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Sample records for hanaro fuel bundles

  1. Hydraulic characteristics of HANARO fuel bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, S.; Chung, H. J.; Chun, S. Y.; Yang, S. K.; Chung, M. K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents the hydraulic characteristics measured by using LDV (Laser Doppler Velocimetry) in subchannels of HANARO, KAERI research reactor, fuel bundle. The fuel bundle consists of 18 axially finned rods with 3 spacer grids, which are arranged in cylindrical configuration. The effects of the spacer grids on the turbulent flow were investigated by the experimental results. Pressure drops for each component of the fuel bundle were measured, and the friction factors of fuel bundle and loss coefficients for the spacer grids were estimated from the measured pressure drops. Implications regarding the turbulent thermal mixing were discussed. Vibration test results measured by using laser vibrometer were presented. 9 refs., 12 figs. (Author)

  2. Structural Integrity Evaluation of HANARO Fuel Basket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jeong Soo; Kim, Seong Ho; Yoon, Doo Byung

    2005-12-15

    The objective of this report is to perform the seismic analysis and the structural integrity evaluation of HANARO fuel basket and its supporting box beam in water. For these purpose, the in-air and submerged ANSYS finite element models of the HANARO fuel basket and the box beam were developed and the dynamic characteristics were analyzed. The seismic response spectrum analyses of HANARO fuel basket and box beam structure under the design floor response spectrum loads of OBE and SSE were performed. The analysis results show that the stress values of the HANARO fuel basket and the box beam for the seismic loads are within the ASME Code limits. It is also confirmed that the fatigue usage factor is much less than 1.0. Therefore any damage on structural integrity is not expected when the HANARO fuel basket is installed in the upper part of the box beam structure in water.

  3. Post irradiation examination of HANARO nucler mini-element fuel (metallographic and density test)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Byung Ok; Hong, K. P.; Park, D. G.; Choo, Y. S.; Baik, S. J.; Kim, K. H.; Kim, H. C.; Jung, Y. H

    2001-05-01

    The post irradiation examination of a HANARO mini-element nuclear fuel, KH96C-004, was done in June 6, 2000. The purpose of this project is to evaluate the in-core performance and reliability of mini-element nuclear fuel for HANARO developed by the project ''The Nuclear Fuel Material Development of Research Reactor''. And, in order to examine the performance of mini-element nuclear fuel in normal output condition, the post irradiation examination of a nuclear fuel bundle composed by 6 mini nuclear fuel rods and 12 dummy fuel rods was performed. Based on these examination results, the safety and reliability of HANARO fuel and the basic data on the design of HANARO nuclear fuel can be ensured and obtained,.

  4. HANARO fuel irradiation test(I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Dong Sung; Jeon, Byung Jin; Kim, Hak No; Kang, Byung Wee; Lee, Jong Tak; Kim, Bong Ku; Lim, In Chul; Chae, Hee Taek; Park, Cheol; Lee, Byung Cheol; Oh, Yeon Wo; Ahn, Sang Bok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-07-01

    Various types of test fuel has been reviewed and a 36 element hexagonal bundle design, with only 6 fuel elements at the corners of the peripheral positions and with A1 dummy rods or hollow elements at the remained 30 positions, was selected. The design enables the assembly to get local power boosting and to achieve higher power and faster burnup accumulation than other driver fuel in the core. For the three central positions (CT, IR 1 and IR 2) with maximum neutron flux, three different target burnup levels of {approx} 40, {approx} 65 and 85 {approx} 90 a/o have been chosen for the three test assemblies. One test assembly will be instrumented with thermocouples, neutron and gamma detectors to verify the irradiation condition. The instrumented test assembly has been fabricated in KAERI and other two test assemblies without any instruments were supplied by AECL. Two un-instrumented assemblies was inserted into HANARO at the end of December 1995 and has been under irradiation at IR 1 and IR 2 core positions without any problem. The measured data in the first cycle was conformed well to the predicted results. In the first cycle irradiation, the best estimated maximum power was 100.5 kw/m (MCNP) and the conservative maximum power was 117.7 kw/m. The instrumented test assembly will be irradiated from the second cycle. 5 tabs., 11 figs., 8 refs. (Author).

  5. Review of application code and standards for mechanical and piping design of HANARO fuel test loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. Y.

    1998-02-01

    The design and installation of the irradiation test facility for verification test of the fuel performance are very important in connection with maximization of the utilization of HANARO. HANARO fuel test loop was designed in accordance with the same code and standards of nuclear power plant because HANARO FTL will be operated the high pressure and temperature same as nuclear power plant operation conditions. The objective of this study is to confirm the propriety of application code and standards for mechanical and piping of HANARO fuel test loop and to decide the technical specification of FTL systems. (author). 18 refs., 8 tabs., 6 figs.

  6. Pressure drop measurement for flow-measuring dummy fuel assemblies in HANARO core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Heon Il; Chae, Hee Taek; Chung, Heung June [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-06-01

    In order to characterize the flow distribution of HANARO core, flow-rate measuring dummy fuel assemblies (instrumented dummy fuel assemblies) were to be used in the HANARO commissioning. To do this instrumented dummy fuel assemblies were developed and the calibration tests were conducted in the thermal-hydraulic laboratory. Through this experiment the correlations for 6 instrumented dummy fuel assemblies were derived. The measured total pressure drop for the 36-element dummy fuel assembly was 211 kPa, which meets the design requirement, 209 kPa {+-} 5%. The form loss coefficients for the spacers were re-evaluated and the new correlation was obtained. 7 tabs., 13 figs., 2 refs. (Author).

  7. IRRADIATION DEVICE FOR IRRADIATION TESTING OF COATED PARTICLE FUEL AT HANARO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BONG GOO KIM

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Korean Nuclear-Hydrogen Technology Development (NHTD Plan will be performing irradiation testing of coated particle fuel at HANARO to support the development of VHTR in Korea. This testing will be carried out to demonstrate and qualify TRISO-coated particle fuel for use in VHTR. The testing will be irradiated in an inert gas atmosphere without on-line temperature monitoring and control combined with on-line fission product monitoring of the sweep gas. The irradiation device contains two test rods, one has nine fuel compacts and the other five compacts and eight graphite specimens. Each compact contains about 260 TRISO-coated particles. The irradiation device is being loaded and irradiated into the OR5 hole of the in HANARO core from August 2013. The device will be operated for about 150 effective full-power days at a peak temperature of about 1030°C in BOC (Beginning of Cycle during irradiation testing. After a peak burn-up of about 4 atomic percentage and a peak fast neutron fluence of about 1.7×1021 n/cm2, PIE (Post-Irradiation Examination of the irradiated coated particle fuel will be performed at IMEF (Irradiated Material Examination Facility. This paper reviews the design of test rod and irradiation device for coated particle fuel, and discusses the technical results for irradiation testing at HANARO.

  8. Post irradiation examination of HANARO nucler fuel (KFH-067). Metallographic and density test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Byung Ok; Hong, K. P.; Park, D. G.; Choo, Y. S.; Baik, S. J.; Kim, K. H.; Kim, H. C.; Jung, Y. H.; Oho, W. U.; Kim, B. K

    2001-01-01

    The 2nd phase post irradiation examination (PIE) of nuclear fuel for HANARO which is a multi purpose research reactor. Built at KAERI has been performed in order to meet the licensing requirement of it. Changes of microstructure and density between fules with 50 and 80 at% burnup have been examined and compared with each other. The detailed PIE items are as follows; microstructure of diameter relate the swelling of fuel, measurement reaction larger particles and aluminum matrix, measurement of oxide layer thickness of fuel cladding, distribute of U3Si, examination of welding part of end plug examination of end plug part feature, and density measurement of fuel with burnup.

  9. POST-IRRADIATION ANALYSES OF U-MO DISPERSION FUEL RODS OF KOMO TESTS AT HANARO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.J. RYU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 2001, a series of five irradiation test campaigns for atomized U-Mo dispersion fuel rods, KOMO-1, -2, -3, -4, and -5, has been conducted at HANARO (Korea in order to develop high performance low enriched uranium dispersion fuel for research reactors. The KOMO irradiation tests provided valuable information on the irradiation behavior of U-Mo fuel that results from the distinct fuel design and irradiation conditions of the rod fuel for HANARO. Full size U-Mo dispersion fuel rods of 4–5 g-U/cm3 were irradiated at a maximum linear power of approximately 105 kW/m up to 85% of the initial U-235 depletion burnup without breakaway swelling or fuel cladding failure. Electron probe microanalyses of the irradiated samples showed localized distribution of the silicon that was added in the matrix during fuel fabrication and confirmed its beneficial effect on interaction layer growth during irradiation. The modifications of U-Mo fuel particles by the addition of a ternary alloying element (Ti or Zr, additional protective coatings (silicide or nitride, and the use of larger fuel particles resulted in significantly reduced interaction layers between fuel particles and Al.

  10. Design and manufacturing of non-instrumented capsule for advanced PWR fuel pellet irradiation test in HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D. H.; Lee, C. B.; Song, K. W. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-04-01

    This project is preparing to irradiation test of the developed large grain UO{sub 2} fuel pellet in HANARO for pursuit fuel safety and high burn-up in 'Advanced LWR Fuel Technology Development Project' as a part Nuclear Mid and Long-term R and D Program. On the basis test rod is performed the nuclei property and preliminary fuel performance analysis, test rod and non-instrumented capsule are designed and manufactured for irradiation test in HANARO. This non-instrumented irradiation capsule of Advanced PWR Fuel pellet was referred the non-instrumented capsule for an irradiation test of simulated DUPIC fuel in HANARO(DUPIC Rig-001) and 18-element HANARO fuel, was designed to ensure the integrity and the endurance of non-instrumented capsule during the long term(2.5 years) irradiation. To irradiate the UO{sub 2} pellets up to the burn-up 70 MWD/kgU, need the time about 60 months and ensure the integrity of non-instrumented capsule for 30 months until replace the new capsule. This non-instrumented irradiation capsule will be based to develope the non-instrumented capsule for the more long term irradiation in HANARO. 22 refs., 13 figs., 5 tabs. (Author)

  11. Design of the Capsule (13M-01K) for Irradiation of Fuel Cladding Materials in HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Man Soon; Choo, Kee Nam; Yang, Seong Woo; Kang, Young Hwan; Park, Sang Jun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Nuclear-grade zirconium alloys contain more than 95% Zr, and therefore most of their properties are similar to those of pure zirconium. ZIRLO material, used in fuel rod cladding, structural and flow mixing grids, instrumentation tubes, and guide thimbles, increases margin-to-fuel-rod-corrosion limits and enhances fuel assembly structural stability. The demonstrated corrosion resistance and enhanced structural stability of ZIRLO cladding enable longer cycle lengths at higher temperatures without reducing operating margins. An instrumented capsule (13M-01K) was designed and fabricated for evaluation of the neutron irradiation properties of Zirlo material, which is commonly used for cladding of nuclear fuel. This capsule is now being irradiated for 2 cycles at CT test hole of HANARO, which was started at Jan 27 and will be ended at Mar 31, 2014. The structure of the capsule was based on the previous capsule (11M-22K capsule) which was successfully irradiated at the same hole of HANARO. In the capsule, 182 specimens such as tensile specimens of plate type and ring type specimens were placed. Most of them are made of Zirlo, but a few are HANA material that is developed in KAERI. The irradiation test was requested by 4 universities including Dong-Kook and Han-Yang etc. The capsule is composed of 5 layers, each of which had Al holder containing several specimens and an independent electric heater, thermocouples etc. During the irradiation test, temperatures of the specimens and fast neutron fluence were measured by 14 thermocouples and 5 sets of Ni-Ti-Fe neutron fluence monitors installed in the capsule. The capsule is irradiated for 2 cycles (28 days) at the CT test hole of HANARO of a 30MW thermal output at 350-390 .deg. C up to a fast neutron fluence of 9.6Χ10{sup 20} (n/cm{sup 2}) (E>1.0 Mev). In this capsule, the two kinds of irradiation tests are performed at quite different temperatures. At upper 3 layers of the capsule, specimens for irradiation at high

  12. Static stress analysis of CANFLEX fuel bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suk, Ho Chun; Kang, Hee Young; Sim, Ki Seop; Jeong, Jang Hwan; Jun, Gi Su; Park, Ju Hwan; Lee, Che Han; Kim, Tae Hyoung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-02-01

    The static stress analysis of CANFLEX bundles is performed to evaluate the fuel structural integrity during the refuelling service. The structure analysis is carried out by predicting the drag force, stress and displacements of the fuel bundle. By the comparison of strength tests and analysis results, the displacement values are well agreed within 15%. The analysis shows that the CANFLEX fuel bundle keep its structural integrity. 24 figs., 6 tabs., 12 refs. (Author) .new.

  13. Research on water discharge characteristics of PEM fuel cells by using neutron imaging technology at the NRF, HANARO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, TaeJoo; Sim, CheulMuu; Kim, MooHwan

    2008-05-01

    An investigation into the water discharge characteristics of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells is carried out by using a feasibility test apparatus and the Neutron Radiography Facility (NRF) at HANARO. The feasibility test apparatus was composed of a distilled water supply line, a compressed air supply line, heating systems, and single PEM fuel cells, which were a 1-parallel serpentine type with a 100 cm(2) active area. Three kinds of methods were used: compressed air supply-only; heating-only; and a combination of the methods of a compressed air supply and heating, respectively. The resultant water discharge characteristics are different according to the applied methods. The compressed air supply only is suitable for removing the water at a flow field and a heating only is suitable for water at the MEA. Therefore, in order to remove all the water at PEM fuel cells, the combination method is needed at the moment.

  14. Management of research reactor; dynamic characteristics analysis for reactor structures related with vibration of HANARO fuel assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Chang Kee; Shim, Joo Sup [Shinwa Technology Information, Seoul (Korea)

    2001-04-01

    The objective of this study is to deduce the dynamic correlation between the fuel assembly and the reactor structure. Dynamic characteristics analyses for reactor structure related with vibration of HANARO fuel assembly have been performed For the dynamic characteristic analysis, the in-air models of the round and hexagonal flow tubes, 18-element and 36-element fuel assemblies, and reactor structure were developed. By calculating the hydrodynamic mass and distributing it on the in-air models, the in-water models of the flow tubes, the fuel assemblies, and the reactor structure were developed. Then, modal analyses for developed in-air and in-water models have been performed. Especially, two 18-element fuel assemblies and three 36-element fuel assemblies were included in the in-water reactor models. For the verification of the modal analysis results, the natural frequencies and the mode shapes of the fuel assembly were compared with those obtained from the experiment. Finally the analysis results of the reactor structure were compared with them performed by AECL Based on the reactor model without PCS piping, the in-water reactor model including the fuel assemblies was developed, and its modal analysis was performed. The analysis results demonstrate that there are no resonance between the fuel assembly and the reactor structures. 26 refs., 419 figs., 85 tabs. (Author)

  15. HANARO thermal hydraulic accident analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chul; Kim, Heon Il; Lee, Bo Yook; Lee, Sang Yong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-06-01

    For the safety assessment of HANARO, accident analyses for the anticipated operational transients, accident scenarios and limiting accident scenarios were conducted. To do this, the commercial nuclear reactor system code. RELAP5/MOD2 was modified to RELAP5/KMRR; the thermal hydraulic correlations and the heat exchanger model was changed to incorporate HANARO characteristics. This report summarizes the RELAP/KMRR calculation results and the subchannel analyses results based on the RELAP/KMRR results. During the calculation, major concern was placed on the integrity of the fuel. For all the scenarios, the important accident analysis parameters, i.e., fuel centerline temperatures and the minimum critical heat flux ratio(MCHFR), satisfied safe design limits. It was verified, therefore, that the HANARO was safely designed. 21 tabs., 89 figs., 39 refs. (Author) .new.

  16. Enthalpy and void distributions in subchannels of PHWR fuel bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. W.; Choi, H.; Rhee, B. W. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    Two different types of the CANDU fuel bundles have been modeled for the ASSERT-IV code subchannel analysis. From calculated values of mixture enthalpy and void fraction distribution in the fuel bundles, it is found that net buoyancy effect is pronounced in the central region of the DUPIC fuel bundle when compared with the standard CANDU fuel bundle. It is also found that the central region of the DUPIC fuel bundle can be cooled more efficiently than that of the standard fuel bundle. From the calculated mixture enthalpy distribution at the exit of the fuel channel, it is found that the mixture enthalpy and void fraction can be highest in the peripheral region of the DUPIC fuel bundle. On the other hand, the enthalpy and the void fraction were found to be highest in the central region of the standard CANDU fuel bundle at the exit of the fuel channel. This study shows that the subchannel analysis is very useful in assessing thermal behavior of the fuel bundle that could be used in CANDU reactors. 10 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  17. HANARO user support and training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Shin Ae; Kim, K. Y.; Kim, B. K. (and others)

    2008-06-15

    This project is aimed to support external users for the effective use of HANARO. The total number of projects selected as the beneficiary of the supporting program by MEST was 21 including this project in this year. We supported 2,339 hr measurements for the 31 requests of the 14 projects selected on the field of neutron beam utilization. In the field of materials and nuclear fuel irradiation test the 3 projects were selected and supported for 80 samples. In the fields of neutron activation analysis and radioisotope production the number of selected and supported projects were 1 and 2 respectively. In order to broaden potential user base, maximize instrument utilization, and enhance cooperation with industries, universities and institutes, practice-oriented HANARO user training courses were held for neutron beam utilization and materials and nuclear fuel irradiation fields. In the fields of neutron activation analysis 3 times training courses were held for the university students. The online neutron beam time allocation system was developed and applied successfully for the HRPD in this year. We are planing to apply this system to other neutron beam instruments in the near future. This project is a kind of the user-based supporting program for the maximize of HANARO utilization. The development products and the ideas and suggestions of users obtained through this projects will be collected and applied to the development of next new facilities. Also, by using the 'HANARO utilization and research information management system(HANARO4U)' we construct the research network among users at industries, universities and institutes. This network is expected to increase HANARO utilization and enhance productivity of the facilities.

  18. Promotion of HANARO Utilization for Year 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, J. M.; Kim, H. R.; Jun, B. J. (and others)

    2007-05-15

    To activate the HANARO utilization by expanding HANARO utilization fields, recruiting and training new users. In order to promote the HANARO utilization, the following activities have been performed. The neutron usage fee in HANARO. Achievements of HANARO utilization. Project for Activation of the Research using HANARO. HANARO Symposium. Survey of the HANARO User Satisfaction Index. Operation and Management of HANARO Server. Management of HANARO related committees. Training of HANARO users. Related activities of HANARO publicity. The related activities to activate HANARO utilization have been carried out successfully. This report summarized the detailed activities to activate the HANARO utilization. They will be useful for expanding HANARO utilization in the near future.

  19. Design and fabrication of hafnium tube to control the power of the irradiation test fuel in HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D. H.; Lee, C. B.; Kim, Y. M.; Yang, Y. S.; Jung, Y. H

    2003-05-01

    For the irradiation test at HANARO, non-instrumentation capsule was manufactured and hafnium tube was used to control LHGR of HANARO. Hafnium tube can control the irradiation condition of HANARO similar to that of commercial reactor. Hafnium tube thickness was determined by the LHGR calculated at OR-4 irradiation hole to be installed the non-instrumented capsule. To fabricate the hafnium tube with hafnium plate, the fabrication method was determined by using the hafnium mechanical properties. And the tensile strength of hafnium was confirmed by tensile test. This report is confirmed the LHGR control at the OR-4 and the Hafnium fabrication for in used which the AFPCAP non-instrumented irradiation capsule.

  20. Molybdenum-99-producing 37-element fuel bundle neutronically and thermal-hydraulically equivalent to a standard CANDU fuel bundle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichita, E., E-mail: Eleodor.Nichita@uoit.ca; Haroon, J., E-mail: Jawad.Haroon@uoit.ca

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • A 37-element fuel bundle modified for {sup 99}Mo production in CANDU reactors is presented. • The modified bundle is neutronically and thermal-hydraulically equivalent to the standard bundle. • The modified bundle satisfies all safety criteria satisfied by the standard bundle. - Abstract: {sup 99m}Tc, the most commonly used radioisotope in diagnostic nuclear medicine, results from the radioactive decay of {sup 99}Mo which is currently being produced at various research reactors around the globe. In this study, the potential use of CANDU power reactors for the production of {sup 99}Mo is investigated. A modified 37-element fuel bundle, suitable for the production of {sup 99}Mo in existing CANDU-type reactors is proposed. The new bundle is specifically designed to be neutronically and thermal-hydraulically equivalent to the standard 37-element CANDU fuel bundle in normal, steady-state operation and, at the same time, be able to produce significant quantities of {sup 99}Mo when irradiated in a CANDU reactor. The proposed bundle design uses fuel pins consisting of a depleted-uranium centre surrounded by a thin layer of low-enriched uranium. The new molybdenum-producing bundle is analyzed using the lattice transport code DRAGON and the diffusion code DONJON. The proposed design is shown to produce 4081 six-day Curies of {sup 99}Mo activity per bundle when irradiated in the peak-power channel of a CANDU core, while maintaining the necessary reactivity and power rating limits. The calculated {sup 99}Mo yield corresponds to approximately one third of the world weekly demand. A production rate of ∼3 bundles per week can meet the global demand of {sup 99}Mo.

  1. CANFLEX fuel bundle cross-flow endurance test (test report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sung Deok; Chung, C. H.; Chang, S. K.; Kim, B. D.

    1997-04-01

    As part of the normal refuelling sequence of CANDU nuclear reactor, both new and irradiated bundles can be parked in the cross-flow region of the liner tubes. This situation occurs normally for a few minutes. The fuel bundle which is subjected to the cross-flow should be capable of withstanding the consequences of cross flow for normal periods, and maintain its mechanical integrity. The cross-flow endurance test was conducted for CANFLEX bundle, latest developed nuclear fuel, at CANDU-Hot Test Loop. The test was carried out during 4 hours at the inlet cross-flow region. After the test, the bundle successfully met all acceptance criteria after the 4 hours cross-flow test. (author). 2 refs., 3 tabs.

  2. Interconnection of bundled solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michael; Bessette, II, Norman F; Litka, Anthony F; Schmidt, Douglas S

    2014-01-14

    A system and method for electrically interconnecting a plurality of fuel cells to provide dense packing of the fuel cells. Each one of the plurality of fuel cells has a plurality of discrete electrical connection points along an outer surface. Electrical connections are made directly between the discrete electrical connection points of adjacent fuel cells so that the fuel cells can be packed more densely. Fuel cells have at least one outer electrode and at least one discrete interconnection to an inner electrode, wherein the outer electrode is one of a cathode and and anode and wherein the inner electrode is the other of the cathode and the anode. In tubular solid oxide fuel cells the discrete electrical connection points are spaced along the length of the fuel cell.

  3. CURRENT STATUS OF INTEGRITY ASSESSMENT BY SIPPING SYSTEM OF SPENT FUEL BUNDLES IRRADIATED IN CANDU REACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JONG-YOUL PARK

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In terms of safety and the efficient management of spent fuel storage, detecting failed fuel is one of the most important tasks in a CANada Deuterium Uranium (CANDU reactor operation. It has been successfully demonstrated that in a CANDU reactor, on-power failed fuel detection and location systems, along with alarm area gamma monitors, can detect and locate defective and suspect fuel bundles before discharging them from the reactor to the spent fuel storage bay. In the reception bay, however, only visual inspection has been used to identify suspect bundles. Gaseous fission product and delayed neutron monitoring systems cannot precisely distinguish failed fuel elements from each fuel bundle. This study reports the use of a sipping system in a CANDU reactor for the integrity assessment of spent fuel bundles. The integrity assessment of spent fuel bundles using this sipping system has shown promise as a nondestructive test for detecting a defective fuel bundle in a CANDU reactor.

  4. SCADOP: Phenomenological modeling of dryout in nuclear fuel rod bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasgupta, Arnab, E-mail: arnie@barc.gov.in; Chandraker, D.K., E-mail: dineshkc@barc.gov.in; Vijayan, P.K., E-mail: vijayanp@barc.gov.in

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Phenomenological model for annular flow dryout is presented. • The model evaluates initial entrained fraction using a new methodology. • The history effect in annular flow is predicted and validated. • Rod bundle dryout is predicted using subchannel methodology. • Model is validated against experimental dryout data in tubes and rod bundles. - Abstract: Analysis and prediction of dryout is of important consequence to safety of nuclear fuel clusters of boiling water type of reactors. Traditionally, experimental correlations are used for dryout predictions. Since these correlations are based on operating parameters and do not aim to model the underlying phenomena, there has been a proliferation of the correlations, each catering to some specific bundle geometry under a specific set of operating conditions. Moreover, such experiments are extremely costly. In general, changes in tested bundle geometry for improvement in thermal-hydraulic performance would require re-experimentation. Understanding and modeling the basic processes leading to dryout in flow boiling thus has great incentive. Such a model has the ability to predict dryout in any rod bundle geometry, unlike the operating parameter based correlation approach. Thus more informed experiments can be carried out. A good model can, reduce the number of experiments required during the iterations in bundle design. In this paper, a phenomenological model as indicated above is presented. The model incorporates a new methodology to estimate the Initial Entrained Fraction (IEF), i.e., entrained fraction at the onset of annular flow. The incorporation of this new methodology is important since IEF is often assumed ad-hoc and sometimes also used as a parameter to tune the model predictions to experimental data. It is highlighted that IEF may be low under certain conditions against the general perception of a high IEF due to influence of churn flow. It is shown that the same phenomenological model is

  5. Spent fuel bundle counter sequence error manual - BRUCE NGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholson, L.E

    1992-03-20

    The Spent Fuel Bundle Counter (SFBC) is used to count the number and type of spent fuel transfers that occur into or out of controlled areas at CANDU reactor sites. However if the transfers are executed in a non-standard manner or the SFBC is malfunctioning, the transfers are recorded as sequence errors. Each sequence error message typically contains adequate information to determine the cause of the message. This manual provides a guide to interpret the various sequence error messages that can occur and suggests probable cause or causes of the sequence errors. Each likely sequence error is presented on a 'card' in Appendix A. Note that it would be impractical to generate a sequence error card file with entries for all possible combinations of faults. Therefore the card file contains sequences with only one fault at a time. Some exceptions have been included however where experience has indicated that several faults can occur simultaneously.

  6. Spent fuel bundle counter sequence error manual - DARLINGTON NGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholson, L.E

    1992-03-25

    The Spent Fuel Bundle Counter (SFBC) is used to count the number and type of spent fuel transfers that occur into or out of controlled areas at CANDU reactor sites. However if the transfers are executed in a non-standard manner or the SFBC is malfunctioning, the transfers are recorded as sequence errors. Each sequence error message typically contains adequate information to determine the cause of the message. This manual provides a guide to interpret the various sequence error messages that can occur and suggests probable cause or causes of the sequence errors. Each likely sequence error is presented on a 'card' in Appendix A. Note that it would be impractical to generate a sequence error card file with entries for all possible combinations of faults. Therefore the card file contains sequences with only one fault at a time. Some exceptions have been included however where experience has indicated that several faults can occur simultaneously.

  7. Modelling of fuel bundle deformation at high temperatures: requirements, models and steps for consideration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, S.; Xu, Z.; Fan, H.; Nitheanandan, T. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, MIssissauga, Ontario (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    To model thermal mechanical bundle deformation behaviour under high temperature conditions, several factors need to be considered. These are the sources of loads, deformation mechanisms, interactions within bundle components, bundle and pressure tube (PT) interaction, and boundary constraints on the fuel bundles under in-reactor conditions. This paper describes the modelling of the following three processes: Bundle slumping due to high temperature creep-sag of individual elements and endplates; Differential element expansion and fuel element bowing; and, Bundle distortion under axial loads. To model these processes, a number of key mechanisms for bundle deformation must be considered, which include: 1) Interaction of fuel elements in a bundle with their neighbours, 2) Endplate deformation, 3) Fuel elements lateral deformation under various loads and mechanisms, 4) Interaction within a fuel element, 5) Material property change at high temperatures, 6) Transient response of a bundle, and 7) Bundle configuration change. This paper summarises the new models needed for the mechanistic modelling of the key mechanisms mentioned above and provides an example to show how an endplate plasticity model is developed with results. (author)

  8. Recent irradiation tests for future nuclear system at HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Man Soon; Choo, Kee Nam; Yang, Seong Woo; Park, Sang Jun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The capsule at HANARO is a device that evaluates the irradiation effects of nuclear materials and fuels, which can reproduce the environment of nuclear power plants and accelerate to reach to the end of life condition. As the integrity assessment and the extension of lifetime of nuclear power plants are recently considered as important issues in Korea, the requirements for irradiation test are gradually being increased. The capacity and capability irradiation tests at HANARO are becoming important because Korea strives to develop SFR (Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor) and VHTR (Very High Temperature Reactor) among the future nuclear system and to export the research reactors and to develop the fusion reactor technology.

  9. Two-phase pressure drops for CANDU fuel bundles in uncrept and crept channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutradhar, S.C. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    Pressure-drop tests in Freon-134a were performed on aligned and misaligned 37-element CANDU (C6) fuel bundles in uncrept and 3% crept channels. The results indicate that the two-phase pressure-drop profiles are similar in shape, but higher in magnitude, compared with the single-phase pressure-drop profiles. The two-phase multipliers (TPMs) are a strong function of the thermodynamic quality of the fluid. The measured TPMs of the bundles in the uncrept channel are higher than those in the crept channel. The measured TPMs for the aligned bundles agree well with the Beattie correlation. (author)

  10. Temperature Distributions in LMR Fuel Pin Bundles as Modeled by COBRA-IV-I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Steven A.; Stout, Sherry

    2005-02-01

    Most pin type reactor designs for space power or terrestrial applications group the fuel pins into a number of relatively large fuel pin bundles or subassemblies. Fuel bundles for terrestrial liquid metal fast breeders reactors typically use 217 - 271 pins per sub-assembly, while some SP100 designs use up to 331 pins in a central subassembly that was surrounded by partial assemblies. Because thermal creep is exponentially related to temperature, small changes in fuel pin cladding temperature can make large differences in the lifetime in a high temperature liquid metal reactor (LMR). This paper uses the COBRA-IV-I computer code to determine the temperature distribution within LMR fuel bundles. COBRA-IV-I uses the sub-channel analysis approach to determine the enthalpy (or temperature) and flow distribution in rod bundles for both steady-state and transient conditions. The COBRA code runs in only a few seconds and has been benchmarked and tested extensively over a wide range of flow conditions. In this report the flow and temperature distributions for two types of lithium cooled space reactor core designs were calculated. One design uses a very tight fuel pin packing that has a pitch to diameter ratio of 1.05 (small wire wrap with a diameter of 392 μm) as proposed in SP100. The other design uses a larger pitch to diameter ratio of 1.09 with a larger more conventional sized wire wrap diameter of 1 mm. The results of the COBRA pin bundle calculations show that the larger pitch-to-diameter fuel bundle designs are more tolerant to local flow blockages, and in addition they are less sensitive to mal-flow distributions that occur near the edges of the subassembly.

  11. Input modelling of ASSERT-PV V2R8M1 for RUFIC fuel bundle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Joo Hwan; Suk, Ho Chun

    2001-02-01

    This report describes the input modelling for subchannel analysis of CANFLEX-RU (RUFIC) fuel bundle which has been developed for an advanced fuel bundle of CANDU-6 reactor, using ASSERT-PV V2R8M1 code. Execution file of ASSERT-PV V2R8M1 code was recently transferred from AECL under JRDC agreement between KAERI and AECL. SSERT-PV V2R8M1 which is quite different from COBRA-IV-i code has been developed for thermalhydraulic analysis of CANDU-6 fuel channel by subchannel analysis method and updated so that 43-element CANDU fuel geometry can be applied. Hence, ASSERT code can be applied to the subchannel analysis of RUFIC fuel bundle. The present report was prepared for ASSERT input modelling of RUFIC fuel bundle. Since the ASSERT results highly depend on user's input modelling, the calculation results may be quite different among the user's input models. The objective of the present report is the preparation of detail description of the background information for input data and gives credibility of the calculation results.

  12. The status and prospects of the irradiation tests at HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Man Soon; Choo, Kee Nam; Yang, Seong Woo; Park, Sang Jun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The integrity assessment of NPP and the extension of lifetime are being considered as important issue, and so the irradiation tests for the structural materials and fuels of NPP should necessarily be conducted. And, the capability of irradiation test is important because Korea participates in developing SFR and VHTR while the development of future nuclear systems is going on to obtain new energy sources all over the world. To effectively support the R and D for new nuclear systems at HANARO, the advanced irradiation technologies such as high-temperature irradiation, instrumentation, and long-term irradiation are being developed. In addition, the researches on the irradiation characteristics of super-conductor materials and new chemical materials are being progressed as a part of fundamental research. Korea is conducting R and D programs relevant to new nuclear systems including research reactor, future nuclear system such as VHTR, SFR and fusion reactor system. In addition, research on the irradiation characteristics of super-conductor materials and new electronic materials is being conducted as a part of fundamental research. Irradiation tests in HANARO are mostly related to the R and D relevant to the ageing management and safety evaluation of NPP and development of the future nuclear system and production of design data of research reactor. The HANARO irradiation capsule system has been developed and actively utilized for the irradiation testing of fuels and materials. The irradiation tests of materials up to the present have been performed usually at temperatures below 300 .deg. C, at which the RPV of PWR materials is being operated. As the irradiation tests of the materials and fuels for a Gen-IV nuclear system are recently required and the development of new research reactors is going on, the capsules for high- and low-temperature irradiation are being developed at HANARO.

  13. Fission product release assessment for end fitting failure in Candu reactor loaded with CANFLEX-NU fuel bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Dirk Joo; Jeong, Chang Joon; Lee, Kang Moon; Suk, Ho Chun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    Fission product release (FPR) assessment for End Fitting Failure (EFF) in CANDU reactor loaded with CANFLEX-natural uranium (NU) fuel bundles has been performed. The predicted results are compared with those for the reactor loaded with standard 37-element bundles. The total channel I-131 release at the end of transient for EFF accident is calculated to be 380.8 TBq and 602.9 TBq for the CANFLEX bundle and standard bundle channel cases, respectively. They are 4.9% and 7.9% of total inventory, respectively. The lower total releases of the CANFLEX bundle O6 channel are attributed to the lower initial fuel temperatures caused by the lower linear element power of the CANFLEX bundle compared with the standard bundle. 4 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs. (Author)

  14. Effects of fuel relocation on reflood in a partially-blocked rod bundle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byoung Jae [School of Mechanical Engineering, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34134 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jongrok; Kim, Kihwan; Bae, Sung Won [Thermal-Hydraulic Safety Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Division, 111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34057 (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Sang-Ki, E-mail: skmoon@kaeri.re.kr [Thermal-Hydraulic Safety Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Division, 111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34057 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    Ballooning of the fuel rods has been an important issue, since it can influence the coolability of the rod bundle in a large-break loss-of-coolant accident (LBLOCA). Numerous past studies have investigated the effect of blockage geometry on the heat transfer in a partially blocked rod bundle. However, they did not consider the occurrence of fuel relocation and the corresponding effect on two-phase heat transfer. Some fragmented fuel particles located above the ballooned region may drop into the enlarged volume of the balloon. Accordingly, the fuel relocation brings in a local power increase in the ballooned region. The present study’s objective is to investigate the effect of the fuel relocation on the reflood under a LBLOCA condition. Toward this end, experiments were performed in a 5 × 5 partially-blocked rod bundle. Two power profiles were tested: one is a typical cosine shape and the other is the modified shape considering the effect of the fuel relocation. For a typical power shape, the peak temperature in the ballooned rods was lower than that in the intact rods. On the other hand, for the modified power shape, the peak temperature in the ballooned rods was higher than that in the intact rods. Numerical simulations were also performed using the MARS code. The tendencies of the peak clad temperatures were well predicted.

  15. HANARO core channel flow-rate measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Heon Il; Chae, Hee Tae; Im, Don Soon; Kim, Seon Duk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-06-01

    HANARO core consists of 23 hexagonal flow tubes and 16 cylindrical flow tubes. To get the core flow distribution, we used 6 flow-rate measuring dummy fuel assemblies (instrumented dummy fuel assemblies). The differential pressures were measured and converted to flow-rates using the predetermined relationship between AP and flow-rate for each instrumented dummy fuel assemblies. The flow-rate for the cylindrical flow channels shows +-7% relative errors and that for the hexagonal flow channels shows +-3.5% relative errors. Generally the flow-rates of outer core channels show smaller values compared to those of inner core. The channels near to the core inlet pipe and outlet pipes also show somewhat lower flow-rates. For the lower flow channels, the thermal margin was checked by considering complete linear power histories. From the experimental results, the gap flow-rate was estimated to be 49.4 kg/s (cf. design flow of 50 kg/s). 15 tabs., 9 figs., 10 refs. (Author) .new.

  16. Calculation of Heat-Bearing Agent’s Steady Flow in Fuel Bundle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amosova, E. V.; Guba, G. G.

    2017-11-01

    This paper introduces the result of studying the heat exchange in the fuel bundle of the nuclear reactor’s fuel magazine. The article considers the fuel bundle of the infinite number of fuel elements, fuel elements are considered in the checkerboard fashion (at the tops of a regular triangle a fuel element is a plain round rod. The inhomogeneity of volume energy release in the rod forms the inhomogeneity of temperature and velocity fields, and pressure. Computational methods for studying hydrodynamics in magazines and cores with rod-shape fuel elements are based on a significant simplification of the problem: using basic (averaged) equations, isobaric section hypothesis, porous body model, etc. This could be explained by the complexity of math description of the three-dimensional fluid flow in the multi-connected area with the transfer coefficient anisotropy, curved boundaries and technical computation difficulties. Thus, calculative studying suggests itself as promising and important. There was developed a method for calculating the heat-mass exchange processes of inter-channel fuel element motions, which allows considering the contribution of natural convection to the heat-mass exchange based on the Navier-Stokes equations and Boussinesq approximation.

  17. Low-Temperature and Long-Term Irradiation Testing of HANARO Instrumented Capsule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, Kee Nam; Cho, Man Soon; Lee, Cheol Yong; Yang, Sung Woo; Shin, Yoontaek; Park, Sengjae; Kang, Young Hwan; Park, Sang Jun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    In this paper, the low-temperature and long-term irradiation capsule technology developed for the irradiation testing of research reactor materials at HANARO are described. A new capsule and capsule system for long-term irradiation at low temperature was designed, fabricated, and irradiated for an evaluation of the neutron irradiation properties of the core materials (Graphite, Be, Zircaloy-4) of a research reactor for the National Project of 'Research Reactor Development'. Two capsules were first designed and fabricated to irradiate materials at low temperature (36-56 .deg .C) for a long cycle of 8 irradiation cycles at HANARO. The safety of the new irradiation capsule and capsule system was thoroughly evaluated through the out-pile and in-pile testing. The new capsule was successfully irradiated for up to 8 cycles at HANARO. HANARO instrumented irradiation capsules have been actively used for the irradiation of nuclear fuels and materials. Capsule technology was basically developed for irradiation testing under a commercial reactor operation environment. Most irradiation testing using capsules has been performed at specimen temperatures of 250-500 .deg. C within 4 reactor operation cycles (about 100 days) at HANARO. Recently, as a part of the research reactor development's project, irradiation testing of materials used as reflector materials in a research reactor such as graphite, beryllium, and zircaloy-4 was required up to 8 reactor operation cycles at low temperature (<100 .deg. C) of specimens.

  18. CONTRIBUTION OF HANARO IRRADIATION TECHNOLOGIES TO NATIONAL NUCLEAR R&D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KEE NAM CHOO

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available HANARO is a multipurpose research reactor located at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI. Since the commencement of its operation in 1995, various neutron irradiation facilities, such as rabbit irradiation facilities, fuel test loop (FTL facilities, capsule irradiation facilities, and neutron transmutation doping (NTD facilities, have been developed and actively utilized for various nuclear material irradiation tests requested by users from research institutes, universities, and industries. Most irradiation tests have been related to national R&D relevant to present nuclear power reactors such as the ageing management and safety evaluation of the components. Based on the accumulated experience as well as the sophisticated requirements of users, HANARO has recently supported national R&D projects relevant to new nuclear systems including the System-integrated Modular Advanced Reactor (SMART, research reactors, and future nuclear systems. This paper documents the current state and utilization of irradiation facilities in HANARO, and summarizes ongoing research efforts to deploy advanced irradiation technology.

  19. Contribution of HANARO irradiation technologies to national nuclear R and D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, Kee Nam; Cho, Man Soon; Yang, Sung Woo; Park, Sang Jun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    HANARO is a multipurpose research reactor located at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). Since the commencement of its operation in 1995, various neutron irradiation facilities, such as rabbit irradiation facilities, fuel test loop (FTL) facilities, capsule irradiation facilities, and neutron transmutation doping (NTD) facilities, have been developed and actively utilized for various nuclear material irradiation tests requested by users from research institutes, universities, and industries. Most irradiation tests have been related to national R and D relevant to present nuclear power reactors such as the ageing management and safety evaluation of the components. Based on the accumulated experience as well as the sophisticated requirements of users, HANARO has recently supported national R and D projects relevant to new nuclear systems including the System-integrated Modular Advanced Reactor (SMART), research reactors, and future nuclear systems. This paper documents the current state and utilization of irradiation facilities in HANARO, and summarizes ongoing research efforts to deploy advanced irradiation technology.

  20. Conceptional design of test loop for FIV in fuel bundle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, W. G.; Yang, J. S.; Kim, S. W. [Hannam Univ., Taejeon (Korea)

    2001-01-01

    It is urgent to develop the analytical model for the structural/mechanical integrity of fuel rod. In general, it is not easy to develop a pure analytical model. Occasionally, experimental results have been utilized for the model. Because of this reason, it is required to design proper test loop. Using the optimized test loop, with the optimized test loop, the dynamic behaviour of the rod will be evaluated and the critical flow velocity, which the rod loses the stability in, will be measured for the design of the rod. To verify the integrity of the fuel rod, it is required to evaluate the dynamic behaviour and the critical flow velocity with the test loop. The test results will be utilized to the design of the rod. Generally, the rod has a ground vibration due to turbulence in wide range of flow velocity and the amplitude of vibration becomes larger by the resonance, in a range of the velocity where occurs vortex. The rod loses stability in critical flow velocity caused by fluid-elastic instability. For the purpose of the present work to perform the conceptional design of the test loop, it is necessary (1) to understand the mechanism of the flow-induced vibration and the related experimental coefficients, (2) to evaluate the existing test loops for improving the loop with design parameters and (3) to decide the design specifications of the major equipments of the loop. 35 refs., 23 figs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  1. Utilization of the HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kyung Bae; Yoon, Byung Mok; Chung, Yong Sam; Han, Hyun Soo; Bang, Hong Sik; Shin, Byung Chul; Cho, Woon Gap; Kim, Young Mi; Park, Ul Jae; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Joo Young; Park, Choon Deuk; Seo, Choon Ha; Lee, Young Koo; Shin, Hun Young; Han, Kwang Hee; Chung, Young Joo; Park, Woong Woo; Kim, Dong Soo; Jun, Sang Soo; Hong, Soon Buk; Min, Eun Sook; Jin, Joon Ha; Kim, Ki Yup; Nho, YOung Chang; Lee, Young Keun; Jung, Sung Hee; Park, Soon Cheol; Na, Bong Joo; Kim, Jae Ho; Paik, Sam Tae; Park, Sang Jun; Suh, Doo Whan; Lee, Jae Poong; Oh, Sam Yong; Youm, Kee Hong; Kim, Jong Kook; Gu, Jung Min; Sin, Ho Chul

    1997-01-01

    Radioisotope facilities were operated to support research, development and production of radioisotopes. Irradiation facilities were operated to offer irradiation service to the clients. Even though intensive periodical checks and some essential maintenance had been carried out the results of RI facility maintenance seemed to be not much satisfactory due mainly to the shortage of skilled manpower and maintenance expenses. High intensity {gamma} irradiator was normally operated 165 times for overall 2,670 hrs, and the low intensity {gamma} irradiator was operated 89 times for overall 367 hrs, respectively. The reactor shutdown report of TRIGA Mark-II and Mark-III were submitted to MOST and the spent fuels from the core were transferred to storage racks in reactor pool for decommissioning which will be started in 1997. (author). 5 tabs., 3 figs.

  2. Numerical Study on Influence of Cross Flow on Rewetting of AHWR Fuel Bundle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mithilesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerical study on AHWR fuel bundle has been carried out to assess influence of circumferential and cross flow rewetting on the conduction heat transfer. The AHWR fuel bundle quenching under accident condition is designed primarily with radial jets at several axial locations. A 3D (r, θ, z transient conduction fuel pin model has been developed to carry out the study with a finite difference method (FDM technique with alternating direction implicit (ADI scheme. The single pin has been considered to study effect of circumferential conduction and multipins have been considered to study the influence of cross flow. Both analyses are carried out with the same fluid temperature and heat transfer coefficients as boundary conditions. It has been found from the analyses that, for radial jet, the circumferential conduction is significant and due to influence of overall cross flow the reductions in fuel temperature in the same quench plane in different rings are different with same initial surface temperature. Influence of cross flow on rewetting is found to be very significant. Outer fuel pins rewetting time is higher than inner.

  3. Development of the Homepage for the HANARO information platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, J. M.; Park, K. B.; Kim, H. R. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-05-01

    I - Object and Importance- Following in the footsteps of internationalization and the information-oriented society, we need to open the HANARO to the public, and to serve more detailed, accurate, and varied information rapidly via the internet to enhance the HANARO Utilization efficiency. II- Scope and Contents- We develope the HANARO Homepage using ORACLE DBMS and APACJE, it has function as an information platform for HANARO. In this report, we describe its design, implementation, management and operation. III-Result -The HANARO homepage was developed successfully, and it was opened to HANARO users from March 20, 2002 through the KAERI-Net. IV- Proposal for Application-The data of HANARO should be processed and organized systematically for its better utilization. A supplementation of the functions is needed and the HANARO web should be operated practically with maximum efficiency and advertise the activities locally and internationally. 3 refs., 11 figs., 9 tabs. (Author)

  4. Optimization of thorium-uranium content in a 54-element fuel bundle for use in a CANDU-SCWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hummel, D.W.; Novog, D.R. [McMaster Univ., Dept. of Engineering Physics, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    A new 54-element fuel bundle design has been proposed for use in a pressure-tube supercritical water-cooled reactor, a pre-conceptual evolution of existing CANDU reactors. Pursuant to the goals of the Generation IV International Forum regarding advancement in nuclear fuel cycles, optimization of the thorium and uranium content in each ring of fuel elements has been studied with the objectives of maximizing the achievable fuel utilization (burnup) and total thorium content within the bundle, while simultaneously minimizing the linear element ratings and coolant void reactivity. The bundle was modeled within a reactor lattice cell using WIMS-AECL, and the uranium and thorium content in each ring of fuel elements was optimized using a weighted merit function of the aforementioned criteria and a metaheuristic search algorithm. (author)

  5. Validity and Utilization of the Out-Pile Testing Facilities at HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, Kee-Nam; Cho, Man-Soon; Yang, Sung-Woo; Shin, Yoon-Taek; Park, Seng-Jae; Jun, Byung-Hyuk; Kim, Myong-Seop [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Various neutron irradiation facilities such as rabbit irradiation facilities, loop facilities and the capsule irradiation facilities for irradiation tests of nuclear materials, fuels and radioisotope products have been developed at HANARO. Among these irradiation facilities, the capsule is the most useful device for coping with the various test requirements at HANARO. To support the national research and development programs on nuclear reactors and the nuclear fuel cycle technology in Korea, new irradiation capsules have been developed and actively utilized for the irradiation tests requested by numerous users. The environmental conditions for these reactors are generally beyond present day reactor technology, especially regarding the higher neutron fluence and higher operating temperature. To effectively support the national R and Ds relevant to the future nuclear systems, the development of advanced irradiation technologies concerning higher neutron fluence and irradiation temperature are being preferentially developed at HANARO. The utilization of the out-pile testing facilities to satisfy the criteria of safety evaluation for a new device installed in the core of HANARO was summarized. In addition, the validity of the out-pile testing facilities was evaluated and proved to be effective for verifying the integrity of irradiation capsule.

  6. Numerical Simulations on the Laser Spot Welding of Zirconium Alloy Endplate for Nuclear Fuel Bundle Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyanarayana, G.; Narayana, K. L.; Boggarapu, Nageswara Rao

    2018-01-01

    In the nuclear industry, a critical welding process is joining of an end plate to a fuel rod to form a fuel bundle. Literature on zirconium welding in such a critical operation is limited. A CFD model is developed and performed for the three-dimensional non-linear thermo-fluid analysis incorporating buoyancy and Marnangoni stress and specifying temperature dependent properties to predict weld geometry and temperature field in and around the melt pool of laser spot during welding of a zirconium alloy E110 endplate with a fuel rod. Using this method, it is possible to estimate the weld pool dimensions for the specified laser power and laser-on-time. The temperature profiles will estimate the HAZ and microstructure. The adequacy of generic nature of the model is validated with existing experimental data.

  7. Spent fuel bundle counter sequence error manual - KANUPP (125 MW) NGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholson, L.E

    1992-03-20

    The Spent Fuel Bundle Counter (SFBC) is used to count the number and type of spent fuel transfers that occur into or out of controlled areas at CANDU reactor sites. However if the transfers are executed in a non-standard manner or the SFBC is malfunctioning, the transfers are recorded as sequence errors. Each sequence error message may contain adequate information to determine the cause of the message. This manual provides a guide to interpret the various sequence error messages that can occur and suggests probable cause or causes of the sequence errors. Each likely sequence error is presented on a 'card' in Appendix A. Note that it would be impractical to generate a sequence error card file with entries for all possible combinations of faults. Therefore the card file contains sequences with only one fault at a time. Some exceptions have been included however where experience has indicated that several faults can occur simultaneously.

  8. Spent fuel bundle counter sequence error manual - RAPPS (200 MW) NGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholson, L.E

    1992-03-24

    The Spent Fuel Bundle Counter (SFBC) is used to count the number and type of spent fuel transfers that occur into or out of controlled areas at CANDU reactor sites. However if the transfers are executed in a non-standard manner or the SFBC is malfunctioning, the transfers are recorded as sequence errors. Each sequence error message typically contains adequate information to determine the cause of the message. This manual provides a guide to interpret the various sequence error messages that can occur and suggests probable cause or causes of the sequence errors. Each likely sequence error is presented on a 'card' in Appendix A. Note that it would be impractical to generate a sequence error card file with entries for all possible combinations of faults. Therefore the card file contains sequences with only one fault at a time. Some exceptions have been included however where experience has indicated that several faults can occur simultaneously.

  9. Application of Genetic Algorithm methodologies in fuel bundle burnup optimization of Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayalal, M.L., E-mail: jayalal@igcar.gov.in [Electronics, Instrumentation and Radiological Safety Group (EIRSG), Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu (India); Ramachandran, Suja [Electronics, Instrumentation and Radiological Safety Group (EIRSG), Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu (India); Rathakrishnan, S. [Reactor Physics Section, Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS), Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu (India); Satya Murty, S.A.V. [Electronics, Instrumentation and Radiological Safety Group (EIRSG), Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu (India); Sai Baba, M. [Resources Management Group (RMG), Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • We study and compare Genetic Algorithms (GA) in the fuel bundle burnup optimization of an Indian Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) of 220 MWe. • Two Genetic Algorithm methodologies namely, Penalty Functions based GA and Multi Objective GA are considered. • For the selected problem, Multi Objective GA performs better than Penalty Functions based GA. • In the present study, Multi Objective GA outperforms Penalty Functions based GA in convergence speed and better diversity in solutions. - Abstract: The work carried out as a part of application and comparison of GA techniques in nuclear reactor environment is presented in the study. The nuclear fuel management optimization problem selected for the study aims at arriving appropriate reference discharge burnup values for the two burnup zones of 220 MWe Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) core. Two Genetic Algorithm methodologies namely, Penalty Functions based GA and Multi Objective GA are applied in this study. The study reveals, for the selected problem of PHWR fuel bundle burnup optimization, Multi Objective GA is more suitable than Penalty Functions based GA in the two aspects considered: by way of producing diverse feasible solutions and the convergence speed being better, i.e. it is capable of generating more number of feasible solutions, from earlier generations. It is observed that for the selected problem, the Multi Objective GA is 25.0% faster than Penalty Functions based GA with respect to CPU time, for generating 80% of the population with feasible solutions. When average computational time of fixed generations are considered, Penalty Functions based GA is 44.5% faster than Multi Objective GA. In the overall performance, the convergence speed of Multi Objective GA surpasses the computational time advantage of Penalty Functions based GA. The ability of Multi Objective GA in producing more diverse feasible solutions is a desired feature of the problem selected, that helps the

  10. Neutron detectors for scattering experiments at HANARO

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    alignment of the monochromator crystal and sample itself. The traditional photo- graphic method is time consuming and does not provide any information on the small variations in intensity. LE PSD is used for beam alignment at all the neutron scattering instruments at HANARO [3]. Figure 3a shows the assembled LE PSD.

  11. Turbulence Model Evaluation Study for a Secondary Flow and a Flow Pulsation in the Sub-Channels of an 18-Finned Rod Bundle by Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Hark; Chae, Hee Taek; Park, Cheol; Kim, Heon Il

    2008-09-15

    Since the heat flux of the rod type fuel used in the HANARO, a research reactor being operated in the KAERI, is substantially higher than the heat flux of power reactors, the HANARO fuel has 8 longitudinal fins for enhancing the heat release from the fuel rod surface. This unique shape of a nuclear fuel led us to study the flows and thermal hydraulic characteristics of it. Especially because the flows through the narrow channels built up by these finned rod fuels would be different from the flow characteristics in the coolant channels formed by bare rod fuels, some experimental studies to investigate the flow behaviors and structures in a finned rod bundle were done by other researchers. But because of the very complex geometries of the flow channels in the finned rod bundle only allowed us to obtain limited information about the flow characteristics, a numerical study by a computational fluid dynamics technique has been adopted to elucidate more about such a complicated flow in a finned rod bundle. In this study, for the development of an adequate computational model to simulate such a complex geometry, a mesh sensitivity study and the effects of various turbulence models were examined. The CFD analysis results were compared with the experimental results. Some of them have a good agreement with the experimental results. All linear eddy viscosity turbulence models could hardly predict the secondary flows near the fuel surfaces and in the sub-channel, but the RSM (Reynolds Stress Model) revealed very different results from the eddy viscosity turbulence models. In the transient analysis all turbulence model predicted flow pulsation at the center of a subchannel as well as at the gap between rods in spite of large P/D. The flow pulsation showed different results with turbulence models and the location in the sub-channels.

  12. Fuel composition optimization in a 78-element fuel bundle for use in a pressure tube type supercritical water-cooled reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hummel, D.W.; Novog, D.R. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    A 78-element fuel bundle containing a plutonium-thorium fuel mixture has been proposed for a Generation IV pressure tube type supercritical water-cooled reactor. In this work, using a lattice cell model created with the code DRAGON,the lattice pitch, fuel composition (fraction of PuO{sub 2} in ThO{sub 2}) and radial enrichment profile of the 78-element bundle is optimized using a merit function and a metaheuristic search algorithm.The merit function is designed such that the optimal fuel maximizes fuel utilization while minimizing peak element ratings and coolant void reactivity. A radial enrichment profile of 10 wt%, 11 wt% and 20 wt% PuO{sub 2} (inner to outer ring) with a lattice pitch of 25.0 cm was found to provide the optimal merit score based on the aforementioned criteria. (author)

  13. Heat transfer on HLM cooled wire-spaced fuel pin bundle simulator in the NACIE-UP facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Piazza, Ivan, E-mail: ivan.dipiazza@enea.it [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development, C.R. ENEA Brasimone, Camugnano (Italy); Angelucci, Morena; Marinari, Ranieri [University of Pisa, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile e Industriale, Pisa (Italy); Tarantino, Mariano [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development, C.R. ENEA Brasimone, Camugnano (Italy); Forgione, Nicola [University of Pisa, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile e Industriale, Pisa (Italy)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Experiments with a wire-wrapped 19-pin fuel bundle cooled by LBE. • Wall and bulk temperature measurements at three axial positions. • Heat transfer and error analysis in the range of low mass flow rates and Péclet number. • Comparison of local and section-averaged Nusselt number with correlations. - Abstract: The NACIE-UP experimental facility at the ENEA Brasimone Research Centre (Italy) allowed to evaluate the heat transfer coefficient of a wire-spaced fuel bundle cooled by lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE). Lead or lead-bismuth eutectic are very attractive as coolants for the GEN-IV fast reactors due to the good thermo-physical properties and the capability to fulfil the GEN-IV goals. Nevertheless, few experimental data on heat transfer with heavy liquid metals (HLM) are available in literature. Furthermore, just a few data can be identified on the specific topic of wire-spaced fuel bundle cooled by HLM. Additional analysis on thermo-fluid dynamic behaviour of the HLM inside the subchannels of a rod bundle is necessary to support the design and safety assessment of GEN. IV/ADS reactors. In this context, a wire-spaced 19-pin fuel bundle was installed inside the NACIE-UP facility. The pin bundle is equipped with 67 thermocouples to monitor temperatures and analyse the heat transfer behaviour in different sub-channels and axial positions. The experimental campaign was part of the SEARCH FP7 EU project to support the development of the MYRRHA irradiation facility (SCK-CEN). Natural and mixed circulation flow regimes were investigated, with subchannel Reynolds number in the range Re = 1000–10,000 and heat flux in the range q″ = 50–500 kW/m{sup 2}. Local Nusselt numbers were calculated for five sub-channels in different ranks at three axial positions. Section-averaged Nusselt number was also defined and calculated. Local Nusselt data showed good consistency with some of the correlation existing in literature for heat transfer in liquid metals

  14. Grey Rod Test in HANARO Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, K. N.; Kim, B. G.; Kang, Y. H. (and others)

    2008-08-15

    Westinghouse/KAERI/KNF agreed to perform an irradiation test in the HANARO reactor to obtain irradiation data on the new grey rods that will be part of an AP1000 system. As a preliminary test, two samples containing pure Ag (Reference) and Ag-In-Cd materials provided by Westinghouse Electric Company (WEC) were inserted in a KNF irradiation capsule of 07M-13N. The specimens were irradiated for 95.19days (4 cycles) in the CT test hole of the HANARO of a 30MW thermal output to have a fast neutron fluence of 1.11x10{sup 21}(n/cm{sup 2}) (E>1.0MeV). This report provides all the test conditions and data obtained during the irradiation test of the grey rods in HANARO requested by Westinghouse. The test was prepared according to the meeting minutes (June 26, 2007) and the on-going subject test was stopped midway by the request of Westinghouse.

