WorldWideScience

Sample records for hana districts south

  1. Phase 1 archaeological investigation, cultural resources survey, Hawaii Geothermal Project, Makawao and Hana districts, south shore of Maui, Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erkelens, C. [International Archaeological Research Inst., Inc., Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1995-04-01

    This report details the archaeological investigation of a 200 foot wide sample corridor extending approximately 9 miles along the southern portion of Maui within the present districts of Hana and Makawao. The survey team documented a total of 51 archaeological sites encompassing 233 surface features. Archaeological sites are abundant throughout the region and only become scarce where vegetation has been bulldozed for ranching activities. At the sea-land transition points for the underwater transmission cable, both Ahihi Bay and Huakini Bay are subjected to seasonal erosion and redeposition of their boulder shorelines. The corridor at the Ahihi Bay transition point runs through the Maonakala Village Complex which is an archaeological site on the State Register of Historic Places within a State Natural Area Reserve. Numerous other potentially significant archaeological sites lie within the project corridor. It is likely that rerouting of the corridor in an attempt to avoid known sites would result in other undocumented sites located outside the sample corridor being impacted. Given the distribution of archaeological sites, there is no alternative route that can be suggested that is likely to avoid encountering sites. Twelve charcoal samples were obtained for potential taxon identification and radiocarbon analysis. Four of these samples were subsequently submitted for dating and species identification. Bird bones from various locations within a lava tube were collected for identification. Sediment samples for subsequent pollen analysis were obtained from within two lava tubes. With these three sources of information it is hoped that paleoenvironmental data can be recovered that will enable a better understanding of the setting for Hawaiian habitation of the area.

  2. Phase I Archaeological Investigation Cultural Resources Survey, Hawaii Geothermal Project, Makawao and Hana Districts, South Shore of Maui, Hawaii (DRAFT )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erkelens, Conrad

    1994-03-01

    This report details the archaeological investigation of a 200 foot wide sample corridor extending approximately 9 miles along the southern portion of Maui within the present districts of Hana and Makawao. A total of 51 archaeological sites encompassing 233 surface features were documented. A GPS receiver was used to accurately and precisely plot locations for each of the documented sites. Analysis of the locational information suggests that archaeological sites are abundant throughout the region and only become scarce where vegetation has been bulldozed for ranching activities. At the sea-land transition points for the underwater transmission cable, both Ahihi Bay and Huakini Bay are subjected to seasonal erosion and redeposition of their boulder shorelines. The corridor at the Ahihi Bay transition point runs through the Moanakala Village Complex which is an archaeological site on the State Register of Historic Places within a State Natural Area Reserve. Numerous other potentially significant archaeological sites lie within the project corridor. It is likely that rerouting of the corridor in an attempt to avoid known sites would result in other undocumented sites located outside the sample corridor being impacted. Given the distribution of archaeological sites, there is no alternative route that can be suggested that is likely to avoid encountering sites. A total of twelve charcoal samples were obtained for potential taxon identification and radiocarbon analysis. Four of these samples were subsequently submitted for dating and species identification. Bird bone from various locations within a lava tube were collected for identification. Sediment samples for subsequent pollen analysis were obtained from within two lava tubes. With these three sources of information it is hoped that paleoenvironmental data can be recovered that will enable a better understanding of the setting for Hawaiian habitation of the area. A small test unit was excavated at one habitation site

  3. Trend of Malaria Cases in Hana and Keyafer Health Centers, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-05-01

    May 1, 2018 ... 1South Omo Education Office,. Jinka, Ethiopia. 2College of. Natural and. Computational ... the intervention methods and to plan malaria control accordingly. The aim of this ..... differences in climatic, environmental or human behavioral risk ... might be due to giving more priority to small children in the use of ...

  4. Software development on the SAP HANA platform

    CERN Document Server

    Walker, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Software Development on the SAP HANA Platform is a general tutorial guide to SAP HANA.This book is written for beginners to the SAP HANA platform. No knowledge of SAP HANA is necessary to start using this book.

  5. SAP HANA cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Chandrasekhar

    2013-01-01

    An easy-to-understand guide, covering topics using practical scenarios and live examples, and answering all possible questions.If you are a solution architect, developer, modeler, sales leader, business transformation managers, directors, COO, or CIO; this book is perfect for you.If you are interested in other technologies and want to jump-start into SAP, this book gives you the chance to learn SAP HANA. Basic knowledge of RDBMS concepts enough is to get you started.

  6. VT Data - Overlay District 20170710, South Burlington

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Overlay data for the City of South Burlington included in this data:Flood Plain Overlay DistrictTraffic Overlay DistrictInterstate Highway Overlay DistrictScenic...

  7. Uranium districts in South Greenland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armour-Brown, A.; Tukiainen, T.; Wallin, B.

    1981-01-01

    A short review is given of reconnaissance work in South Greenland. The work has demonstrated that there are areas in the Motzfeldt centre of at least 1 km 2 with continuously high radioactivity. If the uranium content of these radioactive zones are sufficiently high, then potential ore tonnages could prove to be substantial. The reconnaissance exploration has proved that uranium mineralization is widely distributed in the Narssaq-Narssarssuaq district. It is, no doubt, responsible for the high uranium values in the exploration geochemical samples. Although the size of the pitchblende occurences which have been found so far are small, the high grade of the mineralisation, the great frequency of the fracturing and the evidence for an all pervasive mineralising event over a wide area indicate that there is a good possibility of finding economic mineralisation within the Narssaq-Narssarssuaq area. The area as a whole may, perhaps, be termed a ''uranium mineral district''. As the potential targets are small, only detailed follow-up exploration will establish this. At the same time more detailed work on individual showings, and geological mapping to demonstrate the relative ages of the various petrological and mineralising events, will establish the possible origin of this uranium mineralisation. (author)

  8. Managing Plan Implementation in the Asante Akyem South District ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Managing Plan Implementation in the Asante Akyem South District Assembly: Capacity Issues and Challenges. ... This paper uses a case study approach to appraise the capacity of the Asante Akyem South District Assembly (AASDA) in ...

  9. South Coast Air Quality Management District Truck Testing | Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research | NREL South Coast Air Quality Management District Truck Evaluation South Coast Air Quality Management District Truck Evaluation Photo of heavy-duty truck cab. Electric drayage truck Cargo Transportation project, conducted in partnership with the South Coast Air Quality Management

  10. Corrosion and Mechanical Properties of HANA-6 Strip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myung Ho; Kim, Jun Hwan; Park, Sang Yoon; Choi, Byoung Kwon; Jeong, Yong Hwan; Kim, Yoon Ho; Chung, Jin Gon

    2007-01-01

    The Zircaloy-4, one of zirconium alloys, has been used as a nuclear fuel and structural material because it has a satisfactory mechanical strength and corrosion resistance. As in many plants it was attempted to increase their discharge burn-up and power level, the development of new zirconium alloys for a high burn-up fuel material has been required. In response to these needs, in 1997 KAERI started the development of some Zr-based new alloys, called HANA alloys, for high burn-up fuel cladding material and has tested the out-of-pile and in-pile performance of these HANA claddings after manufacturing the claddings with HANA alloys. The sample specimens of the HANA cladding tubes showed a good performance for both corrosion resistance and creep properties at an irradiation test up to 12GWD/MtU in Halden test reactor as well as at various out of- pile tests. It is also scheduled to start the verification test of the in-pile performance of the HANA claddings in a commercial reactor by the end of 2007. KAERI and KNFC are also trying to extend the applicability of these alloys to the spacer grid for PWR nuclear fuel. As one of these attempts, KAERI has tested the properties of HANA-6 strips of 241.3 mm in width, and both 0.457 and 0.667 mm in thickness manufactured with a larger scale in width than a laboratory scale. The same test is scheduled to carry out for HANA-4 strips with a time lag. This paper summarized the results of the corrosion test, tensile test and bending test for the HANA- 6 strips up to now

  11. 76 FR 70888 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California State... Quality Management District--SCAQMD) (1) Rule 1143, ``Consumer Paint Thinners & Multi-purpose Solvents...

  12. Uranium Districts Defined by Reconnaissance Geochemistry in South Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armour-Brown, A.; Steenfelt, A.; Kunzendorf, Helmar

    1983-01-01

    A reconnaissance exploration survey over 14 000 km2 of Precambrian terrain in South Greenland using stream-sediment and stream-water samples delineated a central uranium district of 2000 km2 with enhanced uranium levels and smaller anomalous zones in the south of the field area. The area is under...

  13. 77 FR 74372 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... of South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) Rule 317, ``Clean Air Act Non- Attainment Fee... of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit. South Coast Air Quality Management District v. EPA...

  14. Study on manufacturing technology of fuel guide tube using HANA alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyungil; Jung, Yangil; Park, Dongjun; Park, Jeongyong; Kim, Ilhyun; Choi, Byungkwon; Jeong, Yonghwan; Park, Sangyoon

    2013-04-01

    This research was focused on the study for the manufacturing technology of HANA alloys to crease the corrosion resistance of 30% as well as the to improve the strength of 10% when compared to the commercial zirconium alloys. The new manufacturing concept having higher corrosion resistance and strength than commercial alloy performance can be obtained in this research. This result was transferred to the KNF and, that will be commercialized. This research result can be summarized like this; Ο Parameter study to increase formability of HANA alloy tube - Study on alloy element and heat-treatment effect - Study on texture development mechanism - Study on final annealing effect Ο Out-of-pile performance evaluation of HANA alloy tube - Corrosion performance evaluation of HANA alloy manufactured at KNF - Mechanical performance evaluation of HANA alloy manufactured at KNF - Recrystallization behavior evaluation of HANA alloy manufactured at KNF - Texture characterization of HANA alloy manufactured at KNF - Microstructure characterization of HANA alloy manufactured at KNF Ο Manufacturing guideline setup to increase formability of HANA alloy tube - Manufacturing guideline setup to decrease surface defect - Manufacturing guideline setup to increase strength and corrosion resistance - Manufacturing guideline setup to control texture

  15. 75 FR 61367 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California State... Measure for Architectural Coatings,'' CARB, October 2007. 4. ``Improving Air Quality with Economic...

  16. 77 FR 66780 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California State... Control Measure for Architectural Coatings,'' CARB, October 2007. 4. ``Improving Air Quality with Economic...

  17. Rural Poultry Production in Ondo South Senatorial District Area of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rural Poultry Production in Ondo South Senatorial District Area of Ondo State, Nigeria. ... African Journal of Livestock Extension ... The need to obtain baseline information on rural poultry with respect to their population and the production potentials of the indigenous chicken under the village conditions in Ondo Area formed ...

  18. Uranium districts defined by reconnaissance geochemistry in South Greenland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armour-Brown, A.; Steenfelt, A.; Kunzendorf, H.

    1983-01-01

    A reconnaissance exploration survey over 14 000 km 2 of Precambrian terrain in South Greenland using stream-sediment and stream-water samples delineated a central uranium district of 2000 km 2 with enhanced uranium levels and smaller anomalous zones in the south of the field area. Limited follow-up work located 8 pitchblende occurrences in this extensive district. The pitchblende is in veins which contain quartz, calcite, iron oxide, fluorite and minor sulphides. The isotopic (U-Pb) age of the pitchblende, which ranges from 1180-1090 Ma, corresponds to the late stages of Gardar alkaline igneous activity. It is concluded, therefore, that the reconnaissance geochemistry reflects a district-wide hydrothermal event related to the late volatile differentiates derived from the highly fractionated alkaline magma. A combination of primary and secondary features have complemented each other in enhancing the geochemical reconnaissance data and emphasized its importance but has not materially altered the interpretation. (Auth.)

  19. 76 FR 78829 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-20

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... approve a revision to the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California... Reference (A) South Coast Air Quality Management District (1) Rule 2005, ``New Source Review for RECLAIM...

  20. 76 FR 47094 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan; South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... the California State Implementation Plan; South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the South Coast Air Quality Management District portion of the California State Implementation Plan... following local rule: South Coast Air Quality Management District Rule 1175, Control of Emissions from the...

  1. 76 FR 47074 - Revision to the California State Implementation Plan; South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... California State Implementation Plan; South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental... revision to the South Coast Air Quality Management District portion of the California State Implementation... Submittal A. What rule did the State submit? We are approving South Coast Air Quality Management District...

  2. 78 FR 18853 - Revision to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental... revision to the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California State...) * * * (411) * * * (i) * * * (F) South Coast Air Quality Management District. (1) Rule 463, ``Organic Liquid...

  3. 76 FR 41717 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... approve revisions to the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California... Governor's Designee. (i) Incorporation by reference. (A) South Coast Air Quality Management District. (1...

  4. 78 FR 59249 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ...] Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California State...'s Designee. (i) Incorporation by Reference. (A) South Coast Air Quality Management District. (1...

  5. 77 FR 1895 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-12

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... approve South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) Rule 317, ``Clean Air Act Non- Attainment Fee... Air Quality Management District There are two 1-hour ozone nonattainment areas within the jurisdiction...

  6. Microstructure and corrosion characteristics of HANA 6 alloy with various manufacturing processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Gil; Choi, Byung Kwan; Jeong, Yong Hwan

    2008-01-01

    In order to obtain the best manufacturing process for the HANA 6 alloy, the various evaluations such as a corrosion test at 400 .deg. C steam condition, a microstructural analysis by using TEM, and texture analysis by using XRD were performed for the HANA 6 alloy with various manufacturing processes. This alloy was manufactured as sheets by applying 4 types of manufacturing processes which were controlled by a combination of the intermediate annealing temperature and reduction ratio, as well as two types of final annealing conditions which were applied to the HANA 6 alloy from TREX samples. The corrosion resistance of the HANA 6 alloy with various manufacturing processes was increased with a decreasing intermediate annealing temperature and the corrosion resistance of that alloy was decreased by increasing the final annealing temperature after a corrosion test up to 240 days. The precipitate of the HANA 6 alloy mainly consisted of Nb-containing precipitates in all the samples, but the size, distribution and Nb concentration of the precipitates was affected by the applied manufacturing processes. The Nb concentration in the precipitates was increased when the samples were annealed at 570.deg.C during the intermediate annealing processes. So, the corrosion rate of the HANA 6 alloy is affected considerably by a control of the intermediate and final annealing conditions which affect the precipitate characteristics in the matrix. The crystallographic texture of the HANA 6 alloy with various manufacturing processes is similar since the total reduction ratio was the same in all the manufactured sheet samples

  7. Policy framework for sustainable utilisation of farmland for the Waterberg District Municipality in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nhemachena, C

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study crafts a policy framework for sustainable utilisation of farmland for the Waterberg District Municipality in South Africa. The district, being predominantly agricultural and rural, faces contention in terms of land allocation...

  8. 76 FR 30896 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California State... overwhelmingly formed as a secondary pollutant. (South Coast 2007 Air Quality Management Plan, page ES-9...

  9. 77 FR 10430 - Revision to the South Coast Air Quality Management District Portion of the California State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... South Coast Air Quality Management District Portion of the California State Implementation Plan, South... South Coast Air Quality Management District (District) portion of the California SIP. This SIP revision... Coast Air Quality Management District New Source Review by Gerardo C. Rios, October 24, 1996 (TSD). \\2...

  10. Jubilující PhDr. Hana Dvořáková

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pospíšilová, Jana

    25/67/, č. 2 (2008), s. 91-92 ISSN 1211-8117 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90580513 Keywords : Ethnography * Museology * Personality Hana Dvořáková Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  11. Workplace Violence Against Nurses: Vhembe District Hospitals, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahani, Tshifularo Olga; Akinsola, Henry Abayomi; Mabunda, Jabu; Oni, Helen Tosin

    2017-02-01

    Work-related violence is a common problem worldwide. In South Africa, the Medical Research Council conducted a study on workplace violence in the health care industry and reported that most respondents had experienced it in different forms. This study aimed to identify the types and causes of workplace violence toward nurses in Thulamela hospitals, Vhembe district. The study employed a quantitative approach using a cross-sectional design. The target population was all nurses working in one regional and two district hospitals in the municipality. The sample consisted of 100 randomly selected participants from each hospital giving a total sample size of 300. Prior to the data collection, an ethical clearance and written informed consent were obtained from each participant. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Analysis was done using SPSS Version 20.0. The study revealed that 85% of the respondents (255) had experienced workplace violence in the last 12 months with a range of 95% for threats to 60% for bullying. Regarding the gender of the perpetrators, females (71%) were the main perpetrators. This study concludes that workplace violence is a major occupational health issue in the district, most especially among the psychiatric nurses.

  12. Ka Hana `Imi Na`auao: A Science Curriculum Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napeahi, K.; Roberts, K. D.; Galloway, L. M.; Stodden, R. A.; Akuna, J.; Bruno, B.

    2005-12-01

    In antiquity, the first people to step foot on what are now known as the Hawaiian islands skillfully traversed the Pacific Ocean using celestial navigation and learned observations of scientific phenomena. Long before the Western world ventured beyond the horizon, Hawaiians had invented the chronometer, built aqueduct systems (awai) that continue to amaze modern engineers, and had preventive health systems as well as a comprehensive knowledge of medicinal plants (including antivirals) which only now are working their way through trials for use in modern pharmacopia. Yet, today, Native Hawaiians are severely underrepresented in science-related fields, reflecting (in part) a failure of the Western educational system to nurture the potential of these resourceful students, particularly the many "at-risk" students who are presently over-represented in special education. A curriculum which draws from and incorporates traditional Hawaiian values and knowledge is needed to reinforce links to the inquiry process which nurtured creative thinking during the renaissance of Polynesian history. The primary goal of the Ka Hana `Imi Na`auao Project (translation: `science` or `work in which you seek enlightenment, knowledge or wisdom`) is to increase the number of Native Hawaiian adults in science-related postsecondary education and employment fields. Working closely with Native Hawaiian cultural experts and our high school partners, we will develop and implement a culturally responsive 11th and 12th grade high school science curriculum, infused with math, literacy and technology readiness skills. Software and assistive technology will be used to adapt instruction to individual learners` reading levels, specific disabilities and learning styles. To ease the transition from secondary to post-secondary education, selected grade 12 students will participate in planned project activities that link high school experiences with college science-related programs of study. Ka Hana `Imi Na

  13. 76 FR 54384 - California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District; Withdrawal of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R09-OAR-2011-0537; FRL-9457-6] California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District; Withdrawal of Direct Final Rule... Implementation Plan (SIP). This revision concerned South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) Rule 1143...

  14. 78 FR 37757 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California State... Quality Index rather than on 1-hour ozone forecasted values; (b) forecast criteria for allowing a...

  15. 78 FR 30768 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California State... ``significant regulatory action'' subject to review by the Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order...

  16. 76 FR 41744 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R09-OAR-2011-0537; FRL-9432-1] Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California State...

  17. 76 FR 40303 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... limited disapproval of revisions to the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of... designated nonattainment for the fine particulate matter (PM2.5) National Ambient Air Quality Standards...

  18. 75 FR 32293 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... approve revisions to the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California... submit regulations that control the primary and secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS...

  19. 75 FR 46880 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-04

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R09-OAR-2010-0503; FRL-9183-5] Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California State...

  20. 76 FR 78871 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-20

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R09-OAR-2011-0897; FRL-9499-8] Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California State...

  1. 78 FR 56639 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ...] Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California State... the Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993); does...

  2. 77 FR 32398 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... approve a revision to the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California... action: Is not a ``significant regulatory action'' subject to review by the Office of Management and...

  3. 77 FR 13495 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California State... Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993); Does not...

  4. 76 FR 50128 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California State... not a ``significant regulatory action'' subject to review by the Office of Management and Budget under...

  5. 78 FR 18244 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California State...'' subject to review by the Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735, October...

  6. 75 FR 32353 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R09-OAR-2010-0276; FRL-9139-8] Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the South Coast Air Quality Management District portion of the California State Implementation Plan...

  7. 77 FR 32483 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R09-OAR-2012-0236; FRL-9670-9] Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the South Coast Air Quality Management District portion of the California State Implementation Plan...

  8. 75 FR 46845 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-04

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... approve revisions to the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California..., this action: Is not a ``significant regulatory action'' subject to review by the Office of Management...

  9. 76 FR 72142 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-22

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the South Coast Air Quality Management District portion of the California State Implementation Plan... Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993); Does not...

  10. 75 FR 25775 - Disapproval of State Implementation Plan Revisions, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R09-OAR-2009-0573; FRL-9146-5] Disapproval of State Implementation Plan Revisions, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental... South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan...

  11. 78 FR 5305 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California State... ``significant regulatory action'' subject to review by the Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order...

  12. 77 FR 58076 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California State... Quality Standards (NAAQS). The revisions to the primary and secondary Lead NAAQS were to provide increased...

  13. The district nursing and community matron services workforce: A scoping review in South London for the South London Nursing Network

    OpenAIRE

    Drennan, Vari

    2014-01-01

    This report presents both an overview of the issues influencing district nursing and community matron \\ud workforces and also a scoping of key issues in respect of workforce development in district nursing and\\ud community matron services in South London

  14. Annealing Effect on Corrosion Behavior of the Beta-Quenched HANA Alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Gil; Kim, Il Hyun; Choi, Byung Kwan; Park, Sang Yoon; Park, Jeong Yong; Jeong, Yong Hwan

    2009-01-01

    The advanced fuel cladding materials named as HANA cladding have been developed at KAERI for application of high burn-up and that cladding showed an improved performance in both in-pile and out-of-pile conditions. However, the cladding performance could be changed by the annealing conditions during the tube manufacturing process. Especially, the corrosion resistance is considerably sensitive to their microstructure which is determined by a manufacturing process in the high Nb-containing zirconium alloys. They reported that the corrosion properties of the Nb-containing Zr alloys were considerably affected by the microstructure conditions such as the Nb concentration in the matrix and the second phase types. Therefore, the corrosion behavior of HANA cladding having the high Nb could be considerably affected by the annealing time and temperatures. The purpose of this study is focused on the annealing effect of the beta quenched HANA alloy to obtain the optimum annealing conditions

  15. Mapping crime levels and court efficiency per magisterial district in South Africa.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schmitz, Peter MU

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available the South African Police Service (SAPS) were reclassified into the six major categories used by DoJ, and the crime levels per magisterial district were calculated, imported into a Geographic Information System (GIS) and mapped per magisterial district...

  16. Mapping crime levels and court efficiency per magisterial district in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schmitz, Peter MU

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available the South African Police Service (SAPS) were reclassified into the six major categories used by DoJ, and the crime levels per magisterial district were calculated, imported into a Geographic Information System (GIS) and mapped per magisterial district...

  17. An evaluation of the District Health Information System in rural South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An evaluation of the District Health Information System in rural South Africa. ... Design and subjects. Semi-structured key informant interviews were conducted with clinic managers, supervisors and district information staff. ... of the data collection and collation process but little analysis, interpretation or utilisation of data.

  18. North–South debate on district heating: Evidence from a household survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Jin; Huang, Ying; Wei, Chu

    2015-01-01

    There has been a long debate on whether South China should supply district heating for the residential sector, a system that is widely used in North China. The major concern is that it may further accelerate China's energy demand. Using a unique urban household level dataset, the China Residential Energy Consumption Survey (CRECS), we investigate residential energy consumption for heating and examine the energy intensity and energy cost of distributed heating in South China and district heating in North China during the 2012 heating season. Our results show that the total energy consumption for distributed heating system users in southern cities is significantly lower than for users of district heating systems in northern cities. However, when accounting for the heating area and heating season, the distributed heating households in the South consumed 32% more energy and paid 189% higher cost per unit area and per hour, but had lower comfort than district heating users in the North. These findings suggest promoting the district heating market in appropriate areas in South China. This not only can improve residential welfare, but also can indirectly reduce energy consumption and financial burdens. - Highlights: • The debate on whether Southern China apply district heating is present. • The household data in 2012 is used to compare the energy efficient and cost. • South resident use more energy and higher cost but less comfort than North. • Government should not prevent the district heating market.

  19. Hana Bořkovcová, Záznamy z Wohlau

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kosák, Michal

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 81 (2010), s. 209-220 ISSN 1210-2881 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90560517 Keywords : Czech literature * Bořkovcová, Hana * holocaust Subject RIV: AJ - Letters, Mass-media, Audiovision

  20. In-pile test results of HANA claddings in Halden research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Jong Hyuk; Choi, Byoung Kwon; Jeong, Yong Hwan; Jung, Yun Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    It is a kind of facing tasks in the nuclear industry to develop advanced claddings for high burn-up fuel which is safer and more economical than the existing conventional ones. Since 1997, taking an initiative in KAERI, the Zr cladding development team has carried out the R and D activities for the development of the advanced claddings to be used in the high burn-up fuel (>70,000 MWD.MTU). The team had produced the advanced claddings (HANA, High-performance Alloy for Nuclear Application) from the patented composition and manufacturing process in the international collaboration with U.S. and Japan. Now, the HANA claddings have being demonstrated their good performances from the out-of-pile tests including the corrosion, creep, burst, tensile, microstructures LOCA, RIA, wear, and so on. In parallel to the out-of-pile performance tests, the HANA claddings are being undertaken to evaluate their in-pile properties in Halden research reactor. In this study, it is included the test overviews, conditions, and results of the HANA claddings in the Halden reactor.

  1. Study of ecological situation for the West Kazakhstan south districts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreeva, N.P.; Bolotov, B.M.; Gajtinov, A.Sh.; Zashkvara, O.V.; Matveeva, I.M.; Polyakov, A.I.; Ryabikin, Yu.A.; Chasnikov, I.Ya.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper the results of comprehensive research for ecological status of Karabota, Kaztal, Dzhangaly, Dzhanibek and Akzhaik districts of the West Kazakhstan districts adjoining to 'Kapustin Yar' and A zgir' test sites are presented. In the indicated districts the following examinations were conducted: analysis of soils samples; bottom sediments, flora and fauna samples for determination of radionuclide and heavy metals content in its; determination of absorption dose with population by the EPR dosimetry method by human teeth enamel; study of α-radiation accumulation in a diverse trees' annual rings

  2. Manufacturing process optimization of nuclear fuel guide tube using HANA alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Yong Hwan; Park, S. Y.; Choi, B. K.; Park, J. Y.; Kim, H. G.; Jeong, Y. I.; Park, D. J.; Lim, J. K.

    2010-08-01

    From this project, the advanced manufacturing parameters which were contained of heat-treatment, reduction rate, and new process (2 step) were considered to increase the guide tube performance of HANA material. It was obtained that the strength and corrosion resistance of HANA material were improved by applying the improve manufacturing parameters when compared to the commercial guide tube material. · Manufacturing parameter study to increase mechanical property -Tensile strength increase of 30% by manufacturing parameter setup when compared to the guide tube specification · Manufacturing parameter study to decrease irradiation growth -Theoretical study of the texture effect on sample specimens related to the irradiation growth · Manufacturing parameter study to increase corrosion resistance -Corrosion resistance increase of 30% by manufacturing parameter setup when compared to the commercial guide tube

  3. Corrosion and Creep Characteristics of the HANA-4 Alloy with the various Manufacturing Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun-Gil; Choi, Byung-Kwan; Park, Jeong-Yong; Jeong, Yong-Hwan

    2008-01-01

    Zirconium alloys have been used as a fuel cladding material for several decades, since these alloys have revealed a good corrosion resistance and mechanical properties in reactor operating conditions. The development of an advanced Zr-based alloy with an improved corrosion and creep resistance is necessary for the high burn-up operating conditions in PWRs. The alloying element effects of the Nb, Sn, Fe, Cr, Cu etc as well as an optimization of the manufacturing processes such as the reduction ratio and annealing temperatures have been studied to improve the corrosion and creep properties. A high Nb-containing Zr-based alloy named HANA-4 was designed at KAERI and its nominal composition is Zr-1.5Nb-0.4Sn-0.2Fe-0.1Cr in wt.%. For high Nb-containing Zr alloys, their corrosion resistance is very sensitive to their microstructural characteristics which are determined by a manufacturing process. In order to obtain the best manufacturing process for the HANA-4 alloy, various evaluations such as corrosion and creep tests, a microstructural analysis, and a texture analysis were performed on the HANA-4 alloy with various manufacturing processes

  4. Are All Children Equal? Causative Factors of Child Labour in Selected Districts of South Punjab, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Syed Zubair; Qureshi, Ayesha

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates the causative factors of child labour in selected districts of South Punjab, Pakistan. As a member of the International Labour Organization (ILO) Pakistan has a responsibility to stamp out child labour from its regions. Our sample was selected from seven working environments (workshops, hotels, tea stalls,…

  5. Role of district municipalities in waste management in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Afrika, M

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Service delivery has become a source of much tension and protests in South Africa (Delivery, 2009) with fifty two major service delivery protests reported for the period January to August 2009 (COGTA, 2009). Failing waste management services, is a...

  6. Evaluating the electronic tuberculosis register surveillance system in Eden District, Western Cape, South Africa, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlotshwa, Mandla; Smit, Sandra; Williams, Seymour; Reddy, Carl; Medina-Marino, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) surveillance data are crucial to the effectiveness of National TB Control Programs. In South Africa, few surveillance system evaluations have been undertaken to provide a rigorous assessment of the platform from which the national and district health systems draws data to inform programs and policies. Evaluate the attributes of Eden District's TB surveillance system, Western Cape Province, South Africa. Data quality, sensitivity and positive predictive value were assessed using secondary data from 40,033 TB cases entered in Eden District's ETR.Net from 2007 to 2013, and 79 purposively selected TB Blue Cards (TBCs), a medical patient file and source document for data entered into ETR.Net. Simplicity, flexibility, acceptability, stability and usefulness of the ETR.Net were assessed qualitatively through interviews with TB nurses, information health officers, sub-district and district coordinators involved in the TB surveillance. TB surveillance system stakeholders report that Eden District's ETR.Net system was simple, acceptable, flexible and stable, and achieves its objective of informing TB control program, policies and activities. Data were less complete in the ETR.Net (66-100%) than in the TBCs (76-100%), and concordant for most variables except pre-treatment smear results, antiretroviral therapy (ART) and treatment outcome. The sensitivity of recorded variables in ETR.Net was 98% for gender, 97% for patient category, 93% for ART, 92% for treatment outcome and 90% for pre-treatment smear grading. Our results reveal that the system provides useful information to guide TB control program activities in Eden District. However, urgent attention is needed to address gaps in clinical recording on the TBC and data capturing into the ETR.Net system. We recommend continuous training and support of TB personnel involved with TB care, management and surveillance on TB data recording into the TBCs and ETR.Net as well as the implementation of a well

  7. Prevalence of Dermatoses in Tribal Population of Kalrayan Hill (South Arcot District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Mahalingam

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available A sample survey was conducted to find out the prevalence of dermatoses among the tribal population of Kalrayan hill in South Arcot district who were recently found out .from the hidden spots of the hill. The prevalence of dermatoses was 40% among the 242 screened. Scabies had a prevalence of 22.7% and was more among the tribal s chool children put in huts, emphasizing the need for adequate shelter and health education. The low frequency of nutritional dermatoses 3.7% is attributed to the implementation of the noon-meal scheme. Surprising low prevalence rate for leprosy (1.7% in this highly endemic district of South Arcot needs further probing to find out some clues for protection from leprosy.

  8. Serological monitoring of ornitobacteriosis in broilers in South Banat district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavrilović Pavle

    2014-01-01

    seropositive chickens per flock - 10 % of all examined samples. Although O. rhinotracheale is wide-spread in intensive broiler production in South Banat its presence does not always lead to clinical manifestation of respiratory tract disorders. Seropositive chickens are detected in the first week of life, which indicates the presence of maternal antibodies. Presence of antibodies as the response of organism to the natural infection is detected in chickens after four weeks of age.

  9. Measuring the preparedness of health facilities to deliver emergency obstetric care in a South African district.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thwala, Siphiwe Bridget Pearl; Blaauw, Duane; Ssengooba, Freddie

    2018-01-01

    Improving the delivery of emergency obstetric care (EmNOC) remains critical in addressing direct causes of maternal mortality. United Nations (UN) agencies have promoted standard methods for evaluating the availability of EmNOC facilities although modifications have been proposed by others. This study presents an assessment of the preparedness of public health facilities to provide EmNOC using these methods in one South African district with a persistently high maternal mortality ratio. Data collection took place in the final quarter of 2014. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted to classify the 7 hospitals and 8 community health centres (CHCs) in the district as either basic EmNOC (BEmNOC) or comprehensive EmNOC (CEmNOC) facilities using UN EmNOC signal functions. The required density of EmNOC facilities was calculated using UN norms. We also assessed the availability of EmNOC personnel, resuscitation equipment, drugs, fluids, and protocols at each facility. The workload of skilled EmNOC providers at hospitals and CHCs was compared. All 7 hospitals in the district were classified as CEmNOC facilities, but none of the 8 CHCs performed all required signal functions to be classified as BEmNOC facilities. UN norms indicated that 25 EmNOC facilities were required for the district population, 5 of which should be CEmNOCs. None of the facilities had 100% of items on the EmNOC checklists. Hospital midwives delivered an average of 36.4±14.3 deliveries each per month compared to only 7.9±3.2 for CHC midwives (pfacilities in the district. Full EmNOC services were centralised to hospitals to assure patient safety even though national policy guidelines sanction more decentralisation to CHCs. Studies measuring EmNOC availability need to consider facility opening hours, capacity and staffing in addition to the demonstrated performance of signal functions.

  10. Primary school teachers’ opinions and attitudes towards stuttering in two South African urban education districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Abrahams

    2016-07-01

    Method: A quantitative, cross-sectional survey research design was used. Primary schools intwo education districts in Western Cape, South Africa, were sampled. The POSHA-S, a selfadministeredquestionnaire, was completed by a cluster sample of 469 participants. Results: Overall positive attitudes towards stuttering were found, specifically related to thepotential of people who stutter, although the result should be interpreted with caution as thesample was not homogenously positive. Teachers still had misconceptions about personalitystereotypes and the cause of stuttering. The attitudes of the South African sample were slightlymore positive compared with the samples in the current POSHA-S database. Conclusion: When developing stuttering intervention strategies, there are a number of keyconsiderations to take into account. The study provides a basis for speech-language therapiststo think about intervention with teachers and which areas of stuttering to consider.

  11. Feasibility study for retrofitting biogas cogeneration systems to district heating in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Mo; Park, Hwa-Choon

    2015-08-01

    A feasibility study was performed to assess the technical and economic merits of retrofitting biogas-based cogeneration systems to district heating networks. Three district heating plants were selected as candidates for accommodating heat recovery from nearby waste treatment stations, where a massive amount of biogas can be produced on a regular basis. The scenario involves constructing cogeneration systems in each waste treatment station and producing electricity and heat. The amounts of biogas production for each station are estimated based on the monthly treatment capacities surveyed over the most recent years. Heat produced by the cogeneration system is first consumed on site by the waste treatment system to keep the operating temperature at a proper level. If surplus heat is available, it will be transported to the nearest district heating plant. The year-round operation of the cogeneration system was simulated to estimate the electricity and heat production. We considered cost associated with the installation of the cogeneration system and piping as initial investments. Profits from selling electricity and recovering heat are counted as income, while costs associated with buying biogas are expenses. Simple payback periods of 2-10 years were projected under the current economic conditions of South Korea. We found that most of the proposed scenarios can contribute to both energy savings and environmental protection. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Analysing annual financial statements of public ordinary secondary schools in the Tshwane north district, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Doussy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results from an analysis of the annual financial statements of public ordinary secondary schools in the Tshwane North District, South Africa. The analysis was done to assess the quality of these annual financial statements as well as the apparent usefulness thereof for the parents of the learners in the school. These users are probably most concerned with the quality and usefulness of information presented to them for providing the necessary assurance that the funds received by the school are properly accounted for and used to the advantage of their children. The results suggest that assurance in this regard is lacking as audits are not done at all, or are of an extremely poor quality. The quality of the financial statements is also poor, with scant regard for Generally Accepted Accounting Practice or the South African Schools Act. Urgent intervention from the Education Departments is needed to ensure that the South African Schools Act is adhered to and that proper audits are conducted by suitably qualified accountants and auditors. The South African Institute for Chartered Accountants (SAICA should also play a more positive role in this regard by ensuring that audit practices are enforced and quality annual financial statements are presented

  13. Primary school teachers' opinions and attitudes towards stuttering in two South African urban education districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahams, Kristen; Harty, Michal; St Louis, Kenneth O; Thabane, Lehana; Kathard, Harsha

    2016-07-27

    As teachers form an important part of the intervention process with childrenwho stutter in primary school, the primary aim was to describe primary school teachers'attitudes in South Africa. The secondary aim was to compare teachers' attitudes towardsstuttering in South Africa with those from a pooled group of respondents in the Public OpinionSurvey of Human Attributes-Stuttering (POSHA-S) database from different countries collectedin 2009-2014. A quantitative, cross-sectional survey research design was used. Primary schools intwo education districts in Western Cape, South Africa, were sampled. The POSHA-S, a selfadministeredquestionnaire, was completed by a cluster sample of 469 participants. Overall positive attitudes towards stuttering were found, specifically related to thepotential of people who stutter, although the result should be interpreted with caution as thesample was not homogenously positive. Teachers still had misconceptions about personalitystereotypes and the cause of stuttering. The attitudes of the South African sample were slightlymore positive compared with the samples in the current POSHA-S database. When developing stuttering intervention strategies, there are a number of keyconsiderations to take into account. The study provides a basis for speech-language therapiststo think about intervention with teachers and which areas of stuttering to consider.

  14. Achieving universal health coverage in South Africa through a district health system approach: conflicting ideologies of health care provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusheini, Adam; Eyles, John

    2016-10-07

    Universal Health Coverage (UHC) has emerged as a major goal for health care delivery in the post-2015 development agenda. It is viewed as a solution to health care needs in low and middle countries with growing enthusiasm at both national and global levels. Throughout the world, however, the paths of countries to UHC have differed. South Africa is currently reforming its health system with UHC through developing a national health insurance (NHI) program. This will be practically achieved through a decentralized approach, the district health system, the main vehicle for delivering services since democracy. We utilize a review of relevant documents, conducted between September 2014 and December 2015 of district health systems (DHS) and UHC and their ideological underpinnings, to explore the opportunities and challenges, of the district health system in achieving UHC in South Africa. Review of data from the NHI pilot districts suggests that as South Africa embarks on reforms toward UHC, there is a need for a minimal universal coverage and emphasis on district particularity and positive discrimination so as to bridge health inequities. The disparities across districts in relation to health profiles/demographics, health delivery performance, management of health institutions or district management capacity, income levels/socio-economic status and social determinants of health, compliance with quality standards and above all the burden of disease can only be minimised through positive discrimination by paying more attention to underserved and disadavantaged communities. We conclude that in South Africa the DHS is pivotal to health reform and UHC may be best achieved through minimal universal coverage with positive discrimination to ensure disparities across districts in relation to disease burden, human resources, financing and investment, administration and management capacity, service readiness and availability and the health access inequalities are consciously

  15. Risk assessment of radon in the South Dayi District of the Volta Region, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Y. Ansre

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Radon is a globally present and known radioactive gas with its ability to cause lung cancer as its major health implication. Ghana currently lacks national policies on radon gas and substantive radon vulnerability map largely due to lack of adequate baseline radon concentration data for the entire country. LR115 type II detectors were deployed in 30 sites/homes within the South-Dayi District. The detectors were retrieved after specified periods and analyzed for the radon concentration at the Nuclear Track Detection Laboratory of the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. From the results, indoor radon concentration was found to range from 11.60 to 111.07 Bq/m3 with the mean value for the district being 34.90 ± 20.18 Bq/m3, a value lower than the mean global indoor concentration of 40 Bq/m3. The values of 0.44 mS/yr, 8.80 mSv/yr and 1.01 mSv/yr were the mean annual; absorbed dose, equivalent dose and effective dose to lungs respectively for the populace of the district. The mean soil radon concentration for the district was 1.76 ± 0.91 kBq/m3 with values ranging from 0.38 to 3.93 kBq/m3. Correlation and T-test analysis was performed to establish strength of the linear relationship between indoor radon concentration and the soil radon concentration, indoor radon concentration on altitude and soil radon concentration on altitude.

  16. Study of the corrosion and microstructure with annealing conditions of a β-quenched HANA-4 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun-Gil; Kim, Il-Hyun; Choi, Byung-Kwan; Park, Jeong-Yong; Jeong, Yong-Hwan; Kim, Kyu-Tae

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → The optimum annealing temperature to obtain good corrosion resistance of HANA-4 alloy (Zr-1.5Nb-0.4Sn-0.2Fe-0.1Cr) is find out. → The correlation between second phase characteristics and corrosion resistance is explained by oxide study. - Abstract: The variation of microstructure and corrosion characteristics with the applied annealing conditions of a HANA-4 (Zr-1.5Nb-0.4Sn-0.2Fe-0.1Cr) alloy were studied by utilizing transmission electron microscopy and a corrosion test at 360 o C in a water environment. The samples were annealed at temperature ranges from 540 to 660 o C up to 16 h after β quenching at 1050 o C. The corrosion behaviour with the annealing conditions was divided into two groups following the second phase characteristics. The suitable annealing temperature to obtain good corrosion resistance in the HANA-4 alloy ranged from 570 to 600 o C.

  17. Are All Children Equal? Causative Factors of Child Labour in Selected Districts of South Punjab, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Zubair Haider

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the causative factors of child labour in selected districts of South Punjab, Pakistan. As member of the International Labour Organization (ILO Pakistan has a responsibility to stamp out child labour from its regions. Our sample was selected from seven working environments (workshops, hotels, tea stalls, households, etc. through purposive sampling. The data were collected via a questionnaire which was completed by a sample of 547 working children. The findings of the exploratory factor analysis (EFA explored four factors from the research. Multilevel analyses were calculated to pinpoint the causative factors of child labour. The study results revealed that, due to family responsibilities, a lack of educational opportunities for children from low-income families, and increasing poverty, children develop an interest in working to earn their livelihood at the cost of their education. The children are involved in labour because their parents cannot meet their personal and educational requirements.

  18. A Quantitative Assessment of an Outsourced Agricultural Extension Service in the Umzimkhulu District of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyne, Michael C.; Jonas, Nomonde; Ortmann, Gerald F.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluates the impact of an outsourced extension service delivered by Lima Rural Development Foundation (Lima) in the Umzimkhulu district of South Africa. The evaluation is conducted at both the household and program levels. Design/methodology/approach: Household impacts were estimated using two-stage regression with…

  19. Organizational Justice and Job Satisfaction as Predictors of Turnover Intentions among Teachers in the Offinso South District of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addai, Prince; Kyeremeh, Evans; Abdulai, Wahab; Sarfo, Jacob Owusu

    2018-01-01

    There is high incidence of teachers' agitation for a better pay and other conditions of service in Ghana. This study assessed the influence of job satisfaction and organizational justice on turnover intentions among teachers. One hundred and fourteen teachers at the Offinso South District of Ghana were conveniently selected to complete the…

  20. Free Primary Education Policy: Coping Strategies in Public Primary Schools in Kakamega South District, Kakamega County, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulinya, Lidoro Charles; Orodho, John Aluko

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the challenges of implementing free primary education and copping strategies in public primary schools in Kakamega South District, Kakamega County, Kenya. The study was premised on the demand and supply theory. A descriptive survey research design was adopted. The sample comprised 23 headteachers, 92 teachers and one Ministry…

  1. 78 FR 7781 - Filing Dates for the South Carolina Special Elections in the 1st Congressional District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... in the 1st Congressional District AGENCY: Federal Election Commission. ACTION: Notice of filing dates... Primary Election, the top two vote-getters will participate in a Special Runoff Election. General Election... participating in the South Carolina Special Primary and Special General Elections shall file a 12-day Pre...

  2. Effective School-Community Relations as a Key Performance Indicator for the Secondary School Administrator in Aba South District, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Nath. M.; Ememe, Ogbonna N.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates Effective School-Community Relations as a key Performance Indicator (KPI) of Secondary Schools Administrator in Aba South District, Nigeria. Descriptive survey method was adopted. All the 248 teachers made up the population and sample in a purposive sampling technique representing 100% of the entire population as sample. A…

  3. POTENCY AND DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY OF SPOTTED BUFFALO IN SANGGALANGI SUBDISTRICT, NORTH TORAJA DISTRICT, SOUTH SULAWESI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Komariah

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to analyze the reproduction performances, potency and developmentstrategy of Torajan's spotted buffalo. This research was done from July to September 2010 inSanggalangi’ subdistrict, North Toraja district, South Sulawesi. Purposive sampling was applied toobserve data. The primary data were taken by purposive sampling method and collected by interview of90 farmers. Results showed that sex ratio of male-female was 3:2. The first estrus was 2.48 years old,the estrus period was 23 hours and the oestrus cycle was 19 days. The first mating was 2.87 years oldwith the conception period about 387 days. Furthermore, the first partus was at 3.74 years old, calvinginterval was 2 years. Calving rate and calf crops were relatively high. Calf crops were 77%, pre weaningmortality was 2.35%. Service per conception (S/C was 1.85 and conception rate (CR was 86.5%. Themost livelihoods in North Toraja is farmer. Spotted Buffalo population declined 24.31 % per year.SWOT analysis showed that score for internal factor was -0.25, whereas external factor was 2.25. It wasshowed that the sub-district Sanggalangi is in turnaround condition, so the development strategy ofTorajan’s spotted buffalo has to minimize the weakness and reached the opportunities.

