extraction technique. Several extraction parameters such as weight of the pulp, dilution with water, solvent volume and extraction period were standardized to obtain highly characteristic fruit aroma extracts. The extracts were analyzed for the identification of volatile compounds by using a system of high resolution gas chromatograph coupled with mass spectrometer. Eighty-six components were separated out of which 46 compounds were positively identified. The volatile flavoring substances pertaining to classes of esters and terpenes increased from 6.19 to 35.487% and from 7.51 to 10.40%, respectively. The principal volatile compounds present in the pulp of ripe mangaba fruit were isopropyl acetate (19.23%, 3-hexanol (10.74%, linalool (7.38%, ä-limonene (2.43%, 3-pentanol (3.80%, 3-ethyl 2-buten-1-ol (2.53% and furfural (1.52%. Biogeneration of mangaba flavor is mainly characterized due to the presence of compounds pertaining to esters, aldehydes and terpenes.

  13. Hancornia speciosa latex for biomedical applications: physical and chemical properties, biocompatibility assessment and angiogenic activity.

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    Almeida, Luciane Madureira; Floriano, Juliana Ferreira; Ribeiro, Thuanne Pires; Magno, Lais Nogueira; da Mota, Lígia Souza Lima Silveira; Peixoto, Nei; Mrué, Fátima; Melo-Reis, Paulo; Lino Junior, Ruy de Souza; Graeff, Carlos Frederico de Oliveira; Gonçalves, Pablo José

    2014-09-01

    The latex obtained from Hancornia speciosa is used in folk medicine for treatment of several diseases, such as acne, warts, diabetes, gastritis and inflammation. In this work, we describe the biocompatibility assessment and angiogenic properties of H. speciosa latex and its potential application in medicine. The physical-chemical characterization was carried out following different methodologies (CHN elemental analyses; thermogravimetric analyses and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy). The biocompatibility was evaluated through cytotoxicity and genotoxicity tests in fibroblast mouse cells and the angiogenic properties were evaluated using the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay model. The physical-chemical results showed that the structure of Hancornia speciosa latex biomembrane is very similar to that of Hevea brasiliensis (commercially available product). Moreover, the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity assays showed that H. speciosa latex is biocompatible with life systems and can be a good biomaterial for medical applications. The CAM test showed the efficient ability of H. speciosa latex in neovascularization of tissues. The histological analysis was in accordance with the results obtained in the CAM assay. Our data indicate that the latex obtained from H. speciosa and eluted in water showed significant angiogenic activity without any cytotoxic or genotoxic effects on life systems. The same did not occur with H. speciosa latex stabilized with ammonia. Addition of ammonia does not have significant effects on the structure of biomembranes, but showed a smaller cell survival and a significant genotoxicity effect. This study contributes to the understanding of the potentialities of H. speciosa latex as a source of new phytomedicines.

  14. Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Properties as Well as the Phenolic Content of the Extract from Hancornia speciosa Gomes.

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    Uilson P Santos

    Full Text Available Hancornia speciosa Gomes (Apocynaceae is a fruit tree, popularly known as mangabeira, and it is widely distributed throughout Brazil. Several parts of the plant are used in folk medicine, and the leaf and bark extracts have anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, antidiabetic, and antimicrobial properties. In this study, we investigated the chemical composition of the ethanolic extract of Hancornia speciosa leaves (EEHS and its antioxidant, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic activities as well as the mechanisms involved in cell death. The chemical compounds were identified by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. The antioxidant activity of the EEHS was investigated using the method that involves the scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radicals as well as the inhibition of oxidative hemolysis and lipid peroxidation induced by 2,2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane in human erythrocytes. The antimicrobial activity was determined by calculating the minimum inhibitory concentration, minimum bactericidal concentration, minimum fungicidal concentration, and zone of inhibition. Kasumi-1 leukemic cells were used to assess the cytotoxic activity and mechanisms involved in cell death promoted by the EEHS. The chemical compounds identified were quinic acid, chlorogenic acid, catechin, rutin, isoquercitrin, kaempferol-rutinoside, and catechin-pentoside. The EEHS demonstrated antioxidant activity via the sequestration of free radicals, inhibition of hemolysis, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation in human erythrocytes incubated with an oxidizing agent. The antimicrobial activity was observed against American Type Culture Collection (ATCC and hospital strains of bacteria and fungi, filamentous fungi and dermatophytes. The cytotoxic activity of the EEHS was induced by apoptosis, reduction of the mitochondrial membrane potential, and activation of cathepsins. Together, these results indicate the presence of phenolic compounds and flavonoids

  15. Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Properties as Well as the Phenolic Content of the Extract from Hancornia speciosa Gomes

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    Santos, Uilson P.; Campos, Jaqueline F.; Torquato, Heron Fernandes V.; Paredes-Gamero, Edgar Julian; Carollo, Carlos Alexandre; Estevinho, Leticia M.; de Picoli Souza, Kely

    2016-01-01

    Hancornia speciosa Gomes (Apocynaceae) is a fruit tree, popularly known as mangabeira, and it is widely distributed throughout Brazil. Several parts of the plant are used in folk medicine, and the leaf and bark extracts have anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, antidiabetic, and antimicrobial properties. In this study, we investigated the chemical composition of the ethanolic extract of Hancornia speciosa leaves (EEHS) and its antioxidant, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic activities as well as the mechanisms involved in cell death. The chemical compounds were identified by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The antioxidant activity of the EEHS was investigated using the method that involves the scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radicals as well as the inhibition of oxidative hemolysis and lipid peroxidation induced by 2,2’-azobis (2-amidinopropane) in human erythrocytes. The antimicrobial activity was determined by calculating the minimum inhibitory concentration, minimum bactericidal concentration, minimum fungicidal concentration, and zone of inhibition. Kasumi-1 leukemic cells were used to assess the cytotoxic activity and mechanisms involved in cell death promoted by the EEHS. The chemical compounds identified were quinic acid, chlorogenic acid, catechin, rutin, isoquercitrin, kaempferol-rutinoside, and catechin-pentoside. The EEHS demonstrated antioxidant activity via the sequestration of free radicals, inhibition of hemolysis, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation in human erythrocytes incubated with an oxidizing agent. The antimicrobial activity was observed against American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) and hospital strains of bacteria and fungi, filamentous fungi and dermatophytes. The cytotoxic activity of the EEHS was induced by apoptosis, reduction of the mitochondrial membrane potential, and activation of cathepsins. Together, these results indicate the presence of phenolic compounds and flavonoids in the EEHS

  16. Behavior of lateral buds of Hancornia speciosa after cryopreservation by encapsulation-vitrification

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    Débora de Oliveira Prudente

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Hancornia speciosa is a fruitful species from Cerrado biome with high economic potential. However, the intense and disordered extractivism have caused a reduction of its population in its endemic area. In addition, seed recalcitrance negatively affects the conventional conservation of the species. Aiming to find alternatives that enable the long-term conservation of this species, the study’s objective was to assess the behavior of lateral bud’s regrowth after cryopreservation procedures by encapsulation-vitrification technique. Sodium alginate capsules containing lateral buds were pre-cultured in liquid WPM supplemented with 1.0 M glycerol, and subsequently exposed to different concentrations of sucrose (0.3; 0.75 and 1.0 M for 24 or 48 hours. The capsules were subjected to dehydration in silica gel or airflow hood for 0, 1, 2 and 3 hours before different incubation times in PVS2 (0, 15, 30, 60 and 120 minutes at 0°C. A high regeneration percentage of lateral buds was observed after cryopreservation of capsules treated with 0.75 M sucrose plus 1.0 M glycerol (24 hours, associated with dehydration in an airflow hood (1 hour and immersion in PVS2 (15 minutes. Encapsulation-vitrification allowed the long-term conservation, and provided high plant material survival rates after cryopreservation of Hancornia speciosa sensitive explants.

  17. Evaluation of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of Hancornia speciosa latex in Allium cepa root model.

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    Ribeiro, T P; Sousa, T R; Arruda, A S; Peixoto, N; Gonçalves, P J; Almeida, L M

    2016-02-01

    The latex obtained from Hancornia speciosa Gomes (Mangabeira tree) is widely used in traditional medicine to treat a variety of diseases, including diarrhea, ulcer, gastritis, tuberculosis, acne and warts. In this study, the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity effects of H. speciosa latex on the root meristem cells of Allium cepa were examined. Onion bulbs were exposed to different concentrations of latex and then submitted to microscopic analysis using Giemsa stain. Water was used as a negative control and sodium azide as a positive control. The results showed that, under the testing conditions, the mitotic index (MI) of the onion roots submitted to latex treatment did not differ significantly from the negative control, which suggests that the latex is not cytotoxic. Low incidence of chromosome aberrations in the cells treated with H. speciosa latex was also observed, indicating that the latex does not have genotoxic effect either. The MI and the chromosome aberration frequency responded to the latex concentration, requiring more studies to evaluate the dosage effect on genotoxicity. The results indicate that in tested concentrations H. speciosa latex is probably not harmful to human health and may be potentially used in medicine.

  18. Diversity and genetic structure in natural populations of Hancornia speciosa var. speciosa Gomes in northeastern Brazil Diversidade e estrutura genética em populações naturais de Hancornia speciosa var. speciosa Gomes no nordeste do Brasil

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    Georgia Vilela Martins

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Hancornia speciosa Gomes is a fruit tree native from Brazil that belongs to Apocinaceae family, and is popularly known as Mangabeira. Its fruits are widely consumed raw or processed as fruit jam, juices and ice creams, which have made it a target of intense exploitation. The extractive activities and intense human activity on the environment of natural occurrence of H. speciosa has caused genetic erosion in the species and little is known about the ecology or genetic structure of natural populations. The objective of this research was the evaluation of the genetic diversity and genetic structure of H. speciosa var. speciosa. The genetic variability was assessed using 11 allozyme loci with a sample of 164 individuals distributed in six natural populations located in the States of Pernambuco and Alagoas, Northeastern Brazil. The results showed a high level of genetic diversity within the species (e= 0.36 seeing that the most of the genetic variability of H. speciosa var. speciosa is within its natural populations with low difference among populations ( or = 0.081. The inbreeding values within ( = -0.555 and among populations ( =-0.428 were low showing lacking of endogamy and a surplus of heterozygotes. The estimated gene flow ( m was high, ranging from 2.20 to 13.18, indicating to be enough to prevent the effects of genetic drift and genetic differentiation among populations. The multivariate analyses indicated that there is a relationship between genetic and geographical distances, which was confirmed by a spatial pattern analysis using Mantel test (r = 0.3598; p = 0.0920 with 1000 random permutations. The high genetic diversity index in these populations indicates potential for in situ genetic conservation.Hancornia speciosa Gomes é uma árvore frutífera nativa do Brasil, pertencente à família Apocinaceae, e é conhecida popularmente como Mangabeira. Seus frutos são amplamente consumidos in natura ou processados como sucos, sorvetes e

  19. STATE OF THE ART OF SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE ON Hancornia speciosa: TRENDS AND GAPS

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    LUCIANE MADUREIRA DE ALMEIDA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The economic and scientific interest in Hancornia speciosa (mangabeira has been growing in recent years, mainly due to the marketing of fruit and extraction of natural compounds with high pharmacological potential. In this study, a scientometric survey about mangabeira was carried out in order to promote and direct future studies on the species. As a result, low scientific productivity associated with this species was found, with only 131 articles published in the last 69 years. In addition, this study identified some trends in bibliographic production on mangabeira, among them: the increasing number of articles over the years; scientific dissemination in nationwide journals; the main focus of this study is associated with agronomic studies; the experimental approach is more frequent and usually associated with populations of restricted geographical distribution; and the scientific production is mainly from education institutions. Furthermore, this study also allowed the identification of some gaps in knowledge about mangabeira, among them the difficulty in describing and characterizing botanical lines; lack of analysis of the genetic diversity of widely distributed populations; lack of management and conservation projects for the species; lack of description of cultivation, collection and preservation techniques of fruits; and lack of identification of natural compounds responsible for its pharmacological activity. It is expected that the data generated in this study will serve to direct future studies on H. speciosa.

  20. SUBSTRATES FOR PRODUCTION AND GROWTH OF MANGABA (Hancornia speciosa Gomes SEEDLINGS PRODUÇÃO E CRESCIMENTO DE MUDAS DE MANGABEIRA (Hancornia speciosa Gomez EM DIFERENTES SUBSTRATOS

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    Maria Eloisa Cardoso da Rosa

    2007-09-01

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    Mangaba (Hancornia speciosa Gomez seedlings were transplanted eleven months after emergence to the following substrates: soil (Oxisol, soil + 33% calcined sugar-cane bagasse, and soil + 66% calcined sugar-cane bagasse, with and without lime and fertilizer. At 70, 100 and 130 days after transplanting, plants were evaluated for height and number of leaf pairs. At the end of the experiment – 130 days – roots and aerial part dry matter were weighed. The addition of 0.5 kg.m-3 of 10-10-10 fertilizer to the soil was the best treatment. Root dry matter was slightly higher than aerial part dry matter on some treatments. Roots have developed more than aerial parts. In general, substrates with pH values between 5.2 and 5.5 promote higher growth of mangaba seedlings, but those with pH between 6.0 and 6.8 cause seedling growth reduction.

    KEY-WORDS: Mangaba; native fruit trees; lime; fertilizer; substrate.

    Mudas de mangabeira (Hancornia speciosa Gomez com onze meses de idade foram submetidas a diferentes combinações de substratos: solo apenas (Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo, solo + 33% de bagacilho de cana calcinado, e solo + 66% de bagacilho de cana calcinado, os quais receberam ou não calagem e adubação. Após a aplicação dos tratamentos, foram avaliados aos 70, 100 e 130 dias, o diâmetro basal das mudas, a altura de plantas e o número de pares de folhas, bem como o peso seco da parte aérea e da raiz, ao final do experimento. Pôde-se verificar que a adição de 0,5 kg.m-3 do adubo químico 10-10-10 ao solo foi o melhor tratamento, nas condições estudadas. Houve uma tendência de superioridade do peso seco da raiz, em relação à parte aérea, em parte dos tratamentos, evidenciando um maior desenvolvimento da raiz das mudas de mangaba, em rela

  1. Thermally induced changes in shoot morphology of Hancornia speciosa microcultures: evidence of mediation by ethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pereira-Netto, Adaucto B.; McCown, Brent H.

    1999-09-01

    A shoot microculture protocol for the tropical fruit tree Hancornia speciosa Gom. was developed based on high temperature stimulation of axillary branching. An increase in the culture temperature from 25 to 31 degrees C (continuous over a 4-week period) stimulated the elongation of newly subcultured micro-shoots. Increases in culture temperature from 31 to 35 degrees C suppressed elongation but induced branching of all shoots. Increasing temperature to 37 degrees C reduced both shoot elongation and branching severely. Thermoperiodic regimes involving daily exposure for 8 or 16 h at 35 degrees C followed by 31 degrees C for the remainder of the day were only moderately effective in stimulating branching. However, maintaining cultures at 35 degrees C for 2 weeks followed by growth at a constant temperature of 31 degrees C led to vigorous branching. We hypothesize that thermally induced branching is mediated by a reduction in ethylene biosynthesis. In cultures of nodal segments grown at 31 degrees C, ethylene evolution peaked 12 to 16 days after subculture, and then gradually decreased until the end of the culture cycle. Compared with cultures held at 31 degrees C, those grown at 35 degrees C showed an earlier peak and a reduced rate of ethylene evolution throughout most of the culture cycle, and less 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase mRNA transcript and ACC oxidase activity. An inhibitor of ethylene biosynthesis (L-(2-aminoethoxyvinyl)-glycine) at 4.5 &mgr;M mimicked the effect of elevated temperature (35 degrees C) in stimulating lateral branching. The branching pattern of shoots grown at 35 degrees C in the presence of 1 &mgr;l l(-1) ethylene gas resembled that of shoots grown at 31 degrees C. We conclude that a reduction in ethylene evolution has a role in thermal induction of branching in H. speciosa. Heat induced release of axillary buds may be useful in the microculture of trees with strong apical dominance that cannot be overcome by cytokinin

  2. Qualidade pós-colheita de frutos de diferentes clones de mangabeira (Hancornia speciosa Gomes Postharvest quality of fruits from different mangabeira clones (Hancornia speciosa Gomes

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    Florisvaldo Gama de Souza

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a qualidade pós-colheita de frutos de diferentes clones de mangabeira (Hancornia speciosa Gomes para consumo como fruto fresco e/ou industrializado, foram avaliados 10 clones: Ipojuca 3, 4 e 5 (IPJ 3, 4 e 5; Nizia Floresta 1, 6 e 8 (NIF 1, 6 e 8; Parnamirim 11 (PAR 11; Rio Tinto 7 (RIT 7; Extremoz 1 (EXT 1 e Touros 48 (TOU 48, oriundos de um Jardim Clonal instalado em 1996 do Banco Ativo de Germoplasma da Estação Experimental de Mangabeira, pertencente a EMEPA - Empresa Estadual de Pesquisa Agropecuária da Paraíba, situada em João Pessoa, PB. As mangabas foram colhidas manualmente em estádio de maturidade fisiológica, acondicionadas em caixas plásticas de transporte forradas no fundo com espuma de poliestireno e transportadas ao Laboratório de Fisiologia e Tecnologia Pós-colheita da Embrapa Agroindústria Tropical, onde foram caracterizadas física, físico-química e quimicamente. As características de qualidade analisadas foram: massa total do fruto; comprimento, diâmetro, firmeza, número de sementes; rendimento de polpa + casca; percentagem de sementes; pH; acidez total titulável (ATT; sólidos solúveis totais (SST; relação SST/ATT; vitamina C total; açúcares solúveis totais; açúcares redutores, fenólicos poliméricos, oligoméricos e dímeros. A análise de variância revelou diferenças estatísticas para todas as características pelo Teste F. De um modo geral os frutos de mangabeira dos clones avaliados apresentaram características superiores às observadas na literatura, especialmente quanto aos padrões estabelecidos pela I.N. nº 1 de 07/01/2000 do MAPA. Dentre os materiais genéticos avaliados pode-se destacar os clones RIT 8 e TOU 48 como os mais promissores para o mercado de frutas in natura, e os clones IPJ 3 e NIF 6 para o processamento agroindustrial.This work aimed to evaluate the postharvest quality of fruits from different mangabeira clones (Hancornia speciosa Gomes for

  3. Efeito de diferentes substratos na produção de mudas de mangabeira (Hancornia speciosa

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    Elisângela Aparecida da Silva

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A mangabeira (Hancornia speciosa Gomes é uma espécie frutífera nativa do Cerrado, que devido às características dos seus frutos apresenta enorme potencial de aceitação pelo mercado consumidor, além de apresentar expressivo potencial produtivo. Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de diferentes substratos na produção de mudas de mangabeira em sacos de polietileno e determinar o melhor substrato para a propagação da espécie. O trabalho foi conduzido em casa de vegetação na Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul, Unidade Universitária de Cassilândia. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições e 15 plantas por parcela. Foram testadas cinco misturas de substratos: A (areia lavada + Plantmax® + solo, 1:1:3 v:v:v; B (casca de arroz carbonizada + Plantmax® + solo, 1:1:3; C (casca de arroz carbonizada + húmus de minhoca + solo, 1:1:3; D (esterco bovino + Plantmax® + solo, 1:1:3, e E (esterco bovino + solo, 2:3. Foram avaliados os parâmetros: porcentagem de germinação, índice de velocidade de emergência (IVE, porcentagem de mortalidade, altura da muda (cm, diâmetro do colo (mm, comprimento da raiz (cm, número de folhas/planta, índice de clorofila foliar (CCI, massa seca, parte aérea da raiz e total (g/planta. As melhores características para uma muda sadia e de boa qualidade para pegamento no campo foram obtidas com os substratos D e E, sendo estes os recomendados para a produção de mudas de mangabeira em sacos de polietileno.

  4. GERMINAÇÃO IN VITRO DE MANGABEIRA (Hancornia speciosa Gomez EM DIFERENTES MEIOS DE CULTURA

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    PINHEIRO CARLOS SIZENANDO ROSSITER

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudos de meios de cultura que facilitem a germinação de sementes recalcitrantes são de grande importância para a fruticultura. A mangabeira (Hancornia speciosa Gomez é uma fruteira nativa da região Nordeste do Brasil. Sua propagação por métodos tradicionais é dificultada pelo fato de suas sementes serem recalcitrantes e a polpa do fruto ter uma ação inibitória sobre a germinação das sementes. Na tentativa de maximizar a percentagem de germinação in vitro desta espécie, foi testada a influência da sacarose (0; 10; 30; 60 e 90 g/L, do ácido giberélico (0; 0.1; 0.3 e 0.5 mg/L e de diferentes meios de germinação (água destilada, água de coco; MS sólido e MS líquido. Também foi testado o efeito da escarificação (sementes com ou sem tegumento. As sementes obtidas de frutos maduros foram escarificadas ou não, e inoculadas em meios contendo os diferentes tratamentos. A taxa de germinação foi calculada trinta dias após a inoculação das sementes. Sementes sem tegumento obtiveram maior percentagem de germinação em todos os meios de cultura estudados, sendo que a maior percentagem foi obtida no tratamento MS líquido. A adição de sacarose tanto em meio MS sólido quanto em MS líquido não favorece a germinação e pode prejudicar em concentrações iguais ou maiores que 20g/L. A maior percentagem de sementes germinadas em MS suplementado com GA3, tanto em meio líquido como em meio sólido, ocorreu na concentração de 0,1 mg/L. Maiores taxas de germinação in vitro de sementes de mangabeira podem ser obtidas através da retirada do seu tegumento e posterior inoculação em meio MS líquido suplementado com 0,1 mg/L GA3.

  5. Efeito de diferentes meios de cultura na germinação in vitro de sementes de mangabeira (Hancornia speciosa Gomes

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    Kívia Soares de Oliveira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A mangabeira, pertencente à família Apocynaceae, é uma espécie nativa do Cerrado e dos tabuleiros costeiros, sendo bastante conhecida pela importância social, econômica e cultural. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes meios de cultura na germinação in vitro de sementes de mangabeira, visando contribuir cientificamente para o conhecimento da espécie. Os tratamentos utilizados foram: T1 - vermiculita (+40 mL de água; T2 - vermiculita + areia (1:1 + 40 mL de água; T3 - vermiculita + areia barrada (1:1 + 40 mL de água; T4 - vermiculita + MS básico (40 ml; T5 - vermiculita + ½ MS (40 ml; T6 - areia (+40 mL de água; T7 - areia barrada (+40 mL de água; e T8 - areia + areia barrada (1:1 + 40 mL de água. Para tanto, realizou-se um experimento com oito tratamentos, incluindo oito repetições com 80 sementes por tratamento. Foram analisadas as seguintes variáveis: porcentagem de germinação, tempo médio de germinação e índice de velocidade de germinação. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado e as médias, comparadas pelo teste de Tukey a 5% de significância. Observaram-se diferenças significativas para a porcentagem de germinação, sendo T3 estatisticamente superior, e para o IVG, com o melhor resultado, os tratamentos T1, T2 e T3. Entretanto, os valores de tempo médio de germinação não apresentaram diferença significativa. Diante dos resultados, pôde-se concluir que os tratamentos dotados de vermiculita e combinações, T1, T2 e T3, exercem influência positiva na emergência de Hancornia speciosa Gomes.

  6. Inhibition of growth of microcultured Hancornia speciosa shoots by 3beta-hydroxylated gibberellins and one of their C-3 deoxy precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-Netto, A B; McCown, B H; Pharis, R P

    2003-01-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) A(1), A(3), A(4) and A(7), all 3beta-hydroxylated, growth-active GAs, significantly inhibited shoot elongation and the formation of nodes in in vitro-grown Hancornia speciosa, as did GA(20), a 3-deoxy precursor of GA(1). Ancymidol, an early-stage inhibitor of GA biosynthesis, significantly retarded shoot elongation without affecting the formation of nodes. Co-application of ancymidol and GA(1 )did not overcome the ancymidol-induced growth retardation. Trinexapac-ethyl, which can inhibit 3beta-hydroxylation (GA activation) and 2beta-hydroxylation (GA inactivation), gave no significant response on either shoot elongation or node formation, while two isomers of 16,17-dihydro GA(5), also inhibitors of GA 3beta-hydroxylation, significantly inhibited both shoot growth and the formation of nodes. These unusual results may indicate a unique metabolism for GAs in microcultured shoots of H. speciosa.

  7. Avaliação da aplicação exógena de poliaminas no crescimento de calos de mangabeira (Hancornia speciosa Gomes Evaluation of exogenous application of polyamines on callus growth of mangaba tree (Hancornia speciosa Gomes

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    Chrystiane Borges Fráguas

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar o efeito das poliaminas espermidina e espermina no crescimento de calos Hancornia speciosa Gomes. Calos com 0,5 cm de diâmetro foram inoculados em meio Murashige & Skoog (1962 (MS a 50% + 100 mg L-1 de caseína hidrolisada + 200 mg L-1 de levedura de cerveja, variando os tratamentos:A: 1 mmol de espermina + 2 mg L-1 de 2,4-D (ácido 2,4 diclorofenoxiacético + 0,5 mg L-1 de NAA (ácido naftalenoacético; B: 1 mmol de espermidina + 2 mg L-1 de 2,4-D + 0,5 mg L-1 de NAA; C: 2 mg L-1 de 2,4-D + 0,5 mg L-1 de NAA. Não houve influência das poliaminas no crescimento dos calos. observou-se, nos calos tratados com espermidina, maior concentração celular de putrescina (582,37 µg g mf-1 aos 60 dias, maior teor de espermidina (502,54 µg g mf-1 e espermina (868,53 µg g mf-1 aos 40 dias de cultivo, quando se aplicou a própria poliamina. Conclui-se que a aplicação exógena de poliaminas em Hancornia speciosa não proporciona aumento no crescimento de calos. A oxidação promovida por longos períodos de cultivo in vitro induz aumento nos níveis de putrescina.The effect of polyamines spermine and spermidine in the calluses growth of Hancornia speciosa Gomes was studied. Calluses with 0.5 cm diameter were inoculated in Murashige & Skoog (1962 (MS medium 50% + hidrolizated casein 100 mg L-1 + yeast 200 mg L-1, according to the treatments: A: spermine 1 mmol + 2.4-D 2 mg L-1 + NAA 0.5 mg L-1, B: spermidine 1 mmol + 2.4-D 2 mg L-1 + NAA 0.5 mg L-1, C: 2.4-D 2 mg L-1 + NAA 0.5 mg L-1. There was not polyamine influence in the calluses growth. It was observed in the treated calluses with spermidine larger cellular putrescine concentration (582.37 µg g mf-1 at 60 days, larger spermidine concentration (502.54 µg g mf-1 and spermine (868.53 µg g mf-1 at 40 days of cultivation, when the own polyamine was applied. It was concluded that the exogenous polyamine application in Hancornia speciosa does not provide an

  8. Efeito da irrigação e da ontogenia sobre a estimativa da área foliar de Hancornia speciosa Gómez (mangabeira Effect of irrigation and ontogeny in estimating the leaf area of Hancornia speciosa Gómez (mangabeira

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    Francisco de Almeida Lobo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A estimativa da área foliar por meio de curvas de regressão que empregam o produto do comprimento pela largura do limbo como variável independente, é uma prática comumente empregada na análise de crescimento vegetal. Entretanto, dependendo da natureza do material vegetal e das condições de cultivo, é possível a ocorrência de variações que afetam essa relação alométrica, o que implica a não universalidade de uma única curva de regressão. Devido a esse problema, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo realizar uma avaliação do efeito da irrigação e da ontogenia sobre a estimativa da área foliar da Hancornia speciosa, para testar a hipótese de que a irrigação afetaria tal relação alométrica. Verificou-se que os modelos de regressão obtidos para as plantas irrigadas e para as não irrigadas diferiram entre si, sendo que houve a necessidade da inclusão da área foliar específica no modelo de estimativa da área foliar das plantas não irrigadas. A não inclusão dessa variável no modelo de regressão acarretou uma diferença de estimativa que se incrementou com a redução da área foliar específica. Em folhas recém-expandidas de plantas irrigadas e não irrigadas, verificou-se diferença na área foliar específica devida à alteração na massa seca e não associada à largura dos tecidos foliares.Leaf area estimation by regression curves using the product of the length by the breadth of the leaf blade as an independent variable is commonly used in plant growth analysis. However, depending on the nature of the plant species and the farming conditions,it is possible to find variations which affect this allometric relationship, leading to non-universality of a single regression curve. Due to this problem, the present work aimed to evaluate the effect of irrigation and ontogeny in estimating the leaf area of Hancornia speciosa to test the hypothesis that the irrigation would affect such allometric relationship. It

  9. Desenvolvimento e qualidade nutricional de mudas de mangabeiras cultivadas em substratos contendo fibra de coco e adubação fosfatada Development and nutritional quality of hancornia speciosa seedlings cultivated in mixture containing coconut fiber and fertilized with phosphorus

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    Thiago Jardelino Dias

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Para a produção de mudas de qualidade, é necessária a utilização de substratos com propriedades físicas, químicas e biológicas que condicionem a germinação adequada das sementes e o estabelecimento das mudas. Neste sentido, foi realizado um experimento no Centro de Ciências Agrárias, da Universidade Federal da Paraíba, com o objetivo de avaliar o crescimento e a composição mineral de mudas de mangabeiras (Hancornia speciosa em substratos compostos por diferentes proporções de fibra de coco (0% a 40%, esterco bovino (0% a 25%, terra vegetal (25% a 70% e 15% de areia, fertilizados com superfosfato triplo (0; 5,5 e 11 g dm-3. A terra vegetal e a fibra de coco exerceram efeitos benéficos às mudas com o aumento de suas proporções no substrato. A adição do esterco e do superfosfato triplo inibiu a produção de matéria seca e a área foliar das mudas. Houve aumento dos teores de nutrientes nas mudas com o aumento da concentração de esterco nos substratos. Pela estimativa dos resultados, o substrato que proporciona maior crescimento e composição mineral mais equilibrada nas mudas de mangabeira deve ser constituído por 14% de esterco, 56% de terra vegetal, 15% de fibra de coco, 15% de areia e 4 g dm-3 de superfosfato triplo.In order to produce good quality seedlings it is necessary to use a mixture that presents appropriate physical, chemical and biological properties, which supplies the necessary conditions for the germination and the seedling's establishment. This experiment was carried out at the Agricultural Sciences Center, Paraíba Federal University (Brazil, whose objective was to evaluate the growth and the mineral composition of Hancornia speciosa seedlings in substrata composed by concentrations of coconut fiber from 0% to 40%, manure bovine from 0% to 25%, soil from 25% to 70%, sand 15% and triple superphosphate between 0 and 11 g dm-3. The soil and coconut fiber had beneficial effects on the H. speciosa

  10. Mangaba (Hancornia speciosa Gomez ice cream prepared with fat replacers and sugar substitutes

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    Grazielle Gebrim Santos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of replacing shortening and sugar on the physical and chemical properties of mangaba ice cream and its acceptability were evaluated. Ice cream formulations were tested with the following fat replacers: Selecta Light, Litesse, and Dairy Lo and the following sugar substitutes: Lactitol and Splenda. All formulations were subjected to physical, chemical, and microbiological analyses and evaluated by acceptability tests. In the sensory analysis, it was observed a larger acceptance of the formulations containing Selecta Light (SL and the combination of Litesse, Lactiol, and Splenda (LLS. The largest reduction in total energetic value (50% was observed in the formulation LLS. The use of fat and/or sugar substitutes caused a reduction in the air incorporation (overrun and affected viscosity. The highest melting speed was observed in the formulation with Dairy-Lo, Lactitol, and Splenda. All formulations showed good levels of global acceptability and appearance. The substitution of shortening for fat replacers caused a reduction in air incorporation and changes in ice-cream viscosity. The low-fat mangaba ice-cream elaborated with Selecta Light was the best formulation in terms of viscosity and air incorporation when compared with the control. It also showed a good level of acceptability and low fat content.

  11. Mangaba (Hancornia speciosa Gomez ice cream prepared with fat replacers and sugar substitutes Sorvete de mangaba (Hancornia speciosa Gomez preparado com substitutos de gordura e açúcar

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    Grazielle Gebrim Santos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of replacing shortening and sugar on the physical and chemical properties of mangaba ice cream and its acceptability were evaluated. Ice cream formulations were tested with the following fat replacers: Selecta Light, Litesse, and Dairy Lo and the following sugar substitutes: Lactitol and Splenda. All formulations were subjected to physical, chemical, and microbiological analyses and evaluated by acceptability tests. In the sensory analysis, it was observed a larger acceptance of the formulations containing Selecta Light (SL and the combination of Litesse, Lactiol, and Splenda (LLS. The largest reduction in total energetic value (50% was observed in the formulation LLS. The use of fat and/or sugar substitutes caused a reduction in the air incorporation (overrun and affected viscosity. The highest melting speed was observed in the formulation with Dairy-Lo, Lactitol, and Splenda. All formulations showed good levels of global acceptability and appearance. The substitution of shortening for fat replacers caused a reduction in air incorporation and changes in ice-cream viscosity. The low-fat mangaba ice-cream elaborated with Selecta Light was the best formulation in terms of viscosity and air incorporation when compared with the control. It also showed a good level of acceptability and low fat content.O efeito da substituição de gordura vegetal hidrogenada e sacarose nas propriedades físicas, químicas e aceitabilidade de sorvete com mangaba foi avaliado. As formulações de sorvete foram testadas com os substitutos de gordura: Selecta Light, Litesse e Dairy-Lo e os substitutos de sacarose: Lactitol e Splenda. As formulações foram submetidas às análises físicas, químicas, microbiológicas e teste de aceitação. Verificou-se no teste sensorial uma maior aceitação das formulações elaboradas com Selecta Light (SL e combinação de Litesse, Lactitol e Splenda (LLS. A maior redução do valor energético (50% foi observada na formulação LLS. A substituição de gordura, açúcar ou ambos promoveu a redução da incorporação de ar e afetou a viscosidade dos sorvetes elaborados. A maior velocidade de derretimento ocorreu na formulação com a combinação Dairy-Lo, Lactitol e Sucralose. Todas as formulações tiveram bom nível de aceitação global e aparência. A substituição da gordura vegetal hidrogenada por substitutos de gordura promoveu uma redução da incorporação de ar e alterações da viscosidade dos sorvetes. Sorvete com mangaba, de reduzido valor energético, elaborado com Selecta Light teve o melhor desempenho quanto à viscosidade e incorporação de ar, em comparação ao controle, bom nível de aceitação e baixo teor de gordura.

  12. Progress of pharmacological studies on alkaloids from Apocynaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Cao, Jian-Xin; Yao, Yuan-Cheng; Xu, Sheng-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Alkaloid was a kind of biological active ingredient. There were various types of alkaloids in Apocynaceae. This paper reviewed the progress on alkaloids from Apocynaceae, which contained origin, structure, and pharmacological activity.

  13. ESTUDIOS EN LAS APOCYNACEAE NEOTROPICALES XIX: LA FAMILIA APOCYNACEAE S. STR. (APOCYNOIDEAE, RAUVOLFIOIDEAE) DE COSTA RICA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    J. FRANCISCO MORALES

    2005-01-01

    .... Photographs for almost all the genera and species are included. Se ofrece un tratamiento sistemático de la familia Apocynaceae, subfamilias Rauvolfioideae y Apocynoideae para Costa Rica. En total, 30...

  14. Parkia speciosa Hassk.: A Potential Phytomedicine

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    Yusof Kamisah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkia speciosa Hassk., or stink bean, is a plant indigenous to Southeast Asia. It is consumed either raw or cooked. It has been used in folk medicine to treat diabetes, hypertension, and kidney problems. It contains minerals and vitamins. It displays many beneficial properties. Its extracts from the empty pods and seeds have a high content of total polyphenol, phytosterol, and flavonoids. It demonstrates a good antioxidant activity. Its hypoglycemic effect is reported to be attributable to the presence of β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, and stigmast-4-en-3-one. The cyclic polysulfide compounds exhibit antibacterial activity, while thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid possesses anticancer property. The pharmacological properties of the plant extract are described in this review. With ongoing research conducted on the plant extracts, Parkia speciosa has a potential to be developed as a phytomedicine.

  15. Visitantes florais de Erythrina speciosa Andr. (Leguminosae Flowering visitors of Erythrina speciosa Andr., Leguminosae

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    Maria J. Vitali-Veiga

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Inspite of Etythrina species exhibit morphologic attributes for adaptation to pollination by nectarivorous birds mentioned in the literature, E. speciosa is pollinated by lots of bees (Apinae and Meliponinae which show a great urban occurrence. Systems of E. speciosa floral reproduction, fenology, diversity, frequency and constancy of insects visiting at different hours and flowering periods were studied. E. speciosa is Biocompatible, but xenogamy is the predominant system of reproduction. A large diversity of insects visiting the inflorescences was observed, with predominance of bees. The bee species showed a higher frequency: Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758 (45,0 %, Trigona spinipes (Fabricius, 1793 (28,6%, Trigona hyalinata (Lepeletier, 1836 (12,2 % and the ant Zacryptoceruspusillus Klug, 1824 (2,8 %. Constant but not frequent were the bees (Apidae Plebeia droryana (Friese, 1900, Friesella schrottkyi (Friese, 1900, Nannotrigona testaceicornis (Lepeletier, 1836, Tetragonisca angustula (Latreille, 1811, the wasps (Vespidae Polybia paulista Ihering, 1896, Protopolybia exigua (de Saussure, 1854, Agelaia pallipes (Olivier. 1791, the ant (Formicidae Pseudomyrmex sp. and the beetle (Chrysomelidae Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824. E. speciosa flowers were visited by hummingbirds (Trochilidae: Eupetomena macroura (Gmelin, 1788, Clorostilbon aureoventris (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1838 and Amazilia sp. The birds Passer domeslicus (Linnaeus, 1758 (Ploceidae and Coereba flaveola (Linnaeus, 1758 (Emberizidac, also are present. The frequency and insect distribution were influenced by ambiental factors. Temperature, light, time, barometric pressure, relative humidity and wind velocity were significantly correlated with insect numbers. There is a visit sequence, by floral resource disponibility during the day, conditioned by transport ability, insect numbers and colony necessity, which begins by A. mellifera followed by meliponid bees. These bees make the

  16. Stipules in Apocynaceae: an ontogenetic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Valle Capelli, Natalie; Alonso Rodrigues, Bruna; Demarco, Diego

    2017-01-01

    Stipules are leaf structures common in many groups of plants that can take a variety of forms. In Gentianales, interpetiolar stipules are considered a synapomorphy of Rubiaceae; however, some reports in the literature refer to their presence in other families. The goal of this study was to analyze the development of leaf primordia to investigate the possible presence of reduced or modified stipules in Apocynaceae. Shoot apices of 12 genera were analyzed under light and scanning electron microscopy comparatively with one species of Rubiaceae. Early in their development, leaf primordia form two lateral expansions at the base of the petiole (stipules) that give rise to colleters in 11 of the 12 genera of Apocynaceae studied, similarly to the Rubiaceae species. The basal genera have pairs of stipules modified into colleters positioned laterally to the petiole, while other species belonging to the derived subfamilies have interpetiolar stipules that each project towards the opposite stipule and merge, forming a sheathing stipule and from this arc the interpetiolar colleters originate. The ontogenetic study proved for the first time that Apocynaceae is a stipulate family whose stipules are modified into colleters and their absence might be a secondary loss, changing the interpretation of stipule evolution in Gentianales.

  17. Himatanthus Willd. ex Schult. (Apocynaceae): Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Fabiana P.; Cavalcante, Larissa F.; Romero, Nirla Rodrigues; Bandeira, Mary A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The genus Himatanthus Wild. ex Schult. (Apocynaceae) includes about 13 species and five subspecies widely distributed in South America, especially Brazil. The phytochemical reports on this genus have revealed mainly triterpenes and iridoids. The plants are traditionally used as anthelmintic, antitumor, and antiinflammatory agents. The most used parts of the plant are its bark, leaves, and latex. This review emphasizes the phytochemical constituents and medicinal properties, which may help in future research. The research was conducted with data obtained from books about medicinal plants, theses, dissertations, and articles in refereed journals. PMID:27041869

  18. Alkaloids from flowers and leaves of Erythrina speciosa Andrews; Alcaloides de flores e folhas de Erythrina speciosa Andrews

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria, Terezinha de Jesus; Cafeu, Mariana Carrara; Akiyoshi, Gisele; Ferreira, Dalva Trevisan; Galao, Olivio Fernandes; Andrei, Cesar Cornelio [Universidade Estadual de Londrina, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: tjfaria@uel.br; Pinge Filho, Phileno; Paiva, Manoel Ronaldo Carvalho [Universidade Estadual de Londrina, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Patologicas; Universidade Estadual de Londrina, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Animal e Vegetal; Barbosa, Aneli de Melo [Universidade Estadual de Londrina, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Bioquimica; Braz-Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Setor de Quimica de Produtos Naturais

    2007-05-15

    In vitro bioassays with leave extracts of Erythrina speciosa showed promising activity against Trypanosoma cruzi. From the flowers of E. speciosa two alkaloids were isolated: erysotrine and erythartine. The leaves furnished one alkaloid, nororientaline. The structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. This is the first report about the investigation of alkaloids in flowers and leaves of this species, as well the first report of nororientaline occurrence in this plant. (author)

  19. A new species of Secamone (Apocynaceae, Secamonoideae) from Borneo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    2004-01-01

    A new species of Secamone (Apocynaceae, Secamonoideae), S. badia Klack. from Sarawak, Malaysia, is described and illustrated. The distinctness of the genera Toxocarpus and Genianthus in relation to Secamone is also discussed.

  20. LA FAMILIA APOCYNACEAE (APOCYNOIDEAE, RAUVOLFIOIDEAE EN GUATEMALA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Francisco Morales

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se brinda un tratamiento de las Apocynaceae s. str. (subfamilias Apocynoideae y Rauvolfioideae de Guatemala. Un total de 31 géneros y 59 especies son tratados, de los cuales cinco géneros (Allamanda, Beaumontia, Catharanthus, Nerium y Vinca corresponden a plantas introducidas. Mandevilla es el género más grande, con seis especies, seguido de Echites, Prestonia, Stemmadenia y Tabernaemontana con cuatro y Cascabela con tres. No se han encontrado especies endémicas. Se citan claves, descripciones, nombres comunes y especímenes representativos para cada departamento, incluyendo un apéndice con el total de todos los especímenes examinados. Se lectotipifican Cameraria oblongifolia y Echites biflorus.

  1. Significance of follicle anatomy of Apocynaceae

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    Vinoth Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The pericarp structure of Aganosma, Alstonia, Catharanthus sp., Holarrhena, Ichnocarpus, Parsonsia, Strophanthus, Vallaris and Wrightia sp. distinguished into epicarp, mesocarp and endocarp has been used to put forward their taxonomic and phylogenetic importance. Epicarp is single layered in Catharanthus sp., Ichnocarpus, Parsonsia and Vinca, while in the rest of the genera it is multilayered. Mesocarp is parenchymatous which embeds vasculature and non-articulated laticifers. Endocarp is multilayered and thick walled. Dehiscence of the follicle is marginicidal. A comparison table of follicular features of Apocynaceae, Asclepiadaceae and Periplocaceae is furnished and their features are discussed. A taxonomic key based on follicular fruit characteristic to indentify the genera and species is appended.

  2. Intrahepatic cholestasis following abuse of powdered kratom (Mitragyna speciosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapp, Friedrich G; Maurer, Hans H; Auwärter, Volker; Winkelmann, Martin; Hermanns-Clausen, Maren

    2011-09-01

    Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) is a common medical plant in Thailand and is known to contain mitragynine as the main alkaloid. According to an increase in published reports and calls at German poison control centers, it has been used more frequently as a drug of abuse in the western hemisphere during the last couple of years. Despite this increase, reports of severe toxicity are rare within the literature. We describe a case of a young man who presented with jaundice and pruritus after intake of kratom for 2 weeks in the absence of any other causative agent. Alkaloids of M. speciosa were detected in the urine. While M. speciosa is gaining in popularity among illicit drug users, its adverse effects remain poorly understood. This is the first published case of intrahepatic cholestasis after kratom abuse.

  3. otanical and biological study of Oenothera speciosa nutt. cultivated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (Onagraceae) revealed the presence of steam-distilled volatile constituents in the flowers, as well as, sterols and/or triterpenes, carbohydrates and/or glycosides, tannins, flavonoids (aglycones and glycosides) in all the organs of the plant. The macro-and micro-morphology of the root, stem and leaf of Oenothera speciosa ...

  4. Hepatoprotective And Antioxidant Effects Of Argyreia speciosa In Rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study has been designed to evaluate the liver protective and in-vivo antioxidant role of Ethanolic extract (EtAS) and Ethyl acetate extract (EAAS) of roots of Argyreia speciosa, an important 'rasayana\\' herb in Indian System of medicine, in CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress in rats. Animals were ...

  5. Antiproliferative activity of Vallaris glabra Kuntze (Apocynaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Siu Kuin; Lim, Yau Yan; Ling, Sui Kiong; Chiang Chan, Eric Wei

    2014-01-01

    Background: Our earlier study on the antiproliferative (APF) activity of leaf extracts of ten Apocynaceae species showed that leaves of Vallaris glabra possessed strong and broad-spectrum properties. Materials and Methods: In this study, sequential extracts of leaves, flowers and stems, and fractions and isolated compounds from dichloromethane (DCM) leaf extract of V. glabra were assessed for APF activity using the sulphorhodamine B (SRB) assay. Apoptotic effect of MDA-MB-231 cancer cells treated with DCM leaf extract of V. glabra was studied using Hoechst 33342 dye and caspase colorimetry. Results: Both DCM extracts of leaves and flowers possessed broad-spectrum APF activity against HT-29, MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and SKOV-3 cancer cells. From DCM leaf extract, stearic acid (SA) and ursolic acid (UA) were isolated by column chromatography, and identified by NMR and MS analyses. APF activity of SA from DCM leaf extract displayed weak inhibitory activity and scientific literature showed UA has anticancer properties against those cancer cells used in this study. MDA-MB-231 cancer cells treated with DCM leaf extract and stained with Hoechst 33342 dye provided evidence that the extract had an apoptotic effect on the cells. Caspase colorimetry showed that the apoptotic effect involved activation of caspase-8, -9 and -3, but not caspase-6. Conclusion: The potential of V. glabra as a candidate species for anticancer drugs warrants further investigation. PMID:24991097

  6. Taxonomy, Phylogeny, and Wood anatomy of Alstonia (Apocynaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sidiyasa, Kade

    1998-01-01

    Alstonia is the largest and most widespread genus of trees and shrubs in the subtribe Alstoniinae of the tribe Plumerieae of the Apocynaceae. Many of its species provide important timbers of commerce, and several species are used in traditional local medicine. The genus occurs in Central America,

  7. Ecua, a new genus op Apocynaceae from Malesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middleton, David J.

    1996-01-01

    Whilst examining the specimens of Apocynaceae in Herbarium Bogoriense I came upon two unknown specimens which appeared to be species of Parsonsia. On further examination they turned out to belong to a new genus related to Parsonsia but differing from it in the stamens which are included within the

  8. A Newly Naturalized Species in Taiwan: Rauvolfia tetraphylla L. (Apocynaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Nan Ko

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A newly naturalized plant, Rauvolfia tetraphylla L., a native species of the Apocynaceae distributed in the tropical Americas, has recently been found in southern Taiwan. It is a new record for this species to the flora of this island. A detailed description, line-drawings, photographs and geographic distribution are provided for identification of this species.

  9. Antidiabetic Activity of Plumeria Alba Linn (Apocynaceae) Root ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of total hydroalcohol root extract of Plumeria alba (Apocynaceae) and its active fraction on diabetes in rats. Methods: The effect of total hydroalcohol extract at 250 mg/kg and different fractions was evaluated on oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in mice. The effect of the active fractions on ...

  10. Four new species of Secamone (Apocynaceae, Secamonoideae) from Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klackenberg, J.

    2006-01-01

    Four new species of Secamone (Apocynaceae, Secamonoideae) from the Sulawesi archipelago in Indonesia, viz. S. axillaris Klack., S. kjellbergii Klack. and S. variicolor Klack. from Sulawesi itself, and S. celebica Klack. from adjacent Salajar Island, are described, illustrated and compared with

  11. Mitragyna speciosa: Balancing Potential Medical Benefits and Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpenny, Genevieve M

    2017-09-14

    Mitragyna speciosa, also known as kratom, has the potential meet the need for pain medications that lack the addictiveness and overdose risk of classical opioid analgesics, such as morphine. This need is urgent because opioid addiction and overdose deaths have risen throughout diverse segments of U.S. society. Some opioid addicts have found relief in kratom preparations. The use of kratom as an analgesic has been validated by historical accounts and contemporary pharmacological research. Although kratom is a promising source of analgesic candidates, it is a euphoriant with potential for both abuse and addiction. However, kratom appears to be less addictive and to have milder withdrawal symptoms than opioid drugs. Thus, there is a need to balance the potential medical benefits and abuse of M. speciosa.

  12. Visitantes florais de Lagerstroemia speciosa Pers: (Lythraceae Floral visitors in Lagerstroemia speciosa Pers: (Lythraceae

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    Maria de Jesus Vitali-Veiga

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out with Lagerstroemia speciosa Pers. on floral reproductive systems, diversity and constancy of visiting insects at different hours of day, the behaviour of these insects at the flowers and the influence of these environmental factors in relation to their visits. The fenology, anthesis and others particularity of this vegetal species was studied. A great diversity of insects was verified visiting the flowers with the predominance of bees. The most frequent and constant species encountered were: Nannotrigona testaceicornis (Lepeletier, 1836 (40,2%, Tetragonisca angustula (Latreille, 1811 (16,9%, Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758 (11,8%, Plebeia droryana (Friese, 1900 (9,1 % e Exomalopsis fulvofasciata (Smith, 1879 (8,5%. The blossoms possessis features of melittophily syndrome and diurnal anthesis. The environmental factors influence the insects foraging activity, mainly temperature, light, time of day, humidity and wind speed. The effective pollinators were the large insects like Bombus morio (Swederus, 1787, Bombus atratus (Franklin, 1913, Centris tarsata (Smith, 1874, Centris flavifrons Fabricius, 1775, Xylocopa suspecta Camargo & Moure, 1988, Xylocopa frontalis (Olivier, 1789 and Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier, 1841.

  13. Screening of Rubiaceae and Apocynaceae extracts for mosquito larvicidal potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryawanshi, Rahul; Patil, Chandrashekhar; Borase, Hemant; Narkhede, Chandrakant; Patil, Satish

    2015-01-01

    Rubiaceae and Apocynaceae families are well known for the expression of cyclotides having insecticidal properties. Leaves and flowers extracts of plants from the families Rubiaceae (Ixora coccinea) and Apocynaceae (Allamanda violacea) were evaluated for mosquito larvicidal effect against early IVth instars of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi. Two forms of plant extracts, one untreated and the other treated with heat and proteolytic enzyme were used for assay. After primary assay, the extract showing more than 50% inhibition was further used for quantification purpose. LC50 and LC90 values of all the extracts were found to be reduced with the treated form. Phytochemical analysis of plant extracts was performed. Primary confirmation for the presence of cyclotides was done by Lowry test, thin layer chromatography and haemolytic assay. This novel approach merits use of plant extracts in mosquito control programmes.

  14. New Species from Vietnam – Hoya lockii (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae

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    The Pham Van

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The new species Hoya lockii (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae was discovered in the Thua Thien-Hue Province of central Vietnam and is here described and illustrated. The morphological characters of H. lockii and its closely related species H. multiflora Blume are compared. Hoya lockii differs from H. multiflora in being pubescent in all parts of the plant except for the leaf blade and the corona, as well as in having white-opalescent corolla lobes and mucronate apex of corona lobes.

  15. Allamanda schottii (Apocynaceae: nueva cita para la Flora Argentina

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    Julio A. Hurrell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo Allamanda schottii Pohl (Apocynaceae es documentada como nueva cita genérica y específica para la Flora Argentina. La especie fue hallada en la ribera del Paraná, en el norte de la provincia de Corrientes, Argentina. Se incluye su sinonimia, descripción, comentarios sobre su distribución, hábitat, fenología, biología reproductiva, nombres vulgares, usos y observaciones.

  16. Taxonomy, Phylogeny, and Wood anatomy of Alstonia (Apocynaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Sidiyasa, Kade

    1998-01-01

    Alstonia is the largest and most widespread genus of trees and shrubs in the subtribe Alstoniinae of the tribe Plumerieae of the Apocynaceae. Many of its species provide important timbers of commerce, and several species are used in traditional local medicine. The genus occurs in Central America, tropical Africa, and from the Himalayas and China to New South Wales in Australia, and has its centre of diversity in the Malesian region. This study aims to contribute to our still fragmentary knowl...

  17. Jasminanthes xuanlienensis (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae), a new species from Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, The Bach; Hai, Do Van; Ha, Bui Thu; Rodda, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Jasminanthes xuanlienensis (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae), a new species from Vietnam is described, illustrated and compared with its five congeners. Jasminanthes xuanlienensis differs distinctly from congeners by the longer peduncles (14–18 cm vs. 4 cm at most in Jasminanthes pilosa and Jasminanthes saxatilis, salmon-pink color of the inner corolla lobes (white or greenish in the other species), and corolla tube length (12.0–14.5 mm vs. shorter or longer in congeners). PMID:27698580

  18. Comparative effects of Mitragyna speciosa extract, mitragynine, and opioid agonists on thermal nociception in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Jessica M; Criddle, Catherine A; Craig, Helaina K; Ali, Zulfiqar; Zhang, Zhihao; Khan, Ikhlas A; Sufka, Kenneth J

    2016-03-01

    This study sought to compare the effects of Mitragyna speciosa (Korth.) Havil. extract, alkaloids fraction, and mitragynine, a μ-opioid receptor agonist, to that of morphine and oxycodone in a test of thermal nociception. In Experiment 1, male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered test articles intraperitoneally (IP) 30 min prior to testing to compare the effects of M. speciosa articles to opioid reference compounds on the hotplate assay. Test articles were vehicle, 10 mg/kg morphine, 3 mg/kg oxycodone, 300 mg/kg M. speciosa extract, 75 mg/kg M. speciosa alkaloids fraction, or 30 mg/kg mitragynine. To mirror consumer usage, Experiment 2 sought to determine whether M. speciosa articles retained their biological activity when given orally (PO). Test articles were vehicle, 6 mg/kg oxycodone, 300 mg/kg M. speciosa extract, or 100mg/kg mitragynine with hotplate tests conducted 30 and 60 min after administration. Mitragynine produced antinociceptive effects similar to the reference opioid agonists when administered IP and PO routes. These data suggest that M. speciosa extracts containing significant quantities of mitragynine may warrant consideration for further studies in primate self-administration models to yield insight into the abuse liability of this commercially available product. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Kratom (Mitragyna Speciosa Korth): Manfaat, Efek Samping dan Legalitas

    OpenAIRE

    Raini, Mariana

    2017-01-01

    Kratom or Mitragyna speciosa Korth (Rubiaceae) is tree that is commonly found in Southeast Asia. It has been considered useful as a herbal medication to treat a number of problems such as diarrhea, in the alleviation of pain, coughs, hypertension, and to improve sexual performance. The ingestion of kratom produces a stimulant effect at low dosages and an opioid-like effect at medium to high dosages. Kratom is often misused and easily purchased from the internet. The aim of this study is to re...

  20. Qualitative determination of indole alkaloids of Tabernaemontana fuchsiaefolia (Apocynaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zocoler, Marcos A. [Universidade do Oeste Paulista, Presidente Prudente, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacos e Medicamentos; Oliveira, Arildo J.B. de [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacia e Farmacologia; Sarragiotto, Maria H.; Grzesiuk, Viviane L.; Vidotti, Gentil J. [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: gjvidotti@uem.br

    2005-11-15

    This p describes a fast and efficient procedure to separate and identify indole alkaloids from the ethanolic extract of Tabernaemontana fuchsiaefolia (Apocynaceae). The alkaloidal fractions obtained from ethanolic extracts of leaves and stem barks and root barks were fractioned and analyzed by Thin-Layer Chromatography (TLC) and by Gas Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The following indole alkaloids were identified: ibogamine, coronaridine, ibogaine pseudoindoxyl, voacangine hydroxyindolenine, voacangine pseudoindoxyl, tabernanthine, catharanthine, voacangine, 19-oxovoacangine, 10-hydroxycoronaridine, affinisine, 16-epi-affinine, voachalotine, ibogaline, and conopharyngine. (author)

  1. Asymmetric total synthesis of Apocynaceae hydrocarbazole alkaloids (+)-deethylibophyllidine and (+)-limaspermidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Ji-Yuan; Zeng, Chao; Han, Xiao-Jie; Qu, Hu; Zhao, Xian-He; An, Xian-Tao; Fan, Chun-An

    2015-04-01

    An unprecedented asymmetric catalytic tandem aminolysis/aza-Michael addition reaction of spirocyclic para-dienoneimides has been designed and developed through organocatalytic enantioselective desymmetrization. A unified strategy based on this key tandem methodology has been divergently explored for the asymmetric total synthesis of two natural Apocynaceae alkaloids, (+)-deethylibophyllidine and (+)-limaspermidine. The present studies not only enrich the tandem reaction design concerning the asymmetric catalytic assembly of a chiral all-carbon quaternary stereocenter contained in the densely functionalized hydrocarbazole synthons but also manifest the potential for the application of the asymmetric catalysis based on the para-dienone chemistry in asymmetric synthesis of natural products.

  2. Acyl-lupeol esters from Parahancornia amapa (Apocynaceae

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    Carvalho Mário G. de

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available From the roots of Parahancornia amapa, family Apocynaceae, the following compounds were isolated and identified nine new and ten known 3beta-O-acyl lupeol esters, beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol, beta-sitosterone, the triterpenoids beta-amyrin, alpha-amyrin, lupeol and their acetyl derivatives. The structures of these compounds were established by spectroscopic data, mainly ¹H and 13C (HBBD and DEPT NMR spectra. The methyl esters obtained by hydrolysis of acyl lupeol esters and methylation of the corresponding acids were characterized by MS-GC analysis.

  3. Three new species of Marsdenia (Apocynaceae from Brazil

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    Fabio da Silva do Espírito Santo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Three new species of Marsdenia (Apocynaceae are described from Brazil: M. paganuccii, known from two disjunct populations, one in the Caatinga of Bahia and other in the Atlantic Forest of Espírito Santo; M. paraibana, restricted to the Restinga of Cabedelo National Forest in the Atlantic Forest of Paraíba; and M. trisegmentata, known from two populations in Caatinga, one in Bahia and other in Ceará. Illustrations, a geographic distribution map and comparisons with morphologically similar species are also presented for each species.

  4. Intraspecific diversity in Sinningia speciosa (Gesneriaceae: Sinningieae), and possible origins of the cultivated florist's gloxinia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitlin, David

    2012-01-01

    The florist's gloxinia is a familiar houseplant in the Gesneriaceae, the botanical family that includes the African violet (Saintpaulia) and other ornamental species. The gloxinia's wild progenitor is Sinningia speciosa (Lodd.) Hiern, a Brazilian endemic. Although it has been cultivated for almost 200 years, little is known about the genetic diversity in S. speciosa, how the wild populations relate to one another or even where the cultivated forms originated. Using available wild collections, preliminary phenetic and phylogenetic investigations were conducted to elucidate the interspecific relationships within S. speciosa and to infer the origins of the cultivars. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis was applied to 24 accessions of S. speciosa (17 wild collections, seven cultivars) and one accession each of Sinningia guttata and Sinningia macrophylla. A maximum likelihood (ML) tree was also calculated from an alignment of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer sequence from the same 26 accessions. Dice/UPGMA and principal coordinates analysis of the AFLP data partitioned S. speciosa into several distinct clusters, one of which included S. macrophylla. All cultivated 'gloxinias' grouped together in a major cluster with plants from Rio de Janeiro. The AFLP results were compared with a phylogenetic analysis of the ribosomal spacer region, which was informative in S. speciosa. The ML tree generally supported the AFLP results, although several clades lacked strong statistical support. Independent analyses of two different data sets show that S. speciosa is a diverse species comprised of several lineages. Genetic distance estimates calculated from the AFLP data were positively correlated with geographic distances between populations, indicating that reproductive isolation could be driving speciation in this taxon. Molecular markers are under development for population genetic studies in S. speciosa, which will make it possible to define

  5. Intraspecific diversity in Sinningia speciosa (Gesneriaceae: Sinningieae), and possible origins of the cultivated florist's gloxinia

    OpenAIRE

    Zaitlin, David

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims The florist's gloxinia is a familiar houseplant in the Gesneriaceae, the botanical family that includes the African violet (Saintpaulia) and other ornamental species. The gloxinia's wild progenitor is Sinningia speciosa (Lodd.) Hiern, a Brazilian endemic. Although it has been cultivated for almost 200 years, little is known about the genetic diversity in S. speciosa, how the wild populations relate to one another or even where the cultivated forms originated. Using availab...

  6. LA FAMILIA APOCYNACEAE S. STR. (APOCYNOIDEAE, RAUVOLFIOIDEAE EN URUGUAY

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    J. Francisco Morales

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un tratamiento de las Apocynaceae s. str. (Apocynoideae, Rauvolfioideae de Uruguay. Se reconocen diez especies de un total de siete géneros: Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco, Condylocarpon isthmicum, Forsteronia glabrescens, Mandevilla coccinea, M. emarginata, M. longiflora, M. petraea, Rhabdadenia madida, Tabernaemontana catharinensis, Vinca major. Se incluyen descripciones, claves, datos de distribución y especimenes examinados. Se seleccionan lectotipos para Dipladenia xanthosoma var. major, Echites emarginatus, E. erectus, E. grandiflorus var. minor, E. pinifolius, Laseguea erecta var. guilleminia f. griseo-olivacea , L. erecta var. obliquinervia f. ovata subf. griseofusca y subf. griseo-olivacea, L. guilleminiana, Macrosiphonia verticillata var. intermedia, M. verticillata var. peduncularis, M. pinifolia f. glabrata y M. pinifolia f. setosa Se designa un neotipo para Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco.

  7. Cardenolides from the Apocynaceae family and their anticancer activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Shiyuan; Chen, Yanyan; Lu, Yunfang; Wang, Yuefei; Ding, Liqin; Jiang, Miaomiao

    2016-07-01

    Cardenolides, as a group of natural products that can bind to Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase with an inhibiting activity, are traditionally used to treat congestive heart failure. Recent studies have demonstrated that the strong tumor cytotoxicities of cardenolides are mainly due to inducing the tumor cells apoptosis through different expression and cellular location of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase α-subunits. The leaves, flesh, seeds and juices of numerous plants from the genera of Nerium, Thevetia, Cerbera, Apocynum and Strophanthus in Apocynaceae family, are the major sources of natural cardenolides. So far, 109 cardenolides have been isolated and identified from this family, and about a quarter of them are reported to exhibit the capability to regulate cancer cell survival and death through multiple signaling pathways. In this review, we compile the phytochemical characteristics and anticancer activity of the cardenolides from this family. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Beneficial Insect Attraction to Milkweeds (Asclepias speciosa, Asclepias fascicularis in Washington State, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. James

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Native plant and beneficial insect associations are relatively unstudied yet are important in native habitat restoration programs for improving and sustaining conservation biological control of arthropod pests in agricultural crops. Milkweeds (Asclepias spp. are currently the focus of restoration programs in the USA aimed at reversing a decline in populations of the milkweed-dependent monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus; however, little is known of the benefits of these plants to other beneficial insects. Beneficial insects (predators, parasitoids, pollinators attracted to two milkweed species (Asclepias speciosa, Asclepias fascicularis in central Washington State, WA, USA were identified and counted on transparent sticky traps attached to blooms over five seasons. Combining all categories of beneficial insects, means of 128 and 126 insects per trap were recorded for A. speciosa and A. fascicularis, respectively. Predatory and parasitic flies dominated trap catches for A. speciosa while parasitic wasps were the most commonly trapped beneficial insects on A. fascicularis. Bees were trapped commonly on both species, especially A. speciosa with native bees trapped in significantly greater numbers than honey bees. Beneficial insect attraction to A. speciosa and A. fascicularis was substantial. Therefore, these plants are ideal candidates for habitat restoration, intended to enhance conservation biological control, and for pollinator conservation. In central Washington, milkweed restoration programs for enhancement of D. plexippus populations should also provide benefits for pest suppression and pollinator conservation.

  9. Interactions between thrombin and natural products of Millettia speciosa Champ. using capillary zone electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuyu; Yin, Ting; Ling, Xiaomei; Liang, Hong; Zhao, Yuying

    2008-08-01

    In Chinese medicine Suberect Spatholobus Stem is used to treat menoxenia, blood deficiency, numb paralyses, and so on. In folk, Millettia speciosa is often used as a substitute for Suberect Spatholobus Stem in some areas but it has not been reported whether M. speciosa is the eligible substitute for Suberect Spatholobus Stem or not till now. In this study, a capillary zone electrophoretic method was applied to determinate the interactions between natural products isolated from M. speciosa Champ. and thrombin for the first time. Both qualitative and quantitative characterizations of the molecule-enzyme binding were determined. Twenty ingredients were isolated from M. speciosa Champ. and the results showed that compared with positive and negative control, the compounds YT-1, YT-2, YT-3, YT-8, YT-9, YT-10, YT-11, YT-12, YT-14, YT-15, YT-16, and YT-20 interacted with thrombin while the other eight had no binding to thrombin. The binding constants of the interaction between compounds and thrombin were calculated by the Scatchard analysis formula. Because M. speciosa contains these compounds which have different levels of anticoagulant activity, it may be the eligible substitute for Suberect Spatholobus Stem.

  10. Development of polymorphic microsatellite markers for the Killarney Fern (Vandenboschia speciosa, Hymenophyllaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-López, M Del Carmen; Schuler, Samira Ben-Menni; López-Flores, Inmaculada; Nieto-Lugilde, Marta; Terrón-Camero, Laura; Aguilera, Ismael Mazuecos; Suárez-Santiago, Víctor N

    2015-11-01

    We characterize 10 microsatellite loci in the endangered fern Vandenboschia speciosa (Hymenophyllaceae), enabling studies on the genetic population structure of this Macaronesian-European species using DNA hypervariable markers. Ten primer sets were developed and tested on 47 individuals in a total of two Iberian populations of V. speciosa. The primers amplified di- and hexanucelotide repeats. The number of alleles ranged from two to eight, and the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.107 to 0.807 among the populations analyzed. The 10 microsatellite markers developed will be useful in characterizing the genetic diversity of V. speciosa and understanding its population structure (including the possible structure between sporophyte and gametophyte phases) and biogeographic history, and will provide important genetic data for the conservation of this species.

  11. Behavioral and neurochemical characterization of kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolt, Anne-Christin; Schröder, Helmut; Neurath, Hartmud; Grecksch, Gisela; Höllt, Volker; Meyer, Markus R; Maurer, Hans H; Ziebolz, Nancy; Havemann-Reinecke, Ursula; Becker, Axel

    2014-01-01

    Mitragyna speciosa and its extracts are named kratom (dried leaves, extract). It contains several alkaloids and is used in traditional medicine to alleviate musculoskeletal pain, hypertension, coughing, diarrhea, and as an opiate substitute for addicts. Abuse and addiction to kratom is described, and kratom has attracted increasing interest in Western countries. Individual effects of kratom on opioidergic, adrenergic, serotonergic, and dopaminergic receptors are known, but not all of the effects have been explained. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data are needed. The effects of kratom extract on mice behavior were investigated following oral (po), intraperitoneal (ip), and intracerebroventricular (icv) application. Receptor-binding studies were performed. In μ opioid receptor knockout mice (-/-) and wild type (+/+) animals, the extract reduced locomotor activity after ip and low po doses in +/+ animals, but not after icv administration. The ip effect was counteracted by 0.3 mg/kg of apomorphine sc, suggesting dopaminergic presynaptic activity. An analgesic effect was only found in -/- mice after icv application. Norbinaltorphimine abolished the analgesic effect, but not the inhibitory effect, on locomotor activity, indicating that the analgesic effect is mediated via κ opioid receptors. Oral doses, which did not diminish locomotor activity, impaired the acquisition of shuttle box avoidance learning. There was no effect on consolidation. Binding studies showed affinity of kratom to μ, δ, and κ opioid receptors and to dopamine D1 receptors. The results obtained in drug-naïve mice demonstrate weak behavioral effects mediated via μ and κ opioid receptors.

  12. Social Functioning of Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Users in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Darshan; Müller, Christian P; Vicknasingam, Balasingam K; Mansor, Sharif M

    2015-01-01

    Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) is an indigenous plant known for its traditional medicinal use, and for its addiction potential, in Southeast Asia. In recent years, kratom and its major alkaloid, mitragynine, spread worldwide with largely unknown effects on behavior and mental health. Recent studies show that kratom use can lead to dependence and that mitragynine works as an addictive drug in animal studies. Nevertheless, kratom preparations were also suggested as a less harmful substitute in opiate withdrawal. Potential side-effects of prolonged kratom use, however, are currently unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the social functioning of regular kratom users in Malaysia. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in three northern states of Peninsular Malaysia investigating 293 regular kratom consumers using the Addiction Severity Index in a snowball sampling technique. Findings showed that regular kratom users do not experience major impairments in their social functioning, despite being dependent on kratom for prolonged periods. Our findings suggest that chronic kratom administration does not significantly impair social functioning of users in a natural context in Malaysia.

  13. Desenvolvimento de Diabrotica speciosa (Germar (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae em diferentes hospedeiros Development of Diabrotica speciosa (Germar (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae in different host plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crébio José Ávila

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo determinar a influência do hospedeiro, sobre o desenvolvimento de larvas, adultos e a reprodução de D. speciosa. Larvas recém-eclodidas foram criadas em "seedlings" de feijoeiro, soja, milho e batata enraizada, utilizando-se, como substrato, vermiculita esterilizada e umedecida. Determinou-se a duração e viabilidade do período larva-adulto e o peso de insetos (machos e fêmeas recém-emergidos. Em outro experimento, foi avaliada a capacidade de postura de D. speciosa. Para isso, ofereceram-se aos adultos folhas de feijoeiro, soja, milho e batata. A duração e a viabilidade do período larva-adulto, bem como o peso dos insetos (machos e fêmeas recém-emergidos, foram significativamente influenciados pela espécie hospedeira utilizada como alimento na fase larval. O maior período de desenvolvimento das fases imaturas (larva + pupa foi verificado em tubérculo de batata (36,5 dias e o menor, em "seedlings" de milho (25,1 dias. Os maiores valores de viabilidade foram observadas em batata (84,1% e milho (75,9%, enquanto que em soja (30,1% e feijoeiro (9,4% foram bastante reduzidos, mostrando serem estes dois hospedeiros inadequados para o desenvolvimento imaturo (larva + pupal de D. speciosa. Os insetos alimentados com folhas de batata e feijoeiro apresentaram capacidades de postura significativamente superiores àqueles mantidos em folhas de soja ou milho. Verificou-se que "seedlings" de milho e radicelas de batata são adequados, como alimento, para larvas de D. speciosa, enquanto folhas de batata e feijão são os mais adequados para os adultos.The aim of this work was to determine the influence of the host plant, as food, on the larval and adult phases of D. speciosa. Larvae of this insect were reared on seedlings of bean, corn, soybean, as well as on potato tubers kept in wet vermiculite. The following biological parameters were evaluated: duration and viability of the larva-adult period and the weight

  14. Molecular analysis of the genus Mitragyna existing in Thailand based on rDNA ITS sequences and its application to identify a narcotic species: Mitragyna speciosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukrong, Suchada; Zhu, Shu; Ruangrungsi, Nijsiri; Phadungcharoen, Thatree; Palanuvej, Chanida; Komatsu, Katsuko

    2007-07-01

    In Thailand, there are four Mitragyna species; M. speciosa, M. hirsuta, M. diversifolia, and M. rotundifolia. One, M. speciosa, is a narcotic plant and has medicinal importance for its opium-like effect. Since the use of M. speciosa has been forbidden in Thailand, the leaves of M. diversifolia or others are frequently used as substitutes but are not considered as effective. Therefore, accurate authentication of M. speciosa is essential for both medicinal and forensic purposes. The nucleotide sequences of internal transcribed spacers (ITS) and the 5.8S coding region of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of the Mitragyna species were analyzed. The whole length of ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region was 608 bp in M. speciosa, 607 bp in the other species. Nineteen sites of nucleotide substitutions and 3 sites of 1-bp indels were observed, and M. speciosa showed specific sequence differed from the others. Based on the ITS sequences, a distinctive site recognized by a restriction enzyme XmaI in M. speciosa was found and then PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis was established to differentiate M. speciosa from the others. By the method, a 409-bp PCR fragment of ITS1-5.8S (partial) rDNA region from M. speciosa was cleaved into two fragments of 119 bp and 290 bp while the other species remained undigested. This method provides an effective and accurate identification of M. speciosa.