  15. Fuel cell integral bundle assembly including ceramic open end seal and vertical and horizontal thermal expansion control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafred, Paolo R [Murrysville, PA; Gillett, James E [Greensburg, PA

    2012-04-24

    A plurality of integral bundle assemblies contain a top portion with an inlet fuel plenum and a bottom portion containing a base support, the base supports a dense, ceramic air exhaust manifold having four supporting legs, the manifold is below and connects to air feed tubes located in a recuperator zone, the air feed tubes passing into the center of inverted, tubular, elongated, hollow electrically connected solid oxide fuel cells having an open end above a combustion zone into which the air feed tubes pass and a closed end near the inlet fuel plenum, where the open end of the fuel cells rest upon and within a separate combination ceramic seal and bundle support contained in a ceramic support casting, where at least one flexible cushion ceramic band seal located between the recuperator and fuel cells protects and controls horizontal thermal expansion, and where the fuel cells operate in the fuel cell mode and where the base support and bottom ceramic air exhaust manifolds carry from 85% to all of the weight of the generator.

  16. Effect of the fuel element bundle statistical characteristics on the evaluation of temperature in the sodium-cooled fast-neutron reactor core

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.B. Tikhomirov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Different fuel element bundle models used to calculate the coolant and fuel cladding temperatures inside fuel assemblies have been analyzed as applied to sodium-cooled fast-neutron reactors. The drawbacks of the existing models have been identified. A bundle model based on an experimental study into the actual arrangement of the fuel elements within the AF shroud has been proposed. The model's capabilities and advantages, as compared to conservative models, have been shown with regard for the need to raise the reliability of the fuel cladding working temperature estimation.

  17. Electrolytic/fuel cell bundles and systems including a current collector in communication with an electrode thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Grant L.; Herring, James S.; Stoots, Carl M.; O& #x27; Brien, James E.

    2013-03-05

    Electrolytic/fuel cell bundles and systems including such bundles include an electrically conductive current collector in communication with an anode or a cathode of each of a plurality of cells. A cross-sectional area of the current collector may vary in a direction generally parallel to a general direction of current flow through the current collector. The current collector may include a porous monolithic structure. At least one cell of the plurality of cells may include a current collector that surrounds an outer electrode of the cell and has at least six substantially planar exterior surfaces. The planar surfaces may extend along a length of the cell, and may abut against a substantially planar surface of a current collector of an adjacent cell. Methods for generating electricity and for performing electrolysis include flowing current through a conductive current collector having a varying cross-sectional area.

  18. The effect of element bow on dryout power and post-dryout heat transfer in CANDU fuel bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutradhar, S.C.; Schenk, J.R. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    1997-07-01

    Dryout and post-dryout tests were performed in a modified 37-element simulated CANDU fuel bundle, with one outer element of the last bundle bowed at gradual but controlled steps toward the pressure-tube wall. The dryout power decreased moderately as the gap size was reduced from nominal to about 40%. For smaller-than-40%-gap sizes, however, the dryout power increased in most cases; this resulted in almost equal dryout powers at the nominal and zero gap sizes. The maximum surface temperature of the bowed element at up to 20% overpower increased with decreasing gap sizes; however, for gap sizes smaller than 35% of the nominal gap, the surface temperature fluctuated moderately. (author)

  19. Development of cancer therapy facility of HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Byung Jin; Hwang, S. Y.; Kim, M. J. and others

    2000-04-01

    Facilities of the research and clinical treatments of neutron capture therapy using HANARO are developed, and they are ready to install. They are BNCT irradiation facility and prompt gamma neutron activatiion analysis facility. Since every horizontal neutron facility of HANARO is long and narrow tangential beam tube, it is analysed that sufficient epithermal neutrons for the BNCT cannot be obtained but sufficient thermal neutrons can be obtained by a filter composed of silicon and bismuth single crystals. Since the thermal neutron penetaration increases significantly when the crystals are cooled, a filter cooled by liquid nitrogen is developed. So as to avoid interference with the reactor operation, a water shutter is developed. The irradiation room is designed for the temporary surgical operation as well. Handling tools to remove activated beam port plug and to install water shutter and filter are developed. The basic structure of the irradiation room is already installed and most of other parts are ready to install. Since no free beam port is available for the prompt gamma neutron activation analysis, a method obtaining almost pure thermal neutrons by the vertical diffraction of extra beam for the polarized neutron spectrometer is developed. This method is confirmed by analysis and experiments to give high enough neutron beam. Equipment and devices are provided to install this facility.

  20. CFD modelling of supercritical water flow and heat transfer in a 2 × 2 fuel rod bundle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podila, Krishna, E-mail: krishna.podila@cnl.ca; Rao, Yanfei, E-mail: yanfei.rao@cnl.ca

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Bare and wire wrapped 2 × 2 fuel rod bundles were modelled with CFD. • Sensitivity of predictions to SST k–ω, v{sup 2}–f and turbulent Prandtl number was tested. • CFD predictions were assessed with experimentally reported fuel wall temperatures. - Abstract: In the present assessment of the CFD code, two heat transfer experiments using water at supercritical pressures were selected: a 2 × 2 rod bare bundle; and a 2 × 2 rod wire-wrapped bundle. A systematic 3D CFD study of the fluid flow and heat transfer at supercritical pressures for the rod bundle geometries was performed with the key parameter being the fuel rod wall temperature. The sensitivity of the prediction to the steady RANS turbulence models of SST k–ω, v{sup 2}–f and turbulent Prandtl number (Pr{sub t}) was tested to ensure the reliability of the predicted wall temperature obtained for the current analysis. Using the appropriate turbulence model based on the sensitivity analysis, the mesh refinement, or the grid convergence, was performed for the two geometries. Following the above sensitivity analyses and mesh refinements, the recommended CFD model was then assessed against the measurements from the two experiments. It was found that the CFD model adopted in the current work was able to qualitatively capture the trends reported by the experiments but the degree of temperature rise along the heated length was underpredicted. Moreover, the applicability of turbulence models varied case-by-case and the performance evaluation of the turbulence models was primarily based on its ability to predict the experimentally reported fuel wall temperatures. Of the two turbulence models tested, the SST k–ω was found to be better at capturing the measurements at pseudo-critical and supercritical test conditions, whereas the v{sup 2}–f performed better at sub-critical test conditions. Along with the appropriate turbulence model, CFD results were found to be particularly sensitive to

  1. Research for the concept of Hanaro cold neutron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Chang Oong; Cho, M. S.; Lee, M. W.; Sohn, J. M.; Park, K. N.; Park, S. H.; Yang, S. Y.; Kang, S. H.; Yang, S. H.; Chang, J. H.; Lee, Y. W.; Chang, C. I.; Cho, Y. S.

    1997-09-01

    This report consists of two parts, one is the conceptual design performed on the collaboration work with PNPI Russia and another is review of Hanaro CNS conceptual design report by Technicatome France, both of which are contained at vol. I and vol. II. representatively. In the vol. I, the analysis for the status of technology development, the technical characteristics of CNS is included, and the conceptual design of Hanaro cold neutron source is contained to establish the concept suitable to Hanaro. The cold neutron experimental facilities, first of all, have been selected to propose the future direction of physics concerning properties of the matter at Korea. And neutron guide tubes, the experimental hall and cold neutron source appropriate to these devices have been selected and design has been reviewed in view of securing safety and installing at Hanaro. (author). 38 refs., 49 tabs., 17 figs.

  2. Development of Reactivity Calculation Code for HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, B. G.; Kim, M. S. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Reactivity of the reactor core is measured by a multi-channel wide range reactivity computer (or called reactivity meter), which uses current signals from the compensated ion chamber (CIC) mounted on the courtside wall of the reflector tank in the pool [1]. Because there were a few difficulties in operating the reactivity meter in the MS-DOS environment, some researches have been carried out to improve and upgrade it on the Windows environment [2]. Nevertheless, it is still hard for reactor operators to immediately check the time-dependent reactivity in case of power excursion because of some limitations such as aging of devices and compatibility issues. In this study, a simple off-line tool which can estimate the timedependent reactivity by using the fission chamber signals has been developed, and utilized to the case of loose parts of dummy rod in the 86-2th cycles of HANARO. In order to check the reactivity quickly for reactor operators, the inverse kinetic quations have been incorporated, and several useful functions have been implemented to the code. in the case of 86-2th cycles of HANARO, the developed code showed good performance to estimate time dependent reactivity. In the future, the on line analysis modules will be implanted to the code with upgrade of the measrement equipment such as current meters and data acquisition devices. Additionally, reactivity will be estimated by using the reactivity meter in the MS-DOS enviroment, and the new Windows version, for the verification of the developed code.

  3. BNCT Technology Development on HANARO Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Ki Jung; Park, Kyung Bae; Whang, Seung Ryul; Kim, Myong Seop

    2007-06-15

    So as to establish the biological effects of BNCT in the HANARO Reactor, biological damages in cells and animals with treatment of boron/neutron were investigated. And 124I-BPA animal PET image, analysis technology of the boron contents in the mouse tissues by ICP-AES was established. A Standard clinical protocol, a toxicity evaluation report and an efficacy investigation report of BNCT has been developed. Based on these data, the primary permission of clinical application was acquired through IRB of our hospital. Three cases of pre-clinical experiment for boron distribution and two cases of medium-sized animal simulation experiment using cat with verifying for 2 months after BNCT was performed and so the clinical demonstration with a patient was prepared. Also neutron flux, fast neutron flux and gamma ray dose of BNCT facility were calculated and these data will be utilized good informations for clinical trials and further BNCT research. For the new synthesis of a boron compound, o-carboranyl ethylamine, o-carboranylenepiperidine, o-carboranyl-THIQ and o-carboranyl-s-triazine derivatives were synthesized. Among them, boron uptake in the cancer cell of the triazine derivative was about 25 times than that of BPA and so these three synthesized methods of new boron compounds were patented.

  4. Three-dimensional flow phenomena in a wire-wrapped 37-pin fuel bundle for SFR

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jeong, Jae-Ho; Yoo, Jin; Lee, Kwi-Lim; Ha, Kwi-Seok

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional flow phenomena in a wire-wrapped 37-pin fuel assembly mock-up of a Japanese loop-type sodium-cooled fast reactor, Monju, were investigated with a numerical analysis using a general...

  5. Thermal-Hydraulic Effect of Pattern of Wire-wrap Spacer in 19-pin Rod Bundle for SFR Fuel Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Yeong Shin; Bang, In Cheol [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seong Dae [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    As sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) has been considered the most promising reactor type for future and prototype gen-IV SFR has been developed actively in Korea, thermal-hydraulic aspects of the SFR fuel assembly have the important role for the reactor safety analysis. In PGSFR fuel assembly, 271 pins of fuel rods are tightly packed in triangular array inside hexagonal duct, and wire is wound helically per each fuel rod with regular pattern to assure the gap between rods and prevent the collision, which is called wire-wrapped spacer. Due to helical shape of the wire-wrapped spacer, flow inside duct can have stronger turbulent characteristics and thermal mixing effect. However, many studies showed the possible wake from swirl flow inside subchannel, which cause local hot spot. To prevent the wake flow and improve thermal mixing, new pattern of wire wrap spacer was suggested. To evaluate the effect of wire wrap spacer pattern, CFD analysis was performed for 19-pin rod bundle with comparison of conventional and U-pattern wire wrap spacer. To prevent the wake due to same direction of swirl flow, 7-rod unit pattern of wire spacer, which are arranged to have different rotational direction of wire with adjacent rods and center rod without wire wrap was proposed. From simulation results, swirl flow across gap conflicts its rotation direction causing wake flow from the regular pattern of the conventional one, which generates local hot spot near cladding. With U-pattern of wire wrap spacer, heat transfer in subchannel can be enhanced with evenly distributed cross flow without compensating pressure loss. From the results, the pattern of wire wrap spacer can influence the both heat transfer characteristics and pressure drop, with flow structures generated by wire wrap spacer.

  6. Intervention of malignant biliary obstruction with Hanaro spiral stent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Sung Wook; Choo, Sung Wook; Pyeun, Yong Seon and others [Sungkyunkwan Univ. School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-08-01

    To evaluate the long-term patency of the Hanaro spiral stent (Solco Intermed, Seoul, Korea) when used as a palliative in patients with inoperable malignant biliary obstruction. Between April 1996 and July 1998, 39 patients with malignant biliary obstruction underwent percutaneous placement of 48 Hanaro spiral stents. The causes of obstruction were bile duct carcinoma (n=18), pancreatic carcinoma (n=8), metastatic lymphadenopathy (n=5), gallbladder carcinoma (n=5), hepatocellular carcinoma (n=1) and other tumors (n=2). Using the kaplan-Meier method, patient survival and stet patency rates were estimated with regard to level of obstruction. As regards stent insertion, there was no technical failure. Overall 25- and 50-week survival rates for the entire patient group were 50 % and 11 %, respectively, while overall stent patency rates at 25 and 50 weeks were 42 % and 11 %, respectively. Twenty-five-week stent patency rates in patients with common bile duct (CBD) and hilar obstruction were 51 % and 18 %, respectively. The stent patency rates in the CBD obstruction group was significantly higher than that in the hilar obstruction group (p<0.05). In patients with CBD obstruction, the clinical efficacy of Hanaro spiral stent was superior to that in patients with hilar obstruction. However, Hanaro spiral stents showed a lower patency rate with regard to patient survival, and further investigation is required.

  7. CFD analysis of turbulent flow in nuclear fuel bundle with flow mixing device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    In, Wang Kee; Oh, Dong Seok; Chun, Tae Hyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    A CFD analysis was performed to confirm the applicability of the CFD method and to examine the 3-D turbulent flow characteristics in rod bundles with typical flow mixing promoters on grid spacer. Both the axial and lateral mean velocities predicted by the CFD method showed good agreement with the measurements except for the axial velocity near the spacer with the split vane. The CFD predictions produced the swirling flow pattern in the subchannel for the split-vane design and the crossflow mixing between adjacent subchannels for the ripped-open blades. The actual flow rate through the Y-nozzle is predicted to be smaller than the expected flow rate that is estimated based on the ratio of flow area of the Y-nozzle to the total flow area of the subchannel. The pressure drop across the Y-nozzle spacer is also estimated to be larger than the other spacer designs. The CFD simulations of the swirl-vane design showed an intense swirling flow in the subchannel but a negligible crossflow between neighboring subchannels. (author). 9 refs., 45 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Detail design of test loop for FIV in fuel bundle and preliminary test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Woo Gunl; Lee, Wan Young; Kim, Sung Won [Hannam University, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-04-01

    It is urgent to develop the analytical model for the structural/mechanical integrity of fuel rod. In general, it is not easy to develop a pure analytical model. Occasionally, experimental results have been utilized for the model.Because of this reason, it is required to design proper test loop. Using the optimized test loop, With the optimized test loop, the dynamic behaviour of the rod will be evaluated and the critical flow velocity, which the rod loses the stability in, will be measured for the design of the rod. To verify the integrity of the fuel rod, it is required to evaluate the dynamic behaviour and the critical flow velocity with the test loop. The test results will be utilized to the design of the rod. Generally, the rod has a ground vibration due to turbulence in wide range of flow velocity and the amplitude of vibration becomes larger by the resonance, in a range of the velocity where occurs vortex. The rod loses stability in critical flow velocity caused by fluid-elastic instability. For the purpose of the present work to perform the conceptional design of the test loop, it is necessary (1) to understand the mechanism of the flow-induced vibration and the related experimental coefficients, (2) to evaluate the existing test loops for improving the loop with design parameters and (3) to decide the design specifications of the major equipments of the loop. 35 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs. (Author)

  9. Feasibility Test of Commercial CFD Code for Thermal-Hydraulic Analysis of Wire-wrapped Fuel Pin Bundle in SFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Chiwoong; Ha, Kwiseok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Haeyong, Jeong [Sejong Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    One of the major difficulties in the numerical approach is a grid generation of the interface between a wire and rod, because the point connectivity and higher scale deviation of a wire and rod can easily increase the number of meshes. The general way to handle this problem is a simplification of the wire-rod interface. In this study, the wire configuration effect is also studied with a no-wire case and simplified wire geometries. The materials of coolant and cladding are sodium and HT9. Fuel part is not modeled. The detailed design parameters are described in Table 1. In addition, Fig. 2 shows a detailed schematic of the fuel rod and wire. The wire contact distance, Sw, is the length penetrating the clad. Basically, the wire will be firmly contacted with the clad surface. As shown in Table 1, the wire diameter is the same as the gap between two fuel rods. However, it is unavoidable in the modeling of the wire to ignore a singular contact point between the wire and cladding. Therefore, an intersected wire and rod are arbitrarily generated. The boundary conditions for the conjugated heat transfer analysis are described in Table 2. The inlet region is defined with a uniform velocity and constant temperature of 650 K. The outlet is defined with a constant ambient pressure, i. e., zero static pressure. Since only the cladding part was modeled, a uniform heat flux condition is applied on the inner cladding wall surface. All solid surfaces are considered as no slip adiabatic boundaries. The numerical analyses of wire-wrapped 7 pins are conducted using ANSYS-CFX to check the feasibility of the CFD tool in thermal-hydraulic phenomena in a wire-wrapped fuel pin bundle. Typical turbulent models are applied to check the dependency of model selection on the pressure drop and heat transfer on the wire-wrapped fuel rod. In short, the omega-based model shows the highest pressure drop and heat transfer. Comparing the existing correlations, the pressure drop results represent

  10. Analysis on the post-irradiation examination of the HANARO miniplate-1 irradiation test for kijang research reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Man Park

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The construction project of the Kijang research reactor (KJRR, which is the second research reactor in Korea, has been launched. The KJRR was designed to use, for the first time, U–Mo fuel. Plate-type U–7 wt.% Mo/Al–5 wt.% Si, referred to as U–7Mo/Al–5Si, dispersion fuel with a uranium loading of 8.0 gU/cm3, was selected to achieve higher fuel efficiency and performance than are possible when using U3Si2/Al dispersion fuel. To qualify the U–Mo fuel in terms of plate geometry, the first miniplates [HANARO Miniplate (HAMP-1], containing U–7Mo/Al–5Si dispersion fuel (8 gU/cm3, were fabricated at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute and recently irradiated at HANARO. The PIE (Post-irradiation Examination results of the HAMP-1 irradiation test were analyzed in depth in order to verify the safe in-pile performance of the U–7Mo/Al–5Si dispersion fuel under the KJRR irradiation conditions. Nondestructive analyses included visual inspection, gamma spectrometric mapping, and two-dimensional measurements of the plate thickness and oxide thickness. Destructive PIE work was also carried out, focusing on characterization of the microstructural behavior using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Electron probe microanalysis was also used to measure the elemental concentrations in the interaction layer formed between the U–Mo kernels and the matrix. A blistering threshold test and a bending test were performed on the irradiated HAMP-1 miniplates that were saved from the destructive tests. Swelling evaluation of the U–Mo fuel was also conducted using two methods: plate thickness measurement and meat thickness measurement.

  11. Analysis on the post-irradiation examination of the HANARO miniplate-1 irradiation test for Kijang research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Man; Tahk, Young Wook; Jeong, Yong Jin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2017-08-15

    The construction project of the Kijang research reactor (KJRR), which is the second research reactor in Korea, has been launched. The KJRR was designed to use, for the first time, U–Mo fuel. Plate-type U–7 wt.% Mo/Al–5 wt.% Si, referred to as U–7Mo/Al–5Si, dispersion fuel with a uranium loading of 8.0 gU/cm{sup 3}, was selected to achieve higher fuel efficiency and performance than are possible when using U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}/Al dispersion fuel. To qualify the U–Mo fuel in terms of plate geometry, the first miniplates [HANARO Miniplate (HAMP-1)], containing U–7Mo/Al–5Si dispersion fuel (8 gU/cm{sup 3}), were fabricated at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute and recently irradiated at HANARO. The PIE (Post-irradiation Examination) results of the HAMP-1 irradiation test were analyzed in depth in order to verify the safe in-pile performance of the U–7Mo/Al–5Si dispersion fuel under the KJRR irradiation conditions. Nondestructive analyses included visual inspection, gamma spectrometric mapping, and two-dimensional measurements of the plate thickness and oxide thickness. Destructive PIE work was also carried out, focusing on characterization of the microstructural behavior using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Electron probe microanalysis was also used to measure the elemental concentrations in the interaction layer formed between the U–Mo kernels and the matrix. A blistering threshold test and a bending test were performed on the irradiated HAMP-1 miniplates that were saved from the destructive tests. Swelling evaluation of the U–Mo fuel was also conducted using two methods: plate thickness measurement and meat thickness measurement.

  12. Improvement of the Display Design for Upgraded HANARO Operator Workstations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Sang Hoon; Jung, H. S.; Kim, Y. K.; Choi, Y. S.; Choi, H. Y.; Kim, S. J.; In, W. H.

    2007-12-15

    While the existed HANARO Operator-Workstation(OWS) system was upgraded, the display design of OWS was modified altogether and improved more familiarly to operators according to the newly applied style-guide. It was verified that this upgraded system was reliably compatible with the existed Human-Machine Interface(HMI) surroundings and the improved points comparing before were described as newly designed OWS displays were divided by each functions

  13. Basic Design of the Cold Neutron Research Facility in HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hark Rho; Lee, K. H.; Kim, Y. K. (and others)

    2005-09-15

    The HANARO Cold Neutron Research Facility (CNRF) Project has been embarked in July 2003. The CNRF project has selected as one of the radiation technology development project by National Science and Technology Committee in June 2002. In this report, the output of the second project year is summarized as a basic design of cold neutron source and related systems, neutron guide, and neutron scattering instruments.

  14. In-Service Inspection for HANARO Reactor Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Sang Ik; Lee, Young Sub; Lee, Jung Hee; Jung, Hoan Sung; Cho, Yeong Garp [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    As results of the visual inspection (VT-3) on HANARO, there was no defect such as a crack, corrosion, abrasion, erosion, and physical or chemical deformation on the welded parts and other surfaces of the reactor structures and its parts. Also, the bolts and steel wire, which was tied as an indicator whether got released or not, are well being kept its integrity. Throughout this visual inspection results, it turned out that HANARO is well maintaining its integrity and initial condition after installation and assembly in 1995. This inspection was done as a second change in Sep. 2006 according to the long term inspection plan for the safety class component by ASME Sec. XI article IWB and HANARO procedure. The next five year inspection shall be done no later than the end of 2011. This inspection results such as photos taken inside the reactor pool will be helpful to find out a solution for some problem, which may cause a view point of the reactor structure and its parts during operating

  15. Design, fabrication and irradiation test report on HANARO instrumented capsule (05M-07U) for the researches of universities in 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, K. N.; Kim, B. G.; Kang, Y. H.; Choi, M. H.; Cho, M. S.; Son, J. M.; Choi, M. H.; Shin, Y. T.; Park, S. J.

    2006-09-15

    As a part of the 2005 project for an active utilization of HANARO, an instrumented capsule (05M-07U) was designed, fabricated and irradiated for an irradiation test of various unclear materials under irradiation conditions which was requested by external researchers from universities. The basic structure of the 05M-07U capsule was based on the 00M-01U, 01M-05U, 02M-05U, 03M-06U and 04M-07U capsules which had been successfully irradiated in HANARO as part of the 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003 and 2004 projects. However, because of a limited number of specimens and the budget of one university, the remaining space in the capsule was filled with various KAERI specimens for researches on a nuclear core and SMART materials, and parts of a nuclear fuel assembly of KNFC. Various types of specimens such as tensile, Charpy, TEM, hardness, compression and growth specimens made of Zr 702, Ti and Ni alloys, Zirlo, Inconel, STS 316L and Cr-Mo alloys were placed in the capsule. Especially, this capsule was designed to evaluate the nuclear characteristics of the parts of a nuclear fuel assembly and the Ti tubes in HANARO. The capsule was composed of 5 stages having many kinds of specimens and an independent electric heater at each stage. During the irradiation test, the temperature of the specimens and the thermal/fast neutron fluences were measured by 14 thermocouples and 5 sets of Ni-Ti-Fe neutron fluence monitors installed in the capsule. The capsule was irradiated in the CT test hole of HANARO of a 30MW thermal output at 270 ∼ 400 .deg. C up to a fast neutron fluence of 5.7 x 10{sup 20} (n/cm{sup 2}) (E >1.0MeV). The obtained results will be very valuable for the related research of the users.

  16. A Study on the High Temperature Irradiation Test Possibility for the HANARO Outer Core Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Young Hwan; Cho, M. S.; Choo, K. N.; Shin, Y. T.; Sohn, J. M.; Park, S. J.; Kim, B. G

    2008-01-15

    1. Information on the neutron flux levels and the gamma heat of the concerned test holes, which have been produced from a series of nuclear analysis and tests performed at KAERI since 1993, were collected and analyzed to develop the nuclear data for the concerned test holes of HANARO and to develop the new design concepts of a capsule for the high temperature irradiation devices. 2. From the literature survey and analysis about the system design characteristics of the new concepts of irradiation devices in the ATR and MIT reactor, U.S. and the JHR reactor, France, which are helpful in understanding the key issues for the on-going R and D programmes related to a SFR and a VHTR, the most important parameters for the design of high temperature irradiation devices are identified as the neutron spectrum, the heat generation density, the fuel and cladding temperature, and the coolant chemistry. 3. From the thermal analysis of a capsule by using a finite element program ANSYS, high temperature test possibility at the OR and IP holes of HANARO was investigated based on the data collected from a literature survey. The OR holes are recommended for the tests of the SFR and VHTR nuclear materials. The IP holes could be applicable for an intermediate temperature irradiation of the SWR and LMR materials. 4. A thermal analysis for the development of a capsule with a new configuration was also performed. The size of the center hole, which is located at the thermal media of a capsule, did not cause specimen temperature changes. The temperature differences are found to be less than 2%. The introduction of an additional gap in the thermal media was able to contribute to an increase in the specimen temperature by up to 27-90 %.

  17. Efficiency measurement of spin flippers developed at HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doe, Changwoo K.; Jang, Hyung Sik; Choi, Sung Min [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Myoung Kook; Lee, Chang Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Key components of neutron spin echo instrument have been developed at ST-1 beam port of the HANARO reactor. Polarized thermal neutrons produced by (200) reflection plane of Co0.92Fe0.08 ferromagnetic single crystal were used. The spin flipper efficiency and the polarizer-analyzer efficiency product were measured using two pi spin flipper method. Experiment results showed high enough spin flipper efficiency (f{approx}0.98) while the polarizer-analyzer efficiency product was estimated rather low.

  18. Dry Process Fuel Performance Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Myung Seung; Song, K. C.; Moon, J. S. and others

    2005-04-15

    The objective of the project is to establish the performance evaluation system of DUPIC fuel during the Phase II R and D. In order to fulfil this objectives, irradiation test of DUPIC fuel was carried out in HANARO using the non-instrumented and SPND-instrumented rig. Also, the analysis on the in-reactor behavior analysis of DUPIC fuel, out-pile test using simulated DUPIC fuel as well as performance and integrity assessment in a commercial reactor were performed during this Phase. The R and D results of the Phase II are summarized as follows : - Performance evaluation of DUPIC fuel via irradiation test in HANARO - Post irradiation examination of irradiated fuel and performance analysis - Development of DUPIC fuel performance code (modified ELESTRES) considering material properties of DUPIC fuel - Irradiation behavior and integrity assessment under the design power envelope of DUPIC fuel - Foundamental technology development of thermal/mechanical performance evaluation using ANSYS (FEM package)

  19. Current Status of Periodic Safety Review of HANARO Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Minjin; Ahn, Guk-Hoon; Lee, Choong Sung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    A PSR for a research reactor became a legal requirement as the Nuclear Safety Act was amended and came into effect in 2014. This paper describes the current status and methodology of the first Periodic Safety Review (PSR) of HANARO that is being performed. The legal requirements, work plan, and process of implementing a PSR are described. Because this is the first PSR for a research reactor, it is our understating that the operating organization and regulatory body should communicate well with each other to complete the PSR in a timely manner. The first PSR of HANARO is under way. In order to achieve a successful result, activities of the operation organization such as scheduling, maintaining consistency in input data for review, and reviewing the PSR reports that will require intensive resources should be well planned. This means the operating organization needs to incorporate appropriate measures to ensure the transfer of knowledge and expertise arising from the PSR via a contractor to the operation organization. It is desirable for the Regulatory Body to be involved in all stage of the PSR to prevent any waste of resources and minimize the potential for a reworking of the PSR and the need for an additional assessment and review as recommended by foreign experts.

  20. Reduction of the pool-top radiation level in HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Choong-Sung; Park, Sang-Jun; Kim, Heonil; Park, Yong-Chul; Choi, Young-San [HANARO Center, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-08-01

    HANARO is an open-tank-in-pool type reactor. Pool water is the only shielding to minimize the pool top radiation level. During the power ascension test of HANARO, the measured pool top radiation level was higher than the design value because some of the activation products in the coolant reached the pool surface. In order to suppress this rising coolant, the hot water layer system (HWL) was designed and installed to maintain l.2 meter-deep hot water layer whose temperature is 5degC higher than that of the underneath pool surface. After the installation of the HWL system, however, the radiation level of the pool-top did not satisfy the design value. The operation modes of the hot water layer system and the other systems in the reactor pool, which had an effect on the formation of the hot water layer, were changed to reduce pool-top radiation level. After the above efforts, the temperature and the radioactivity distribution in the pool was measured to confirm whether this system blocked the rising coolant. The radiation level at the pool-top was significantly reduced below one tenth of that before installing the HWL and satisfied the design value. It was also confirmed by calculation that this hot water layer system would significantly reduce the release of fission gases to the reactor hall and the environment during the hypothetical accident as well. (author)

  1. Status of Neutron Irradiation of Non-Nuclear Materials at HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, Kee-Nam; Cho, Man-Soon; Shin, Yoon-Taek; Park, Seng-Jae; Kang, Young Hwan; Jun, Byung-Hyuk; Kim, Chan-Joong; Park, Sang-Jun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The irradiation facilities have been mostly utilized for the KAERI nuclear research projects relevant to a commercial nuclear power reactor such as the ageing management and safety evaluation of the components. Based on the accumulated experience, HANARO has recently supported national R and D projects relevant to new nuclear systems including the System-integrated Modular Advanced Reactor (SMART), research reactors, and future nuclear systems. As neutron irradiation affects the structure of a material, radiation induced modification of materials has become a perspective method for the purposeful changes in material properties. Some irradiation tests of electro-magnetic materials were also performed at HANARO for scientific research of universities and the demand for neutron irradiation of the materials is increasing rapidly. Another research reactor that will specialize in radio-isotope and neutron transmutation doping (NTD) Si production and the demonstration of reactor design is under construction in Korea. Therefore, HANARO will specialize more on irradiation research. Based on its accumulated irradiation experience, HANARO has recently started new support of R and D relevant to the irradiation of electro-magnetic materials. In this paper, the status of utilization of the HANARO irradiation facilities for non-nuclear materials and the possibility of researches on new electro-magnetic materials using neutron irradiation are surveyed to encourage the utilization of HANARO. HANARO irradiation facilities have been actively utilized for various material irradiation tests requested by users. Although most irradiation tests have been related to national R and D relevant to nuclear power, demand for neutron irradiation of electro-magnetic materials is rapidly increasing at HANARO. Another research reactor, the KIJANG research reactor (KJRR), is under construction in Korea. New irradiation facilities including Neutron Transmutation Doping (NTD) facilities for power

  2. Air leakage analysis of research reactor HANARO building in typhoon condition for the nuclear emergency preparedness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Goany Up; Lee, Hae Cho; Kim, Bong Seok; Kim, Jong Soo; Choi, Pyung Kyu [Dept. of Emergency Preparedness, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    To find out the leak characteristic of research reactor 'HANARO' building in a typhoon condition MELCOR code which normally is used to simulate severe accident behavior in a nuclear power plant was used to simulate the leak rate of air and fission products from reactor hall after the shutdown of the ventilation system of HANARO reactor building. For the simulation, HANARO building was designed by MELCOR code and typhoon condition passed through Daejeon in 2012 was applied. It was found that the leak rate is 0.1%·day{sup -1} of air, 0.004%·day{sup -1} of noble gas and 3.7×10{sup -5}%·day{sup -1} of aerosol during typhoon passing. The air leak rate of 0.1%·day can be converted into 1.36 m{sup 3}·hr{sup -1} , but the design leak rate in HANARO safety analysis report was considered as 600 m3·hr{sup -1} under the condition of 20 m·sec{sup -1} wind speed outside of the building by typhoon. Most of fission products during the maximum hypothesis accident at HANARO reactor will be contained in the reactor hall, so the direct radiation by remained fission products in the reactor hall will be the most important factor in designing emergency preparedness for HANARO reactor.

  3. Investigation for the Fossil Embryo using Neutron Tomography at HANARO, KAERI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Joo; Sim, Cheul Muu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Hee [National Science Museum, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Grellet-Tinner, Gerald [The Field Museum, Chicago (United States)

    2012-05-15

    Neutron imaging technique is one of non-destructive method. It is similar to X-ray and g-ray methods in using the different attenuation characteristics depending on materials. However, there is great difference between them. The mass attenuation coefficients of X-ray and g- ray monotonically increase with the atomic number since they interact with electrons. Thus X-ray image method does not supply sufficient contrast between similar atomic numbers. On the other hand, that of thermal neutrons depends much on the nucleus not electrons. Especially thermal neutrons easily penetrate most of metals, while they are attenuated well by such materials as hydrogen, water, boron, gadolinium and cadmium. Because of these unique characteristics of neutron, neutron imaging technique has been utilized for NDT or researches for next power sources (fuel cell or Li-Ion battery). Recently, dinosaur egg was found at the Aptian. Albian Algui Ulaan Tsav site, Mongolia. In this study, we applied the neutron imaging technique to investigate dinosaur embryo at Neutron Radiography Facility of HANARO, KAERI

  4. Analyses of bundle experiment data using MATRA-h

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, In Cheol; Chea, Hee Taek [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-06-01

    When the construction and operation license for HANARO was renewed in 1995, 25% of CHF penalty was imposed. The reason for this was that the validation work related to the CHF design calculation was not enough for the assurance of CHF margin. As a part of the works to recover this CHF penalty, MATRA-h was developed by implementing the new correlations for the heat transfer, CHF prediction, subcooled void to the MATRA-a, which is the modified version of COBRA-IV-I done by KAERI. Using MATRA-h, the subchannel analyses for the bundle experiment data were performed. The comparison of the code predictions with the experimental results, it was found that the code would give the conservative predictions as far as the CHF in the bundle geometry is concerned. (author). 12 refs., 25 figs., 16 tabs.

  5. Dry process fuel performance technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Kweon Ho; Kim, K. W.; Kim, B. K. (and others)

    2006-06-15

    The objective of the project is to establish the performance evaluation system of DUPIC fuel during the Phase III R and D. In order to fulfil this objectives, property model development of DUPIC fuel and irradiation test was carried out in Hanaro using the instrumented rig. Also, the analysis on the in-reactor behavior analysis of DUPIC fuel, out-pile test using simulated DUPIC fuel as well as performance and integrity assessment in a commercial reactor were performed during this Phase. The R and D results of the Phase III are summarized as follows: Fabrication process establishment of simulated DUPIC fuel for property measurement, Property model development for the DUPIC fuel, Performance evaluation of DUPIC fuel via irradiation test in Hanaro, Post irradiation examination of irradiated fuel and performance analysis, Development of DUPIC fuel performance code (KAOS)

  6. Seismic response Analyses of Hanaro in-chimney bracket structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Han; Ryu, J.S.; Cho, Y.G.; Lee, H.Y.; Kim, J.B

    1999-05-01

    The in-chimney bracket will be installed in the upper part of chimney, which holds the capsule extension pipes in upper one-third of length. For evaluating the effects on the capsules and related reactor structures, ANSYS finite element analysis model is developed and the dynamic characteristics are analyzed. The seismic response anlayses of in-chimney bracket and related reactor structures of HANARO under the design earthquake response spectrum loads of OBE (0.1 g) and SSE (0.2 g) are performed. The maximum horizontal displacements of the flow tubes are within the minimum half gaps between close flow tubes, it is expected that these displacement will not produce any contact between neighbor flow tubes. The stress values in main points of reactor structures and in-chimney bracket for the seismic loads are also within the ASME Code limits. It is also confirmed that the fatigue usage factor is muchless than 1.0. So, any damage on structural integrity is not expected when an in-chimney bracket is installed to upper part of the reactor chimney. (author). 12 refs., 24 tabs., 37 figs.

  7. Improvement of the reactivity computer for HANARO research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Jin; Park, S. J.; Jung, H. S.; Choi, Y. S.; Lee, K. H.; Seo, S. G

    2001-04-01

    The reactivity computer in HANARO has a dedicated neutron detection system for experiments and measurements of the reactor characteristics. This system consists of a personal computer and a multi-function I/O board, and collects the signals from the various neutron detectors. The existing hardware and software are developed under the DOS environment so that they are very inconvenient to use and have difficulties in finding replacement parts. Since the continuity of the signal is often lost when we process the wide rang signal, the need for its improvement has been an issue. The purpose of this project is to upgrade the hardware and software for data collection and processing in order for them to be compatible with Windows{sup TM} operating system and to solve the known issue. We have replaced the existing system with new multi-function I/O board and Pentium III class PC, and the application program for the wide range reactivity measurement and multi-function signal counter have been developed. The newly replaced multi-function I/O board has seven times fast A/D conversion rate and collects sufficient amount of data in a short time. The new application program is user-friendly and provides various useful information on its display screen so that the ability of data processing and storage has been very much enhanced.

  8. Irradiation and performance evaluation of DUPIC fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Ki Kwang; Yang, M. S.; Song, K. C. [and others

    2000-05-01

    The objectives of the project is to establish the performance evaluation system for the experimental verification of DUPIC fuel. The scope and content for successful accomplishment of the phase 1 objectives is established as follows : irradiation test of DUPIC fuel at HANARO using a noninstrument capsule, study on the characteristics of DUPIC pellets, development of the analysis technology on the thermal behaviour of DUPIC fuel, basic design of a instrument capsule. The R and D results of the phase 1 are summarized as follows : - Performance analysis technology development of DUPIC fuel by model development for DUPIC fuel, review on the extendability of code(FEMAXI-IV, FRAPCON-3, ELESTRESS). - Study on physical properties of DUPIC fuel by design and fabrication of the equipment for measuring the thermal property. - HANARO irradiation test of simulated DUPIC fuel by the noninstrument capsule development. - PIE and result analysis.

  9. The status of the safeguards implementation under the State-Level Approach at the HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H. S.; Lee, B. D.; Kim, I. C.; Kim, H. J.; Jung, J. A.; Lee, S. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The IAEA developed the SLA(State-Level Approach) for the States in order to maximize effectiveness of safeguards in an environment of constrained resources. The SLA has been implemented at KAERI-Daejeon site in the ROK since 2015. The ten nuclear facilities and one LOF(Location Outsides Facility) of the KAERI-Daejeon site are grouped into three categories under the SLA. The HANARO(High flux Advanced Neutron Application ReactOr) and PIEF(Post Irradiation Examination Facility) are involved in the category I “self-contained capability” facilities that have at least one significant quantity of suitable nuclear material and which could support undeclared plutonium production/separation activities without other supporting infrastructures. This paper described the status of the safeguards implementation at the HANARO involved in the category I under the SLA. The status of a model inventory management system for a research reactor developed in 2013 was also investigated. In this paper, the features and status of the safeguards implementation of the HANARO under the SLA were analyzed. Under the SLA, the monthly, quarterly and annual advanced facility operational information for the HANARO has been submitted to the IAEA in a timely manner. The IAEA inspection at HANARO has been successfully performed under the SLA. It is expected that the safeguards implementation work at HANARO under the SLA has the similar level with that under IS. Under the SLA, the data occurred from the surveillance cameras and other equipment installed at HANARO enables to transmit remotely to the IAEA. The IAEA is targeting 2017~2018 to upgrade them. In addition, the development status of a model inventory management system for a research reactor was investigated. It aims at controlling the material inventory for the nuclear material accounting work and the convenient facility operation. The major functions of it are to trace the transfer history of the nuclear materials and non-nuclear materials

  10. Irradiation test plan of DUPIC fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Ki Kwang; Song, K. C.; Park, H. S. and others

    2000-04-01

    The objective of the irradiation test of DUPIC fuel at HANARO is to obtain the data of in-core behavior and evaluate the nuclear, thermal and mechanical performance of DUPIC fuel. The irradiation of DUPIC fuel will start at April 25, 2000 for about 2 months, and the burnup of 2,000 MWD/MTU will be attained for this period. The pre-irradiation examinations for DUPIC fuel, such as visual inspection, dimension measurement, He leak test and microstructure observation, was carried out. The post-irradiation examination items for the irradiated DUPIC fuel are planned to be the NDA test, visual inspection and dimension measurement, as well as the analyses for the fission gas release, the microstructure of pellets and the distribution and shape of imbedded nuclides. The DUPIC mini-elements were fabricated in the DFDF (IMEF M6 cell) using the G23-G2 rod. For the HANARO core calculation, the initial composition of DUPIC fuel was estimated using ORIGEN-2 code based on the burnup history of the G23-G2 rod. The design features of DUPIC pellets, the mini-element and the irradiation capsule, were supplemented considering the characteristics of DUPIC fuel and the results from the irradiation test of the simulated DUPIC fuel performed in 1999. The nuclear, thermohydraulic and mechanical characteristics of DUPIC fuel under the normal operation condition were evaluated for the safety analysis on the HANARO. Using these results, potential accidents initiated by DUPIC fuel were estimated, and Safety analyses on the locked rotor and RIA accidents were carried out in order to assess the integrity of DUPIC fuel under the accident condition initiated by the HANARO. Based on the results of these safety analyses, the supplemental countermeasures for securing the sufficient thermal margins were set up, as well. At the last, similar overseas and domestic cases were introduced.

  11. Feasibility study on the transient fuel test loop installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. Y.; Lee, C. Y.

    1997-02-01

    The design and installation of the irradiation test facility for verification test of the fuel performance are very important in connection with maximization of the utilization of HANARO. The objective of this study is to investigate and analyze the test capsules and loops in research reactors of the other countries and to design preliminarily the eligible transient fuel test facility to be installed in HANARO. The principle subjects of this study are to analyze the contents, kinds and scopes of the irradiation test facilities for nuclear technology development. The guidances for the basic and detail design of the transient fuel test facility in the future are presented. The investigation and analysis of various kinds of test facilities that are now in operation at the research reactors of nuclear advanced countries are carried out. Based on the design data of HANARO the design materials for an eligible transient fuel test facility comprises two pacts : namely, in pile test fuel in reactor core site, and out of pile system regulates the experimental conditions in the in pile test section. Especially for power ramping and cycling selection of the eligible power variation equipment in HANARO is carried out. (author). 13 refs., 4 tabs., 46 figs.

  12. Fuel transfer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Harold E.; Barbanti, Giancarlo

    1994-01-01

    A nuclear fuel bundle fuel transfer system includes a transfer pool containing water at a level above a reactor core. A fuel transfer machine therein includes a carriage disposed in the transfer pool and under the water for transporting fuel bundles. The carriage is selectively movable through the water in the transfer pool and individual fuel bundles are carried vertically in the carriage. In a preferred embodiment, a first movable bridge is disposed over an upper pool containing the reactor core, and a second movable bridge is disposed over a fuel storage pool, with the transfer pool being disposed therebetween. A fuel bundle may be moved by the first bridge from the reactor core and loaded into the carriage which transports the fuel bundle to the second bridge which picks up the fuel bundle and carries it to the fuel storage pool.

  13. Development of HANARO human factors management plan and evaluation of BCS display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, I. S.; Lee, J. W.; Lee, Y. H. [and others

    2004-01-01

    In this study, human factors evaluation of BCS display design was performed. We adopted the suitability of design elements of BCS display as human factors evaluation measure. And, we also adopted guideline based evaluation, field survey and expert evaluation as evaluation method. The checklist was utilized for the evaluation, and the results of evaluation were well arranged in the evaluation format. We did not find out the HED (Human Engineering Discrepancy) impede safety of HANARO, except some necessary items to improve during short periods. We also provide some items of improvement for the enhancement of safety and operator's performance in the aspect of long periods. If the proposed improvement items were completely fulfilled, the more improved safety of HANARO will be secured.

  14. A guidebook for the operation and maintenance of HANARO seismic monitoring analysis system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jeong Soo; Yoon, Doo Byung; Kim, Hyung Kyoo

    2003-09-01

    Systems and structures related to HANARO safety are classified as seismic category I. Since 1995, the seismic monitoring system has been utilized for monitoring an earthquake at the HANARO site. The existing seismic monitoring system consists of field sensors and monitoring panel. The analog-type monitoring system with magnetic tape recorder is out-of-date model. In addition, the disadvantage of the existing system is that it does not include signal-analyzing equipment. Therefore, we have improved the analog seismic monitoring system into a new digital Seismic Monitoring Analysis System(SMAS) that can offer precise and detail information of the earthquake signals. This newly developed SMAS is operating at the HANARO instrument room to acquire and analyze the signal of an earthquake. This document is a guidebook for the operation and maintenance of the SMAS. The first chapter gives an outline of the SMAS. The second chapter describes functional capability and specification of the hardware. Chapters 3 and 4 describe starting procedure of the SMAS and how to operate the seismic monitoring program, respectively. Chapter 5 illustrates the seismic analysis algorithm used in the SMAS. The way of operating the seismic analysis program is described in chapter 6. Chapter 7 illustrates the calibration procedure for data acquisition module. Chapter 8 describes the symptoms of common malfunctions and its countermeasure suited to the occasions.

  15. Self-Powered Neutron Detector Calibration Using a Large Vertical Irradiation Hole of HANARO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myong-Seop; Park, Byung-Gun; Kang, Gi-Doo

    2018-01-01

    A calibration technology of the self-powered neutron detectors (SPNDs) using a large vertical irradiation hole of HANARO is developed. The 40 Rh-SPNDs are installed on the polycarbonate plastic support, and the gold wires with the same length as the effective length of the rhodium emitter of the SPND are also installed to measure the neutron flux on the SPND. They are irradiated at a low reactor power, and the SPND current is measured using the pico-ammeter. The external gamma-rays which affect the SPND current response are analyzed using the Monte Carlo simulation for various irradiation conditions in HANARO. It is confirmed that the effect of the external gamma-rays to the SPND current is dependent on the reactor characteristics, and that it is affected by materials around the detector. The current signals due to the external gamma-rays can be either positive or negative, in that the net flow of the current may be either in the same or the opposite direction as the neutron-induced current by the rhodium emitter. From the above procedure, the effective calibration methodology of multiple SPNDs using the large hole of HANARO is developed. It could be useful for the calibration experiment of the neutron detectors in the research reactors.

  16. A Test Device Module of the Step Motor Driver for HANARO CAR Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Yun-Taek; Doo, Seung-Gyu; Shin, Jin-Won; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Choi, Young-San; Lee, Jung-Hee; Kim, Hyung-Kyoo; Lee, Choong-Sung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The brand-new control system is reliable and has advantages compared with the old control system, and the installed system covers all functional operations of old system. Nevertheless, packaged RTP systems do not include a step motor or driver, and it is necessary to develop a proper test device to check the step motor and driver without using the RTP system. In particular, the operation of a CAR (Control Absorber Rod) requires many complicated procedures. Occasionally, it takes significant time to prepare for a field test. In this work, a test device module for a step motor diver is shown to emulate a HANARO CAR operation, and the test device system architecture, operational principle, and experiment results are presented. A commercial 8-bit μ-processor is applied to implement the device. A portable test device for HANARO CAR operation is presented. An 8-bit μ-controller is used to emulate a HANARO CAR operation. The digital interface, as well as the functional operation, of the test device module matches that of the currently used driver. This device can be used to check the functional validity of the step motor and driver.

  17. Load Flow and Short Circuit Analysis of the Class III Power System of HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H. K.; Jung, H. S

    2005-12-15

    The planning, design, and operation of electric power system require engineering studies to assist in the evaluation of the system performance, reliability, safety and economics. The Class III power of HANARO supplies power for not only HANARO but also RIPF and IMEF. The starting current of most ac motors is five to ten times normal full load current. The loads of the Class III power are connected in consecutive orders at an interval for 10 seconds to avoid excessive voltage drop. This technical report deals with the load flow study and motor starting study for the Class III power of HANARO using ETAP(Electrical Transient Analyzer Program) to verify the capacity of the diesel generator. Short-circuit studies are done to determine the magnitude of the prospective currents flowing throughout the power system at various time intervals after a fault occurs. Short-circuit studies can be performed at the planning stage in order to help finalize the system layout, determine voltage levels, and size cables, transformers, and conductors. From this study, we verify the short circuit current capacity of air circuit breaker(ACB) and automatic transfer switch(ATS) of the Class III power.

  18. The 3rd irradiation test plan of DUPIC fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Myung Seung; Song, K. C.; Park, J. H. and others

    2001-05-01

    The objective of the 3rd irradiation test of DUPIC fuel at the HANARO is to estimate the in-core behaviour of a DUPIC pellet that is irradiated up to more than average burnup of CANDU fuel. The irradiation of DUPIC fuel is planned to start at May 21, 2001, and will be continued at least for 8 months. The burnup of DUPIC fuel through this irradiation test is thought to be more than 7,000 MWd/tHE. The DUPIC irradiation rig instrumented with three SPN detectors will be used to accumulate the experience for the instrumented irradiation and to estimate the burnup of irradiated DUPIC fuel more accurately. Under normal operating condition, the maximum linear power of DUPIC fuel was estimated as 55.06 kW/m, and the centerline temperature of a pellet was calculated as 2510 deg C. In order to assess the integrity of DUPIC fuel under the accident condition postulated at the HANARO, safety analyses on the locked rotor and reactivity insertion accidents were carried out. The maximum centerline temperature of DUPIC fuel was estimated 2590 deg C and 2094 deg C for each accident, respectively. From the results of the safety analysis, the integrity of DUPIC fuel during the HANARO irradiation test will be secured. The irradiated DUPIC fuel will be transported to the IMEF. The post-irradiation examinations are planned to be performed at the PIEF and IMEF.

  19. The radionuclides of primary coolant in HANARO and the recent activities performed to reduce the radioactivity or reactor pool water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Minjin [HANARO Research Reactor Centre, Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-10-01

    In HANARO reactor, there have been activities to identify the principal radionuclides and to quantify them under the normal operation. The purposes of such activities were to establish the measure by which we can reduce the radioactivity of the reactor pool water and detect, in early stage, the abnormal symptoms due to the leakage of radioactive materials from the irradiation sample or the damage of the nuclear fuel, etc. The typical radionuclides produced by the activation of reactor coolant are N{sup 16} and Ar{sup 41}. The radionuclides produced by the activation of the core structural material consist of Na{sup 24}, Mn{sup 56}, and W{sup 187}. Of the various radionuclides, governing the radiation level at the pool surface are Na{sup 24}, Ar{sup 41}, Mn{sup 58}, and W{sup 187}. By establishing the hot water layer system on the pool surface, we expected that the radionuclides such as Ar{sup 41} and Mn{sup 56} whose half-life are relatively short could be removed to a certain extent. Since the content of radioactivity of Na{sup 24} occupies about 60% of the total radioactivity, we assumed that the total radiation level would be greatly reduced if we could decrease the radiation level of Na{sup 24}. However the actual radiation level has not been reduced as much as we expected. Therefore, some experiments have been carried out to find the actual causes afterwards. What we learned through the experiments are that any disturbance in reactor pool water layer causes increase of the pool surface radiation level and even if we maintain the hot water layer well, reactor shutdown will be very much likely to happen once the hot water layer is disturbed. (author)

  20. Detailed Design of Cooling Water System for Cold Neutron Source in HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bong Soo; Choi, Jung Woon; Kim, Y. K.; Wu, S. I.; Lee, Y. S

    2007-04-15

    To make cold neutron, a cryogenic refrigerator is necessary to transform moderator into cryogenic state so, thermal neutron is changed into cold neutron through heat transfer with moderator. A cryogenic refrigerator mainly consists of two apparatus, a helium compressor and a cold box which needs supply of cooling water. Therefore, cooling water system is essential to operate of cryogenic refrigerator normally. This report is mainly focused on the detailed design of the cooling water system for the HANARO cold neutron source, and describes design requirement, calculation, specification of equipment and water treatment method.

  1. Single Actin Bundle Rheology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strehle, Dan; Mollenkopf, Paul; Glaser, Martin; Golde, Tom; Schuldt, Carsten; Käs, Josef A; Schnauß, Jörg

    2017-10-24

    Bundled actin structures play an essential role in the mechanical response of the actin cytoskeleton in eukaryotic cells. Although responsible for crucial cellular processes, they are rarely investigated in comparison to single filaments and isotropic networks. Presenting a highly anisotropic structure, the determination of the mechanical properties of individual bundles was previously achieved through passive approaches observing bending deformations induced by thermal fluctuations. We present a new method to determine the bending stiffness of individual bundles, by measuring the decay of an actively induced oscillation. This approach allows us to systematically test anisotropic, bundled structures. Our experiments revealed that thin, depletion force-induced bundles behave as semiflexible polymers and obey the theoretical predictions determined by the wormlike chain model. Thickening an individual bundle by merging it with other bundles enabled us to study effects that are solely based on the number of involved filaments. These thicker bundles showed a frequency-dependent bending stiffness, a behavior that is inconsistent with the predictions of the wormlike chain model. We attribute this effect to internal processes and give a possible explanation with regard to the wormlike bundle theory.

  2. Single Actin Bundle Rheology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Strehle

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Bundled actin structures play an essential role in the mechanical response of the actin cytoskeleton in eukaryotic cells. Although responsible for crucial cellular processes, they are rarely investigated in comparison to single filaments and isotropic networks. Presenting a highly anisotropic structure, the determination of the mechanical properties of individual bundles was previously achieved through passive approaches observing bending deformations induced by thermal fluctuations. We present a new method to determine the bending stiffness of individual bundles, by measuring the decay of an actively induced oscillation. This approach allows us to systematically test anisotropic, bundled structures. Our experiments revealed that thin, depletion force-induced bundles behave as semiflexible polymers and obey the theoretical predictions determined by the wormlike chain model. Thickening an individual bundle by merging it with other bundles enabled us to study effects that are solely based on the number of involved filaments. These thicker bundles showed a frequency-dependent bending stiffness, a behavior that is inconsistent with the predictions of the wormlike chain model. We attribute this effect to internal processes and give a possible explanation with regard to the wormlike bundle theory.

  3. COBRA-IV-I: an interim version of COBRA for thermal-hydraulic analysis of rod bundle nuclear fuel elements and cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, C.L.; Stewart, C.W.; Cena, R.J.; Rowe, D.S.; Sutey, A.M.

    1976-03-01

    The COBRA-IV-I computer code uses the subchannel analysis approach to determine the enthalpy and flow distribution in rod bundles for both steady-state and transient conditions. The steady-state and transient solution schemes used in COBRA-IIIC are still available in COBRA-IV-I as the implicit solution scheme option. In addition to these techniques, a new explicit solution scheme is now available which allows the calculation of severe transients involving flow reversals, recirculations, expulsion and reentry flows, with a pressure or flow boundary condition specified. Significant storage compaction and reduced running times have been achieved to allow the calculation of problems involving hundreds of subchannels.

  4. Cytoskeletal bundle mechanics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bathe, Mark; Heussinger, Claus; Claessens, Mireille Maria Anna Elisabeth; Bausch, Andreas R.; Frey, Erwin

    2008-01-01

    The mechanical properties of cytoskeletal actin bundles play an essential role in numerous physiological processes, including hearing, fertilization, cell migration, and growth. Cells employ a multitude of actin-binding proteins to actively regulate bundle dimensions and cross-linking properties to

  5. Design Optimization of HANARO Irradiation Capsule for Long-Term Irradiation Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kee Nam Choo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available As HANARO has been recently required to support new R&D relevant to future nuclear systems requiring much higher neutron fluence, two types of bottom rod tip of the capsule were preliminarily prepared. The first one is a conventional design made of STS304 and welded using a tungsten inert gas (TIG welding method. The other is a new design made of STS316L and welded using electron beam (EB welding to strengthen the fatigue property of the rod tip. During the out-pile testing, they failed after 40 and 203 days, respectively. The fracture surfaces were examined using microscopes and the maximal applied stresses were estimated. The combination of these stresses was proved to be sufficient to cause a fatigue failure of the rod tip of the capsule. Based on the failure analysis, an optimized design of the rod tip of the capsule was made for long-term irradiation testing. It was designed to improve the welding and fatigue properties, to decrease the applied stress on the rod tip, and to fundamentally eliminate the effect of residual stress due to welding. The newly designed capsule was safely out-pile-tested up to 450 days and will be utilized for HANARO irradiation testing.