  4. POTENCY AND DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY OF SPOTTED BUFFALO IN SANGGALANGI SUBDISTRICT, NORTH TORAJA DISTRICT, SOUTH SULAWESI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Setyono

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to analyze the reproduction performances, potency and development strategy of Torajans spotted buffalo. This research was done from July to September 2010 in Sanggalangi subdistrict, North Toraja district, South Sulawesi. Purposive sampling was applied to observe data. The primary data were taken by purposive sampling method and collected by interview of 90 farmers. Results showed that sex ratio of male-female was 3:2. The first estrus was 2.48 years old, the estrus period was 23 hours and the oestrus cycle was 19 days. The first mating was 2.87 years old with the conception period about 387 days. Furthermore, the first partus was at 3.74 years old, calving interval was 2 years. Calving rate and calf crops were relatively high. Calf crops were 77%, pre weaning mortality was 2.35%. Service per conception (S/C was 1.85 and conception rate (CR was 86.5%. The most livelihoods in North Toraja is farmer. Spotted Buffalo population declined 24.31 % per year. SWOT analysis showed that score for internal factor was -0.25, whereas external factor was 2.25. It was showed that the sub-district Sanggalangi is in turnaround condition, so the development strategy of Torajans spotted buffalo has to minimize the weakness and reached the opportunities.

  5. The Impact of Human Activities on Microbial Quality of Rivers in the Vhembe District, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsatou N. Traoré

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Water quality testing is dictated by microbial agents found at the time of sampling in reference to their acceptable risk levels. Human activities might contaminate valuable water resources and add to the microbial load present in water bodies. Therefore, the effects of human activities on the microbial quality of rivers collected from twelve catchments in the Vhembe District in South Africa were investigated, with samples analyzed for total coliform (TC and Eschericha coli (E. coli contents. Methods: Physical parameters and various human activities were recorded for each sampling site. The Quanti-Tray® method was adopted for the assessment of TC and E. coli contents in the rivers over a two-year period. A multiplex polymerase chain (PCR method was used to characterize the strains of E. coli found. Results: The microbial quality of the rivers was poor with both TC and E. coli contents found to be over acceptable limits set by the South African Department of Water and Sanitation (DWS. No significant difference (p > 0.05 was detected between TC and E. coli risks in dry and wet seasons. All six pathogenic E. coli strains were identified and Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC, atypical Enteropathogenic E. coli (a-EPEC and Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC were the most prevalent E. coli strains detected (respectively, 87%, 86% and 83%. Conclusions: The study indicated that contamination in the majority of sampling sites, due to human activities such as car wash, animal grazing and farming, poses health risks to communities using the rivers for various domestic chores. It is therefore recommended that more education by the respective departments is done to avert pollution of rivers and prevent health risks to the communities in the Vhembe District.

  6. [SOCIAL SERVICES ORGANIZATION FOR ELDERLY CITIZENS AND DISABLED PERSONS IN SOUTH FEDERAL DISTRICT OF RUSSIA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashkireva, A S; Bogdanov, E A; Shestakov, V P; Svintsov, A A; Chernova, G I; Cherniakina, T S

    2015-01-01

    The article presents a comparative analysis of the effectiveness of the individual rehabilitation programs among elderly citizens and disabled persons of the Astrakhan region, the part of the South Federal District of Russia. We analyzed the data of the statistical survey of the social services provided rehabilitation facilities for the elderly and disabled people in the Astrakhan region. Analytical results thus obtained shown that the network of agencies and centers of social rehabilitation in the Astrakhan region did not correspond to the needs of elderly people and disabled persons. The negative dynamics in the number of social care centers as well as in the number of people who were provided with their services revealed the need for optimization of the institutional structure and its management. These specific characteristics of the social rehabilitation services in the Astrakhan region thus identified should be taken into consideration in order to improve the rehabilitation programs among elderly citizens and disabled persons in the South Region of the Russian Federation.

  7. Religiously Motivated Travel and Rural Tourism in Vhembe District of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyekye Agyapong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the socio-economic impact of religious tourism (UAAC gathering on the local tourism industry and on surrounding rural communities in Vhembe District Municipality (VDM of South Africa. Questionnaires were used to collect data on pilgrims (visitors, businesses, and residents during, and immediately after the event. Statistical techniques were used to analyse the data to gain insight into the data as basis for answering the research questions posed in this study. The results revealed that majority of the pilgrims to the UAAC gathering were from the host province of Limpopo. Also, most pilgrims travel to the pilgrimage site solely for religious reasons. Another significant finding is that the average spending per pilgrim by pilgrims from the rest of South Africa is larger than their Limpopo and foreign pilgrim counterparts. Furthermore, the results showed that while businesses were positive about the pilgrimage’s contribution to increased sales from their businesses, they at the same time opined that the event does not generate any additional employment. This could be because out of every R100 of pilgrims spending only R2.16 remains in the local economy through leakages. Finally an important finding of the study is overall consensus among residents that the annual pilgrimage gathering promotes morality, improved socialization as well as a sense of feeling good and proud of their community.

  8. Effect of an Intermediate Heat-treatment on a Change of the Corrosion Resistance and Hardness of a HANA-4 Outer Strip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myung Ho; Jung, Yang Il; Park, Sang Yoon; Choi, Byoung Kwon; Park, Jeong Yong; Jeong, Yong Hwan; Eom, Kyong Bo; Park, Nam Gyu; Lim, Yoon Soo

    2008-01-01

    KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) in collaboration with KNF (Korea Nuclear Fuel) undertook some researches on the applicability of HANA-4 and HANA-6 alloys for the spacer grid for a PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) nuclear fuel. As a part of the research, KAERI studied the effect of the final heat-treatment on the mechanical and corrosion properties of a HANA-4 inner strip. The strip was manufactured with a sheet which had been intermediately heat-treated at about 580 .deg. C for 2.5-4 hours after each cold rolling before being processed into the final strip product. It was mentioned that the process with the intermediate heat treatment needed reviewing to establish an improved manufacturing process for the cold rolling. So, this work tried to check the effect of an intermediate heat-treatment on the properties of a HANA-4 strip using a specimen that was taken from a second hot rolled material before a cold-rolling. The manufacturing processes, with three different kinds of annealings, were introduced to investigate the applicable intermediate heat-treatment process. After all the cold-rolling processes, the Vickers hardness was measured for the final annealed specimens and 60 days of corrosion tests were carried out to check on the effect of the intermediate heat-treatment. Finally, an appropriate intermediate heat-treatment was proposed to improve the manufacturability of the HANA-4 strip

  9. Sleeping sickness in Buikwe South Health sub-district: Neuroinfection situation report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrodenkova, Silvia

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the incidence of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense sleeping sickness in the last functioning treatment centre in Buikwe South HSD in Southeast Uganda, in Mukono District, for a 19-year period (1989-2008). This is a report on the treatment outcome, structure of population affected, comparison with the published data on general incidence of T. b rhodesiensae in Uganda and functioning of sleeping sickness control program. Cross-sectional sleeping sickness data from 1989 to 2008 were collected retrospectively in 2009 at Buikwe Sleeping Sickness Center to identify case counts and measures of disease magnitude per sub-county per year. Data were collected from all available records of sleeping sickness patients. Case counts from the Buikwe South sub-counties, and even some neighboring sub-counties for 19 years (1989-2008) were collected and analyzed by Microsoft Excel and EpiInfo program. In the period from 1989 to 2008, 372 cases of sleeping sickness were diagnosed and treated. Children under 5 years were 12 (3.22%) - males 6, females 6, patients in the age from 6 to 15 years were 51 (13.7%) - males 30, females 21, and patients above 15 were 309 (83.06%) - males 176, females 133. In the category 5-15 years and above 15 years there was a significant gender difference closely connected to the professional exposure. The oldest patient was 80 years old, the youngest was 3 moths old. The average age of the patients was 30.8 years. From all 372 patients with trypanosomiasis 30 had died - 10 females and 20 males, which means 8% case fatality. The case fatality rate in the late stage of the disease was 14%. From this group 6 patients (20%) had negative BS. The average interval between the diagnosis and death was 14.4 days, in 10 patients the exact date of death was not recorded. Average age of the patients that died was 30.6 years. Sleeping sickness still remains a serious public health problem. Since the preventive and educational activities

  10. Agritourism activities in the Mopani District Municipality, Limpopo Province, South Africa: perceptions and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S L Myer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Farms in South Africa have to compete in a very hostile agricultural economic environment and it has become imperative for farmers to find new ways of generating additional income. Research undertaken in the Mopani District Municipality (MDM in the Limpopo Province of South Africa identified agritourism as a potential means to this end. The main aim of this primarily qualitative study was to gain a better understanding of the perceptions and opportunities for agritourism in the study area. Data were mainly collected through interviews and questionnaires. Participants consisted of farmers and tourists, as well as owners of existing agritourism farms within the MDM. Five current active agritourism establishments were identified. Key fidnings revealed that agritourism is not being utilised to its full potential. Although perceptions of respondents towards agritourism are positive, marketing around it is insufficient and not all farmers are willing to host agritourism activities on their farms for various reasons. However, the MDM is a tourist hub with many visitors passing through various reasons. However, the MDM is a tourist hub with many visitors passing through the area en route to the Kruger National Park. Therefore, the potential already exists to host agritourism activities that will benefit farmers in various ways. By developing farm trails, scheduling daily farm activities, using information brochures, forming networks with existing tourist establishments, encouraging the use of local and fresh produce and providing good roadside signage, farmers can gain increased exposure and recognition for what they do and opportunities for growth and development may be realised.  Keywords: Agritourism, farm tourism, alternative tourism, farm activities, tourism

  11. Fauna of four streams in the Black Mountain District of South Wales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, J R.E.

    1948-01-01

    This paper is a general study of four torrential streams in the 'Black Mountain' district of South Wales. Fauna collections were made at seven collecting stations, between altitudes of 1550 and 400 ft. Observations were made on the chemical nature of the water, current speed and temperature. The fauna taken as a whole is rich, including about 151 species. Of the four streams, the one flowing north has the richest fauna, which includes about 130 species in which all the usual aquatic animal groups except the hirudinea are represented. This may be attributed to its equable temperature, abundant and uniform flow, variable gradient, adequate macroflora, and alkaline-neutral moderately calcareous water. The streams flowing south all have very soft, acid water; their stream-beds are more uniform in gradient, they are extremely variable in flow, have a more scanty macroflora, and on sunny summer days the water temperature is high, little below the shade temperature. All have a much poorer fauna than the north-flowing stream. One has a pH of 6.0-6.8, the fauna includes about 65 species, the usual insect groups are well represented but only 9 species other than insects occur. The second has a pH of 6.0 at low level to 4.4 in full flood; here 57 species were found, again mainly insects, and the ephemorophtera are very poorly represented. The third southern stream is generally even more acid, pH 5.8-4.2. Its fauna includes 55 species of which 24 are beetles, plecoptera are very poorly represented and ephemeroptera absent.

  12. Fauna of four streams in the Black Mountain District of South Wales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, J.R.E.

    1948-01-01

    This paper is a general study of four torrential streams in the 'Black Mountain' district of South Wales. Fauna collections were made at seven collecting stations, between altitudes of 1550 and 400 ft. Observations were made on the chemical nature of the water, current speed and temperature. The fauna taken as a whole is rich, including about 151 species. Of the four streams, the one flowing north has the richest fauna, which includes about 130 species in which all the usual aquatic animal groups except the hirudinea are represented. This may be attributed to its equable temperature, abundant and uniform flow, variable gradient, adequate macroflora, and alkaline-neutral moderately calcareous water. The streams flowing south all have very soft, acid water; their stream-beds are more uniform in gradient, they are extremely variable in flow, have a more scanty macroflora, and on sunny summer days the water temperature is high, little below the shade temperature. All have a much poorer fauna than the north-flowing stream. One has a pH of 6.0-6.8, the fauna includes about 65 species, the usual insect groups are well represented but only 9 species other than insects occur. The second has a pH of 6.0 at low level to 4.4 in full flood; here 57 species were found, again mainly insects, and the ephemorophtera are very poorly represented. The third southern stream is generally even more acid, pH 5.8-4.2. Its fauna includes 55 species of which 24 are beetles, plecoptera are very poorly represented and ephemeroptera absent.

  13. Trends in soil erosion and woody shrub encroachment in Ngqushwa district, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjoro, Munyaradzi; Kakembo, Vincent; Rowntree, Kate M

    2012-03-01

    Woody shrub encroachment severely impacts on the hydrological and erosion response of rangelands and abandoned cultivated lands. These processes have been widely investigated at various spatial scales, using mostly field experimentation. The present study used remote sensing to investigate spatial and temporal patterns of soil erosion and encroachment by a woody shrub species, Pteronia incana, in a catchment in Ngqushwa district, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa between 1998 and 2008. The extreme categories of soil erosion and shrub encroachment were mapped with higher accuracy than the intermediate ones, particularly where lower spatial resolution data were used. The results showed that soil erosion in the worst category increased simultaneously with dense woody shrub encroachment on the hill slopes. This trend is related to the spatial patterning of woody shrub vegetation that increases bare soil patches--leading to runoff connectivity and concentration of overland flow. The major changes in soil erosion and shrub encroachment analysed during the 10-year period took place in the 5-9° slope category and on the concave slope form. Multi-temporal analyses, based on remote sensing, can extend our understanding of the dynamics of soil erosion and woody shrub encroachment. They may help benchmark the processes and assist in upscaling field studies.

  14. Radium and radon exhalation rate in soil samples of Hassan district of South Karnataka, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagadeesha, B.G.; Narayana, Y.

    2016-01-01

    The radon exhalation rate was measured in 32 soil samples collected from Hassan district of South Karnataka. Radon exhalation rate of soil samples was measured using can technique. The results show variation of radon exhalation rate with radium content of the soil samples. A strong correlation was observed between effective radium content and radon exhalation rate. In the present work, an attempt was made to assess the levels of radon in the environment of Hassan. Radon activities were found to vary from 2.25±0.55 to 270.85±19.16 Bq m"-"3 and effective radium contents vary from 12.06±2.98 to 1449.56±102.58 mBq kg"-"1. Surface exhalation rates of radon vary from 1.55±0.47 to 186.43±18.57 mBq m"-"2 h"-"1, and mass exhalation rates of radon vary from 0.312±0.07 to 37.46±2.65 mBq kg"-"1 h"-"1. (authors)

  15. The Development of Historical and Eco-Tourism District of Setu Babakan in South Jakarta, Indonesia: Ecodistrict Planning Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsirina; Dwi Pratiwi, Wiwik; Putri, Reiska M.

    2018-05-01

    On the development of tourism within a settlement, its sustainability depends on how to make the lowest possible environment impact and provide long-term economic and social benefits to local communities. This paper describes the results of analysis on a settlement where the tourism activities developed in it. The principal of eco-district was the main theory used in the analysis in order to accelerate district-scale sustainability. Eco-district is the principle of urban planning that aims to integrate the objectives of sustainable development and reduce the ecological impact of the development. The case study was located in Setu Babakan, a lakeside and a historical tourism district in South Jakarta, Indonesia. The focus of the study was on the physical condition of the open spaces and activities inside them. In some tourism destination areas, many of the attractions took place in open spaces. The results of the evaluation were several recommendations for the development concept of open spaces in the historical and ecotourism district of Setu Babakan which hopefully will guarantee it’s sustainability in the future.

  16. Benchmark Tests to Develop Analytical Time-Temperature Limit for HANA-6 Cladding for Compliance with New LOCA Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sung Yong; Jang, Hun; Lim, Jea Young; Kim, Dae Il; Kim, Yoon Ho; Mok, Yong Kyoon [KEPCO Nuclear Fuel Co. Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    According to 10CFR50.46c, two analytical time and temperature limits for breakaway oxidation and postquench ductility (PQD) should be determined by approved experimental procedure as described in NRC Regulatory Guide (RG) 1.222 and 1.223. According to RG 1.222 and 1.223, rigorous qualification requirements for test system are required, such as thermal and weight gain benchmarks. In order to meet these requirements, KEPCO NF has developed the new special facility to evaluate LOCA performance of zirconium alloy cladding. In this paper, qualification results for test facility and HT oxidation model for HANA-6 are summarized. The results of thermal benchmark tests of LOCA HT oxidation tester is summarized as follows. 1. The best estimate HT oxidation model of HANA- 6 was developed for the vender proprietary HT oxidation model. 2. In accordance with the RG 1.222 and 1.223, Benchmark tests were performed by using LOCA HT oxidation tester 3. The maximum axial and circumferential temperature difference are ± 9 .deg. C and ± 2 .deg. C at 1200 .deg. C, respectively. At the other temperature conditions, temperature difference is less than 1200 .deg. C result. Thermal benchmark test results meet the requirements of NRC RG 1.222 and 1.223.

  17. The views of key leaders in South Africa on implementation of family medicine: critical role in the district health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosa, Shabir; Mash, Bob; Derese, Anselme; Peersman, Wim

    2014-06-25

    Integrated team-based primary care is an international imperative. This is required more so in Africa, where fragmented verticalised care dominates. South Africa is trying to address this with health reforms, including Primary Health Care Re-engineering. Family physicians are already contributing to primary care despite family medicine being only fully registered as a full specialty in South Africa in 2008. However the views of leaders on family medicine and the role of family physicians is not clear, especially with recent health reforms. The aim of this study was to understand the views of key government and academic leaders in South Africa on family medicine, roles of family physicians and human resource issues. This was a qualitative study with academic and government leaders across South Africa. In-depth interviews were conducted with sixteen purposively selected leaders using an interview guide. Thematic content analysis was based on the framework method. Whilst family physicians were seen as critical to the district health system there was ambivalence on their leadership role and 'specialist' status. National health reforms were creating both threats and opportunities for family medicine. Three key roles for family physicians emerged: supporting referrals; clinical governance/quality improvement; and providing support to community-oriented care. Respondents' urged family physicians to consolidate the development and training of family physicians, and shape human resource policy to include family physicians. Family physicians were seen as critical to the district health system in South Africa despite difficulties around their precise role. Whilst their role was dominated by filling gaps at district hospitals to reduce referrals it extended to clinical governance and developing community-oriented primary care - a tall order, requiring strong teamwork. Innovative team-based service delivery is possible despite human resource challenges, but requires family

  18. Auditing surgical service provision at a South African tertiary institution: Implications for the development of district services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laing, G L; Skinner, D L; Bruce, J L; Aldous, C; Govindasamy, V; Thomson, S R; Clarke, D L

    2017-11-01

    The optimal management of resources within South African state hospitals has been hampered by a paucity of data due to a lack of robust auditing information systems. This study reviews the use of a Hybrid Electronic Medical Record (HEMR) system to capture and aggregate data pertaining to the inpatient service demands on a South African tertiary surgical service. This dataset was used to analyse the appropriateness of tertiary surgical resource utilisation. The HEMR system was implemented at Greys Hospital, in the city of Pietermaritzburg, Kwa-Zulu Natal, South Africa on 1 January 2013. Inpatient data pertaining to surgical admissions and operative interventions were captured prospectively. Following an 18-month study period, the data were extracted, aggregated and analysed. The district referral hospitals were mapped, and district surgical procedures performed within the tertiary center were identified and quantified. Results: 7314 patients were admitted and managed by the tertiary surgical service during the study period. The median patient age was 33 years (IQR 6.5-42.4 years). 59.7% were male and 40.3% were female. General, trauma and paediatric surgical admissions constituted 54.8%, 28.6% and 16.6% respectively. Emergency admissions constituted 62.4% and elective admissions 37.6%. Referral sources were captured for 6653 (91%) of the cohort. 4338 (65.2%) patients were referred from district hospitals. The district hospital (Northdale) closest to Greys Hospital was responsible for 1675 (25.2%) of surgical referrals. 4174 operative procedures were performed during the study period, 54.7% performed as an emergency, 34.1% electively and 11.2% semi-electively. The median waiting time for emergency operative intervention was 535 minutes (IQR 130-663). A total of 1272 (30.5%) operative procedures performed were assessed as district-level operations. The time intervals of 07:00-07:59 and 17:00-17:59 were identified as the time periods during which the least number of

  19. Cost evaluation of reproductive and primary health care mobile service delivery for women in two rural districts in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Schnippel

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer screening is a critical health service that is often unavailable to women in under-resourced settings. In order to expand access to this and other reproductive and primary health care services, a South African non-governmental organization established a van-based mobile clinic in two rural districts in South Africa. To inform policy and budgeting, we conducted a cost evaluation of this service delivery model.The evaluation was retrospective (October 2012-September 2013 for one district and April-September 2013 for the second district and conducted from a provider cost perspective. Services evaluated included cervical cancer screening, HIV counselling and testing, syndromic management of sexually transmitted infections (STIs, breast exams, provision of condoms, contraceptives, and general health education. Fixed costs, including vehicle purchase and conversion, equipment, operating costs and mobile clinic staffing, were collected from program records and public sector pricing information. The number of women accessing different services was multiplied by ingredients-based variable costs, reflecting the consumables required. All costs are reported in 2013 USD.Fixed costs accounted for most of the total annual costs of the mobile clinics (85% and 94% for the two districts; the largest contributor to annual fixed costs was staff salaries. Average costs per patient were driven by the total number of patients seen, at $46.09 and $76.03 for the two districts. Variable costs for Pap smears were higher than for other services provided, and some services, such as breast exams and STI and tuberculosis symptoms screening, had no marginal cost.Staffing costs are the largest component of providing mobile health services to rural communities. Yet, in remote areas where patient volumes do not exceed nursing staff capacity, incorporating multiple services within a cervical cancer screening program is an approach to potentially expand access to

  20. Factors affecting tuberculosis case detection in Kersa District, South West Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desalegn Dabaro

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tuberculosis is one of the deadly communicable diseases which claim the lives of millions in the world. Early case detection and prompt treatment cures the patients, breaks the transmission and improves the control program. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the factors affecting tuberculosis case detection in Kersa District, south west Ethiopia. Method: Facility based cross sectional study design was employed in four directly observed treatment short course service providing public health centers. Three hundred eighty four patient folders were reviewed. In-depth interviews was conducted with 18 health care workers including heads of health centers, tuberculosis focal persons, clinicians, laboratory technicians, tuberculosis program coordinator and head of health office. Result: Significant number, 135(35.2% of tuberculosis suspects were not requested for microscopic examination of sputum smear, the laboratory results 21(8.4% of requested patients were not recorded in both patient folders and laboratory registers. Only 10 (4.4% of those examined and recorded were smearing positive. Participants described that the shortage and irregular supply of acid fast bacilli reagents and consumable, inadequate infrastructures, frequent electricity interruption, shortage of trained care providers, negligence of care providers, weakness of laboratory quality assurance system and poor health information use culture were major factors for low case identification. Conclusion: The resource shortage, electricity interruption, low commitment of care providers, weak quality assurance practice and poor health information use culture were major factors for low tuberculosis case identification and should be considered. Keywords: Tuberculosis, Diagnosis, Case detection, Factors

  1. North Plant co-generation project for South Davis County Sewer Improvement District

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, L.S. [Aqua Environmental Services, Inc., Bountiful, UT (United States)

    1993-12-31

    In the summer of 1988, the South Davis County Sewer Improvement District (SDCSID) learned of a grant/loan program being administered by the Utah State Department of Energy(DOE) for projects that demonstrate new and innovative ways of conserving energy or utilizing renewable energy sources. The SDCSID applied for and received from the DOE both a grant and a no-interest loan to finance half of the cost of a co-generation project at the North Wastewater Treatment Plant. This co-generation project utilizes methane gas, a by-product of the anaerobic digestion process, to generate both electricity and heat that is used at the plant. The SDCSID calculated that at the current anaerobic gas production rate, a 140 KW engine generator could be run almost 24 hours a day. Approximately 75% of the current electrical needs at the North Plant are supplied by the 140 KW engine generator. Also, all of the heat necessary to raise the temperature of the incoming sludge to 95{degrees}F, and to heat four large buildings is supplied from the heat recovery system of the engine. The system utilizes an induction type generator to supply electricity, which is somewhat simpler to design and less expensive to install than a synchronous type system. An induction system utilizes the Electrical Utility`s incoming power to excite the generator to correct the phase so that is can be used by the loads in the plant. In addition, the SDCSID installed a second identical engine generator as a back-up and to peak shave. Plant effluent is used to cool the engines instead of air-cooling through radiators.

  2. What keeps health professionals working in rural district hospitals in South Africa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis S. Jenkins

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The theme of the 2014 Southern African Rural Health Conference was ‘Building resilience in facing rural realities’. Retaining health professionals in South Africa is critical for sustainable health services. Only 12% of doctors and 19% of nurses have been retained in the rural areas. The aim of the workshop was to understand from health practitioners why they continued working in their rural settings. Conference workshop: The workshop consisted of 29 doctors, managers, academic family physicians, nurses and clinical associates from Southern Africa, with work experience from three weeks to 13 years, often in deep rural districts. Using the nominal group technique, the following question was explored, ‘What is it that keeps you going to work every day?’ Participants reflected on their work situation and listed and rated the important reasons for continuing to work. Results: Five main themes emerged. A shared purpose, emanating from a deep sense of meaning, was the strongest reason for staying and working in a rural setting. Working in a team was second most important, with teamwork being related to attitudes and relationships, support from visiting specialists and opportunities to implement individual clinical skills. A culture of support was third, followed by opportunities for growth and continuing professional development, including teaching by outreaching specialists. The fifth theme was a healthy work-life balance. Conclusion: Health practitioners continue to work in rural settings for often deeper reasons relating to a sense of meaning, being part of a team that closely relate to each other and feeling supported.

  3. Technology Of Tapioca Syrups In The Village Toddotoa Pallangga District Gowa South Of Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Tenri Fitriyah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the business people tapioca tapioca drying is often a problem because they rely on sunlight. In the rainy season would be disrupted so that drying The resulting starch quality were poor and lower selling prices. An attempt developed of glucose and fructose syrup production from starch wet expected to increases added value for farmers. Manioc starch yield of about 15-25 percent and the yield into glucose syrup 80-95 percent of the dry starch. The quality of the production process glucose syrup can enhanced by peruses liquefaction saccharification purification and neutralization as well as evaporation. The purpose of food science and technology service activities of knowledge and technology for the community Ktfc is to improve the quality of peoples tapioca syrup and glucosesugar liquid produced from tapioca starch processing using appropriate technology. Community groups of food science and technology program for the community Ktfc as partner in service activities is a business group Tapioca People Tapioca Jaya and cassava farmer group Sinar Jaya in the Village Toddotoa Palangga District of Gowa South of Sulawesi. Plan service activities this form of raising the target groups group Tapioca business people and farmer groups cassava Sinar Jaya as a producer of cassava. This service activities begins with conducting a survey to location where industry partners during these activities. Extension of the function and the importance of appropriate technology which will be applied in particular to a group of business people tapioca Tapioca Jaya i.e. improvement of appropriate technology the process of liquefaction saccharification purification neutralization and evaporation and the improvement of post-harvest processing of cassava namely eliminate shrinkage results and stripping is done with a mechanical device that previously had to be washed to eliminating the silicon content.

  4. School Based Multicomponent Intervention for Obese Children in Udupi District, South India - A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Baby S; Bhat, Vinod H

    2016-12-01

    Childhood obesity and overweight is a global epidemics and has been increasing in the developing countries. Childhood obesity is linked with increased mortality and morbidity independent of adult obesity. Declining physical activity, access to junk food and parenting style are the major determinants of overweight in children. Thus, there is a need for increasing the physical activity of children, educating the parents as well as the children on lifestyle modification. This can be achieved through implementation of multicomponent intervention. To evaluate the effectiveness of multicomponent intervention on improving the lifestyle practices, reducing the body fat and improving the self esteem of obese children from selected schools of Udupi District, South India. A sample of 120 obese children were enrolled for multicomponent intervention. The components of multicomponent intervention were: education provided to the obese children on lifestyle modification, education of the parents and increasing the physical education activity of these children in the form of aerobics under the supervision of physical education teacher. There was an attrition of 25% in the intervention group. Thus the final sample in the intervention group was 90. Total sample of 131 overweight/ obese children enrolled as controls. There was an attrition of 20.61% in the control group. Thus, the final sample in the control group was 104. Intervention group received the multicomponent intervention for six month. Mixed Method Repeated measures Ananlysis of Variance (ANOVA) was applied for analysis of data. Results indicated that the intervention was effective in reducing the Body Mass Index (BMI), triceps, biceps, subscapular skin fold thickness of obese children. The intervention was also effective in improving the lifestyle practices and self-esteem of obese children. Overweight/obese children need to control diet and perform vigorous exercise at least for 20 minutes a day to reduce the excess fat

  5. „Mais Paris demeure un phare...“ Influences de la France dans la vie d’Edvard et Hana Beneš avant 1919

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hájková, Dagmara; Hajdinová, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 4 (2015), s. 449-472 ISSN 0080-2557 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP410/10/1273 Institutional support: RVO:67985921 Keywords : Beneš, Edvard * Benešová, Hana * First World War Subject RIV: AB - History

  6. Primary health services at district level in South Africa: a critique of the primary health care approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dookie Sunitha

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rhetoric of primary health care philosophy in the district health system is widely cited as a fundamental component of the health transformation process in post-apartheid South Africa. Despite South Africa’s progress and attempts at implementing primary health care, various factors still limit its success. Discussion Inconsistencies and poor understanding of primary care and primary health care raises unrealistic expectations in service delivery and health outcomes, and blame is apportioned when expectations are not met. It is important for all health practitioners to consider the contextual influences on health and ill-health and to recognise the role of the underlying determinants of ill-health, namely, social, economic and environmental influences. The primary health care approach provides a strong framework for this delivery but it is not widely applied. There is a need for renewed political and policy commitments toward quality primary health care delivery, re-orientation of health care workers, integration of primary health care activities into other community-based development, improved management skills and effective coordination at all levels of the health system. There should also be optimal capacity building, and skills development in problem-solving, communication, networking and community participation. Summary A well-functioning district health system is required for the re-engineering of primary health care. This strategy requires a strong leadership, a strengthening of the current district heath system and a greater emphasis on health promotion, prevention, and community participation and empowerment.

  7. Improving disaster risk reduction capacity of District Civil Protection Units in managing veld fires: A case of Mangwe District in Matabeleland South Province, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Dube

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article analysed disaster risk reduction capacity of District Civil Protection Units (DCPUs in managing veld fires in Mangwe District of Matabeleland South Province, Zimbabwe. Veld fires have resulted in unnecessary material, environmental and economic losses. Communities’ livelihoods and property have been destroyed, and the natural environment depleted. The research sought to improve disaster risk reduction capacity of DCPUs in managing veld fires, through new intervention strategies and a new model. The objectives of the study were to investigate the main causes of veld fires; to analyse their impacts; to examine the effectiveness of the current intervention strategies; and to identify challenges in implementing these interventions. Furthermore, the study sought to recommend new possible intervention strategies. This mainly qualitative study employed self-administered questionnaires, interviews and focus-group discussions. Questionnaires were used to investigate members of the DCPU’s ideas, views and experiences, interviews solicited perceptions of community leaders and their subjects, whilst focus-group discussions assisted with information from members of the District Civil Protection Planning Committee. Veld fires in the district are mainly caused by human activities, and they are prevalent during the months of September and October. They affect livelihoods and the natural environment the most. This study found that DCPUs are not prepared to manage veld fires and therefore recommended new strategies and adoption of the community-based disaster risk reduction model. The new strategies include involving community leaders and members of the communities in DCPUs; regular training and workshops to members of DCPUs on veld fire management; creation of fire protection associations; regular campaigns and rehearsal of emergency drills by the DCPU personnel; the introduction of competitions and incentives in veld fire management; vigorous

  8. Refractive status of primary school children in Mopani district, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.G. Mabaso

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reports part of the findings of a study carried out to determine the causes, prevalence,  and  distribution  of  ocular  dis-orders  among  rural  primary  school  children in  Mopani  district  of  Limpopo  Province, South Africa. Three hundred and eighty eight children  aged  8  to  15  years  were  randomly selected from five randomly selected schools. Non-cycloplegic retinoscopy and auto-refrac-tion were performed on each child. The preva-lence of hyperopia, myopia, and astigmatism was  73.1%,  2.5%  and  31.3%  respective-ly.  Hyperopia  (Nearest  spherical  equivalent power (FNSE ranged from +0.75 to +3.50 D for the right and left eyes with means of +1.05 ±  0.35  D  and  +1.08  ±  0.34  D  respectively. Myopia (FNSE ranged from –0.50 to –1.75 D for the right eye and –0.50 to –2.25 D for the left eye with means of –0.75 ± 0.55 D and –0.93 ± 0.55 D respectively. Regression model for myopia, shows that age had an odds ratio of  1.94  (1.15  to  3.26,  indicating  a  signifi-cant increased risk of myopia with increasing age.  Correcting  cylinders  for  the  right  eyes ranged from –0.25 to –4.50 D (mean = −0.67 ± 0.47 D and for the left eyes from –0.25 to –2.50 D (mean = −0.60 ± 0.30 D. With-the-rule  (WTR  astigmatism  (66.5%  was  more common, followed by against-the-rule (ATR astigmatism (28.1% and oblique (OBL astig-matism  (5.4%.  With-the-rule  astigmatism was  more  common  in  females  than  males; ATR astigmatism and OBL astigmatism were common in males. Regular vision screening programmes,  appropriate  referral  and  vision correction  in  primary  schools  in  Mopani district  are  recommended  in  order  to  elimi-nate  refractive  errors  among  the  children.

  9. Assessment of the impact of family physicians in the district health system of the Western Cape, South Africa

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    Meyer Swanepoel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 2007, South Africa made family medicine a new speciality. Family physicians that have trained for this new speciality have been employed in the district health system since 2011. The aim of the present study was to explore the perceptions of district managers on the impact of family physicians on clinical processes, health system performance and health outcomes in the district health system (DHS of the Western Cape. Methods: Nine in-depth interviews were performed: seven with district managers and two with the chief directors of the metropolitan and rural DHS. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed using the ATLAS-ti and the framework method. Results: There was a positive impact on clinical processes for HIV/AIDS, TB, trauma, noncommunicable chronic diseases, mental health, maternal and child health. Health system performance was positively impacted in terms of access, coordination, comprehensiveness and efficiency. An impact on health outcomes was anticipated. The impact was not uniform throughout the province due to different numbers of family physicians and different abilities to function optimally. There was also a perception that the positive impact attributed to family physicians was in the early stages of development. Unanticipated effects included concerns with their roles in management and training of students, as well as tensions with career medical officers. Conclusion: Early feedback from district managers suggests that where family physicians are employed and able to function optimally, they are making a significant impact on health system performance and the quality of clinical processes. In the longer term, this is likely to impact on health outcomes.

  10. African catfish Clarias gariepinus farming practices in North and South 24 Parganas districts of West Bengal, India

    OpenAIRE

    Thangapalam Jawahar Abraham; Prakash Kumar Mallick; Pradipta Paul

    2018-01-01

    Clarias gariepinus is widely cultured due to its tolerance to environmental extremes, high production and good feed conversion rate. This communication describes the farming practices of C. gariepinus in North and South 24 Parganas districts of West Bengal. Clarias gariepinus is cultured in ponds of 0.1–0.75 ha, where fingerlings were stocked at a density of 860–1150 cubic meter–1. The current practices of seed transportation were stressful to fish as the majority of the farmers noticed 5–10%...

  11. Perceptions of female teenagers in the Tshwane District on the use of contraceptives in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ntswaleng S. Tabane; Mmapheko D. Peu

    2015-01-01

    Background: Perceptions of female teenagers in the Tshwane District contribute to the nonuseand or discontinued use of contraceptives as evidenced by increased levels of unplanned pregnancies. Objective: The objective of this study was to explore and describe the perceptions of female teenagers in the Tshwane District on the use of contraceptives. Methods: A qualitative, explorative, descriptive approach was followed in this study. The population comprised of pregnant female teenagers...

  12. Analysis of cattle breeder’s income in South Kualuh sub-district of Labuhan Batu Utara Regency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasnudi; Berutu, I. S.; Daulay, A. H.; Ginting, N.; Sembiring, I.

    2018-02-01

    Beef cattle breeding is a business of the majority people in South Kualuh Subdistrict among others business. Therefore it is necessary to know the people income of beef cattle farms in the district. This research was conducted in South Kualuh Subdistrict of Labuhan Batu Utara Regency of North Sumatera Province from October to December 2016. This research used survey method with family respondent unit that raising beef cattle. The sample was obtained through Proportional Stratified Random Sampling method and obtained by 97 farmers such as, from Tanjung Pasir village, 64 respondents, Simangalam village was 24 respondents and Lobu Huala village was 9 respondents. Data was analysed by multiple linear regression analysis. The results showed that scale of business, education of farmers positively affect the income of beef cattle farms while the age, breeding experience and the number of family dependents negatively affect to the income of beef cattle farms.

  13. Providers' knowledge, attitude and dispensing practices of e-pills in government dispensaries of South district in delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore, Vertika; Misro, Man M; Nandan, Deoki

    2010-01-01

    South Delhi is one of the well developed districts in the capital with best public health care facilities. Knowledge, attitude and dispensing practices of emergency contraceptive pills (E-pills) were assessed among health care providers of government dispensaries in South Delhi. A descriptive epidemiological study. Both medical and paramedical (n = 428) providers in 63 government health care facilities were interviewed between August to December 2007 using a semi-structured interview schedule. Among the different categories of the providers, medical officers were observed to be most knowledgeable about E-pills and the pharmacists were the least. The correct prescribed dose of E-pill was known only to 32% of the providers while 49% knew about its right time of intake. Misconceptions and apprehensions for promoting its use were very much prevalent even among medical officers as majority felt that open access to E-pills would increase promiscuity. The dispensing practice of providers was found positively (P pills.

  14. Iodine deficiency in children: A comparative study in two districts of south-interior Karnataka, India

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    Mansoor Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Iodine is an essential component of the hormones produced by the thyroid gland that are essential for mammalian life. Although goiter is the most visible sequelae of iodine deficiency, the major impact of hypothyroidism as a result of iodine deficiency is impaired neurodevelopment, particularly early in life. According to the World Health Organization, it is the single most preventable cause of mental retardation and brain damage. The simplest, most effective and inexpensive preventive method is the consumption of iodized salt. Objectives: The objective of the following study is to estimate the prevalence of goiter in children in the rural areas of Mysore and Coorg districts in India and estimate iodine levels in salt samples. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study in the age group of 6-12 years, using population proportionate to size systematic sampling method. The total sample size was 10,082: out of which 5337 was from Mysore and the rest from Coorg district. Clinical examination of the thyroid gland was done and salt samples collected for the estimation of Iodine. Results: The total prevalence of goiter was 19.01% in children of 6-12 years in Coorg district and 8.77% in Mysore district and it was more in females than in males. Conclusions: It was observed that iodine deficiency disorders is endemic in both districts, with a prevalence of 19.01% in children aged 6-12 years in Coorg district and 8.77% in Mysore district. Analysis of salt samples suggested that most of the samples were inadequately iodised (73.92% in Coorg and 45.92% in Mysore.

  15. Iodine deficiency in children: A comparative study in two districts of south-interior Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mansoor; Zama, Syed Y; Nagarajarao, Vadiraja; Khan, Mudassir A

    2014-01-01

    Iodine is an essential component of the hormones produced by the thyroid gland that are essential for mammalian life. Although goiter is the most visible sequelae of iodine deficiency, the major impact of hypothyroidism as a result of iodine deficiency is impaired neurodevelopment, particularly early in life. According to the World Health Organization, it is the single most preventable cause of mental retardation and brain damage. The simplest, most effective and inexpensive preventive method is the consumption of iodized salt. The objective of the following study is to estimate the prevalence of goiter in children in the rural areas of Mysore and Coorg districts in India and estimate iodine levels in salt samples. A cross-sectional study in the age group of 6-12 years, using population proportionate to size systematic sampling method. The total sample size was 10,082: out of which 5337 was from Mysore and the rest from Coorg district. Clinical examination of the thyroid gland was done and salt samples collected for the estimation of Iodine. The total prevalence of goiter was 19.01% in children of 6-12 years in Coorg district and 8.77% in Mysore district and it was more in females than in males. It was observed that iodine deficiency disorders is endemic in both districts, with a prevalence of 19.01% in children aged 6-12 years in Coorg district and 8.77% in Mysore district. Analysis of salt samples suggested that most of the samples were inadequately iodised (73.92% in Coorg and 45.92% in Mysore).

  16. Views of teenagers on termination of pregnancy at Muyexe high school in Mopani District, Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakuela, Nditsheni J; Lebese, Tsakani R; Maputle, Sonto M; Mulaudzi, Lindiwe

    2016-05-31

    Teenage pregnancy is a global social health concern especially because of the HIV and AIDS pandemic, sexually transmitted infections, high rate of termination of pregnancy (TOP), adolescents' parenthood and decreased level of contraceptives. To explore the views of teenagers on the TOP at Muyexe high school in a rural village of Mopani District, Limpopo Province. Muyexe high school in a rural village of Mopani District, Limpopo Province, in South Africa. A qualitative method using explorative and descriptive designs was used to find in-depth description and understanding of teenagers' views on TOP. The target population was girls aged 15-19 years at Muyexe high school in Mopani District. Non-probability, convenient sampling was used to select high school teenage girls who had undergone TOP for the study. Data were collected using individual self-report technique (interview). Tesch's eight steps of qualitative data analysis were used. Measures to ensure trustworthiness and ethical considerations were observed. Two major themes were revealed: (1) Views of teenagers regarding TOP (poverty, relationship problems and single parenthood, negative impact on the teen's life while attending school) and (2) teenager's fears regarding pregnancy (stigma, fear of parents and friends, rape and incest and fear of giving birth). Majority of participants had knowledge about TOP; some had experiences about TOP while others held inadequate knowledge. Recommendations were based on the findings by teaching dangers of TOP and various contraceptive methods to prevent unwanted pregnancies and TOP.

  17. Social Structure Study of Association The Flying Fish Fishermen in Takalar Regency (Case Study in Bontomarannu Village, South Galesong District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Dalvi Mustafa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determined (1 the form of social structure that occur in groups of flying fish fishermen and (2 the rights and duties between the punggawa and sawi inside the social structure in flying fish fisher groups at Bontomarannu Village of South Galesong District, Takalar. The basic method of this research was descriptive method with qualitative approach, while the strategy was a case study. The research was conducted in the Bontomarannu Villages District of South Galesong as one of the flying fish fisher group who still use the traditional way. Determination of informants conducted snowball sampling where there were 35 informants were used in this study. The results showed that the shape of the social structure of the punggawa sawi in a group of flying fish fisher form of domination and legitimacy of the role played by the punggawa being the highest position in the social relations. The strength of the social structure between the punggawa and sawi belong to the powerful force that created rights and duties of each role and status they have in the flying fish fisher groups. Rights and duties were not only applicable in the employment relationship alone, but more deeply into the journey of life both within the coastal communities in the Bontomarannu Village. Keywords : punggawa, sawi, social structure, Takalar

  18. Examining the influence of family physician supply on district health system performance in South Africa: An ecological analysis of key health indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Pressentin, Klaus B; Mash, Bob J; Esterhuizen, Tonya M

    2017-04-28

    The supply of appropriate health workers is a key building block in the World Health Organization's model of effective health systems. Primary care teams are stronger if they contain doctors with postgraduate training in family medicine. The contribution of such family physicians to the performance of primary care systems has not been evaluated in the African context. Family physicians with postgraduate training entered the South African district health system (DHS) from 2011. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of family physicians within the DHS of South Africa. The objectives were to evaluate the impact of an increase in family physician supply in each district (number per 10 000 population) on key health indicators. All 52 South African health districts were included as units of analysis. An ecological study evaluated the correlations between the supply of family physicians and routinely collected data on district performance for two time periods: 2010/2011 and 2014/2015. Five years after the introduction of the new generation of family physicians, this study showed no demonstrable correlation between family physician supply and improved health indicators from the macro-perspective of the district. The lack of a measurable impact at the level of the district is most likely because of the very low supply of family physicians in the public sector. Studies which evaluate impact closer to the family physician's circle of control may be better positioned to demonstrate a measurable impact in the short term.

  19. CORRELATION STUDY AMONG WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS OF GROUNDWATER OF VALSAD DISTRICT OF SOUTH GUJARAT(INDIA

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    R. T. Vashi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater samples were collected from five talukas of Valsad district for one year (from August 2008 to July 2009 and were analyzed for their physicochemical characteristics.  The present investigation is focused on  determination of parameters like pH, Colour, Electrical Conductivity (EC, Total Hardness (TH, Calcium (Ca, Magnesium (Mg, Total Alkalinity (TA, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS, Silica, Chloride, Sulphate, Fluoride, Sodium, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD and metals like Copper (Cu and Manganese (Mn.  Correlation coefficients were determined to identify the highly correlated parameters and interrelated water quality parameters. Correlation matrix of Valsad district suggests that EC of groundwater is found to be significantly correlated with eight out of seventeen water quality parameters studied.  It may be suggested that the quality of Valsad district can be checked very effectively by controlling EC of water.