  15. Essential oil composition of the fruits of Periploca laevigata Aiton subsp. angustifolia (Labill.) Markgraf (Apocynaceae - Periplocoideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Pietro; Sajeva, Maurizio; Bruno, Maurizio; Maggio, Antonella; Rosselli, Sergio; Senatore, Felice; Formisano, Carmen

    2011-08-01

    The essential oil of the fruits of Periploca laevigata Aiton subsp. angustifolia (Labill.) Markgraf (Apocynaceae) from Lampedusa Island was obtained by hydrodistillation and its composition was analysed. The analyses allowed the identification and quantification of 64 volatile compounds belonging to different classes. The most abundant compounds were nonacosane, heptacosane, hentriacontane and δ-cadinene. Among the volatile compounds identified in the fruits of P. laevigata subsp. angustifolia, 31 are present in other taxa of Apocynaceae, 19 have antimicrobial activity and four are pheromones for the butterfly Danaus chrysippus. The possible ecological role of the volatile compounds found is briefly discussed.

  16. Genetic verification and chemical contents identification of Allamanda species (Apocynaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaveerach, Arunrat; Aungkapattamagul, Sarocha; Tanee, Tawatchai; Noikotr, Kowit; Sudmoon, Runglawan

    2014-05-01

    Allamanda species (Apocynaceae) are popular ornamentals. Additionally, A. cathartica possesses medicinal properties whereas all other species have not been reported. This research aims to analyze genetics and chemical contents of Allamanda species existing in Thailand. The explored species are A. blanchetii, A. cathartica, A. neriifolia, A. schottii, and A. violacea. The dendrogram constructed from 16 inter-simple sequence repeat markers clearly distinguished species with genetic similarity values of 0.92-0.93 for species level and 0.50-0.76 for genus level. Diverse chemicals content in hexane extracts from A. blanchetii, A. neriifolia, A. schottii, and A. violacea were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A high amount of squalene was found in A. blanchetii (55.81%) and A. violacea (51.09%). This content may function as a chemo preventative substance to protect people from cancer. α-Tocopherol, a form of vitamin E, was one of the predominant components found in A. violacea (26.325%), A. schottii (15.41%), and A. neriifolia (9.16%). One more substance, 9,12,15-octadecatrien-1-ol, was found to be relatively high in A. schottii (17.31%) and A. neriifolia (15.51%). Other minor and unknown compounds were also detected. The discovery of these chemicals provides an alternative and supplement for improving human well-being and pharmaceutical industries with natural resources, especially in light of the population increase.

  17. Generic delimitations in tuberous Periplocoideae (Apocynaceae) from Africa and Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meve, Ulrich; Liede, Sigrid

    2004-04-01

    The number of genera included in Apocynaceae subfamily Periplocoideae is a matter of debate. DNA sequences are used here as an independent dataset to clarify generic relationships and classification of the tuberous periplocoid genera and to address the question of the phylogenetic interpretation of pollinia formation in Schlechterella. Representatives of nearly all African and Malagasy genera of Periplocoideae possessing root tubers were analysed using ITS and plastid DNA sequence characters. Sequence data from non-coding molecular markers (ITS of nrDNA and the trnT-L and trnL-F spacers as well as the trnL intron of plastid DNA) give support for a broad taxonomic concept of Raphionacme including Pentagonanthus. Together with Schlechterella, which is sister to Raphionacme, all Raphionacme-like taxa form a derived monophyletic group of somewhat diverse species. Sister to the Schlechterella/Raphionacme clade is a clade comprising Stomatostemma and the not truly tuberous vine Mondia. In the combined analysis, sister to these two clades combined is a clade formed by Petopentia natalensis and Periploca. The recent inclusion of the monotypic South African Petopentia in the monotypic Malagasy endemic Ischnolepis is to be rejected. The Malagasy Camptocarpus is sister to the remainder of Periplocoideae in the ITS and combined analyses, and a Malagasy origin for the subfamily is discussed.

  18. An evidence-based systematic review of kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbricht, Catherine; Costa, Dawn; Dao, Julie; Isaac, Richard; LeBlanc, Yvonne C; Rhoades, Jenna; Windsor, Regina C

    2013-06-01

    An evidence-based systematic review of kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration consolidates the safety and efficacy data available in the scientific literature using a validated, reproducible grading rationale. This article includes written and statistical analysis of clinical trials, plus a compilation of expert opinion, folkloric precedent, history, pharmacology, kinetics/dynamics, interactions, adverse effects, toxicology, and dosing.

  19. Antistress activity of Argyreia speciosa roots in experimental animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikunj B Patel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The antistress effect of a seven-day treatment (100 and 200 mg / kg, p.o. of the hydroalcoholic extract of Argyreia speciosa root (ASE was evaluated by using the swimming endurance test, acetic acid-induced writhing test, pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsion test, anoxic tolerance test, cold-restraint, stress-induced gastric ulcers, aspirin-induced ulcers, and biochemical, and histopathological changes in the cold-restraint stress test. The immunomodulatory activity was also evaluated for the same doses, and treatment of ASE was done using the hemagglutination test. Both the doses of ASE showed antistress activity in all the tested models. The ASE-treated animals showed a decrease in immobility time and an increase in anoxic tolerance time in swimming endurance and the anoxic tolerance tests, respectively. The effect of glacial acetic acid and pentylenetetrazole were also reduced by decreasing the number of writhing responses and increasing the onset of convulsions, respectively. In the cold restrained stress and aspirin-induced gastric ulcer models, ASE showed a significant reduction in the ulcer index. Pretreatment with ASE significantly ameliorated the cold stress-induced variations in biochemical levels such as increased plasma cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose, total protein, and cortisol. ASE was also effective in preventing the pathological changes in the adrenal gland, due to cold restrained stress, in rats. In mice immunized with sheep red blood cells, the treatment groups subjected to restraint stress prevented the humoral immune response to the antigen. The immunostimulating activity of the ASE was indicated by an increase in the antibody titer in mice pre-immunized with sheep red blood cells and subjected to restraint stress. The findings of the present investigations indicate that the ASE has significant antistress activity, which may be due to the immunostimulating property and increased resistance, nonspecifically, against all

  20. Manejo de Diabrotica speciosa com atrativos naturais em horta orgânica Natural attractios for management of Diabrotica speciosa in a organic home garden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João José Stüpp

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O controle de insetos associados ao cultivo de hortaliças é predominantemente realizado através de pesticidas sintéticos. Entretanto, os riscos do uso indiscriminado dos pesticidas sobre a saúde humana e o meio ambiente deve ser considerado. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a eficácia de atrativos naturais no controle da vaquinha Diabrotica speciosa (Germar (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, uma praga de importância econômica na América Latina. Os seguintes tratamentos foram testados: raiz de taiuiá (Cayaponia sp, frutos verdes de porongo/cuia (Lagenaria sp, extrato de folhas de couve-chinesa (Brassica pekinensis, fermentado de frutas, vinagre tinto e água como testemunha. O delineamento foi inteiramente ao acaso, com seis repetições. Os preparados foram acondicionados em armadilhas com garrafas PET de 2.000 ml, com oito aberturas laterais e distribuídas aleatoriamente na área experimental. Frutos verdes de porongo apresentaram captura de adultos de D. speciosa 5,4 vezes maior que raízes de taiuiá e as raízes de taiuiá capturaram 19,7 vezes mais adultos do que a testemunha. Ambas as iscas foram acondicionadas na forma sólida, suspensas internamente na garrafa PET. A menor atratividade foi apresentada pelo extrato aquoso de couve-chinesa, que não diferiu da testemunha. Independentemente do atrativo utilizado, o pico populacional da D. speciosa ocorreu nos meses de fevereiro e março.The control of insects associated with home garden vegetable crops is usually done by sintetic pesticides. However, the risks of the indiscriminate use of pesticides on human health and the environment need to be considered. The objective of this work was to study the attractive efficacy of natural substances on D. speciosa, a very important pest in Latin America. The following treatments were tested: roots of Cayaponia sp., green fruits of Lagenaria sp., water extract of Brassica pekinensis, extract of fermented fruits, red vinegar and water as a

  1. SINOPSIS DE LAS APOCYNACEAE S. STR. (APOCYNOIDEAE Y RAUVOLFIOIDEAE DE CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Francisco Morales

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una sinopsis y revisión nomenclatural de los taxones de Apocynaceae s. str. (Apocynoi- deae y Rauvolfioideae presentes en Chile. Se designan lectotipos para Echites heterophyllus, Echites ptarmicus y Skytanthus acutus. Se incluye una clave, descripciones, datos de distribución geográfica en Chile e ilustraciones para las especies nativas.

  2. Actividad antimicrobiana y estudio fitoquímico preliminar de Mandevilla veraguasensis (Seem. Helms. (Apocynaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Abad-Reyes

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethyl acetate extract from leaves of Mandevilla veraguasensis (Seem. Hemsl. (Apocynaceae has been assayed for antibacterial and antifungal activity. A moderate activity against Gram positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus, which can be in part attributed to the flavonoids 4´-O-methyl-kaempferol (I and quercetin (II isolated from this extract, was observed.

  3. A new genus and two new combinations in the Gonolobinae (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Morillo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Brargentina Morillo et H. A. Keller, a new genus of Gonolobinae (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae, segregated from Gyrostelma E. Fourn., is described and illustrated, and two new combinations, Brargentina bornmulleri (Schltr. ex Malme Morillo et H. A. Keller, and Gyrostelma oxypetaloides var. grazielae (Fontella Morillo et H. A. Keller, are proposed. A key to identify Brargentina from related genera is also presented.

  4. Evolution of pyrrolizidine alkaloid biosynthesis in Apocynaceae: revisiting the defence de-escalation hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livshultz, Tatyana; Kaltenegger, Elisabeth; Straub, Shannon C K; Weitemier, Kevin; Hirsch, Elliot; Koval, Khrystyna; Mema, Lumi; Liston, Aaron

    2018-02-26

    Plants produce specialized metabolites for their defence. However, specialist herbivores adapt to these compounds and use them for their own benefit. Plants attacked predominantly by specialists may be under selection to reduce or eliminate production of co-opted chemicals: the defence de-escalation hypothesis. We studied the evolution of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) in Apocynaceae, larval host plants for PA-adapted butterflies (Danainae, milkweed and clearwing butterflies), to test if the evolutionary pattern is consistent with de-escalation. We used the first PA biosynthesis specific enzyme (homospermidine synthase, HSS) as tool for reconstructing PA evolution. We found hss orthologues in diverse Apocynaceae species, not all of them known to produce PAs. The phylogenetic analysis showed a monophyletic origin of the putative hss sequences early in the evolution of one Apocynaceae lineage (the APSA clade). We found an hss pseudogene in Asclepias syriaca, a species known to produce cardiac glycosides but no PAs, and four losses of an HSS amino acid motif. APSA clade species are significantly more likely to be Danainae larval host plants than expected if all Apocynaceae species were equally likely to be exploited. Our findings are consistent with PA de-escalation as an adaptive response to specialist attack. © 2018 The Authors New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  5. Phytochemicals of selected plant species of the Apocynaceae and Asclepiadaceae from Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    A concern about the declining supply of petroleum products has led to a renewed interest in evaluating plant species as potential alternate sources of energy. Five species of the Apocynaceae and three species of the Asclepiadaceae from the Western Ghats were evaluated as alternative sources of energ...

  6. New species and combinations of Secamone (Apocynaceae, Secamonoideae) from South East Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klackenberg, J.

    2010-01-01

    Five new species of Secamone (Apocynaceae, Secamonoideae) from Malaysia and Indonesia, viz. S. lenticellata from Sarawak, S. coronata and S. longituba from Kalimantan, S. sumatrana from Sumatra, and S. kunstleri from the Malayan Peninsula, are described, illustrated and compared with related taxa.

  7. Fly pollination in Ceropegia (Apocynaceae: Asclepiadoideae): biogeographic and phylogenetic perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollerton, Jeff; Masinde, Siro; Meve, Ulrich; Picker, Mike; Whittington, Andrew

    2009-06-01

    Ceropegia (Apocynaceae subfamily Asclepiadoideae) is a large, Old World genus of >180 species, all of which possess distinctive flask-shaped flowers that temporarily trap pollinators. The taxonomic diversity of pollinators, biogeographic and phylogenetic patterns of pollinator exploitation, and the level of specificity of interactions were assessed in order to begin to understand the role of pollinators in promoting diversification within the genus. Flower visitor and pollinator data for approx. 60 Ceropegia taxa were analysed with reference to the main centres of diversity of the genus and to a cpDNA-nrDNA molecular phylogeny of the genus. Ceropegia spp. interact with flower-visiting Diptera from at least 26 genera in 20 families, of which 11 genera and 11 families are pollinators. Size range of flies was 0.5-4.0 mm and approx. 94 % were females. Ceropegia from particular regions do not use specific fly genera or families, though Arabian Peninsula species are pollinated by a wider range of Diptera families than those in other regions. The basal-most clade interacts with the highest diversity of Diptera families and genera, largely due to one hyper-generalist taxon, C. aristolochioides subsp. deflersiana. Species in the more-derived clades interact with a smaller diversity of Diptera. Approximately 60 % of taxa are so far recorded as interacting with only a single genus of pollinators, the remaining 40 % being less conservative in their interactions. Ceropegia spp. can therefore be ecological specialists or generalists. The genus Ceropegia has largely radiated without evolutionary shifts in pollinator functional specialization, maintaining its interactions with small Diptera. Intriguing biogeographic and phylogenetic patterns may reflect processes of regional dispersal, diversification and subsequent specialization onto a narrower range of pollinators, though some of the findings may be caused by inconsistent sampling. Comparisons are made with other plant genera

  8. Leaf consumption by Diabrotica speciosa (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidade adults on difFerent host plants Consumo foliar por adultos de Diabrotica speciosa (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidade em diferentes hospedeiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crébio José Ávila

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies related to the feeding behavior of pest insects provide information that will aid the development of control tactics. Leaf consumption by Diabrotica speciosa adults fed on bean, corn, potato and soybean was determined in the laboratory under free-choice (multiple or double-choice and no-choice (confinement conditions. In the multiple-choice tests leaf circles were randomly arranged in a circular pattern (arena inside Petri dishes. The degree of preference for the hosts was determined under double-choice conditions, where common bean was considered the standard host and the remaining plants (soybean, potato and corn as test hosts. In all trials, two Diabrotica speciosa couples were released and maintained within the dish for 24 hours; the leaf area consumed by the insects was determined after this feeding period. Food type (host influenced leaf area consumption by D. speciosa adults both in free-choice and in no-choice tests (P 0.05. As to the no-choice test, the consumption was higher for corn than for potato, probably to compensate the low nutritional quality of the first host.Estudos relacionados ao comportamento alimentar dos insetos-pragas, podem fornecer informações que auxiliam no desenvolvimento de táticas visando seu controle. Foi determinado, em laboratório, o consumo foliar por adultos de Diabrotica speciosa, quando alimentados com folhas de feijoeiro, milho, batata e soja, sob condições de livre escolha (múltipla e dupla escolha e sem chance de escolha (confinamento. Nos testes de múltipla escolha, círculos foliares foram dispostos, ao acaso, num arranjo circular (arena em placas de Petri. O grau de preferência dos hospedeiros foi determinado em condições de dupla escolha, considerando-se o feijoeiro a espécie padrão e os demais hospedeiros (soja, batata e milho como plantas testes. Para todos os testes, dois casais de D. speciosa foram liberados no interior da placa e aí mantidos por 24 horas, determinado

  9. Pengembangan Metode Isolasi dan Identifikasi Mitragynine dalam Daun Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa)

    OpenAIRE

    Elsa, Livia

    2016-01-01

    Abstrak Kratom (Mitragina speciosa) merupakan tanaman herbal asal Indonesia. Daun kratom memiliki banyak manfaat sebagai obat herbal seperti obat demam, diare, dan penghilang nyeri. Efek sedatif dan stimulan pada sistem syaraf pusat merupakan efek samping daun Kratom. Harga yang murah dan kemudahan dalam memperoleh daun Kratom menjadi penyebabkan utama daun Kratom banyak disalahgunakan sebagai penganti narkotika terlarang lainnya. Daun kratom masuk kedalam new psychoactive substances (NPS) at...

  10. Uji Efek Sedatif Infusa Daun Kratom (Mitragyna Speciosa) Pada Mencit Jantan Galur Balb/c

    OpenAIRE

    Dini Novindriani

    2013-01-01

    Insomnia is a condition difficult start to sleep, can not sleep or inadequate sleepduration. One of plants which guess have sedative effect is kratom (Mitragyna speciosa). Thisresearch was conducted to determine the sedative effect of kratom leaves infusa to male BALB/cstrain mice. In addition, it aims to determine the effective dose and potential kratom leaves infusawhen compared with diazepamThe mice divided into 5 groups of positive control group (diazepam), negative control(aquadest), and...

  11. Gastroprotective effect of standardized leaf extract from Argyreia speciosa on experimental gastric ulcers in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Sunil K; Rao, Chandana V; Sharma, Brijesh; Mishra, Pritee; Das, Sanjib; Dubey, Mukesh K

    2011-09-01

    Argyreia speciosa (L.f), Sweet (Family Convolvulaceae) is used traditionally in Indian System of Medicine as aphrodisiac, rejuvenating agent, intellect promoting agent, brain tonic and in the therapy of hepatomegaly, diabetes and chronic ulcer. To study the gastroprotective effect of standardized butanol fraction of Argyreia speciosa leaf (ASE). The butanol fraction of Argyreia speciosa leaf (ASE; 50, 100 and 200mg/kg body weight) was administered orally, twice daily for 5 days for prevention from Aspirin (ASP)-, ethanol (EtOH)-, cold-restraint stress (CRS) - and pylorus ligation (PL)-induced ulcers. Estimation of antioxidant enzymes activity was carried out in CRS-induced ulcer model, and various gastric secretion parameters like volume of gastric juice, acid output, and pH value were estimated in PL-induced ulcer model. ASE showed dose-dependent ulcer protective effect in ASP 23.64-58.76% (pmucus was significantly (p<0.001) enhanced by ASE and is regarded as the first line of defence against EtOH-induced gastric ulcers showing cytoprotective property. ASE showed a marginal decrease in volume, acid pepsin concentration and acid pepsin output. However, ASE reduced the ulcer index with significant decrease in LPO level (p<0.001), and SOD level (p<0.01 to p<0.001) as compared with CRS-induced group. A gradual and significant increase in CAT values were observed at 100 and 200mg/kg dose levels (p<0.01 to p<0.001). The results of our study revealed that Argyreia speciosa possess significant dose dependent gastroprotective activity, probably due to its free radical scavenging activity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Acclimatization of the endangered Mexican epiphytic orchid, Laelia speciosa (H.B.K. Schltr

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    Martha Mireya Ortega-Loeza

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In vitro propagation could be an alternative for the conservation of the endemic and endangered Mexican epiphytic orchid Laelia speciosa (H.B.K. Schltr. The goal of this study was to develop a protocol that would enhance acclimatization of in vitro – derived L. speciosa plantlets – a critical stage in propagation and subsequent conservation. Observations of stomata opening during ex vitro acclimatization, and the time of in vitro culture (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 days in greenhouse conditions (pre-acclimatization, on the survival and development of seedlings during the ex vitro acclimatization were carried out. In addition, the effect of different levels of nutrients (100%, 75%, 50%, 25% and 0%-strength salts and sucrose (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 g l−1 in the Murashige and Skoog medium (MS on the same parameters were measured. Plantlets incubated 20 days in greenhouse conditions before ex vitro acclimatization also displayed the best growth with a survival rate of 97.5%, related with high stomata opening. Plantlets on MS containing 100%-strength salts (with 20 days of pre-acclimatization, 40 g l−1 sucrose had the highest rate (97.5–100% of survival and vigor when acclimatized. By improving micropropagation through acclimatization, the sustainable management of L. speciosa now more likely, benefitting the conservation of this endangered species.

  13. The botanical origin of kratom (Mitragyna speciosa; Rubiaceae) available as abused drugs in the Japanese markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Takuro; Kawamura, Maiko; Kikura-Hanajiri, Ruri; Takayama, Hiromitsu; Goda, Yukihiro

    2009-07-01

    Kratom is the leaves of Mitragyna speciosa (Rubiaceae). Recently, kratom has been sold in street shops or on the Internet in Japan for the purpose of abuse due to its opium-like effects. In this study, we investigated the botanical origin of the commercial kratom products using the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence analysis of rDNA in preparation for future regulation of this product. In addition, a previously reported method to authenticate the plant, utilizing polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was applied to the same products in order to estimate the method's accuracy and utility. The ITS sequence analysis of the commercial kratoms revealed that most of them were derived from M. speciosa or closely related plants, while the others were made from the same tribe plant as M. speciosa. The reported PCR-RFLP method could clearly distinguish kratoms from the other psychoactive plants available in the Japanese markets and also from related plants. The authentication method is considered to be useful for the practical regulation of the plant due to its wide range of application, high accuracy and simplicity.

  14. Nuclear DNA content in Sinningia (Gesneriaceae); intraspecific genome size variation and genome characterization in S. speciosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitlin, David; Pierce, Andrew J

    2010-12-01

    The Gesneriaceae (Lamiales) is a family of flowering plants comprising >3000 species of mainly tropical origin, the most familiar of which is the cultivated African violet (Saintpaulia spp.). Species of Gesneriaceae are poorly represented in the lists of taxa sampled for genome size estimation; measurements are available for three species of Ramonda and one each of Haberlea, Saintpaulia, and Streptocarpus, all species of Old World origin. We report here nuclear genome size estimates for 10 species of Sinningia, a neotropical genus largely restricted to Brazil. Flow cytometry of leaf cell nuclei showed that holoploid genome size in Sinningia is very small (approximately two times the size of the Arabidopsis genome), and is small compared to the other six species of Gesneriaceae with genome size estimates. We also documented intraspecific genome size variation of 21%-26% within a group of wild Sinningia speciosa (Lodd.) Hiern collections. In addition, we analyzed 1210 genome survey sequences from S. speciosa to characterize basic features of the nuclear genome such as guanine-cytosine content, types of repetitive elements, numbers of protein-coding sequences, and sequences unique to S. speciosa. We included several other angiosperm species as genome size standards, one of which was the snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus L.; Veronicaceae, Lamiales). Multiple measurements on three accessions indicated that the genome size of A. majus is ~633 × 10⁶ base pairs, which is approximately 40% of the previously published estimate.

  15. Identification and Characterization of TALE Homeobox Genes in the Endangered Fern Vandenboschia speciosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Estévez, Mercedes; Bakkali, Mohammed; Martín-Blázquez, Rubén; Garrido-Ramos, Manuel A

    2017-10-17

    We report and discuss the results of a quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis of the expression patterns of seven three amino acid loop extension (TALE) homeobox genes (four KNOTTED-like homeobox (KNOX) and three BEL1-like homeobox (BELL) genes) identified after next generation sequencing (NGS) and assembly of the sporophyte and gametophyte transcriptomes of the endangered fern species Vandenboschia speciosa. Among the four KNOX genes, two belonged to the KNOX1 class and the other two belonged to the KNOX2 class. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences supported the typical domain structure of both types of TALE proteins, and the homology to TALE proteins of mosses, lycophytes, and seed plant species. The expression analyses demonstrate that these homeodomain proteins appear to have a key role in the establishment and development of the gametophyte and sporophyte phases of V. speciosa lifecycle, as well as in the control of the transition between both phases. Vandenboschia speciosa VsKNAT3 (a KNOX2 class protein) as well as VsBELL4 and VsBELL10 proteins have higher expression levels during the sporophyte program. On the contrary, one V. speciosa KNOX1 protein (VsKNAT6) and one KNOX2 protein (VsKNAT4) seem important during the development of the gametophyte phase. TALE homeobox genes might be among the key regulators in the gametophyte-to-sporophyte developmental transition in regular populations that show alternation of generations, since some of the genes analyzed here (VsKNAT3, VsKNAT6, VsBELL4, and VsBELL6) are upregulated in a non-alternating population in which only independent gametophytes are found (they grow by vegetative reproduction outside of the range of sporophyte distribution). Thus, these four genes might trigger the vegetative propagation of the gametophyte and the repression of the sexual development in populations composed of independent gametophytes. This study represents a comprehensive

  16. Transcriptome Analysis of Storage Roots and Fibrous Roots of the Traditional Medicinal Herb Callerya speciosa (Champ.) ScHot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li; Wang, Jiabin; Lei, Ming; Li, Li; Fu, Yunliu; Wang, Zhunian; Ao, Mengfei; Li, Zhiying

    2016-01-01

    Callerya speciosa (Champ.) ScHot is a woody perennial plant in Fabaceae, the roots of which are used medicinally. The storage roots of C. speciosa are derived from fibrous roots, but not all fibrous roots can develop into storage roots. To detect key genes involved in storage roots formation, we performed Illumina sequencing of the C. speciosa storage roots and fibrous roots. De novo assembly resulted in 161,926 unigenes, which were subsequently annotated by BLAST, GO and KEGG analyses. After expression profiling, 4538 differentially expressed genes were identified. The KEGG pathway enrichment analysis revealed changes in the biosynthesis of cytokinin, phenylpropanoid, starch, sucrose, flavone and other secondary metabolites. Transcription factor-related differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were also identified, including such gene families as GRAS, COL, MIKC, ERF, LBD, and NAC. The DEGs related to light signaling, starch, sugar, photohormones and cell wall-loosening might be involved in the formation of storage roots. This study provides the first transcriptome profiling of C. speciosa roots, data that will facilitate future research of root development and metabolites with medicinal value as well as the breeding of C. speciosa.

  17. Caffeoylquinic acids in leaves of selected Apocynaceae species: Their isolation and content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Siu Kuin; Lim, Yau Yan; Ling, Sui Kiong; Chan, Eric Wei Chiang

    2014-01-01

    Three compounds isolated from the methanol (MeOH) leaf extract of Vallaris glabra (Apocynaceae) were those of caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs). This prompted a quantitative analysis of their contents in leaves of V. glabra in comparison with those of five other Apocynaceae species (Alstonia angustiloba, Dyera costulata, Kopsia fruticosa, Nerium oleander, and Plumeria obtusa), including flowers of Lonicera japonica (Japanese honeysuckle), the commercial source of chlorogenic acid (CGA). Compound were isolated by column chromatography, and identified by NMR and MS analyses. CQA content of leaf extracts was determined using reversed-phase HPLC. From the MeOH leaf extract of V. glabra, 3-CQA, 4-CQA, and 5-CQA or CGA were isolated. Content of 5-CQA of V. glabra was two times higher than flowers of L. japonica, while 3-CQA and 4-CQA content was 16 times higher. With much higher CQA content than the commercial source, leaves of V. glabra can serve as a promising alternative source.

  18. Morphological and Ultrastructural Diversity of Orbicules in Relation to Evolutionary Tendencies in Apocynaceae s.l.

    OpenAIRE

    Vinckier, Stefan; Smets, Erik

    2002-01-01

    Minute granules of sporopollenin, called orbicules, can be observed on the innermost tangential and/or radial walls of secretory tapetum cells. Orbicules were investigated in 62 species (50 genera) of Apocynaceae s.l. using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Orbicules were found in 43 species (34 genera) distributed amongst the subfamilies Rauvolfioideae, Apocynoideae, Periplocoideae, and in the genus Riocreuxia (Asclepiadoideae). Absence of o...

  19. Pharmacobotanic characterization of young stems and stem barks of Rauvolfia sellowii Müll. Arg., Apocynaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Leopoldo Clemente Baratto; Márcia do Rocio Duarte; Cid Aimbiré de Moraes Santos

    2010-01-01

    Rauvolfia sellowii Müll. Arg. (Apocynaceae), a Brazilian native tree rich in indole alkaloids, is known as "pau-pra-tudo" and popularly used as hypocholesterolemic, hypoglycemic and antihypertensive. The aim of this work was to study the anatomy of the young stems and stem barks of this medicinal plant, in order to contribute to the identification of the species as a drug. The plant material was fixed and prepared according to standard microtechniques. The young stems have remaining epidermis...

  20. Morphological and ultrastructural diversity of orbicules in relation to evolutionary tendencies in apocynaceae s.L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinckier, Stefan; Smets, Erik

    2002-11-01

    Minute granules of sporopollenin, called orbicules, can be observed on the innermost tangential and/or radial walls of secretory tapetum cells. Orbicules were investigated in 62 species (50 genera) of Apocynaceae s.l. using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Orbicules were found in 43 species (34 genera) distributed amongst the subfamilies Rauvolfioideae, Apocynoideae, Periplocoideae, and in the genus Riocreuxia (Asclepiadoideae). Absence of orbicules is apparent in Secamonoideae and Asclepiadoideae (except Riocreuxia). The orbicule types described are based on observed morphological and ultrastructural variation. Of the six orbicule types previously described, Type I and Type II orbicules are lacking. In the majority of species, Type III orbicules were recorded in addition to Types IV, V and VI. In this study we suggest that embedded Type VI orbicules are more derived. A correlation between orbicule typology and evolutionary tendencies in Apocynaceae s.l. palynology was found. A trend was observed from the presence of Type III orbicules in the majority of species belonging to the basal group of genera characterized by colporate to porate single pollen grains, or 3-6-porate tetrads, towards the more derived embedded Type VI orbicules in the more advanced Periplocoideae genera with multiporate tetrads or pollinia. Orbicule data have proven not to be useful for evaluating tribal delimitation within the Apocynaceae s.l. contrary to the Rubiaceae and Loganiaceae s.l.

  1. Synergistic effects of ethnomedicinal plants of Apocynaceae family and antibiotics against clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chusri, Sasitorn; Siriyong, Thanyaluck; Na-Phatthalung, Pinanong; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang Piyawan

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the efficacy of 17 ethnomedicinal plants belonging to Apocynaceae family used in combination with 16 conventional antibiotics against non-multidrug resistant-, multidrug resistant (MDR)-, and extensive drug resistant (XDR) Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii). Antibacterial activity and resistance modifying ability of 272 combinations were determined by growth inhibition assays and further confirmed by time-kill assay. Among the combinations of the antibiotics with Apocynaceae ethanol extracts on this pathogen, 15 (5%) had synergistic effects, 23 (8%) had partial synergistic effects and 234 (86%) had no effects. Synergistic activity was observed mostly when the Apocynaceae extracts were combined with rifampicin or cefazolin. Interestingly, 10 out of 17 combinations between the extracts and rifampicin displayed synergistic or partial synergistic behaviors. Holarrhena antidysenterica extract was additionally tested to restore rifampicin activity against clinical isolates of MDR and XDR A. baumannii. With respect to total or partial synergy, 70% was XDR A. baumannii isolates and 66% was MDR A. baumannii isolates. Holarrhena antidysenterica extract clearly demonstrated the ability to restore rifampicin activity against both A. baumannii ATCC19606 and clinically isolated A. baumannii. Additional studies examining its active principles as well as mechanisms of actions such as the effects on efflux pumps and outer membrane permeability alterations are recommended. Copyright © 2014 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of alkaloid-rich extract from Mitragyna speciosa (Korth.) Havil. on naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal symptoms and local field potential in the nucleus accumbens of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheaha, Dania; Reakkamnuan, Chayaporn; Nukitram, Jakkrit; Chittrakarn, Somsmorn; Phukpattaranont, Pimpimol; Keawpradub, Niwat; Kumarnsit, Ekkasit

    2017-08-17

    Mitragyna speciosa (Korth.) Havil. (M. speciosa) is among the most well-known plants used in ethnic practice of Southeast Asia. It has gained increasing attention as a plant with potential to substitute morphine in addiction treatment program. However, its action on the central nervous system is controversial. This study investigated the effects of M. speciosa alkaloid extract on naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal and neural signaling in the nucleus accumbens (NAc, brain reward center) of mice. The effects of M. speciosa alkaloid extract and mitragynine, a pure major constituent, on naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal were examined. Male Swiss Albino (ICR) mice were rendered dependent on morphine before injection with naloxone, a nonspecific opioid antagonist, to induce morphine withdrawal symptoms. The intensity of naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal was assessed from jumping behavior and diarrhea induced during a period of morphine withdrawal. To test possible addictive effect of M. speciosa alkaloid extract, mice were implanted with intracranial electrode into the NAc for local field potential (LFP) recording. Following M. speciosa alkaloid extract (80mg/kg) and morphine (15mg/kg) treatment, LFP power spectra and spontaneous motor activity were analyzed in comparison to control levels. One-way ANOVA and multiple comparisons revealed that M. speciosa alkaloid extract (80 and 100mg/kg) significantly decreased the number of jumping behavior induced by morphine withdrawal whereas mitragynine did not. Additionally, M. speciosa alkaloid extract significantly decreased dry and wet fecal excretions induced by morphine withdrawal. LFP analysis revealed that morphine significantly decreased alpha (9.7-12Hz) and increased low gamma (30.3-44.9Hz) and high gamma (60.5-95.7Hz) powers in the NAc whereas M. speciosa alkaloid extract did not. Spontaneous motor activity was significantly increased by morphine but not M. speciosa alkaloid extract. Taken together

  3. Trap attributes influencing capture of Diabrotica speciosa (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae on common bean fields Atributos da armadilha influenciam captura de Diabrotica speciosa (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae em feijoeiro

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    Maurício Ursi Ventura

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Refinements in trap characteristics may improve ability to monitor and mass-trap beetles. Field assays were conducted in common bean fields to assess responses of Diabrotica speciosa (Germar to some trap characteristics. Golden yellow plastic cups (750 mL traps caught more D. speciosa females and males than did clear traps. Carrot slices in Petri dishes baited with Lagenaria vulagaris L. powder (cucurbitacin source - 0.28% caught more beetles than did dishes with carrot alone. Dispensers for the floral volatile attractant 1,4-dimethoxybenze were also compared. Rubber septa dispenser attracted more beetles than did control (dental wicks saturated with acetone. Captures on dental wick, starch matrix and feminine pad dispensers were intermediate and did not differ from those on rubber septa and unbaited controls. Perforated bottle traps (2000 mL, when baited with the floral attractant, caught more beetles than did window bottle traps (both traps contained L. vulgaris powder in most assessments done from two to ten days after trap placement in the field. Traps with the insecticide carbaryl captured more beetles than did traps without it, 2-4 and 8-10 days after trap placement in the field, but not in the remaining periods (0-2, 4-6 and 6-8 days. Traps baited with 1,4-dimethoxybenzene captured more beetles than did the unbaited ones in all assessments (each other day from two to ten days after trap placement in the field. Finally, similar amounts of beetles were captured using plastic bottle traps (2000 mL: perforated, window (both with cucurbitacin and sticky (without cucurbitacin traps, when were baited with the floral attractant.Refinamentos em caraterísticas de armadilhas podem incrementar sua habilidade para monitorar e capturar em massa os insetos. Experimentos foram conduzidos em lavoura de feijoeiro para verificar as respostas de Diabrotica speciosa (Germar a algumas características de armadilhas. Armadilhas de copos plástico (750 m

  4. Isolation, characterization and cross-amplification of polymorphic microsatellite loci in Laelia speciosa (Orchidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Palomec, Aurea C; McCauley, Ross A; Oyama, Ken

    2008-01-01

    Laelia speciosa is an endangered epiphytic orchid endemic to central Mexico. Here, we report on the development of 14 perfect and imperfect microsatellite repeat loci for this species. Numbers of alleles ranged from two to 16 and levels of observed heterozygosities among the 14 loci ranged from 0.28 to 1.00 across two widely divergent populations. All loci were also tested for cross-amplification in four other Laelia species and other selected genera of the subtribe Laeliinae. © 2007 The Authors.

  5. Circumscription and synopsis of Eugenia section Speciosae Bünger & Mazine (Myrtaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Bünger, Mariana; Mazine, Fiorella Fernanda; Lucas, Eve J.; Stehmann, João Renato

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new section of Eugenia (Myrtaceae) is described, segregate from Eugenia sect. Phyllocalyx. Phylogenetic studies suggest that Eugenia sect. Phyllocalyx as traditionally delimited is paraphyletic. To maintain the monophyly of each of the sections in Eugenia s.l., we herein opt to circumscribe a new section and recognize six taxa in sect. Speciosae, which has a distribution mostly in southeastern Brazil and northern South America. Nomenclatural notes are made and a taxonomic key is provided for the species of the section. PMID:27081351

  6. In vivo anti-androgenic, anti-estrogenic and antioxidant activities of the aqueous extract of Eremomastax speciosa

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    Richard Simo Tagne

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the in vivo anti-androgenic, antioxidant activity and anti-estrogenic activities of Eremomastax speciosa (E. speciosa in order to find new method for fighting against chronic diseases such as cancer. Methods: Evaluations of antiandrogenic and antioxidant activities were carried out on male rate receiving simultaneous daily administration of testosterone and different doses of aqueous extract of E. speciosa, during a period of 10 d. The evaluation of antiestrogenic activity was carried out on mature ovariectomized female rats receiving simultaneous daily administration of estradiol and different doses of extract, for a week. Then reproductive organs were weighted, levels of prostatic acid phosphatase, superoxide dismutase and catalase as well as some hematologic parameters were measured. Results: The treatment significantly reduced (P<0.01 the weight of ventral prostate, penis, Cowper’s gland and the level of serum prostatic acid phosphatase; while a significant decrease (P<0.01 of the catalase activity was observed. A significant increase (P<0.05 in the lymphocyte number and significant decrease of monocyte (P<0.05 were noticed. The uterine relative weight were significantly reduced (P<0.01. Conclusions: Generally, these results denote the antiandrogenic, antiestrogenic and immunomodulatory potential of E. speciosa.

  7. Indole alkaloids of a Thai medicinal herb, Mitragyna speciosa, that has opioid agonistic effect in guinea-pig ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horie, Syunji; Koyama, Fumi; Takayama, Hiromitsu; Ishikawa, Hayato; Aimi, Norio; Ponglux, Dhavadee; Matsumoto, Kenjiro; Murayama, Toshihiko

    2005-03-01

    Recently, we found that mitragynine, a major constituent of Mitragyna speciosa, has an opioid agonistic activity, but its weak potency could not explain the opium-like effect of this plant. In the present study, bioassay-guided fractionation of the crude extract of the leaves of M. speciosa was carried out to search for potent opioid agonists other than mitragynine. Opioid agonistic activities were evaluated using twitch contraction induced by electrical stimulation in guinea-pig ileum. The crude extract of M. speciosa inhibited the twitch contraction in a concentration-dependent manner. The inhibition was reversed by naloxone. The opioid effect was detected only in the crude base fraction, which was followed by the isolation of five indole alkaloids. Among these alkaloids, 7-hydroxymitragynine showed the most potent opioid effect on the electrically-stimulated contraction (pD (2) = 8.38 +/- 0.12). The potency, calculated using pD (2) values, was 30- and 17-fold higher than that of mitragynine and morphine, respectively. Antagonism of naloxone on concentration-response curves for 7-hydroxymitragynine confirmed its opioid effect. These results suggest that the opioid effect of M. speciosa is mostly based on the activity of 7-hydroxymitragynine.

  8. Development and Characterization of EST-SSR Markers in the Chinese Medicinal Plant Callerya speciosa (Fabaceae

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    Li Li

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: The first microsatellite primers were developed for Callerya speciosa, an important traditional medicinal plant with island-mainland distributions in China, to further investigate its genetic variability and population structure. Methods and Results: The microsatellite-containing sequences were selected from a cDNA library of C. speciosa. In total, 58 primer pairs were designed, and 25 of the corresponding loci showed clear amplification. Polymorphisms were assessed in two different natural populations. The mean number of alleles per locus ranged from two to nine. Observed and expected heterozygosity per loci ranged from 0.067 to 0.938 and 0.064 to 0.836, respectively. One out of 25 loci showed departure from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium expectations in both populations, and three pairs of loci showed significant linkage disequilibrium after Bonferroni correction. Conclusions: These microsatellite markers will be useful tools for genetic and conservation studies and to understand the evolutionary processes in Callerya species.

  9. Population Study of Diabrotica speciosa (Ger. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae in Fall / Winter Season

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    Ventura Maurício Ursi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Population studies of D. speciosa on fall / winter crops were conducted. Larvae were monitored on maize (Zea mays L., wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and black oats (Avena strigosa Schreb. and beetles on soybeans (Glycine max (L. Mill., maize, common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L., wheat and black oats from March 23, 2001 to August 24, 2001. Soybean, maize, common beans, wheat and oats were sown on December 28, 2000; February 9, 2001; March 2, 2001; April 26, 2001 and May 11, 2001, respectively. Maize and common beans were grown on latter growing season. Adult beetles of D. speciosa were collected throughout the sampling period. Greatest beetles population peak occurred on wheat in August 3, 2001 which coincided with flowering period. Population dynamics of males and females was similar on common beans and soybeans. Females on maize predominate mostly after the first 30 days after the plant emergence (dae (before were not detected until about 45 dae. Males appeared to predominate during the flowering period. Similar population dynamics of males and females were found on wheat and black oats. Greatest peak of larvae occurred on maize roots. The growing season corn farm system was recently introduced, what probably explains the reports of increasing populations of adults during almost the whole year. Probable applications of the results are discussed.

  10. Indentification of vincamine indole alkaloids producing endophytic fungi isolated from Nerium indicum, Apocynaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Ren; Jiajia, Liu; Dongliang, Yang; Yingzi, Peng; Juan, Hong; Xiong, Liu; Nana, Zhao; Jing, Zhou; Yitian, Luo

    2016-11-01

    Vincamine, a monoterpenoid indole alkaloid which had been marketed as nootropic drugs for the treatment of cerebral insufficiencies, is widely found in plants of the Apocynaceae family. Nerium indicum is a plant belonging to the Apocynaceae family. So, the purpose of this research was designed to investigate the vincamine alkaloids producing endophytic fungi from Nerium indicum, Apocynaceae. 11 strains of endophytic fungi, isolated from the stems and roots of the plant, were grouped into 5 genera on the basis of morphological characteristics. All fungal isolates were fermented and their extracts were preliminary screened by Dragendorff's reagent and thin layer chromatography (TLC). One isolated strain CH1, isolated from the stems of Nerium indicum, had the same Rf value (about 0.56) as authentic vincamine. The extracts of strain CH1 were further analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), and the results showed that the strain CH1 could produce vincamine and vincamine analogues. The acetylcholinesterase (AchE) inhibitory activity assays using Ellman's method revealed that the metabolites of strain CH1 had significant AchE inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 5.16μg/mL. The isolate CH1 was identified as Geomyces sp. based on morphological and molecular identification, and has been deposited in the China Center for Type Culture Collection (CCTCCM 2014676). This study first reported the natural compounds tabersonine and ethyl-vincamine from endophytic fungi CH1, Geomyces sp. In conclusion, the fungal endophytes from Nerium indicum can be used as alternative source for the production of vincamine and vincamine analogues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. La familia Apocynaceae sensu lato en México: diversidad y distribución The family Apocynaceae sensu lato in Mexico: diversity and distribution

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    Verónica Juárez-Jaimes

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available La familia Apocynaceae s.l. se ubica entre las 15 familias más diversas de México, con 385 especies repartidas en 50 géneros y 3 subfamilias, de las cuales Asclepiadoideae es la de mayor diversidad en géneros, especies y endemismos. Los géneros con más especies nativas (y endémicas son Asclepias y Matelea. Los estados más ricos en diversidad de taxones son los ubicados en ambas vertientes; destacan Chiapas, Guerrero, Oaxaca y Veracruz. Por su número de especies, sobresalen el bosque tropical caducifolio y los matorrales xerófilos. Del total de especies, 176 son endémicas de México. Se presenta la lista de especies registradas, señalándose su distribución por estados.Apocynaceae s.l. is among the 15 most diverse families in Mexico, with a total of 385 species, distributed in 50 genera and 3 subfamilies of which Asclepiadoideae is the most diverse in numbers of genera, species and endemics. The genera with the most native species and endemics are Asclepias and Matelea. The richest states in terms of taxon diversity are those at the Pacific and Atlantic slopes, Chiapas, Oaxaca, Guerrero and Veracruz being the most prominent. Tropical deciduous forest and arid tropical scrub are the most important vegetation types by their total number of species, 176 of which are endemic to Mexico. A list of species recorded in México is provided, indicating their state distribution.

  12. Moth pollination of Metaplexis japonica (Apocynaceae): pollinaria transfer on the tip of the proboscis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Shinji; Yamazaki, Kazuo

    2005-08-01

    Asclepiad pollinaria (including pollen masses) attach to diverse body parts of flower visitors in many ways. In this paper, we observed nocturnal moths (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae and Noctuidae) transporting the pollinaria of the Japanese species Metaplexis japonica (Thunb.) Makino (Apocynaceae: Asclepiadoideae) on the tip of the proboscis. Flowers of this species may induce nectar-feeding moths to pull out the proboscis along a guide rail (anther slit), thus clipping the pollinaria onto the tip of the proboscis and transferring the pollinaria to the next flower. The transfer of pollinaria on the unique vector of a moth proboscis tip is an interesting pollination mechanism among previously reported entomophiles.

  13. Biotechnology of the medicinal plant Rhazya stricta: a little investigated member of the Apocynaceae family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhgari, Amir; Oksman-Caldentey, Kirsi-Marja; Rischer, Heiko

    2017-06-01

    Rhazya stricta Decne. (Apocynaceae) is an important medicinal plant that is widely distributed in the Middle East and Indian sub-continent. It produces a large number of terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs) some of which possess important pharmacological properties. However, the yields of these compounds are very low. Establishment of a reliable, reproducible and efficient transformation method and induction of hairy roots system is a vital prerequisite for application of biotechnology in order to improve secondary metabolite yields. In the present review, recent biotechnological attempts and advances in TIAs production through transformed hairy root cultures in R. stricta are reviewed to draw the attention to its metabolic engineering potential.

  14. Synthesis of Bisindole Alkaloids from the Apocynaceae Which Contain a Macroline or Sarpagine Unit: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Toufiqur; Tiruveedhula, Veera V N Phani Babu; Cook, James M

    2016-11-14

    Bisindole natural products consist of two monomeric indole alkaloid units as their obligate constituents. Bisindoles are more potent with respect to their biological activity than their corresponding monomeric units. In addition, the synthesis of bisindoles are far more challenging than the synthesis of monomeric indole alkaloids. Herein is reviewed the enantiospecific total and partial synthesis of bisindole alkaloids isolated primarily from the Alstonia genus of the Apocynaceae family. The monomeric units belong to the sarpagine, ajmaline, macroline, vobasine, and pleiocarpamine series. An up-to-date discussion of their isolation, characterization, biological activity as well as approaches to their partial and total synthesis by means of both synthetic and biosynthetic strategies are presented.

  15. Ontogenese floral com enfase no estudo do gineceu em Apocynaceae s.l

    OpenAIRE

    Sueli Maria Gomes

    2006-01-01

    Resumo: Apocynaceae s.l. é uma das maiores famílias de angiospermas com 4300-4800 espécies, está bem representada nos biomas brasileiros e possui expressiva importância fitoquímica, entre outros aspectos. Os sistemas de classificação da família têm refletido lacunas no conhecimento de sua morfologia, particularmente quanto a caracteres relativos ao gineceu, que em geral apresenta uma hemisincarpia peculiar, ocorrendo também espécies sincárpicas. Visando a contribuir nesta área, o estudo em mi...

  16. Parkia speciosa empty pod prevents hypertension and cardiac damage in rats given N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamisah, Yusof; Zuhair, Japar Sidik Fadhlullah; Juliana, Abdul Hamid; Jaarin, Kamsiah

    2017-12-01

    Parkia speciosa Hassk is a plant found abundantly in Southeast Asia region. Its seeds with or without pods and roots have been used in traditional medicine in this region to treat hypertension. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the potential effect of the plant empty pod extract on hypertension development and changes in heart induced by N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) administration in rats. Twenty-four male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups. Groups 1 to 3 were given l-NAME (25mg/kg, intraperitoneally) for 8 weeks. Groups 2 and 3 were also given Parkia speciosa empty pods methanolic extract (800mg/kg, orally) and nicardipine (3mg/kg, orally), concurrently with l-NAME. The last group served as the control. l-NAME reduced plasma nitric oxide level and therefore, increased systolic blood pressure, angiotensin-converting enzyme and NADPH oxidase activities as well as lipid peroxidation in the heart. Parkia speciosa extract and nicardipine treatments had significantly prevented the elevations of blood pressure, angiotensin-converting enzyme, NADPH oxidase activities and lipid peroxidation in the heart induced by the l-NAME. Parkia speciosa extract but not nicardipine prevented the reduction in plasma nitric oxide level caused by l-NAME. In conclusion, Parkia speciosa empty pods methanolic extract has a potential to prevent the development of hypertension possibly by preventing the loss of plasma nitric oxide, as well as has cardioprotective effects by reducing angiotensin-converting enzyme activity and oxidative stress in the heart in rats administered l-NAME. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of extracts from Cassia alata, Eleusine indica, Eremomastax speciosa, Carica papaya and Polyscias fulva medicinal plants collected in Cameroon

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sagnia, Bertrand; Fedeli, Donatella; Casetti, Rita; Montesano, Carla; Falcioni, Giancarlo; Colizzi, Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    .... The aim of this work was to investigate the antioxidant capacities and anti-inflammatory activities of ethanol extracts of leaves of Cassia alata, Eleusine indica, Carica papaya, Eremomastax speciosa...

  18. Horizontal transfer of DNA from the mitochondrial to the plastid genome and its subsequent evolution in milkweeds (Apocynaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon C.K. Straub; Richard C. Cronn; Christopher Edwards; Mark Fishbein; Aaron. Liston

    2013-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of DNA from the plastid to the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes of higher plants is a common phenomenon; however, plastid genomes (plastomes) are highly conserved and have generally been regarded as impervious to HGT. We sequenced the 158 kb plastome and the 690 kb mitochondrial genome of common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca [Apocynaceae...

  19. Comportamento alimentar de adultos de Diabrotica speciosa na presença de extratos aquosos de Meliaceae Feeding behavior of Diabrotica speciosa adults on Meliaceae aqueous extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Andrade dos Santos Seffrin

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente experimento foi selecionar extratos com atividade antialimentar sobre Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824. O consumo foliar de insetos adultos foi determinado, em laboratório, sob condições de livre escolha. Folhas de feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris foram cortadas em formato circular e tratadas com extratos aquosos de folíolos e de pecíolos com caule de: Cedrela fissilis Vell., Cabralea canjerana (Vell. Mart, Melia azedarach L. var. azedarach, Trichilia claussenii C. DC., Trichilia catigua A. Juss. e Trichilia elegans A. Juss., dispostos em placas de Petri, e um inseto liberado e mantido no interior da placa por 24 horas. A área foliar consumida foi determinada após este período. O extrato de folíolos de M. azedarach var. azedarach apresentou maior efeito antialimentar que o extrato de pecíolos com caule. Entretanto, a área foliar consumida nas folhas tratadas com o extrato de pecíolos com caule foi menor do que nas tratadas com extratos de folíolos, indicando maior efeito antialimentar. O índice KOGAN & GOEDEN (1970 mostrou efeito fagodeterrente para todos os extratos, mas não mostrou diferenças significativas entre eles.The aim of this research was to select extracts with insect antifeedant activity. Leaf consumption by adults of Diabrotica speciosa was determined under laboratory conditions with free choice. Bean leaf had been cut in circular format and treated with aqueous extracts of leaflets, petioles with stems of Cedrela fissilis Vell., Cabralea canjerana (Vell. Mart, Melia azedarach L. var. azedarach, Trichilia claussenii C. DC., Trichilia catigua A. Juss. e Trichilia elegans A. Juss, arranged in Petri plates, and an insect released and kept within the plate for 24 hours. The consumed leaf area was determined after this period. The leaflet extract of M. azedarach var. azedarach showed greater antifeedant activity tham the extract of petiole with stems. However, the consumed leaf area in the leaves

  20. Rapid detection by direct analysis in real time-mass spectrometry (DART-MS) of psychoactive plant drugs of abuse: the case of Mitragyna speciosa aka "Kratom".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesiak, Ashton D; Cody, Robert B; Dane, A John; Musah, Rabi A

    2014-09-01

    Mitragyna speciosa, also known commonly as "Kratom" or "Ketum", is a plant with psychoactive properties that have been attributed to the presence of various indole alkaloids such as mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine. M. speciosa use is gaining popularity internationally as a natural and legal alternative to narcotics. As a drug of abuse, its detection and identification are not straightforward, since M. speciosa plant material is not particularly distinctive. Here, we show that direct analysis in real time-mass spectrometry (DART-MS) can be used not only to rapidly identify M. speciosa plant material and distinguish it from other plants, but also to distinguish between M. speciosa plant varieties, based on differences between their chemical profiles. The method is rapid and the analysis expeditious. Plant material such as that found at a crime scene can be analyzed directly with no sample pre-preparation steps. Furthermore, we show that the basis set of principal components that permit characterization of the plant material can be used to positively identify M. speciosa. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Vessel grouping patterns in subfamilies Apocynoideae and Periplocoideae confirm phylogenetic value of wood structure within Apocynaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lens, Frederic; Endress, Mary E; Baas, Pieter; Jansen, Steven; Smets, Erik

    2009-12-01

    This study contributes to our understanding of the phylogenetic significance and major evolutionary trends in the wood of the dogbane family (Apocynaceae), one of the largest and economically most important angiosperm families. Based on LM and SEM observations of 56 Apocynoideae species-representing all currently recognized tribes-and eight Periplocoideae, we found striking differences in vessel grouping patterns (radial multiples vs. large clusters) between the mainly nonclimbing apocynoid tribes (Wrightieae, Malouetieae, Nerieae) and the climbing lineages (remaining Apocynoideae and Periplocoideae). The presence of large vessel clusters in combination with fibers in the ground tissue characterizing the climbing Apocynoideae and Periplocoideae clearly contrasts with the climbing anatomy of the rauvolfioids (solitary vessels plus tracheids in ground tissue), supporting the view that (1) the climbing habit has evolved more than once in Apocynaceae, (2) the three nonclimbing apocynoid tribes are basal compared to the climbing apocynoids, and (3) Periplocoideae belong to the crown clade. The wood anatomy within the nonclimbing and climbing lineages is rather homogeneous, although a combination of specific characters (e.g. presence of septate fibers, axial parenchyma distribution, abundance of uniseriate compared to multiseriate rays, and presence and location of prismatic crystals) may be used to identify several tribes.

  2. Essential oil composition of stems and fruits of Caralluma europaea N.E.Br. (Apocynaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Pietro; Sajeva, Maurizio; Bruno, Maurizio; Maggio, Antonella; Rosselli, Sergio; Formisano, Carmen; Senatore, Felice

    2010-01-27

    The essential oil of the stems and fruits of Caralluma europaea (Guss.) N.E.Br. (Apocynaceae) from Lampedusa Island has been obtained by hydrodistillation and its composition analyzed. The analyses allowed the identification and quantification of 74 volatile compounds, of which 16 were aromatic and 58 non-aromatic. Stems and fruits contained 1.4% and 2.7% of aromatic compounds respectively, while non-aromatic were 88.3% and 88.8%. Non-aromatic hydrocarbons were the most abundant compounds in both organs, followed by fatty acids. Data showed differences in the profiles between stems and fruits which shared only eighteen compounds; stems accounted for 38 compounds while fruits for 53. Fruits showed a higher diversity especially in aromatic compounds with twelve versus four in stems. Among the volatiles identified in stems and fruits of C. europaea 26 are present in other taxa of Apocynaceae, 52 are semiochemicals for many insects, and 21 have antimicrobial activity. The possible ecological role of the volatiles found is briefly discussed.

  3. Dormancy-breaking requirements of Sophora tomentosa and Erythrina speciosa (Fabaceae) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzia Delgado, Carolina Maria; Souza de Paula, Alexandre; Santos, Marisa; Silveira Paulilo, Maria Terezinha

    2015-03-01

    The physical dormancy of seeds has been poorly studied in species from tropical forests, such as the Atlantic Forest. This study aimed to examine the effect of moderate alternating temperatures on breaking the physical dormancy of seeds, the morphoanatomy and histochemistry of seed coats, and to locate the structure/region responsible for water entrance into the seed, after breaking the physical dormancy of seeds of two woody Fabaceae (subfamily Faboideae) species that occur in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest: Sophora tomentosa and Erythrina speciosa. To assess temperature effect, seeds were incubated in several temperature values that occur in the Atlantic Forest. For morphological and histochemical studies, sections of fixed seeds were subjected to different reagents, and were observed using light or epifluorescence microscopy, to analyze the anatomy and histochemistry of the seed coat. Treated and nonreated seeds were also analyzed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to observe the morphology of the seed coat. To localize the specific site of water entrance, the seeds were blocked with glue in different regions and also immersed in ink. In the present work a maximum temperature fluctuation of 15 degrees C was applied during a period of 20 days and these conditions did not increase the germination of S. tomentosa or E. speciosa. These results may indicate that these seeds require larger fluctuation of temperature than the applied or/and longer period of exposition to the temperature fluctuation. Blocking experiments water inlet combined with SEM analysis of the structures of seed coat for both species showed that besides the lens, the hilum and micropyle are involved in water absorption in seeds scarified with hot water. In seeds of E. speciosa the immersion of scarified seeds into an aniline aqueous solution showed that the solution first entered the seed through the hilum. Both species showed seed morphological and anatomical features for seed coats of the

  4. Self-treatment of opioid withdrawal using kratom (Mitragynia speciosa korth).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Edward W; Babu, Kavita M; Adkins, Jessica E; McCurdy, Christopher R; Halpern, John H

    2008-06-01

    Kratom (Mitragynia speciosa korth) is recognized increasingly as a remedy for opioid withdrawal by individuals who self-treat chronic pain. A patient who had abruptly ceased injection hydromorphone abuse self-managed opioid withdrawal and chronic pain using kratom. After co-administering the herb with modafinil he experienced a tonic-clonic seizure, but he reported only modest abstinence once kratom administration stopped. We confirmed the identity of the plant matter he ingested as kratom and identified no contaminants or adulterants. We also conducted high-throughput molecular screening and the binding affinity at mu, delta and kappa receptors of mitragynine. We report the self-treatment of chronic pain and opioid withdrawal with kratom. The predominant alkaloid of kratom, mitragynine, binds mu- and kappa-opioid receptors, but has additional receptor affinities that might augment its effectiveness at mitigating opioid withdrawal. The natural history of kratom use, including its clinical pharmacology and toxicology, are poorly understood.

  5. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using extract of Parkia speciosa Hassk pods assisted by microwave irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatimah, Is

    2016-11-01

    This paper reports an investigation of the microwave-assisted synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using extract of stinky bean (Parkia speciosa Hassk) pods (BP). The formation of Ag NPs was identified by instrumental analysis consists of UV-vis spectrophotometry, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and particle size analysis. Furthermore, Ag NPs were used as antibacterial agents against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The results indicate rapid formation of Ag NPs during microwave irradiation with similar properties to those obtained through the aging method. In general, the use of microwave irradiation yields larger particles, and it is affected by volume ratio of the extract to the AgNO3 solution. The prepared materials demonstrated antibacterial activity.

  6. Effect of Argyreia speciosa root extract on cafeteria diet-induced obesity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shiv; Alagawadi, K R; Rao, M Raghavendra

    2011-04-01

    To evaluate the antiobesity effects of the ethanolic extract of Argyreia speciosa roots in rats fed with a cafeteria diet (CD). Obesity was induced in albino rats by feeding them a CD daily for 42 days, in addition to a normal diet. Body weight and food intake was measured initially and then every week thereafter. On day 42, the serum biochemical parameters were estimated and the animals were sacrificed with an overdose of ether. The, liver and parametrial adipose tissues were removed and weighed immediately. The liver triglyceride content was estimated. The influence of the extract on the pancreatic lipase activity was also determined by measuring the rate of release of oleic acid from triolein. The body weight at two-to-six weeks and the final parametrial adipose tissue weights were significantly lowered (P cafeteria diet-induced obesity in rats.

  7. Supercritical extraction of pupunha (Guilielma speciosa oil in a fixed bed using carbon dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araújo M.E.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The pupunha (Guilielma speciosa is the fruit of a palm tree typical of the Brazilian Northern region, whose stem is used as a source of heart of palm. The fruit, which is about 65% pulp, is a source of oil and carotenes. In the present work, an analysis of the kinetics of supercritical extraction of oil from the pupunha pulp is presented. Carbon dioxide was used as solvent. The extractions were carried out at 25 MPa and 323 K and 30 MPa and 318 K. The chemical composition of the extracts in terms of fatty acids was determined by gas chromatography. The amount of oleic acid, a saturated fatty acid, in the CO2 extracts was larger than that in the extract obtained with hexane. The overall extraction curves were modeled using the single-parameter model proposed in the literature to describe the desorption of toluene from activated coal.

  8. EXTRACTION OF PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS FROM PETAI LEAVES (PARKIA SPECIOSA HASSK. USING MICROWAVE AND ULTRASOUND ASSISTED METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buanasari Buanasari

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant has an activity to neutralize free radical compound that the body needs to avoid damage cells and tissues. Phenolic is one of the compounds that have an antioxidant activity. The influences of ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE conditions on phenolic compounds of Parkia speciosa Hassk. leaves were investigated. The effects of temperature (40°C, 50°C, 60°C and 70°C, time (10, 30 and 50 minutes and material-solvent ratio (1:10, 1:13, 1:15 were evaluated based on the yield, total phenolic content (TPC and antioxidant activity. The result showed that the highest yield (15.82% was obtained at 1:15 (w/w of material-solvent ratio, 50°C of temperature and 50 minutes of extraction time for MAE. The highest yield of UAE is 15.53% that sample was obtained at 1:13 (w/w of material-solvent ratio, 60°C of optimal temperature and 30 minutes extraction time. The highest IC50 of UAE method extract was 52.55 ppm, while the extract obtained using MAE method was 50.44 ppm. UAE is more stable at higher temperatures. Time and solvent which was used more efficient than MAE. Extract of petai leaves (Parkia speciosa Hassk. were very potential to be used as a source of natural antioxidants because they have IC50 values from 41.39 to 66.00 ppm. Its antioxidants capacity is ranged from strong to very strong capacity.

  9. Responses to simulated nitrogen deposition by the neotropical epiphytic orchid Laelia speciosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edison A. Díaz-Álvarez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Potential ecophysiological responses to nitrogen deposition, which is considered to be one of the leading causes for global biodiversity loss, were studied for the endangered endemic Mexican epiphytic orchid, Laelia speciosa, via a shadehouse dose-response experiment (doses were 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40, and 80 kg N ha−1 yr−1 in order to assess the potential risk facing this orchid given impending scenarios of nitrogen deposition. Lower doses of nitrogen of up to 20 kg N ha yr−1, the dose that led to optimal plant performance, acted as fertilizer. For instance, the production of leaves and pseudobulbs were respectively 35% and 36% greater for plants receiving 20 kg N ha yr−1 than under any other dose. Also, the chlorophyll content and quantum yield peaked at 0.66 ± 0.03 g m−2 and 0.85 ± 0.01, respectively, for plants growing under the optimum dose. In contrast, toxic effects were observed at the higher doses of 40 and 80 kg N ha yr−1. The δ13C for leaves averaged −14.7 ± 0.2‰ regardless of the nitrogen dose. In turn, δ15N decreased as the nitrogen dose increased from 0.9 ± 0.1‰ under 2.5 kg N ha−1yr−1 to −3.1 ± 0.2‰ under 80 kg N ha−1yr−1, indicating that orchids preferentially assimilate NH4+ rather than NO3− of the solution under higher doses of nitrogen. Laelia speciosa showed a clear response to inputs of nitrogen, thus, increasing rates of atmospheric nitrogen deposition can pose an important threat for this species.

  10. Responses to simulated nitrogen deposition by the neotropical epiphytic orchid Laelia speciosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Álvarez, Edison A; Lindig-Cisneros, Roberto; de la Barrera, Erick

    2015-01-01

    Potential ecophysiological responses to nitrogen deposition, which is considered to be one of the leading causes for global biodiversity loss, were studied for the endangered endemic Mexican epiphytic orchid, Laelia speciosa, via a shadehouse dose-response experiment (doses were 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40, and 80 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1)) in order to assess the potential risk facing this orchid given impending scenarios of nitrogen deposition. Lower doses of nitrogen of up to 20 kg N ha yr(-1), the dose that led to optimal plant performance, acted as fertilizer. For instance, the production of leaves and pseudobulbs were respectively 35% and 36% greater for plants receiving 20 kg N ha yr(-1) than under any other dose. Also, the chlorophyll content and quantum yield peaked at 0.66 ± 0.03 g m(-2) and 0.85 ± 0.01, respectively, for plants growing under the optimum dose. In contrast, toxic effects were observed at the higher doses of 40 and 80 kg N ha yr(-1). The δ (13)C for leaves averaged -14.7 ± 0.2‰ regardless of the nitrogen dose. In turn, δ (15)N decreased as the nitrogen dose increased from 0.9 ± 0.1‰ under 2.5 kg N ha(-1)yr(-1) to -3.1 ± 0.2‰ under 80 kg N ha(-1)yr(-1), indicating that orchids preferentially assimilate NH4 (+) rather than NO3 (-) of the solution under higher doses of nitrogen. Laelia speciosa showed a clear response to inputs of nitrogen, thus, increasing rates of atmospheric nitrogen deposition can pose an important threat for this species.

  11. Hypoglycemic activity of Lagerstroemia speciosa L. extract on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat: Underlying mechanism of action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barun Kanti Saha, Md. Nurul Huda Bhuiyan, Kishor Mazumder and K.M. Formuzul Haque

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The hypoglycemic effect of Lagerstroemia speciosa L. leaves hot water extract on chemically induced diabetes in rat was investigated. Experimental result showed that, streptozotocin significantly (p<0.001 elevated the normal blood sugar level whereas treatment with hot water extract depressed the streptozotocin-induced high blood sugar level about 43.20% as compare to diabetic controls. Treatment with hot water extract increased the activity of shunt enzyme glucose–6-phosphate dehydrogenase (33.81% and glutathione level (31.25% and depression of the activity of hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes glucose-6-phasphatase (31.63% and fructose–1,6-bisphosphatase (27.40%. These studies thus strongly suggest that the hot water extract of L. speciosa leave attributed its prominent hypoglycemic activity on experimental diabetic rats through suppression of gluconeogenesis and stimulation of glucose oxidation using the pentose phosphate pathway.

  12. Uji Efek Sedatif Ekstrak Etanolik Daun Kratom (Mitragyna Speciosa Korth.) Pada Mencit Jantan Galur Balb/c

    OpenAIRE

    Dini Novindriana

    2013-01-01

    Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa Korth.) yang termasuk dalam keluarga Rubiaceaemerupakan salah satu tanaman khas daerah Putusibau Kalimantan Barat (Indonesia).Daun kratom pada dosis rendah (2-10 gram) dapat menghasilkan efek stimulan,sedangkan pada dosis tinggi memberikan efek sedatif. Penelitian ini bertujuan untukmembuktikan efek sedatif ekstrak etanol daun kratom serta mengetahui dosis efektif danpotensi efek sedatif ekstrak etanol daun kratom jika dibandingkan dengan diazepam.Pengujian efek sed...

  13. Formulations of Melia azedarach to Control Diabrotica speciosa (Germar) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) Larvae in Corn and Plant Enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, B H S; Costa, E N; Forim, M R; Costa, E S; Boiça Júnior, A L

    2015-04-01

    We evaluated oil and powder formulations of Melia azedarach for controlling larvae of Diabrotica speciosa (Germar) in corn and plant enhancement. Five concentrations of each formulation were evaluated and compared to fipronil (negative control) and distilled water (positive control). After treatment, the number of surviving insects (larvae, pupae, and adults), the adult body weight, the sex ratio, and the longevity were recorded, while the height, dry weight of aerial part and roots, and number of leaves of plants were measured. The oil formulation at 4.0 mL reduced the larvae population of D. speciosa similarly to the insecticide fipronil, which resulted in greater height, dry weight of the root system, and number of leaves. Powder formulation at concentrations of 40, 80, and 160 mg caused larval mortality above 80%; however, these concentrations did not prevent reduction of plant height and dry weight of aerial part. Further studies assessing the residual period of M. azedarach control against D. speciosa larvae and its phytotoxicity, which are common traits associated with azadirachtin application, are necessary to subsidize the next steps of this alternative control strategy.

  14. A novel interaction between plant-beneficial rhizobacteria and roots: colonization induces corn resistance against the root herbivore Diabrotica speciosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciele Santos

    Full Text Available A number of soil-borne microorganisms, such as mycorrhizal fungi and rhizobacteria, establish mutualistic interactions with plants, which can indirectly affect other organisms. Knowledge of the plant-mediated effects of mutualistic microorganisms is limited to aboveground insects, whereas there is little understanding of what role beneficial soil bacteria may play in plant defense against root herbivory. Here, we establish that colonization by the beneficial rhizobacterium Azospirillum brasilense affects the host selection and performance of the insect Diabrotica speciosa. Root larvae preferentially orient toward the roots of non-inoculated plants versus inoculated roots and gain less weight when feeding on inoculated plants. As inoculation by A. brasilense induces higher emissions of (E-β-caryophyllene compared with non-inoculated plants, it is plausible that the non-preference of D. speciosa for inoculated plants is related to this sesquiterpene, which is well known to mediate belowground insect-plant interactions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study showing that a beneficial rhizobacterium inoculant indirectly alters belowground plant-insect interactions. The role of A. brasilense as part of an integrative pest management (IPM program for the protection of corn against the South American corn rootworm, D. speciosa, is considered.

  15. Cytotoxic and Enzyme Inhibitory Potential of Two Potentilla species (P. speciosa L. and P. reptans Willd. and Their Chemical Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sengul Uysal

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the biological and chemical fingerprints of three extracts (ethyl acetate, methanol, and water from two Potentilla species (Potentilla reptans and P. speciosa were investigated. Antioxidant, enzyme inhibitory, and cytotoxic activities were performed for the biological fingerprint. For the chemical characterization, total bioactive components, and individual phenolic components were determined using photometric and HPLC methods, respectively. The main identified phenolic compounds in these extracts were rutin and catechin. Methanol and water extracts contained the highest total phenolic and flavonoid content. The results of antioxidant assays showed that methanol and water extracts displayed higher antioxidant activity compared to the ethyl acetate extract. Generally, methanol and water extracts exhibited higher biological activities correlated with higher levels the bioactive components. For P. speciosa, the methanol extract exhibited the highest enzyme inhibitory activity (except BChE inhibitory activity. P. reptans exhibited also high antiproliferative activity against MCF-7 cells whilst P. speciosa had weak to moderate activity against both of A549 and MCF-7 cell lines. The results suggest that Potentilla species could be potential candidates for developing new phyto-pharmaceuticals and functional ingredients.

  16. Root endophyte symbiosis in vitro between the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Tricholoma matsutake and the arbuscular mycorrhizal plant Prunus speciosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Hitoshi; Yamada, Akiyoshi; Yokota, Satoru; Maruyama, Tsuyoshi; Endo, Naoki; Yamamoto, Kohei; Ohira, Tatsuro; Neda, Hitoshi

    2014-05-01

    We previously reported that Tricholoma matsutake and Tricholoma fulvocastaneum, ectomycorrhizal basidiomycetes that associate with Pinaceae and Fagaceae, respectively, in the Northern Hemisphere, could interact in vitro as a root endophyte of somatic plants of Cedrela odorata (Meliaceae), which naturally harbors arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in South America, to form a characteristic rhizospheric colony or "shiro". We questioned whether this phenomenon could have occurred because of plant-microbe interactions between geographically separated species that never encounter one another in nature. In the present study, we document that these fungi formed root endophyte interactions and shiro within 140 days of inoculation with somatic plants of Prunus speciosa (=Cerasus speciosa, Rosaceae), a wild cherry tree that naturally harbors arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in Japan. Compared with C. odorata, infected P. speciosa plants had less mycelial sheath surrounding the exodermis, and the older the roots, especially main roots, the more hyphae penetrated. In addition, a large number of juvenile roots were not associated with hyphae. We concluded that such root endophyte interactions were not events isolated to the interactions between exotic plants and microbes but could occur generally in vitro. Our pure culture system with a somatic plant allowed these fungi to express symbiosis-related phenotypes that varied with the plant host; these traits are innately programmed but suppressed in nature and could be useful in genetic analyses of plant-fungal symbiosis.