  6. Hydrogen-Oxygen Reaction Assessment in the HANARO Cold Neutron Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jung Woon; Kim, Hark Rho; Lee, Kye Hong; Han, Young Soo; Kim, Young Ki; Kim, Seok Hoon; Jeong, Jong Tae

    2006-04-15

    Liquid hydrogen, filled in the moderator cell of the in-pool assembly (IPA), is selected as a moderator to moderate thermal neutrons into cold neutrons for the HANARO Cold Neutron Source. Since the IPA will be installed in the vertical CN hole of the reflector tank at HANARO, the vacuum chamber (VC), the pressure boundary against the reactor, should withstand the detonation pressure so as to avoid any physical damage on the reactor under the hydrogen-oxygen chemical reaction. Accordingly, not only will the vacuum chamber be designed to keep its integrity against the hydrogen accident, but also the hydrogen and vacuum system will be designed with the leak-tight concept and also designed to be surrounded by the inert gas blanket system to prevent any air intrusion into the system. Also, in order to confirm the design concept of the CNS as well as VC integrity against the hydrogen accident, the hydrogen-oxygen chemical reaction is evaluated in this report by several methodologies: AICC methodology, Equivalent TNT detonation methodology, Explosion test result, and Calculation of VC strain under the maximum reflected explosion load.

  7. The ABCDEF Implementation Bundle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annachiara Marra

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Long-term morbidity, long-term cognitive impairment and hospitalization-associated disability are common occurrence in the survivors of critical illness, with significant consequences for patients and for the caregivers. The ABCDEF bundle represents an evidence-based guide for clinicians to approach the organizational changes needed for optimizing ICU patient recovery and outcomes. The ABCDEF bundle includes: Assess, Prevent, and Manage Pain, Both Spontaneous Awakening Trials (SAT and Spontaneous Breathing Trials (SBT, Choice of analgesia and sedation, Delirium: Assess, Prevent, and Manage, Early mobility and Exercise, and Family engagement. The purpose of this review is to describe the core features of the ABCDEF bundle.

  8. Bundle Branch Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2015. Bundle branch block Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  9. Thermodynamics of fiber bundles

    OpenAIRE

    Pride, Steven R.; Toussaint, Renaud

    2002-01-01

    A recent theory that determines the properties of disordered solids as the solid accumulates damage is applied to the special case of fiber bundles with global load sharing and is shown to be exact in this case. The theory postulates that the probability of observing a given emergent damage state is obtained by maximizing the emergent entropy as defined by Shannon subject to energetic constraints. This theory yields the known exact results for the fiber-bundle model with global load sharing a...

  10. Improvement of data processing of the tritium monitor installed at the HANARO stack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Myong Seop; Seol, Chang Woo; Lee, Hyung Sub; Lee, Choong Sung; Park, Sang Jun; Hong, Kwong Pyo [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Tritium, particle, iodine and noble gas detectors have been installed at the HANARO stack, and they are continuously being operated to monitor the abnormal emissions of the above radioactivities. The tritium concentration in the air from the reactor hall is the lower level than the reliably detectable activity concentrations by the monitor. Thus the measured tritium concentration has easily been affected by the detector backgrounds and the activity of ambient noble gas. Since it is impossible to increase the sensitivity of the monitor so far, we decided to improve the processing of the output data from the monitor. First of all, we analyzed all data from the monitor. And, we concluded that an improvement would be possible by using the data from the RMS (Regional Monitoring System) noble gas monitor. Thus, in this paper, the methodology for producing the reliable data from the stack tritium monitor is described.

  11. Change of Tensile Properties of High Cr Ferritic/Martensitic Stainless Steel after Irradiation at HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Ho; Ryu, W. S.; Cho, Hae Dong; Han, Chang Hee; Ahn, S. B.; Choo, K. N

    2005-12-15

    In present study, we evaluated the irradiation properties of high Cr ferritic/martensitic steels. These steels were irradiated in HANARO for 14 days at 297{+-}5 .deg. C, and for 15 days at 307{+-}5 .deg. C, and then the fluence was 2.9x10{sup 20}n/cm{sup 2} (E>1.0Mev). High temperature tensile test after irradiation was performed at hot cell in IMEF. Tensile test temperature range was from room temperature to 700 .deg. C. The yield and ultimate tensile strength of specimens increased, and the elongation of specimens decreased by neutron irradiation. Especially elongation was greatly decreased. As the tensile test temperature increased, the increase of strength by irradiation was diminished. But elongation was not recovered at high temperature tensile test. As the irradiation fluence increased, the increase of yield and tensile strength became larger. But the elongation was not influenced by the increase of irradiation fluence.

  12. Upgrade of RMS computers for Y2K problems in RX and related building of HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Taek; Kim, J. T.; Ham, C. S.; Kim, C. H.; Lee, Bong Jae; Jae, Yoo Kyung

    2000-08-01

    The Objectives of this Project are as follows : - To resolve the problems of Y2k and operation and maintenance of RMS Computers in RX and related Building of HANARO - To upgrade 486 PC to Pentium II PC - To make Windows NT-Based platform for aspects of user - To make an information structure for radiation using ireless and network devices The Contents of the Project are as follows : - To make Windows NT-Based platform for Radiation Monitoring System - To make Software Platform and Environment for the developing the application program - To design and implement Database Structure - To implement RS232c communication program between local indicators and scanning computers - To implement IEEE 802.3 ethernet communication program between scanning computers and RMTs - To implement user interface for radiation monitoring - To test and inspect Y2k problems.

  13. A study on the direct use of spent PWR fuel in CANDU reactors -Development of DUPIC fuel on manufacturing and quality control technology-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Myung Seung; Park, Hyun Soo; Lee, Yung Woo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    Oxidation/reduction process was established after analysis of the effect of process parameter on the sintering behavior using SIMFUEL. Process equipment was studied more detail and some of process equipment items were designed and procured. The chemical analysing method of fission products and fissile content in DUPIC fuel was studied and the behavior and the characteristics of fission products in fuel was also done. Requirement for irradiation in HANARO was analysed to prepare performance evaluation. 100 figs, 48 tabs, 170 refs. (Author).

  14. Study on the process system of fuel test loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chi, Dae Young; Lee, Chung Young; Sim, Bong Shick; Kim, Jun Yun

    2001-04-01

    The project, 'Feasibility review on the installation of FTL in HANARO' charged by KISTEP has been performed for the technical evaluation of the steady state fuel test loop during 4 months from Dec. 2000 to Mar. 2001. This study describes the preliminary process design of FTL. This report includes the followings : - The construction of FTL - The calculation of the process system - The operation conditions of FTL.

  15. Right bundle branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bussink, Barbara E; Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Jespersen, Lasse

    2013-01-01

    AimsTo determine the prevalence, predictors of newly acquired, and the prognostic value of right bundle branch block (RBBB) and incomplete RBBB (IRBBB) on a resting 12-lead electrocardiogram in men and women from the general population.Methods and resultsWe followed 18 441 participants included.......5%/2.3% in women, P Right bundle branch block was associated with significantly...... increased all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in both genders with age-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of 1.31 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-1.54] and 1.87 (95% CI, 1.48-2.36) in the gender pooled analysis with little attenuation after multiple adjustment. Right bundle branch block was associated...

  16. Bundles of Banach algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Kitchen

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available We study bundles of Banach algebras π:A→X, where each fiber Ax=π−1({x} is a Banach algebra and X is a compact Hausdorff space. In the case where all fibers are commutative, we investigate how the Gelfand representation of the section space algebra Γ(π relates to the Gelfand representation of the fibers. In the general case, we investigate how adjoining an identity to the bundle π:A→X relates to the standard adjunction of identities to the fibers.

  17. Buying bundles: the effects of bundle attributes on the value of bundling

    OpenAIRE

    Linthorst, M.M.; Telgen, Jan; Schotanus, Fredo

    2008-01-01

    We consider the situation in which a buyer has to find the optimal degree of bundling for buying goods and services. From a review of the literature we develop attributes associated with bundling. Each of these attributes has an effect on the value of a bundle. Combined, the attributes determine the value of a bundle. We describe how the various attributes of a bundle contribute to the value of a bundle given the context of the buying situation. Based on interviews, a further analysis of bund...

  18. Buying bundles: the effects of bundling attributes on the value of bundling

    OpenAIRE

    Linthorst, M.M.; Telgen, Jan; Schotanus, Fredo

    2008-01-01

    We consider the situation in which a buyer has to find the optimal degree of bundling for buying goods and services. From a review of the literature we develop attributes associated with bundling. Each of these attributes has an effect on the value of a bundle. Combined, the attributes determine the value of a bundle. We describe how the various attributes of a bundle contribute to the value of a bundle given the context of the buying situation. Based on interviews, a further analysis of bund...

  19. ALUMINUM BOX BUNDLING PRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iosif DUMITRESCU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In municipal solid waste, aluminum is the main nonferrous metal, approximately 80- 85% of the total nonferrous metals. The income per ton gained from aluminum recuperation is 20 times higher than from glass, steel boxes or paper recuperation. The object of this paper is the design of a 300 kN press for aluminum box bundling.

  20. Dynamics of flagellar bundling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Pieter; Graham, Michael

    2010-11-01

    Flagella are long thin appendages of microscopic organisms used for propulsion in low-Reynolds environments. For E. coli the flagella are driven by a molecular motor, which rotates the flagella in a counter-clockwise motion (CCM). When in a forward swimming motion, all flagella bundle up. If a motor reverses rotation direction, the flagella unbundle and the cell makes a tumbling motion. When all motors turn in the same CC direction again, the flagella bundle up, and forward swimming continues. To investigate the bundling, we consider two flexible helices next to each other, as well as several flagella attached to a spherical body. Each helix is modeled as several prolate spheroids connected at the tips by springs. For hydrodynamic interactions, we consider the flagella to made up of point forces, while the finite size of the body is incorporated via Fax'en's laws. We show that synchronization occurs quickly relative to the bundling process. For flagella next to each other, the initial deflection is generated by rotlet interactions generated by the rotating helices. At longer times, simulations show the flagella only wrap once around each other, but only for flagella that are closer than about 4 helix radii. Finally, we show a run-and-tumble motion of the body with attached flagella.

  1. Bundle pricing with comparable items

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigoriev, Alexander; van Loon, Joyce; Sviridenko, Maxim; Uetz, Marc Jochen; Vredeveld, Tjark; Arge, L.; Hoffmann, M.; Welzl, E.

    2007-01-01

    We consider a revenue maximization problem where we are selling a set of items, each available in a certain quantity, to a set of bidders. Each bidder is interested in one or several bundles of items. We assume the bidders’ valuations for each of these bundles to be known. Whenever bundle prices are

  2. Bundling ecosystem services in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turner, Katrine Grace; Odgaard, Mette Vestergaard; Bøcher, Peder Klith

    2014-01-01

    to form synergies. We identified six distinct ecosystem service bundle types, indicating multiple interactions at a landscape level. The bundle types showed specialized areas of agricultural production, high provision of cultural services at the coasts, multifunctional mixed-use bundle types around urban...

  3. Structural Integrity Evaluation of an New In-Chimney Bracket Structures for HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jeong Soo; Cho, Yeong Garp; Lee, Jung Hee; Jung, Hoan Sung; Seo, Choon Gyo; Shin, Jin Won

    2007-12-15

    In HANARO are there provided three hexagonal irradiation holes (CT, IR1 and IR2) in the central region of the core while four circular irradiation holes (OR3 {approx} OR6) in the outer core. There exist two types of irradiation facilities: uninstrumented or instrumented. The uninstrumented irradiation facility is little influenced by the coolant flow. But the dynamic behavior by the flow-induced vibration (FIV) and seismic loads is expected to largely occur in case of the instrumented test facility due to the long guide tube to protect the instrumentation cables. To suppress this dynamic behavior of the facility, the in-chimney bracket was designed. As a supplementary supporting structure for irradiation facility, this bracket will hold guide tubes whose holding position of the instrumented facility in CT or IR is the middle part of the instrumented facility between the hole spider and the robot arm already provided in the reactor pool liner. On the while, the bracket will grip the upper part of the guide tube when it is applied to hold the instrumented facility loaded in OR sites. Therefore it is believed that the irradiation test can be successfully conducted since this bracket can reduce the FIV and dynamic response to seismic load as well. In new in-chimney bracket, IR1 is reserved for IPS(In-Pile Section) so only CT/IR2 guide tubes are supported by CT/IR clamp units and the shape of In-chimney bracket is redesigned. For evaluating the structural integrity on the new in-chimney bracket and related reactor structures, ANSYS finite element analysis model is developed and the dynamic characteristics are analyzed. The seismic response analyses of new in-chimney bracket and related reactor structures of HANARO under the design earthquake response spectrum loads of OBE(0.1g) and SSE(0.2g) are performed. The response shows that the stress values for main points on the reactor structures and the new in-chimney bracket for seismic loads are within the ASME Code limits

  4. Buying bundles: the effects of bundling attributes on the value of bundling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linthorst, M.M.; Telgen, Jan; Schotanus, Fredo

    2008-01-01

    We consider the situation in which a buyer has to find the optimal degree of bundling for buying goods and services. From a review of the literature we develop attributes associated with bundling. Each of these attributes has an effect on the value of a bundle. Combined, the attributes determine the

  5. Buying bundles: the effects of bundle attributes on the value of bundling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linthorst, M.M.; Telgen, Jan; Schotanus, Fredo

    2008-01-01

    We consider the situation in which a buyer has to find the optimal degree of bundling for buying goods and services. From a review of the literature we develop attributes associated with bundling. Each of these attributes has an effect on the value of a bundle. Combined, the attributes determine the

  6. Technical Requirements for Fabrication and Installation of Removable Shield for CNRF in HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jeong Soo; Cho, Yeong Garp; Lee, Jung Hee; Shin, Jin Won

    2008-04-15

    This report details the technical requirements for the fabrication and installation of the removable shield for the Cold Neutron Research Facility (CNRF) in HANARO reactor hall. The removable shield is classified as non-nuclear safety (NNS), seismic category II, and quality class T. The main function of the removable shield is to do the biological shielding of neutrons and gamma from the CN port and the guides. The removable shield consists of block type walls and roofs that can be necessarily assembled, disassembled and moveable. These will be installed between the reactor pool wall and the CNS guide bunker in. This report describes technical requirements for the removable shield such as quality assurance, seismic analysis requirements, configuration, concrete compositions, fabrication and installation requirements, test and inspection, shipping, delivery, etc. Appendix is the technical specification of structural design and analysis. Attachments are composed of the technical specification for the fabrication of the removable shield, shielding design drawings and procurement quality requirements. These technical requirements will be provided to a contract for the manufacturing and installation.

  7. Helices and vector bundles

    CERN Document Server

    Rudakov, A N

    1990-01-01

    This volume is devoted to the use of helices as a method for studying exceptional vector bundles, an important and natural concept in algebraic geometry. The work arises out of a series of seminars organised in Moscow by A. N. Rudakov. The first article sets up the general machinery, and later ones explore its use in various contexts. As to be expected, the approach is concrete; the theory is considered for quadrics, ruled surfaces, K3 surfaces and P3(C).

  8. Bundling harvester; Nippukorjausharvesteri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koponen, K. [Eko-Log Oy, Kuopio (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The staring point of the project was to design and construct, by taking the silvicultural point of view into account, a harvesting and processing system especially for energy-wood, containing manually driven bundling harvester, automatizing of the harvester, and automatized loading. The equipment forms an ideal method for entrepreneur`s-line harvesting. The target is to apply the system also for owner`s-line harvesting. The profitability of the system promotes the utilization of the system in both cases. The objectives of the project were: to construct a test equipment and prototypes for all the project stages, to carry out terrain and strain tests in order to examine the usability and durability, as well as the capacity of the machine, to test the applicability of the Eko-Log system in simultaneous harvesting of energy and pulp woods, and to start the marketing and manufacturing of the products. The basic problems of the construction of the bundling harvester have been solved using terrain-tests. The prototype machine has been shown to be operable. Loading of the bundles to form sufficiently economically transportable loads has been studied, and simultaneously, the branch-biomass has been tried to be utilized without loosing the profitability of transportation. The results have been promising, and will promote the profitable utilization of wood-energy

  9. Advanced research reactor fuel development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chang Kyu; Pak, H. D.; Kim, K. H. [and others

    2000-05-01

    The fabrication technology of the U{sub 3}Si fuel dispersed in aluminum for the localization of HANARO driver fuel has been launches. The increase of production yield of LEU metal, the establishment of measurement method of homogeneity, and electron beam welding process were performed. Irradiation test under normal operation condition, had been carried out and any clues of the fuel assembly breakdown was not detected. The 2nd test fuel assembly has been irradiated at HANARO reactor since 17th June 1999. The quality assurance system has been re-established and the eddy current test technique has been developed. The irradiation test for U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} dispersed fuels at HANARO reactor has been carried out in order to compare the in-pile performance of between the two types of U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} fuels, prepared by both the atomization and comminution processes. KAERI has also conducted all safety-related works such as the design and the fabrication of irradiation rig, the analysis of irradiation behavior, thermal hydraulic characteristics, stress analysis for irradiation rig, and thermal analysis fuel plate, for the mini-plate prepared by international research cooperation being irradiated safely at HANARO. Pressure drop test, vibration test and endurance test were performed. The characterization on powders of U-(5.4 {approx} 10 wt%) Mo alloy depending on Mo content prepared by rotating disk centrifugal atomization process was carried out in order to investigate the phase stability of the atomized U-Mo alloy system. The {gamma}-U phase stability and the thermal compatibility of atomized U-16at.%Mo and U-14at.%Mo-2at.%X(: Ru, Os) dispersion fuel meats at an elevated temperature have been investigated. The volume increases of U-Mo compatibility specimens were almost the same as or smaller than those of U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}. However the atomized alloy fuel exhibited a better irradiation performance than the comminuted alloy. The RERTR-3 irradiation test of nano

  10. Bundled payments in orthopedic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushnell, Brandon D

    2015-02-01

    As a result of reading this article, physicians should be able to: 1. Describe the concept of bundled payments and the potential applications of bundled payments in orthopedic surgery. 2. For specific situations, outline a clinical episode of care, determine the participants in a bundling situation, and define care protocols and pathways. 3. Recognize the importance of resource utilization management, quality outcome measurement, and combined economic-clinical value in determining the value of bundled payment arrangements. 4. Identify the implications of bundled payments for practicing orthopedists, as well as the legal issues and potential future directions of this increasingly popular alternative payment method. Bundled payments, the idea of paying a single price for a bundle of goods and services, is a financial concept familiar to most American consumers because examples appear in many industries. The idea of bundled payments has recently gained significant momentum as a financial model with the potential to decrease the significant current costs of health care. Orthopedic surgery as a field of medicine is uniquely positioned for success in an environment of bundled payments. This article reviews the history, logistics, and implications of the bundled payment model relative to orthopedic surgery. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. Muon bundles from the Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kankiewicz P.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently the CERN ALICE experiment, in its dedicated cosmic ray run, observed muon bundles of very high multiplicities, thereby confirming similar findings from the LEP era at CERN (in the CosmoLEP project. Significant evidence for anisotropy of arrival directions of the observed high multiplicity muonic bundles is found. Estimated directionality suggests their possible extragalactic provenance. We argue that muonic bundles of highest multiplicity are produced by strangelets, hypothetical stable lumps of strange quark matter infiltrating our Universe.

  12. Single- and Two-Phase Turbulent Mixing Rate between Subchannels in Triangle Tight Lattice Rod Bundle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    KAWAHARA, Akimaro; SADATOMI, Michio; KUDO, Hiroyuki; KANO, Keiko

    2006-01-01

    In order to obtain the data on turbulent mixing rate between triangle tight lattice subchannels, which will be adopted as the next generation BWR fuel rod bundle, adiabatic experiments were conducted...

  13. Neutron Shielding Calculation of a Beam Stopper for the Thermal-TAS at HANARO using MCNP6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Byoungil; Kim, Jongsoon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    It can be classified as a virtual source, neutron optics components, Monochromator Shielding Unit (MSU), Sample table and Analyzer and Detector bank. At a monochromator, specific wavelength of neutron beam is selected by the Bragg scattering theory. Because the neutron beam comes from reactor source has high intensity, massive shielding units are placed around monochromator. After monochromator, selected neutron beam goes toward sample table. This is a brief account of the Thermal-TAS experiment. To achieve high quality experimental results, signal noise should be controlled. Signal noise can come from not only electronic hardware system but also un-necessary neutron background. To reduce background, proper shielding components should be placed around optical components. Monochromator, analyzer and detector have their own shielding components but sample table doesn't in current status of Thermal-TAS. To reduce background occurred on sample table, direct neutron beam that comes from monochromator should be blocked. In this paper, basic design and radiation shielding calculation of direct beam stopper shielding component have been conducted. A conceptual design and shielding calculation of a neutron beam stopper for the thermal-TAS at HANARO has been conducted. With this result, a beam stopper segment will be fabricated. After further procedures such as mechanical, electronic design and fabrication of a driving part of the stopper, a neutron beam stopper system will be installed on the thermal-TAS at HANARO.

  14. Bundle Formation in Biomimetic Hydrogels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaspers, Maarten; Pape, A C H; Voets, Ilja K; Rowan, Alan E; Portale, Giuseppe; Kouwer, Paul H J

    2016-01-01

    Bundling of single polymer chains is a crucial process in the formation of biopolymer network gels that make up the extracellular matrix and the cytoskeleton. This bundled architecture leads to gels with distinctive properties, including a large-pore-size gel formation at very low concentrations and

  15. Bundle Security Protocol for ION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleigh, Scott C.; Birrane, Edward J.; Krupiarz, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    This software implements bundle authentication, conforming to the Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN) Internet Draft on Bundle Security Protocol (BSP), for the Interplanetary Overlay Network (ION) implementation of DTN. This is the only implementation of BSP that is integrated with ION.

  16. Fiber bundle phase conjugate mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Benjamin G.

    2012-05-01

    An improved method and apparatus for passively conjugating the phases of a distorted wavefronts resulting from optical phase mismatch between elements of a fiber laser array are disclosed. A method for passively conjugating a distorted wavefront comprises the steps of: multiplexing a plurality of probe fibers and a bundle pump fiber in a fiber bundle array; passing the multiplexed output from the fiber bundle array through a collimating lens and into one portion of a non-linear medium; passing the output from a pump collection fiber through a focusing lens and into another portion of the non-linear medium so that the output from the pump collection fiber mixes with the multiplexed output from the fiber bundle; adjusting one or more degrees of freedom of one or more of the fiber bundle array, the collimating lens, the focusing lens, the non-linear medium, or the pump collection fiber to produce a standing wave in the non-linear medium.

  17. A joint study on the research reactor development technology in Brazil, Vietnam, Thailand, etc. and a study on the establishment of basic foundation for the activation of the HANARO technology export

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, C. W.; Lee, J. B.; Kim, H. R. [and others

    2003-03-01

    According to the characteristics of this project, the results of the technical cooperation development are the agreed terms, developed items, and others that the one who is conducting a research reactor project, requires from Hanaro specifically.

  18. The Analysis of SBWR Critical Power Bundle Using Cobrag Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohannes Sardjono

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The coolant mechanism of SBWR is similar with the Dodewaard Nuclear Power Plant (NPP in the Netherlands that first went critical in 1968. The similarity of both NPP is cooled by natural convection system. These coolant concept is very related with same parameters on fuel bundle design especially fuel bundle length, core pressure drop and core flow rate as well as critical power bundle. The analysis was carried out by using COBRAG computer code. COBRAG computer code is GE Company proprietary. Basically COBRAG computer code is a tool to solve compressible three-dimensional, two fluid, three field equations for two phase flow. The three fields are the vapor field, the continuous liquid field, and the liquid drop field. This code has been applied to analyses model flow and heat transfer within the reactor core. This volume describes the finitevolume equations and the numerical solution methods used to solve these equations. This analysis of same parameters has been done i.e.; inlet sub cooling 20 BTU/lbm and 40 BTU/lbm, 1000 psi pressure and R-factor is 1.038, mass flux are 0.5 Mlb/hr.ft2, 0.75 Mlb/hr.ft2, 1.00 Mlb/hr.ft2 and 1.25 Mlb/hr.ft2. Those conditions based on history operation of some type of the cell fuel bundle line at GE Nuclear Energy. According to the results, it can be concluded that SBWR critical power bundle is 10.5 % less than current BWR critical power bundle with length reduction of 12 ft to 9 ft.

  19. Semiflexible Biopolymers in Bundled Arrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Schnauß

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Bundles and networks of semiflexible biopolymers are key elements in cells, lending them mechanical integrity while also enabling dynamic functions. Networks have been the subject of many studies, revealing a variety of fundamental characteristics often determined via bulk measurements. Although bundles are equally important in biological systems, they have garnered much less scientific attention since they have to be probed on the mesoscopic scale. Here, we review theoretical as well as experimental approaches, which mainly employ the naturally occurring biopolymer actin, to highlight the principles behind these structures on the single bundle level.

  20. MAVEN EUV Modelled Data Bundle

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This bundle contains solar irradiance spectra in 1-nm bins from 0-190 nm. The spectra are generated based upon the Flare Irradiance Spectra Model - Mars (FISM-M)...

  1. Left bundle-branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risum, Niels; Strauss, David; Sogaard, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between myocardial electrical activation by electrocardiogram (ECG) and mechanical contraction by echocardiography in left bundle-branch block (LBBB) has never been clearly demonstrated. New strict criteria for LBBB based on a fundamental understanding of physiology have recently...

  2. MAVEN SWEA Calibrated Data Bundle

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This bundle contains fully calibrated electron energy/angle (3D) distributions, pitch angle distributions, and omni-directional energy spectra. Tables of sensitivity...

  3. MAVEN LPW Derived Data Bundle

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This bundle contains data which have been derived from other data products or determined by fits to other data. These are science quality data produced by the LPW...

  4. MAVEN LPW Calibrated Data Bundle

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This bundle contains fully calibrated, science quality data produced by the LPW instrument. The data include spacecraft potential, electric field waveforms and wave...

  5. Development of cancer therapy facility of HANARO and medical research in BNCT; development of the technique for boron concentration analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hee Dong; Byun, Soo Hyun; Sun, Gwang Min; Kim, Suk Kwon; Kim, In Jung; Park, Chang Su [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea)

    2002-03-01

    Objective and Necessity of the Project- Development of a boron concentration analysis facility used for BNCT. - Development of the technique for boron concentration analysis. Contents and Scopes of the Project - Construction of the boron concentration analysis facility based on PGAA. Estimation of the neutron beam characteristics. -Establishment of the technique for the boron concentration analysis. - Estimation of the reliability for the boron analysis. Results of the Project -Installation of the boron concentration analysis facility at Hanaro. - Neutron beam characteristics are the sample position (neutron flux : 7.9 x 10{sup 7} n/cm{sup 2}s, Cd-ratio : 266) Technique for the boron concentration analysis. - Boron detection sensitivity and limit (detection sensitivity : 2, 131 cps/mg-B, detection limit : 67 ng for 10,000 sec). 63 refs., 37 figs., 13 tabs. (Author)

  6. Study on the characterization of the neutron radiography facility in HANARO for two-phase flow research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, I. C.; Seo, C. G.; Jeong, J. H.; Lee, B. H.; Choi, Y. S

    2001-01-01

    For the application of dynamic neutron radiography to the two-phase flow research using HANARO, several experimental items to which the radiography technique is beneficial were identified through the review of the outputs from the related researches and the discussions with experts. Also, the investigation of the equipments including the beam port, camera and converter was made and a hardware and a software for image processing were equipped. It was confirmed that the calibration curve for the attenuation of neutron beam in fluid which is required for the two-phase flow experiment could be obtained by the computer code calculation. Based on the investigation results on the equipment and the results from the measurement of BNCT beam characteristics, a high speed camera and an image intensifier will be purchased. Then, the high speed dynamic neutron radiography facility for two-phase flow experiments will be fully equipped.

  7. The button effect of CANFLEX bundle on the critical heat flux and critical channel power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Joo Hwan; Jun, Jisu; Suk, Ho Chun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Dimmick, G. R.; Bullock, D. E.; Inch, W. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Ontario (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    A CANFLEX (CANdu FLEXible fuelling) 43-element bundle has developed for a CANDU-6 reactor as an alternative of 37-element fuel bundle. The design has two diameter elements (11.5 and 13.5 mm) to reduce maximum element power rating and buttons to enhance the critical heat flux (CHF), compared with the standard 37-element bundle. The freon CHF experiments have performed for two series of CANFLEX bundles with and without buttons with a modelling fluid as refrigerant R-134a and axial uniform heat flux condition. Evaluating the effects of buttons of CANFLEX bundle on CHF and Critical Channel Power (CCP) with the experimental results, it is shown that the buttons enhance CCP as well as CHF. All the CHF`s for both the CANFLEX bundles are occurred at the end of fuel channel with the high dryout quality conditions. The CHF enhancement ratio are increased with increase of dryout quality for all flow conditions and also with increase of mass flux only for high pressure conditions. It indicates that the button is a useful design for CANDU operating condition because most CHF flow conditions for CANDU fuel bundle are ranged to high dryout quality conditions. 5 refs., 11 figs. (Author)

  8. Characterization of HANARO neutron radiography facility in accordance with ASTM standard E545-91/E803-91 for KOLAS/ISO17025.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheul-Muu, Sim; Ki-Yong, Nam; In-Cheol, Lim; Chang-Hee, Lee; Ha-Lim, Choi

    2004-10-01

    As neutron radiography is even more in demand for industrial applications of aircraft, turbine blade, automobile, explosive igniters, etc, it is necessary to review the standards which are the most appropriate for preparing the procedures for setting up the QA system. Recently, Korea Of Lab Accreditation Scheme (KOLAS) was originated from ISO 17025. It is widely recognized by research peer groups for conducting valid tests. The neutron radiography facility (NRF) of High Flux Advanced Neutron Application Reactor (HANARO), which started ion 1996, is the preliminary stages of KOLAS. The HANARO NRF is not only characterized using ASTM standards E545-91/E803-91 to satisfy the requirements of KOLAS, but in the design phase of the tomography system.

  9. Design, Fabrication and Test Report on HANARO Instrumented Capsule (08M-01K) for the Evaluation of Irradiation Degradation of RPV Model Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, K. N.; Cho, M. S.; Kim, B. G.; Kang, Y. H.; Son, J. M.; Shin, Y. T.; Park, S. J.; Oh, S. Y.; Lee, J. H

    2009-03-15

    An instrumented capsule of 08M-01K was designed, fabricated and irradiated for an evaluation of the neutron irradiation properties of RPV model alloys. The basic structure of the 08M-01K capsule was based on the 07M-13N capsule which was successfully irradiated in the CT test hole of HANARO. 124 specimens such as PCVN, 1/2 PCVN, Charpy, small tensile, PA and TEM specimens of SA508 RPV model alloys were placed in the capsule. The capsule was composed of 5 stages having many kinds of specimens and an independent electric heater at each stage. During the irradiation test, the temperature of the specimens and the fast neutron fluence were measured by 14 thermocouples and 5 sets of Ni-Ti-Fe-Ag-Nb-Co neutron fluence monitors installed in the capsule. A friction welded tube between STS304 and Al1050 alloys was introduced in the capsule to prevent a coolant leakage into a capsule during a capsule cutting process in HANARO. The capsule was irradiated in the CT test hole of HANARO of a 30MW thermal output at 255{approx} 317 .deg. C up to a fast neutron fluence of 8.3x10{sup 19} n/cm{sup 2} (E>1.0 MeV). The obtained results will be very valuable for the evaluation on the extended operation of the KORI 1 Nuclear Power Reactor.

  10. Design, Fabrication and Test Report on Instrumented Capsule (08M-02K) for Irradiation Test of RPV Model Alloys in HANARO OR5 Test Hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, K. N.; Cho, M. S.; Kim, B. G.; Kang, Y. H.; Son, J. M.; Shin, Y. T.; Park, S. J.; Oh, S. Y

    2009-09-15

    An instrumented capsule of 08M-02K was designed, fabricated and irradiated for an evaluation of the neutron irradiation properties of RPV model alloys. The basic structure of the 08M-02K capsule was based on the 07M-21K capsule which was successfully irradiated in the OR5 test hole of HANARO. 228 specimens such as PCVN, 1/2 PCVN, Charpy, small tensile and TEM specimens of SA508 RPV model alloys were placed in the capsule. The capsule was composed of 5 stages having many kinds of specimens and an independent electric heater at each stage. During the irradiation test, the temperature of the specimens and the fast neutron fluence were measured by 14 thermocouples and 5 sets of Ni-Ti-Fe neutron fluence monitors installed in the capsule. A friction welded tube between STS304 and AI1050 alloys was introduced in the capsule to prevent a coolant leakage into a capsule during capsule cutting process in HANARO. The capsule was irradiated in the OR5 test hole of HANARO of a 30MW thermal output at 269{approx}310 .deg. C up to a fast neutron fluence of 4.4x10{sup 19}(n/cm{sup 2}) (E>1.0 MeV). The obtained results will be very valuable for the evaluation on the 2nd extended operation of the KORI 1 Nuclear Power Reactor.

  11. Single and two-phase flow pressure drop for CANFLEX bundle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Joo Hwan; Jun, Ji Su; Suk, Ho Chun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Dimmick, G. R.; Bullock, D. E. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Ontario (Canada)

    1998-12-31

    Friction factor and two-phase flow frictional multiplier for a CANFLEX bundle are newly developed and presented in this paper. CANFLEX as a 43-element fuel bundle has been developed jointly by AECL/KAERI to provide greater operational flexibility for CANDU reactor operators and designers. Friction factor and two-phase flow frictional multiplier have been developed by using the experimental data of pressure drops obtained from two series of Freon-134a (R-134a) CHF tests with a string of simulated CANFLEX bundles in a single phase and a two-phase flow conditions. The friction factor for a CANFLEX bundle is found to be about 20% higher than that of Blasius for a smooth circular pipe. The pressure drop predicted by using the new correlations of friction factor and two-phase frictional multiplier are well agreed with the experimental pressure drop data of CANFLEX bundle within {+-} 5% error. 11 refs., 5 figs. (Author)

  12. GPU Parallel Bundle Block Adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHENG Maoteng

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available To deal with massive data in photogrammetry, we introduce the GPU parallel computing technology. The preconditioned conjugate gradient and inexact Newton method are also applied to decrease the iteration times while solving the normal equation. A brand new workflow of bundle adjustment is developed to utilize GPU parallel computing technology. Our method can avoid the storage and inversion of the big normal matrix, and compute the normal matrix in real time. The proposed method can not only largely decrease the memory requirement of normal matrix, but also largely improve the efficiency of bundle adjustment. It also achieves the same accuracy as the conventional method. Preliminary experiment results show that the bundle adjustment of a dataset with about 4500 images and 9 million image points can be done in only 1.5 minutes while achieving sub-pixel accuracy.

  13. Twist-off purification of hair bundles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jung-Bum; Pagana, James; Gillespie, Peter G

    2009-01-01

    Purification of hair bundles from inner-ear organs allows biochemical analysis of bundle constituents, including proteins and lipids. We describe here the "twist-off" method of bundle isolation, where dissected inner-ear organs are embedded in agarose, then subjected to a mechanical disruption that shears off bundles and leaves them in agarose blocks. With care in the dissection and in clean-up of the isolated bundles, contamination from cell bodies can be kept to a minimum. Isolated bundles can be analyzed by a variety of techniques, including immunocytochemistry, SDS-PAGE, immunoblotting, and mass spectrometry.

  14. Fabrication of CANFLEX bundle kit for irradiation test in NRU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Moon Sung; Kwon, Hyuk Il; Ji, Chul Goo; Chang, Ho Il; Sim, Ki Seob; Suk, Ho Chun

    1997-10-01

    CANFLEX bundle kit was prepared at KAERI for the fabrication of complete bundle at AECL. Completed bundle will be used for irradiation test in NRU. Provisions in the `Quality Assurance Manual for HWR Fuel Projects,` `Manufacturing Plan` and `Quality Verification, Inspection and Test Plan` were implemented as appropriately for the preparation of CANFLEX kit. A set of CANFLEX kit consist of 43 fuel sheath of two different sizes with spacers, bearing pads and buttons attached, 2 pieces of end plates and 86 pieces of end caps with two different sizes. All the documents utilized as references for the fabrication such as drawings, specifications, operating instructions, QC instructions and supplier`s certificates are specified in this report. Especially, suppliers` certificates and inspection reports for the purchased material as well as KAERI`s inspection report are integrated as attachments to this report. Attached to this report are supplier`s certificates and KAERI inspection reports for the procured materials and KAERI QC inspection reports for tubes, pads, spacers, buttons, end caps, end plates and fuel sheath. (author). 37 refs.

  15. Principal bundles the classical case

    CERN Document Server

    Sontz, Stephen Bruce

    2015-01-01

    This introductory graduate level text provides a relatively quick path to a special topic in classical differential geometry: principal bundles.  While the topic of principal bundles in differential geometry has become classic, even standard, material in the modern graduate mathematics curriculum, the unique approach taken in this text presents the material in a way that is intuitive for both students of mathematics and of physics. The goal of this book is to present important, modern geometric ideas in a form readily accessible to students and researchers in both the physics and mathematics communities, providing each with an understanding and appreciation of the language and ideas of the other.

  16. Model for subchannel friction factors and flow redistribution in wire-wrapped rod bundles

    OpenAIRE

    Carajilescov, Pedro; Fernandez y Fernandez, Elói

    1999-01-01

    The fuel element of LMFBR consists of a bundle of rods wrapped with an helical wire as spacer, surrounded by an hexagonal duct. In the present work, a semi-empirical model is developed to calculate bundle average and subchannel based friction factors and flow redistribution. The obtained results were compared to experimental data and they were considered satisfactory for wide range of geometrical parameters.

  17. Coolant mixing in LMFBR rod bundles and outlet plenum mixing transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todreas, N. E.; Cheng, S. K.; Basehore, K.

    1984-08-01

    The thermal hydraulic performance of wire wrapped fuel bundles of LMFBR configuration was investigated. Results obtained included phenomenological models for friction factors, flow split and mixing characteristics; correlations for predicting these characteristics suitable for insertion in design codes; numerical codes for analyzing bundle behavior both of the lumped subchannel and distributed parameter categories and experimental techniques for pressure velocity, flow split, salt conductivity and temperature measurement in water cooled mockups of bundles and subchannels. Flow regimes investigated included laminar, transition and turbulent flow under forced convection and mixed convection conditions. Forced convections conditions are emphasized. Outlet plenum behavior is also investigated.

  18. ADE bundles over surfaces with ADE singularities

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yunxia; Leung, Naichung Conan

    2012-01-01

    Given a complex projective surface with an ADE singularity and p_{g}=0, we construct ADE bundles over it and its minimal resolution. Furthermore, we descibe their minuscule representation bundles in terms of configurations of (reducible) (-1)-curves.

  19. PDS4 Bundle Creation Governance Using BPMN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radulescu, C.; Levoe, S. R.; Algermissen, S. S.; Rye, E. D.; Hardman, S. H.

    2015-06-01

    The AMMOS-PDS Pipeline Service (APPS) provides a Bundle Builder tool, which governs the process of creating, and ultimately generates, PDS4 bundles incrementally, as science products are being generated.

  20. Developing the bundled glass column

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oikonomopoulou, F.; Bristogianni, T; Veer, F.A.; Nijsse, R.; da Sousa Cruz, Paulo J.

    In this paper a bundled glass column is presented as a promising solution for a completely transparent, almost dematerialized structural compressive element. The aim is to ob-tain a glass column that can safely carry loads, achieve a high visual result and be relatively eas-ily manufactured.

  1. Line bundles and flat connections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    /fulltext/pmsc/127/03/0547-0549. Keywords. Calabi–Yau threefold; torsion; cocompact lattice; unitary representation. Abstract. We prove that there are cocompact lattices Γ in S L ( 2 , C ) with the property that there are holomorphic line bundles ...

  2. Line bundles and flat connections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Calabi–Yau threefold; torsion; cocompact lattice; unitary representation. 2000 Mathematics Subject Classification. 81T30, 14D21, 53C07. 1. Stable bundles and unitary flat connections. 1.1 Admitting flat connections. Let X be a compact connected complex manifold of complex dimension δ. Let ω be the. (1, 1)-form on X ...

  3. Chemical vapor infiltration in single fiber bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devlin, D.J.; Barbero, R.S.; Currier, R.P.

    1990-01-01

    Chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) in single fiber bundles is studied under isothermal conditions. Understanding infiltration dynamics in single bundles is essential to process design and modeling efforts. Deposition of pyrolytic carbon in carbon-fiber bundles is chosen as the experimental system, with densification data obtained from thermogravimetric analysis. Data are then compared to predictions from a recently proposed CVI model for fiber bundle densification. 10 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Principal G-bundles on nodal curves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Springer Verlag Heidelberg #4 2048 1996 Dec 15 10:16:45

    If Y is reducible these notions depend on parameters a = (a1,...,aI ). The study of G-bundles on Y is done by extending the notion of (generalized) parabolic vector bundles [U1] to generalized parabolic principal G-bundles (called GPGs in short) on the curve C and using the correspondence between them and principal ...

  5. Strategic and welfare implications of bundling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, Stephen

    1999-01-01

    A standard oligopoly model of bundling shows that bundling by a firm with a monopoly over one product has a strategic effect because it changes the substitution relationships between the goods among which consumers choose. Bundling in appropriate proportions is privately profitable, reduces rivals...

  6. The Atiyah bundle and connections on a principal bundle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    INDRANIL BISWAS. School of Mathematics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road,. Mumbai 400 005 .... (U) on A(EG)(U) and (U, g ⊕ Rd) defined by multiplication. Therefore, the sheaf A(EG) is locally free over FC∞. (M) of rank dim(g ⊕ Rd). Hence. A(EG) defines a C. ∞ vector bundle over M of rank ...

  7. Development of Pneumatic Transfer Irradiation Facility (PTS no.3) for Neutron Activation Analysis at HANARO Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Y. S.; Moon, J. H.; Kim, S. H.; Sun, G. M.; Baek, S. Y.; Kim, H. R.; Kim, Y. J

    2008-04-15

    A pneumatic transfer system (PTS) is one of the most important facilities used during neutron irradiation of a target material for instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) in a research reactor. In particular, a fast pneumatic transfer system is essential for the measurement of a short half-life nuclide. The pneumatic transfer irradiation system (PTS no.3) involving a manual system and an semi-automatic system were reconstructed with new designs of a functional improvement at the HANARO research reactor and NAA laboratory of RI building in 2006. In this technical report, the design, operation and control of these system (PTS no.3) was described. Also the experimental results and the characteristic parameters measured from a functional operation test and an irradiation test of these systems, such as the transfer time of irradiation capsule, the different neutron flux, the temperature of the irradiation position with an irradiation time, the radiation dose rate when the rabbit is returned, etc. are reported to provide a user information as well as a reactor's management and safety.

  8. Development of Pneumatic Transfer Irradiation Facility (PTS no.1) for Neutron Activation Analysis at HANARO Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Y. S.; Moon, J. H.; Kim, S. H.; Sun, G. M.; Baek, S. Y.; Kim, H. R.; Kim, Y. J

    2008-03-15

    A pneumatic transfer system (PTS) is one of the most important facilities used during neutron irradiation of a target material for instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) in a research reactor. In particular, a fast pneumatic transfer system is essential for the measurement of a short half-life nuclide and a delayed neutron counting system. The pneumatic transfer system (PTS no.1) involving a manual system and an semiautomatic system were reconstructed with new designs of a functional improvement at the HANARO research reactor in 2006. In this technical report, the conception, design, operation and control of these system (PTS no.1) was described. Also the experimental results and the characteristic parameters measured by a mock-up test, a functional operation test and an irradiation test of these systems, such as the transfer time of irradiation capsule, the different neutron flux, the temperature of the irradiation position with an irradiation time, the radiation dose rate when the rabbit is returned, etc. are reported to provide a user information as well as a reactor's management and safety.

  9. Development of Pneumatic Transfer Irradiation Facility (PTS no.2) for Neutron Activation Analysis at HANARO Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Y. S.; Moon, J. H.; Kim, S. H.; Sun, G. M.; Baek, S. Y.; Kim, H. R.; Kim, Y. J

    2008-03-15

    A pneumatic transfer irradiation system (PTS) is one of the most important facilities used during neutron irradiation of a target material for instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) in a research reactor. In particular, a fast pneumatic transfer system is essential for the measurement of a short half-life nuclide and a delayed neutron counting system. The pneumatic transfer irradiation system (PTS no.2) involving a manual system and an automatic system for delayed neutron activation analysis (DNAA) were reconstructed with new designs of a functional improvement at the HANARO research reactor in 2006. In this technical report, the conception, design, operation and control of PTS no.2 was described. Also the experimental results and the characteristic parameters measured by a mock-up test, a functional operation test and an irradiation test of these systems, such as the transfer time of irradiation capsule, automatic operation control by personal computer, delayed neutron counting system, the different neutron flux, the temperature of the irradiation position with an irradiation time, the radiation dose rate when the rabbit is returned, etc. are reported to provide a user information as well as a reactor's management and safety.

  10. Neutron beam applications - Development of single crystal structure analysis technique using the HANARO neutron four circle diffractometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Il Hwan; Kim, Moon Jib; Kim, Jin Gyu [Chungnam National University, Taejon (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    As the four circle diffractometer (FCD) has been set up in HANARO, it has become possible to study the single crystal structures by means of the neutron diffraction. Taking account of the geometry of the FCD, a program for the control of te FCD and neutron data acquisition operating under Windows' circumstance has been accomplished. Also, a computer program which can automatically measure the diffraction intensity data has been developed. All data obtained from the FCD are processed automatically for further work and a software for the single crystal structure analyses has been prepared. A KC1 single crystal was selected as first test sample for a structure analysis had been successfully performed on the FCD using in-house developed program and accordingly their functionings with precision were confirmed. For regular single crystal diffraction experiments, the structure analyses of chrysoberyl and Zr(Y)0{sub 1.87} single crystals were performed using both neutron and X-ray diffraction methods, and the result showed that the neutron diffraction work is superior to the X-ray one from the viewpoint of certain crystallographic information obtainable only from the former one. 24 refs., 15 figs., 15 tabs. (Author)

  11. Higher order jet prolongations type gauge natural bundles over vector bundles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kurek

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Let $rgeq 3$ and $mgeq 2$ be natural numbers and $E$ be a vector bundle with $m$-dimensional basis. We find all gauge natural bundles ``similar" to the $r$-jet prolongation bundle $J^rE$ of $E$. We also find all gauge natural bundles ``similar" to the vector $r$-tangent bundle $(J^r_{fl}(E,R_0^*$ of $E$.

  12. Multipath packet switch using packet bundling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, Michael Stubert

    2002-01-01

    The basic concept of packet bundling is to group smaller packets into larger packets based on, e.g., quality of service or destination within the packet switch. This paper presents novel applications of bundling in packet switching. The larger packets created by bundling are utilized to extend...... switching capacity by use of parallel switch planes. During the bundling operation, packets will experience a delay that depends on the actual implementation of the bundling and scheduling scheme. Analytical results for delay bounds and buffer size requirements are presented for a specific scheduling...

  13. Performance tests for integral reactor nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Dong-Seong; Yim, Jeong-Sik; Lee, Chong-Tak; Kim, Han-Soo; Koo, Yang-Hyun; Lee, Byung-Ho; Cheon, Jin-Sik; Oh, Je-Yong

    2006-02-15

    An integral type reactor SMART plans to utilize metallic Zr-U fuel which is Zr-based alloy with 34{approx}38 wt% U. In order to verify the technologies for the design and manufacturing of the fuel and get a license, performance tests were carried out. Experimental Fuel Assembly (EFA) manufactured in KAERI is being successfully irradiated in the MIR reactor of RIAR from September 4 2004, and it has achieved burnup of 0.21 g/cc as of January 25 2006. Thermal properties of irradiated Zr-U fuel were measured. Up to the phase transformation temperature, thermal diffusivity increased linearly in proportion to temperature. However its dependence on the burnup was not significant. RIA tests with 4 unirradiated Zr-U fuel rods were performed in Kurchatov Institute to establish a safety criterion. In the case of the un-irradiated Zr-U fuel, the energy deposition during the control rod ejection accident should be less than 172 cal/g to prevent the failure accompanying fuel fragmentation and dispersal. Finally the irradiation tests of fuel rods have been performed at HANARO. The HITE-2 test was successfully completed up to a burnup of 0.31 g/cc. The HITE-3 test began in February 2004 and will be continued up to a target burnup of 0.6 g/cc.

  14. Fabrication of a CANFLEX-RU designed bundle for power ramp irradiation test in NRU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Moon Sung

    2000-11-01

    The BDL-443 CANFLEX-RU bundle AKW was fabricated at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) for power ramp irradiation testing in NRU reactor. The bundle was fabricated with IDR and ADU fuel pellets in adjacent elements and contains fuel pellets enriched to 1.65 wt% {sup 235}U in the outer and intermediate rings and also contains pellets enriched to 2.00 wt% {sup 235}U in the inner ring. This bundle does not have a center element to allow for insertion on a hanger bar. KAERI produced the IDR pellets with the IDR-source UO{sub 2} powder supplied by BNFL. ADU pellets were fabricated and supplied by AECL. Bundle kits (Zircaloy-4 end plates, end plugs, and sheaths with brazed appendages) manufactured at KAERI earlier in 1996 were used for the fabrication of the bundle. The CANFLEX bundle was fabricated successfully at KAERI according to the QA provisions specified in references and as per relevant KAERI drawings and technical specification. This report covers the fabrication activities performed at KAERI. Fabrication processes performed at AECL will be documented in a separate report.

  15. Reflood experiments in rod bundles with flow blockages due to clad ballooning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, S.K.; Kim, J.; Kim, K.; Kim, B.J.; Park, J.K.; Youn, Y.J.; Choi, H.S.; Song, C.H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    Clad ballooning and the resulting partial flow blockage are one of the major thermal-hydraulic concerns associated with the coolability of partially blocked cores during a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). Several in-pile tests have shown that fuel relocation causes a local power accumulation and a high thermal coupling between the clad and fuel debris in the ballooned regions. However, previous experiments in the 1980s did not take into account the fuel relocation phenomena and resulting local power increase in the ballooned regions. The present paper presents the results of systematic investigations on the coolability of rod bundles with flow blockages. The experiments were mainly performed in 5 x 5 rod bundles, 2 x 2 rod bundles and other test facilities. The experiments include a reflood heat transfer, single-phase convective heat transfer, flow redistributions phenomena, and droplet break-up behavior. The effects of the fuel relocation and resulting local power increase were investigated using a 5 x 5 rod bundle. The fuel relocation phenomena increase the peak cladding temperature.

  16. Ulrich Schur bundles on flag varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Coskun, Izzet; Costa, Laura; Huizenga, Jack; Miró-Roig, Rosa Maria; Woolf, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study equivariant vector bundles on partial flag varieties arising from Schur functors. We show that a partial flag variety with three or more steps does not admit an Ulrich bundle of this form with respect to the minimal ample class. We classify Ulrich bundles of this form on two-step flag varieties F(1,n-1;n), F(2,n-1;n), F(2,n-2;n), F(k,k+1;n) and F(k,k+2;n). We give a conjectural description of the two-step flag varieties which admit such Ulrich bundles.

  17. Equivariant Ulrich bundles on flag varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Coskun, Izzet; Huizenga, Jack; Woolf, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study equivariant vector bundles on partial flag varieties arising from Schur functors. We show that a partial flag variety with three or more steps does not admit an Ulrich bundle of this form with respect to the minimal ample class. We classify Ulrich bundles of this form on two-step flag varieties F(2,n;n+1), F(2,n;n+2), F(k,k+1;n), and F(k,k+2;n). We give a conjectural description of the two-step flag varieties which admit such Ulrich bundles. Our results provide counter...

  18. Axis deviation without left bundle branch block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patanè, Salvatore; Marte, Filippo; Mancuso, Antonia

    2010-04-15

    It has been rarely reported changing axis deviation in the presence of left bundle branch block also during atrial fibrillation and with acute myocardial infarction too. It has also been rarely reported changing axis deviation with changing bundle branch block with onset of atrial fibrillation during acute myocardial infarction. We present a case of axis deviation without left bundle branch block and without atrial fibrillation and acute myocardial infarction in a 65-year-old Italian man. To our knowledge, this is the first report of axis deviation without left bundle branch block and without atrial fibrillation and acute myocardial infarction. Copyright 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Remote fabrication and irradiation test of recycled nuclear fuel prepared by the oxidation and reduction of spent oxide fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin Ryu, Ho; Chan Song, Kee; Il Park, Geun; Won Lee, Jung; Seung Yang, Myung

    2005-02-01

    A direct dry recycling process was developed in order to reuse spent pressurized light water reactor (LWR) nuclear fuel in CANDU reactors without the separation of sensitive nuclear materials such as plutonium. The benefits of the dry recycling process are the saving of uranium resources and the reduction of spent fuel accumulation as well as a higher proliferation resistance. In the process of direct dry recycling, fuel pellets separated from spent LWR fuel rods are oxidized from UO2 to U3O8 at 500 °C in an air atmosphere and reduced into UO2 at 700 °C in a hydrogen atmosphere, which is called OREOX (oxidation and reduction of oxide fuel). The pellets are pulverized during the oxidation and reduction processes due to the phase transformation between cubic UO2 and orthorhombic U3O8. Using the oxide powder prepared from the OREOX process, the compaction and sintering processes are performed in a remote manner in a shielded hot cell due to the high radioactivity of the spent fuel. Most of the fission gas and volatile fission products are removed during the OREOX and sintering processes. The mini-elements fabricated by the direct dry recycling process are irradiated in the HANARO research reactor for the performance evaluation of the recycled fuel pellets. Post-irradiation examination of the irradiated fuel showed that microstructural evolution and fission gas release behavior of the dry-recycled fuel were similar to high burnup UO2 fuel.

  20. Fluid mixing studies in a hexagonal 61-pin, wire-wrapped rod bundle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, A S; Todreas, N

    1977-08-01

    Two wire-wrapped rod bundles with different leads (6 in. and 12 in.) were constructed with geometric parameters similar to proposed LMFBR fuel assemblies. Rod diameter was 0.25 in. and pitch-to-diameter ratio was 1.26. These two bundles were tested in a flow loop which was designed and built for mixing experiments. Fluid mixing was studied by means of salt tracer dispersion. Salt was injected at various radial and axial locations in the bundle via injection rods, and then the dispersed distribution was measured at the bundle exit by means of 126 specially designed electrical conductivity probes inserted into the bundle subchannels. The data collected showed a strong swirl flow around the bundle circumference and periodic variation with axial injection location. Data from turbulent runs was generally good with mass balances averaging 90% and having a spread of +- 25%. The laminar data collected was generally poor because of a ''striping'' phenomena and injection instabilities. Data were compared with calculations using the ENERGY computer code. The comparison between ENERGY calculations and the data was not good for laminar flow and was only fair in the turbulent cases. It was found that turbulent data could be best characterized by the ENERGY parameters C/sub 1/ = 0.19 and epsilon/sub 1/* = 0.025 when the lead was 6 inches; for a 12-inch lead the parameters were C/sub 1/ = 0.16 and epsilon/sub 1/* = 0.012. Pressure drop data was also taken from the two bundles and it too showed a periodic variation with axial location. Friction factors derived from the data were generally higher than predicted by available correlations. These data suggested that traditional flow split calculations could be in error and that the laminar-turbulent transition occurs over a broad Reynolds number range in wire-wrapped rod bundles.

  1. Core analysis during transition from 37-element fuel to CANFLEX-NU fuel in CANDU 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Chang Joon; Suk, Ho Chun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    An 1200-day time-dependent fuel-management for the transition from 37-element fuel to CANFLEX-NU fuel in a CANDU 6 reactor has been simulated to show the compatibility of the CANFLEX-NU fuel with the reactor operation. The simulation calculations were carried out with the RFSP code, provided by cell averaged fuel properties obtained from the POWDERPUFS-V code. The refueling scheme for both fuels was an eight bundle shift at a time. The simulation results show that the maximum channel and bundle powers were maintained below the license limit of the CANDU 6. This indicates that the CANFLEX-NU fuel bundle is compatible with the CANDU 6 reactor operation during the transition period. 3 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  2. TREAT Neutronics Analysis of Water-Loop Concept Accommodating LWR 9-rod Bundle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Connie M.; Woolstenhulme, Nicolas E.; Parry, James R.; Bess, John D.; Housley, Gregory K.