  20. Health care Providers Needs About Malaria Control Program in Puskesmas Kisam Tinggi, South Ogan Komering Ulu District

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    Maya Arisanti

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malaria is an infectious disease that is still a health problem in Indonesia, which can cause death, especially in high-risk groups such as infants, toddlers, pregnant women and can directly lead to anemia and decreased work productivity. South Ogan Komering Ulu District was one of the endemic areas in South Sumatera Province. In a previous study in the District South Ogan Komering Ulu County Superior Data AMI found that high and low knowledge society related to malaria and most of respondents have not received counseling. Objective:The purpose of this study was to determine the needs of health care providers in malaria control programs. Methods:Data collected through in-depth interviews. Informant interviews are two people responsible for malaria at the health department, the head of health centers and two people responsible for malaria in health centers. Results: The results showed that the needs required by the health care providers to improve health care services, especially malaria is a need for laboratory equipment (microscope, reagents, and rapid diagnostic test, the need for microscopic power, the need for malaria drugs that are still effective, procurement of mosquito nets, education malaria to the community, and training needs for existing microscopic officer. Conclusion: The need of health care providers is the fulfillment of the malaria supplies equipment, laboratory personnel and training that support the ability of health care providers. With the fulfillment of the provider of health services to the community are expected to be performing well. Recommendation:Budget is needed to support supplier equipment & training.

  1. Micro-spatial distribution of malaria cases and control strategies at ward level in Gwanda district, Matabeleland South, Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyangadze, Tawanda; Chimbari, Moses J; Macherera, Margaret; Mukaratirwa, Samson

    2017-11-21

    Although there has been a decline in the number of malaria cases in Zimbabwe since 2010, the disease remains the biggest public health threat in the country. Gwanda district, located in Matabeleland South Province of Zimbabwe has progressed to the malaria pre-elimination phase. The aim of this study was to determine the spatial distribution of malaria incidence at ward level for improving the planning and implementation of malaria elimination in the district. The Poisson purely spatial model was used to detect malaria clusters and their properties, including relative risk and significance levels at ward level. The geographically weighted Poisson regression (GWPR) model was used to explore the potential role and significance of environmental variables [rainfall, minimum and maximum temperature, altitude, Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI), rural/urban] and malaria control strategies [indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs)] on the spatial patterns of malaria incidence at ward level. Two significant clusters (p malaria cases were identified: (1) ward 24 south of Gwanda district and (2) ward 9 in the urban municipality, with relative risks of 5.583 and 4.316, respectively. The semiparametric-GWPR model with both local and global variables had higher performance based on AICc (70.882) compared to global regression (74.390) and GWPR which assumed that all variables varied locally (73.364). The semiparametric-GWPR captured the spatially non-stationary relationship between malaria cases and minimum temperature, NDVI, NDWI, and altitude at the ward level. The influence of LLINs, IRS and rural or urban did not vary and remained in the model as global terms. NDWI (positive coefficients) and NDVI (range from negative to positive coefficients) showed significant association with malaria cases in some of the wards. The IRS had a protection effect on

  2. Audit of antenatal care in a rural district of KZN, South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The South African Government's response in terms of providing free ... Frequency tables were produced on ... tool to reduce maternal mortality (in some cases by 60%) in developing .... assessment, and was the source of data for this study.

  3. Primary school teachers’ opinions and attitudes towards stuttering in two South African urban education districts

    OpenAIRE

    Kristen Abrahams; Michal Harty; Kenneth O. St. Louis; Lehana Thabane; Harsha Kathard

    2016-01-01

    Background: As teachers form an important part of the intervention process with childrenwho stutter in primary school, the primary aim was to describe primary school teachers’attitudes in South Africa. The secondary aim was to compare teachers’ attitudes towardsstuttering in South Africa with those from a pooled group of respondents in the Public OpinionSurvey of Human Attributes–Stuttering (POSHA-S) database from different countries collectedin 2009–2014. Method: A quantitative, cross-sec...

  4. Plants diversity of farm forestry in Tanah Laut District, South Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOCHAMAD ARIEF SOENDJOTO

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Both monoculture and polyculture farm forestry were in Tanah Laut District. The plants forming the monoculture farm forestry were rubber, teak, coconut, and acacias. The areas of rubber farm forestry were scattered all over the district. Based on Surat Kepala Dinas Kehutanan Kabupaten Tanah Laut No. 522/202/PPHH/Dishut, there were 43 plant species in the polyculture one; 16 species were categorized as the farm wood and 27 as the other wood. Based on Surat Keputusan Menteri Kehutanan No. SK 272/Menhut-V/2004, there were 44 plant species and 16 of those were the multi purpose tree species. The density and the potential of plants indicated the preference of the community to plant the non-wood producing species of the farm-wood group as well as durian and rambutan of the other wood one.

  5. PROFITABILITY AND EFFICIENCY ANALYSIS OF SMALLHOLDER BROILER PRODUCTION IN MOPANI DISTRICT OF LIMPOPO PROVINCE, SOUTH AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Busayo Oluwatayo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted in the Mopani District of Limpopo province to determine the factors aff ecting productivity of broiler production in the area. Data were collected from 86 sampled smallholder broiler farmers in three municipalities in Mopani District namely; Greater Tzaneen municipality, Greater Letaba municipality and Maruleng municipality using a well-structured questionnaire. The results of the study indicated that feed is signifi cant at 10% level having a positive relationship with the broiler output. However, stock size and vaccines are signifi cant at 1% level, also with a positive relationship with broiler output. The study recommended that government should fi nd ways of linking the smallholder farmers in the study area with other stakeholders, governmental and private, to allow smallholder farmers have the opportunities to network and get to know how the commercial successful farms operate and see where they can improve on their production systems and marketing of products.

  6. Report of boring made in the South of Cerro Largo district (Cerro Largo) 1977-1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massa, E.

    1984-01-01

    The present work are within the framework and compiles the data obtained by means of the study of the perforations executed in the District Cerro Largo Sur of the detailed prospection of uranium minerals. This study was carried out by technicians of Geologic ex--Institute of Uruguay (IGU) - at the moment National Direction of Mining and Geology. (DINAMIGE). The works began at the beginning of 1977 and continued until 1978 July; The headquarters of the program of prospection of uranium was carried out by Ing. Hector Goso. In this report the conclusions drawn at the time of the detection of the works in the District already published, as well as the litologicos cuts of all the executed perforations are included

  7. New isotope data from the Koperberg Suite and some associated rocks, Okiep district, Namaqualand, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifford, T.N.; Barton, E.S.; Retief, E.A.; Rex, D.C.

    1990-01-01

    The Koperberg Suite is an anorthosite-charnockite kindred and 1500 bodies of these rocks have been recognised in the Okiep district and 30 of them have been mined for copper since 1852. The suite is intrusive into country rocks. New isotope data presented includes U-Pb zircon and whole-rock Pb-Pb, Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd and Ar-Ar analyses. 10 refs

  8. Mercury in the gold mining district of San Martin de Loba, South of Bolivar (Colombia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivero-Verbel, Jesus; Caballero-Gallardo, Karina; Turizo-Tapia, Alexi

    2015-04-01

    Gold mining is responsible for most Hg pollution in developing countries. The aims of this study were to assess the levels of total Hg (T-Hg) in human hair, fish, water, macrophyte, and sediment samples in the gold mining district of San Martin de Loba, Colombia, as well as to determine fish consumption-based risks for T-Hg ingestion. T-Hg levels were measured by electrothermal atomization and atomic absorption spectroscopy. The overall mean T-Hg level in hair for humans in the mining district of San Martin de Loba was 2.12 μg/g, whereas for the reference site, Chimichagua, Cesar, it was 0.58 μg/g. Mean T-Hg levels were not different when considered within localities belonging to the mining district but differed when the comparison included Chimichagua. T-Hg levels in examined locations were weakly but significantly associated with age and height, as well as with fish consumption, except in San Martin de Loba. High T-Hg concentrations in fish were detected in Pseudoplatystoma magdaleniatum, Caquetaia kraussii, Ageneiosus pardalis, Cyrtocharax magdalenae, and Triportheus magdalenae, whereas the lowest appeared in Prochilodus magdalenae and Hemiancistrus wilsoni. In terms of Hg exposure due to fish consumption, only these last two species offer some guarantee of low risk for Hg-related health problems. Water, floating macrophytes, and sediments from effluents near mining sites also had high Hg values. In mines of San Martin de Loba and Hatillo de Loba, for instance, the geoaccumulation index (I(geo)) for sediments reached values greater than 6, indicating extreme pollution. In short, these data support the presence of a high Hg-polluted environment in this mining district, with direct risk for deleterious effects on the health of the mining communities.

  9. Works carried out in the south of Cerro Largo district. Uranium prospection programme. Preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goso, H.

    1978-01-01

    During the carried out work of radimetric preliminary Investigation in the northeast of the uraniferous country were detected radimetric anonalias which are associated to the formation San Gregorio and Tres Islas. Later the works of prospection ratified those anomalies to which they defined in the environs other anomalies. The studies of revision of these conducted anomalies they took to conclude the necessity to carry out a detailed study of the area to that district was denominated Cerro Largo Sur

  10. Awareness regarding eye donation among stakeholders in Srikakulam district in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronanki, Venkata Ramana; Sheeladevi, Sethu; Ramachandran, Brinda P; Jalbert, Isabelle

    2014-03-06

    There is a huge need for the availability of transplantable donor corneas worldwide to reduce the burden of corneal blindness due to corneal opacity. Voluntary eye donation depends on the awareness levels of various stakeholders in the community. This study aimed to assess the awareness level regarding eye donation among various stakeholders in Srikakulam district in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India. 355 subjects were selected from the district using multi stage random sampling. A pre tested semi structured questionnaire was used to collect information regarding each individual's awareness, knowledge, and perception regarding eye donation. Each response was scored individually and a total score was calculated. Univariate and multivariate regression analysis was used to determine the factors associated with willingness towards eye donation and increased awareness levels. Of the 355 subjects interviewed, 192 (54%) were male and 163 (46%) were female. The mean age of the stakeholders was 35.9 years (SD ±16.1) and all the study subjects were literate. Ninety-three percent of subjects were aware of the concept of eye donation. Knowledge levels were similar among the teaching community and persons engaged in social service, but lower among students (p stakeholders, there was considerable ambiguity regarding whether persons currently wearing spectacles or suffering from a chronic illnesses could donate their eyes. Older age group (p stakeholders in Srikakulam district in India. The services of stakeholders could be utilized, in conjunction with other community based eye donation counselors, to promote awareness regarding eye donation among the general population.

  11. Perceptions of female teenagers in the Tshwane District on the use of contraceptives in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabane, Ntswaleng S; Peu, Mmapheko D

    2015-10-22

    Perceptions of female teenagers in the Tshwane District contribute to the nonuseand or discontinued use of contraceptives as evidenced by increased levels of unplanned pregnancies. The objective of this study was to explore and describe the perceptions of female teenagers in the Tshwane District on the use of contraceptives. A qualitative, explorative, descriptive approach was followed in this study. The population comprised of pregnant female teenagers who were purposively selected. Data were collected using unstructured individual interviews on a face-to-face encounter in a natural setting. Data were analysed using the discourse method of data analysis. The following perceptions on the use of contraceptives emerged: Perceptions on the use of contraceptives, emotions, contraceptive effects, social pressure and education on contraceptives. Teenagers' perceptions were predominantly negative with unfounded fears. Though the teenagers were aware of the importance of the use of contraceptives, motivation to pursue contraception was lacking. Teenagers verbalised to be uncommitted as well. Various perceptions of female teenagers in the Tshwane District on the use of contraceptives were explored and described. It was noted that all the teenagers interviewed had great remorse and feelings of guilt regarding their behaviour of not using contraceptives.Their need for re-education was cited and seen as motivational enough to encourage the use of contraceptives at primary health care settings. Therefore, the study recommended that health education programmes should be restructured to effectively influence the female teenagers'perceptions positively and to promote the use of contraceptives.

  12. Employees’ perceptions of the implementation of affirmative action in the health sector in the Standerton District in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Rankhumse

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the inception of a fully democratic government in South Africa in 1994, government and trade unions have been placing increasing pressure on government departments and public institutions to introduce steps to correct racial discrimination through the implementation of affirmative action (AA. This study, which was carried out in the Standerton Health District, assesses employees’ perceptions of and attitudes towards the implementation of AA. A quantitative design was used. Data was gathered from a total population of 360 employees by means of a questionnaire. The study revealed the following major themes: • Respondents feel that if AA were effectively implemented, there would be an increase in productivity. • There is strong support for the implementation of AA appointments. • The implementation of AA will fail if the goals of AA are not properly and effectively communicated to all employees.

  13. Innovations in the clinical care of mothers and children in South Africa: The contribution of district clinical specialist teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U Feucht

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of the District Clinical Specialist Teams (DCSTs to improving maternal and child health outcomes in South Africa, through strengthening the four pillars of clinical governance, is reflected in innovative work presented at a ‘Promising Practices’ symposium and at various conferences. Of the 24 identified DCST innovations, 21% reflected the clinical effectiveness pillar, 17% clinical risk management, 41% staff development, and 21% user-related considerations. In order to ensure scale-up, the submitted best practices/ innovations were reviewed using the World Health Organization quality standards and ExpandNet parameters for likely scalability. Here we describe one case study from each pillar, illustrating the contribution of the innovations to improved patient outcomes. The development and scale-up of innovations needs to be institutionalised and must include effective support and action from the relevant health managers.

  14. Views of teenagers on termination of pregnancy at Muyexe high school in Mopani District, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nditsheni J. Ramakuela

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Teenage pregnancy is a global social health concern especially because of the HIV and AIDS pandemic, sexually transmitted infections, high rate of termination of pregnancy (TOP, adolescents’ parenthood and decreased level of contraceptives. Aim: To explore the views of teenagers on the TOP at Muyexe high school in a rural village of Mopani District, Limpopo Province. Setting: Muyexe high school in a rural village of Mopani District, Limpopo Province, in South Africa. Methodology: A qualitative method using explorative and descriptive designs was used to find in-depth description and understanding of teenagers’ views on TOP. The target population was girls aged 15–19 years at Muyexe high school in Mopani District. Non-probability, convenient sampling was used to select high school teenage girls who had undergone TOP for the study. Data were collected using individual self-report technique (interview. Tesch’s eight steps of qualitative data analysis were used. Measures to ensure trustworthiness and ethical considerations were observed. Results: Two major themes were revealed: (1 Views of teenagers regarding TOP (poverty, relationship problems and single parenthood, negative impact on the teen’s life while attending school and (2 teenager’s fears regarding pregnancy (stigma, fear of parents and friends, rape and incest and fear of giving birth. Conclusion: Majority of participants had knowledge about TOP; some had experiences about TOP while others held inadequate knowledge. Recommendations were based on the findings by teaching dangers of TOP and various contraceptive methods to prevent unwanted pregnancies and TOP. Keywords: Views, teenagers and termination of pregnancy

  15. ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY ADSORPTIVE MEDIA. U.S. EPA DEMONSTRATION PROJECT AT SOUTH TRUCKEE MEADOWS GENERAL IMPROVEMENT DISTRICT (STMIG), NV. INTERIM EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed during and the results obtained from the first 32 weeks of operation of an arsenic and antimony removal technology currently being demonstrated at the South Truckee Meadows General Improvement District (STMGID) in Washoe County, NV. ...

  16. Urban and community forests of the Southern Atlantic region: Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Eric J. Greenfield

    2009-01-01

    This report details how land cover and urbanization vary within the states of Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia; and the District of Columbia by community (incorporated and census designated places), county subdivision, and county. Specifically this report provides critical urban and community forestry...

  17. A survey of medicinal plants used in the treatment of dysentery in amathole district municipality, south africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afolayan, A.J.; Wintola, O.A.

    2014-01-01

    In view of the prevalence of dysentery in developing countries such as South Africa and the erosion of indigenous knowledge of phytomedicine due to lack of interest by the young generation, a survey of five local municipalities of Amathole district, Eastern Cape Province was carried out in 2012. A questionnaire-guided interview of the indigenous people by random sampling was done with the help of an interpreter during a survey of the district. Fifty-five (55) respondents participated in the study. The respondents comprised of 25% traditional medical practitioners, 15% herb-sellers and 15% rural elders. Fifty-one (51) plants species of 32 families were documented. Fabaceae had the highest representation of seven (14%) plant species used for the treatment of dysentery; some other families were Asphodelaceae, Apiaceae, Geraniaceae, Anacardiaceae, Bignoniaceae, Ebenaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Hyacinthaceae, Asclepiadiaceae, Acanthaceae, Asteraceae, Balanophaceae, Celstraceae, Convolvulaceae, Cornaceae, Iridaceae, and Hydronaceae. The medicinal plants with the highest frequency of prescription were Hydnora africana and Alepidea amatymbica. The plants were used singly or in combination in recipes. Leaves (28%) had the highest use-value of plant parts, followed by the roots (24%), bark (22%) and the whole plant (9%). Methods of preparation of recipes were decoction, infusion and tincture. The use of recipe as an enema was also documented. The study of the pharmacology and mode of action of the plants will contribute immensely to their therapeutic value. (author)

  18. Study on Association between Spatial Distribution of Metal Mines and Disease Mortality: A Case Study in Suxian District, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Daping; Jiang, Dong; Wang, Yong; Chen, Wei; Huang, Yaohuan; Zhuang, Dafang

    2013-01-01

    Metal mines release toxic substances into the environment and can therefore negatively impact the health of residents in nearby regions. This paper sought to investigate whether there was excess disease mortality in populations in the vicinity of the mining area in Suxian District, South China. The spatial distribution of metal mining and related activities from 1985 to 2012, which was derived from remote sensing imagery, was overlapped with disease mortality data. Three hotspot areas with high disease mortality were identified around the Shizhuyuan mine sites, i.e., the Dengjiatang metal smelting sites, and the Xianxichong mine sites. Disease mortality decreased with the distance to the mining and smelting areas. Population exposure to pollution was estimated on the basis of distance from town of residence to pollution source. The risk of dying according to disease mortality rates was analyzed within 7–25 km buffers. The results suggested that there was a close relationship between the risk of disease mortality and proximity to the Suxian District mining industries. These associations were dependent on the type and scale of mining activities, the area influenced by mining and so on. PMID:24135822

  19. Perceptions of community members towards youth abusing alcohol in the Capricorn District of the Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. Mothiba

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse is a problem in South Africa and it has negative effects on the wellbeing of individuals, families, friends, work associates and neighbours. Alcohol produces both psychological and physical dependence. Gillies (1999:112 indicated that alcoholism usually interferes with the ability to socialize, work and may lead to much other destructive behaviour. It was further stated that people who are addicted to alcohol often have a low self-esteem, immaturity, are easily frustrated, and have difficulty in solving personal problems. This study investigated the perceptions of community members towards youth abusing alcohol and identified, among others, anti-social behaviour, poor interpersonal relationships, family disorganization, poor integration with family members and physical damage as the major concerns. An attempt was also made to develop strategies that can be used to overcome the problems of alcohol abuse by youth. Design and Method: A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual research design was followed in this study for the participants to describe their perceptions regarding the phenomenon in question (Brink, 2006:113. Data were collected through individual unstructured interviews in one village of the Capricorn District of the Limpopo Province. The researchers employed the principles of Guba and Lincoln (1993 cited in De Vos (1998:331 relating to trustworthiness and adhered to the ethical standards as set by the Democratic Nurses Association of South Africa (DENOSA, 1998:2.3.2. Findings: Five themes and seven categories emerged from the data analysis, using Tech’s open coding approach (1990, as outlined in De Vos (1998:343, namely, antisocial behaviour, poor interpersonal behaviour, physical damage, poor progress in life processes and effects of alcohol on the body. To address the problem of alcohol abuse by youth in one village (the study area of the Capricorn District in the Limpopo Province and other villages the

  20. Chart review of acute myocardial infarction at a district hospital in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Chetty

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Incidence and prevalence of non-communicable diseases, including ischaemic heart disease (IHD and associated acute myocardial infarction (AMI, are increasing in South Africa. Local studies are needed as contextual factors, such as healthcare systems, gender and ethnicity, may affect presentation and management. In AMI, reviews on time between onset of chest pain and initiation of urgent treatment are useful, as delays in initiation of thrombolytic treatment significantly increase morbidity and mortality. Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the profile and management of patients admitted with ischaemic chest pain.Setting: The study was carried out in a busy urban-based district hospital in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The population served is poor, and patients are mainly Indian with associated high risk of IHD. Methods: A chart review of all patients seen at the hospital with acute ischaemic chest pain between 01 March and 31 August 2014 was undertaken. Results: More male than female patients were admitted, with a wide variation in age. Most eligible patients received required thrombolytic intervention within an acceptable time period after arrival at hospital. Conclusion: Chest pain and AMI were a relatively common presentation at the study site, and urgent diagnosis and initiation of fibrinolytic therapy are essential. The encouraging door-toneedle time may have been influenced by the availability of specialist family physicians, trained as ‘expert generalists’ to provide appropriate care in a variety of settings and consultant support to junior staff. The role of the family physician and primary healthcare doctor in primary prevention are re-emphasised through the study findings. Keywords: Acute myocardial infarction; KwaZulu-Natal; district hospital; Asian population; hospital chart review; door-to-needle-time

  1. Dental caries among disabled individuals attending special schools in Vhembe district, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemutandani, M S; Adedoja, D; Nevhuhlwi, D

    2013-11-01

    To determine the prevalence of dental caries among disabled individuals attending special schools in Vhembe districts. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted from January to June 2012 among disabled individuals receiving special care in four specialised schools of Vhembe District. The research protocol had been approved by the Ethics Committee of the University of Limpopo, Polokwane Campus. Informed consent was obtained from the parents of the participants and from the respective school principals. Oral health examinations took place at the school under natural light, with participants seated on an ordinary chair/wheelchair. Dental caries examinations were carried out, using a mirror and wooden spatula in accordance with World Health Organisation (WHO) criteria and methods. Decayed, missing and filled primary and permanent teeth (dmft, DMFT) were recorded. All disabled individuals who were available during a screening period, were included. Those who were not available, as well as those whose health conditions could be compromised by dental examinations, were excluded. The number of decayed teeth ranged from 0-7 in children below 6 years, 0-12 in children below 11 years; and 0-17 among young adults. The mean decay scores and the numbers of missing teeth increased with age. Only 3 (0.04%) individuals had dental fillings. The mean dmft score of children under 6 years was 5.51 (+/- 2.1), ranging from zero to 8. The mean DMFT's of the 11-18 and 19 years and older groups were 7.38 (+/- 3.22) and 10.24 (+/- 2.97) respectively. Disabled individuals exhibited higher caries prevalence and unmet dental needs than the same age general population in Limpopo. Preventive measures and dental treatment should be considered urgent requirements at special needs schools in the Vhembe District.

  2. Assessing the gap between the acute trauma workload and the capacity of a single rural health district in South Africa. What are the implications for systems planning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, D L; Aldous, C; Thomson, S R

    2014-06-01

    This study focuses on a single rural health district in South Africa, and attempts to establish the burden of disease and to review the capacity of the district hospitals to deal with this load. Ethical approval to undertake this study was obtained from both the University of Kwa-Zulu Natal and the Department of Health. The audit was performed over a 6-month period in the four district hospitals of rural Sisonke District. There were four components to this audit. 1. Information on the hospital incidence of acute trauma in Sisonke was also sourced from the epidemiology unit of the Department of Health in Pietermaritzburg 2. Each of the district hospitals was visited and the medical manager was interviewed. The medical manager was asked to complete the World Health Organization's Tool for Situational Analysis to Assess Emergency and Essential Surgical Care. (SAT). 3. The operative registers were reviewed to determine the number of index cases for trauma. This information was used to determine the unmet need of acute trauma in the district. 4. Each hospital was classified according to the Trauma Society of South Africa (TSSA) guidelines for levels of trauma care. The annual incidence of trauma in the Sisonke District is estimated to be 1,590 per 100,000 population. Although there appeared to be adequate infrastructure in the district hospitals, the SAT revealed significant deficits in terms of capacity of staff to adequately treat and triage acute trauma patients. There is a significant unmet need for trauma care in Sisonke. The four district hospitals can best be classified as Level IV centers of trauma care. There is a significant burden of trauma in the Sisonke District, yet the capacity to deal with this burden is inadequate. Although the physical infrastructure is adequate, the deficits relate to human resources. The strategic choices are between enhancing the district hospitals' capacity to deal with acute trauma, or deciding to bypass them completely and

  3. 77 FR 10472 - San Bernardino National Forest, Mountaintop Ranger District, California, Mitsubishi South Quarry...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... of the mine. The proposed South Quarry site would be able to meet the requirements for blending with... restoration practices. 3. To avoid incidental killing of birds protected under the Migratory Bird Treaty Act... proponent's ability to mine its claims on National Forest System lands. San Bernardino County will decide...

  4. The effects of a language barrier in a South African district hospital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-08-11

    Aug 11, 2006 ... Levin M. Language as a barrier to care for Xhosa-speaking patients at a South African paediatric ... of the Western Cape where staff mainly speak Afrikaans or. English and a large .... the other day a child died, and the mom stands there, and we literally sit .... But what other options do you have? (Afrikaans-.

  5. HIV Incidence Remains High in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: Evidence from Three Districts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nel, Annaléne; Mabude, Zonke; Smit, Jenni; Kotze, Philip; Arbuckle, Derek; Wu, Jian; van Niekerk, Neliëtte; van de Wijgert, Janneke

    2012-01-01

    Background: HIV prevalence and incidence among sexually active women in peri-urban areas of Ladysmith, Edendale, and Pinetown, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, were assessed between October 2007 and February 2010 in preparation for vaginal microbicide trials. Methodology/Principal Findings: Sexually

  6. Providers′ knowledge, attitude and dispensing practices of E-Pills in government dispensaries of south district in Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishore Vertika

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: South Delhi is one of the well developed districts in the capital with best public health care facilities. Knowledge, attitude and dispensing practices of emergency contraceptive pills (E-pills were assessed among health care providers of government dispensaries in South Delhi. Study Design: A descriptive epidemiological study. Materials and Methods: Both medical and paramedical (n = 428 providers in 63 government health care facilities were interviewed between August to December 2007 using a semi-structured interview schedule. Results: Among the different categories of the providers, medical officers were observed to be most knowledgeable about E-pills and the pharmacists were the least. The correct prescribed dose of E-pill was known only to 32% of the providers while 49% knew about its right time of intake. Misconceptions and apprehensions for promoting its use were very much prevalent even among medical officers as majority felt that open access to E-pills would increase promiscuity. The dispensing practice of providers was found positively ( P < 0.05 correlated with their knowledge. Training resulted a significant ( P < 0.05 improvement in knowledge, attitude and dispensing practice of the providers. Knowledge and training combined together contributed 35% to the dispensing practice (R 2 = 0.35. Conclusion: Besides knowledge, behavior change communication strategies should form a part of the training curricula of health care providers that would help to improve the dispensing practice of E-pills.

  7. A population based eye survey of older adults in Tirunelveli district of south India: blindness, cataract surgery, and visual outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirmalan, P K; Thulasiraj, R D; Maneksha, V; Rahmathullah, R; Ramakrishnan, R; Padmavathi, A; Munoz, S R; Ellwein, L B

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To assess the prevalence of vision impairment, blindness, and cataract surgery and to evaluate visual acuity outcomes after cataract surgery in a south Indian population. Methods: Cluster sampling was used to randomly select a cross sectional sample of people ≥50 years of age living in the Tirunelveli district of south India. Eligible subjects in 28 clusters were enumerated through a door to door household survey. Visual acuity measurements and ocular examinations were performed at a selected site within each of the clusters in early 2000. The principal cause of visual impairment was identified for eyes with presenting visual acuity India) was found in 11.0%, and in 4.6% with best correction. Presenting blindness was associated with older age, female sex, and illiteracy. Cataract was the principal cause of blindness in at least one eye in 70.6% of blind people. The prevalence of cataract surgery was 11.8%—with an estimated 56.5% of the cataract blind already operated on. Surgical coverage was inversely associated with illiteracy and with female sex in rural areas. Within the cataract operated sample, 31.7% had presenting visual acuity ≥6/18 in both eyes and 11.8% were <6/60; 40% were bilaterally operated on, with 63% pseudophakic. Presenting vision was <6/60 in 40.7% of aphakic eyes and in 5.1% of pseudophakic eyes; with best correction the percentages were 17.6% and 3.7%, respectively. Refractive error, including uncorrected aphakia, was the main cause of visual impairment in cataract operated eyes. Vision <6/18 was associated with cataract surgery in government, as opposed to that in non-governmental/private facilities. Age, sex, literacy, and area of residence were not predictors of visual outcomes. Conclusion: Treatable blindness, particularly that associated with cataract and refractive error, remains a significant problem among older adults in south Indian populations, especially in females, the illiterate, and those living in rural areas. Further

  8. State and non-state mental health service collaboration in a South African district: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janse van Rensburg, André; Petersen, Inge; Wouters, Edwin; Engelbrecht, Michelle; Kigozi, Gladys; Fourie, Pieter; van Rensburg, Dingie; Bracke, Piet

    2018-05-01

    The Life Esidimeni tragedy in South Africa showed that, despite significant global gains in recognizing the salience of integrated public mental health care during the past decade, crucial gaps remain. State and non-state mental health service collaboration is a recognized strategy to increase access to care and optimal use of community resources, but little evidence exist about how it unfolds in low- to middle-income countries. South Africa's Mental Health Policy Framework and Strategic Plan 2013-20 (MHPF) underlines the importance of collaborative public mental health care, though it is unclear how and to what extent this happens. The aim of the study was to explore the extent and nature of state and non-state mental health service collaboration in the Mangaung Metropolitan District, Free State, South Africa. The research involved an equal status, sequential mixed methods design, comprised of social network analysis (SNA) and semi-structured interviews. SNA-structured interviews were conducted with collaborating state and non-state mental health service providers. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with collaborating partners and key stake holders. Descriptive network analyses of the SNA data were performed with Gephi, and thematic analysis of the semi-structured interview data were performed in NVivo. SNA results suggested a fragmented, hospital centric network, with low average density and clustering, and high authority and influence of a specialist psychiatric hospital. Several different types of collaborative interactions emerged, of which housing and treatment adherence a key point of collaboration. Proportional interactions between state and non-state services were low. Qualitative data expanded on these findings, highlighting the range of available mental health services, and pointed to power dynamics as an important consideration in the mental health service network. The fostering of a well-integrated system of care as proposed in the MHPF requires

  9. Glass injuries seen in the emergency department of a South African district hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Nzaumvila, Doudou; Govender, Indiran; Kramer, Efraim B.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The emergency department of Embhuleni Hospital frequently manages patients with glass-related injuries. This study assessed these injuries and the glass that caused them in more detail. AIM: The objectives of our study included determining the type of glass causing these injuries and describing the circumstances associated with different types of glass injuries. SETTING: The emergency department of Embhuleni Hospital in Elukwatini, Mpumalanga province, South Africa. METHODS: This ...

  10. Biophysics environmental conditions of swamp buffalo Bubalus bubalis Pampangan in district Rambutan South Sumatera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanita Windusari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis is a germ plasm specific of Pampangan and endemic in South Sumatera with low productivity and limited distribution. The aims of this study was to obtain information regarding biophysical conditions in the central areas of swamp buffalo in South Sumatera. The method used is purposive sampling method. Data collected in the form of quantitative and qualitative. Primary data were obtained through direct observation, interviews breeders selected as respondents while secondary data obtained from various related. The data obtained are presented descriptively and data tabulation. Productivity of swamp buffalo Pampangan can be increased by managing and maintaining habitat conditions although traditional maintenance. The results of observations of the biophysical condition of swamp buffalo (B. bubalis Pampangan showed that habitat of swamp buffalo Pampangan consists of dominated by lowland swamp area is overgrown with shrubs and grass. The conclution of the research are productivity and population of swamp buffalo (B. bubalis pampangan as specific plasma nutfah of South Sumatra can be improved by studying the characteristics and preferred habitat of the buffalo, although developed in a traditional farms but is good enough and so need to be developed, grass is most preferred by swamp buffalo Pampangan derived from ‘Kumpai’ grass group, and ‘Kasur’grass and ‘Kumpai’ grass is the dominant grass type found in habitat swamp buffalo Pampangan.

  11. Intestinal Parasitic Infections and Nutritional Status among Primary School Children in Delo-mena District, South Eastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begna TULU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although there are efforts being underway to control and prevent intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs in Ethiopia, they are still endemic and responsible for significant morbidity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of IPIs and their association with nutritional status among primary school children of Delo-Mena district, South Eastern Ethiopia.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from April to May 2013. Demographic data was obtained, and IPIs was investigated in a single-stool sample by both direct stool examination and formol-ether concentration techniques. Anthropometric measurements were taken to calculate height for-age (HAZ, BMI-for-age (BAZ and weight-for-age (WAZ for the determination of stunting, thinness and underweight, respectively using WHO AntroPlus software. SPSS version 20 was used for statistical analysis and p value less than 0.05 was considered significant.Results: Among 492 children studied (51% boys, aged 6–18 years, mean 10.93 +2.4 an overall IPIs prevalence of 26.6% was found. The prevalence of S. mansoni, E. histolytica/dispar, H. nana, A. lumbricoides, G. lambilia, T. trichiura, S. stercolaris, E. vermicularis, Hookworms and Taenia spp were 9.6%, 7.7%, 5.3%, 3.7%, 2.0%, 1.6%, 1.4%, 1.2%, 0.8% and 0.2% respectively. Stunting and underweightedness were observed in 4.5% and 13.6% of children and associated with IPIs (P<0.001 and (P=0.001, respectively.Conclusion: IPIs and its associated malnutrition remain a public health concern in Delo-Mena district. Therefore, the overall health promotion activities coupled with snail control and de-worming to the students is crucial. Additionally, initiatives aimed at improving the nutritional status of school children are also important.

  12. Everyday resilience in district health systems: emerging insights from the front lines in Kenya and South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilson, Lucy; Barasa, Edwine; Nxumalo, Nonhlanhla; Cleary, Susan; Goudge, Jane; Molyneux, Sassy; Tsofa, Benjamin; Lehmann, Uta

    2017-01-01

    Recent global crises have brought into sharp relief the absolute necessity of resilient health systems that can recognise and react to societal crises. While such crises focus the global mind, the real work lies, however, in being resilient in the face of routine, multiple challenges. But what are these challenges and what is the work of nurturing everyday resilience in health systems? This paper considers these questions, drawing on long-term, primarily qualitative research conducted in three different district health system settings in Kenya and South Africa, and adopting principles from case study research methodology and meta-synthesis in its analytic approach. The paper presents evidence of the instability and daily disruptions managed at the front lines of the district health system. These include patient complaints, unpredictable staff, compliance demands, organisational instability linked to decentralisation processes and frequently changing, and sometimes unclear, policy imperatives. The paper also identifies managerial responses to these challenges and assesses whether or not they indicate everyday resilience, using two conceptual lenses. From this analysis, we suggest that such resilience seems to arise from the leadership offered by multiple managers, through a combination of strategies that become embedded in relationships and managerial routines, drawing on wider organisational capacities and resources. While stable governance structures and adequate resources do influence everyday resilience, they are not enough to sustain it. Instead, it appears important to nurture the power of leaders across every system to reframe challenges, strengthen their routine practices in ways that encourage mindful staff engagement, and develop social networks within and outside organisations. Further research can build on these insights to deepen understanding.

  13. Intestinal Parasitic Infections and Nutritional Status among Primary School Children in Delo-mena District, South Eastern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulu, Begna; Taye, Solomon; Zenebe, Yohannes; Amsalu, Eden

    2016-01-01

    Although there are efforts being underway to control and prevent intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) in Ethiopia, they are still endemic and responsible for significant morbidity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of IPIs and their association with nutritional status among primary school children of Delo-Mena district, South Eastern Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted from April to May 2013. Demographic data was obtained, and IPIs was investigated in a single-stool sample by both direct stool examination and formol-ether concentration techniques. Anthropometric measurements were taken to calculate height for-age (HAZ), BMI-for-age (BAZ) and weight-for-age (WAZ) for the determination of stunting, thinness and underweight, respectively using WHO AntroPlus software. SPSS version 20 was used for statistical analysis and p value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Among 492 children studied (51% boys, aged 6-18 years, mean 10.93 +2.4) an overall IPIs prevalence of 26.6% was found. The prevalence of S. mansoni , E. histolytica/dispar , H. nana , A. lumbricoides , G. lambilia , T. trichiura , S. stercolaris , E. vermicularis , Hookworms and Taenia spp were 9.6%, 7.7%, 5.3%, 3.7%, 2.0%, 1.6%, 1.4%, 1.2%, 0.8% and 0.2% respectively. Stunting and underweightedness were observed in 4.5% and 13.6% of children and associated with IPIs ( P Mena district. Therefore, the overall health promotion activities coupled with snail control and de-worming to the students is crucial. Additionally, initiatives aimed at improving the nutritional status of school children are also important.

  14. Patterns of a culture of aggression amongst Grade 10 learners in a secondary school in the Sedibeng District, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Myburgh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: A number of reports to the Department of Education indicated high levels of aggression in a Grade 10 A class in a secondary school in Sedibeng District, Gauteng. Teachers, the school management team, school governing body, school-based support team, parents, community leaders and learners seemed unable to manage this constructively. Neither the culture of aggression nor the influence of this phenomenon on those entrapped in it were understood. No published research reports could be found on cultures of aggression in South African secondary schools. There was therefore a dire need to explore and describe the culture of aggression in this specific Grade 10 A class. Objectives: This article reports on patterns of a culture of aggression observed amongst learners in a Grade 10 class in a secondary school in the Sedibeng District of the Gauteng Department of Education. Method: A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual research design was followed with an ethnographic approach. Purposive sampling was used to select participants. Data consisted of observations of ‘rich points’, interviews and field notes, and thematic data analysis and an independent coder were used. Results: Findings reflected four patterns of a culture of aggression amongst learners, namely patterns of anger, bullying, fighting, and challenges to moral values. At the root of these were neglect of and non-adherence to human rights and a sound base of morals. Conclusion: The challenge is to assist the involved learners to respect each other’s human dignity, so that relationships can be developed in which those involved act with sensitivity towards each other’s needs. Such relationships often also result in the development of self-respect and a nuanced future orientation as part and parcel of mental health.

  15. Ethno- medico - botanical studies of Badaga population In the Nilgiri district of Tamilnadu, South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikandan, P. N. Arul

    2008-01-01

    The study grains to explore ethno-medicobotany of Badaga population in the Nilgiri hills of Tamilnadu, South India. Ethno botanical field survey and personal discussion methods have been adopted in the collection of data. A list of 71 flowering plants belonging to 42 families, 67 genera and 70 species are employed by the Badaga popu-lation in their native system of medicine for therapeutic purposes. In reviewing ethnomedical information, data on folk herbal remedies and their various methods of applications for treating a wide range of ailments have been furnished. A brief description of plants, their habitat, family and local Badaga names are outlined here. PMID:22557279

  16. Gaps in monitoring systems for Implanon NXT services in South Africa: An assessment of 12 facilities in two districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Pillay

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Implanon NXT, a long-acting subdermal contraceptive implant, was introduced in South Africa (SA in early 2014 as part of an expanded contraceptive method mix. After initial high levels of uptake, reports emerged of frequent early removals and declines in use. Monitoring of progress and challenges in implant service delivery could identify aspects of the programme that require strengthening. Objectives. To assess data management and record keeping within implant services at primary care facilities. Methods. We developed a checklist to assess the tools used for monitoring implant services and data reporting to district offices. The checklist was piloted in seven facilities. An additional six high-volume and six low-volume implant insertion clinics in the City of Johannesburg (CoJ, Gauteng Province, and the Dr Kenneth Kaunda District, North West Province, were selected for assessment. Results. All 12 facilities completed a Daily Head Count Register, which tallied the number of clients attending the clinic, but not information about implant use. A more detailed Tick Register recorded services that clinic attendees received, with nine documenting number of implant insertions and six implant removals. A more specific tool, an Insertion Checklist, collected data on insertion procedures and client characteristics, but was only used in CoJ (five of six facilities. Other registers, which were developed de novo by staff at individual facilities, captured more detailed information about insertions and removals, including reasons. Five of six low-volume insertion facilities used these registers, but only three of six high-volume facilities. No facilities used the form specifically developed by the National Department of Health for implant pharmacovigilance. Nine of 12 clinics reported data on numbers of insertions to the district office, six reported removals and none provided data on reasons for removals. Conclusion. For data to inform effective

  17. Gaps in monitoring systems for Implanon NXT services in South Africa: An assessment of 12 facilities in two districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillay, D; Morroni, C; Pleaner, M; Adeogba, O; Chersich, M; Naidoo, N; Mullick, S; Rees, H

    2017-10-01

    Background. Implanon NXT, a long-acting subdermal contraceptive implant, was introduced in South Africa (SA) in early 2014 as part of an expanded contraceptive method mix. After initial high levels of uptake, reports emerged of frequent early removals and declines in use. Monitoring of progress and challenges in implant service delivery could identify aspects of the programme that require strengthening. Objectives. To assess data management and record keeping within implant services at primary care facilities. Methods. We developed a checklist to assess the tools used for monitoring implant services and data reporting to district offices. The checklist was piloted in seven facilities. An additional six high-volume and six low-volume implant insertion clinics in the City of Johannesburg (CoJ), Gauteng Province, and the Dr Kenneth Kaunda District, North West Province, were selected for assessment. Results. All 12 facilities completed a Daily Head Count Register, which tallied the number of clients attending the clinic, but not information about implant use. A more detailed Tick Register recorded services that clinic attendees received, with nine documenting number of implant insertions and six implant removals. A more specific tool, an Insertion Checklist, collected data on insertion procedures and client characteristics, but was only used in CoJ (five of six facilities). Other registers, which were developed de novo by staff at individual facilities, captured more detailed information about insertions and removals, including reasons. Five of six low-volume insertion facilities used these registers, but only three of six high-volume facilities. No facilities used the form specifically developed by the National Department of Health for implant pharmacovigilance. Nine of 12 clinics reported data on numbers of insertions to the district office, six reported removals and none provided data on reasons for removals. Conclusion. For data to inform effective decision

  18. Utilization of institutional delivery service at Wukro and Butajera districts in the Northern and South Central Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Ethiopia has one of the highest maternal mortality in the world. Institutional delivery is the key intervention in reducing maternal mortality and complications. However, the uptake of the service has remained low and the factors which contribute to this low uptake appear to vary widely. Our study aims to determine the magnitude and identify factors affecting delivery at health institution in two districts in Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross sectional household survey was conducted from January to February 2012 in 12 randomly selected villages of Wukro and Butajera districts in the northern and south central parts of Ethiopia, respectively. Data were collected using a pretested questionnaire from 4949 women who delivered in the two years preceding the survey. Results One in four women delivered the index child at a health facility. Among women who delivered at health facility, 16.1% deliveries were in government hospitals and 7.8% were in health centers. The factors that significantly affected institutional delivery in this study were district in which the women lived (AOR: 2.21, 95% CI: 1.28, 3.82), women age at interview (AOR: 1.96, 95% CI: 1.05, 3.62), women’s education (AOR: 3.53, 95% CI: 1.22, 10.20), wealth status (AOR: 16.82, 95% CI: 7.96, 35.54), women’s occupation (AOR: 1.50, 95% CI: 1.01, 2.24), antenatal care (4+) use (AOR: 1.77, 95% CI: 1.42, 2.20), and number of pregnancies (AOR: 0.25, 95% CI: 0.18,0.35). We found that women who were autonomous in decision making about place of delivery were less likely to deliver in health facility (AOR: 0.38, 95% CI: 0.23,0.63). Conclusions Institutional delivery is still low in the Ethiopia. The most important factors that determine use of institutional delivery appear to be women education and household economic status. Women’s autonomy in decision making on place of delivery did not improve health facility delivery in our study population. Actions targeting the disadvantaged, improving

  19. A Spatial Approach to Identify Slum Areas in East Wara Sub-Districts, South Sulawesi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anurogo, W.; Lubis, M. Z.; Pamungkas, D. S.; Hartono; Ibrahim, F. M.