  17. Upregulation of glucose uptake in L8 myotubes by the extract from Lagerstroemia speciosa: a possible mechanism of action

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    Juntipa Purintrapiban

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The leaf of Lagerstroemia speciosa L. is used as an anti-diabetic herbal remedy in many countries. In an attempt to discover mechanisms of action of the L. speciosa extract that stimulate glucose uptake, a cell-based radioactive assay of glucose uptake was performed using L8 muscle cells. In this study, the methanol fraction of L. speciosa leaves (LSE contained a high level of phenolic compounds and showed strong capability to stimulate glucose uptake in a dose-dependent manner. The LSE stimulation was slightly inhibited (8.8% by SB203580. The inhibitory effect (23.6% of wortmannin on LSE-stimulated glucose uptake was demonstrated, suggesting LSE action on glucose transporter translocation. LSE-induced glucose uptake was completely reversed by cycloheximide. In addition, an increased amount of total glucose-transporter-1 protein was observed indicating that new protein synthesis is necessary for elevated glucose transport. LSE also enhanced insulin-stimulated glucose transport. These results suggest that LSE action may be mediated primarily via the synthesis of new transporters and involve both insulin-dependent and independent pathways.

  18. Seed treatment and storage for seed sanity of paineira (Chorisia speciosa St. Hil / Tratamento de sementes e armazenamento na sanidade de sementes de paineira (Chorisia speciosa St. Hil

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    Débora Cristina Santiago

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present paper was to evaluate the chemical treatment and storage time for seed sanity of paineira (Chorisia speciosa St. Hil. Seeds which were collected from trees at UEL-Campus with natural humidity of 12,89% were treated with Kodiak C at the dosages of 15, 30, 60g for each 100kg of seeds, carboxim-thiram 200SC at the dosage of 250ml for each 100kg of seeds, carboxim-thiram 200SC at 250ml+Kodiak C at the dosage of 15, 30 and 60g for each 100kg of seeds. After treatment the seeds were kept in paper bags type Kraft and storage in laboratory conditions at ±23 ºC and 48% of relative humidity. For sanity evaluation at 0, 30, 60, 90, 120 days it was used the filter paper method using 200 seed for each treatment. The lowest percentage of microorganism was observed on the seeds treated with the mix of carboxim-thiram+Kodiak C at 15g/100kg of seeds 30 days after treatment. Out of the treatments the identified fungi were Fusarium sp., Aspergillus sp., Alternaria sp., Colletotrichum sp., Penicillium sp. The storing time favored the incidence of Aspergillus sp., Colletotrichum sp., Penicillium sp., and the others were not altered.O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o tratamento fúngico e tempo de armazenamento na sanidade de sementes de paineira (Chorisia speciosa St. Hil. Sementes colhidas de árvores em desenvolvimento no Campus-UEL, com umidade natural de 12,89% foram tratadas com: Kodiak C nas doses de 15, 30 e 60g para cada 100kg de sementes; carboxim-thiram 200SC na dose de 250ml para cada 100kg de sementes; carboxim-thiram 200SC na dose de 250ml+Kodiak C nas doses de 15, 30 e 60g para cada 100kg de sementes. Após tratadas, as sementes foram acondicionadas em sacos de papel tipo Kraft e armazenadas em condições de laboratório a temperatura de ±23ºC e UR do ar 48%. Para as avaliações da sanidade, aos 0, 30, 60, 90 e 120 dias empregou-se o método do papel de filtro, utilizando–se 200 sementes por tratamento. O menor

  19. Rauvolfianine, a new antimycobacterial glyceroglycolipid and other constituents from Rauvolfia caffra. Sond (Apocynaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebeh Messanga, Robert; Dominique Serge, Ngono Bikobo; Abouem A Zintchem, Auguste; Norbert, Mbabi Nyemeck Ii; Esther Del Florence, Moni Ndedi; Patrick Hervé, Betote Diboué; Maximilienne Ascension, Nyegue; Alex De Théodore, Atchadé; Dieudonné Emmanuel, Pegnyemb; Christian G, Bochet; Koert, Ulrich

    2017-08-16

    The chemical investigation of the extract of the dried leaves of Rauvolfia caffra (Sond) (synonym Rauvolfia macrophylla) (Apocynaceae) led to isolation of a new glycoside derivative, rauvolfianine (1) as well as six known compounds: oleanolic acid (2), sitosterol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3), betulinic acid (4), vellosimine (5), sarpagine (6) and D-fructofuranosyl-β-(2→1)-α-D-glucopyranoside (7). Compounds 1, 2, 3, 4 and 7 were evaluated for antitubercular activity. Compounds 1 and 2 were the most active (MIC = 7.8125 and 31.25 μg/mL) towards the Isoniazid resistant strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis AC45. Their structures and relative stereochemistry were elucidated by spectroscopic methods.

  20. [First record of simuliidae (Diptera) with pollinaria of asclepiadoideae (Apocynaceae) attached].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Jansen F; Rapini, Alessandro; Barbosa, Ulysses C; Py-Daniel, Victor; Braga, Pedro I S

    2008-01-01

    The presence of pollinaria of two species of Asclepiadoideae (Apocynaceae), possibly Tassadia cf. martiana Decne. and T. cf. obovata Decne., attached to the mouth parts of simulid black flies [Cerqueirellum amazonicum (Goeldi), C. argentiscutum (Shelley & Luna Dias), C. oyapockense (Floch & Abonnenc), and Cerqueirellum sp.] are reported for the first time. The frequency and distribution of simulids recorded with pollinaria suggest that removal of pollinaria by these flies is not casual. Simulids probably use nectar in flowers of Asclepiadoideae as source of sugar, being able to remove their pollinaria. This finding demonstrates that simulids are not only vector of pathogenic parasites, but also carry pollinaria, and thus may represent a group of pollinators for species of Asclepiadoideae with small flowers.

  1. Development of 18 polymorphic microsatellite markers for Vinca minor (Apocynaceae) via 454 pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Sina; Wöhrmann, Tina; Huettel, Bruno; Weising, Kurt

    2015-05-01

    Polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed in Vinca minor (Apocynaceae) to evaluate the level of clonality, population structure, and genetic diversity of the species within its native and introduced range. A total of 1371 microsatellites were found in 43,565 reads from 454 pyrosequencing of genomic V. minor DNA. Additional microsatellite loci were mined from publicly available cDNA sequences. After several rounds of screening, 18 primer pairs flanking di-, tri-, or tetranucleotide repeats were identified that revealed high levels of genetic diversity in two native Italian populations, with two to 11 alleles per locus. Clonal growth predominated in two populations from the introduced range in Germany. Five loci successfully cross-amplified in three additional Vinca species. The novel polymorphic microsatellite markers are promising tools for studying clonality and population genetics of V. minor and for assessing the historical origin of Central European populations.

  2. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Cynanchum auriculatum Royle ex Wight (Apocynaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Woojong; Kim, Kyu-Yeob; Kim, Kyunghee; Lee, Sang-Choon; Park, Hyun-Seung; Lee, Junki; Seong, Rack Seon; Shim, Young Hun; Sung, Sang Hyun; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2016-11-01

    Cynanchum auriculatum is a climbing vine belonging to the Apocynaceae family and shows very similar morphology to Cynanchum wilfordii, a medicinal plant. The complete chloroplast genome of C. auriculatum was generated by de novo assembly using the small amount of whole genome sequencing data. The chloroplast genome of C. auriculatum was 160 840 bp in length and consisted of four distinct regions, such as large single copy region (91 973 bp), small single copy region (19 667 bp), and a pair of inverted repeat regions (24 600 bp). The overall GC contents of the chloroplast genome were 37.8%. A total of 114 genes were predicted and included 80 protein-coding genes, 30 tRNA genes, and four rRNA genes. Phylogenetic analysis with the reported chloroplast genomes revealed that C. auriculatum is most closely related to Cynanchum wilfordii, a medicinal plant.

  3. A reassessment of Marquesan Ochrosia and Rauvolfia (Apocynaceae) with two new combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorence, David H.; Butaud, Jean-François

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A reassessment of collections of Marquesan Apocynaceae assigned to the genera Neisosperma Raf., Ochrosia Juss., and Rauvolfia L. revealed that two nomenclatural changes are necessary: 1) transfer of Neisosperma brownii Fosberg & Sachet to the genus Ochrosia, as Ochrosia brownii (Fosberg & Sachet) Lorence & Butaud, comb. nov., and 2) transfer of Ochrosia nukuhivensis Fosberg & Sachet to Rauvolfia as Rauvolfia nukuhivensis (Fosberg & Sachet) Lorence & Butaud, comb. nov. As a result, two species each of Ochrosia and Rauvolfia are recognized from the Marquesas Islands, all endemic. Recent field work has yielded important new data on their distribution, habitat, and conservation status. It is recommended that all four species should be added the IUCN Red List at the Critically Endangered (CR) category. PMID:22171183

  4. Using multiple analytical methods to improve phylogenetic hypotheses in Minaria (Apocynaceae).

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    Ribeiro, Patrícia Luz; Rapini, Alessandro; Silva, Uiara Catharina Soares E; Berg, Cássio van den

    2012-12-01

    Metastelmatinae is a neotropical subtribe of Asclepiadoideae (Apocynaceae), comprising 13 genera and around 260 species whose phylogenetic relationships are often unresolved or incongruent between plastid and nuclear datasets. The genus Minaria is one of the first lineages to emerge in the Metastelmatinae and is highly supported based on plastid markers. It comprises 21 species, most of which are endemic to small areas with open vegetation in the Espinhaço Range, Brazil. In the work presented here, we use plastid (rps16, trnH-psbA, trnS-trnG, and trnD-trnT) and nuclear (ITS and ETS) datasets to investigate the relationships within Minaria. We show that the three methods mostly used in phylogenetic studies, namely, maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian Inference, have different performances and that a pluralistic analytical approach combining results from them can increase tree resolution and clade confidence, providing valuable phylogenetic information. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A Reassessment of Marquesan Ochrosia and Rauvolfia (Apocynaceae with two new combinations

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    David Lorence

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A reassessment of collections of Marquesan Apocynaceae assigned to the genera Neisosperma Raf., Ochrosia Juss., and Rauvolfia L. revealed that two nomenclatural changes are necessary: 1 transfer of Neisosperma brownii Fosberg & Sachet to the genus Ochrosia, as Ochrosia brownii (Fosberg & Sachet Lorence & Butaud, comb. nov.,  and 2 transfer of Ochrosia nukuhivensis Fosberg & Sachet to Rauvolfia as  Rauvolfia nukuhivensis (Fosberg & Sachet Lorence & Butaud, comb. nov.  As a result, two species each of Ochrosia and Rauvolfia are recognized from the Marquesas Islands, all endemic. Recent field work has yielded important new data on their distribution, habitat, and conservation status. It is recommended that all four species should be added the IUCN Red List at the Critically Endangered (CR category.

  6. Antiproliferative and phytochemical analyses of leaf extracts of ten Apocynaceae species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Siu Kuin; Lim, Yau Yan; Abdullah, Noor Rain; Nordin, Fariza Juliana

    2011-04-01

    The anticancer properties of Apocynaceae species are well known in barks and roots but less so in leaves. In this study, leaf extracts of 10 Apocynaceae species were assessed for antiproliferative (APF) activities using the sulforhodamine B assay. Their extracts were also analyzed for total alkaloid content (TAC), total phenolic content (TPC), and radical scavenging activity (RSA) using the Dragendorff precipitation, Folin-Ciocalteu, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays, respectively. Leaf extracts of Alstonia angustiloba, Calotropis gigantea, Catharanthus roseus, Nerium oleander, Plumeria obtusa, and Vallaris glabra displayed positive APF activities. Extracts of Allamanda cathartica, Cerbera odollam, Dyera costulata, and Kopsia fruticosa did not show any APF activity. Dichloromethane (DCM) extract of C. gigantea, and DCM and DCM:MeOH extracts of V. glabra showed strong APF activities against all six human cancer cell lines. Against breast cancer cells of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, DCM extracts of C. gigantea and N. oleander were stronger than or comparable to standard drugs of xanthorrhizol, curcumin, and tamoxifen. All four extracts of N. oleander were effective against MCF-7 cells. Extracts of Kopsia fruticosa had the highest TAC while those of Dyera costulata had the highest TPC and RSA. Extracts of C. gigantea and V. glabra inhibited the growth of all six cancer cell lines while all extracts of N. oleander were effective against MCF-7 cells. Extracts of C. gigantea, V. glabra, and N. oleander therefore showed great promise as potential candidates for anticancer drugs. The wide-spectrum APF activities of these three species are reported for the first time and their bioactive compounds warrant further investigation.

  7. Micromorphology and Histochemistry of the Laticifers from Vegetative Organs of Asclepiadoideae species (Apocynaceae

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    Diego DEMARCO

    2015-01-01

    MICROMORFOLOGÍA E HISTOQUÍMICA DE LOS LATICÍFEROS DE ÓRGANOS VEGETATIVOS DE ESPECIES DE ASCLEPIADOIDEAE (APOCYNACEAE La micromorfología y las principales clases de componentes de las paredes de los laticíferos y del látex de Asclepias curassavica, Fischeria stellata, Gonioanthela axillaris, Matelea denticulata y Oxypetalum banksii, fueron analizadas y comparadas con las de especies de Apocynaceae de Cerrado. Los laticíferos de las especies estudiadas de diferentes tipos de bosques presentan características semejantes. Las paredes son primarias, altamente hidratadas, pecto-celulósicas y fuertemente adheridas a las paredes de las células adyacentes. El látex es blanco lechoso, constituido por polisacáridos, incluyendo mucílago, proteínas, lípidos, incluyendo ácidos grasos, compuestos fenólicos e alcaloides. Fischeria y Gonioanthela difieren de las demás especies por producir lípidos neutros. El látex de las especies investigadas está asociado a la protección de la planta contra herbivoría, pudiendo ser tóxico e inhibir la proliferación de microorganismos, además de coagular, sellando heridas de las plantas y funcionando como barrera física. Estas propiedades del látex proporcionan una mayor ventaja adaptativa a estas plantas en relación a las no latescentes.

  8. Identification of ethnomedicinal plants (Rauvolfioideae: Apocynaceae) through DNA barcoding from northeast India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadani, Pradosh; Sharma, Gouri Dutta; Ghosh, Sankar Kumar

    2013-07-01

    DNA barcode-based molecular characterization is in practice for plants, but yet lacks total agreement considering the selection of marker. Plant species of subfamily Rauvolfioideae have long been used as herbal medicine by the majority of tribal people in Northeast (NE) India and at present holds mass effect on the society. Hence, there is an urgent need of correct taxonomic inventorization vis-à-vis species level molecular characterization of important medicinal plants. To test the efficiency of matK in species delineation like DNA barcoding in Rauvolfiadae (Apocynaceae). In this study, the core DNA barcode matK and trnH-psbA sequences are examined for differentiation of selected ethnomedicinal plants of Apocynaceae. DNA from young leaves of selected species was isolated, and matK gene (~800 bp) and trnH-psbA spacer (~450 bp) of Chloroplast DNA was amplified for species level identification. The ~758 bp matK sequence in comparison to the trnH-psbA showed easy amplification, alignment, and high level of discrimination value among the medicinal Rauvolfioidae species. Intergenic spacer trnH-psbA is also exhibited persistent problem in obtaining constant bidirectional sequences. Partial matK sequences exhibited 3 indels in multiple of 3 at 5 end. Evidently, generated matK sequences are clustered cohesively, with their conspecific Genbank sequences. However, repeat structures with AT-rich regions, possessing indels in multiple of 3, could be utilized as qualitative molecular markers in further studies both at the intra-specific and shallow inter-specific levels like the intergenic spacers of CpDNA. matK sequence information could help in correct species identification for medicinal plants of Rauvolfioideae.

  9. Antiproliferative and phytochemical analyses of leaf extracts of ten Apocynaceae species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Siu Kuin; Lim, Yau Yan; Abdullah, Noor Rain; Nordin, Fariza Juliana

    2011-01-01

    Background: The anticancer properties of Apocynaceae species are well known in barks and roots but less so in leaves. Materials and Methods: In this study, leaf extracts of 10 Apocynaceae species were assessed for antiproliferative (APF) activities using the sulforhodamine B assay. Their extracts were also analyzed for total alkaloid content (TAC), total phenolic content (TPC), and radical scavenging activity (RSA) using the Dragendorff precipitation, Folin–Ciocalteu, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays, respectively. Results: Leaf extracts of Alstonia angustiloba, Calotropis gigantea, Catharanthus roseus, Nerium oleander, Plumeria obtusa, and Vallaris glabra displayed positive APF activities. Extracts of Allamanda cathartica, Cerbera odollam, Dyera costulata, and Kopsia fruticosa did not show any APF activity. Dichloromethane (DCM) extract of C. gigantea, and DCM and DCM:MeOH extracts of V. glabra showed strong APF activities against all six human cancer cell lines. Against breast cancer cells of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, DCM extracts of C. gigantea and N. oleander were stronger than or comparable to standard drugs of xanthorrhizol, curcumin, and tamoxifen. All four extracts of N. oleander were effective against MCF-7 cells. Extracts of Kopsia fruticosa had the highest TAC while those of Dyera costulata had the highest TPC and RSA. Extracts of C. gigantea and V. glabra inhibited the growth of all six cancer cell lines while all extracts of N. oleander were effective against MCF-7 cells. Conclusion: Extracts of C. gigantea, V. glabra, and N. oleander therefore showed great promise as potential candidates for anticancer drugs. The wide-spectrum APF activities of these three species are reported for the first time and their bioactive compounds warrant further investigation. PMID:21772753

  10. Bioactivity of the latex from Parahancornia amapa (Apocynaceae on the development of Rhodnius nasutus (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae under laboratory conditions

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    Marcio B. P. Lopes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bioactivity of the latex from Parahancornia amapa (Apocynaceae on the development of Rhodnius nasutus (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae under laboratory conditions. The aim of this study was to verify the effects of the methanolic fraction of the latex from Parahancornia amapa (Apocynaceae (PALAM on individuals of the species Rhodnius nasutus Stål (Hemiptera, Triatominae. Many of the insects treated with the substance presented deformities and these may interfere in the feeding and possibly hinder the reproductive capacity. They also presented significant mortality during the molt when compared to the control group, noting a gradual increase in mortality. The treated insects also presented delayed nymphal development (5th instar and higher adult longevity.

  11. Apocynaceae tóxicas e medicinais ocorrentes nos Estados de Pernambuco e Paraíba, Brasil

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    Maria Dulce Belo de Moura

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available É apresentada uma lista de 37 espécies da família Apocynaceae de Pernambuco e da Paraíba, Brasil, pela análise de dados da literatura e dos exemplares existentes nos herbários destes Estados. São fornecidas informações etnofarmacológicas de 14 espécies, bem como uma lista dos constituintes com atividades farmacológicas de 12 espécies.In this paper are listed 37 Apocynaceae species from Pernambuco and Paraiba, Brazil. The informations were obtained from herbarium sheets. Ethnopharmacological uses of 14 species and the results of a literature review are also reported. Medical uses, known constituents and pharmalogical are presented for 12 species.

  12. Two new species in the Matelea stenopetala complex (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae) from the Guiana Shield and Amazonian Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krings, Alexander; Morillo, Gilberto

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Two new species in the Matelea stenopetala complex (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae) are described from the Guiana Shield and Amazonian Brazil: Matelea brevistipitata Krings & Morillo, sp. nov. and Matelea trichopedicellataKrings & Morillo, sp. nov. The new species belong to a small group of adaxially-pubescent-flowered taxa within the complex, including Matelea hildegardiana and Matelea pakaraimensis. The new species are described and a dichotomous key is provided. PMID:23233816

  13. Development and evolution of extreme synorganization in angiosperm flowers and diversity: a comparison of Apocynaceae and Orchidaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endress, Peter K

    2016-04-01

    Apocynaceae and Orchidaceae are two angiosperm families with extreme flower synorganization. They are unrelated, the former in eudicots, the latter in monocots, but they converge in the formation of pollinia and pollinaria, which do not occur in any other angiosperm family, and for which extreme synorganization of floral organs is a precondition. In each family extensive studies on flower development and evolution have been performed; however, newer comparative studies focusing on flower synorganization and involving both families together are lacking. For this study an extensive search through the morphological literature has been conducted. Based on this and my own studies on flowers in various Apocynaceae and Orchidaceae and complex flowers in other angiosperms with scanning electron microscopy and with microtome section series, a review on convergent floral traits in flower development and architecture in the two families is presented. There is a tendency of protracted development of synorganized parts in Apocynaceae and Orchidaceae (development of synorganization of two or more organs begins earlier the more accentuated it is at anthesis). Synorganization (or complexity) also paves the way for novel structures. One of the most conspicuous such novel structures in Apocynaceae is the corona, which is not the product of synorganization of existing organs; however, it is probably enhanced by synorganization of other, existing, floral parts. In contrast to synorganized parts, the corona appears developmentally late. Synorganization of floral organs may lead to a large number of convergences in clades that are only very distantly related. The convergences that have been highlighted in this comparative study should be developmentally investigated directly in parallel in future studies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. The nuclear genome of Rhazya stricta and the evolution of alkaloid diversity in a medically relevant clade of Apocynaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabir, Jamal S M; Jansen, Robert K; Arasappan, Dhivya; Calderon, Virginie; Noutahi, Emmanuel; Zheng, Chunfang; Park, Seongjun; Sabir, Meshaal J; Baeshen, Mohammed N; Hajrah, Nahid H; Khiyami, Mohammad A; Baeshen, Nabih A; Obaid, Abdullah Y; Al-Malki, Abdulrahman L; Sankoff, David; El-Mabrouk, Nadia; Ruhlman, Tracey A

    2016-09-22

    Alkaloid accumulation in plants is activated in response to stress, is limited in distribution and specific alkaloid repertoires are variable across taxa. Rauvolfioideae (Apocynaceae, Gentianales) represents a major center of structural expansion in the monoterpenoid indole alkaloids (MIAs) yielding thousands of unique molecules including highly valuable chemotherapeutics. The paucity of genome-level data for Apocynaceae precludes a deeper understanding of MIA pathway evolution hindering the elucidation of remaining pathway enzymes and the improvement of MIA availability in planta or in vitro. We sequenced the nuclear genome of Rhazya stricta (Apocynaceae, Rauvolfioideae) and present this high quality assembly in comparison with that of coffee (Rubiaceae, Coffea canephora, Gentianales) and others to investigate the evolution of genome-scale features. The annotated Rhazya genome was used to develop the community resource, RhaCyc, a metabolic pathway database. Gene family trees were constructed to identify homologs of MIA pathway genes and to examine their evolutionary history. We found that, unlike Coffea, the Rhazya lineage has experienced many structural rearrangements. Gene tree analyses suggest recent, lineage-specific expansion and diversification among homologs encoding MIA pathway genes in Gentianales and provide candidate sequences with the potential to close gaps in characterized pathways and support prospecting for new MIA production avenues.

  15. O DESAFIO DO BABAÇU (ORBIGNYA SPECIOSA MART. EX SPRENG NO PIAUÍ

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    Antonio Joaquim da Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A situação pela qual passam as populações agroextrativistas babaçueiras no Estado do Piauí merece reflexão. A dinâmica econômica atribuída pela atividade produtiva do coco babaçu (Orbignya speciosa Mart. ex Spreng, recentemente denominado de Attalea speciosa Mart. ex Spreng à sociedade piauiense se enfatiza aos períodos pujantes da comercialização da amêndoa no mercado internacional. Em anos recentes, o desafio atribuído à cadeia produtiva do coco babaçu é superar o imobilismo das políticas públicas à atividade, principalmente nos espaços rurais. Nesse sentido, esta análise se funde sobre a realidade encontrada em 13 comunidades rurais do município de Miguel Alves (PI, a qual está alicerçada no modelo de observação não participante, cuja construção dos dados foi realizada a partir da aplicação de formulários e entrevistas semiestruturadas com 75 mulheres quebradeiras de coco, possibilitando levantar informações do perfil socioeconômico das famílias; o padrão tecnológico empregado no manejo e no processamento dos produtos gerados; a diversidade dos mercados de consumo; o manejo dos estoques naturais dos babaçuais; a participação das instituições sociais no sistema produtivo do babaçu; a importância cultural do babaçu nas comunidades e as condições geoambientais para a ocorrência do babaçu no município. Os resultados demonstram que os caminhos para a manutenção da atividade babaçueira no Estado partem da potencialização e irradiação de um integrado programa de desenvolvimento local sustentável nas comunidades.

  16. Efeitos da terra diatomácea sobre Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae em batata inglesa Effects of diatomaceous earth on Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae in potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franscinely Aparecida Assis

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A espécie Diabrotica speciosa é um crisomelídeo responsável por causar danos consideráveis à batateira, o que torna indispensável seu controle com inseticidas para minimizar os prejuízos causados à cultura. Assim, objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar os efeitos da terra diatomácea sobre o comportamento alimentar e a mortalidade de D. speciosa em batata inglesa em condições de laboratório. Adotou-se o DIC com três tratamentos e oito repetições, sendo: 1 - testemunha; 2 - TD polvilhada (0,5 g/vaso e 3 - TD pulverizada a 1%. As batateiras, cv. Emeraude, foram polvilhadas ou pulverizadas com TD, 30 dias após o plantio e, 24 horas após a aplicação, as plantas foram fornecidas aos insetos, sem e com chance de escolha. Houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos, sendo a menor porcentagem de folíolos com injúrias observada em plantas que receberam a aplicação de TD pulverizada (teste sem chance de escolha e TD polvilhada ou pulverizada (teste com chance de escolha. Também houve redução do número de injúrias foliares às 24 e às 48 horas (TD polvilhada ou pulverizada e, às 72 horas, a redução foi observada somente com a aplicação da TD polvilhada. Com relação à ação inseticida da TD, foi verificado seu efeito após 48 horas, tanto via polvilhamento, quanto via pulverização. Assim, a aplicação de TD pode auxiliar no manejo de D. speciosa, contribuindo para conferir proteção às plantas de batata inglesa e aumentar a mortalidade desse inseto-praga.The species D. speciosa is a chrysomelid responsible for causing considerable damage on potato plant, making its control with insecticides essential to minimize the damage caused to this culture. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of diatomaceous earth (DE on feeding behavior and mortality of D. speciosa in potato under laboratory conditions. A completely randomized design was used with three treatments and eight replicates being: 1

  17. Virulence of entomopathogenic nematodes (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae for the control of Diabrotica speciosa germar (coleoptera: chrysomelidae Virulência de nematoides entomopatogênicos (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae e Heterorhabditidae para o controle de Diabrotica speciosa germar (coleoptera: chrysomelidae

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    Viviane Santos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs are used in biological control of soil insects and show promise in the control of D. speciosa. The objective of this work was to evaluate the potential of native and exotic entomopathogenic nematode isolates in the control of D. speciosa under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. Results showed that all of EPNs caused larval mortality. The most virulent were Heterorhabditis sp. RSC01 (94%, Steinernema glaseri (84%, Heterorhabditis sp. JPM04 (82% and Heterorhabditis amazonensis RSC05 (78%. There was no effect of the Heterorhabditis sp. RSC01 and S. glaseri isolates on eggs. The maximum mortality of D. speciosa larvae by Heterorhabditis sp. RSC01 was observed at a concentration of 300 IJ/ insect, while by S. glaseri observed the highest mortality at the concentration of 200 IJ/ insect. The Heterorhabditis sp. RSC01 isolate caused over 80% pupal mortality at a concentration of 250 IJ/insect. The virulence of Heterorhabditis sp. RSC01 and S. glaseri was affected by temperature. The Heterorhabditis sp. RSC01 isolate caused reduction in larva survival under greenhouse conditions at all of the tested concentrations and there was no difference in mortality among different concentrations of infectid juveniles.Os nematóides entomopatogênicos são utilizados no controle biológico de pragas de solo, e são promissores para o controle de D. speciosa. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar o potencial de espécies nativas e exóticas de isolados de nematóides entomopatogênicos para o controle de D. speciosa, em condições de laboratório e de casa de vegetação. Verificou-se que todos os nematóides causaram mortalidade larval. Os mais virulentos foram Heterorhabditis sp. RSC01 (94%, Steinernema glaseri (84%, Heterorhabditis sp. JPM04 (82% e Heterorhabditis amazonensis RSC05 (78%. Não houve efeito dos isolados Heterorhabditis sp. RSC01 e S. glaseri em ovos. A mortalidade máxima de larvas de D. speciosa por

  18. Chemical Composition and Bioactivities of Two Common Chaenomeles Fruits in China: Chaenomeles speciosa and Chaenomeles sinensis.

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    Miao, Jing; Zhao, Chengcheng; Li, Xia; Chen, Xuetao; Mao, Xinhui; Huang, Hanhan; Wang, Tingting; Gao, Wenyuan

    2016-08-01

    Contents of total flavonoids, total phenolics, total triterpenes, total condensed tannin and total saponins in peels, flesh and endocarps of Chaenomeles speciosa (CSP) and Chaenomeles sinensis (CSS) were determined by colorimetric method, while 5 phenolics (vanillic, gallic, chlorogenic, ferulic and p-coumaric acids), 2 triterpenes (oleanolic and ursolic acids), and 3 flavonoids (rutin, catechin and epicatechin) were identified and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) and HPLC, and antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of them also were evaluated as well as their digestive characteristics. In the correlation analysis, total phenolics, vanillic acid, catechin, ursolic acid and oleanolic acid all contribute to DPPH(·) scavenge capacity, gallic acid contributes to total ferric reducing antioxidant power, while total triterpenes, total saponins, chlorogenic acid and ferullic acid contribute to α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. In the principal component analysis, endocarps of CSP and CSS both show better quality than their peels and flesh, respectively. In vitro digestion can increase contents of total flavonoids, total condensed tannin and total saponins, while contents of total phenolics and total triterpenes decreased greatly. Our study would contribute to the full use of discarded parts of the 2 Chaenomeles and be helpful to establish a good foundation for further research of CSP and CSS. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. Healing and Antisecretory Effects of Aqueous Extract of Eremomastax speciosa (Acanthaceae) on Unhealed Gastric Ulcers

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    Amang, A. P.; Mezui, C.; Siwe, G. T.; Emakoua, J.; Mbah, G.; Nkwengoua, E. Z.; Enow-Orock, G. E.

    2017-01-01

    Objective This work investigated the healing and antisecretory effects of the aqueous extract of Eremomastax speciosa on “unhealed gastric ulcers” associated with gastric acid hypersecretion. Materials and Methods “Unhealed gastric ulcers” were induced using indomethacin following the establishment of acetic-acid-induced chronic gastric ulcers. The extract (200 and 400 mg/kg, per os) was administered concomitantly with indomethacin (1 mg/kg, subcutaneously). The effects of the extract on both basal and histamine-stimulated gastric acid secretion were determined. Mucus secretion and oxidative stress parameters were measured, and histological assessment of ulcer healing was carried out. Results The extract significantly promoted the healing process in rats subjected to “unhealed gastric ulcers” (82.4–88.5% healing rates). Treatment with the extract significantly reduced the basal (25.95–49.51% reduction rates) and histamine-stimulated (24.25–47.41%) acid secretions. The healing effect of the extract was associated with a significant (p ulcers.” PMID:29234676

  20. Impact and hardness optimisation of composite materials inspired by the babassu nut (Orbignya speciosa).

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    Staufenberg, Gerrit; Graupner, Nina; Müssig, Jörg

    2015-08-20

    The babassu nut is the fruit of the babassu palm Orbignya speciosa. The combination of hardness and impact strength is difficult to acquire for artificial materials, making the babassu nut a promising source for biomimetic inspiration. Unnotched Charpy impact tests, Shore D hardness tests and scanning electron microscopy were used for mechanical and microscopical analysis of the pericarp. Four major principles were found for a biomimetic approach: a hard core ((1); endocarp) is embedded in a soft outer layer of high impact strength ((2); epicarp) and is reinforced with fibres of variable fineness (3), some of which are oriented radial to the core (4). Biomimetic fibre-reinforced composites were produced using abstracted mechanisms of the babassu nut based on regenerated cellulose fibres (lyocell, L) with two different fineness values as reinforcement embedded in a polylactide (PLA) core matrix and polypropylene (PP) based outer layers. The biomimetic fibre composite reaches a significantly higher impact strength that is 1.6 times higher than the reference sample produced from a PLA/PP/L-blend. At the same time the hardness is slightly increased compared to PP/L.

  1. Conservation genetics of an endemic and endangered epiphytic Laelia speciosa (Orchidaceae).

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    Avila-Díaz, Irene; Oyama, Ken

    2007-02-01

    We used isozymes (16 loci in 11 enzymatic systems) from Laelia speciosa, an endemic and endangered epiphytic orchid of Mexico, to assess the genetic diversity and population genetic structure in nine populations distributed along its geographic range, as well as to detect those populations that are genetically unique and therefore deserve high-priority protection. On average, the genetic diversity was high (percentage of polymorphic loci, P(p) = 76%, mean number of alleles per locus, A = 3.34, the average observed heterozygosity H(O) = 0.302, the average expected heterozygosity H(E) = 0.382). Moderate levels of inbreeding ( f = 0.216, 95% confidence interval = 0.029-0.381) were found. Low levels of genetic differentiation were observed among populations ((p) = 0.040); however, there was a significant correlation between geographic and genetic distances among the populations (Mantel test: r(2) = 0.43, P < 0.05). Populations located within the same mountain range were genetically more similar. Private alleles were found, so proper management requires protection and maintenance of genetic diversity throughout its range. In case of reintroduction, we suggest using individuals propagated from seeds from as many capsules as possible, from close populations. An ex situ conservation strategy also is proposed.

  2. A case report of inpatient detoxification after kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) dependence.

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    McWhirter, Laura; Morris, Siobhan

    2010-01-01

    Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) has been used for medicinal and recreational purposes. It has reported analgesic, euphoric and antitussive effects via its action as an agonist at opioid receptors. It is illegal in many countries including Thailand, Malaysia, Myanmar, South Korea and Australia; however, it remains legal or uncontrolled in the UK and USA, where it is easily available over the Internet. We describe a case of kratom dependence in a 44-year-old man with a history of alcohol dependence and anxiety disorder. He demonstrated dependence on kratom with withdrawal symptoms consisting of anxiety, restlessness, tremor, sweating and cravings for the substance. A reducing regime of dihydrocodeine and lofexidine proved effective in treating subjective and objective measures of opioid-like withdrawal phenomena, and withdrawal was relatively short and benign. There are only few reports in the literature of supervised detoxification and drug treatment for kratom dependence. Our observations support the idea that kratom dependence syndrome is due to short-acting opioid receptor agonist activity, and suggest that dihydrocodeine and lofexidine are effective in supporting detoxification. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Changing trends in the use of kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) in Southeast Asia.

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    Singh, Darshan; Narayanan, Suresh; Vicknasingam, Balasingam; Corazza, Ornella; Santacroce, Rita; Roman-Urrestarazu, Andres

    2017-05-01

    Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa. Korth) is an indigenous medicinal plant of Southeast Asia. This review paper aims to describe the trends of kratom use in Southeast Asia. A literature review search was conducted through ScienceDirect, Scopus, ProMed and Google Scholar. Twenty-five articles illustrating kratom use in humans in Southeast Asia were reviewed. Kratom has long been used by rural populations in Southeast Asia as a remedy for common ailments, to fight fatigue from hard manual work, as a drink during social interaction among men, and in village religious functions. Studies based on self-reports suggest that prolonged kratom use does not result in serious health risks or impair social functioning. Two recent trends have also emerged: (a) Kratom is reportedly being used to ease withdrawal from opioid dependence in rural settings; whereas (b) in urban areas, adulterated kratom cocktails are being consumed by younger people to induce euphoria. Legal sanctions appear to have preceded serious scientific investigations into the claimed benefits of ketum. More objective-controlled trials and experiments on humans need to be conducted to validate self-report claims by kratom users in the community. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Development of indirect competitive ELISA for quantification of mitragynine in Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa (Roxb.) Korth.).

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    Limsuwanchote, Supattra; Wungsintaweekul, Juraithip; Keawpradub, Niwat; Putalun, Waraporn; Morimoto, Satoshi; Tanaka, Hiroyuki

    2014-11-01

    Monoclonal antibody (MAb) against mitragynine (MG), an analgesic alkaloid from Kratom leaves (Mitragyna speciosa), was produced. MG was coupled to carrier proteins employing either 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide/N-hydroxysuccinimide (EDC/NHS), a zero-length cross linker or a 5-carbon length glutaraldehyde cross linker. To confirm the immunogenicity, the hapten numbers were determined using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Preparation of the MAb was accomplished by the electrofusion method. Hybridoma 1A6 that was constructed from the fusion between splenocytes of EDC/NHS conjugate immunized mice and SP2/0-Ag14 myeloma cells was selected, cloned twice and expanded. The cross-reactivities (CRs) of this MAb 1A6 with a series of indole alkaloids were 30.54%, 24.83% and 8.63% for speciogynine, paynantheine and mitraciliatine, respectively. Using this MAb, an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA) was developed with a measurement range of 32.92-250 μg/mL. Quantitative analysis of the MG contents in plant samples by icELISA correlated well with the standard high performance liquid chromatography method (R(2)=0.994). The MAb against mitragynine provided a tool for detection of MG in Kratom preparations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Subchronic Toxicity Study of Standardized Methanolic Extract of Mitragyna Speciosa Korth in Sprague-Dawley Rats

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    Mohd Ulul Ilmie Ahmad Nazri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mitragyna speciosa Korth, or better known as ketum, has long been used by traditional folk around Southeast Asia to prevent fatigue from working under hot tropical weather and as a replacement of opium, which can then cause addiction. To date, no findings have been reported of the toxic effect of ketum subchronically (28 days. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate the toxicity of subchronic effect of standardised methanolic extract of ketum (SMEMS in Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were orally administered with 100, 200, and 500 mg/kg of SMEMS for 28 days. Body weights were recorded daily. They were terminated at day 28 to obtain data for haematology, biochemistry, and histopathology of the brain, liver, kidney, lung, heart, sciatic nerve, and spinal cord. The SMEMS affected body weight compared to control group. Biochemistry findings showed that liver and kidney were affected with the abnormal values in AST, creatinine, globulin, glucose, total protein, and urea. However, SMEMS produced toxic effect more to liver, kidney, and lung than other organs as observed histopathologically. The results suggested subchronic exposure of ketum is toxic to the physiology of the animals.

  6. Management of Diabetes and Its Complications with Banaba (Lagerstroemia speciosa L. and Corosolic Acid

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    Toshihiro Miura

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Banaba (Lagerstroemia speciosa L. extracts have been used for many years in folk medicine to treat diabetes, with the first published research study being reported in 1940. This paper summarizes the current literature regarding Banaba and its constituents. The hypoglycemic effects of Banaba have been attributed to both corosolic acid as well as ellagitannins. Studies have been conducted in various animal models, human subjects, and in vitro systems using water soluble Banaba leaf extracts, corosolic acid, and ellagitannins. Corosolic acid has been reported to decrease blood sugar levels within 60 min in human subjects. Corosolic acid also exhibits antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant activities. The beneficial effects of Banaba and corosolic acid with respect to various aspects of glucose and lipid metabolism appear to involve multiple mechanisms, including enhanced cellular uptake of glucose, impaired hydrolysis of sucrose and starches, decreased gluconeogenesis, and the regulation of lipid metabolism. These effects may be mediated by PPAR and other signal transduction factors. Banaba extract, corosolic acid, and other constituents may be beneficial in addressing the symptoms associated with metabolic syndrome, as well as offering other health benefits.

  7. Assessment of antiproliferative and antiplasmodial activities of five selected Apocynaceae species

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    Abdullah Noor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have shown that the barks and roots of some Apocynaceae species have anticancer and antimalarial properties. In this study, leaf extracts of five selected species of Apocynaceae used in traditional medicine (Alstonia angustiloba, Calotropis gigantea, Dyera costulata, Kopsia fruticosa and Vallaris glabra were assessed for antiproliferative (APF and antiplasmodial (APM activities, and analysed for total alkaloid content (TAC, total phenolic content (TPC and radical-scavenging activity (RSA. As V. glabra leaf extracts showed wide spectrum APF and APM activities, they were further screened for saponins, tannins, cardenolides and terpenoids. Methods APF and APM activities were assessed using the sulphorhodamine B and lactate dehydrogenase assays, respectively. TAC, TPC and RSA were analysed using Dragendorff precipitation, Folin-Ciocalteu and DPPH assays, respectively. Screening for saponins, tannins, cardenolides and terpenoids were conducted using the frothing, ferric chloride, Kedde and vanillin-H2SO4 tests, respectively. Results Leaf extracts of A. angustiloba, C. gigantea and V. glabra displayed positive APF activity. Dichloromethane (DCM extract of C. gigantea, and DCM and DCM:MeOH extracts of V. glabra showed strong APF activity against all six human cancer cell lines tested. DCM extract of A. angustiloba was effective against three cancer cell lines. Against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines, DCM extract of C. gigantea was stronger than standard drugs of xanthorrhizol, curcumin and tamoxifen. All five species were effective against K1 strain of Plasmodium falciparum and three species (C. gigantea, D. costulata and K. fruticosa were effective against 3D7 strain. Against K1 strain, all four extracts of V. glabra displayed effective APM activity. Extracts of D. costulata were effective against 3D7 strain. Selectivity index values of extracts of A. angustiloba, C. gigantea and V. glabra suggested that they are

  8. Assessment of antiproliferative and antiplasmodial activities of five selected Apocynaceae species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Siu Kuin; Lim, Yau Yan; Abdullah, Noor Rain; Nordin, Fariza Juliana

    2011-01-14

    Studies have shown that the barks and roots of some Apocynaceae species have anticancer and antimalarial properties. In this study, leaf extracts of five selected species of Apocynaceae used in traditional medicine (Alstonia angustiloba, Calotropis gigantea, Dyera costulata, Kopsia fruticosa and Vallaris glabra) were assessed for antiproliferative (APF) and antiplasmodial (APM) activities, and analysed for total alkaloid content (TAC), total phenolic content (TPC) and radical-scavenging activity (RSA). As V. glabra leaf extracts showed wide spectrum APF and APM activities, they were further screened for saponins, tannins, cardenolides and terpenoids. APF and APM activities were assessed using the sulphorhodamine B and lactate dehydrogenase assays, respectively. TAC, TPC and RSA were analysed using Dragendorff precipitation, Folin-Ciocalteu and DPPH assays, respectively. Screening for saponins, tannins, cardenolides and terpenoids were conducted using the frothing, ferric chloride, Kedde and vanillin-H2SO4 tests, respectively. Leaf extracts of A. angustiloba, C. gigantea and V. glabra displayed positive APF activity. Dichloromethane (DCM) extract of C. gigantea, and DCM and DCM:MeOH extracts of V. glabra showed strong APF activity against all six human cancer cell lines tested. DCM extract of A. angustiloba was effective against three cancer cell lines. Against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines, DCM extract of C. gigantea was stronger than standard drugs of xanthorrhizol, curcumin and tamoxifen. All five species were effective against K1 strain of Plasmodium falciparum and three species (C. gigantea, D. costulata and K. fruticosa) were effective against 3D7 strain. Against K1 strain, all four extracts of V. glabra displayed effective APM activity. Extracts of D. costulata were effective against 3D7 strain. Selectivity index values of extracts of A. angustiloba, C. gigantea and V. glabra suggested that they are potentially safe for use to treat malaria. Extracts of K

  9. Narcissus late season yellows virus and Vallota speciosa virus found infecting domestic and wild populations of Narcissus species in Australia.

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    Wylie, S J; Nouri, S; Coutts, B A; Jones, M G K

    2010-07-01

    Isolates of Narcissus late season yellows virus (NLSYV) were identified from domestic and wild Narcissus populations at incidences of 66 and 49%, respectively. NLSYV was also detected in one plant of Clivea miniata. Comparisons of nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the coat protein genes of NLSYV isolates showed that they formed three distinct phylogenetic groups, including one not seen before. Vallota speciosa virus was detected in one domestic population of Narcissus sp. where it infected 70% of the plants. This is the first report of these viruses in Australia, and of NLSYV infecting C. miniata.

  10. Thevetia peruviana (Family: Apocynaceae in the control of slug and snail pests

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    A. Panigrahi

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available An aqueous extract prepared from Kernels of the fruit of Thevetia peruviana (Pers. Schumann (Family : Apocynaceae was found under experimental conditions, to be toxic ti the slug Laevicaulis alte (Férussac and the snail Achatina fulica Bowdich, the important agrihorticultural pests of Indo-Pacific countries. Concentrations as low as 1% (w/v killed all the slugs exposed in less than 981.00 (± SD 22.76 min, and 2% of the extract killed 100% of the slugs L. alte and 50%, 50% and 30% of the snail A. fulica in between 92.34 (± SD 6.63 - 321.33 (± SD 4.14 and 271.20 (± SD 17.54 - 298.26 (± SD 16.69 min respectively. The most effective concentration of the extract was 20%; it killed 100% of exposed slugs and snails within a short time (40-50 and 90-1440 min respectively when the extract was exposed on the soil in experimental trays or when it was applied to potato slices offered as food to the gastropods.

  11. Headspace volatile composition of the flowers of Caralluma europaea N.E.Br. (Apocynaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formisano, Carmen; Senatore, Felice; Della Porta, Giovanna; Scognamiglio, Mariarosa; Bruno, Maurizio; Maggio, Antonella; Rosselli, Sergio; Zito, Pietro; Sajeva, Maurizio

    2009-11-11

    The volatile constituents of the flowers of Caralluma europaea (Guss.) N.E.Br (Apocynaceae) from Lampedusa Island were analyzed by a headspace GC method. The analyses allowed the identification and quantification of 41 compounds. The main components were, among the monoterpenoids, terpinolene (23.3%), alpha-terpinene (19.1%) and linalool (18.4%), whereas, among the carbonylic compounds the major constituents were heptanal (2.0%), octanoic acid (2.4%) and hexanoic acid (1.7%). The presence of a nitrogen containing compound, indole (0.8%) and of a sulphur containing compound, dimethylsulphide (t), noteworthy. The compounds found in the flowers of C. europaea have been compared with data available in the literature as regard to their odor, presence in other sapromyiophilous taxa, possible role as semiochemicals, and presence in decaying organic matter. 89.3% of total constituents have been described in other sapromyiophilous taxa. Some of the compounds are present in several types of decaying organic matter (excrements, decomposing bodies, and spoiled fish, etc). Several volatiles found in C. europaea flowers are used as semiochemicals by Hymenoptera, Coleoptera, Diptera, Lepidoptera and other insects. Sixteen volatiles, accounting for 32.4% of the total constituents, are described as attractants of some Diptera families, with a biology linked to decaying organic matter. Our data thus confirm that C. europaea floral bouquet falls within the sapromyiophilous pollination syndrome.

  12. Improvised Media for In Vitro Pollen Germination of some Species of Apocynaceae

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    Reshmi Chatterjee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Pollen germination forms one of the most important stage post pollination prior to fertilization. This is essential for proper seed setting and seed development. In vitro pollen germination test is the most reliable way of assessing the pollen viability. In the present study pollen grains of seven genera under Apocynaceae family namely, Allamanda, Alstonia, Catharanthus, Nerium, Plumeria, Thevetia and Tabernaemontana were tested in some basic cultural media, such as Brewbaker’s media, 6% Glucose solution, 4% Calcium Nitrate solution and 3% Boron solution. Alstonia pollen grains exhibited highest percentage of germination rate in all the cultural media. Glucose and Brewbaker’s media is found to be highly suitable for efficient pollen germination in all the genera. Boron solution is effective for germination of pollen grains of tree species. In vitro pollen germination can be easily carried out in laboratories. These results can be utilised in plant breeding programmes to improve cultivar and varieties. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i3.11074 International Journal of Environment Vol.3(3 2014: 146-153

  13. Medicinal uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Picralima nitida (Apocynaceae) in tropical diseases: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erharuyi, Osayemwenre; Falodun, Abiodun; Langer, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Picralima nitida Durand and Hook, (fam. Apocynaceae) is a West African plant with varied applications in African folk medicine. Various parts of the plant have been employed ethnomedicinally as remedy for fever, hypertension, jaundice, dysmenorrheal, gastrointestinal disorders and malaria. In order to reveal its full pharmacological and therapeutic potentials, the present review focuses on the current medicinal uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological and toxicological activities of this species. Literature survey on scientific journals, books as well as electronic sources have shown the isolation of alkaloids, tannins, polyphenols and steroids from different parts of the plant, pharmacological studies revealed that the extract or isolated compounds from this species posses analgesic, anti-inflammatory, hypoglyceamic, hypotensive, antiplasmodial, antimicrobial, antiulcer and antitumorigenic activities. Results from various scientific investigations to date have revealed the potential of the extract from the plant or isolated compounds for use in the treatment and prevention of various kinds of human diseases. However, further studies on the extracts and pure compounds from this species is required to completely assess its phytochemical, pharmacological and toxicological profile as well as the mechanism of action behind these pharmacological activities exhibited by the compounds isolated from this species. Copyright © 2014 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Essential oils composition of Periploca laevigata Aiton subsp. angustifolia (Labill.) Markgraf (Apocynaceae-Periplocoideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, P; Sajeva, M; Bruno, M; Rosselli, S; Maggio, A; Senatore, F

    2013-01-01

    The essential oil of roots, branches, leaves, flowers and fruits of Periploca laevigata Aiton subsp. angustifolia (Apocynaceae) from Lampedusa Island has been obtained by hydrodistillation and its composition analysed. The analyses allowed the identification and quantification of 86 volatile compounds. Branches showed the higher diversity with 57 compounds followed by fruits with 33, roots with 23, flowers with 16 and leaves with six compounds, respectively. In the matrices examined three constituents, heneicosane, docosane and tricosane are in common, although with different percentages. At least the most abundant compounds found in the matrices have been reported to have several biological activities. 2-Hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde identified in the roots as the most abundant component (70.7%) and present with 8.3% in the branches is a potent tyrosinase inhibitor present in several African medicinal plants, and thus being used as an ingredient in cosmetic and other medicinal products, primarily in relation to hyperpigmentation. Among the compounds identified, several play a role as semiochemicals for many animals, and 28 allomones, 43 pheromones, 21 kairomones have been identified. P. laevigata subsp. angustifolia in Lampedusa Island is host to a community of visitors, and the possible ecological role of the volatiles found is briefly discussed.

  15. Differential pollinator effectiveness and importance in a milkweed (Asclepias, Apocynaceae) hybrid zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoepler, Teresa M; Edge, Andrea; Steel, Anna; O'Quinn, Robin L; Fishbein, Mark

    2012-03-01

    Exceptions to the ideal of complete reproductive isolation between species are commonly encountered in diverse plant, animal, and fungal groups, but often the causative ecological processes are poorly understood. In flowering plants, the outcome of hybridization depends in part on the effectiveness of pollinators in interspecific pollen transport. In the Asclepias exaltata and A. syriaca (Apocynaceae) hybrid zone in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia, extensive introgression has been documented. The objectives of this study were to (1) determine the extent of pollinator overlap among A. exaltata, A. syriaca, and their hybrids and (2) identify the insect taxa responsible for hybridization and introgression. We observed focal plants of parental species and hybrids to measure visitation rate, visit duration, and per-visit pollinia removal and deposition, and we calculated pollinator effectiveness and importance. Visitation rates varied significantly between the 2 yr of the study. Overall, Apis mellifera, Bombus sp., and Epargyreus clarus were the most important pollinators. However, Bombus sp. was the only visitor that was observed to both remove and insert pollinia for both parent species as well as hybrids. We conclude that Bombus may be a key agent of hybridization and introgression in these sympatric milkweed populations, and hybrids are neither preferred nor selected against by pollinators. Thus, we have identified a potential mechanism for how hybrids act as bridges to gene flow between A. exaltata and A. syriaca. These results provide insights into the breakdown of prezygotic isolating mechanisms.

  16. Antitumor effect of laticifer proteins of Himatanthus drasticus (Mart.) Plumel - Apocynaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousinho, Kristiana C; Oliveira, Cecília de C; Ferreira, José Roberto de O; Carvalho, Adriana A; Magalhães, Hemerson Iury F; Bezerra, Daniel P; Alves, Ana Paula N N; Costa-Lotufo, Letícia V; Pessoa, Claúdia; de Matos, Mayara Patrícia V; Ramos, Márcio V; Moraes, Manoel O

    2011-09-01

    Himatanthus drasticus (Mart.) Plumel - Apocynaceae is a medicinal plant popularly known as Janaguba. Its bark and latex have been used by the public for cancer treatment, among other medicinal uses. However, there is almost no scientific research report on its medicinal properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the antitumor effects of Himatanthus drasticus latex proteins (HdLP) in experimental models. The in vitro cytotoxic activity of the HdLP was determined on cultured tumor cells. HdLP was also tested for its ability to induce lysis of mouse erythrocytes. In vivo antitumor activity was assessed in two experimental models, Sarcoma 180 and Walker 256 carcinosarcoma. Additionally, its effects on the immunological system were also investigated. HdLP did not show any significant in vitro cytotoxic effect at experimental exposure levels. When intraperitoneally administered, HdLP was active against both in vivo experimental tumors. However, it was inactive by oral administration. The histopathological analysis indicates that the liver and kidney were only weakly affected by HdLP treatment. It was also demonstrated that HdLP acts as an immunomodulatory agent, increasing the production of OVA-specific antibodies. Additionally, it increased relative spleen weight and the incidence of megakaryocyte colonies. In summary, HdLP has some interesting anticancer activity that could be associated with its immunostimulating properties. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  17. Determination of terpenoid indole alkaloids in hairy roots of Rhazya stricta (Apocynaceae) by GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhgari, Amir; Laakso, Into; Seppänen-Laakso, Tuulikki; Yrjönen, Teijo; Vuorela, Heikki; Oksman-Caldentey, Kirsi-Marja; Rischer, Heiko

    2015-01-01

    Rhazya stricta Decne. (Apocynaceae) is a medicinal plant rich in terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs), some of which possess important pharmacological properties. The study material including transgenic hairy root cultures have been developed and their potential for alkaloid production are being investigated. In this study, a comprehensive GC-MS method for qualitative and quantitative analysis of alkaloids from Rhazya hairy roots was developed. The composition of alkaloids was determined by using GC-MS. In quantification, the ratio between alkaloid and internal standard was based on extracted ion from total ion current (TIC) analyses. The developed method was validated. An acceptable precision with RSD ≤ 8% over a linear range of 1 to 100 µg/mL was achieved. The accuracy of the method was within 94-107%. Analysis of hairy root extracts indicated the occurrence of a total of 20 TIAs. Six of them, pleiocarpamine, fluorocarpamine, vincamine, ajmalicine and two yohimbine isomers are reported here for the first time in Rhazya. Trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatisation of the extracts resulted in the separation of two isomers for yohimbine and also for vallesiachotamine. Clearly improved chromatographic profiles of TMS-derivatives were observed for vincanine and for minor compounds vincamine and rhazine. The results show that the present GC-MS method is reliable and well applicable for studying the variation of indole alkaloids in Rhazya samples. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Wax plants disentangled: a phylogeny of Hoya (Marsdenieae, Apocynaceae) inferred from nuclear and chloroplast DNA sequences.

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    Wanntorp, Livia; Kocyan, Alexander; Renner, Susanne S

    2006-06-01

    Hoya (Marsdenieae, Apocynaceae) includes at least 200 species distributed from India to the Pacific Islands. We here infer major species groups in the genus based on combined sequences from the chloroplast atpB-rbcL spacer, the trnL region, and nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS region for 42 taxa of Hoya and close relatives. To assess levels of ITS polymorphism, ITS sequences for a third of the accessions were obtained by cloning. Most ITS clones grouped by species, indicating that speciation in Hoya usually predates ITS duplication. One ITS sequence of H. carnosa, however, grouped with a sequence of the morphologically similar H. pubicalyx, pointing to recent hybridization or the persistence of paralogous copies through a speciation event. The topology resulting from the combined chloroplast and nuclear data recovers some morphology-based sections, such as Acanthostemma and Eriostemma, as well as a well-supported Australian/New Guinean clade. The combined data also suggest that morphological adaptations for ant-symbiosis evolved at least three times within Hoya.

  19. Pollinia transfer on moth legs inHoya carnosa(Apocynaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Ko; Furukawa, Saori; Kawakita, Atsushi

    2017-06-01

    The genus Hoya (Apocynaceae; Asclepiadoideae) is characterized by a set of complex floral characters unique among the asclepiads, but their role in pollination is poorly understood. Here, we report a new mechanism of asclepiad pollination in the wax plant Hoya carnosa: the pollinaria are transferred on the legs of medium or large settling moths. Floral visitors and their behavior were observed on Amami-Oshima Island during 2013-2015, and the efficacy of different pollinators was determined by counting the pollinarium loads on different flower visitors. The floral characters were studied to establish the process of pollination in relation to pollinator behavior on the flower. Hoya carnosa was visited by various settling moths at night, but pollinia attachment was confirmed predominantly on the legs of the large moth Erebus ephesperis (Noctuidae) and less frequently on the legs of the medium-sized moths Bastilla arcuata (Crambidae) and Cleora injectaria (Geometridae). The moths walked around and searched for nectar on the inflorescence, and the corpusculum became clipped to the arolia (adhesive pads on moth tarsi) as they stepped on the pollinaria between the staminal corona. The downward spherical inflorescence of aggregated flowers with flat, velvety petals and a slippery corona provides restricted footholds for the visitors, which efficiently leads pollinator legs to the pollinaria. Although the pollination system of Hoya is largely unknown, pollination by insect legs may be a major pollination system in this genus because these basic floral characters are shared among many species. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  20. Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) dependence, withdrawal symptoms and craving in regular users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Darshan; Müller, Christian P; Vicknasingam, Balasingam K

    2014-06-01

    Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) preparations have been traditionally used in Southeast Asia for its medicinal properties. Lately, Kratom use has spread to Europe and the US, where abuse potential and health hazards increasingly emerge. This study is the first to measure systematically Kratom dependence, withdrawal symptoms, and drug craving in regular Kratom users in Malaysia. A cross-sectional survey of 293 regular Kratom users was conducted in the community across three northern peninsular states of Malaysia. The Leeds Dependence Questionnaire, Marijuana Withdrawal Checklist, and Marijuana Craving Questionnaire-Short Form were used to measure Kratom dependence, withdrawal and craving. More than half of the regular users (>6 month of use) developed severe Kratom dependence problems, while 45% showed a moderate Kratom dependence. Physical withdrawal symptoms commonly experienced include muscle spasms and pain, sleeping difficulty, watery eyes/nose, hot flashes, fever, decreased appetite, and diarrhoea. Psychological withdrawal symptoms commonly reported were restlessness, tension, anger, sadness, and nervousness. The average amount of the psychoactive compound, mitragynine, in a single dose of a Kratom drink was 79mg, suggesting an average daily intake of 276.5mg. Regular users who consumed ≥3 glasses Kratom per day, had higher odds of developing severe Kratom dependence, withdrawal symptoms, and inability to control Kratom craving. The findings from this study show that regular Kratom use is associated with drug dependency, development of withdrawal symptoms, and craving. These symptoms become more severe with prolonged use and suggest a stronger control of the drug. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluating the hematological and clinical-chemistry parameters of kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) users in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Darshan; Müller, Christian P; Murugaiyah, Vikneswaran; Hamid, Shahrul Bariyah Sahul; Vicknasingam, Balasingam K; Avery, Bonnie; Chear, Nelson Jeng Yeou; Mansor, Sharif Mahsufi

    2018-03-25

    Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa Korth.) from the Rubiaceae family is an indigenous tropical medicinal tree of Southeast Asia. Kratom leaves have been used for decades in Malaysia and Thailand in traditional context for its perceived vast medicinal value, and as a mild stimulant among manual labourers. Kratom consumption has been reported to cause side-effects in kratom users. To evaluate kratom's effects towards hematological and clinical-chemistry parameters among regular kratom users in Malaysia. A total of 77 subjects (n=58 regular kratom users, and n=19 healthy controls) participated in this cross-sectional study. All the surveys were conducted through face-to-face interview to elicit subject's socio-demographic characteristics and kratom use history. A full-blood test was also administered. Laboratory analysis was conducted using GC-MS to determine mitragynine content in the acquired kratom samples in order to relate mitragynine consumption with possible alterations in the blood parameters of kratom users. Findings showed that there were no significant differences in the hematological and clinical-chemistry parameters of traditional kratom users and healthy controls, except for HDL and LDL cholesterol values; these were found to be above the normal reference range for the former. Similarly, long-term kratom consumption (>5 years), and quantity of daily kratom use (≥3 ½ glasses; mitragynine content 76.3-114.8mg) did not appear to alter the hematological and biochemical parameters of kratom users. These data suggest that even long-term and heavy kratom consumption did not significantly alter the hematological and clinical-chemistry parameters of kratom users in a traditional setting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Inhibitory effects of kratom leaf extract (Mitragyna speciosa Korth.) on the rat gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittrakarn, Somsmorn; Sawangjaroen, Kitja; Prasettho, Supaporn; Janchawee, Benjamas; Keawpradub, Niwat

    2008-02-28

    Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa Korth.) is an indigenous plant of Thailand used traditionally in folk medicine although it is claimed to cause addiction. It is used to treat diarrhea, however, there is no scientific evidence to support the use. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of methanolic extract of kratom leaves on the rat gastrointestinal tract. Kratom extract at 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg (p.o.) caused a dose dependent protection against castor oil-induced diarrhea in rats and also inhibited intestinal transit. The antidiarrheal effect was not antagonized by naloxzone. The inhibition of intestinal transit by kratom extract was significantly different from the control when treated with a single dose for 1 day. For longer-term treatments of 15 and 30 days, kratom extract did not decrease the intestinal transit time indicating that adaptation had occurred. Kratom extract at a dose level of 200 and 400 mg/kg for 30 days and morphine at 3 mg/kg (i.p.) caused a decrease in the increment of body weight that was significantly different from the control and kratom extract at lower doses (50 and 100 mg/kg). However it had no effect on the level of plasma cholecystokinin. The results suggested that methanolic kratom extract exhibited its antidiarrheal effect on rat gastrointestinal tract. The effects may occur via pathways in addition to the action on opioid receptors. High does of kratom extract decreased the increment of body weight similar to the effect of morphine.

  3. Flowering time control in ornamental gloxinia (Sinningia speciosa) by manipulation of miR159 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyan; Bian, Hongwu; Song, Dafeng; Ma, Shengyun; Han, Ning; Wang, Junhui; Zhu, Muyuan

    2013-05-01

    Gloxinia (Sinningia speciosa) is a popular commercial plant for its attractive and colourful flowers. However, the genetic mechanism of flowering time regulation in gloxinia is largely unknown. Recent studies on model plants have elucidated that miR159 acts as a negative regulator of floral transition in short-day photoperiods. The aim of this study was to investigate whether genetic modification of miR159 expression can offer an effective approach for regulation of flowering characteristics in gloxinia. Transgenic gloxinia plants were generated that over-express or suppress miR159 by means an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system in order to study the effect of miR159 on flowering time. In addition, the full-length cDNA of gloxinia GAMYB (SsGAMYB) was also cloned, and was verified to be a target of miR159 by modified RNA ligase-mediated 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Transgenic gloxinia plants that over-express or suppress miR159 exhibited significantly late or early flowering, respectively. During flower development, the expression level of miR159 was negatively correlated with SsGAMYB in gloxinia. MiR159-mediated SsGAMYB expression affected the expression levels of SsLEAFY (SsLFY) and three MADS-box genes (SsAP1, SsAP3 and SsAG), which regulated floral transition downstream of GAMYB. In addition, suppression of miR159 caused a conversion of petals and sepals in a few transgenic plants. miR159-regulated GAMYB expression is an effective pathway of flowering time control in gloxinia. Transgenic manipulation of miR159 can be used as an applicable strategy to regulate flowering time in commercial ornamental plants.

  4. Anti-Fatigue and Antioxidant Activity of the Polysaccharides Isolated from Millettiae speciosae Champ. Leguminosae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiao-Ning; Liang, Jia-Li; Chen, Han-Bin; Liang, Ye-Er; Guo, Hui-Zhen; Su, Ze-Ren; Li, Yu-Cui; Zeng, Hui-Fang; Zhang, Xiao-Jun

    2015-10-21

    Millettiae speciosae Champ. Leguminosae (MSC), is a well-known Chinese herb traditionally used as food material and medicine for enhancing physical strength. Our preliminary study found that the aqueous extract of this herb (MSE) had an anti-fatigue effect. In this paper, we further separated MSE into total polysaccharides (MSP) and supernatant (MSS) by alcohol precipitation, and explored which fraction was active for its anti-fatigue effect. Mice were orally administered with MSP or MSS at the doses of 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg for 20 days and the anti-fatigue effect was assessed by exhaustive swimming exercise (ESE). The biochemical parameters related to fatigue after ESE and the in vitro antioxidant activity of active fraction were determined. Our results showed that MSP, instead of MSS, significantly extended the swimming time to exhaustion (p < 0.05), indicating that MSP is responsible for the anti-fatigue effect of MSE. In addition, MSP treatment increased the levels of glucose (Glu) and muscle glycogen, whereas it decreased the accumulations of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and lactic acid (Lac). Moreover, ESE increased the levels of creatine phosphokinase (CK), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), and malondialdehyde (MDA) but reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) in plasma. In contrast, MSP inhibited all the above changes relating to fatigue. Furthermore, an in vitro antioxidant test revealed that MSP dose-dependently scavenged ·OH and DPPH free radicals. Taken together, these findings strongly suggested that MSP was able to alleviate physical fatigue by increasing energy resources and decreasing accumulation of detrimental metabolites. The antioxidant activity may crucially contribute to the observed anti-fatigue effect of MSP.

  5. Anti-Fatigue and Antioxidant Activity of the Polysaccharides Isolated from Millettiae speciosae Champ. Leguminosae

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    Xiao-Ning Zhao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Millettiae speciosae Champ. Leguminosae (MSC, is a well-known Chinese herb traditionally used as food material and medicine for enhancing physical strength. Our preliminary study found that the aqueous extract of this herb (MSE had an anti-fatigue effect. In this paper, we further separated MSE into total polysaccharides (MSP and supernatant (MSS by alcohol precipitation, and explored which fraction was active for its anti-fatigue effect. Mice were orally administered with MSP or MSS at the doses of 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg for 20 days and the anti-fatigue effect was assessed by exhaustive swimming exercise (ESE. The biochemical parameters related to fatigue after ESE and the in vitro antioxidant activity of active fraction were determined. Our results showed that MSP, instead of MSS, significantly extended the swimming time to exhaustion (p < 0.05, indicating that MSP is responsible for the anti-fatigue effect of MSE. In addition, MSP treatment increased the levels of glucose (Glu and muscle glycogen, whereas it decreased the accumulations of blood urea nitrogen (BUN and lactic acid (Lac. Moreover, ESE increased the levels of creatine phosphokinase (CK, lactic dehydrogenase (LDH, and malondialdehyde (MDA but reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione (GSH in plasma. In contrast, MSP inhibited all the above changes relating to fatigue. Furthermore, an in vitro antioxidant test revealed that MSP dose-dependently scavenged ·OH and DPPH free radicals. Taken together, these findings strongly suggested that MSP was able to alleviate physical fatigue by increasing energy resources and decreasing accumulation of detrimental metabolites. The antioxidant activity may crucially contribute to the observed anti-fatigue effect of MSP.

  6. Genetic variation detected by RAPD markers in natural populations of babassu palm (Attalea speciosa Mart.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, M F; Damasceno-Silva, K J; Carvalhaes, M A; Lima, P S C

    2015-06-10

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of management on the genetic structure of natural populations of Attalea speciosa in the State of Piauí, Brazil, using random-amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Three babassu populations under different management systems were selected. Polymerase chain reactions were performed for 20 RAPD primers. A total of 146 bands were generated, 141 of which were polymorphic (96.58%), with a variation of 4 and 12 loci and an average of 7 bands per primer. A dendrogram revealed a clear separation between the three populations (0.57). Data reliability and node consistency were verified by bootstrap values and the cophenetic correlation coefficient (88.15%). Coefficients of similarity between pairs of genotypes ranged from 0.26 to 0.86, with a mean of 0.57. Nei's genetic diversity index (HE) value of the population sampled in Teresina was 0.212, of Esperantina it was 0.195, and of José de Freitas it was 0.207. After the HE was decomposed, the complete diversity was found to be 0.3213. Genetic differentiation between populations was 0.362, and the estimation of gene flow between populations was low (0.879). Analysis of molecular variance revealed that 59.52% of the variation was contained within populations, and 40.48% was between populations. RAPD markers were effective for genetic diversity analysis within and between natural babassu populations, and exhibited a high level of polymorphism. Genetic diversity was the highest within populations; variability was lower in the managed populations than in the undisturbed populations.

  7. Efficiency of vegetable extracts for the control of Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, in the laboratory

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    Flávio Roberto de Mello Garcia

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Vulgarly known as “vaquinha”, Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824 spread itself to the majority of Brazilian states, and it became distinguished as one of the most serious pests affecting beans and maize. The aim of this study was to evaluate the insecticidal activity of the crude watery extracts of nine vegetable species on “vaquinha” adults. The laboratory experiment was carried out in completely randomized delineation, with ten treatments and four repetitions. For such, a bottle was used, containing five insect specimens and a common bean leaf (Phaseolus vulgaris Linnaeus previously immersed in the extract, covered with a clipping of porous cloth and fixed by a rubber band. The evaluated variable was the number of surviving D. speciosa specimens. The treatments consisted of salvia (Salvia officinalis Linnaeus, cravo (Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb, moscada nut (Myristica fragans Houtt, cinamomo (Melia azedarach Linnaeus, timbo (Ateleia glazioveana Baill, eucalyptus (Eucalyptus citriodora Hook, cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume, figueira (Ficus microcarpa Linnaeus f., rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis Linnaeus and control (distilled water alone. The evaluations of survival were carried out every 24 hours over a period of 10 days. For the live specimen number, two-way analysis of variance (10 extracts x 11 times after application was used. The averages were grouped by the Duncan test on the level of 5% of probability. The most efficient extracts were timbo, moscada nut and cinamomo, with efficiency percentages varying between 80.4% and 100%.

  8. Effects of Mitragynine and a Crude Alkaloid Extract Derived from Mitragyna speciosa Korth. on Permethrin Elimination in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srichana, Kachamas; Janchawee, Benjamas; Prutipanlai, Sathaporn; Raungrut, Pritsana; Keawpradub, Niwat

    2015-03-27

    Detoxification and elimination of permethrin (PM) are mediated by hydrolysis via carboxylesterase (CES). Mitragyna speciosa (kratom) contains mitragynine (MG) and other bioactive alkaloids. Since PM and MG have the same catalytic site and M. speciosa is usually abused by adding other ingredients such as pyrethroid insecticides, the effects of MG and an alkaloid extract (AE) on the elimination of PM were investigated in rats. Rats were subjected to single and multiple pretreatment with MG and AE prior to receiving a single oral dose (460 mg/kg) of PM. Plasma concentrations of trans-PM and its metabolite phenoxybenzylalcohol (PBAlc) were measured. The elimination rate constant (kel) and the elimination half-life (t1/2 el) of PM were determined, as well as the metabolic ratio (PMR). A single and multiple oral pretreatment with MG and AE altered the plasma concentration-time courses of both trans-PM and PBAlc during 8-22 h, decreased the PMRs, delayed elimination of PM, but enhanced elimination of PBAlc. Results indicated that PM-MG or AE toxicokinetic interactions might have resulted from the MG and AE interfering with PM hydrolysis. The results obtained in rats suggest that in humans using kratom cocktails containing PM, there might be an increased risk of PM toxicity due to inhibition of PM metabolism and elimination.