    2016-09-01

    Abstract. Simulation of a variety of transient conditions has been successfully achieved in the Transient Reactor Test (TREAT) facility during operation between 1959 and 1994 to support characterization and safety analysis of nuclear fuels and materials. A majority of previously conducted tests were focused on supporting sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) designs. Experiments evolved in complexity. Simulation of thermal-hydraulic conditions expected to be encountered by fuels and materials in a reactor environment was realized in the development of TREAT sodium loop experiment vehicles. These loops accommodated up to 7-pin fuel bundles and served to simulate more closely the reactor environment while safely delivering large quantities of energy into the test specimen. Some of the immediate TREAT restart operations will be focused on testing light water reactor (LWR) accident tolerant fuels (ATF). Similar to the sodium loop objectives, a water loop concept, developed and analyzed in the 1990’s, aimed at achieving thermal-hydraulic conditions encountered in commercial power reactors. The historic water loop concept has been analyzed in the context of a reactivity insertion accident (RIA) simulation for high burnup LWR 2-pin and 3-pin fuel bundles. Findings showed sufficient energy could be deposited into the specimens for evaluation. Similar results of experimental feasibility for the water loop concept (past and present) have recently been obtained using MCNP6.1 with ENDF/B-VII.1 nuclear data libraries. The old water loop concept required only two central TREAT core grid spaces. Preparation for future experiments has resulted in a modified water loop conceptual design designated the TREAT water environment recirculating loop (TWERL). The current TWERL design requires nine TREAT core grid spaces in order to place the water recirculating pump under the TREAT core. Due to the effectiveness of water moderation, neutronics analysis shows that removal of seven additional

  3. Hydrodynamic Experiments for a Flow Distribution of a 61-pin Wire-wrapped Rod Bundle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, S. K.; Euh, D. J.; Choi, H. S.; Kim, H. M.; Ko, Y. J.; Lee, D. W.; Lee, H. Y.; Choi, S. R. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Fuel assembly of the SFR (Sodium-cooled Fast breeder Reactor) type reactor generally has wire spacers which are wrapped around each fuel pin helically in axial direction. The configuration of a helical wire spacer guarantees the fuel rods integrity by providing the bundle rigidity, proper spacing between rods and promoting coolant mixing between subchannels. It is important to understand the flow characteristics in such a triangular array wire wrapped rod bundle in a hexagonal duct. The experimental work has been undertaken to quantify the friction and mixing parameters which characterize the flow distribution in subchannels for the KAERI's own bundle geometric configuration. This work presents the hydrodynamic experimental results for the flow distribution and the pressure drop in subchannels of a 61-pin wire wrapped rod bundle which has been fabricated considering the hydraulic similarity of the reference reactor. Hydrodynamic experiments for a 61-pin wire wrapped test assembly has been performed to provide the data of a flow distribution and pressure losses in subchannels for verifying the analysis capability of subchannel analysis codes for a KAERI's own prototype SFR reactor. Three type of sampling probes have been specially designed to conserve the shape of the flow area for each type of subchannels. All 126 subchannels have been measured to identify the characteristics of the flow distribution in a 37-pin rod assembly. Pressure drops at the interior and the edge subchannels have been also measured to recognize the friction losses of each type of subchannels.

  4. Why (almost) all bundles are chiral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kost-Smith, Zachary V.; Blackwell, Robert A.; Glaser, Matthew A.

    2014-03-01

    We examine the self assembly of bundles of achiral hard rods with distributed, short-range attractive interactions. We show that in the majority of cases the equilibrium state of the bundle is chiral, with a double twist structure. We use biased Monte Carlo techniques and cell theory to compute the free energy as a function of an appropriately defined twist order parameter, and show that the formation of spontaneously chiral bundles is driven by maximization of orientational entropy. The finite curvature of the bundle boundary permits orientational escape, in which the circumferential angular range of motion of the rods is maximized for some finite average tilt. We map out the phase diagram of bundles in terms of the density, the ratio of rod length to bundle radius, L / R , and rod aspect ratio, L / D , and find transitions between untwisted, weakly twisted, and strongly twisted states. This work helps explain the common observation of twisted macroscopic bundles, and may provide insight into observations of twist in self-assembled membranes of colloidal rods.[2] This work funded by NSF MRSEC Grant DMR-0820579.

  5. Einstein metrics on tangent bundles of spheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dancer, Andrew S [Jesus College, Oxford University, Oxford OX1 3DW (United Kingdom); Strachan, Ian A B [Department of Mathematics, University of Hull, Hull HU6 7RX (United Kingdom)

    2002-09-21

    We give an elementary treatment of the existence of complete Kaehler-Einstein metrics with nonpositive Einstein constant and underlying manifold diffeomorphic to the tangent bundle of the (n+1)-sphere.

  6. Dynamic bi-product bundle pricing problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiei Hamed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses bundle pricing problem of two products in a stochastic environment so as to maximize net profit of a retailer. In the considered problem, it is assumed that customers are received upon a Poisson distribution and their demands follow a bi-variant distribution function. Also, it is assumed that products are sold individually or in the form of a bundle, which are offered from an initial stock of the products. To tackle the problem, a stochastic dynamic program is developed in which optimum values of the initial stock and order quantities of every planning period are determined. Moreover, prices of the individual products and their bundle are optimized. Also, the proposed dynamic program tackles bundling/ unbundling decisions taken in every planning period. A numerical example of a two planning period horizon is considered to validate the proposed model.

  7. Is It Complete Left Bundle Branch Block? Just Ablate the Right Bundle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Hussam; Lupo, Pierpaolo; Foresti, Sara; De Ambroggi, Guido; Epicoco, Gianluca; Fundaliotis, Angelica; Cappato, Riccardo

    2017-03-01

    Complete left bundle branch block (LBBB) is established according to standard electrocardiographic criteria. However, functional LBBB may be rate-dependent or can perpetuate during tachycardia due to repetitive concealed retrograde penetration of impulses through the contralateral bundle "linking phenomenon." In this brief article, we present two patients with basal complete LBBB in whom ablating the right bundle unmasked the actual antegrade conduction capabilities of the left bundle. These cases highlight intriguing overlap between electrophysiological concepts of complete block, linking, extremely slow, and concealed conduction. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Physiological mechanisms of QRS narrowing in bundle branch block patients undergoing permanent His bundle pacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Alexandra E; Massoud, Louis; Ajijola, Olujimi A

    2016-01-01

    His bundle pacing is increasingly used to avoid chronic right ventricular pacing, and electrically resynchronize ventricular activation by narrowing or normalizing the QRS interval in left and right bundle branch block. The mechanisms by which this occurs remain poorly understood. In this review, the proposed mechanisms and evidence supporting them are discussed. Also discussed are aspects of mechanisms that are not completely supported by the evidence. We also review the differences and physiological bases for direct vs. indirect His bundle capture, and the physiological mechanisms for QRS narrowing vs. normalization following His bundle pacing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A study on the instrumentation technology for the irradiation of the DUPIC fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chul Yong; Bae, K. K.; Moon, J. S.; Park, H. S.; Song, K. C.; Jung, I. H.; Kang, K. H.; Yang, M. S.; Ryu, J. S.; Cho, Y. G. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-02-01

    The advanced countries have a great experience for the irradiation test of material and nuclear fuel from 1960's. Especially, instruments and instrument attachment technology and irradiation equipment have been developed for this purpose. The techniques described in this report are temperature measurement of fuel rod cladding surface and fuel centerline, cladding elongation, fuel stack elongation, fuel rod pressure by fission gas release. As a result of analysis we define the instrumentation techniques for the DUPIC fuel irradiation test at HANARO. The development of high temperature thermocouple, the method of attachment to fuel cladding and inside the fuel, the method of fuel rod elongation and fuel rod pressure measurement (by LVDT) are essential techniques. In addition to the instrumentation technique, re-instrumentation technique have been developed for high burn-up fuel in commercial reactor. The re-instrumentation is a technique of re-fabrication and instrumentation of irradiated fuel rod. It technology can be utilized as a reference for us to develop instrumented test rig with a remote manner. 19 refs., 38 figs. (Author)

  10. Biomechanics of the porcine triple bundle anterior cruciate ligament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yuki; Ingham, Sheila J M; Linde-Rosen, Monica; Smolinski, Patrick; Horaguchi, Takashi; Fu, Freddie H

    2010-01-01

    Several species of animals are used as a model to study human anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. In many animals, three bundles were clearly discernible during dissection in the ACL. However, there are few reports about the biomechanical role of each bundle in the porcine knee. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of each of the three bundles in the porcine knee, especially the intermediate bundle. Ten porcine knees were tested using a robotic/universal forcemoment sensor system. This system applied anterior loading of 89 N at 30 degrees, 60 degrees and 90 degrees of flexion, and a combined 7 Nm valgus and 4 Nm internal tibial torque at 30 degrees and 60 degrees of flexion before and after each bundle was selectively cut. The in situ force (N) for each bundle of the ACL was measured. Both intermediate (IM) bundle and postero-lateral (PL) bundle had significantly lower in situ force than the antero-medial (AM) bundle in anterior loading. The IM and PL bundles carried a larger proportion of the force under the torsional loads than the anterior loads. But IM bundle had a significant lower in situ force during the combined torque at 60 degrees of knee flexion, when compared intact ACL. In summary, IM bundle has a subordinate role to the AM and PL bundles. AM bundle is more dominant than IM and PL bundles. The porcine knee is a suitable model for ACL studies, especially for AP stability.

  11. Proceedings of the fifth international conference on CANDU fuel. V.1,2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, J.H. [ed.

    1997-07-01

    The First International Conference on CANDU Fuel was held in Chalk River in 1986. The CANDU Fuel community has gathered every three years since. The papers presented include topics on international experience, CANFLEX fuel bundles, Fuel design, Fuel modelling, Manufacturing and Quality assurance, Fuel performance and Safety, Fuel cycles and Spent Fuel management. Volume One was published in advance of the conference and Volume Two was printed after the conference.

  12. Stability of Picard bundle over moduli space of stable vector bundles ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Springer Verlag Heidelberg #4 2048 1996 Dec 15 10:16:45

    Stability of Picard bundle over moduli space of stable vector bundles of rank two over a curve. INDRANIL BISWAS and TOM ´AS L G ´OMEZ. School of Mathematics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road,. Mumbai 400 005, India. E-mail: indranil@math.tifr.res.in; tomas@math.tifr.res.in. MS received 14 ...

  13. Stability of Picard bundle over moduli space of stable vector bundles ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Answering a question of [BV] it is proved that the Picard bundle on the moduli space of stable vector bundles of rank two, on a Riemann surface of genus at least three, with fixed determinant of odd degree is stable.

  14. Utilization of the HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kyung Bae; Chung, Yong Sam; Han, Hyun Soo and others

    1998-12-01

    Radioisotope facilities were operated to support research, development and production of radioisotopes. Irradiation facilities were operated to offer irradiation service to the clients. Even though intensive periodical checks and some essential maintenance had been carried out the results of RI facility maintenance seemed to be not much satisfactory due mainly to the shortage of skilled manpower and maintenance expenses. High intensity {gamma} irradiator was normally operated 426 times for overall 3,440 hrs, and the low intensity {gamma} irradiator was operated 157 times for overall 11,092 hrs, respectively. (author)

  15. LOFT fuel modules design, characterization, and fabrication program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, M. L.

    1977-06-01

    The loss-of-fluid test (LOFT) fuel modules have evolved from a comprehensive five-year design, characterization, and fabrication program which has resulted in the accomplishment of many technical activities of interest in pressurized water reactor fuel design development and safety research. Information is presented concerning: determination of fundamental high-temperature reactor material properties; design invention related to in-core instrumentation attachment; implementation of advanced and/or unique fuel bundle characterization techniques; implementation of improved fuel bundle fabrication techniques; and planning and execution of a multimillion dollar design, characterization, and fabrication program for pressurized water reactor fuel.

  16. Optical fuel pin scanner. [Patent application; for reading identifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, T.L.; Powers, H.G.

    1980-12-09

    This patent relates to an optical identification system developed for post-irradiation disassembly and analysis of fuel bundle assemblies. The apparatus is designed to be lowered onto a stationary fuel pin to read identification numbers or letters imprinted on the circumference of the top fuel pin and cap. (DLC)

  17. Balance Ability and Proprioception after Single-Bundle, Single-Bundle Augmentation, and Double-Bundle ACL Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yubao Ma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The present study sought to determine the influences of single-bundle (SB, single-bundle augmentation (SBA, and double-bundle (DB reconstructions on balance ability and proprioceptive function. Methods. 67 patients who underwent a single- or double-bundle ACL reconstruction or a SBA using multistranded autologous hamstring tendons were included in this study with a 1-year follow-up. Body sway and knee kinesthesia (using the threshold to detect passive motion test (TTDPM were measured to indicate balance ability and proprioceptive function, respectively. Additionally, within-subject differences in anterior-posterior stability of the tibia and lower extremity muscle strength were evaluated before and after surgery. Results. At 6 and 12 months after surgery, DB reconstruction resulted in better balance and proprioceptive function than SB reconstruction (P<0.05. Although no significant difference was observed in balance ability or proprioceptive function between the SBA and DB reconstructions, knee stability was significantly better with SBA and DB reconstructions than SB reconstruction (P<0.05. No significant differences were found in quadriceps and hamstrings strength among the three reconstruction techniques. Conclusions. Our findings consider that joint stability, proprioceptive function, and balance ability were superior with SBA and DB reconstructions compared to SB reconstruction at 6 and 12 months after surgery.

  18. CFD Analysis of Localised Crud Effects on the Flow of Coolant in Nuclear Rod Bundles

    OpenAIRE

    Cinosi, N; Walker, SP

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that crud deposits on a number of adjacent fuel rods might reduce coolant flow rates in associated sub-channels. Such reduced flow rates could then worsen thermal-hydraulic conditions, such as margin to saturated boiling, fuel surface temperature, and the DNB ratio. We report the results of a detailed computational fluid dynamics study of the flow pattern in a partially-crudded rod bundle. Values obviously depend on, for example, the thickness of crud assumed, but sub-ch...

  19. Fuel or irradiation subassembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seim, O.S.; Hutter, E.

    1975-12-23

    A subassembly for use in a nuclear reactor is described which incorporates a loose bundle of fuel or irradiation pins enclosed within an inner tube which in turn is enclosed within an outer coolant tube and includes a locking comb consisting of a head extending through one side of the inner sleeve and a plurality of teeth which extend through the other side of the inner sleeve while engaging annular undercut portions in the bottom portion of the fuel or irradiation pins to prevent movement of the pins.

  20. Graph Bundling by Kernel Density Estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hurter, C.; Ersoy, O.; Telea, A.

    We present a fast and simple method to compute bundled layouts of general graphs. For this, we first transform a given graph drawing into a density map using kernel density estimation. Next, we apply an image sharpening technique which progressively merges local height maxima by moving the convolved

  1. Permanent His-Bundle Pacing: Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaraman, Pugazhendhi; Dandamudi, Gopi

    2016-12-01

    His bundle pacing (HBP) is a physiological alternative to right ventricular pacing. In addition to patients with normal His-Purkinje conduction, HBP can be valuable in patients with infranodal atrioventricular (AV) block and patients undergoing AV node ablation. The following case studies illustrate the challenges associated with HBP. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Fluxes, bundle gerbes and 2-Hilbert spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunk, Severin; Szabo, Richard J.

    2017-10-01

    We elaborate on the construction of a prequantum 2-Hilbert space from a bundle gerbe over a 2-plectic manifold, providing the first steps in a programme of higher geometric quantisation of closed strings in flux compactifications and of M5-branes in C-fields. We review in detail the construction of the 2-category of bundle gerbes and introduce the higher geometrical structures necessary to turn their categories of sections into 2-Hilbert spaces. We work out several explicit examples of 2-Hilbert spaces in the context of closed strings and M5-branes on flat space. We also work out the prequantum 2-Hilbert space associated with an M-theory lift of closed strings described by an asymmetric cyclic orbifold of the SU(2) WZW model, providing an example of sections of a torsion gerbe on a curved background. We describe the dimensional reduction of M-theory to string theory in these settings as a map from 2-isomorphism classes of sections of bundle gerbes to sections of corresponding line bundles, which is compatible with the respective monoidal structures and module actions.

  3. The unintended consequences of bundled payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, William B; Rauh, Stephen S; Wadsworth, Eric B; Weinstein, James N

    2013-01-01

    Consensus is building that episode-based bundled payments can produce substantial Medicare savings, and the Center for Medicare & Medicaid Innovation's Bundled Payment Initiative endorses this concept. The program generates potential cost savings by reducing the historic cost of time-defined episodes of care, provided through a discount. Although bundled payments can reduce waste primarily in the postacute care setting, concerns arise that, in an effort to maintain income levels that are necessary to cover fixed costs, providers may change their behaviors to increase the volume of episodes. Such actions would mitigate the savings that Medicare might have accrued and may perpetuate the fee-for-service payment mechanism, with episodes of care becoming the new service. Although bundled payments have some advantages over the current reimbursement system, true cost-savings to Medicare will be realized only when the federal government addresses the use issue that underlies much of the waste inherent in the system and provides ample incentives to eliminate capacity and move toward capitation.

  4. Capacity efficiency of recovery request bundling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Dittmann, Lars; Berger, Michael Stübert

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison of recovery methods in terms of capacity efficiency. In particular, a method where recovery requests are bundled towards the destination (Shortcut Span Protection) is evaluated against traditional recovery methods. Our simulation results show that Shortcut Span...

  5. Meromorphic connections on vector bundles over curves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Descartes,. 67084 Strasbourg Cedex, France. *Correspond author. E-mail: indranil@math.tifr.res.in; heu@math.unistra.fr. MS received 17 July 2013; revised 20 October 2013. Abstract. We give a criterion for filtered vector bundles over curves to admit a ...

  6. Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with double bundle versus single bundle: experimental study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roberto F. Mota e Albuquerque; Sandra Umeda Sasaki; Marco Martins Amatuzzi; Fabio Janson Angelini

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test an intra-articular reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament of the knee in 10 human cadavers by replacing 2 anterior cruciate ligament bundles, with the purpose of producing...

  7. Functional aspects of His bundle physiology and pathophysiology: Clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherlag, Benjamin J; Lazzara, Ralph

    In this review we present evidence from many experimental studies which challenge the concept of predestination of His bundle fibers. Using both intra- and extracellular His bundle pacing in the context of atrio-ventricular block and the development of bundle branch blocks these experimental studies provide the underlying mechanisms for the recent clinical findings showing the benefits of permanent His bundle pacing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A case of 'Masquerading' bundle branch block: a forgotten concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Dinesh; Namboodiri, Narayanan; Tharakan, Jaganmohan A

    2014-01-01

    'Masquerading' bundle branch block (right bundle branch block in the precordial leads with left bundle branch block in frontal leads and left axis deviation) is seen most commonly with coronary artery disease and hypertension. No definite explanation is available so far for these changes. We are presenting a case of rare congenital intranuclear inclusion myopathy with congestive heart failure and 'Masquerading' bundle branch block in ECG. Copyright © 2013 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Bundling revisited: substitute products and inter-firm discounts

    OpenAIRE

    Armstrong, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This paper extends the standard model of bundling to allow products to be substitutes and for products to be supplied by separate sellers. Whether integrated or separate, firms have an incentive to introduce bundling discounts when demand for the bundle is elastic relative to demand for stand-alone products. When products are partial substitutes, this typically gives an integrated firm a greater incentive to offer a bundle discount (relative to the standard model with additive preferences), w...

  10. Compactifications of reductive groups as moduli stacks of bundles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Johan; Thaddeus, Michael

    Let G be a reductive group. We introduce the moduli problem of "bundle chains" parametrizing framed principal G-bundles on chains of lines. Any fan supported in a Weyl chamber determines a stability condition on bundle chains. Its moduli stack provides an equivariant toroidal compactification of ...... studied by Losev-Manin....

  11. Turkish and Native English Academic Writers' Use of Lexical Bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Yusuf; Köse, Gül Durmusoglu

    2016-01-01

    Lexical bundles such as "on the other hand" and "as a result of" are extremely common and important in academic discourse. The appropriate use of lexical bundles typical of a specific academic discipline is important for writers and the absence of such bundles may not sound fluent and native-like. Recent studies (e.g. Adel…

  12. Quillen bundle and geometric prequantization of non-abelian ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper we prequantize the moduli space of non-abelian vortices. We explicitly calculate the symplectic form arising from 2 metric and we construct a prequantum line bundle whose curvature is proportional to this symplectic form. The prequantum line bundle turns out to be Quillen's determinant line bundle with a ...

  13. The Bundle of His in Prosthetic Heart Valve Replacement*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1973-01-27

    Jan 27, 1973 ... ventricular seplUm which transected the bundle of His. Blocks were then fashioned backwards and forwards.. to include the whole of the bundle and the AV node. as well as the bifurcation of the bundle into its left and right branches. According to Davies: in order to study the whole conduction system in an ...

  14. Real parabolic vector bundles over a real curve

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    weights are integral multiples of 1/N, and the category of real -equivariant vector bundles on (Y,σY ). ... The notion of parabolic vector bundles over a compact Riemann surface was introduced by Seshadri [4] and their .... stable. If F is a direct sum of stable vector bundles having the same slope, then F is called polystable.

  15. Geometry of torus bundles in integrable Hamiltonian systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lukina, Olga

    2008-01-01

    Thesis is concerned with global properties of Lagrangian bundles, i.e. symplectic n-torus bundles, as these occur in integrable Hamiltonian systems. It treats obstructions to triviality and concerns with classification of such bundles, as well as with manifestations of global invariants in

  16. Masquerading bundle branch block: a variety of right bundle branch block with left anterior fascicular block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizari, Marcelo V; Baranchuk, Adrian; Chiale, Pablo A

    2013-01-01

    The so-called 'masquerading' type of right bundle branch block is caused by the simultaneous presence of a high-degree left anterior fascicular block often accompanied with severe left ventricular enlargement and/or fibrotic block in the anterolateral wall of the left ventricle. These conditions tend to reorient the terminal electrical forces of the QRS complex towards the left and upwards, in such a way that the characteristic slurred S wave in lead I becomes smaller or even disappears. In many cases of standard masquerading right bundle branch block, a small Q wave in lead I is present due to the initial forces of the left anterior fascicular block, which are oriented rightwards and inferiorly. However, in some cases, the Q wave in lead I also vanishes, and the mimicking of a left bundle branch block becomes perfect in standard leads. This is commonly associated with an inferior myocardial infarction or severe inferior fibrosis in cardiomyopathies. The typical QRS changes of right bundle branch block may eventually be concealed even in the right precordial leads; under such circumstances, the ECG diagnosis may be mistaken and the right bundle branch block totally missed. The masquerading right bundle branch block carries a poor prognosis, since it always implies the presence of a severe underlying heart disease.

  17. Fuel flexible fuel injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuthill, Richard S; Davis, Dustin W; Dai, Zhongtao

    2015-02-03

    A disclosed fuel injector provides mixing of fuel with airflow by surrounding a swirled fuel flow with first and second swirled airflows that ensures mixing prior to or upon entering the combustion chamber. Fuel tubes produce a central fuel flow along with a central airflow through a plurality of openings to generate the high velocity fuel/air mixture along the axis of the fuel injector in addition to the swirled fuel/air mixture.

  18. Bundling of harvesting residues and whole-trees and the treatment of bundles; Hakkuutaehteiden ja kokopuiden niputus ja nippujen kaesittely

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaipainen, H.; Seppaenen, V.; Rinne, S.

    1996-12-31

    The conditions on which the bundling of the harvesting residues from spruce regeneration fellings would become profitable were studied. The calculations showed that one of the most important features was sufficient compaction of the bundle, so that the portion of the wood in the unit volume of the bundle has to be more than 40 %. The tests showed that the timber grab loader of farm tractor was insufficient for production of dense bundles. The feeding and compression device of the prototype bundler was constructed in the research and with this device the required density was obtained.The rate of compaction of the dry spruce felling residues was about 40 % and that of the fresh residues was more than 50 %. The comparison between the bundles showed that the calorific value of the fresh bundle per unit volume was nearly 30 % higher than that of the dry bundle. This means that the treatment of the bundles should be done of fresh felling residues. Drying of the bundles succeeded well, and the crushing and chipping tests showed that the processing of the bundles at the plant is possible. The treatability of the bundles was also excellent. By using the prototype, developed in the research, it was possible to produce a bundle of the fresh spruce harvesting residues, the diameter of which was about 50 cm and the length about 3 m, and the rate of compaction over 50 %. By these values the reduction target of the costs is obtainable

  19. Critical Power in 7-Rod Tight Lattice Bundle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Kureta, Masatoshi; Akimoto, Hajime

    The Reduced-Moderation Water Reactor (RMWR) has recently becomes of great concern. The RMWR is expected to promote the effective utilization of uranium recourse. The RMWR is based on water-cooled reactor technology, with achieved under lower core water volume and water flow rate. In comparison with the current light water reactors whose water-to-fuel volume ratio is about 2-3, in the RMWR, this value is reduced to less than 0.5. Thereby, there is a need to research its cooling characteristics. Experimental research on critical power in tight lattice bundle that simulates the RMWR has been carried out in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). The bundle consists one center rod and six peripheral rods. The 7 rods are arranged on a 14.3mm equilateral triangular pitch. Each rod is 13mm in outside diameter. An axial 12-step power distribution is employed to simulate the complicate heating condition in RMWR. Experiments are carried out under G=100-1400kg/m2s, Pex=2-8.5MPa. Effects of mass velocity, inlet temperature, pressure, radial peaking factor and axial peaking factor on critical power and critical quality are discussed. Compared with axial uniform heating condition, the axial non-uniform heating condition causes an obvious decrease in critical quality. Arai correlation, which is the only correlation that has been optimized for tight lattice condition, is verified with the present experimental data. The correlation is found to be able to give reasonable prediction only around RMWR nominal operating condition.

  20. Examination of Zircaloy-clad spent fuel after extended pool storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, E.R.; Bailey, W.J.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Lowry, L.M.

    1981-09-01

    This report presents the results from metallurgical examinations of Zircaloy-clad fuel rods from two bundles (0551 and 0074) of Shippingport PWR Core 1 blanket fuel after extended water storage. Both bundles were exposed to water in the reactor from late 1957 until discharge. The estimated average burnups were 346 GJ/kgU (4000 MWd/MTU) for bundle 0551 and 1550 GJ/kgU (18,000 MWd/MTU) for bundle 0074. Fuel rods from bundle 0551 were stored in deionized water for nearly 21 yr prior to examination in 1980, representing the world's oldest pool-stored Zircaloy-clad fuel. Bundle 0074 has been stored in deionized water since reactor discharge in 1964. Data from the current metallurgical examinations enable a direct assessment of extended pool storage effects because the metallurgical condition of similar fuel rods was investigated and documented soon after reactor discharge. Data from current and past examinations were compared, and no significant degradation of the Zircaloy cladding was indicated after almost 21 yr in water storage. The cladding dimensions and mechanical properties, fission gas release, hydrogen contents of the cladding, and external oxide film thicknesses that were measured during the current examinations were all within the range of measurements made on fuel bundles soon after reactor discharge. The appearance of the external surfaces and the microstructures of the fuel and cladding were also similar to those reported previously. In addition, no evidence of accelerated corrosion or hydride redistribution in the cladding was observed.

  1. Baseline left bundle branch block with right bundle branch escape complexes in a patient with coronary artery disease, presents like an alternating bundle branch block: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhimaraj, Arvind; Abusin, Salaheldin; Margeta, Bosko

    2008-01-01

    Alternating bundle branch block (ABBB) is a less commonly encountered phenomenon with the advent of re-perfusion therapy for acute myocardial infarction. ECGs simulating the appearance of an ABBB need to be carefully analysed. We present an ECG showing a baseline Left Bundle Branch Block(LBBB) progressing to a high grade AV block with escape complexes having a Right Bundle Branch Block (RBBB) morphology. Such an ECG can be mistaken for an ABBB if not analysed carefully. PMID:19116014

  2. Non-abelian higher gauge theory and categorical bundle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viennot, David

    2016-12-01

    A gauge theory is associated with a principal bundle endowed with a connection permitting to define horizontal lifts of paths. The horizontal lifts of surfaces cannot be defined into a principal bundle structure. An higher gauge theory is an attempt to generalize the bundle structure in order to describe horizontal lifts of surfaces. A such attempt is particularly difficult for the non-abelian case. Some structures have been proposed to realize this goal (twisted bundle, gerbes with connection, bundle gerbe, 2-bundle). Each of them uses a category in place of the total space manifold of the usual principal bundle structure. Some of them replace also the structure group by a category (more precisely a Lie crossed module viewed as a category). But the base space remains still a simple manifold (possibly viewed as a trivial category with only identity arrows). We propose a new principal categorical bundle structure, with a Lie crossed module as structure groupoid, but with a base space belonging to a bigger class of categories (which includes non-trivial categories), that we called affine 2-spaces. We study the geometric structure of the categorical bundles built on these categories (which are a more complicated structure than the 2-bundles) and the connective structures on these bundles. Finally we treat an example interesting for quantum dynamics which is associated with the Bloch wave operator theory.

  3. SIKAP KONSUMEN TERHADAP PRODUK BUNDLING AGRIBISNIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didi Junaedi

    2017-04-01

    implementation to Dekalb brand hybrid corn and Round-up brand herbicide. By analyzes how consumer attitudes toward buying intention in this regard farmers as buyer and retailers as products services. The data used is primary data. Primary data is obtained using 2 kind of respondents are retailers and farmers. The data obtained by distributed 30 questionnaires for retailers and 110 farmers in Grobogan. The descriptive statistic employed to analyzed data by using multiple linear regressions with t test, F test and coefficient of determination. The result showed that on retailers respondents attribute the product bundling has no significant influence to consumer buying intention but consumer attitudes significantly influence the buying intention. On the farmers respondents showed that attributes of the product bundling and consumer attitudes positive and significant influence to buying intention.

  4. Covariance and the hierarchy of frame bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estabrook, Frank B.

    1987-01-01

    This is an essay on the general concept of covariance, and its connection with the structure of the nested set of higher frame bundles over a differentiable manifold. Examples of covariant geometric objects include not only linear tensor fields, densities and forms, but affinity fields, sectors and sector forms, higher order frame fields, etc., often having nonlinear transformation rules and Lie derivatives. The intrinsic, or invariant, sets of forms that arise on frame bundles satisfy the graded Cartan-Maurer structure equations of an infinite Lie algebra. Reduction of these gives invariant structure equations for Lie pseudogroups, and for G-structures of various orders. Some new results are introduced for prolongation of structure equations, and for treatment of Riemannian geometry with higher-order moving frames. The use of invariant form equations for nonlinear field physics is implicitly advocated.

  5. Client Provider Collaboration for Service Bundling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LETIA, I. A.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The key requirement for a service industry organization to reach competitive advantages through product diversification is the existence of a well defined method for building service bundles. Based on the idea that the quality of a service or its value is given by the difference between expectations and perceptions, we draw the main components of a frame that aims to support the client and the provider agent in an active collaboration meant to co-create service bundles. Following e3-value model, we structure the supporting knowledge around the relation between needs and satisfying services. We deal with different perspectives about quality through an ontological extension of Value Based Argumentation. The dialog between the client and the provider takes the form of a persuasion whose dynamic object is the current best configuration. Our approach for building service packages is a demand driven approach, allowing progressive disclosure of private knowledge.

  6. Subchannel Code Benchmarking to Columbia University 4x4 and Pacific Northwest Laboratory 2x6 Bundle Test Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Kang Hoon; Oezdemir, Erdal; Oh, Seung Jong [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The subchannel code is used to assess the safety of a reactor core at the steady-state and transient conditions. KEPCO Nuclear Fuel (KNF) has been developed new subchannel code, THALES, for PWR core design application. In this study, we are comparing the THALES result with VIPRE-01 code result utilizing bundle test data. VIPRE-01 was developed under EPRI sponsorship and has been used by U.S. PWR commercial nuclear utilities, historically. THALES and VIPRE-01 codes were benchmarked to two kind of bundle test data which were at the steady-state and transient conditions. THALES predicted fluid velocity and temperature profile of bundle test data well and the error rate between THALES and VIPRE-01 was very small.

  7. Uncovering Ecosystem Service Bundles through Social Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-López, Berta; Iniesta-Arandia, Irene; García-Llorente, Marina; Palomo, Ignacio; Casado-Arzuaga, Izaskun; Amo, David García Del; Gómez-Baggethun, Erik; Oteros-Rozas, Elisa; Palacios-Agundez, Igone; Willaarts, Bárbara; González, José A.; Santos-Martín, Fernando; Onaindia, Miren; López-Santiago, Cesar; Montes, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Ecosystem service assessments have increasingly been used to support environmental management policies, mainly based on biophysical and economic indicators. However, few studies have coped with the social-cultural dimension of ecosystem services, despite being considered a research priority. We examined how ecosystem service bundles and trade-offs emerge from diverging social preferences toward ecosystem services delivered by various types of ecosystems in Spain. We conducted 3,379 direct face-to-face questionnaires in eight different case study sites from 2007 to 2011. Overall, 90.5% of the sampled population recognized the ecosystem’s capacity to deliver services. Formal studies, environmental behavior, and gender variables influenced the probability of people recognizing the ecosystem’s capacity to provide services. The ecosystem services most frequently perceived by people were regulating services; of those, air purification held the greatest importance. However, statistical analysis showed that socio-cultural factors and the conservation management strategy of ecosystems (i.e., National Park, Natural Park, or a non-protected area) have an effect on social preferences toward ecosystem services. Ecosystem service trade-offs and bundles were identified by analyzing social preferences through multivariate analysis (redundancy analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis). We found a clear trade-off among provisioning services (and recreational hunting) versus regulating services and almost all cultural services. We identified three ecosystem service bundles associated with the conservation management strategy and the rural-urban gradient. We conclude that socio-cultural preferences toward ecosystem services can serve as a tool to identify relevant services for people, the factors underlying these social preferences, and emerging ecosystem service bundles and trade-offs. PMID:22720006

  8. Twisted vector bundles on pointed nodal curves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    DEFINITION 2.5. Let C → S be an n-pointed nodal curve over a k-scheme S and let ξ be a principal G- bundle on Cgen. A chart (U, η, ) for ξ is called balanced, if for each ... branches is via multiplication with primitive roots of unity which are inverse to each other. ...... Condition (16) implies that A0 is a block matrix of the form.

  9. Principal bundles on the projective line

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M. Senthilkumar (Newgen Imaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    LetX be a complete nonsingular curve over the algebraic closurek ofk andGa reductive group over k. Let E → X be a principal G-bundle on X. E is said to be semistable if, for every reduction of structure group EP ⊂ E to a maximal parabolic subgroup P of G, we have degree EP (p) ≤ 0, where p is the Lie algebra of P and EP ...

  10. Abelian conformal field theory and determinant bundles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard; Ueno, K.

    2007-01-01

    are up to a scale the same as the curvature of the connections constructed in [14, 16]. We study the sewing construction for nodal curves and its explicit relation to the constructed connections. Finally we construct preferred holomorphic sections of these line bundles and analyze their behaviour near...... nodal curves. These results are used in [4] to construct modular functors form the conformal field theories given in [14, 16] by twisting with an appropriate factional power of this Abelian theory....

  11. Uncovering ecosystem service bundles through social preferences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta Martín-López

    Full Text Available Ecosystem service assessments have increasingly been used to support environmental management policies, mainly based on biophysical and economic indicators. However, few studies have coped with the social-cultural dimension of ecosystem services, despite being considered a research priority. We examined how ecosystem service bundles and trade-offs emerge from diverging social preferences toward ecosystem services delivered by various types of ecosystems in Spain. We conducted 3,379 direct face-to-face questionnaires in eight different case study sites from 2007 to 2011. Overall, 90.5% of the sampled population recognized the ecosystem's capacity to deliver services. Formal studies, environmental behavior, and gender variables influenced the probability of people recognizing the ecosystem's capacity to provide services. The ecosystem services most frequently perceived by people were regulating services; of those, air purification held the greatest importance. However, statistical analysis showed that socio-cultural factors and the conservation management strategy of ecosystems (i.e., National Park, Natural Park, or a non-protected area have an effect on social preferences toward ecosystem services. Ecosystem service trade-offs and bundles were identified by analyzing social preferences through multivariate analysis (redundancy analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis. We found a clear trade-off among provisioning services (and recreational hunting versus regulating services and almost all cultural services. We identified three ecosystem service bundles associated with the conservation management strategy and the rural-urban gradient. We conclude that socio-cultural preferences toward ecosystem services can serve as a tool to identify relevant services for people, the factors underlying these social preferences, and emerging ecosystem service bundles and trade-offs.

  12. Uncovering ecosystem service bundles through social preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-López, Berta; Iniesta-Arandia, Irene; García-Llorente, Marina; Palomo, Ignacio; Casado-Arzuaga, Izaskun; Amo, David García Del; Gómez-Baggethun, Erik; Oteros-Rozas, Elisa; Palacios-Agundez, Igone; Willaarts, Bárbara; González, José A; Santos-Martín, Fernando; Onaindia, Miren; López-Santiago, Cesar; Montes, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Ecosystem service assessments have increasingly been used to support environmental management policies, mainly based on biophysical and economic indicators. However, few studies have coped with the social-cultural dimension of ecosystem services, despite being considered a research priority. We examined how ecosystem service bundles and trade-offs emerge from diverging social preferences toward ecosystem services delivered by various types of ecosystems in Spain. We conducted 3,379 direct face-to-face questionnaires in eight different case study sites from 2007 to 2011. Overall, 90.5% of the sampled population recognized the ecosystem's capacity to deliver services. Formal studies, environmental behavior, and gender variables influenced the probability of people recognizing the ecosystem's capacity to provide services. The ecosystem services most frequently perceived by people were regulating services; of those, air purification held the greatest importance. However, statistical analysis showed that socio-cultural factors and the conservation management strategy of ecosystems (i.e., National Park, Natural Park, or a non-protected area) have an effect on social preferences toward ecosystem services. Ecosystem service trade-offs and bundles were identified by analyzing social preferences through multivariate analysis (redundancy analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis). We found a clear trade-off among provisioning services (and recreational hunting) versus regulating services and almost all cultural services. We identified three ecosystem service bundles associated with the conservation management strategy and the rural-urban gradient. We conclude that socio-cultural preferences toward ecosystem services can serve as a tool to identify relevant services for people, the factors underlying these social preferences, and emerging ecosystem service bundles and trade-offs.

  13. Development of a thermal-hydraulic analysis code for annular fuel assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vishnoi, A.K.; Chandraker, D.K.; Vijayan, P.K. [Bhabha Atomic Reseach Centre (BARC), Mumbai, Maharashtra (India)

    2012-03-15

    In this work a detailed study of the annular fuel has been carried out. A thermal hydraulics code, ANUFAN (Annular Fuel Analysis), based on the bundle average method, capable of modeling both internally and externally cooled annular fuel pins is developed. Code predictions have been compared with calculations from Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and MIT. Heat transfer fraction difference between ANUFAN and RELAP was found about 1.7%. Analysis of a 54 - fuel rod assembly is carried out with 36 and 45 numbers of annular fuel pins keeping the same channel size and bundle power as of the solid fuel assembly. Fuel pin maximum temperature of the annular fuel is found much less than the solid fuel. MCHFR value for annular fuel is found much higher compared to that of the solid fuel of 54 - fuel rod assembly. The full paper covers the details of the computer code, the analysis carried out and the results obtained. (orig.)

  14. Bundling harvester; Harvennuspuun automaattisen nippukorjausharvesterin kehittaeminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koponen, K. [Eko-Log Oy, Kuopio (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    The starting point of the project was to design and construct, by taking the silvicultural point of view into account, a harvesting and processing system especially for energy-wood, containing manually driven bundling harvester, automating of the harvester, and automated loading. The equipment forms an ideal method for entrepreneur`s-line harvesting. The target is to apply the system also for owner`s-line harvesting. The profitability of the system promotes the utilisation of the system in both cases. The objectives of the project were: to construct a test equipment and prototypes for all the project stages, to carry out terrain and strain tests in order to examine the usability and durability, as well as the capacity of the machine, to test the applicability of the Eko-Log system in simultaneous harvesting of energy and pulp woods, and to start the marketing and manufacturing of the products. The basic problems of the construction of the bundling harvester have been solved using terrain-tests. The prototype machine has been shown to be operable. Loading of the bundles to form sufficiently economically transportable loads has been studied, and simultaneously, the branch-biomass has been tried to be utilised without loosing the profitability of transportation. The results have been promising, and will promote the profitable utilisation of wood-energy. (orig.)

  15. An analytical fiber bundle model for pullout mechanics of root bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, D.; Schwarz, M.; Or, D.

    2011-09-01

    Roots in soil contribute to the mechanical stability of slopes. Estimation of root reinforcement is challenging because roots form complex biological networks whose geometrical and mechanical characteristics are difficult to characterize. Here we describe an analytical model that builds on simple root descriptors to estimate root reinforcement. Root bundles are modeled as bundles of heterogeneous fibers pulled along their long axes neglecting root-soil friction. Analytical expressions for the pullout force as a function of displacement are derived. The maximum pullout force and corresponding critical displacement are either derived analytically or computed numerically. Key model inputs are a root diameter distribution (uniform, Weibull, or lognormal) and three empirical power law relations describing tensile strength, elastic modulus, and length of roots as functions of root diameter. When a root bundle with root tips anchored in the soil matrix is pulled by a rigid plate, a unique parameter, ?, that depends only on the exponents of the power law relations, dictates the order in which roots of different diameters break. If ? 1, large roots break first. When ? = 1, all fibers break simultaneously, and the maximum tensile force is simply the roots' mean force times the number of roots in the bundle. Based on measurements of root geometry and mechanical properties, the value of ? is less than 1, usually ranging between 0 and 0.7. Thus, small roots always fail first. The model shows how geometrical and mechanical characteristics of roots and root diameter distribution affect the pullout force, its maximum and corresponding displacement. Comparing bundles of roots that have similar mean diameters, a bundle with a narrow variance in root diameter will result in a larger maximum force and a smaller displacement at maximum force than a bundle with a wide diameter distribution. Increasing the mean root diameter of a bundle without changing the distribution's shape increases

  16. Fuel assembly gripping device using self-locking mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, G. M.; Choi, S.; Kim, K. S.; Kim, T. W.; Jeong, K. H.; Park, K. B.; Chang, M. H

    1999-07-01

    This report presents an actuating principles and structure for two kind of the fuel assembly gripping devices (Gripper-A, B) developed for SMART. The main components of these grippers are push bundle, rotation bundle, upper guide tube and chuck assembly. The rope attached to winch system on moving cask hangs gripper's push bundle. Due to a down-and-up operation of winch system, the push bundle pushes crown teeth shaped rotation bundle and then it is pushed down and rotated counter clockwise. The push-and-pull sequential operation of push bundle makes the rotation bundle is pushed, rotated and returned, moreover it makes the chuck assembly is expanded or shrunk. The expansion and shrinkage motion of chuck assembly makes the gripper latch and release the fuel assembly. Gripper-A suits for the handling of the fuel assembly with square shaped latching hole. Otherwise Gripper-B suits for a circular shaped latching hole. (author). 5 refs., 20 figs.

  17. Improving the neutronic characteristics of a boiling water reactor by using uranium zirconium hydride fuel instead of uranium dioxide fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galahom, Ahmed Abdelghafar [Higher Technological Institute, Ramadan (Egypt)

    2016-06-15

    The present work discusses two different models of boiling water reactor (BWR) bundle to compare the neutronic characteristics of uranium dioxide (UO{sub 2}) and uranium zirconium hydride (UZrH{sub 1.6}) fuel. Each bundle consists of four assemblies. The BWR assembly fueled with UO{sub 2} contains 8 × 8 fuel rods while that fueled with UZrH{sub 1.6} contains 9 × 9 fuel rods. The Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport code, based on the Mont Carlo method, is used to design three dimensional models for BWR fuel bundles at typical operating temperatures and pressure conditions. These models are used to determine the multiplication factor, pin-by-pin power distribution, axial power distribution, thermal neutron flux distribution, and axial thermal neutron flux. The moderator and coolant (water) are permitted to boil within the BWR core forming steam bubbles, so it is important to calculate the reactivity effect of voiding at different values. It is found that the hydride fuel bundle design can be simplified by eliminating water rods and replacing the control blade with control rods. UZrH{sub 1.6} fuel improves the performance of the BWR in different ways such as increasing the energy extracted per fuel assembly, reducing the uranium ore, and reducing the plutonium accumulated in the BWR through burnup.

  18. Influence of Bundle Diameter and Attachment Point on Kinematic Behavior in Double Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Using Computational Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh Soo Kwon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A protocol to choose the graft diameter attachment point of each bundle has not yet been determined since they are usually dependent on a surgeon’s preference. Therefore, the influence of bundle diameters and attachment points on the kinematics of the knee joint needs to be quantitatively analyzed. A three-dimensional knee model was reconstructed with computed tomography images of a 26-year-old man. Based on the model, models of double bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL reconstruction were developed. The anterior tibial translations for the anterior drawer test and the internal tibial rotation for the pivot shift test were investigated according to variation of bundle diameters and attachment points. For the model in this study, the knee kinematics after the double bundle ACL reconstruction were dependent on the attachment point and not much influenced by the bundle diameter although larger sized anterior-medial bundles provided increased stability in the knee joint. Therefore, in the clinical setting, the bundle attachment point needs to be considered prior to the bundle diameter, and the current selection method of graft diameters for both bundles appears justified.

  19. Monopoles and Modifications of Bundles over Elliptic Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey M. Levin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Modifications of bundles over complex curves is an operation that allows one to construct a new bundle from a given one. Modifications can change a topological type of bundle. We describe the topological type in terms of the characteristic classes of the bundle. Being applied to the Higgs bundles modifications establish an equivalence between different classical integrable systems. Following Kapustin and Witten we define the modifications in terms of monopole solutions of the Bogomolny equation. We find the Dirac monopole solution in the case R × (elliptic curve. This solution is a three-dimensional generalization of the Kronecker series. We give two representations for this solution and derive a functional equation for it generalizing the Kronecker results. We use it to define Abelian modifications for bundles of arbitrary rank. We also describe non-Abelian modifications in terms of theta-functions with characteristic.

  20. Trivalent Cation Induced Bundle Formation of Filamentous fd Phages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz Zirpel, Nuriye; Park, Eun Jin

    2015-09-01

    Bacteriophages are filamentous polyelectrolyte viral rods infecting only bacteria. In this study, we investigate the bundle formation of fd phages with trivalent cations having different ionic radii (Al(3+) , La(3+) and Y(3+) ) at various phage and counterion concentrations, and at varying bundling times. Aggregated phage bundles were detected at relatively low trivalent counterion concentrations (1 mM). Although 10 mM and 100 mM Y(3+) and La(3+) treatments formed larger and more intertwined phage bundles, Al(3+) and Fe(3+) treatments lead to the formation of networking filaments. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analyses confirmed the presence of C, N and O peaks on densely packed phage bundles. Immunofluorescence labelling and ELISA analyses with anti-p8 antibodies showed the presence of phage filaments after bundling. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Heat Transfer Analysis in Wire Bundles for Aerospace Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickman, S. L.; Iamello, C. J.

    2016-01-01

    Design of wiring for aerospace vehicles relies on an understanding of "ampacity" which refers to the current carrying capacity of wires, either, individually or in wire bundles. Designers rely on standards to derate allowable current flow to prevent exceedance of wire temperature limits due to resistive heat dissipation within the wires or wire bundles. These standards often add considerable margin and are based on empirical data. Commercial providers are taking an aggressive approach to wire sizing which challenges the conventional wisdom of the established standards. Thermal modelling of wire bundles may offer significant mass reduction in a system if the technique can be generalized to produce reliable temperature predictions for arbitrary bundle configurations. Thermal analysis has been applied to the problem of wire bundles wherein any or all of the wires within the bundle may carry current. Wire bundles present analytical challenges because the heat transfer path from conductors internal to the bundle is tortuous, relying on internal radiation and thermal interface conductance to move the heat from within the bundle to the external jacket where it can be carried away by convective and radiative heat transfer. The problem is further complicated by the dependence of wire electrical resistivity on temperature. Reduced heat transfer out of the bundle leads to higher conductor temperatures and, hence, increased resistive heat dissipation. Development of a generalized wire bundle thermal model is presented and compared with test data. The steady state heat balance for a single wire is derived and extended to the bundle configuration. The generalized model includes the effects of temperature varying resistance, internal radiation and thermal interface conductance, external radiation and temperature varying convective relief from the free surface. The sensitivity of the response to uncertainties in key model parameters is explored using Monte Carlo analysis.

  2. Isomonodromic Deformations and Very Stable Vector Bundles of Rank Two

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Indranil; Heu, Viktoria; Hurtubise, Jacques

    2017-12-01

    For the universal isomonodromic deformation of an irreducible logarithmic rank two connection over a smooth complex projective curve of genus at least two, consider the family of holomorphic vector bundles over curves underlying this universal deformation. In a previous work we proved that the vector bundle corresponding to a general parameter of this family is stable. Here we prove that the vector bundle corresponding to a general parameter is in fact very stable, meaning it does not admit any nonzero nilpotent Higgs field.

  3. Bundling Products and Services Through Modularization Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bask, Anu; Hsuan, Juliana; Rajahonka, Mervi

    2012-01-01

    Modularity has been recognized as a powerful tool in improving the efficiency and management of product design and manufacturing. However, the integrated view on covering both, product and service modularity for product-service systems (PSS), is under researched. Therefore, in this paper our...... objective is to contribute to the PSS modularity. Thus, we describe configurations of PSSs and the bundling of products and services through modularization strategies. So far there have not been tools to analyze and determine the correct combinations of degrees of product and service modularities....

  4. Differential geometry bundles, connections, metrics and curvature

    CERN Document Server

    Taubes, Clifford Henry

    2011-01-01

    Bundles, connections, metrics and curvature are the 'lingua franca' of modern differential geometry and theoretical physics. This book will supply a graduate student in mathematics or theoretical physics with the fundamentals of these objects. Many of the tools used in differential topology are introduced and the basic results about differentiable manifolds, smooth maps, differential forms, vector fields, Lie groups, and Grassmanians are all presented here. Other material covered includes the basic theorems about geodesics and Jacobi fields, the classification theorem for flat connections, the

  5. Affine Flag Manifolds and Principal Bundles

    CERN Document Server

    Schmitt, Alexander HW

    2010-01-01

    Affine flag manifolds are infinite dimensional versions of familiar objects such as Gramann varieties. The book features lecture notes, survey articles, and research notes - based on workshops held in Berlin, Essen, and Madrid - explaining the significance of these and related objects (such as double affine Hecke algebras and affine Springer fibers) in representation theory (e.g., the theory of symmetric polynomials), arithmetic geometry (e.g., the fundamental lemma in the Langlands program), and algebraic geometry (e.g., affine flag manifolds as parameter spaces for principal bundles). Novel

  6. Vector bundles on complex projective spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Okonek, Christian; Spindler, Heinz

    1980-01-01

    This expository treatment is based on a survey given by one of the authors at the Séminaire Bourbaki in November 1978 and on a subsequent course held at the University of Göttingen. It is intended to serve as an introduction to the topical question of classification of holomorphic vector bundles on complex projective spaces, and can easily be read by students with a basic knowledge of analytic or algebraic geometry. Short supplementary sections describe more advanced topics, further results, and unsolved problems.

  7. Discontinuous conduction in mouse bundle branches is caused by bundle-branch architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veen, Toon A. B.; van Rijen, Harold V. M.; van Kempen, Marjan J. A.; Miquerol, Lucile; Opthof, Tobias; Gros, Daniel; Vos, Marc A.; Jongsma, Habo J.; de Bakker, Jacques M. T.

    2005-01-01

    Background - Recordings of the electrical activity of mouse bundle branches ( BBs) suggest reduced conduction velocity ( CV) in the midseptal compared with the proximal part of the BB. The present study was performed to elucidate the mechanism responsible for this slowing of conduction. Methods and

  8. Fuel management simulation for CANFLEX-RU in CANDU 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Chang Joon; Suk, Ho Chun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    Fuel management simulations have been performed for CANFLEX-09% RU fuel in the CANDU 6 reactor. In this study, the bi-directional 4-bundle shift fuelling scheme was assumed. The lattice cell and time-average calculation were carried out. The refuelling simulation calculations were performed for 600 full power days. Time-averaged results show good axial power profile with the CANFLEX-RU fuel. During the simulation period, the maximum channel and bundle power were maintained below the licensing limit of CANDU 6 reactor. 7 refs., 4 figs. (Author)

  9. Design and evaluate finned tube bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganapathy, V. [ABCO Industries, Abilene, TX (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Finned tube bundles are widely used in heat exchangers, air coolers, waste heat boilers and fired heaters where energy transfer occurs between clean flue gases and a fluid with a high heat-transfer coefficient. They have several advantages including compactness, low gas pressure drop and low weight for a given duty compared to bare tube bundles. Choosing a fin type, arrangement and fin configuration requires a thorough analysis and economic evaluation. The solution is not unique since it depends on material and labor costs. Surface areas vary widely in finned tube designs for the same duty and gas pressure drop. Therefore, decisions should not be based on surface area alone. Plant engineers and consultants should consider operating costs in their evaluation because they accrue year after year. Selecting a boiler based on initial costs alone is not prudent. The paper discusses heat transfer and gas pressure drop with finned tubes, determining fin efficiency and effectiveness,g as pressure drop, tube wall and fin top temperatures, an example calculation, the effect of fin configuration on design, the effect of inline versus staggered arrangements and solid versus serrated fins, and concerns with high fin-density designs.

  10. Development boiling to sprinkled tube bundle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kracík Petr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of a studied heat transfer coefficient at the surface of a sprinkled tube bundle where boiling occurs. Research in the area of sprinkled exchangers can be divided into two major parts. The first part is research on heat transfer and determination of the heat transfer coefficient at sprinkled tube bundles for various liquids, whether boiling or not. The second part is testing of sprinkle modes for various tube diameters, tube pitches and tube materials and determination of individual modes’ interface. All results published so far for water as the falling film liquid apply to one to three tubes for which the mentioned relations studied are determined in rigid laboratory conditions defined strictly in advance. The sprinkled tubes were not viewed from the operational perspective where there are more tubes and various modes may occur in different parts with various heat transfer values. The article focuses on these processes. The tube is located in a low-pressure chamber where vacuum is generated using an exhauster via ejector. The tube consists of smooth copper tubes of 12 mm diameter placed horizontally one above another.

  11. Evaluation of Single-Bundle versus Double-Bundle PCL Reconstructions with More Than 10-Year Follow-Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masataka Deie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL injuries are not rare in acute knee injuries, and several recent anatomical studies of the PCL and reconstructive surgical techniques have generated improved patient results. Now, we have evaluated PCL reconstructions performed by either the single-bundle or double-bundle technique in a patient group followed up retrospectively for more than 10 years. Methods. PCL reconstructions were conducted using the single-bundle (27 cases or double-bundle (13 cases method from 1999 to 2002. The mean age at surgery was 34 years in the single-bundle group and 32 years in the double-bundle group. The mean follow-up period was 12.5 years. Patients were evaluated by Lysholm scoring, the gravity sag view, and knee arthrometry. Results. The Lysholm score after surgery was 89.1±5.6 points for the single-bundle group and 91.9±4.5 points for the double-bundle group. There was no significant difference between the methods in the side-to-side differences by gravity sag view or knee arthrometer evaluation, although several cases in both groups showed a side-to-side difference exceeding 5 mm by the latter evaluation method. Conclusions. We found no significant difference between single- and double-bundle PCL reconstructions during more than 10 years of follow-up.

  12. Safty assessment of RUFIC fuel during the postulated accident of CANDU-6 feeder breaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, H. S.; Jung, J. Y.; Suk, H. C

    2001-07-01

    The safety assessment for the feeder breaks, as one of the postulated design basis events, was performed for a CANDU 6 reactor loaded with CANFLEX-RU fuel bundles. According to the assessment results, the fuel channel integrity, molten mass, and fission products release from failed fuel for the stagnation and off-stagnation feeder breaks are assured to be a more enhanced safety for CANFLEX-RU bundle, compared to the 37-element bundle. Particularly, the amounts of CANFLEX-RU's molten mass and fission products release prior to channel failure in the case of stagnation feeder break are significantly reduced by 35% and 40%, respectively, compared to those of the 37-element bundle. With only the results for the postulated accident of feeder breaks, it cannot be judged that the same conclusion can be applied to other design basis events. Therefore, other severe design basis events which would result in fuel failure should be assessed in further study.

  13. An integral Riemann-Roch theorem for surface bundles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ib Henning

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a response to a conjecture by T. Akita about an integral Riemann–Roch theorem for surface bundles.......This paper is a response to a conjecture by T. Akita about an integral Riemann–Roch theorem for surface bundles....

  14. Restriction Theorem for Principal bundles in Arbitrary Characteristic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gurjar, Sudarshan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to prove two basic restriction theorem for principal bundles on smooth projective varieties in arbitrary characteristic generalizing the analogues theorems of Mehta-Ramanathan for vector bundles. More precisely, let G be a reductive algebraic group over an algebraically c...

  15. Phase Space Reduction of Star Products on Cotangent Bundles.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kowalzig, N.; Neumaier, N.; Pflaum, M.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we construct star products on Marsden-Weinstein reduced spaces in case both the original phase space and the reduced phase space are (symplectomorphic to) cotangent bundles. Under the assumption that the original cotangent bundle $T^*Q$ carries a symplectic structure of form

  16. Monoubiquitination Inhibits the Actin Bundling Activity of Fascin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shengchen; Lu, Shuang; Mulaj, Mentor; Fang, Bin; Keeley, Tyler; Wan, Lixin; Hao, Jihui; Muschol, Martin; Sun, Jianwei; Yang, Shengyu

    2016-12-30

    Fascin is an actin bundling protein that cross-links individual actin filaments into straight, compact, and stiff bundles, which are crucial for the formation of filopodia, stereocillia, and other finger-like membrane protrusions. The dysregulation of fascin has been implicated in cancer metastasis, hearing loss, and blindness. Here we identified monoubiquitination as a novel mechanism that regulates fascin bundling activity and dynamics. The monoubiquitination sites were identified to be Lys247 and Lys250, two residues located in a positive charge patch at the actin binding site 2 of fascin. Using a chemical ubiquitination method, we synthesized chemically monoubiquitinated fascin and determined the effects of monoubiquitination on fascin bundling activity and dynamics. Our data demonstrated that monoubiquitination decreased the fascin bundling EC50, delayed the initiation of bundle assembly, and accelerated the disassembly of existing bundles. By analyzing the electrostatic properties on the solvent-accessible surface of fascin, we proposed that monoubiquitination introduced steric hindrance to interfere with the interaction between actin filaments and the positively charged patch at actin binding site 2. We also identified Smurf1 as a E3 ligase regulating the monoubiquitination of fascin. Our findings revealed a previously unidentified regulatory mechanism for fascin, which will have important implications for the understanding of actin bundle regulation under physiological and pathological conditions. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Lexical Bundles in L1 and L2 Academic Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Hua; Baker, Paul

    2010-01-01

    This paper adopts an automated frequency-driven approach to identify frequently-used word combinations (i.e., "lexical bundles") in academic writing. Lexical bundles retrieved from one corpus of published academic texts and two corpora of student academic writing (one L1, the other L2), were investigated both quantitatively and qualitatively.…

  18. Lexical Bundles: Facilitating University "Talk" in Group Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Chan Swee; Kashiha, Hadi; Tan, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Group discussion forms an integral language experience for most language learners, providing them with an opportunity to express themselves in a naturalistic setting. Multi-word expressions are commonly used and one of them is lexical bundles. Lexical bundles are types of extended collocations that occur more commonly than we expect; they are…

  19. A novel microbond bundle pullout technique to evaluate the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-07-26

    Jul 26, 2017 ... to be a need to develop a microbond bundle pullout test that is comparable in all aspects to the semi-empirical resin slab/fibre bundle pullout approach [9]. The improvement of the known draw backs of the single fibre microbond pullout method [7], such as the difficulty in formulation and testing (with lack.