    2017-12-01

    Spatial approach is one of the main approaches of geography, its analysis emphasizes the existence of space that serves to accommodate human activities. The dynamic development of the city area brings many impacts to the urban community’s own life patterns. The development of the city center which is the center of economic activity becomes the attraction for the community that can bring influence to the high flow of labor both from within the city itself and from outside the city area, thus causing the high flow of urbanization. Urbanization has caused an explosion in urban population and one implication is the occurrence of labor-clumping in major cities in Indonesia. Another impact of the high urbanization flow of cities is the problem of urban settlements. The more populations that come in the city, the worse the quality of the existing settlements in the city if not managed properly. This study aims to determine the location of slum areas in East Wara Sub-Districts using remote sensing technology tools and Geographic Information System (GIS). Parameters used to identify slum areas partially extracted using remote sensing data and for parameters that cannot be extracted using remote sensing data, information obtained from field surveys with information retrieval based on reference data. Analysis results for slum settlements taken from the parameters indicate that the East Wara Sub-District has the largest slum areas located in Pontap village. The village of Pontap has two classes of slums that are very shabby and slums. Slum classes are also in Surutangga Village. The result of the analysis shows that the slum settlement area has 46,324 Ha, which is only located in Pontap Village, whereas for the slum class are found in some villages of Pontap and Surutangga Urban Village, there are 37.797 Ha area. The class of slum settlement areas has the largest proportion of the area among other classes in East Wara Subdistrict. The class of slum settlement areas has an

  20. Prevalence of postnatal depression and associated factors among HIV-positive women in primary care in Nkangala district, South Africa

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    K Peltzer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The prevalence of postpartum depression in South Africa is high, but there is lack of prevalence data on postnatal depression among HIV-infected women. Aim. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of depressed mood and associated factors in postnatal HIV-positive women in primary care facilities in Nkangala district, Mpumalanga, South Africa. Methods. This cross-sectional study was carried out on 607 HIV-positive postnatal women in 48 primary health care clinics and community health centres in Nkangala district. Postnatal women were recruited by systematic sampling (every consecutive patient over a period of 2 months. Demographic and other data were obtained from all the women who responded to a questionnaire in the local language on male involvement, HIV test disclosure, delivery and infant profile, infant HIV diagnosis, stigma, discrimination, postnatal depression, attendance of support groups and social support. Results. Overall, 45.1% of women reported a depressed mood in the postnatal period. Depressed mood in a multivariable analysis was significantly associated with internalised stigma (odds ratio (OR 1.12, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.05 - 1.19; p=0.000, discrimination experiences (OR 1.22, CI 1.03 - 1.46; p=0.023, lack of social support (OR 0.86, CI 0.74 - 0.99; p=0.037 and having had an STI in the past 12 months (OR 2.22, CI 1.21 - 4.04; p=0.010. There were no statistically significant correlations between the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS scores of the women and age, marital status, level of education, employment status and number of own children. Conclusion. Depressed mood is common among HIV-positive postpartum women. This is significantly associated with lack of social support, stigma and discrimination. Routine screening to identify those currently depressed or at risk of depression should be integrated into postnatal care settings to target those most needing intervention.

  1. Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever Tranmission Risk Level on Three Local Health Center in Three Endemic District in South Sulawesi Province, Indonesia

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    Dicky Andiarsa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan tingkat risiko penularan DBD di wilayah endemis DBD di Kabupaten Bone, Kota Palopo dan Kota Makassar Provinsi Sulawesi Selatan. Penelitian dilaksanakan Bulan Mei-Juni 2015 pada rumah tangga secara sistematik sampling sebanyak 100 rumah pada setiap wilayah kerja puskesmas endemis DBD tertinggi di Kab. Bone (Watampone, Kota Palopo (Wara dan Kota Makassar (Mangasa Provinsi Sulawesi Selatan. Data dianalisis untuk menunjukkan indikator surveilans larva (HI, CI, dan BI dan density figure. Data disajikan dengan jumlah larva berdasarkan jenis kontainer, persentase dan distribusi kontainer. Nilai ABJ ketiga puskesmas termasuk rendah Watampone: 53%, Wara: 54%, Mangasa: 68%. Persentase CI (angka container larva tertinggi adalah Puskesmas Watampone (17, 78%, selanjutnya Wara (17,71% dan Mangasa (15,47%. Berdasarkan perhitungan HI, CI dan BI, density figure dari ketiga kabupaten pada kategori sedang hingga tinggi dan Maya index menunjukkan tingkat risiko penularan DBD sedang. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa Density figure pada kontainer rumah tangga yang diperiksa sedang hingga tinggi. Kampanye pencegahan DBD yang kuat, deteksi kasus dari rumah ke rumah dan upaya persuasif yang mengedukasi mengenai hal ini penting dilakukan untuk meningkatkan kesadaran masyarakat agar ikut berpartisipasi dan lebih waspada terhadap DBD.Kata Kunci: DBD, larva, Aedes aegypti, kontainer, Maya IndeksAbstract. The aim of this research is to determine of transmission risk level of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF endemic area in District of Bone, Municipal of Palopo, and Municipal of Makassar, South Sulawesi province. Study held in May-June 2015 to 100 households by systematically sampling method in three highest local healthcare center work area in each endemic in District of Bone (Watampone, Municipal of Palopo (Wara, and Municipal of Makassar (Mangasa, South Sulawesi Province. Data analyzed to show the indicators of DHF surveillance (House

  2. Psychosocial assessment of lathyrism patients in rural Estie district of South Gondar, northern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getahun, H; Haimanot, R T

    1998-01-01

    Three hundred and thirty three patients in the lathyrism endemic rural Estie district of Northern Ethiopia were interviewed and examined to assess the psychosocial impacts of neurolathyrism. The majority of the affected were in the age group of 11-20 years (43%) followed by 21-30 years (29%). Males were more affected than females (4.8:1). Peak occurrences of neurolathyrism was observed at time of mobilization of the population in villagization and land diversification schemes. Females were affected to lesser extent and at an earlier age than males. Neurolathyrism affected matrimony among the rural farming population where marriage is considered as the most significant social achievement of any young member of the society. Divorce rate due to paralysis was 28%. It also influenced the choice of occupation among the afflicted rural people. Many males went into ecclesiastical professions. A significant number of males also took up occupations which traditionally were considered to be exclusively for women like basketry and embroidery. More females, not withstanding their age, were engaged in cattle-keeping. During the study, the rural communities were made aware of the association of neurolathyrism and consumptions of grass pea seed. It is believed that this step will enable communities to use home-based detoxifying methods and resort to alternate crops during times of food shortage.

  3. Use of Low-Cost Methods of Soil Erosion Control In Kisii District, South Western kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nzabi, A.W; Makini, F; Onyango, M; Mureithi, J.G

    1999-01-01

    Kisii District has a topography of undulating hills and is prone to severe soil erosion. The average rainfall is 1900 mm and occurs in biomodal pattern. During a participatory appraisal survey in 1995, farmers indicated that soil erosion in the area had contributed to decline in soil fertility resulting in low crop yields. To address this problem, an on-farm trial was conducted in 1996 at Nyamonyo village to test the effectiveness of four low cost methods of controlling soil erosion. These included maize stover trash line, sweet potatoes,Penicum maximum var. Makarikari grass strip and vetiveria zizanioides (Vertiver) grass strip. A treatment without soil erosion control measure was included. The trial was planted in three farms which acted as replicates. The treatments were planted in runoff plots measuring 4 x 2 m in which had a maize crop were laid down in a randomized complete block design. Surface runoff and eroded soils were collected in 50-l buckets. The experimental site had a slope ranging from 16 to 35%. Preliminary results indicated that maize stover trash line and sweet potato strips were more effective in controlling soil erosion than the grass strips. As the season progressed the grass strips became increasingly more effective in erosion control. The trail is still continuing but results indicate that for short term soil erosion control, maize stover trash lines and sweet potatoes are more effective while Makarikari and Vertiver grass strips are promising as long term soil erosion control measure

  4. Food fortification knowledge in women of child-bearing age at Nkowankowa township in Mopani District, Limpopo Province, South Africa

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    Selekane A. Motadi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Globally, there is evidence that three micronutrients deficiencies are of public health concern among children. They are vitamin A, iodine and iron deficiencies. Communities particularly affected are those in situations where poverty, unemployment, civil unrest, war and exploitation remain endemic. Malnutrition is an impediment to productivity, economic growth and poverty eradication. It is estimated that 32% of the global burden would be removed by eliminating malnutrition, including micronutrients deficiencies. Setting: The study was carried out in NkowaNkowa township of Mopani District, Limpopo Province, South Africa. Aim: The main objective was to determine the women’s knowledge on food fortification. Methods: The study design was descriptive. The snowballing method was used to identify women of child-bearing age. Data were collected from 120 participants using a questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of socio-demographic, general questions on women’s knowledge on food fortification. The questionnaire was administered by the researcher using the local language Xitsonga. Results: The findings of the study revealed that a majority of 204 (57.0% of the participants were able to define food fortification correctly while 257 (72.0% of the participants knew which foods are fortified as well as the benefits of a food fortification programme. The majority (252 [70.0%] of the participants knew that maize meal is one of the food vehicle used for fortification in South Africa. Conclusion: Most of the questions were answered correctly by more than 50.0% of the participants. The researcher deduced that the study participants are knowledgeable about food fortification based on the response given in relation to the programme.

  5. Roles and challenges of the multidisciplinary team involved in prosthetic rehabilitation, in a rural district in South Africa

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    Ennion L

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Liezel Ennion, Anthea Rhoda Department of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Community and Health Sciences, University of the Western Cape, Cape Town, South Africa Background: Major lower limb amputations result in a significant sense of loss, psychological stress, and decrease in function and overall quality of life for the amputee. The holistic, patient-centered prosthetic rehabilitation of an amputee requires input from a team of dedicated health professionals from different disciplines commonly referred to as a multidisciplinary team (MDT. MDT rehabilitation is considered crucial in the reintegration of the amputee into the community, as well as for providing psychological support after limb loss. Multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary rehabilitation has been proven to be more successful than therapy provided by individual therapists in a number of different populations, regardless of the population studied. However, in most developing countries, there is a significant lack of multidisciplinary rehabilitation.Aim: To explore the roles and challenges of the members of the MDT involved in trans-tibial amputation rehabilitation in a rural community in South Africa (SA.Design: An explorative sequential qualitative descriptive study.Setting: A rural district in the KwaZulu Natal province in SA.Participants: Nine prosthetic users, three surgeons, three traditional healers, 17 therapists, four prosthetists, and four community health workers.Instruments for data collection: Semistructured interviews and focus group discussions.Results: The roles of the members of the MDT were clarified, and various members of the MDT highlighted specific challenges relating to their experiences and roles in the rehabilitation team. Lack of interdisciplinary rehabilitation and communication among team members, as well as lack of resources, and patient education negatively impact the rehabilitation of trans-tibial amputees.Conclusion: Aiming to address the limited resources

  6. Migration and the epidemiological transition: insights from the Agincourt sub-district of northeast South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collinson, Mark A.; White, Michael J.; Bocquier, Philippe; McGarvey, Stephen T.; Afolabi, Sulaimon A.; Clark, Samuel J.; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Migration and urbanization are central to sustainable development and health, but data on temporal trends in defined populations are scarce. Healthy men and women migrate because opportunities for employment and betterment are not equally distributed geographically. The disruption can result in unhealthy exposures and environments and income returns for the origin household. Objectives The objectives of the paper are to describe the patterns, levels, and trends of temporary migration in rural northeast South Africa; the mortality trends by cause category over the period 2000–2011; and the associations between temporary migration and mortality by broad cause of death categories. Method Longitudinal, Agincourt Health and Demographic Surveillance System data are used in a continuous, survival time, competing-risk model. Findings In rural, northeast South Africa, temporary migration, which involves migrants relocating mainly for work purposes and remaining linked to the rural household, is more important than age and sex in explaining variations in mortality, whatever the cause. In this setting, the changing relationship between temporary migration and communicable disease mortality is primarily affected by reduced exposure of the migrant to unhealthy conditions. The study suggests that the changing relationship between temporary migration and non-communicable disease mortality is mainly affected by increased livelihood benefits of longer duration migration. Conclusion Since temporary migration is not associated with communicable diseases only, public health policies should account for population mobility whatever the targeted health risk. There is a need to strengthen the rural health care system, because migrants tend to return to the rural households when they need health care. PMID:24848656

  7. Socio-economic impacts of irrigated agriculture in Mbarali District of south west Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwakalila, Shadrack

    Irrigation has been found to be central in curbing food scarcity not only in Tanzania but also in many other developing countries. It has been proved that continued reliability on rainfall in agriculture cannot sustain the increase in population. This study examines the impacts of smallholder irrigated agriculture in improving social and economic benefits in Igurusi Ward of Mbarali District which is located in the southern-western part of Tanzania. The study applies the Participatory Rural Appraisal Framework for data collection. The study was confined to five villages in Igurusi ward which are Majenje, Igurusi, Chamoto, Uhambule and Mahango. The study examined critically paddy production for smallholder farmers that practice irrigation and those who cultivates rain-fed paddy. The study examined both existing traditional and modern irrigation systems. It was found that, most of the respondents (79%) practice irrigated agriculture in paddy production while the remaining 21% practice rain-fed agriculture. Forty percent of households that practice irrigated agriculture harvest paddy two seasons per year. The return to labour in paddy production for smallholder farmers who irrigate their paddy fields is about US 2.5/manday which is above the poverty line of US 1.0/day. The smallest return to labour (US $ 0.85/manday) is obtained by an average smallholder farmer who cultivates rain-fed paddy using hand hoe and family labour. The potential implication of the current irrigation systems is that if irrigation is managed properly it may lead to sustainable increases in small farmer’s productivity and income, thus alleviating rural poverty.

  8. Dental pain as the predictor for caries experience among school children of Udupi district, south India

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    Sravan Kumar Y

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate child-Dental Pain Questionnaire (Child‐ DPQ as the predictor for caries experience. Methods: We conducted a cross‐sectional survey among 10‐15 year old school children of Udupi district, Karnataka. Prior consent from parents and verbal consent from school children was obtained. Permission to conduct the study was obtained from the school authorities. The study was approved by the ethics committee of Manipal University. All the eligible school children completed self-administered Child-DPQ followed by clinical examination for dental caries as per the WHO guidelines under natural day light within the school premises. Results: A total of 306 children participated in the study, of them 56.5% were ≤ 12 years old, 58.8% were males, 50.7% were in government school and 54.9 % were from urban areas. Around 45.1% of the children were caries experienced and the mean child-DPQ was significantly higher among caries experienced children than caries free children (p=0.017. The Area Under the Curve (AUC was 0.567 (p=0.043 and was above the reference line which was suggestive that the curve predicted individuals with disease (caries experience. The optimal cut-off point was considered as 3 points on child –DPQ score with sensitivity of 41.3% and specificity of 70.2% with a positive likelihood ratio of 1.39. Conclusion: The Child–Dental Pain Questionnaire showed to be an acceptable instrument to predict the caries experience among school children.

  9. Dental pain as the predictor for caries experience among school children of Udupi district, south India

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    Sravan Kumar Y

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate child-Dental Pain Questionnaire (Child - DPQ as the predictor for caries experience. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 10-15 year old school children of Udupi district, Karnataka. Prior consent from parents and verbal consent from school children was obtained. Permission to conduct the study was obtained from the school authorities. The study was approved by the ethics committee of Manipal University. All the eligible school children completed self- administered Child-DPQ followed by clinical examination for dental caries as per the WHO guidelines under natural day light within the school premises. Results: A total of 306 children participated in the study, of them 56.5% were ≤ 12 years old, 58.8% were males, 50.7% were in government school and 54.9 % were from urban areas. Around 45.1% of the children were caries experienced and the mean child-DPQ was significantly higher among caries experienced children than caries free children (p=0.017. The Area Under the Curve (AUC was 0.567 (p=0.043 and was above the reference line which was suggestive that the curve predicted individuals with disease (caries experience. The optimal cut-off point was considered as 3 points on child –DPQ score with sensitivity of 41.3% and specificity of 70.2% with a positive likelihood ratio of 1.39. Conclusion: The Child – Dental Pain Questionnaire showed to be an acceptable instrument to predict the caries experience among school children.

  10. Geology, mineralization, mineral chemistry, and ore-fluid conditions of Irankuh Pb-Zn mining district, south of Isfahan

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    Mohammad Hassan Karimpour

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The Irankuh mining district area located at the southern part of the Malayer-Isfahan metallogenic belt, south of Isfahan, consists of several Zn-Pb deposits and occurrences such as Tappehsorkh, Rowmarmar 5, Kolahdarvazeh, Blind ore, and Gushfil deposits as well as Rowmarmar 1-4 and Gushfil 1 prospects. Based on geology, alteration, form and texture of mineralization, and paragenesis assemblages, Pb-Zn mineralization is Mississippi-type deposit (Rastad, 1981; Ghazban et al., 1994; Ghasemi, 1995; Reichert, 2007; Timoori-Asl (2010; Ayati et al., 2013; Hosseini-Dinani et al., 2015. Geology of the area consists of Jurassic siltstone and shale and different types of Cretaceous dolostone and limestone. The aim of this research is new geological studies such as revision of old geologic map, study of different types of textures and mineral assemblages within carbonate and clastic host rocks, and chemistry of galena, sphalerite, and dolomite. Finally, we combined these results with isotopic and fluid inclusion data and discussed on ore-fluid conditions. Materials and Methods In order to achieve the aims of this work, at first field surveying and sampling were done. Then, 200 thin and 70 polished thin sections were prepared. Some of the samples were selected for microprobe analysis and galena and sphalerite minerals were analyzed by using JEOL- JAX-8230 analyzer at Colorado University, USA. The chemistry of dolomite and fluid inclusion data are used after Boveiri Konari and Rastad (2016 and stable isotope is used after Ghazban et al. (1994. Discussion The Irankuh mineralization is hosted by carbonate rocks (dolostone and limestone and minor clastic rocks as epigenetic. Mineralization has occurred as breccia, veinlet, open space filling, spoted, dessiminated, and replacement (carbonate hosted rock. The mineral assemblages are Fe-rich sphalerite, galena, minor pyrite, Fe- and Mn-rich dolomite, bituminous, ankrite, calcite ± quartz ± barite

  11. Study on Community Participation in The Land Clearing without Burning in Gambut Sub-District, South Kalimantan

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    Fonny Rianawati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In connection with the Environment Minister regulation number 10 year 2010 about the Mechanism of Pollution Prevention and Environment and Life Damage chapter II, Article 3 (1 said that all of business and activities that use the forest or land should implement  land clearing without burning (LCWB and is expected that all participating land preparation activities to implement these policies. This study was conducted to determine the level of community perception on LCWB and the land waste utilization by the community in Gambut Sub-district, South Kalimantan, Indonesia. The results showed that 15 respondent (49.83% already knew about land clearing without burning. Low level of community participation is caused by community understanding about CLBW still low. About 64 % of respondents was included in the good category because the community has an interest to cultivate a waste from land clearing to decrease environment contamination.  About 60 % of the community thought that LCWB waste can be used for various purposes. Waste types which usually utilize by community was grass and rice husks.  The wastes were used as organic fertilizer and animal feed without further processing.

  12. Immediate post-partum haemorrhage: Epidemiological aspects and maternal prognosis at South N’djamena District Hospital (Chad

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    Gabkika Bray Madoue

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Post-partum haemorrhage defined as blood loss after delivery over 500mls, affects all countries and is the commonest cause of maternal mortality. It is a frequent obstetric emergency in developing countries. Objective: To identify the causes of post-partum haemorrhage and identify adequate management of immediate post-partum haemorrhage and thus reduce maternal mortality. Patients and methods: This was a prospective and descriptive study of one year from 1st January 2014 to 31stDecember 2014 conducted at South N’Djamena district hospital. Before including a patient in our survey her consent was obtained after explaining to her the need for the survey. All consenting patients with post-partum haemorrhage were included. Data were analyzed using SPSS17.0. Results: We recorded 100 cases of post-partum haemorrhage among 6815 deliveries giving an incidence of 1.47%. The average age of the women was 25.0 years. The majority of deliveries (90% were vaginal. The main cause of immediate post-partum haemorrhage was a third stage of labour bleeding (66% followed by genital lesions (32%. The management was medical (uterotonic drug, fluid replacement and blood transfusion, obstetric (manual removal of placenta or clot, and surgical (suture of lesions, vascular ligature and hysterectomy. There were two maternal deaths (2%. Conclusion: Post-partum haemorrhage is often fatal in our region. Preventive measures and efficient management can help to improve maternal prognosis.

  13. Violent Speech Acts in the South A and B areas of José Martí District

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    Massiel Hernández-González

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A new tendency in speakers to prefer nonpolite strategies can also include some rude speech acts and to get the control of the other person All these are the reasons that lead the autor of this paper to start this research that consist of an study case of the courtesy emphazizing in the verbal violence, taking also into account not only the spanish speech but the recent studies made in Cuba. The South A and B of Santiago community of José Martí District is an example of that and for that reason it became of special interest for the analysis of those violent samples in the use of the language. The objective of the paper is to describe the linguistic elements that characterized the violent speech acts in that neighbourhood with the aim to contribute to the sociocultural characterization of the community so a multidisciplinary intervention can be developed there. Uncovered recorders the work with the field study notebook and the application of a social habit tests were the techniques used. All the results obtained were triangled.

  14. Delivery Practices and Associated Factors among Mothers Seeking Child Welfare Services in Selected Health Facilities in Nyandarua South District, Kenya

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    Wanjira Carol

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A measure of the proportion of deliveries assisted by skilled attendants is one of the indicators of progress towards achieving Millennium Development Goal (MDG 5, which aims at improving maternal health. This study aimed at establishing delivery practices and associated factors among mothers seeking child welfare services at selected health facilities in Nyandarua South district, Kenya to determine whether mothers were receiving appropriate delivery care. Methods A hospital-based cross-sectional survey among women who had recently delivered while in the study area was carried out between August and October 2009. Binary Logistic regression was used to identify factors that predicted mothers' delivery practice. Results Among the 409 mothers who participated in the study, 1170 deliveries were reported. Of all the deliveries reported, 51.8% were attended by unskilled birth attendants. Among the deliveries attended by unskilled birth attendants, 38.6% (452/1170 were by neighbors and/or relatives. Traditional Birth Attendants attended 1.5% (17/1170 of the deliveries while in 11.7% (137/1170 of the deliveries were self administered. Mothers who had unskilled birth attendance were more likely to have Conclusion Among the mothers interviewed, utilization of skilled delivery attendance services was still low with a high number of deliveries being attended by unqualified lay persons. There is need to implement cost effective and sustainable measures to improve the quality of maternal health services with an aim of promoting safe delivery and hence reducing maternal mortality.

  15. Nutritional status of children on the National School Nutrition Programme in Capricorn District, Limpopo Province, South Africa

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    F Malongane

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. School feeding programmes are intended to alleviate short-term hunger, improve nutrition and cognition of children, andprovide incomes to families.Objectives. To assess the nutritional status of children receiving meals provided by the National School Nutrition Programme (NSNP inCapricorn Municipality, Limpopo Province, South Africa.Methods. The setting was 18 randomly selected schools on the NSNP in Capricorn District. The total sample comprised 602 randomlyselected schoolchildren from grades 4 to 7, aged 10 (26.6%, 11 (35.4% and 12 (35.4%. Socioeconomic characteristics, anthropometricmeasurements, dietary patterns and school attendance were determined. Children were interviewed to assess their nutritional status using avalidated questionnaire. Descriptive statistics such as means, standard deviations (SDs and ranges were used for socioeconomic parametersand dietary patterns, and z-scores for anthropometric data.Results. The results showed that boys (9.5% and girls (7.8% were underweight. The prevalence of stunting in the sample was 11.3% forboys and 7.4% for girls, whereas boys (3.6% and girls (4.2%were wasted, with az-score of –2 SD. School attendance was good.Conclusion. The nutritional status of most subjects in the study was within the acceptable range as indicated by the assessment of growthusing anthropometric measurements.

  16. A controlled study of an HIV/AIDS/STI/TB intervention with faith healers in Vhembe District, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashamba, Tshilidzi; Peltzer, Karl; Maluleke, Thelma X; Sodi, Tholene

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to develop an HIV and AIDS training manual, and to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes and management of faith healers of Apostolic churches regarding HIV and AIDS, before and after they attended an HIV and AIDS training programme. A quasi-experimental intervention design was used with faith healers affiliated with the United African Apostolic Church (UAAC) in the Thulamela and Musina municipalities of Vhembe District, Limpopo Province, South Africa. A total of 103 faith healers were included in this study, 58 were systematically assigned to an intervention and 45 to a control group. The intervention group received training for 2 days. At follow-up after 2 months, intervention effects were significant for HIV knowledge and to a lesser extent TB knowledge. No significant improvement was found in HIV/STI (sexually transmitted infection) management strategies such as HIV/STI risk behaviour counselling, referral of clients for HIV testing, keeping condoms at stock in church, and church community HIV/AIDS/STI education. It is important to note that faith healers address some of the major known behavioural risk and protective factors such as partner reduction and condom use. Therefore, faith healers could be more widely utilized in HIV prevention programmes as risk reduction counsellors, in particular on matters of community-level education.

  17. African catfish Clarias gariepinus farming practices in North and South 24 Parganas districts of West Bengal, India

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    Thangapalam Jawahar Abraham

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Clarias gariepinus is widely cultured due to its tolerance to environmental extremes, high production and good feed conversion rate. This communication describes the farming practices of C. gariepinus in North and South 24 Parganas districts of West Bengal. Clarias gariepinus is cultured in ponds of 0.1–0.75 ha, where fingerlings were stocked at a density of 860–1150 cubic meter–1. The current practices of seed transportation were stressful to fish as the majority of the farmers noticed 5–10% mortalities, despite the use of antibiotics. Acclimatization of seeds was practiced by the majority of farmers before stocking. Different feeds including slaughter-house wastes and dead poultry were supplied. Multiple stocking and harvesting were a common practice. Major problems identified were insufficient feed, disease, transport, poor seed quality and lack of financial support. The survival percentage was poor, as 88% of the farmers recorded <40–50% survival at harvest. Dropsy was the most common disease and had a significant impact on economy. Antibiotics or other aquadrugs were frequently used for treatment, although the success varied. In general, the C. gariepinus farming has helped to recycle the wastes generated in and around metropolitan Kolkata and adjacent municipalities into wealth, but it suffers from management issues and huge economic losses. This calls for immediate attention from researchers, administrators and extension personals.

  18. Participative leadership practice in junior high schools and actions to improve the practice : a case study of Sekyere south district, Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Gyasi, Kwame

    2015-01-01

    Gyasi, Kwame. 2015. Participative leadership practice in junior high schools and actions to improve the practice: a case study of Sekyere south district, Ghana Master's Thesis in Education. University of Jyväskylä. Department of Education Participative leadership practice is seen as the kind of school leadership which recognizes parents’ contribution and teachers’ ability and talents in leadership by sharing with them roles and responsibilities in the school administrative process. Th...

  19. Determinants of low family planning use and high unmet need in Butajira District, South Central Ethiopia

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    Mekonnen Wubegzier

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rapid population growth does not match with available resource in Ethiopia. Though household level family planning delivery has been put in place, the impact of such programs in densely populated rural areas was not studied. The study aims at measuring contraception and unmet need and identifying its determinants among married women. Methods A total of 5746 married women are interviewed from October to December 2009 in the Butajira Demographic Surveillance Area. Contraceptive prevalence rate and unmet need with their 95% confidence interval is measured among married women in the Butajira district. The association of background characteristics and family planning use is ascertained using crude and adjusted Odds ratio in logistic regression model. Results Current contraceptive prevalence rate among married women is 25.4% (95% CI: 24.2, 26.5. Unmet need of contraception is 52.4% of which 74.8% was attributed to spacing and the rest for limiting. Reasons for the high unmet need include commodities' insecurity, religion, and complaints related to providers, methods, diet and work load. Contraception is 2.3 (95% CI: 1.7, 3.2 times higher in urbanites compared to rural highlanders. Married women who attained primary and secondary plus level of education have about 1.3 (95% CI: 1.1, 1.6 and 2 (95% CI: 1.4, 2.9 times more risk to contraception; those with no child death are 1.3 (95% CI: 1.1, 1.5 times more likely to use contraceptives compared to counterparts. Besides, the odds of contraception is 1.3 (95% CI: 1.1, 1.6 and 1.5 (1.1, 2.0 times more likely among women whose partners completed primary and secondary plus level of education. Women discussing about contraception with partners were 2.2 (95% CI: 1.8, 2.7 times more likely to use family planning. Nevertheless, contraception was about 2.6 (95% CI: 2.1, 3.2 more likely among married women whose partners supported the use of family planning. Conclusions The local government

  20. Cytotoxicity of selected medicinal plants used in Mt. Frere District, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnengi, Dorris; Kappo, Abidemi; Kambizi, Learnmore; Nakin, Motebang

    2014-01-01

    In South African traditional medicine, some are plants known to combat pediatric diseases and are commonly used by traditional healers. The aim was to evaluate cytotoxicity effects of plants. The ground plant material was exhaustively extracted using methanol, acetone and water separately for 72 hrs. These organic solvents were removed from filtrates using a rotavapour. Stock solutions were prepared at 40 mg/ml Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and test solutions were transferred into vials and 10 brine shrimps introduced in each. The number of dead shrimps was counted to ascertain toxicity. Ten A. salina nauplii (larva) were transferred into each sample vial and filtered brine solution was added to make 5 ml. The nauplii were counted macroscopically in the stem of the pipette against a lighted background. A drop of dry yeast suspension was added as food to each vial. Probit analysis was used to determine the concentration at which lethality to brine shrimp represents 50 % (LC50). All the tested extracts showed that the concentration is directly proportional to death of brine shrimps. Fifty percent lethality (LC50) of the tested crude extract ranged between 4.1 and 4.6 µg/ml with methanol extract of B. abyssinica being the lowest and T. acutiloba the highest. This study revealed that 100% of plant crude extracts screened for activity against Artemisia salina larvae showed strong cytotoxicity below 10 µg/ml and plant species with LC50 values toxicity.

  1. Menstrual knowledge and practices of female adolescents in Vhembe district, Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramathuba, Dorah U

    2015-11-26

    Although sexual issues are openly discussed in the media, sexuality and reproductive functions are treated as taboo. Menstruation is a normal physiologic process, but carries various meanings within cultures and is rarely discussed amongst families and communities. This study sought to assess the knowledge and practices of secondary school girls towards menstruation in the Thulamela municipality of Limpopo Province, South Africa. A quantitative descriptive study design was used and respondents were selected by means of convenience sampling from a population of secondary school girls. The sample consisted of 273 secondary school girls doing Grades 10-12. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data, which was analysed by computing frequencies and percentages using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 12). The findings revealed that respondents experienced menarche at 13 years and that menstruation is a monthly bleeding (80%) that happens to every female; it is a sign of adulthood (91%). 15% reported that it is the removal of dirt from the stomach and abdomen, 67% indicated the source of menstruation being the uterus, 65% the vagina and 13% from the abdomen. 73% reported having fear and anxiety at the first experience of bleeding and that they could not maintain adequate hygienic practices due to a lack of privacy and sanitary towels. Interventions are needed to increase girls' opportunities to discuss menstruation and access information from adults including mothers, parents and guardians. School-based sexuality education should be comprehensive, begin early and be regularly repeated.

  2. Particulate emission rates from light-duty vehicles in the South Coast Air Quality Management District

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durbin, T.D.; Norbeck, J.M.; Smith, M.R.; Truex, T.J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a particulate emission rate study conducted on 129 light-duty gasoline and 19 light-duty diesel vehicles for the Coordinating Research Council's (CRC's) Project E-24-2. Total particulate emission rates for newer gasoline vehicles were low with modest increases with vehicle age and older technology. Average FTP particulate emission rates as a function of model year for gasoline vehicles were found to be 2.5 mg/mi for 1991 and newer models, 14.4 mg/mi for 1986--1990 models, 49.0 mg/mi for 1981--1985 models, and 33.8 mg/mi for 1980 and older models. High gaseous emitters were found to have approximately 5--10 times the particulate emission rates of normal emitters. The diesel vehicles had an average particulate emission rate of 561 mg/mi. It should be noted that the light-duty diesel vehicles were predominantly older, pre-1985 vehicles; the 1985 and newer diesel vehicles had substantially lower particulate emissions, i.e., less than 100 mg/mi. Emission inventory estimates in the South Coast Air Basin based on the fleet emission rates were higher than those obtained using the default values in EMFAC7G, due primarily to the contribution of high emitters

  3. Helminthiasis: Hookworm Infection Remains a Public Health Problem in Dera District, South Gondar, Ethiopia.

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    Melashu Balew Shiferaw

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasitic infections are significant cause of morbidity and mortality in endemic countries. In Ethiopia, helminthiasis was the third leading cause of outpatient visits. Despite the health extension program was launched to address this problem, there is limited information on the burden of intestinal parasites after implementation of the program in our setting. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the intestinal helminthic infections among clients attending at Anbesame health center, South Gondar, Ethiopia.A cross sectional study was conducted at Anbesame health center from March to June 2015. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 464 study participants selected consecutively. Stool specimen collection, processing through formol-ether concentration technique and microscopic examination for presence of parasites were carried out. Data were entered, cleaned and analyzed using SPSS Version 20.Among the total 464 study participants with median (±IQR age of 25.0 (±21.75 years, 262 (56.5% were females. Helminthic infection was found in 97 (20.9% participants. Hookworm (68 [14.7%] was the predominant parasite followed by S. mansoni (11 [2.4%], E. vermicularis (9 [1.9%] and S. stercoralis (5 [1.1%]. Patients with age group ≥15 years (AOR: 5.26; 95% CI: 2.05-13.46; P: 0.001 and walking barefoot (AOR: 2.20; 95% CI: 1.08-4.48; P: 0.031 were more vulnerable from the hookworm infections.There was a high burden of hookworm infections in our setting. Hence, regular shoes wearing, considering all age groups in the albendazole deworming as mass treatment and environmental hygiene are important interventions to reduce the burden of such neglected tropical disease.

  4. Improving neonatal care in district and community health facilities in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, David Lawrance

    2015-08-01

    A high standard of newborn care, especially at a primary level, is needed to address the neonatal mortality rate in South Africa. The current approach to continuing training of health-care workers uses traditional methods of centralised teaching by formal tutors away from the place of work. This is no longer affordable, achievable or desirable, particularly in rural areas. An innovative system of self-directed learning by groups of nurses caring for mothers and their newborn infants uses specially prepared course books without the need for trainers. Using self-study supported by peer discussion groups, nurses can take responsibility for their own professional growth. This builds competence, confidence and a sense of pride. Since 1993, the Perinatal Education Programme has provided continuing learning opportunities for thousands of nurses in Southern Africa. A number of prospective trials have demonstrated that study groups can significantly improve knowledge and understanding, attitudes, clinical skills and quality of care provided to mothers and infants. A recent review of 10,000 successful participants across a wide range of provinces, ages and home languages documented the success of the project. Using a question-and-answer format to promote problem-solving, case studies, simple skills workshops and multiple choice tests, each module addresses common conditions with appropriate care practices such as thorough drying at birth, delayed cord-clamping, skin-to-skin care, breast feeding, basic resuscitation, correct use of oxygen therapy, hand-washing, blood glucose monitoring and promotion of parental bonding. The training material is now also available free of charge on an on-line website as well as being presented as e-books which can be downloaded onto personal computers, tablet readers and smart phones. This is supplemented by regular SMS text messages providing nurses with relevant 'knowledge bites'. All nurses caring for newborn infants now have easy

  5. Helminthiasis: Hookworm Infection Remains a Public Health Problem in Dera District, South Gondar, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiferaw, Melashu Balew; Mengistu, Agmas Dessalegn

    2015-01-01

    Background Intestinal parasitic infections are significant cause of morbidity and mortality in endemic countries. In Ethiopia, helminthiasis was the third leading cause of outpatient visits. Despite the health extension program was launched to address this problem, there is limited information on the burden of intestinal parasites after implementation of the program in our setting. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the intestinal helminthic infections among clients attending at Anbesame health center, South Gondar, Ethiopia. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted at Anbesame health center from March to June 2015. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 464 study participants selected consecutively. Stool specimen collection, processing through formol-ether concentration technique and microscopic examination for presence of parasites were carried out. Data were entered, cleaned and analyzed using SPSS Version 20. Results Among the total 464 study participants with median (±IQR) age of 25.0 (±21.75) years, 262 (56.5%) were females. Helminthic infection was found in 97 (20.9%) participants. Hookworm (68 [14.7%]) was the predominant parasite followed by S. mansoni (11 [2.4%]), E. vermicularis (9 [1.9%]) and S. stercoralis (5 [1.1%]). Patients with age group ≥15 years (AOR: 5.26; 95% CI: 2.05–13.46; P: 0.001) and walking barefoot (AOR: 2.20; 95% CI: 1.08–4.48; P: 0.031) were more vulnerable from the hookworm infections. Conclusions There was a high burden of hookworm infections in our setting. Hence, regular shoes wearing, considering all age groups in the albendazole deworming as mass treatment and environmental hygiene are important interventions to reduce the burden of such neglected tropical disease. PMID:26657490

  6. Menstrual knowledge and practices of female adolescents in Vhembe district, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorah U. Ramathuba

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although sexual issues are openly discussed in the media, sexuality and reproductive functions are treated as taboo. Menstruation is a normal physiologic process, but carries various meanings within cultures and is rarely discussed amongst families and communities.Purpose: This study sought to assess the knowledge and practices of secondary school girls towards menstruation in the Thulamela municipality of Limpopo Province, South Africa. Methods: A quantitative descriptive study design was used and respondents were selected by means of convenience sampling from a population of secondary school girls. The sample consisted of 273 secondary school girls doing Grades 10–12. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data, which was analysed by computing frequencies and percentages using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 12. Findings: The findings revealed that respondents experienced menarche at 13 years and that menstruation is a monthly bleeding (80% that happens to every female; it is a sign of adulthood (91%. 15% reported that it is the removal of dirt from the stomach and abdomen, 67% indicated the source of menstruation being the uterus, 65% the vagina and 13% from the abdomen. 73% reported having fear and anxiety at the first experience of bleeding and that they could not maintain adequate hygienic practices due to a lack of privacy and sanitarytowels. Conclusion: Interventions are needed to increase girls’ opportunities to discuss menstruation and access information from adults including mothers, parents and guardians. School-based sexuality education should be comprehensive, begin early and be regularly repeated.

  7. Helminthiasis: Hookworm Infection Remains a Public Health Problem in Dera District, South Gondar, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiferaw, Melashu Balew; Mengistu, Agmas Dessalegn

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections are significant cause of morbidity and mortality in endemic countries. In Ethiopia, helminthiasis was the third leading cause of outpatient visits. Despite the health extension program was launched to address this problem, there is limited information on the burden of intestinal parasites after implementation of the program in our setting. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the intestinal helminthic infections among clients attending at Anbesame health center, South Gondar, Ethiopia. A cross sectional study was conducted at Anbesame health center from March to June 2015. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 464 study participants selected consecutively. Stool specimen collection, processing through formol-ether concentration technique and microscopic examination for presence of parasites were carried out. Data were entered, cleaned and analyzed using SPSS Version 20. Among the total 464 study participants with median (±IQR) age of 25.0 (±21.75) years, 262 (56.5%) were females. Helminthic infection was found in 97 (20.9%) participants. Hookworm (68 [14.7%]) was the predominant parasite followed by S. mansoni (11 [2.4%]), E. vermicularis (9 [1.9%]) and S. stercoralis (5 [1.1%]). Patients with age group ≥15 years (AOR: 5.26; 95% CI: 2.05-13.46; P: 0.001) and walking barefoot (AOR: 2.20; 95% CI: 1.08-4.48; P: 0.031) were more vulnerable from the hookworm infections. There was a high burden of hookworm infections in our setting. Hence, regular shoes wearing, considering all age groups in the albendazole deworming as mass treatment and environmental hygiene are important interventions to reduce the burden of such neglected tropical disease.

  8. High risk of suicide among highschool learners in uMgungundlovu District KwaZuluNatal Province South Africa

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    N Khuzwayo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Worldwide, suicide affects the most vulnerable populations, including adolescents and young adults. It is estimated that suicide will contribute more than 2% to the global burden of disease by 2020. Information about the prevalence of suicidal behaviour and the sociodemographic characteristics and risk factors associated with suicide in the South African (SA rural context is important for local and national policy and contributes to global understanding of the phenomenon.Objective. To investigate key demographic factors and behaviours associated with planning and attempting suicide among high-school learners.Methods. In a cross-sectional study, we used stratified random sampling to select 16 schools in uMgungundlovu District, KwaZulu-Natal Province, SA. All grade 10 learners (N=1 759 at these schools completed a self-administered questionnaire (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System. Data analysis was carried out with Stata 13 statistical software using generalised estimating equations.Results. In total, 222 learners (12.6% of the 1 759 had made plans to attempt suicide during the previous 12 months, 261 (14.8% had actually attempted suicide, and 218 attempts had resulted in the learner being treated by a doctor or nurse (12.4%. The risk of planning suicide increased with age. For male learners, being threatened with a weapon on school property (adjusted odds ratio (AOR 3.7, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.9 - 7.1; p<0.01 or bullied through Facebook or WhatsApp (AOR 3.1, 95% CI 1.5 - 7.1; p<0.01 significantly increased the likelihood of making a suicide attempt that resulted in treatment by a doctor or nurse. For female learners, engaging in risk behaviours increased this likelihood, risk factors including being physically hurt by someone they were dating (1 - 3 times AOR 3.3, 95% CI 1.9 - 5.7; p<0.01, ≥4 times AOR 10.0, 95% CI 2.5 - 40.2 (p<0.01 and number of drinks consumed

  9. Visceral leishmaniasis in selected communities of Hamar and Banna-Tsamai districts in Lower Omo Valley, South West Ethiopia: Sero-epidemological and Leishmanin Skin Test Surveys.

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    Fitsum Bekele

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis [VL] is a debilitating parasitic disease which invariably kills untreated patients. The disease is caused by Leishmania (L. donovani or L. infantum, and transmitted by the bite of female phlebotomine sandflies. VL often remains subclinical but can become symptomatic with an acute/subacute or chronic course. Globally, the Eastern Africa region is one of the main VL endemic areas. The disease is prevalent in numerous foci within Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan South Sudan, and Uganda. In Ethiopia, the Lower Omo plain is one of the many VL endemic regions.The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic visceral leishmaniasisin Hamar and Banna-Tsamai districts of the South Omo plains where VL is becoming an emerging health problem of neglected communities.A community based cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2013 between 25th of July and 14th of August. A total of 1682 individuals living in 404 households were included in the study. Socio-demographic and clinical data were collected from each of the participants and venous blood was also collected for the detection of antibodies to visceral leishmaniasis using Direct Agglutination Test. Leishmanin Skin Test was performed to detect the exposure to the parasite.The surveys included 14 villages located in areas where VL had been reported. In a study population of 1682 individuals, the overall positive leishmanian skin test and sero-prevalence rates respectively were 8.6% and 1.8%. A statistically significant variation in the rate of positive LST response was observed in different study sites and age groups. Positive LST response showed an increasing trend with age. The sero-prevalence rate also showed a statistically significant variation among different study sites. Higher rates of sero-prevalence were observed in children and adolescents. The LST and sero-prevalence rates in Hamar District exceeded significantly that of Banna

  10. Factors enabling and inhibiting facilitator development: lessons learned from Essentials of Care in South Eastern Sydney Local Health District

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    Tamera Watling

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Building and sustaining facilitation capacity for the creation of person-centred workplace cultures is a strategic priority of the South Eastern Sydney Local Health District Nursing and Midwifery Practice and Workforce Unit. Skilled facilitation is considered critical to the successful implementation and sustainability of practice development-based programmes, including Essentials of Care. Review of facilitator activity across the district revealed that less than half of those who had participated in a facilitation development programme were actively applying their knowledge to the facilitation of Essentials of Care. Aim: To understand the enablers and barriers to the development and application of facilitation skills and the implementation of Essentials of Care from the perspective of the programme’s facilitators. The purpose was to inform ongoing strategies to build and sustain facilitation capacity for its effective implementation. Method: A 21-question qualitative survey was designed using Survey Monkey. Questions were framed to allow free text responses for qualitative content analysis. Ethics approval was applied for and deemed unnecessary by the local health district ethics committee; the committee deemed the project to be a quality improvement activity not requiring independent ethical review. The survey was distributed electronically to 230 health professionals who had participated in the facilitation development programme between 2008 and 2013. Findings: The key enablers for both facilitator development and implementation of Essentials of Care were time, engagement of staff and leadership support. Additional enablers for facilitation development included access to development opportunities and practical application of skills. Facilitation was an enabler of Essentials of Care implementation. Leadership support is pivotal, especially where time and patient acuity impinge on the release of staff for facilitated activities

  11. [Psychiatric patients at the police station in the southern South Holland region: assessment by the District Health Service forensic doctor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aardoom, H A; Huisman-Wolfs, M M; Nijs, H G T

    2002-09-21

    To describe the epidemiological characteristics of ambulant psychiatric patients who were either brought to the police station or who came by themselves, but who were not kept in a cell, as a basis for the development of a reception protocol. Descriptive. The data from the medical records from 2000 kept by the forensic doctors employed by the district health services for the Southern South Holland region were inventoried. On request by the police, the forensic doctors examined 203 clients. The majority of these were middle-aged men who did have a place of residence. The reason for police involvement was bizarre or confused behaviour in public. Half of the patients had received or were receiving some form of psychiatric treatment from the mental health service. In approximately half of the cases the forensic doctor found a solution together with the police. In the other half of the cases the forensic doctor asked the crisis intervention team at the mental health service for an evaluation. Two thirds of these patients were hospitalised and one third was sent away. Because examination by both the forensic doctor and the mental health service psychiatrist and other procedures were lengthy (up to 6 hours), patients had to spend a long time in a holding cell at the police station that was not designed for stays of this length of time, and often lacked toilet facilities. The forensic doctor treated about half the clients without the need of assistance from the crisis intervention psychiatrist. The temporary accommodation for these confused clients was inadequate.