  9. Effects of Mitragynine and a Crude Alkaloid Extract Derived from Mitragyna speciosa Korth. on Permethrin Elimination in Rats

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    Kachamas Srichana

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Detoxification and elimination of permethrin (PM are mediated by hydrolysis via carboxylesterase (CES. Mitragyna speciosa (kratom contains mitragynine (MG and other bioactive alkaloids. Since PM and MG have the same catalytic site and M. speciosa is usually abused by adding other ingredients such as pyrethroid insecticides, the effects of MG and an alkaloid extract (AE on the elimination of PM were investigated in rats. Rats were subjected to single and multiple pretreatment with MG and AE prior to receiving a single oral dose (460 mg/kg of PM. Plasma concentrations of trans-PM and its metabolite phenoxybenzylalcohol (PBAlc were measured. The elimination rate constant (kel and the elimination half-life (t1/2 el of PM were determined, as well as the metabolic ratio (PMR. A single and multiple oral pretreatment with MG and AE altered the plasma concentration-time courses of both trans-PM and PBAlc during 8–22 h, decreased the PMRs, delayed elimination of PM, but enhanced elimination of PBAlc. Results indicated that PM–MG or AE toxicokinetic interactions might have resulted from the MG and AE interfering with PM hydrolysis. The results obtained in rats suggest that in humans using kratom cocktails containing PM, there might be an increased risk of PM toxicity due to inhibition of PM metabolism and elimination.

  10. Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Aqueous, Methanolic and Alkaloid Extracts from Mitragyna Speciosa (Rubiaceae Family Leaves

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    Mohd I. Mohd. Said

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Mitragyna speciosa leaf extracts are lacking. In this study the antioxidant properties of water, methanolic and alkaloid M. speciosa leaf extracts were evaluated using the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging method. The amount of total phenolics and flavanoid contents were also estimated. The DPPH IC50 values of the aqueous, alkaloid and methanolic extracts were 213.4, 104.81 and 37.08 μg/mL, respectively. The total phenolic content of the aqueous, alkaloid and methanolic extracts were 66.0 mg, 88.4, 105.6 mg GAE/g, respectively, while the total flavanoid were 28.2, 20.0 and 91.1 mg CAE/g respectively. The antioxidant activities were correlated with the total phenolic content. This result suggests that the relatively high antioxidant activity of the methanolic extract compared to aqueous and alkaloid extract could be possibly be due to its high phenolic content. The aqueous, alkaloid and methanolic extracts were screened for antimicrobial activity. The extracts showed antimicrobial activity against Salmonella typhi and Bacillus subtilis. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of extracts determined by the broth dilution method ranged from 3.12 to 6.25 mg/mL. The alkaloid extract was found to be most effective against all of the tested organisms.

  11. Toxic effect of ethanolic extract of Nerium oleander (Apocynaceae) leaves against different developmental stages of Muscina stabulans (Diptera-Muscidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Shazly, M M; Nassar, M I; el-Sherief, H A

    1996-08-01

    Nerium oleander (Apocynaceae) is evergreen shrubs widely used for ornamental purpose in mediterranean region. The present investigation, revealed for the first time the insecticidal effect of ethanolic extract from leaves of this plant against 2nd instar larvae of the medically important false stable fly Muscina stabulans (Diptera: Muscidae). LC50 of the extract was 113.66 ppm. This dose delayed larval and pupal duration suppressed oviposition and decreased adult longevity of the survivors. Morphogenic abnormalities were recorded and photographed in larval, pupal and adult stages, which were produced from treating 2nd instar larvae with different concentrations of the extract.

  12. Analysis of lipid profile and atherogenic index in hyperlipidemic rat (Rattus norvegicus Berkenhout, 1769) that given the methanolic extract of Parijoto (Medinilla speciosa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa'adah, Noor Nailis; Purwani, Kristanti Indah; Nurhayati, Awik Puji Dyah; Ashuri, Nova Maulidina

    2017-06-01

    Diet of high lipids cause hyperlipidemia, which marked by an increase of total cholesterols, triglycerides, LDL-C, and decreasing of HDL-C. Hyperlipidemia lead the occurrence of atherosclerosis, one of factors that trigger cardiovascular disease, as hypertention; coronary heart and stroke. Parijoto (M. speciosa) is endemic plants in Asia with a distribution center in Malaysia, Indonesia and Philippines. Parijoto contain phytochemical components such as flavonoids, saponins and kardenolin. Flavonoid potensial as an antioxidants and can improve the hyperlipidemia condition. This study was aimed to determine lipid profiles and atherogenic index of hyperlipidemic Wistar rats (R. norvegicus Berkenhout, 1769) which given the methanolic extract of Parijoto (M. speciosa). The research was done with pre and post test randomized control group design. Rats were given a mixture of duck yolk and reused cooking oil (1:1) orally as much as 1% of body weight (BW) for 30 days. After hyperlipidemia achieved, rats were divided into 5 group: normal rats, hyperlipidemic rats, hyperlipidemic rats were given the methanolic extract of Parijoto (M. speciosa) 500 mg/kg, 1000 mg/kg, and 1500 mg/kg BW. Blood samples were collected when rats in hyperlipidemia conditions and after treatment with the methanolic extract of Parijoto (M. speciosa) for 30 days. The data of total cholesterol, HDL-Cholesterol, LDL-Cholesterol level, and atherogenic index were analyzed using ANOVA followed by Tukey test at 5% significance level. The result showed that giving of methanolic extract of Parijoto (M. speciosa) in hyperlipidemic rats reduced the total cholesterol, LDL-Cholesterol levels, and increased of HDL-cholesterol levels significantly (p<0.01), so atherogenic index reduced significantly too (p<0.01). Total cholesterol and LDL-Cholesterol levels were positively correlated with the atherogenic index, whereas HDL-cholesterol levels were negatively correlated with the atherogenic index.

  13. Métodos de extração e concentrações no efeito inseticida de Ruta graveolens L., Artemisia verlotorum Lamotte e Petiveria alliacea L. a Diabrotica speciosa Germar Extraction methods and concentrations for the insecticidal effect of Ruta graveolens L., Artemisia verlotorum Lamotte, and Petiveria alliacea L. against Diabrotica speciosa Germar

    OpenAIRE

    F.S. Barbosa; G.L.D. Leite; E.R. Martins; R.E.M. Guanabens; F.W.S. Silva

    2009-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o melhor método de extração e concentração para Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae), Artemisia verlotorum Lamotte (Asteraceae) e Petiveria alliacea L. (Phytolaccaceae) quanto ao efeito inseticida a Diabrotica speciosa Germar (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Os extratos que utilizaram óleo de soja comercial, pelo menos como um dos solventes, apresentaram maior mortalidade de D. speciosa em suas testemunhas (solvente = óleo), nas três plantas estudadas, em relação...

  14. Plant regeneration of Rhabdadenia Ragonesei (Apocynaceae by in vitro culturing of leaf explants REGENERACIÓN DE PLANTAS DE RHABDADENIA RAGONESEI (APOCYNACEAE POR CULTIVO IN VITRO DE EXPLANTES FOLIARES

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    Eduardo Flachsland

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Plants of Rhabdadenia Ragonesei Woodson (Apocynaceae were regenerated in vitro from leaves explants. The procedure employed includes: 1 Surface sterilization of leaves by immersion in 70% ethanol (10 s followed by 1,1%NaOCl (15 min and three wash with sterile distilled water. 2 Callus and buds induction by culture on Murashige and Skoog medium (MS + 3 mg/L benzyladenine (BAP. 3 Subculture of callus and buds on MS + 1 mg/L BAP, and 4 Rooting on MS + 0.5 mg/L naftalenacetic acid Se regeneraron plantas de Rhabdadenia Ragonesei Woodson (Apocynaceae mediante el cultivo in vitro de explantes foliares en condiciones ambientales controladas. El procedimiento consistió en: 1 Desinfección de las hojas por inmersión en etanol al 70% (10 s seguida de Inmersión en NaOCl al 1,1% (15 min y lavado tres veces con agua destilada estéril. 2 Inducción de callos y yemas mediante el cultivo de explantes foliares en el medio de Murashige y Skoog (MS + 3 mg/L de benciladenina (BAP. 3 Subcultivo de callos y yemas en MS + 1 mg/L de BAP y 4 Enraizamiento de los vastagos obtenidos en MS + 0,5 mg/L de ácido naftalenacético

  15. As Apocynaceae da região de Poços de Caldas, Minas Gerais, Brasil Apocynaceae of Poços de Caldas region, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

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    Marina Bragatto Vasconcellos

    1993-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho consiste no estudo florístico da familia Apocynaceae em Poços de Caldas, dada sua representatividade na região e o valor fitoquímico e ornamental de várias de suas espécies. Foram encontradas 17 espécies distribuídas entre 8 gêneros: Aspidosperma Mart e Zucc., Condylocarpon Desf., Forsteronia G.F.W. Mey., Macrosiphonia Muell. Arg., Mandevilla Lindl., Peltastes R.E. Woodson, Prestonia R. Br. e Rauvolfia L.A floristic study of the family Apocynaceae im Poços de Caldas was carried out, since the family is well represented in the region and many species have phytochermical and ornamental value. The family is represented by 17 species distributed in 8 genera: Aspidosperma Mart e Zucc., Condylocarpon Desf., Forsteronia G.F.W. Mey., Macrosiphonia Muell. Arg., Mandevilla Lindl., Peltastes R.E. Woodson, Prestonia R. Br. and Rauvolfia L.

  16. A look at ploidy level of Vincetoxicum nigrum (L.) Moench and V. rossicum (Kleopow) Barbar. (Apocynaceae) from the perspective of a study of their invasion success

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study aimed to document precisely the patterns of chromosome counts and/or ploidy level variation of Vincetoxicum nigrum (L.) Moench and V. rossicum (Kleopow) Barbar. (Apocynaceae) following their introduction and dispersion in the U.S. and Canada. V. nigrum is native to southwestern Europe whe...

  17. Ploidy level and genome size of Vincetoxicum nigrum (L.) Moench and V. rossicum (Kleopow) Barbarich (Apocynaceae), two invasive vines in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincetoxicum nigrum (L.) Moench [Black swallow-wort] and V. rossicum (Kleopow) Barbarich [Pale swallow-wort] (Apocynaceae) are perennial vines that are targeted for classical biological control as a result of their massive invasion in natural areas and horticultural nurseries in the U.S. and Canada....

  18. Pharmacobotanic characterization of young stems and stem barks of Rauvolfia sellowii Müll. Arg., Apocynaceae

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    Leopoldo Clemente Baratto

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Rauvolfia sellowii Müll. Arg. (Apocynaceae, a Brazilian native tree rich in indole alkaloids, is known as "pau-pra-tudo" and popularly used as hypocholesterolemic, hypoglycemic and antihypertensive. The aim of this work was to study the anatomy of the young stems and stem barks of this medicinal plant, in order to contribute to the identification of the species as a drug. The plant material was fixed and prepared according to standard microtechniques. The young stems have remaining epidermis, but a suberified peridermis is evident. The phellogen is located in the cortical region, forming suber externally. Underneath the phellogen, lies the phelloderm and collenchymatic region. In the cortex, there are numerous laticifers and some fibers. There is an incomplete sclerenchymatic sheath, consisting of several groups of fibers and stone cells. The stem has internal phloem ordered as isolated groups side by side. Numerous laticifers, calcium oxalate crystals, idioblasts and amyloplasts are found in the cortex, phloem, xylem and pith. The stem bark has many layers of suber and cortical parenchyma, a sheath composed of fibers and stone cells totally lignified, and external phloem. These anatomical characteristic, taken together, can be used as quality control parameters for this species.Rauvolfia sellowii Müll. Arg. (Apocynaceae, uma árvore nativa brasileira rica em alcaloides indólicos, é conhecida como "pau-pra-tudo" e utilizada popularmente como hipocolesterolêmica, hipoglicêmica e anti-hipertensiva. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar anatomicamente o caule jovem e a casca caulinar dessa planta medicinal, a fim de contribuir para a identificação e autenticidade da droga. O material vegetal foi fixado e submetido às microtécnicas usuais. O caule jovem possui epiderme remanescente, porém uma periderme suberificada é observada. O felogênio instala-se na região cortical, formando súber externamente. Subjacentes ao felog

  19. Morfo-anatomia de frutos secos em espécies de Apocynaceae: significado ecológico e evolutivo Morphoanatomy of dry fruits in Apocynaceae species: ecological and evolutionary significance

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    Sueli Maria Gomes

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Frutos secos predominam entre as espécies de Apocynaceae, especialmente aqueles do tipo folículo, apontado na literatura para Aspidosperma parvifolium A.DC., Mesechites mansoana (A.DC. Woodson e Prestonia coalita (Vell. Woodson. Frutos fechados e abertos destas espécies foram examinados anatomicamente com o objetivo de confrontar suas características com aquelas de outras espécies da família. Constatou-se que os frutos de P. coalita são cápsulas bicarpelares septicidas, significando a presença de dois tipos de frutos neste gênero, em lugar de apenas um, como se pensava anteriormente. Cápsulas podem estar presentes em outras espécies de Prestonia e em outros gêneros da família relatados como tendo folículos. Para Apocynaceae, alguns caracteres taxonômicos devem ser considerados, como espessura e número de camadas das regiões e sub-regiões do pericarpo; presença de aerênquima, esclereídes, fibras longitudinais não-lignificadas ou idioblastos secretores no mesocarpo; posicionamento dos feixes vasculares no mesocarpo; espessura do endocarpo e orientação de suas fibras; presença de costas internas no pericarpo. Adicionalmente, discutiu-se sobre o papel das costas internas do pericarpo e das fibras não-lignificadas do mesocarpo para o mecanismo xerocástico. Desenvolveu-se um teste de desidratação total para determinar a curvatura máxima do pericarpo, relacionando as implicações com a deiscência.Dry fruits predominate in Apocynaceae species, especially the follicle type reported for Aspidosperma parvifolium A.DC., Mesechites mansoana (A.DC. Woodson and Prestonia coalita (Vell. Woodson. Anatomical analysis of intact and open fruits was carried out to compare characteristics with those of other species of this family. We found that the fruit of P. coalita is a bicarpellary septicidal capsule, showing that this genus has two types of fruits instead of one as previously thought. Capsules may be found in other Prestonia

  20. Antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antiulcerogenic activities of ethanol root extract of Strophanthus hispidus DC (Apocynaceae).

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    Ishola, Ismail O; Awodele, Olufunsho; Oreagba, Ibrahim A; Murtala, Abdulahi A; Chijioke, Micah C

    2013-01-01

    Strophanthus hispidus DC (Apocynaceae) is a medicinal plant widely used in traditional African medicine in the treatment of rheumatic afflictions, ulcer, conjunctivitis, leprosy and skin diseases. This study sought to investigate the antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antiulcer properties of the ethanol root extract of S. hispidus. Antinociceptive activity was evaluated using acetic acid-induced writhing and formalin tests in mice. The carrageenan- and egg albumin-induced rat paw edema tests were used to investigate the anti-inflammatory actions, whereas the antiulcer activity was investigated using ethanol-, HCl- and pyloric ligation-induced gastric ulcer models in rats. S. hispidus [100-800 mg/kg orally (po)] produced significant (p<0.05) inhibition of writhing reflex with peak effect of 74.13% inhibition observed at 800 mg/kg. Similarly, S. hispidus significantly (p<0.05) attenuated formalin-induced early and late phase of nociception with peak effect of 61.84% and 89.43%, respectively, at 200 mg/kg. S. hispidus (25-800 mg/kg po) caused significant (p<0.05) inhibition of edema development in the carrageenan and egg albumin models with peak effect (93.40% and 90.10% inhibition of edema formation) observed at 50 mg/kg. With respect to antiulcer activity, S. hispidus (100-800 mg/kg) showed potent antiulcer activity with respective peak effects of 96% (ethanol-induced), 99% (HCl-induced) and 70.60% inhibition of ulcer. The findings in this study suggest that the ethanol root extract of S. hispidus possesses antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antiulcerogenic activities. This justifies the use of the extract in folklore medicine for the treatment of ulcer and inflammatory disorders.

  1. Functional morphology and wasp pollination of two South American asclepiads (Asclepiadoideae-Apocynaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiemer, A P; Sérsic, A N; Marino, S; Simões, A O; Cocucci, A A

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS The extreme complexity of asclepiad flowers (Asclepiadoideae-Apocynaceae) has generated particular interest in the pollination biology of this group of plants especially in the mechanisms involved in the pollination processes. This study compares two South American species, Morrenia odorata and Morrenia brachystephana, with respect to morphology and anatomy of flower structures, dynamic aspects of the pollination mechanism, diversity of visitors and effectiveness of pollinators. Floral structure was studied with fresh and fixed flowers following classical techniques. The pollination mechanism was studied by visiting fresh flowers in the laboratory with artificial pollinator body parts created with an eyelash. Morphometric and nectar measurements were also taken. Pollen transfer efficiency in the flowers was calculated by recording the frequency of removed and inserted pollinia. Visitor activity was recorded in the field, and floral visitors were captured for subsequent analysis of pollen loads. Finally, pollinator effectiveness was calculated with an index. The detailed structure of the flowers revealed a complex system of guide rails and chambers precisely arranged in order to achieve effective pollinaria transport. Morrenia odorata is functionally specialized for wasp pollination, and M. brachystephana for wasp and bee pollination. Pollinators transport chains of pollinaria adhered to their mouthparts. Morrenia odorata and M. brachystephana present differences in the morphology and size of their corona, gynostegium and pollinaria, which explain the differences in details of the functioning of the general pollination mechanism. Pollination is performed by different groups of highly effective pollinators. Morrenia species are specialized for pollination mainly by several species of wasps, a specialized pollination which has been poorly studied. In particular, pompilid wasps are reported as important pollinators in other regions outside South

  2. Functional morphology and wasp pollination of two South American asclepiads (Asclepiadoideae–Apocynaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiemer, A. P.; Sérsic, A. N.; Marino, S.; Simões, A. O.; Cocucci, A. A.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims The extreme complexity of asclepiad flowers (Asclepiadoideae–Apocynaceae) has generated particular interest in the pollination biology of this group of plants especially in the mechanisms involved in the pollination processes. This study compares two South American species, Morrenia odorata and Morrenia brachystephana, with respect to morphology and anatomy of flower structures, dynamic aspects of the pollination mechanism, diversity of visitors and effectiveness of pollinators. Methods Floral structure was studied with fresh and fixed flowers following classical techniques. The pollination mechanism was studied by visiting fresh flowers in the laboratory with artificial pollinator body parts created with an eyelash. Morphometric and nectar measurements were also taken. Pollen transfer efficiency in the flowers was calculated by recording the frequency of removed and inserted pollinia. Visitor activity was recorded in the field, and floral visitors were captured for subsequent analysis of pollen loads. Finally, pollinator effectiveness was calculated with an index. Key Results The detailed structure of the flowers revealed a complex system of guide rails and chambers precisely arranged in order to achieve effective pollinaria transport. Morrenia odorata is functionally specialized for wasp pollination, and M. brachystephana for wasp and bee pollination. Pollinators transport chains of pollinaria adhered to their mouthparts. Conclusions Morrenia odorata and M. brachystephana present differences in the morphology and size of their corona, gynostegium and pollinaria, which explain the differences in details of the functioning of the general pollination mechanism. Pollination is performed by different groups of highly effective pollinators. Morrenia species are specialized for pollination mainly by several species of wasps, a specialized pollination which has been poorly studied. In particular, pompilid wasps are reported as important pollinators

  3. Crassulacean Acid Metabolism Permutation and Survival of Caralluma Species (Apocynaceae in Arid Habitats

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    Yahya S. Masrahi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Several species of the stem succulent Caralluma (Apocynaceae are abundant perennials in arid regions of the Arabian Peninsula. These arid regions have a short wet season with erratic rainfall and are characterized by harsh climatic conditions of high temperature, high evaporation and sand storms. Work presented in this paper aimed at investigating importance of Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM for survival of three Caralluma species in their natural habitat. Investigations involved studying stomatal characteristics, stomatal diffusive conductance, chlorophyll fluorescence, and CAM in three species of Caralluma, namely C. acutangula (Decne. N.E.Br., C. edulis (Edgew. Benth. ex Hook.f., and C. subulata (Forssk. Decne. Microscopic examination revealed a pattern of stomatal characteristics typical of CAM plants in these three Caralluma species. Results showed that these three Caralluma species were obligate CAM plants exhibiting this mode of photosynthesis during both the wet and the dry seasons. Under protracted water stress during the long dry season very low values of stomatal diffusive conductance and dampening of CAM acidification-deacidification cycles denoted the tendency of these three Caralluma species to shift from the obligate CAM physiotype to CAM-idling mode. Chlorophyll fluorescence measurements indicated that protracted water stress induced a reduction in Photosystem II (PSII antenna efficiency and quantum yield in the three studied Caralluma species. This reduction of PSII activity occurred in concomitance with a marked rise in non-photochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence denoting operation of non-photochemical energy dissipating mechanisms known to be important for photoprotection of the photosynthetic apparatus.

  4. Eficiência de extratos vegetais no controle de Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, em laboratório

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    Junir Antonio Lutinski

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2010v23n1p83 Vulgarmente conhecida como “vaquinha”, Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824 ocorre na maioria dos estados brasileiros, destacando-se como uma das mais importantes pragas do feijoeiro e do milho. Visando avaliar a atividade inseticida de extratos brutos aquosos de nove espécies vegetais sobre os adultos deste inseto, realizou-se este trabalho. O experimento, conduzido em laboratório, foi realizado sob delineamento completamente casualizado, com dez tratamentos e quatro repetições. Para tal, utilizou-se um frasco, contendo em seu interior cinco espécimes adultos e uma folha de feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris Linnaeus previamente imersa no extrato, tampado com um recorte de pano poroso e fixado por uma borracha. A variável avaliada foi número de espécimes de D. speciosa vivos. Os tratamentos consistiram em extratos de salvia (Salvia officinalis Linnaeus, cravo (Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb, noz-moscada (Myristica fragans Houtt, cinamomo (Melia azedarach Linnaeus, timbó (Ateleia glazioveana Baill, eucalipto (Eucalyptus citriodora Hook, canela (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume, figueira (Ficus microcarpa Linnaeus f., alecrim (Rosmarinus officinalis Linnaeus e a testemunha (apenas água destilada. As avaliações de sobrevivência foram realizadas a cada 24 horas, durante 10 dias. Sobre o número de espécimes vivos efetuou-se a análise de variância em bifatorial (10 extratos x 11 horários após a aplicação. As médias foram agrupadas pelo teste de Duncan ao nível de 5% de probabilidade de erro. Os extratos mais eficientes foram o timbó, noz-moscada e cinamomo, com porcentagens de eficiência variando entre 80,4% e 100%.

  5. Evaluation of the Effects of Mitragyna speciosa Alkaloid Extract on Cytochrome P450 Enzymes Using a High Throughput Assay

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    Raja Elina Raja Aziddin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The extract from Mitragyna speciosa has been widely used as an opium substitute, mainly due to its morphine-like pharmacological effects. This study investigated the effects of M. speciosa alkaloid extract (MSE on human recombinant cytochrome P450 (CYP enzyme activities using a modified Crespi method. As compared with the liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method, this method has shown to be a fast and cost-effective way to perform CYP inhibition studies. The results indicated that MSE has the most potent inhibitory effect on CYP3A4 and CYP2D6, with apparent half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 values of 0.78 µg/mL and 0.636 µg/mL, respectively. In addition, moderate inhibition was observed for CYP1A2, with an IC50 of 39 µg/mL, and weak inhibition was detected for CYP2C19. The IC50 of CYP2C19 could not be determined, however, because inhibition was < 50%. Competitive inhibition was found for the MSE-treated CYP2D6 inhibition assay, whereas non-competitive inhibition was shown in inhibition assays using CYP3A4, CYP1A2 and CYP2C19. Quinidine (CYP2D6, ketoconazole (CYP3A4, tranylcypromine (CYP2C19 and furafylline (CYP1A2 were used as positive controls throughout the experiments. This study shows that MSE may contribute to an herb-drug interaction if administered concomitantly with drugs that are substrates for CYP3A4, CYP2D6 and CYP1A2.

  6. Ocorrência e potencial biotecnológico de leveduras associadas aos frutos de Attalea speciosa

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    Stella Costa Santos do Vale

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available O Babaçu (Attalea speciosa Mart ex. Spreng, é uma palmeira oleaginosa pertencente à família Arecaceae, das partes que compõem o fruto do babaçu, 15% do peso total do fruto correspondem ao epicarpo; 20% ao mesocarpo e 58% ao endocarpo (incluindo as amêndoas, sendo a amêndoa sua componente mais utilizada. Às leveduras estão intimamente associadas a uma grande variedade de insetos e de plantas. Dentre todos os órgãos dos vegetais em que há registro da existência de leveduras, os frutos representam importantes micro-habitats naturais para uma diversidade significativa de espécies de leveduras. O objetivo de este trabalho foi isolar e testar as habilidades enzimáticas de linhagens de leveduras associadas as amêndoas de Orbignya speciosa, e seu possível potencial biotecnológico para utilização com fins industriais. Foram realizadas 10 coletas, com sete dias de intervalo entre cada uma, durante 3 meses, onde foram obtidos 15 amêndoas por coleta. Foram isoladas 84 linhagens de leveduras. Atividade enzimática foi avaliada e dentre as oitenta e quatro linhagens de leveduras testadas quanto a capacidades de hidrolisar a caseína em meio protease, 26,04 % apresentaram potencial enzimático em pH ácido, 31,92% em pH neutro e 28,56% em pH alcalino, demonstrando potencial enzimático em diferentes pHs.A atividade lipolítica também foi satisfatória onde, sessenta e duas linhagens produtores de lipases podem ter uso potencial para testes de emprego comercial de lipases microbianas. Já a atividade celulolítica foi mais limitada, apenas dezenove linhagens se mostraram degradantes de celulose.

  7. Induction and Analysis of the Alkaloid Mitragynine Content of a Mitragyna speciosa Suspension Culture System upon Elicitation and Precursor Feeding

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    Nor Nahazima Mohamad Zuldin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the effects of different concentrations and combinations of the phytohormones 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D, kinetin, 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP, and 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA on callus induction and to demonstrate the role of elicitors and exogenous precursors on the production of mitragynine in a Mitragyna speciosa suspension culture. The best callus induction was achieved from petiole explants cultured on WPM that was supplemented with 4 mg L−1 2, 4-D (70.83%. Calli were transferred to liquid media and agitated on rotary shakers to establish Mitragyna speciosa cell suspension cultures. The optimum settled cell volume was achieved in the presence of WPM that contained 3 mg L−1 2,4-D and 3% sucrose (9.47±0.4667 mL. The treatment of cultures with different concentrations of yeast extract and salicylic acid for different inoculation periods revealed that the highest mitragynine content as determined by HPLC was achieved from the culture treated with 250 mg L−1 yeast extract (9.275±0.082 mg L−1 that was harvested on day 6 of culturing; salicylic acid showed low mitragynine content in all concentrations used. Tryptophan and loganin were used as exogenous precursors; the highest level of mitragynine production was achieved in cultures treated with 3 μM tryptophan and harvested at 6 days (13.226±1.98 mg L−1.

  8. Synthesis, characterization and application of Lagerstroemia speciosa embedded magnetic nanoparticle for Cr(VI) adsorption from aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Shalini; Agrawal, Shashi Bhushan; Mondal, Monoj Kumar

    2017-05-01

    Lagerstroemia speciosa bark (LB) embedded magnetic nanoparticles were prepared by co-precipitation of Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ salt solution with ammonia and LB for Cr(VI) removal from aqueous solution. The native LB, magnetic nanoparticle (MNP), L. speciosa embedded magnetic nanoparticle (MNPLB) and Cr(VI) adsorbed MNPLB particles were characterized by SEM-EDX, TEM, BET-surface area, FT-IR, XRD and TGA methods. TEM analysis confirmed nearly spherical shape of MNP with an average diameter of 8.76nm and the surface modification did not result in the phase change of MNP as established by XRD analysis, while led to the formation of secondary particles of MNPLB with diameter of 18.54nm. Characterization results revealed covalent binding between the hydroxyl group of MNP and carboxyl group of LB particles and further confirmed its physico-chemical nature favorable for Cr(VI) adsorption. The Cr(VI) adsorption on to MNPLB particle as an adsorbent was tested under different contact time, initial Cr(VI) concentration, adsorbent dose, initial pH, temperature and agitation speed. The results of the equilibrium and kinetics of adsorption were well described by Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second-order model, respectively. The thermodynamic parameters suggest spontaneous and endothermic nature of Cr(VI) adsorption onto MNPLB. The maximum adsorption capacity for MNPLB was calculated to be 434.78mg/g and these particles even after Cr(VI) adsorption were collected effortlessly from the aqueous solution by a magnet. The desorption of Cr(VI)-adsorbed MNPLB was found to be more than 93.72% with spent MNPLB depicting eleven successive adsorption-desorption cycles. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Micromorphology and Histochemistry of the Laticifers from Vegetative Organs of Asclepiadoideae species (Apocynaceae

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    Diego DEMARCO

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Micromorphology and main substances of the laticifer walls and latex of Asclepias curassavica, Fischeria stellata, Gonioanthela axillaris, Matelea denticulata, and Oxypetalum banksii were analyzed and compared with those of Apocynacean Cerrado species. Laticifers of the studied species from different rainforest vegetations exhibit similar features. The walls are primary, highly hydrated, pectic-cellulosic, and firmly attached to adjacent cell walls. The latex is milky white, constituted by polysaccharides, including mucilage, proteins, lipids, including fatty acids, phenolic compounds, and alkaloids; however, Fischeria and Gonioanthela differ from the other species for also producing neutral lipids. The latex of the investigated species is related to plant defense against herbivory, and may be toxic and inhibit microorganism proliferation. Also, it can coagulate, sealing plants wounds and working as a physical barrier. These latex properties provide greater adaptive advantage to these plants in relation to non-latescent plants.MICROMORFOLOGÍA E HISTOQUÍMICA DE LOS LATICÍFEROS DE ÓRGANOS VEGETATIVOS DE ESPECIES DE ASCLEPIADOIDEAE (APOCYNACEAELa micromorfología y las principales clases de componentes de las paredes de los laticíferos y del látex de Asclepias curassavica, Fischeria stellata, Gonioanthela axillaris, Matelea denticulata y Oxypetalum banksii, fueron analizadas y comparadas con las de especies de Apocynaceae de Cerrado. Los laticíferos de las especies estudiadas de diferentes tipos de bosques presentan características semejantes. Las paredes son primarias, altamente hidratadas, pecto-celulósicas y fuertemente adheridas a las paredes de las células adyacentes. El látex es blanco lechoso, constituido por polisacáridos, incluyendo mucílago, proteínas, lípidos, incluyendo ácidos grasos, compuestos fenólicos e alcaloides. Fischeria y Gonioanthela difieren de las demás especies por producir lípidos neutros. El látex de

  10. Calotropis gigantiea (L.) R. Br (Apocynaceae): a phytochemical and pharmacological review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadiyala, Madhuri; Ponnusankar, S; Elango, Kannan

    2013-10-28

    Calotropis gigantiea (L.) R. Br (Apocynaceae) commonly called as "crown flower" or "giant milk weed" is a well-known weed to many cultures for treating various disorders related to central nervous system, skin diseases, digestive system, respiratory system, reproductive system etc. Indigenous groups made the plant as a part of their lives since they use the fruit fibre to make ropes, household items, for weaving clothes and flowers for garlands apart from usage for various indications. The study aims at far-reaching review on phytochemistry, pharmacological activities, ethnopharmacology, intellectual property transfer on pharmacological therapies, toxicity which aids to provide scientific evidence for the ethnobotanical claims and to identify gaps required to be conducted as a future research prerequisite. A systematic literature search was performed using different databases such as Scopus, Science direct, PubMed and Sciverse with no timeline limit set during the search. All the available abstracts and full text articles were included in the systematic review. Most of the folkloric uses were validated by the scientific studies such as analgesic, anti-arthritic, anti-asthmatic, anti-bacterial, anti-convulsant, anti-pyretic, central nervous system disorders, contraceptive, anti-ulcer and wound healing. In addition other studies such as anti-diabetic, anti-diarrhoeal, anti-helminthic, anti-histamine, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-oxidant, cardio-protective studies, cytotoxicity, hepatoprotectivity, fibrinolytic, mosquitocidal, nerve muscle activity, vasodilation and skeletal muscle activities were also reported for the plant. Isolated compounds such as calotropin, frugoside and 4'-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl frugoside were tested for the cytotoxicity efficacy against both human and rat cell lines out of which calotropin showed potent activity (IC50-15 ng/ml). However there were no clinical trials reported on the plant which is one of the major lacunas. This

  11. Feeding behavior of hummingbirds and perching birds on Erythrina speciosa Andrews (Fabaceae) flowers in an urban area, Londrina, Paraná, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana Baza Mendonça; Luiz dos Anjos

    2006-01-01

    Nine species of birds - seven hummingbirds (Trochilidae) and two Passeriformes - were observed visiting the flowers of Erythrina speciosa Andrews (Fabaceae), a hummingbird-pollinated species present on the campus of Londrina State University, Paraná State, Brazil. Nectar in bagged flowers bore little relationship with nectar in flowers opened to foragers either regarding quantity or diurnal pattern of availability. Birds were more frequent early in the morning and their activity on flowers fu...

  12. Solar catalysed activity against methyl orange dye, cytotoxicity activity of MCF-7 cell lines and identification of marker compound by HPTLC of Lagerstroemia speciosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai Saraswathi, V; Rajaguru, P; Santhakumar, K

    2017-05-01

    The investigation was aimed to quantify the Gallic acid present in Lagerstroemia speciosa leaves (Lythraceae). The High-Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) quantification was performed for acetone (AE), methanolic (ME) and chloroform (CE) extract of leaves of L. speciosa. The pre-coated silica gel 60 F 254 was used for complete separation of compounds using the mobile phase pet. Ether: ethyl acetate: formic acid (5:5:1v/v).The validation of the extracts was carried out using ICH guidelines for precision, repeatability and accuracy showing the Rf 0.49 against standard Gallic acid. Linearity range for Gallic acid was done from 200 to 1000ng/spot (AE) and200 ng to 600ng/spot (ME), with Correlation, coefficient r=0.99 (AE) and 0.54 (ME) in the said concentrations. The composition in crude leaf extract was determined to be of 49.712mg (AE) and 20.125mg (ME), while it was not found in chloroform extract against standard Gallic acid. Hence the proposed method was very simple, precise, accurate and easy for the screening of the bioactive compounds present in the acetone and methanolic extracts of the leaves of L. speciosa. It was observed that the acetone extract subjected to cytotoxicity showed promising activity at higher concentrations (100 and 200μg/ml) showed 92.9% and 87.13% inhibition against MCF-7 cell lines respectively. The photocatalytic activity of the acetone and methanolic extracts of methyl orange was found to be 90.25% (190min) and 89.03% (180min) respectively. Therefore this can be used as an indicator of purity of herbal drugs and formulation containing L. speciosa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of the cytotoxic activity of some Brazilian medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Sandra S; de Jesus, Aline M; dos Anjos, Charlene S; da Silva, Thanany B; Santos, Alan D C; de Jesus, Jemmyson R; Andrade, Moacir S; Sampaio, Tais S; Gomes, Wesley F; Alves, Péricles B; Carvalho, Adriana A; Pessoa, Claudia; de Moraes, Manoel O; Pinheiro, Maria L B; Prata, Ana Paula N; Blank, Arie F; Silva-Mann, Renata; Moraes, Valeria R S; Costa, Emmanoel V; Nogueira, Paulo Cesar L; Bezerra, Daniel P

    2012-09-01

    Plants are promising sources of new bioactive compounds. The aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxic potential of nine plants found in Brazil. The species studied were: Annona pickelii Diels (Annonaceae), Annona salzmannii A. DC. (Annonaceae), Guatteria blepharophylla Mart. (Annonaceae), Guatteria hispida (R. E. Fr.) Erkens & Maas (Annonaceae), Hancornia speciosa Gomes (Apocynaceae), Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae), Kielmeyera rugosa Choisy (Clusiaceae), Lippia gracilis Schauer (Verbenaceae), and Hyptis calida Mart. Ex Benth (Lamiaceae). Different types of extractions from several parts of plants resulted in 43 extracts. Their cytotoxicity was tested against HCT-8 (colon carcinoma), MDA-MB-435 (melanoma), SF-295 (glioblastoma), and HL-60 (promielocitic leukemia) human tumor cell lines, using the thiazolyl blue test (MTT) assay. The active extracts were those obtained from G. blepharophylla, G. hispida, J. curcas, K. rugosa, and L. gracilis. In addition, seven compounds isolated from the active extracts were tested; among them, β-pinene found in G. hispida and one coumarin isolated from K. rugora showed weak cytotoxic activity. In summary, this manuscript contributes to the understanding of the potentialities of Brazilian plants as sources of new anticancer drugs. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. The effect of Salvia divinorum and Mitragyna speciosa extracts, fraction and major constituents on place aversion and place preference in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sufka, Kenneth J; Loria, Melissa J; Lewellyn, Kevin; Zjawiony, Jordan K; Ali, Zulfiqar; Abe, Naohito; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2014-01-01

    Consumer use of botanicals has increased despite, in many instances, the paucity of research demonstrating efficacy or identifying liabilities. This research employed the place preference/aversion paradigm to characterize the psychoactive properties of Salvia divinorum extract (10, 30, 100mg/kg), salvinorin A (0.1, 0.3, 1.0mg/kg), Mitragyna speciosa MeOH extract (50, 100, 300 mg/kg), Mitragyna speciosa alkaloid-enriched fraction (12.5, 25, 75 mg/kg) and mitragynine (5, 10, 30 mg/kg) in rats. Following apparatus habituation and baseline preference scores, male Sprague-Dawley rats were given eight counter-balanced drug versus vehicle conditioning trials followed by a preference test conducted under drug-free states. S(+)-amphetamine (1mg/kg) served as the positive control (in Exp. 2) and haloperidol (0.8, 1.0mg/kg) served as the negative control in both studies. Rats displayed place aversion to both Salvia divinorum and salvinorin A that exceeded that of haloperidol. Rats showed place preference to mitragynine that was similar to that of S(+)-amphetamine. This CPP effect was much less pronounced with the Mitragyna speciosa extract and its fraction. These findings suggest that both botanicals possess liabilities, albeit somewhat different, that warrant caution in their use. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  15. Spirolactone iridoids might be responsible for the antileishmanial activity of a Peruvian traditional remedy made with Himatanthus sucuuba (Apocynaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, D; Arevalo, J; Herrera, F; Ruiz, C; Rojas, R; Rengifo, E; Vaisberg, A; Lock, O; Lemesre, J-L; Gornitzka, H; Sauvain, M

    2007-06-13

    Extracts of seven medicinal plants used specifically against cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Madre de Dios region of Peru were evaluated in vitro against promastigote and axenic amastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis. One of them showed interesting leishmanicidal activities (IC(50)=5 microg/ml in amastigotes). Bio-guided isolation of the stem bark's ethanol extract of Himatanthus sucuuba (Spruce ex Müll. Arg.) Woodson (Apocynaceae) afforded the spirolactone iridoids isoplumericin and plumericin. The latter showed a reduction of macrophage infection similar to that of the reference drug Amphotericin B (IC(50)=0.9 and 1 microM, respectively). These findings validate the traditional use of Himatanthus sucuuba in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (Uta) in Peru.

  16. The Drosophilidae (Diptera) of the Scattered Islands, with the description of a novel association with Leptadenia madagascariensis Decne. (Apocynaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassin, Amir; Gidaszewski, Nelly; Albert, Béatrice; Hivert, Jean; David, Jean R; Orgogozo, Virginie; Debat, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Thirteen drosophilid species belonging to seven genera and two subfamilies are reported from three coral islands (namely Europa, Juan de Nova and Glorioso) that belong to the Scattered Islands in the Indian Ocean. Five species are cosmopolitan and five are African. Three are endemic to the insular Western Indian Ocean, including a presumably new Scaptodrosophila species. On the island of Juan de Nova, most captured flies had pollinia attached to the bases of their proboscis. DNA analysis using the rbcl gene revealed that these pollinia belong to the genus Leptadenia (Apocynaceae), of which a single species L. madagascariensis, endemic in Madagascar and Comoros, is present in this island. This is the first reported association between this plant and drosophilids.

  17. Development of transcriptome-derived SSR markers for Hoya ledongensis (Apocynaceae) and cross-amplification in a congener.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zheng; Deng, Yuncheng; Zhou, Renchao; He, Shaoyun

    2016-09-01

    To examine patterns of genetic diversity and test possible hybridization events, microsatellite markers were identified and characterized in Hoya ledongensis (Apocynaceae), and cross-amplification was tested in a congener, H. jianfenglingensis. Based on the transcriptome data of H. ledongensis, 46 microsatellite primer pairs were randomly selected for initial validation. From these, 28 primer pairs were successfully amplified, 12 of which were polymorphic in 36 individuals across three populations of H. ledongensis. The number of alleles per microsatellite locus ranged from two to 11. The observed and expected heterozygosities for the 12 loci ranged from 0.133 to 0.867 and 0.128 to 0.894, respectively. Cross-species amplification was successful for these 12 loci in the congeneric species H. jianfenglingensis. These polymorphic transcriptome-derived simple sequence repeat markers have the potential to be used as multilocus molecular markers to study the population genetics and natural hybridization in species of Hoya.

  18. Philibertain g I, the most basic cysteine endopeptidase purified from the latex of Philibertia gilliesii Hook. et Arn. (Apocynaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequeiros, C; Torres, M J; Trejo, S A; Esteves, J L; Natalucci, C L; López, L M I

    2005-11-01

    A new papain-like cysteine peptidase isolated from latex of Philibertia gilliesii Hook. et Arn., Apocynaceae (formerly Asclepiadaceae) has been purified and characterized. The enzyme, named philibertain g I, is the most basic component present in latex extracts and was purified by acetone fractionation followed by cation exchange chromatography (SP-Sepharose HR) using FPLC system. Homogeneity was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and mass spectroscopy (MS). Molecular mass of the enzyme was 23,530 Da (MALDI-TOF MS), its isoelectric point was >10.25, and maximum proteolytic activity (casein) was achieved at pH 7-8. The new protease was inhibited by E-64 a cysteine peptidases inhibitor. Km was 0.15 mM, using PFLNA as substrate. The N-terminal sequence of philibertain g I (LPASVDWRKEGAVLPIRHQGQCG) was compared with those of twenty plant proteases. Philibertain g I showed the higher degree of identity (73%) with caricain, one of the Carica papaya endopepetidases.

  19. Effects of latex from "Amapazeiro"Parahancornia amapa (Apocynaceae) on blowfly Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae) post-embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Paloma M; Lima, Mariana G; Albuquerque, Luis R M; Carvalho, Mario G; Queiroz, Margareth M C

    2011-06-10

    Nowadays, insect control is usually carried out using chemical insecticides, but insect resistance and other negative side effects have prompted the search for alternatives. Biopesticides provide a positive alternative to synthetic pesticides because they have low impact on the environmental, low toxicity to humans and low costs among other advantages. This research was carried out to evaluate the activity of Parahancornia amapa (Huber) Ducke (Apocynaceae) lyophilized latex on the post embryonic development of Chrysomya megacephala (F.) (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Larvae treated with 1.0% latex showed a shorter post embryonic development period (larval, pupal and newly hatched larvae to adult); whereas larvae treated with 3.0% latex provoked a prolongation of these periods. Viability (53%) was also very low at the newly hatched larvae to adult period for larvae treated with 3.0% latex, indicating that latex from P. amapa at high concentrations could change C. megacephala post embryonic development. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Estudios en las Apocynaceae neotropicales XL: sinopsis del género Prestonia (Apocynoideae, Echiteae en Ecuador

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    Morales, J. Francisco

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A synopsis of the genus Prestonia (Apocynaceae, Apocynoideae, Echiteae in Ecuador is presented and 15 species are reported. A key to species, distributional data, discussion of relationships, and representative specimen citations for each province are provided. An illustration of the enigmatic P. schumanniana Woodson, known only from the type collection, is also included. Prestonia purpurissata Woodson, P. phenax Woodson, P. peregrina Woodson y P. vallis Woodson are reduced to the synonymy of P. annularis (L. f. G. Don and Echites pallidus Miers to the synonymy of P. mollis Kunth. Lectotypes are designated for Haemadictyon tomentellum Benth., Prestonia phenax Woodson, and P. plumierifolia Markgr. A neotype is designated for P. vallis Woodson.Se presenta una sinopsis del género Prestonia (Apocynaceae, Apocynoideae, Echiteae en Ecuador: en total se registran 15 especies. Se incluye una clave para las especies, datos de distribución, discusión de las afinidades con las posibles especies afines y se cita un espécimen representativo para cada provincia. Adicionalmente, se incluye una ilustración de P. schumanniana Woodson, un enigmático taxón conocido sólo por el tipo. Prestonia purpurissata Woodson, P. phenax Woodson, P. peregrina Woodson y P. vallis Woodson se reducen a la sinonimia de P. annularis (L. f. G. Don y Echites pallidus Miers bajo el sinómino P. mollis Kunth. Se designan lectótipos para Haemadictyon tomentellum Benth., Prestonia phenax Woodson y P. plumierifolia Markgr. Se designa un neótipo para P. vallis Woodson.

  1. Estudios en las Apocynaceae neotropicales XXXIX: revisión de las Apocynoideae y Rauvolfioideae de Honduras

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    Morales, J. Francisco

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A treatment of the subfamilies Apocynoideae and Rauvol - fioideae (Apocynaceae in Honduras, is presented. A total of 55 species in 30 genera (Allamanda, Allomarkgrafia, Anechites, Aspidosperma, Beaumontia, Carissa, Cascabela, Catharanthus, Echites, Fernaldia, Forsteronia, Lacmellea, Macropharynx, Malouetia, Mandevilla, Mesechites, Nerium, Odontadenia, Pentalinon, Plumeria, Prestonia, Rauvolfia, Rhabdadenia, Stemmadenia, Tabernaemontana, Thenardia, Thevetia, Tintinnabularia, Tonduzia, Vallesia are treated. Echites, Mandevilla, Prestonia, and Tabernaemontana are the most representative genera. Descriptions, keys, data on ecology, distribution, phenology, common names as well as lists of specimens examined are provided. Photographs are provided for the majority of species. The presence in Honduras of Allomarkgrafia plumeriiflora, Anechites nerium, Macropharynx renteriae, Stemmadenia eubracteata and Thenardia chiapensis is reported here for the first time.

    Se presenta un tratamiento de las subfamilias Apocynoideae y Rauvolfioideae (Apocynaceae en la República de Honduras, Centroamérica. Un total de 55 especies distribuidas en 30 géneros (Allamanda, Allomarkgrafia, Anechites, Aspidosperma, Beaumontia, Carissa, Cascabela, Catharanthus, Echites, Fernaldia, Forsteronia, Lacmellea, Macropharynx, Malouetia, Mandevilla, Mesechites, Nerium, Odontadenia, Pentalinon, Plumeria, Prestonia, Rauvolfia, Rhabdadenia, Stemmadenia, Tabernaemontana, Thenardia, Thevetia, Tintinnabularia, Tonduzia, Vallesia son tratadas, siendo Echites, Mandevilla, Prestonia, Tabernaemontana y Thevetia los más representativos. Se brindan descripciones, claves, datos de ecología, distribución, fenología, nombres comunes y especímenes examinados, así como fotografías para la mayoría de ellas. Se reporta por primera vez la presencia de Allomarkgrafia plumeriiflora, Anechites nerium, Macropharynx renteriae

  2. Métodos de extração e concentrações no efeito inseticida de Ruta graveolens L., Artemisia verlotorum Lamotte e Petiveria alliacea L. a Diabrotica speciosa Germar Extraction methods and concentrations for the insecticidal effect of Ruta graveolens L., Artemisia verlotorum Lamotte, and Petiveria alliacea L. against Diabrotica speciosa Germar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.S. Barbosa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o melhor método de extração e concentração para Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae, Artemisia verlotorum Lamotte (Asteraceae e Petiveria alliacea L. (Phytolaccaceae quanto ao efeito inseticida a Diabrotica speciosa Germar (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae. Os extratos que utilizaram óleo de soja comercial, pelo menos como um dos solventes, apresentaram maior mortalidade de D. speciosa em suas testemunhas (solvente = óleo, nas três plantas estudadas, em relação às suas concentrações. O extrato aquoso de R. graveolens, a 5% de concentração, apresentou maior mortalidade corrigida de D. speciosa (32,5% que os extratos de A. verlotorum em água (10% de concentração (20,3% e P. alliacea em álcool etílico (2% de concentração (12,5%. O método de extração com água é simples, sendo passível de utilização por pequenos agricultores. A R. graveolens é planta facilmente cultivada, sendo, portanto, boa alternativa de controle dessa praga.The aim of this work was to determine the best extraction method and concentration for Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae, Artemisia verlotorum Lamotte (Asteraceae and Petiveria alliacea L. (Phytolaccaceae concerning their insecticidal effect against Diabrotica speciosa Germar (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae. Extracts using commercial soybean oil as at least one of the solvents resulted in higher D. speciosa mortality in controls (solvent = oil of the three studied plants, relative to their treatment concentrations. R. graveolens extract in water, at 5% concentration, showed higher D. speciosa corrected mortality (32.5% than A. verlotiorum extracts in water (10% concentration (20.3% and P. alliacea in ethanol (2% concentration (12.5%. The extraction method with water is simple and can be used by small farmers. R. graveolens is an easily cultivated plant and constitutes, therefore, a good alternative to control this plague.

  3. Palinotaxonomia de espécies de Apocynaceae ocorrentes na Restinga de Carapebus, Carapebus, RJ, Brasil Palynotaxonomy of the species of the Apocynaceae occur on the "restinga" of the Carapebus, Carapebus, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

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    Fábio de França Moreira

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foram tratadas, palinologicamente, 11 espécies de Apocynaceae pertencentes a sete gêneros, ocorrentes na restinga de Carapebus, situada no litoral norte do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. As espécies tratadas foram: Aspidosperma parvifolium A. DC.; Forsteronia leptocarpa (Hook. & Arns. A. DC.; Himatanthus lancifolius (Müll. Arg. Woodson; Mandevilla fragrans (Stadelm. Woodson; Mandevilla sp.; M. moricandiana (A. DC. Woodson; M. tenuifolia (J.C. Mikan Woodson; Prestonia coalita (Vell. Woodson; Rhabdadenia pohlii Müll. Arg.; Tabernaemontana flavicans Willd. ex Roem. & Schult.; T. laeta Mart. Os grãos de pólen foram tratados pelo método da acetólise láctica, medidos, descritos e ilustrados sob microscopia de luz e microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que dois grandes grupos podem ser identificados: grãos de pólen colporados - Aspidosperma parvifolium (5-6-colporados, exina psilada, rugulada apenas no apocolpo, Himatanthus lancifolius (3-colporados, exina reticulada, Tabernaemontana flavicans (4-colporados, endoabertura endocingulada e T. laeta (3-4-colporados, exina rugulada; grãos de pólen porados - Forsteronia leptocarpa, as quatro espécies de Mandevilla, Prestonia coalita e Rhabdadenia pohlii. Concluiu-se que os gêneros puderam ser separados utilizando-se as características polínicas e, dentro do gênero, as espécies estudadas apresentaram heterogeneidade polínica.Eleven species of Apocynaceae belonging to seven genera were palynologically studied in this work. The species occur in the "restinga" of Carapebus, located on the north coast of Rio de Janeiro State. The species were as followed: Aspidosperma parvifolium A. DC.; Forsteronia leptocarpa (Hook. & Arns. A. DC.; Himatanthus lancifolius (Müll. Arg. Woodson; Mandevilla fragrans (Stadelm. Woodson; Mandevilla sp.; M. moricandiana (A. DC. Woodson; M. tenuifolia (J.C. Mikan Woodson; Prestonia coalita (Vell. Woodson; Rhabdadenia pohlii

  4. Ethnobotany of babassu palm ( Attalea speciosa Mart. in the Tucuruí Lake Protected Areas Mosaic - eastern Amazon

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    Fábio Ribeiro Araújo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Documenting the ethnobotanical knowledge of populations living in protected areas is important both for science and for the effective conservation of these areas, as it can help to clarify the level of dependency that human communities have on local plant resources. Babassu (Attalea speciosa, Arecaceae is one of the most important non-timber forest resources of rural communities in the Amazon. We explored the ethnobotanical knowledge and uses of babassu by riverine populations inhabiting the Tucuruí Lake Protected Areas Mosaic in the eastern Amazon, by examining the diversity, purposes and descriptions of its uses and aspects of its extraction. Data were collected in 2010 and 2014 from 193 families. A total of 1,226 use records were cited representing 60 different uses. Records were classified into nine use-categories; utensils and tools was the most important category, followed by construction and human food. The use with the greatest purpose consensus value among the informants was thatch. Babassu proved to be an important resource for the livelihood of the local communities in providing shelter, food and reliable energy. Most informants lacked knowledge about sustainable practices and management of this resource.

  5. Notes from the Field: Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Exposures Reported to Poison Centers - United States, 2010-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Mehruba; Law, Royal; Schier, Josh

    2016-07-29

    Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) is a plant consumed throughout the world for its stimulant effects and as an opioid substitute (1). It is typically brewed into a tea, chewed, smoked, or ingested in capsules (2). It is also known as Thang, Kakuam, Thom, Ketum, and Biak (3). The Drug Enforcement Administration includes kratom on its Drugs of Concern list (substances that are not currently regulated by the Controlled Substances Act, but that pose risks to persons who abuse them), and the National Institute of Drug Abuse has identified kratom as an emerging drug of abuse (3,4). Published case reports have associated kratom exposure with psychosis, seizures, and deaths (5,6). Because deaths have been attributed to kratom in the United States (7), some jurisdictions have passed or are considering legislation to make kratom use a felony (8). CDC characterized kratom exposures that were reported to poison centers and uploaded to the National Poison Data System (NPDS) during January 2010-December 2015. The NPDS is a national database of information logged by the country's regional poison centers serving all 50 United States, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico and is maintained by the American Association of Poison Control Centers. NPDS case records are the result of call reports made by the public and health care providers.

  6. Carcass characteristics and meat quality of lambs fed babassu cake (Orbignya speciosa) as a replacement for elephant grass silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Janaina Barros; Alves, Kaliandra Souza; Mezzomo, Rafael; Ribeiro Dos Santos Neta, Ernestina; Gomes, Daiany Íris; Sampaio Oliveira, Luis Rennan; Silva, Josiane Costa; Ramos de Carvalho, Francisco Fernando

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the effect of the partial replacement of elephant grass silage with babassu cake (Orbignya speciosa) on the carcass characteristics and meat quality of feedlot lambs. Forty-five castrated male Santa Ines sheep (19.08 ± 0.41 kg) approximately 4 months old were distributed in a completely randomized design, with five treatments 0.0, 12.5, 25.0, 37.5 and 50 % (%DM) replacement of babassu cake with silage forming isoproteic diets formulated at a ratio of 40 % roughage to 60 % concentrate. All of the studied animals were slaughtered at the end of the experiment. The liver weights and yields increased with the inclusion of babassu cake. The weight of the shoulder increased from 2.31 to 2.61 kg, while the loin yield decreased from 7.38 to 6.64 % with the inclusion of babassu cake, both linearly. The body length, thoracic perimeter, rump perimeter and carcass compactness index showed high and positive correlations with the hot and cold carcass weights. The myofibrillar fragmentation index decreased linearly as a function of the inclusion level of babassu cake, but other quality variables were not affected. The replacement of up to 50 % of the elephant grass silage with babassu cake in the diet of lambs does not cause negative effects on carcass characteristics or meat quality.

  7. Phytoremediation of dyes using Lagerstroemia speciosa mediated silver nanoparticles and its biofilm activity against clinical strains Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai Saraswathi, V; Kamarudheen, Neethu; BhaskaraRao, K V; Santhakumar, K

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to prepare silver nanoparticles by a green method using the aqueous leaves extract of Lagerstroemia speciosa. The prepared silver nanoparticles were characterized, studied for its photocatalytic and biofilm inhibition studies. The maximum absorbance peak was found at 427nm and thus confirming the formation of silver nanoparticles. The average size of silver nanoparticles synthesized was found to be 12nm using XRD and it was spherical in shape. The nanoparticles synthesized was investigated for photocatalytic activity for to two different dye molecules, methyl orange and methylene blue showing 310 and 290min degradation time respectively. The silver nanoparticles biofilm inhibition assay against clinical strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed lowest accumulation at a lower concentration. The biofilm inhibition was also studied by visual interpretation through Scanning Electron Microscopy states that 50μgmL -1 exerts the highest inhibition compared against the control. This evident helps to analysis the silver nanoparticles for various applications in future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. DYEING SILK FABRICS WITH STINK BEAN POD (PARKIA SPECIOSA HASSK. NATURAL DYE IN THE COLOR FASTNESS AND UV PROTECTION

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    M. MASAE

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes natural dye extracted from stink bean pod (Parkia speciosa Hassk. which was dyed on the silk fabric. The mordants as aluminum potassium sulfate, iron chloride, sodium hydroxide and mud were used to dye fabric using three different dyeing methods: pre-mordanting, meta-mordanting and post-mordanting. The color fastness to washing, water, perspiration, light and crocking of the dyed samples was determined according to AATCC test methods. In this study the UV-protection properties on silk fabrics were investigated. The chemical functional groups of the dyes were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. The results revealed that the dyeing silk fabrics with stink beans pod were fair to good fastness to washing and crocking and very poor to poor light fastness with the exception of samples mordanted with iron chloride. The water and perspiration fastness ratings were fair to good. Silk fabrics mordanted with iron chloride and dyed with stink bean usually showed good UV-protection levels even if undyed. These extracts gave polyphenolic, betalain dye and chlorophyll content. Therefore, it was suggested that stink bean pod has the potential in producing functional dyes that could be imparted into the silk dyeing natural colorant system.

  9. Impact of the nutrients N and K and soluble sugars on Diabrotica speciosa (Germar) (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) and Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) populations in potato crops, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanaceae); Impacto dos nutrientes N e K e de acucares soluveis sobre populacoes de Diabrotica speciosa (Germar) (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) e Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) na cultura da batata, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanaceae)

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    Azeredo, Edson Henrique de [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Pinheiral, RJ (Brazil). Pro-Reitoria de Extensao], e-mail: edsonhenrique.azeredo@bol.com.br; Lima, Eduardo [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Agronomia. Dept. de Solos; Cassino, Paulo Cesar Rodrigues [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Centro Integrado de Manejo de Pragas C.R.G.

    2004-03-15

    Impact of the nutrients N and K and soluble sugars on Diabrotica speciosa (Germar) (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) and Agrotis ipsilon (Huefnagel) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) populations in potato crops, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanaceae). The occurrence of Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824) and Agrotis ipsilon (Huefnagel, 1767) on the potato cultivars Achat and Monalisa, influenced by nitrogen and potassium dosage, and minimum quantity of soluble sugars, was studied. The following parameters were evaluated: concentration of mineral nutrient and sugar in green leaf, senescent leaf, leaf in abscission, stem, tubercle and total plant using extracts of infusion in ethanol 80%. The largest infestation of D. speciosa larvae was on Monalisa cultivar at 150 kg.ha{sup -1} of N + K with 27.03% at P< 0,05. It was observed that the effect of the dosage of N + K in the increment of the concentration of soluble sugars increased the damages in the tubercles and stems by A. ipsilon. The infestation by these species increased to 58.82% on the Monalisa cultivar, when the nitrogen dosage increased from zero to 150 kg.ha{sup -1}, in the absence of potassium. On the other hand, high dosage of K reduced the damages by A. ipsilon on Monalisa cultivar. However, it did not influence the storage of soluble sugar. The results indicated that in Achat cultivar the accumulated soluble sugar was reduced, probably sensitized by elevation of potassic fertilization dosing, differing from Monalisa cultivar, in which the influence was by nitrogen dosing. (author)

  10. Biofilm inhibition formation of clinical strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa mutans, photocatalytic activity of azo dye and GC-MS analysis of leaves of Lagerstroemia speciosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai Saraswathi, V; Kamarudheen, Neethu; Bhaskara Rao, K V; Santhakumar, K

    2017-04-01

    The investigation was conducted to analyse the bioactive compounds from the leaf extracts of L. speciosa by GC-MS. The extracts were screened for antibacterial and antibiofilm activities against potential clinical strains. The bioactive compounds from the leaves of L. speciosa were extracted by soxhlet continuous extraction method and their chemical composition was analysed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS). The antibacterial activity was evaluated against clinical strain like Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, P. aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi by well diffusion technique. We also screened for antibacterial property against common food borne pathogens namely Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus cereus at varied concentration 250μml-1 to 1000μml-1. Thereafter antibiofilm assay was carried out at from 250 to 1000μg/ml against P. aeruginosa (high biofilm forming pathogen) clinical strain by cover slip technique and the morphology of the pathogen was observed using Scanning Electron Microscopy-(SEM). It was observed that diverse class of secondary metabolites were found by GC-MS analysis for all the extracts upon the continuous extraction. It was found that only minimum inhibition was seen in alcoholic extract for antibacterial activity, whereas all other extracts showed negligible activity. P. aeruginosa biofilm inhibited to 93.0±2% and 91±2% at higher concentration (1000μg/ml) for methanolic and ethanolic extract respectively. Absence of extracellular matrix structure and the surface cracking of biofilm were viewed by SEM, which confirmed the antibiofilm activity. Hence this study reveals that L. speciosa showed significant antibiofilm activity against P. aeruginosa due to the phytoconstituents present in the leaf extracts which was well documented in the alcoholic extracts by GC-MS analysis. The methanolic and ethanolic extract showed good photocatalytic activity of 77.44% and 96.66% against azo dye degradation respectively. Further

  11. Isolation of quercetin from the methanolic extract of Lagerstroemia speciosa by HPLC technique, its cytotoxicity against MCF-7 cells and photocatalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai Saraswathi, V; Saravanan, D; Santhakumar, K

    2017-06-01

    The flavonoids present in the leaves of Lagerstroemia speciosa were extracted, characterized by spectral methods and studied for its cytotoxicity activity against MCF-cell lines and photocatalytic activity against azo dye. Direct and sequential soxhlet extraction was performed and its concentrated crude extract was subjected to high performance liquid chromatography. The yield obtained by the isolated compound (MEI-quercetin) from leaves of L. speciosa was found to be 1.8g from the methanolic extract. The phytochemical analysis and the Rf value of the isolated flavonoid was found to be 3.59. The isolated compound was characterized by Infrared Spectroscopy, NMR and Mass. Based on the characterization, the structure was elucidated as quercetin - a flavonoid. The isolated compound showed the significant in vitro cytotoxicity activity against MCF-7 cell lines at 500μg/ml when compared to the crude extract. Among the various concentrations (25, 50, 100, 250, and 500μg/ml), at higher concentration the cell viability was pronounced and also compared with that of the control. It was first time to report that the isolated flavonoid showed photocatalytic against azo dye-methyl orange. The dye degradation was monitored by UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The isolated compound showed dye degradation of 91.66% with the crude extract 82.47% at 160min. Hence in the present findings, the photocatalytic degradation of MO dye under UV irradiation was investigated over isolated compound of L. speciosa. Hence we expect that this can be used to treat the waste water in near future based on the photocatalytic technique. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Anti-mitotic activity towards sea urchin eggs of dichloromethane fraction obtained from Allamanda schottii Pohl (Apocynaceae

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    Louisa M. A. Sousa

    Full Text Available Allamanda (Apocynaceae is a genus of climbing shrubs known for producing compounds with a range of biological activities. Previous works have shown the anti-proliferative effect of the ethanolic extract of Allamanda schottii on leukemic cells. The present work was conducted to evaluate the effects of dichloromethane fraction, obtained from Allamanda schottii, on sea urchin Echinometra lucunter eggs, as a multicellular model for evaluating anti-tumor activity. Our results show an inhibition of sea urchin development in a dose-dependent manner in the presence of dichloromethane fraction. The IC50 values for first and third cleavage and blastulae stage were 103.7 µg/mL, 33.1 µg/mL and 10.2 µg/mL, respectively. These results also demonstrate the cumulative effect of this fraction on sea urchin embryos. In the present work, the expressive anti-mitotic activity of dichloromethane fraction towards sea urchin eggs, a multicellular model, reinforces the anti-tumor potential of the Allamanda schotti.

  13. An unusual 2,3-secotaraxerene and other cytotoxic triterpenoids from Pleiocarpa pycnantha (Apocynaceae) leaves collected from Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omoyeni, Olubunmi A; Meyer, Mervin; Iwuoha, Emmanuel; Green, Ivan; Hussein, Ahmed A

    2014-03-20

    Three known triterpenoids, namely ursolic acid (1), and the 27-E- and 27-Z-p-coumaric esters of ursolic acid (compounds 2, 3), were isolated together with a new triterpene 2,3-seco-taraxer-14-en-2,3-lactone [pycanocarpine (4)] from an ethanolic extract of Pleiocarpa pycnantha leaves. The structure of 4 was unambiguously assigned using NMR, HREIMS and X-ray crystallography. The cytotoxic activities of the compounds were evaluated against HeLa, MCF-7, KMST-6 and HT-29 cells using the WST-1 assay. Ursolic acid (1) displayed potent cytotoxic activity against HeLa, HT-29 and MCF-7 cells with IC₅₀ values of 10, 10 and 20 µM respectively. The new compound 4 and its hydrolysed derivative 5 were selectively cytotoxic to the breast cancer cell line, MCF-7 with IC₅₀ values 20 and 10 µM respectively. This is the first report on isolation of a 2,3-seco-taraxerene derivative from the Apocynaceae family and cytotoxic activity of P. pycnantha constituents.

  14. Molecular phylogeny of Vincetoxicum (Apocynaceae-Asclepiadoideae) based on the nucleotide sequences of cpDNA and nrDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashiro, Tadashi; Fukuda, Tatsuya; Yokoyama, Jun; Maki, Masayuki

    2004-05-01

    Molecular phylogenetic analyses of Vincetoxicum and Tylophora (Apocynaceae-Asclepiadoideae) were conducted based on the nucleotide sequences of cpDNA (two intergenic spacers of trnL (UAA)-trnF (GAA) and psbA-trnH and three introns, i.e., atpF, trnG (UCC) and trnL (UAA)), and nrDNA (ITS and ETS regions). Our phylogenetic analysis revealed two monophyletic groups; one consisted of seven taxa of Tylophora and Vincetoxicum inamoenum, Vincetoxicum magnificum and Vincetoxicum macrophyllum (Clade I) and the other consisted of 17 accessions of Vincetoxicum (Clade II). The monophyly of the genus Vincetoxicum was not supported. Although many nucleotide substitutions were observed in Clade I, the genetic differentiation within Clade II was small. Low genetic diversification but considerable morphological divergence suggests that the species in Clade II had undergone rapid diversification. Although most species in Clade I have tiny flowers, those in Clade II have larger and more nectariferous ones. Thus, we hypothesized that the rapid morphological radiation in Clade II may have been due to the gaining of floral characters such as large flowers and large amounts of nectar corresponding to diverse pollinators.

  15. Horizontal transfer of DNA from the mitochondrial to the plastid genome and its subsequent evolution in milkweeds (apocynaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Shannon C K; Cronn, Richard C; Edwards, Christopher; Fishbein, Mark; Liston, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of DNA from the plastid to the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes of higher plants is a common phenomenon; however, plastid genomes (plastomes) are highly conserved and have generally been regarded as impervious to HGT. We sequenced the 158 kb plastome and the 690 kb mitochondrial genome of common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca [Apocynaceae]) and found evidence of intracellular HGT for a 2.4-kb segment of mitochondrial DNA to the rps2-rpoC2 intergenic spacer of the plastome. The transferred region contains an rpl2 pseudogene and is flanked by plastid sequence in the mitochondrial genome, including an rpoC2 pseudogene, which likely provided the mechanism for HGT back to the plastome through double-strand break repair involving homologous recombination. The plastome insertion is restricted to tribe Asclepiadeae of subfamily Asclepiadoideae, whereas the mitochondrial rpoC2 pseudogene is present throughout the subfamily, which confirms that the plastid to mitochondrial HGT event preceded the HGT to the plastome. Although the plastome insertion has been maintained in all lineages of Asclepiadoideae, it shows minimal evidence of transcription in A. syriaca and is likely nonfunctional. Furthermore, we found recent gene conversion of the mitochondrial rpoC2 pseudogene in Asclepias by the plastid gene, which reflects continued interaction of these genomes.

  16. Development of transcriptome-derived SSR markers for Hoya ledongensis (Apocynaceae) and cross-amplification in a congener1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zheng; Deng, Yuncheng; Zhou, Renchao; He, Shaoyun

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: To examine patterns of genetic diversity and test possible hybridization events, microsatellite markers were identified and characterized in Hoya ledongensis (Apocynaceae), and cross-amplification was tested in a congener, H. jianfenglingensis. Methods and Results: Based on the transcriptome data of H. ledongensis, 46 microsatellite primer pairs were randomly selected for initial validation. From these, 28 primer pairs were successfully amplified, 12 of which were polymorphic in 36 individuals across three populations of H. ledongensis. The number of alleles per microsatellite locus ranged from two to 11. The observed and expected heterozygosities for the 12 loci ranged from 0.133 to 0.867 and 0.128 to 0.894, respectively. Cross-species amplification was successful for these 12 loci in the congeneric species H. jianfenglingensis. Conclusions: These polymorphic transcriptome-derived simple sequence repeat markers have the potential to be used as multilocus molecular markers to study the population genetics and natural hybridization in species of Hoya. PMID:27672524

  17. Seed origin, storage conditions, and gibberellic acid on in vitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-08-10

    ):145-150. Bastos LP, Moreira MJS, Costa MAP de C, Rocha MC da, Hansen D de. S, Silva SA, Dantas ACVL, Sousa C da S (2007). Cultivo in vitro de mangabeira (Hancornia speciosa). Rev. Bras. Biocienc. 5(2):1122-. 1124.

  18. Relação entre tricomas foliares de genótipos de feijoeiro comum, Phaseolus vulgaris L. e resistência a Diabrotica speciosa Germar, 1824 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae Relationship between foliar trichomes of common bean genotypes, Phaseolus vulgaris L., and resistance to Diabrotica speciosa Germar, 1824(Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Fachini de Oliveira Paron

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Considerando que a pubescência foliar pode afetar a preferência alimentar do inseto, com o presente estudo objetivou-se verificar a influência da pilosidade dos folíolos na resistência de genótipos de feijoeiro a D. speciosa. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com seis tratamentos e oito repetições. Os tratamentos foram seis genótipos de feijoeiro: Emgopa Ouro e IAPAR 57, do centro de domesticação Mesoamericano (MA e Jalo Precoce, Goiano Precoce, PR 10595142 e PR 10595146 do centro de domesticação Andino (AN. Cada parcela foi constituída por um vaso com 1,2 Kg de solo e uma planta encerrada em um telado individual. No 25º dia após o plantio, em cada telado foram liberados dez adultos de D. speciosa, após jejum de 24 horas, durante 72 horas. Os danos sofridos foram estimados de acordo com a área consumida em cada genótipo. Os tricomas das folhas dos genótipos foram contados usando microscópio estereoscópico (40x, com uma escala micrométrica sobre 1 cm² de área da superfície abaxial (AB e adaxial (AD, contando-se os tricomas unciformes e aciculares presentes em cinco folhas de cada genótipo. O genótipo IAPAR 57 (MA foi o preferido no teste de alimentação, enquanto os genótipos andinos foram menos consumidos por adultos de D. speciosa. Os genótipos apresentaram variabilidade quanto ao número de tricomas, tanto aciculares quanto unciformes, em ambas as superfícies, abaxial e adaxial. Os genótipos andinos não diferiram quanto ao número de tricomas unciformes na superfície adaxial. O somatório do número de tricomas aciculares e unciformes na superfície abaxial dos genótipos sugerem relação inversa entre esta característica e a área consumida por D. speciosa.Considering that foliar pubescence may affect insect feeding preference on plant genotypes, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of leaflet pubescence on resistance of common bean

  19. In vivo antioxidant and antiulcer activity of Parkia speciosa ethanolic leaf extract against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats.