  20. Hair bundles are specialized for ATP delivery via creatine kinase.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shin, J.B.; Streijger, F.; Beynon, A.J.; Peters, T.; Gadzala, L.; McMillen, D.; Bystrom, C.; Zee, C.E.E.M. van der; Wallimann, T.; Gillespie, P.G.

    2007-01-01

    When stimulated strongly, a hair cell's mechanically sensitive hair bundle may consume ATP too rapidly for replenishment by diffusion. To provide a broad view of the bundle's protein complement, including those proteins participating in energy metabolism, we used shotgun mass spectrometry methods to

  1. Smooth Bundling of Large Streaming and Sequence Graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hurter, C.; Ersoy, O.; Telea, A.

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic graphs are increasingly pervasive in modern information systems. However, understanding how a graph changes in time is difficult. We present here two techniques for simplified visualization of dynamic graphs using edge bundles. The first technique uses a recent image-based graph bundling

  2. Computational imaging through a fiber-optic bundle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodhi, Muhammad A.; Dumas, John Paul; Pierce, Mark C.; Bajwa, Waheed U.

    2017-05-01

    Compressive sensing (CS) has proven to be a viable method for reconstructing high-resolution signals using low-resolution measurements. Integrating CS principles into an optical system allows for higher-resolution imaging using lower-resolution sensor arrays. In contrast to prior works on CS-based imaging, our focus in this paper is on imaging through fiber-optic bundles, in which manufacturing constraints limit individual fiber spacing to around 2 μm. This limitation essentially renders fiber-optic bundles as low-resolution sensors with relatively few resolvable points per unit area. These fiber bundles are often used in minimally invasive medical instruments for viewing tissue at macro and microscopic levels. While the compact nature and flexibility of fiber bundles allow for excellent tissue access in-vivo, imaging through fiber bundles does not provide the fine details of tissue features that is demanded in some medical situations. Our hypothesis is that adapting existing CS principles to fiber bundle-based optical systems will overcome the resolution limitation inherent in fiber-bundle imaging. In a previous paper we examined the practical challenges involved in implementing a highly parallel version of the single-pixel camera while focusing on synthetic objects. This paper extends the same architecture for fiber-bundle imaging under incoherent illumination and addresses some practical issues associated with imaging physical objects. Additionally, we model the optical non-idealities in the system to get lower modelling errors.

  3. Frobenius pull backs of vector bundles in higher dimensions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Frobenius pull backs; instability degree, vector bundles. 1. Introduction. Let X be a nonsingular projective variety defined over an algebraically closed field k of an arbitrary characteristic, and let H be a very ample line bundle on X. Let E be a torsion free sheaf on X. Then the notion of E being stable (resp. semistable) is well- ...

  4. On Harder–Narasimhan reductions for Higgs principal bundles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    in Ramanathan's paper. The aim of this paper is to generalize the methods of Biswas and Holla to give a unified approach to the case of principal bundles with Higgs structure on smooth projective varieties as well as the case of ramified bundles on smooth curves [4] (see §2, §5 for definitions). Recall that for the case of ...

  5. Literature search on Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuel and absorber rod fabrication, 1960--1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sample, C R [comp.

    1977-02-01

    A literature search was conducted to provide information supporting the design of a conceptual Light Water Reactor (LWR) Fuel Fabrication plant. Emphasis was placed on fuel processing and pin bundle fabrication, effects of fuel impurities and microstructure on performance and densification, quality assurance, absorber and poison rod fabrication, and fuel pin welding. All data have been taken from publicly available documents, journals, and books. This work was sponsored by the Finishing Processes-Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Studies program at HEDL.

  6. [Bundle-branch block depending on the heart rate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolov, L

    1975-01-01

    Five patients are reported, admitted to the hospital, with diseases predominantly of the cardio-vascular system. During the electrocardiographic examinations bundle branch block was established, depending on heart rate. It fluctuated within the physiological limits from 50 to 90/min. In three of the patients, the bundle branch block appeared with the quickening of the heart rate (tachycardia-depending bundle branch block) and in two of the patients--the bundle branch block appeared during the slowing down of the heart action and disappeared with its quickening (bradicardia-depending bundle branch block). A brief literature review is presented and attention is paid to the possible diagnostic errors and the treatment mode of those patients with cardiac tonic and antiarrhythmic medicaments.

  7. Bundles over Quantum RealWeighted Projective Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Brzeziński

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The algebraic approach to bundles in non-commutative geometry and the definition of quantum real weighted projective spaces are reviewed. Principal U(1-bundles over quantum real weighted projective spaces are constructed. As the spaces in question fall into two separate classes, the negative or odd class that generalises quantum real projective planes and the positive or even class that generalises the quantum disc, so do the constructed principal bundles. In the negative case the principal bundle is proven to be non-trivial and associated projective modules are described. In the positive case the principal bundles turn out to be trivial, and so all the associated modules are free. It is also shown that the circle (coactions on the quantum Seifert manifold that define quantum real weighted projective spaces are almost free.

  8. Artificial ciliary bundles with nano fiber tip links

    CERN Document Server

    Asadnia, Mohsen; Miao, Jianmin; Triantafyllou, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Mechanosensory ciliary bundles in fishes are the inspiration for carefully engineered artificial flow sensors. We report the development of a new class of ultrasensitive MEMS flow sensors that mimic the intricate morphology of the ciliary bundles, including the stereocilia, tip links, and the cupula, and thereby achieve threshold detection limits that match the biological example. An artificial ciliary bundle is achieved by fabricating closely-spaced arrays of polymer micro-pillars with gradiating heights. Tip links that form the fundamental sensing elements are realized through electrospinning aligned PVDF piezoelectric nano-fibers that link the distal tips of the polymer cilia. An optimized synthesis of hyaluronic acid-methacrylic anhydride hydrogel that results in properties close to the biological cupula, together with drop-casting method are used to form the artificial cupula that encapsulates the ciliary bundle. In testing, fluid drag force causes the ciliary bundle to slide, stretching the flexible nan...

  9. Superconductivity in an Inhomogeneous Bundle of Metallic and Semiconducting Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya Grigorenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Using Bogoliubov-de Gennes formalism for inhomogeneous systems, we have studied superconducting properties of a bundle of packed carbon nanotubes, making a triangular lattice in the bundle's transverse cross-section. The bundle consists of a mixture of metallic and doped semiconducting nanotubes, which have different critical transition temperatures. We investigate how a spatially averaged superconducting order parameter and the critical transition temperature depend on the fraction of the doped semiconducting carbon nanotubes in the bundle. Our simulations suggest that the superconductivity in the bundle will be suppressed when the fraction of the doped semiconducting carbon nanotubes will be less than 0.5, which is the percolation threshold for a two-dimensional triangular lattice.

  10. Framework for shape analysis of white matter fiber bundles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glozman, Tanya; Bruckert, Lisa; Pestilli, Franco; Yecies, Derek W; Guibas, Leonidas J; Yeom, Kristen W

    2017-12-02

    Diffusion imaging coupled with tractography algorithms allows researchers to image human white matter fiber bundles in-vivo. These bundles are three-dimensional structures with shapes that change over time during the course of development as well as in pathologic states. While most studies on white matter variability focus on analysis of tissue properties estimated from the diffusion data, e.g. fractional anisotropy, the shape variability of white matter fiber bundle is much less explored. In this paper, we present a set of tools for shape analysis of white matter fiber bundles, namely: (1) a concise geometric model of bundle shapes; (2) a method for bundle registration between subjects; (3) a method for deformation estimation. Our framework is useful for analysis of shape variability in white matter fiber bundles. We demonstrate our framework by applying our methods on two datasets: one consisting of data for 6 normal adults and another consisting of data for 38 normal children of age 11 days to 8.5 years. We suggest a robust and reproducible method to measure changes in the shape of white matter fiber bundles. We demonstrate how this method can be used to create a model to assess age-dependent changes in the shape of specific fiber bundles. We derive such models for an ensemble of white matter fiber bundles on our pediatric dataset and show that our results agree with normative human head and brain growth data. Creating these models for a large pediatric longitudinal dataset may improve understanding of both normal development and pathologic states and propose novel parameters for the examination of the pediatric brain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Bundling of elastic filaments induced by hydrodynamic interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Yi; Page, William; Poole, Robert J.; Lauga, Eric

    2017-12-01

    Peritrichous bacteria swim in viscous fluids by rotating multiple helical flagellar filaments. As the bacterium swims forward, all its flagella rotate in synchrony behind the cell in a tight helical bundle. When the bacterium changes its direction, the flagellar filaments unbundle and randomly reorient the cell for a short period of time before returning to their bundled state and resuming swimming. This rapid bundling and unbundling is, at its heart, a mechanical process whereby hydrodynamic interactions balance with elasticity to determine the time-varying deformation of the filaments. Inspired by this biophysical problem, we present in this paper what is perhaps the simplest model of bundling whereby two or more straight elastic filaments immersed in a viscous fluid rotate about their centerline, inducing rotational flows which tend to bend the filaments around each other. We derive an integrodifferential equation governing the shape of the filaments resulting from mechanical balance in a viscous fluid at low Reynolds number. We show that such equation may be evaluated asymptotically analytically in the long-wavelength limit, leading to a local partial differential equation governed by a single dimensionless bundling number. A numerical study of the dynamics predicted by the model reveals the presence of two configuration instabilities with increasing bundling numbers: first to a crossing state where filaments touch at one point and then to a bundled state where filaments wrap along each other in a helical fashion. We also consider the case of multiple filaments and the unbundling dynamics. We next provide an intuitive physical model for the crossing instability and show that it may be used to predict analytically its threshold and adapted to address the transition to a bundling state. We then use a macroscale experimental implementation of the two-filament configuration in order to validate our theoretical predictions and obtain excellent agreement. This long

  12. Restriction of Preferences to the Set of Consumption Bundles, In a Model with Production and Consumption Bundles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schalk, S.

    1999-01-01

    In contrast to the neo-classical theory of Arrow and Debreu, a model of a private ownership economy is presented, in which production and consumption bundles are treated separately. Each of the two types of bundles is assumed to establish a con- vex cone. Production technologies can convert

  13. Single-Bundle Versus Double-Bundle Reconstruction for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Rupture: A Meta-Analysis-Does Anatomy Matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eck, Carola F. Van; Kopf, Sebastian; Irrgang, James J.; Blankevoort, Leendert; Bhandari, Mohit; Fu, Freddie H.; Poolman, Rudolf W.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction leads to better restoration of anterior and rotational laxity and range of motion than single-bundle reconstruction. Methods: A search was performed in the Medline, Embase, CINAHL, and Cochrane databases. All

  14. Fuel Exhaling Fuel Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoor Bhat, Zahid; Thimmappa, Ravikumar; Devendrachari, Mruthyunjayachari Chattanahalli; Kottaichamy, Alagar Raja; Shafi, Shahid Pottachola; Varhade, Swapnil; Gautam, Manu; Thotiyl, Musthafa Ottakam

    2018-01-18

    State-of-the-art proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) anodically inhale H 2 fuel and cathodically expel water molecules. We show an unprecedented fuel cell concept exhibiting cathodic fuel exhalation capability of anodically inhaled fuel, driven by the neutralization energy on decoupling the direct acid-base chemistry. The fuel exhaling fuel cell delivered a peak power density of 70 mW/cm 2 at a peak current density of 160 mA/cm 2 with a cathodic H 2 output of ∼80 mL in 1 h. We illustrate that the energy benefits from the same fuel stream can at least be doubled by directing it through proposed neutralization electrochemical cell prior to PEMFC in a tandem configuration.

  15. Cost-effectiveness of a central venous catheter care bundle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate A Halton

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A bundled approach to central venous catheter care is currently being promoted as an effective way of preventing catheter-related bloodstream infection (CR-BSI. Consumables used in the bundled approach are relatively inexpensive which may lead to the conclusion that the bundle is cost-effective. However, this fails to consider the nontrivial costs of the monitoring and education activities required to implement the bundle, or that alternative strategies are available to prevent CR-BSI. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of a bundle to prevent CR-BSI in Australian intensive care patients. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A Markov decision model was used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the bundle relative to remaining with current practice (a non-bundled approach to catheter care and uncoated catheters, or use of antimicrobial catheters. We assumed the bundle reduced relative risk of CR-BSI to 0.34. Given uncertainty about the cost of the bundle, threshold analyses were used to determine the maximum cost at which the bundle remained cost-effective relative to the other approaches to infection control. Sensitivity analyses explored how this threshold alters under different assumptions about the economic value placed on bed-days and health benefits gained by preventing infection. If clinicians are prepared to use antimicrobial catheters, the bundle is cost-effective if national 18-month implementation costs are below $1.1 million. If antimicrobial catheters are not an option the bundle must cost less than $4.3 million. If decision makers are only interested in obtaining cash-savings for the unit, and place no economic value on either the bed-days or the health benefits gained through preventing infection, these cost thresholds are reduced by two-thirds. CONCLUSIONS: A catheter care bundle has the potential to be cost-effective in the Australian intensive care setting. Rather than anticipating cash-savings from this intervention, decision

  16. PWR FLECHT SEASET 163-Rod Bundle Flow Blockage Task data report. NRC/EPRI/Westinghouse report No. 13, August-October 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loftus, M J; Hochreiter, L E; McGuire, M F; Valkovic, M M

    1983-10-01

    This report presents data from the 163-Rod Bundle Blow Blockage Task of the Full-Length Emergency Cooling Heat Transfer Systems Effects and Separate Effects Test Program (FLECHT SEASET). The task consisted of forced and gravity reflooding tests utilizing electrical heater rods with a cosine axial power profile to simulate PWR nuclear core fuel rod arrays. These tests were designed to determine effects of flow blockage and flow bypass on reflooding behavior and to aid in the assessment of computational models in predicting the reflooding behavior of flow blockage in rod bundle arrays.

  17. Solid oxide fuel cell generator with removable modular fuel cell stack configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillett, J.E.; Dederer, J.T.; Zafred, P.R.; Collie, J.C.

    1998-04-21

    A high temperature solid oxide fuel cell generator produces electrical power from oxidation of hydrocarbon fuel gases such as natural gas, or conditioned fuel gases, such as carbon monoxide or hydrogen, with oxidant gases, such as air or oxygen. This electrochemical reaction occurs in a plurality of electrically connected solid oxide fuel cells bundled and arrayed in a unitary modular fuel cell stack disposed in a compartment in the generator container. The use of a unitary modular fuel cell stack in a generator is similar in concept to that of a removable battery. The fuel cell stack is provided in a pre-assembled self-supporting configuration where the fuel cells are mounted to a common structural base having surrounding side walls defining a chamber. Associated generator equipment may also be mounted to the fuel cell stack configuration to be integral therewith, such as a fuel and oxidant supply and distribution systems, fuel reformation systems, fuel cell support systems, combustion, exhaust and spent fuel recirculation systems, and the like. The pre-assembled self-supporting fuel cell stack arrangement allows for easier assembly, installation, maintenance, better structural support and longer life of the fuel cells contained in the fuel cell stack. 8 figs.

  18. Bundling Actin Filaments From Membranes: Some Novel Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clément eThomas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Progress in live-cell imaging of the cytoskeleton has significantly extended our knowledge about the organization and dynamics of actin filaments near the plasma membrane of plant cells. Noticeably, two populations of filamentous structures can be distinguished. On the one hand, fine actin filaments which exhibit an extremely dynamic behavior basically characterized by fast polymerization and prolific severing events, a process referred to as actin stochastic dynamics. On the other hand, thick actin bundles which are composed of several filaments and which are comparatively more stable although they constantly remodel as well. There is evidence that the actin cytoskeleton plays critical roles in trafficking and signaling at both the cell cortex and organelle periphery but the exact contribution of actin bundles remains unclear. A common view is that actin bundles provide the long-distance tracks used by myosin motors to deliver their cargo to growing regions and accordingly play a particularly important role in cell polarization. However, several studies support that actin bundles are more than simple passive highways and display multiple and dynamic roles in the regulation of many processes, such as cell elongation, polar auxin transport, stomatal and chloroplast movement, and defense against pathogens. The list of identified plant actin-bundling proteins is ever expanding, supporting that plant cells shape structurally and functionally different actin bundles. Here I review the most recently characterized actin-bundling proteins, with a particular focus on those potentially relevant to membrane trafficking and/or signaling.

  19. Aerosol retention in the flooded steam generator bundle during SGTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lind, Terttaliisa, E-mail: terttaliisa.lind@psi.c [Paul Scherrer Institut, Department of Nuclear Energy and Safety, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Dehbi, Abdel; Guentay, Salih [Paul Scherrer Institut, Department of Nuclear Energy and Safety, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland)

    2011-01-15

    Research highlights: High retention of aerosol particles in a steam generator bundle flooded with water. Increasing particle inertia, i.e., particle size and velocity, increases retention. Much higher retention of aerosol particles in the steam generator bundle flooded with water than in a dry bundle. Much higher retention of aerosol particles in the steam generator bundle than in a bare pool. Bare pool models have to be adapted to be applicable for flooded bundles. - Abstract: A steam generator tube rupture in a pressurized water reactor may cause accidental release of radioactive particles into the environment. Its specific significance is in its potential to bypass the containment thereby providing a direct pathway of the radioactivity from the primary circuit to the environment. Under certain severe accident scenarios, the steam generator bundle may be flooded with water. In addition, some severe accident management procedures are designed to minimize the release of radioactivity into the environment by flooding the defective steam generator secondary side with water when the steam generator has dried out. To extend our understanding of the particle retention phenomena in the flooded steam generator bundle, tests were conducted in the ARTIST and ARTIST II programs to determine the effect of different parameters on particle retention. The effects of particle type (spherical or agglomerate), particle size, gas mass flow rate, and the break submergence on particle retention were investigated. Results can be summarized as follows: increasing particle inertia was found to increase retention in the flooded bundle. Particle shape, i.e., agglomerate or spherical structure, did not affect retention significantly. Even with a very low submergence, 0.3 m above the tube break, significant aerosol retention took place underlining the importance of the jet-bundle interactions close to the tube break. Droplets were entrained from the water surface with high gas flow rates

  20. Dark-field illuminated reflectance fiber bundle endoscopic microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuan; Huang, Yong; Kang, Jin U.

    2011-04-01

    We propose a reflectance fiber bundle microscope using a dark-field illumination configuration for applications in endoscopic medical imaging and diagnostics. Our experiment results show that dark-field illumination can effectively suppress strong specular reflection from the proximal end of the fiber bundle. We realized a lateral resolution of 4.4 μm using the dark-field illuminated fiber bundle configuration. To demonstrate the feasibility of using the system to study cell morphology, we obtained still and video images of two thyroid cancer cell lines. Our results clearly allow differentiation of different cancer cell types.

  1. Moduli of Parabolic Higgs Bundles and Atiyah Algebroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Logares, Marina; Martens, Johan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we study the geometry of the moduli space of (non-strongly) parabolic Higgs bundles over a Riemann surface with marked points. We show that this space possesses a Poisson structure, extending the one on the dual of an Atiyah algebroid over the moduli space of parabolic vector bundles....... By considering the case of full flags, we get a Grothendieck–Springer resolution for all other flag types, in particular for the moduli spaces of twisted Higgs bundles, as studied by Markman and Bottacin and used in the recent work of Laumon–Ngô. We discuss the Hitchin system, and demonstrate that all...

  2. A study on the direct use of spent PWR fuel in CANDU reactors -Fuel management and safety analysis-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyun Soo; Lee, Boh Wook; Choi, Hang Bok; Lee, Yung Wook; Cho, Jae Sun; Huh, Chang Wook [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    The reference DUPIC fuel composition was determined based on the reactor safety, thermal-hydraulics, economics, and refabrication aspects. The center pin of the reference DUPIC fuel bundle is poisoned with natural dysprosium. The worst LOCA analysis has shown that the transient power and heat deposition of the reference DUPIC core are the same as those of natural uranium CANDU core. The intra-code comparison has shown that the accuracy of DUPIC physics code system is comparable to the current CANDU core design code system. The sensitivity studies were performed for the refuelling schemes of DUPIC core and the 2-bundle shift refuelling scheme was selected as the standard refuelling scheme of the DUPIC core. The application of 4-bundle shift refuelling scheme will be studied in parallel as the auto-refuelling method is improved and the reference core parameters of the heterogeneous DUPIC core are defined. The heterogeneity effect was analyzed in a preliminary fashion using 33 fuel types and the random loading strategy. The refuelling simulation has shown that the DUPIC core satisfies the current CANDU 6 operating limits of channel and bundle power regardless of the fuel composition heterogeneity. The 33 fuel types used in the heterogeneity analysis was determined based on the initial enrichment and discharge burnup of the PWR fuel. 90 figs, 62 tabs, 63 refs. (Author).

  3. Development of the advanced PHWR technology -Verification tests for CANDU advanced fuel-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jang Hwan; Suk, Hoh Chun; Jung, Moon Kee; Oh, Duk Joo; Park, Joo Hwan; Shim, Kee Sub; Jang, Suk Kyoo; Jung, Heung Joon; Park, Jin Suk; Jung, Seung Hoh; Jun, Ji Soo; Lee, Yung Wook; Jung, Chang Joon; Byun, Taek Sang; Park, Kwang Suk; Kim, Bok Deuk; Min, Kyung Hoh [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    This is the `94 annual report of the CANDU advanced fuel verification test project. This report describes the out-of pile hydraulic tests at CANDU-hot test loop for verification of CANFLEX fuel bundle. It is also describes the reactor thermal-hydraulic analysis for thermal margin and flow stability. The contents in this report are as follows; (1) Out-of pile hydraulic tests for verification of CANFLEX fuel bundle. (a) Pressure drop tests at reactor operation condition (b) Strength test during reload at static condition (c) Impact test during reload at impact load condition (d) Endurance test for verification of fuel integrity during life time (2) Reactor thermal-hydraulic analysis with CANFLEX fuel bundle. (a) Critical channel power sensitivity analysis (b) CANDU-6 channel flow analysis (c) Flow instability analysis. 61 figs, 29 tabs, 21 refs. (Author).

  4. Simulation of finite size effects of the fiber bundle model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Da-Peng; Tang, Gang; Xun, Zhi-Peng; Xia, Hui; Han, Kui

    2018-01-01

    In theory, the macroscopic fracture of materials should correspond with the thermodynamic limit of the fiber bundle model. However, the simulation of a fiber bundle model with an infinite size is unrealistic. To study the finite size effects of the fiber bundle model, fiber bundle models of various size are simulated in detail. The effects of system size on the constitutive behavior, critical stress, maximum avalanche size, avalanche size distribution, and increased step number of external load are explored. The simulation results imply that there is no feature size or cut size for macroscopic mechanical and statistical properties of the model. The constitutive curves near the macroscopic failure for various system size can collapse well with a simple scaling relationship. Simultaneously, the introduction of a simple extrapolation method facilitates the acquisition of more accurate simulation results in a large-limit system, which is better for comparison with theoretical results.

  5. Improved Conjugate Gradient Bundle Adjustment of Dunhuang Wall Painting Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, K.; Huang, X.; You, H.

    2017-09-01

    Bundle adjustment with additional parameters is identified as a critical step for precise orthoimage generation and 3D reconstruction of Dunhuang wall paintings. Due to the introduction of self-calibration parameters and quasi-planar constraints, the structure of coefficient matrix of the reduced normal equation is banded-bordered, making the solving process of bundle adjustment complex. In this paper, Conjugate Gradient Bundle Adjustment (CGBA) method is deduced by calculus of variations. A preconditioning method based on improved incomplete Cholesky factorization is adopt to reduce the condition number of coefficient matrix, as well as to accelerate the iteration rate of CGBA. Both theoretical analysis and experimental results comparison with conventional method indicate that, the proposed method can effectively conquer the ill-conditioned problem of normal equation and improve the calculation efficiency of bundle adjustment with additional parameters considerably, while maintaining the actual accuracy.

  6. Bundles of Norms About Teen Sex and Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Sennott, Christie

    2015-09-01

    Teen pregnancy is a cultural battleground in struggles over morality, education, and family. At its heart are norms about teen sex, contraception, pregnancy, and abortion. Analyzing 57 interviews with college students, we found that "bundles" of related norms shaped the messages teens hear. Teens did not think their communities encouraged teen sex or pregnancy, but normative messages differed greatly, with either moral or practical rationalizations. Teens readily identified multiple norms intended to regulate teen sex, contraception, abortion, childbearing, and the sanctioning of teen parents. Beyond influencing teens' behavior, norms shaped teenagers' public portrayals and post hoc justifications of their behavior. Although norm bundles are complex to measure, participants could summarize them succinctly. These bundles and their conflicting behavioral prescriptions create space for human agency in negotiating normative pressures. The norm bundles concept has implications for teen pregnancy prevention policies and can help revitalize social norms for understanding health behaviors. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Some applications on tangent bundle with Kaluza-Klein metric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Altunbaş

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, differential equations of geodesics; parallelism, incompressibility and closeness conditions of the horizontal and complete lift of the vector fields are investigated with respect to Kaluza-Klein metric on tangent bundle.

  8. Algebraic Frobenius splitting of cotangent bundles of flag varieties

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hague, Chuck

    2013-01-01

    Following the program of algebraic Frobenius splitting begun by Kumar and Littelmann, we use representation-theoretic techniques to construct a Frobenius splitting of the cotangent bundle of the flag...

  9. Design and synthesis of DNA four-helix bundles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangnekar, Abhijit; Gothelf, Kurt V; LaBean, Thomas H

    2011-06-10

    The field of DNA nanotechnology has evolved significantly in the past decade. Researchers have succeeded in synthesizing tile-based structures and using them to form periodic lattices in one, two and three dimensions. Origami-based structures have also been used to create nanoscale structures in two and three dimensions. Design and construction of DNA bundles with fixed circumference has added a new dimension to the field. Here we report the design and synthesis of a DNA four-helix bundle. It was found to be extremely rigid and stable. When several such bundles were assembled using appropriate sticky-ends, they formed micrometre-long filaments. However, when creation of two-dimensional sheet-like arrays of the four-helix bundles was attempted, nanoscale rings were observed instead. The exact reason behind the nanoring formation is yet to be ascertained, but it provides an exciting prospect for making programmable circular nanostructures using DNA.

  10. IMPROVED CONJUGATE GRADIENT BUNDLE ADJUSTMENT OF DUNHUANG WALL PAINTING IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Bundle adjustment with additional parameters is identified as a critical step for precise orthoimage generation and 3D reconstruction of Dunhuang wall paintings. Due to the introduction of self-calibration parameters and quasi-planar constraints, the structure of coefficient matrix of the reduced normal equation is banded-bordered, making the solving process of bundle adjustment complex. In this paper, Conjugate Gradient Bundle Adjustment (CGBA method is deduced by calculus of variations. A preconditioning method based on improved incomplete Cholesky factorization is adopt to reduce the condition number of coefficient matrix, as well as to accelerate the iteration rate of CGBA. Both theoretical analysis and experimental results comparison with conventional method indicate that, the proposed method can effectively conquer the ill-conditioned problem of normal equation and improve the calculation efficiency of bundle adjustment with additional parameters considerably, while maintaining the actual accuracy.

  11. Introductory lectures on fibre bundles and topology for physicists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, G.H.

    1978-05-01

    These lectures may provide useful background material for understanding gauge theories, particularly the nonperturbative effects such as instantons and monopoles. The mathematical language of topology and fibre bundles is introduced.

  12. Bohr--Sommerfeld Lagrangians of moduli spaces of Higgs bundles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biswas, Indranil; Gammelgaard, Niels Leth; Logares, Marina

    Let $X$ be a compact connected Riemann surface of genus at least two. Let $M_H(r,d)$ denote the moduli space of semistable Higgs bundles on $X$ of rank $r$ and degree $d$. We prove that the compact complex Bohr-Sommerfeld Lagrangians of $M_H(r,d)$ are precisely the irreducible components of the n......Let $X$ be a compact connected Riemann surface of genus at least two. Let $M_H(r,d)$ denote the moduli space of semistable Higgs bundles on $X$ of rank $r$ and degree $d$. We prove that the compact complex Bohr-Sommerfeld Lagrangians of $M_H(r,d)$ are precisely the irreducible components...... of the nilpotent cone in $M_H(r,d)$. This generalizes to Higgs $G$-bundles and also to the parabolic Higgs bundles....

  13. Design and synthesis of DNA four-helix bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangnekar, Abhijit; Gothelf, Kurt V [Department of Chemistry, Centre for DNA Nanotechnology (CDNA) and Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO), Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); LaBean, Thomas H, E-mail: kvg@chem.au.dk, E-mail: thl@cs.duke.edu [Department of Chemistry, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States)

    2011-06-10

    The field of DNA nanotechnology has evolved significantly in the past decade. Researchers have succeeded in synthesizing tile-based structures and using them to form periodic lattices in one, two and three dimensions. Origami-based structures have also been used to create nanoscale structures in two and three dimensions. Design and construction of DNA bundles with fixed circumference has added a new dimension to the field. Here we report the design and synthesis of a DNA four-helix bundle. It was found to be extremely rigid and stable. When several such bundles were assembled using appropriate sticky-ends, they formed micrometre-long filaments. However, when creation of two-dimensional sheet-like arrays of the four-helix bundles was attempted, nanoscale rings were observed instead. The exact reason behind the nanoring formation is yet to be ascertained, but it provides an exciting prospect for making programmable circular nanostructures using DNA.

  14. Nuclear fuel supply view in Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cirimello, R.O. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Conuar SA (Argentina)

    1997-07-01

    The Argentine Atomic Energy Commission promoted and participated in a unique achievement in the R and D system in Argentina: the integration of science technology and production based on a central core of knowledge for the control and management of the nuclear fuel cycle technology. CONUAR SA, as a fuel manufacturer, FAE SA, the manufacturer of Zircaloy tubes, CNEA and now DIOXITEC SA producer of Uranium Dioxide, have been supply, in the last ten years, the amount of products required for about 1300 Tn of equivalent U content in fuels. The most promising changes for the fuel cycle economy is the Slight Enriched Uranium project which begun in Atucha I reactor. In 1997 seventy five fuel assemblies, equivalent to 900 Candu fuel bundles, will complete its irradiation. (author)

  15. Fluid dynamics and heat transfer within rod bundles at supercritical pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurien, E. [Stuttgart Univ. (DE). Inst. for Nuclear Technology and Energy Systems (IKE)

    2008-07-01

    Due to the present absence of experimental investigations of HPLWR flows, the flow and heat transfer of the fuel bundle is investigated only theoretically at 25 MPa. Here, the tool of CFD is used primarily to model the coupled effects of heat transfer deterioration, secondary flows, inter-channel mixing and swirl in order to understand the associated flow and heat transfer phenomena. The aim is the development of a heat transfer correlation for the HPLWR fuel element to be used in sub-channel codes. In further studies the fuel element must be optimized in order to guarantee, that the cladding temperature will not exceed the material limit of about 620 C even if moderate deterioration occurs. Further challenges for the design and the flow simulation methods will be the turbulent mixing of streams at 25 MPa with large temperature differences in the hot box, the lower plenum, and the foot piece of the fuel elements, see [12] for a preliminary study. (orig.)

  16. A Discrete Theory of Connections on Principal Bundles

    OpenAIRE

    Leok, M; Marsden, JE; Weinstein, AD

    2017-01-01

    Connections on principal bundles play a fundamental role in expressing the equations of motion for mechanical systems with symmetry in an intrinsic fashion. A discrete theory of connections on principal bundles is constructed by introducing the discrete analogue of the Atiyah sequence, with a connection corresponding to the choice of a splitting of the short exact sequence. Equivalent representations of a discrete connection are considered, and an extension of the pair groupoid composition, t...

  17. On the Geometry of Cotangent Bundles of Lie Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Manga, Bakary

    2015-01-01

    Lie groups of automorphisms of cotangent bundles of Lie groups are completely characterized and interesting results are obtained. We give prominence to the fact that the Lie groups of automorphisms of cotangent bundles of Lie groups are super symmetric Lie groups. In the cases of orthogonal Lie lgebras, semi-simple Lie algebras and compact Lie algebras we recover by simple methods interesting co-homological known results. The Lie algebra of prederivations encompasses the one of derivations as...

  18. CHF prediction in rod bundles using round tube data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Wallen F.; Veloso, Maria A.F.; Pereira, Cláubia; Costa, Antonella L., E-mail: wallenfds@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: mdora@nuclear.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear

    2017-07-01

    The present work concerns the use of 1995 CHF table for uniformly heated round tubes, developed jointly by Canadian and Russian researchers, for the prediction of critical heat fluxes in rod bundles geometries. Comparisons between measured and calculated critical heat fluxes indicate that this table could be applied to rod bundles provided that a suitable correction factor is employed. The tolerance limits associated with the departure from nucleate boiling ratio (DNBR) are evaluated by using statistical analysis. (author)

  19. Page 1 Moduli for bundles over curves - 325 through the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (B End V, with the reduced structure. Note that C is an open subscheme in C and C is a multicone in G) End V. By the hypothesis of the lemma and assumption Mo = G, for te Twe have an isomorphism (p, Eo- ºr, We can interpret p, as a section of the fiber bundle (e. X ..) (G) with fiber G associated to the G × G. bundle Eo * Č, ...

  20. Mitotic spindle: kinetochore fibers hold on tight to interpolar bundles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolić, Iva M

    2017-07-19

    When a cell starts to divide, it forms a spindle, a micro-machine made of microtubules, which separates the duplicated chromosomes. The attachment of microtubules to chromosomes is mediated by kinetochores, protein complexes on the chromosome. Spindle microtubules can be divided into three major classes: kinetochore microtubules, which form k-fibers ending at the kinetochore; interpolar microtubules, which extend from the opposite sides of the spindle and interact in the middle; and astral microtubules, which extend towards the cell cortex. Recent work in human cells has shown a close relationship between interpolar and kinetochore microtubules, where interpolar bundles are attached laterally to kinetochore fibers almost all along their length, acting as a bridge between sister k-fibers. Most of the interpolar bundles are attached to a pair of sister kinetochore fibers and vice versa. Thus, the spindle is made of modules consisting of a pair of sister kinetochore fibers and a bundle of interpolar microtubules that connects them. These interpolar bundles, termed bridging fibers, balance the forces acting at kinetochores and support the rounded shape of the spindle during metaphase. This review discusses the structure, function, and formation of kinetochore fibers and interpolar bundles, with an emphasis on how they interact. Their connections have an impact on the force balance in the spindle and on chromosome movement during mitosis because the forces in interpolar bundles are transmitted to kinetochore fibers and hence to kinetochores through these connections.

  1. Fossil fuels -- future fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Fossil fuels -- coal, oil, and natural gas -- built America`s historic economic strength. Today, coal supplies more than 55% of the electricity, oil more than 97% of the transportation needs, and natural gas 24% of the primary energy used in the US. Even taking into account increased use of renewable fuels and vastly improved powerplant efficiencies, 90% of national energy needs will still be met by fossil fuels in 2020. If advanced technologies that boost efficiency and environmental performance can be successfully developed and deployed, the US can continue to depend upon its rich resources of fossil fuels.

  2. Splitting 3-plane sub-bundles over the product of two real projective spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Hermínia de Paula Leite Mello

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Let α be a real vector bundle of fiber dimension three over the product RP(m×RP(n which splits as a Whitney sum of line bundles. We show that the necessary and sufficient conditions for α to embed as a sub-bundle of a certain family of vector bundles β of fiber dimension m+n is the vanishing of the last three Stiefel-Whitney classes of the virtual bundle0 β−α. Among the target bundles β we consider the tangent bundle.

  3. Forced and gravity reflood experiments in hexagonal bundle lattices. Final report; Zwangs- und Schwerkraftflutversuche an hexagonalen Stabbuendelgeometrien; Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiehr, K.; Erbacher, F.; Just, W.; Harten, U.; Schmidt, H.

    1993-11-01

    This report describes reflooding experiments in two different fuel rod simulator bundles (FRSB) with hexagonal lattices in different bundle geometries and different pitch over diameter (p/d) ratios. The bundles consist of 16 electrically heated fuel rod simulators with a cosine shaped axial power profile. The tight bundle (p/d=1,06) has steel claddings with integrated helical fins as spacers, whereas the wider bundle (p/d=1,24) is equipped with grid spacers and with Zircaloy claddings typical of a convoy PWR. This report delivers mainly the data base for modelers in order to verify and further develop reflooding codes (e.g. ATHLET, RELAP) for hexagonal fuel lattices. Presently this is of immediate interest for the hexagonal fuel elements of Russian VVER`s and other advanced reactor concepts. The experimental data of a total of 45 experiments (most of them with forced feed and some of them with gravity feed) are stored on data tapes and data discs of the KfK IBM 3090. To find the proper experiments described for calculations, this report contains schematic figures of the test loop, the instrumentation of the bundle and the whole test section. The test parameters are listed in tables. To facilitate the identification of the experiments, the cladding temperatures of the inner 37 fuel rod simulators, the axial cladding temperatures and the total pressure drop of the bundle are plotted. A user description for the experimental data and the corresponding measuring channel list of each experiment enables to find the proper test. In the appendix the material properties to model the rod simulator are given. (orig.) [Deutsch] Dieser Bericht beschreibt Flutexperimente an zwei Brennstabsimulatorbuendeln mit hexagonaler Stabanordnung unterschiedlicher Buendelgeometrie. Die Buendel bestehen aus jeweils 61 Brennstabsimulatoren (BSS) mit einem cosinusfoermigen axialen Leistungsprofil, wobei das sehr enge Buendel (p/d=1,06) mit Stahlhuellen mit integrierten Wendelrippen als

  4. A quantitative histopathological study of right bundle branch block complicating acute anteroseptal myocardial infarction.

    OpenAIRE

    Okabe, M; Fukuda, K; Nakashima, Y; Hiroki, T; Arakawa, K; Kikuchi, M

    1991-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether necrosis of the right bundle branch is responsible for development of right bundle branch block in acute myocardial infarction. Twenty patients with acute anteroseptal myocardial infarction were studied--10 with right bundle branch block (group A) and 10 without (group B)--to evaluate by serial sectioning the pathological extent of myocardial infarction surrounding the right bundle branch and also that of right bundle branch necrosis. Myoca...

  5. FE model development and impact strength analysis of CANFLEX fuel during 100% RIH brake accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Moon Sung; Suk, Ho Chun

    2003-11-01

    A structural analysis was performed to simulate the impact of the fuel bundle string on the inlet shield plug during a 100% Reactor Inlet Header (R.I.H) brake accident in a CANDU-6 reactor. Any significant damage to either the fuel or the fuel channel due to the collision could result in coolant flow blockage, and thus pose additional safety related concerns beyond those addressed for the initial loss-of-coolant accident. A Finite-Element (FE) model for simulating the collision was developed using the structural analysis computer code ABAQUS. The FE model was validated against the test results that have been obtained during the normal refueling impact test performed at KAERI in 1996. With use of the FE model, dynamic behavior of the fuel bundle string impacted on the shield plug was investigated and its effects on the fuel bundles and pressure tube were evaluated. The overall integrity of the fuel bundles as well as the possibility of bundle sticking or coolant flow blockage in the pressure tube was assessed.

  6. Histones bundle F-actin filaments and affect actin structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blotnick, Edna; Sol, Asaf; Muhlrad, Andras

    2017-01-01

    Histones are small polycationic proteins complexed with DNA located in the cell nucleus. Upon apoptosis they are secreted from the cells and react with extracellular polyanionic compounds. Actin which is a polyanionic protein, is also secreted from necrotic cells and interacts with histones. We showed that both histone mixture (histone type III) and the recombinant H2A histone bundles F-actin, increases the viscosity of the F-actin containing solution and polymerizes G-actin. The histone-actin bundles are relatively insensitive to increase of ionic strength, unlike other polycation, histatin, lysozyme, spermine and LL-37 induced F-actin bundles. The histone-actin bundles dissociate completely only in the presence of 300-400 mM NaCl. DNA, which competes with F-actin for histones, disassembles histone induced actin bundles. DNase1, which depolymerizes F- to G-actin, actively unbundles the H2A histone induced but slightly affects the histone mixture induced actin bundles. Cofilin decreases the amount of F-actin sedimented by low speed centrifugation, increases light scattering and viscosity of F-actin-histone mixture containing solutions and forms star like superstructures by copolymerizing G-actin with H2A histone. The results indicate that histones are tightly attached to F-actin by strong electrostatic and hydrophobic forces. Since both histones and F-actin are present in the sputum of patients with cystic fibrosis, therefore, the formation of the stable histone-actin bundles can contribute to the pathology of this disease by increasing the viscosity of the sputum. The actin-histone interaction in the nucleus might affect gene expression.

  7. Histones bundle F-actin filaments and affect actin structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Blotnick

    Full Text Available Histones are small polycationic proteins complexed with DNA located in the cell nucleus. Upon apoptosis they are secreted from the cells and react with extracellular polyanionic compounds. Actin which is a polyanionic protein, is also secreted from necrotic cells and interacts with histones. We showed that both histone mixture (histone type III and the recombinant H2A histone bundles F-actin, increases the viscosity of the F-actin containing solution and polymerizes G-actin. The histone-actin bundles are relatively insensitive to increase of ionic strength, unlike other polycation, histatin, lysozyme, spermine and LL-37 induced F-actin bundles. The histone-actin bundles dissociate completely only in the presence of 300-400 mM NaCl. DNA, which competes with F-actin for histones, disassembles histone induced actin bundles. DNase1, which depolymerizes F- to G-actin, actively unbundles the H2A histone induced but slightly affects the histone mixture induced actin bundles. Cofilin decreases the amount of F-actin sedimented by low speed centrifugation, increases light scattering and viscosity of F-actin-histone mixture containing solutions and forms star like superstructures by copolymerizing G-actin with H2A histone. The results indicate that histones are tightly attached to F-actin by strong electrostatic and hydrophobic forces. Since both histones and F-actin are present in the sputum of patients with cystic fibrosis, therefore, the formation of the stable histone-actin bundles can contribute to the pathology of this disease by increasing the viscosity of the sputum. The actin-histone interaction in the nucleus might affect gene expression.

  8. DISSOLUTION OF IRRADIATED MURR FUEL ASSEMBLIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyser, E.

    2010-06-17

    A literature survey on the dissolution of spent nuclear fuel from the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR) has been performed. This survey encompassed both internal and external literature sources for the dissolution of aluminum-clad uranium alloy fuels. The most limiting aspect of dissolution in the current facility configuration involves issues related to the control of the flammability of the off-gas from this process. The primary conclusion of this work is that based on past dissolution of this fuel in H-Canyon, four bundles of this fuel (initial charge) may be safely dissolved in a nitric acid flowsheet catalyzed with 0.002 M mercuric nitrate using a 40 scfm purge to control off-gas flammability. The initial charge may be followed by a second charge of up to five bundles to the same dissolver batch depending on volume and concentration constraints. The safety of this flowsheet relies on composite lower flammability limits (LFL) estimated from prior literature, pilot-scale work on the dissolution of site fuels, and the proposed processing flowsheet. Equipment modifications or improved LFL data offer the potential for improved processing rates. The fuel charging sequence, as well as the acid and catalyst concentrations, will control the dissolution rate during the initial portion of the cycle. These parameters directly impact the hydrogen and off-gas generation and, along with the purge flowrate determine the number of bundles that may be charged. The calculation approach within provides Engineering a means to determine optimal charging patterns. Downstream processing of this material should be similar to that of recent processing of site fuels requiring only minor adjustments of the existing flowsheet parameters.

  9. An in vitro biomechanical comparison of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: single bundle versus anatomical double bundle techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Umeda Sasaki

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Anterior cruciate ligament ruptures are frequent, especially in sports. Surgical reconstruction with autologous grafts is widely employed in the international literature. Controversies remain with respect to technique variations as continuous research for improvement takes place. One of these variations is the anatomical double bundle technique, which is performed instead of the conventional single bundle technique. More recently, there has been a tendency towards positioning the two bundles through double bone tunnels in the femur and tibia (anatomical reconstruction. OBJECTIVES: To compare, through biomechanical tests, the practice of anatomical double bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with a patellar graft to conventional single bundle reconstruction with the same amount of patellar graft in a paired experimental cadaver study. METHODS: Nine pairs of male cadaver knees ranging in age from 44 to 63 years were randomized into two groups: group A (single bundle and group B (anatomical reconstruction. Each knee was biomechanically tested under three conditions: intact anterior cruciate ligament, reconstructed anterior cruciate ligament, and injured anterior cruciate ligament. Maximum anterior dislocation, rigidity, and passive internal tibia rotation were recorded with knees submitted to a 100 N horizontal anterior dislocation force applied to the tibia with the knees at 30, 60 and 90 degrees of flexion. RESULTS: There were no differences between the two techniques for any of the measurements by ANOVA tests. CONCLUSION: The technique of anatomical double bundle reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament with bone-patellar tendon-bone graft has a similar biomechanical behavior with regard to anterior tibial dislocation, rigidity, and passive internal tibial rotation.

  10. Effects of different initial bundle tensioning strategies on the outcome of double-bundle ACL reconstruction: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muneta Takeshi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was performed to investigate the effects of different strategies and initial tension applied to each one of the bundles, antero-medial (AM and postero-lateral (PL, on clinical outcome in double bundle (DB ACL reconstruction. Methods One hundred fifty-one primary unilateral DB ACL reconstructions performed by a single surgeon from 1994 through 2002 were included in the study with a follow-up of at least 24 months. They were divided in the following 3 groups: Group I - Higher initial tension applied manually in the AM bundle compared to PL. II - Higher tension applied in the PL bundle compared to AM. III - The 2 bundles were attempted to be equally tensioned. All fixations were performed in 30 degrees of flexion. Group I = 59 patients, group II = 53 patients and group III = 39 patients. The groups had no statistical differences concerning demographic distribution. Clinical outcome was retrospectively evaluated by use of knee range of motion, manual knee laxity tests, KT-1000, Lysholm knee scale, subjective recovery scale and sports performance recovery scale. The differences of data were analyzed among the three groups. Results Group I showed a significant extension deficit compared with groups II and III. ANOVA revealed a significant difference of anterior laxity measured by the KT-1000 (average KT difference of 2.1, 2.1 and 1.2 mm in Group I, II and III, respectively. A statistical difference was found among the three groups regarding subjective and sports performance recovery scales with Group II showing higher scores in recovery than Group I. Conclusions The current clinical study does not recommend manual maximum of initial tension applied to the anteromedial or posterolateral bundles with graft tension imbalance at 30 degrees of flexion in double-bundle ACL reconstruction to achieve a better clinical outcome.

  11. The 2-Hilbert space of a prequantum bundle gerbe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunk, Severin; Sämann, Christian; Szabo, Richard J.

    We construct a prequantum 2-Hilbert space for any line bundle gerbe whose Dixmier-Douady class is torsion. Analogously to usual prequantization, this 2-Hilbert space has the category of sections of the line bundle gerbe as its underlying 2-vector space. These sections are obtained as certain morphism categories in Waldorf’s version of the 2-category of line bundle gerbes. We show that these morphism categories carry a monoidal structure under which they are semisimple and abelian. We introduce a dual functor on the sections, which yields a closed structure on the morphisms between bundle gerbes and turns the category of sections into a 2-Hilbert space. We discuss how these 2-Hilbert spaces fit various expectations from higher prequantization. We then extend the transgression functor to the full 2-category of bundle gerbes and demonstrate its compatibility with the additional structures introduced. We discuss various aspects of Kostant-Souriau prequantization in this setting, including its dimensional reduction to ordinary prequantization.

  12. Improvements to Wire Bundle Thermal Modeling for Ampacity Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickman, Steve L.; Iannello, Christopher J.; Shariff, Khadijah

    2017-01-01

    Determining current carrying capacity (ampacity) of wire bundles in aerospace vehicles is critical not only to safety but also to efficient design. Published standards provide guidance on determining wire bundle ampacity but offer little flexibility for configurations where wire bundles of mixed gauges and currents are employed with varying external insulation jacket surface properties. Thermal modeling has been employed in an attempt to develop techniques to assist in ampacity determination for these complex configurations. Previous developments allowed analysis of wire bundle configurations but was constrained to configurations comprised of less than 50 elements. Additionally, for vacuum analyses, configurations with very low emittance external jackets suffered from numerical instability in the solution. A new thermal modeler is presented allowing for larger configurations and is not constrained for low bundle infrared emissivity calculations. Formulation of key internal radiation and interface conductance parameters is discussed including the effects of temperature and air pressure on wire to wire thermal conductance. Test cases comparing model-predicted ampacity and that calculated from standards documents are presented.

  13. Anatomy of an Oligourea Six-Helix Bundle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Caterina M; Collie, Gavin W; Pulka-Ziach, Karolina; Rosu, Frederic; Gabelica, Valerie; Mackereth, Cameron D; Guichard, Gilles

    2016-08-24

    Non-natural synthetic oligomers that adopt well-defined secondary structures (i.e., foldamers) represent appealing components for the fabrication of bioinspired self-assembled architectures at the nanometer scale. Recently, peptidomimetic N,N'-linked oligourea helices have been designed de novo with the ability to fold into discrete helix bundles in aqueous conditions. In order to gain better insight into the determinants of oligourea helix bundle formation, we have investigated the sequence-to-structure relationship of an 11-mer oligourea previously shown to assemble into a six-helix bundle. Using circular dichroism, NMR spectroscopy, native mass-spectrometry and X-ray crystallography, we studied how bundle formation was affected by systematic replacement of the hydrophobic surface of the oligourea helix with either polar or different hydrophobic side chains. The molecular information gathered here has revealed several key requirements for foldamer bundle formation in aqueous conditions, and provides valuable insight toward the development of foldamer quaternary assemblies with improved (bio)physical properties and divergent topologies.

  14. Ecosystem service bundles for analyzing tradeoffs in diverse landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raudsepp-Hearne, C.; Peterson, G. D.; Bennett, E. M.

    2010-01-01

    A key challenge of ecosystem management is determining how to manage multiple ecosystem services across landscapes. Enhancing important provisioning ecosystem services, such as food and timber, often leads to tradeoffs between regulating and cultural ecosystem services, such as nutrient cycling, flood protection, and tourism. We developed a framework for analyzing the provision of multiple ecosystem services across landscapes and present an empirical demonstration of ecosystem service bundles, sets of services that appear together repeatedly. Ecosystem service bundles were identified by analyzing the spatial patterns of 12 ecosystem services in a mixed-use landscape consisting of 137 municipalities in Quebec, Canada. We identified six types of ecosystem service bundles and were able to link these bundles to areas on the landscape characterized by distinct social–ecological dynamics. Our results show landscape-scale tradeoffs between provisioning and almost all regulating and cultural ecosystem services, and they show that a greater diversity of ecosystem services is positively correlated with the provision of regulating ecosystem services. Ecosystem service-bundle analysis can identify areas on a landscape where ecosystem management has produced exceptionally desirable or undesirable sets of ecosystem services. PMID:20194739

  15. Syntheses of Nanostructure Bundles Based on Semiconducting Metal Silicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen; Ishikawa, Daisuke; Tatsuoka, Hirokazu

    2013-08-01

    A variety of nanostructure bundles and arrays based on semiconducting metal silicides have been synthesized using abundant and non-toxic starting materials. Three types of fabrication techniques of the nanostructure bundles or arrays, including direct growth, template synthesis using natural nanostructured materials and template synthesis using artificially fabricated nanostructured materials are demonstrated. CrSi2 nanowire bundles were directly grown by the exposure of Si substrates to CrCl2 vapor at atmospheric pressure. A hexagonal MoSi2 nanosheet, Mg2Si/MgO composite nanowire and Mg2Si nanowire bundles and MnSi1.7 nanowire array were synthesized using a MoS2 layered material, a SiOx nanofiber bundle, a Si nanowire array, and a Si nanowire array as the templates, respectively. Additionally, the fabrication phenomenon and structural properties of the nanostructured semiconducting metal silicides were investigated. These reactions provided the low-cost and controllable synthetic techniques to synthesize large scale and one-dimensional semiconducting metal silicides for thermoelectric applications.

  16. A prospective comparative study of clinical and functional outcomes between anatomic double bundle and single bundle hamstring grafts for arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, Vivek M; Nag, Hira Lal; Chowdhury, Buddhadev; Sankineani, Sukesh Rao; Naranje, Sameer M

    2015-09-01

    Despite a number of studies comparing postoperative stability and function after anatomic single bundle and double bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, it remains unclear whether double bundle reconstruction has better functional outcome than single bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. To compare the subjective functional outcome as well as clinical stability in patients treated with either anatomic single bundle or anatomic double bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. We hypothesized that there would be no difference in the postoperative functional outcome and clinical stability between anatomical double bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions when compared to single bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions. We prospectively followed 40 patients out of which, 20 patients were operated for anatomic single bundle ACL reconstruction and other 20 patients underwent anatomic double bundle ACL reconstruction. Patient evaluation using the laxity tests and outcome scales was done preoperatively and at 12, 24 and 48 months after the surgery. Clinical stability was assessed by Lachman test, Pivot shift test and Delhi active test. Functional outcome was assessed by International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC), Lysholm and Modified Cincinnati scores. Patients in both groups were evaluated at regular intervals for a minimum period of 48 months (mean 51 months, range 48-56 months). For all subjective scores, double bundle group patients reported statistically significant higher scores compared to single bundle group patients. Graded stability results of the Lachman, and Pivot shift tests were significantly higher in the anatomically reconstructed double bundle patient group. We suggest that functional outcome and clinical stability may be better with anatomical double bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction as compared to anatomical single bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Copyright

  17. Generator module architecture for a large solid oxide fuel cell power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillett, James E.; Zafred, Paolo R.; Riggle, Matthew W.; Litzinger, Kevin P.

    2013-06-11

    A solid oxide fuel cell module contains a plurality of integral bundle assemblies, the module containing a top portion with an inlet fuel plenum and a bottom portion receiving air inlet feed and containing a base support, the base supports dense, ceramic exhaust manifolds which are below and connect to air feed tubes located in a recuperator zone, the air feed tubes passing into the center of inverted, tubular, elongated, hollow electrically connected solid oxide fuel cells having an open end above a combustion zone into which the air feed tubes pass and a closed end near the inlet fuel plenum, where the fuel cells comprise a fuel cell stack bundle all surrounded within an outer module enclosure having top power leads to provide electrical output from the stack bundle, where the fuel cells operate in the fuel cell mode and where the base support and bottom ceramic air exhaust manifolds carry from 85% to all 100% of the weight of the stack, and each bundle assembly has its own control for vertical and horizontal thermal expansion control.

  18. Handling of damaged spent fuel at Ignalina NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziehm, Ronny [NUKEM Technologies GmbH (Germany); Bechtel, Sascha [Hoefer und Bechtel GmbH (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    The Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (INPP) is situated in the north-eastern part of Lithuania close to the borders with Latvia and Belarus and on the shore of Lake Druksiai. It is approximately 120 km from the capital city Vilnius. The power plant has two RMBK type water cooled graphite moderated pressure tube reactors each of design capacity 1500MW(e). The start of operation of the Unit 1 was in 1983 and of the Unit 2 in 1987. In the period 1987 - 1991 (i.e. Soviet period) a small proportion of the existing spent nuclear fuel suffered minor to major damages. In the frame of decommissioning of INPP it is necessary that this damaged fuel is retrieved from the storage pools and stored in an interim spent fuel store. NUKEM Technologies GmbH (Germany) as part of a consortium with GNS mbH (Germany) was awarded the contract for an Interim Spent Fuel Storage Facility (B1- ISFSF). This contract includes the design, procurement, manufacturing, supply and installation of a damaged fuel handling system (DFHS). Objective of this DFHS is the safe handling of spent nuclear fuel with major damages, which result in rupture of the cladding and potential loss of fuel pellets from within the cladding. Typical damages are bent fuel bundle skeletons, broken fuel rods, missing or damaged end plugs, very small gaps between fuel bundles, bent central rods between fuel bundles. The presented concept is designed for Ignalina NPP. However, the design is developed more generally to solve these problems with damaged fuel at other nuclear power plants applying these proven techniques. (orig.)

  19. Study on the effect of the CANFLEX-NU fuel element bowing on the critical heat flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suk, Ho Chun; Cho, Moon Sung; Jeon, Ji Su

    2001-01-01

    The effect of the CANFLEX-NU fuel element bowing on the critical heat flux is reviewed and analyzed, which is requested by KINS as the Government design licensing condition for the use of the fuel bundles in CANDU power reactors. The effect of the gap between two adjacent fuel elements on the critical heat flux and onset-of-dryout power is studied. The reduction of the width of a single inter-rod gap from its nominal size to the minimum manufacture allowance of 1 mm has a negligible effects on the thermal-hydraulic performance of the bundle for the given set of boundary conditions applied to the CANFLEX-43 element bundle in an uncrept channel. As expected, the in-reactor irradiation test results show that there are no evidence of the element bow problems on the bundle performance.