  12. Perceptions of health care professionals on the safety and security at Odi District Hospital, Gauteng, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeke, Sunday O; Mabuza, Langalibalele H

    2017-10-27

    For optimum delivery of service, an establishment needs to ensure a safe and secure environment. In 2011, the South African government promulgated the National Core Standards for Health Establishments for safety and security for all employees in all establishments. Little is known about whether these standards are being complied to.Aim and setting: To assess the perceptions of health care professionals (HCPs) on safety and security at Odi District Hospital. A sample of 181 out of a total of 341 HCPs was drawn through a systematic sampling method from each HCP category. Data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire. The SPSS® statistical software version 22 was used for data analysis. The level of statistical significance was set at < 0.05. There were more female respondents than male respondents (136; 75.10%). The dominant age group was 28-47 years (114; 57.46%). Perceptions on security personnel, their efficiency and the security system were significantly affirmed (p = 0.0001). The hospital infrastructure, surroundings and plan in emergencies were perceived to be safe (p < 0.0001). The hospital lighting system was perceived as inadequate (p = 0.0041). Only 36 (20.2%) HCPs perceived that hospital authorities were concerned about employees' safety (p < 0.0001). HCPs had positive perceptions regarding the hospital's security system. Except for the negative perceptions of the lighting system and the perceived lack of hospital authorities' concern for staff safety, perceptions of the HCPs on the hospital working environment were positive. The hospital authorities need to establish the basis of negative perceptions and enforce remedial measures to redress them.

  13. Implementing intimate partner violence care in a rural sub-district of South Africa: a qualitative evaluation

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    Kate Rees

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite a high burden of disease, in South Africa, intimate partner violence (IPV is known to be poorly recognised and managed. To address this gap, an innovative intersectoral model for the delivery of comprehensive IPV care was piloted in a rural sub-district. Objective: To evaluate the initiative from the perspectives of women using the service, service providers, and managers. Design: A qualitative evaluation was conducted. Service users were interviewed, focus groups were conducted amongst health care workers (HCW, and a focus group and interviews were conducted with the intersectoral implementation team to explore their experiences of the intervention. A thematic analysis approach was used, triangulating the various sources of data. Results: During the pilot, 75 women received the intervention. Study participants described their experience as overwhelmingly positive, with some experiencing improvements in their home lives. Significant access barriers included unaffordable indirect costs, fear of loss of confidentiality, and fear of children being removed from the home. For HCW, barriers to inquiry about IPV included its normalisation in this community, poor understanding of the complexities of living with violence and frustration in managing a difficult emotional problem. Health system constraints affected continuity of care, privacy, and integration of the intervention into routine functioning, and the process of intersectoral action was hindered by the formation of alliances. Contextual factors, for example, high levels of alcohol misuse and socio-economic disempowerment, highlighted the need for a multifaceted approach to addressing IPV. Conclusions: This evaluation draws attention to the need to take a systems approach and focus on contextual factors when implementing complex interventions. The results will be used to inform decisions about instituting appropriate IPV care in the rest of the province. In addition, there is

  14. The effectiveness of the South African Triage Toll use in Mahalapye District Hospital – Emergency Department, Botswana

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    Stephane T. Tshitenge

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The study aimed to determine the proportion of each priority level of patients, time of performance in each priority level, and the reliability of the South African Triage Scale (SATS tool at the Mahalapye District Hospital - Emergency Department (MDH-ED, a setting where the majority of the nurses were not formally trained on the use of the SATS. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study using case records in MDH-ED from 1 January 2014 to 31 December 2014. A panel of experts from the Mahalapye site of the Family Medicine Department, University of Botswana, reviewed and scored each selected case record that was compared with the scores previously attributed to the nurse triage. Results: From the 315 case records, both the nurse triage and the panel of expert triage assigned the majority of cases in the routine category (green, 146 (46% and 125 (40%, respectively, or in the urgent category (yellow, they assigned 140 (44% and 111 (35% cases, respectively.Overall, there was an adequate agreement between the nurse triage and the panel of expert triage (k = 0.4, 95% confidence interval: 0.3–0.5, although the level of agreement was satisfactory. Conclusion: Findings of the study reported that the profile of the priority-level categories in MDH-ED was made in the majority of routine and urgent patients, only the routine and the emergency patients were seen within the targeted time and they had a satisfactory level of reliability (between 0.4 and 0.6.

  15. Prevalence and Risk Factors of HIV Infection among Clients Attending ICTCs in Six Districts of Tamilnadu, South India

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    Rajeswari Ramachandran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the HIV serostatus of clients attending integrated counseling and testing centres (ICTCs in Tamilnadu, south India (excluding antenatal women and children, and to study its association with demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral risk factors. Design. In a prospective observational study, we interviewed clients attending 170 ICTCs from six districts of Tamilnadu during 2007 utilizing a standard pretest assessment questionnaire. All the clients were tested for HIV with rapid test kits. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify determinants of HIV infection. Results. Of 18329 clients counseled, 17958 (98% were tested for HIV and 732 (4.1%; range 2.6 to 6.2% were tested positive for HIV. Median age of clients was 30 years; 89% had never used condoms in their lives and 2% gave history of having received blood transfusion. In multivariate analysis HIV seropositivity was associated with HIV in the family (adjusted odds ratio (AOR 11.6, history of having sex with sex workers (AOR 2.9, age ≥31 years (AOR 2.8; being married (AOR 2.5, previously tested for HIV (AOR 1.9, illiteracy (AOR 1.7, unemployment (AOR 1.5, and alcoholism (AOR 1.5. Conclusion. HIV seroprevalence being high in ICTC clients (varied from 2.6 to 6.2%, this group should also be included in routine programme monitoring of sero-positivity and risk factors for better understanding of the impact of the National AIDS Control Programme. This would help in evolving appropriate policies and strategies to reduce the spread of HIV infection.

  16. Significance of informal (on-the-job) learning and leadership development in health systems: lessons from a district finance team in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choonara, S; Goudge, J; Nxumalo, N; Eyles, J

    2017-01-01

    Background The district health system (DHS) has a critical role to play in the delivery of primary healthcare (PHC). Effective district management, particularly leadership is considered to be crucial element of the DHS. Internationally, the debate around developing leadership competencies such as motivation or empowerment of staff, managing relationships, being solution driven as well as fostering teamwork are argued to be possible through approaches such as formal and informal training. Despite growing multidisciplinary evidence in fields such as engineering, computer sciences and health sciences there remains little empirical evidence of these approaches, especially the informal approach. Findings are based on a broader doctoral thesis which explored district financial management; although the core focus of this paper draws attention to the significance of informal learning and its practical value in developing leadership competencies. Methods A qualitative case study was conducted in one district in the Gauteng province, South Africa. Purposive and snowballing techniques yielded a sample of 18 participants, primarily based at a district level. Primary data collected through in-depth interviews and observations (participant and non-participant) were analysed using thematic analysis. Findings Results indicate the sorts of complexities, particularly financial management challenges which staff face and draws attention to the use of two informal learning strategies—learning from others (how to communicate, delegate) and fostering team-based learning. Such strategies played a role in developing a cadre of leaders at a district level who displayed essential competencies such as motivating staff, and problem solving. Conclusions It is crucial for health systems, especially those in financially constrained settings to find cost-effective ways to develop leadership competencies such as being solution driven or motivating and empowering staff. This study illustrates that

  17. Significance of informal (on-the-job) learning and leadership development in health systems: lessons from a district finance team in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choonara, S; Goudge, J; Nxumalo, N; Eyles, J

    2017-01-01

    The district health system (DHS) has a critical role to play in the delivery of primary healthcare (PHC). Effective district management, particularly leadership is considered to be crucial element of the DHS. Internationally, the debate around developing leadership competencies such as motivation or empowerment of staff, managing relationships, being solution driven as well as fostering teamwork are argued to be possible through approaches such as formal and informal training. Despite growing multidisciplinary evidence in fields such as engineering, computer sciences and health sciences there remains little empirical evidence of these approaches, especially the informal approach. Findings are based on a broader doctoral thesis which explored district financial management; although the core focus of this paper draws attention to the significance of informal learning and its practical value in developing leadership competencies. A qualitative case study was conducted in one district in the Gauteng province, South Africa. Purposive and snowballing techniques yielded a sample of 18 participants, primarily based at a district level. Primary data collected through in-depth interviews and observations (participant and non-participant) were analysed using thematic analysis. Results indicate the sorts of complexities, particularly financial management challenges which staff face and draws attention to the use of two informal learning strategies-learning from others (how to communicate, delegate) and fostering team-based learning. Such strategies played a role in developing a cadre of leaders at a district level who displayed essential competencies such as motivating staff, and problem solving. It is crucial for health systems, especially those in financially constrained settings to find cost-effective ways to develop leadership competencies such as being solution driven or motivating and empowering staff. This study illustrates that it is possible to develop such

  18. An improved model for provision of rural community-based health rehabilitation services in Vhembe District, Limpopo Province of South Africa

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    Rudzani E. Luruli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 1991, Riakona Community Rehabilitation Programme initiated community-based rehabilitation (CBR in the Vhembe District of Limpopo Province. Subsequently, the South African government adopted the programme. Aim: The aim of the study was to suggest an improvement in the model of providing CBR services. Setting: The study was conducted in six rehabilitation centres located in hospitals in the Vhembe District in Limpopo Province of South Africa. Method: A mixed-mode research design with qualitative and quantitative elements was used to conduct the study. Content analysis, the chi-square test for Goodness of Fit and the Kruskal–Wallis and Mann–Whitney non-parametric tests were conducted. Results: The key determinants of client satisfaction with the services that the community rehabilitation workers rendered included provision of assistive devices and the adoption of a holistic approach to their work. Overall, satisfaction per domain for each one of the five domains of satisfaction scored less than 90%. More than 80% of clients were satisfied with empathy (83% and assurance (80% domains. Tangibles, reliability and responsiveness domains had scores of 78%, 72% and 67%, respectively. These results, together with the reasoning map of conceptual framework description, were used as the building blocks of the CBR model. Conclusion: The improved CBR model is useful for putting the programme into practice. This is particularly so for the CBR managers in the districts of the Limpopo Province. Keywords: client satisfaction, disability, community-based rehabilitation, community rehabilitation worker

  19. The results of spectrographic analysis of pigments from known aboriginal quarries and other outcrops in South Australia, and from painting sites in the Olary district of South Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobbs, J.M.; Nobbs, M.F.; Moyle, D.W.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: Pigments are minerals that provide the colour to paints and the pigments most commonly used by Aboriginal people are derived from red and yellow ochre and white minerals for example, gypsum and kaolin. During the early 1980s, the opportunity arose to collect pigments from many sources in South Australia. The sources included samples from known Aboriginal quarries and other outcrops. Pinhead-size samples of paint were collected from figures in some of the rock painting sites in the Olary District. These samples were analysed using Emission Spectrography with the aim of determining the nature of the pigments that is their constituent elements, and to investigate the possibility of finger-printing the sources of the pigments used by Aboriginal people. The ability of being able to source pigments found on the decorated surface of artefacts; pieces of ochre found in archaeological deposits or painted figures in a rock painting is important for understanding the trading and exchange network known to criss-cross Australia in the past. Facilities for Emission Spectrographic analyses were readily available and the capability to analyse (for twenty six elements) samples in milligram proportions suggested its use for the determination of the composition of material from unlimited sources and the compilation of a data-base detailing the results of the analyses in a form suitable for comparison. Examination of this database could then lead to further investigations with narrower and more specific aims. The results of the spectrographic analyses for red ochre from eighteen sources and yellow ochres from eight sources were tabulated as: strongly present >10%; present 1-10%; strong trace 0.1-1% ; trace 0.01-0.1%; faint trace <0.01%. Major elements, for example iron, aluminium, and silica showed in the Strongly Present and Present categories, while Trace and Faint Trace elements were variable. The results of the analyses of seventeen samples of red pigment and five

  20. Insights of health district managers on the implementation of primary health care outreach teams in Johannesburg, South Africa: a descriptive study with focus group discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosa, Shabir; Derese, Anselme; Peersman, Wim

    2017-01-21

    Primary health care (PHC) outreach teams are part of a policy of PHC re-engineering in South Africa. It attempts to move the deployment of community health workers (CHWs) from vertical programmes into an integrated generalised team-based approach to care for defined populations in municipal wards. There has little evaluation of PHC outreach teams. Managers' insights are anecdotal. This is descriptive qualitative study with focus group discussions with health district managers of Johannesburg, the largest city in South Africa. This was conducted in a sequence of three meetings with questions around implementation, human resources, and integrated PHC teamwork. There was a thematic content analysis of validated transcripts using the framework method. There were two major themes: leadership-management challenges and human resource challenges. Whilst there was some positive sentiment, leadership-management challenges loomed large: poor leadership and planning with an under-resourced centralised approach, poor communications both within the service and with community, concerns with its impact on current services and resistance to change, and poor integration, both with other streams of PHC re-engineering and current district programmes. Discussion by managers on human resources was mostly on the plight of CHWs and calls for formalisation of CHWs functioning and training and nurse challenges with inappropriate planning and deployment of the team structure, with brief mention of the extended team. Whilst there is positive sentiment towards intent of the PHC outreach team, programme managers in Johannesburg were critical of management of the programme in their health district. Whilst the objective of PHC reform is people-centred health care, its implementation struggles with a centralising tendency amongst managers in the health service in South Africa. Managers in Johannesburg advocated for decentralisation. The implementation of PHC outreach teams is also limited by

  1. Malaria, helminths and malnutrition: a cross-sectional survey of school children in the South-Tongu district of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayeh-Kumi, Patrick Ferdinand; Addo-Osafo, Kantanka; Attah, Simon Kwaku; Tetteh-Quarcoo, Patience Borkor; Obeng-Nkrumah, Noah; Awuah-Mensah, Georgina; Abbey, Harriet Naa Afia; Forson, Akua; Cham, Momodou; Asare, Listowell; Duedu, Kwabena Obeng; Asmah, Richard Harry

    2016-04-27

    As part of malaria characterization study in the South-Tongu district of Ghana, the current study was conducted to explore relationships between malaria, schistosomiasis, soil transmitted helminths and malnutrition in riparian community settings that had hitherto encountered episodes of mass deworming exercises. School-age children were enrolled in a cross-sectional study from April through July 2012. Stool and urine samples were examined respectively for helminths and Schistosoma haematobium. Blood samples were analyzed for malaria parasites and haemoglobin (Hb) concentrations, respectively. Anthropometric indices were measured. Relationships were determined using generalized linear models. The results show low numbers of asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum (9.2%, n = 37/404) and S. haematobium (2.5%, n = 10/404) infections. The associations between significance terms in the multivariate analysis for P. falciparum infections were further assessed to test the significance of the product terms directly i.e., age in years [adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 3.1; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-5.6], Hb concentration (AOR = 0.71; 95% CI 0.42-2.3), and stunted malnutrition (AOR, 8.72; 95% CI 4.8-25.1). The P. falciparum-associated decrease in mean Hb concentration was 2.82 g/dl (95% CI 1.63-4.1 g/dl; P = 0.001) in stunted children, and 0.75 g/dl (95% CI 1.59-0.085 g/dl; P = 0.076) in the non-stunted cohort. The anaemia-associated decrease in mean parasitaemia in stunted children was 3500 parasites/µl of blood (95% CI 262.46-6737.54 parasites/µl of blood; P = 0.036), and in non-stunted children 2127 parasites/µl of blood (95% CI -0.27 to 4.53; P = 0.085). Stunted malnutrition was the strongest predictor of S. haematobium infection (AOR = 11; 95% CI 3.1-33.6) but significant associations as described for P. falciparum infections were absent. The population attributable risk of anaemia due to P. falciparum was 6.3% (95% CI 2.5-9.3), 0.9% (95% CI 0.4-2.3) for S. haematobium

  2. Urban-rural disparities in the nutritional status of school adolescent girls in the Mizan district, south-western Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berheto, Tezera M; Mikitie, Wondafrash K; Argaw, Alemayehu

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition that occurs during adolescence has important consequences for the future growth and development of the individual, particularly in girls in developing countries. Besides limiting growth, adolescent malnutrition has important consequences for society. Despite this, there is a lack of information on the nutritional status of adolescent girls in Ethiopia. This study was therefore performed to help redress this lack of data and to provide information for future improvements by health planners and policy makers. A comparative cross-sectional study design was employed to determine the urban-rural disparity in nutritional status of adolescent school girls in the Mizan district in south-western Ethiopia. A two-stage sampling procedure was used to randomly select 622 adolescent girls, 311 each from urban and rural locations. Trained field workers used structured questionnaires to obtain the desired information from the respondents. Anthropometric measurements of height and weight were collected using standard procedures and appropriate quality control measures. Height-for-age Z-scores and body mass index (BMI)-for-age Z-scores were generated using AnthroPlus software. The independent sample t-test and χ2 test were used to determine statistical significance. There were no significant differences in the ages or physical activities of the two populations of girls studied. Consumption of cereal, vegetables, sweets, sugars, fats, meat, and eggs was similar between the two groups, although slight differences were found with regard to legumes, milk, and fruit consumption. No significant differences were found in the prevalence of mild underweight girls and overweight girls in the urban and rural groups (26.5% vs 22.3% and 7.5% vs 5.2%, respectively). Significant stunting was, however, present in the rural population (40.9% vs. 17.8% in the urban group). Although overall lower than the reference data provided by WHO, the mean BMI-for-age Z-scores and height-for-age Z

  3. Factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding practices among mothers in Goba district, south east Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

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    Setegn Tesfaye

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exclusive breastfeeding is defined as feeding infants only breast milk, be it directly from breast or expressed, with no addition of any liquid or solids apart from drops or syrups consisting of vitamins, mineral supplements or medicine, and nothing else. Several studies have shown that exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months plays a great role in preventing morbidity and mortality. However, in Ethiopia a large portion of infants are not exclusively breastfed according to the infant feeding recommendations. Understanding the factors that influence exclusive breastfeeding is crucial to promoting the practice. This study was carried out to identify factors predicting exclusive breastfeeding among mothers in Bale Goba district, south east Ethiopia. Methods A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from March to February 2010 involving both quantitative and qualitative data. A total of 608 mothers were selected randomly. A convenience sampling technique was used to generate the qualitative data. The qualitative data were analyzed using thematic frameworks. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent predictors of exclusive breastfeeding after controlling for background variables. Results The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding in the last 24 hours preceding the survey was 71.3%. The median duration of exclusive breastfeeding was three months and mean frequency of breastfeeding was six times per day. Being unemployed [AOR: 10.4 (95% CI: 1.51, 71.50] and age of infants of less than two months [AOR: 5.6 (95% CI: 2.28, 13.60] were independently associated with exclusive breastfeeding. Conclusions A large proportion of infants are not exclusively breastfed during the first 6 months, despite what is recommended in the national and global infant and young child feeding (IYCF guidelines. Employed mothers were less likely to practice exclusive breastfeeding, implying the need

  4. An evaluation of the public sector optometric service provided within the health districts in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

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    Moraka E. Maake

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: In South Africa, optometry has been traditionally positioned within the private sector. The situation has gradually changed over the past two decades, with optometry being introduced into the public sector in many parts of the country. Despite the growing numbers, optometrists are still new within the public health sector, motivating this study to evaluate the eye care services they provide. Methods: A cross-sectional, retrospective, descriptive study was undertaken. Stratified random selection was applied to select the study sites, and systematic sampling was used to select patients’ files. A saturated sample of public sector optometrists employed in the selected districts completed study questionnaires. Data were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, Version 21. Results: A total of 2968 records were reviewed, and gender distribution was 67.6% female and 32.4% male. Refraction (86.73% was the most frequently conducted test, followed by ophthalmoscopy (74.73%, colour vision (0.07% and gonioscopy (0.03%. The response rate for the questionnaires was 64.7%. Optometric outreach services were conducted by 54.5% of optometrists, and the majority (83.3% reported that the farthest outreach facility was more than 50 km from their base hospital. The availability of equipment at outreach facilities was less as compared to base hospitals, while some reported not having the necessary equipment even at base hospitals. None of the optometrists did contact lens fitting at outreach facilities. A lack of equipment was cited as one of the reasons for not providing this service by 100% of optometrists. Most optometrists (63.6% believed that more than 30% of their referrals might have been avoided if they had prescribed therapeutic agents to manage ocular conditions. Conclusion: Introducing optometrists within the public sector improves access to services for rural communities. However, the minimum standard of optometric care

  5. The Farmers Perception on Effectiveness of Private Forest Revolving Fund Distribution and Factors Affecting its Repayment: Case in South Lampung District, Lampung Province

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    Sanudin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Commercial s are ed providing for forest plantation development bank not interest in fund community based . - Therefore, in this case, non bank institutions such Forest Development Funding Center (pusat pembiayaan pembangunan hutan, PPPH private forest are highly required. This paper is aimed to find out the effectiveness of revolving fund and factors affecting its repayment distribution . The research was conducted during September–December 2014 in Private Forest Farmer Groups in Katibung Sub-District South Lampung Dist 3 , , rict Lampung Province. The data was collected through household surveys and in-depth interviews. The household surveys were done using structured questionnaires that included questions related to: characteristics of the borrowers, characteristics of private forest, characteristics of loan, and household perceptions on private forest revolving fund Household perceptions on private forest revolving fund are loan . pre requirement, loan procedure, realization, interest rate, , and repayment procedure The effectiveness of private forest length of repayment periode . revolving fund d t and factors affecting repayment of loan was analyzed by istribution was analyzed by liker scale logistic regression. ult private forest revolving fund in The res showed that: 1 three private forest farmer groups in Katibung Sub-District, South Lampung effective District was 2 income from non-private forest and amount of loan , are factors affecting repayment of private forest revolving fund, 3 faced private forest revolving f the problem in und distribution PPPH private could be overcame by maximizing the role of field officers in assisting and facilitating forest revolving fund ors debit candidate.

  6. Anti-malarial drug safety information obtained through routine monitoring in a rural district of South-Western Senegal

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    Brasseur Philippe

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowing the safety profile of anti-malarial treatments in routine use is essential; millions of patients receive now artemisinin combination therapy (ACT annually, but the return on information through current systems is as yet inadequate. Cohort event monitoring (CEM is a WHO (World Health Organization-recommended practice; testing its performance and feasibility in routine practice in malaria-endemic is important. Methods A nine-year CEM-based study of the safety of artesunate-amodiaquine (ASAQ at five peripheral health facilities in a rural district of South-western Senegal. Staff (nurses, health workers were trained to collect actively and systematically information on the patient, treatment and events on a purposely designed questionnaire. The occurrence and severity of events was collected before, during and after treatment up to 28 days in order to generate information on all adverse events (AEs as well as treatment-emerging signs/symptoms (TESS. Laboratory tests (haematology, liver and renal was planned for at least 10% of cases. Results During 2001–2009, 3,708 parasitologically-confirmed malaria cases (mean age = 16.0 ± 12.7 years were enrolled (26% and 52% of all and parasitologically-confirmed ASAQ treatments, respectively. Treatment was supervised in 96% of cases. Products changed over time: 49% were a loose combination of individually-packaged products (available 2001–03, 42% co-blistered products (2004–09 and 9% a fixed-dose co-formulation (2006–09; dosing was age-based for 42%, weight-based for 58%. AS and AQ were correctly dosed in 97% and 82% of cases with the loose and 93% and 86% with the fixed combination, but only 50% and 42% with the co-blistered product. Thirty-three per cent (33% of patients had at least one sign/symptom pre-treatment, 12% had at least one AE and 9% a TESS (total events 3,914, 1,144 and 693, respectively. AEs overestimated TESS by 1.2-2 fold (average 1.7. Changes in

  7. False Teeth Still a Public Health Problem among Children in Kanungu District--South Western Uganda 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Sebudde

    2006-01-01

    False teeth among children are a Public Health problem which has not received adequate attention in Uganda. This study was therefore developed as a community-based descriptive cross-sectional carried out in Kanungu District using qualitative methods of data collection among caregivers of children, Community Owned Resource Persons and Service…

  8. Estimating Implementation and Operational Costs of an Integrated Tiered CD4 Service including Laboratory and Point of Care Testing in a Remote Health District in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassim, Naseem; Coetzee, Lindi M.; Schnippel, Kathryn; Glencross, Deborah K.

    2014-01-01

    Background An integrated tiered service delivery model (ITSDM) has been proposed to provide ‘full-coverage’ of CD4 services throughout South Africa. Five tiers are described, defined by testing volumes and number of referring health-facilities. These include: (1) Tier-1/decentralized point-of-care service (POC) in a single site; Tier-2/POC-hub servicing processing 600 samples/day and serving >100 or >200 health-clinics, respectively. The objective of this study was to establish costs of existing and ITSDM-tiers 1, 2 and 3 in a remote, under-serviced district in South Africa. Methods Historical health-facility workload volumes from the Pixley-ka-Seme district, and the total volumes of CD4 tests performed by the adjacent district referral CD4 laboratories, linked to locations of all referring clinics and related laboratory-to-result turn-around time (LTR-TAT) data, were extracted from the NHLS Corporate-Data-Warehouse for the period April-2012 to March-2013. Tiers were costed separately (as a cost-per-result) including equipment, staffing, reagents and test consumable costs. A one-way sensitivity analyses provided for changes in reagent price, test volumes and personnel time. Results The lowest cost-per-result was noted for the existing laboratory-based Tiers- 4 and 5 ($6.24 and $5.37 respectively), but with related increased LTR-TAT of >24–48 hours. Full service coverage with TAT cost-per-result of $32.32 and $15.88 respectively. A single district Tier-3 laboratory also ensured ‘full service coverage’ and Implementing a single Tier-3/community laboratory to extend and improve delivery of services in Pixley-ka-Seme, with an estimated local ∼12–24-hour LTR-TAT, is ∼$2 more than existing referred services per-test, but 2–4 fold cheaper than implementing eight Tier-2/POC-hubs or providing twenty-seven Tier-1/POCT CD4 services. PMID:25517412

  9. Risk factors for visual impairment and blindness amongst black adult diabetics receiving treatment at Government healthcare facilities in Mopani District, Limpopo province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabaso, Raymond G; Oduntan, Olalekan A

    2014-11-21

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common systemic disease amongst Black South Africans. It may lead to diabetic retinopathy (DR), a common cause of visual impairment (VI) and blindness. DR may signifiantly increase the prevalence of VI and blindness. To assess risk factors for VI and blindness amongst a black diabetic South African population aged ≥ 40 years. The study was conducted in seven Government healthcare facilities (two hospitals, four clinics and one health centre) in Mopani District, Limpopo province, South Africa. This was a cross-sectional health facility-based quantitative study. Structured interviews were used to obtain information, which included sociodemographic profie, knowledge about DM and its ocular complications, presence of hypertension and accessibility to health facilities. Subsequently participants were examined for VI and blindness using an autorefractor, pinhole disc, ophthalmoscope and logMAR visual acuity chart. Anthropometric measurements (height, weight and waist) were also taken. Associations between 31 risk factors and VI as well as blindness were statistically examined. Participants (N = 225) included 161 women and 64 men aged 40-90 years (mean 61.5 ± 10.49 years); 41.3% of them had VI and 3.6% were blind. Cataracts (76.8%) and DR (7.1%) were the common causes of compensated VI and blindness. Risk factors that were associated with VI and blindness were age, monthly income, compliance with losing weight and physical activity. Findings suggest that lifestyle intervention and appropriate eyecare programmes may reduce VI and blindness in this population.

  10. A rapid assessment of a community health worker pilot programme to improve the management of hypertension and diabetes in Emfuleni sub-district of Gauteng Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndou, Tshipfuralo; van Zyl, Greer; Hlahane, Salamina; Goudge, Jane

    2013-01-24

    Non-communicable diseases (NCD) and infectious chronic illnesses are recognised as significant contributing factors to the burden of disease globally, specifically in South Africa, yet clinical management is often poor. The involvement of community health workers (CHWs) in TB and HIV care in South Africa, and other low- and middle-income settings, suggests that they could make an important contribution in the management of NCDs. Using a rapid assessment, this study examines the outcomes of a pilot CHW programme to improve the management of hypertension and diabetes in Gauteng province, South Africa. A record review compared outcomes of patients receiving home visits (n56) with a control group (n168) attending the clinic, matched, as far as possible, on age, gender, and condition. Focus group discussions and semi-structured interviews with CHWs, patients, district, clinic, and NGO staff were used to obtain descriptions of the functioning of the programme and patient experiences. Despite the greater age and co-morbidity among those in the pilot programme, the findings suggest that control of hypertension was improved by CHW home visits in comparison to usual clinic care. However, too few doctor visits, insufficient monitoring of patient outcomes by clinic staff, and a poor procurement process for supplies required by the CHWs hampered the programme's activities. The role of CHWs in the management of hypertension should be given greater consideration, with larger studies being conducted to provide more robust evidence. Adequate training, supervision, and operational support will be required to ensure success of any CHW programme.

  11. The quality of voluntary medical male circumcision done by mid-level workers in Tshwane District, South Africa: A retrospective analysis.

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    Sanele Ngcobo

    Full Text Available Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC reduces the acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV in heterosexual men by up to 60%. One HIV infection is averted for every 5 to 15 VMMCs. To conduct VMMCs in large populations, large numbers of trained healthcare professionals are needed. Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa have a high burden of HIV and a shortage of healthcare professionals, creating a healthcare conundrum. To bridge this gap, South Africa launched a new cadre of mid-level medical worker called Clinical Associates (CA. We assessed the ability of CAs to perform circumcisions of adequate quality and their subsequent usefulness to meet the demands of VMMCs in a population with a high HIV burden.We conducted a retrospective analysis, reviewing patient files (n = 4850 of surgical VMMCs conducted over a 16-month period. Patient files were sourced from clinics and hospitals that provided free VMMCs in Tshwane district in South Africa.Clinical associates performed 88.66% of the circumcisions and doctors performed the remaining 11.34% (p < 0.001. The number of adverse events did not differ between the two groups. Data on intra-operative adverse events were available for 4 738 patients. Of these, 341 (7.2% experienced intra-operative adverse events. For the whole sample, 44 (8.1%, n = 543 adverse events occurred during circumcisions done by doctors and 297 (7.1%, n = 4195 occurred during circumcisions done by CAs (p = 0.385. Clinical associates performed circumcisions in shorter times (duration: 14.63 minutes compared to doctors (duration: 15.25 minutes, t = -7.46; p < 0.001. Recorded pain, bleeding, swelling, infection and wound destruction did not differ between clients circumcised by CAs and doctors. This study is limited by the use of data from a single district.Clinical associates contribute to the demands for high numbers of VMMCs in Tshwane district, South Africa. Clinical associates perform VMMCs at a clinical standard that is

  12. Core Competence And Sustainable Competitive Adventage Of Small Silk Weaving Industries (SIs) In Wajo District, South Sulawesi

    OpenAIRE

    Mappigau, Palmarudi

    2008-01-01

    studi connectedness between the research and practical use within SIs, specially within the framework of the development of regional competitiveness. The aim of this study is to identify and determine core competence and sustainable competitive advantage (SCA) of the small silk weaving industries in Wajo District, and to formulate its road map development. Data and information are collected using several instruments : questionnaire, depth interview, and public consultation through...

  13. Arsenic and Antimony Removal from Drinking Water by Adsorptive Media - U.S. EPA Demonstration Project at South Truckee Meadows General Improvement District (STMGID), NV, Final Performance Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed during and the results obtained from the operation of an arsenic and antimony removal technology demonstrated at the South Truckee Meadows General Improvement District (STMGID) in Washoe County, NV. The objectives of the project wer...

  14. Secondary Trauma and Job Burnout and Associated Factors among HIV Lay Counsellors in Nkangala District, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Matseke, Gladys; Louw, Julia

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate secondary trauma and job burnout and associated factors in a sample of 71 HIV lay counsellors in South Africa. Results indicate that 49.5% were not satisfied with their work environment and 51.4% were potentially secondary traumatic stress cases. In univariate analysis, seeing more HIV counselling and testing…

  15. Adoption of an Evidence-Based Teen Pregnancy Prevention Curriculum: A Case Study in a South Carolina School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Lauren M.; Flynn, Shannon; Kenison, Kelli; Prince, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Continued efforts are needed to reduce teenage pregnancy in the United States. Implementation of evidence-based curricula in schools is one strategy toward meeting this goal. In 2010, the South Carolina Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy (SC Campaign) received funding to implement a teen pregnancy prevention (TPP) curriculum. Congruent with South…

  16. HIV-Related Medical Admissions to a South African District Hospital Remain Frequent Despite Effective Antiretroviral Therapy Scale-Up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meintjes, Graeme; Kerkhoff, Andrew D.; Burton, Rosie; Schutz, Charlotte; Boulle, Andrew; van Wyk, Gavin; Blumenthal, Liz; Nicol, Mark P.; Lawn, Stephen D.

    2015-01-01

    The public sector scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in South Africa commenced in 2004. We aimed to describe the hospital-level disease burden and factors contributing to morbidity and mortality among hospitalized HIV-positive patients in the era of widespread ART availability. Between June

  17. The Development of a Survey Instrument on South Dakota's School District Leadership Climate as Related to Deming's Fourteen Points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Lawrence W. O.; And Others

    Development of an instrument to measure baseline levels of applied Total Quality Management (TQM) practices in South Dakota before the introduction and dissemination of TQM theory to the state's educational leaders is described. Using the interpretation of Deming's 14 points that was developed by J. J. Bonstigl, a 115-item initial item pool was…

  18. Council Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Cary, North Carolina — View the location of the Town of Cary’s four Town Council districts.Please note that one district, District A, is split into two geo-spatial areas. One area is in...

  19. Perception-based analysis of climate change effect on forest-based livelihood: The case of Vhembe District in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chidiebere Ofoegbu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Forests are vulnerable to climate change and are also major sources of livelihood for many rural households in Africa. This study examines rural people’s perceptions of climate change impacts on forest-based livelihoods using rural communities of Vhembe District in South Africa as a case study. The study was based on the principles of perceived impact-based assessment, and sustainable livelihoods framework. Using the stratified proportionate random sampling procedure in combination with weighted Enumeration Area for the selected communities, 366 households were chosen and interviewed. Data analysis involved computing frequencies and conducting the Chi-square, binomial tests and binary logistic regression analysis. The respondents identified erratic rainfall, extreme temperature, extreme drought and flooding as key climatic events in their community. But not all identified key climatic events were perceived to constitute risk to forest products and forest-based livelihood. Only extreme drought was indicated to constitute risk to availability of forest products. In addition, the binary logistic regression showed a significant difference (p < 0.05 in the perceived risk of climate change to the availability of essential forest products across the three municipalities. Hence the need for forest development initiatives that target vulnerable forest products per community as a means of enhancing resilience of forest-based livelihood to climate change impacts in rural community development in South Africa.

  20. Disclosure, stigma of HIV positive child and access to early infant diagnosis in the rural communities of OR Tambo District, South Africa: a qualitative exploration of maternal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeniyi, Vincent Oladele; Thomson, Elza; Ter Goon, Daniel; Ajayi, Idowu Anthony

    2015-08-26

    Despite the overwhelming evidence confirming the morbidity and mortality benefits of early initiation of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV-infected infants, some children are still disadvantaged from gaining access to care. The understanding of the maternal perspective on early infant HIV diagnosis and prompt initiation of HAART has not been adequately explored, especially in the rural communities of South Africa. This study explores the perspectives of mothers of HIV-exposed infants with regard to early infant diagnosis (EID) through a lens of social and structural barriers to accessing primary healthcare in OR Tambo district, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. In this qualitative study, we conducted semi-structured interviews at two primary healthcare centres in the King Sabata Dalindyebo Municipality of the OR Tambo district, South Africa. Twenty-four purposive sample of mothers of HIV-exposed infants took part in the study. Interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed and field notes were obtained. The findings were triangulated with two focus group discussions in order to enrich and validate the qualitative data. Thematic content analysis was employed to analyse the data. The participants have fairly good knowledge of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and the risks during pregnancy, delivery and breastfeeding. The majority of participants were confident of the protection offered by anti-retroviral drugs provided during pregnancy, however, lack knowledge of optimal time for early infant diagnosis of HIV. Reasons for not accessing EID included fear of finding out that their child is HIV positive, feelings of guilt and/or shame and embarrassment with respect to raising an HIV infected infant. Personal experiences of HIV diagnosis and HAART were associated with participants' attitudes and beliefs toward care-seeking behaviours. Stigma resulting from their own disclosure to others reduced their likelihood of recommending EID to other members of

  1. Iron Age Material Culture in South Asia – Analysis and Context of Recently Discovered Slag Sites in Northwest Kashmir (Baramulla District in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumtaz A Yatoo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with presence or absence of Iron Age material culture and explores the development of Iron Age in northwest Kashmir (Baramulla District. It has been noted from the previous surveys that a chronological gap existed (c. 1000 BCE – 100 CE, which roughly equates to the Iron Age in Kashmir (Yatoo 2005; Yatoo 2012. Furthermore, considering that there is very little evidence of Iron Age material culture from the few excavated (or explored sites in Kashmir, there is a debate about the very presence of Iron Age in Kashmir. The little information we have about Iron Age material culture from key sites in Kashmir (such as a few sherds of NBPW, some iron artefacts and slag at one site, has been largely dismissed as imports and lacked serious attention by scholars. It was therefore difficult to build any comparisons in the material culture for the present study. Instead the Iron Age material culture in other parts of South Asia, such as the Indian plains and northern regions of Pakistan, are discussed, as these regions have documented evidence of iron and its associated material culture but very few have archaeometallurgical evidence. Furthermore, Kashmir historically had communication links with these regions in South Asia since the early third millennium BCE until the 10th century CE, so we might expect some contact during the period of early iron production and use. Therefore, one key issue for archaeology in northwest Kashmir in this paper is to understand the link between the newly discovered slag and tuyeres with the key sites in Kashmir and in South Asia; and a further key issue is to determine whether or not there was a distinct Iron Age in north west Kashmir (or whole of Kashmir, or whether the few recovered iron artefacts from key sites of Kashmir are indeed all imports.

  2. Assessment Of Heavy Metal Contamination Of Water Sources From Enyigba Pb-Zn District South Eastern Nigeria

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    Nnabo Paulinus N

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A total of thirty 30 water samples were collected from the Enyigba PbZn mining district to assess the contamination of the water sources as a result of mining of lead and zinc minerals in the area. This comprises of 12 samples of surface water 14 from mine ponds and 4 from underground borehole water. The samples were acidified to stabilize the metals for periods more than four days without the use of refrigeration. The acidified water samples were analysed by a commercial laboratory at Projects Development Institute PRODA Enugu using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy AAS. The elements determined by this method are lead Pb zinc Zn copper Cu arsenic As cadmium Cd nickel Ni manganese Mn and cobalt Co. The result and analysis of contamination factor showed that in surface water Cd had the highest concentration followed by As and Pb while Ni had the lowest. In mine ponds Cd also had the highest concentration and followed by Pb and As and Ni the lowest. In borehole water Cd has the highest concentration followed by Pb and As while Ni had the lowest concentration. Compared to WHO permissible limits the contamination of the heavy metals in all water sources are in order CdAsPbNiZnCu. In surface water the order is CdAsPbNiZnCu in mine ponds it is CdPbAsNiZnCu and in borehole water the order is CdAsPbZnNiCu. The calculated contamination factors show very high contamination status for Cd Pb and As. These levels of contamination and values indicate that under the prevailing conditions and environmental regulations in Nigeria the mining district would face major and hazardous discharges of these metals to the water sources.

  3. 33 CFR 3.25-1 - Fifth district.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... District § 3.25-1 Fifth district. (a) The District Office is in Portsmouth, Va. (b) The Fifth Coast Guard District is comprised of: North Carolina; Virginia; District of Columbia; Maryland; Delaware; that part of... boundary at the shoreline at the North Carolina-South Carolina border, point located at approximately 30°55...

  4. Effect of antiviral prophylaxis on influenza outbreaks om aged care facilities in three local health districts in New South Wales, Australia, 2014

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    Tony Merritt

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: There was a record number (n = 111 of influenza outbreaks in aged care facilities in New South Wales, Australia during 2014. To determine the impact of antiviral prophylaxis recommendations in practice, influenza outbreak data were compared for facilities in which antiviral prophylaxis and treatment were recommended and for those in which antivirals were recommended for treatment only. Methods: Routinely collected outbreak data were extracted from the Notifiable Conditions Information Management System for two Local Health Districts where antiviral prophylaxis was routinely recommended and one Local Health District where antivirals were recommended for treatment but not routinely for prophylaxis. Data collected on residents included counts of influenza-like illness, confirmed influenza, hospitalizations and related deaths. Dates of onset, notification, influenza confirmation and antiviral recommendations were also collected for analysis. The Mann–Whitney U test was used to assess the significance of differences between group medians for key parameters. Results: A total of 41 outbreaks (12 in the prophylaxis group and 29 in the treatment-only group were included in the analysis. There was no significant difference in overall outbreak duration; outbreak duration after notification; or attack, hospitalization or case fatality rates between the two groups. The prophylaxis group had significantly higher cases with influenza-like illness (P = 0.03 and cases recommended antiviral treatment per facility (P = 0.01. Discussion: This study found no significant difference in key outbreak parameters between the two groups. However, further high quality evidence is needed to guide the use of antivirals in responding to influenza outbreaks in aged care facilities.

  5. An investigation into the level of empowerment of rural women in the Zululand district of KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhengu, B R

    2010-06-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the outcome of the empowerment of rural women in relation to gender issues, power, and communication within the Zululand District of KwaZulu-Natal in SouthAfrica after implementation of a four-year Primary Health Care project in partnership with the Provincial Department of Health, and two Schools of Nursing at the University of KwaZulu-Natal and McMaster University in Canada. This project is based on substantial evidence which reveals that rural women are being neglected to the extent that these women have missed out on opportunities for development. The reasons for this disempowerment of women, particularly rural women, are thought to be due to the feminisation of poverty, as well as female submission, educational deprivation, privacy of domestic violence, exploitation, domination by men and cultural oppression (patriarchy). A qualitative research approach was used. Focus group discussion was utilised as the data collection technique, and this was also applied during the collection of baseline data. An interview guide covered issues of concern in the communities and households, including what the women would, or had done about these, how they engaged in decision-making in their families, how they handled situations when there was a difference of opinion, and their awareness of, and ability to claim their rights, including control of their lives. The data was collected from six clinics, from groups of six to ten women in the predominantly rural Zululand District of KwaZulu-Natal. The project has revealed improvement in the women's realisation of their rights, albeit limited, in communication, self-confidence, and reliance, including partnerships between Primary Health Care Nurses and women's groups. The formation of women's groups facilitated community development and participation in their own health, socio-economic and emotional development. The project suggests that such groups be encouraged and allowed to network for

  6. Risk factors for buruli ulcer in Ghana-a case control study in the Suhum-Kraboa-Coaltar and Akuapem South Districts of the eastern region.

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    Ernest Kenu

    Full Text Available Buruli ulcer (BU is a skin disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. Its exact mode of transmission is not known. Previous studies have identified demographic, socio-economic, health and hygiene as well as environment related risk factors. We investigated whether the same factors pertain in Suhum-Kraboa-Coaltar (SKC and Akuapem South (AS Districts in Ghana which previously were not endemic for BU.We conducted a case control study. A case of BU was defined as any person aged 2 years or more who resided in study area (SKC or AS District diagnosed according to the WHO clinical case definition for BU and matched with age- (+/-5 years, gender-, and community controls. A structured questionnaire on host, demographic, environmental, and behavioural factors was administered to participants.A total of 113 cases and 113 community controls were interviewed. Multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis identified presence of wetland in the neighborhood (OR=3.9, 95% CI=1.9-8.2, insect bites in water/mud (OR=5.7, 95% CI=2.5-13.1, use of adhesive when injured (OR=2.7, 95% CI=1.1-6.8, and washing in the Densu river (OR=2.3, 95% CI=1.1-4.96 as risk factors associated with BU. Rubbing an injured area with alcohol (OR=0.21, 95% CI=0.008-0.57 and wearing long sleeves for farming (OR=0.29, 95% CI=0.14-0.62 showed protection against BU.This study identified the presence of wetland, insect bites in water, use of adhesive when injured, and washing in the river as risk factors for BU; and covering limbs during farming as well as use of alcohol after insect bites as protective factors against BU in Ghana. Until paths of transmission are unraveled, control strategies in BU endemic areas should focus on these known risk factors.

  7. The role of agency in the implementation of Isoniazid Preventive Therapy (IPT): Lessons from oMakoti in uMgungundlovu District, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boffa, Jody; Mayan, Maria; Ndlovu, Sithembile; Mhlaba, Tsholofelo; Williamson, Tyler; Sauve, Reginald; Fisher, Dina

    2018-01-01

    In response to revisions in global and national policy in 2011, six-month isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) became freely available as a preventive measure for people living with HIV in the uMgungundlovu District of KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa. Given a difference in uptake and completion by sex, we sought to explore the reasons why Zulu women were more likely to accept and complete IPT compared to men in an effort to inform future implementation. Utilising a community-based participatory research approach and ethnographic methods, we undertook 17 individual and group interviews, and met regularly with grassroots community advisory teams in three Zulu communities located in uMgungundlovu District between March 2012-December 2016. Three categories described women's willingness to initiate IPT: women are caregivers, women are obedient, and appearance is important. The findings suggest that the success of IPT implementation amongst clinic-utilising women of uMgungundlovu is related to the cultural gender norms of uMakoti, isiZulu for "the bride" or "the wife." We invoke the cultural concept of inhlonipho, meaning "to show respect," to discuss how the cultural values of uMakoti may conflict with biomedical expectations of adherence. Such conflict can result in misinterpretations by healthcare providers or patients, and lead some patients to fear the repercussions of asking questions or contemplating discontinuation with the provider, preferring instead to appear obedient. We propose a shift in emphasis from adherence-focussed strategies, characteristic of the current biomedical approach, to practices that promote patient agency in an effort to offer IPT more appropriately. Building on existing tools, namely the harm reduction model and the use of mini-ethnography, we provide guidance on how to support women to participate as agents in the decision to initiate or continue IPT, decisions which may also impact the health and choices of the family.