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    Rami Al Batran

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The current study was carried out to examine the gastroprotective effects of Parkia speciosa against ethanol-induced gastric mucosa injury in rats. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Sprague Dawley rats were separated into 7 groups. Groups 1-2 were orally challenged with carboxymethylcellulose (CMC; group 3 received 20 mg/kg omeprazole and groups 4-7 received 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg of ethanolic leaf extract, respectively. After 1 h, CMC or absolute ethanol was given orally to groups 2-7. The rats were sacrificed after 1 h. Then, the injuries to the gastric mucosa were estimated through assessment of the gastric wall mucus, the gross appearance of ulcer areas, histology, immunohistochemistry and enzymatic assays. Group 2 exhibited significant mucosal injuries, with reduced gastric wall mucus and severe damage to the gastric mucosa, whereas reductions in mucosal injury were observed for groups 4-7. Groups 3-7 demonstrated a reversal in the decrease in Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS staining induced by ethanol. No symptoms of toxicity or death were observed during the acute toxicity tests. CONCLUSION: Treatment with the extract led to the upregulation of heat-shock protein 70 (HSP70 and the downregulation of the pro-apoptotic protein BAX. Significant increases in the levels of the antioxidant defense enzymes glutathione (GSH and superoxide dismutase (SOD in the gastric mucosal homogenate were observed, whereas that of a lipid peroxidation marker (MDA was significantly decreased. Significance was defined as p<0.05 compared to the ulcer control group (Group 2.

  20. A casual alien plant new to Mediterranean Europe: Ceiba speciosa (Malvaceae in the suburban area of Palermo (NW Sicily, Italy

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    Pasta, Salvatore

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The abiotic and biotic characteristics of the first sites where floss silk tree behaves as a casual alien plant in the Mediterranean Europe are described. The species was probably first planted in botanical gardens of southern France few decades before mid XIX century. It was introduced in Palermo in 1896, a city which appears to match very well its climatic requirements. According to the available information on its biology and ecology in both its original and secondary range, the floss silk tree should not become an invasive alien plant in the Mediterranean. Nevertheless, several gaps need to be filled in order to increase our understanding of future trends of Ceiba speciosa in southern Europe, in particular, the eventual role of pollinators and seed dispersers outside the species’ natural range.Se describen las caracteristicas abióticas y bióticas de los primeros sitios del mediterráneo europeo donde el árbol palo borracho se encuentra creciendo como especie alóctona casual. Con respecto a la historia de su introducción, esta especie fue probablemente plantada en los jardines botánicos del sur de Francia unos pocos decenios antes de la mitad del siglo XIX. En 1896, sin embargo, fue introducida en Palermo, ciudad que parece satisfacer muy bien sus requerimientos climáticos. De acuerdo con la información disponible, tanto dentro como fuera de su área de distribución natural, el palo borracho no debería convertirse en planta invasora en el mediterráneo. Sin embargo, algunos vacíos de información deben ser completados antes de establecer su potencial invasor de una manera definitiva, particularmente, el posible papel de agentes polinizadores y dispersores fuera del área de distribución natural de la especie.

  1. Phylogenetic signal detection from an ancient rapid radiation: Effects of noise reduction, long-branch attraction, and model selection in crown clade Apocynaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Shannon C K; Moore, Michael J; Soltis, Pamela S; Soltis, Douglas E; Liston, Aaron; Livshultz, Tatyana

    2014-11-01

    Crown clade Apocynaceae comprise seven primary lineages of lianas, shrubs, and herbs with a diversity of pollen aggregation morphologies including monads, tetrads, and pollinia, making them an ideal group for investigating the evolution and function of pollen packaging. Traditional molecular systematic approaches utilizing small amounts of sequence data have failed to resolve relationships along the spine of the crown clade, a likely ancient rapid radiation. The previous best estimate of the phylogeny was a five-way polytomy, leaving ambiguous the homology of aggregated pollen in two major lineages, the Periplocoideae, which possess pollen tetrads, and the milkweeds (Secamonoideae plus Asclepiadoideae), which possess pollinia. To assess whether greatly increased character sampling would resolve these relationships, a plastome sequence data matrix was assembled for 13 taxa of Apocynaceae, including nine newly generated complete plastomes, one partial new plastome, and three previously reported plastomes, collectively representing all primary crown clade lineages and outgroups. The effects of phylogenetic noise, long-branch attraction, and model selection (linked versus unlinked branch lengths among data partitions) were evaluated in a hypothesis-testing framework based on Shimodaira-Hasegawa tests. Discrimination among alternative crown clade resolutions was affected by all three factors. Exclusion of the noisiest alignment positions and topologies influenced by long-branch attraction resulted in a trichotomy along the spine of the crown clade consisting of Rhabdadenia+the Asian clade, Baisseeae+milkweeds, and Periplocoideae+the New World clade. Parsimony reconstruction on all optimal topologies after noise exclusion unambiguously supports parallel evolution of aggregated pollen in Periplocoideae (tetrads) and milkweeds (pollinia). Our phylogenomic approach has greatly advanced the resolution of one of the most perplexing radiations in Apocynaceae, providing the

  2. Contribuição ao estudo anatômico do caule de Himatanthus sucuuba (Spruce ex Müll. Arg.) Woodson, Apocynaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Larrosa,C.R.R.; Duarte,M.R.

    2005-01-01

    Himatanthus sucuuba (Spruce ex Müll. Arg.) Woodson, Apocynaceae, denominada comumente de sucuuba ou janaguba, é uma espécie arbórea, latescente, da região amazônica, cujo tronco é ereto e a casca rugosa. As atividades antiinflamatória e analgésica e a baixa toxicidade foram estabelecidas em diferentes pesquisas. Com o objetivo de estabelecer caracteres anatômicos aplicáveis à identificação da planta e da droga vegetal, analisou-se o caule em estrutura secundária, que consiste da casca e da re...

  3. TECNOLOGIA DE SEMENTES E PARÂMETROS MORFOFISIOLÓGICOS NA PROPAGAÇÃO DE Tabernaemontana catharinensis A. DC. (APOCYNACEAE)

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Vielmo Afonso

    2016-01-01

    Tabernaemontana catharinensis, conhecida popularmente como cobrina, é uma árvore nativa, pertencente à família Apocynaceae. Essa espécie é indicada para reflorestamento e rica em compostos fitoquímicos além de ser utilizada na medicina popular na forma de chá ou infusão de suas folhas e cascas. Impactos decorrentes da extração indiscriminada de sementes e partes vegetativas de espécies nativas vêm crescendo nos últimos anos, sendo um dos desafios para a produção o cultivo da...

  4. Comparison of three chromatographic techniques for the detection of mitragynine and other indole and oxindole alkaloids in Mitragyna speciosa (kratom) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei; Carrell, Emily J; Ali, Zulfiqar; Avula, Bharathi; Avonto, Cristina; Parcher, Jon F; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2014-06-01

    Leaves of the Southeast Asian plant Mitragyna speciosa are used to suppress pain and mitigate opioid withdrawal syndromes. The potential threat of abuse and ready availability of this uncontrolled psychoactive plant have led to the need for improved analytical techniques for the detection of the major active components, mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine. Three independent chromatographic methods coupled to two detection systems, GC with MS, supercritical fluid chromatography with diode array detection, and HPLC with MS and diode array detection, were compared for the analysis of mitragynine and other indole and oxindole alkaloids in M. speciosa plants. The indole alkaloids included two sets of diastereoisomers: (i) paynantheine and 3-isopaynantheine and (ii) mitragynine, speciogynine, and speciociliatine. Two oxindole alkaloid diastereoisomers, corynoxine and corynoxine B, were also studied. The HPLC and supercritical fluid chromatography methods successfully resolved the major components with slightly different elution orders. The GC method was less satisfactory because it was unable to resolve mitragynine and speciociliatine. This separation was difficult by GC with a liquid stationary phase because these diastereoisomers differ only in the orientation of an interior hydrogen atom. The observed lack of resolution of the indole alkaloid diastereoisomers coupled with the likeness of the mass and tandem mass spectra, calls into question proposed GC methods for the analysis of mitragynine based on solely GC with MS separation and identification. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. PXR mediated induction of CYP3A4, CYP1A2, and P-gp by Mitragyna speciosa and its alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manda, Vamshi K; Avula, Bharathi; Dale, Olivia R; Ali, Zulfiqar; Khan, Ikhlas A; Walker, Larry A; Khan, Shabana I

    2017-12-01

    Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa), a native herb of Southeast Asia, is widely known for its psychoactive properties. Recent increase in the use of kratom as a recreational drug has increased the risk of its interaction with conventional drugs if taken concomitantly. A few reports are available related to the effects of kratom on the activity of cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs), but there are no reports of its effects on pregnane X receptor (PXR), a transcription factor that regulates the expression of CYPs and P-glycoprotein (P-gp). This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of a methanolic extract of kratom leaves, an alkaloid rich fraction and its 5 indole and 4 oxindole alkaloids on PXR activation and the resulting changes in the mRNA expression of PXR target genes (CYP3A4, CYP1A2, and P-gp). A significant activation of PXR was observed by the extract (3-fold), alkaloidal fraction (4-fold) and all 9 alkaloids (4- to 6-fold) that was associated with an increased mRNA expression which resulted into an increase in the activity of CYP3A4, CYP1A2, and P-gp. These results indicate that high consumption of Mitragyna speciosa extract along with the conventional drugs may lead to potential herb-drug interactions due to its effects on PXR. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Esterase polymorphism in remanant populations of Aspidosperma polyneuron Müll.Arg. (Apocynaceae Polimorfismo de esterases em populações remanescentes de Aspidosperma polyneuron Müll.Arg. (Apocynaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanda Marilza de Carvalho

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The population genetic structure of the endangered tree species Aspidosperma polyneuron Mull.Arg. (Apocynaceae was reported based on analysis of esterase polymorphism in two remanant populations. Allelic variation was detected at three isoesterase loci (Est-3, Est-9, and Est-10. The proportion of polymorphic loci for both populations was 30% and deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was observed for the Est-3 locus observed in the northern population. Segregation distortion and the lower level of observed and expected heterozygosity in this population were attributed to founder genotype. The high genetic identity values for northern and northwestern populations are in accordance with the low levels of interpopulation genetic divergence demonstrated by the F(ST (0.03 value. The F(IS value (0.23 indicated moderate levels of inbreeding. A. polyneuron can be indicated as an example of endangered species suggesting high genetic variation in contrast to the low genetic variation reported for endangered species. The esterase isozymes may be a good genetic marker for studies of natural A. polyneuron populations.A análise do polimorfismo de isozimas esterases foi usada para reportar a estrutura genética de duas populações remanecentes da espécie de árvore em extinção Aspidosperma polyneuron Müll.Arg. (Apocynaceae. Variação alélica foi detectada em três locos de isoesterases (Est-3, Est-9, e Est-10. A proporção de locos polimórficos de ambas as populações foi de 30%, sendo observado um desvio do equilíbrio de Hardy-Weinberg no loco Est-3 na população da região norte do Estado do Paraná. Uma distorção na segregação e um mais baixo nível de heterozigosidade observada e esperada nesta população foram atribuídos ao efeito do genótipo fundador. Os valores altos de identidade genética das populações do norte e noroeste do Estado estão de acordo com o baixo nível de divergência genética interpopulacional demonstrado

  7. Synchronism between Aspidosperma macrocarpon Apocynaceae resources allocation and the establishment of the gall inducer Pseudophacopteron sp. Hemiptera: Psylloidea

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    Ariane C Castro¹

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The joint interpretation of phenology and nutritional metabolism provides important data on plant tissues reactivity and the period of gall induction. A population of Aspidosperma macrocarpon Apocynaceae with leaf galls induced by a Pseudophacopteron sp. Psylloidea was studied in Goiás state, Brazil. Assuming the morphological similarity between host leaves and intralaminar galls, a gradient from non-galled leaves towards galls should be generated, establishing a morpho-physiological continuum. The phenology, infestation of galls, and the carbohydrate and nitrogen contents were monthly evaluated in 10-20 individuals, from September 2009 to September 2010. Our objective was to analyze the nutritional status and the establishment of a physiological continuum between the galls and the non-galled leaves of A. macrocarpon. The period of leaf flushing coincided with the highest levels of nitrogen allocated to the new leaves, and to the lowest levels of carbohydrates. The nutrients were previously consumed by the growing leaves, by the time of gall induction. The levels of carbohydrates were higher in galls than in non-galled leaves in time-based analyses, which indicateed their potential sink functionality. The leaves were infested in October, galls developed along the year, and gall senescence took place from March to September, together with host leaves. This first senescent leaves caused insect mortality. The higher availability of nutrients at the moment of gall induction was demonstrated and seems to be important not only for the establishment of the galling insect but also for the responsiveness of the host plant tissues.

  8. Evolution of the stapeliads (Apocynaceae-Asclepiadoideae) - repeated major radiation across Africa in an Old World group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruyns, P V; Klak, C; Hanáček, P

    2014-08-01

    The stapeliads of the Ceropegieae (Apocynaceae-Asclepiadoideae), are approximately 340 species of stem-succulents placed in around 30 genera, found in semi-arid parts of the Old World. Here we sampled 192 species (i.e. nearly two thirds of the total) from across the full geographic range of the group and analysed data from the two nuclear regions (nuclear ribosomal ITS and ncpGS) and five plastid regions (psbA-trnH intergenic spacer, rps16 intron, trnL-trnF intergenic spacer, trnS-trnG intergenic region and the non-coding rpl32-trnL region). We find that the stapeliads radiated first in the northern hemisphere from Africa to southern Europe and Myanmar. This radiation subtends a grade of minor clades in the south-western corner of the African continent. These were followed by a single clade containing major radiation back across Africa from South Africa to tropical Arabia (but no further east than Dhofar, Oman), which includes also a single early spread into Madagascar. We establish the monophyly of many of the genera, such as Echidnopsis Hook.f., Hoodia Hook., Huernia R. Br., Piaranthus R. Br., Rhytidocaulon P.R.O. Bally and Tridentea Haw., but find that Duvalia Haw., Orbea Haw., Stapelia L. and Tromotriche Haw. are polyphyletic. We show that in certain vegetative features, there is broad cohesion across clades. Florally, on the other hand, the stapeliads exhibit considerable plasticity and we are able to show that very differently shaped flowers as well as large and small flowers evolved repeatedly among closely related species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Synchronism between Aspidosperma macrocarpon (Apocynaceae) resources allocation and the establishment of the gall inducer Pseudophacopteron sp. (Hemiptera: Psylloidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Ariane C; Oliveira, Denis C; Moreira, Ana Silvia F P; lsaias, Rosy M S

    2013-12-01

    The joint interpretation of phenology and nutritional metabolism provides important data on plant tissues reactivity and the period of gall induction. A population of Aspidosperma macrocarpon (Apocynaceae) with leaf galls induced by a Pseudophacopteron sp. (Psylloidea) was studied in Goiás state, Brazil. Assuming the morphological similarity between host leaves and intralaminar galls, a gradient from non-galled leaves towards galls should be generated, establishing a morpho-physiological continuum. The phenology, infestation of galls, and the carbohydrate and nitrogen contents were monthly evaluated in 10-20 individuals, from September 2009 to September 2010. Our objective was to analyze the nutritional status and the establishment of a physiological continuum between the galls and the non-galled leaves of A. macrocarpon. The period of leaf flushing coincided with the highest levels of nitrogen allocated to the new leaves, and to the lowest levels of carbohydrates. The nutrients were previously consumed by the growing leaves, by the time of gall induction. The levels of carbohydrates were higher in galls than in non-galled leaves in time-based analyses, which indicateed their potential sink functionality. The leaves were infested in October, galls developed along the year, and gall senescence took place from March to September, together with host leaves. This first senescent leaves caused insect mortality. The higher availability of nutrients at the moment of gall induction was demonstrated and seems to be important not only for the establishment of the galling insect but also for the responsiveness of the host plant tissues.

  10. Metal uptake and distribution in cultured seedlings of Nerium oleander L. (Apocynaceae) from the Río Tinto (Huelva, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Alejandro; Rufo, Lourdes; Zuluaga, Javier; de la Fuente, Vicenta

    2013-10-01

    Nerium oleander L. (Apocynaceae) is a micro-nano phanerophyte that grows in the riverbanks of the Río Tinto basin (Southwest Iberian Peninsula). The waters and soils of the Río Tinto area are highly acidic and have high concentrations of heavy metals. In this environment, N. oleander naturally grows in both extreme acidic (EA) and less extreme acidic (LEA) water courses, excluding, and bioindicating certain metals. In this work, we compared and evaluated the accumulation preferences and capacities, the distribution and processes of biomineralization of metals (Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Mg, Ca) in the first stages of growth of EA and LEA oleanders by means of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray analyzer analysis. Seeds from both environments were grown and treated with a self-made solution simulating the most extreme red waters from the Río Tinto. LEA plants drastically reduces the metal uptake at the beginning, but later reactivates the uptake reaching concentration values in the same range as the EA plants. The results showed high Mn, Zn and Mg concentrations, accumulation of Fe and Cu in plants from both environments, differing from the metal concentrations of field-grown oleanders. Iron bioformations with traces of other metals were present inside and over epidermal cells and inside vascular cells of stems and roots. They were absent of leaves. The accumulation properties of N. oleander in its early stages of development make it a species to take in consideration in phytoremediation processes but optimized conditions are needed to ensure enough biomass production.

  11. The search for Pleiades in trait constellations: functional integration and phenotypic selection in the complex flowers of Morrenia brachystephana (Apocynaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranzelli, M C; Sérsic, A N; Cocucci, A A

    2014-04-01

    Pollinator-mediated natural selection on single traits, such as corolla tube or spur length, has been well documented. However, flower phenotypes are usually complex, and selection is expected to act on several traits that functionally interact rather than on a single isolated trait. Despite the fact that selection on complex phenotypes is expectedly widespread, multivariate selection modelling on such phenotypes still remains under-explored in plants. Species of the subfamily Asclepiadoideae (Apocynaceae) provide an opportunity to study such complex flower contrivances integrated by fine-scaled organs from disparate developmental origin. We studied the correlation structure among linear floral traits (i) by testing a priori morphological, functional or developmental hypotheses among traits and (ii) by exploring the organization of flower covariation, considering alternative expectations of modular organization or whole flower integration through conditional dependence analysis (CDA) and integration matrices. The phenotypic selection approach was applied to determine whether floral traits involved in the functioning of the pollination mechanism were affected by natural selection. Floral integration was low, suggesting that flowers are organized in more than just one correlation pleiad; our hypothetical functional correlation matrix was significantly correlated with the empirical matrix, and the CDA revealed three putative modules. Analyses of phenotypic selection showed significant linear and correlational gradients, lending support to expectations of functional interactions between floral traits. Significant correlational selection gradients found involved traits of different floral whorls, providing evidence for the existence of functional integration across developmental domains. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  12. Efficiency of matK, rbcL, trnH-psbA, and trnL-F (cpDNA) to Molecularly Authenticate Philippine Ethnomedicinal Apocynaceae Through DNA Barcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabelin, Vincent Louie Domingo; Alejandro, Grecebio Jonathan Duran

    2016-05-01

    The Philippines is home to some ethnomedicinal Apocynaceae that has been used to cure common ailments. They are perceived to be safe, but misidentification can lead to substitution and adulteration. Morphological characters are primarily utilized to identify these species but a new method utilizing molecular characters called DNA barcoding has emerged. In this study, the efficiency of matK, rbcL, trnH-psbA, and trnL-F to molecularly authenticate selected Apocynaceae species were tested. Genomic DNA from silica-dried leaf samples were isolated and used as a template for generating DNA barcodes. Pair-wise sequence divergence using Kimura-2-Parameter was used to analyze inter-specific and intraspecific variations among the barcodes, whereas basic local alignment search tool (BLAST) and neighbor-joining (NJ) analyses were employed to examine discrimination success. The results show that matK is the best barcode for Apocynaceae as it has the highest amplification and sequencing success together with rbcL while having high inter-specific and low intra-specific divergence relative to the other candidate barcodes. Furthermore, matK provided the highest discrimination both in BLAST and NJ analyses. This study proposes the use of matK as the principal barcode for Apocynaceae. Both matK and rbcL have higher universality compared to trnH-psbA and trnL-F matK has relatively high inter-specific divergence and very minimal intra-specific divergencematK is the best barcode to molecularly authenticate Apocynaceae with either trnH-psbA or trnL-F as supplements. Abbreviations used: K2P: Kimura-2-parameter, BLAST: Basic local alignment search tool, NJ: Neighbor-joining.

  13. Comportamento de larvas de Diabrotica speciosa (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae em resposta ao CO2 e a plântulas de espécies cultivadas Behavioral responses of Diabrotica speciosa (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae larvae to CO2 and seedlings of host plants

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    Tânia Pereira

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available As respostas de larvas de Diabrotica speciosa (Germar (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae ao CO2 e o comportamento destas larvas quando expostas a plantas hospedeiras e não hospedeiras foram estudadas em laboratório. Larvas de primeiro ínstar de D. speciosa foram utilizadas. Num primeiro bioensaio, as larvas preferiram o tratamento com CO2, que foi gerado a partir da reação de bicarbonato de potássio com ácido acético em oposição a água destilada. Quando se observou o comportamento das larvas em relação a plantas hospedeiras, verificou-se que ocorreu um número significativamente maior de "mudanças de direção" em milho e milho pipoca do que em feijão, soja, trigo e sorgo. Este parâmetro foi inferior no sorgo em relação a todos os outros tratamentos. Valores similares foram verificados em milho pipoca e milho (26,2 e 24,2, respectivamente. Em relação a distância percorrida, foram verificadas maiores distâncias na aveia em comparação com milho pipoca, milho, feijão e sorgo. Após o contato das larvas com sorgo, elas não apresentaram comportamento de busca, pois a larva caía da plântula ou não se movia .Responses of Diabrotica speciosa (Germar (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae larvae to CO2 and their behavior when exposed to host and non host plants were studied in the laboratory. First instar larvae of D. speciosa were used. In a first bioassay, larvae preferred the treatment with CO2, from the reaction of the potassium bicarbonate and acetic acid, in opposition to distillated water. When the behavior of the larvae was observed in response to host plants, a significant higher number of turns was found in corn and popcorn than in common beans, soybean, wheat and sorghum. Sorghum differed from all other treatments with a lower number of turns. Similar values were found in popcorn and corn. The greater distances ranged were found on oats in comparison to pop corn, corn, common beans and sorghum. After contact with sorghum seedlings

  14. Feeding behavior of hummingbirds and perching birds on Erythrina speciosa Andrews (Fabaceae flowers in an urban area, Londrina, Paraná, Brazil Comportamento alimentar de beija-flores e Passeriformes nas flores de Erytrhina speciosa Andrews (Fabaceae em uma área urbana de Londrina, Paraná, Brasil

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    Luciana Baza Mendonça

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Nine species of birds - seven hummingbirds (Trochilidae and two Passeriformes - were observed visiting the flowers of Erythrina speciosa Andrews (Fabaceae, a hummingbird-pollinated species present on the campus of Londrina State University, Paraná State, Brazil. Nectar in bagged flowers bore little relationship with nectar in flowers opened to foragers either regarding quantity or diurnal pattern of availability. Birds were more frequent early in the morning and their activity on flowers further declined, apparently following the pattern of nectar availability. The manner to which birds probed the flowers and, in consequence, their role on pollination were greatly determined by morphological traits and approaching behavior of birds. E. speciosa seemed best suited for pollination by long-billed hummingbirds but some short to medium-billed species may play some role on its pollination.Nove espécies de aves - sete beija-flores (Trochilidae e duas aves Passeriformes - foram observados visitando as flores de Erythrina speciosa Andrews (Fabaceae, uma espécie polinizada por beija-flores presente no campus da Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Paraná, Brasil. O néctar em flores ensacadas apresentou pouca relação com aquele em flores expostas aos visitantes, tanto em termos de quantidade como em temos de padrão diurno de disponibilidade. As aves foram mais freqüentes de manhã e sua atividade nas flores diminuiu no transcorrer do dia, coincidindo com o padrão de disponibilidade de néctar. O comportamento de visita das aves e, em conseqüência, sua atuação na polinização da espécie foram em grande parte determinadas por características morfológicas e comportamentais destas. E. speciosa parece ser adaptada para polinização por beija-flores de bicos longos, embora espécies com bicos de comprimento curto a médio possam ter algum papel em sua polinização.

  15. A δ(15)N assessment of nitrogen deposition for the endangered epiphytic orchid Laelia speciosa from a city and an oak forest in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Álvarez, Edison A; Reyes-García, Casandra; de la Barrera, Erick

    2016-09-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen deposition poses a major threat to global biodiversity. Tropical epiphytic plants are especially at risk given their reliance on atmospheric sources of nutrients. The leaf, pseudobulb, and root carbon and nitrogen content, C:N ratio, as well as the nitrogen isotopic composition were studied for individuals of Laelia speciosa from a city and from an oak forest in Mexico. The nitrogen content of leaves was similar between the city and the oak forest, reaching 1.3 ± 0.2 % (dry mass). The δ(15)N of leaves, pseudobulbs, and roots reached 5.6 ± 0.2 ‰ in the city, values found in sites exposed to industrial and vehicular activities. The δ(15)N for plant from the oak forest amounted to -3.1 ± 0.3 ‰, which is similar to values measured from sites with low industrial activities. Some orchids such as Laelia speciosa produce a single pseudobulb per year, i.e., a water and nutrient storage organ, so the interannual nitrogen deposition was studied by considering the ten most recent pseudobulbs for plants from either site formed between 2003 and 2012. The C:N ratio of the ten most recent pseudobulbs from the oak forest, as well as that of the pseudobulbs formed before 2010 for plants in the city were indistinguishable from each other, averaging 132.4 ± 6.5, while it was lower for the two most recent pseudobulbs in the city. The δ(15)N values of pseudobulbs from the oak forest averaged ‒4.4 ± 0.1 ‰ for the entire series. The δ(15)N ranged from 0.1 ± 1.6 ‰ for the oldest pseudobulb to 4.7 ± 0.2 ‰ for the pseudobulb formed in the city from 2008 onwards. Isotopic analysis and the C:N ratio for L. speciosa revealed that rates of nitrogen deposition were higher in the city than in the forest. The δ(15)N values of series of pseudobulbs showed that it is possible to track nitrogen deposition over multiple years.

  16. Estímulos olfativos envolvidos no comportamento sexual e na seleção hospedeira de Diabrotica speciosa (Germar) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Cristiane Nardi

    2010-01-01

    Neste trabalho foi caracterizado o comportamento de Diabrotica speciosa, quando submetida a estímulos químicos de atração sexual ou de localização hospedeira. As atividades desenvolvidas foram: (i) Determinação da idade, horário, duração, número de cópulas, sexo responsável pela atração sexual e sequência de atividades envolvidas no comportamento sexual; (ii) investigação sobre o padrão de resposta dos machos ao feromônio sexual das fêmeas em olfatômetro e em eletroantenograma; (iii) investig...

  17. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of extracts from Cassia alata, Eleusine indica, Eremomastax speciosa, Carica papaya and Polyscias fulva medicinal plants collected in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagnia, Bertrand; Fedeli, Donatella; Casetti, Rita; Montesano, Carla; Falcioni, Giancarlo; Colizzi, Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    The vast majority of the population around the world has always used medicinal plants as first source of health care to fight infectious and non infectious diseases. Most of these medicinal plants may have scientific evidence to be considered in general practice. The aim of this work was to investigate the antioxidant capacities and anti-inflammatory activities of ethanol extracts of leaves of Cassia alata, Eleusine indica, Carica papaya, Eremomastax speciosa and the stem bark of Polyscias fulva, collected in Cameroon. Chemiluminescence was used to analyze the antioxidant activities of plant extracts against hydrogen peroxide or superoxide anion. Comet assays were used to analyze the protection against antioxidant-induced DNA damage induced in white blood cells after treating with hydrogen peroxide. Flow cytometry was used to measure γδ T cells proliferation and anti-inflammatory activity of γδ T cells and of immature dendritic cells (imDC) in the presence of different concentrations of plant extracts. Ethanol extracts showed strong antioxidant properties against both hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion. Cassia alata showed the highest antioxidant activity. The effect of plant extracts on γδ T cells and imDC was evidenced by the dose dependent reduction in TNF-α production in the presence of Cassia alata, Carica papaya, Eremomastax speciosa Eleusine indica, and Polyscias fulva. γδ T cells proliferation was affected to the greatest extent by Polyscias fulva. These results clearly show the antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory activities of plant extracts collected in Cameroon. These properties of leaves and stem bark extracts may contribute to the value for these plants in traditional medicine and in general medical practice.

  18. Corosolic acid content and SSR markers in Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.) Pers.: a comparative analysis among populations across the Southern Western Ghats of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, K S; Sajan, J S; Aswati Nair, R; Padmesh Pillai, P; Deepu, S; Padmaja, R; Agarwal, A; Pandurangan, A G

    2014-10-01

    Lagerstroemia speciosa commonly known as 'Banaba' is native of south-east Asia which exhibits both horticultural and therapeutic value. The anti-diabetic and anti-obese property of the tree is attributed to corosolic acid (CRA)-a pentacyclic triterpene seen predominantly in the mature leaves. Although there are studies on either chemical or genetic variation in L. speciosa from different regions, none have dealt with their association to discuss the formation of chemical diversity. For the first time, we have analyzed CRA content in 12 natural populations corresponding to 42 samples seen in the Southern Western Ghats (SWG) using chromatography techniques and genetic variation estimated using SSR markers. Significant variation in percentage distribution of CRA ranging from 0.005% to 0.868% dr.wt. was recorded wherein populations from the north SWG contain relatively more active principle (mean=0.321%) than their counterparts in the south (mean=0.064%). Similarly, SSR data showing relatively high rate of gene flow (Nm=2.72) and low genetic differentiation (FST=0.14) is indicative that populations from north are genetically more diverse than those in the south (Nm=0.48; FST=0.38). The scatter plot derived by Principle Component Analysis (PCA) of chemical and genetic data shows similar pattern of clustering that reveals strong association between the two sets of data. It is concluded that the observed variation in CRA content in natural populations of the species depends more on the genetic background and less on edaphic factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Actividad in vitro de la mezcla de alcaloides de Ervatamia coronaria (Jacq Staff. Apocynaceae sobre amastigotes de Leishmania braziliensis

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    Amanda Moreno Rodríguez

    Full Text Available A leishmaniose é considerada uma importante causa de morbidade e mortalidade a nível mundial, principalmente nos países tropicais. As formas cutânea e mucocutânea são causadas, entre outras espécies, por Leishmania braziliensis. Na procura de compostos leishmanicidas de origem natural, foi estudada a atividade da mistura de alcalóides de Ervatamia coronaria (Apocynaceae contra amastigotas de L. braziliensis em 6 concentrações diferentes (1, 10, 20, 25, 50 e 100 µg/mL. Foram tratados macrófagos de ratos da linha J774, infectados com promastigotas de L. braziliensis, com a mistura de alcalóides 1 hora após-infecção e diariamente por 3 dias sem mudança de meio. As experiências de citotoxicidade foram efetuadas sobre os macrófagos com azul tripam. Todos os cultivos foram feitos de forma triplicada e os grupos de controle não foram submetidos à mistura de alcalóides. Foi obtido que o composto adicionado exerce atividade doses/dependente sobre a parasita. No entanto, as concentrações mais altas (50 e 100 µg/mL, adicionado durante 3 dias, mostraram os maiores índices de infecção, provavelmente devido a diminuição no número de macrófagos, sobre os quais não foi observado efeito tóxico do tratamento durante 24 horas DL50/24h = 233,52 µg/mL. Os resultados dessa pesquisa revelaram uma nova atividade farmacológica de alcalóides da espécie Ervatamia coronaria sobre a forma amastigota de Leishmania braziliensis, com IC50 = 2,6 e 12,4 µg/mL sem mostrar toxicidade sobre a célula hospedeira.

  20. Recent radiation of Brachystelma and Ceropegia (Apocynaceae) across the Old World against a background of climatic change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruyns, P V; Klak, C; Hanáček, P

    2015-09-01

    The genera Brachystelma Sims and Ceropegia L. of the Ceropegieae (Apocynaceae-Asclepiadoideae) consist of ±320 species of geophytes and slender climbers with a tendency to stem-succulence in Ceropegia. They occur in and around the semi-arid, mainly tropical parts of the Old World. For 146 species (around half of the total) from most of the geographic range of the genera, we analysed data from two nuclear and five plastid regions. The evolution of Ceropegia is very complex, with at least 13 mostly well-supported lineages, one of which is sister to the ±350 species of stapeliads. Species of Brachystelma have evolved at least four times, with most of them nested within two separate major lineages. So, neither Brachystelma nor Ceropegia is monophyletic. We recover a broad trend, in two separate major lineages, from slender climbers to small, geophytic herbs. Several clades are recovered in which all species possess an underground tuber. Small, erect, non-climbing, geophytic species of Ceropegia with a tuber are nested among species of Brachystelma. Consequently, the distinctive tubular flowers used to define Ceropegia do not reflect relationships. This re-iterates the great floral plasticity in the Ceropegieae, already established for the stapeliads. Both major lineages exhibit a trend from tubular flowers with faint, often fruity odours, pollinated by very small Dipteran flies, to flatter flowers often with a bad odour, pollinated by larger flies. Most of the diversity in Brachystelma and Ceropegia is recent and arose within the last 3my against a background of increased aridification or extreme climatic variability during the Pliocene. In the ingroup, diversity is highest in Southern Africa, followed by Tropical East Africa and other arid parts of Africa, the Arabian Peninsula and India. Many disjunctions are revealed and these are best explained by recent, long distance dispersal. In Africa, the diversity arises from the presence of many different lineages over

  1. Application of preparative high-speed counter-current chromatography for the separation of two alkaloids from the roots of Tabernaemontana catharinensis (Apocynaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Milena S; Vieira, Ivo J Curcino; Oliveira, Rodrigo R; Braz-Filho, Raimundo

    2011-09-02

    The methanolic extract of Tabernaemontana catharinensis (Apocynaceae) roots, which contains alkaloids with several biological activities, was separated on a preparative scale using high-speed counter-current chromatography. The optimum solvent system was found to be a mixture of CHCl(3)-MeOH-H(2)O [5:10:6 (v/v/v)] and led to a successful separation of two monoterpenic indole alkaloids, voachalotine (1) and 12-methoxy-N(b)-methylvoachalotine (2) in approximately 4.0 hours. The alkaloids were all isolated at purities over 95%, and their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic methods, including 1D and 2D NMR and EI/MS.

  2. Reproductive phenological pattern of Calotropis procera (Apocynaceae, an invasive species in Brazil: annual in native areas; continuous in invaded areas of caatinga

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    Mellissa Sousa Sobrinho

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluated the phenological patterns (vegetative and reproductive of Calotropis procera (Apocynaceae-Asclepiadoideae in Brazil, comparing its phenology in an area where it is invasive with that observed in areas to which it is native. Phenological observations were carried out over a 24-month period at sites in and around areas of caatinga (shrublands. We estimated the relative frequency of each phenophase, and we documented a dramatic difference between phenophases in terms of the pattern of reproductive phenology . The pattern of continuous flowering and fruiting observed in the invaded area strongly diverges from the 2- to 6-month flowering and fruiting period of the annual pattern. The continuous pattern of reproduction seems to have facilitated the invasion of the Brazilian caatinga by C. procera.

  3. Estudios en las Apocynaceae neotropicales XXXIII: nueva sinonimia y lectotipificaciones en especies amazónicas del género Mandevilla Lindl. (Apocynoideae, Mesechiteae

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    Morales, J. Francisco

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In preparation of the Catalogue of Apocynaceae for Colombia and a synopsis of the genus Mandevilla Lindl. in Brazil, the following synonyms are proposed: M. glabra N.E. Brown and M. ulei K. Schum. ex Markgr. as synonyms of M. subcarnosa (Benth Woodson, M. thevetioides Markgr. and M. manarana Morillo as synonyms of M. nerioides Woodson, and M. spruceana (Müll. Arg. K. Schum. and M. stephanotidifolia Woodson as synonyms of M. javitensis. Lectotypes are designated for Amblyanthera spruceana Müll. Arg., Echites javitensis Kunth, E. subcarnosus Benth., Mandevilla glabra N.E. Brown, M. thevetioides Markgr., and M. ulei K. Schum. ex Markgr. and a neotype is proposed for M. dielsiana Markgr.Como resultado de la preparación de un catálogo de las Apocynaceae de Colombia, así como de una sinopsis del género Mandevilla Lindl. en Brasil, se proponen los siguientes sinónimos: M. glabra N.E. Brown y M. ulei K. Schum. ex Markgr. bajo la sinonimia de M. subcarnosa (Benth. Woodson, M. thevetioides Markgr. y M. manarana Morillo bajo M. nerioides Woodson y M. spruceana (Müll. Arg. K. Schum. y M. stephanotidifolia Woodson en la sinonimia de M. javitensis (Kunth K. Schum. Se designan los lectótipos de Amblyanthera spruceana Müll. Arg., Echites javitensis Kunth, E. subcarnosus Benth., Mandevilla glabra N.E. Brown, M. thevetioides Markgr. y M. ulei K. Schum. ex Markgr. y el neótipo de M. dielsiana Markgr.

  4. CONTROLE QUÍMICO DO PULGÃO VERDE (Myzus persicae Sulzer, 1776 E DA VAQUINHA (Diabrotica speciosa Germ., 1824 NA CULTURA DO TOMATE RASTEIRO CHEMICAL CONTROL OF THE GREEN PEACH APHID (Myzus persicae, SULZER AND TOMATO LEAF BEETLE (Diabrotica speciosa, GERMAR IN TOMATO PLANTS

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    Danilo Couto

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O efeito de cinco inseticidas aplicados no tomateiro (Lycopersicum sculentum Mill, visando ao controle do pulgão verde, Myzus persicae SULZER e de vaquinha, Diabrotica speciosa GERM, foi testado em um experimento realizado na área experimental do Departamento de Horticultura da Escota de Agronomia da Universidade Federal de Goiás, no período de maio a setembro de 1994. Os tratamentos foram aplicados via pulverização e constaram de Bulldock 125 SC (dosagem de 100 ml/ 100 1 de água; Bulldock 50 CE (25 e 30 ml/100 l de água; Tamaron BR (100 ml/ 100 l de água; Orthene 750 BR (100 ml/ l00 1 de água e Folidol 600 (100 ml/l00 1 de água; e ainda uma testemunha (sem inseticida. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que todos os tratamentos foram eficientes no controle de M. persicae até sete dias após a aplicação. Aos 14 dias após a aplicação, o Bulldock 50 CE na dosagem de 25 ml/ 100 l de água e o Folidol 600 a 100 ml/ 100 l de água não apresentaram eficiência satisfatória. Com relação à D. speciosa, todos esses produtos foram igualmente eficientes até sete dias após aplicação.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Myzus persicae; diabrotica speciosa; tomateiro; controle químico.

    A trial to control the green peach aphid myzus persicae and tomato leaf beetle Diabrotica speciosa was carried out in Goi

  5. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Potential of Palm Leaf Extracts from Babaçu (Attalea speciosa, Buriti (Mauritia flexuosa, and Macaúba (Acrocomia aculeata

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    Adriana Idalina Torcato de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Babaçu (A. speciosa, Buriti (M. flexuosa, and Macaúba (A. aculeata are palm trees typical of the ecotone area between Cerrado and the Amazon rainforest. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial potential of the extracts prepared from the leaves of those palms as well as determine their chemical compositions. The ethanol extracts were prepared in a Soxhlet apparatus and tested by disk diffusion and agar dilution technique against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, and Candida parapsilosis. However, there was no significant activity at concentrations of 25, 50, and 100 mg·Ml−1. Moreover, the phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, catechins, steroids, triterpenes, and saponins. Gas chromatography (GC/MS analysis also identified organic acids, such as capric (decanoic acid, lauric (dodecanoic acid, myristic (tetradecanoic acid, phthalic (1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, palmitic (hexadecanoic acid, stearic (octadecanoic acid, linoleic (9,12-octadecadienoic acid (omega-6, linolenic (octadecatrienoic acid (omega-3, and the terpenes citronellol and phytol. Based on the chemical composition in the palm leaf extracts, the palms have the potential to be useful in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries.

  6. Determination of Mitragynine in Mitragyna speciosa Raw Materials and Finished Products by Liquid Chromatography with UV Detection: Single-Laboratory Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudge, Elizabeth M; Brown, Paula N

    2017-01-01

    Mitragyna speciosa (kratom) is a tree indigenous to Southeast Asia, and its leaves are used in herbal formulations because they contain indole alkaloids mitragynine and 7-hydroxy (7-OH) mitragynine. An HPLC method was developed, optimized, and validated using single-laboratory validation guidelines to quantify mitragynine in kratom raw materials and finished products. The method optimization evaluated several extraction parameters including solvent type, solvent volume, time, and extraction method. The separation of the mitragynine alkaloids was achieved in 18 min with a fused-core C18 EVO column using gradient separation with ammonium bicarbonate (pH 9.5) and acetonitrile. The calibration range for mitragynine was 1.0-500 μg/mL with correlation coefficients of ≥99.9% throughout method development and validation. The method detection limit and LOQ were 0.2 and 0.6 μg/mL, respectively for mitragynine. Eight test samples were obtained to evaluate method repeatability. RSDr ranged from 0.4 to 1.0%, whereas intermediate precision ranged from 3.7 to 7.3%, with HorRat values from 0.68 to 1.96. 7-OH mitragynine was below the LOQ for all samples, therefore, spikes repeatability sample RSD values were Kratom Working Group.

  7. Principal component and Tucker3 analyses of high performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection fingerprints of crude extracts of Erythrina speciosa Andrews leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaori Soares, Patricia [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, CP 6154, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Bruns, Roy Edward, E-mail: bruns@iqm.unicamp.br [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, CP 6154, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Spacino Scarminio, Ieda [Laboratorio de Quimiometria em Ciencias Naturais, Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, CP 6001, 86051-990 Londrina, PR (Brazil)

    2012-07-29

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simultaneous chromatographic, spectroscopic and mixture proportion correlations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tucker3 analysis of chromatographic, spectral and solvent mixture proportions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HPLC-DAD spectral characterization of chromatographic peaks. - Abstract: Mixtures of ethanol, dichloromethane, hexane and acetone obtained according to a statistical design have been used to extract substances from Erythrina speciosa Andrew leaves for chromatographic fingerprinting. The plant extracts from each mixture were analyzed by HPLC-DAD providing UV-vis spectra for each chromatographic peak. These chromatograms and spectra for the design mixtures were then treated with principal component (PCA), Tucker3 and PARAFAC analyses. PCA indicated the existence of five different chromatographic fingerprints for the leave extracts depending on the solvent mixture composition. Different chromatographic peak areas were strongly correlated with the mixture proportions of acetone, dichloromethane and ethanol. Tucker3 and PARAFAC analyses were very useful for identifying simultaneous correlations between chromatographic peak areas, spectral band absorbances and solvent proportions. The acetone proportion was highly correlated with the area of the 3.69 min retention time peak and the spectral absorbances between 250 and 260 nm, consistent with the presence of natural polyphenols. The dichloromethane mixture proportion was strongly correlated with the 12.19 min chromatographic peak area and a single spectral absorbance at 201 nm. This spectral absorption is characteristic of the electronic structures of terpenes and alkaloids.

  8. Photocatalytic activity against azo dye and cytotoxicity on MCF-7 cell lines of zirconium oxide nanoparticle mediated using leaves of Lagerstroemia speciosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai Saraswathi, V; Santhakumar, K

    2017-04-01

    Metal oxide nanoparticles are gaining interest in recent years. The present paper explains about the green synthesis of zirconium oxide nanoparticles (ZrO NPs) mediated from the leaves of Lagerstroemia speciosa. The prepared ZrO NPs were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, FT-IR, X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). The photocatalytic activity of ZrO NPs was studied for azo dye by exposing to sunlight. The azo dye was degraded up to 94.58%. Also the ZrO NPs were studied for in vitro cytotoxicity activity against breast cancer cell lines-MCF-7 and evaluated by MTT assay. The cell morphological changes were recorded by light microscope. The cells viability was seen at 500μg/mL when compared against control. Hence the research highlights, that the method was simple, eco-friendly towards environment by phytoremediation activity of the azo dye and cytotoxicity activity against MCF-7 cell lines. Hence the present paper may help to further explore the metal nanoparticle for its potential applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Antinociceptive effect of 7-hydroxymitragynine in mice: Discovery of an orally active opioid analgesic from the Thai medicinal herb Mitragyna speciosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Kenjiro; Horie, Syunji; Ishikawa, Hayato; Takayama, Hiromitsu; Aimi, Norio; Ponglux, Dhavadee; Watanabe, Kazuo

    2004-03-12

    Mitragynine is an indole alkaloid isolated from the Thai medicinal plant Mitragyna speciosa. We previously reported the morphine-like action of mitragynine and its related compounds in the in vitro assays. In the present study, we investigated the opioid effects of 7-hydroxymitragynine, which is isolated as its novel constituent, on contraction of isolated ileum, binding of the specific ligands to opioid receptors and nociceptive stimuli in mice. In guinea-pig ileum, 7-hydroxymitragynine inhibited electrically induced contraction through the opioid receptors. Receptor-binding assays revealed that 7-hydroxymitragynine has a higher affinity for micro-opioid receptors relative to the other opioid receptors. Administration of 7-hydroxymitragynine (2.5-10 mg/kg, s.c.) induced dose-dependent antinociceptive effects in tail-flick and hot-plate tests in mice. Its effect was more potent than that of morphine in both tests. When orally administered, 7-hydroxymitragynine (5-10 mg/kg) showed potent antinociceptive activities in tail-flick and hot-plate tests. In contrast, only weak antinociception was observed in the case of oral administration of morphine at a dose of 20 mg/kg. It was found that 7-hydroxymitragynine is a novel opioid agonist that is structurally different from the other opioid agonists, and has potent analgesic activity when orally administered.

  10. The effect of silicon foliar application on the development of Seasonal ornamental plants. Part I: Sanvitalia speciosa 'Sunbini', Verbena 'Patio Blue' and Portulaca umbraticola 'Duna Red'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Dębicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Silicon is known as an element stimulating plant immunity and resistance to unfavorable conditions. Additional treatment with silicon may also cause a positive change in plant performance, improving the quality of ornamental plants. In the years 2009-2010, a two-factorial experiment was conducted involving three cultivars of seasonal ornamental plant species: creeping zinnia Sanvitalia speciosa 'Sunbini', vervain Verbena 'Patio Blue', and purslane Portulaca umbraticola 'Duna Red'. The first experimental factor was the concentration of Actisil preparation being an equivalent of 60, 120, and 180 mg Si×dm-3, applied three times by spraying, the second one was the type of medium: peat substrate and peat substrate with sand. The experiment proved the beneficial effect of fertilization with silicon on plant development of Verbena and the number of shoots of all examined plant species. The higher concentrations of Actisil were applied, the higher number of shoots the plants developed. Plants treated with Actisil also produced a higher number of buds and flowers or inflorescences featuring an increased diameter. Plants cultivated in peat substrate flowered better.

  11. Avaliação morfológica do aparelho reprodutor masculino e morfometria dos testículos de Chromacris speciosa (Thunberg,1824) (Orthoptera : Romaleidae) submetido a três fotoperíodos

    OpenAIRE

    Alexsandre Vicente da Silva Ferreira

    2006-01-01

    O regime alimentar dos ortópteros é bastante variado, praticamente da monofagia à polifagia, predominando,todavia, a fitofagia, daí serem altamente nocivos às plantas cultivadas e, por isso mesmo, economicamente importantes sob o ponto de vista agrícola. Chromacris speciosa (Thunberg, 1824) (Orthoptera: Romaleidae) é considerada como devastadora ocasional endêmica da América do Sul tendo como hábito alimentar vários tipos de planta. Estudos sobre a morfologia do aparelho reprodutor masculino ...

  12. MICROMORFOLOGÍA Y HISTOQUÍMICA DE LOS LATICÍFEROS DE ÓRGANOS VEGETATIVOS DE ESPECIES DE ASCLEPIADOIDEAE (APOCYNACEAE

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    Diego DEMARCO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La micromorfología y las principales clases de componentes de las paredes de los laticíferos y del látex de Asclepias curassavica , Fischeria stellata , Gonioanthela axillaris , Matelea denticulata y Oxypetalum banksii , fueron analizadas y comparadas con las de especies de Apocynaceae de Cerrado. Los laticíferos de las especies estudiadas de diferentes tipos de bosques presentan características semejantes. Las paredes son primarias, altamente hidratadas, pecto-celulósicas y fuertemente adheridas a las paredes de las células adyacentes. El látex es blanco lechoso, constituido por polisacáridos, incluyendo mucílago, proteínas, lípidos, incluyendo ácidos grasos, compuestos fenólicos e alcaloides. Fischeria y Gonioanthela difieren de las demás especies por producir lípidos neutros. El látex de las especies investigadas está asociado a la protección de la planta contra herbivoría, pudiendo ser tóxico e inhibir la proliferación de microorganismos, además de coagular, sellando heridas de las plantas y funcionando como barrera física. Estas propiedades del látex proporcionan una mayor ventaja adaptativa a estas plantas en relación a las no latescentes.

  13. Morphoanatomic characterization of the stem and the leaf of Tabernaemontana catharinensis A.DC (Apocynaceae and antimutagenic activity of its leaves

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    D.G.G. GUIDOTI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Tabernaemontana catharinensis A. DC (Apocynaceae is used as a medicinal plant by the population. In order to contribute to the safe use of the plant as herbal medicine, this study aimed to morphoanatomically characterize the aereal vegetative organs of T. catharinensis and to evaluate the leaves’ mutagenic and antimutagenic activities. Histological blades of leaves and stem of T. catharinensis were performed; the methionine system (methG1 and Aspergillusnidulans conidia germination analysis were employed for mutagenic and antimutagenic evaluation. The morphoanatomic analysis did not show trichomes in the stem, petiole and leaf. Besides, it was observed both the presence of bi-collateral bundles - except in the foliar apex where the bundles were from the collateral type - as well as anamphistomatic leaf with paracyte stomata and sub-epidermal layer in the region of the leaf edges. The mutagenicity/antimutagenicity trial indicated a significant decrease of mutation frequency in comparison with the control group and showed that the T. catharinensis had antimutagenic activity within the type, time and form of treatment. Since the germination test showed that the conidia germination was accelerated from the bud phase, activities at the cell cycle level and polarized growth proved to be possible. The morphoanatomic analysis of the leaf and stem associated with the mutagenic and antimutagenic analyses contributes to the safe use of the plant by humans and also for the quality control of a possible phytotherapeutic drug.

  14. Anti-inflammatory effects of β-sitosterol-β-D-glucoside from Trachelospermum jasminoides (Apocynaceae) in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 murine macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji Na; Choi, Yun-Hyeok; Lee, Jeong-Min; Noh, Ill Chan; Park, Jae Won; Choi, Wahn Soo; Choi, Jung Ho

    2012-01-01

    Trachelospermum jasminoides (Apocynaceae) has pharmacological effects that include anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial and anti-viral activities, which have been observed from various studies. Of these pharmacological effects, the anti-inflammatory capacity of compounds from T. jasminoides is not yet known exactly. In this study, we investigated the compound that can be used for the suppression of lipopolysacchaide (LPS) stimulated inflammatory responses in macrophages among the five isolated compounds. β-sitosterol-β-D-glucoside (1) was found to reduce nitric oxide (NO) production from LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells the most. In addition, compound 1 strongly inhibited the interleukin 6 (IL-6) activities of stimulated macrophages. Treatment of RAW 264.7 cells with compound 1 reduced secretion of inflammatory elements including tumour necrosis factor - alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β). Thus, compound 1 may be a useful candidate for the development of new drugs to treat endotoxemia and inflammation accompanied by the overproduction of NO.

  15. Aspidosperma (Apocynaceae) plant cytotoxicity and activity towards malaria parasites. Part I: Aspidosperma nitidum (Benth) used as a remedy to treat fever and malaria in the Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Julia Penna; Aguiar, Anna Caroline Campos; dos Santos, Pierre Alexandre; Lima, Joaquim Corsino; Rocha, Maria Gabrielle Lima; Zani, Carlos Leomar; Alves, Tânia Maria Almeida; Santana, Antônio Euzébio Goulart; Pereira, Maria de Meneses; Krettli, Antoniana Ursine

    2013-12-01

    Infusions of Aspidosperma nitidum (Apocynaceae) wood bark are used to treat fever and malaria in the Amazon Region. Several species of this family are known to possess indole alkaloids and other classes of secondary metabolites, whereas terpenoids, an inositol and the indole alkaloids harmane-3 acid and braznitidumine have been described in A. nitidum . In the present study, extracts from the wood bark, leaves and branches of this species were prepared for assays against malaria parasites and cytotoxicity testing using human hepatoma and normal monkey kidney cells. The wood bark extracts were active against Plasmodium falciparum and showed a low cytotoxicity in vitro, whereas the leaf and branch extracts and the pure alkaloid braznitidumine were inactive. A crude methanol extract was subjected to acid-base fractionation aimed at obtaining alkaloid-rich fractions, which were active at low concentrations against P. falciparum and in mice infected with and sensitive Plasmodium berghei parasites. Our data validate the antimalarial usefulness of A. nitidum wood bark, a remedy that can most likely help to control malaria. However, the molecules responsible for this antimalarial activity have not yet been identified. Considering their high selectivity index, the alkaloid-rich fractions from the plant bark might be useful in the development of new antimalarials.

  16. Metabolomics Characterization of Two Apocynaceae Plants, Catharanthus roseus and Vinca minor, Using GC-MS and LC-MS Methods in Combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qi; Lu, Xueyan; Guo, Xiaorui; Guo, Qingxi; Li, Dewen

    2017-06-17

    Catharanthus roseus ( C. roseus ) and Vinca minor ( V. minor ) are two common important medical plants belonging to the family Apocynaceae. In this study, we used non-targeted GC-MS and targeted LC-MS metabolomics to dissect the metabolic profile of two plants with comparable phenotypic and metabolic differences. A total of 58 significantly different metabolites were present in different quantities according to PCA and PLS-DA score plots of the GC-MS analysis. The 58 identified compounds comprised 16 sugars, eight amino acids, nine alcohols and 18 organic acids. We subjected these metabolites into KEGG pathway enrichment analysis and highlighted 27 metabolic pathways, concentrated on the TCA cycle, glycometabolism, oligosaccharides, and polyol and lipid transporter (RFOS). Among the primary metabolites, trehalose, raffinose, digalacturonic acid and gallic acid were revealed to be the most significant marker compounds between the two plants, presumably contributing to species-specific phenotypic and metabolic discrepancy. The profiling of nine typical alkaloids in both plants using LC-MS method highlighted higher levels of crucial terpenoid indole alkaloid (TIA) intermediates of loganin, serpentine, and tabersonine in V. minor than in C. roseus . The possible underlying process of the metabolic flux from primary metabolism pathways to TIA synthesis was discussed and proposed. Generally speaking, this work provides a full-scale comparison of primary and secondary metabolites between two medical plants and a metabolic explanation of their TIA accumulation and phenotype differences.

  17. Impacto dos nutrientes N e K e de açúcares solúveis sobre populações de Diabrotica speciosa (Germar (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae e Agrotis ipsilon (Hüfnagel (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae na cultura da batata, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanaceae Impact of the nutrients N and K and soluble sugars on Diabrotica speciosa (Germar (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae and Agrotis ipsilon (Hüfnagel (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae populations in potato crops, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanaceae

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    Edson Henrique de Azeredo

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a ocorrência de Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824 (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae e de Agrotis ipsilon (Hüfnagel, 1767 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae em plantas de batata, cultivares Achat e Monalisa, influenciadas por dosagens de nitrogênio e potássio, e teor mínimo de açúcares solúveis. Os seguintes parâmetros foram avaliados: concentração de nutrientes minerais e açúcar em folha verde, folha senescente, folha em abcisão, haste, tubérculo e planta total usando extratos de infusão em etanol 80%. A maior infestação por larvas de D. speciosa foi na cultivar Monalisa a 150 kg.ha-1 de N + K com 27,03% a PThe occurrence of Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824 and Agrotis ipsilon (Hüfnagel, 1767 on the potato cultivars Achat and Monalisa, influenced by nitrogen and potassium dosage, and minimum theor of soluble sugars, was studied. The following parameters were evaluated: concentration of mineral nutrient and sugar in green leaf, senescent leaf, leaf in abscission, stem, tubercle and total plant using extracts of infusion in ethanol 80%. The largest infestation of D. speciosa larvae was on Monalisa cultivar at 150 kg.ha-1 of N + K with 27.03% at P< 0,05. It was observed that the effect of the dosage of N + K in the increment of the concentration of soluble sugars increased the damages in the tubercles and stems by A. ipsilon. The infestation by these species increased to 58.82% on the Monalisa cultivar, when the nitrogen dosage increased from zero to 150 kg.ha-1, in the absence of potassium. On the other hand, high dosage of K reduced the damages by A. ipsilon on Monalisa cultivar. However, it did not influence the storage of soluble sugar. The results indicated that in Achat cultivar the accumulated soluble sugar was reduced, probably sensibilized by elevation of potassic fertilization dosing, differing from Monalisa cultivar, in which the influence was by nitrogen dosing.

  18. CONTROLE QUÍMICO DA VAQUINHA (Diabrotica speciosa Germ., 1824 E DA CIGARRINHA VERDE (Empoasca kraemeri Ross & More, 1957 EM FEIJOEIRO CHEMICAL CONTROL OF BEAN LEAF BEETLE (Diabrotica speciosa GERM., 1824- COLEOPTERA: CRYSOMELLIDAE AND BEAN LEAF HOPPER (Empoasca kraemeri ROSS & MOORE, 1957-HOMOPTERA: CICADELLIDAE IN BEAN CROPS

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    Cláudio Aparecido Silveira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Foi realizado o presente experimento nos campos experimentais da Escola de Agronomia da Universidade Federal de Goiás, de dezembro de 1996 a março de 1997, para o controle da vaquinha (Diabrotica speciosa e da cigarrinha verde (Empoasca kraemeri durante o ciclo da cultura com produtos aplicados via pulverizações. Os tratamentos constaram de Confidor 700 GRDA na dosagem de 0,15 kg/ha + 0,05% de Impress, Bulldock 125 SC na dosagem de 0,05 l/ha, Tamaron 600 CE na dosagem de 0,8 l/ha, Turbo 050 CE nas dosagens de 0,1 1/ha e 0,12 l/ha. Pelos resultados obtidos, concluiu-se que todos os tratamentos controlaram eficientemente a vaquinha. As porcentagens de controle variaram de 82 a 92% bem como da cigarrinha verde com porcentagens de 77 a 92%.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Insecta; controle químico; feijoeiro.

    A trial to control the bean leaf beetle Diabrotica speciosa and the beanleafhopper Empoasca kraemeri was carried out in Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil. The treatments and dosage of the insecticides per hectare were: Imidacloprid (105g a.i., Betacyflutrin (5.0, 6.0 and 6.25 g a.i., Methamidophos (480 g a.i. and an untreated check. The results obtained in this experiment showed that all insecticides were efficient in controlling the bean leaf beetle and beanleafhopper in bean crops, at all dosages tested.

    KEY-WORDS: Insecta: pest control; bean crops.

  19. BAP e substratos na aclimatização de plântulas de gloxínia (Sinningia speciosa Lood. Hiern. provenientes de cultura de tecidos BAP and substrates on gloxinia (Sinningia speciosa Lood. Hiern. plantlets from tissue culture acclimatization

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    Adriano Bortolotti da Silva

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A gloxínia é uma planta ornamental cultivada pela exoticidade e variação de coloração de suas flores. Objetivou-se avaliar a influência residual da citocinina 6-Benzilaminopurina (BAP usada durante a cultura in vitro sobre o processo de aclimatização de gloxínia (Sinningia speciosa Lood. Hiern.. As concentrações de 0,0; 0,5; 1 e 2,0 mg L-1 de BAP, em cultivo in vitro, foram combinadas com os substratos: vermiculita, plantmax® e vermiculita + plantmax®, durante o processo de aclimatização. Após o processo de inoculação in vitro, o material foi transferido para sala de crescimento com temperatura de 26 ± 1ºC, intensidade luminosa de 35 m mol m² s-1 e fotoperíodo de 16 horas, permanecendo nessas condições por 60 dias. Após esse período, as plantas obtidas foram plantadas nos diferentes substratos. As avaliações foram efetuadas após 120 dias, em casa-de-vegetação, registrando-se o número de brotos, peso da matéria fresca do sistema radicular, peso da matéria seca da planta e número de flores. Os melhores resultados foram obtidos com o cultivo em substrato plantmax® ou plantmax�� + vermiculita advinda de meio de cultura in vitro isento de BAP.The present work aimed to evaluate the influence of concentrations of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP used in acclimatization of gloxinia (Sinningia speciosa Lood. Hiern. Concentrations of BAP (0.0; 0.5; 1.0 and 2.0 mg L-1 in vitro and substrates (vermiculite, plantmax®, and vermiculite+plantmax® were tested for acclimatization in every possible combination. After in vitro inoculation, the material was transferred to a growth chamber with temperature of 26±1ºC and light intensity of 35 m mol m-2 s-1 for 16 hours, remaining under these conditions for 60 days. After that period, the plants obtained were transferred to pots containing substrates in a greenhouse. The evaluations were performed 120 days after cultivation. It were measured number of shoots, roots dry weight, above

  20. Evaluation of in vitro antidiabetic and antioxidant characterizations of Elettaria cardamomum (L.) Maton (Zingiberaceae), Piper cubeba L. f. (Piperaceae), and Plumeria rubra L. (Apocynaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Afnan Sh; Ahmed, Qamaruddin; Saxena, Anil Kumar; Jamal, Parveen

    2017-01-01

    Inhibition of intestinal α-amylase and α-glucosidase is an important strategy to regulate diabetes mellitus (DM). Antioxidants from plants are widely regarded in the prevention of diabetes. Fruits of Elettaria cardamomum (L.) Maton (Zingiberaceae) and Piper cubeba L. f. (Piperaceae) and flowers of Plumeria rubra L. (Apocynaceae) are traditionally used to cure DM in different countries. However, the role of these plants has been grossly under reported and is yet to receive proper scientific evaluation with respect to understand their traditional role in the management of diabetes especially as digestive enzymes inhibitors. Hence, methanol and aqueous extracts of the aforementioned plants were evaluated for their in vitro α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibition at 1 mg/mL and quantification of their antioxidant properties (DPPH, FRAP tests, total phenolic and total flavonoids contents). In vitro optimization studies for the extracts were also performed to enhance in vitro biological activities. The % inhibition of α-glucosidase by the aqueous extracts of the fruits of E. cardamomum, P. cubeba and flowers of P. rubra were 10.41 (0.03), 95.19 (0.01), and -2.92 (0.03), while the methanol extracts exhibited % inhibition 13.73 (0.02), 92.77 (0.01), and -0.98 (0.01), respectively. The % inhibition of α-amylase by the aqueous extracts were 82.99 (0.01), 64.35 (0.01), and 20.28 (0.02), while the methanol extracts displayed % inhibition 39.93 (0.01), 31.06 (0.02), and 39.40 (0.01), respectively. Aqueous extracts displayed good in vitro antidiabetic and antioxidant activities. Moreover, in vitro optimization experiments helped to increase the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of E. cardamomum. Our findings further justify the traditional claims of these plants as folk medicines to manage diabetes, however, through digestive enzymes inhibition effect.

  1. Initial Response by a Native Beetle, Chrysochus auratus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), to a Novel Introduced Host-Plant, Vincetoxicum rossicum (Gentianales: Apocynaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    deJonge, R B; Bourchier, R S; Smith, S M

    2017-06-01

    Native insects can form novel associations with introduced invasive plants and use them as a food source. The recent introduction into eastern North America of a nonnative European vine, Vincetoxicum rossicum (Kleopow) Barbar., allows us to examine the initial response of a native chrysomelid beetle, Chrysochus auratus F., that feeds on native plants in the same family as V. rossicum (Apocynaceae). We tested C. auratus on V. rossicum and closely related or co-occurring native plants (Apocynum spp., Asclepias spp., and Solidago canadensis L.) using all life stages of the beetle in lab, garden, and field experiments. Experiments measured feeding (presence or absence and amount), survival, oviposition, and whether previous exposure to V. rossicum in the lab or field affected adult beetle feeding. Beetles fed significantly less on V. rossicum than on native Apocynum hosts. Adult beetles engaged in exploratory feeding on leaves of V. rossicum and survived up to 10 d. Females oviposited on V. rossicum, eggs hatched, and larvae fed initially on the roots; however, no larvae survived beyond second instar. Beetles collected from Apocynum cannabinum L. field sites intermixed with V. rossicum were less likely to feed on this novel nonnative host than those collected from colonies further from and less likely to be exposed to V. rossicum (>5 km). Our experimental work indicates that V. rossicum may act as an oviposition sink for C. auratus and that this native beetle has not adapted to survive on this recently introduced novel host plant. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. High specialisation in the pollination system of Mandevilla tenuifolia (J.C. Mikan) Woodson (Apocynaceae) drives the effectiveness of butterflies as pollinators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, L D A; Quirino, Z G M; Machado, I C

    2014-09-01

    Butterfly pollination in the tropics is considered somewhat effective or solely effective in a few plant species. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that Mandevilla tenuifolia (Apocynaceae), which has floral attributes associated with psychophily, has strategies adapted to pollination by butterflies, restricting other floral visitors and making these insects act as efficient pollinators. We analysed the floral and reproductive biology of M. tenuifolia, as well as the frequency and efficiency of its flower visitors. M. tenuifolia is an herb whose flowers have strong herkogamy and secondary pollen presentation on the style head, which corresponds to 60.4% of pollen on the anthers. Flower longevity and the long period of receptivity of the stigmatic region associated with the large amount of pollen removed in the first visits suggest that flowers remain functionally female during part of anthesis. Butterflies, mainly of the families Nymphalidae and Pieridae, are the only pollinators of M. tenuifolia. Despite being self-compatible, M. tenuifolia depends on biotic vectors for fruit production. A non-significant difference in fruit set between controlled treatments and natural conditions suggests that the pollinators are efficient. The inclination resulting from the landing of butterflies on flowers, together with flower morphology, guiding the insect proboscis inside the floral tube, as well as the frequency and efficiency of butterfly visits, are evidence of the close relationship between butterflies and M. tenuifolia, and also of the efficiency of these insects as pollinators. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  3. Beetle and plant arrow poisons of the Ju|’hoan and Hai||om San peoples of Namibia (Insecta, Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae; Plantae, Anacardiaceae, Apocynaceae, Burseraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaboo, Caroline S.; Biesele, Megan; Hitchcock, Robert K.; Weeks, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The use of archery to hunt appears relatively late in human history. It is poorly understood but the application of poisons to arrows to increase lethality must have occurred shortly after developing bow hunting methods; these early multi-stage transitions represent cognitive shifts in human evolution. This paper is a synthesis of widely-scattered literature in anthropology, entomology, and chemistry, dealing with San (“Bushmen”) arrow poisons. The term San (or Khoisan) covers many indigenous groups using so-called ‘click languages’ in southern Africa. Beetles are used for arrow poison by at least eight San groups and one non-San group. Fieldwork and interviews with Ju|’hoan and Hai||om hunters in Namibia revealed major differences in the nature and preparation of arrow poisons, bow and arrow construction, and poison antidote. Ju|’hoan hunters use leaf-beetle larvae of Diamphidia Gerstaecker and Polyclada Chevrolat (Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini) collected from soil around the host plants Commiphora africana (A. Rich.) Engl. and Commiphora angolensis Engl. (Burseracaeae). In the Nyae Nyae area of Namibia, Ju|’hoan hunters use larvae of Diamphidia nigroornata Ståhl. Larvae and adults live above-ground on the plants and eat leaves, but the San collect the underground cocoons to extract the mature larvae. Larval hemolymph is mixed with saliva and applied to arrows. Hai||om hunters boil the milky plant sap of Adenium bohemianum Schinz (Apocynaceae) to reduce it to a thick paste that is applied to their arrows. The socio-cultural, historical, and ecological contexts of the various San groups may determine differences in the sources and preparation of poisons, bow and arrow technology, hunting behaviors, poison potency, and perhaps antidotes. PMID:27006594

  4. Climate niches of milkweeds with plesiomorphic traits (Secamonoideae; Apocynaceae) and the milkweed sister group link ancient African climates and floral evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livshultz, Tatyana; Mead, Jerry V; Goyder, David J; Brannin, Michelle

    2011-12-01

    Climate change that increases mortality of plants and pollinators can create mate-finding Allee effects and thus act as a strong selective force on floral morphology. Milkweeds (Secamonoideae and Asclepiadoideae; Apocynaceae) are typically small plants of seasonally dry habitats, with pollinia and high pollen-transfer efficiency. Their sister group (tribe Baisseeae and Dewevrella) is mostly comprised of giant lianas of African rainforests, with pollen in monads. Comparison of the two groups motivated a new hypothesis: milkweeds evolved in the context of African aridification and the shifting of rainforest to dry forest. Pollinia and high pollen-transfer efficiency may have been adaptations that alleviated mate-finding Allee effects generated by high mortality during droughts. We formally tested whether milkweeds have a drier climate niche by comparing milkweeds with plesiomorphic traits (Secamonoideae) and the milkweed sister group in continental Africa. We georeferenced specimens of the milkweed sister group and Secamonoideae in continental Africa, extracted 19 climatic variables from the Worldclim model, conducted factor analysis to identify correlated suites of variables, and compared the frequency distributions of the two lineages relative to each factor. The distributions of Secamonoideae and the milkweed sister group differed significantly relative to four factors, each correlated with a distinct suite of climate parameters: (1) air temperature (Secamonoideae: cooler), (2) total and (3) summer precipitation (Secamonoideae: drier), and (4) temperature seasonality and isothermality (Secamonoideae: more seasonal and less isothermal). Secamonoideae in continental Africa inhabit drier, cooler sites than do the milkweed sister group, consistent with a shift from rainforests to dry forests in a cooling climate.

  5. Beetle and plant arrow poisons of the Ju|'hoan and Hai||om San peoples of Namibia (Insecta, Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae; Plantae, Anacardiaceae, Apocynaceae, Burseraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaboo, Caroline S; Biesele, Megan; Hitchcock, Robert K; Weeks, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The use of archery to hunt appears relatively late in human history. It is poorly understood but the application of poisons to arrows to increase lethality must have occurred shortly after developing bow hunting methods; these early multi-stage transitions represent cognitive shifts in human evolution. This paper is a synthesis of widely-scattered literature in anthropology, entomology, and chemistry, dealing with San ("Bushmen") arrow poisons. The term San (or Khoisan) covers many indigenous groups using so-called 'click languages' in southern Africa. Beetles are used for arrow poison by at least eight San groups and one non-San group. Fieldwork and interviews with Ju|'hoan and Hai||om hunters in Namibia revealed major differences in the nature and preparation of arrow poisons, bow and arrow construction, and poison antidote. Ju|'hoan hunters use leaf-beetle larvae of Diamphidia Gerstaecker and Polyclada Chevrolat (Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini) collected from soil around the host plants Commiphora africana (A. Rich.) Engl. and Commiphora angolensis Engl. (Burseracaeae). In the Nyae Nyae area of Namibia, Ju|'hoan hunters use larvae of Diamphidia nigroornata Ståhl. Larvae and adults live above-ground on the plants and eat leaves, but the San collect the underground cocoons to extract the mature larvae. Larval hemolymph is mixed with saliva and applied to arrows. Hai||om hunters boil the milky plant sap of Adenium bohemianum Schinz (Apocynaceae) to reduce it to a thick paste that is applied to their arrows. The socio-cultural, historical, and ecological contexts of the various San groups may determine differences in the sources and preparation of poisons, bow and arrow technology, hunting behaviors, poison potency, and perhaps antidotes.