  20. Single-Phase Bundle Flows Including Macroscopic Turbulence Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Jun; Yoon, Han Young [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Seok Jong; Cho, Hyoung Kyu [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    To deal with various thermal hydraulic phenomena due to rapid change of fluid properties when an accident happens, securing mechanistic approaches as much as possible may reduce the uncertainty arising from improper applications of the experimental models. In this study, the turbulence mixing model, which is well defined in the subchannel analysis code such as VIPRE, COBRA, and MATRA by experiments, is replaced by a macroscopic k-e turbulence model, which represents the aspect of mathematical derivation. The performance of CUPID with macroscopic turbulence model is validated against several bundle experiments: CNEN 4x4 and PNL 7x7 rod bundle tests. In this study, the macroscopic k-e model has been validated for the application to subchannel analysis. It has been implemented in the CUPID code and validated against CNEN 4x4 and PNL 7x7 rod bundle tests. The results showed that the macroscopic k-e turbulence model can estimate the experiments properly.

  1. Symposium on Singularities, Representation of Algebras, and Vector Bundles

    CERN Document Server

    Trautmann, Günther

    1987-01-01

    It is well known that there are close relations between classes of singularities and representation theory via the McKay correspondence and between representation theory and vector bundles on projective spaces via the Bernstein-Gelfand-Gelfand construction. These relations however cannot be considered to be either completely understood or fully exploited. These proceedings document recent developments in the area. The questions and methods of representation theory have applications to singularities and to vector bundles. Representation theory itself, which had primarily developed its methods for Artinian algebras, starts to investigate algebras of higher dimension partly because of these applications. Future research in representation theory may be spurred by the classification of singularities and the highly developed theory of moduli for vector bundles. The volume contains 3 survey articles on the 3 main topics mentioned, stressing their interrelationships, as well as original research papers.

  2. Narrow muon bundles from muon pair production in rock

    CERN Document Server

    Kudryavtsev, V A; Spooner, N J C

    1999-01-01

    We revise the process of muon pair production by high-energy muons in rock using the recently published cross-section. The three- dimensional Monte Carlo code MUSIC has been used to obtain the characteristics of the muon bundles initiated via this process. We have compared them with those of conventional muon bundles initiated in the atmosphere and shown that large underground detectors, capable of collecting hundreds of thousands of multiple muon events, can discriminate statistically muon induced bundles from conventional ones. However, we find that the enhancement of the measured muon decoherence function over that predicted at small distances, recently reported by the MACRO experiment, cannot be explained by the effect of muon pair production alone, unless its cross-section is underestimated by a factor of 3. (20 refs).

  3. Product bundling as a customer loyalty strategy; Kundenbindung durch Produktbuendel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, H.G. [Arthur Andersen Business Consulting GmbH, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2000-12-01

    In the deregulated market in electricity, all marketers and energy-related service providers are competing not only for new customers, but also for customer loyalty. The article sets out concepts and strategies developed by a business consulting firm, for maintaing or enhancing customer loyalty in the end-use market segment, focusing on customized product bundling. A four-tier approach for product bundle development and implementation is discussed. (orig./CB) [German] Fuer Energieversorger und -dienstleister ergibt sich neben der Neukundengewinnung der strategische Zwang zur Bindung bestehender Kunden. An praktischen Ansaetzen fuer Privatkunden stehen neben Value-Added-Services und Incentives (Kundenclub, -karte) nicht zuletzt Produktbuendel (Bundles) zur Verfuegung. Zur erfolgreichen Entwicklung und Implementierung von Produktbuendeln wird ein vierphasiges Vorgehensmodell erlaeutert. (orig./CB)

  4. Transient Left Bundle Branch Block due to Severe Hyperkalemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Kishore; Biyyam, Madhavi; Singh, Amandeep; Bajantri, Bharat; Tariq, Hassan; Nayudu, Suresh Kumar; Chilimuri, Sridhar

    2017-04-01

    Hyperkalemia is a potentially life-threatening electrolyte imbalance that can lead to sudden death from cardiac arrhythmias and asystole. We present a case of transient left bundle branch block pattern on an electrocardiogram (ECG) secondary to hyperkalemia in a patient with history of end-stage renal disease. A 52-year-old man presented to the emergency room (ER) with chief complaints of weakness and lethargy after missing his regularly scheduled session of hemodialysis. A 12-lead ECG in the ER showed sinus tachycardia at 118 beats/min, wide QRS complexes, peaked T waves and left bundle branch block-like pattern. The initial basic metabolic panel revealed a serum potassium level of 8.8 mEq/L. Subsequently, the patient underwent emergent hemodialysis. Serum chemistry after hemodialysis showed improvement in serum potassium to 4.3 mEq/L. Repeat ECG performed after correcting potassium showed dissolution of left bundle branch block finding.

  5. Measurement of secondary flow vortices on a rod bundle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vonka, V.

    1988-02-01

    Secondary flow vortices in infinite rod bundles have been predicted by a number of theoretical analyses. Nevertheless experimental verification was difficult, since the magnitude of the secondary velocities appeared to be less than the accuracy of the experimental techniques used. Only indications of the maximum velocity magnitude have been available but no report on successful direct measurement is known to the author. At ECN, laser Doppler velocimetry is successfully used for measurement of secondary flow vortices in two regular subchannels of a triangularly arranged bare rod bundle with pitch-to-diameter ratio P/D-1.3 under the Reynolds number conditions 60,000 and 175,000. One single secondary vortex, having the average tangential velocity slightly less than 0.1% of the mean bulk velocity, is resolved per minimum symmetry sector of the bundle geometry. Ensemble averages are made to obtain quantitative description of the vortex and to form a data base for comparison with calculations.

  6. Gradient Bundle Analysis: A Full Topological Approach to Chemical Bonding

    CERN Document Server

    Morgenstern, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    The "chemical bond" is a central concept in molecular sciences, but there is no consensus as to what a bond actually is. Therefore, a variety of bonding models have been developed, each defining the structure of molecules in a different manner with the goal of explaining and predicting chemical properties. This thesis describes the initial development of gradient bundle analysis (GBA), a chemical bonding model that creates a high resolution picture of chemical interactions within the charge density framework. GBA is based on concepts from the quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM), but uses a more complete picture of the topology and geometry of the electron charge density to understand and predict bonding interactions. Gradient bundles are defined as volumes bounded by zero-flux surfaces (ZFSs) in the gradient of the charge density with well-defined energies. The structure of gradient bundles provides an avenue for detecting the locations of valence electrons, which correspond to reactive regions in a ...

  7. Failure of a MEA reclaimer tube bundle due to corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaban, H.; Abdo, M.S.E.; Lal, D.P.

    1988-08-01

    The removal of sulphur compounds from natural gas used in ammonia production is carried out by scrubbing with monoethanol amine (MEA). To avoid build up of corrosion and degradation products, a portion of the circulating MEA solution is passed through a reclaimer. This is essentially a kettle-type reboiler with a tube bundle made of 316L stainless steel. Occasional failures of the tube bundle due to pitting corrosion have been reported. It is suggested that the excessive pitting corrosion observed on the upper rows of the tube bundle could be partly due to high steam temperature but mainly due to the liquid level falling below the tubes leaving an accumulation of corrosive degradation products on the exposed surfaces, normally these corrosive products remain diluted in the MEA solution and cause little corrosion of the covered tubes. Their concentration on the dry upper layers of the hot metal tubes, however, leads to excessive corrosion. (U.K.).

  8. Designing cooperatively folded abiotic uni- and multimolecular helix bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    de, Soumen; Chi, Bo; Granier, Thierry; Qi, Ting; Maurizot, Victor; Huc, Ivan

    2018-01-01

    Abiotic foldamers, that is foldamers that have backbones chemically remote from peptidic and nucleotidic skeletons, may give access to shapes and functions different to those of peptides and nucleotides. However, design methodologies towards abiotic tertiary and quaternary structures are yet to be developed. Here we report rationally designed interactional patterns to guide the folding and assembly of abiotic helix bundles. Computational design facilitated the introduction of hydrogen-bonding functionalities at defined locations on the aromatic amide backbones that promote cooperative folding into helix-turn-helix motifs in organic solvents. The hydrogen-bond-directed aggregation of helices not linked by a turn unit produced several thermodynamically and kinetically stable homochiral dimeric and trimeric bundles with structures that are distinct from the designed helix-turn-helix. Relative helix orientation within the bundles may be changed from parallel to tilted on subtle solvent variations. Altogether, these results prefigure the richness and uniqueness of abiotic tertiary structure behaviour.

  9. The concept of double bundle ACL simulation with a single bundle patellar tendon graft. A cadaveric feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, Matthias; Magnussen, Robert A; Villa, Vincent; Demey, Guillaume; Neyret, Philippe

    2012-06-07

    There is significant interest in the restoration of the double-bundle anatomy of the native ACL when performing ACL reconstruction. Possible techniques include those utilizing two separate grafts with independent tunnels and those that attempt to mimic this anatomy with a single graft and fewer tunnels. Many of the latter techniques require specific instrumentation and are technically challenging. We demonstrate that the double-bundle anatomy of the native ACL can theoretically be mimicked by a single-bundle reconstruction. We performed single bundle ACL reconstruction with a bone-patellar tendon-bone (BTB) graft in two cadaveric knees. Both grafts were placed to mimic the native ACL footprints - one reconstruction was performed with rectangular bone blocks and oval tunnels and one was performed utilizing a standard BTB graft and round tunnels. Qualitative assessment of graft behavior was made as the knees were taken through a range of motion. The ACL graft was able to qualitatively mimic the behavior of the native ACL in both knees provided the bone blocks were correctly orientated. ACL reconstruction with a single BTB graft can qualitatively mimic the behavior of the two bundles of the native ACL. The key to ensuring this behavior was noted to be appropriate orientation of the graft in the tunnels. Quantitative biomechanical investigations are necessary to evaluate the impact of graft orientation on function.

  10. The concept of double bundle ACL simulation with a single bundle patellar tendon graft. A cadaveric feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobi Matthias

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is significant interest in the restoration of the double-bundle anatomy of the native ACL when performing ACL reconstruction. Possible techniques include those utilizing two separate grafts with independent tunnels and those that attempt to mimic this anatomy with a single graft and fewer tunnels. Many of the latter techniques require specific instrumentation and are technically challenging. We demonstrate that the double-bundle anatomy of the native ACL can theoretically be mimicked by a single-bundle reconstruction. Methods We performed single bundle ACL reconstruction with a bone-patellar tendon-bone (BTB graft in two cadaveric knees. Both grafts were placed to mimic the native ACL footprints – one reconstruction was performed with rectangular bone blocks and oval tunnels and one was performed utilizing a standard BTB graft and round tunnels. Qualitative assessment of graft behavior was made as the knees were taken through a range of motion. Results The ACL graft was able to qualitatively mimic the behavior of the native ACL in both knees provided the bone blocks were correctly orientated. Conclusions ACL reconstruction with a single BTB graft can qualitatively mimic the behavior of the two bundles of the native ACL. The key to ensuring this behavior was noted to be appropriate orientation of the graft in the tunnels. Quantitative biomechanical investigations are necessary to evaluate the impact of graft orientation on function.

  11. Mechanical Stresses and Forces in Stereocilia Bundles of Inner and Outer Hair Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, R.; Maier, H.; Boehnke, F.; Arnold, W.

    2003-02-01

    The precise mechanism of mechanoelectrical transduction in stereocilia bundles is not known. It is very difficult to measure the extremely small stresses, which occur at the stereocilia bundles. Therefore we developed 3-D finite element models of stereocilia bundles (guinea pig) to obtain quantitative results. The stereocilia bundles of the outer hair cells show a characteristic W-form. Therefore, it is interesting to compare the mechanical behavior of the stereocilia bundle of an outer hair cell with that of an inner hair cell with its linear arrangement. Our analysis provides estimates of forces and stresses on the transducer channels of mammalian hair bundles, although the model does not include active mechanisms yet.

  12. Learning Bundled Care Opportunities from Electronic Medical Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, You; Kho, Abel N; Liebovitz, David; Ivory, Catherine; Osmundson, Sarah; Bian, Jiang; Malin, Bradley A

    2017-11-22

    The traditional fee-for-service approach to healthcare can lead to the management of a patient's conditions in a siloed manner, inducing various negative consequences. It has been recognized that a bundled approach to healthcare - one that manages a collection of health conditions together - may enable greater efficacy and cost savings. However, it is not always evident which sets of conditions should be managed in a bundled manner. In this study, we investigate if a data-driven approach can automatically learn potential bundles. We designed a framework to infer health condition collections (HCCs) based on the similarity of their clinical workflows, according to electronic medical record (EMR) utilization. We evaluated the framework with data from over 16,500 inpatient stays from Northwestern Memorial Hospital in Chicago, Illinois. The plausibility of the inferred HCCs for bundled care was assessed through an online survey of a panel of five experts, whose responses were analyzed via an analysis of variance (ANOVA) at a 95% confidence level. We further assessed the face validity of the HCCs using evidence in the published literature. The framework inferred four HCCs, indicative of 1) fetal abnormalities, 2) late pregnancies, 3) prostate problems, and 4) chronic diseases, with congestive heart failure featuring prominently. Each HCC was substantiated with evidence in the literature and was deemed plausible for bundled care by the experts at a statistically significant level. The findings suggest that an automated EMR data-driven framework conducted can provide a basis for discovering bundled care opportunities. Still, translating such findings into actual care management will require further refinement, implementation, and evaluation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Fast bundle algorithm for multiple-instance learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Charles; Moore, Gregory; Zaretzki, Jed; Breneman, Curt M; Bennett, Kristin P

    2012-06-01

    We present a bundle algorithm for multiple-instance classification and ranking. These frameworks yield improved models on many problems possessing special structure. Multiple-instance loss functions are typically nonsmooth and nonconvex, and current algorithms convert these to smooth nonconvex optimization problems that are solved iteratively. Inspired by the latest linear-time subgradient-based methods for support vector machines, we optimize the objective directly using a nonconvex bundle method. Computational results show this method is linearly scalable, while not sacrificing generalization accuracy, permitting modeling on new and larger data sets in computational chemistry and other applications. This new implementation facilitates modeling with kernels.

  14. Cellulosic Fibers: Effect of Processing on Fiber Bundle Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Anders; Madsen, Bo; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2011-01-01

    A range of differently processed cellulosic fibers from flax and hemp plants were investigated to study the relation between processing of cellulosic fibers and fiber bundle strength. The studied processing methods are applied for yarn production and include retting, scutching, carding, and cotto......A range of differently processed cellulosic fibers from flax and hemp plants were investigated to study the relation between processing of cellulosic fibers and fiber bundle strength. The studied processing methods are applied for yarn production and include retting, scutching, carding...

  15. On a Lie Algebraic Characterization of Vector Bundles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre B.A. Lecomte

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We prove that a vector bundle π: E→M is characterized by the Lie algebra generated by all differential operators on E which are eigenvectors of the Lie derivative in the direction of the Euler vector field. Our result is of Pursell-Shanks type but it is remarkable in the sense that it is the whole fibration that is characterized here. The proof relies on a theorem of [Lecomte P., J. Math. Pures Appl. (9 60 (1981, 229-239] and inherits the same hypotheses. In particular, our characterization holds only for vector bundles of rank greater than 1.

  16. EXTERNAL VERIFICATION OF THE BUNDLE ADJUSTMENT IN PHOTOGRAMMETRIC SOFTWARE USING THE DAMPED BUNDLE ADJUSTMENT TOOLBOX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Börlin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate whether the Matlab-based Damped Bundle Adjustment Toolbox (DBAT can be used to provide independent verification of the BA computation of two popular software—PhotoModeler (PM and PhotoScan (PS. For frame camera data sets with lens distortion, DBAT is able to reprocess and replicate subsets of PM results with high accuracy. For lens-distortion-free data sets, DBAT can furthermore provide comparative results between PM and PS. Data sets for the discussed projects are available from the authors. The use of an external verification tool such as DBAT will enable users to get an independent verification of the computations of their software. In addition, DBAT can provide computation of quality parameters such as estimated standard deviations, correlation between parameters, etc., something that should be part of best practice for any photogrammetric software. Finally, as the code is free and open-source, users can add computations of their own.

  17. Innovative Defense Acquisition Concept Deployer Equipment Bundle (DEB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    METHODOLOGY This project reviewed a substantial amount of literature , to include applicable concept plans, memorandums, cost benefit analyses, organizational...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT INNOVATIVE DEFENSE ACQUISITION CONCEPT DEPLOYER...ACQUISITION CONCEPT DEPLOYER EQUIPMENT BUNDLE (DEB) 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Frederic Albesa, Isaac J. Ortman, and Stephen F. Kirouac 7

  18. Temperature response of bundle-sheath conductance in maize leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, Xinyou; Putten, Van Der Peter E.L.; Struik, Paul C.; Driever, Steven M.

    2016-01-01

    A small bundle-sheath conductance (g bs) is essential for the C4 CO2-concentrating mechanism to suppress photorespiration effectively. To predict the productivity of C4 crops accurately under global warming, it is necessary to examine whether and how g

  19. Quillen bundle and geometric prequantization of non-abelian ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E-mail: rkmn@mri.ernet.in; rukmini.dey@gmail.com; smr@bose.res.in. MS received 7 September 2010; revised 23 November 2010. Abstract. In this paper we prequantize the moduli space of non-abelian vortices. We explicitly calculate the symplectic form arising from L2 metric and we construct a prequantum line bundle ...

  20. Multicell slug flow heat transfer analysis of finite LMFBR bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeung, M.K.; Wolf, L.

    1978-12-01

    An analytical two-dimensional, multi-region, multi-cell technique has been developed for the thermal analysis of LMFBR rod bundles. Local temperature fields of various unit cells were obtained for 7, 19, and 37-rod bundles of different geometries and power distributions. The validity of the technique has been verified by its excellent agreement with the THTB calculational result. By comparing the calculated fully-developed circumferential clad temperature distribution with those of the experimental measurements, an axial correction factor has been derived to account for the entrance effect for practical considerations. Moreover, the knowledge of the local temperature field of the rod bundle leads to the determination of the effective mixing lengths L/sub ij/ for adjacent subchannels of various geometries. It was shown that the implementation of the accurately determined L/sub ij/ into COBRA-IIIC calculations has fairly significant effects on intersubchannel mixing. In addition, a scheme has been proposed to couple the 2-D distributed and lumped parameter calculation by COBRA-IIIC such that the entrance effect can be implanted into the distributed parameter analysis. The technique has demonstrated its applicability for a 7-rod bundle and the results of calculation were compared to those of three-dimensional analyses and experimental measurements.

  1. Metallic/semiconducting ratio of carbon nanotubes in a bundle ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SWCNTs) in a bundle by resonant Raman spectroscopy. The calculation has been done for the three peak positions in radial breathing mode (RBM) spectra obtained by using a laser excitation wavelength () of 633 nm from He–Ne laser on ...

  2. The fibre bundle anatomy of human cruciate ligaments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mommersteeg, T. J.; Kooloos, J. G.; Blankevoort, L.; Kauer, J. M.; Huiskes, R.; Roeling, F. Q.

    1995-01-01

    The cruciate ligaments of the knee consist of numerous fascicles, groups of which comprise fibre bundles. The stabilising function of these ligaments is established by changes in the lengths and orientations of the fascicles. Understanding the function of knee ligaments thus requires an

  3. Metabolic profiling of laser microdissected vascular bundles of Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiehn Oliver

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Laser microdissection is a useful tool for collecting tissue-specific samples or even single cells from animal and plant tissue sections. This technique has been successfully employed to study cell type-specific expression at the RNA, and more recently also at the protein level. However, metabolites were not amenable to analysis after laser microdissection, due to the procedures routinely applied for sample preparation. Using standard tissue fixation and embedding protocols to prepare histological sections, metabolites are either efficiently extracted by dehydrating solvents, or washed out by embedding agents. Results In this study, we used cryosectioning as an alternative method that preserves sufficient cellular structure while minimizing metabolite loss by excluding any solute exchange steps. Using this pre-treatment procedure, Arabidopsis thaliana stem sections were prepared for laser microdissection of vascular bundles. Collected samples were subsequently analyzed by gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF MS to obtain metabolite profiles. From 100 collected vascular bundles (~5,000 cells, 68 metabolites could be identified. More than half of the identified metabolites could be shown to be enriched or depleted in vascular bundles as compared to the surrounding tissues. Conclusion This study uses the example of vascular bundles to demonstrate for the first time that it is possible to analyze a comprehensive set of metabolites from laser microdissected samples at a tissue-specific level, given that a suitable sample preparation procedure is used.

  4. AdS 3-manifolds and Higgs bundles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alessandrini, Daniele; Li, Qiongling

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the relationships between closed AdS $3$-manifolds and Higgs bundles. We have a new way to construct AdS structures that allows us to see many of their properties explicitly, for example we can recover the very recent formula by Tholozan for their volume. We give natu...

  5. Heat transfer and fluid friction in bundles of twisted tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzyubenko, B. V.; Dreitser, G. A.

    1986-06-01

    The results of heat-transfer and friction studies in bundles of twisted tubes and rods with spiral wire-wrap spacers are analyzed, and recommendations are given for calculating the heat-transfer coefficient in heat exchangers using twisted tubes.

  6. Fission yeast Scp3 potentially maintains microtubule orientation through bundling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanako Ozaki

    Full Text Available Microtubules play important roles in organelle transport, the maintenance of cell polarity and chromosome segregation and generally form bundles during these processes. The fission yeast gene scp3+ was identified as a multicopy suppressor of the cps3-81 mutant, which is hypersensitive to isopropyl N-3-chlorophenylcarbamate (CIPC, a poison that induces abnormal multipolar spindle formation in higher eukaryotes. In this study, we investigated the function of Scp3 along with the effect of CIPC in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Microscopic observation revealed that treatment with CIPC, cps3-81 mutation and scp3+ gene deletion disturbed the orientation of microtubules in interphase cells. Overexpression of scp3+ suppressed the abnormal orientation of microtubules by promoting bundling. Functional analysis suggested that Scp3 functions independently from Ase1, a protein largely required for the bundling of the mitotic spindle. A strain lacking the ase1+ gene was more sensitive to CIPC, with the drug affecting the integrity of the mitotic spindle, indicating that CIPC has a mitotic target that has a role redundant with Ase1. These results suggested that multiple systems are independently involved to ensure microtubule orientation by bundling in fission yeast.

  7. MYOCARDIAL DEFORMATION AND COMPLETE LEFT BUNDLE BRANCH BLOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Pavlyukova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tissue Doppler imaging is evolving as a useful echocardiographic tool for quantitative assessment of left ventricular systolic and diastolic function. Over the last 10 years, myocardial deformation imaging has become possible initially with tissue Doppler , and more recently with myocardial speckle-tracking using 2D echocardiography. Unlike simple tissue velocity measurements, deformation measurements are specific for the region of interest. Strain rate or strain measurements have been used as sensitive indicators for subclinical diseases, and it is the most widely used tool to assess mechanical dyssynchrony. Left bundle branch block is a frequent, etiologically heterogeneous, clinically hostile and diagnostically challenging entity. About 2% of patients underwent cardiac stress testing show stable or intermittent left bundle branch block. Presence of left bundle branch block is associated with a lower and slower diastolic coronary flow velocity especially during hyperemia. Stress echocardiography is the best option for the diagnosis of ischemic heart disease, albeit specificity and sensitivity reduce in patients with left bundle branch block in the territory of left anterior descending artery in presence of initial septum dyskinesia.

  8. Anatomic Double-Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofbauer, Marcus; Muller, Bart; Wolf, Megan; Forsythe, Brian; Fu, Freddie H.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade, intense research of the function of the 2 distinct bundles, the anteromedial and posterolateral, of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) has led to pronounced changes in the technical concepts of ACL reconstruction. Recently, the renewed focus of ACL reconstruction has been to

  9. Reminiscences Of The First His Bundle Electrography In India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nambiar C.A

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Dr Onkar Narula was making a huge wave those days with his work on His Bundle Electrocardiography and Corrected Sinus Node Recovery Time. He visited us in late 1972 or early 1973,probably the latter date. Till then venous catheterizations (including pacing were done by open cut down. I remember the first time we used venous sheath through right femoral vein. Dr Bhatia was the operator and I was assisting him and Dr Savithri Srivasthava was the senior Registrar. With Dr Narula showing the way we did the first His Bundle Recording and I analysed the whole roll manually as was the method those days. We had to improvise a junction box as the recording equipment did not have a proper connecting accessory at that time. After Dr Narula left we did His Bundle recording on many more patients and undertook a study. This was published as: Effect of acute digitalization on His Bundle Intervals and Corrected Sinus Node Recovery Time in young adults.M.L.Bhatia,C.Ashokan Nambiar,S.Shrivastava and Sujoy B.Roy: Indian Heart Journal:Vol-2:1977.1The article was received for publication on 29/11/1973 as acknowledged underneath, but strangely it took a long time to come in print. I have preserved some of the cath rolls and reprint of the article.

  10. Frobenius pull backs of vector bundles in higher dimensions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... of a Frobenius pull back of is a refinement of the Frobenius pull back of the Harder–Narasimhan filtration of , provided there is a lower bound on the characteristic (in terms of rank of and the slope of the destabilizing sheaf of the cotangent bundle of ). We also recall some examples, due to Raynaud and Monsky, ...

  11. The Roach muscle bundle and umbilical cord coiling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Laat, Monique W. M.; Nikkels, Peter G. J.; Franx, Arie; Visser, Gerard H. A.

    2007-01-01

    To determine if presence of the Roach muscle, a small muscle bundle lying just beside the umbilical artery, contributes to umbilical cord coiling. 251 umbilical cords were examined. The umbilical coiling index (UCI) was calculated as the number of coils divided by the cord length in cm. Cords were

  12. Subanalytic bundles and tubular neighbourhoods of zero-loci

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Abstract. We introduce the natural and fairly general notion of a subanalytic bundle. (with a finite dimensional vector space P of sections) on a subanalytic subset X of a real analytic manifold M, and prove that when M is compact, there is a Baire subset U of sections in P whose zero-loci in X have tubular neighbourhoods, ...

  13. On the classification of complex vector bundles of stable rank

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This classification becomes more effective on generalized flag manifolds, where the Lie algebra formalism and concrete integrability conditions describe in constructive terms the Chern classes of a vector bundle. ... Since deceased; Mathematics Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA ...

  14. On infinitesimal conformal transformations of the tangent bundles ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The metric. ˜g, which is called a synectic lift of the Riemannian metric g, was introduced by Talantova and Shirokov [4] to study the differential geometry of tangent bundles of Riemannian manifolds (for details, also see [5]). Their paper is concerned with the geometry of the space of n dual variables. The concept of a dual ...

  15. On the classification of complex vector bundles of stable rank

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    According to previous observations, this would imply (under the above torsion conditions) a classification of all rank r complex vector bundles on X, for stable rank r ≥ n/2. A few partial answers to this question are known. For instance, a classical result of. Wu asserts that any couple of cohomology classes (c1,c2) ∈ H2(X, ...

  16. FLOWSHEET EVALUATION FOR THE DISSOLVING AND NEUTRALIZATION OF SODIUM REACTOR EXPERIMENT USED NUCLEAR FUEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, W. E.; Hansen, E. K.; Shehee, T. C.

    2012-10-30

    This report includes the literature review, hydrogen off-gas calculations, and hydrogen generation tests to determine that H-Canyon can safely dissolve the Sodium Reactor Experiment (SRE; thorium fuel), Ford Nuclear Reactor (FNR; aluminum alloy fuel), and Denmark Reactor (DR-3; silicide fuel, aluminum alloy fuel, and aluminum oxide fuel) assemblies in the L-Bundles with respect to the hydrogen levels in the projected peak off-gas rates. This is provided that the number of L-Bundles charged to the dissolver is controlled. Examination of SRE dissolution for potential issues has aided in predicting the optimal batching scenario. The calculations detailed in this report demonstrate that the FNR, SRE, and DR-3 used nuclear fuel (UNF) are bounded by MURR UNF and may be charged using the controls outlined for MURR dissolution in a prior report.

  17. Measurement of Flow Distribution at Subchannels in a Wire-Wrapped 37-Rod Bundle for a Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, HYungmo; Chang, Seokkyu; Lee, Dong Won; Choi, Hae Seob; Euh, Dongjin; Lee, Hyeongyeon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    In this SFR type of fuel rod, core subchannels are classified with interior, edge, and corner subchannels. Flow distribution of each subchannel is a crucial factor for the core thermal design, and experimental tests for the design code verification and validation in a temperature limitation analysis were conducted. To verify and validate computer codes for the SFR core thermal design, a hexagonally arrayed 37-pin wire-wrapped fuel rod bundle test section was fabricated. The measurement experiments were conducted using a well- designed test loop and iso-kinetic sampling probe. The developed iso-kinetic sampling method in the present study has its own merits, and flow rate results by sampling showed in good agreement with the preliminary CFD analysis results. In addition, the estimated mass balance error was only about 3% in the experiments. Therefore, the present methodology and results can be used in future experiments for design code verification and validation.

  18. A case of ‘Masquerading’ bundle branch block: A forgotten concept

    OpenAIRE

    Dinesh Choudhary; Narayanan Namboodiri; Jaganmohan A. Tharakan

    2014-01-01

    ‘Masquerading’ bundle branch block (right bundle branch block in the precordial leads with left bundle branch block in frontal leads and left axis deviation) is seen most commonly with coronary artery disease and hypertension. No definite explanation is available so far for these changes. We are presenting a case of rare congenital intranuclear inclusion myopathy with congestive heart failure and ‘Masquerading’ bundle branch block in ECG.

  19. Structural Causes of Right Bundle Branch Block?Time for a Closer Look?

    OpenAIRE

    Ker, James

    2010-01-01

    Right bundle branch block is an electrocardiographic phenomenon with specific criteria. Currently, two specific forms of right bundle branch block are acknowledged, a proximal and a distal variant. A vast array of pathologies can cause proximal, distal or even combined forms of right bundle branch block. In this study it is suggested that a third type of right bundle branch block exist: one caused by a subaortic muscular tendon in the left ventricle, leading to an increased velocity of conduc...

  20. Lower complication rates for cranioplasty with peri-operative bundle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Catherine; Guppy, Kern H; Axelrod, Yekaterina V; Hawk, Mark W; Silverthorn, James; Inacio, Maria C; Akins, Paul T

    2014-05-01

    The overall benefits of craniectomy must include procedural risks from cranioplasty. Cranioplasty carries a high risk of surgical site infections (SSI) particularly with antibiotic resistant bacteria. The goal of this study was to measure the effect of a cranioplasty bundle on peri-operative complications. The authors queried a prospective, inpatient neurosurgery database at Kaiser Sacramento Medical Center for craniectomy and cranioplasty over a 7 year period. 57 patients who underwent cranioplasties were identified. A retrospective chart review was completed for complications, including surgical complications such as SSI, wound dehiscence, and re-do cranioplasty. We measured cranioplasty complication rates before and after implementation of a peri-operative bundle, which consisted of peri-operative vancomycin (4 doses), a barrier dressing through post-operative day (POD) 3, and de-colonization of the surgical incision using topical chlorhexidine from POD 4 to 7. The rate of MRSA colonization in cranioplasty patients is three times higher than the average seen on ICU admission screening (19% vs. 6%). The cranioplasty surgical complication rate was 22.8% and SSI rate was 10.5%. The concurrent SSI rate for craniectomy was 1.9%. Organisms isolated were methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (4), methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (1), Propionibacterium acnes (1), and Escherichia coli (1). Factors associated with SSI were peri-operative vancomycin (68.6% vs. 16.7%, p=0.0217). Complication rates without (n=21) and with (n=36) the bundle were: SSI (23.8% vs. 2.8%, p=0.0217) and redo cranioplasty (19% vs. 0%, p=0.0152). Bundle use did not affect rates for superficial wound dehiscence, seizures, or hydrocephalus. The cranioplasty bundle was associated with reduced SSI rates and the need for re-do cranioplasties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Early Results of Anatomic Double Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demet Pepele

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The goal in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR is to restore the normal anatomic structure and function of the knee. In the significant proportion of patients after the traditional single-bundle ACLR, complaints of instability still continue. Anatomic double bundle ACLR may provide normal kinematics in knees, much closer to the natural anatomy. The aim of this study is to clinically assess the early outcomes of our anatomical double bundle ACLR. Material and Method: In our clinic between June 2009 and March 2010, performed the anatomic double bundle ACLR with autogenous hamstring grafts 20 patients were evaluated prospectively with Cincinnati, IKDC and Lysholm scores and in clinically for muscle strength and with Cybex II dynamometer. Results: The mean follow-up is 17.8 months (13-21 months. Patients%u2019 scores of Cincinnati, IKDC and Lysholm were respectively, preoperative 18.1, 39.3 and 39.8, while the post-op increased to 27.2, 76.3 and 86.3. In their last check, 17 percent of the patients according to IKDC scores (85% A (excellent and B (good group and 3 patients took place as C (adequate group. The power measurements of quadriceps and hamstring muscle groups of patients who underwent surgery showed no significant difference compared with the intact knees. Discussion: Double-bundle ACL reconstruction is a satisfactory method. There is a need comparative, long-term studies in large numbers in order to determine improving clinical outcome, preventing degeneration and restoring the knee biomechanics better.

  2. Measurements of Flow Mixing at Subchannels in a Wire-Wrapped 61-Rod Bundle for a Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Won; Kim, Hyungmo; Ko, Yung Joo; Choi, Hae Seob; Euh, Dong-Jin; Jeong, Ji-Young; Lee, Hyeong-Yeon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    For a safety analysis in a core thermal design of a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR), flow mixing characteristics at subchannels in a wire-wrapped rod bundle are crucial factor for the design code verification and validation. Wrapped wires make a cross flow in a circumference of the fuel rod, and this effect lets flow be mixed. Therefore the sub-channel analysis method is commonly used for thermal hydraulic analysis of a SFR, a wire wrapped sub-channel type. To measure flow mixing characteristics, a wire mesh sensing technique can be useful method. A wire mesh sensor has been traditionally used to measure the void fraction of a two-phase flow field, i.e. gas and liquid. However, the recent reports that the wire mesh sensor can be used successfully to recognize the flow field in liquid phase by injecting a tracing liquid with a different level of electric conductivity. The subchannel flow characteristics analysis method is commonly used for the thermal hydraulic analysis of a SFR, a wire wrapped subchannel type. In this study, mixing experiments were conducted successfully at a hexagonally arrayed 61-pin wire-wrapped fuel rod bundle test section. Wire mesh sensor was used to measure flow mixing characteristics. The developed post-processing method has its own merits, and flow mixing results were reasonable.

  3. Application of the porous medium heat transfer model of ICARE/CATHARE code against debris bed and 'bundle' experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Repetto, G. [CEA Cadarache, Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, DPAM, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Ederli, St. [Ente per le Nuove Technologie, l' Energia e l' Ambiente (ENEA) (Italy)

    2007-07-01

    ICARE/CATHARE code is developed by the 'Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire' to simulate Nuclear Reactor behaviour during the course of a Loss of Cooling accident up to the core melting. The assessment of the heat transfer model in porous medium has been performed against experiments performed in ACRR (SNL-USA) and in Phebus reactors (at Cadarache - France). Calculation versus experiment results indicate a good agreement for the thermal behaviour. The heat transfers inside solid debris bed can be well predicted using the Imura-Yagi correlation to calculate the debris bed equivalent thermal conductivity in a wide range of particles size. In the case of 'Rod like geometry' calculations, the fuel rod assembly was modelled assuming several rings of fuel rods, with heat transfer including radiative phenomena using view factors between rods. An alternative modelling has been used considering the fuel rods as a porous medium with with pure UO{sub 2} spherical particles of 1 cm diameter and a total porosity representative of the fuel bundle inside a cylindrical shroud. With this approach (heat exchanges accounted for with the Imura-Yagi correlation), the radial gradient calculated in a small bundle was significantly increased, from a few degrees (with the previous modelling) to about 150/200 K at 2273 K. This modelling has been recently improved, to account for the heat transfer inside a fuel rod bundle, by a specific model based on an electrical analogy, considering the porous medium as a cluster of true cylinders. (authors)

  4. The determinant bundle on the moduli space of stable triples over a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We construct a holomorphic Hermitian line bundle over the moduli space of stable triples of the form (1, 2, ), where 1 and 2 are holomorphic vector bundles over a fixed compact Riemann surface , and : 2 → 1 is a holomorphic vector bundle homomorphism. The curvature of the Chern connection of this ...

  5. Lexical Bundles in Chinese Undergraduate Academic Writing at an English Medium University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Zhoulin

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of lexical bundles in Chinese students' academic writing across different levels of studies at an English medium university. Frequency-based bundles were retrieved from a corpus of student academic texts written at four points of time between Year 1 and Year 4, and the structures and functions of the bundles were…

  6. 5 X 5 rod bundle flow field measurements downstream a PWR spacer grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Higor F.P.; Silva, Vitor V A.; Santos, André A.C.; Veloso, Maria A.F., E-mail: higorfabiano@gmail.com, E-mail: mdora@nuclear.ufmg.br, E-mail: vitors@cdtn.br, E-mail: aacs@cdtn.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The spacer grids are structures present in nuclear fuel assembly of Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR). They play an important structural role and also assist in heat removal through the assembly by promoting increased turbulence of the flow. Understanding the flow dynamics downstream the spacer grid is paramount for fuel element design and analysis. This paper presents water flow velocity profiles measurements downstream a spacer grid in a 5 x 5 rod bundle test rig with the objective of highlighting important fluid dynamic behavior near the grid and supplying data for CFD simulation validation. These velocity profiles were obtained at two different heights downstream the spacer grid using a LDV (Laser Doppler Velocimetry) through the top of test rig. The turbulence intensities and patterns of the swirl and cross flow were evaluated. The tests were conducted for Reynolds numbers ranging from 1.8 x 10{sup 4} to 5.4 x 10{sup 4}. This experimental research was carried out in thermo-hydraulics laboratory of Nuclear Technology Development Center – CDTN. Results show great repeatability and low uncertainties (< 1.24 %). Details of the flow field show how the mixture and turbulence induced by the spacer grid quickly decays downstream the spacer grid. It is shown that the developed methodology can supply high resolution low uncertainty results that can be used for validation of CFD simulations. (author)

  7. CFD analysis of localized crud effects on the flow of coolant in nuclear rod bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cinosi, N., E-mail: n.cinosi@imperial.ac.uk; Walker, S.P.

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • CDF simulation of PWR sub-channels with crudded rods. • Evaluation of coolant flow variations induced by crud rough surfaces. • Evaluation of coolant temperatures in presence of crudded rods. • Evaluation of crud effects on critical heat flux and DNBR margins. - Abstract: It has been suggested that crud deposits on a number of adjacent fuel rods might reduce coolant flow rates in associated sub-channels. Such reduced flow rates could then worsen thermal-hydraulic conditions, such as margin to saturated boiling, fuel surface temperature, and the DNB ratio. We report the results of a detailed computational fluid dynamics study of the flow pattern in a partially crudded rod bundle. Values obviously depend on, for example, the thickness of crud assumed, but sub-channel flow rate reductions of ∼10% were predicted by this analysis. However, this mass flow rate reduction was found to be more than offset by improved heat transfer induced by the relatively rough surface of the crud. Cladding temperatures were predicted to be essentially unchanged, and the DNBR was similarly little altered. We conclude that such flow reduction and diversion is not likely to be of concern.

  8. Biomechanical comparisons of knee stability after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction between 2 clinically available transtibial procedures: anatomic double bundle versus single bundle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Eiji; Merican, Azhar M; Yasuda, Kazunori; Amis, Andrew A

    2010-07-01

    Several trials have compared the clinical results between anatomic double-bundle and single-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction procedures. However, it remains controversial whether the anatomic double-bundle procedure is superior to the single-bundle procedure. The anatomic double-bundle procedure will be better than the single-bundle procedure at resisting anterior laxity, internal rotation laxity, and pivot-shift instability. Controlled laboratory study. Eight cadaveric knees were tested in a 6 degrees of freedom rig using the following loading conditions: 90-N anterior tibialforce, 5-N.m internal and external tibial torques, and a simulated pivot-shift test. Tibiofemoral kinematics during the flexion-extension cycle were recorded with an optical tracking system for (1) intact, (2) anterior cruciate ligament-deficient knee, (3) anatomic double-bundle reconstruction, and (4) single-bundle reconstruction placed at 11 o'clock in the intercondylar notch. There were significant reductions of anterior laxity of 3.5 mm at 20 degrees of flexion, internal rotational laxity of 2.5 degrees at 20 degrees of flexion, and anterior translations (2 mm) and internal rotations (5 degrees ) in the simulated pivot-shift test in the double-bundle reconstruction com-pared with the single-bundle reconstruction. There were no significant differences between the 2 procedures for external rotation laxity. The postoperative anterior translation and internal rotation stability after anatomic double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction were significantly better than after single-bundle reconstruction, in both static tests and the pivot shift. Unlike previous laboratory studies, this work used clinical arthroscopic methods for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, and found that the anatomic reconstruction was superior to a single graft placed at 11 o'clock.

  9. Hierarchical mordenite zeolite nano-rods bundles favourable to bulky molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Guang; Hao, Wenming; Xiao, Huan; Ma, Jinghong; Li, Ruifeng

    2017-10-01

    Hierarchical mordenite zeolite nano-rods bundles were successfully synthesized by a novel approach of using organosilane functioned fumed silica as silicon source. The organic moiety linked on the surface of fumed silica inhibits the growth of zeolite crystal into large size, leading to the nano-rods assembled bundles. The mordenite nanorods bundles exhibited significantly improved mesitylene adsorption capacity compared with the conventional mordenite. As a catalyst, the hierarchical mordenite nanorods bundles showed remarkable catalytic performance in the benzylation of mesitylene by benzyl chloride, due to the efficient diffusion rate and improved accessibility of the active sites in the hierarchical mordenite nanorods bundles.

  10. A case of an infant with bundle branch reentrant ventricular tachycardia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoki Fujii

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Catheter ablation of the right bundle branch was performed on an 11-month-old infant for the treatment of drug-resistant bundle branch reentrant ventricular tachycardia. The occurrence of right bundle branch block could not be used as an endpoint of treatment because the patient had presented with incomplete right bundle branch block pattern during sinus rhythm. We performed ablation of the right bundle branch and utilized changes of duration and morphology of the QRS complex as indicators. Eight years have passed with no development of any atrioventricular block or tachycardia episode.

  11. Transport of single cells using an actin bundle-myosin bionanomotor transport system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takatsuki, Hideyo; Rice, Kevin M; Kohama, Kazuhiro; Blough, Eric R [Department of Biological Sciences, Marshall University, Huntington, WV (United States); Tanaka, Hideyuki [Department of Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi (Japan); Kolli, Madhukar B; Nalabotu, Siva K [Center for Diagnostic Nanosystems, Marshall University, Huntington, WV (United States); Famouri, Parviz, E-mail: blough@marshall.edu [Lane Department of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2011-06-17

    The potential of using actin bundles for the transport of liposomes and single cells across myosin-coated surfaces is investigated. Compared to that observed with filamentous actin, the liposome transport using actin bundles was more linear in nature and able to occur over longer distances. Bundles, but not filamentous actin, were capable of moving single cells. Cargo unloading from bundles was achieved by incubation with Triton X-100. These data suggest that actin bundling may improve the ability of the myosin motor system for nanotransport applications.

  12. Nuclear fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beauvy, M.; Berthoud, G.; Defranceschi, M.; Ducros, G.; Guerin, Y.; Limoge, Y.; Madic, Ch.; Santarini, G.; Seiler, J.M.; Sollogoub, P.; Vernaz, E.; Guillet, J.L.; Ballagny, A.; Bechade, J.L.; Bonin, B.; Brachet, J.Ch.; Delpech, M.; Dubois, S.; Ferry, C.; Freyss, M.; Gilbon, D.; Grouiller, J.P.; Iracane, D.; Lansiart, S.; Lemoine, P.; Lenain, R.; Marsault, Ph.; Michel, B.; Noirot, J.; Parrat, D.; Pelletier, M.; Perrais, Ch.; Phelip, M.; Pillon, S.; Poinssot, Ch.; Vallory, J.; Valot, C.; Pradel, Ph.; Bonin, B.; Bouquin, B.; Dozol, M.; Lecomte, M.; Vallee, A.; Bazile, F.; Parisot, J.F.; Finot, P.; Roberts, J.F

    2009-07-01

    Fuel is one of the essential components in a reactor. It is within that fuel that nuclear reactions take place, i.e. fission of heavy atoms, uranium and plutonium. Fuel is at the core of the reactor, but equally at the core of the nuclear system as a whole. Fuel design and properties influence reactor behavior, performance, and safety. Even though it only accounts for a small part of the cost per kilowatt-hour of power provided by current nuclear power plants, good utilization of fuel is a major economic issue. Major advances have yet to be achieved, to ensure longer in-reactor dwell-time, thus enabling fuel to yield more energy; and improve ruggedness. Aside from economics, and safety, such strategic issues as use of plutonium, conservation of resources, and nuclear waste management have to be addressed, and true technological challenges arise. This Monograph surveys current knowledge regarding in-reactor behavior, operating limits, and avenues for R and D. It also provides illustrations of ongoing research work, setting out a few noteworthy results recently achieved. Content: 1 - Introduction; 2 - Water reactor fuel: What are the features of water reactor fuel? 9 (What is the purpose of a nuclear fuel?, Ceramic fuel, Fuel rods, PWR fuel assemblies, BWR fuel assemblies); Fabrication of water reactor fuels (Fabrication of UO{sub 2} pellets, Fabrication of MOX (mixed uranium-plutonium oxide) pellets, Fabrication of claddings); In-reactor behavior of UO{sub 2} and MOX fuels (Irradiation conditions during nominal operation, Heat generation, and removal, The processes involved at the start of irradiation, Fission gas behavior, Microstructural changes); Water reactor fuel behavior in loss of tightness conditions (Cladding, the first containment barrier, Causes of failure, Consequences of a failure); Microscopic morphology of fuel ceramic and its evolution under irradiation; Migration and localization of fission products in UOX and MOX matrices (The ceramic under

  13. Analysis of Subchannel and Rod Bundle PSBT Experiments with CATHARE 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Valette

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the assessment of CATHARE 3 against PWR subchannel and rod bundle tests of the PSBT benchmark. Noticeable measurements were the following: void fraction in single subchannel and rod bundle, multiple liquid temperatures at subchannel exit in rod bundle, and DNB power and location in rod bundle. All these results were obtained both in steady and transient conditions. Void fraction values are satisfactory predicted by CATHARE 3 in single subchannels with the pipe module. More dispersed predictions of void values are obtained in rod bundles with the CATHARE 3 3D module at subchannel scale. Single-phase liquid mixing tests and DNB tests in rod bundle are also analyzed. After calibrating the mixing in liquid single phase with specific tests, DNB tests using void mixing give mitigated results, perhaps linked to inappropriate use of CHF lookup tables in such rod bundles with many spacers.

  14. Anatomic Double-Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Using In Situ Hamstring Graft With 4 Tunnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagih, Ahmad M.

    2013-01-01

    A careful review of the literature suggests that a significant number of patients undergoing anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction have less-than-optimal results. Although overall outcomes of ACL reconstruction are favorable, there remains considerable room for improvement. Anatomically, the ACL consists of 2 major functional bundles, the anteromedial bundle and the posterolateral bundle. Biomechanically, both bundles contribute significantly to the anterior and rotational stability of the knee. Therefore anatomic double-bundle ACL reconstruction techniques may further improve the outcomes in ACL surgery. This article presents a technique for arthroscopic double-bundle ACL reconstruction that includes the use of 2 femoral and 2 tibial tunnels to restore both the anteromedial and posterolateral bundles of the ACL with minimal hardware for fixation. PMID:24749023

  15. Metallic fuel design development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Woan; Kang, H. Y.; Lee, B. O. and others

    1999-04-01

    This report describes the R and D results of the ''Metallic Fuel Design Development'' project that performed as a part of 'Nuclear Research and Development Program' during the '97 - '98 project years. The objectives of this project are to perform the analysis of thermo-mechanical and irradiation behaviors, and preliminary conceptual design for the fuel system of the KALIMER liquid metal reactor. The following are the major results that obtained through the project. The preliminary design requirements and design criteria which are necessary in conceptual design stage, are set up. In the field of fuel pin design, the pin behavior analysis, failure probability prediction, and sensitivity analysis are performed under the operation conditions of steady-state and transient accidents. In the area of assembly duct analysis; 1) KAFACON-2D program is developed to calculate an array configuration of inner shape of assembly duct, 2) Stress-strain analysis are performed for the components of assembly such as, handling socket, mounting rail and wire wrap, 3) The BDI program is developed to analyze mechanical interaction between pin bundle and duct, 4) a vibration analysis is performed to understand flow-induced vibration of assembly duct, 5) The NUBOW-2D, which is bowing and deformation analysis code for assembly duct, is modified to be operated in KALIMER circumstance, and integrity evaluation of KALIMER core assembly is carried out using the modified NUBOW-2D and the CRAMP code in U.K., and 6) The KALIMER assembly duct is manufactured to be used in flow test. In the area of non-fuel assembly, such as control, reflector, shielding, GEM and USS, the states-of-the-arts and the major considerations in designing are evaluated, and the design concepts are derived. The preliminary design description and their design drawing of KALIMER fuel system are prepared based upon the above mentioned evaluation and analysis. The achievement of conceptual

  16. Post-Irradiation Examination Test for an Evaluation of In-Core Performance of the Parts of Nuclear Fuel Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D. S.; Ryu, W. S.; Choo, Y. S. (and others)

    2007-11-15

    The mechanical properties of the parts of a nuclear fuel assembly are degraded during the operation of the reactor, through the mechanism of irradiation damage. The properties changes of the parts of the fuel assembly should be quantitatively estimated to ensure the safety of the fuel assembly and rod during the operation. The test techniques developed in this report are used to produce the irradiation data of the grid 1x1 cell spring with fuel cladding, the grid 1x1 cell, the spring on one face of the 1x1 cell, the inner/outer strip of the grid and the guide tube. The specimens were irradiated in the CT test hole of HANARO of a 30 MW thermal output at 270 {approx} 375 .deg. C up to a fast neutron fluence of 5.7x10{sup 20} n/cm{sup 2}(E>1 MeV). From the spring test of mid grid 1x1 cell and bottom grid plate, the irradiation effects were not found. The irradiation effects on the irradiation growth also were not found. The buckling load of mid grid 1x1 cell tends to increase due to a neutron irradiation. From the tensile tests, the strengths increased but the elongations decreased due to an irradiation. Through these tests of the components, the essential data on the fuel assembly design could be obtained. These results will be used to update the irradiation behavior databases, to improve the performance of fuel assembly, and to predict the service life of the fuel assembly in a reactor.

  17. Technical Development of Gamma Scanning for Irradiated Fuel Rod after Upgrade of System in Hot-cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Woo Seog; Kim, Hee Moon; Baik, Seung Je; Yoo, Byung Ok; Choo, Yong Sun

    2007-06-15

    Non-destructive test system was installed at hot-cell(M1) in IMEF(Irradiated Materials Examination Facility) more than 10 years ago for the diametric measurement and gamma scanning of fuel rod. But this system must be needed to be remodeled for the effective operations. In 2006, the system was upgraded for 3 months. The collimator bench can be movable with horizontal direction(x-direction) by motorized system for sectional gamma scanning and 3-dimensional tomography of fuel rod. So, gamma scanning for fuel rod can be detectable by x, y and rotation directions. It may be possible to obtain the radioactivities with radial and axial directions of pellet. This system is good for the series experiments with several positions. Operation of fuel bench and gamma detection program were linked each other by new program tools. It can control detection and bench moving automatically when gamma inspection of fuel rod is carried out with axial or radial positions. Some of electronic parts were added in PLC panel, and operating panel was re-designed for the remote control. To operate the fuel bench by computer, AD converter and some I/O cards were installed in computer. All of software were developed in Windows-XP system instead of DOS system. Control programs were made by visual-C language. After upgrade of system, DUPIC fuel which was irradiated in HANARO research reactor was detected by gamma scanning. The results were good and operation of gamma scanning showed reduced inspection time and easy control of data on series of detection with axial positions. With consideration of ECT(Eddy Current Test) installation, the computer program and hardware were set up as well. But ECT is not installed yet, so we have to check abnormal situation of program and hardware system. It is planned to install ECT in 2007.

  18. Cosmic multi-muon bundles measured at DELPHI

    CERN Document Server

    Travnicek, Petr

    2002-01-01

    The DELPHI detector at LEP, located 100 $m$ underground, has been used to detect the multi-muon bundles by cathode readout of its hadron calorimeter and its tracking detectors (TPC, muon chambers). The experimental apparatus allows us to study muon bundles originating from primary cosmic particles with energies in the interval $10^{14}$ - $10^{17} eV$. The cosmic events registered during the years 1999 and 2000 correspond roughly to $1.6 10^6 s$ of effective run time. The aim of the work is to compare the measured muon multiplicity distributions and predictions of high energy interaction models for different types of primary particles and also to determine the absolute flux of events in certain muon multiplicity range. The presentation describes the current status of the analysis.

  19. Catastrophic Failure and Critical Scaling Laws of Fiber Bundle Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengwang Hao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a spring-fiber bundle model used to describe the failure process induced by energy release in heterogeneous materials. The conditions that induce catastrophic failure are determined by geometric conditions and energy equilibrium. It is revealed that the relative rates of deformation of, and damage to the fiber bundle with respect to the boundary controlling displacement ε0 exhibit universal power law behavior near the catastrophic point, with a critical exponent of −1/2. The proportion of the rate of response with respect to acceleration exhibits a linear relationship with increasing displacement in the vicinity of the catastrophic point. This allows for the prediction of catastrophic failure immediately prior to failure by extrapolating the trajectory of this relationship as it asymptotes to zero. Monte Carlo simulations are completed and these two critical scaling laws are confirmed.

  20. An improved partial bundle method for linearly constrained minimax problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunming Tang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an improved partial bundle method for solving linearly constrained minimax problems. In order to reduce the number of component function evaluations, we utilize a partial cutting-planes model to substitute for the traditional one. At each iteration, only one quadratic programming subproblem needs to be solved to obtain a new trial point. An improved descent test criterion is introduced to simplify the algorithm. The method produces a sequence of feasible trial points, and ensures that the objective function is monotonically decreasing on the sequence of stability centers. Global convergence of the algorithm is established. Moreover, we utilize the subgradient aggregation strategy to control the size of the bundle and therefore overcome the difficulty of computation and storage. Finally, some preliminary numerical results show that the proposed method is effective.

  1. Through silicon vias filled with planarized carbon nanotube bundles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Teng; Jeppson, Kjell; Olofsson, Niklas; Campbell, Eleanor E B; Liu, Johan

    2009-12-02

    The feasibility of using carbon nanotube (CNT) bundles as the fillers of through silicon vias (TSVs) has been demonstrated. CNT bundles are synthesized directly inside TSVs by thermal chemical vapor deposition (TCVD). The growth of CNTs in vias is found to be highly dependent on the geometric dimensions and arrangement patterns of the vias at atmospheric pressure. The CNT-Si structure is planarized by a combined lapping and polishing process to achieve both a high removal rate and a fine surface finish. Electrical tests of the CNT TSVs have been performed and their electrical resistance was found to be in the few hundred ohms range. The reasons for the high electrical resistance have been discussed and possible methods to decrease the electrical resistance have been proposed.

  2. Buckling of a fiber bundle embedded in epoxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, H. T.; Sohi, M. M.

    1986-01-01

    Buckling of a fiber bundle embedded in epoxy resin was studied to gain insight into compressive failure mechanisms in unidirectional composites. The fibers used were E-glass, T300 graphite, T700 graphite, and P75 graphite. These fibers were combined with two different resins: Epon 815/V140 and Epon 828/Z. In both resins the failure mode of the bundle was found to be microbuckling of fibers for the first three types of fibers; however, the high-modulus P75 fibers failed in shear without any sign of microbuckling. The strains at which microbuckling occurred were higher than the compressive failure strains of the corresponding unidirectional composites. In the soft resin, Epon 815/V140, fibers buckled at lower strains than in the stiff resin, Epon 828/Z. The buckling strains and the segment lengths followed the trends predicted for a single filament embedded in an infinite matrix.

  3. Bundle adjustment with raw inertial observations in UAV applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucci, Davide Antonio; Rehak, Martin; Skaloud, Jan

    2017-08-01

    It is well known that accurate aerial position and attitude control is beneficial for image orientation in airborne photogrammetry. The aerial control is traditionally obtained by Kalman filtering/smoothing inertial and GNSS observations prior to the bundle-adjustment. However, in Micro Aerial Vehicles this process may result in poor attitude determination due to the limited quality of the inertial sensors, large alignment uncertainty and residual correlations between sensor biases and initial attitude. We propose to include the raw inertial observations directly into the bundle-adjustment instead of as position and attitude weighted observations from a separate inertial/GNSS fusion step. The necessary observation models are derived in detail within the context of the so called ;Dynamic Networks;. We examine different real world cases and we show that the proposed approach is superior to the established processing pipeline in challenging scenarios such as mapping in corridors and in areas where the reception of GNSS signals is denied.

  4. Balanced metrics for vector bundles and polarised manifolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia Fernandez, Mario; Ross, Julius

    2012-01-01

    We consider a notion of balanced metrics for triples (X, L, E) which depend on a parameter α, where X is smooth complex manifold with an ample line bundle L and E is a holomorphic vector bundle over X. For generic choice of α, we prove that the limit of a convergent sequence of balanced metrics...... leads to a Hermitian-Einstein metric on E and a constant scalar curvature Kähler metric in c_1(L). For special values of α, limits of balanced metrics are solutions of a system of coupled equations relating a Hermitian-Einstein metric on E and a Kähler metric in c1(L). For this, we compute the top two...