  8. The role of agency in the implementation of Isoniazid Preventive Therapy (IPT: Lessons from oMakoti in uMgungundlovu District, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jody Boffa

    Full Text Available In response to revisions in global and national policy in 2011, six-month isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT became freely available as a preventive measure for people living with HIV in the uMgungundlovu District of KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa. Given a difference in uptake and completion by sex, we sought to explore the reasons why Zulu women were more likely to accept and complete IPT compared to men in an effort to inform future implementation.Utilising a community-based participatory research approach and ethnographic methods, we undertook 17 individual and group interviews, and met regularly with grassroots community advisory teams in three Zulu communities located in uMgungundlovu District between March 2012-December 2016.Three categories described women's willingness to initiate IPT: women are caregivers, women are obedient, and appearance is important. The findings suggest that the success of IPT implementation amongst clinic-utilising women of uMgungundlovu is related to the cultural gender norms of uMakoti, isiZulu for "the bride" or "the wife." We invoke the cultural concept of inhlonipho, meaning "to show respect," to discuss how the cultural values of uMakoti may conflict with biomedical expectations of adherence. Such conflict can result in misinterpretations by healthcare providers or patients, and lead some patients to fear the repercussions of asking questions or contemplating discontinuation with the provider, preferring instead to appear obedient. We propose a shift in emphasis from adherence-focussed strategies, characteristic of the current biomedical approach, to practices that promote patient agency in an effort to offer IPT more appropriately.Building on existing tools, namely the harm reduction model and the use of mini-ethnography, we provide guidance on how to support women to participate as agents in the decision to initiate or continue IPT, decisions which may also impact the health and choices of the family.

  9. Nearrealtime tracking of gaps in prevention of mothertochild transmission of HIV in three districts of KwaZuluNatal Province South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Moyo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Identifying and addressing gaps in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT is required if South Africa (SA is to achieve targets for eliminating MTCT (eMTCT. Potential PMTCT gaps that increase MTCT risk include late maternal HIV diagnosis, lack of or delayed antiretroviral therapy (ART during pregnancy and breastfeeding, and lack of effective prophylaxis for HIV-exposed infants.Objectives. To investigate, in near real time, PMTCT gaps among HIV-infected infants in three districts of KwaZulu-Natal Province, SA.Methods. Between May and September 2016, PMTCT co-ordinators from eThekwini, uMgungundlovu and uMkhanyakude districts received daily email notification of all HIV polymerase chain reaction (PCR-positive results. Co-ordinators reviewed facility records for each infant to identify gaps in PMTCT care, including maternal age, timing of maternal HIV diagnosis, maternal treatment history and maternal viral load (VL monitoring. Data were submitted via the mobile phone SMS (text message service using Rapid Pro technology and analysed in Stata 14.Results. Data on PMTCT gaps were received for 367 (91.8% of 400 infants with HIV PCR-positive results, within a median time of 12.5 days (interquartile range (IQR 6 - 23. The median maternal age was 25 years (IQR 22 - 30, with 48 teenage mothers (15 - 19 years. The sample size was too small to determine whether there were significant differences in PMTCT gaps between the 48 teenage mothers and 293 older (20 - 34 years mothers. Of the mothers, 220 (60.0% were first diagnosed prior to conception or at their first antenatal care (ANC visit, and 127 (34.6% at or after delivery; 137 (37.3% transmitted HIV to their infants despite receiving >12 weeks of ART. VL results were unavailable for 70.0% of women. Only 41 (17.5% of women known to be HIV-positive during ANC had confirmed virological suppression. No statistically significant differences in PMTCT gaps were observed between

  10. Self-reported health and health care use in an ageing population in the Agincourt sub-district of rural South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Clark

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: South Africa is experiencing a demographic and epidemiological transition with an increase in population aged 50 years and older and rising prevalence of non-communicable diseases. This, coupled with high HIV and tuberculosis prevalence, puts an already weak health service under greater strain. Objective: To measure self-reported chronic health conditions and chronic disease risk factors, including smoking and alcohol use, and to establish their association with health care use in a rural South African population aged 50 years or older. Methods: The Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE, in collaboration with the INDEPTH Network and the World Health Organization, was implemented in the Agincourt sub-district in rural northeast South Africa where there is a long-standing health and socio-demographic surveillance system. Household-based interviews were conducted in a random sample of people aged 50 years and older. The interview included questions on self-reported health and health care use, and some physical measurements, including blood pressure and anthropometry. Results: Four hundred and twenty-five individuals aged 50 years or older participated in the study. Musculoskeletal pain was the most prevalent self-reported condition (41.7%; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 37.0–46.6 followed by hypertension (31.2%; 95% CI 26.8–35.9 and diabetes (6.1%; 95% CI 4.1–8.9. All self-reported conditions were significantly associated with low self-reported functionality and quality of life, 57% of participants had hypertension, including 44% of those who reported normal blood pressure. A large waist circumference and current alcohol consumption were associated with high risk of hypertension in men, whereas in women, old age, high waist–hip ratio, and less than 6 years of formal education were associated with high risk of hypertension. Only 45% of all participants reported accessing health care in the last 12 months. Those who reported

  11. Studies on radon concentration at the work places of Mysuru, Bengaluru, Tumkuru and Kolar Districts of Karnataka State, South India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ningappa, C.; Reddy, K. Umesha; Rangaswamy, D.R.; Sannappa, J.

    2015-01-01

    Radon is a radioactive noble gas and is the decay product of naturally occurring uranium. It decays into radioactive metal ions polonium-218 and polonium-214 by alpha radiation, which are harmful to the human health. The concentrations of radon and its progeny inside a given working place depends on activity of radium both in the soil surrounding the workplace and in the building materials, atmospheric conditions, design of the workplace, porosity of the surrounding soil, building layout, and the ventilation habits of the inhabitants of the building. The estimation of dose due to radon and its progeny to the general public and workers at work places are very important. Thus, concentration of radon and its progeny and dose due to radon and its progeny to the public and workers were measured at sixty workplaces of Mysuru, Bengaluru, Tumkur and Kolar districts based on geology and willingness of the workplace owner using twin cup dosimeter based on Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs) and results are discussed in the present study. The values measured indoor radon in the area of study ranged from a 11.6 to 284.8 Bq.m -3 . (author)

  12. Occurrence of Porodaedalea pini (Brot.: Fr. Murr. in pine forests of the lake district in south-western Turkey

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    A. Lehtijärvi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of basidiocarps of the white rot fungus Porodaedalea (Phellinus pini on Pinus nigra subsp. pallasiana and P. brutia was investigated in six stands, covering a total land area of some 650 hectares, in Isparta province of the Lake District in Turkey. The height above ground of the lowermost P. pini basidiocarp was measured on each trunk. Basidiocarps of P. pini were found on thirty-eight trees, 32 P. nigra subsp. pallasiana (84.2% of the total and six P. brutia (15.8%. The breast-height diameter of P. nigra individuals with P. pini ranged from 41 to 188 cm (average 77.7 cm and that of P. brutia with P. pini from 68 to 96 cm (average 76.4 cm. Basidiocarps were mostly found on the lower part of the trunks of old trees. In addition to pathological aspects, the ecological role of the fungus in old-growth pine forests is discussed in relation to nature conservancy and biodiversity.

  13. HIV-positive patients’ perceptions of care received at a selected antiretroviral therapy clinic in Vhembe district, South Africa

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    Tshifhiwa V. Ndou

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients’ experiences are a reflection of what has happened during the care process and, therefore, provide information about the performance of health care professional workers. They refer to the process of care provision at the antiretroviral therapy (ART sites. Aim and setting: This article explored the perceptions of HIV-positive patients of care received at the Gateway Clinic of the regional hospital that provides antiretroviral treatment in the Vhembe district. Methods: A qualitative, explorative and descriptive design was used. A non-probability, convenient sampling method was used to select 20 HIV-positive patients who were above 18 years of age. In-depth individual interviews were used to collect data. Data were analysed through Tech’s open coding method. Results: One theme and two sub-themes emerged, namely positive experiences related to the environment and attitudes of health professionals, and negative experiences concerning the practices by health care providers. Conclusion: Patients’ perceptions of quality of, and satisfaction with, health care may affect health outcomes. Recommendations are made to consider, practice and strengthen the protocols, the standard operating procedures and the principles of infection control in the health facilities. Keywords: Human Immunodeficiecy Virus, Antiretroviral Treatment, HIV positive, Limpopo

  14. Helicopter electromagnetic and magnetic geophysical survey data, portions of the North Platte and South Platte Natural Resources Districts, western Nebraska, May 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B.D.; Abraham, J.D.; Cannia, J.C.; Minsley, B.J.; Deszcz-Pan, M.; Ball, L.B.

    2010-01-01

    This report is a release of digital data from a helicopter electromagnetic and magnetic survey that was conducted during June 2009 in areas of western Nebraska as part of a joint hydrologic study by the North Platte Natural Resource District (NRD), South Platte NRD, and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Flight lines for the survey totaled 937 line kilometers (582 line miles). The objective of the contracted survey, conducted by Fugro Airborne, Ltd., is to improve the understanding of the relation between surface-water and groundwater systems critical to developing groundwater models used in management programs for water resources. A unique aspect of the survey is the flight line layout. One set of flight lines was flown in a zig-zag pattern extending along the length of the previously collected airborne data. The success of this survey design depended on a well-understood regional hydrogeologic framework and model developed by the Cooperative Hydrologic Study of the Platte River Basin and the airborne geophysical data collected in 2008. Resistivity variations along lines could be related to this framework. In addition to these lines, more traditional surveys consisting of parallel flight lines, separated by about 400 meters were carried out for three blocks in the North Platte NRD, the South Platte NRD and in the area of Crescent Lakes. These surveys helped to establish the spatial variations of the resistivity of hydrostratigraphic units. An additional survey was flown over the Crescent Lake area. The objective of this survey, funded by the USGS Office of Groundwater, was to map shallow hydrogeologic features of the southwestern part of the Sand Hills that contain a mix of fresh to saline lakes.

  15. Socio-ecological studies on marine fishing villages in the selective south coastal districts of Andhra Pradesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, M Jaya Kumar; Rao, P Brahmaji

    2016-12-01

    Coasts are an amazing gift of nature. Industrialization, infrastructure development, urbanisation, tourism, mechanized fishing, disposal of industrial and urban wastes and effluents, are all ringing the death-knell of the sensitive coastal ecosystems of recently separated State of Andhra Pradesh. These modern interventions have been violent, disregarding both nature's rejuvenating mechanisms, and the symbiotic relationship that exist between the coast and traditional marine fishing communities. Modern fishing tecnologies using mechanized trawlers and small meshed nets lead directly to overexploitation, which is not sustainable. It is evident that fish have to breed successfully and need to have time to grow if the yield has to be used sustainably. Multiple pressures and excessive technological invasion on these marine fishing villages had created an environment in which life has become physically and mentally unhealthy. The focus of this paper is to emphasize that investing in large-scale industrial fishing, building bigger boats, and giving subsidies for pursuing deep sea fishing would be a waste of resources as the fish hauls in these selelctive districts i.e. Krishna, Guntur, Prakasam and Nellore coastal communities have dropped off alarmingly in recent years. It is essential and crucial to focus research and scientific analysis and establish awareness and education to provide a means of distinguishing responses between improvements in quality of ecosystem and those of damages. The study is to elaborate that long-term ecological gains cannot be sacrificed for short-term economic gains that unfortunately lead to environmental damage. Investigating coastal regulations, policies, and their implementation is an urgent social need for the sake of socio-ecological safety and security of coasts and host communities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Cultural Understanding of Wounds, Buruli Ulcers and Their Management at the Obom Sub-district of the Ga South Municipality of the Greater Accra Region of Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Koka

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted with the aim to understand some of the cultural belief systems in the management of wounds and patients practices that could contaminate wounds at the Obom sub-district of the Ga South Municipality of Ghana.This was an ethnographic study using in-depth interviews, Focus Group Discussions and participant observation techniques for data collection. Observations were done on Buruli ulcer patients to document how they integrate local and modern wound management practices in the day-to-day handling of their wounds. Content analysis was done after the data were subjected to thematic coding and representative narratives selected for presentation.It was usually believed that wounds were caused by charms or spirits and, therefore, required the attention of a native healer. In instances where some patients' wounds were dressed in the hospital by clinicians whose condition/age/sex contradict the belief of the patient, the affected often redress the wounds later at home. Some of the materials often used for such wound dressing include urine and concoctions made of charcoal and gunpowder with the belief of driving out evil spirits from the wounds.Clinicians must therefore be aware of these cultural beliefs and take them into consideration when managing Buruli ulcer wounds to prevent redressing at home after clinical treatment. This may go a long way to reduce secondary infections that have been observed in Buruli ulcer wounds.

  17. Identification of land cover changes in the coastal area of Dakshina Kannada district, South India during the year 2004–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jayanth

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates land cover (LC changes in the coastal area of Dakshina Kannada district in the state of Karnataka, South India, during the years 2004–2008 as a case study. IRS P-6, Linear Imaging Self Scanning sensor (LISS-IV satellite images were used in the present work. Classification was carried out using artificial bee colony algorithm and support vector machine (SVM which gave a better result compared to other traditional classification techniques. The best overall classification accuracy for the study area was achieved with an ABC classifier with an OCA of 80.35% for 2004 year data and OCA of 80.40% for 2008 year data, whereas the OCA in SVM, for the same training set is 71.42% for 2004 data and 71.38% for 2008 data on study area 1 and the results were optimised with respect to multispectral data. In study area 2, ABC algorithm achieved an OCA of 78.17% and MLC of 62.63% which was used to check the universality of the classifier. The classification results with post-classification technique for study area 1 indicate that urbanisation in the study area has almost increased twice. During the same time there is an increase in the forest plantation, agricultural plantation and a decrease in crop land and land without scrubs, indicates rapid changes in the coastal environment.

  18. Household Food Insecurity and Its Association with Nutritional Status of Children 6-59 Months of Age in East Badawacho District, South Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betebo, Bealu; Ejajo, Tekle; Alemseged, Fissahaye; Massa, Desalegn

    2017-01-01

    Background . Ethiopia has one of the highest child malnutrition rates in the world. Food insecurity is one of the determinant factors of malnutrition in developing countries; however its role remains unclear. Objective . To assess household food insecurity and its association with the nutritional status of children 6-59 months of age in East Badawacho District, South Ethiopia. Methods . A community based cross-sectional study was conducted from February 20 to 30, 2014 on a sample of 508 mother/child pairs of 6-59-month-old children. Sample households with eligible children were selected using systematic random sampling technique. Both bivariate and multivariate analysis were used to identify factors associated with nutritional status of children. P value of insecurity was 75.8%. The prevalence rates of stunting, underweight, and wasting among children were 45.6%, 26.3%, and 14.6%, respectively. Household food insecurity was significantly associated with underweight (AOR = 3.82; CI = 1.78-8.19) and stunting (AOR = 6.7; CI = 3.71-12.1) but not with wasting. Conclusion and Recommendation . Household food insecurity and the prevalence rates of stunting, underweight, and wasting, among children 6 to 59 months, were high. Intervention programs should focus on improving household food insecurity and nutritional status of children.

  19. Occurrence of Vibrio Pathotypes in the Final Effluents of Five Wastewater Treatment Plants in Amathole and Chris Hani District Municipalities in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuyokazi Nongogo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the occurrence of Vibrio pathogens in the final effluents of five wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs located in Amathole and Chris Hani District Municipalities in South Africa over a 12 months period between September 2012 and August 2013 using standard membrane filtration technique followed by cultivation on thiosulphate citrate-bile salts-sucrose (TCBS agar. The identities of the presumptive Vibrio isolates were confirmed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR including delineation into V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus and V. fluvialis pathotypes. The counts of Vibrio spp. varied with months in all the study sites and ranged in the order of 101 and 104 CFU/100mL. Vibrio distribution also showed seasonality with high counts being obtained in autumn and spring (p < 0.05. Prevalence of Vibrio spp. among the five WWTPs also differed significantly (p < 0.05. Of the 300 isolates that were confirmed as belonging to the Vibrio genus, 29% (86 were V. fluvialis, 28% (84 were V. vulnificus and 12% (35 were V. parahaemolyticus. The isolation of Vibrio pathogens from the final effluent suggests that this pathogen is in circulation in some pockets of the population and that the WWTPs under study do not efficiently remove bacterial pathogens from the wastewater and consequently are threats to public health.

  20. Magnetic resonance sounding survey data collected in the North Platte, Twin Platte, and South Platte Natural Resource Districts, Western Nebraska, Fall 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass, Mason A.; Bloss, Benjamin R.; Irons, Trevor P.; Cannia, James C.; Abraham, Jared D.

    2014-01-01

    This report is a release of digital data and associated survey descriptions from a series of magnetic resonance soundings (MRS, also known as surface nuclear magnetic resonance) that was conducted during October and November of 2012 in areas of western Nebraska as part of a cooperative hydrologic study by the North Platte Natural Resource District (NRD), South Platte NRD, Twin Platte NRD, the Nebraska Environmental Trust, and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The objective of the study was to delineate the base-of-aquifer and refine the understanding of the hydrologic properties in the aquifer system. The MRS technique non-invasively measures water content in the subsurface, which makes it a useful tool for hydrologic investigations in the near surface (up to depths of approximately 150 meters). In total, 14 MRS production-level soundings were acquired by the USGS over an area of approximately 10,600 square kilometers. The data are presented here in digital format, along with acquisition information, survey and site descriptions, and metadata.

  1. Evaluation of Confining Layer Integrity Beneath the South District Wastewater Treatment Plant, Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Department, Dade County, Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starr, Robert Charles; Green, Timothy Scott; Hull, Laurence Charles

    2001-02-01

    A review has been performed of existing information that describes geology, hydrogeology, and geochemistry at the South District Wastewater Treatment Plant, which is operated by the Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Department, in Dade County, Florida. Treated sanitary wastewater is injected into a saline aquifer beneath the plant. Detection of contaminants commonly associated with treated sanitary wastewater in the freshwater aquifer that overlies the saline aquifer has indicated a need for a reevaluation of the ability of the confining layer above the saline aquifer to prevent fluid migration into the overlying freshwater aquifer. Review of the available data shows that the geologic data set is not sufficient to demonstrate that a competent confining layer is present between the saline and freshwater aquifers. The hydrogeologic data also do not indicate that a competent confining layer is present. The geochemical data show that the freshwater aquifer is contaminated with treated wastewater, and the spatial patterns of contamination are consistent with upward migration through localized conduits through the Middle Confining Unit, such as leaking wells or natural features. Recommendations for collection and interpretation of additional site characterization data are provided.

  2. Determinants and impediments of whistle-blowing in local government councils: A case study of the South-East District Council, Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiodun M.T. Omotoye

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the perceptions of public service employees regarding the role of whistle-blowing in local government. Whistle-blowing has received increased attention and support as a means of detecting and correcting wrongdoing in organisations. Yet, as this case study discusses, the absence of whistle-blower protection measures and fear of reprisal and job loss deter potential witnesses from reporting wrongdoing in the workplace. A mixed research method approach was employed to undertake the study. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to public servants employed within the South-East District Council (SEDC and literature related to corruption and whistle-blowing was reviewed. The findings indicate that public service employees strongly support the role whistle-blowing has to play in curbing corruption in the workplace, particularly if the corrupt activity could potentially threaten people’s lives and suppress social justice. However, the absence of whistle-blower protection measures was cited as the most significant impediment to reporting wrongdoing. The article proposes the need for the SEDC to adopt effective policies and procedures that place a strong emphasis on providing protection for employees to disclose misconduct and fraudulent conduct.

  3. Effect of Air Pollutants on Rain Water Characteristics in Hammam Al-Aleel District/ Al-Erej Village South of Mosul City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayad F. Qasim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on Hammam Al-Aleel district/ Al-Erej village which is located south of Mosul city. This area has been suffering from spreading the air-pollutants resulted from the chimneys of Hammam Al-Aleel cement factories. Different areas were chosen for collecting samples of the rain water from December 2008 to March 2009. The study showed that rain-water is generally basic. The tests show an increase in ( EC, Mg+2, Ca+2, Cl-1, SO4-2 and NO-1,  due to the air pollutants emitted from local industries. The concentration of heavy elements represented by  Pb and Cd were high and this increase is due to the source of these elements from burning of the crude oil which is used in running the rotating kiln to produce the clinker in cement factory, In addition to the fuel used for  running vehicle and the friction between tires and  road.

  4. Incidence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolates recovered from dairy farms in Amathole District Municipality, Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asive Myataza

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the incidence of Escherichia coli (E. coli O157:H7 in water and cattle rectal samples from three commercial dairy farms in Amathole District Municipalities in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Methods: Samples were collected bimonthly from cattle rectum and dairy water sources including irrigation water, drinking water troughs and wastewater between June and November 2014. Standard culture-based methods were applied for the microbial analyses, the disc diffusion method was employed for the antibiotic susceptibility test and PCR approach was utilized for identification of the isolates. Results: A total of 252 presumptive E. coli O157:H7 were isolated and subjected to molecular confirmation by PCR. About 18.7% (47/252 of these were confirmed as E. coli O157:H7. The antimicrobial susceptibility profile of these confirmed isolates revealed high-level resistance against penicillin G (81%, tetracycline (43%, oxytetracycline (62%, erythromycin (68%, sulphamethoxazole (57%, chloramphenicol (55%, doxycycline (51% and trimethoprimsulphamethoxazole (45%. Conclusions: This is the first report of multi-drug resistance E. coli O157:H7 in commercial dairy farms in the province and suggests the possibility of same in other provinces of the country, and this is the subject of the intensive investigation in our group.

  5. Assessment of oral health promotion services offered as part of maternal and child health services in the Tshwane Health District, Pretoria, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Kolisa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The study aimed to assess the oral health promotion services provided as part of the maternal and child health (MCH services in the Tshwane Health District, Pretoria, South Africa. Methods: The research design was a descriptive cross-sectional study using a modified standard questionnaire. The population was drawn from the parents/caregivers (PCGs and the MCH nurses at seven clinics during June 2012 and June 2013 in Pretoria. Results: The nurses’ response rate was 83%; average age of 37 years. The majority of the nurses (65% were females; 60% were professional nurses. Most (63% of the nurses reported that they provided oral health education (OHE services. A shortage of dental education materials (43%, staff time (48%, and staff training (52% were large constraints to nurses providing OHE. The majority of PCGs (n = 382; mean age 31.5 years had a low education level (76%. About 55% of PCGs received information on children’s oral health from the television and 35% at the MCH clinics. PCGs beliefs were worrying as about 38% believed primary dentition is not important and need not be saved. Conclusion: There is evidence of minimal integration of OHE at MCH sites. Parents’ beliefs are still worrying as a significant number do not regard the primary dentition as important. The MCH site remains an important easily accessible area for integration of oral health services with general health in complementing efforts in prevention of early childhood caries. Keywords: Oral health; Promotion integration

  6. A survey of severe visual impairment in children attending schools for the blind in a coastal district of Andhra Pradesh in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaiah, S; Subba Rao, B; Lakshmi Narasamma, K; Amit, G

    2012-08-01

    To identify the major causes of severe childhood visual impairment and blindness among students attending schools for the blind in a coastal district of Andhra Pradesh (AP) in South India. Children ≤ 16 years of age attending six schools for the blind in the study area were interviewed and examined in the year 2009, and causes were classified according to the World Health Organization Program for Prevention of Blindness (WHO/PBL) childhood blindness proforma. A total of 113 children underwent a detailed eye examination by an experienced ophthalmologist. The major causes of blindness were congenital eye anomalies in 46 children (41.4; 95% confidence interval (CI): 32.3-50.6), followed by retinal disorders in 21 children (18.9%; 95% CI: 11.6-26.2), cataract in 9 children (9.7%; 95% CI: 2.9-12.9), and corneal conditions (scar and Staphyloma) in 8 children (7.1%; 95% CI: 2.4-11.8). More than half the children (56.6%) were blind due to conditions that could have been treated or prevented. Congenital anomalies were found to be the most common cause of blindness. The majority of the cases were due to avoidable causes of blindness. Therefore, robust screening measures may help reduce the burden of visual impairment in children.

  7. Important improvement of utilization the available geological reserves of the South mining district deposit in Majdanpek in the new defined optimum contour of the open pit using the Whittle and Gemcom softwares

    OpenAIRE

    Kržanović, Daniel; Žikić, Miodrag; Pantović, Radoje

    2012-01-01

    A significant increase in copper prices on the World Metal Exchange, whose lower limit in the long term will not be under $ 6,000 per ton of cathode copper, and reduction the operating costs of ore mining by introduction the high capacity mining equipment in the production process, requires a new consideration of the open pit South Mining District Majdanpek and defining the new final (optimum) limit of mining for the given techno economic parameters. Using the modern software tools for strate...

  8. Experiences of Fast Queue health care users in primary health care facilities in eThekwini district, South AfricaExperiences of Fast Queue health care users in primary health care facilities in eThekwini district, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudu G. Sokhela

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Comprehensive Primary Health Care (PHC, based on the principles of accessibility, availability, affordability, equity and acceptability, was introduced in South Africa to address inequalities in health service provision. Whilst the Fast Queue was instrumental in the promotion of access to health care, a major goal of the PHC approach, facilities were not prepared for the sudden influx of clients. Increased access resulted in long waiting times and queues contributing to dissatisfaction with the service which could lead to missed appointments and non-compliance with established treatment plans.Objectives: Firstly to describe the experiences of clients using the Fast Queue strategy to access routine healthcare services and secondly, to determine how the clients’ experiences led to satisfaction or dissatisfaction with the Fast Queue service.Method: A descriptive qualitative survey using content analysis explored the experiences of the Fast Queue users in a PHC setting. Setting was first identified based on greatest number using the Fast Queue and geographic diversity and then a convenience sample of health care users of the Fast Queue were sampled individually along with one focus group of users who accessed the Queue monthly for medication refills. The same interview guide questions were used for both individual interviews and the one focus group discussion. Five clinics with the highest number of attendees during a three month period and a total of 83 health care users of the Fast Queue were interviewed. The average participant was female, 31 years old, single and unemployed.Results: Two themes with sub-themes emerged: health care user flow and communication, which highlights both satisfaction and dissatisfaction with the fast queue and queue marshals, could assist in directing users to the respective queues, reduce waiting time and keep users satisfied with the use of sign posts where there is a lack of human resources

  9. PAH contamination in soils adjacent to a coal-transporting facility in Tapin district, south Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizwar, Andy; Trihadiningrum, Yulinah

    2015-07-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the level of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), listed as priority pollutants by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), in surface soils around a coal-transporting facility in the western part of South Kalimantan, Indonesia. Three composite soil samples were collected from a coal stockpile, coal-hauling road, and coal port. Identification and quantification of PAH was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The total content of 16 USEPA-PAH ranged from 11.79 to 55.30 mg/kg with arithmetic mean value of 33.14 mg/kg and median of 32.33 mg/kg. The 16 USEPA-PAH measured levels were found to be greater compared with most of the literature values. The levels of high molecular-weight PAH (5- and 6-ring) were dominant and formed 67.77-80.69 % of the total 16 USEPA-PAH The most abundant of individual PAH are indeno[1,2,3-cd] pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene with concentration ranges of 2.11-20.56 and 1.59-17.84 mg/kg, respectively. The degree of PAH contamination and subsequent toxicity assessment suggest that the soils of the study area are highly contaminated and pose a potential health risk to humans.

  10. Epidemiology and Molecular Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Cattle Slaughtered in Zahedan and Zabol Districts, South East of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood ANVARI

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate, intracellular parasite which causes the toxoplasmosis in humans and warm-blooded animals. Red meat is an important source for transmission of the infection to humans. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of Toxoplasma among imported and indigenous cattle in the Sistan region.Methods: One hundred samples from slaughtered cattle were collected from two abattoirs of Zabol and Zahedan, South East of Iran in 2015. Each sample was a mixture of three muscle, including tongue, cardiac, and triceps. Additional data of each cattle, including sex, breed, age, indigenous or imported, location of slaughter, management practices, and feeding system were obtained through observations and interviews. Infection by T. gondii was determined by PCR method.Results: The prevalence of Toxoplasma in indigenous cattle was 6% and in imported cattle was 26%, and this difference was statistically significant (P=0.006. Moreover, the prevalence of Toxoplasma was statistically associated with management practices (P=0.01 and feeding system (P=0.001. However, relationship between the prevalence of Toxoplasma with age, breed, sex, and location of slaughter was not statistically significant.Conclusion: Since the prevalence of Toxoplasma among imported cattle is higher than indigenous cattle, so strict supervision for importing livestock from neighboring countries is necessary.

  11. Thermo-economic optimization of secondary distribution network of low temperature district heating network under local conditions of South Korea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Byung Sik; Imran, Muhammad; Hoon, Im-Yong

    2017-01-01

    . The corresponding heat loss from secondary network, pumping power and area of domestic hot water heat exchanger unit for each supply temperature and temperature difference for required heating load of the apartment complex are calculated. Results indicate that when supply temperature is decreased from 65 °C to 45...... apartment. The Apartment complex has 15 floors, 4 apartments on each floor and each apartment has heating surface area of 85 m2. The supply temperature of the hot water is reduced from 65 °C to 45 °C and the temperature difference between supply and return line is varied from 18 °C to 27 °C...... °C, area of heat exchanger is increased by 68.2%, pumping power is also increased by 9.8% and heat loss is reduced by 15.6%. These results correspond to a temperature difference of 20 °C, the standard temperature difference in South Korea residential heating system. Economic assessment...

  12. An investigation into the level of empowerment of rural women in the Zululand district of KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.R. Bhengu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the outcome of the empowerment of rural women in relation to gender issues, power, and communication within the Zululand District of KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa after implementation of a four-year Primary Health Care project in partnership with the Provincial Department of Health, and two Schools of Nursing at the University of KwaZulu-Natal and McMaster University in Canada. This project is based on substantial evidence which reveals that rural women are being neglected to the extent that these women have missed out on opportunities for development. The reasons for this disempowerment of women, particularly rural women, are thought to be due to the feminisation of poverty, as well as female submission, educational deprivation, privacy of domestic violence, exploitation, domination by men and cultural oppression (patriarchy. A qualitative research approach was used. Focus group discussion was utilised as the data collection technique, and this was also applied during the collection of baseline data. An interview guide covered issues of concern in the communities and households, including what the women would, or had done about these, how they engaged in decision-making in their families, how they handled situations when there was a difference of opinion, and their awareness of, and ability to claim their rights, including control of their lives. The data was collected from six clinics, from groups of six to ten women in the predominantly rural Zululand District of KwaZulu-Natal. The project has revealed improvement in the women’s realisation of their rights, albeit limited, in communication, self-confidence, and reliance, including partnerships between Primary Health Care Nurses and women’s groups. The formation of women’s groups facilitated community development and participation in their own health, socio-economic and emotional development. The project suggests that such groups be encouraged and

  13. Survived infancy but still vulnerable: spatial-temporal trends and risk factors for child mortality in the Agincourt rural sub-district, South Africa, 1992-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benn Sartorius

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Targeting of health interventions to poor children at highest risk of mortality are promising approaches for enhancing equity. Methods have emerged to accurately quantify excess risk and identify space-time disparities. This provides useful and detailed information for guiding policy. A spatio-temporal analysis was performed to identify risk factors associated with child (1-4 years mortality in the Agincourt sub-district, South Africa, to assess temporal changes in child mortality patterns within the study site between 1992 and 2007, and to produce all-cause and cause-specific mortality maps to identify high risk areas. Demographic, maternal, paternal and fertility-related factors, household mortality experience, distance to health care facility and socio-economic status were among the examined risk factors. The analysis was carried out by fitting a Bayesian discrete time Bernoulli survival geostatistical model using Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation. Bayesian kriging was used to produce mortality risk maps. Significant temporal increase in child mortality was observed due to the HIV epidemic. A distinct spatial risk pattern was observed with higher risk areas being concentrated in poorer settlements on the eastern part of the study area, largely inhabited by former Mozambican refugees. The major risk factors for childhood mortality, following multivariate adjustment, were mother’s death (especially when due to HIV and tuberculosis, greater number of children under 5 years living in the same household and winter season. This study demonstrates the use of Bayesian geostatistical models for accurately quantifying risk factors and producing maps of child mortality risk in a health and demographic surveillance system. According to the space-time analysis, the southeast and upper central regions of the site appear to have the highest mortality risk. The results inform policies to address health inequalities in the Agincourt sub-district and to

  14. Experiences of Fast Queue health care users in primary health care facilities in eThekwini district, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokhela, Dudu G; Makhanya, Nonhlanhla J; Sibiya, Nokuthula M; Nokes, Kathleen M

    2013-07-05

    Comprehensive Primary Health Care (PHC), based on the principles of accessibility, availability, affordability, equity and acceptability, was introduced in South Africa to address inequalities in health service provision. Whilst the Fast Queue was instrumental in the promotion of access to health care, a major goal of the PHC approach, facilities were not prepared for the sudden influx of clients. Increased access resulted in long waiting times and queues contributing to dissatisfaction with the service which could lead to missed appointments and non-compliance with established treatment plans. Firstly to describe the experiences of clients using the Fast Queue strategy to access routine healthcare services and secondly, to determine how the clients' experiences led to satisfaction or dissatisfaction with the Fast Queue service. A descriptive qualitative survey using content analysis explored the experiences of the Fast Queue users in a PHC setting. Setting was first identified based on greatest number using the Fast Queue and geographic diversity and then a convenience sample of health care users of the Fast Queue were sampled individually along with one focus group of users who accessed the Queue monthly for medication refills. The same interview guide questions were used for both individual interviews and the one focus group discussion. Five clinics with the highest number of attendees during a three month period and a total of 83 health care users of the Fast Queue were interviewed. The average participant was female, 31 years old, single and unemployed. Two themes with sub-themes emerged: health care user flow and communication, which highlights both satisfaction and dissatisfaction with the fast queue and queue marshals, could assist in directing users to the respective queues, reduce waiting time and keep users satisfied with the use of sign posts where there is a lack of human resources. Effective health communication strategies contribute to positive

  15. Experiences of Fast Queue health care users in primary health care facilities in eThekwini district, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudu G. Sokhela

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Comprehensive Primary Health Care (PHC, based on the principles of accessibility, availability, affordability, equity and acceptability, was introduced in South Africa to address inequalities in health service provision. Whilst the Fast Queue was instrumental in the promotion of access to health care, a major goal of the PHC approach, facilities were not prepared for the sudden influx of clients. Increased access resulted in long waiting times and queues contributing to dissatisfaction with the service which could lead to missed appointments and non-compliance with established treatment plans. Objectives: Firstly to describe the experiences of clients using the Fast Queue strategy to access routine healthcare services and secondly, to determine how the clients’ experiences led to satisfaction or dissatisfaction with the Fast Queue service. Method: A descriptive qualitative survey using content analysis explored the experiences of the Fast Queue users in a PHC setting. Setting was first identified based on greatest number using the Fast Queue and geographic diversity and then a convenience sample of health care users of the Fast Queue were sampled individually along with one focus group of users who accessed the Queue monthly for medication refills. The same interview guide questions were used for both individual interviews and the one focus group discussion. Five clinics with the highest number of attendees during a three month period and a total of 83 health care users of the Fast Queue were interviewed. The average participant was female, 31 years old, single and unemployed. Results: Two themes with sub-themes emerged: health care user flow and communication, which highlights both satisfaction and dissatisfaction with the fast queue and queue marshals, could assist in directing users to the respective queues, reduce waiting time and keep users satisfied with the use of sign posts where there is a lack of human resources

  16. Impact on Water Quality of Nandoni Water Reservoir Downstream of Municipal Sewage Plants in Vhembe District, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabulani Ray Gumbo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The deterioration of water quality in our freshwater sources is on the increase worldwide and, in South Africa, mostly due to the discharge of municipal sewage effluent. Here we report on the use of principal component analysis, coupled with factor and cluster analysis, to study the similarities and differences between upstream and downstream sampling sites that are downstream of municipal sewage plants. The contribution of climatic variables, air temperature, humidity, and rainfall were also evaluated with respect to variations in water quality at the sampling sites. The physicochemical and microbial values were higher than the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry (DWAF and World Health Organization (WHO guidelines. The cluster analysis showed the presence of two clusters for each of the Mvudi, Dzindi, and Luvuvhu Rivers and Nandoni reservoir sampling sites. The principal component analysis (PCA accounted for 40% of the water quality variation and was associated strongly with pH, electrical conductivity, calcium, magnesium, chloride, bromide, nitrate, and total coliform, and negatively with rainfall, which represented Mvudi downstream and was attributed to the Thohoyandou sewage plant. The PCA accounted for 54% of the variation and was associated strongly with electrical conductivity, sulfate; total dissolved solids, fluoride, turbidity, nitrate, manganese, alkalinity, magnesium, and total coliform represented Dzindi downstream, with inflows from the Vuwani sewage plant and agriculture. The PCA accounted for 30% of the variation and was associated strongly with total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity, magnesium, fluoride, nitrate, sulfate, total coliform average air temperature, and total rainfall, and negatively associated with manganese and bromide represented Luvuvhu upstream and was associated with commercial agriculture. The PCA accounted for 21% of the variation and was associated strongly with turbidity, alkalinity, magnesium

  17. Using apatite to discriminate synchronous ore-associated and barren granitoid rocks: A case study from the Edong metallogenic district, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Deng-Fei; Jiang, Shao-Yong

    2018-06-01

    In order to find criteria to discriminate the synchronous ore-associated and barren granitoid rocks, we have determined apatite chemistry associated with ore-associated (Cu-Au) and barren granitoid rocks in the Edong district of the Middle and Lower Yangtze River metallogenic belt, South China. Both rock types give zircon U-Pb ages between 135.0 and 138.7 Ma. Apatite has a higher volatile and Li content (Cl: 0.19-0.57 wt%, average 0.35 wt%, SO3: 0.08-0.71 wt%, average 0.32 wt%, Li: 0.49-7.99 ppm, average 3.23 ppm) in ore-associated rocks than those in barren rocks (Cl: 0.09-0.31 wt%, average 0.16 wt%, SO3: 0.06-0.28 wt%, average 0.16 wt%, Li: 0.15-0.89 ppm, average 0.36 ppm). Apatite (La/Yb)N ratios and Eu/Eu* values are relatively high and show wider variation in ore-associated rocks than those in barren rocks. Apatite (La/Sm)N and (Yb/Sm)N show positive correlation in ore-associated rocks but negative in barren rocks. The higher volatile content occurs in ore-associated magma, favoring Cu-Au transportation and deposition. Furthermore, amphibole fractional crystallization in ore-associated magma further enriched the ore elements in the residual melt. Barren rocks may have undergone fluid exsolution before emplacement, which makes it barren in Cl, S and ore elements (Cu, S). These signatures emphases the significance of volatile and magma evolution in mineralization and indicate that analyses of magmatic apatite can serve to distinguish ore-associated from barren intrusions.

  18. Impact of Sulphur Content on Coal Quality at Delta Plain Depositional Environment: Case study in Geramat District, Lahat Regency, South Sumatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siska Linda Sari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted in Geramat District of Lahat Regency, South Sumatra. An evaluation of the geological condition of the research area shown that the coal deposits were found in Muara Enim Formation as a coal-bearing formation. The method used was literature study, field observation and the laboratory work includes proximate and petrography analysis. The aim of this research is to determine the environmental condition of coal based on the change of total sulphur content and to know the relation between ash content to calorific value.  As the result of proximate analysis conducted on five samples of coal, the research area obtained total sulphur (0,21-1,54% adb, ash content (3,16 - 71,11% adb and gross calorific value (953 - 5676 cal/g. adb. Based on the result of maceral analysis showed the maceral percentage of coal in research area composed by vitrinite (77,8-87,4 %, liptinite (0,6 %, inertinite (8,0 – 17,6 % and mineral matter concentration in the form of pyrite (1,6-4,6 %. The average reflectance value of vitrinite (Rv of coal in the research area (0.54%. the results analysis shows that the coal in Muara Enim Formation on the research area is in the transitional lower delta plain depositional environment phase. Any changes in the sedimentary environment affected by sea water will be followed by changes in total sulphur and the higher ash content, on the contrary, the lower calorific value of the coal.

  19. Assessment of the ARW-WRF model over complex terrain: the case of the Stellenbosch Wine of Origin district of South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltanzadeh, Iman; Bonnardot, Valérie; Sturman, Andrew; Quénol, Hervé; Zawar-Reza, Peyman

    2017-08-01

    Global warming has implications for thermal stress for grapevines during ripening, so that wine producers need to adapt their viticultural practices to ensure optimum physiological response to environmental conditions in order to maintain wine quality. The aim of this paper is to assess the ability of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to accurately represent atmospheric processes at high resolution (500 m) during two events during the grapevine ripening period in the Stellenbosch Wine of Origin district of South Africa. Two case studies were selected to identify areas of potentially high daytime heat stress when grapevine photosynthesis and grape composition were expected to be affected. The results of high-resolution atmospheric model simulations were compared to observations obtained from an automatic weather station (AWS) network in the vineyard region. Statistical analysis was performed to assess the ability of the WRF model to reproduce spatial and temporal variations of meteorological parameters at 500-m resolution. The model represented the spatial and temporal variation of meteorological variables very well, with an average model air temperature bias of 0.1 °C, while that for relative humidity was -5.0 % and that for wind speed 0.6 m s-1. Variation in model performance varied between AWS and with time of day, as WRF was not always able to accurately represent effects of nocturnal cooling within the complex terrain. Variations in performance between the two case studies resulted from effects of atmospheric boundary layer processes in complex terrain under the influence of the different synoptic conditions prevailing during the two periods.

  20. Implementation of a new 'community' laboratory CD4 service in a rural health district in South Africa extends laboratory services and substantially improves local reporting turnaround time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzee, L M; Cassim, N; Glencross, D K

    2015-12-16

    The CD4 integrated service delivery model (ITSDM) provides for reasonable access to pathology services across South Africa (SA) by offering three new service tiers that extend services into remote, under-serviced areas. ITSDM identified Pixley ka Seme as such an under-serviced district. To address the poor service delivery in this area, a new ITSDM community (tier 3) laboratory was established in De Aar, SA. Laboratory performance and turnaround time (TAT) were monitored post implementation to assess the impact on local service delivery. Using the National Health Laboratory Service Corporate Data Warehouse, CD4 data were extracted for the period April 2012-July 2013 (n=11,964). Total mean TAT (in hours) was calculated and pre-analytical and analytical components assessed. Ongoing testing volumes, as well as external quality assessment performance across ten trials, were used to indicate post-implementation success. Data were analysed using Stata 12. Prior to the implementation of CD4 testing at De Aar, the total mean TAT was 20.5 hours. This fell to 8.2 hours post implementation, predominantly as a result of a lower pre-analytical mean TAT reducing from a mean of 18.9 to 1.8 hours. The analytical testing TAT remained unchanged after implementation and monthly test volumes increased by up to 20%. External quality assessment indicated adequate performance. Although subjective, questionnaires sent to facilities reported improved service delivery. Establishing CD4 testing in a remote community laboratory substantially reduces overall TAT. Additional community CD4 laboratories should be established in under-serviced areas, especially where laboratory infrastructure is already in place.

  1. [Minors visits (ages 14-18) at primary clinics without an accompanying guardian: attitudes of primary care physicians of Clalit Health Services - South District].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildesheimer, Efrat; Orkin, Jacob; Biderman, Aya

    2010-04-01

    According to Israeli law, for a minor to receive medical treatment, the physician is obligated to obtain informed consent from the minor's parents. In practice, minors under the age of 18 often attend the clinics on their own. In past years, only a few attempts have been made to revise the law, however, none were implemented. To evaluate the attitudes and knowledge of physicians in primary care clinics regarding the legal aspects of minors' visits at the clinics, relating to how widespread is the phenomena, the influencing factors, the physician's opinion and approach. A descriptive study based on self-administered questionnaires that were distributed by post during 2005, to primary care physicians belonging to Clalit Health Services, south district. The questionnaires included demographic details, attitudes and knowledge of minors' visits. Analysis of 103 questionnaires found that minors attending clinics without their parent is a common phenomenon. The reasons noted were: acquaintance with the parents, and that their children are "mature enough". The physician's knowledge about the Israeli law on the subject was found to be deficient: 56% answered incorrectly to questions on which the law is very clear, and in most of the other questions many claimed they did not know the correct answer. Many of the physicians think that minors should not visit the clinic by themselves; only 6% attended an educational program related to this matter. The subject of minors attending clinics without an accompanying parent warrants discussion, and clear and updated legislation. In addition, as stems from the study, there is a need to update physicians regarding this issue.