  6. ESPÉCIES VEGETAIS TÓXICAS DA FAMÍLIA APOCYNACEAE: UMA ANÁLISE SOBRE A DISTRIBUIÇÃO E OS CASOS DE INTOXICAÇÃO REGISTRADOS EM ARAGUAÍNA, TO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica Nayara Lopes Oliveira Lima

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The plants possess toxic substances, for their natural properties, physical, chemical or physical-chemical,capable of causing metabolic change, these are known as intoxication. Children are more susceptible to intoxication, because the fact of always playing in their backyards end up ingesting plants that can often be toxic. The main objectives of this research were to realize a toxic species census from plants family Apocynaceae and a survey of the intoxication cases caused by these plants, which were provoked accidentally or not, between january/2009 until december/2014 in 29 Araguaína neighborhoods. Furthermore, maps were listed and consulted to identify the regions and neighborhoods with their own streets and avenues hence to analyze the urban afforestation. Next, the census of the toxic plant species was realized in the 30 neighborhoods. The results obtained shown 24 exemplars of Allamanda catartica and 28 exemplars of Thevetia peruviana(Pers. K. Schum that correspond to 66,67% of all the cases analyzed, which shown a randomic distribution, in the neighborhoods. The species mentioned above were both registered together in the following neighborhoods: Loteamento Martins Jorge, Sector Urbano, Sectors Santa Mônica and Tereza Hilário. There was no intoxication case from specie Apocynaceae recorded in the city of Araguaína between january/2009 until december/2014.

  7. Effects of an alkaloid-rich extract from Mitragyna speciosa leaves and fluoxetine on sleep profiles, EEG spectral frequency and ethanol withdrawal symptoms in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheaha, Dania; Keawpradub, Niwat; Sawangjaroen, Kitja; Phukpattaranont, Pimpimol; Kumarnsit, Ekkasit

    2015-10-15

    Many antidepressants are effective in alleviating ethanol withdrawal symptoms. However, most of them suppress rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Thus, development of antidepressants without undesirable side effects would be preferable. Previously, crude alkaloid extract from Mitragyna speciosa (MS) Korth was found to produce antidepressant activities. It was hypothesized that the alkaloid extract from MS may attenuate ethanol withdrawal without REM sleep disturbance. Adult male Wistar rats implanted with electrodes over the frontal and parietal cortices were used for two separated studies. For an acute study, 10 mg/kg fluoxetine or 60 mg/kg alkaloid extract from MS were administered intragastrically. Electroencephalographic (EEG) signals were recorded for 3 h to examine sleep profiles and EEG fingerprints. Another set of animal was used for an ethanol withdrawal study. They were rendered dependent on ethanol via a modified liquid diet (MLD) containing ethanol ad libitum for 28 days. On day 29, fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) or alkaloid extract from MS (60 mg/kg) were administered 15 min before the ethanol-containing MLD was replaced with an isocaloric ethanol-free MLD to induced ethanol withdrawal symptoms. The sleep analysis revealed that alkaloid extract from MS did not change any REM parameters which included average duration of each REM episode, total REM time, number of REM episode and REM latency whereas fluoxetine significantly suppressed all REM parameters and delayed REM latency. However, power spectral analysis revealed similar fingerprints for fluoxetine and alkaloid extract from MS characterized by decreasing powers in the slow frequency range in frontal and parietal cortical EEG. Neither treatment affected spontaneous motor activity. Finally, both alkaloid extract from MS and fluoxetine were found to significantly attenuate ethanol withdrawal-induced hyperexcitability (increases gamma activity) in both cortices and to reduce locomotor activity. The present study

  8. Isolamento, identificação e avaliação da atividade antileucêmica de alcaloides indólicos monoterpênicos de Tabernaemontana salzmannii (A. DC., Apocynaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine R. Figueiredo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho descreve o isolamento e a identificação de nove alcaloides indólicos monoterpênicos das cascas das raízes e folhas de Tabernaemontana salzmannii (Apocynaceae. As estruturas dos alcaloides foram identificadas através de métodos espectroscópicos uni (RMN ¹H, 13C, APT e bidimensionais (¹H-¹H-COSY, ¹H-¹H-NOESY, HMQC e HMBC e espectrometria de massas (EM, além da comparação com dados de literatura. Um screening in vitro da atividade antileucêmica foi feito com os alcaloides majoritários isolados. Dentre os nove alcaloides isolados, a isovoacangina e voacangina mostraram-se capazes de induzir morte celular por apoptose em células leucêmicas humanas THP-1.

  9. Floral biology and a pollinator effectiveness test of the diurnal floral visitors of Tabernaemontana undulata Vahl. (Apocynaceae in the understory of Amazon Rainforest, Brazil Biologia floral e teste da efetividade de polinização dos visitantes florais diurnos de Tabernaemontana undulata Vahl. (Apocynaceae no sub-bosque da Amazônia Central, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaysa Nogueira de Moura

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we examined the floral biology, per-visit effectiveness, frequency of visits and relative abundance of the diurnal floral visitor taxa of T. undulata (Apocynaceae at two populations located in the primary forest and in a disturbed area connected to the continuous forest. Its hermaphrodite flowers show a long and narrow floral tube and introrse anthers form a cone around the apex of the style head where the pollen is deposited. The stigmatic head has three functional regions, in a complex pollination mechanism favoring cross-pollination. In the pollinator censuses conducted in the primary forest population we registered Eulaema bombiformis. In the disturbed area Euglossa sp. was responsible for visits on T. undulata fl owers. Eulaema bombiformis was not absent in the disturbed area, but preferred to forage on pollen and nectar-rich flowers of two neighboring flowering species. In the primary forest, T. undulata was the only fl owering treelet at the end of the dry season. Signifi cant differences were not observed regarding the frequency of visits and relative abundance among the diurnal flower visitors at both sites. In the per-visit effectiveness experiment among flower visitors, we observed one fruit produced aft er E. bombiformis' visits. Due to the complex breeding system of T. undulata in that it is characterized by very low fruit production even under natural conditions, an indirect measure of pollinator effectiveness is needed in at a future stage of this study in order to clarify the role of these bee species as pollinators of T. undulata.Neste estudo foi examinada a biologia floral, a efetividade da polinização, freqüência de visitas e abundância relativa dos visitantes florais diurnos de T. undulata (Apocynaceae em duas populações localizadas em floresta primária e em uma área perturbada conectada à mata contínua. Suas flores hermafroditas apresentam um longo e estreito tubo floral. Anteras introrsas formam um

  10. A revision of Ichnocarpus (Apocynaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middleton, D.J.

    1994-01-01

    The genus Ichnocarpus is revised. A total of 12 species are recognised, of which one new species is described. Three new combinations in Ichnocarpus and one in Anodendron are made. Micrechites and Lamechites are treated as synonyms of Ichnocarpus. Nomina nuda and species exclusae have been given as

  11. Mandevilla (Apocynaceae, Mesechiteae para Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Francisco Morales

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describen dos nuevas especies de Mandevilla (Apocynoideae, Mesechiteae subgénero Exothostemon, endémicas de Brasil. Mandevilla abortiva se encuentra relacionada con un grupo de especies conformado por M. huberi, M. obtusifolia y M. pachyphylla, discutiéndose sus afinidades con esos taxones. Mandevilla clandestina ha sido confundida por largo tiempo con M. scabra, diferenciándose por sus flores más pequeñas. Se incluyen descripciones completas, ilustraciones y el listado de especímenes examinados para ambos taxones.

  12. Respostas morfológicas e anatômicas de plantas jovens de Chorisia speciosa A. St.-Hil. (Bombacaceae sob condições de alagamento - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i3.1277 Morphological and anatomical responses of young plants of Chorisia speciosa A. St. Hil. (Bombacaceae under flood conditions - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i3.1277

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khátia Socorro Mathias Mourão

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi o de analisar algumas características morfológicas e anatômicas em plantas jovens de Chorisia speciosa, cultivadas em condições de solo drenado (controle e sob alagamento do solo. O experimento foi desenvolvido em casa de vegetação, utilizando-se plantas com 90 dias após a emergência, sendo alagadas por 30, 60 e 100 dias. Foram realizados cortes de material fresco e fixado à mão livre e em micrótomo e corados segundo técnicas usuais em anatomia vegetal. Na base do caule, após 30 dias de alagamento, ocorreu hipertrofia de lenticelas. Aos 60 dias, ocorreu o desenvolvimento de raízes adventícias, com espaços intercelulares no córtex e ausência de pêlos absorventes. Com 100 dias, surgiram folhas novas. As alterações anatômicas provocadas pelo alagamento no sistema radical principal foram os seguintes: início de deterioração no meristema apical após 60 dias de estresse; colapso e irregularidade na forma das células do córtex e cilindro central, em 30, 60 dias de experimentoThis work studied the morphological and anatomical characteristics in young plants of Chorisia speciosa, cultivated under drained soil and flood conditions (control. The experiment was developed in a greenhouse, using plants with 90 days after the emergency, submitted under flood conditions by 30, 60 and 100 days. Sections in different planes of fresh and fixed roots, stems bases and leaves, were made using standard procedures in vegetal anatomy. After 30 days of flooding, hypertrophic lenticels can be observed in the stem base and in 60 days, adventitious roots, with cellular space on the cortex and absence of root hair. With 100 days appeared new leaves. The anatomical response by flooding on the radical principal system were: beginning of deterioration on the apical meristem after 60 days of stress; collapse of cells and cells with irregular shape in the cortex and pith, in 30, 60 days of experiment

  13. Following “the Roots” of Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa): The Evolution of an Enhancer from a Traditional Use to Increase Work and Productivity in Southeast Asia to a Recreational Psychoactive Drug in Western Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinosi, Eduardo; Martinotti, Giovanni; Simonato, Pierluigi; Singh, Darshan; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Roman-Urrestarazu, Andres; Bersani, Francesco Saverio; Vicknasingam, Balasingam; Piazzon, Giulia; Li, Jih-Heng; Yu, Wen-Jing; Kapitány-Fövény, Máté; Farkas, Judit; Di Giannantonio, Massimo; Corazza, Ornella

    2015-01-01

    The use of substances to enhance human abilities is a constant and cross-cultural feature in the evolution of humanity. Although much has changed over time, the availability on the Internet, often supported by misleading marketing strategies, has made their use even more likely and risky. This paper will explore the case of Mitragyna speciosa Korth. (kratom), a tropical tree used traditionally to combat fatigue and improve work productivity among farm populations in Southeast Asia, which has recently become popular as novel psychoactive substance in Western countries. Specifically, it (i) reviews the state of the art on kratom pharmacology and identification; (ii) provides a comprehensive overview of kratom use cross-culturally; (iii) explores the subjective experiences of users; (iv) identifies potential risks and side-effects related to its consumption. Finally, it concludes that the use of kratom is not negligible, especially for self-medication, and more clinical, pharmacological, and socioanthropological studies as well as a better international collaboration are needed to tackle this marginally explored phenomenon. PMID:26640804

  14. Following “the Roots” of Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa: The Evolution of an Enhancer from a Traditional Use to Increase Work and Productivity in Southeast Asia to a Recreational Psychoactive Drug in Western Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Cinosi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of substances to enhance human abilities is a constant and cross-cultural feature in the evolution of humanity. Although much has changed over time, the availability on the Internet, often supported by misleading marketing strategies, has made their use even more likely and risky. This paper will explore the case of Mitragyna speciosa Korth. (kratom, a tropical tree used traditionally to combat fatigue and improve work productivity among farm populations in Southeast Asia, which has recently become popular as novel psychoactive substance in Western countries. Specifically, it (i reviews the state of the art on kratom pharmacology and identification; (ii provides a comprehensive overview of kratom use cross-culturally; (iii explores the subjective experiences of users; (iv identifies potential risks and side-effects related to its consumption. Finally, it concludes that the use of kratom is not negligible, especially for self-medication, and more clinical, pharmacological, and socioanthropological studies as well as a better international collaboration are needed to tackle this marginally explored phenomenon.

  15. Following "the Roots" of Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa): The Evolution of an Enhancer from a Traditional Use to Increase Work and Productivity in Southeast Asia to a Recreational Psychoactive Drug in Western Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinosi, Eduardo; Martinotti, Giovanni; Simonato, Pierluigi; Singh, Darshan; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Roman-Urrestarazu, Andres; Bersani, Francesco Saverio; Vicknasingam, Balasingam; Piazzon, Giulia; Li, Jih-Heng; Yu, Wen-Jing; Kapitány-Fövény, Máté; Farkas, Judit; Di Giannantonio, Massimo; Corazza, Ornella

    2015-01-01

    The use of substances to enhance human abilities is a constant and cross-cultural feature in the evolution of humanity. Although much has changed over time, the availability on the Internet, often supported by misleading marketing strategies, has made their use even more likely and risky. This paper will explore the case of Mitragyna speciosa Korth. (kratom), a tropical tree used traditionally to combat fatigue and improve work productivity among farm populations in Southeast Asia, which has recently become popular as novel psychoactive substance in Western countries. Specifically, it (i) reviews the state of the art on kratom pharmacology and identification; (ii) provides a comprehensive overview of kratom use cross-culturally; (iii) explores the subjective experiences of users; (iv) identifies potential risks and side-effects related to its consumption. Finally, it concludes that the use of kratom is not negligible, especially for self-medication, and more clinical, pharmacological, and socioanthropological studies as well as a better international collaboration are needed to tackle this marginally explored phenomenon.

  16. Pro-toxic 1,2-Dehydropyrrolizidine Alkaloid Esters, Including Unprecedented 10-Membered Macrocyclic Diesters, in the Medicinally-used Alafia cf. caudata and Amphineurion marginatum (Apocynaceae: Apocynoideae: Nerieae and Apocyneae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colegate, Steven M; Gardner, Dale R; Betz, Joseph M; Fischer, Ottmar W; Liede-Schumann, Sigrid; Boppré, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Within the Apocynoideae (Apocynaceae) pro-toxic dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids have been reported only in Echiteae. However, attraction of pyrrolizidine alkaloid-pharmacophagous insects suggested their presence in Alafia cf. caudata Stapf (Nerieae: Alafiinae) and Amphineurion marginatum (Roxb.) D.J. Middleton (Apocyneae: Amphineuriinae), both used as medicinal plants. To confirm the presence of dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids in Alafia cf. caudata and Amphineurion marginatum and identify their structures. Methanol extracts of air-dried roots, stems and leaves of non-flowering plants were analysed using HPLC-ESI(+)MS and MS/MS or collision-induced dissociation MS in low and/or high resolution modes. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids were tentatively identified based on the mass spectrometry data. Solid phase extraction combined with semi-preparative HPLC were used to isolate major alkaloids. Structures were elucidated using NMR spectroscopy. Monoesters of retronecine with senecioic, hydroxysenecioic or syringic acids were identified in roots of Alafia cf. caudata. Two unprecedented 10-membered macrocyclic dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloid diesters were isolated from roots of Amphineurion marginatum. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids were detected in root and leaf material of Alafia cf. caudata at 0.34 and 0.01% dry weight (DW), and 0.13, 0.02 and 0.09% DW in root, leaf and stem material of Amphineurion marginatum. The presence of pro-toxic dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids suggests that medical preparations of these plants pose potential health risks to consumers. Dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids are evidently more widespread in Apocynoideae than previously assumed, and it would seem rewarding to study other members of this family for the presence of pyrrolizidines, dehydropyrrolizidines and dihydropyrrolizines. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Characteristics of postharvest quality in regional fruits treate with ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Josenilda M.; Villar, Heldio P. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN/CNEN-NE), Recife, PE (Brazil)], e-mail: jmnilda@cnen.gov.br; Correia, Lidia C.S.A.; Maciel, Maria Ines S. [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)], e-mail: aidil_alencar@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: marines@ufrpe.br

    2009-07-01

    In order to investigate the effects of irradiation on the main characteristics of quality postharvest of three cultivated species of the Northeast Region of Brazil, experiments with cashew (Anacardium occidentale L. var. Nanum), sapodilla (Manilkara sapodilla (L) Van Royen) and mangaba (Hancornia speciosa Gomes) have been performed. Cashew peduncles stored for fourteen days under 6.5 deg C had presented best results in the sensorial analyses for external appearance, flavour and aroma when irradiated with 1 kGy. sapodillas irradiated with doses of 300, 600 and 900 Gy have not displayed harmed sensorial qualities when stored under 20 deg C during twelve days. Doses up to 800 Gy had not harmed the external and internal appearance of mangabas after being stored for a fortnight under 13 deg C. Chemical characteristics of TSS, TTA, pH and solid/acidity ratio have not been affected significantly by the different doses applied to the three studied species. Amount of ascorbic acid was lower in the irradiated fruits, with significant differences for the species Anacardium occidentale L. var. Nanum and Hancornia speciosa Gomes. (author)

  18. Antifatigue Effect of Millettiae speciosae Champ (Leguminosae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Glycogen, triglyceride (TG), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatine phosphokinase (CK) levels in plasma which can indicate alterations in energy utilization during exercise performance, were determined to analyze the operating exercise mechanisms. Results: The results showed that swimming time to exhaustion was ...

  19. Anticariogenic Activity of Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.) | Vivek ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 1, No 1 (2012) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  20. Antifatigue Effect of Millettiae speciosae Champ (Leguminosae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In busy and strained modern societies, fatigue has become a highly prevalent phenomenon, with up to half of the general population reporting fatigue in large surveys [2]. Therefore, it is common in sport medicine to improve athletic ability, postpone fatigue or accelerate the elimination of fatigue with few side effects [3].

  1. A taxonomic revision of Willughbeia Roxb. (Apocynaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middleton, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    The genus Willughbeia Roxb. is revised. A total of 15 species are recognised. One new combination is made. Urnularia Stapf is reduced to synonymy within Willughbeia. Species exclusae have been given as well as an index of exsiccatae.

  2. Phylogeny of the plant genus Pachypodium (Apocynaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burge, Dylan O; Mugford, Kaila; Hastings, Amy P; Agrawal, Anurag A

    2013-01-01

    Background. The genus Pachypodium contains 21 species of succulent, generally spinescent shrubs and trees found in southern Africa and Madagascar. Pachypodium has diversified mostly into arid and semi-arid habitats of Madagascar, and has been cited as an example of a plant group that links the highly diverse arid-adapted floras of Africa and Madagascar. However, a lack of knowledge about phylogenetic relationships within the genus has prevented testing of this and other hypotheses about the group. Methodology/Principal Findings. We use DNA sequence data from the nuclear ribosomal ITS and chloroplast trnL-F region for all 21 Pachypodium species to reconstruct evolutionary relationships within the genus. We compare phylogenetic results to previous taxonomic classifications and geography. Results support three infrageneric taxa from the most recent classification of Pachypodium, and suggest that a group of African species (P. namaquanum, P. succulentum and P. bispinosum) may deserve taxonomic recognition as an infrageneric taxon. However, our results do not resolve relationships among major African and Malagasy lineages of the genus. Conclusions/Significance. We present the first molecular phylogenetic analysis of Pachypodium. Our work has revealed five distinct lineages, most of which correspond to groups recognized in past taxonomic classifications. Our work also suggests that there is a complex biogeographic relationship between Pachypodium of Africa and Madagascar.

  3. Phylogeny of the plant genus Pachypodium (Apocynaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylan O. Burge

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. The genus Pachypodium contains 21 species of succulent, generally spinescent shrubs and trees found in southern Africa and Madagascar. Pachypodium has diversified mostly into arid and semi-arid habitats of Madagascar, and has been cited as an example of a plant group that links the highly diverse arid-adapted floras of Africa and Madagascar. However, a lack of knowledge about phylogenetic relationships within the genus has prevented testing of this and other hypotheses about the group.Methodology/Principal Findings. We use DNA sequence data from the nuclear ribosomal ITS and chloroplast trnL-F region for all 21 Pachypodium species to reconstruct evolutionary relationships within the genus. We compare phylogenetic results to previous taxonomic classifications and geography. Results support three infrageneric taxa from the most recent classification of Pachypodium, and suggest that a group of African species (P. namaquanum, P. succulentum and P. bispinosum may deserve taxonomic recognition as an infrageneric taxon. However, our results do not resolve relationships among major African and Malagasy lineages of the genus.Conclusions/Significance. We present the first molecular phylogenetic analysis of Pachypodium. Our work has revealed five distinct lineages, most of which correspond to groups recognized in past taxonomic classifications. Our work also suggests that there is a complex biogeographic relationship between Pachypodium of Africa and Madagascar.

  4. New indole alkaloid from Peschiera affinis (Apocynaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Allana Kellen L; Machado, Luciana L; Bizerra, Ayla Marcia C; Monte, Francisco José Q; Santiago, Gilvandete M P; Braz-Filho, Raimundo; Lemos, Telma L G

    2012-06-01

    A new indole alkaloid of the pyridocarbazole type, named 6N-hydroxy-olivacine, and two known compounds, 2N-oxide-olivacine and olivacine, were isolated from roots of Peschiera affinis. The structures of the compounds were determined by spectroscopic {IR and extensive NMR (COSY, HMQC, HMBCand NOESY)} and EIMS analysis.

  5. Chemical constituents from Aspidosperma illustre (Apocynaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Lara F.; Mathias, Leda; Braz-Filho, Raimundo; Vieira, Ivo J. Curcino, E-mail: curcino@uenf.b [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (LCQ/UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Ciencias Quimicas

    2010-07-01

    A new natural product oleanane-type triterpene, olean-12-ene-11{alpha}-methoxy-3{beta}-acetate (10) was isolated from Aspidosperma illustre, together with {beta}-amyrin (3), lupeol (4), {beta}-amyrin acetate (5), lupeol acetate (6), olean-12-ene-28-hydroxy-3{alpha}-tetradecanoate (7), olean-12-ene-28-carboxy-3{alpha}-hexadecanoate (8), ursolic acid (9) triterpenes, and two monoterpenic indole alkaloids, b-yoimbine (1) and 1,2-dehydroaspidospermidine (2). These compounds were characterized on their spectral data basis, mainly one- ({sup 1}H, {sup 13}C, APT) and two-dimensional ({sup 1}H-{sup 1}H-COSY, {sup 1}H-{sup 1}HNOESY, HMQC and HMBC) NMR, and mass spectra, involving also comparison with data from the literature. (author)

  6. Photosynthetic performance of invasive Vincetoxicum species (Apocynaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincetoxicum rossicum and V. nigrum are perennial invasive vines impacting several ecosystems in the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada, including old-fields and forest understories. The integrity of these ecosystems is threatened by these two Vincetoxicum species. In order to bett...

  7. Bioactive Compounds Found in Brazilian Cerrado Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailão, Elisa Flávia Luiz Cardoso; Devilla, Ivano Alessandro; da Conceição, Edemilson Cardoso; Borges, Leonardo Luiz

    2015-10-09

    Functional foods include any natural product that presents health-promoting effects, thereby reducing the risk of chronic diseases. Cerrado fruits are considered a source of bioactive substances, mainly phenolic compounds, making them important functional foods. Despite this, the losses of natural vegetation in the Cerrado are progressive. Hence, the knowledge propagation about the importance of the species found in Cerrado could contribute to the preservation of this biome. This review provides information about Cerrado fruits and highlights the structures and pharmacologic potential of functional compounds found in these fruits. Compounds detected in Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (pequi), Dipteryx alata Vog. (baru), Eugenia dysenterica DC. (cagaita), Eugenia uniflora L. (pitanga), Genipa americana L. (jenipapo), Hancornia speciosa Gomes (mangaba), Mauritia flexuosa L.f. (buriti), Myrciaria cauliflora (DC) Berg (jabuticaba), Psidium guajava L. (goiaba), Psidium spp. (araçá), Solanum lycocarpum St. Hill (lobeira), Spondias mombin L. (cajá), Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum), among others are reported here.

  8. CONSERVAÇÃO PÓS-COLHEITA DE MANGABA SOB REFRIGERAÇÃO E MODIFICAÇÃO DA ATMOSFERA DE ARMAZENAMENTO POST-HARVEST CONSERVATION OF MANGABA UNDER REFRIGERATION AND MODIFICATION OF STORAGE ATMOSPHERE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela Vera

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da modificação da atmosfera na embalagem sobre a qualidade de frutos de mangaba (Hancornia speciosa Gomes, armazenados sob refrigeração (11 ± 1°C, em filmes de policloreto de vinila ou polietileno de baixa densidade, com ou sem permanganato de potássio. Independentemente do tipo de filme, a acidez titulável e o teor de sólidos solúveis aumentaram, enquanto o pH diminuiu, ao longo do período de armazenamento. Durante todo o tempo de armazenamento, os frutos refrigerados sob atmosfera modificada tiveram valores mais altos para a relação sólidos solúveis/acidez titulável do que os outros frutos. Ocorreu significativa perda de massa fresca nos frutos embalados em policloreto de vinila, relativamente àqueles embalados em polietileno de baixa densidade. Os frutos sob atmosfera modificada por filme de policloreto de vinila, com ou sem permanganato de potássio, e por filme de polietileno de baixa densidade, com permanganato de potássio, mantiveram um bom aspecto geral, até o oitavo dia de armazenamento. Por outro lado, os frutos embalados com polietileno de baixa densidade, sem permanganato de potássio, somente mantiveram este aspecto até o quarto dia de armazenamento. Não houve ataque visível de microrganismos em quaisquer das amostras, durante os dez dias de armazenamento.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Hancornia speciosa; embalagem; vida-de-prateleira.

    The objective

  9. Bioactive Compounds Found in Brazilian Cerrado Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Flávia Luiz Cardoso Bailão

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Functional foods include any natural product that presents health-promoting effects, thereby reducing the risk of chronic diseases. Cerrado fruits are considered a source of bioactive substances, mainly phenolic compounds, making them important functional foods. Despite this, the losses of natural vegetation in the Cerrado are progressive. Hence, the knowledge propagation about the importance of the species found in Cerrado could contribute to the preservation of this biome. This review provides information about Cerrado fruits and highlights the structures and pharmacologic potential of functional compounds found in these fruits. Compounds detected in Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (pequi, Dipteryx alata Vog. (baru, Eugenia dysenterica DC. (cagaita, Eugenia uniflora L. (pitanga, Genipa americana L. (jenipapo, Hancornia speciosa Gomes (mangaba, Mauritia flexuosa L.f. (buriti, Myrciaria cauliflora (DC Berg (jabuticaba, Psidium guajava L. (goiaba, Psidium spp. (araçá, Solanum lycocarpum St. Hill (lobeira, Spondias mombin L. (cajá, Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum, among others are reported here.

  10. Bioactive Compounds Found in Brazilian Cerrado Fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailão, Elisa Flávia Luiz Cardoso; Devilla, Ivano Alessandro; da Conceição, Edemilson Cardoso; Borges, Leonardo Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Functional foods include any natural product that presents health-promoting effects, thereby reducing the risk of chronic diseases. Cerrado fruits are considered a source of bioactive substances, mainly phenolic compounds, making them important functional foods. Despite this, the losses of natural vegetation in the Cerrado are progressive. Hence, the knowledge propagation about the importance of the species found in Cerrado could contribute to the preservation of this biome. This review provides information about Cerrado fruits and highlights the structures and pharmacologic potential of functional compounds found in these fruits. Compounds detected in Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (pequi), Dipteryx alata Vog. (baru), Eugenia dysenterica DC. (cagaita), Eugenia uniflora L. (pitanga), Genipa americana L. (jenipapo), Hancornia speciosa Gomes (mangaba), Mauritia flexuosa L.f. (buriti), Myrciaria cauliflora (DC) Berg (jabuticaba), Psidium guajava L. (goiaba), Psidium spp. (araçá), Solanum lycocarpum St. Hill (lobeira), Spondias mombin L. (cajá), Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum), among others are reported here. PMID:26473827

  11. Candida sergipensis, a new asexual yeast species isolated from frozen pulps of tropical fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade, Rita C; Resende, Maria A; Pimenta, Raphael S; Lachance, Marc-André; Rosa, Carlos A

    2004-07-01

    Sixteen strains of the new yeast species Candida sergipensis have been isolated from frozen pulps of the tropical fruits umbú ( Spondias tuberosa Avr. Cam.) and mangaba ( Hancornia speciosa Gom.). Candida sergipensis was one of the prevalent species in the yeast community of these substrates. The new asexual ascomycetous yeast is phylogenetically related to Candida spandovensis and Candida sorbophila, species belonging to the Wickerhamiella clade, as evidenced by the sequences of the D1/D2 domains of their large subunit ribosomal DNAs. The species C. sergipensis and C. spandovensis can be separated on the basis of growth on 50% glucose agar, xylose and succinate, negative for the first species and positive for the second. The type culture is strain UFMG-R188 (CBS 9567).

  12. Fungos micorrízicos arbusculares e adubação fosfatada em mudas de mangabeira Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and phosphorus supply on seedlings of mangabeira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Maria Carneiro Costa

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA e da adubação fosfatada em mudas de mangabeira (Hancornia speciosa Gomes. O experimento, em casa de vegetação, utilizou delineamento inteiramente casualizado em fatorial com dois tratamentos de solo nativo oriundo de pomar com mangabeiras, desinfestado com brometo de metila e não-desinfestado, seis doses de P (3*, 3, 48, 93, 138 e 183 mg dm-3 e três tratamentos de inoculação, Gigaspora albida Schenck & Smith, Glomus etunicatum Becker & Gerdemann e controle sem inoculação, com quatro repetições. O tratamento 3* não recebeu solução nutritiva e os demais receberam solução nutritiva de Hoagland sem fósforo por ocasião da inoculação. Após 150 dias, observou-se aumento na altura, biomassa e área foliar nos tratamentos com G. albida, em solo desinfestado. Respostas à inoculação ocorreram nas mudas cultivadas com a menor dose de P, nos dois tratamentos de solo. A mangabeira mostrou-se dependente da micorrização apenas na menor dose de P em solo desinfestado. Nos demais níveis de P, a dependência variou em função do FMA e da condição do solo. A associação com G. albida proporcionou melhor desenvolvimento das mudas de mangabeira.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of the association of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF and phosphorus fertilization on seedlings of "mangaba" (Hancornia speciosa. The experiment, at a greenhouse, was in a completely randomized factorial design with two treatments of the native soil from an H. speciosa orchard, fumigated with methyl bromite and non-fumigated, six doses of P (3*, 3, 48, 93, 138 and 183 mg dm-3 and three inoculation treatments, Gigaspora albida Schenck & Smith, Glomus etunicatum Becker & Gerdemann and an uninoculated control, with four replicates. The treatment 3* did not receive nutrient solution and the others received Hoagland nutrient solution without phosphorus

  13. Seizure and Coma Following Kratom (Mitragynina speciosa Korth) Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Nelsen, Jamie L.; Lapoint, Jeff; Hodgman, Michael J.; Aldous, Kenneth M.

    2010-01-01

    Reports of toxicity secondary to Kratom are rare and lack of diagnostic testing in human specimens has prevented confirmatory explanation of observed clinical effects. We present a novel case of serious human toxicity following Kratom use confirmed via quantitative analysis of urine by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. A 64 year-old male was witnessed to have a seizure at home following kratom consumption. Upon arrival to the emergency de...

  14. Seizure and coma following Kratom (Mitragynina speciosa Korth) exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelsen, Jamie L; Lapoint, Jeff; Hodgman, Michael J; Aldous, Kenneth M

    2010-12-01

    Reports of toxicity secondary to Kratom are rare and lack of diagnostic testing in human specimens has prevented confirmatory explanation of observed clinical effects. We present a novel case of serious human toxicity following Kratom use confirmed via quantitative analysis of urine by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. A 64 year-old male was witnessed to have a seizure at home following kratom consumption. Upon arrival to the emergency department (ED), the patient was unresponsive. While in the ED, the patient sustained a second seizure. He was intubated to protect his airway. The remainder of his hospital course was uneventful. A urine specimen was collected shortly after admission and sent for analysis. The mitragynine concentration in the urine was 167 ± 15 ng/ml. We report a rare case of Kratom toxicity characterized by a seizure and coma confirmed by urinary analysis of mitragynine by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. The proposed mechanism for this reaction is unclear but suggested mechanisms include adenosine binding or stimulation of adrenergic and/or serotonergic receptors similar to tramadol.

  15. Effects of Strophanthus hispidus DC. (Apocynaceae) aqueous root ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Group A served as control, Group B were streptozotocin – induced diabetes mellitus untreated rats, Group C were streptozotocin – induced diabetes mellitus rats treated with 600μg/ kg body weight of glibenclamide, Group D and E were streptozotocin – induced diabetes mellitus rats treated with 500mg/kg and 1000mg/kg ...

  16. Corona development and floral nectaries of Asclepiadeae (Asclepiadoideae, Apocynaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Maciel Monteiro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Flowers of Asclepiadoideae are notable for possessing numerous nectaries and elaborate coronas, where nectar can accumulate but is not necessarily produced. Given the complexity and importance of these structures for reproduction, this study aimed to analyze the ontogeny of the corona, the structure and position of nectaries and the histochemistry of the nectar of species of Asclepiadeae. Two types of coronas were observed: androecial [C(is] and corolline (Ca. The development of the C(is-type of corona initiates opposite the stamens in all species examined with the exception of Matelea in which it begins to develop as a ring around the filament tube. Despite their morphological variation, coronas typically originate from the androecium. A notable difference among the studied species was the location of the nectaries. Primarily, they are located in the stigmatic chamber, where nectar composed of carbohydrates and lipids is produced. A secondary location of nectaries found in species of Peplonia and Matelea is within the corona, where nectar is produced and stored, composed of carbohydrates and lipids in Peplonia and only carbohydrates in Matelea. The functional role of nectar is related to the location of its production since it is a resource for pollinators and inducers of pollen germination.

  17. Strictosidine activation in Apocynaceae: towards a "nuclear time bomb"?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guirimand Grégory

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The first two enzymatic steps of monoterpene indole alkaloid (MIA biosynthetic pathway are catalysed by strictosidine synthase (STR that condensates tryptamine and secologanin to form strictosidine and by strictosidine β-D-glucosidase (SGD that subsequently hydrolyses the glucose moiety of strictosidine. The resulting unstable aglycon is rapidly converted into a highly reactive dialdehyde, from which more than 2,000 MIAs are derived. Many studies were conducted to elucidate the biosynthesis and regulation of pharmacologically valuable MIAs such as vinblastine and vincristine in Catharanthus roseus or ajmaline in Rauvolfia serpentina. However, very few reports focused on the MIA physiological functions. Results In this study we showed that a strictosidine pool existed in planta and that the strictosidine deglucosylation product(s was (were specifically responsible for in vitro protein cross-linking and precipitation suggesting a potential role for strictosidine activation in plant defence. The spatial feasibility of such an activation process was evaluated in planta. On the one hand, in situ hybridisation studies showed that CrSTR and CrSGD were coexpressed in the epidermal first barrier of C. roseus aerial organs. However, a combination of GFP-imaging, bimolecular fluorescence complementation and electromobility shift-zymogram experiments revealed that STR from both C. roseus and R. serpentina were localised to the vacuole whereas SGD from both species were shown to accumulate as highly stable supramolecular aggregates within the nucleus. Deletion and fusion studies allowed us to identify and to demonstrate the functionality of CrSTR and CrSGD targeting sequences. Conclusions A spatial model was drawn to explain the role of the subcellular sequestration of STR and SGD to control the MIA metabolic flux under normal physiological conditions. The model also illustrates the possible mechanism of massive activation of the strictosidine vacuolar pool upon enzyme-substrate reunion occurring during potential herbivore feeding constituting a so-called "nuclear time bomb" in reference to the "mustard oil bomb" commonly used to describe the myrosinase-glucosinolate defence system in Brassicaceae.

  18. In vitro propagation of Amsonia orientalis Decne (Apocynaceae)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-20

    Oct 20, 2008 ... (Fitoterapia). 60(4): 291-322. Scocco C, Corvi Mora P, Corti C (1998). Introduction of Amsonia tabernaemontana Walt. İn hilly area: germination test and first searhes about the results in rutin. Acta Horticult. (ISHS) 457: 357-. 362. Stano J, Neubert K, Mi ieta K, Blanáriková V (2005). Demonstration of.

  19. Strictosidine activation in Apocynaceae: towards a "nuclear time bomb"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The first two enzymatic steps of monoterpene indole alkaloid (MIA) biosynthetic pathway are catalysed by strictosidine synthase (STR) that condensates tryptamine and secologanin to form strictosidine and by strictosidine β-D-glucosidase (SGD) that subsequently hydrolyses the glucose moiety of strictosidine. The resulting unstable aglycon is rapidly converted into a highly reactive dialdehyde, from which more than 2,000 MIAs are derived. Many studies were conducted to elucidate the biosynthesis and regulation of pharmacologically valuable MIAs such as vinblastine and vincristine in Catharanthus roseus or ajmaline in Rauvolfia serpentina. However, very few reports focused on the MIA physiological functions. Results In this study we showed that a strictosidine pool existed in planta and that the strictosidine deglucosylation product(s) was (were) specifically responsible for in vitro protein cross-linking and precipitation suggesting a potential role for strictosidine activation in plant defence. The spatial feasibility of such an activation process was evaluated in planta. On the one hand, in situ hybridisation studies showed that CrSTR and CrSGD were coexpressed in the epidermal first barrier of C. roseus aerial organs. However, a combination of GFP-imaging, bimolecular fluorescence complementation and electromobility shift-zymogram experiments revealed that STR from both C. roseus and R. serpentina were localised to the vacuole whereas SGD from both species were shown to accumulate as highly stable supramolecular aggregates within the nucleus. Deletion and fusion studies allowed us to identify and to demonstrate the functionality of CrSTR and CrSGD targeting sequences. Conclusions A spatial model was drawn to explain the role of the subcellular sequestration of STR and SGD to control the MIA metabolic flux under normal physiological conditions. The model also illustrates the possible mechanism of massive activation of the strictosidine vacuolar pool upon enzyme-substrate reunion occurring during potential herbivore feeding constituting a so-called "nuclear time bomb" in reference to the "mustard oil bomb" commonly used to describe the myrosinase-glucosinolate defence system in Brassicaceae. PMID:20723215

  20. Genotoxicity testing of Ambelania occidentalis (Apocynaceae) leaf extract in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, L S; Perazzo, F F; Maistro, E L

    2009-04-22

    Ambelania occidentalis is routinely used in folk medicine for treating gastrointestinal disorders, even though there have been no safety trials. We evaluated the genotoxic potential of hydro-alcoholic extracts of this plant in mice; induced DNA damage was assessed in peripheral blood leukocytes and micronucleus induction was assessed in polychromatic erythrocytes from bone marrow. The extract was administered by an oral route at single doses of 1000, 1500 and 2000 mg/kg body weight. N-nitroso-N-ethylurea was used as a positive control. The comet assay was performed on peripheral blood leukocytes at 4 and 24 h after treatment, and the micronucleus test was carried out on bone marrow cells collected at 24 and 48 h after treatment. The ratio of polychromatic/normochromatic erythrocytes was scored for cytotoxicity assessment. No increase in the number of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes from bone marrow or in leukocyte DNA damage was observed. The hydro-alcoholic extracts of A. occidentalis had no mutagenic or cytotoxic effects in the mouse cells.

  1. Brachystelma nallamalayana sp. Nov. (Apocynaceae: Asclepiadoideae: Ceropegieae from India

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    K. Prasad

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Brachystelma nallamalayana sp. nov., collected from Nallamalais, the Eastern Ghats of Andhra Pradesh, India is described and illustrated. The new species is compared to its closest species, Brachystelma maculatum Hook. f. Brachystelma nallamalayana, sp. nov. is distinct from other species of Brachystelma in having ca 80cm high glabrous stems, peduncled cymes, basally united calyx lobes and biseriate corona.

  2. Anticonvulsant activity of Carissa edulis (Vahl) (Apocynaceae) root bark extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ya'u, J; Yaro, A H; Abubakar, M S; Anuka, J A; Hussaini, I M

    2008-11-20

    To investigate the anticonvulsant activity of root bark extract of Carissa edulis. The median lethal dose (LD(50)) of Carissa edulis extract was determined using Lork's method (1983). The anticonvulsant activity of the extract was assessed in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced convulsion in mice and maximal electroshock test (MEST) in chicks, with benzodiazepine and phenytoin as standard drugs, respectively. While mechanistic studies were conducted using both flumazenil, a GABA(A)-benzodiazepine receptor complex site antagonist and naloxone a non-specific opioid receptor antagonist. The median lethal dose (LD(50)) of Carissa edulis was 282.8mg/kg and over 5000mg/kg following intraperitoneal and oral administration, respectively. Carissa edulis produced 40% and 20% protection against convulsion at 5 and 20mg/kg, respectively, compared with 100% protection with benzodiazepine. The mean onset and percentage protection against convulsion in Carissa edulis extract-treated mice were reduced by flumazenil and naloxone. Carissa edulis exhibited dose-dependent inhibition of the convulsion induced by MEST with 20mg/kg providing 90% protection while phenytoin (20mg/kg) produced 100% protection. These results suggest that Carissa edulis possesses biologically active constituent(s) that have anticonvulsant activity which supports the ethnomedicinal claims of the use of the plant in the management of epilepsy.

  3. Biology of the tribe Ambelanieae (apocynaceae). Volumes I and II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarucchi, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    The tribe Ambelanieae consists of seventeen species of latex-bearing shrubs and trees in six genera found in the tropical lowlands of norther South America. The center of distribution as well as diversification for the Ambelanieae is the Rio Negro basin of Brazilian Amazonia. This study is based on field observations of representative species from five of the genera, supplemented by the examination of exsiccatae from the major herbaria of the world. The analysis includes a review of the taxonomic history, a presentation of a systematic treatment for the genera and species, and detailed discussions of morphology, anatomy, ecology, pollination, fruit dispersal, phenology, palynology, cytology, and biogeography. The first chromosome numbers for the tribe are reported, indicating that polyploidy occurs within the group. Pollen variability is demonstrated, not only among species of different genera but also within individual pollen samples. In reference to economic uses, some members of the tribe are suggested to hold promise for exploitation of usable latex, lightweight wood, and edible fruits. The presence of potentially important toxic and medicinal principles from several species is indicated by ethnopharmacological observations made in the northwest Amazon basin.

  4. A new indole alkaloid isolated from Tabernaemontana hystrix steud (Apocynaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monnerat, Cecilia Silva; Souza, Jucimar Jorgeane de; Mathias, Leda; Braz-Filho, Raimundo; Vieira, Ivo Jose C. [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacases, RJ (Brazil). Setor de Quimica de Produtos Naturais]. E-mail: curcino@uenf.br

    2005-11-15

    A new alkaloid, named hystrixnine (1), and five known indole alkaloids, ibogamine (2), olivacine (3), affinine (4), affinisine (5) and Nb-methylaffinisine (6), were isolated from the root bark of Tabernaemontana hystrix. The known triterpenes a-amyrin acetate, b-amyrin acetate and lupeol acetate were also identified. The structures of the compounds were elucidated based on spectopic studies. (author)

  5. In vitro multiplication of Tabernaemontana fuchsiaefolia L. (Apocynaceae Multiplicação in vitro de Tabernaemontana fuchsiaefolia L. (Apocynaceae

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    Arildo José Braz de Oliveira

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available This study describes a simple and promising for in vitro multiplication of Tabernaemontana fuchsiaefolia, a species abundantly found in southern Brazil utilized for medicinal purposes and as a source of compounds that may be used to develop new synthetic drugs. Apical and hypocotyl explants were cultured in MS medium containing different concentrations of the cytokinins benzylaminopurine (BA and 6-furfurylaminopurine (kinetin, supplemented with phloroglucinol (1, 3, 5-hydroxybenzene to stimulate growth and shoot proliferation. Cytokinin added to the culture media positively influenced the micropropagation of T. fuchsiaefolia.and kinetin induced more shoots per explant than BA cytokinin. A favorable effect of phloroglucinol on apical and lateral buds from hypocotyls was also achieved in medium containing no kinetin or in all kinetin concentrations tested. Short pulses of auxin 3-indolebutyric acid (IBA 5.0 mg/l resulted in satisfactory rooting in apical microcuttings. The addition of phloroglucinol to MS medium induced rhizogenesis in 29% of the nodal segments transferred to MS medium in the absence of IBA and in 50% of the nodal segments transferred to MS medium containing 0.5 mg/l IBA and in nodal segments previously submitted to short pulses of IBA.O presente estudo relata um método simples e promissor para multiplicação in vitro de Tabernaemontana fuchsiaefolia, uma espécie abundantemente encontrada no sul do Brasil, utilizada com propósitos medicinais e como fonte de compostos que podem ser usados para desenvolver novas drogas sintéticas. Para estimular o crescimento e a proliferação de caules, os explantes apicais e os hipocótilos foram cultivados em meio MS contendo diferentes concentrações das citocininas 6-benzil-amino-purina (BA e cinetina (KIN e suplementado com fluoroglucinol (1, 3, 5-hidroxibenzeno. A micropropagação de T. fuchsiaefolia foi positivamente influenciada por citocininas e a cinetina induziu à formação de mais caules por explantes do que a citoquinina BA. O efeito favorável de fluoroglucinol na indução de gemas apicais e laterais a partir dos hipocótilos foi verificado na ausência de cinetina ou em meio com todas as concentrações de cinetina testadas. Os caules recém-formados foram cortados dos explantes e o enraizamento satisfatório destes caules foi obtido após um tratamento com pulsos breves em 5,0 mg/l da auxina ácido 3-indolbutírico (IBA. A adição de fluoroglucinol no meio MS induziu ao enraizamento em 29% dos segmentos nodais transferidos para o meio MS na ausência de IBA, em 50% dos segmentos nodais transferidos para o meio MS contendo 0,5 mg/l de IBA e em segmentos nodais previamente submetidos aos breves pulsos de IBA.

  6. Seleção de matrizes e clones de mangabeira para o cultivo in vitro Selection of parents and clones of mangabeira for in vitro cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana de Lima Machado

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Altas taxas de mortalidade em viveiro de mudas de mangabeira (Hancornia speciosa impedem seu uso na reversão do processo de degradação das terras e na manutenção da produtividade e integridade ambiental do Cerrado. O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar matrizes e clones, provenientes de propagação sexuada e assexuada, com potencial de propagação in vitro, para produção de mudas de mangabeira. Foram coletados frutos de 11 matrizes e de cada matriz selecionaram-se 24 sementes em bom estado fitossanitário. Após a desinfecção, as sementes foram inoculadas em meio MS, sem reguladores de crescimento, obtendo-se uma média de germinação de 92,4%, e as matrizes não apresentaram diferença significativa entre si. Na fase de multiplicação, em meio MS, com os reguladores de crescimento BAP (6-benzilaminopurina e AIB (ácido indol-3-butírico, ambos na concentração de 1,28 mg L-1, a melhor matriz foi a C1 e o melhor clone foi o C1 15. Em todas as fases foi observada alta variabilidade, em menor porcentagem na matriz e maior porcentagem no clone dentro da matriz. A seleção deve ser realizada principalmente nos clones dentro da matriz.High tax of mortality of mangabeira (Hancornia speciosa seedlings in greenhouse conditions hinders its use on the reversion of the degradation of the natural vegetation, as well as on the preservation of the production and environmental integrity. The objective of this work was to select better mother plants and clones from sexual and assexual propagation, with potential to survive in vitro, for producing mangaba seedlings. Fruits were collected from 11 mother plants and from each plant, 24 seeds without aparent diseases were selected. After superficial desinfection, seeds were inoculated in MS medium without growth regulators and having a germination of 92.4% without significant difference between mother plants. On multiplication phase, with MS medium, with growth regulators BAP (6-benzilaminopurine

  7. Characterization of the effects of macronutrient deficiencies in mangabeira seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layara Alexandre Bessa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the mineral nutrition requirements of mangabeira (Hancornia speciosa Gomes is relatively scarce and rudimentary because there is a lack of consistent data concerning its nutritional demands at different developmental stages. The aim of this research was to characterize the visual symptoms of macronutrient deficiencies and to evaluate the effects of these deficiencies on the growth, the production of dry matter, and the leaf content of mangabeira. To achieve this goal, a greenhouse experiment was conducted at the Goiano Federal Institute (Instituto Federal Goiano in Rio Verde - GO, from January to June 2011 in which mangabeira plants were arranged in a random block design and grown in nutrient solutions. This experiment was replicated four times. The plants were treated with either a complete nutrient solution or a nutrient solution from which the individual macronutrient of interest (nitrogen (N, phosphorous (P, potassium (K, magnesium (Mg, calcium (Ca, or sulfur (S had been omitted. The omission of a macronutrient from the nutrient solution resulted in morphological alterations that were characteristic symptoms of the particular nutritional deficiency and caused decreases in growth and dry matter mass production. The accumulation of macronutrients displayed the following order in mangabeira leaves: N>K>Ca>P>S>Mg.

  8. ESPÉCIES FLORESTAIS DE RESTINGAS COMO POTENCIAIS INSTRUMENTOS PARA GESTÃO COSTEIRA E TECNOLOGIA SOCIAL EM CARAVELAS, BAHIA (BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Machado Dias

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In Caravelas, located in southern Bahia state, the main vegetation formations are the mangrove forests and ‘restingas’ (sandbanks presenting, the latter, a high degree of degradation. The aim of this paper is to describe the main forest species of these ‘restingas’ and their direct uses associated with the recovery and management of degraded areas and creation of jobs and income, making thus an important tool for integrated coastal zone. For this, elaborate floral listings and field visits were necessary for recognizing the environment. In the selection of species, a literature about the use, management and value of each species were used, and from there, four species with potential for generating jobs and income along of this proposal were recognized: Mangaba ( Hancornia speciosa , Pitanga ( Eugenia uniflora , Mangaba ( Anacardium occidentale and Aroeira ( Schinus terebinthifolius . The first three are associated with the use of its fruit food, serving these ‘aroeiras’ as pepper trees, with a high value on the world market, and cashew, because of its fertile structure. The identification of products provided sustainable use of species and environment and the Non-Timber Forest Products can be strategic in coastal management, making it an instrument to subsidize social inclusion through the creation of jobs and income, under the movement of Social Technology, contributing to reduce the social vulnerability of traditional coastal communities.

  9. Avaliação da qualidade de amostras comerciais de leite de janaguba (Himatanthus drasticus (Mart. Plumel em Fortaleza – Ceará

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    F.P. SOARES

    Full Text Available RESUMO Os fitoterápicos à base de leite de janaguba (Himatanthus drasticus (Mart. Plumel, usados para o tratamento de câncer, úlcera gástrica e outras doenças, são muito vendidos em mercados públicos de Fortaleza (CE. No entanto, registros mencionam que é comum a troca deste leite por látex de mangabeira (Hancornia speciosa Gomes. O trabalho objetivou avaliar a qualidade físico-química, química e microbiológica de amostras comerciais do leite de janaguba. Dez amostras comerciais foram adquiridas de um mercado de Fortaleza; quatro amostras autênticas de látex de janaguba foram obtidas da chapada do Araripe e uma amostra de látex de mangabeira foi obtida em Paracuru (CE. Foram determinados o aspecto geral, densidade, pH, resíduo seco, volume de sedimentação, perfil cromatográfico e qualidade microbiológica das amostras. Os resultados mostraram elevada contaminação microbiológica nas preparações comerciais e adulteração em seis destas amostras, o que aponta a urgente implantação de uma efetiva farmacovigilância dos fitoterápicos a fim de tornar seu consumo mais seguro e racional.

  10. Cynanchum pachyphyllum (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae, una nueva cita para la Flora Argentina Cynanchum pachyphyllum (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae, a new cite for the Argentine flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel H. Rua

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Cynanchum pachyphyllum fue colectado en las inmediaciones del Lago Puelo (Chubut, Argentina. Esta especie, conocida hasta el presente sólo para el sur de Chile, es citada por primera vez para la Argentina. Se adjunta una descripción y una ilustración, además de una clave para identificar las especies patagónicas afines.Cynanchum pachyphyllum was collected near Lago Puelo (Chubut, Argentina. This species, known from Southern Chile, is reported for the first time for Argentina. A description and an illustration is provided, as well as a key to the related Patagonian species.

  11. Estudios en las Apocynaceae neotropicales XXIII: una nueva especie de Mandevilla (Apocynoideae, Mesechiteae y nuevos reportes en las Apocynaceae (Apocynoideae, Rauvolfioideae de Colombia

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    Morales, Juan Francisco

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Mandevilla nevadana, a new species endemic to the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia, is described and illustrated. Allomarkgrafia ecuatoriana, Aspidosperma capitatum, and Prestonia mexicana are reported for the first time in Colombia.Se describe e ilustra Mandevilla nevadana, una nueva especie endémica de la región de la Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta en Colombia. Se reporta por primera vez la presencia de Allomarkgrafia ecuatoriana, Aspidosperma capitatum y Prestonia mexicana en Colombia.

  12. Multiplicação in vitro de Aspidosperma ramiflorum Muell. Arg. (Apocynaceae = In vitro multiplication of Aspidosperma ramiflorum Muell. Arg. (Apocynaceae

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    Heltion Ivan Hubner

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo relata um método simples e promissor para multiplicação in vitro de Aspidosperma ramiflorum, uma espécie encontrada no sudeste do Brasil e seriamente ameaçada de extinção, utilizada com propósitos medicinais e como fonte de compostos quepodem ser usados para desenvolver novos fármacos sintéticos. O trabalho teve como objetivo o estabelecimento de um protocolo de multiplicação in vitro de Aspidosperma ramiflorum (guatambu, a partir de segmentos apicais de material juvenil originários deplântulas obtidos a partir de sementes. A avaliação da multiplicação in vitro foi realizada em meio de cultura Woody Plant Médium (WPM, suplementado com concentrações variadas de ácido naftalenoacético (ANA e 6-Benzilaminopurina (6-BAP. A multiplicação de A. ramiflorum foi positivamente influenciada principalmente nas combinações aonde asconcentrações de 6-BAP foram relativamente maiores do que as do ANA, nessas concentrações houve a indução de múltiplas brotações.The present study described a simple and promissory method for in vitro multiplication of Aspidosperma ramiflorum, a species found in the South of Brazil and seriously extinction menaced. The method was used for medicinal proposes and as a source of compounds to develop new synthetic drugs. The objective of this work was to establishan in vitro multiplication protocol of Aspidosperma ramiflorum (guatambu, from apical segments of juvenile material of plantlets obtained from seeds. The in vitro multiplication evaluation was done in WPM medium, supplemented with variable concentrations ofNaphthalene acetic acid (NAA and 6- Benzyl aminopurine (6-BAP. The multiplication of A. ramiflorum was positively influenced mainly in the combinations when 6-BAP concentrations were relatively higher than NAA. In these concentrations multiple shoots were induced.

  13. Multiplicação in vitro de Aspidosperma ramiflorum Muell. Arg. (Apocynaceae) = In vitro multiplication of Aspidosperma ramiflorum Muell. Arg. (Apocynaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Heltion Ivan Hubner; Luiz Vieira da Silva; Idivaldo Capatti; Elisângela Fumagali; Eliezer Rodrigues de Souto; Regina Aparecida Correia Gonçalves; Arildo José Braz de Oliveira

    2007-01-01

    O presente estudo relata um método simples e promissor para multiplicação in vitro de Aspidosperma ramiflorum, uma espécie encontrada no sudeste do Brasil e seriamente ameaçada de extinção, utilizada com propósitos medicinais e como fonte de compostos quepodem ser usados para desenvolver novos fármacos sintéticos. O trabalho teve como objetivo o estabelecimento de um protocolo de multiplicação in vitro de Aspidosperma ramiflorum (guatambu), a partir de segmentos apicais de material juvenil or...

  14. Chemistry and Pharmacology of Analgesic Indole Alkaloids from the Rubiaceous Plant, Mitragyna speciosa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hiromitsu TAKAYAMA

    2004-01-01

    .... Phytochemical studies of the constituents of the plant growing in Thailand and Malaysia have led to the isolation of several 9-methoxy-Corynanthe-type monoterpenoid indole alkaloids, including new natural products...

  15. Larvicidal activity of Nerium oleander L. (Apocynaceae flower extracts against Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae

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    R. Raveen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Culex quinquefasciatus is the vector responsible for serious disease filariasis among human beings. Plant derived products have received increased attention from scientists as they serve as a rich source for novel natural substances possessing insecticidal properties which are safe to human and ecosystem. During the last decade, various studies on natural plant products against vector mosquito indicate them as possible alternatives to chemical and synthetic insecticides for mosquito control. In the present study, the crude hexane and aqueous extract of Nerium oleander flowers were reported for larvicidal activity against the filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus. Mortality was observed for 24 and 48 hours. Hexane flower extract exhibited highest larvicidal activity with a LC50 value of 102.54 ppm and 61.11ppm after 24 and 48 hours respectively. Further investigations are needed to elucidate this activity against a wide range of all stages of mosquito species and also the active ingredient(s of the extract responsible for larvicidal activity should be identified.

  16. ESTUDIO SISTEMÁTICO DEL GÉNERO SUDAMERICANO DIPLOLEPIS (APOCYNACEAE

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    Viviana Hechem

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un tratamiento taxonómico del género Diplolepis. Sobre la base de información molecular y biogeográfica publicada recientemente, se comprobó que este grupo es monofilético y su distribución geográfica se restringe al sudoeste de Sudamérica. El estudio comprendió una revisión de ejemplares de herbario, incluyendo a los tipos nomenclaturales, complementada con colecciones y observaciones de las especies en el campo. Se describe la variación en la morfología del género, incluyendo hábito, tallos, hojas, inflorescencia, cáliz, corola, corona, ginostegio, polinarios, frutos y semillas. Se discuten las diferencias morfológicas y de distribución entre este género y géneros afines. Se presenta una clave para diferenciar las especies. Para cada especie se provee el nombre válido, sinonimias, descripción de características morfológicas vegetativas y reproductivas, distribución geográfica, ecología, usos, nombres vulgares, fenología, iconografía y material examinado. Se designa un lectotipo para D. viridis.

  17. Micromorphology and Histochemistry of the Laticifers from Vegetative Organs of Asclepiadoideae species (Apocynaceae)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Diego DEMARCO

    2015-01-01

      Micromorphology and main substances of the laticifer walls and latex of Asclepias curassavica, Fischeria stellata, Gonioanthela axillaris, Matelea denticulata, and Oxypetalum banksii were analyzed...

  18. Antimicrobial activity, cytotoxicity, and phytochemical screening of Voacanga globosa (Blanco) Merr. leaf extract (Apocynaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vital, Pierangeli G; Rivera, Windell L

    2011-10-01

    To determine the antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, cytotoxic, and phytochemical properties of ethanol extracts of leaves of Voacanga globosa (Blanco) Merr. (V. globosa). The extracts were tested against bacteria and fungus through disc diffusion assay; against protozoa through growth curve determination, antiprotozoal and cytotoxicity assays. The extract revealed antibacterial activities, inhibiting the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Micrococcus luteus, and Salmonella typhimurium. Antifungal assay showed that it inhibited Candida albicans. The antiprotozoal assay against Trichomonas vaginalis and Entamoeba histolytica showed that V. globosa can inhibit the parasites, wherein the action can be comparable to metronidazole. With the in situ cell death detection kit, Trichomonas vaginalis and Entamoeba histolytica exposed to V. globosa leaf extract was observed to fluoresce simultaneously in red and yellow signals signifying apoptotic-like changes. Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the chemical composition of plant extract containing alkaloids, saponins, 2-deoxysugars, and hydrolysable tannins. Thus, this study provides scientific evidence on the traditional use of V. globosa leaf extract in treating microbial diseases. Further, the leaf extract can possibly be used to produce alternative forms of antimicrobials. Copyright © 2011 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Florae Malesianae Praecursores LIII. Apocynaceae II. 6. Urnularia, 7. Willughbeia, 8. Kopsia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markgraf, F.

    1972-01-01

    Stapf, Hook. 1c. (1901) t. 2711; Merr., En. Born. (1921) 497; Pichon, Mém. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris II, 24 (1948) 154; Bakh. f., Blumea 6 (1950) 385; Back. & Bakh. f., Fl. Java 2 (1965) 224. Glabrous lianas with branched axillary tendrils. Leaves decussate, coriaceous or subcoriaceous, ovate, elliptic,

  20. The Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Aspidosperma tomentosum (Apocynaceae

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    Anansa Bezerra de Aquino

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of the crude ethanolic extract (CEE, its fractions, and the flavonoid isorhamnetin from Aspidosperma tomentosum using models of nociception and inflammation in mice. In the writhing test, the CEE and its fractions (except for soluble phase, CHCl3 100% and EtAcO 100% at 100 mg/kg p.o. induced antinociceptive activity. Isorhamnetin (100 μmol/kg, p.o. was also active. In the hot plate test, only the treatment with the fractions Hex : CHCl3 50%, CHCl3 100%, and CHCl3 : MeOH 5% (100 mg/kg, p.o. increased the latency time, reversed by the opioid antagonist naloxone. Fractions that were active in the hot plate test did not show catalepsy condition. It was observed that CEE, all fractions, and isorhamnetin reduced the formalin effects in the neurogenic phase. In the inflammatory phase, only CEE, isorhamnetin, and CHCl3 100% and CHCl3 : MeOH 5% fractions were active. CEE and all fractions, except for CHCl3 : MeOH 10% fraction, isorhamnetin, and soluble fraction were able to produce an antioedematogenic activity in the ear capsaicin-induced edema test. In the thioglycolate-induced peritonitis, only EtAcO 100% fraction was not active. The results demonstrate that A. tomentosum has antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities in animal models.

  1. Micropropagation and callogenesis in Mandevilla guanabarica (Apocynaceae, an endemic plant from Brazil

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    Sandra Zorat Cordeiro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Mandevilla guanabarica is an endemic plant from Brazil, with pharmacological and ornamental potential, both unexplored. This study established the best culture medium for in vitro plant maintenance, efficient protocol for its regeneration, and callogenesis from different explants excised from in vitro-grown plants. Woody plant medium with double boron concentration (WPMB plus 2.27 µM thidiazuron or 0.49 µM 2-isopentenyladenine provided multiplication rates higher than 1:6. Shoots were 100% rooted on WPMB. After acclimatization, plants showed 83% survival. For callogenesis, the use of MS media supplemented with high concentrations of picloram or 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid produced, respectively, friable or compact non-morphogenic calluses from different types of explants. This micropropagation protocol allows the production of seedlings of M. guanabarica for ornamental or commercial uses, and for conservation purposes; calluses can be used to establish suspension cultures in prospecting for bioactive compounds

  2. THERAPEUTIC POTENTIALS OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF LEAVES OFHOLARRHENA FLORIBUNDA(G. DON) DUR. AND SCHINZ (APOCYNACEAE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekou, Yao Patrick; Tchacondo, Tchadjobo; Karou, Simplice Damintoti; Yerbanga, Rakiswende Serge; Achoribo, Elom; Da, Ollo; Atakpama, Wouyo; Batawila, Komlan

    2017-01-01

    Holarrhena floribunda is a plant of wide usage in the Togolese folk medicine. A previous ethnobotanical survey on the latex plants of the Maritime region of the country revealed that this plant was included in several recipes curing malaria and microbial infections. Therefore, this study aimed to seek for the effectiveness of the ethanolic extract of the plant in the treatment of these diseases. The antimicrobial test was performed using the agar well-diffusion and the NCCLS broth microdilution methods, while the in vivo antimalarial activity was evaluated following the four-day suppressive test of Peters. The acute toxic effects of the extract were monitored after a single oral dose (5,000 mg/kg body weight) administration in NMRI mice. The results indicated that the ethanolic extract of leaves of H. floribunda was active on Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213 and clinical strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi and Klebsiella pneumoniae with MICs ranging from 0.62 to 1.25 mg/mL. The extract also showed significant parasitaemia suppression in a dose-dependent manner. In the acute toxicity assay, the oral administration of the extract to the mice did not affect the relative weight of vital organs, and there were no signs of toxicity or death during the study period. The LD50 of the tested extract was found to be greater than 5,000 mg/kg, indicating its safety. This study demonstrates the antibacterial and antimalarial activities of leaves of H. floribunda and then, supports its medicinal use in the treatment of microbial infections.

  3. Do Cecidomyiidae galls of Aspidosperma spruceanum (Apocynaceae) fit the pre-established cytological and histochemical patterns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Denis Coelho; Magalhães, Thiago Alves; Carneiro, Renê Gonçalves Silva; Alvim, Marina Neiva; Isaias, Rosy Mary Santos

    2010-06-01

    Cecidomyiidae galls commonly present a zonation of tissues with lignified cell layers externally limiting a reserve tissue and internally limiting a specialized nutritive tissue next to the larval chamber. The cytological aspects of this specialized tissue indicate high metabolic activity as well as carbohydrate accumulation. In Aspidosperma spruceanum-Cecidomyiidae gall system, ultrastructural and histochemical investigations corroborated this pattern and also revealed the storage of proteins in the nutritive cells. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), callose, and pectin accumulation were related to the feeding activity of the galling herbivore. Phosphorylase, glucose-6-phosphatase, acid phosphatases, invertases, and sucrose synthase activities were detected for the first time, in the Neotropical region, and discussed in relation to gall maintenance and the feeding activity of the Cecidomyiidae.

  4. Effects of alkaloids of Himatanthus lancifolius (Muell. Arg.) Woodson, Apocynaceae, on smooth muscle responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattmann, Yanna D; Terluk, Márcia R; Souza, Wesley M; Santos, Cid A M; Biavatti, Maique W; Torres, Luce B; Mesia-Vela, Sonia; Rieck, Lia; da Silva-Santos, José E; Marques, Maria C de A

    2005-09-14

    Himatanthus lancifolius, popularly known as "agoniada" in Brazil, is largely used in folk medicine against asthma, dysmenorrhea and as an emenagogue and abortive. This study reveals the effects of an alkaloid rich fraction (AlkF) obtained from the bark of Himatanthus lancifolius in vascular and non-vascular smooth muscle responsiveness. Incubation of AlkF (3-30 microg/ml) during 15 min generates a concentration-related and fully reversible reduction in maximal contractile responses evoked by acetylcholine and phenylephrine in rat jejune and aorta preparations, respectively. Exposition of endothelium-denuded pre-contracted rat aorta rings to AlkF results in a complete relaxation, with EC(50) of 22.2 (16.2-28.2 microg/ml). AlkF is also able to induce a concentration-related rightward shift of cumulative concentration curves for calcium in uterus and aorta rings maintained in depolarizing nutritive solution. Moreover, addition of AlkF in calcium-free solution also reduces, in a concentration-dependent manner, the ability of caffeine and phenylephrine to contract aorta rings. This study reveals that the bark of Himatanthus lancifolius possesses one or more indole alkaloids able to alter non-vascular and vascular smooth muscle responsiveness, an event that may involve the blocking of calcium entry or changes on intracellular calcium utilization or mobilization.

  5. Detection of phytochrome-like genes from Rhazya stricta (Apocynaceae) using de novo genome assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabir, Jamal S M; Baeshen, Nabih A; Shokry, Ahmed M; Gadalla, Nour O; Edris, Sherif; Mutwakil, Mohammed H; Ramadan, Ahmed M; Atef, Ahmed; Al-Kordy, Magdy A; Abuzinadah, Osama A; El-Domyati, Fotouh M; Jansen, Robert K; Bahieldin, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Phytochrome-like genes in the wild plant species Rhazya stricta Decne were characterized using a de novo genome assembly of next generation sequence data. Rhazya stricta contains more than 100 alkaloids with multiple pharmacological properties, and leaf extracts have been used to cure chronic rheumatism, to treat tumors, and in the treatment of several other diseases. Phytochromes are known to be involved in the light-regulated biosynthesis of some alkaloids. Phytochromes are soluble chromoproteins that function in the absorption of red and far-red light and the transduction of intracellular signals during light-regulated plant development. De novo assembly of the nuclear genome of R. stricta recovered 45,641 contigs greater than 1000bp long, which were used in constructing a local database. Five sequences belonging to Arabidopsis thaliana phytochrome gene family (i.e., AtphyABCDE) were used to identify R. stricta contigs with phytochrome-like sequences using BLAST. This led to the identification of three contigs with phytochrome-like sequences covering AtphyA-, AtphyC- and AtphyE-like full-length genes. Annotation of the three sequences showed that each contig consists of one phytochrome-like gene with three exons and two introns. BLASTn and BLASTp results indicated that RsphyA mRNA and protein sequences had homologues in Wrightia coccinea and and Solanum tuberosum, respectively. RsphyC-like mRNA and protein sequence were homologous to Vitis vinifera and Vitis riparia. RsphyE-like mRNA coding and protein sequences were homologous to Ipomoea nil. Multiple-sequence alignment of phytochrome proteins indicated a homology with 30 sequences from 23 different species of flowering plants. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that each R. stricta phytochrome gene is related to the same phytochrome gene of other flowering plants. It is proposed that the absence of phyB gene in R. stricta is due to RsphyA gene taking over the role of phyB. © 2013 Académie des sciences. All rights reserved.

  6. In vitro anti-HIV and antioxidant activity of Hoodia gordonii (Apocynaceae), a commercial plant product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapewangolo, Petrina; Knott, Michael; Shithigona, Regina E K; Uusiku, Sylvia L; Kandawa-Schulz, Martha

    2016-10-24

    Hoodia gordonii products are widely commercialized for anti-obesity purposes; however, minimal research is available on the other health properties demonstrated by this popular herbal plant. H. gordonii crude extracts (ethanol and ethyl acetate) were assayed for in vitro anti-HIV-1 protease (PR), reverse transcriptase (RT) and integrase activity. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and reducing power assays were used for the antioxidant analysis. In addition, qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analyses of the extracts were determined using standard methods. H. gordonii extract demonstrated good inhibition against HIV RT with IC 50 values of 73.55 ± 0.04 and 69.81 ± 9.45 μg/mL for ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts, respectively. Both extracts also demonstrated inhibitory activity against HIV PR with IC 50 values of 97.29 ± 0.01 and 63.76 ± 9.01 μg/mL for ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts. In addition, H. gordonii also showed good antioxidant activity with IC 50 values of 124.6 ± 11.3 and 126.2 ± 3.15 μg/mL obtained for ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts, respectively. The reducing power of H. gordonii extracts increased as the concentration increased which confirmed the presence of antioxidants (reductants) in the extracts. Phytochemical screening of H. gordonii revealed the presence of phenolics, alkaloids, terpenes, steroids, cardiac glycosides and tannins in the ethanolic extract, while the ethyl acetate extract only showed the presence of phenolics, cardiac glycosides and steroids. The total phenolic content was 420 ± 0.17 and 319.9 ± 0.2 mg GAE/g for the ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts, respectively. The ethanol extract, which revealed the presence of tannins, had a tannin content of 330 ± 0.2 mg TAE/g extract. This data suggests that H. gordonii has good in vitro inhibition against selected HIV-1 enzymes as well as antioxidant properties, suggesting new potential uses for this commercial plant.

  7. Going west - A subtropical lineage (Vincetoxicum, Apocynaceae: Asclepiadoideae) expanding into Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liede-Schumann, Sigrid; Khanum, Rizwana; Mumtaz, Abdul Samad; Gherghel, Iulian; Pahlevani, Amirhossein

    2016-01-01

    Vincetoxicum sensu lato is a tropical lineage comprising two clades that have reached high northern latitudes. Of the temperate clades, one is restricted to the Far East, the other one (Vincetoxicum s. str. Clade) extends into Europe, but their ranges overlap in Central China and Japan. Three species invasive in North America, V. hirundinaria, V. nigrum and V. rossicum, are members of the Vincetoxicum s. str. Clade. We explore the prerequisites for the range expansion in the Vincetoxicum s. str. Clade performing Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood phylogenetic analyses on sequences of the nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, the nuclear external transcribed spacer region (ETS), and five plastid markers. The resulting phylogeny is used to conduct biogeographic analysis using BioGeoBEARS to reconstruct ancestral species ranges. Moreover, we map the known occurrences of two rare characters in Asclepiadoideae, the possession of phenanthroindolizidine alkaloids and reported cases of autogamy onto our phylogeny. Finally, we have conducted ecological niche modelling using Maxent on a total of 220 spatially unique occurrences of nine Vincetoxicum s. str. species spanning more than 4,000 km along the east-west gradient to learn about the climatic conditions along the presumed migration route. Our results indicate a north-westward migration in Vincetoxicum s. str. along the Asian mountain chains to Europe. Climatic preferences of the nine species sampled are dissimilar, except for the common exposure to at least one month of subfreezing temperatures, indicating a rather wide climatic tolerance for the clade as a whole. The three species invasive in North America belong to the northern Eurasian subclade and show the rare combination of phenanthroindolizidine alkaloids and autogamy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The chemical nature of fetid floral odours in stapeliads (Apocynaceae-Asclepiadoideae-Ceropegieae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürgens, Andreas; Dötterl, Stefan; Meve, Ulrich

    2006-01-01

    By emitting strong fetid scents, sapromyiophilous flowers mimic brood and food sites of flies to attract them as pollinators. To date, intensive comparative scent analyses have been restricted to sapromyiophilous Araceae. Here, we analysed flower volatiles of fetid stapeliads to improve our understanding of the floral biology of fly pollinated species, and to learn whether mimicry types comparable to those found in Araceae exist. Floral volatiles of 15 species out of 11 genera within the Asclepiadoideae-Ceropegieae-Stapeliinae were collected via headspace adsorption and thermal desorption and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectometry (GC-MS). Data were analysed using CNESS-NMDS statistics. Sapromyiophilous stapeliads are highly diverse in their scent composition, in which sulphur compounds, benzenoids, fatty acid derivatives or nitrogen-containing compounds dominate. Four groups are evident: species with high p-cresol content but low amounts of polysulphides (herbivore faeces mimicry); species with mainly polysulphides and low amounts of p-cresol (carnivore/omnivore faeces or carcass mimicry); species with high amounts of heptanal and octanal (carnivore/omnivore faeces or carcass mimicry); and species with hexanoic acid (urine mimicry). Considering the findings in the unrelated Araceae, our results support the universality of different mimicry types that are obviously subsumed under the sapromyiophilous syndrome.