  5. A note on the tangent bundle of G/P

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Introduction. Let G be a simple linear algebraic group defined over C. Fix a proper parabolic subgroup. G/P. In [1], a Kähler–Einstein metric on G/P was constructed. This implies that the tangent bundle T (G/P ) is polystable (the definition is recalled below). We show that. T (G/P ) is stable. Since T (G/P ) is polystable, ...

  6. Optimal bundling of transmembrane helices using sparse distance constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Sale, Ken; Faulon, Jean-Loup; Genetha A. Gray; Schoeniger, Joseph S.; Young, Malin M.

    2004-01-01

    We present a two-step approach to modeling the transmembrane spanning helical bundles of integral membrane proteins using only sparse distance constraints, such as those derived from chemical cross-linking, dipolar EPR and FRET experiments. In Step 1, using an algorithm, we developed, the conformational space of membrane protein folds matching a set of distance constraints is explored to provide initial structures for local conformational searches. In Step 2, these structures refined against ...

  7. Higgs Bundles and Representations of Complex Hyperbolic Lattices

    OpenAIRE

    Maubon, Julien

    2015-01-01

    International audience; This paper is an introduction to the Higgs bundle theory of Hitchin and Simpson and a survey of its applications to the study of representations of complex hyperbolic lattices into Lie groups of Hermitian type. Some material concerning representations of surface groups will be covered but we shall be mainly interested in higher dimensional lattices, in particular in the proof of the rigidity of maximal representations of such lattices. (Concerning the rigidity of maxim...

  8. Image processing for cameras with fiber bundle image relay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivas, Stephen J; Arianpour, Ashkan; Stamenov, Igor; Morrison, Rick; Stack, Ron A; Johnson, Adam R; Agurok, Ilya P; Ford, Joseph E

    2015-02-10

    Some high-performance imaging systems generate a curved focal surface and so are incompatible with focal plane arrays fabricated by conventional silicon processing. One example is a monocentric lens, which forms a wide field-of-view high-resolution spherical image with a radius equal to the focal length. Optical fiber bundles have been used to couple between this focal surface and planar image sensors. However, such fiber-coupled imaging systems suffer from artifacts due to image sampling and incoherent light transfer by the fiber bundle as well as resampling by the focal plane, resulting in a fixed obscuration pattern. Here, we describe digital image processing techniques to improve image quality in a compact 126° field-of-view, 30 megapixel panoramic imager, where a 12 mm focal length F/1.35 lens made of concentric glass surfaces forms a spherical image surface, which is fiber-coupled to six discrete CMOS focal planes. We characterize the locally space-variant system impulse response at various stages: monocentric lens image formation onto the 2.5 μm pitch fiber bundle, image transfer by the fiber bundle, and sensing by a 1.75 μm pitch backside illuminated color focal plane. We demonstrate methods to mitigate moiré artifacts and local obscuration, correct for sphere to plane mapping distortion and vignetting, and stitch together the image data from discrete sensors into a single panorama. We compare processed images from the prototype to those taken with a 10× larger commercial camera with comparable field-of-view and light collection.

  9. Bundle Data Approach at GES DISC Targeting Natural Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shie, Chung-Lin; Shen, Suhung; Kempler, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Severe natural phenomena such as hurricane, volcano, blizzard, flood and drought have the potential to cause immeasurable property damages, great socioeconomic impact, and tragic loss of human life. From searching to assessing the Big, i.e., massive and heterogeneous scientific data (particularly, satellite and model products) in order to investigate those natural hazards, it has, however, become a daunting task for Earth scientists and applications researchers, especially during recent decades. The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Service Center (GES DISC) has served Big Earth science data, and the pertinent valuable information and services to the aforementioned users of diverse communities for years. In order to help and guide our users to online readily (i.e., with a minimum effort) acquire their requested data from our enormous resource at GES DISC for studying their targeted hazard event, we have thus initiated a Bundle Data approach in 2014, first targeting the hurricane event topic. We have recently worked on new topics such as volcano and blizzard. The bundle data of a specific hazard event is basically a sophisticated integrated data package consisting of a series of proper datasets containing a group of relevant (knowledge--based) data variables readily accessible to users via a system-prearranged table linking those data variables to the proper datasets (URLs). This online approach has been developed by utilizing a few existing data services such as Mirador as search engine; Giovanni for visualization; and OPeNDAP for data access, etc. The online Data Cookbook site at GES DISC is the current host for the bundle data. We are now also planning on developing an Automated Virtual Collection Framework that shall eventually accommodate the bundle data, as well as further improve our management in Big Data.

  10. Weak point property and sections of Picard bundles on a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Introduction. Debarre had proved that the Jacobian J0(X0) of a smooth curve X0 satisfies the diagonal property (Corollary 2.2 of [6]) i.e., there is a vector bundle of rank equal to the dimension of J0(X0) over J0(X0) × J0(X0), having a section whose zero scheme is the diagonal of J0(X0) × J0(X0). In this note, we generalize ...

  11. Determinants of contractile forces generated in disorganized actomyosin bundles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taeyoon

    2015-04-01

    Actomyosin machinery is a fundamental engine consisting mostly of actin filaments, molecular motors, and passive cross-linkers, generating mechanical forces required for biological processes of non-muscle cells such as cell migration, cytokinesis, and morphogenesis. Although the molecular and physical properties of key elements in the actomyosin machinery have been characterized well, it still remains unclear how macroscopic force buildup and dissipation in actomyosin networks and bundles depend on the microscopic properties of individual cytoskeletal components and their local interactions. To bridge such a gap between macroscopic and microscopic scales, we have developed a three-dimensional computational model of actomyosin bundles clamped to an elastic substrate with minimal components: actin filaments, passive cross-linkers, and active motors. Our model accounts for several key features neglected by previous studies despite their significance for force generation, such as realistic structure and kinetics of the motors. Using the model, we systematically investigated how net tension in actomyosin bundles is governed via interplay between motors and cross-linkers. We demonstrated motors can generate large tension on a bundle in the absence of cross-linkers in a very inefficient, unstable manner. Cross-linkers help motors to generate their maximum potential forces as well as enhance overall connectivity, leading to much higher efficiency and stability. We showed further that the cross-linkers behave as a molecular clutch with tunable friction which has quite distinct effects on net tension depending on their cross-linking angles. We also examined the source of symmetry breaking between tensile and compressive forces during tension generation process and discussed how the length and dynamics of actin filaments and the stiffness of the elastic substrate can affect the generated tension.

  12. HYDRODISSECTION FOR PRESERVATION OF NEUROVASCULAR BUNDLE DURING RADICAL PROSTATECTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Gevorgyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy is one of the high-tech operations in urology, and the challenge of the surgeon is not only to remove the prostate tumor, but also to provide a high quality of life. The fact that most questions devoted from patients in a conversation with the surgeon before the operation are devoted to this issue, shows the importance and relevance. At present, the diagnostic methods allow significantly more likely to detect early  prostate cancer, making finding and treatment of these patients more affordable and allows to apply this operation.Lately, it seems urgent to explore the possibility of water jet dissection in the field of urology, in particular, for nerve-sparing prostatectomy. Preservation of erectile function depends largely on the quality of separating the neurovascular bundle. Standard use of electrocautery is associated with damage to the neurovascular bundle.  When performing operations using water-jet mobilization of prostate the selective dissection of tissue is performed. This avoids injury of neurovascular bundle and further postoperative complications. The use of this technique may allow the surgeon to provide a more accurate mobilization prostate and selectively controlled intersection vessels heading to the prostate from the neurovascular bundle, reduce intraoperative blood loss,  maintaining continence, erectile function.This literature review is considered by the experience of using nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy using a water-jet dissector, estimated intraoperative parameters using this method.However, we have the lack of extensive research capabilities of this technique when performing nerve-preserving radical prostatectomy, that does not allow to make a comprehensive presentation on the benefits of this technique and its effects on erectile function and quality of urination, further study of this issue in such a difficult category of patients.

  13. Fluorescence Endoscopy in vivo based on Fiber-bundle Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zufiria, B.; Gomez-Garcia, P.; Stamatakis, K.; Vaquero, J.J.; Fresno, M.; Desco, M.; Ripoll, J.; Arranz, A.

    2016-07-01

    High-resolution imaging techniques have become important for the determination of the cellular organization that is coupled to organ function. In many cases the organ can be viewed without the need of ionizing radiation techniques in an easier way. This is the case of the gastrointestinal tract, an organ that can be directly accessed with endoscopy avoiding any invasive procedure. Here we describe the design, assembly and testing of a fluorescence high-resolution endoscope intended for the study of the cellular organization of the colon in an experimental mouse model of colon carcinoma. Access to the colon of the mouse took place using a fiber-optic bundle that redirects the light coming from a LED to produce fluorescence and detect it back through the fiber bundle. Results from in vivo and ex-vivo test using our fluorescence fiber bundle endoscope show altered tissue structure and destruction of the intestinal crypts in tumor-bearing areas compared with healthy tissue. (Author)

  14. Differential geometry of moduli spaces of quiver bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Indranil; Schumacher, Georg

    2017-08-01

    Let P be a parabolic subgroup of a semisimple affine algebraic group G defined over C and X a compact Kähler manifold. L. Álvarez-Cónsul and O. García-Prada associated to these a quiver Q and representations of Q into holomorphic vector bundles on X (Álvarez-Cónsul and García-Prada, 2003) [1, 2]. Our aim here is to investigate the differential geometric properties of the moduli spaces of representations of Q into vector bundles on X. In particular, we construct a Hermitian form on these moduli spaces. A fiber integral formula is proved for this Hermitian form; this fiber integral formula implies that the Hermitian form is Kähler. We compute the curvature of this Kähler form. Under an assumption which says that X is a complex projective manifold, this Kähler form is realized as the curvature of a certain determinant line bundle equipped with a Quillen metric.

  15. Enhanced boiling heat transfer in horizontal test bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trewin, R.R.; Jensen, M.K.; Bergles, A.E.

    1994-08-01

    Two-phase flow boiling from bundles of horizontal tubes with smooth and enhanced surfaces has been investigated. Experiments were conducted in pure refrigerant R-113, pure R-11, and mixtures of R-11 and R-113 of approximately 25, 50, and 75% of R-113 by mass. Tests were conducted in two staggered tube bundles consisting of fifteen rows and five columns laid out in equilateral triangular arrays with pitch-to-diameter ratios of 1.17 and 1.5. The enhanced surfaces tested included a knurled surface (Wolverine`s Turbo-B) and a porous surface (Linde`s High Flux). Pool boiling tests were conducted for each surface so that reference values of the heat transfer coefficient could be obtained. Boiling heat transfer experiments in the tube bundles were conducted at pressures of 2 and 6 bar, heat flux values from 5 to 80 kW/m{sup 2}s, and qualities from 0% to 80%, Values of the heat transfer coefficients for the enhanced surfaces were significantly larger than for the smooth tubes and were comparable to the values obtained in pool boiling. It was found that the performance of the enhanced tubes could be predicted using the pool boiling results. The degradation in the smooth tube heat transfer coefficients obtained in fluid mixtures was found to depend on the difference between the molar concentration in the liquid and vapor.

  16. Power level effects on thorium-based fuels in pressure-tube heavy water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bromley, B.P.; Edwards, G.W.R., E-mail: blair.bromley@cnl.ca [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Sambavalingam, P. [Univ. of Ontario Inst. of Technology, Oshawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Lattice and core physics modeling and calculations have been performed to quantify the impact of power/flux levels on the reactivity and achievable burnup for 35-element fuel bundles made with Pu/Th or U-233/Th. The fissile content in these bundles has been adjusted to produce on the order of 20 MWd/kg burnup in homogeneous cores in a 700 MWe-class pressure-tube heavy water reactor, operating on a once-through thorium cycle. Results demonstrate that the impact of the power/flux level is modest for Pu/Th fuels but significant for U-233/Th fuels. In particular, high power/flux reduces the breeding and burnup potential of U-233/Th fuels. Thus, there may be an incentive to operate reactors with U-233/Th fuels at a lower power density or to develop alternative refueling schemes that will lower the time-average specific power, thereby increasing burnup.(author)

  17. Development of spent fuel remote handling technology - Kinematic analysis of bilateral arms for abnormal spent fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kyu Won; Yoo, Ju Sang; Kim, Jong Yoon [Chungbuk National University, Chongju (Korea)

    2000-03-01

    In the project of 'Development of Spent Fuel Remote Handling Technology', Preprocessing technique, mechanism and teleoperation technique are being developed. One of the mechanisms is a device for disassembling of the spent fuel bundle. However, there may be abnormal fuel bar among the fuel bundle, In this case the unpacking task will be difficult and dangerous. So, in that case, a force reflected teleoperation manipulator is desirable. The system is composed of a anthropomorphic input device at control site, power manipulator at remote site and control system. In this research, the forward and inverse kinematic equations of input device and manipulators has been solved, respectively. In addition, the mapping algorithm is proposed and shown using computer simulation. The reaction force of the telemanipulator with the environmental object is reflected through control system. The reaction force is decomposed into joint torque of the input device based on the jacobian equation. The obtained theoretical relations are verified through computer simulation and they will be used effectively in the spent fuel remote handling technology. 6 refs., 26 figs., 7 tabs. (Author)

  18. Non-intrusive Experimental Study on Nuclear Fuel Assembly Response to Seismic Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weichselbaum, Noah A.

    Experimental measurements of nuclear fuel bundle response to seismic loads have primarily been focused on the response of the structure. Forcing methods have included use of shake tables, however, the majority of work has used hydraulic actuators rigidly connected to a single spacer grid to force the fuel bundle. Structural measurements utilize such instruments as linear variable displacement transducers (LVDT) that are mounted on the structure. From these measurements it has been shown that fuel bundles in prototypical conditions, with an axial flow of 6 m/s, behave markedly different from fuel bundles in still water when there is external forcing on the core from an earthquake. It has also been shown that the structure and fluid are fully coupled. Thus more recently attention has been focused on fluid measurements in the bypass region around fuel bundles with external forcing with laser doppler velocimetry (LDV), which is a point wise fluid velocity measurement technique. This work describes a unique facility that has garnered a large experimental database of fully coupled fluid and structure measurements with time resolved particle image velocimetry (PIV) and digital image correlation (DIC) within a full height 6x6 fuel bundle exposed to seismic forcing on a large 6 degree of freedom shake table. A refractive index matched (RIM) vertical liquid tunnel is mounted on the shake table and houses the fuel bundle which is based on the geometry of a prototypical fuel bundle in a pressurized water reactor (PWR). PIV is obtained with high spatial resolution by rigidly mounting all optical equipment to the test section on the shake table, where the laser light is delivered through high power multi-mode step index fiber optics from a high powered Nd:YLF laser located 10 meters away from the test section. High temporal resolution for the PIV measurements is obtained with state of the art high speed CMOS cameras that record straight to hard drive allowing for increased

  19. Measurements of Flow Mixing at Subchannels in a Wire-Wrapped 37-Rod Bundle for a Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyungmo; Bae, Hwang; Chang, Seok-Kyu; Choi, Sun Rock; Lee, Dong Won; Ko, Yung Joo; Choi, Hae Seob; Euh, Dong-Jin; Lee, Hyeong-Yeon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    For a safety analysis in a core thermal design of a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR), flow mixing characteristics at subchannels in a wire-wrapped rod bundle are very important. Wrapped wires make a cross flow in a around the fuel rod) of the fuel rod, and this effect lets flow be mixed. Experimental results of flow mixing can be meaningful for verification and validation of thermal mixing correlation in a reactor core thermo-hydraulic design code. A wire mesh sensing technique can be useful method for measuring of flow mixing characteristics. A wire mesh sensor has been traditionally used to measure the void fraction of a two-phase flow field, i.e. gas and liquid. However, it has been recently reported that the wire mesh sensor can be used successfully to recognize the flow field in liquid phase by injecting a tracing liquid with a different level of electric conductivity. This can be powerfully adapted to recognize flow mixing characteristics by wrapped wires in SFR core thermal design. In this work, we conducted the flow mixing experiments using a custom designed wire mesh sensor. To verify and validate computer codes for the SFR core thermal design, mixing experiments were conducted at a hexagonally arrayed 37-pin wire-wrapped fuel rod bundle test section. The well-designed wire mesh sensor was used to measure flow mixing characteristics. The developed post-processing method has its own merits, and flow mixing results were reasonable. In addition, by uncertainty analysis, the system errors and the random error were estimated in experiments. Therefore, the present results and methods can be used for design code verification and validation.

  20. Fossil Fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crank, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with fossil fuels. Some topics covered are historic facts, development of fuels, history of oil production, current and future trends of the oil industry, refining fossil fuels, and environmental problems. Material in each unit may…

  1. Compactifications of the Heterotic string with unitary bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weigand, T.

    2006-05-23

    In this thesis we investigate a large new class of four-dimensional supersymmetric string vacua defined as compactifications of the E{sub 8} x E{sub 8} and the SO(32) heterotic string on smooth Calabi-Yau threefolds with unitary gauge bundles and heterotic five-branes. The first part of the thesis discusses the implementation of this idea into the E{sub 8} x E{sub 8} heterotic string. After specifying a large class of group theoretic embeddings featuring unitary bundles, we analyse the effective four-dimensional N=1 supergravity upon compactification. From the gauge invariant Kaehler potential for the moduli fields we derive a modification of the Fayet-Iliopoulos D-terms arising at one-loop in string perturbation theory. From this we conjecture a one-loop deformation of the Hermitian Yang-Mills equation and introduce the idea of {lambda}-stability as the perturbatively correct stability concept generalising the notion of Mumford stability valid at tree-level. We then proceed to a definition of SO(32) heterotic vacua with unitary gauge bundles in the presence of heterotic five-branes and find agreement of the resulting spectrum with the S-dual framework of Type I/Type IIB orientifolds. A similar analysis of the effective four-dimensional supergravity is performed. Further evidence for the proposed one-loop correction to the stability condition is found by identifying the heterotic corrections as the S-dual of the perturbative part of {pi}-stability as the correct stability concept in Type IIB theory. After reviewing the construction of holomorphic stable vector bundles on elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau manifolds via spectral covers, we provide semi-realistic examples for SO(32) heterotic vacua with Pati-Salam and MSSM-like gauge sectors. We finally discuss the construction of realistic vacua with flipped SU(5) GUT and MSSM gauge group within the E{sub 8} x E{sub 8} framework, based on the embedding of line bundles into both E{sub 8} factors. Some of the appealing

  2. Getting the Most from Your CD-ROM Dollars: The CD-ROM Bundle [and] The Pros and Cons of CD-ROM Bundling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarjeant, Eric W.; O'Connor, Mary Ann

    1992-01-01

    Discusses and reviews CD-ROM bundles--i.e., hardware, software and CD-ROM kits--including their features, specifications, drawbacks, and prices. Recommends buying through mail order for the best selection and price. The pros and cons of bundling as a marketing strategy are discussed and a list of vendors is provided. (EA)

  3. Study on the use of slightly enriched uranium fuel cycle in an existing CANDU 6 reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeom, Choong Sub; Kim, Hyun Dae [Institute for Advanced Engineering, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    To test the viability of CANFLEX-SEU bundles in an existing CANDU 6 reactor, core follow-up simulation has been carried out using the reactor fueling simulation program of the CANDU 6, RFSP computer code, and a lattice physics code, WIMS-AECL. During the core follow-up, bundle and channel powers and zone levels have been checked against their operating limits at each simulation. It is observed from the simulation results that an equilibrium core loaded with 0.9 w/o CANFLEX-SEU bundles could be refueled and maintained for 550 FPD without any significant violations in the channel and bundle power limits and the permissible operating range of the liquid zone controllers. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  4. One stage revision single-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with impacted morselized bone graft following a failed double-bundle reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Jong Ra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL reconstruction has theoretical benefits such as more accurate reproduction of ACL anatomy, it is technically more demanding surgery. This report describes the case of a one stage revision single-bundle ACL reconstruction after primary double-bundle ACL reconstruction. A professional dancer had an ACL previously reconstructed with a double-bundle technique, but the femoral tunnels were malpositioned resulting in residual laxity and rotational instability. The previous femoral tunnel positions were vertical and widened. The previous vertical tunnels were filled with impacted bone graft and a revision single-bundle ACL reconstruction was performed via the new femoral tunnel with a 2 O'clock position between the previous two tunnels. After 10 months of postoperative rehabilitation, the patient returned to professional dancing with sound bony union and without any residual instability.

  5. Double-bundle depiction of the anterior cruciate ligament at 3 Tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adriaensen, M.E.A.P.M. [Atrium Medical Center Parkstad, Department of Radiology, Heerlen (Netherlands); Hogan, B. [Sports Surgery Clinic, Department of Radiology, Dublin (Ireland); Al-Bulushi, H.I.J. [Armed Forces Hospital, Department of Radiology, Muscat (Oman); Kavanagh, E.C. [Mater Misericordiae Hospital, Department of Radiology, Dublin (Ireland)

    2012-07-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging on 3 Tesla (3T MRI) with arthroscopic correlation has proven to adequately identify the anteromedial bundle (AMB) and posterolateral bundle (PLB) in cadaver knees. The purpose of this study was to describe the depiction of ACL bundle anatomy on 3T MRI in daily practice. In a retrospective cohort study, we included 50 consecutive patients who underwent standard 3T MRI of the knee and had an intact ACL. Two musculoskeletal radiologists independently reviewed all scans for depiction of ACL bundle anatomy using standardized forms. Descriptive statistics were used. Twenty-three right knees (46%) and 27 left knees (54%) were included in the study. Mean age of the patients was 35 years (range 12 to 68 years); 37 patients were male (74%). ACL bundle anatomy was best depicted in the axial plane in 44 knees (88%) and in the coronal plane in six knees (12%). Two bundles were seen in 47 knees (94%). The AMB was completely seen in 45 knees (90%). The PLB was completely seen in 40 knees (80%). Both bundles were completely seen in 37 knees (76%). The double-bundle anatomy of the ACL is visualized in 94% of patients on 3T MRI. Because of potentially associated clinical benefits, we advocate to report separately on the anteromedial bundle and posterolateral bundle in case of anterior cruciate ligament injury of the knee. (orig.)

  6. New models of droplet deposition and entrainment for prediction of CHF in cylindrical rod bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Haibin, E-mail: hb-zhang@xjtu.edu.cn [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College, London SW7 2BY (United Kingdom); Hewitt, G.F. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College, London SW7 2BY (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • New models of droplet deposition and entrainment in rod bundles is developed. • A new phenomenological model to predict the CHF in rod bundles is described. • The present model is well able to predict CHF in rod bundles. - Abstract: In this paper, we present a new set of model of droplet deposition and entrainment in cylindrical rod bundles based on the previously proposed model for annuli (effectively a “one-rod” bundle) (2016a). These models make it possible to evaluate the differences of the rates of droplet deposition and entrainment for the respective rods and for the outer tube by taking into account the geometrical characteristics of the rod bundles. Using these models, a phenomenological model to predict the CHF (critical heat flux) for upward annular flow in vertical rod bundles is described. The performance of the model is tested against the experimental data of Becker et al. (1964) for CHF in 3-rod and 7-rod bundles. These data include tests in which only the rods were heated and data for simultaneous uniform and non-uniform heating of the rods and the outer tube. It was shown that the predicted CHFs by the present model agree well with the experimental data and with the experimental observation that dryout occurred first on the outer rods in 7-rod bundles. It is expected that the methodology used will be generally applicable in the prediction of CHF in rod bundles.

  7. Power Burst Facility (PBF) severe fuel damage test 1-4 test results report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petti, D.A.; Martinson, Z.R.; Hobbins, R.R.; Allison, C.M.; Carlson, E.R.; Hagrman, D.L.; Cheng, T.C.; Hartwell, J.K.; Vinjamuri, K.; Seifken, L.J.

    1989-04-01

    A comprehensive evaluation of the Severe Fuel Damage (SFD) Test 1-4 performed in the Power Burst Facility (PBF) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory is presented. Test SFD 1-4 was the fourth and final test in an internationally sponsored light water reactor severe accident research program, initiated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The overall technical objective of the test was to contribute to the understanding of fuel and control rod behavior, aerosol and hydrogen generation, and fission product release and transport during a high-temperature, severe fuel damage transient. A test bundle, comprised of 26 previously irradiated (36,000 MWd/MtU) pressurized water-reactor-type fuel rods, 2 fresh instrumented fuel rods, and 4 silver-indium-cadmium control rods, was surrounded by an insulating shroud and contained in a pressurized in-pile tube. The experiment consisted of a 1.3-h transient at a coolant pressure of 6.95 MPa in which the inlet coolant flow to the bundle was reduced to 0.6 g/s while the bundle fission power was gradually increased until dryout, heatup, cladding rupture, and oxidation occurred. With sustained fission power and heat from oxidation, temperatures continued to rise rapidly, resulting in zircaloy and control rod absorber alloy melting, fuel liquefaction, material relocation, and the release of hydrogen, aerosols, and fission products. The transient was terminated over a 2100-s time span by slowly reducing the reactor power and cooling the damaged bundle with argon gas. A description and evaluation of the major phenomena, based upon the response of on-line instrumentation, analysis of fission product and aerosol data, postirradiation examination of the fuel bundle, and calculations using the SCDAP/RELAP5 computer code, are presented. 40 refs., 160 figs., 31 tabs.

  8. Fuel distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tison, R.R.; Baker, N.R.; Blazek, C.F.

    1979-07-01

    Distribution of fuel is considered from a supply point to the secondary conversion sites and ultimate end users. All distribution is intracity with the maximum distance between the supply point and end-use site generally considered to be 15 mi. The fuels discussed are: coal or coal-like solids, methanol, No. 2 fuel oil, No. 6 fuel oil, high-Btu gas, medium-Btu gas, and low-Btu gas. Although the fuel state, i.e., gas, liquid, etc., can have a major impact on the distribution system, the source of these fuels (e.g., naturally-occurring or coal-derived) does not. Single-source, single-termination point and single-source, multi-termination point systems for liquid, gaseous, and solid fuel distribution are considered. Transport modes and the fuels associated with each mode are: by truck - coal, methanol, No. 2 fuel oil, and No. 6 fuel oil; and by pipeline - coal, methane, No. 2 fuel oil, No. 6 oil, high-Btu gas, medium-Btu gas, and low-Btu gas. Data provided for each distribution system include component makeup and initial costs.

  9. Quality surveillance experience of PHWR fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulkarni, P.G.; Bandyopadhyay, A.K.; Shah, B.K. [Atomic Fuels Div., Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    1997-07-01

    Quality Surveillance activities are being carried out for PHWR fuel for over 25 years in India. A large number of fuel bundles of 19 element design have been produced and successfully irradiated. The quality surveillance practices follow the guidelines given in various Quality Assurance Codes and Guides. An independent third party surveillance is provided to cover major manufacturing and quality control operations. A system of design basis review periodic quality audit and regulatory safety review is in place. Over the years there have been modifications in the quality assurance procedures to comply with changing requirements. Also many innovative improvements have been introduced in the manufacturing procedures. Similarly quality control activities are also modified. Developments in fuel has remained a continuous activity. The paper summarizes the experience gathered over many years in this exciting process of innovation and improvement. (author)

  10. Basic research and industrialization of CANDU advanced fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Suk Ho; Park, Joo Hwan; Jun, Ji Su [and others

    2000-04-01

    Wolsong Unit 1 as the first heavy water reactor in Korea has been in service for 17 years since 1983. It would be about the time to prepare a plan for the solution of problems due to aging of the reactor. The aging of CANDU reactor could lead especially to the steam generator cruding and pressure tube sagging and creep and then decreases the operation margin to make some problems on reactor operations and safety. The counterplan could be made in two ways. One is to repair or modify reactor itself. The other is to develop new advanced fuel to increase of CANDU operation margin effectively, so as to compensate the reduced operation margin. Therefore, the first objectives in the present R and D is to develop the CANFLEX-NU (CANDU Flexible fuelling-Natural Uranium) fuel as a CANDU advanced fuel. The second objectives is to develop CANDU advanced fuel bundle to utilize advanced fuel cycles such as recovered uranium, slightly enriched uranium, etc. and so to raise adaptability for change in situation of uranium market. Also, it is to develop CANDU advanced fuel technology which improve uranium utilization to cope with a world-wide imbalance between uranium supply and demand, without significant modification of nuclear reactor design and refuelling strategies. As the implementations to achieve the above R and D goal, the work contents and scope of technology development of CANDU advanced fuel using natural uranium (CANFLEX-NU) are the fuel element/bundle designs, the nuclear design and fuel management analysis, the thermalhydraulic analysis, the safety analysis, fuel fabrication technologies, the out-pile thermalhydraulic test and in-pile irradiation tests performed. At the next, the work scopes and contents of feasibility study of CANDU advanced fuel using recycled uranium (CANFLEX-RU) are the fuel element/bundle designs, the reactor physics analysis, the thermalhydraulic analysis, the basic safety analysis of a CANDU-6 reactor with CANFLEX-RU fuel, the fabrication and

  11. Subchannel Scale Thermal-Hydraulic Analysis of Rod Bundle Geometry under Single-phase Adiabatic Conditions Using CUPID

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Seok Jong; Park, Goon Cherl; Cho, Hyoung Kyu [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In Korea, subchannel analysis code, MATRA has been developed by KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute). MATRA has been used for reactor core T/H design and DNBR (Departure from Nucleate Boiling Ratio) calculation. Also, the code has been successfully coupled with neutronics code and fuel analysis code. However, since major concern of the code is not the accident simulation, some features of the code are not optimized for the accident conditions, such as the homogeneous model for two-phase flow and spatial marching method for numerical scheme. For this reason, in the present study, application of CUPID for the subchannel scale T/H analysis in rod bundle geometry was conducted. CUPID is a component scale T/H analysis code which adopts three dimensional two-fluid three-field model developed by KAERI. In this paper, the validation results of the CUPID code for subchannel scale rod bundle analysis at single phase adiabatic conditions were presented. At first, the physical models required for a subchannel scale analysis were implemented to CUPID. In the future, the scope of validation tests will be extended to diabetic and two phase flow conditions and required models will be implemented into CUPID.

  12. Structural Causes of Right Bundle Branch Block—Time for a Closer Look?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ker, James

    2010-01-01

    Right bundle branch block is an electrocardiographic phenomenon with specific criteria. Currently, two specific forms of right bundle branch block are acknowledged, a proximal and a distal variant. A vast array of pathologies can cause proximal, distal or even combined forms of right bundle branch block. In this study it is suggested that a third type of right bundle branch block exist: one caused by a subaortic muscular tendon in the left ventricle, leading to an increased velocity of conduction in the left ventricle, with a resultant “relative” right bundle branch block. It is concluded that it is necessary (and time) to take a closer look at endoventricular structures in the assessment of structural causes of right bundle branch block. PMID:20386615

  13. Hydrodynamic behavior of a bare rod bundle. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartzis, J.G.; Todreas, N.E.

    1977-06-01

    The temperature distribution within the rod bundle of a nuclear reactor is of major importance in nuclear reactor design. However temperature information presupposes knowledge of the hydrodynamic behavior of the coolant which is the most difficult part of the problem due to complexity of the turbulence phenomena. In the present work a 2-equation turbulence model--a strong candidate for analyzing actual three dimensional turbulent flows--has been used to predict fully developed flow of infinite bare rod bundle of various aspect ratios (P/D). The model has been modified to take into account anisotropic effects of eddy viscosity. Secondary flow calculations have been also performed although the model seems to be too rough to predict the secondary flow correctly. Heat transfer calculations have been performed to confirm the importance of anisotropic viscosity in temperature predictions. All numerical calculations for flow and heat have been performed by two computer codes based on the TEACH code. Experimental measurements of the distribution of axial velocity, turbulent axial velocity, turbulent kinetic energy and radial Reynolds stresses were performed in the developing and fully developed regions. A 2-channel Laser Doppler Anemometer working on the Reference mode with forward scattering was used to perform the measurements in a simulated interior subchannel of a triangular rod array with P/D = 1.124. Comparisons between the analytical results and the results of this experiment as well as other experimental data in rod bundle array available in literature are presented. The predictions are in good agreement with the results for the high Reynolds numbers.

  14. Dissolution of Material and Test reactor Fuel in an H-Canyon Dissolver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, W. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Rudisill, T. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); O' Rourke, P. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-01-26

    In an amended record of decision for the management of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Savannah River Site, the US Department of Energy has authorized the dissolution and recovery of U from 1000 bundles of Al-clad SNF. The SNF is fuel from domestic and foreign research reactors and is typically referred to as Material Test Reactor (MTR) fuel. Bundles of MTR fuel containing assemblies fabricated from U-Al alloys (or other U compounds) are currently dissolved using a Hg-catalyzed HNO3 flowsheet. Since the development of the existing flowsheet, improved experimental methods have been developed to more accurately characterize the offgas composition and generation rate during laboratory dissolutions. Recently, these new techniques were successfully used to develop a flowsheet for the dissolution of High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) fuel. Using the data from the HFIR dissolution flowsheet development and necessary laboratory experiments, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to define flowsheet conditions for the dissolution of MTR fuels. With improved offgas characterization techniques, SRNL will be able define the number of bundles of fuel which can be charged to an H-Canyon dissolver with much less conservatism.

  15. SUBCHANFLOW: a thermal hydraulic sub-channel program to analyse fuel rod bundles and reactor cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, V.; Imke, U.; Ivanov, A. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Gomez, R., E-mail: Victor.Sanchez@kit.ed [University of Applied Sciences Offenburg, Badstr. 24, 77652 Offenburg (Germany)

    2010-10-15

    The improvement of numerical analysis tools for the design and safety evaluation of reactor cores in a continuous effort in the nuclear community not only to improve the plant efficiency but also to demonstrate high degree of safety. Investigations at the Institute of Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) are focused on the further development and qualification of subchannel and system codes using experimental data. The majority of sub-channel codes in use likes Thesis, Bacchus, Cobra and Matra, were developed in the seventies and eighties. The programming style is rather obsolete and most of these codes are working internally with British Units instead of Si-Units. In the case of water, outdated steam tables are used. Both the trends to improve the efficiency of light water reactors (LWR) and the involvement of KIT in European projects related to the study of the technical feasibility of different fast reactors systems reinforced the need for the development and improvement of sub-channel codes, since they will play a key role in performing better designs as stand-alone tools or coupled to neutron physical codes (deterministic or stochastic). Hence, KIT started the development of a new sub-channel code SUBCHANFLOW based on the Cobra-family. SUBCHANFLOW is a modular code programmed in Fortran-95 with dynamic memory allocation using Si-units. Different fluids like liquid metals and water are available as coolant. In addition some models were improved or replaced by new ones. In this paper the structure, the physical models and the current validation status will be presented and discussed. (Author)

  16. Restitution characteristics of His bundle and working myocardium in isolated rabbit hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shangwei; Wu, Liqun; Huang, Jian; Panitchob, Nuttanont; Hu, Nan; Ranjan, Ravi; Dosdall, Derek J

    2017-01-01

    The Purkinje system (PS) and the His bundle have been recently implicated as an important driver of the rapid activation rate after 1-2 minutes of ventricular fibrillation (VF). It is unknown whether activations during VF propagate through the His-Purkinje system to other portions of the the working myocardium (WM). Little is known about restitution characteristic differences between the His bundle and working myocardium at short cycle lengths. In this study, rabbit hearts (n = 9) were isolated, Langendorff-perfused, and electromechanically uncoupled with blebbistatin (10 μM). Pacing pulses were delivered directly to the His bundle. By using standard glass microelectrodes, action potentials duration (APD) from the His bundle and WM were obtained simultaneously over a wide range of stimulation cycle lengths (CL). The global F-test indicated that the two restitution curves of the His bundle and the WM are statistically significantly different (PHis bundle was significantly shorter than that of WM throughout the whole pacing course (PHis bundle vs. the WM were shorter for the His bundle (134.2±13.1ms vs. 148.3±13.3ms, PHis bundle than in WM (130.0±10.0 vs. 145.6±14.2ms, PHis bundle APD was significantly shorter than that of WM under both slow and rapid pacing rates, which suggest that there may be an excitable gap during VF and that the His bundle may conduct wavefronts from one bundle branch to the other at short cycle lengths and during VF.

  17. Non-properness of the functor of F-trivial bundles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This is defined by assigning a Tannaka group to the Tannaka category of essentially finite vector bundles on. X [13, 14]. In these papers, Nori had made 2 conjectures: ... For any integer n > 1, we could define on Fn-trivial bundles on X as a .... for some line bundles Li, 1 ≤ i ≤ s on R with deg L1 > deg L2 > ··· > deg Ls.

  18. Recurrent extensive anterior myocardial infarction with left and right bundle branch block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hexi; Chang, Qinghua; Zhang, Yingjie; Liu, Renguang

    2017-10-15

    The diagnosis of myocardial infarction with left bundle branch block is difficult. We report a case of 56-year-old man with old extensive anterior myocardial infarction and left bundle branch block (masked each other). The recurrent myocardial infarction indicated right bundle branch block and first-degree atrioventricular block, making a clear diagnosis of complicated and interesting ECG. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Harder Roads to Trek? Paradoxical Slowing of an Atrioventricular Reentrant Tachycardia With Contralateral Bundle Branch Block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divakara Menon, Syamkumar M; Ayati, Maryam; Healey, Jeff S

    2017-04-01

    Slowing of the tachycardia with increase in cycle length and increase in VA time with ipsilateral bundle branch block is a characteristic feature of accessory pathway mediated AVRT. Contralateral bundle branch block has no effect on the tachycardia as it is not a part of the tachycardia circuit. We present an interesting phenomenon in which contralateral bundle branch block resulted in tachycardia slowing in a case of WPW syndrome. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Left bundle-branch block with right axis deviation--a unique aberrancy during supraventricular tachycardia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokhandwala, Yash; Panicker, Gopi Krishna; Shah, Mandar; Wellens, Hein J J

    2009-01-01

    A tachycardia with left bundle-branch block morphology and right axis deviation points to the diagnosis of ventricular tachycardia. Conversely, any supraventricular tachycardia with left bundle-branch block is typically associated with a normal or leftward QRS axis. We present the case of a 34-year-old man showing atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia with left bundle-branch block/right axis deviation as an exception to this rule.

  1. Intersection cohomology of moduli spaces of vector bundles over curves

    OpenAIRE

    Mozgovoy, Sergey; Reineke, Markus

    2015-01-01

    We compute the intersection cohomology of the moduli spaces $M(r,d)$ of semistable vector bundles of arbitrary rank $r$ and degree $d$ over a curve. To do this, we introduce new invariants, called Donaldson-Thomas invariants of a curve, which can be effectively computed by methods going back to Harder, Narasimhan, Desale and Ramanan. Our main result relates the Hodge-Euler polynomial of the intersection cohomology of $M(r,d)$ to the Donaldson-Thomas invariants. More generally, we introduce Do...

  2. Isolated Left Bundle Branch Block in a Toddler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitesh Agrawal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Left bundle branch block (LBBB usually occurs as a postoperative complication from surgical correction of congenital heart disease and can be associated with hypertensive heart disease, coronary artery disease, myocarditis, and aortic valvular disease. Although isolated LBBB is a conduction abnormality found in some healthy adults, it has not been reported in pediatric population. We report a 2-year-old, healthy African American female who was incidentally discovered to have isolated LBBB that has persisted in a follow-up of 3 years.

  3. Isolated Left Bundle Branch Block in a Toddler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Frank; Naheed, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Left bundle branch block (LBBB) usually occurs as a postoperative complication from surgical correction of congenital heart disease and can be associated with hypertensive heart disease, coronary artery disease, myocarditis, and aortic valvular disease. Although isolated LBBB is a conduction abnormality found in some healthy adults, it has not been reported in pediatric population. We report a 2-year-old, healthy African American female who was incidentally discovered to have isolated LBBB that has persisted in a follow-up of 3 years. PMID:24963416

  4. Visualization of the medial forebrain bundle using diffusion tensor imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardian eHana

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Diffusion tensor imaging is a technique that enables physicians the portrayal of white matter tracts in vivo. We used this technique in order to depict the medial forebrain bundle in 15 consecutive patients between 2012 and 2015. Men and women of all ages were included. There were 6 women and 9 men. The mean age was 58,6 years (39-77. Nine patients were candidates for an eventual deep brain stimulation. Eight of them suffered from Parkinson`s disease and one had multiple sclerosis. The remaining 6 patients suffered from different lesions which were situated in the frontal lobe. These were 2 metastasis, 2 meningiomas, 1 cerebral bleeding and 1 glioblastoma. We used a 3DT1-sequence for the navigation. Furthermore T2- and DTI- sequences were performed. The FOV was 200 x 200 mm², slice thickness 2 mm, and an acquisition matrix of 96 x 96 yielding nearly isotropic voxels of 2 x 2 x 2 mm. 3-Tesla-MRI was carried out strictly axial using 32 gradient directions and one b0-image. We used Echo-Planar-Imaging (EPI and ASSET parallel imaging with an acceleration factor of 2. b-value was 800 s/mm². The maximal angle was 50°. Additional scanning time was less than 9 minutes. We were able to visualize the medial forebrain bundle in 12 of our patients bilaterally and in the remaining 3 patients we depicted the medial forebrain bundle on one side. It was the contralateral side of the lesion. These were 2 meningiomas and one metastasis. Portrayal of the medial forebrain bundle is possible for everyday routine for neurosurgical interventions. As part of the reward circuitry it might be of substantial importance for neurosurgeons during deep brain stimulation in patients with psychiatric disorders. Furthermore it might explain at a certain extent character changes in patients with lesions in the frontal lobe. Surgery in this part of the brain should always take the preservation of this white matter tract into account.

  5. A Parallel Section Functor for 2-Vector Bundles

    OpenAIRE

    Schweigert, Christoph; Woike, Lukas

    2017-01-01

    We associate to a 2-vector bundle over an essentially finite groupoid a 2-vector space of parallel sections, or, in representation theoretic terms, of higher invariants, which can be described as homotopy fixed points. Our main result is the extension of this assignment to a symmetric monoidal 2-functor $\\operatorname{Par} : \\mathbf{2VecBunGrpd} \\to \\mathbf{2Vect}$. It is defined on the symmetric monoidal bicategory $\\mathbf{2VecBunGrpd}$ whose morphisms arise from spans of groupoids in such ...

  6. Progress in on-going experimental and computational fluid dynamic investigations within a CANDU fuel channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piro, M.H.A., E-mail: markus.piro@cnl.ca [Fuel and Fuel Channel Safety Branch, Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Station 88, Chalk River, ON, Canada 37831-6063 (Canada); Wassermann, F., E-mail: wassermann@csi.tu-darmstadt.de [Center of Smart Interfaces, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany); Grundmann, S. [Center of Smart Interfaces, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany); Leitch, B.W. [Fuel and Fuel Channel Safety Branch, Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Station 88, Chalk River, ON, Canada 37831-6063 (Canada); Tropea, C. [Center of Smart Interfaces, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2016-04-01

    The present work investigates the velocity field within a simplified CANDU fuel bundle with Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) simulations and Magnetic Resonance Velocimetry (MRV). MRV is a relatively new experimental method that is not prone to many limitations inherent to conventional fluid flow measurement techniques. Initial results of a simplified non-deformed bundle are presented as a proof-of-concept study, while simultaneously introducing the MRV technique to the nuclear thermal–hydraulics community. The CFD predictions are generally in good agreement with experimental results, both of which reveal complex turbulent behaviour, including rotation, swirl and vortex shedding. This work presents progress in a greater effort to understand the fluid behaviour through a deformed fuel bundle in the context of safety.

  7. Bundle branch reentry: A rare mechanism of ventricular tachycardia in endomyocardial fibrosis, without ventricular dilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, Mukund A; Prasad, B V Srinivas; Thajudeen, Anees; Namboodiri, Narayanan

    2016-09-01

    Bundle branch reentry as a mechanism of ventricular tachycardia (VT) in endomyocardial fibrosis (EMF) is not described. A 52-year-old woman with left ventricular (LV) EMF had VT needing cardioversion. She had mitral regurgitation and left bundle branch block, but no LV dilation or heart failure. During electrophysiological study, clinical VT could be easily induced, and it was confirmed to be bundle branch reentrant VT (BBRVT). She was treated with ablation of the right bundle branch. BBRVT can occur in EMF even without cardiac dilatation. Its recognition is important, as radiofrequency ablation can be curative. Copyright © 2016 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of reward bundling on male rats' preference for larger-later food rewards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Jeffrey S; Smits, Rochelle R; Johnson, Patrick S; Liston, Kennan J; Madden, Gregory J

    2013-03-01

    In both humans and nonhumans, prior research demonstrates increased preference for larger-later over smaller-sooner rewards when rewards are bundled together in a series (i.e., when an operant choice produces multiple discrete reward deliveries, as opposed to only a single delivery). These findings can be predicted using a traditional hyperbolic delay-discounting model. The present study was designed to examine the parametric effects of the size of the reward bundle on larger-later reward preference in male rats. During a reward-bundling phase, rats were exposed to bundle-sizes of either 1 (i.e., no bundling), 3, or 9 rewards. Rats in the Bundle-size 9 group showed significantly greater larger-later reward preference across a range of delays (0-17.5 s) than rats in any other group, but no other significant differences in choice were observed between groups. In addition, when choice for unbundled rewards was assessed following the reward-bundling phase, rats in the Bundle-size 9 group showed a significant increase in larger-later reward preference (compared to a pre-test). Obtained data from the reward-bundling phase are compared to model-predicted data, and potential mechanisms of the observed increase in self-control for unbundled rewards are discussed. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  9. Alternatives for managing wastes from reactors and post-fission operations in the LWR fuel cycle. Volume 3. Alternatives for interim storage and transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-05-01

    Volume III of the five-volume report contains information on alternatives for interim storage and transportation. Section titles are: interim storage of spent fuel elements; interim storage of chop-leach fuel bundle residues; tank storage of high-level liquid waste; interim storage of solid non-high-level wastes; interim storage of solidified high-level waste; and, transportation alternatives. (JGB)

  10. Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Anders; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder

    2014-01-01

    Fuel cells have been the subject of intense research and development efforts for the past decades. Even so, the technology has not had its commercial breakthrough yet. This entry gives an overview of the technological challenges and status of fuel cells and discusses the most promising applications...... of the different types of fuel cells. Finally, their role in a future energy supply with a large share of fluctuating sustainable power sources, e.g., solar or wind, is surveyed....

  11. Prostaglandins temporally regulate cytoplasmic actin bundle formation during Drosophila oogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spracklen, Andrew J.; Kelpsch, Daniel J.; Chen, Xiang; Spracklen, Cassandra N.; Tootle, Tina L.

    2014-01-01

    Prostaglandins (PGs)—lipid signals produced downstream of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes—regulate actin dynamics in cell culture and platelets, but their roles during development are largely unknown. Here we define a new role for Pxt, the Drosophila COX-like enzyme, in regulating the actin cytoskeleton—temporal restriction of actin remodeling during oogenesis. PGs are required for actin filament bundle formation during stage 10B (S10B). In addition, loss of Pxt results in extensive early actin remodeling, including actin filaments and aggregates, within the posterior nurse cells of S9 follicles; wild-type follicles exhibit similar structures at a low frequency. Hu li tai shao (Hts-RC) and Villin (Quail), an actin bundler, localize to all early actin structures, whereas Enabled (Ena), an actin elongation factor, preferentially localizes to those in pxt mutants. Reduced Ena levels strongly suppress early actin remodeling in pxt mutants. Furthermore, loss of Pxt results in reduced Ena localization to the sites of bundle formation during S10B. Together these data lead to a model in which PGs temporally regulate actin remodeling during Drosophila oogenesis by controlling Ena localization/activity, such that in S9, PG signaling inhibits, whereas at S10B, it promotes Ena-dependent actin remodeling. PMID:24284900

  12. Fuel-rod temperature transients during LWR degraded-core accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briscoe, F; Rivard, J B; Young, M F

    1982-01-01

    Heat transfer models of fuel rods and coolant have been developed in support of LWR damaged fuel studies underway at Sandia National Laboratories for the NRC. A one-dimensional, full-length model simulates a PWR fuel rod; a two-dimensional, 0.5 m model simulates 9-rod bundle experiments to be performed in the Annular Core Research Reactor. The models include zircaloy oxidation, heat transfer by convecting steam/hydrogen flow, and radiation between surfaces through an absorbing/emitting gas. Characteristics of the one-dimensional reactor fuel rod model for two types of accident sequence are reported, as well as comparisons with MARCH code results.

  13. Superheater fouling in a BFB boiler firing wood-based fuel blends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, A.F.; Haasnoot, K.; Brem, Gerrit

    2014-01-01

    Four different fuel blends have been fired in a 28 MWel BFB. Wood pellets (test 0) were not problematic for about ten years, contrary to a mixture of demolition wood, wood cuttings, compost overflow, paper sludge and roadside grass (test 1) which caused excessive fouling at a superheater bundle

  14. Three-component U-Pu-Th fuel for plutonium irradiation in heavy water reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peel Ross

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses concepts for three-component fuel bundles containing plutonium, uranium and thorium for use in pressurised heavy water reactors, and cases for and against implementation of such a nuclear energy system in the United Kingdom. Heavy water reactors are used extensively in Canada, and are deploying within India and China, whilst the UK is considering the use of heavy water reactors to manage its plutonium inventory of 140 tonnes. The UK heavy water reactor proposal uses a mixed oxide (MOX fuel of plutonium in depleted uranium, within the enhanced CANDU-6 (EC-6 reactor. This work proposes an alternative heterogeneous fuel concept based on the same reactor and CANFLEX fuel bundle, with eight large-diameter fuel elements loaded with natural thorium oxide and 35 small-diameter fuel elements loaded with a MOX of plutonium and reprocessed uranium stocks from UK MAGNOX and AGR reactors. Indicative neutronic calculations suggest that such a fuel would be neutronically feasible. A similar MOX may alternatively be fabricated from reprocessed <5% enriched light water reactor fuel, such as the fuel of the AREVA EPR reactor, to consume newly produced plutonium from reprocessing, similar to the DUPIC (direct use of PWR fuel in CANDU process.

  15. [Intermittent bundle branch block: a clinical model for the study of electrophysiological phenomena].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Marcello

    2014-01-01

    Disorders of intraventricular conduction (bundle branch block and hemiblock) are usually stable and remain unchanged irrespective of heart rate. Not infrequently, however, their appearance is related to the duration of the cardiac cycle, so that they appear and disappear with changes in heart rate. This may not even represent a pathological phenomenon, since sudden and consistent changes in cardiac cycle can result, even physiologically, in aberrant conduction. However, when a bundle branch block appears intermittently for simple and progressive increments, or even deceleration, of the sinus rate, this is related to a true bundle branch pathology, i.e. tachycardia-dependent (or phase 3) block or bradycardia-dependent (or phase 4) block, respectively. Phase 3 block is believed to express a pathological increase in the duration of the recovery period of the bundle branch. Phase 4 block was best explained on the basis of enhanced phase 4 depolarization of the bundle branch system, with inability of excitation if the cardiac cycle is particularly prolonged. The two types of block, phase 3 and phase 4, often coexist. An intraventricular conduction disturbance that appears during increasing heart rate for a phase 3 block is maintained, if frequency slows down, even for cycles greater than those that brought about its appearance. This is due to retrograde activation of the bundle branch blocked in the antegrade direction, with delay of its action potential inscription. Sometimes, in the presence of phase 3 bundle branch block, very early atrial ectopic beats are paradoxically conducted in the normal way (supernormal conduction). Perhaps, this phenomenon is related to a possible "climb over" of the injured zone of the bundle branch by the blocked impulses that arise beyond the injured area as subliminal impulses, exciting the healthy tissues if catches them during their phase of supernormal excitability. In the presence of intermittent bundle branch block, it is not

  16. Fuel cells:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent

    2013-01-01

    A brief overview of the progress in fuel cell applications and basic technology development is presented, as a backdrop for discussing readiness for penetration into the marketplace as a solution to problems of depletion, safety, climate or environmental impact from currently used fossil...... and nuclear fuel-based energy technologies....

  17. Assessment of DUPIC fuel compatibility with CANDU-6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, H. B.; Roh, G. H.; Jeong, C. J.; Rhee, B. W.; Choi, J. W. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    The compatibility of DUPIC fuel with the existing CANDU reactor was assessed. The technical issues of DUPIC fuel compatibility were chosen based on the CANDU physics design requirements and inherent characteristics of DUPIC fuel. The compatibility was assessed for the reference DUPIC fuel composition which was determined to reduce the composition heterogeneity and improve the spent PWR fuel utilization. Preliminary studies on a CANDU core loaded with DUPIC fuel have shown that the nominal power distribution is flatter than that of a natural uranium core when a 2-bundle shift refueling scheme is used, which reduces the reactivity worths of devices in the core and, therefore, the performance of reactivity devices was assessed. The safety of the core was assessed by a LOCA simulation and it was found that the power pulse upon LOCA can be maintained below that in the natural uranium core when a poison material is used in the DUPIC fuel. For the feasibility of handling DUPIC fuel in the plant, it will be necessary to introduce new equipment to load the DUPIC fuel in the refueling magazine. The radiation effect of DUPIC fuel on both the reactor hardware and the environment will require a quantitative analysis later. (author).

  18. Characterization of spent fuel approved testing material---ATM-105

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, R.J.; Blahnik, D.E.; Campbell, T.K.; Jenquin, U.P.; Mendel, J.E.; Thomas, L.E.; Thornhill, C.K.

    1991-12-01

    The characterization data obtained to data are described for Approved Testing Material 105 (ATM-105), which is spent fuel from Bundles CZ346 and CZ348 of the Cooper Nuclear Power Plant, a boiling-water reactor. This report is one in a series being prepared by the Materials Characterization Center at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) on spent fuel ATMs. The ATMs are receiving extensive examinations to provide a source of well-characterized spent fuel for testing in the US Department of Energy Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Program. ATM-105 consists of 88 full-length irradiated fuel rods with rod-average burnups of about 2400 GJ/kgM (28 MWd/kgM) and expected fission gas release of about 1%. Characterization data include (1) descriptions of as-fabricated fuel design, irradiation history, and subsequent storage and handling; (2) isotopic gamma scans; (3) fission gas analyses; (4) ceramography of the fuel and metallography of the cladding; (5) special fuel studies involving analytical transmission electron microscopy (AEM); (6) calculated nuclide inventories and radioactivities in the fuel and cladding; and (7) radiochemical analyses of the fuel and cladding. Additional analyses of the fuel are being conducted and will be included in planned revisions of this report.

  19. Fuel cell-fuel cell hybrid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisbrecht, Rodney A.; Williams, Mark C.

    2003-09-23

    A device for converting chemical energy to electricity is provided, the device comprising a high temperature fuel cell with the ability for partially oxidizing and completely reforming fuel, and a low temperature fuel cell juxtaposed to said high temperature fuel cell so as to utilize remaining reformed fuel from the high temperature fuel cell. Also provided is a method for producing electricity comprising directing fuel to a first fuel cell, completely oxidizing a first portion of the fuel and partially oxidizing a second portion of the fuel, directing the second fuel portion to a second fuel cell, allowing the first fuel cell to utilize the first portion of the fuel to produce electricity; and allowing the second fuel cell to utilize the second portion of the fuel to produce electricity.

  20. Numerical Investigation of Characteristic of Anisotropic Thermal Conductivity of Natural Fiber Bundle with Numbered Lumens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan-Yu Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural fiber bundle like hemp fiber bundle usually includes many small lumens embedded in solid region; thus, it can present lower thermal conduction than that of conventional fibers. In the paper, characteristic of anisotropic transverse thermal conductivity of unidirectional natural hemp fiber bundle was numerically studied to determine the dependence of overall thermal property of the fiber bundle on that of the solid region phase. In order to efficiently predict its thermal property, the fiber bundle was embedded into an imaginary matrix to form a unit composite cell consisting of the matrix and the fiber bundle. Equally, another unit composite cell including an equivalent solid fiber was established to present the homogenization of the fiber bundle. Next, finite element thermal analysis implemented by ABAQUS was conducted in the two established composite cells by applying proper thermal boundary conditions along the boundary of unit cell, and influences of the solid region phase and the equivalent solid fiber on the composites were investigated, respectively. Subsequently, an optional relationship of thermal conductivities of the natural fiber bundle and the solid region was obtained by curve fitting technique. Finally, numerical results from the obtained fitted curves were compared with the analytic Hasselman-Johnson’s results and others to verify the present numerical model.

  1. Characterization of midrib vascular bundles of selected medicinal species in Rubiaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurul-Syahirah, M.; Noraini, T.; Latiff, A.

    2016-11-01

    An anatomical study was carried out on mature leaves of five selected medicinal species of Rubiaceae from Peninsular Malaysia. The chosen medicinal species were Aidia densiflora, Aidia racemosa, Chasallia chartacea, Hedyotis auricularia and Ixora grandifolia. The objective of this study is to determine the taxonomic value of midrib anatomical characteristics. Leaves samples were collected from Taman Paku Pakis, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor and Kledang Saiong Forest Reserve, Perak, Malaysia. Leaves samples then were fixed in spirit and acetic acid (3:1), the midrib parts then were sectioned using sliding microtome, cleared using Clorox, stained in Safranin and Alcian blue, mounted in Euparal and were observed under light microscope. Findings in this study have shown all species have collateral bundles. The midrib vascular bundles characteristics that can be used as tool to differentiate between species or genus are vascular bundles system (opened or closed), shape and arrangement of main vascular bundles, presence of both additional and medullary vascular bundles, position of additional vascular bundles, shape of medullary vascular bundles, presence of sclerenchyma cells ensheathed the vascular bundles. As a conclusion, midrib anatomical characteristics can be used to identify and discriminate medicinal plants species studied in the Rubiaceae.