  2. An analysis of factors that influence secondary science teachers in an urban school district in South Texas to remain in the teaching profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Bonnie

    This quantitative study is an examination of personal and professional factors that contribute to science teachers continuing to teach science in an urban area in South Texas despite the growing demands of the profession. This study examines why teachers in general leave the profession but focuses on what factors influenced these teachers to stay. Personal retention factors measured included being an effective teacher and positive rapport with students. Professional retention factors included administrative support and adequate time to meet professional obligations. There are 149 secondary science teachers in this large urban school district. Data was gathered from 109 of these educators to analyze factors personal and professional factors in regards to why these teachers remain in the field. For the purposes of this study a secondary science teacher will be any teacher who teaches science in grades 6-12, which is considered middle (6 through 8) and high school (9 through 12) in this area. The data for this quantitative study was collected by a paper survey (N=109) that was distributed at a professional learning session at the beginning of the school year. A Principal Component Analysis was run followed by three multiple regression analyses of the pertinent components to determine if there is any relationship between the demographics of the participants and personal and professional factors that cause these teachers to remain in the field. The results of this study will contribute to the literature regarding teacher education and theory that examines teacher practice affecting change. The results showed that professional factors like the amount of resources and the quality of those resources to assist teachers with job efficacy mattered as much as the personal factors such as positive teaching experience and an intrinsic sense of being an effective educator. Further implications of this study include an exploration of Generalist certifications at the middle grades

  3. Animal and human tungiasis-related knowledge and treatment practices among animal keeping households in Bugiri District, South-Eastern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutebi, Francis; Krücken, Jürgen; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Waiswa, Charles; Mencke, Norbert; Eneku, Wilfred; Andrew, Tamale; Feldmeier, Hermann

    2018-01-01

    Zoonotic tungiasis caused by Tunga penetrans remains a serious public and animal health problem among endemic villages in Uganda and many sub Saharan African countries. Studies on human and animal tungiasis-related knowledge and treatment practices in endemic communities have never been undertaken, a limitation to development of sustainable control measures. A cross sectional study using semi-structured questionnaires (Supplementary file S1) was conducted among 236 animal rearing households in 10 endemic villages in Bugiri District, South-Eastern Uganda. Focus group discussions and observation checklists were used to validate and clarify the findings. Most respondents knew the aetiology (89.4%), clinical signs (98%) and the ecology of T. penetrans as well as the major risk factors of human tungiasis (65.2%). In contrast, very few respondents were aware of animal tungiasis. Only 4.8% of those with infected animals on the compound knew that some of their animals were infected and 13.6% of the respondents had ever seen tungiasis-affected animals. Pigs (13.1%, n=31) and dogs (0.85%, n=2) were the only T. penetrans animal hosts known to animal owners. Affected humans were treated by extraction of embedded sand fleas using non-sterile sharp instruments in all households that reported occurrence of human tungiasis at least once (n=227). Also, affected animals were mainly treated by mechanical removal of embedded sand fleas in households that have ever experienced animal tungiasis (four out of 12; 33.3%). In a few instances, plant and animal pesticides (n=3) and other chemicals such as grease, paraffin and wood preservative (n=3) were also used to treat animal tungiasis. The study revealed a high level of knowledge on human tungiasis but inadequate knowledge on the zoonotic nature of tungiasis. Commonly applied methods for treatment of human and animal tungiasis are a health hazard by themselves. Concerted i.e. One Health-based efforts aiming at promoting appropriate

  4. Community knowledge, perceptions and attitudes regarding leprosy in rural Cameroon: The case of Ekondotiti and Mbonge health districts in the South-west Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsagha, Dickson Shey; Bissek, Anne-Cécile Zoung-Kanyi; Njamnshi, Theophilus Ngeh; Njih, Irine Ngani-Nformi; Pluschke, Gerd; Njamnshi, Alfred Kongnyu

    2018-01-01

    Background Although leprosy is one of the oldest diseases known to humanity, it remains largely misunderstood. Misconceptions about leprosy lead to stigma towards people with the disease. This study aimed at exploring the knowledge, perceptions and attitudes regarding leprosy in rural Cameroon. Methods We carried out a cross-sectional community survey of 233 respondents aged 15–75 years, free from leprosy, and living in two rural health districts of the South-west Region of Cameroon. A questionnaire designed to evaluate knowledge, perceptions and attitudes about leprosy was used. Binary logistic regression was used to determine independent predictors of negative attitudes. Results About 82% of respondents had heard about, and 64.4% knew someone with leprosy. Information on leprosy was mainly from community volunteers (40.6%), friends (38.0%), and the media (24%). Only 19.7% of respondents knew the cause of leprosy, and a considerable proportion linked it to a spell (25.3%), unclean blood (15.5%) and heredity (14.6%). About 72% knew that leprosy is curable and 86.3% would advise medical treatment. Attitudes towards leprosy patients were generally negative. Only 42% would shake hands, 32.6% would share the same plate, and 28.3% and 27% respectively, would allow their child to play or marry a person with leprosy. Furthermore, only 33.9% approved of participation of leprosy patients, and 42.9% of their employment. Independent predictors of negative attitudes were: the belief that leprosy is a curse; is caused by a germ; and having seen a leprosy patient. The negative attitudes were dampened by: the beliefs that leprosy is a punishment, is hereditary and is due to poor personal hygiene. Conclusion An awareness intervention using community volunteers and the media, with information on the cause of leprosy, its clinical manifestations and curability, and sensitization messages correcting the misconceptions and beliefs regarding leprosy, could improve the community

  5. 78 FR 37719 - Interim Final Determination To Defer Sanctions; California; South Coast Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... Determination To Defer Sanctions; California; South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental... Quality Management District's (SCAQMD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP) published... California submitted the ``South Coast Air Quality Management District Proposed Contingency Measures for the...

  6. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the South Bamyan mineral district in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Philip A.; Davis, Philip A.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the South Bamyan mineral district, which has areas with a spectral reflectance anomaly that require field investigation. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA,2006,2007, 2008),but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that

  7. Fisheries Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Fisheries districts data layer is part of a larger dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset...

  8. Warden Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset is a representation overlay of warden (areas of responsibility). The Vermont Warden Districts layer is part of a dataset that contains administrative...

  9. Forestry Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Forestry Districts layer is part of a dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. This is a layer file which...

  10. Wastewater Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Wastewater districts layer is part of a larger dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes...

  11. Wildlife Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Wildlife Districts layer is part of a larger dataset contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes feature...

  12. Park Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Parks Districts layer is part of a dataset contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes feature classes for...

  13. The contribution of district clinical specialist team

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2 Tshwane District Health Services, Gauteng Department of Health, South Africa .... assurance managers conducted monthly scoring of antenatal records at delivery ... Clinical audit and health system strengthening are part of DCSTs' scope.

  14. Utilization of eye care services by elderly persons in the northern Ethekwini district of Kwa-Zulu-Natal province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. P. Mashige

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Although most of the causes of visual impairment and blindness in the developing world are treatable, many people do not receive eye care attention. The appropriate use of eye care services is a key factor to reducing visual impairment and blindness in any community. However, eye care services are not always provided, accessible or utilized and do not always meet the needs of specific groups; one such group is older adults. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of eye care services in adults aged 60 years and older living in the eThekwini district of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Information regarding the use of eye care services was collected from 1008 participants through a questionnaire interview using items derived from the World Health Organization multi-country World Health Survey administered by trained field workers. The participants included 77.3% females and 22.7% males. Their mean age was 68.9 ± 7.4 years (range = 60 to 103 years. Less than half (38.7% of the participants thought that they should have their eyes tested every year. Although many (57.4% knew where to go to get treatment for eye problems or to have their eyes tested, a significant proportion (42.5% did not know. Almost a third (32.8% felt that they need to get treatment for an eye problem or to have their eyes tested. Less than one third(25.2% indicated that they last visited a health facility for an eye test 2-5 years ago. Above one third (38.3% reported that they were told they could not see at distance, 22% reported that theywere told that they had reduced capacity to see at near, while 23.4% and 9.2% respectively were told they had had eye infections or cataracts. Of these, 59.7% stated that new glasses were recom-mended to them as treatment, 22.7% were recommended eye drops and 7.8% had cataract surgery recommended. Most (80.5% reported that they received the recommended treatment while 19.5% reported that they did not. Of those who reported not

  15. The Impact of Hotspot-Targeted Interventions on Malaria Transmission in Rachuonyo South District in the Western Kenyan Highlands: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, John; Knight, Philip; Stone, William; Osoti, Victor; Makori, Euniah; Owaga, Chrispin; Odongo, Wycliffe; China, Pauline; Shagari, Shehu; Doumbo, Ogobara K.; Sauerwein, Robert W.; Kariuki, Simon; Drakeley, Chris; Stevenson, Jennifer; Cox, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Background Malaria transmission is highly heterogeneous, generating malaria hotspots that can fuel malaria transmission across a wider area. Targeting hotspots may represent an efficacious strategy for reducing malaria transmission. We determined the impact of interventions targeted to serologically defined malaria hotspots on malaria transmission both inside hotspots and in surrounding communities. Methods and Findings Twenty-seven serologically defined malaria hotspots were detected in a survey conducted from 24 June to 31 July 2011 that included 17,503 individuals from 3,213 compounds in a 100-km2 area in Rachuonyo South District, Kenya. In a cluster-randomized trial from 22 March to 15 April 2012, we randomly allocated five clusters to hotspot-targeted interventions with larviciding, distribution of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets, indoor residual spraying, and focal mass drug administration (2,082 individuals in 432 compounds); five control clusters received malaria control following Kenyan national policy (2,468 individuals in 512 compounds). Our primary outcome measure was parasite prevalence in evaluation zones up to 500 m outside hotspots, determined by nested PCR (nPCR) at baseline and 8 wk (16 June–6 July 2012) and 16 wk (21 August–10 September 2012) post-intervention by technicians blinded to the intervention arm. Secondary outcome measures were parasite prevalence inside hotpots, parasite prevalence in the evaluation zone as a function of distance from the hotspot boundary, Anopheles mosquito density, mosquito breeding site productivity, malaria incidence by passive case detection, and the safety and acceptability of the interventions. Intervention coverage exceeded 87% for all interventions. Hotspot-targeted interventions did not result in a change in nPCR parasite prevalence outside hotspot boundaries (p ≥ 0.187). We observed an average reduction in nPCR parasite prevalence of 10.2% (95% CI −1.3 to 21.7%) inside hotspots 8 wk post

  16. Prevalence of post-traumatic stress symptoms and associated factors in tuberculosis (TB), TB retreatment and/or TB-HIV co-infected primary public health-care patients in three districts in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Naidoo, Pamela; Matseke, Gladys; Louw, Julia; McHunu, Gugu; Tutshana, Bomkazi

    2013-01-01

    High rates of tuberculosis (TB) and TB/HIV co-infection is often linked with mental health issues such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, which is further associated with poor health outcomes. In a country such as South Africa where rates of these infectious diseases are high, it is concerning that there is limited/no data on prevalence rates of mental disorders such as PTSD and its associated factors. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of PTSD symptoms and associated factors in TB, TB retreatment and/or TB-HIV co-infected primary public health-care patients in three districts in South Africa. Brief screening self-report tools were used to measure: PTSD symptoms, psychological distress (anxiety and depression) and alcohol misuse. Other relevant measures, such as adherence to medication, stressful life events and sexual risk-taking behaviours, were obtained through structured questions. A total of 4900 public primary care adult patients from clinics in high TB burden districts from three provinces in South Africa participated. All the patients screened positive for TB (either new or retreatment cases). The prevalence of PTSD symptoms was 29.6%. Patients who screened positive for PTSD symptoms and psychological distress were more likely to be on antidepressant medication. Factors that predicted PTSD symptoms were poverty, residing in an urban area, psychological distress, suicide attempt, alcohol and/or drug use before sex, unprotected sex, TB-HIV co-infected and the number of other chronic conditions. Health-care systems should be strengthened to improve delivery of mental health care, by focusing on existing programmes and activities, such as those which address the prevention and treatment of TB and HIV.

  17. Seeking to improve spatial justice - the case of rationalising the district court areas in South Africa - utilising several spatial analysis methods.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maritz, J

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available for the Department of Justice and Constitutional Development during 2014 to assist the process to rationalise magisterial districts. In order to determine access to courts, some form of impact assessment is required – this paper outlines the accessibility analysis...

  18. From the LCA of food products to the environmental assessment of protected crops districts: a case-study in the south of Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellura, Maurizio; Ardente, Fulvio; Longo, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology was applied to evaluate the energy consumption and environmental burdens associated with the production of protected crops in an agricultural district in the Mediterranean region. In this study, LCA was used as a 'support tool', to address local policies for sustainable production and consumption patterns, and to create a 'knowledge base' for environmental assessment of an extended agricultural production area. The proposed approach combines organisation-specific tools, such as Environmental Management Systems and Environmental Product Declarations, with the environmental management of the district. Questionnaires were distributed to producers to determine the life cycle of different protected crops (tomatoes, cherry tomatoes, peppers, melons and zucchinis), and obtain information on greenhouse usage (e.g. tunnel vs. pavilion). Ecoprofiles of products in the district were also estimated, to identify supply chain elements with the highest impact in terms of global energy requirements, greenhouse gas emissions, eutrophication, water consumption and waste production. These results of this study enable selection of the 'best practices' and ecodesign solutions, to reduce the environmental impact of these products. Finally, sensitivity analysis of key LCA issues was performed, to assess the variability associated with different parameters: vegetable production; water usage; fertiliser and pesticide usage; shared greenhouse use; substitution of plastics coverings; and waste recycling. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. 77 FR 73320 - Approval of Air Quality Implementation Plans; California; South Coast Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... Quality Implementation Plans; California; South Coast Air Quality Management District; Prevention of... Implementation Plan (SIP) revision for the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD or District... in a August 15, 2012 letter from the South Coast Air Quality Management District regarding specific...

  20. South Africa PIMS

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — PIMS (SOL-674-12-000037) collects and provides information on activities, results, partners, and staff supported through PEPFAR funding in each sub-district of South...

  1. Higly technological industrial districts in South Italy and islands; Attivita industriali prevalenti nelle regioni dell`obiettivo 1: mezzogiorno e isole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piani, M [ENEA, Centro Ricerche ` ` E. Clementel` ` , Bologna (Italy). Dip. Innovazione; Gandini, A [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dip. Innovazione

    1995-05-01

    This work has been carried out forth for the STRIDE programme; it aims identifying highly technological industrial districts for successfully targeting the planning of the diffusion of the results of communitarian research actions. The relation reports, on a table and on an histogram, the number of industries (classified on basis of their technological specificity) operating in the provinces and regions of Abruzzo, Molise, Campania, Puglia, Basilicata, Calabria, Sicilia, Sardegna. The industries considered are merely the ones subscribed to the CCIAA Register of Companies employing less then 500 people.

  2. What does an enabling environment for infant and young child nutrition look like at implementation level? Perspectives from a multi-stakeholder process in the Breede Valley Sub-District, Western Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Plessis, L M; McLachlan, M H; Drimie, S E

    2018-02-13

    Breede Valley is a sub-district of the Cape Winelands district, Western Cape Province, South Africa. The administrative capital of the district is situated in the semi-rural town Worcester. Findings of a baseline survey in Worcester revealed poor infant feeding practices and childhood under- and overnutrition, with particular concern over high levels of stunting and low dietary diversity. Maternal overweight and obesity was high. These characteristics made the site suitable to study multi-sectoral arrangements for infant and young child nutrition (IYCN). The purpose of this study was to explore elements of an enabling environment with key stakeholders aimed at improving IYCN at implementation level. Focus group discussions and interviews were conducted with representatives from two vulnerable communities; local and district government; higher education institutions; business; and the media in the Breede Valley. Audio recordings were transcribed and data were analysed with the Atlas.TI software programme. The participants viewed knowledge and evidence about the first 1000 days of life as important to address IYCN. The impact of early, optimal nutrition on health and intellectual development resonated with them. The IYCN narrative in the Breede Valley could therefore be framed around nutrition's development impact in a well-structured advocacy campaign. Participants felt that capacity and resources were constrained by many competing agendas spreading public resources thinly, leaving limited scope for promotion and prevention activities. "People" were viewed as a resource, and building partnerships and relationships, could bridge some shortfalls in capacity. Conversations about politics and governance elicited strong opinions about what should be done through direct intervention, policy formulation and legislation. A lead government agency could not be identified for taking the IYCN agenda forward, due to its complexity. Participants proposed it should be referred to

  3. The Impacts of Advancing Glaciers and Jökulhlaups on the 19th Century Farming Community in the Suðursveit District South of Vatnajökull Glacier, Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurmundsson, F. S.; Gísladóttir, G.; Erlendsson, E.

    2014-12-01

    Few areas in Iceland were as vulnerable to climate changes during the 19th century as the region south of Vatnajökull glacier. The region was repeatedly affected by glacier advance and jökulhlaups (glacier outburst floods) during the Little Ice Age AD 1300-1900 (LIA). The land area between the glacier and the coast was occupied by farming community. The aim of this research is to quantify and map the size of lost vegetated area in the 19th century during the glacial advance in the climax of the LIA and the impact these events had on the community, land-use, ownership, value of estates and livelihood. This research employs historical written sources to investigate changes in the cultural and natural landscape. Historical data and field observations will be collected and stored in a GIS database designed for the research, allowing data to be analyzed and presented on maps. The first recorded impact on the settlement is from 1794 when the Breiðármerkurjökull outlet glacier advanced and devastated pastures and crofts belonging in west of the district. Seventy five years later, in 1868, the largest estate was completely destroyed by a jökulhlaup. In 1829 a farm site in the middle of the district was moved due to repeated jökulhlaup. The outlet glacier Brókarjökull initiated annual jökulhlaups during 1820 -1870, devastating pastures and hayfields and woodlands of a total of 3 prominent estates in the area (by 1200 ha), causing devaluation of 33-66% on these estates. In the eastern part extensive jökulhlaups changed the glacial river channel causing the river to flow over vast area devastating 80 % of the eastern most estate causing its abandonment in 1892. The climate change and accompanied hazards during the 19th century changed the landscape of the Suðursveit district significantly. By the turn of the 20thcentury the vegetated land in the district had been reduced by 35% and areas of sediments increased by 25% and glaciated area increased by 10%. These

  4. Designing and implementing an Information Communication Technology for Rural Education Development (ICT4RED) initiative in a resource constraint environment: Nciba school district, Eastern Cape, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Herselman, M

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This book is a representation of all the activities, which were recognised as essential components to consider when implementing a certain ICT4D initiative in a resource constraint area in the poorest province of South Africa with significant...

  5. Community Resident’s Opinions and Perceptions on the Effectiveness of Waste Management and Recycling Potential in the Umkhanyakude and Zululand District Municipalities in the KwaZulu-Natal Province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonginkosi Robert Dlamini

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite new environmental laws and regulations in South Africa during the last two decades, especially around municipal solid waste management, there is little emphasis towards waste minimization through recycling. Whereas most waste management research in South Africa has focused on urban municipalities, not much is known regarding the effectiveness of waste management services and recycling challenges in rural areas. This paper reports on the effectiveness of waste management practices from the perspective of community residents in selected rural districts of the KwaZulu-Natal province. A random sample comprised of 333 community residents was selected for questionnaire-administered interviews. Based on the opinions and perceptions of respondents, the provision of waste management services is generally inadequate. Apart from the successful collection of domestic solid wastes (66.7% from households by municipalities, the collection of recyclable waste materials from illegal waste dumps (75% and from households (68.7% are not being adequately provided. Thus, levels of dissatisfaction regarding municipal collection services are very high (97.3% amongst respondents. Furthermore, systematic recycling initiatives that involve communities are largely non-existent and most (96.7% respondents lack relevant technical knowledge on waste recycling and how it can be carried out effectively through waste segregation at source and other processes.

  6. The Impact of Regional Differences on Elementary School Teachers’ Attitudes Towards Their Students’ Use of Code Switching in a South Texas School District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe Nancy Nava Gómez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on investigating whether the teachers' geographical distribution influences their attitudes towards their students' use of code switching. The study was guided by the following research question: Are there differences between teachers' opinions of the north elementary schools and teachers' opinions of the south elementary schools, which are predominantly Hispanic, towards their students' use of code switching? If so, why? A twenty-item structured survey was utilized. The population consisted of 279 elementary school teachers at seven Northern and seven Southern schools in the same South Texas region. The data were analyzed with descriptive statistics. Findings showed that Southern teachers had more prejudices towards code switching than those from the North, who were more receptive to this socio-cultural and linguistic phenomenon due to the ethnic makeup of their classrooms.

  7. Knowledge, perceptions and practices of pharmacovigilance amongst community and hospital pharmacists in a selected district of North West Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Joubert

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: The majority of pharmacists are familiar with the concept of PV, but less than half reported any ADR. They are willing to participate in PV processes but are unsure what their exact role playing should be. More than half indicated that they would like to see improvements to the current PV system in South Africa. The majority are prepared to undergo further education to improve their PV knowledge.

  8. Environmental Assessment: PL 84-99 Levee Rahabilitation Program Lower Platte South Natural Resource District Salt Creek, Lincoln, Lancaster County, Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    142+00 to 144+00. These areas are located approximately 1,000 feet south of Rosa Parks Way and the photos show sags and sinkholes on the landside...sloughing and slides, lost sod, displaced riprap, and sinkhole development to portions of the right and left descending banks of Salt Creek. 1.4 AUTHORITY... sinkhole development. The proposed project repairs include reshaping the levee banks back to a 3:1 slope and replacing lost bank material with compacted

  9. The Scenario of the Potential Analysis Alternative Energy in Order to Strengthening District's Energy Resilience (The Case Study in South Sumatera Province)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry Muhrom, Muhammad; Ronny Rahman Nitibaskara, Tb; Herdiansyah, Herdis; Sari, Ravita

    2017-10-01

    The current development of fossil energy, which is the driving force of the economy in Indonesia, is a non-renewable energy and is in need to know when it will be exhausted so it may be replaced with renewable energy. Many powerplant systems in Indonesia are still using conventional system that utilizes fossil energy as the primary energy in the process of electricity generation. The occurrence of electrical energy crisis is marked by several electricity blackout phenomenon in some areas in South Sumatera province rotately, which is the proof that the installed power capacity has exceeded the capacity of generation power. Interconnection among several islands, namely Java Island, Sumatera Island, and Bali Island which has been interconnected with closed loop system through transmission network has not been able to overcome the electrical energy crisis. This paper aims to create alternative energy potential scenarios in the province of South Sumatera in sequence/ranking by using quantitative methods with sequential explanatory model formulated in the determination of alternative energy strategies then analyzed by using Analitycal Hierarchy Process(AHP) method. The simulation results from this research indicate that geothermal energy potentials get the highest value so that it becomes the priority of alternative energy strategy in South Sumatera Province.

  10. Unmet Needs of Family Planning Among Women: A Cross-Sectional Study in a Rural Area of Kanchipuram District, Tamil Nadu, South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnu Prasad, R; Venkatachalam, J; Singh, Zile

    2016-10-01

    Global contraceptive usage was 63.3 % in 2010 which was 9 % more than that in 1990. NFHS-III 2005-2006 revealed that the contraceptive prevalence rate was 56 % while in the past decade it was 48 %. In India, female sterilization is the most commonly preferred method of contraception accounting for 76 %, while in Tamil Nadu it was 90 %. Thus, this study aims at measuring the prevalence of unmet needs of family planning and its determinants in a rural area of Kancheepuram district, Tamil Nadu. The study was carried out as a community-based cross-sectional study in Chunambed panchayat, a rural area in Kanchipuram District, Tamil Nadu, India, among 505 women of age group 15-49 years. Cluster random sampling was done to select the households to include in the study. In every household, all the available and eligible women were explained about the study and recruited after obtaining informed consent. Chi-square test was applied for finding the difference in proportion, and p value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. The prevalence of unmet need for family planning in our study population was nearly 31 %; it was even more for younger age groups and for the women whose family size was less. 51.7 % of the participants were currently using a contraceptive measure and very few of their partners used contraception. Government health facilities were the major source of contraceptive service and majority of our participants were well aware about the various contraceptive methods. Unmet needs of family planning were high in our study population, and the knowledge about the contraceptive use and family planning was found to be fairly adequate.

  11. Screening for caries in targeted schools in the Blue Mountains and Hawkesbury districts, New South Wales, Australia: an evaluation of the School Assessment Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Gabriel Tse Feng; Evans, Robin Wendell; Dennison, Peter John

    2011-11-01

      To determine if the school dental screening program in New South Wales, the School Assessment Program, achieved its aim of being the key entry point for high-risk children to receive care.   A secondary analysis was conducted on epidemiological data gathered in 16 primary schools in New South Wales (10 for the School Assessment Program and six for the non-School Assessment Program) in 2003. The validity of the School Assessment Program targeting criteria in identifying high-risk schools was determined. Post-screening treatment outcomes were evaluated from the assessment of treatment ratios.   There were negligible differences in the caries experience and proportions of high-risk children, irrespective of their School Assessment Program status. Sensitivity and specificity values were approximately 60% and 40%, respectively, using various case definitions of high risk applied to both children and schools. Deciduous dentition treatment ratios for School Assessment Program and non-School Assessment Program children with decayed, missing, and filled teeth (dmft) ≥1 ranged from 0.48 to 0.79 and from 0.47 to 0.73, respectively. Respective permanent dentition treatment ratios for School Assessment Program and non-School Assessment Program children with Decayed, Missing, and Filled Teeth (DMFT) ≥1 were 0.49-0.82 and 0.64-1.08.   The School Assessment Program failed to identify schools with high caries-risk children or confer post-screening caries treatment benefits. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  12. The Effect of Long Lasting Insecticide Bed Net Use on Malaria Prevalence in the Tombel Health District, South West Region-Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric B. Fokam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria remains a major public health problem in Africa, and its prevalence in Cameroon stands at 29%. Long Lasting Insecticide Nets (LLINs were distributed in 2011 to reduce malaria mortality and morbidity; however, assessment of this intervention is scanty. The present study in the Tombel health district (THD investigated the impact of this distribution on malaria prevalence. A total of 31,657 hospital records from 3 health facilities in 3 health areas for 2010–2013 were examined. Records for 2010 and 2011 provided predistribution baseline data, while those of 2012 and 2013 represented postdistribution data. 8,679 (27.4% patients were positive for malaria. Children below 5 years had the highest prevalence (40.7%. The number of confirmed cases was highest from June to August (peak rainy season. Malaria prevalence was higher in males (25.3% than in females (23.2%. Malaria prevalence increased in THD from 26.7% in 2010 to 30.7% in 2011 but dropped to 22.7% in 2012 and then increased in 2013 to 29.5%. There was an overall drop in the total number of confirmed malaria cases in 2012; this decrease was significant in Ebonji (p<0.001 and Nyasoso (p<0.015 health areas. The distribution of LLINs led to a short lived reduction in malaria prevalence in THD. LLIN distribution and other control activities should be reinforced to keep malaria prevalence low especially among the 0–5-year group.

  13. District heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, L.

    1993-01-01

    The environmental risks and uncertainties of a high-energy future are disturbing and give rise to several reservations concerning the use of fossil fuels. A number of technologies will help to reduce atmospheric pollution. In Denmark special importance is attached to the following: Energy conservation. Efficient energy conversion. Renewable energy sources. District heating, combined production of heat and power. Many agree that district heating (DH), produced by the traditional heat-only plant, and combined heat and power (CHP) have enormous potential when considering thermal efficiency and lowered environmental impacts: The basic technology of each is proven, it would be relatively simple to satisfy a substantial part of the energy demand, and their high efficiencies mean reduced pollution including greenhouse gas emissions. This is especially important in high population density areas - the obviously preferred sites for such energy generation. Compared with individual heating DH can provide a community with an operationally efficient and most often also an economically competitive heat supply. This is particularly true under the circumstances where the DH system is supplied from CHP plants. Their use results in very substantial improvements in overall efficiency. Further environmental improvements arise from the reduced air pollution obtainable in reasonably large CHP plants equipped with flue gas cleaning to remove particles, sulphur dioxide, and nitrogen acids. As a consequence of these considerations, DH plays an important role in fulfilling the space and water heating demand in many countries. This is especially the case in Denmark where this technology is utilised to a very great extent. Indeed, DH is one of the reasons why Denmark has relatively good air quality in the cities. (au)

  14. The Streltsovskoye uranium district

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ischukova, L.P.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the geology of the Streltsovskoye uranium district located in south-eastern Zabaikalie region, Chita Province, Siberia, Russia. This district hosts Russia's only currently active uranium production centre. The uranium ore was discovered from 1963 to 1967 by drilling below fluorite veins which had minor associated uranium mineralization and radioactive anomalies. The uranium occurs as large scale vein stockwork deposits of hydrothermal origin within a volcano-tectonic caldera formed by continental volcanism of Late Mesozoic age. Rocks occurring in the caldera include basalt and trachydacite, overlain by rhyolite, and with associated interbedded sediments. The ore bodies occur in steeply dipping faults, with the greatest concentrations located where faults along the margins of the caldera intersect steeply dipping, cross cutting, northeasterly and northwesterly striking faults. The Streltsovskoye caldera extends over an area of 150 km 2 and is underlain by a large batholith. The 19 identified uranium deposits occurred in structural features that cut through the caldera sequence and extend into the basement rocks. The caldera has a maximum thickness of 1400 metres. Details of several deposits are given, including descriptions of mineralization and associated alteration. (author). 10 figs

  15. The occurrence, origin and stratigraphic significance of bone-bearing mudstone pellet conglomerates from the Beaufort group in the Jansenville district, Cape Province, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, B.R.

    1981-01-01

    The lack of useful lithostratigraphic markers in the Beaufort Group in the southern Karoo Basin has focused attention on the biostratigraphy of the sediments. As a result a more refined scheme of biostratigraphic classification is now possible which may prove useful in fixing the stratigraphic position of the uranium mineralized horizons. The most important mineralized horizon in the Beaufort West area (contains about 90 per cent of all known uranium occurrences) is associated with the Pristerognathus/Diictodon assemblage zone, but the way in which this relates to the important uranium occurrences farther east, between Graaff-Reinet and Jansenville, is uncertain because of the lack of biostratigraphic control. Vertebrate remains have recently been found in mudstone pellet conglomerates in Beaufort channel sandstones along the Bullrivier in the Jansenville District, in an area that is extensively mineralized. The sandstones were deposited as point bar sands within a meandering river system flowing towards the north-east. The rivers drained a dry, arid to semi-arid alluvial plain and were characterized by fluctuating discharge and periods of low or negligible flow. These conditions promoted flood scour and fill activity and the deposition of internal mudstone pellet conglomerates. Hydrodynamic considerations suggest that estimates of bone transport velocity from their hydrodynamically equivalent quartz sphere is of limited value and can seldom, if ever, be applied to fossil bone accumulations. Identification of the bones from the conglomerates indicates that they belong to the Dino-cephalia biozone and not the overlying Pristerognathus/Diictodon zone. This suggests that the lower part of the Beaufort succession (formerly the Tapinocephalus zone) extends farther east than previously thought, and that the main mineralized horizon in this area occurs lower down in the succession than that around Beaufort West

  16. Infection status and risk factors associated with urinary schistosomiasis among school-going children in the Ndumo area of uMkhanyakude district in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa two years post-treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabuyaya, Muhubiri; Chimbari, Moses John; Mukaratirwa, Samson

    2018-04-18

    To assess the efficacy of praziquantel of infected children with Schistosoma haematobium over a 2year period in the Ndumo area of uMkhanyakude district, South Africa. This cohort study enrolled 173 school-going children in September 2017 that participated in a baseline survey conducted in 2015 in the Ndumo area. Questionnaire interviews were conducted to collect information on the risk factors related to transmission of schistosomiasis and filtration technique was performed to detect Schistosoma haematobium eggs in urine. Infection intensity was classified as light and heavy. A Chi square test was performed to assess association between variables with 95% confidence interval and p-value=0.05 was considered significant. Of the 173 participants screened two years post-treatment, 10 were infected and six were new infection cases while 4 were re-infections. The intensity of infection decreased significantly (P value=0.001) in the follow-up survey compare to the baseline survey. However, no significant difference was found among the risk factors of schistosomiasis 2 years later. The prevalence of S. haematobium decreased significantly in the cohort 2 years post praziquantel treatment during persistent drought in the area. Risk factors which were significantly associated with schistosomiasis at baseline were not two years following treatment. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Cost analysis of options for management of African Animal Trypanosomiasis using interventions targeted at cattle in Tororo District; south-eastern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhanguzi, Dennis; Okello, Walter O; Kabasa, John D; Waiswa, Charles; Welburn, Susan C; Shaw, Alexandra P M

    2015-07-22

    Tsetse-transmitted African trypanosomes cause both nagana (African animal Trypanosomiasis-AAT) and sleeping sickness (human African Trypanosomiasis - HAT) across Sub-Saharan Africa. Vector control and chemotherapy are the contemporary methods of tsetse and trypanosomiasis control in this region. In most African countries, including Uganda, veterinary services have been decentralised and privatised. As a result, livestock keepers meet the costs of most of these services. To be sustainable, AAT control programs need to tailor tsetse control to the inelastic budgets of resource-poor small scale farmers. To guide the process of tsetse and AAT control toolkit selection, that now, more than ever before, needs to optimise resources, the costs of different tsetse and trypanosomiasis control options need to be determined. A detailed costing of the restricted application protocol (RAP) for African trypanosomiasis control in Tororo District was undertaken between June 2012 and December 2013. A full cost calculation approach was used; including all overheads, delivery costs, depreciation and netting out transfer payments to calculate the economic (societal) cost of the intervention. Calculations were undertaken in Microsoft Excel without incorporating probabilistic elements. The cost of delivering RAP to the project was US$ 6.89 per animal per year while that of 4 doses of a curative trypanocide per animal per year was US$ 5.69. However, effective tsetse control does not require the application of RAP to all animals. Protecting cattle from trypanosome infections by spraying 25%, 50% or 75% of all cattle in a village costs US$ 1.72, 3.45 and 5.17 per animal per year respectively. Alternatively, a year of a single dose of curative or prophylactic trypanocide treatment plus 50% RAP would cost US$ 4.87 and US$ 5.23 per animal per year. Pyrethroid insecticides and trypanocides cost 22.4 and 39.1% of the cost of RAP and chemotherapy respectively. Cost analyses of low cost tsetse

  18. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for determination of Cr in soils from Brits District, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Ambushe

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS is an emerging analytical technique, which can be used to perform elemental analysis of any material, irrespective of its physical state. In this study, the LIBS technique has been applied for quantification of total Cr in soil samples collected from polluted areas of Brits, North West Province, South Africa. A Q-switched neodymium-yttrium aluminium garnet (Nd-YAG laser (10 Hz, λ = 1064 nm was employed for generation of a laser-induced plasma on the surface of the soil sample. The atomic emission lines were recorded using an Andor Shamrock SR-303i spectrometer, fitted with an intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD camera. Detailed investigation of experimental parameters such as gate delay time, gate width and laser pulse energy was conducted. Soil samples were dried, finely ground, sieved and thereafter pelletized before LIBS analysis. Calibration curve for the quantification of Cr was constructed using certified reference materials of soils and sediments. The concentrations of Cr in soil samples varied from 111 to 3180 mg/kg. In order to test the validity of the LIBS results, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS was also employed for determination of Cr. The results obtained using LIBS were found to be in good agreement with those of ICP-MS.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v29i3.3

  19. Diseases of free-ranging chickens in the Qwa-Qwa district of the northeastern Free State province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M.O. Thekisoe

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of 177 free-ranging chickens from 19 Qwa-Qwa villages were bled from wing veins over a period of 6 months (June-November 2000. Serological tests indicated that 5 % of chickens tested had been exposed to Newcastle disease, 43 % to infectious bronchitis and 63 % to Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection. McMaster and Visser sieve techniques were used to determine helminth and coccidia from pooled fresh faecal samples. Helminths isolated in 37 % of the villages investigated were Heterakis, Ascaridia and Capillaria species. Eimeria species were also isolated in 32 % of the villages investigated. The red fowl mite (Dermanyssus gallinae was isolated from some of the birds and their nests. Data from a questionnaire survey indicated that all farmers interviewed had never received any technical support and that their chickens had never been vaccinated against any avian diseases. Only 10.5 % of the owners interviewed had scientific knowledge on poultry diseases. There is an urgent need for the government to support free-ranging poultry farmers by providing subsidised vaccinations and technical support in order to develop and stimulate economic development in impoverished rural areas of South Africa.

  20. Application of multivariate analysis to investigate the trace element contamination in top soil of coal mining district in Jorong, South Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujiwati, Arie; Nakamura, K.; Watanabe, N.; Komai, T.

    2018-02-01

    Multivariate analysis is applied to investigate geochemistry of several trace elements in top soils and their relation with the contamination source as the influence of coal mines in Jorong, South Kalimantan. Total concentration of Cd, V, Co, Ni, Cr, Zn, As, Pb, Sb, Cu and Ba was determined in 20 soil samples by the bulk analysis. Pearson correlation is applied to specify the linear correlation among the elements. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Cluster Analysis (CA) were applied to observe the classification of trace elements and contamination sources. The results suggest that contamination loading is contributed by Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, As, and Pb. The elemental loading mostly affects the non-coal mining area, for instances the area near settlement and agricultural land use. Moreover, the contamination source is classified into the areas that are influenced by the coal mining activity, the agricultural types, and the river mixing zone. Multivariate analysis could elucidate the elemental loading and the contamination sources of trace elements in the vicinity of coal mine area.

  1. HIV prevalence and uptake of HIV/AIDS services among youths (15–24 Years in fishing and neighboring communities of Kasensero, Rakai District, South Western Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richardson Mafigiri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although fishing communities have a significantly higher HIV prevalence than the general population, there is paucity of data on the burden of HIV and service utilization, particularly among the youth. We assessed the HIV prevalence and utilization of HIV prevention and treatment services among youth in Kasensero fishing community and the neighboring communities. Method Data were derived from the Rakai Community Cohort Study (RCCS surveys conducted between 2013 and 2014. The RCCS is a population-based household survey that collects data annually from individuals aged 15–49 years, resident in 48 communities in Rakai and neighboring districts in Uganda. For this analysis, socio-demographic, behavioral and HIV-related data were obtained for 792 individuals aged 15–24 years. We used logistic regression to conduct bivariate and multivariable analysis to determine the factors that are independently associated with HIV-positive status and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals. Data were analyzed using STATA version 13. Results Overall HIV prevalence was 19.7% (n = 155; higher in Kasensero (n = 141; 25.1% and Gwanda (n = 8; 11% than in Kyebe (n = 6; 3.9%, p < 0.001 and among females (n = 112; 26.0% than males (n = 43; 12.0%, p < 0.001. Uptake of HIV testing was high in both HIV-positive (n = 136; 89.5% and HIV-negative youth (n = 435; 92%. Consistent condom use was virtually non-existent in HIV-positive youth (n = 1; 0.6% compared to HIV-negative youth (n = 20; 4.2%. Only 22.4% (n = 34 of the HIV-positive youth were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART in 2013–2014; higher in the HIV-positive females (n = 31; 28.4% than HIV-positive males (n = 03; 6.7%. Slightly more than half of males (n = 134; 53.8% reported that they were circumcised; the proportion of circumcised youth was higher among HIV-negative males (n = 122; 58% than HIV-positive males (n

  2. High risk exposure to HIV among sexually active individuals who tested negative on rapid HIV Tests in the Tshwane District of South Africa-The importance of behavioural prevention measures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simnikiwe H Mayaphi

    Full Text Available To assess the prevalence of HIV risk behaviour among sexually active HIV sero-negative individuals in the Tshwane district of South Africa (SA.Demographic and HIV risk behaviour data were collected on a questionnaire from participants of a cross-sectional study that screened for early HIV infection using pooled nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT. The study enrolled individuals who tested negative on rapid HIV tests performed at five HIV counseling and testing (HCT clinics, which included four antenatal clinics and one general HCT clinic.The study enrolled 9547 predominantly black participants (96.6% with a median age of 27 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 23-31. There were 1661 non-pregnant and 7886 pregnant participants largely enrolled from the general and antenatal HCT clinics, respectively. NAAT detected HIV infection in 61 participants (0.6%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.4-0.8 in the whole study. A high proportion of study participants, 62.8% and 63.0%, were unaware of their partner's HIV status; and also had high prevalence, 88.5% and 99.5%, of recent unprotected sex in the general and pregnant population, respectively. Consistent use of condoms was associated with protection against HIV infection in the general population. Trends of higher odds for HIV infection were observed with most demographic and HIV risk factors at univariate analysis, however, multivariate analysis did not show statistical significance for almost all these factors. A significantly lower risk of HIV infection was observed in circumcised men (p <0.001.These data show that a large segment of sexually active people in the Tshwane district of SA have high risk exposure to HIV. The detection of newly diagnosed HIV infections in all study clinics reflects a wide distribution of individuals who are capable of sustaining HIV transmission in the setting where HIV risk behaviour is highly prevalent. A questionnaire that captures HIV risk behaviour would be useful

  3. Views and experiences of healthcare professionals towards the use of African traditional, complementary and alternative medicines among patients with HIV infection: the case of eThekwini health district, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nlooto, Manimbulu

    2015-06-06

    Many patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection use traditional, complementary, and alternative medicines and other practices to combat the disease, with some also using prescribed antiretroviral therapy provided by the public health sector. This study aimed to establish the awareness of public sector biomedical health care providers on the use of traditional, complementary and alternative medicines by HIV-infected patients who also used highly active antiretroviral therapy, and to determine whether this was based on patients seen or cases being reported to them. Potential risks of interactions between the prescribed antiretroviral and non-prescribed medication therapies may pose safety and effectiveness issues in patients using both types of treatment. A descriptive cross-sectional study, using a researcher administered semi-structured questionnaire, was conducted from June to August 2013 at ten public sector antiretroviral clinics in five regional, three specialised and two district hospitals in eThekwini Health District, South Africa. Questionnaires were administered through face-to face interview to 120 eligible participants consisting of doctors, nurses, pharmacists and post-basic pharmacist assistants in HIV clinical practice. The results are presented as percent or proportion with standard error (SE), or as frequency. Ninety-four respondents completed the questionnaire, yielding a response rate of 78.3 %. Almost half (48/94) were aware of patients using African traditional herbal medicines, over-the-counter supplements, unnamed complementary Ayurveda medicines and acupuncture. Twenty-three of the 94 respondents (24.4 %) said they had consulted patients who were using both antiretroviral therapy and certain types of non-prescribed medication in the previous three months. Awareness among healthcare providers on patient use of traditional, complementary and alternative medicines was relatively high. Few respondents had seen patients who used mostly

  4. how do district health managers experience the impact of family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KB Von Pressentin

    impact of family physicians within the South African district health system? ... paper (2015) described six aspirational roles of family physicians (FPs) working within the district health system. ... composition and deployment of the primary care workforce.5 ... mental health.30,31 In addition, FPs appear to have some impact.

  5. 76 FR 24080 - Houston District Office Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Houston District Office Advisory Committee AGENCY: U.S. Small... Houston District Office Advisory committee. The meeting will be open to the public. DATES: The meeting...; located at 8701 South Gessner, Houston, TX 77074. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Pursuant to section 10(a)(2...

  6. 76 FR 64990 - Houston District Office Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Houston District Office Advisory Committee AGENCY: U.S. Small... Houston District Office Advisory committee. The meeting will be open to the public. DATES: The meeting...; located at 8701 South Gessner, Houston, TX. 77074. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Pursuant to section 10(a)(2...