  9. A new species of Leptadenia (Apocynaceae) and two other new records from southwestern Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masrahi, Yahya S

    2015-09-01

    Leptadenia jazanica Y. Masrahi from the province of Jazan, southwestern Saudi Arabia is described as a new species and illustrated. The species differs from the other known nearest species of the genus, Leptadenia pyrotechnica, by decumbent to scrambling habit of stems and persistent leaves. In the same province also two new records belonging to the genera Canavalia (Fabaceae) and Craterostigma (Scrophulariaceae) were collected; they were identified as Canavalia virosa (Roxb.) Wight & Arn. and Craterostigma plantagineum Hochst.

  10. Functional classification of esterases from leaves of Aspidosperma polyneuron M. Arg. (Apocynaceae

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    Carvalho Vanda Marilza de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis system (PAGE and inhibition tests for biochemical characterization of alpha- and beta-esterases were used to obtain a functional classification of esterases fromAspidosperma polyneuron. The characterization of alpha- and beta-esterases from young leaves of A. polyneuron by the PAGE system showed fourteen esterase isozymes. The differential staining pattern showed that Est-2 isozyme hydrolyzes beta-naphthyl acetate; Est-6, Est-7 and Est-8 isozymes hydrolyze alpha-naphthyl acetate, and Est-1, Est-3, Est-4, Est-5, Est-9, Est-10, Est-11, Est-12, Est-13, and Est-14 isozymes hydrolyze both alpha- and b-naphthyl acetate. Inhibition pattern of a- and beta-esterases showed that Folidol is a more potent inhibitor that Malathion, while Thiamethoxan (an insecticide with organophosphorus-like action acts as an Est-4 and Est-6 inhibitor and induces the appearance of Est-5 and Est-7 isozymes as more intensely stained bands. Inhibition tests showed that OPC insecticides inhibit or activate plant esterases. Thus, plant esterases may be used as bioindicators to detect the presence and toxicity of residues of topically applied insecticides in agriculture and may be valuable for monitoring pollutants in the environment.

  11. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of a water extract of Trachelospermum jasminoides (Apocynaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheu, Ming-Jyh; Chou, Pei-Yu; Cheng, Hsu-Chen; Wu, Chieh-Hsi; Huang, Guan-Jhong; Wang, Bor-Sen; Chen, Jwo-Sheng; Chien, Yi-Chung; Huang, Ming-Hsing

    2009-11-12

    This study investigated the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of a water extract of Trachelospermum jasminoides (WET) in ICR mice. In HPLC analysis, the fingerprint chromatogram of WET was established. Acetic acid-induced writhing response and formalin-induced pain were examined the analgesics effects of WET. WET on lambda-Carrageenan(carr)-induced paw edema was performed. We investigate the anti-inflammatory mechanism of WET via studies of the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GRx) in the liver and the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitrite oxide (NO) in the edema paw. Serum NO and TNF-alpha were also measured. The fingerprint chromatogram of WET was established through HPLC analysis, and implies that WET contains the active ingredient gallic acid, chlorgenic acid, caffeic acid, taxifolin, isoquercitrin and quercetin. WET significantly inhibited the numbers of acetic acid-induced writhing responses and the formalin-induced pain in the late phase. In the anti-inflammatory test, WET inhibited the development of paw edema induced by carr. WET decreased the paw edema at the third, fourth and fifth hour after carr administration, and increased the activities of SOD, GPx and GRx in the liver tissue and decreased the MDA level in the edema paw at the third hour after carr injection. WET decreased the level of NO in edematous paw tissue and in serum level, and diminished the level of serum TNF-alpha at the fifth hour after carr injection. These results demonstrated that WET is an effective anti-inflammatory agent in carr-induced inflammation. WET probably exerts anti-inflammatory effects by suppressing TNF-alpha and NO. The anti-inflammatory mechanism of WET might be related to the decrease in the level of MDA in the edema paw via increasing the activities of SOD, GPx and GRx in the liver.

  12. Characterization of microsatellite loci in Himatanthus drasticus (Apocynaceae), a medicinal plant from the Brazilian savanna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldauf, Cristina; Ciampi, Maísa B; Vigna, Bianca B Z; Mori, Gustavo M; Guedes, Julian P P; De Souza, Anete P; Dos Santos, Flavio A M

    2011-09-01

    We developed a new set of microsatellite markers for studying the genome of the janaguba tree, Himatanthus drasticus (Mart.) Plumel, which is used in folk medicine in northeastern Brazil. These novel markers are being used to evaluate the effect of harvesting on the genetic structure and diversity of natural populations of this species. • Microsatellite loci were isolated from an enriched H. drasticus genomic library. Nine primer pairs successfully amplified polymorphic microsatellite regions, with an average of 8.5 alleles per locus. The average values of observed and expected heterozygosity were 0.456 and 0.601, respectively. • The microsatellite markers described here are valuable tools for population genetics studies of H. drasticus. The majority of the primers also amplified sequences in the genome of another species of the same genus. This new set of markers may be useful in designing a genetic conservation strategy and a sustainable management plan for the species.

  13. Rust in Plumeria spp. (Apocynaceae in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

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    Cassia de Carvalho

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Frangipani (Plumeria spp. is a plant widely used in urban ornamentation, due to its hardiness, easy handling and exuberance of its flowers. Plumeria spp. Leaves were collected in Dourados, MS, Brazil, with typical symptoms and signs of the presence of rust: powdery yellowish uredinias in the abaxial and chlorotic and necrotic spots on the adaxial surface of the leaves, sometimes resulting in leaf abscission. The present study aims to record the occurrence of the disease in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul. Microscopic observations and measurements of uredinospores and teliospores confirmed that the fungus infecting plants was Coleosporium plumeriae.

  14. Two new species of Hoya R.Br. (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae from Borneo

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    Michele Rodda

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Two new Hoya R.Br. species from Borneo are described and illustrated. The first, Hoya ruthiae Rodda was collected in Sabah on Bukit Baturong, a limestone outcrop. It is one of the few species in the genus to have clear exudate. It is compared with the morphologically related Hoya uncinata Teijsm. and Binn. The other, Hoya bakoensis Rodda, was collected in the kerangas forests of Bako National Park. It belongs to Hoya section Acanthostemma (Bl. Kloppenb., a section with numerous members in the Philippines but under-represented in Borneo.

  15. New Record Marsdenia tenacissima (Asclepiadoideae, Apocynaceae In Gunung Ijo Baturagung Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widodo Widodo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Marsdenia tenacissima population were found among wild bushes at S 07 o 47’ 03.4”; E 110o 30’ 48.0” about 415 meter above sea level in Gunung Ijo Baturagung Yogyakarta. Identification was based on literature and herbarium specimen. The research was conduct using exploration methods, morphoanatomical observation, and specimen collection. Marsdenia tenacissima in Jawa was not reported in Flora of Java. Marsdenia tenacissima habitus was liana. The specific character for its identification was pollinia’s structure. This paper presented other important character namely leaf, stem, flower, pollinia, and fruit of Marsdenia tenacissima in Gunung Ijo Baturagung Yogyakarta. Accurate description and examination of any plant species were needed for its conservation and awareness of public to local biodiversity.

  16. Spruceanumines A and B, novel plumeran indole alkaloids from Aspidosperma spruceanum(Apocynaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Vilma B.; Vieira, Ivo J. Curcino; Braz-Filho, R.; Mathias, Leda [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Ciencias Quimicas (LCQUI); Lopes, Norberto P. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas; Crotti, Antonio E.M. [Universidade de Franca, SP (Brazil). Nucleo de Pesquisas em Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas; Uchoa, Daniel E. de A. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica. Centro Nordestino de Aplicacao e Uso da Ressonancia Magnetica Nuclear

    2009-07-01

    Two novel indole alkaloids with plumeran skeleton, spruceanumines A (1) and B (2), and eight known indole alkaloids, aspidospermidine (3), demethoxypalosine (4), aspidocarpine (5), aspidolimine (6), fendlerine (7), aspidolimidine (8), obscurinervidine (9) and obscurinervine (10) were isolated from stem bark and seeds methanolic extracts of Aspidosperma spruceanum. Compounds structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data, mainly those obtained by {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR (1D and 2D) and mass spectrometry. (author)

  17. Vindogentianine, a hypoglycemic alkaloid from Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don (Apocynaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiong, Soon Huat; Looi, Chung Yeng; Arya, Aditya; Wong, Won Fen; Hazni, Hazrina; Mustafa, Mohd Rais; Awang, Khalijah

    2015-04-01

    Vindogentianine, a new indole alkaloid together with six known alkaloids, vindoline, vindolidine, vindolicine, vindolinine, perivine and serpentine were isolated from leaf extract (DA) of Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods; NMR, MS, UV and IR. Vindogentianine is a dimer containing a vindoline moiety coupled to a gentianine moiety. After 24h incubation, vindogentianine exhibited no cytotoxic effect in C2C12 mouse myoblast and β-TC6 mouse pancreatic cells (IC50>50μg/mL). Real-time cell proliferation monitoring also indicated vindogentianine had little or no effect on C2C12 mouse myoblast cell growth at the highest dose tested (200μg/mL), without inducing cell death. Vindogentianine exhibited potential hypoglycemic activity in β-TC6 and C2C12 cells by inducing higher glucose uptake and significant in vitro PTP-1B inhibition. However, in vitro α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition assay showed low inhibition under treatment of vindogentianine. This suggests that hypoglycemic activity of vindogentianine may be due to the enhancement of glucose uptake and PTP-1B inhibition, implying its therapeutic potential against type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Antioxidant and antidiabetic profiles of two African medicinal plants: Picralima nitida (Apocynaceae) and Sonchus oleraceus (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teugwa, Clautilde Mofor; Mejiato, Pascaline Chouadeu; Zofou, Denis; Tchinda, Bruno Tugnoua; Boyom, Fabrice Fekam

    2013-07-15

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease characterized by chronic hyperglycaemia generally associated with oxidative stress. The present study aims at evaluating the antioxidant and antidiabetic potential of methanol and hydroethanol extracts of the stem bark and leaves of Pricralima nitida and the Sonchus oleraceus whole plant respectively. The in vitro antioxidant activity was assessed using 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrilhydrazyl (DPPH) for free radical-scavenging properties of the extracts, and the Folin-Ciocalteu method in determining their phenol contents. The antidiabetic activity was tested in mice following streptozotocin diabetes induction, and selected oxidative stress markers (Malondialdehyde, Hydrogen peroxides and Catalase) were measured in order to evaluate the level of oxidative stress in treated animals. The in vitro antioxidant activity using DPPH showed IC50 ranging from 0.19 ± 0.08 to 1.00 ± 0.06 mg/mL. The highest activity was obtained with the hydroethanol extracts of S. oleraceus (0.19 mg/mL and P. nitida (0.24 mg/mL). Polyphenol contents ranged from 182.25 ± 16.76 to 684.62 ± 46.66 μg Eq Cat/g. The methanol extract of P. nitida showed the highest activity, followed by the hydroethanol extract of S. oleraceus (616.89 ± 19.20 μEq Cat/g). The hydroethanol extract of whole plants (150 mg/Kg) and methanol leave extract of P. nitida (300 mg/Kg) exhibited significant antidiabetic activities with 39.40% and 38.48% glycaemia reduction, respectively. The measurement of stress markers in plasma, liver and kidney after administration of both extracts showed significant reduction in MDA and hydrogen peroxide levels, coupled with a substantial increase in catalase activity. These findings suggest that S. oleraceus whole plant and P. nitida leaves possess both antidiabetic and antioxidant properties, and therefore could be used as starting point for the development of herbal medicines and/or source of new drug molecules against diabetes.

  19. The antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of Aspidosperma tomentosum (Apocynaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, Anansa Bezerra de; Cavalcante-Silva, Luiz Henrique Agra; Matta, Carolina Barbosa Brito da; Epifânio, Willians Antônio do Nascimento; Aquino, Pedro Gregório Vieira; Santana, Antônio Euzébio Goulart; Alexandre-Moreira, Magna Suzana; de Araújo-Júnior, João Xavier

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of the crude ethanolic extract (CEE), its fractions, and the flavonoid isorhamnetin from Aspidosperma tomentosum using models of nociception and inflammation in mice. In the writhing test, the CEE and its fractions (except for soluble phase, CHCl3 100% and EtAcO 100%) at 100 mg/kg p.o. induced antinociceptive activity. Isorhamnetin (100  μ mol/kg, p.o.) was also active. In the hot plate test, only the treatment with the fractions Hex : CHCl3 50%, CHCl3 100%, and CHCl3 : MeOH 5% (100 mg/kg, p.o.) increased the latency time, reversed by the opioid antagonist naloxone. Fractions that were active in the hot plate test did not show catalepsy condition. It was observed that CEE, all fractions, and isorhamnetin reduced the formalin effects in the neurogenic phase. In the inflammatory phase, only CEE, isorhamnetin, and CHCl3 100% and CHCl3 : MeOH 5% fractions were active. CEE and all fractions, except for CHCl3 : MeOH 10% fraction, isorhamnetin, and soluble fraction were able to produce an antioedematogenic activity in the ear capsaicin-induced edema test. In the thioglycolate-induced peritonitis, only EtAcO 100% fraction was not active. The results demonstrate that A. tomentosum has antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities in animal models.

  20. In vitro propagation of Amsonia orientalis Decne (Apocynaceae) | Öz ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro plant regeneration was achieved from shoot explants of Amsonia orientalis Decne. The seeds were germinated aseptically in Petri dishes containing growth-regulator-free MS medium. The shoot explants of 30-day-old grown seedlings were cultured on MS medium supplemented with 1 mg/l indole- 3- butryric acid ...

  1. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of an important medicinal plant Cynanchum wilfordii (Maxim.) Hemsl. (Apocynaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun-Seung; Kim, Kyu-Yeob; Kim, Kyunghee; Lee, Sang-Choon; Lee, Junki; Seong, Rack Seon; Shim, Young Hun; Sung, Sang Hyun; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2016-09-01

    Cynanchum wilfordii (Maxim.) Hemsl. is a traditional medicinal herb belonging to the Asclepiadoideae subfamily, whose dried roots have been used as traditional medicine in Asia. The complete chloroplast genome of C. wilfordii was generated by de novo assembly using the small amount of whole genome sequencing data. The chloroplast genome of C. wilfordii was 161 241 bp long, composed of large single copy region (91 995 bp), small single copy region (19 930 bp) and a pair of inverted repeat regions (24 658 bp). The overall GC contents of the chloroplast genome was 37.8%. A total of 114 genes were annotated, which included 80 protein-coding genes, 30 tRNA genes and 4 rRNA genes. Phylogenetic analysis with the reported chloroplast genomes revealed that C. wilfordii is most closely related to Asclepias nivea (Caribbean milkweed) and Asclepias syriaca (common milkweed) within the Asclepiadoideae subfamily.

  2. EFFECT OF AUXIN AND CYTOKININ ON VINCRISTINE PRODUCTION BY CALLUS CULTURES OF CATHARANTHUS ROSEUS L. (APOCYNACEAE

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    Chinnamadasamy Kalidass

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Callus cultures of Catharanthus roseus L. were established to verify whether they produce vincristine as the intact plant. Different growth regulator combinations were applied to Murashige and Skoog (MS medium to influence the level of production of vincristine. The effects of various combinations (0.5 µM to 3.0 µM of auxin and cytokinin on the growth and accumulation of vincristine were investigated. MS medium supplemented with 2,4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D 1.0 µM and 6-furfurylaminopurine (Kinetin 1.0 µM was used to support the growth of callus cultures and the maximum amount of dry biomass (598.04 mg was produced after seven weeks of culture. High performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC analysis of methanol extracts from callus cultures of C. roseus revealed that the cultures produced vincristine. The concentrations of the growth regulators alpha-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA and kinetin played a critical role in the production of vincristine.

  3. EFFECT OF AUXIN AND CYTOKININ ON VINCRISTINE PRODUCTION BY CALLUS CULTURES OF CATHARANTHUS ROSEUS L. (APOCYNACEAE)

    OpenAIRE

    Chinnamadasamy Kalidass; Veerabahu Ramasamy Mohan; Arjunan Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Callus cultures of Catharanthus roseus L. were established to verify whether they produce vincristine as the intact plant. Different growth regulator combinations were applied to Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium to influence the level of production of vincristine. The effects of various combinations (0.5 µM to 3.0 µM) of auxin and cytokinin on the growth and accumulation of vincristine were investigated. MS medium supplemented with 2,4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) 1.0 µM and 6-furfur...

  4. Does polyembryony confer a competitive advantage to the invasive perennial vine Vincetoxicum rossicum (Apocynaceae)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Megan L; Barney, Jacob N; Averill, Kristine M; Mohler, Charles L; Ditommaso, Antonio

    2010-02-01

    Determining which traits may allow some introduced plant species to become invasive in their new environment continues to be a key question in invasion biology. Vincetoxicum rossicum is an invasive, perennial vine colonizing natural and seminatural habitats primarily in the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada. More than half its seeds exhibit polyembryony, a relatively uncommon condition in which a single seed produces multiple seedlings. For evaluating the potential consequences of polyembryony on invasiveness, V. rossicum plants derived from seeds of three embryonic classes-singlets, doublets, and triplets (one, two, and three seedlings per seed, respectively)-were paired in all combinations intraspecifically and with the co-occurring native herbs Solidago canadensis and Asclepias syriaca in a greenhouse study. Vincetoxicum rossicum biomass was 25-55% greater and follicle production 55-100% greater under intraspecific competition compared with interspecific competition. However, within a competitive environment, follicle production varied little. Regardless of competitive environment, V. rossicum originating from seeds with a greater number of embryos typically performed no better than plants arising from seed with fewer embryos (singlets = doublets = triplets)-except intraspecifically where doublets outperformed singlets, and with S. canadensis where triplets outperformed singlets. Our findings suggest that overall performance and fitness of V. rossicum is higher in monocultures than in mixed stands and that its ability to invade new habitats may not be attributable to the production of polyembryonic seeds.

  5. Antibacterial activities of the extracts and conessine from Holarrhena floribunda G. Don. (Apocynaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogne, Kamga Patrice; Penlap, Beng Véronique; Lontsi, David; Etoa, François-Xavier

    2007-02-16

    The methanolic extract and conessine isolated from the stem bark of Holarrhena floribunda (Hf) were tested for their antibacterial activities on Bacillus: Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus stearothermophilus using the disc diffusion method. Phytochemical analysis of the crude extract and fractions was also conducted. The inhibition parameters of the crude methanol extract and the total alkaloid fraction were determined using the macrodilution method. The results showed that the crude extract, the total alkaloid fraction and conessine exhibited a significant antibacterial effect against all the strains studied. The antibacterial effect of conessine is almost similar to that of chloramphenicol used as reference. The ratio of the minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) over the minimal inhibitive concentration (MIC) indicates the bactericidal effect of the plant. These results support common use of stem bark of Hf and conessine isolated from Hf in the treatment of some infectious diseases.

  6. THERAPEUTIC POTENTIALS OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF LEAVES OF HOLARRHENA FLORIBUNDA (G. DON) DUR. AND SCHINZ (APOCYNACEAE)

    OpenAIRE

    Hoekou, Yao Patrick; Tchacondo, Tchadjobo; Karou, Simplice Damintoti; Yerbanga, Rakiswende Serge; Achoribo, Elom; Da, Ollo; Atakpama, Wouyo; Batawila, Komlan

    2017-01-01

    Background: Holarrhena floribunda is a plant of wide usage in the Togolese folk medicine. A previous ethnobotanical survey on the latex plants of the Maritime region of the country revealed that this plant was included in several recipes curing malaria and microbial infections. Therefore, this study aimed to seek for the effectiveness of the ethanolic extract of the plant in the treatment of these diseases. Methods: The antimicrobial test was performed using the agar well-diffusion and the NC...

  7. Antibacterial Activities of the Extracts and Conessine from Holarrhena Floribunda G. DON. (Apocynaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Patrice, Bogne Kamga; Véronique, Penlap Beng; David, Lontsi; François-Xavier, Etoa

    2007-01-01

    The methanolic extract and conessine isolated from the stem bark of Holarrhena floribunda (Hf) were tested for their antibacterial activities on Bacillus: Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus stearothermophilus using the disc diffusion method. Phytochemical analysis of the crude extract and fractions was also conducted. The inhibition parameters of the crude methanol extract and the total alkaloid fraction were determined using the macrodilution method. The res...

  8. Environ: E00662 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00662 Chaenomeles speciosa fruit Crude drug Chaenomeles speciosa [TAX:106546] Same as: D09192 Rosacea...e (rose family) Chaenomeles speciosa fruit (x-section, dried) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: rosids Rosace

  9. Characterization of the effects of macronutrient deficiencies in mangabeira seedlings Caracterização dos efeitos de deficiências de macronutrientes em mudas de mangabeira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layara Alexandre Bessa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the mineral nutrition requirements of mangabeira (Hancornia speciosa Gomes is relatively scarce and rudimentary because there is a lack of consistent data concerning its nutritional demands at different developmental stages. The aim of this research was to characterize the visual symptoms of macronutrient deficiencies and to evaluate the effects of these deficiencies on the growth, the production of dry matter, and the leaf content of mangabeira. To achieve this goal, a greenhouse experiment was conducted at the Goiano Federal Institute (Instituto Federal Goiano in Rio Verde - GO, from January to June 2011 in which mangabeira plants were arranged in a random block design and grown in nutrient solutions. This experiment was replicated four times. The plants were treated with either a complete nutrient solution or a nutrient solution from which the individual macronutrient of interest (nitrogen (N, phosphorous (P, potassium (K, magnesium (Mg, calcium (Ca, or sulfur (S had been omitted. The omission of a macronutrient from the nutrient solution resulted in morphological alterations that were characteristic symptoms of the particular nutritional deficiency and caused decreases in growth and dry matter mass production. The accumulation of macronutrients displayed the following order in mangabeira leaves: N>K>Ca>P>S>Mg.Os conhecimentos de nutrição mineral da mangabeira (Hancornia speciosa Gomes são relativamente escassos e incipientes, faltando dados consistentes sobre sua demanda nutricional desde a fase de viveiro até a fase de produção. Com o objetivo de caracterizar os sintomas visuais de carências de macronutrientes, avaliar os efeitos da deficiência no crescimento, produção de massa da matéria seca e conteúdo foliar de mangabeira, foi conduzido um experimento em casa de vegetação no IF Goiano em Rio Verde - GO, nos períodos de janeiro a junho de 2011, onde plantas de mangaba foram cultivadas em solução nutritiva, no

  10. Efeito da sacarose e do sorbitol na conservação in vitro de segmentos nodais de mangabeira Effect of sucrose and sorbitol in the in vitro conservation of mangaba tree nodal segments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micaele da Costa Santos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A mangabeira (Hancornia speciosa Gomes é uma espécie cujas regiões de ocorrência natural vêm sofrendo grande pressão antrópica, a qual está provocando erosão genética em muitas populações nativas, principalmente da região Nordeste. Em virtude da existência de poucas coleções de mangabeira conservadas ex situ, evidencia-se a importância do desenvolvimento de um método alternativo e complementar para a conservação de germoplasma dessa espécie. Este trabalho teve como objetivo o aprimoramento técnico-científico da conservação in vitro por crescimento lento de mangabeira. Para avaliar o efeito da sacarose e sorbitol segmentos nodais foram inoculados em tubos de ensaio com 25 mL de meio de cultura MS suplementado com 1 mg L-1 de ácido indolacético e 1 mg L-1 de benzilaminopurina e diferentes concentrações de sorbitol (10; 20 e 40 g L-1, combinadas com 0 e 15 g L-1 de sacarose. Na etapa de recuperação do crescimento, explantes conservados in vitro por 120 dias no experimento anterior foram inoculados em meio de cultura MS sendo a viabilidade das culturas avaliadas aos 30 e 60 dias. A conservação in vitro de segmentos nodais de mangabeira na ausência de sacarose e na presença de 10 ou 20 g L-1 de sorbitol é viável sob condições de crescimento lento por 120 dias. Explantes mantidos na ausência de sacarose ou na presença de 10 g L-1 de sorbitol na fase de conservação apresentam maior viabilidade na retomada do crescimento até os 60 dias de cultivo.The mangaba tree (Hancornia speciosa Gomes is a specie whose natural occurrence has suffered great human pressure and this is causing genetic erosion in many populations like in the Northeast Brazil. The use of techniques of plant tissue culture for conservation of plant genetic resources presents several advantages over germplasm conservation in the field decreasing cost for the maintenance of collections and decreasing sanitary risk and weather problems. The

  11. Mycorrhizal dependency of mangaba tree under increasing phosphorus levels Dependência micorrízica de mangabeira em doses crescentes de fósforo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Alves Cardoso Filho

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the mycorrhizal dependency of mangaba tree (Hancornia speciosa plantlets, under increasing levels of phosphorus fertilization. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 4×5 factorial arrangement with three mycorrhizal fungi inocula - Gigaspora margarita, Glomus etunicatum, or a pool of native mycorrhizal fungi (Acaulospora longula, Glomus clarum, Gigaspora albida, Paraglomus sp. -, and a nonmycorrhizal control, in combination with five levels of phosphorus applied to the substrate: 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100 mg kg-1. After 180 days of growth, plantlets with inoculation of native mycorrhizal pool produced more shoot and root dry biomass and had higher shoot phosphorus content and accumulation. The noninoculated control showed the lowest values, independently of the phosphorus level. The highest relative mycorrhizal dependency occurred with the inoculation of native mycorrhizal fungi. Plants with mycorrhizal fungi did not respond to phosphorus addition above 50 mg kg-1. Mangaba tree is highly dependent on mycorrhiza, but the degree of dependency varies according to phosphorus levels and fungal inocula. In general, mangaba tree is more responsive to mycorrhizal fungi inoculation than to phosphorus addition.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a dependência micorrízica de mudas de mangaba (Hancornia speciosa, em doses crescentes de fósforo. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, em arranjo fatorial 4´5 com três inóculos de fungos micorrízicos - Gigaspora margarita, Glomus etunicatum, ou uma mistura de espécies de fungos micorrízicos nativos (Acaulospora longula, Glomus clarum, Gigaspora albida e Paraglomus sp. -, e um controle não micorrízico, combinados a cinco doses de fósforo no substrato: 0, 25, 50, 75 e 100 mg kg-1. Após 180 dias, as mudas com inoculação dos fungos micorrízicos nativos produziram mais biomassa seca de parte aérea e raízes e apresentaram

  12. Elemental contents in exotic Brazilian tropical fruits evaluated by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence

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    Oliveira Alessandra Lopes de

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The exotic flavor of Brazilian tropical fruits led to increased consumption. Consumers awareness regarding balanced diets, makes necessary determining nutritional composition - vitamins and minerals of the fruits ordinarily consumed. This study contributed to the evaluation of macro (K, Ca and microelements (Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Br in eight exotic Brazilian tropical fruits: "abiu" (Lucuma caimito Ruiz & Pav., "jenipapo" (Genipa americana L., "jambo rosa" (rose apple, Eugenia Jambos L., "jambo vermelho" (Syzygium malaccence L., Merr & Perry, "macaúba" (Acrocomia aculeata Jacq. Lood. Ex Mart., "mangaba" (Hancornia speciosa, "pitanga" (Brazilian Cherry, Eugenia uniflora L., and tamarind (Tamarindus indica L., using the Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF technique. "jambo vermelho" and "macaúba" presented the highest values of K concentrations, 1,558 and 1,725 mg 100 g-1, respectively. On the other hand, Ca concentrations were highest in "macaúba" (680 mg 100 g-1 and "jenipapo" (341 mg 100 g-1. The microelemental concentrations in these eight fruits ranged from: 0.9 to 2.0 mg 100 g-1 for Mn, 3.9 to 11.4 mg 100 g-1 for Fe, 0.5 to 1.0 mg 100 g-1 for Cu, 0.6 to 1.5 mg 100 g-1 for, Zn and 0.3 to 1.3 mg 100 g-1 for Br. The amounts of macro and microelements in the eight fruits analyzed were compared to other tropical fruits and it was found that some of them could be classified as rich sources for these macro and microelements.

  13. OBTENÇÃO DE AUXILIAR DE FLOCULAÇÃO A PARTIR DE RESÍDUOS DE SEMENTES DE FRUTAS VISANDO O TRATAMENTO DE ÁGUA

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    Erivaldo Reis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou avaliar o potencial de utilização de resíduos de sementes de frutas como auxiliar de floculação no tratamento de água. Os biomateriais utilizados foram sementes de mangaba (Hancornia speciosa, maracujá (Passiflora edulis, graviola (Annona muricata e goiaba (Psidium guajava. As sementes foram lavadas e secas em mufla a 170°C por 1 h e 30 min, sendo em seguida trituradas. As sementes foram usadas sem e com modificação química com ácido cítrico,hidróxido de amônio e peróxido de hidrogênio. Os testes em batelada de remoção de cor, turbidez e ferro foram realizados usando Jar Test. No tratamento utilizou-se água sintética preparada com argila com granulometria 100 m mesh. Os testes em batelada foram desenvolvidos utilizando velocidade de mistura rápida de 150 rpm com duração de 1 min, velocidade de mistura lenta de 30 rpm com duração de 15 mim, 1,5 mL de coagulante sulfato férrico, 3 gotas de permanganato de potássio e auxiliar de floculação (pó de semente. Todos os testes foram realizados no pH fixado em 6,0. A determinação de turbidez foi feita utilizando o método nefelométrico. A análise de ferro e cor foi realizada por espectrofotometria. A remoção média de íons para Fe foi de 53% utilizando os biomateriais mangaba e graviola. Para turbidez e cor aparente obteve um percentual de remoção em torno de 90% para todos os biomateriais.

  14. A systematic review of medicinal plants used for weight loss in Brazil: Is there potential for obesity treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cercato, Luana M; White, Pollyanna A S; Nampo, Fernando K; Santos, Márcio R V; Camargo, Enilton A

    2015-12-24

    Obesity is a pandemic disease and its prevalence is still increasing. Moreover, it has important costs to public health. In Brazil, many plants are used for weight loss by overweight or obese people, but there is a lack of scientific basis for this practice. Many ethnobotanical studies aiming to characterize this usage have been published, but they are still limited by the region considered and the diversity of the popular knowledge. The present study was undertaken to systematically review the ethnobotanical surveys regarding the species utilized to reduce body weight in overweight or obese people in Brazil. Ethnobotanical surveys related to this usage and performed in Brazilian regions were systematically found in MEDLINE, LILACS and Scopus. Thirty-three studies were included in this review. Fifty species were popularly utilized to lose weight. The most cited species were Baccharis trimera (Less.) DC, Annona muricata L. and Hancornia speciosa Gomes. Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze and Hibiscus sabdariffa L. were also cited and are supported by either animal or human investigations that indicate some beneficial activity against obesity. However, for the majority of species cited in the included studies, there is no scientific basis that assures the biological effects of this usage. Many studies have demonstrated important effects of these plants on glycemia, serum lipid levels or body weight control in non-obese conditions, which is not sufficient to recommend the use of these plants to reduce body weight in overweight or obese people. Although many plants are popularly used to reduce weight in overweight or obese people in Brazil, there is little scientific evidence corroborating its usage. Based on the ethnobotanical data presented, this review indicates the plants that should be considered for scientifically controlled studies devoted to investigating their effects on obesity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. OPÇÕES DE FRUTÍFERAS DO CERRADO PARA PAISAGISMO URBANO EM BAIRROS DA PERIFERIA DE GOIÂNIA-GO

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    RAFAEL CALIXTO RIBEIRO DE ARAÚJO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to provide options of cerrado fruitful tree for neighborhoods to the outskirts of Goiânia, Brazil building up the level of satisfaction of the residents in relation to current local urban landscaping. The choice has been to work with fruit due to the large number of these species in the cerrado needing to preserve the existing genetic variability and protect the local flora. Data was collected through 100 questionnaires, from simple random sampling. It was observed that 53% of respondents were classified as partially satisfied with the landscaping where live, 27% dissatisfied, 10% satisfied, 7% and 3% very satisfied totally dissatisfied. Most people never planted fruit tree, however, 87% would like fruit were planted, indicating that the absence or disability of urban arborization is not a result of predation or popular unrest. It was found that 87%do not have allergies to plants, 8% said they do not know and 5% have allergies, and interesting to give preference to trees with restricted flowering period of a few months. It was found that 93% prefer shaded street, thus, it is suggested the use of species with bulky crown and removed from public lighting. It was observed that 68% did not know or had access to proper pruning procedure to be adopted. The species most appropriate are Centrolobium tomentosum, Cassia ferruginea, Pouteria ramiflora, Dimorphandra mollis, Pseudobombax longiflorum, Inga Alba, Curatella American, Hancornia sXXXpeciosa, Alibertia edulis, Erythrina speciosa, Kielmeyera coriácea, Caryocar brasiliense, Minosa laticífera and Bowdichia vigilioides.

  16. 21 CFR 172.615 - Chewing gum base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... Venezuelan chicle Manilkara williamsii Standley and related spp. Apocynaceae: Jelutong Dyera costulata Hook....; also Lacmellea standleyi (Woodson), Monachino (Apocynaceae). Niger gutta Ficus platyphylla Del. Tunu...

  17. OCCURRENCE OF DIABROTICA SPECIOSA (COLEOPTERA: CHRYSOMELIDAE) IN THE SUNFLOWER'S CULTURE IN THE MUNICIPAL DISTRICT OF IPANGUACU/RN

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Neri, Danila Kelly Pereira; Morais, Diego Dantas; Sena Junior, Humberto de Souza

    2010-01-01

    The plant of the sunflower stands out among the oleoginosas for your high oil tenor in the seeds and for your desirable agronomic characteristics, so much that has been used at the area Center-west...

  18. Rapid classification of Chinese quince (Chaenomeles speciosa Nakai) fruit provenance by near-infrared spectroscopy and multivariate calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Wenhao; Li, Yanjie; Diao, Songfeng; Jiang, Jingmin; Dong, Ruxiang

    2017-01-01

    The quality of Chinese quince fruit is a significant factor for medicinal materials, influencing the quality of the medicine. However, it is difficult to distinguish different types of Chinese quince fruit. The main objective of this work was to use near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, which is a rapid and non-destructive analysis method, to classify the varieties of Chinese quince fruits. Raw spectra in the range of 1000 to 2500 nm were combined with linear discriminant analysis (LDA), quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA), and support vector machines (SVMs) for classification. The first three principal component analysis (PCA) scores were used as input variables to build LDA, QDA, and SVM discriminant models. The results indicate that all three of these methods are effective for distinguishing the different types of Chinese quince fruit. The classification accuracies for LDA, QDA, and SVM are 94, 96, and 98 %, respectively. QDA led to high-level classification accuracy of Chinese quince fruit.

  19. The neuromuscular blockade produced by pure alkaloid, mitragynine and methanol extract of kratom leaves (Mitragyna speciosa Korth.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittrakarn, Somsmorn; Keawpradub, Niwat; Sawangjaroen, Kitja; Kansenalak, Supaporn; Janchawee, Benjamas

    2010-06-16

    The effects of pure alkaloid, mitragynine and a methanolic extract of kratom leaves were investigated on neuromuscular junction and compound nerve action potential. Wistar rats were killed by cervical dislocation and decapitated. The phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragms, hemidiaphragms and sciatic nerve were isolated. Kratom methanolic extract present at 0.1-1 mg/mL and mitragynine (0.0156 mg/mL) decreased the muscle twitch on the isolated phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm and hemidiaphragm preparation. Muscle relaxation caused by kratom extract (1 mg/mL) was greater than the effect of mitragynine. Pancuronium and succinylcholine potentiated the effect of kratom extract. It also had a direct relaxation effect on the hemidiaphragm muscle. The muscle relaxation caused by kratom extract was not antagonized by neostigmine, tetraethylammonium and calcium chloride. High concentrations of kratom extract (10-40 mg/mL) and mitragynine (2 mg/mL) blocked the nerve conduction, amplitude and duration of compound nerve action potential. The mechanism of action of kratom extract might not act as a competitive antagonist of acetylcholine yet its dominant effect was at the neuromuscular junction and not at the skeletal muscle or somatic nerve. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Potensi Ekstrak Etanol Daun Petai (Parkia speciosa Hassk. Terhadap Kadar Superoksida Dismutase (SOD pada Plasma Tikus yang Mengalami Stres Oksidatif

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    Ruth Haryanti Butarbutar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoke is free radicals superoxide resources that contains, hydrogen peroxide, hidrosil and peroksil. Superoxide dismutase (SOD is an enzymatic antioxidant that protect cells from oxidative stress by catalize superoxide dismutase (O2* into O2 and H2O2. The aimed of this study was to determine the potential of ethanolic extract of petai leaves against plasma SOD enzyme activity in animals that was exposed by cigarette smoke. The extract was made by maseration method using ethanol 96%. Thirty-six rats Sprague Dawley strain were divided into six groups: normal group was not given treatment, negative group received 10% CMC-Na, positive control group received vitamin E, and treatment group received ethanolic extract of petai leaves 50; 100; 250 mg/kgBW of mice. All rats were treated for 14 days. SOD activity was measured by UV-Visible spectrophotometer at a wavelength of 505 nm. Statistical analysis using One Way ANOVA. The mean value of SOD activity for normal, negative control, positive control and the group receiving the ethanolic extract of petai leaves dose of 50; 100; 250 mg/kg in a row is 37.979 ± 3708; 59.932 ± 3085; 48.552 ± 1234; 57.239 ± 2102; 50.774 ± 1632; 59.124 ± 4849. The result showed ethanolic extract of petai leaves affected on the activity of SOD was dose of 100 mg/kg.

  1. Atividade biológica e alcalóides indólicos do gênero Aspidosperma (Apocynaceae: uma revisão Biological activity and indole alkaloids of the genus Aspidosperma (Apocynaceae: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.B. Oliveira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Embora sejam conhecidas principalmente como fonte de madeira nobre para aplicação na construção de móveis, as espécies do gênero Aspidosperma apresentam muitos estudos na área da fitoquímica e poucos estudos na área da farmacologia. As espécies do gênero Aspidosperma são largamente aplicadas por populares como potenciais agentes antimaláricos, no tratamento da leishmaniose, de inflamações do útero e ovário, como anticonceptiva, em diabetes e em problemas estomacais, contra câncer, febre e reumatismo. Do ponto de vista químico, a grande maioria das espécies constituintes do gênero já foi submetida a algum estudo de isolamento e identificação dos alcalóides indólicos presentes nas mais diversas partes das plantas. Já do ponto de vista farmacológico poucos testes foram realizados até então para justificar a grande aplicação das mesmas por populares e a importância dos alcalóides indólicos presentes nas representantes do gênero. Visando contribuir para um maior conhecimento sobre a importância da presença dos alcalóides indólicos no gênero Aspidosperma e sua relação com as atividades farmacológicas atribuídas ou testadas, é que apresentamos uma revisão das principais publicações envolvendo estudos químicos e biológicos do gênero Aspidosperma.Although mainly known as source of noble wood for furniture construction, species of the genus Aspidosperma have been extensively studied in Phytochemistry but scarcely investigated in Pharmacology. Aspidosperma species have been commonly used in folk medicine as potential antimalarial agents; in the treatment of leishmaniasis, and uterus and ovary inflammations; as contraceptive; in diabetes and stomach disorders; and against cancer, fever and rheumatism. From a chemical point of view, the great majority of Aspidosperma species have already been subjected to isolation and identification of indole alkaloids present in their several parts. From a pharmacological point of view, few tests have been carried out so far to justify the great applicability of these species in folk medicine besides the importance of the indole alkaloids present in the genus representatives. Aimed at improving the knowledge on the importance of indole alkaloids in the genus Aspidosperma and their relationship with attributed or tested pharmacological activities, we present a review of the main reports involving chemical and biological studies on the genus Aspidosperma.

  2. Pregnanes and other constituents of the roots of Macrosiphonia petraea (A. St.-Hil.) Kuntze (Apocynaceae); Pregnanos e outros constituintes das raizes de Macrosiphonia petraea (A. St.-Hil.) Kuntze (Apocynaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assis Junior, Luiz Roberto de; Garcez, Fernanda Rodrigues; Garcez, Walmir Silva, E-mail: walmir.garcez@ufms.br [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologia; Guterres, Zaira da Rosa [Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Mundo Novo, MS (Brazil)

    2013-09-01

    Macrosiphonia petraea (A. St.-Hil.) Kuntze is a plant popularly known as 'velame'. Its root infusion is used in the folk medicine of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Phytochemical investigation of the roots of this species led to the identification of 17 compounds belonging to four different classes: two pregnanes, 12{beta}-hydroxypregna-4,6,16-triene-3,20-dione, neridienone A, and 12{beta}-hydroxypregna-4,6-diene-3,20-dione, cybisterol, one hydroxylated fatty acid, 5-hydroxy-octadeca-6(E)-8(Z)-dienoic acid, two lignoids, pinoresinol and 8{alpha}-hydroxypinoresinol, ten pentacyclic triterpenoids, and two steroids. (author)

  3. Ocorrência de Calotropis procera (Ait. R. Br. (Apocynaceae como espécie invasora de restinga Occurrence of Calotropis procera (Ait. R. Br. (Apocynaceae as an invasive species in restinga vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisangela de Sousa Rangel

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Apesar de possuírem grande importância ao nível de conservação ambiental, existe no Brasil uma acentuada escassez de trabalhos relacionados às invasões biológicas em ambientes terrestres. As restingas, sobretudo, são ambientes extremamente susceptíveis a este tipo de ameaça. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a ocorrência e a estrutura populacional da espécie exótica Calotropis procera na Restinga do Xexé, Farol de São Thomé, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ. Uma varredura que abrangeu uma área de 126 ha (1400m x 900m foi realizada, sendo amostrado um total de 475 indivíduos, ou seja, uma média de 3,8 indivíduos por hectare. Para a avaliação da distribuição dos indivíduos num gradiente interior-praia, foram alocados três transectos (300m x 10m nesta direção. A amostragem nos transectos indicou a ocorrência de 28 indivíduos com altura > 50 cm e nenhum com altura Although invasive species are one of the main reasons for the loss of biodiversity, in Brazil there is little information about biological invasions in terrestrial ecosystems. Sandy coastal plain forests (restinga and shrubby vegetation are places extremely susceptible to this kind of threat. The goal of this work was to evaluate the occurrence of the exotic species Calotropis procera in the Restinga do Xexé, Farol de São Tomé, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ, Brazil. A survey covering an area of 126 ha (1400 m x 900 m was carried out, where a total of 475 individuals were sampled (mean of 3.8 indiv.ha-1. To assess the spatial distribution and population structure of this species, three transects (300 m x 10 m were created, which were perpendicular to the vegetation gradient from interior to shoreline, and all individuals of C. procera were sampled. A total of 28 individuals > 50 cm tall were sampled, and no individuals < 50 cm tall were found in the three transects. The plants were restricted to areas with vestiges of human disturbance. The absence of seedling samples within the transects is probably related to the fast growth of this species after germination. The results showed that C. procera has a great potential of invading disturbed areas in restinga vegetation. A plan to control and eradicate this species should be considered by the Brazilian environmental agency.

  4. Iboga alkaloids from Peschiera affinis (Apocynaceae) - unequivocal {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C chemical shift assignments: antioxidant activity; Alcaloides iboga de Peschiera affinis (Apocynaceae) - atribuicao inequivoca dos deslocamentos quimicos dos atomos de hidrogenio e carbono: atividade antioxidante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Allana Kellen L.; Magalhaes, Ticiane S.; Monte, Francisco Jose Q.; Mattos, Marcos Carlos de; Oliveira, Maria Conceicao F. de; Almeida, Maria Mozarina B.; Lemos, Telma L.G.; Braz-Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica], e-mail: tlemos@dqoi.ufc.br

    2009-07-01

    Six known alkaloids iboga type and the triterpene {alpha}- and {beta}-amyrin acetate were isolated from the roots and stems of Peschiera affinis. Their structures were characterized on the basis of spectral data mainly NMR and mass spectra. 1D and 2D NMR spectra were also used to unequivocal {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C chemical shift assignments of alkaloids. The ethanolic extract of roots, alkaloidic and no-alkaloidic fractions and iso-voacristine hydroxyindolenine and voacangine were evaluated for their antioxidative properties using an autographic assay based on {beta}-carotene bleaching on TLC plates, and also spectrophotometric detection by reduction of the stable DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free radical. (author)

  5. Tolerância de Himatanthus sucuuba Wood. (Apocynaceae ao alagamento na Amazônia Central Tolerance of Himatanthus sucuuba Wood. (Apocynaceae to the flooding regime in the Central Amazonian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Ferreira

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Himatanthus sucuuba é uma espécie arbórea de reputado valor fitoterápico, que coloniza regiões de várzea e de terra firme na Amazônia Central. Objetivou-se verificar durante quatro meses, em casa de vegetação, a germinação e o desenvolvimento inicial de plântulas da espécie, oriundas de sementes dos dois diferentes ecossistemas. Não houve diferença significativa em relação ao peso de matéria seca de sementes da várzea e da terra firme. Entretanto, a taxa de germinação da espécie variou de acordo com o substrato e o local de procedência das sementes. No substrato areia+serragem (não-alagado a germinação da espécie foi alta, independente do ambiente (várzea 94% e terra firme 91%. No substrato constituído apenas por água (alagado, as sementes provenientes da várzea tiveram a maior taxa de germinação (96% e de formação de plântulas (84%, quando relacionadas às da terra firme, que apresentaram taxa de germinação de 64%, e nenhuma das sementes germinadas formou plântulas. Neste tratamento foi verificado o apodrecimento da radícula poucos dias após sua emissão, indicando que as sementes oriundas da várzea apresentam características adaptativas ao ambiente inundado em relação às da mesma espécie oriundas da terra firme.Himatanthus sucuuba is a tree species with known phytotherapic value which colonizes both white-water floodplains (várzea and upland forests (terra firme in Central Amazonian. The objective of this study was to compare germination and initial seedling development from seeds collected in both the ecosystems. There was no significant difference between dry seed mass, but in a four month period in a glasshouse in Manaus, Brazil, germination rate differed according to the substrate and origin of the seeds. In the substrate sand + sawdust (non-flooded germination rate was high, independent of seed origin (várzea 94% and terra firme 91%. In the substrate constituted only by water (flooded, the seeds originating from várzea had a higher germination rate (96% and seedling formation (84% than those originating from terra firme which had a germination rate of 64% and none of the seeds formed seedlings. In this treatment, the radicles rot few days after their emission, indicating that the seeds originating from várzea present adaptive characteristics to the floodplain environment which are not present in seeds from terra firme.

  6. Intragenomic polymorphisms among high-copy loci: a genus-wide study of nuclear ribosomal DNA in Asclepias (Apocynaceae

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    Kevin Weitemier

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite knowledge that concerted evolution of high-copy loci is often imperfect, studies that investigate the extent of intragenomic polymorphisms and comparisons across a large number of species are rarely made. We present a bioinformatic pipeline for characterizing polymorphisms within an individual among copies of a high-copy locus. Results are presented for nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA across the milkweed genus, Asclepias. The 18S-26S portion of the nrDNA cistron of Asclepias syriaca served as a reference for assembly of the region from 124 samples representing 90 species of Asclepias. Reads were mapped back to each individual’s consensus and at each position reads differing from the consensus were tallied using a custom perl script. Low frequency polymorphisms existed in all individuals (mean = 5.8%. Most nrDNA positions (91% were polymorphic in at least one individual, with polymorphic sites being less frequent in subunit regions and loops. Highly polymorphic sites existed in each individual, with highest abundance in the “noncoding” ITS regions. Phylogenetic signal was present in the distribution of intragenomic polymorphisms across the genus. Intragenomic polymorphisms in nrDNA are common in Asclepias, being found at higher frequency than any other study to date. The high and variable frequency of polymorphisms across species highlights concerns that phylogenetic applications of nrDNA may be error-prone. The new analytical approach provided here is applicable to other taxa and other high-copy regions characterized by low coverage genome sequencing (genome skimming.

  7. Additional records of the highly threatened Ceropegia mahabalei Hemadri & Ansari (Asclepiadoideae: Apocynaceae from Nashik District, Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui Pethe

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Ceropegia mahabalei Hemadri & Ansari is a herbaceous plant known from three locations in Pune, Satara and Thane District of Maharashtra.  This communication records a new location of this species from Nashik District which is the northeastern most record for this species.  The small existing population in this new location is threatened by cattle grazing, and trampling by tourists. 

  8. Anthelmintic activity of Saba senegalensis (A.DC. Pichon (Apocynaceae extract against adult worms and eggs of Haemonchus contortus

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    Mohamed Bonewendé Belemlilga

    2016-11-01

    Conclusions: These results indicate that the aqueous extract of S. senegalensis possesses an anthelmintic property and may justify its use in traditional medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal parasites.

  9. Estudios en las Apocynaceae neotropicales XXXII: tres nuevas especies de Prestonia (Apocynoideae, Echiteae para Sudamérica

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    Morales, J. Francisco

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of Prestonia subgenus Prestonia, P. cogolloi, P. premontana and P. racemosa, from Colombia, Venezuela and Peru, respectively, are described and illustrated, and their relationships with related taxa discussed, including distribution, phenology, additional specimens examined and a key of the group.Se describen e ilustran tres nuevas especies de Prestonia subgénero Prestonia, P. cogolloi, P. premontana y P. racemosa, de Colombia, Venezuela y Perú respectivamente, comentándose sus relaciones con especies afines. Se incluye una clave del grupo, datos de distribución, fenología y especímenes adicionales examinados.

  10. Estudios en las Apocynaceae neotropicales IX: Mandevilla antioquiana, sp. nov. y lectotipificación de Echites comosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales, J. Francisco

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Mandevilla antioquiana, a new species from the Antioquia Department, Colombia, is described and illustrated, and its taxonomic relationships are discussed. A lectotype is designated for Echites comosa Kuntze.Se describe e ilustra Mandevilla antioquiana, una nueva especie endémica del Departamento de Antioquia, Colombia, y se discuten sus relaciones con especies afines. También se designa un lectótipo para Echites comosa Kuntze.

  11. Character-based DNA barcoding for authentication and conservation of IUCN Red listed threatened species of genus Decalepis (Apocynaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Priyanka; Kumar, Amit; Sivaraman, Gokul; Shukla, Ashutosh K; Kaliamoorthy, Ravikumar; Slater, Adrian; Velusamy, Sundaresan

    2017-11-02

    The steno-endemic species of genus Decalepis are highly threatened by destructive wild harvesting. The medicinally important fleshy tuberous roots of Decalepis hamiltonii are traded as substitute, to meet the international market demand of Hemidesmus indicus. In addition, the tuberous roots of all three species of Decalepis possess similar exudates and texture, which challenges the ability of conventional techniques alone to perform accurate species authentication. This study was undertaken to generate DNA barcodes that could be utilized in monitoring and curtailing the illegal trade of these endangered species. The DNA barcode reference library was developed in BOLD database platform for candidate barcodes rbcL, matK, psbA-trnH, ITS and ITS2. The average intra-specific variations (0-0.27%) were less than the distance to nearest neighbour (0.4-11.67%) with matK and ITS. Anchoring the coding region rbcL in multigene tiered approach, the combination rbcL + matK + ITS yielded 100% species resolution, using the least number of loci combinations either with PAUP or BLOG methods to support a character-based approach. Species-specific SNP position (230 bp) in the matK region that is characteristic of D. hamiltonii could be used to design specific assays, enhancing its applicability for direct use in CITES enforcement for distinguishing it from H. indicus.

  12. Germination responses of the invasive Calotropis procera (Ait. R. Br. (Apocynaceae: comparisons with seeds from two ecosystems in northeastern Brazil

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    LAURA C. LEAL

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Life history traits are considered key indicators of plant invasibility. Among them, the germination behavior of seeds is of major relevance because it is influenced by environmental factors of invaded ecosystem. Here, we investigated how seed traits and seed tolerance to environmental factors on seed germination of Calotropis procera vary depending on the invaded ecosystems in northeastern Brazil. We have tested seeds from two vegetation types – Caatinga and Restinga – to different levels of light intensity, salinity, and water stress. Previous to those experiments, seed-set and morphometric analysis were carried out for both studied populations. We have observed a higher seed-set in Caatinga. Seeds produced in this ecosystem had lower seed moisture content. Seeds from Restinga showed lower germination time when light intensity decreased. We observed a reduction in both the germinability and the synchronization index with decreasing osmotic potential and increasing salinity. Nevertheless, both populations exhibited changes in photoblastism when seeds were submitted to water and saline stress. In conclusion, C. procera seeds are tolerant to environmental factors assessed. That characteristic ensures the colonization success and wide distribution of this plant species in the studied ecosystems.

  13. Modelling of Corrosion Inhibition of Mild Steel in Sulphuric Acid by thoroughly Crushed Leaves of Voacanga Africana (Apocynaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Agha Inya Ndukwe; C. N. Anyakwo

    2017-01-01

    The inhibition of the corrosion of mild steel in 0.7M, 1.2M and 2.2M H2SO4 by thoroughly crushed fresh leaves of Voacanga Africana was studied using the weight-loss technique. The addition of the crushed leaves of Voacanga Africana at 30g per litre of 1.2M H2SO4 gave the highest average inhibition efficiency of 88.69% while the corrosion rate decreased from 2.9247mgcm -2 h -1 to 0.6313mgcm -2 h -1 . The corrosion rate was observed to increase with increase in the concentration of acid. Predic...

  14. Genetic Diversity and Divergence in Populations of the Threatened Grassland Perennial Vincetoxicum atratum (Apocynaceae-Asclepiadoideae) in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashiro, Tadashi; Yamashiro, Asuka; Inoue, Masahito; Maki, Masayuki

    2016-09-01

    We examined the genetic diversity and structure in populations of the endangered grassland herb Vincetoxicum atratum using 11 polymorphic microsatellite loci. Although the populations were small and disconnected, our molecular data indicated that the species maintains relatively high levels of genetic diversity and connectivity among populations. Population clustering analyses detected 2 to 3 clusters and most of the populations of V. atratum comprised admixture of these genetic clusters. These admixtures likely formed during the process of colonizing habitats that had been disturbed by human activities. However, STRUCTURE clustering detected low-admixtures in populations occurring in rocky maritime sites, which may not be suitable for agriculture/rangeland activities. High genetic diversity and population connectivity suggested that loss of the remaining populations by grassland reduction might be an immediate threat for this species. Small grasslands populations managed by local farmers need appropriate conservation practices. Although our results showed genetic diversity and gene flow among populations of V. atratum were high, it is possible that this resulted from the historical continuous distribution of the species. To examine this hypothesis, further periodical monitoring of the genetic diversity and the genetic differentiation for the species is needed for a conservation action of the species. © The American Genetic Association 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Germination responses of the invasive Calotropis procera (Ait.) R. Br. (Apocynaceae): comparisons with seeds from two ecosystems in Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Laura C; Meiado, Marcos V; Lopes, Ariadna V; Leal, Inara R

    2013-09-01

    Life history traits are considered key indicators of plant invasibility. Among them, the germination behavior of seeds is of major relevance because it is influenced by environmental factors of invaded ecosystem. Here, we investigated how seed traits and seed tolerance to environmental factors on seed germination of Calotropis procera vary depending on the invaded ecosystems in northeastern Brazil. We have tested seeds from two vegetation types - Caatinga and Restinga - to different levels of light intensity, salinity, and water stress. Previous to those experiments, seed-set and morphometric analysis were carried out for both studied populations. We have observed a higher seed-set in Caatinga. Seeds produced in this ecosystem had lower seed moisture content. Seeds from Restinga showed lower germination time when light intensity decreased. We observed a reduction in both the germinability and the synchronization index with decreasing osmotic potential and increasing salinity. Nevertheless, both populations exhibited changes in photoblastism when seeds were submitted to water and saline stress. In conclusion, C. procera seeds are tolerant to environmental factors assessed. That characteristic ensures the colonization success and wide distribution of this plant species in the studied ecosystems.

  16. Extracts of Euphorbia hirta Linn. (Euphorbiaceae) and Rauvolfia vomitoria Afzel (Apocynaceae) demonstrate activities against Onchocerca volvulus microfilariae in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attah, Simon K; Ayeh-Kumi, Patrick F; Sittie, Archibald A; Oppong, Isaac V; Nyarko, Alexander K

    2013-03-18

    Onchocerciasis transmitted by Onchocerca volvulus is the second major cause of blindness in the world and it impacts negatively on the socio-economic development of the communities affected. Currently, ivermectin, a microfilaricidal drug is the only drug recommended for treating this disease. There have been speculations, of late, concerning O. volvulus resistance to ivermectin. Owing to this, it has become imperative to search for new drugs. World-wide, ethnomedicines including extracts of Euphorbia hirta and Rauvolfia vomitoria are used for treating various diseases, both infectious and non-infectious. In this study extracts of the two plants were evaluated in vitro in order to determine their effect against O. volvulus microfilariae. The toxicity of the E. hirta extracts on monkey kidney cell (LLCMK2) lines was also determined. The investigations showed that extracts of both plants immobilised microfilariae at different levels in vitro and, therefore, possess antifilarial properties. It was found that all the E. hirta extracts with the exception of the hexane extracts were more effective than those of R. vomitoria. Among the extracts of E. hirta the ethyl acetate fraction was most effective, and comparable to that of dimethanesulphonate salt but higher than that of Melarsoprol (Mel B). However, the crude ethanolic extract of E. hirta was found to be the least toxic to the LLCMK2 compared to the fractionated forms. Extracts from both plants possess antifilarial properties; however, the crude extract of E. hirta was found to be least toxic to LLCMK2.

  17. Larvicidal efficacy of Catharanthus roseus Linn. (Family: Apocynaceae) leaf extract and bacterial insecticide Bacillus thuringiensis against Anopheles stephensi Liston.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Ponarulselvam, Sekar; Amerasan, Duraisamy; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou

    2013-11-01

    To explore the larvicidal activity of Catharanthus roseus (C. roseus) leaf extract and Bacillus thuringiensis (B. thuringiensis) against the malarial vector Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi), when being used alone or together. The larvicidal activity was assayed at various concentrations under the laboratory and field conditions. The LC50 and LC90 values of the C. roseus leaf extract were determined by probit analysis. The plant extract showed larvicidal effects after 24 h of exposure; however, the highest larval mortality was found in the petroleum ether extract of C. roseus against the first to fourth instars larvae with LC50=3.34, 4.48, 5.90 and 8.17 g/L, respectively; B. thuringiensis against the first to fourth instars larvae with LC50=1.72, 1.93, 2.17 and 2.42 g/L, respectively; and the combined treatment with LC50=2.18, 2.41, 2.76 and 3.22 g/L, respectively. No mortality was observed in the control. The petroleum ether extract of C. roseus extract and B. thuringiensis have potential to be used as ideal eco-friendly agents for the control of An. stephensi in vector control programs. The combined treatment with this plant crude extract and bacterial toxin has better larvicidal efficacy against An. stephensi. Copyright © 2013 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Phytochemical composition, cytotoxicity and in vitro antiplasmodial activity of fractions from Alafia barteri olive (Hook F. Icon-Apocynaceae

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    A.A. Lasisi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The ethanolic extract of Alafia barteri (Hook F. Icon was dissolved in distilled water and successively partitioned in n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. The fractions were evaluated for phytochemical composition, lethality against brine shrimp larvae and in vitro antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium falciparum strain. The obtained results revealed that the roots and leaf extracts of A. barteri exhibited broad spectrum of antiplasmodial activity (IC50 1.5 ± 0.7–6.2 ± 0.80 μg/mL. The aqueous leaf fractions displayed the most potent antiplasmodial activity with an IC50 value of 1.5 ± 0.7 μg/mL, which is comparable to reference antimalarial drug (IC50 value of 1.3 ± 0.2 μg/mL. The leaf fractions displayed higher activity than the root extracts. The highest minimum lethal concentration (105.2 ± 0.8 ppm was exhibited by the aqueous leaf extract followed closely by the root extract (120.2 ± 1.1 ppm. The leaf extracts contained higher polyphenols (45.3 ± 0.85 mgGAE/g and flavonoids (18.10 ± 0.2 mgCTE/g than the root extracts. The n-hexane and EtOAc extracts/fractions displayed lower activity on brine shrimp larvae.

  19. The effect of management systems and ecosystem types on bark regeneration in Himatanthus drasticus (Apocynaceae): recommendations for sustainable harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldauf, Cristina; Maës dos Santos, Flavio Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Bark and exudates are widely commercialized non-timber forest products. However, the ecological impacts of the harvesting of these products have seldom been studied. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship of tree resilience to harvesting intensity in Himatanthus drasticus, a tree that is highly exploited in the Brazilian savanna (Cerrado) for its medicinal latex. Although the traded product is the latex, the traditional harvesting systems involve the removal of the bark of the trees to allow exploitation. A 3-year experiment was conducted in two different Cerrado ecosystems (open savanna and savanna woodland). Trees were debarked at four debarking intensities to simulate the effects of traditional management systems. Measurements of bark growth were taken every 6 months, and quantitative and qualitative indexes of bark regeneration were obtained. The mortality of the debarked trees was low and could not be related to the intensity of harvesting. No signs of attack by fungi or insects were recorded. Compared with other species exploited for bark, H. drasticus is very resilient to harvesting; however, bark regeneration is relatively slow. In both analyzed ecosystems, the regeneration indexes showed higher values in the controls than in the treatments, indicating that 3 years is not sufficient for total recovery of the rhytidome. Bark regeneration occurred primarily by sheet growth and was more rapid in open savanna than in savanna woodland. No differences in the rate of bark recovery were found among management treatments. Based on the results, sustainable harvesting guidelines are suggested for the species.

  20. Therapeutic effects of various solvent fractions of Alstonia boonei (apocynaceae) stem bark on Plasmodium berghei-induced malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olanlokun, J O; Bolaji, O M; Agbedahunsi, J M; Olorunsogo, O O

    2012-12-01

    Malaria, the most important parasitic disease afflicting man is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the world. Chemotherapy remains the mainstay for the treatment and prevention of the disease in the absence of an effective vaccine. The incidence of resistance of malaria parasites to chemotherapy is increasing and complicated. This study was therefore undertaken in order to evaluate the therapeutic effects of fractions of the stem bark of A. boonei on P. berghei-induced malaria using chloroquine as control. Different doses (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight) of methanolic extract (ME), n-hexane (HF), chloroform (CF), ethylacetate(EF) and aqueous (AF) fractions of the stem bark of A. boonei were administered orally to albino mice. Five milligrammes chloroquine base per kilogramme body weight (5 mg/kg bw) was used as positive control while the negative control mice received only the vehicle (5% v/v tween 80). The results obtained showed that the 400 mg/kg bw dose was more effective with respect to the parasite clearance than the 200 mg/kg bw dose. The 400 mg/kg bw dose of ME gave 68.1% percent parasite clearance. The CF gave the highest clearance of 98.4% at 400 mg/kg bw after 7 days treatment while chloroquine at 5 mg/kg bw gave 100% parasite clearance. The order of increasing potency of the fractions (parasite clearance) was (EF 50.0% < AF 60.3% < HF 63.1%, < CF 98.4%) indicating that the active principle in the stem bark was highest in the CF. Percentage parasitemia following exposure to these fractions also decreased in all groups in the same order and was only significant (p < 0.05) in CF (0.11%) compared to the untreated control group. The ME of A. boonei also caused increase in PCV by 15.5%. Purification enhanced PCV value as the HF and CF fractions gave 19.0% and 24.5% increases, respectively. However, 31.5% increase in PCV was obtained in the albino mice treated with chloroquine. The EF and AF gave increase of 10.0% and 11.0% increase relative to the negative control treated mice. The high bioactivity of CF and HF indicate that the putative compound(s) in A. boonei are lipophillic and further purification could enhance greater activity. Further work is required to isolate the bioactive compound for a promising antimalarial drug from the chloroform fraction.

  1. Estudo da fotodegradação de poliisoprenos naturais (borrachas naturais em radiações específicas do ultravioleta (UV - doi: 10.5102/ucs.v3i2.564

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    Kárin Astrid Marques dos Santos

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Filmes de poliisoprenos (PI naturais e sintéticos foram expostos à luz ultravioleta (UV e analisados por espectroscopia de absorção UV, antes e após exposição à radiação UV. Filmes de padrões cis PII foram irradiados separadamente por fontes de luz com comprimentos de ondas iguais a 253 e 300. A fotooxidação foi monitorada observando-se a dependência das intensidades das absorções correspondentes aos modos de estiramento C=C, C=O e O-H e do modo “wagging” =C-H de cis-e trans-PI em função do tempo de exposição. A irradiação em 253 nm levou a reações de reticulação do polímero, impedindo a completa oxidação do filme polimérico. Para irradiação em 300nm, as reações de cisão da cadeia ocorreram preferencialmente, levando à completa oxidação do filme polimérico. Os elastômeros de Hevea brasilienses (HB e Hancornia speciosa (HS foram caracterizadas por espectroscopia de absorção no infravermelho (FTIR como cis-1,4-poliisopreno. A foto-oxidação dos elastômeros apresentou cinética diferente com tempo de indução menor que o observado para os padrões cis-PI. A maior velocidade para o processo de fotodegradação dos filmes de BNs foi atribuída à presença de impurezas, caracterizadas por bandas de absorção nas regiões de estiramento O-H e C=O, mesmo antes da exposição à radiação UV.

  2. Yeasts associated with fresh and frozen pulps of Brazilian tropical fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade, Rita C; Resende, Maria Aparecida; Silva, Claudia M; Rosa, Carlos A

    2002-08-01

    The occurrence of yeasts on ripe fruits and frozen pulps of pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L), mangaba (Hancornia speciosa Gom.), umbu (Spondias tuberosa Avr. Cam.), and acerola (Malpighia glaba L) was verified. The incidence of proteolytic, pectinolytic, and mycocinogenic yeasts on these communities was also determined. A total of 480 colonies was isolated and grouped in 405 different strains. These corresponded to 42 ascomycetous and 28 basidiomycetous species. Candida sorbosivorans, Pseudozyma antarctica, C. spandovensis-like, C. spandovensis, Kloeckera apis, C. parapsilosis, Rhodotorula graminis, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Cryptococcus laurentii, Metchnikowia sp (isolated only from pitanga ripe fruits), Issatchenkia occidentalis and C. krusei (isolated only from mangaba frozen pulps), were the most frequent species. The yeast communities from pitanga ripe fruits exhibited the highest frequency of species, followed by communities from acerola ripe fruits and mangaba frozen pulps. Yeast communities from frozen pulp and ripe fruits of umbu had the lowest number of species. Except the yeasts from pitanga, yeast communities from frozen pulp exhibited higher number of yeasts than ripe fruit communities. Mycocinogenic yeasts were found in all of the substrates studied except in communities from umbu ripe fruits and pitanga frozen pulps. Most of the yeasts found to produce mycocins were basidiomycetes and included P. antarctica, Cryptococcus albidus, C. bhutanensis-like, R. graminis and R. mucilaginosa-like from pitanga ripe fruits as well as black yeasts from pitanga and acerola ripe fruits. The umbu frozen pulps community had the highest frequency of proteolytic species. Yeasts able to hydrolyse casein at pH 5.0 represented 38.5% of the species isolated. Thirty-seven percent of yeast isolates were able to hydrolyse casein at pH 7.0. Pectinolytic yeasts were found in all of the communities studied, excepted for those of umbu frozen pulps. The highest frequency of

  3. Extração de DNA genômico de tecidos foliares maduros de espécies nativas do cerrado

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    Márcia Nara da Silva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Grandes quantidades de contaminantes na amostra de DNA dificultam a obtenção de DNA genômico de qualidade durante a extração. A presença de polissacarídeos, fenóis e outros compostos secundários representa o principal problema com o procedimento de isolamento do DNA e sua aplicação subsequente, por inibir a atividade das enzimas Taq DNA polimera-se e enzimas de restrição. Neste estudo, descreveu-se um procedimento modificado baseado no hexadecyltrimethylammonium (CTAB, rendendo DNA genômico satisfatório para técnicas de manipulação subsequente, como reações de PCR e digestão com enzima de restrição. Nesse protocolo foram utilizadas diferentes concentrações de β-mercaptoetanol no tampão de extração (0,0; 0,2; 10; 15; 25; e 50 uL de β-mercaptoetanol/mL do tampão de extração: 100 mM de Tris-HCl, pH 8; 20 mM de EDTA; 1,4 mM de NaCl; 2% de CTAB; 1% de PVP, cujo procedimento foi aplicado no caso de folhas maduras e testado em Annona crassiflora (arati-cum, Eugenia dysenterica (cagaita, Anacardium humilis (caju-do-campo, Hancornia speciosa (mangaba e Caryocar brasiliense (pequi. O protocolo foi eficiente no isolamento de DNA livre de polissacarídeos e polifenóis, com rendimento do DNA com alto peso molecu-lar, utilizando-se concentrações a partir de 1% de β-mercaptoetanol no tampão de extração. O DNA isolado por esse método mostrou alta pureza, de acordo com as análises de digestão por restrição e amplificação por PCR.

  4. Sobrevivência e crescimento inicial de espécies arbóreas nativas do Cerrado em consórcio com mandioca

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    Fernando Martinotto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a sobrevivência e o crescimento inicial de seis espécies arbóreas do Cerrado em consórcio com mandioca (Manihot esculenta, com ou sem adubação fosfatada. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, em arranjo fatorial 6x2x2, com quatro repetições. As variáveis consideradas foram as espécies: Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil (angico-vermelho, Anacardium occidentale (caju, Dipteryx alata (cumbaru, Hymenaea stigonocarpa (jatobá, Hancornia speciosa (mangaba e Sclerolobium paniculatum var. rubiginosum (taxi-branco, em monocultivo ou em consórcio com mandioca, com ou sem adubação fosfatada. Uma distância fixa de 3x3 m foi usada para as espécies arbóreas e de 1,00x0,60 m para a mandioca. Até a idade de 20 meses, as espécies arbóreas foram avaliadas quatro vezes quanto à altura e ao diâmetro do coleto. A produção de biomassa da mandioca foi avaliada aos 20 meses. A taxa média de sobrevivência das espécies arbóreas foi crescente na seguinte ordem: cumbaru (79%, taxi-branco (86%, jatobá (95%, mangaba (98%, angico (99% e caju (100%. O taxi-branco apresentou maiores taxas de crescimento relativo em diâmetro e altura, enquanto jatobá e cumbaru apresentaram os menores valores. A adubação fosfatada favoreceu apenas ao taxi-branco. A produtividade de mandioca não foi afetada pelo consórcio. Caju, angico-vermelho e taxi-branco são as espécies mais indicadas para o consórcio com mandioca no Cerrado.