  2. Unpacking ecosystem service bundles : Towards predictive mapping of synergies and trade-offs between ecosystem services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spake, Rebecca; Lasseur, Rémy; Crouzat, Emilie; Bullock, James M.; Lavorel, Sandra; Parks, Katherine E.; Schaafsma, Marije; Bennett, Elena M.; Maes, Joachim; Mulligan, Mark; Mouchet, Maud; Peterson, Garry D.; Schulp, Catharina J.E.; Thuiller, Wilfried; Turner, Monica G.; Verburg, Peter H.; Eigenbrod, Felix

    2017-01-01

    Multiple ecosystem services (ES) can respond similarly to social and ecological factors to form bundles. Identifying key social-ecological variables and understanding how they co-vary to produce these consistent sets of ES may ultimately allow the prediction and modelling of ES bundles, and thus,

  3. Local Nucleation of Microtubule Bundles through Tubulin Concentration into a Condensed Tau Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amayra Hernández-Vega

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-centrosomal microtubule bundles play important roles in cellular organization and function. Although many diverse proteins are known that can bundle microtubules, biochemical mechanisms by which cells could locally control the nucleation and formation of microtubule bundles are understudied. Here, we demonstrate that the concentration of tubulin into a condensed, liquid-like compartment composed of the unstructured neuronal protein tau is sufficient to nucleate microtubule bundles. We show that, under conditions of macro-molecular crowding, tau forms liquid-like drops. Tubulin partitions into these drops, efficiently increasing tubulin concentration and driving the nucleation of microtubules. These growing microtubules form bundles, which deform the drops while remaining enclosed by diffusible tau molecules exhibiting a liquid-like behavior. Our data suggest that condensed compartments of microtubule bundling proteins could promote the local formation of microtubule bundles in neurons by acting as non-centrosomal microtubule nucleation centers and that liquid-like tau encapsulation could provide both stability and plasticity to long axonal microtubule bundles.

  4. Local Nucleation of Microtubule Bundles through Tubulin Concentration into a Condensed Tau Phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Vega, Amayra; Braun, Marcus; Scharrel, Lara; Jahnel, Marcus; Wegmann, Susanne; Hyman, Bradley T; Alberti, Simon; Diez, Stefan; Hyman, Anthony A

    2017-09-05

    Non-centrosomal microtubule bundles play important roles in cellular organization and function. Although many diverse proteins are known that can bundle microtubules, biochemical mechanisms by which cells could locally control the nucleation and formation of microtubule bundles are understudied. Here, we demonstrate that the concentration of tubulin into a condensed, liquid-like compartment composed of the unstructured neuronal protein tau is sufficient to nucleate microtubule bundles. We show that, under conditions of macro-molecular crowding, tau forms liquid-like drops. Tubulin partitions into these drops, efficiently increasing tubulin concentration and driving the nucleation of microtubules. These growing microtubules form bundles, which deform the drops while remaining enclosed by diffusible tau molecules exhibiting a liquid-like behavior. Our data suggest that condensed compartments of microtubule bundling proteins could promote the local formation of microtubule bundles in neurons by acting as non-centrosomal microtubule nucleation centers and that liquid-like tau encapsulation could provide both stability and plasticity to long axonal microtubule bundles. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Adhering to a national surgical care bundle reduces the risk of surgical site infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek, Mayke B. G.; Hopmans, Titia E. M.; Soetens, Loes C.; Wille, Jan C.; Geerlings, Suzanne E.; Vos, Margreet C.; van Benthem, Birgit H. B.; de Greeff, Sabine C.

    2017-01-01

    In 2008, a bundle of care to prevent Surgical Site Infections (SSIs) was introduced in the Netherlands. The bundle consisted of four elements: antibiotic prophylaxis according to local guidelines, no hair removal, normothermia and 'hygiene discipline' in the operating room (i.e. number of door

  6. Adhering to a national surgical care bundle reduces the risk of surgical site infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek, M.B.G. (Mayke B. G.); Hopmans, T.E.M. (Titia E. M.); Soetens, L.C. (Loes C.); J.C. Wille (Jan); S.E. Geerlings (Suzanne); M.C. Vos (Margreet); B.H. van Benthem (Birgit); S.C. de Greeff (Sabine C.)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground: In 2008, a bundle of care to prevent Surgical Site Infections (SSIs) was introduced in the Netherlands. The bundle consisted of four elements: antibiotic prophylaxis according to local guidelines, no hair removal, normothermia and ‘hygiene discipline’

  7. Left Bundle Branch Block and Complete Heart Block Complicating Inferior Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Jillian S; Stair, Brad; Aktas, Mehmet; Bravo-Jaimes, Katia

    2017-01-01

    Left bundle branch block following inferior myocardial infarction remains uncommon and scarcely reported in the literature. We describe a rare presentation of a 58-year-old male patient who developed left bundle branch block and third degree atrioventricular block after inferior myocardial infarction requiring permanent pacemaker placement. Pathophysiology, impact on mortality, and management options are discussed. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Changing axis deviation and intermittent right bundle branch block during acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patanè, Salvatore; Marte, Filippo; Sturiale, Mauro

    2011-03-03

    Dissimilar electrocardiographic patterns associated with right bundle branch block have been described. The prognosis of right bundle branch block in the absence of underlying cardiac disease is good but it may be poor in other cases, particularly coronary artery disease. Changing bundle branch block, new right bundle branch block, right bundle branch conduction disturbances have been reported in literature. Changing axis deviation has been reported alone or during acute myocardial infarction also associated with atrial fibrillation. Intermittent right axis deviation has been rarely reported in the presence of left bundle branch block also during atrial fibrillation and with acute myocardial infarction too. Isolated left posterior hemiblock is a very rare finding and transient right axis deviation associated with a left posterior hemiblock pattern has been also rarely described associated with acute myocardial infarction. We describe a case of changing axis deviation with intermittent right bundle branch block in a patient admitted with acute myocardial infarction. Also this case focuses attention on changing axis deviation and intermittent right bundle branch block during acute myocardial infarction. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. To Be or Not To Be: The Existential Issue for National Governance Bundles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Millar-Schijf, Carla C.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Research Question/Issue The article addresses the issue of whether governance bundles which include both formal and informal governance mechanisms should be classified and compared on the basis of national identity. Research Findings/Insights The governance bundle affecting each firm has formal

  10. On the non-existence of orthogonal instanton bundles on P^{2n+1}

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łucja Farnik

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we prove that there do not exist orthogonal instanton bundles on P^{2n+1} . In order to demonstrate this fact, we propose a new way of representing the invariant, introduced by L. Costa and G. Ottaviani, related to a rank 2n instanton bundle on P^{2n+1}.

  11. Engineering the bundled glass column: From the design concept to full-scale experimental testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oikonomopoulou, F.; Bristogianni, T.; Veer, F.A.; Nijsse, R.

    This article gives an overview of the research conducted by the authors from the design concept to the engineering and full-scale testing of the bundled glass column. Consisting of adhesively bonded solid glass rods, the bundled column is a promising solution for transparent compressive members. To

  12. Implementing a Sepsis Resuscitation Bundle Improved Clinical Outcome: A Before-and-After Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeongmin Kim

    2014-11-01

    CONCLUSIONS: Repeated education led by a multidisciplinary team and interdisciplinary communication improved the compliance rate of the 6-h resuscitation bundle in severe sepsis and septic shock patients. Compliance with the sepsis resuscitation bundle was associated with improved 28-day mortality in the study population.

  13. "The Purpose of This Study Is to": Connecting Lexical Bundles and Moves in Research Article Introductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, Viviana

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a group of lexical bundles identified in a corpus of research article introductions as the first step in the analysis of these expressions in the different sections of the research article. A one-million word corpus of research article introductions from various disciplines was compiled and the lexical bundles identified in…

  14. Constructed microhabitat bundles for sampling fishes and crayfishes in coastal plain streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin L. Warren; A.L. Sheldon; W.R. Haag

    2009-01-01

    We investigated fish and crayfish use of standardized, constructed microhabitats (bundles) in three northern Mississippi streams. Cypress Creek and the Little Tallahatchie Canal were channelized and incised and had little woody cover; Puskus Creek was unchannelized and unincised and had abundant woody cover. We constructed three types of bundles (cane, leaf, and string...

  15. A simulation study on the adsorption properties of linear alkanes on closed nanotube bundles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cannon, J.J.; Vlugt, T.J.H.; Dubbeldam, D.; Maruyama, S.; Shiomi, J.

    2012-01-01

    Adsorption onto carbon nanotube bundles may find use in various applications such as gas pre-concentration and separation, and as a result it is of great interest to study the adsorption properties of such bundles. The adsorption of linear alkanes, with their systematic variation through chain

  16. Right bundle branch block with revelation of changing axis deviation at the end of atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patanè, Salvatore; Marte, Filippo; Sturiale, Mauro

    2009-11-12

    Changing axis deviation has been reported also during atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter. Changing axis deviation has been also reported during acute myocardial infarction associated with atrial fibrillation too or at the end of atrial fibrillation during acute myocardial infarction. Left bundle branch block is usually associated with normal or left axis deviation. Rarely the ECG shows a left bundle branch block with changing QRS morphology and changing axis deviation. There are several possible explanations for the intermittent shift in the QRS axis in the presence of complete left bundle branch block. The most plausible explanation is the coexistence of left posterior hemiblock and predivisional left bundle branch block. Intermittent right axis deviation has been rarely reported in the presence of left bundle branch block also during atrial fibrillation and with acute myocardial infarction too. Isolated left posterior hemiblock is a very rare finding and transient right axis deviation associated with a left posterior hemiblock pattern has been also rarely described associated with acute myocardial infarction. Changing axis deviation with changing bundle branch block and new-onset of atrial fibrillation during acute myocardial infarction has been also reported. Changing axis deviation with intermittent right bundle branch block in a patient admitted with acute myocardial infarction has been also described. We present a case of a right bundle branch block with revelation of changing axis deviation at the end of atrial fibrillation in a 68-year-old Italian man.

  17. Atrial fibrillation with intermittent right axis deviation in the presence of complete left bundle branch block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patanè, Salvatore; Marte, Filippo; Di Bella, Gianluca; Chiribiri, Amedeo

    2008-09-16

    Left bundle branch block is usually associated with normal or left axis deviation. Rarely the ecg shows an LBBB with changing QRS morphology and changing axis deviation. We describe a case of atrial fibrillation with intermittent right axis deviation in the presence of complete left bundle branch block in an 84-year-old Italian woman in the Cardiology Unit.

  18. The determinant bundle on the moduli space of stable triples over a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    bundles over a Riemann surface and also on the existence of a special metric on a stable triple established in [BG]. Here is a brief outline of the contents of the paper. In §2, we recall the basic notions about holomorphic triples, their stability, and their moduli spaces. In §3, we construct a natural holomorphic line bundle L on ...

  19. Vector bundles with a fixed determinant on an irreducible nodal curve

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sheaves with a fixed determinant in the moduli space of torsion-free sheaves on Y. The relation to Seshadri–Nagaraj conjecture is studied. Keywords. Nodal curves; torsion-free sheaves; fixed determinant. 1. Introduction. Generalized parabolic vector bundles (GPBs) on a smooth curve X are vector bundles on. X together ...

  20. GPU acceleration of the stochastic grid bundling method for early-exercise options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Leitao Rodriguez (Álvaro); C.W. Oosterlee (Cornelis)

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractIn this work, a parallel graphics processing units (GPU) version of the Monte Carlo stochastic grid bundling method (SGBM) for pricing multi-dimensional early-exercise options is presented. To extend the method’s applicability, the problem dimensions and the number of bundles will be

  1. Unwrapping the Bundle: An Examination of Research Libraries and the "Big Deal"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strieb, Karla L.; Blixrud, Julia C.

    2014-01-01

    This study presents and analyzes the findings of a 2012 survey of member libraries belonging to the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) about publishers' large journal bundles and compares the results to earlier surveys. The data illuminate five research questions: market penetration, journal bundle construction, collection format shifts,…

  2. Hexagonally Ordered Arrays of α-Helical Bundles Formed from Peptide-Dendron Hybrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkley, Deborah A. [Department; Rokhlenko, Yekaterina [Department; Marine, Jeannette E. [Department; David, Rachelle [Department; Sahoo, Dipankar [Department; Watson, Matthew D. [Department; Koga, Tadanori [Department; Department; Osuji, Chinedum O. [Department; Rudick, Jonathan G. [Department

    2017-10-24

    Combining monodisperse building blocks that have distinct folding properties serves as a modular strategy for controlling structural complexity in hierarchically organized materials. We combine an α-helical bundle-forming peptide with self-assembling dendrons to better control the arrangement of functional groups within cylindrical nanostructures. Site-specific grafting of dendrons to amino acid residues on the exterior of the α-helical bundle yields monodisperse macromolecules with programmable folding and self-assembly properties. The resulting hybrid biomaterials form thermotropic columnar hexagonal mesophases in which the peptides adopt an α-helical conformation. Bundling of the α-helical peptides accompanies self-assembly of the peptide-dendron hybrids into cylindrical nanostructures. The bundle stoichiometry in the mesophase agrees well with the size found in solution for α-helical bundles of peptides with a similar amino acid sequence.

  3. A preliminary stability analysis of MYRRHA Primary Heat Exchanger two-phase tube bundle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castelliti, Diego [Studiecentrum voor kernenergie – Centre d’étude de l’énergie nucléaire (SCK-CEN), Boeretang 200, Mol (Belgium); GeNERG – DIME/TEC, University of Genova, Via all’Opera Pia 15/a, 16145 Genova (Italy); Lomonaco, Guglielmo, E-mail: guglielmo.lomonaco@unige.it [GeNERG – DIME/TEC, University of Genova, Via all’Opera Pia 15/a, 16145 Genova (Italy); INFN, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy)

    2016-08-15

    the channel. The stability assessment should take in consideration all the possible reactor operational power levels in order to prove the stable behavior under all operational conditions. The tube bundle stability assessment has been carried out by following a similar procedure used for BWR fuel channels, through a specific RELAP5-3D model representing the PHX and able to evaluate the propagation of a density wave in the tube length. A series of suitable boundary conditions, on both primary and secondary side, and perturbation triggers have been foreseen into the model, so to discover all kind of unstable behavior and to dimension the needed orifice to guarantee the flow stability in all operating conditions. The PHX stability analysis is initially performed on the original tube bundle without the adoption of any stabilizing devices, in order to check the natural behavior of the system. The possible adoption and design of an orifice is then conducted on the basis of this preliminary study. The system response against the various types of instabilities, before the introduction of an orifice, is not completely satisfactory: a stable flow is found within certain specific system parameters ranges. After the introduction of a suitable orifice, the system behavior becomes stable under all operating conditions against all types of two-phase flow instabilities.

  4. A GRAPH BASED BUNDLE ADJUSTMENT FOR INS-CAMERA CALIBRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Bender

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a graph based approach for performing the system calibration of a sensor suite containing a fixed mounted camera and an inertial navigation system. The aim of the presented work is to obtain accurate direct georeferencing of camera images collected with small unmanned aerial systems. Prerequisite for using the pose measurements from the inertial navigation system as exterior orientation for the camera is the knowledge of the static offsets between these devices. Furthermore, the intrinsic parameters of the camera obtained in a laboratory tend to deviate slightly from the values during flights. This induces an in-flight calibration of the intrinsic camera parameters in addition to the mounting offsets between the two devices. The optimization of these values can be done by introducing them as parameters into a bundle adjustment process. We show how to solve this by exploiting a graph optimization framework, which is designed for the least square optimization of general error functions.

  5. a Graph Based Bundle Adjustment for Ins-Camera Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, D.; Schikora, M.; Sturm, J.; Cremers, D.

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, we present a graph based approach for performing the system calibration of a sensor suite containing a fixed mounted camera and an inertial navigation system. The aim of the presented work is to obtain accurate direct georeferencing of camera images collected with small unmanned aerial systems. Prerequisite for using the pose measurements from the inertial navigation system as exterior orientation for the camera is the knowledge of the static offsets between these devices. Furthermore, the intrinsic parameters of the camera obtained in a laboratory tend to deviate slightly from the values during flights. This induces an in-flight calibration of the intrinsic camera parameters in addition to the mounting offsets between the two devices. The optimization of these values can be done by introducing them as parameters into a bundle adjustment process. We show how to solve this by exploiting a graph optimization framework, which is designed for the least square optimization of general error functions.

  6. Sachs equations for light bundles in a cold plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze-Koops, Karen; Perlick, Volker; Schwarz, Dominik J.

    2017-11-01

    We study the propagation of light bundles in non-empty spacetime, as most of the Universe is filled by baryonic matter in the form of a (dilute) plasma. Here we restrict to the case of a cold (i.e. pressureless) and non-magnetised plasma. Then the influence of the medium on the light rays is encoded in the spacetime dependent plasma frequency. Our result for a general spacetime generalises the Sachs equations to the case of a cold plasma Universe. We find that the reciprocity law (Etherington theorem), the relation that connects area distance with luminosity distance, is modified. Einstein’s field equation is not used, i.e. our results apply independently of whether or not the plasma is self-gravitating. As an example, our findings are applied to a homogeneous plasma in a Robertson-Walker spacetime. We find small modifications of the cosmological redshift of frequencies and of the Hubble law.

  7. Anticommons, the Coase Theorem and the problem of bundling inefficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Major

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Coase theorem is most often formulated in terms of bi-lateral monopoly, for instance between a polluting factory and an affected neighbour.  Instead, we introduce multiple affected neighbours and the concept of anticommons, in which autonomous actors with separate yet necessarily complementary inputs each has the right to deny but not to permit use.  Once we posit multiple owners possessing complementary rights, strategically maximizing against each other as well as against the actor who wishes to purchase a portion of that right, the outcome is neither efficient nor invariant.  Our finding, based on non-cooperative game theory, is sustained even under the restrictive Coase assumptions regarding complete information, perfect rationality, and zero transaction costs. The implication is that suboptimal bundling agreements in cases of multiple stakeholders is not the mere product of market imperfection, but instead is a systematic result.

  8. Rare Manifestation of Digoxin Toxicity: Right Bundle Branch Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Dalvir; Zaidi, Samana

    2016-01-01

    A 76-year-old female, with medical history significant for systolic congestive heart failure, who presented to the emergency department with lethargy and abdominal pain with diarrhea for the past 3 weeks. Due to hypotension, the patient received multiple boluses of isotonic saline and was started on norepinephrine. Laboratories were significant for severe digoxin toxicity (29 ng/mL), in setting of acute kidney injury. Electrocardiogram (EKG) revealed a new right bundle branch block (RBBB). She was given Digibind and her repeat digoxin level was 20 ng/mL. Repeat EKG showed resolved RBBB. This case identifies that patients with digoxin toxicity are at risk for RBBB. This is a rare finding and is not commonly recognized. Emergency medicine physicians are often the first to encounter patients with digoxin toxicity and need to be aware of such EKG findings. PMID:28104974

  9. Intermittent left bundle branch block caused by coronary vasospasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhaji, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Intermittent left bundle branch block (LBBB) has been reported in the literature following certain conditions such as cardiac blunt trauma, myocardial infarction (MI) or exercise induced LBBB. In the majority of cases, the patients usually have underlying coronary arteries disease. LBBB often prevents the electrocardiographic diagnosis of acute MI; therefore, new LBBB in the setting of chest pain is usually treated as transmural MI. We describe a case of patient who presented with intermittent LBBB associated with chest pain, and subsequently the patient was taken to the catheterization laboratory for emergency coronary angiogram, which revealed 80% spasm in left anterior descending artery, which was totally relieved by nitroglycerin infusion. No other significant CAD was noted. PMID:23930243

  10. Modified Einstein and Finsler Like Theories on Tangent Lorentz Bundles

    CERN Document Server

    Stavrinos, Panayiotis; Vacaru, Sergiu I.

    2014-01-01

    We study modifications of general relativity, GR, with nonlinear dispersion relations which can be geometrized on tangent Lorentz bundles. Such modified gravity theories, MGTs, can be modeled by gravitational Lagrange density functionals $f(\\mathbf{R},\\mathbf{T},F)$ with generalized/ modified scalar curvature $\\mathbf{R}$, trace of matter field tensors $\\mathbf{T}$ and modified Finsler like generating function $F$. In particular, there are defined extensions of GR with extra dimensional "velocity/ momentum" coordinates. For four dimensional models, we prove that it is possible to decouple and integrate in very general forms the gravitational fields for $f(\\mathbf{R},\\mathbf{T},F)$--modified gravity using nonholonomic 2+2 splitting and nonholonomic Finsler like variables $F$. We study the modified motion and Newtonian limits of massive test particles on nonlinear geodesics approximated with effective extra forces orthogonal to the four-velocity. We compute the constraints on the magnitude of extra-acceleration...

  11. Design of electric control system for automatic vegetable bundling machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yan

    2017-06-01

    A design can meet the requirements of automatic bale food structure and has the advantages of simple circuit, and the volume is easy to enhance the electric control system of machine carrying bunch of dishes and low cost. The bundle of vegetable machine should meet the sensor to detect and control, in order to meet the control requirements; binding force can be adjusted by the button to achieve; strapping speed also can be adjusted, by the keys to set; sensors and mechanical line connection, convenient operation; can be directly connected with the plug, the 220V power supply can be connected to a power source; if, can work, by the transmission signal sensor, MCU to control the motor, drive and control procedures for small motor. The working principle of LED control circuit and temperature control circuit is described. The design of electric control system of automatic dish machine.

  12. Ion-irradiation-induced defects in bundles of carbon nanotubes

    CERN Document Server

    Salonen, E; Nordlund, K

    2002-01-01

    We study the structure and formation yields of atomic-scale defects produced by low-dose Ar ion irradiation in bundles of single-wall carbon nanotubes. For this, we employ empirical potential molecular dynamics and simulate ion impact events over an energy range of 100-1000 eV. We show that the most common defects produced at all energies are vacancies on nanotube walls, which at low temperatures are metastable but long-lived defects. We further calculate the spatial distribution of the defects, which proved to be highly non-uniform. We also show that ion irradiation gives rise to the formations of inter-tube covalent bonds mediated by carbon recoils and nanotube lattice distortions due to dangling bond saturation. The number of inter-tube links, as well as the overall damage, linearly grows with the energy of incident ions.

  13. Assessment of the impacts of spent fuel disassembly alternatives on the Nuclear Waste Isolation System. [Preparing and packaging spent fuel assemblies for geologic disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-07-01

    The objective of this report was to evaluate four possible alternative methods of preparing and packaging spent fuel assemblies for geologic disposal against the Reference Process of unmodified spent fuel. The four alternative processes were: (1) End fitting removal, (2) Fission gas venting and resealing, (3) Fuel bundle disassembly and close packing of fuel pins, and (4) Fuel shearing and immobilization. Systems analysis was used to develop a basis of comparison of the alternatives. Conceptual processes and facility layouts were devised for each of the alternatives, based on technology deemed feasible for the purpose. Assessments were made of 15 principal attributes from the technical, operational, safety/risk, and economic considerations related to each of the alternatives, including both the surface packaging and underground repository operations. Specific attributes of the alternative processes were evaluated by assigning a number for each that expressed its merit relative to the corresponding attribute of the Reference Process. Each alternative process was then ranked by summing the numbers for attributes in each of the four assessment areas and collectively. Fuel bundle disassembly and close packing of fuel pins was ranked the preferred method of disposal of spent fuel. 63 references, 46 figures, 46 tables.

  14. Ultrasonographic evaluation of displaced neurovascular bundle in Dupuytren disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Kosuke; Miura, Toshiki; Morizaki, Yutaka; Miyamoto, Hideaki; Ohe, Takashi; Tanaka, Sakae

    2013-01-01

    Neurovascular injury is a serious complication after surgery for Dupuytren disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the cord and the neurovascular bundle ultrasonographically. We included 22 healthy volunteers and 14 Dupuytren disease patients (25 fingers) in this study. We evaluated the cord and the digital artery with high-resolution ultrasound. We first investigated the effect of the angle of metacarpophalangeal joint on the position of the radial and ulnar digital arteries in volunteers without evidence of Dupuytren disease. We compared 3 parameters of the radial and ulnar digital arteries, including differences in depth, differences in lateral shift, and the shape of the cross-section of the artery, between volunteers and patients with Dupuytren disease. None of these parameters changed with flexion of the metacarpophalangeal joint of 0°, 30°, and 60°. Digital arteries and cords could be identified ultrasonographically in all patients, and we confirmed ultrasonographic findings by operative findings in 13 fingers. We classified the fingers into 3 subgroups based on the ultrasonographic findings: type A (n = 13), in which the cord was above the artery; type B (n = 5), in which the cord was below the artery; and type C (n = 7), in which the cord was located between the radial and ulnar digital arteries. Types A, B, and C corresponded to natatory cord/abductor digiti minimi cord, spiral cord, and central cord, respectively. Comparisons among volunteers and patient subgroups showed that the difference in depth in type B patients was significantly larger than that of the other groups. When we set the cutoff point of the difference in depth to 3 mm, sensitivity and specificity to detect the spiral cord were 80% and 76%, respectively. The relationship between the neurovascular bundle and the type of Dupuytren disease cord can be evaluated by high-resolution ultrasound. Diagnostic III. Copyright © 2013 American Society for

  15. Anatomical Double-Bundle Coracoclavicular Reconstruction in Chronic Acromioclavicular Dislocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Ki; Song, Dae Geon; Choy, Won Sik

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and radiological outcomes of anatomical double-bundle coracoclavicular (CC) reconstruction using the coracoacromial (CA) ligament and the conjoined tendon for the treatment of chronic acromioclavicular (AC) joint dislocation. A retrospective evaluation was performed on 18 patients who underwent an anatomical CC reconstruction using the CA ligament and the conjoined tendon for chronic AC joint dislocation. Patients were treated surgically between April 2007 and January 2012. Mean follow-up was 35.3 months (range, 24-49 months). All patients were evaluated for functional outcomes using the modified University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) shoulder rating scale for chronic AC injury and the Constant-Murley shoulder outcome score. Range of motion and shoulder and elbow strength were also measured. Plain radiographs were taken to evaluate reduction status and CC distance. Mean modified UCLA shoulder rating scale at final follow-up was 18.1 points (range, 13-20 points). No significant difference in mean Constant-Murley scores existed between the injured and contralateral shoulders (P=.26). At final follow-up, 15 (83.3%) patients had well-maintained reduction and 2 (11.1%) patients had a partial loss of reduction. One other patient had a complete loss of reduction due to a postoperative fall. The CC distance was not significantly different between the injured and contralateral shoulders in the immediate postoperative period (P=.46) or at final follow-up (P=.14). One superficial wound infection occurred and was treated with routine wound care. An anatomical double-bundle CC reconstruction using the CA ligament and the conjoined tendon for the treatment of chronic AC joint dislocation is a reliable surgical method with good results. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. The severe sepsis bundles as processes of care: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Diane J; Willis, Eileen M; Bersten, Andrew B

    2011-11-01

    The use of the sepsis bundles in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock has been controversial in the last decade. Clinical studies have reported beneficial, as well as negative results. We conducted a meta-analysis to assess the clinical evidence and to evaluate survival effects. Database searches (2004-current) of Medline, CINAHL, Pubmed, Cochrane, Scopus and Google scholar databases which covered full publications, abstracts from conferences and digital thesis were performed using the search terms sepsis, septic shock and/or bundles, processes of care, guidelines, early goal directed therapy, resuscitation. From 253 identified studies, 21 sepsis bundle original studies were selected and included 23,438 patients. The Resuscitation 6 hour Bundle pooled analysis (1819 patients) achieved the greatest survival benefit (odds ratio (OR) 2.124, 95% CI 1.701-2.651, p<0.000) with the Management 24 hour Bundle pooled analysis the lowest survival benefit (16,521 patients) (OR 1.646, 95% CI 1.036-2.614, p<0.035). Both bundles together (Complete Bundle) achieved a combined survival benefit (OR 1.744, 95% CI 1.421-2.141, p<0.000). ScvO2 and blood glucose components were analysed individually to assess their contribution to survival. The Resuscitation 6 hour bundle in the context of the patient population at hand is unlikely to do harm and is yet to be established in primary research in Australia. The Management 24 hour Bundle could not establish a strong enough survival benefit above current routine practice. The sepsis guidelines and bundles have demanded more credible process measurements and debate to induce positive changes in the intervention and treatment care of patients with severe sepsis. Copyright © 2011 Australian College of Critical Care Nurses Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evidence for two populations of hair bundles in the sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, Shelcie S; Watson, Glen M

    2017-06-01

    Cytochalasin D (CD) was employed to disrupt F-actin within stereocilia of anemone hair bundles. CD treatment decreases the abundance of hair bundles (by 85%) while significantly impairing predation. The remaining hair bundles are 'CD-resistant.' Surprisingly, the morphology and F-actin content of resistant hair bundles are comparable to those of untreated controls. However, the resistant hair bundles fail to respond normally to the N-acetylated sugar, NANA, by elongating. Instead, they remain at resting length. Immediately after CD treatment, when only CD-resistant hair bundles are present, nematocyst discharge is normal into targets touched to tentacles in the absence of vibrations (i.e., baseline) but fails to increase normally in the presence of nearby vibrations at 56Hz, a key frequency. After CD treatment, the abundance of hair bundles recovers to control levels within three hours. At 2h after CD treatment, when CD-resistant and CD-sensitive hair bundles are both present, but a full-recovery is not yet complete, somewhat enhanced discharge of nematocysts occurs into targets touched to tentacles in the presence of nearby vibrations at 56Hz (at least as compared to the response of CD-treated animals to contact with test probes in the absence of vibrations). Additionally, at 2h after CD-treatment, prey capture recovers to normal. Thus, two populations of hair bundles may be present on tentacles of sea anemones: those that are CD-resistant and those that are CD-sensitive. The functions of these hair bundles may be distinct. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Molecular mechanism of bundle formation by the bacterial actin ParM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popp, David, E-mail: dpopp@imcb.a-star.edu.sg [ERATO ' Actin Filament Dynamics' Project, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, c/o RIKEN Harima Institute at Spring 8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, 61 Biopolis Drive, Proteos, 138673 Singapore (Singapore); Narita, Akihiro [ERATO ' Actin Filament Dynamics' Project, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, c/o RIKEN Harima Institute at Spring 8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Nagoya University Graduate School of Science, Structural Biology Research Center and Division of Biological Sciences, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Iwasa, Mitsusada [ERATO ' Actin Filament Dynamics' Project, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, c/o RIKEN Harima Institute at Spring 8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Maeda, Yuichiro [ERATO ' Actin Filament Dynamics' Project, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, c/o RIKEN Harima Institute at Spring 8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Nagoya University Graduate School of Science, Structural Biology Research Center and Division of Biological Sciences, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Robinson, Robert C. [Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, 61 Biopolis Drive, Proteos, 138673 Singapore (Singapore)

    2010-01-22

    The actin homolog ParM plays a microtubule-like role in segregating DNA prior to bacterial cell division. Fluorescence and cryo-electron microscopy have shown that ParM forms filament bundles between separating DNA plasmids in vivo. Given the lack of ParM bundling proteins it remains unknown how ParM bundles form at the molecular level. Here we show using time-lapse TIRF microscopy, under in vitro molecular crowding conditions, that ParM-bundle formation consists of two distinct phases. At the onset of polymerization bundle thickness and shape are determined in the form of nuclei of short helically disordered filaments arranged in a liquid-like lattice. These nuclei then undergo an elongation phase whereby they rapidly increase in length. At steady state, ParM bundles fuse into one single large aggregate. This behavior had been predicted by theory but has not been observed for any other cytomotive biopolymer, including F-actin. We employed electron micrographs of ParM rafts, which are 2-D analogs of 3-D bundles, to identify the main molecular interfilament contacts within these suprastructures. The interface between filaments is similar for both parallel and anti-parallel orientations and the distribution of filament polarity is random within a bundle. We suggest that the interfilament interactions are not due to the interactions of specific residues but rather to long-range, counter ion mediated, electrostatic attractive forces. A randomly oriented bundle ensures that the assembly is rigid and that DNA may be captured with equal efficiency at both ends of the bundle via the ParR binding protein.

  19. Bundling in Place: Translating the NGSS into Place-Based Earth-System Science Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semken, S. C.

    2016-12-01

    Bundling is the process of grouping Performance Expectations (PEs) from the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) into coherent units based on a defined topic, idea, question, or phenomenon. Bundling sorts the PEs for a given grade or grade band into a teachable narrative: a key stage in building curriculum, instruction, and assessment from the NGSS. To encourage and facilitate this, bundling guidelines have recently been released on the NGSS website (nextgenscience.org/glossary/bundlesbundling), and example bundles for different grade bands and disciplines are also being developed and posted there. According to these guidelines the iterative process of bundling begins with organization of PEs according to natural connections among them, and alignment of the three NGSS dimensions (Disciplinary Core Ideas, Cross-Cutting Concepts, and Science and Engineering Practices) that underpin each PE. Bundles are grouped by coherence and increasing complexity into courses, and courses into course sets that should encompass all PEs for a grade band. Bundling offers a natural way to translate the NGSS into highly contextualized curricula such as place-based (PB) teaching, which is situated in specific places or regions and focused on natural and cultural features, processes, phenomena, history, and challenges to sustainability therein. Attributes of place and our individual and collective connections to place (sense of place) directly inform PB curriculum, pedagogy, and assessment. PEs can be bundled by their relevance to these themes. Following the NGSS guidelines, I model the process for PB instruction by bundling PEs around the themes of Paleozoic geology and carbonate deposition and their relationships to mining and calcining of limestone in Anthropocene cement production for developing communities. The bundles integrate aspects of Earth history, the carbon cycle, mineral resources, climate change, and sustainability using specific local examples and narratives. They are

  20. Translating Pressure Ulcer Prevention Into Intensive Care Nursing Practice: Overlaying a Care Bundle Approach With a Model for Research Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayyib, Nahla; Coyer, Fiona

    This article reports on the development and implementation process used to integrate a care bundle approach (a pressure ulcer [PU] prevention bundle to improve patients' skin integrity in intensive care) and the Ottawa Model of Research Use (OMRU). The PU prevention care bundle demonstrated significant reduction in PU incidence, with the OMRU model providing a consolidated framework for the implementation of bundled evidence in an effective and consistent manner into daily clinical nursing practice.

  1. GNF2 advance fuel design and operation at Cofrentes NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mata, Pedro [Iberdrola Generacion (Spain)

    2009-06-15

    Iberdrola Nuclear Production nuclear fuel management policy has been focused in the fuel vendor diversification with the goal to improve the fuel efficiency and to maintain the security of fuel supply together with the availability of the most advanced fuel design. Thus, the most advanced fuel design developed by each vendor has been loaded in the Cofrentes NPP in order to achieve the demanding operating conditions including power up-rate and cycle length extension. In order to obtain the above goals, Iberdrola has developed an in-house methodology (Giralda Methodology) for the bundle and nuclear design and licensing of reload. This methodology, together with the support of fuel vendor, has been applied to perform the nuclear and cycle design for the operation of this new design to be loaded in Cofrentes next outage scheduled by September 2009. The GNF2 licensing process is going to be performed taken into account the feedback obtained during the licensing process with the Spanish Regulatory Body of former fuel designs loaded at the plant, as the SVEA Optima2 developed by Westinghouse and the Atrium10XP developed by Areva. Together with the design and licensing process, and associated with the expected change in plant water chemistry conditions due to the application of the Online Nobel Metal Injection a specific inspection plan has been defined to assure the expected performance of this advance fuel design at the plant. (authors)

  2. Development of improved thermal hydraulics and fuel performance technology; development of turbulence model and simulation code for flow analysis in nuclear fuel assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myung, H. K.; Yang, S. Y.; Kim, B. H.; Song, J. H.; Oh, J. Z. [Kookmin University, Seoul (Korea)

    2002-03-01

    The flow through a nuclear rod bundle with mixing vanes is very complex and so required a suitable turbulence model for its accurate prediction. Subchannel flow in a nuclear bundle having vanes to mix flow appears complex turbulent flow. Objective of this study is to investigate performance of prediction about turbulence model contained in STAR-CD code and to develop suitable turbulence model which can predict complex flow in nuclear assembly. For several nonlinear {kappa}-{epsilon} turbulence models, their performance were investigated in the prediction of the flow in nuclear fuel assembly, and also their problems were discussed in detail. The results obtained from the present research would give a help for the development of turbulence model which can accurately predict the flow through the rod bundles with mixing vanes. 19 refs., 32 figs., 3 tabs. (Author)

  3. In-Core Fuel Managements for PWRs: Investigation on solution for optimal utilization of PWR fuel through the use of fuel assemblies with differently enriched {sup 235}U fuel pins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caprioli, Sara

    2004-04-01

    rather significant and are of the order of 0.5 -1.5 %. The differences between the multiplication factor of the standard assemblies and the multiplication factor of the new bundles are of the order of tens of pcm. Generally, the bundles in which the enrichment levels are distributed on a wider range are the most deviated with respect to the standard assemblies. At a core level, focus has been given on the evaluation of the impact that those assemblies that improve the power density properties of the reference assemblies give to the core when replaced to the standard assemblies. In fact, simulations performed on cycle 17 and cycle 18 revealed that the use of assemblies with a higher internal peaking factor than in the reference bundle leads to an increase in the core peaking factors. In particular, the enthalpy raise hot channel factor is above the design limit value. Therefore, the core loading patterns that result from the use of these particular bundles are not acceptable. The two major optimization goals have been: a) lower peaking factors and b) longer cycle lengths. Generally, the use of the new assembly types decreases the core peaking factors more or less significantly in all the cycles, while a very relevant extension of the cycle length can be seen only for the last cycle. In the transition cycles, cycle 18 and 19, in particular, the use of the new fuel assemblies leads to a major loss in the cycle length (of the order of 12 %). In cycle 21, finally the cycle length obtained through the core simulations represents a great gain with respect to the reference cycle, extending the cycle lifetime up to more than 20 %. Cycle 21 represents a more equilibrated cycle in the sense that its core composition is more homogeneous than in the other cycles with respect to the new assembly types. In fact, in cycle 21 more than 99 % of the assemblies present in the core are of the new type. The extension in the cycle length detected in cycle 21 is partially due to the fuel

  4. Association between cingulum bundle structure and cognitive performance: an observational study in major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schermuly, I; Fellgiebel, A; Wagner, S; Yakushev, I; Stoeter, P; Schmitt, R; Knickenberg, R J; Bleichner, F; Beutel, M E

    2010-10-01

    Major depression can be regarded as a systemic neurobehavioral disorder resulting from dysfunction of the limbic-cortical networks. The cingulum bundle represents a major association fiber tract of those networks. The aim of our study was to determine the association of brain structural tissue markers of the cingulum bundle and cognitive function in patients with major depression. Region-of-interest-based analyses of the middle-anterior and middle-posterior cingulum bundle fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) using color-coded diffusion-tensor imaging and neuropsychological assessment in 14 patients with major depression. FA of the middle-anterior and middle-posterior cingulum bundle was significantly correlated to the performance in a planning and divided attention task. Furthermore, MD of the middle-posterior cingulum bundle was significantly correlated to a planning task. There was no significant correlation between FA and MD of the cingulum bundle and selective attention or memory. Brain structural tissue markers of the middle-anterior and middle-posterior cingulum bundle were found to be associated with executive functioning and divided attention in patients with major depression. Disconnection within the limbic-cortical networks may underlay cognitive dysfunction in major depression. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Food bundling as a health nudge: Investigating consumer fruit and vegetable selection using behavioral economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Kathryn A; Samek, Anya; Zepeda, Lydia

    2018-02-01

    Displaying bundles of healthy foods at the grocery store is a health nudge that simplifies shopping and may have the potential for increasing fruit and vegetable (F&V) purchasing. To evaluate the impact of food bundling, we conduct an artefactual field experiment with community participants in a laboratory set up as a grocery store. Dual-self theory suggests that food choices may differ depending on whether shoppers are under cognitive load - in our experiment, we exogenously vary whether bundles are displayed (with and without a price discount) and whether shoppers are under cognitive load. Our findings align with prior studies that suggest unhealthy options are more likely to be selected when cognitive resources are constrained. When bundles are displayed, we observe increased F&V purchasing. We also observe a significant interaction between cognitive load and price discounting. We find discounted bundles are more effective in the absence of cognitive load, but non-discounted bundles are more effective when shoppers are under cognitive load. Although more research is warranted, our findings suggest that when shopping under cognitive load, it is possible that discounts impose additional cognitive strain on the shopping experience. For retailers and policymakers, our results point to the potential power of bundling as a strategy for increasing healthy food purchasing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cysteine-rich protein 1 (CRP1 regulates actin filament bundling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraley Tamara S

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cysteine-rich protein 1 (CRP1 is a LIM domain containing protein localized to the nucleus and the actin cytoskeleton. CRP1 has been demonstrated to bind the actin-bundling protein α-actinin and proposed to modulate the actin cytoskeleton; however, specific regulatory mechanisms have not been identified. Results CRP1 expression increased actin bundling in rat embryonic fibroblasts. Although CRP1 did not affect the bundling activity of α-actinin, CRP1 was found to stabilize the interaction of α-actinin with actin bundles and to directly bundle actin microfilaments. Using confocal and photobleaching fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET microscopy, we demonstrate that there are two populations of CRP1 localized along actin stress fibers, one associated through interaction with α-actinin and one that appears to bind the actin filaments directly. Consistent with a role in regulating actin filament cross-linking, CRP1 also localized to the membrane ruffles of spreading and PDGF treated fibroblasts. Conclusion CRP1 regulates actin filament bundling by directly cross-linking actin filaments and stabilizing the interaction of α-actinin with actin filament bundles.

  7. Thermal analysis model for the temperature distribution of the CANDU spent fuel assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hae Yun; Kwon, Jong Soo; Park, Seong Hoon; Kim, Seong Rea; Lee, Gi Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this technical is to introduce the methodology and experimental process for the experimental research work with the mock-up test performed to verify and validate the MAXROT code which is a thermal analysis method for Wolsong (CANDU) spent fuel dry storage canister. The experiment was conducted simulating the heat transfer characteristics of combinations of equilateral triangular and square pitch arrays of heater rods, similar to a CANDU spent fuel bundle. After assembly of the heater rod bundle into the containment vessel, the experimental apparatus was operated under the same operating and boundary conditions as an interim dry storage condition at the nuclear power plant site. The reduced data from this experiment has been utilized to verity a model developed to predict the maximum fuel rod surface temperature in a fuel bundle. These test procedures and the experiment can be utilized to establish the fine thermal analysis method applicable to dry storage system for the spent fuel. 12 figs., 5 tabs., 36 refs. (Author) .new.

  8. Coupling and elastic loading affect the active response by the inner ear hair cell bundles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clark Elliott Strimbu

    Full Text Available Active hair bundle motility has been proposed to underlie the amplification mechanism in the auditory endorgans of non-mammals and in the vestibular systems of all vertebrates, and to constitute a crucial component of cochlear amplification in mammals. We used semi-intact in vitro preparations of the bullfrog sacculus to study the effects of elastic mechanical loading on both natively coupled and freely oscillating hair bundles. For the latter, we attached glass fibers of different stiffness to the stereocilia and observed the induced changes in the spontaneous bundle movement. When driven with sinusoidal deflections, hair bundles displayed phase-locked response indicative of an Arnold Tongue, with the frequency selectivity highest at low amplitudes and decreasing under stronger stimulation. A striking broadening of the mode-locked response was seen with increasing stiffness of the load, until approximate impedance matching, where the phase-locked response remained flat over the physiological range of frequencies. When the otolithic membrane was left intact atop the preparation, the natural loading of the bundles likewise decreased their frequency selectivity with respect to that observed in freely oscillating bundles. To probe for signatures of the active process under natural loading and coupling conditions, we applied transient mechanical stimuli to the otolithic membrane. Following the pulses, the underlying bundles displayed active movement in the opposite direction, analogous to the twitches observed in individual cells. Tracking features in the otolithic membrane indicated that it moved in phase with the bundles. Hence, synchronous active motility evoked in the system of coupled hair bundles by external input is sufficient to displace large overlying structures.

  9. A contribution to understanding the structure of amphivasal secondary bundles in monocotyledons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Jura-Morawiec

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Secondary growth of monocotyledonous plants is connected with the activity of the monocot cambium that accumulates most of the derivatives inner to the cambial cylinder. These derivatives differentiate into (a secondary bundles with the amphivasal arrangement, i.e. xylem composed of tracheids surrounds the phloem cells and (b the parenchymatous secondary conjunctive tissue in which the bundles are embedded. The amphivasal secondary bundles differ in the arrangement of xylem cells as visible on single cross sections through the secondary body of the monocots. Apart from the bundles with typical ring of tracheids also the bundles where tracheids do not quite surround the phloem are present. We aimed to elucidate the cross sectional anatomy of the amphivasal secondary bundles with the use of the serial sectioning method which allowed us to follow very precisely the bundle structure along its length. The studies were carried out with the samples of secondary tissues collected from the stem of Dracaena draco L. growing in the greenhouses of the Polish Academy of Sciences Botanical Garden – CBDC in Powsin and the Adam Mickiewicz University Botanical Garden. The material was fixed in a mixture of glycerol and ethanol (1:1; v/v, dehydrated stepwise with graded ethanol series and finally embedded in epon resin. Afterwards, the material was sectioned with microtome into continuous series of thin (3 μm sections, stained with PAS/toluidine blue and examined under the light microscope. The results, described in details in Jura‑Morawiec & Wiland-Szymańska (2014, revealed novel facts about tracheids arrangement. Each amphivasal bundle is composed of sectors where tracheids form a ring as well as of such where tracheids are separated by vascular parenchyma cells. We hypothesize that strands of vascular parenchyma cells locally separating the tracheids enable radial transport of assimilates from sieve elements of the bundle towards the sink tissues, e

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging of double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poellinger, Alexander; Hamm, Bernd; Asbach, Patrick [Charite, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Scheffler, Sven [Charite, Department for Orthopaedic Surgery and Traumatology, Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery, Berlin (Germany)

    2009-04-15

    Reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) using the double-bundle technique is getting highly increasing attention. This surgical approach uses two separate tendon grafts with the intention to reconstruct both anatomic bundles in order to restore the full biomechanical function of the original ligament. With the increasing popularity of this technique, radiologists will be more frequently confronted with patients who underwent this surgical procedure. The aims of this essay are to briefly describe the basic biomechanical and surgical principles and to summarize the magnetic resonance imaging findings of the knee after double-bundle ACL reconstruction. (orig.)

  11. Parabolic Higgs bundles and Teichmüller spaces for punctured surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Biswas, I; Govindarajan, S; Biswas, Indranil; Gastesi, Pablo; Govindarajan, Suresh

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we study the relation between parabolic Higgs bundles and irreducible representations of the fundamental group of punctured Riemann surfaces established by Simpson. We generalize a result of Hitchin, identifying those parabolic Higgs bundles that correspond to Fuchsian representations. We also study the Higgs bundles that give representations whose image is contained, after conjugation, in SL(k,\\Bbb R). We compute the real dimension of one of the components of this space of representations, which in the absence of punctures is the generalized Teichm\\"uller space introduced by Hitchin, and which in the case of k=2 is the Teichm\\"uller space of the Riemann surface.

  12. Structural Studies of Amphiphilic 4-Helix Bundle Peptides Incorporating Designed Extended Chromophores for Nonlinear Optical Biomolecular Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strzalka,J.; Xu, T.; Tronin, A.; Wu, S.; Miloradovic, I.; Kuzmenko, I.; Gog, T.; Therien, M.; Blasie, K.

    2006-01-01

    Extended conjugated chromophores containing (porphinato)zinc components that exhibit large optical polarizabilities and hyperpolarizabiliites are incorporated into amphiphilic 4-helix bundle peptides via specific axial histidyl ligation of the metal. The bundle's designed amphiphilicity enables vectorial orientation of the chromophore/peptide complex in macroscopic monolayer ensembles. The 4-helix bundle structure is maintained upon incorporation of two different chromophores at stoichiometries of 1-2 per bundle. The axial ligation site appears to effectively control the position of the chromophore along the length of the bundle.

  13. LANL MOX fuel lead assemblies data report for the surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, S.E.; Holdaway, R.; Ludwig, S.B. [and others

    1998-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to support the US Department of Energy (DOE) Fissile Materials Disposition Program`s preparation of the draft surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement. This is one of several responses to data call requests for background information on activities associated with the operation of the lead assembly (LA) mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication facility. LANL has proposed an LA MOX fuel fabrication approach that would be done entirely inside an S and S Category 1 area. This includes receipt and storage of PuO{sub 2} powder, fabrication of MOX fuel pellets, assembly of fuel rods and bundles, and shipping of the packaged fuel to a commercial reactor site. Support activities will take place within both Category 1 and 2 areas. Technical Area (TA) 55/Plutonium Facility 4 will be used to store the bulk PuO{sub 2} powder, fabricate MOX fuel pellets, assemble rods, and store fuel bundles. Bundles will be assembled at a separate facility, several of which have been identified as suitable for that activity. The Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Building (at TA-3) will be used for analytical chemistry support. Waste operations will be conducted in TA-50 and TA-54. Only very minor modifications will be needed to accommodate the LA program. These modifications consist mostly of minor equipment upgrades. A commercial reactor operator has not been identified for the LA irradiation. Postirradiation examination (PIE) of the irradiated fuel will take place at either Oak Ridge National Laboratory or ANL-W. The only modifications required at either PIE site would be to accommodate full-length irradiated fuel rods. Results from this program are critical to the overall plutonium distribution schedule.

  14. Reforming of fuel inside fuel cell generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimble, Ralph E.

    1988-01-01

    Disclosed is an improved method of reforming a gaseous reformable fuel within a solid oxide fuel cell generator, wherein the solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plurality of individual fuel cells in a refractory container, the fuel cells generating a partially spent fuel stream and a partially spent oxidant stream. The partially spent fuel stream is divided into two streams, spent fuel stream I and spent fuel stream II. Spent fuel stream I is burned with the partially spent oxidant stream inside the refractory container to produce an exhaust stream. The exhaust stream is divided into two streams, exhaust stream I and exhaust stream II, and exhaust stream I is vented. Exhaust stream II is mixed with spent fuel stream II to form a recycle stream. The recycle stream is mixed with the gaseous reformable fuel within the refractory container to form a fuel stream which is supplied to the fuel cells. Also disclosed is an improved apparatus which permits the reforming of a reformable gaseous fuel within such a solid oxide fuel cell generator. The apparatus comprises a mixing chamber within the refractory container, means for diverting a portion of the partially spent fuel stream to the mixing chamber, means for diverting a portion of exhaust gas to the mixing chamber where it is mixed with the portion of the partially spent fuel stream to form a recycle stream, means for injecting the reformable gaseous fuel into the recycle stream, and means for circulating the recycle stream back to the fuel cells.

  15. Natural convection heat transfer within horizontal spent nuclear fuel assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canaan, R.E.

    1995-12-01

    Natural convection heat transfer is experimentally investigated in an enclosed horizontal rod bundle, which characterizes a spent nuclear fuel assembly during dry storage and/or transport conditions. The basic test section consists of a square array of sixty-four stainless steel tubular heaters enclosed within a water-cooled rectangular copper heat exchanger. The heaters are supplied with a uniform power generation per unit length while the surrounding enclosure is maintained at a uniform temperature. The test section resides within a vacuum/pressure chamber in order to subject the assembly to a range of pressure statepoints and various backfill gases. The objective of this experimental study is to obtain convection correlations which can be used in order to easily incorporate convective effects into analytical models of horizontal spent fuel systems, and also to investigate the physical nature of natural convection in enclosed horizontal rod bundles in general. The resulting data consist of: (1) measured temperatures within the assembly as a function of power, pressure, and backfill gas; (2) the relative radiative contribution for the range of observed temperatures; (3) correlations of convective Nusselt number and Rayleigh number for the rod bundle as a whole; and (4) correlations of convective Nusselt number as a function of Rayleigh number for individual rods within the array.

  16. Thermal-Hydraulic Research Review and Cooperation Outcome for Light Water Reactor Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    In, Wang Kee; Shin, Chang Hwan; Lee, Chan; Chun, Tae Hyun; Oh, Dong Seok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chi Young [Pukyong Nat’l Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    The fuel assembly for pressurized water reactor (PWR) consists of fuel rod bundle, spacer grid and bottom/top end fittings. The cooling water in high pressure and temperature is introduced in lower plenum of reactor core and directed to upper plenum through the subchannel which is formed between the fuel rods. The main thermalhydraulic performance parameters for the PWR fuel are pressure drop and critical heat flux in normal operating condition, and quenching time in accident condition. The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has been developing an advanced PWR fuel, dual-cooled annular fuel and accident tolerant fuel for the enhancement of fuel performance and the localization. For the key thermal-hydraulic technology development of PWR fuel, the KAERI LWR fuel team has conducted the experiments for pressure drop, turbulent flow mixing and heat transfer, critical heat flux(CHF) and quenching. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was also performed to predict flow and heat transfer in fuel assembly including the spent fuel assembly in dry cask for interim repository. In addition, the research cooperation with university and nuclear fuel company was also carried out to develop a basic thermalhydraulic technology and the commercialization.

  17. [Right Bundle Branch Block, Left Bundle Branch Block, Pace Maker in Case of Acute Coronary Syndrome - is the ECG of any Value?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grautoff, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    The 12 lead ECG is difficult to evaluate if there is a persistent right or even left bundle block or a pace maker continually stimulating the right ventricle. Despite these pre-existing or new ECG changes it might still be possible to detect variations which can hint to an ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Diagnosing significant ST elevations in a case of right bundle block is not very challenging. If the ECG shows a left bundle block the modified Sgarbossa criteria should be used for evaluation. These criteria can also be used in a pace maker ECG. If a patient is not pacemaker-dependent the stimulation can be paused transiently to reveal changes of the ST segment. At first medical contact it can be very important to assess these changes correctly in order to classify the ECG as a STEMI. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Plasticity in bundle sheath extensions of heterobaric leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Douglas J; McInerney, Francesca A; Kouwenberg, Lenny L R; Gonzalez-Meler, Miquel A

    2012-07-01

    Leaf venation is linked to physiological performance, playing a critical role in ecosystem function. Despite the importance of leaf venation, associated bundle sheath extensions (BSEs) remain largely unstudied. Here, we quantify plasticity in the spacing of BSEs over irradiance and precipitation gradients. Because physiological function(s) of BSEs remain uncertain, we additionally explored a link between BSEs and water use efficiency (WUE). We sampled leaves of heterobaric trees along intracrown irradiance gradients in natural environments and growth chambers and correlated BSE spacing to incident irradiance. Additionally, we sampled leaves along a precipitation gradient and correlated BSE spacing to precipitation and bulk δ(13)C, a proxy for intrinsic WUE. BSE spacing was quantified using a novel semiautomatic method on fresh leaf tissue. With increased irradiance or decreased precipitation, Liquidambar styraciflua decreased BSE spacing, while Acer saccharum showed little variation in BSE spacing. Two additional species, Quercus robur and Platanus occidentalis, decreased BSE spacing with increased irradiance in growth chambers. BSE spacing correlated with bulk δ(13)C, a proxy for WUE in L. styraciflua, Q. robur, and P. occidentalis leaves but not in leaves of A. saccharum. We demonstrated that BSE spacing is plastic with respect to irradiance or precipitation and independent from veins, indicating BSE involvement in leaf adaptation to a microenvironment. Plasticity in BSE spacing was correlated with WUE only in some species, not supporting a function in water relations. We discuss a possible link between BSE plasticity and life history, particularly canopy position.

  19. Bundled-Optode Method in Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoang-Dung Nguyen

    Full Text Available In this paper, a theory for detection of the absolute concentrations of oxy-hemoglobin (HbO and deoxy-hemoglobin (HbR from hemodynamic responses using a bundled-optode configuration in functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS is proposed. The proposed method is then applied to the identification of two fingers (i.e., little and thumb during their flexion and extension. This experiment involves a continuous-wave-type dual-wavelength (760 and 830 nm fNIRS and five healthy male subjects. The active brain locations of two finger movements are identified based on the analysis of the t- and p-values of the averaged HbOs, which are quite distinctive. Our experimental results, furthermore, revealed that the hemodynamic responses of two-finger movements are different: The mean, peak, and time-to-peak of little finger movements are higher than those of thumb movements. It is noteworthy that the developed method can be extended to 3-dimensional fNIRS imaging.

  20. RBA: Reduced Bundle Adjustment for oblique aerial photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yanbiao; Sun, Huabo; Yan, Lei; Fan, Shiyue; Chen, Rui

    2016-11-01

    This study proposes an efficient Bundle Adjustment (BA) model for oblique aerial photogrammetry to reduce the number of unknown parameters and the dimensions of a non-linear optimization problem. Instead of serving as independent exterior orientations, oblique camera poses are parameterized with nadir camera poses and constant relative poses between oblique and nadir cameras. New observation functions are created with image points as a function of the nadir pose and the relative pose parameters. With these observation functions, the problem of BA is defined as finding optimal unknown parameters by minimizing the total difference between estimated and observed image points. A Gauss-Newton optimization method is utilized to provide a solution for this least-square problem with a reduced normal equation, which plays a very critical role in the convergence and efficiency of BA. Compared with traditional BA methods, the number of unknown parameters and the dimension of the normal equations decrease, this approach dramatically reduces the computational complexity and memory cost especially for large-scale scenarios with a number of oblique images. Four synthetic datasets and a real dataset were used to check the validation and the accuracy of the proposed method. The accuracy of the proposed method is very close to that of the traditional BA method, but the efficiency can be significantly improved by the proposed method. For very large-scale scenarios, the proposed method can still address the limitation of memory and orientate all images captured by an oblique aerial multi-camera system.