  5. ESPÉCIES FLORESTAIS DE RESTINGAS COMO POTENCIAIS INSTRUMENTOS PARA GESTÃO COSTEIRA E TECNOLOGIA SOCIAL EM CARAVELAS, BAHIA (BRASIL

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    Henrique Machado Dias

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509815732Em Caravelas, município localizado no sul do estado da Bahia, as principais formações vegetais são as florestas de mangue e as restingas apresentando, estas últimas, alto grau de degradação. O objetivo deste artigo consiste em descrever as principais espécies florestais de restingas e seus usos diretos associados, com vistas à recuperação e ao manejo de áreas degradadas e à geração de trabalho e renda, compondo, dessa forma, importante ferramenta para a gestão integrada da zona costeira. Para isso, a elaboração de listagens florísticas e visitas ao campo foram necessárias para reconhecimento do ambiente. Na seleção das espécies, uma literatura referente ao uso, manejo e valor agregado de cada uma das espécies identificadas foi utilizada e, a partir daí, foram reconhecidas quatro espécies com potencialidade para geração de trabalho e renda nos moldes dessa proposta: mangaba (Hancornia speciosa, pitanga (Eugenia uniflora, caju (Anacardium occidentale e aroeira (Schinus terebinthifolius. As três primeiras apresentam associação de seus frutos ao uso alimentar, servindo a aroeira como condimentação, com alta valorização no mercado mundial, e o caju, a partir da sua estrutura fértil (castanha e polpa. A identificação dos subprodutos vegetais fornecidos assegura a utilização sustentada das espécies e do ambiente e os Produtos Florestais Não Madeiráveis podem ser estratégicos no gerenciamento costeiro, tornando-se instrumento para se alcançar inclusão social através da geração de trabalho e renda, sob o movimento da Tecnologia Social, contribuindo, portanto, para a redução da vulnerabilidade social de comunidades costeiras tradicionais.

  6. Conservação in vitro de mangabeira da região nordeste do Brasil In vitro conservation of mangaba tree in Northeast Brazil

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    Aline de Jesus Sá

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A mangabeira (Hancornia speciosa Gomes é uma espécie cujas regiões de ocorrência natural vêm sofrendo grande pressão antrópica, a qual está provocando erosão genética em muitas populações nativas, principalmente da região Nordeste. Em virtude da existência de poucas coleções de mangabeira conservadas ex situ, evidencia-se a importância do desenvolvimento de um método alternativo e complementar para a conservação de germoplasma dessa espécie. A utilização de técnicas de cultura de tecidos de plantas para a conservação de recursos genéticos apresenta diversas vantagens sobre a conservação de germoplasma no campo, destacando-se a economia de recursos financeiros para a manutenção das coleções, redução de riscos fitossanitários e intempéries climáticas. Por esse motivo, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a eficiência de regulador osmótico (manitol e inibidor de crescimento (ácido abscísico na conservação in vitro de microestacas de mangabeira por crescimento lento. As culturas foram mantidas em meio MS com 3% de sacarose e 0,6% de agar. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em sala de crescimento com temperatura variando de 26±2°C, umidade relativa do ar média em torno de 70% e fotoperíodo de 12 horas de luz branca fria (52µmol m-2 s-1 de irradiância. Foram avaliadas cinco concentrações de manitol (0, 10, 15 e 20g L-1. Na presença de manitol, o comprimento da parte aérea apresentou valores numéricos inferiores à testemunha, mas, aos 90 dias de cultivo in vitro, foi observado efeito deletério do manitol nas microestacas. Em relação ao ácido abscísico, foram testadas cinco concentrações (0; 0,5; 1; 2 e 4mg L-1 em interação com dois tipos de vedação de frascos (tampa plástica rosqueada e papel alumínio e dois tipos de explantes (microestacas apicais e basais. O ácido abscísico (0,5mg L 1 apresentou melhores resultados para a conserva

  7. Quantitative analysis of mitragynine, codeine, caffeine, chlorpheniramine and phenylephrine in a kratom (Mitragyna speciosa Korth.) cocktail using high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittrakarn, Somsmorn; Penjamras, Pimpimol; Keawpradub, Niwat

    2012-04-10

    A simple HPLC technique for determining mitragynine, codeine, caffeine, chlorpheniramine and phenylephrine in 'kratom cocktail' was developed. The analytical method for mitragynine, codeine and caffeine used an Eclipse XDB-C8 column. A Lichrospher CN column was using for analysing chlorpheniramine and phenylephrine. The correlation coefficient of each standard was between 0.9957 and 0.9993. The precision of the methods were between 0.700 and 7.108% RSD. The concentration of mitragynine, codeine, caffeine, chlorpheniramine and phenylephrine in 'kratom cocktail' was 90.021, 234.174, 73.986, 7.053 and 1.486 mg/L, respectively. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Ellagic acid & gallic acid from Lagerstroemia speciosa L. inhibit HIV-1 infection through inhibition of HIV-1 protease & reverse transcriptase activity

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    Nutan

    2013-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: The present study shows a novel anti-HIV activity of banaba. The active components responsible for anti-HIV activity were gallic acid and ellagic acid, through inhibition of reverse transcriptase and HIV protease, respectively and hence could be regarded as promising candidates for the development of topical anti-HIV-1 agents.

  9. Larvicidal activity of Wrightia tinctoria R. BR. (Apocynaceae fruit and leaf extracts against the filarial vector Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Murugesan Sakthivadivel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the larvicidal activity of crude aqueous and petroleum ether extracts of Wrightia tinctoria fruits and leaves against the filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus. Methods: The larvicidal activity was evaluated at concentrations of 0.06%, 0.12%, 0.25%, 0.50% and 1.00%. Larval mortality was observed for 24 and 48 h. Results: Among the plant parts tested, aqueous fruit extract exhibited highest larvicidal activity followed by aqueous leaf extract with LC50 values of 0.17% and 0.09%; 0.21% and 0.11% after 24 and 48 h respectively. Conclusions: Further investigations are needed to elucidate this activity against a wide range of all stages of mosquito species and also the active ingredient(s of the extract responsible for larvicidal activity should be identified.

  10. Larvicidal, Biological and Genotoxic Effects, and Temperature-Toxicity Relationship of Some Leaf Extracts of Nerium oleander (Apocynaceae) on Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    El-Sayed, Shaurub H; El-Bassiony, Ghada M

    2015-01-01

     Background: The present study was undertaken to study the larvicidal activity of different extracts of Nerium ole­ander leaves, and post-treatment temperature- toxicity relationship of these extracts against Culex pipiens. Further, the most potent extract was used to evaluate its biological and genotoxic activities. Methods: Crude extracts of N. oleander leaves were prepared using water, chloroform, acetone and diethyl ether as solvents. Extraction was carried out using soxhlet apparatus. Bi...

  11. Larvicidal, Biological and Genotoxic Effects, and Temperature-Toxicity Relationship of Some Leaf Extracts of Nerium oleander (Apocynaceae on Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Shaurub H El-Sayed

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available  Background: The present study was undertaken to study the larvicidal activity of different extracts of Nerium ole­ander leaves, and post-treatment temperature- toxicity relationship of these extracts against Culex pipiens. Further, the most potent extract was used to evaluate its biological and genotoxic activities. Methods: Crude extracts of N. oleander leaves were prepared using water, chloroform, acetone and diethyl ether as solvents. Extraction was carried out using soxhlet apparatus. Bioassay test was carried out on the larvae, and the LC50 of each extract was determined. Thus, newly hatched first instar larvae were treated, and the mortality count was recorded daily till pupation (accumulated mortality. The LC50 of diethyl ether extract, as the most potent ex­tract, was used for the further biological and genotoxic studies. Results: The results obtained indicated that diethyl ether extract of N. oleander leaves was the most potent extract, with LC50 of 10500 mg/l. The toxicity of the four extracts, using the LC50, at 10 °C was higher than that at 35 °C. The LC50 of diethyl ether extract significantly decreased the larval duration, pupal duration, percentage of pupation, percentage of adult emergence, longevity of females, fecundity, and oviposition activity index, whereas the growth index and the percentage of development per day of larvae and pupae were significantly increased compared to non-treated insects. Moreover, treatment with this extract induced significant dominant lethality in both male and female adults.  Conclusion: It appears that diethyl ether extract of N. oleander leaves is potential control agent to Cx. pipiens. 

  12. Larvicidal, Biological and Genotoxic Effects, and Temperature-Toxicity Relationship of Some Leaf Extracts of Nerium oleander (Apocynaceae) on Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Shaurub H; El-Bassiony, Ghada M

    2016-03-01

    The present study was undertaken to study the larvicidal activity of different extracts of Nerium oleander leaves, and post-treatment temperature- toxicity relationship of these extracts against Culex pipiens. Further, the most potent extract was used to evaluate its biological and genotoxic activities. Crude extracts of N. oleander leaves were prepared using water, chloroform, acetone and diethyl ether as solvents. Extraction was carried out using soxhlet apparatus. Bioassay test was carried out on the larvae, and the LC50 of each extract was determined. Thus, newly hatched first instar larvae were treated, and the mortality count was recorded daily till pupation (accumulated mortality). The LC50 of diethyl ether extract, as the most potent extract, was used for the further biological and genotoxic studies. The results obtained indicated that diethyl ether extract of N. oleander leaves was the most potent extract, with LC50 of 10500 mg/l. The toxicity of the four extracts, using the LC50, at 10 °C was higher than that at 35 °C. The LC50 of diethyl ether extract significantly decreased the larval duration, pupal duration, percentage of pupation, percentage of adult emergence, longevity of females, fecundity, and oviposition activity index, whereas the growth index and the percentage of development per day of larvae and pupae were significantly increased compared to non-treated insects. Moreover, treatment with this extract induced significant dominant lethality in both male and female adults. It appears that diethyl ether extract of N. oleander leaves is potential control agent to Cx. pipiens.

  13. Larvicidal, Biological and Genotoxic Effects, and Temperature-Toxicity Relationship of Some Leaf Extracts of Nerium oleander (Apocynaceae) on Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    El-Sayed, Shaurub H; El-Bassiony, Ghada M

    2016-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to study the larvicidal activity of different extracts of Nerium oleander leaves, and post-treatment temperature- toxicity relationship of these extracts against Culex pipiens...

  14. Are there evidences of a complex mimicry system among Asclepias curassavica (Apocynaceae), Epidendrum fulgens (Orchidaceae), and Lantana camara (Verbenaceae) in Southern Brazil?

    OpenAIRE

    Fuhro, Daniela; Araújo, Aldo Mellender de; Irgang, Bruno Edgar

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this paper was to test the presence of mimicry in Asclepias curassavica L., Epidendrum fulgens Brong., and Lantana camara L. The study was carried out at the Parque Estadual de Itapeva, RS, southern Brazil, from 2004 to 2006. Flowering period of each of the three species was followed up; focal observations of butterflies visiting flowers, from fixed point and during random walks were carried out. We also estimated the frequency of pollinaria removal in the orchid, as well as its m...

  15. Prospecção fitoquímica de Himatanthus drasticus Plumel (Apocynaceae, da mesorregião leste maranhense

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    H.S. Luz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available O uso indiscriminado de Himatanthus drasticus (Janaúba por pequenos caprinocultores no controle de verminose em pequenos ruminantes foi o que motivou a realização do estudo fitoquímico do mesmo. Cascas da janaúba foram coletadas na mesorregião Leste do Maranhão e conduzidas aos laboratórios de Nutrição da Universidade Estadual do Maranhão e de Produtos Naturais da Universidade Federal do Maranhão para a identificação botânica e fitoquímica pela metodologia da Prospecção Preliminar e CCD, realizando testes para as diversas classes de metabólitos secundários. A partir das cascas do vegetal moído e desidratado foi realizado o preparo do extrato bruto (EB. O material foi colocado em uma mistura hidroalcoólica de EtOH: H2O (7:3 v:v, e submetido a agitação mecânica esporádica. Os Subextratos foram obtidos a partir do EBHA pelo processo de partição líquido-líquido, ETOH: H2O (2:1, v:v. As misturas foram preparadas com os seguintes solventes orgânicos de polaridades crescentes: hexano, acetato de etila e butanol. As análises cromatográficas evidenciaram a presença de grupos de metabólitos secundários no extrato e nos subextratos. As classes de metabólitos secundários que apresentaram maior expressividade na análise de prospecção foram os alcaloides e taninos, enquanto que na analise por CCD foram os flavonoides e terpenos, indicando o potencial da ação farmacológica das cascas de H. drasticus.

  16. Teratogenic Effects of Crude Ethanolic Root Bark and Leaf Extracts of Rauwolfia vomitoria (Apocynaceae on the Femur of Albino Wistar Rat Fetuses

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    Mokutima A. Eluwa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Rauwolfia vomitoria is a plant used as a sedative and in the treatment of psychotic tendency. This study was on the teratogenic effects of its root bark and leaf extracts on Wistar rat’s fetal femurs. Materials and Methods. Twenty-five female rats weighing between 180 and 200 g were divided into 5 groups, of 5 rats each. Group A was the control, while Groups B, C, D, and E were the experimental. The female rats were mated with mature male rats to allow for pregnancy. Groups B and C animals received orally 150 mg/kg each of the root bark and leaf extracts of Rauwolfia vomitoria, respectively, while Groups D and E animals received 250 mg/kg bodyweight each of the root bark and leaf extracts of Rauwolfia vomitoria, respectively, from day 7 to day 11 of gestation. On day 20 of gestation, the rats were sacrificed, the fetuses were examined, and their femurs were dissected out and preserved, decalcified, and routinely processed using the Haematoxylin and Eosin staining method. Results. Histological observations of the fetal femur bones showed numerous osteoblast and osteoclast, hypertrophy, and hyperplasia of bone cells compared with the control. Conclusion. Ethanolic root bark and leaf extracts of Rauwolfia vomitoria may lead to advanced skeletal development.

  17. Milkweed (Gentianales: Apocynaceae): a farmscape resource for increasing parasitism of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) and providing nectar to insect pollinators and monarch butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, P G; Carpenter, J E

    2014-04-01

    In peanut-cotton farmscapes in Georgia, the stink bugs Nezara viridula (L.) and Chinavia hilaris (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) and the leaffooted bug, Leptoglossus phyllopus (L.) (Hemiptera: Coreidae), disperse at crop-to-crop interfaces to feed on bolls in cotton. The main objective of this study was to determine whether insecticide-free tropical milkweed (Asclepias curassavica L.), a nectar-producing plant, can increase parasitism of these bugs by Trichopoda pennipes (F.) (Diptera: Tachinidae) and provide nectar to monarch butterflies and insect pollinators in these farmscapes. Peanut-cotton plots with and without flowering milkweed plants were established in 2009 and 2010. Adult T. pennipes, monarch butterflies, honey bees, and native insect pollinators readily fed on floral nectar of milkweed. Monarch larvae feeding on milkweed vegetation successfully developed into pupae. In 2009, N. viridula was the primary host of T. pennipes in cotton, and parasitism of this pest by the parasitoid was significantly higher in milkweed cotton (61.6%) than in control cotton (13.3%). In 2010, parasitism of N. viridula, C. hilaris, and L. phyllopus by T. pennipes was significantly higher in milkweed cotton (24.0%) than in control cotton (1.1%). For both years of the study, these treatment differences were not owing to a response by the parasitoid to differences in host density, because density of hosts was not significantly different between treatments. In conclusion, incorporation of milkweed in peanut-cotton plots increased stink bug parasitism in cotton and provided nectar to insect pollinators and monarch butterflies.

  18. IMPACTOS DA INVASÃO POR Cryptostegia madagascariensis Bojer ex Decne. (Apocynaceae Juss. EM REMANESCENTES DE CAATINGA NO MUNICÍPIO DE IBARETAMA, CEARÁ, BRASIL

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    Flaubert Queiroga de Sousa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryptostegia madagascariensis Bojer ex Decne. is a shrubby species capable of forming populational massifs in several niches of caatinga and its related ecosystems, especially in the most humid sites, that may change the characteristics of native vegetation, triggering the disappearance of autochthonous species. This study aimed to identify the impacts caused by the invader on the floristic composition and the structure of the shrub-arboreal component. Three areas of investigation were selected, they were termed by: Ambience I – area with a high intensity of invasion, Ambience II – the transition area between I and III (medium intensity, and Ambience III – area with a low intensity of invasion. For the inventory of those areas, it was used the point-centered sampling method (Quarter Method, considering adults those plants that presented the diameter at ground level (DGL greater than or equal to 3 cm, and height greater than or equal to 1m. For the evaluation of the structure the conventional phytosociological parameters were analyzed, beyond indices of Diversity, Equitability and Environmental Impact of Exotics (IEIE. In the Ambience, I Cryptostegia madagascariensis was responsible for 82% of density, while in the Ambiences II and III, the density of the species was severally reduced (14.2% and 9.6%, respectively. The diversity, according to the Shannon-Weiner index, was low for the Ambience I (0.85 and higher for the Ambiences II and III (2.67 e 2.50, respectively. Results demonstrate that Cryptostegia madagascariensis affects severely the diversity and the structure of invaded communities, causing loss in the autochthonal biodiversity of caatinga .

  19. Látex de amapá (Parahancornia fasciculata (Poir Benoist, Apocynaceae: remédio e renda na floresta e na cidade

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    Murilo da Serra Silva

    Full Text Available O estudo abordou a cadeia de produção e de comercialização e os aspectos do consumo do látex medicinal de amapá amargoso (Parahancornia fasciculata em Belém e Ponta de Pedras, no Pará. Nosso objetivo foi investigar diversos aspectos do manejo e uso desse produto, revelando a sua importância na vida de seus produtores e consumidores. Foram utilizados a abordagem da 'cadeia de produção ao consumo' e métodos qualitativos e quantitativos de pesquisa, incluindo pesquisa de mercado, entrevistas com extrativistas, comerciantes e consumidores, oficinas, turnês guiadas e inventário florestal. Os oito mil litros de látex de amapá comercializados anualmente na região de Belém beneficiam, principalmente, consumidores de baixa renda, que têm tradição secular do uso desse látex. A renda obtida com esse produto representa 42% da renda total dos extrativistas com produtos florestais não madeireiros. A grande abundância da espécie e a distribuição diamétrica das árvores indicam possibilidade de regeneração natural. A melhoria na técnica de extração do látex realizada por alguns extrativistas revela que eles têm conhecimento da anatomia da árvore. A tradição de uso e manejo do látex e as características ecológicas da espécie sugerem grande potencial para programas de produção sustentável.

  20. Long-term persisting hybrid swarm and geographic difference in hybridization pattern: genetic consequences of secondary contact between two Vincetoxicum species (Apocynaceae-Asclepiadoideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue; Tada, Fumito; Yamashiro, Tadashi; Maki, Masayuki

    2016-01-22

    During glacial periods, glacial advances caused temperate plant extirpation or retreat into localized warmer areas, and subsequent postglacial glacial retreats resulted in range expansions, which facilitated secondary contact of previously allopatric isolated lineages. The evolutionary outcomes of secondary contact, including hybrid zones, dynamic hybrid swarm, and resultant hybrid speciation, depends on the strengths of reproductive barriers that have arisen through epistatic and pleiotropic effects during allopatric isolation. The aim of this study was to demonstrate refugia isolation and subsequent secondary contact between two perennial Asclepioid species and to assess the genetic consequences of the secondary contact. We modeled the range shift of two ecologically distinct Vincetoxicum species using the species distribution model (SDM) and assessed the genetic consequences of secondary contact by combining morphological and genetic approaches. We performed morphometric analysis (592 individuals) and examined 10 nuclear microsatellites (671 individuals) in V. atratum, V. japonicum, and putative hybrid populations. Multivariate analysis, model-based Bayesian analysis, and non-model-based discriminant analysis of principal components confirmed the hybridization between V. atratum and V. japonicum. High pollen fertility and a lack of linkage disequilibrium suggested that the hybrid populations may be self-sustaining and have persisted since V. atratum and V. japonicum came into contact during the post-glacial period. Moreover, our findings show that the pattern of hybridization between V. atratum and V. japonicum is unidirectional and differs among populations. Geographically-isolated hybrid populations exist as genetically distinct hybrid swarms that consist of V. atratum-like genotypes, V. japonicum-like genotypes, or admixed genotypes. In addition, Bayesian-based clustering analysis and coalescent-based estimates of long-term gene flow showed patterns of introgressive hybridization in three morphologically 'pure' V. japonicum populations. In this study, we demonstrated that climatic oscillations during the Quaternary period likely led to species range shift and subsequently secondary contact. Hybrid populations may be self-sustaining and have persisted since V. atratum and V. japonicum came into contact during the post-glacial period. Pattern of hybridization between V. atratum and V. japonicum is unidirectional and differs among populations. We concluded that these differences in the genetic consequences of secondary contact are caused by historical colonization processes and/or natural selection.

  1. Aspidosperma (Apocynaceae plant cytotoxicity and activity towards malaria parasites. Part II: experimental studies withAspidosperma ramiflorum in vivo and in vitro

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    Anna CC Aguiar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Several species of Aspidospermaplants are used to treat diseases in the tropics, including Aspidosperma ramiflorum, which acts against leishmaniasis, an activity that is experimentally confirmed. The species, known as guatambu-yellow, yellowperoba, coffee-peroba andmatiambu, grows in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil in the South to the Southeast regions. Through a guided biofractionation of A. ramiflorumextracts, the plant activity against Plasmodium falciparumwas evaluated in vitro for toxicity towards human hepatoma G2 cells, normal monkey kidney cells and nonimmortalised human monocytes isolated from peripheral blood. Six of the seven extracts tested were active at low doses (half-maximal drug inhibitory concentration < 3.8 µg/mL; the aqueous extract was inactive. Overall, the plant extracts and the purified compounds displayed low toxicity in vitro. A nonsoluble extract fraction and one purified alkaloid isositsirikine (compound 5 displayed high selectivity indexes (SI (= 56 and 113, respectively, whereas compounds 2 and 3 were toxic (SI < 10. The structure, activity and low toxicity of isositsirikine in vitro are described here for the first time in A. ramiflorum, but only the neutral and precipitate plant fractions were tested for activity, which caused up to 53% parasitaemia inhibition of Plasmodium bergheiin mice with blood-induced malaria. This plant species is likely to be useful in the further development of an antimalarial drug, but its pharmacological evaluation is still required.

  2. Aspidosperma (Apocynaceae) plant cytotoxicity and activity towards malaria parasites. Part II: experimental studies withAspidosperma ramiflorum in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Anna C C; Cunha, Ananda C; Ceravolo, Isabela Penna; Gonçalves, Regina A Correia; Oliveira, Arildo J B; Krettli, Antoniana Ursine

    2015-11-01

    Several species of Aspidosperma plants are used to treat diseases in the tropics, including Aspidosperma ramiflorum, which acts against leishmaniasis, an activity that is experimentally confirmed. The species, known as guatambu-yellow, yellow peroba, coffee-peroba and matiambu, grows in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil in the South to the Southeast regions. Through a guided biofractionation of A. ramiflorum extracts, the plant activity against Plasmodium falciparum was evaluated in vitro for toxicity towards human hepatoma G2 cells, normal monkey kidney cells and nonimmortalised human monocytes isolated from peripheral blood. Six of the seven extracts tested were active at low doses (half-maximal drug inhibitory concentration < 3.8 µg/mL); the aqueous extract was inactive. Overall, the plant extracts and the purified compounds displayed low toxicity in vitro. A nonsoluble extract fraction and one purified alkaloid isositsirikine (compound 5) displayed high selectivity indexes (SI) (= 56 and 113, respectively), whereas compounds 2 and 3 were toxic (SI < 10). The structure, activity and low toxicity of isositsirikine in vitro are described here for the first time in A. ramiflorum, but only the neutral and precipitate plant fractions were tested for activity, which caused up to 53% parasitaemia inhibition of Plasmodium berghei in mice with blood-induced malaria. This plant species is likely to be useful in the further development of an antimalarial drug, but its pharmacological evaluation is still required.

  3. Complete sequences of organelle genomes from the medicinal plant Rhazya stricta (Apocynaceae) and contrasting patterns of mitochondrial genome evolution across asterids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seongjun; Ruhlman, Tracey A; Sabir, Jamal S M; Mutwakil, Mohammed H Z; Baeshen, Mohammed N; Sabir, Meshaal J; Baeshen, Nabih A; Jansen, Robert K

    2014-05-28

    Rhazya stricta is native to arid regions in South Asia and the Middle East and is used extensively in folk medicine to treat a wide range of diseases. In addition to generating genomic resources for this medicinally important plant, analyses of the complete plastid and mitochondrial genomes and a nuclear transcriptome from Rhazya provide insights into inter-compartmental transfers between genomes and the patterns of evolution among eight asterid mitochondrial genomes. The 154,841 bp plastid genome is highly conserved with gene content and order identical to the ancestral organization of angiosperms. The 548,608 bp mitochondrial genome exhibits a number of phenomena including the presence of recombinogenic repeats that generate a multipartite organization, transferred DNA from the plastid and nuclear genomes, and bidirectional DNA transfers between the mitochondrion and the nucleus. The mitochondrial genes sdh3 and rps14 have been transferred to the nucleus and have acquired targeting presequences. In the case of rps14, two copies are present in the nucleus; only one has a mitochondrial targeting presequence and may be functional. Phylogenetic analyses of both nuclear and mitochondrial copies of rps14 across angiosperms suggests Rhazya has experienced a single transfer of this gene to the nucleus, followed by a duplication event. Furthermore, the phylogenetic distribution of gene losses and the high level of sequence divergence in targeting presequences suggest multiple, independent transfers of both sdh3 and rps14 across asterids. Comparative analyses of mitochondrial genomes of eight sequenced asterids indicates a complicated evolutionary history in this large angiosperm clade with considerable diversity in genome organization and size, repeat, gene and intron content, and amount of foreign DNA from the plastid and nuclear genomes. Organelle genomes of Rhazya stricta provide valuable information for improving the understanding of mitochondrial genome evolution among angiosperms. The genomic data have enabled a rigorous examination of the gene transfer events. Rhazya is unique among the eight sequenced asterids in the types of events that have shaped the evolution of its mitochondrial genome. Furthermore, the organelle genomes of R. stricta provide valuable genomic resources for utilizing this important medicinal plant in biotechnology applications.

  4. Side-Effects of Irinotecan (CPT-11), the Clinically Used Drug for Colon Cancer Therapy, Are Eliminated in Experimental Animals Treated with Latex Proteins from Calotropis procera (Apocynaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Alencar, Nylane Maria Nunes; da Silveira Bitencourt, Flávio; de Figueiredo, Ingrid Samantha Tavares; Luz, Patrícia Bastos; Lima-Júnior, Roberto César P; Aragão, Karoline Sabóia; Magalhães, Pedro Jorge Caldas; de Castro Brito, Gerly Anne; Ribeiro, Ronaldo Albuquerque; de Freitas, Ana Paula Fragoso; Ramos, Marcio Viana

    2017-02-01

    Intestinal mucositis (IM) is the critical side effect of irinotecan (CPT-11), which is the front-line drug used for the treatment of colorectal cancer. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of latex proteins (LP) from Calotropis procera to prevent IM and diarrhea in animals. Swiss mice were treated daily with saline or LP (1, 5, or 50 mg/kg, i.v.) 24 h prior to CTP-11 (75 mg/kg/4 days, i.p) and for additional 6 days. Animal survival, body weight variation, and diarrhea were registered. After animal sacrifice (day 7 post first injection of CPT-11), intestinal samples were collected to study morphology and inflammatory parameters. Animals given LP exhibited improved parameters (survival, body weight, and absence of diarrhea) as compared with the CPT-11 control. The severity of IM observed in animals given CPT-11 was reduced in animals treated with LP. Treatment with LP also prevented the reduction in the villus/crypt ratio promoted by CPT-11. The rise in MPO activity and pro-inflammatory cytokines, over-contractility of the smooth muscle, and diarrhea were all abrogated in LP-treated mice. Markedly reduced immunostaining intensity for COX-2, TNF-α, IL-1β, iNOS, and NF-κB was observed in the intestinal tissue of animals treated with LP. The side-effects of CPT-11 were eliminated by LP treatment in experimental animals and improved clinical parameters characteristic of IM All known biochemical pathogenesis. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. CONTROLE QUÍMICO DO PULGÃO VERDE (Myzus persicae Sulzer, 1776) E DA VAQUINHA (Diabrotica speciosa Germ., 1824) NA CULTURA DO TOMATE RASTEIRO CHEMICAL CONTROL OF THE GREEN PEACH APHID (Myzus persicae, SULZER) AND TOMATO LEAF BEETLE (Diabrotica speciosa, GERMAR) IN TOMATO PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Danilo Couto; Iraídes Fernandes Carneiro; Antônio Lopes da Silva; Claúdio Aparecido da Silveira

    2007-01-01

    O efeito de cinco inseticidas aplicados no tomateiro (Lycopersicum sculentum Mill), visando ao controle do pulgão verde, Myzus persica...

  6. Alcaloides iboga de Peschiera affinis (Apocynaceae - Atribuição inequívoca dos deslocamentos químicos dos átomos de hidrogênio e carbono: atividade antioxidante Iboga alkaloids from Peschiera affinis (Apocynaceae - unequivocal 1H and 13C chemical shift assignments: antioxidant activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allana Kellen L. Santos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Six known alkaloids iboga type and the triterpen α- and β-amyrin acetate were isolated from the roots and stems of Peschiera affinis. Their structures were characterized on the basis of spectral data mainly NMR and mass spectra. 1D and 2D NMR spectra were also used to unequivocal ¹H and 13C chemical shift assignments of alkaloids. The ethanolic extract of roots, alkaloidic and no-alkaloidic fractions and iso-voacristine hydroxyindolenine and voacangine were evaluated for their antioxidative properties using an autographic assay based on β-carotene bleaching on TLC plates, and also spectrophotometric detection by reduction of the stable DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical.

  7. Relações entre o teor de fenóis totais e o ciclo das galhas de Cecidomyiida e em Aspidosperm a spruceanum Müll. Arg. (Apocynaceae Relationships between phenolic contents and a Cecidomyiidae gall cycle in Aspidosperma spruceanum Müll. Arg. (Apocynaceae

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    Anete Teixeira Formiga

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Alterações morfológicas detectadas em diversas espécies vegetais em função da indução de galhas são comumente acompanhadas de mudanças químicas importantes para o estabelecimento e manutenção do sistema galhador-planta hospedeira. O estudo da variação do teor de fenóis totais e sua relação com o desenvolvimento das galhas no sistema Aspidosperma spruceanum-Cecidomyiidae foi realizado ao longo de um ano, no qual foram detectados pelo menos dois ciclos de vida dos insetos indutores. O nível de infestação foliar foi alto, atingindo 87%, e os Cecidomyiidae tiveram a região internervural como sítio preferencial de oviposição. A variação sazonal no conteúdo de fenóis totais nas amostras de folhas sadias e galhadas foi primariamente relacionada às condições abióticas e muito embora este teor tenha atingido o máximo de 10 mg EAT g-1, indicando um ambiente químico celular não favorável à indução e a sua sobrevivência, o indutor de A. spruceanum supera esta barreira química, podendo ainda ser favorecido pela proteção contra inimigos naturais propiciada pelos fenólicos.Morphological alterations detected in several plant species due to gall induction are commonly followed by chemical changes fundamental to the establishment and maintenance of the host plant-gall maker system. The study of phenolic contents variation and its relation to gall development in Aspidosperma spruceanum-Cecidomyiidae system through a year-time detected two insect life cycles. The level of infestation was high, getting up to 87%, and the Cecidomyiidae preferentially oviposited in internervural region. Seasonal variation in phenolic contents in healthy and galled leaves detected in A. spruceanum was primarily related to abiotic conditions. Even though the levels of phenolic contents might get a maximum of 10 mg EAT g-1, which indicated a non stimulating cell chemical environment to gall induction and herbivore survivorship, A. spruceanum gall maker surpassed this chemical barrier, and might also be favored by the chemical protection against its natural enemies, that phenolic contents might confer.

  8. Himatanthus lancifolius (Müll. Arg.) Woodson, Apocynaceae: estudo farmacobotânico de uma planta medicinal da Farmacopeia brasileira 1ª edição Himatanthus lancifolius (Müll. Arg.) Woodson, Apocynaceae: morpho-anatomical study of a medicinal plant described in the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia 1st edition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leopoldo C. Baratto; Sandra V. A. Hohlemwerger; Maria Lenise S. Guedes; Márcia R. Duarte; Cid A. M. Santos

    2010-01-01

    .... O presente trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar morfoanatomicamente a folha, o caule e a casca caulinar dessa planta medicinal, a fim de contribuir para o controle de qualidade e a autenticidade dessa espécie...

  9. Himatanthus lancifolius (Müll. Arg. Woodson, Apocynaceae: estudo farmacobotânico de uma planta medicinal da Farmacopeia brasileira 1ª edição Himatanthus lancifolius (Müll. Arg. Woodson, Apocynaceae: morpho-anatomical study of a medicinal plant described in the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia 1st edition

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    Leopoldo C. Baratto

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Himatanthus lancifolius (Müll. Arg. Woodson é um arbusto nativo do Brasil, latescente, popularmente conhecido como agoniada e utilizado principalmente para distúrbios menstruais. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar morfoanatomicamente a folha, o caule e a casca caulinar dessa planta medicinal, a fim de contribuir para o controle de qualidade e a autenticidade dessa espécie. O material vegetal foi fixado e submetido às microtécnicas usuais. A folha é simples, glabra e obovado-lanceolada. A epiderme é uniestratificada, revestida por cutícula estriada e possui estômatos anisocíticos na face abaxial. O mesofilo é dorsiventral. A nervura central é biconvexa e o pecíolo é circular, ambos apresentando feixes vasculares bicolaterais. Laticíferos, amiloplastos e idioblastos fenólicos estão presentes no parênquima fundamental da nervura central e do pecíolo. O sistema vascular do caule é tipicamente bicolateral. Laticíferos e idioblastos fenólicos ocorrem no córtex, no floema e na medula. Esses caracteres morfoanatômicos, em conjunto, podem ser utilizados como parâmetros para o controle de qualidade dessa espécie.Himatanthus lancifolius (Müll. Arg. Woodson is a Brazilian native shrub, laticiferous, popularly known as "agoniada" and it is mainly used for uterine disorders. The present work aimed to study the leaf, stem and stem bark morpho-anatomy of this medicinal plant, in order to contribute to its quality control and identification. The plant material was fixed and submitted to standard microtechniques. The leaf is simple, glabrous and obovate-lanceolate. The epidermis is uniseriate, coated with striated cuticle and it has anysocitic stomata on the abaxial surface. The mesophyll is dorsiventral. The midrib is biconvex and the petiole is circular, both presenting bicollateral vascular bundles. Laticiferous ducts, amyloplasts and phenolic idioblasts are found in ground parenchyma of the midrib and petiole. The vascular system of the stem is tipically bicollateral. Laticiferous ducts and phenolic idioblasts are present in the cortex, phloem and pith. These morpho-anatomical characters, all together, can be used as quality control parameters of this species.

  10. Multiplicação in vitro de Aspidosperma ramiflorum Muell. Arg. (Apocynaceae) - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v29i1.108 In vitro multiplication of Aspidosperma ramiflorum Muell. Arg. (Apocynaceae) - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v29i1.108

    OpenAIRE

    Regina Aparecida Correia Gonçalves; Eliezer Rodrigues de Souto; Elisângela Fumagali; Idivaldo Capatti; Luiz Vieira da Silva; Heltion Ivan Hubner; Arildo José Braz de Oliveira

    2007-01-01

    O presente estudo relata um método simples e promissor para multiplicação in vitro de Aspidosperma ramiflorum, uma espécie encontrada no sudeste do Brasil e seriamente ameaçada de extinção, utilizada com propósitos medicinais e como fonte de compostos que podem ser usados para desenvolver novos fármacos sintéticos. O trabalho teve como objetivo o estabelecimento de um protocolo de multiplicação in vitro de Aspidosperma ramiflorum (guatambu), a partir de segmentos apicais de material juvenil o...

  11. Multiplicação in vitro de Aspidosperma ramiflorum Muell. Arg. (Apocynaceae - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v29i1.108 In vitro multiplication of Aspidosperma ramiflorum Muell. Arg. (Apocynaceae - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v29i1.108

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Aparecida Correia Gonçalves

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo relata um método simples e promissor para multiplicação in vitro de Aspidosperma ramiflorum, uma espécie encontrada no sudeste do Brasil e seriamente ameaçada de extinção, utilizada com propósitos medicinais e como fonte de compostos que podem ser usados para desenvolver novos fármacos sintéticos. O trabalho teve como objetivo o estabelecimento de um protocolo de multiplicação in vitro de Aspidosperma ramiflorum (guatambu, a partir de segmentos apicais de material juvenil originários de plântulas obtidos a partir de sementes. A avaliação da multiplicação in vitro foi realizada em meio de cultura Woody Plant Médium (WPM, suplementado com concentrações variadas de ácido naftalenoacético (ANA e 6-Benzilaminopurina (6-BAP. A multiplicação de A. ramiflorum foi positivamente influenciada principalmente nas combinações aonde as concentrações de 6-BAP foram relativamente maiores do que as do ANA, nessas concentrações houve a indução de múltiplas brotações.The present study described a simple and promissory method for in vitro multiplication of Aspidosperma ramiflorum, a species found in the South of Brazil and seriously extinction menaced. The method was used for medicinal proposes and as a source of compounds to develop new synthetic drugs. The objective of this work was to establish an in vitro multiplication protocol of Aspidosperma ramiflorum (guatambu, from apical segments of juvenile material of plantlets obtained from seeds. The in vitro multiplication evaluation was done in WPM medium, supplemented with variable concentrations of Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA and 6- Benzyl aminopurine (6-BAP. The multiplication of A. ramiflorum was positively influenced mainly in the combinations when 6-BAP concentrations were relatively higher than NAA. In these concentrations multiple shoots were induced.

  12. Suspected Adulteration of Commercial Kratom Products with 7-Hydroxymitragynine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lydecker, Alicia G; Sharma, Abhisheak; McCurdy, Christopher R; Avery, Bonnie A; Babu, Kavita M; Boyer, Edward W

    2016-01-01

    .... Mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine, exclusive to M. speciosa, are the alkaloids primary responsible for Kratom's biologic and psychoactive profile, and likely contribute to its problematic use...

  13. PERCEPTIONS ABOUT MALARIA TRANSMISSION AND CONTROL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solanaceae), Solanum panduriforme E. May (Solanaceae), Diplorhynchus condylocarpon (Muell. Arg.) Pick. (Apocynaceae), Harungana madagascariensis Poir (Guittiferae), Pterocarpus angolensis DC (Leguminosae), Euclea divinorum Hiern ...

  14. Environ: E00501 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00501 Ficus pumila leaf and stem Ficis pumilae caulis Crude drug Ficus pumila [TAX:66386], Trachel... Others: Apocynaceae (dogbane family) Trachelospermum jasminoides, Celastraceae (

  15. 574-IJBCS-Article-G.K Oloyede

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR GATSING

    bioassay-directed isolation from the leaves L. speciosa include ellagitannins, ellagic acid and its derivatives (Liu et al., 2001). The aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxic activity of the essential oils of the fruits of L. speciosa growing in Nigeria and to identify the chemical constituents. MATERIALS AND METHODS.

  16. Nuevos rangos altitudinales para dos especies de la avifauna de Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.A. Torrez; Wayne Arendt; I. Castillo

    2015-01-01

    We document the elevational range expansions of two Nicaraguan bird species, scaled pigeon (Patagioenas speciosa) and collared plover (Charadrius collaris). The previously reported elevational range of Patagioenas speciosa was sea level to 600 m. We observed the species in shade coffee at Santa Maura farm at an elevation of 1115 masl. Historically, the second species,...

  17. Alcaloides iboga de Peschiera affinis (Apocynaceae) - Atribuição inequívoca dos deslocamentos químicos dos átomos de hidrogênio e carbono: atividade antioxidante

    OpenAIRE

    Santos,Allana Kellen L.; Magalhães,Ticiane S.; Monte,Francisco Jose Q.; Mattos,Marcos Carlos de; Oliveira,Maria Conceição F. de; Almeida,Maria Mozarina B.; Lemos,Telma L. G.; Braz-Filho,Raimundo

    2009-01-01

    Six known alkaloids iboga type and the triterpen α- and β-amyrin acetate were isolated from the roots and stems of Peschiera affinis. Their structures were characterized on the basis of spectral data mainly NMR and mass spectra. 1D and 2D NMR spectra were also used to unequivocal ¹H and 13C chemical shift assignments of alkaloids. The ethanolic extract of roots, alkaloidic and no-alkaloidic fractions and iso-voacristine hydroxyindolenine and voacangine were evaluated for their antio...

  18. Aqueous seed extract of Hunteria umbellata (K. Schum.) Hallier f. (Apocynaceae) palliates hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, inflammation and oxidative stress in high-fructose diet-induced metabolic syndrome in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajiboye, T O; Hussaini, A A; Nafiu, B Y; Ibitoye, O B

    2017-02-23

    Hunteria umbellata is used in the management and treatment of diabetes and obesity in Nigeria. This study evaluates the effect of aqueous seed extract of Hunteria umbellata on insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, inflammation and oxidative stress in high-fructose diet-induced metabolic syndrome MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats were randomized into seven groups (A-G). Control (group A) and group C rats received control diet for nine weeks while rats in groups B, D - G were placed on high-fructose diet for 9 weeks. In addition to the diets, groups C - F rats orally received 400, 100, 200 and 400mg/kg body weight aqueous seed extract of Hunteria umbellata for 3 weeks starting from 6th - 9th week. High-fructose diet (when compared to control rats) mediated a significant (p<0.05) increase in body weight, body mass index and abdominal circumference. Similarly, levels of blood glucose, insulin, leptin, adiponectin and insulin resistance were increased. It also caused a significant increase in the levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, atherogenic index, cardiac index and coronary artery index while high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was decreased significantly. Levels of proinflammatory factor, tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 and 8 were also increased by the high fructose diet. Moreover, it mediated decrease in activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and level of glutathione reduced. Conversely, levels of malondialdehyde, conjugated dienes, lipid hydroperoxides, protein carbonyl and fragmented DNA were elevated. Aqueous seed extract of Hunteria umbellata significantly ameliorated the high fructose diet-mediated alterations. From this study, it is concluded that aqueous seed extract of Hunteria umbellata possesses hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidants abilities as evident from its capability to extenuate insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, inflammation and oxidative stress in high-fructose diet-induced metabolic syndrome rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Pro-toxic 1,2-Dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloid esters, including unprecedented 10-membered macrocyclic diesters, in the medicinally-used Alafia cf. caudata and Amphineurion marginatum (Apocynaceae: Apocynoideae: Nerieae and Apoc

    Science.gov (United States)

    The attraction of pyrrolizidine alkaloid-pharmacophagous insects indicated the presence of pro-toxic dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids in Alafia cf. caudata Stapf (Nerieae: Alafinae) and Amphineurion marginatum (Roxb.) D.J. Middleton (Apocyneae: Amphineuriinae). Subsequently, monoesters of retronecine ...

  20. Lead and cadmium in leaves of deciduous trees in Beijing, China: Development of a metal accumulation index (MAI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Yanju [Beijing Center for Physical and Chemical Analysis, Beijing 100089 (China) and Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China)]. E-mail: liuyanju@hotmail.com; Zhu Yongguan [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Ding Hui [Beijing Center for Physical and Chemical Analysis, Beijing 100089 (China)

    2007-01-15

    Lead and cadmium uptake was investigated for common deciduous street trees in Beijing in this study. Species having Cd accumulation included Populus tomentosa, Sophora japonica and Catalpa speciosa. P. tomentosa had the highest ratios between leaf and soil Cd (0.848), followed by S. japonica (0.536), C. speciosa (0.493), Paulownia tomentosa (0.453) and Juglans regia (0.415). Pb levels were high in leaves of C. speciosa, J. regia and Pa. tomentosa. S. japonica had the highest ratio between leaf Pb and soil Pb (0.146), followed by Pa. tomentosa (0.143), Ginko biloba (0.103) and C. speciosa (0.095). A predictive foliar metal accumulation index (MAI) was developed and C. speciosa was calculated to have the highest MAI value (53.8). This suggests that C. speciosa would be a good choice for planting in areas of Beijing where soil contamination with Cd and Pb may be a problem. - Catalpa speciosa had the highest MAI value.

  1. Development of orodispersible films with selected Indonesian medicinal plant extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Johanna; Eugresya, Gabriella; Hinrichs, Wouter; Tjandrawinata, Raymond; Avanti, Christina; Frijlink, H.W.; Woerdenbag, Herman

    2017-01-01

    This study focused on the incorporation into orodispersible films (ODFs) of the dried extracts of five selected Indonesian medicinal plants: Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.) Pers. (LS), Phyllanthus niruri L. (PN), Cinnamomum burmanii Blume (CB), Zingiber officinale Roscoe (ZO) and Phaleria macrocarpa

  2. Orally active opioid μ/δ dual agonist MGM-16, a derivative of the indole alkaloid mitragynine, exhibits potent antiallodynic effect on neuropathic pain in mice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matsumoto, Kenjiro; Narita, Minoru; Muramatsu, Naotaka; Nakayama, Terumi; Misawa, Kaori; Kitajima, Mariko; Tashima, Kimihito; Devi, Lakshmi A; Suzuki, Tsutomu; Takayama, Hiromitsu; Horie, Syunji

    2014-01-01

    ...[2,3-a]quinolizin-2-yl)-3-methoxyacrylate (7-hydroxymitragynine), a main active constituent of the traditional herbal medicine Mitragyna speciosa, is an indole alkaloid that is structurally different from morphine...

  3. Diversité végétale et valeur de conservation pour la Biodiversité du ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 nov. 2013 ... Fabaceae. GCW. HG. 23 Dasylepis brevipedicellata Chipp. Achariaceae. GCW. 24 Dialium aubrevillei Pellegr. Fabaceae. GCW. HG. 25 Dicranolepis persei Cummins. Thymelaeaceae. GCW. HG. 26 Dictyophleba leonensis (Stapf) Pichon. Apocynaceae. GCW. 27 Diospyros heudelotii Hiern. Ebenaceae.

  4. Environ: E00501 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00501 Ficus pumila leaf and stem Ficis pumilae caulis Crude drug ... Ficus pumila [TAX:66386], Trachel...ed) Others: Apocynaceae (dogbane family) Trachelospermum jasminoides, Celastracea

  5. First fossil evidence of Connaraceae R. Br. from Indian Cenozoic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    wallichii (Rubiaceae); Memecylon (Melastomaceae);. Litsea glabrata, Actinodaphne malabarica, Cinnamo- mum bejolghota (Lauraceae); Millettia macrostachya. (Fabaceae); Salacia beddomei (Celastraceae); Taber- naemontana coronaria (Apocynaceae); Terminalia catappa,Terminalia chebula, andCombretum chinense.

  6. Drug: D04383 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D04383 Crude, Drug Condurango fluidextract (JP16); Condurango extract; Condurango fluid...asterids Apocynaceae (dogbane family) D04383 Condurango fluidextract CAS: 84787-66-6 PubChem: 17398083 ...

  7. Characterization of weed flora in rubber trees plantations of Bongo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2013-10-31

    Oct 31, 2013 ... Rubiaceae, Apocynaceae, Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Moraceae, Amaranthaceae,. Mimosaceae, Fabaceae, Cucurbitaceae and Commelinaceae. Weeds' mapping was established and illustrated by 4 main weed groups in relation with the stage of rubber trees development. For the plantations.

  8. Therapeutic potentials of ethanolic extract of leaves of Holarrhena ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therapeutic potentials of ethanolic extract of leaves of Holarrhena floribunda (G. Don) Dur. And schinz (apocynaceae). Yao Patrick Hoekou, Tchadjobo Tchacondo, Simplice Damintoti Karou, Rakiswende Serge Yerbanga, Elom Achoribo, Ollo Da, Wouyo Atakpama, Komlan Batawila ...

  9. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    WAKAWA LUCKY

    frequency of 11 and 52.38% respectively while Anonaceae, Apocynaceae, Arecoideae,. Balanitaceae, Bignoiaceae, Ebenaceae, Lamiaceae, Rhamnaceae, Sapotaceae, Ulmaceae and. Verbenaceae recorded the lowest number of representation of 1 and 4.76% frequency and percentage frequency respectively.

  10. Floristic composition and taxonomic distribution of plants in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The families Caesalpiniaceae and Mimosaceae at 7% dominate the area with seven species while Sapotaceae, Mimosoideae, Meliceae, Malvaceae, Lamiceae, Euphorbiaceae, Burseraceae, Bombaceae, Balanitaceae, Ascelpiadaceae, Apocynaceae and Annonaceae are occasional with either one or two members.

  11. Evaluation of hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apocynaceae) has been used for the treatment of cancer, skin infections, diabetes and liver disorder. The present study is aimed at evaluating the hepatoprotective effect of chloroform and methanol extract (CEIF and MEIF) of whole plant of I.

  12. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apocynaceae) bark and Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A. Rich (Annonaceae) fruits mixtures used in the treatment of diabetes. Abstract PDF · Vol 9, No 7 (2010) - Articles Production of cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes by a phytopathogenic Myrothecium ...

  13. Neurobiology of Kratom and its main alkaloid mitragynine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhaimi, Farah W; Yusoff, Nurul H M; Hassan, Rahimah; Mansor, Sharif M; Navaratnam, Visweswaran; Müller, Christian P; Hassan, Zurina

    2016-09-01

    Kratom or its main alkaloid, mitragynine is derived from the plant Mitragyna speciosa Korth which is indigenous to Southeast Asian countries. This substance has become widely available in other countries like Europe and United States due to its opium- and coca-like effects. In this article, we have reviewed available reports on mitragynine and other M. speciosa extracts. M. speciosa has been proven to have a rewarding effect and is effective in alleviating the morphine and ethanol withdrawal effects. However, studies in human revealed that prolonged consumption of this plant led to dependence and tolerance while cessation caused a series of aversive withdrawal symptoms. Findings also showed that M. speciosa extracts possess antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, anti-depressant, and muscle relaxant properties. Available evidence further supports the adverse effects of M. speciosa preparations, mitragynine on cognition. Pharmacological activities are mainly mediated via opioid receptors as well as neuronal Ca2+ channels, expression of cAMP and CREB protein and via descending monoaminergic system. Physicochemical properties of mitragynine have been documented which may further explain the variation in pharmacological responses. In summary, current researchs on its main indole alkaloid, mitragynine suggest both therapeutic and addictive potential but further research on its molecular effects is needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Polyembryony in angiospermous trees of the Brazilian Cerrado and Caatinga vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonieta N. Salomão

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of polyembryony was investigated in 75 woody species of the Cerrado in central Brazil and the xerophilous Caatinga vegetation in northeastern Brazil. Fourteen species showed polyembryony, a type of anomalous angiospermous reproduction. Polyembryony is reported for the first time for nine genera, Astronium, Byrsonima, Cariniana, Copaifera, Hancornia, Magonia, Myracrodruon, Tabebuia, and Tapirira. The positive correlation found between polyembryony, sexual reproduction, and apomictic processes suggests that a number of angiospermous species may make regular use of multiple breeding systems.A ocorrência de poliembrionia foi investigada em 75 espécies lenhosas do Cerrado do Brasil central e da Caatinga xerófila do nordeste brasileiro. Quatorze espécies apresentaram poliembrionia, uma modalidade de reprodução anômala em angiospermas. Poliembrionia é relatada pela primeira vez para nove gêneros, Astronium, Byrsonima, Cariniana, Copaifera, Hancornia, Magonia, Myracrodruon, Tabebuia e Tapirira. A correlação positiva encontrada entre poliembrionia, reprodução sexual e processos apomíticos sugere que parte das espécies de angiospermas faça uso regular de sistemas de cruzamento múltiplos.

  15. Niche specialization of reef-building corals in the mesophotic zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper, Timothy F.; Ulstrup, Karin Elizabeth; Dandan, Sana S.

    2011-01-01

    The photobiology of two reef corals and the distribution of associated symbiont types were investigated over a depth gradient of 0–60 m at Scott Reef, Western Australia. Pachyseris speciosa hosted mainly the same Symbiodinium C type similar to C3 irrespective of sampling depth. By contrast...

  16. Molecular cloning and characterization of strictosidine synthase, a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-02

    Nov 2, 2011 ... performed showed that there is only one copy of StrMs1 present in the genome of M. speciosa. Expression pattern on different tissues .... Genomic DNA was isolated according to Doyle and Doyle (1987) and 20 µg DNA was digested with ..... from Citrus creticuss sp. Creticus and other Medicinal Plants. Anal ...

  17. Short Communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (2011) found dose dependent inhibition of oral isolates of S. mutans by methanol extract of Croton gibsonianus Nimm. Grah leaves. In our study, dose dependent inhibition of cariogenic isolates was observed. CONCLUSION. In this study, we reported anticariogenic activity of leaf extract of L. speciosa. The leaf extract was.

  18. Stage 2 Report for Reformulation Phase I General Design Memorandum, Cleveland Harbor, Ohio. Volume II. Appendices. Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-02-01

    conditions inside the Lakefront Harbor with the spur breakwaters removed. 4. Ray then presented a slide show illustrating the evolution of the pro- posed...Asehelminthes Class Nematoda Alaimus sp. Dorylaimus sp. Mesodorylaimus sp. Phylum Annelida Class Polychaeta Manayunkia speciosa Class Oligochaeta. Aulodrilus

  19. Evaluation of in vitro absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) properties of mitragynine, 7-hydroxymitragynine, and mitraphylline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitragyna speciosa (Kratom) is a popular herb in Southeast Asia which is traditionally used to treat withdrawal symptoms associated with opiate addiction. Mitragynine, 7-hydroxymitragynine and mitraphylline are reported to be the central nervous system (CNS) active alkaloids which bind to the opiat...

  20. Suspected Adulteration of Commercial Kratom Products with 7-Hydroxymitragynine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydecker, Alicia G; Sharma, Abhisheak; McCurdy, Christopher R; Avery, Bonnie A; Babu, Kavita M; Boyer, Edward W

    2016-12-01

    Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa), a plant native to Southeast Asia, has been used for centuries for its stimulant and opium-like effects. Mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine, exclusive to M. speciosa, are the alkaloids primary responsible for Kratom's biologic and psychoactive profile, and likely contribute to its problematic use. We purchased several commercially available Kratom analogs for analysis and through our results, present evidence of probable adulteration with the highly potent and addictive plant alkaloid, 7-hydroxymitragynine. A simple and sensitive LC-MS/MS method was developed for simultaneous quantification of mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine in methanol extract of marketed Kratom supplements. We found multiple commercial Kratom products to have concentrations of 7-hydroxymitragynine that are substantially higher than those found in raw M. speciosa leaves. We have found multiple packaged commercial Kratom products likely to contain artificially elevated concentrations of 7-hydroxymitragynine, the alkaloid responsible for M. speciosa's concerning mechanistic and side effect profile. This study describes a unique form of product adulteration, which stresses the importance of increased dietary supplement oversight of Kratom-containing supplements.

  1. A simple GC-MS method for the screening of betulinic, corosolic, maslinic, oleanolic and ursolic acid contents in commercial botanicals used as food supplement ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caligiani, Augusta; Malavasi, Giulia; Palla, Gerardo; Marseglia, Angela; Tognolini, Massimiliano; Bruni, Renato

    2013-01-15

    The occurrence of triterpene pentacyclic acids in plants is extensive, but little is known about their availability in commercial extracts. A simple GC-MS method for the simultaneous determination of betulinic, corosolic, maslinic, oleanolic and ursolic acids was developed and applied to 38 different commercial plant extracts sold as ingredients for dietary supplements. A suitable protocol was set up to perform routine control of a diverse array of samples with different botanical, chemical and physical characteristics. Remarkable quantities of corosolic acid were found in dried extracts from aerial parts of Lagerstroemia speciosa and Ortosiphon stamineus (14233 and 1132 mg/kg, respectively), while oleanolic acid was abundant in O. stamineus and Crataegus monogyna flowers (2774 and 2339 mg/kg); ursolic was identified in O. stamineus, C. monogyna, L. speciosa and Arctostaphylos uva-ursi leaves (7773, 4165, 2108 and 1034 mg/kg). Only L. speciosa was rich in maslinic acid (4958 mg/kg), while minor amounts of betulinic acid (257 and 80 mg/kg) were detected in L. speciosa and C. monogyna extracts. Lower quantities of triterpenic acids were identified in dried extracts of Harpagophyton procumbens root, propolis, Punica granatum root, Styrax benzoin, Vaccinium myrtillus fruits and Vitis vinifera seeds. Decoctions and fluid extracts lacked or contained very low amounts of triterpenic acids. Results are discussed in terms of quality and safety of these ingredients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Drug: D09192 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 11] Chaenomeles sinensis [TAX:36622], Chaenomeles speciosa [TAX:106546] Same as: E00214 E00662 Rosaceae (ros...drugs D09192 Chaenomeles fruit Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: rosids Rosaceae (rose family) D09192 Chaenomeles fruit PubChem: 96025872 ...

  3. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Habbu, PV. Vol 5, No 2 (2008) - Articles Hepatoprotective And Antioxidant Effects Of Argyreia speciosa In Rats Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0189-6016. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use ...

  4. Study on Orchid Diversity in Gunung Simpang Nature Reserve, West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DWI MURTI PUSPITANINGTYAS

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Gunung Simpang Nature Reserve is located in West Java Province. It covers a 15.000 hectare area of highland forest, the altitude range between 800 to 1823 m asl. Orchid inventory and exploration were conducted to study orchid diversity in this conservation areas. Living plant was collected for ex situ conservation purpose in Botanic Garden. Observation on the population of terrestrial and epiphyte orchid was also done to study the dominant orchid in that area. It was recorded that there were 137 orchid species belonging to 51 genera, 95 species of which were epiphytes and 42 other species were terrestrial orchids. 134 species of which were collected in Cibodas Botanic Garden, which is suitable place for highland plant. The most dominant terrestrial orchid was Plocoglottis javanica. Other species were also abundantly found, such as Phaius pauciflorus, Liparis rheedii, Diglyphosa latifolia, Neuwiedia zollingeri var. javanica, Calanthe ceciliae, C. speciosa and Phaius callosus. Some epiphyte orchids were very common found, that are Agrostophyllum majus, Coelogyne speciosa, Dendrobium mutabile, Agrostophyllum bicuspidatum, Pholidota ventricosa and Eria javanica. Some attractive orchids are potential for ornamental plant, such as Vanda tricolor, Phaius callosus, Phaius tankervilleae, Arundina graminifolia, Bulbophyllum lobbii, Coelogyne speciosa, Calanthe ceciliae, Calanthe triplicata and Calanthe speciosa.

  5. Dicty_cDB: SLJ132 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available -1, comp... 32 6.8 AY935938_1( AY935938 |pid:none) Sloanea australis isolate 44 matur... 32 6.8 AY724338_1( ...AY724338 |pid:none) Ungnadia speciosa maturase K (matK... 32 8.9 protein update 2

  6. Screening for larvicidal activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of selected plants against Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Russelle Alvarez; Francisco Heralde III; Noel Quiming

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To screen for larvicidal activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts (95% ethanol) from Selaginella elmeri, Christella dentata, Elatostema sinnatum, Curculigo capitulata, Euphorbia hirta, Murraya koenigii (M. koenigii), Alpinia speciosa, Cymbopogon citratus, Eucalyptus globulus (E. globulus), Jatropha curcas (J. curcas), Psidium guajava, Gliricidia sepium, Ixora coccinea and Capsicum frutescens (C. frutescens) against Aedes aegypti (A. aegypti) and Aedes albopictus (A...

  7. Chemical composition and cytotoxic effect of Largerstroemia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fruits of Largerstroemia speciosa were collected, dried and grounded. Essential oils of powdered samples were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The essential oils contained mostly hydrocarbons: Methyl cyclohexane (60.9%), methyl benzene (18.2%), o-xylene (3.04%) representing ...

  8. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 151 - 200 of 246 ... Issue, Title. Vol 8, No 2 (2011), Hypoglycaemic effect of Allium sativum (aqueous extract) on normal and alloxan-induced hyperglycaemic Wistar rats, Abstract. D Atsukwei, SO Odeh, UG Egesie, SA Seriki, TP Yakubu. Vol 2, No 2 (2005), Hypotensive effect of Baissea axillaris (Apocynaceae) leaves in ...

  9. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sallau, MS. Vol 4, No 1 (2011) - Articles Synergistic Activity of Methanolic Extract of Adenium obesum (Apocynaceae) Stem-Bark and Oxytetracycline against Some Clinical Bacterial Isolates Abstract PDF · Vol 7, No 1 (2014) - Articles Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Properties of Commiphora Pedunculata (ENGL) Stem ...

  10. Reviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adema, Frits

    1995-01-01

    This is the second volume of a revision of Tabernaemontana (Apocynaceae). The volume covers the New World species (44) and the genus Stemmadenia (10 species). This part of the revision of Tabernaemontana comes up to the high standards set in the first volume [see the review by Leenhouts, Blumea 38

  11. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    N'guessan, BB. Vol 1, No 3 (2012) - Articles Hypoglycaemic activity of ethanolic leaf extract and fractions of Holarrhena floribunda (Apocynaceae) Abstract PDF · Vol 3, No 1 (2014) - Articles Biochemical and haematological changes following an acute toxicity study of a hydro-ethanolic whole plant extract of Synedrella ...

  12. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cerbera manghasL. (SEA MANGO) of Apocynaceae is a medium-sized evergreen coastal tree with milky latex. The bark is grey-brown, thick and rough. Leaves are leathery, long-veined, alternate and usually crowded at the end of branches. Flowers are in terminal compact clusters and are mildly scented, large (3–.

  13. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of plant extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-17

    Jun 17, 2008 ... Azochil, Axochitl, Ahuejotes, Flor de agua, Palo de agua. 12 Hamelia patens Jacq. Rubiaceae. Coral, Trompetilla, Jicarillo. 13 Swietenia humilis Zucc. Meliaceae. Zopilote, Cóbano, Palo de zopilote. 14 Stemmadenia bella Miers. Apocynaceae. 15 Rupechtia fusca. Polygonaceae. Guayabillo, Azulillo.

  14. Studies on Anti-Depressant Activity of Four Flavonoids Isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the anti-depressant activity of kaempferol, quercetin, kaempferol-3-O-β-D- glucose and quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucose isolated from Apocynum venetum Linn. (Apocynaceae) leaf and their mechanisms of action. Methods: The four flavonoids were isolated from Apocynum venetum leaf by ...

  15. new polythiophenes with oligo(oxyethylene) side chains

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2002 Chemical Society of Ethiopia. PICRANITINE, A NEW INDOLE ALKALOID FROM. PICRALIMA NITIDA (APOCYNACEAE). Pierre Tane1*, Mathieu Tene1 and Olov Sterner2. 1Department of Chemistry, University of Dschang, Box 67, Dschang, Cameroon. 2Division of Organic Chemistry 2, Lund Institute of Technology, ...

  16. Patterns of resource use by milkweed insects in Sinai | Elbanna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant morphology and defensive chemistry are related to the insect community of herbivores on Gomphocarpus sinaicus (Boiss.) (Apocynaceae) in Sinai (Egypt). There appears to be significant variation among individual plants in the components of their chemical defences. The different components of the community ...

  17. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 100 of 316 ... Vol 11 (2007), Antimicrobial activity of the methanolic leaf extract of Tabernaemontana pachysiphon stapf. (Apocynaceae), Abstract .... Vol 11 (2007), Blood Glucose Lowering Activities Of Seed Of Persea Americana On Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats, Abstract. M Okonta, L Okonta, C N Aguwa.

  18. Nigerian Journal of Natural Products and Medicine - Vol 11 (2007)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antimicrobial activity of the methanolic leaf extract of Tabernaemontana pachysiphon stapf. (Apocynaceae) · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL ... Blood Glucose Lowering Activities Of Seed Of Persea Americana On Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD ...

  19. Micropropagation of Caralluma stalagmifera var. longipetala: A rare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-08-27

    Aug 27, 2014 ... xerophytic succulent leafless medicinal herb belonging to. Apocynaceae. The succulent stem of the plant is used to cure many ailments and have noted antiobesity pro- ..... Thomas TD, Philip B (2005). Thidiazuron-induced high frequency shoot organogenesis from leaf derived callus of a medicinal climber,.

  20. Evaluation of antibacterial activities of Holarrhena floribunda on four ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MERIME

    2003). Antibacterial activity of two plants extracts on eight burn pathogens. J. Ethnopharmacol. 86 (1) : 59-61. 5) Goutarel, R. (1964). Les alcaloïdes stéroidiques des Apocynaceae, Herman, Paris pp. 74-76. 6) Letouzey, R. (1972). Manuel de ...

  1. Bull.Chem.Soc.Ethiop..3(2)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and of natural (6-13) or commercial origin. Many of. the alkaloids (Table 1-3) have been isolated from the following families: Loganiaceae, Rutaceae,. Rubiaceae, Papaveraceae, Leguminasae. Apocynaceae and Solanaceae. Bayluscide. (the ethanolamine salt of niclosamide supplied by Bayer of 1West Germany} was.

  2. Thevetia neriifolia Juss. ex Steud Syn. J. peruviava (Pers.) Schum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thevetia neriifolia Juss. ex Steud Syn. J. peruviava (Pers.) Schum (English: yellow oleander; Hindi: Pili-. Kaner) of Apocynaceae is a small evergreen ornamental tree with strap-like simple leaves and funnel- shaped yellow flowers. Fruit is large with a single hard-shelled seed. Thevetia trees are largely cultivated in gardens ...

  3. Rauwolfia serpentina : Protocol optimization for in vitro propagation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rauwolfia serpentina L. Benth. ex. Kurz. (Apocynaceae) a woody perennial shrub, possess alkaloids namely reserpine, ressinamine and yohmbine, and used to cure various neurological ailments. The present investigation is an effort to establish Rauwolfia for micro-propagation and sub-culturing. The shoots and leaves ...

  4. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 151 - 200 of 316 ... Vol 9 (2005), Formulation and evaluation of herbal anti-dandruff shampoo, Abstract. R Sagar, VK Dixit. Vol 18 (2014), Formulation and evaluation of tablet dosage form of Hunteria umbellate (apocynaceae) seed extract, Abstract. MI Arhewoh, OE Cash-Torunarigha, C Ugbo. Vol 20 (2016), Fuzzy-based ...

  5. In vitro anti-viral activity of aqueous extracts of Kenyan Carissa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vahl (Apocynaceae), Prunus africana (Hook.f.) Kalkm (Rosaceae) and Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae) have shown significant reduction in the replication of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in human embryonic lung (HEL) fibroblasts cells in vitro. Using the plaque inhibition assay for the determination of anti-viral activity, ...

  6. Clinical aplications of Trioxolane derivatives | Koech | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vahl (Apocynaceae), Prunus africana (Hook.f.) Kalkm (Rosaceae) and Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae) have shown significant reduction in the replication of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in human embryonic lung (HEL) fibroblasts cells in vitro. Using the plaque inhibition assay for the determination of anti-viral activity, ...

  7. Semenya et al., Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2013) 10(2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJTCAM

    family Asteraceae (6 species), followed by Fabaceae (4 species); Celastraceae and Euphorbiaceae (3 species each);. Anacardiaceae, Apocynaceae, Hyacinthaceae and Hypoxidaceae (2 species each). Other families were represented by a single species each. The dominance of the Asteraceae and Fabaceae, and to a ...

  8. When population genetics meets biological control of the invasive swallow-worts (Vincetoxicum nigrum (L.) Moench and V. rossicum (Kleopow) Barbar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We explored the population genetics of two European swallow-worts belonging to the Apocynaceae that have become established in the eastern United States and Canada. Population genetic data concerning both native and introduced populations are being used to pinpoint introduced population origin, and ...

  9. Study of laticiferous (latex-bearing) plants as potential petro-crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatia, V.K.; Garg, V.K.; Gupta, Y.K.; Rawat, S.S.; Singh, J.; Srivastava, G.S.

    1983-08-01

    While examining the possibility of using renewable plant materials as sources of hydrocarbons, indigenous laticiferous plants belonging to the families of Asclepiadaceae, Apocynaceae, Moraceae and Convolvulaceae have been evaluated. A few potential species have been selected as potential sources. Final selection can be made when biomass data on each of these are available.

  10. Survival, growth, and fecundity of the invasive swallow-worts (Vincetoxicum rossicum and V. nigrum) in New York State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black and pale swallowwort (BSW and PSW, respectively) are perennial, herbaceous vines in the Apocynaceae that are native to Europe. The species are becoming increasingly abundant in the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada and are difficult to manage. However, we know little about t...

  11. An ethnobotanical study of plants used for the treatment of diabetes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study revealed 14 plant species belonging to six families namely; Asteraceae, Hypoxidaceae, Apocynaceae, Asphodelaceae, Apiaceae and Buddlejaceae. The use of infusions from plant leaves and roots was the commonest method of herbal preparation. In all cases, the treatment involved drinking the extracts for a ...

  12. First report of Catharanthus mosaic virus in Mandevilla in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandevilla (Apocynaceae) is an ornamental tropical vine popular for its bright and attractive flowers. During 2012-2013 twelve Mandevilla sp. samples from Minnesota and Florida nurseries were submitted for analysis at the University of Minnesota Plant Disease Clinic. Plants showed mosaic symptoms, ...

  13. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of the root extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Root extracts of Carissa edulis (Forsk.) Vahl (Apocynaceae) are used for the treatment several pathological states including inflammatory disorders. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of an alcoholic extract of C. edulis (CEE) on carrageenan-induced foot oedema in chicks. Also since free radicals and ...

  14. Res Nov 2015 Cover Tp

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    System5

    Cerbera odollam Gaertn. of the family Apocynaceae is a moderate-sized evergreen tree distributed in the coastal swamps of India and other parts of South Asia. Bark is greyish-brown with longitudinal fissures. Branchlets are whorled with leaves crowded at the ends. Laminaislanceolate oroblanceolate, glabrous, green, ...

  15. Chemical control of blossom blight disease of sarpagandha caused ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-09-20

    Sep 20, 2010 ... family Apocynaceae) is growing in different parts of India and its adjoining countries. Its root contains many important alkaloids, like ajmalicine, ajmaline, isoajmaline, rauvolfinine, reserpine, serpentine, rescinnamine, tetra- phylicine, yohimbine and 3 epi α-yohimbine (Snimolia et al., 1984). Sarpagandha ...

  16. Impact of Hypena opulenta on invasive swallow-worts (Vincetoxicum spp.) under different light environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pale and black swallow-wort (Vincetoxicum rossicum and V. nigrum; Apocynaceae, subfamily Asclepiadoideae) are European viny milkweeds that have become invasive in many habitats in the northeastern U.S.A. and southeastern Canada. A defoliating moth from the Ukraine, Hypena opulenta (Christoph) (Lepid...

  17. Leaf anthracnose, a new disease of swallow-worts from Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black swallow-wort Vincetoxicum nigrum (L.) Moench (synonym=Cynanchum louiseae Kartesz & Gandhi) and pale swallow-wort Vincetoxicum rossicum (Kleopow) Borhidi (synonym=Cynanchum rossicum (Kleopow) Borhidi) are invasive plants belonging to the family Apocynaceae and are the targets of biological cont...

  18. Five new additions to the flora of Andaman & Nicobar Islands, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Rasingam

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fioria vitifolia (L. Mattei (Malvaceae, Combretum acuminatum Roxb. (Combretaceae, Marsdenia tinctoria R. Br. (Apocynaceae Phoebe lanceolata (Nees Nees (Lauraceae and Schoenoplectus mucronatus (L. Palla (Cyperaceae collected from Little Andaman Island are reported to be new additions to the flora of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.   

  19. Towards biological control of swallow-worts: the good, the bad and the ugly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Native from Eurasia, the ugly swallow-worts (Vincetoxicum rossicum and V. nigrum - Apocynaceae) invaded forested landscapes and prevent native plant regeneration in eastern North America. We first aimed to understand where do the invasive populations of both species come from, then we evaluated the ...

  20. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vahl (apocynaceae) Abstract PDF · Vol 28, No 1 (2008) - Articles Effects of Tetrapleura Tetraptera (Taub) Fruit Extract On Some Isolated Tissues: Possible Mechanism(S) of Antihypertensive Action Abstract PDF · Vol 29, No 1 (2009) - Articles Toxicity studies on Alchornea cordifolia leaf extract in mince. Abstract PDF · Vol 9, ...