  7. Tri-District Arts Consortium Summer Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Charlotte O.

    1990-01-01

    The Tri-District Arts Consortium in South Carolina was formed to serve artistically gifted students in grades six-nine. The consortium developed a summer program offering music, dance, theatre, and visual arts instruction through a curriculum of intense training, performing, and hands-on experiences with faculty members and guest artists. (JDD)

  8. Prevalence and characterisation of non-cholerae Vibrio spp. in final effluents of wastewater treatment facilities in two districts of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa: implications for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoh, Anthony I; Sibanda, Timothy; Nongogo, Vuyokazi; Adefisoye, Martins; Olayemi, Osuolale O; Nontongana, Nolonwabo

    2015-02-01

    Vibrios and other enteric pathogens can be found in wastewater effluents of a healthy population. We assessed the prevalence of three non-cholerae vibrios in wastewater effluents of 14 wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in Chris Hani and Amathole district municipalities in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa for a period of 12 months. With the exception of WWTP10 where presumptive vibrios were not detected in summer and spring, presumptive vibrios were detected in all seasons in other WWTP effluents. When a sample of 1,000 presumptive Vibrio isolates taken from across all sampling sites were subjected to molecular confirmation for Vibrio, 668 were confirmed to belong to the genus Vibrio, giving a prevalence rate of 66.8 %. Further, molecular characterisation of 300 confirmed Vibrio isolates revealed that 11.6 % (35) were Vibrio parahaemolyticus, 28.6 % (86) were Vibrio fluvialis and 28 % (84) were Vibrio vulnificus while 31.8 % (95) belonged to other Vibrio spp. not assayed for in this study. Antibiogram profiling of the three Vibrio species showed that V. parahaemolyticus was ≥50 % susceptible to 8 of the test antibiotics and ≥50 % resistant to only 5 of the 13 test antibiotics, while V. vulnificus showed a susceptibility profile of ≥50 % to 7 of the test antibiotics and a resistance profile of ≥50 % to 6 of the 13 test antibiotics. V. fluvialis showed ≥50 % resistance to 8 of the 13 antibiotics used while showing ≥50 % susceptibility to only 4 antibiotics used. All three Vibrio species were susceptible to gentamycin, cefuroxime, meropenem and imipenem. Multiple antibiotic resistance patterns were also evident especially against such antibiotics as tetracyclin, polymixin B, penicillin G, sulfamethazole and erythromycin against which all Vibrio species were resistant. These results indicate a significant threat to public health, more so in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa which is characterised by widespread poverty, with more than a

  9. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF FILARIAL DETECTION BY MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION AND SEROLOGICAL ASSAY UTILIZING BMR1 AND BMXSP RECOMBINANT ANTIGENS FOR EVALUATION OF FILARIASIS ELIMINATION PROGRAM AT KAMPUNG SAWAH AND PAMULANG, SOUTH TANGERANG DISTRICT, BANTEN, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia F. Nasution

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available South Tangerang district is one of the endemic areas for filariasis; and based on an evaluation study in 2008-2009 which covered several subdistricts, the prevalence of microfilaria was between 1–2.4%. Nevertheless, the evaluation by serological assay has never been reported. A cross-sectional study was conducted to detect the microfilaremia and anti-filarial IgG4 antibody status in Kp Sawah and Pamulang subdistricts. Cluster sampling was performed in Kp Sawah by collecting finger-prick blood (FPB and venous blood samples from inhabitants who lived with and nearby the four elephantiasis subjects in the area. The FPB were only collected in Pamulang area by consecutive sampling method. The detection method included microscopic evaluation of FPB and serological detection using recombinant antigens BmR1 and BmSXP by ELISA and lateral flow rapid tests. Symptomatic patients who had 2nd and 3rd degree of elephantiasis were clinically determined in 10% (4/40 subjects. Among those with elephantiasis, 2 were positive serologically but their microscopic results were all negative (40/40. Meanwhile, the microscopic result for 107 subjects from Pamulang were all negative. The results of the rapid tests showed that 15% (6/40 of the positive cases were detected by Brugia Rapid and 27.5% (11/40 by PanLF. Meanwhile, the ELISA showed that 20% (8/40 of the cases were positive with BmSXP, whereas only 2.5% or 1/40 sample was found to be positive with BmR1. Even though the sensitivity of the Rapid test was lower when compared to microscopic examination for these samples, the assay showed good specificity ranging from 72.5 to 97.5%. The optical density (OD values of ELISA has ranged between 0.3–3.045.

  10. A concept paper: using the outcomes of common surgical conditions as quality metrics to benchmark district surgical services in South Africa as part of a systematic quality improvement programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Damian L; Kong, Victor Y; Handley, Jonathan; Aldous, Colleen

    2013-07-31

    The fourth, fifth and sixth Millennium Development Goals relate directly to improving global healthcare and health outcomes. The focus is to improve global health outcomes by reducing maternal and childhood mortality and the burden of infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria. Specific targets and time frames have been set for these diseases. There is, however, no specific mention of surgically treated diseases in these goals, reflecting a bias that is slowly changing with emerging consensus that surgical care is an integral part of primary healthcare systems in the developing world. The disparities between the developed and developing world in terms of wealth and social indicators are reflected in disparities in access to surgical care. Health administrators must develop plans and strategies to reduce these disparities. However, any strategic plan that addresses deficits in healthcare must have a system of metrics, which benchmark the current quality of care so that specific improvement targets may be set.This concept paper outlines the role of surgical services in a primary healthcare system, highlights the ongoing disparities in access to surgical care and outcomes of surgical care, discusses the importance of a systems-based approach to healthcare and quality improvement, and reviews the current state of surgical care at district hospitals in South Africa. Finally, it proposes that the results from a recently published study on acute appendicitis, as well as data from a number of other common surgical conditions, can provide measurable outcomes across a healthcare system and so act as an indicator for judging improvements in surgical care. This would provide a framework for the introduction of collection of these outcomes as a routine epidemiological health policy tool.

  11. Rural district hospitals - essential cogs in the district health system - and primary healthcare re-engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    le Roux, K W D P; Couper, I

    2015-06-01

    The re-engineering of primary healthcare (PHC) is regarded as an essential precursor to the implementation of National Health Insurance in South Africa, but improvements in the provision of PHC services have been patchy. The authors contend that the role of well- functioning rural district hospitals as a hub from which PHC services can be most efficiently managed has been underestimated, and that the management of district hospitals and PHC clinics need to be co-located at the level of the rural district hospital, to allow for proper integration of care and effective healthcare provision.

  12. Private Water Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Private Water District boundaries are areas where private contracts provide water to the district in California. This database is designed as a regions polygon...

  13. Lieutenant Chief Warden Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset is a representation overlay of Lieutenant Chief Warden Districts (areas of responsibility). The Vermont Lieutenant Chief Warden Districts layer is part...

  14. District heating in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, F.

    1991-01-01

    District heating has been used in Switzerland for more than 50 years. Its share of the heat market is less than 3% today. An analysis of the use of district heating in various European countries shows that a high share of district heating in the heat market is always dependent on ideal conditions for its use. Market prospects and possible future developments in the use of district heating in Switzerland are described in this paper. The main Swiss producers and distributors of district heating are members of the Association of District Heating Producers and Distributors. This association supports the installation of district heating facilities where ecological, energetical and economic aspects indicate that district heating would be a good solution. (author) 2 tabs., 6 refs

  15. California Political Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This is a series of district layers pertaining to California'spolitical districts, that are derived from the California State Senateand State Assembly information....

  16. State Water Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — State Water Project District boundaries are areas where state contracts provide water to the district in California. This database is designed as a regions polygon...

  17. National Register Historic Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The National Register Historic District layer is a shape file showing the boundaries of Historic Districts that are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

  18. Zero Energy Districts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polly, Benjamin J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-05-04

    This presentation shows how NREL is approaching Zero Energy Districts, including key opportunities, design strategies, and master planning concepts. The presentation also covers URBANopt, an advanced analytical platform for district that is being developed by NREL.

  19. The bird's-eye perspective: how do district health managers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KB Von Pressentin

    This study supports the employment of FPs at scale within the. South African district ... by the academic leadership.8,25 In South Africa, policy documents acknowledge the ... KvP conducted the qualitative data analysis under the supervision of RM. ..... cited as examples of them making a 'huge difference as part of a complex ...

  20. District nurse training

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, Arnold; Freeling, Paul; Owen, John

    1980-01-01

    Training for district nursing is being reviewed. By 1981 district nurses will have a new administrative structure, a new curriculum, and a new examination. Training for nursing, like that for general practice, is to become mandatory. The history of the development of district nurse training is briefly described.

  1. District nursing in Dominica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolkman, PME; Luteijn, AJ; Nasiiro, RS; Bruney, [No Value; Smith, RJA; Meyboom-de Jong, B

    1998-01-01

    District nurses constitute the basis of the primary health care services in Dominica. All encounters of three district nurses were registered using the international classification of primary care. Information on other aspects of district nursing was collected by participating observation and the

  2. Adolescent and young pregnant women at increased risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and poorer maternal and infant health outcomes: A cohort study at public facilities in the Nelson Mandela Bay Metropolitan district, Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatti, G; Shaikh, N; Eley, B; Jackson, D; Grimwood, A

    2014-12-01

    South Africa (SA) has the highest burden of childhood HIV infection globally, and has high rates of adolescent and youth pregnancy. To explore risks associated with pregnancy in young HIV-infected women, we compared mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV and maternal and infant health outcomes according to maternal age categories. A cohort of HIV-positive pregnant women and their infants were followed up at three sentinel surveillance facilities in the Nelson Mandela Bay Metropolitan (NMBM) district, Eastern Cape Province, SA. Young women were defined as 24 years old and adolescents as 19 years. The effect of younger maternal age categories on MTCT and maternal and child health outcomes was assessed using log-binomial and Cox regression controlling for confounding, using women aged > 24 years as the comparison group. Of 956 mothers, 312 (32.6%) were young women; of these, 65 (20.8%) were adolescents. The proportion of young pregnant women increased by 24% between 2009/10 and 2011/12 (from 28.3% to 35.1%). Young women had an increased risk of being unaware of their HIV status when booking (adjusted risk ratio (aRR) 1.37; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.21 - 1.54), a reduced rate of antenatal antiretroviral therapy (ART) uptake (adjusted hazard ratio 0.46; 95% CI 0.31 - 0.67), reduced early infant HIV diagnosis (aRR 0.94; 95% CI 0.94 - 0.94), and increased MTCT (aRR 3.07; 95% CI 1.18 - 7.96; adjusted for ART use). Of all vertical transmissions, 56% occurred among young women. Additionally, adolescents had increased risks of first presentation during labour (aRR 3.78; 95% CI 1.06 - 13.4); maternal mortality (aRR 35.1; 95% CI 2.89 - 426) and stillbirth (aRR 3.33; 95% CI 1.53 - 7.25). An increasing proportion of pregnant HIV-positive women in NMBM were young, and they had increased MTCT and poorer maternal and infant outcomes than older women. Interventions targeting young women are increasingly needed to reduce pregnancy, HIV infection and MTCT and improve maternal

  3. South African metropolis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa's formal employment growth rate has been declining steadily since the ... the institutions, political processes and social networks of society. Barriers to .... central business district, as well as to other white residential areas like Phillip .... during this time by maintaining frequent contact between field workers,.

  4. District heating in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacchi, E.

    1998-01-01

    The legislative act establishing the electric monopoly virtually shut out the district heating associated with electricity cogeneration, while other laws, issued to counteract the effects of oil shocks, allowed municipal utilities to do so. Thus, district heating has experienced some development, though well below its possibilities. The article analyses the reasons for this lagging, reports district heating data and projects its forecasts against the Kyoto Protocol objectives [it

  5. 77 FR 52277 - Approval of Air Quality Implementation Plans; California; South Coast Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... Quality Implementation Plans; California; South Coast Air Quality Management District; Prevention of... rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing approval of a permitting rule submitted for the South Coast Air Quality Management District (District) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). The State is...

  6. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the South Helmand mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter O in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Philip A.; Cagney, Laura E.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the South Helmand mineral district, which has travertine deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA, 2008, 2010), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such

  7. Nankana West District of Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agribotix GCS 077

    Local governments in Ghana play very important roles with actors in the ... Metropolitan, Municipal and District Chief Executives (MMDCEs), the .... District Budget Officer, District Finance Officer, Presiding Member, members of the Works Sub-.

  8. Report of boring made in the South of Cerro Largo district (Cerro Largo) 1977-1978[Study of Uranium prospection in Uruguay]; Informe de los trabajos de perforacion efectuados en el distrito Cerro Largo Sur (Dpto. Cerro Largo) 1977 - 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massa, E

    1984-07-01

    The present work are within the framework and compiles the data obtained by means of the study of the perforations executed in the District Cerro Largo Sur of the detailed prospection of uranium minerals. This study was carried out by technicians of Geologic ex--Institute of Uruguay (IGU) - at the moment National Direction of Mining and Geology. (DINAMIGE). The works began at the beginning of 1977 and continued until 1978 July; The headquarters of the program of prospection of uranium was carried out by Ing. Hector Goso. In this report the conclusions drawn at the time of the detection of the works in the District already published, as well as the litologicos cuts of all the executed perforations are included.

  9. Geographic disparities in state and district policies targeting youth obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Daniel R; Chriqui, Jamie F; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2011-10-01

    States and school districts nationwide have enacted policies targeting youth obesity, but many policies lack specific requirements or enforcement language. Geographic disparities in youth obesity could worsen if policies are weaker in areas with higher obesity prevalence. To determine if state or district policy strength varies with youth obesity prevalence across Census divisions. Policies in five domains related to nutrition and physical activity in schools were obtained from all states and nationally representative samples of 578 and 592 public school districts in the 2006-2007 and 2008-2009 school years, respectively. Policy language strength was rated on a 0-100 scale on both the state and district level. Regression models were used to determine if mean 2006-2007 strength scores, and changes in mean scores from 2006-2007 to 2008-2009, were associated with youth obesity prevalence across Census divisions. Analyses were conducted in 2010. State and district policies governing foods sold outside of school meal programs ("competitive foods") were stronger in 2006-2007 in the two divisions with the highest youth obesity prevalence (East South Central, West South Central). Furthermore, mean competitive food policy strength increased the most from 2006-2007 to 2008-2009 in these divisions. The West South Central had the weakest district physical education policies in 2006-2007, however, and was the only division in which average strength of district school meal policies decreased. State and districts in Census divisions with the highest youth obesity prevalence are taking steps to restrict competitive foods in schools, but many have not targeted other policy domains as aggressively. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Solid Waste Management Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Solid waste management districts layer is part of a dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. This dataset...

  11. District nursing is vital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, Julie

    2016-08-03

    Queen's Nursing Institute chief executive Crystal Oldman has welcomed the RCN congress resolution urging RCN council to lobby for all district nurses to have a specialist practice qualification. This provides the ideal route for future talent and must be supported.

  12. Floodplain District Permit

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — The purpose of a Floodplain District Permit (FPDP) is to control floodplain development in order to protect persons and property from danger and destruction and to...

  13. 115th Congressional Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This layer depicts the 115th Congressional Districts for the United States, with attributes listing the elected officials for the 115th Congress. Elected to a...

  14. Allegheny County Council Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset portrays the boundaries of the County Council Districts in Allegheny County. The dataset is based on municipal boundaries and City of Pittsburgh ward...

  15. ACT250 Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The ACT 250 Districts layer is part of a larger dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes...

  16. NM Property Tax Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico tax district "OUT" categories and incorporated/municipal "IN" categories as identified on the "Certificate of Tax...

  17. NM School District Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The dataset represents the boundaries of all public school districts in the state of New Mexico. The source for the data layer is the New Mexico Public Education...

  18. Groundwater Managment Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This dataset outlines the location of the five Groundwater Management Districts in Kansas. GMDs are locally formed and elected boards for regional groundwater...

  19. Client perspective assessment of women?s satisfaction towards labour and delivery care service in public health facilities at Arba Minch town and the surrounding district, Gamo Gofa zone, south Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Dewana, Zeritu; Fikadu, Teshale; G/ Mariam, Abebe; Abdulahi, Misra

    2016-01-01

    Background A woman?s satisfaction with labour and delivery care service has a good effect on her health and subsequent utilization of the services. Thus knowledge about women?s satisfaction on labour and delivery care used to enhances the services utilization. The objective of this study was to assess the satisfaction of women?s towards labour and delivery care service and identify factors associated it at public health facilities in Arba Minch town and the surrounding district, Gamo Gofa zon...

  20. Environmental Assessment for the Bison School District Heating Plant Project, Institutional Conservation Program (ICP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This environmental assessment analyzes the environmental impacts of replacing the Bison, South Dakota School District's elementary school and high school heating system consisting of oil-fired boilers and supporting control system and piping

  1. District officials learn how to use the Atlas in local planning

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Murambadoro, M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available District Municipality environmental officers attending the 2011 SRRP training workshop were introduced to the South African Risk and Vulnerability Atlas (SARVA) as a vital tool for local planning and resilience. This workshop was aimed at raising...

  2. Multimorbidity in a large district hospital: A descriptive cross ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mitchell's Plain District Hospital, Western Cape Department of Health, Cape Town, South Africa. Corresponding author: E de .... group as a whole, 6.3% of patients had mental illness. .... be investigated, research can also be focused specifically on reducing .... strongly affected by social stigma, particularly in the case of illicit.

  3. The 2010 FIFA World Cup and the Eden District Municipality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research on sport tourism, mega sport events and the impacts thereof, especially in developing countries, have, in the past, tended to have been overlooked. This article investigates 2010 FIFA World Cup initiatives conducted in the Eden District Municipality (EDM), Western Cape, South Africa, which is situated between the ...

  4. 76 FR 2431 - Houston District Office Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Houston District Office Advisory Committee AGENCY: U.S. Small... issuing this notice to announce the location, date, time, and agenda for the next meeting of the Houston..., located at 8701 South Gessner, Suite 1200, Houston, TX. 77074. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Pursuant to...

  5. 12 CFR 4.5 - District and field offices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., northeast and southeast Iowa, central Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, eastern Missouri, North Dakota, Ohio..., Mississippi, Oklahoma, Tennessee, and Texas. Western District Office of the Comptroller of the Currency, 1225... and western Iowa, Kansas, western Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, South...

  6. The role of tourist icons for a destination: the case of the closure of the Outeniqua Choo Choo train in the Eden District Municipality in the Western Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Ramukumba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Attractions are a major component of the tourism industry and often exert considerable influence over individual travel priorities. Attractions are one of the main motivators for tourist trips and are the core of the tourism product. Without attractions the destination would not need other tourism sectors and services. The uniqueness of attractions becomes an issue of greater significance in travel motivation for the visitors as they seek these unique tourism experiences around the world. The main aim of this paper was to look at the impact the closure of the Outeniqua Choo Choo train had to the tourism industry of the Eden District Municipality (EDM better known as the Garden Route and Klein Karoo region in the tourism industry. The train was considered to be an iconic attraction due to the unique experiences it offered to the tourists. The research used questionnaires as a survey technique to collect primary data and the questionnaires were emailed to all the tourism businesses that were registered at the Eden District Municipality (EDM database during the time of the train operations. One hundred and fifty questionnaires were distributed to the businesses and only one hundred and twenty were received back and none of them were spoilt and this represent 80% response rate. The study found that across the different businesses in the tourism industry of the Eden District Municipality, majority of them did benefited from the train operation and they would like to see the train revived back to operation. The strategies they would like to see being used to revive the train operations are municipal fund raising and private business raising funds themselves.

  7. District Energy Windsor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This paper presents a summary of how District Energy Windsor operates. It includes a system site map and reasons why it is advantageous to get connected to a district heating system. District Energy Windsor is a division of the Windsor Utilities Commission. It was developed in 1996 and was the first in North America to supply both heating and cooling requirements. It supplies nearly 2 million square feet of heating and cooling for Windsor's city centre. The district energy system produces hot water or chilled water at a central plant. Energy is then piped out to buildings in the area, including the Art Gallery of Windsor, the Royal Bank Business Centre, the Windsor Justice Facility, the Windsor Casino, and Northwind Windsor. The energy, which is transferred through heat exchangers, is used for space heating, domestic hot water heating, and air conditioning. The 8 reasons for getting connected are: (1) less management costs, (2) lower energy costs, (3) lower level of risk management, (4) stable energy rates, (5) better use of building space, (6) reliable service, (7) reduced expansion costs, and (8) a cleaner environment. District heating improves air quality through reduced carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxide emissions. In addition, fuel delivery and storage are eliminated. figs.

  8. District heating in Flensburg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prinz, W.

    1981-01-01

    The majority of our population, but also of our authorities, are still skeptical or even disapproving towards district heating. The reasons of this negative attitude are partly psychological - e.g. the individualism of the Swiss and their dislike for too centralised structures and ''forced connections'' - but also the existence of finished gas supply networks and the fear of considerable pre-investments and torn streets over years. The following article - held as a speech on the information meeting ''District heating and the possible contribution of nuclear energy'' organised by the Swiss Association for Atomic Energy in Bern shows a practical problem solving at the example of the district heating in Flensburg and deals with these questions.

  9. Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Districts - MDC_CommunityDevelopmentDistrict

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Community Development Districts (CDDs) are special taxing districts or local units of special-purpose government. A CDD may charge separate non-ad valorem special...

  10. Demonstrating the effectiveness of social franchising principles: the emptying of household ventilated improved pits: a case study from South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wall, K

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Having viewed the successful social franchising partnerships pilot programme that serviced sanitation facilities at 400 schools in the Butterworth District of the Eastern Cape of South Africa, the Amathole District Municipality (ADM) expressed...

  11. Interim district energy implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fearnley, R.; Susak, W. [City of Vancouver, BC (Canada); Johnstone, I. [BCG Services Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    The concept of district energy was introduced in the City of North Vancouver, a city of 45,000, in 1997. A preliminary study was completed in 1997, followed by a tour of some district energy facilities in Finland in the same year. In 1999 a large district energy study was completed by a consultant. The study indicated the need for an investment of $15 million to implement district heating in the City. Lack of sufficient financial resources and immediately connectable heat load, the project was considered a non-starter. Some of the other factors leading to shelving the project included no current significant pricing advantages over competing energy sources and no current opportunity for cogeneration, given the low price that BC Hydro is willing to pay for independently produced power. The project, although shelved for the moment, has not been discarded. Planning and exploration are continuing, aided by the City's commitment to energy efficiency and conservation, its long term planning horizon and its significant influence over the development of some prime real estate.

  12. Jordan Lake Watershed Protection District

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — Polygon representing the area of the Jordan Lake Watershed Protection District. The Watershed Protection District (PDF) is a sensitive area of land that drains to...

  13. New Mexico State Forestry Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains boundaries of the New Mexico Forestry Districts, plus the names of the district offices. It is in a vector digital structure digitized from a...

  14. Trends in perinatal health indices in the Amajuba District, KwaZulu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trends in perinatal health indices in the Amajuba District, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, 1990 - 2012. FS Bondi, TI Runsewe-Abiodun. Abstract. Background. In order to address the high perinatal mortality rate, South Africa (SA) commenced a number of interventions from 1995. These included the abolition of user fees, basic ...

  15. Food Defense Practices of School Districts in Northern U.S. States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klitzke, Carol J.

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed implementation of food defense practices in public schools in Montana, Wyoming, South Dakota, North Dakota, Iowa, Minnesota, and Wisconsin. The first phase involved a qualitative multi-site case study: one-day visits were made to five school districts in the states of Iowa, South Dakota, Minnesota, and Wisconsin. A principal,…

  16. An Exploration of Supply Chain Management Practices in the Central District Municipality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambe, I. M.

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of the paper is to explore supply chain management practices in the Central District Municipality, North West province of South Africa, using the grounded theory methodology. Supply chain management was introduced in the South African public sector to alleviate deficiencies related to governance, interpretation and…

  17. District Consolidation: Rivals Coming Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mart, Dan

    2011-01-01

    District consolidation is a highly emotional process. One key to success is sticking to the facts. In Iowa, school districts facing financial difficulties or enrollment concerns do not have to move directly to consolidation. In many cases, districts begin by developing sharing agreements. These sharing agreements may start with simple sharing of…

  18. Building a network of flowers, green, and ocean. Investigation report on establishment of new energy vision in Wada Town area (Chiba Prefecture); Hana midori umi no network zukuri. Wadacho chiiki shin energy vision sakutei chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-02-01

    With the idea of living together with well-blessed nature placed as the base of building the town, new energy utilization promoting measures were established spanning over ten years starting fiscal 2000. Specifically, the vision was established with the following points as the substance: introduction of new energy technologies into the agricultural and fishery industries as the basic district industry, initiative introduction into public facilities in consideration of repercussion effects brought about by the introduction, provision of energy related information by improving publicity magazines and information technologies, and expanded provision of environmental information collaborated with schools. Specific measures discussed include photovoltaic power generation, utilization of bio-mass energies made available from livestock excreta, and algae, utilization of hydro-energy through the improvement project of the Komukai dam, utilization of wind power energy and ocean wave power energy, and utilization of rape-seed oil as automotive fuel. Such educational activities will also be promoted actively as the setting of economy indexes, assistance to autonomous activities, and holding training meetings, seminars, and experience education class rooms. (NEDO)

  19. 7 CFR 917.14 - District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... District. (g) Contra Costa District includes and consists of Contra Costa County. (h) Santa Clara District... Ventura County. (l) Stockton District includes and consists of San Joaquin County, Amador County...

  20. VII international district heating conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The proceedings of the 7th International District Heating Conference contain the full texts of the 89 presented papers of which 11 fall under the INIS Subject Scope. The conference met in seven sessions and dealt with the following problem areas: design and optimization of systems of district heating, integration of the power system and the district heating systems, cooperation of nuclear and fossil burning sources in district heating systems, the use of specific nuclear power plants for heating purposes, questions of the control of systems of district heating, the development of components of heating networks, the reliability and design of heat supply pipes. (Z.M.)

  1. 78 FR 7703 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District, Proposed Rule... approve a revision to the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California... digesters. Rule 1127 was designed to implement the 2003 Air Quality Management Plan (AQMP) control measure...

  2. STROKE IN RURAL SOUTH AFRICA - CONTRIBUTING TO THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cerebrovascular accident (CVA) in a rural South African population. Design. ... part of a community-based prospective study examining the burden of disease, in ... to support district health development. .... Community-based work looking at ...

  3. District heating from Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-11-01

    The district heating system of Greater Stockholm must be based on other energy sources than oil. Two alternatives are assessed, namely heat from Forsmark or a coal fueled plant in the region of Stockholm. Forsmark 3 can produce both electricity and heat from the year 1988 on. The capacity can be increased by coal fueled blocks. For low electricity use, 115 TWh in the year 1990, the Forsmark alternative will be profitable. The alternative will be profitable. The alternative with a fossile fuelled plant will be profitable when planning for high consumption of electricity, 125 TWh. The Forsmark alternative means high investments and the introduction of new techniques. (G.B.)

  4. Client perspective assessment of women's satisfaction towards labour and delivery care service in public health facilities at Arba Minch town and the surrounding district, Gamo Gofa zone, south Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewana, Zeritu; Fikadu, Teshale; G/Mariam, Abebe; Abdulahi, Misra

    2016-02-11

    A woman's satisfaction with labour and delivery care service has a good effect on her health and subsequent utilization of the services. Thus knowledge about women's satisfaction on labour and delivery care used to enhances the services utilization. The objective of this study was to assess the satisfaction of women's towards labour and delivery care service and identify factors associated it at public health facilities in Arba Minch town and the surrounding district, Gamo Gofa zone, southern Ethiopia. Facility based cross sectional study was conducted among women who gave birth at public health facility. A total 256 women who gave birth during the study period were included in the study. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire. Satisfaction level was measured using a 5 point-Likert scale questions. Data were entered using Epi data version 3.5.1 and analyzed using SPSS 20.0 statistical software. Factor analysis was employed for Likert scale questions to extract factor represented each of the scale which facilitate treatment of variable as continuous for further analysis. Bi-variate and multivariable logistic regression analysis was employed to identify association between women's satisfaction and predicator variables. Statistical significance was declared at P value labour and delivery care. Factors associated with women's satisfaction with labour and delivery care services include: not attending formal education [AOR = 8.00, 95% CI = (1.52, 12.27)] attending antenatal care four times and more [AOR = 5.00, 95% CI = (1.76, 14.20)] waiting below 15 minutes to be seen by health professional [AOR = 3.37, 95% CI = (1.14, 9.97)] and not paying for drugs and supplies [AOR = 6.19, 95% CI = (1.34, 18.59)]. Although majority of women were satisfied with the labour and delivery service they got, their level of satisfaction was influenced by educational status, number of ANC visits, waiting time, and payment for drug and supplies

  5. An assessment of quality of home-based HIV counseling and testing performed by lay counselors in a rural sub-district of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuyolwethu Magasana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV counseling and testing (HCT has been prioritized as one of the prevention strategies for HIV/AIDS, and promoted as an essential tool in scaling up and improving access to treatment, care and support especially in community settings. Home-based HCT (HBHCT is a model that has consistently been found to be highly acceptable and has improved HCT coverage and uptake in low- and middle-income countries since 2002. It involves trained lay counselors going door-to-door offering pre-test counseling and providing HCT services to consenting eligible household members. Currently, there are few studies reporting on the quality of HBHCT services offered by lay counselors especially in Sub-Saharan Africa, including South Africa. This is a quantitative descriptive sub-study of a community randomized trial (Good Start HBHCT trial which describes the quality of HBHCT provided by lay counselors. Quality of HBHCT was measured as scores comparing observed practice to prescribed protocols using direct observation. Data were collected through periodic observations of HCT sessions and exit interviews with clients. Counselor quality scores for pre-test counseling and post-test counseling sessions were created to determine the level of quality. For the client exit interviews a continuous score was created to assess how satisfied the clients were with the counseling session. A total of 196 (3% observational assessments and 406 (6% client exit interviews were completed. Overall, median scores for quality of counseling and testing were high for both HIV-negative and HIV-positive clients. For exit interviews all 406 (100% clients had overall satisfaction with the counseling and testing services they received, however 11% were concerned about the counselor keeping their discussion confidential. Of all 406 clients, 393 (96.8% intended to recommend the service to other people. In ensuring good quality HCT services, ongoing quality assessments are important to monitor

  6. An assessment of quality of home-based HIV counseling and testing performed by lay counselors in a rural sub-district of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magasana, Vuyolwethu; Zembe, Wanga; Tabana, Hanani; Naik, Reshma; Jackson, Debra; Swanevelder, Sonja; Doherty, Tanya

    2016-12-01

    HIV counseling and testing (HCT) has been prioritized as one of the prevention strategies for HIV/AIDS, and promoted as an essential tool in scaling up and improving access to treatment, care and support especially in community settings. Home-based HCT (HBHCT) is a model that has consistently been found to be highly acceptable and has improved HCT coverage and uptake in low- and middle-income countries since 2002. It involves trained lay counselors going door-to-door offering pre-test counseling and providing HCT services to consenting eligible household members. Currently, there are few studies reporting on the quality of HBHCT services offered by lay counselors especially in Sub-Saharan Africa, including South Africa. This is a quantitative descriptive sub-study of a community randomized trial (Good Start HBHCT trial) which describes the quality of HBHCT provided by lay counselors. Quality of HBHCT was measured as scores comparing observed practice to prescribed protocols using direct observation. Data were collected through periodic observations of HCT sessions and exit interviews with clients. Counselor quality scores for pre-test counseling and post-test counseling sessions were created to determine the level of quality. For the client exit interviews a continuous score was created to assess how satisfied the clients were with the counseling session. A total of 196 (3%) observational assessments and 406 (6%) client exit interviews were completed. Overall, median scores for quality of counseling and testing were high for both HIV-negative and HIV-positive clients. For exit interviews all 406 (100%) clients had overall satisfaction with the counseling and testing services they received, however 11% were concerned about the counselor keeping their discussion confidential. Of all 406 clients, 393 (96.8%) intended to recommend the service to other people. In ensuring good quality HCT services, ongoing quality assessments are important to monitor quality of HCT

  7. A Tale of Two Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Mark

    2012-01-01

    These days, everyone seems to be wringing their hands about how to construct new evaluation systems that will make teachers better. This unnecessary angst has led to crazy experiments in reform that have embraced churn for the sake of churn, put school districts at risk, and demoralized many of the most talented teachers. A few school districts,…

  8. Redesigning the District Operating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodas, Steven

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we look at the inner workings of a school district through the lens of the "district operating system (DOS)," a set of interlocking mutually-reinforcing modules that includes functions like procurement, contracting, data and IT policy, the general counsel's office, human resources, and the systems for employee and family…

  9. Suburban District Leadership Does Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Eustace; France, Roxanne Garcia

    2015-01-01

    The increased demand for educational reform and accountability has resulted in a renewed focus on the relationship between building leaders and district leaders, particularly on how district leaders can support principals to ensure the academic success of students. The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) and Race to the Top (RttT) legislations…

  10. Nuclear district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricateau, P.

    1976-01-01

    An economic study of nuclear district heating is concerned with: heat production, its transmission towards the area to be served and the distribution management towards the consumers. Foreign and French assessments show that the high cost of now existing techniques of hot water transport defines the competing limit distance between the site and township to be below some fifty kilometers for the most important townships (provided that the fuel price remain stationary). All studies converge towards the choice of a high transport temperature as soon as the distance is of some twenty kilometers. As for fossile energy saving, some new possibilities appear with process heat reactors; either PWR of about 1000MWth for large townships, or pool-type reactors of about 100MWth when a combination with an industrial steam supply occurs [fr

  11. VT Data - Overlay District 20170419, Colchester

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The following Overlay Districts are included in the data:General Development Four Commercial DistrictGeneral Development Four Openspace DistrictShoreland...

  12. VT Data - Overlay District 20070306, Marlboro

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Cartographic version of overlay district (surface water buffer), Marlboro, Vermont. Base zoning districts are in a separate shapefile. Data were originally created...

  13. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-21

    States to last forever. But no mood or policy lasts forever. There is a large Arab lobby there now, and American public opinion has been influenced...interpretation of Saddam Husayn’s handwriting by Israeli graphologist Hana Qoren, who plainly and without any hesitation warned about the danger of Saddam...and sports. The adults are always correct and your ability to dispute your destiny is limited. In his childhood, he drew caricatures of Hitler

  14. 2006 Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) Lidar: North District

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is one component of a digital terrain model (DTM) for the Southwest Florida Water Management District's FY2006 Digital Orthophoto (B089) and LiDAR...

  15. Management of district hospitals--exploring success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couper, Ian D; Hugo, Jannie F M

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore and document what assists a rural district hospital to function well. The lessons learned may be applicable to similar hospitals all over the world. A cross-sectional exploratory study was carried out using in-depth interviews with 21 managers of well-functioning district hospitals in two districts in South Africa. Thirteen themes were identified, integrated into three clusters, namely 'Teams working together for a purpose', 'Foundational framework and values' and 'Health Service and the community'. Teamwork and teams was a dominant theme. Teams working together are held together by the cement of good relationships and are enhanced by purposeful meetings. Unity is grown through solving difficult problems together and commitment to serving the community guides commitment towards each other, and towards patients and staff. Open communication and sharing lots of information between people and teams is the way in which these things happen. The structure and systems that have developed over years form the basis for teamwork. The different management structures and processes are developed with a view to supporting service and teamwork. A long history of committed people who hand over the baton when they leave creates a stable context. The health service and community theme cluster describes how integration in the community and community services is important for these managers. There is also a focus on involving community representatives in the hospital development and governance. Capacity building for staff is seen in the same spirit of serving people and thus serving staff, all aimed at reaching out to people in need in the community. The three clusters and thirteen themes and the relationships between them are described in detail through diagrams and narrative in the article. Much can be learned from the experience of these managers. The key issue is the development of a team in the hospital, a team with a unified vision of giving

  16. Who's out there? A profile of informal traders in four South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A profile of informal traders in four South African city central business districts. ... Town and Regional Planning ... By using data gathered among street traders in four major metropolitan areas of South Africa, this article seeks to provide a current profile of individuals that are involved in street trading in South African cities.

  17. Allegheny County School District Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates the school district boundaries within Allegheny County If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open...

  18. New Mexico Property Tax Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico tax district "OUT" categories and incorporated/municipal "IN" categories as identified on the "Certificate of Tax...

  19. The Winfrith district gamma survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavell, I.W.; Peabody, C.O.

    1961-09-01

    This report describes the District Gamma Survey carried out around the A.E.E., Winfrith since June, 1959. Its organisation, equipment and techniques are described, and the results obtained up to the 31st December, 1960 are given. (author)

  20. Boise geothermal district heating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, P.J.

    1985-10-01

    This document describes the Boise geothermal district heating project from preliminary feasibility studies completed in 1979 to a fully operational system by 1983. The report includes information about the two local governments that participated in the project - the City of Boise, Idaho and the Boise Warm Springs Water District. It also discusses the federal funding sources; the financial studies; the feasibility studies conducted; the general system planning and design; design of detailed system components; the legal issues involved in production; geological analysis of the resource area; distribution and disposal; the program to market system services; and the methods of retrofitting buildings to use geothermal hot water for space heating. Technically this report describes the Boise City district heating system based on 170/sup 0/F water, a 4000 gpm production system, a 41,000 foot pipeline system, and system economies. Comparable data are also provided for the Boise Warm Springs Water District. 62 figs., 31 tabs.

  1. District Governance and Student Learning in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Pradhan, Menno; de Ree, Joppe

    2014-01-01

    We document the likely importance of district governance and teacher management policies in relation to student learning in Indonesian primary schools. As the responsibility to deliver primary education has been decentralized to district governments, we expect district specific variations in teacher management policies. Consequently, we also expect variations in learning trajectories across districts. We document substantial heterogeneity in learning gains across districts. Furthermore, we sh...

  2. Vaal Reefs South uranium plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    The Vaal Reefs mining complex, part of the Anglo American Corporation, is the largest gold and uranium producing complex in the world, being South Africa's principal producer, accounting for about a quarter of the country's uranium production. Vaal Reefs South uranium plant in the Orkney district was recently officially opened by Dr AJA Roux, the retiring president of the Atomic Energy Board and chairman of the Uranium Enrichment Corporation and will increase the country's uranium production. In the field of technology, and particularly processing technology, South Africa has shown the world unprecedented technology achievement in the field of uranium extraction from low grade ores and the development of the unique uranium enrichment process. New technical innovations that have been incorporated in this new plant are discussed

  3. Breech presentation at a district level hospital in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-03-05

    Mar 5, 2009 ... The results of the Term Breech Trial led the researchers to conclude that the combined ... and methodology of the Term Breech Trial6 and suggestions made that .... gestation), giving an incidence of 2.4%. Three hundred and ...

  4. Lymphatic filariasis in Luangwa District, South-East Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shawa, Sheila Tamara; Mwase, Enala T.; Pedersen, Erling Møller

    2013-01-01

    and intensity of Bm14 antibodies were much higher in individuals ≥ 30 years than in younger individuals (57.2 vs. 19.3%; 0.594 vs. 0.241 OD-values). Elephantiasis and hydrocele were well known clinical manifestations in the area, but only one case of hydrocele was detected in the study population. Identified...

  5. Malaria in Bulambya, Ileje district, south-west Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Sub-Saharan Africa, this disease has devastating impact on socio-economic development, as it perpetuates poverty and enhances underdevelopment. Globally, about 550 million people are at risk of contracting malaria with an annual total of between 250-450 million clinical cases reported, and an estimate of over one ...

  6. Necrotizing Periodontal Diseases in a Semirural District of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Hamilton Wood

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of this study was to characterize the lesions of necrotizing gingivitis (NG and necrotizing periodontitis (NP with regard to extent and severity, and to correlate these parameters with the host HIV serostatus, CD4+ T-cell count, neutrophil count, age, and gender. Methods. Eighty-four consecutive patients, 39 black females and 45 black males aged 20–46 years, diagnosed with NG/NP were recruited to the study over a period of two years. Results. For both HIV-seropositive and -seronegative patients, the mandibular anterior gingiva was most frequently affected; 74% had NG/NP affecting ≥5 gingival tooth sites. Ninety percent of all patients had a mean severity of ≤4 mm. There was no statistically significant association between either extent or severity of NG/NP and HIV serostatus, CD4+ T-cell count, neutrophil count, age, or gender. The difference between the number of HIV-seropositive patients with NG/NP who had CD4+ T-cell counts ≤200 cells/mm3 and those who had CD4+ T cell counts of 201–499 cells/mm3 was not statistically significant. Conclusion. The clinical signs of NG/NP are similar in HIV-seropositive and -seronegative patients, and are not related to CD4+ T-cell count, to neutrophil count, to gender, or to age.

  7. Teachers' Perceptions of School Nutrition Education's Influence on Eating Behaviours of Learners in the Bronkhorstspruit District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupolati, Mojisola D.; Gericke, Gerda J.; MacIntyre, Una E.

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative investigation can provide invaluable information towards understanding the influence of school nutrition education (NE). The study explored teachers' perceptions of the immediate impact of NE on learners' eating behaviours. Twenty-four primary school teachers in the Bronkhorstspruit district, Gauteng, South Africa, who taught nutrition…

  8. A needs-based approach to equitable allocation of district primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    given that young children, the elderly and women of childbearing age have ... of public funds, in contexts where there is a large private sector, the ... Inequity in resource allocation and expenditure exists in the South African (SA) health system at provincial and district level. .... resulting in a case of 'robbing Peter to pay Paul'.

  9. Environmental Assessment and FONSI for the Bison School District Heating Plant Project (Institutional Conservation Program [ICP]).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

    This paper examines the environmental impacts of replacing the Bison, South Dakota School District's elementary and high school heating system consisting of oil-fired boilers, and supporting electrical components with a new coal-fired boiler and supporting control system piping. Various alternative systems are also examined, including purchasing a…

  10. 78 FR 3879 - Ochoco National Forest, Paulina Ranger District; Oregon; Fox Canyon Cluster Allotment Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-17

    ... approximately 35 miles east of Prineville, south of Big Summit Prairie. The four allotments are Antler, Brush... other applicable legal requirements within the project area. Paulina Ranger District data indicates that throughout the project area, stream shade and bank stability do not meet Forest Plan standards. In addition...

  11. South Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, P.

    1990-01-01

    South Korea aspires to become a major nuclear supplier in the world nuclear market. There is no doubt that South Korea has great potential to fulfill these aspirations. South Korea is well positioned in terms of competitiveness, market relationships, institutional capability, ability to deliver, and commitment to nonproliferation values. As a mercantilist state, South Korea hopes to capitalize on its close relationships with transnational nuclear corporations in this endeavor. It hopes to participate in two- or three-way joint ventures---especially with the American firms that have traditionally predominated in the South Korean domestic nuclear business---to market their nuclear wares abroad. This paper is divided into four parts. The first section describes South Korea's intent to become a nuclear supplier in the 1990s. It delineates the networks of prior transactions and relationships that South Korea may use to penetrate export markets. The second section reviews South Korea's nuclear export potential, particularly its technological acquisitions from the domestic nuclear program. These capabilities will determine the rate at which South Korea can enter specific nuclear markets. The third section describes the institutional framework in South Korea for the review and approval of nuclear exports

  12. Joint irrigation districts hydropower assessment study. Final feasibility assessment report. Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-02-01

    In August 1978, the United States Department of Energy and the Turlock Irrigation District entered into a cooperative agreement for a Joint District's Low-Head Hydropower Assessment Study. The purpose of the agreement was to carry out a study of the hydropower potential at sites within the borders of the Turlock, Merced, South San Joaquin, and Oakdale Irrigation Districts in California. The required data were gathered and analyzed. The results of this study indicate the total potential small hydropower capacity with the Joint Districts is 19,560 kW installed with an annual energy generation of 68,561,800 kWh. This is equivalent to oil-savings of 118,616 barrels per y.

  13. South-South Migration and Remittances

    OpenAIRE

    Ratha, Dilip; Shaw, William

    2007-01-01

    South-South Migration and Remittances reports on preliminary results from an ongoing effort to improve data on bilateral migration stocks. It sets out some working hypotheses on the determinants and socioeconomic implications of South-South migration. Contrary to popular perception that migration is mostly a South-North phenomenon, South-South migration is large. Available data from nation...

  14. Industrial District as a Corporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza MOHAMMADY GARFAMY

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a comparison study of industrial districts in two European countries, Spain and Sweden, using the conceptual framework of corporation. The relevance of this approach is based on the specific qualities that the industrial districts have, including the preexisting conditions, local traditions, products and production characteristics, marketing strategies, local policies and present challenges. The findings indicate the ways in which different patterns of inter-firm relationships, organization of production and dynamics of local alliances have shaped divergent regional responses to the industrial construction.

  15. Improving district heating in Kiev

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salminen, P.

    2000-01-01

    The district heating modernisation project currently under way in Kiev, the capital of the Ukraine, is the largest project of its type financed by the World Bank. The budget for the five-year project is some USD 250 million of which USD 200 million is financed by the World Bank loan. The target of the project is to improve the city's district heating system, which is owned and operated by Kyivenergo. Consultancy services for the Project Implementation Unit are being provided by Electrowatt-Ekono and financed by the Finnish government

  16. Future Services for District Heating Solutions in Residential Districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannele Ahvenniemi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The underlying assumption of this study is that in order to retain the competitiveness while reaching for the EU targets regarding low-energy construction, district heating companies need to develop new business and service models. How district heating companies could broaden their perspective and switch to a more service-oriented way of thinking is a key interest of our research. The used methods in our study are house builder interviews and a questionnaire. With the help of these methods we discussed the potential interest in heating related services acquiring a comprehensive understanding of the customer needs. The results indicate the importance of certain criteria when choosing the heating system in households: easiness, comfort and affordability seem to dominate the house builders’ preferences. Also environmental awareness seems to be for many an important factor when making a decision about the heating of the house. Altogether, based on the results of this study, we suggest that the prospects of district heating could benefit from highlighting certain aspects and strengths in the future. District heating companies need to increase flexibility, readiness to adopt new services, to invest in new marketing strategies and improving the communication skills.

  17. Selected Hydrologic Data, Through Water Year 1998, Black Hills Hydrology Study, South Dakota

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Driscoll, Daniel G; Bradford, Wendell L; Moran, Michael J

    2000-01-01

    .... This study is a long-term cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey, the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources, and the West Dakota Water Development District...

  18. Impact of the introduction of a colposcopy service in a rural South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To describe the establishment of a colposcopy service at a district hospital in a rural sub-district of the Western Cape, South Africa, and assess its impact on colposcopy uptake. Design. A retrospective double-group cohort study using a laboratory database of cervical cytology results, clinical records and ...

  19. Districts Neglecting Programs for ELLs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    The author reports on state and independent reviews that cite shortcomings in four urban systems. According to the reviews of those school systems over the past two years, four urban districts--in Boston, Massachusetts; Buffalo, New York; Portland, Oregon; and Seattle, Washington--did not provide special help to learn English to all students…

  20. Nation, Districts Step up Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nirvi

    2013-01-01

    President Barack Obama's announcement last week of a wide-ranging anti-violence plan in response to the Newtown, Connecticut, school shootings comes as many districts are adopting new and sometimes dramatic measures--including arming teachers and volunteers--intended to prevent similar tragedies in their own schools. School safety experts warn…

  1. Marketing Techniques for School Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, John J., Ed.

    Development of marketing plans can assist not only public school districts in meeting recent competition but will also improve educational processes, increase revenue, and restore confidence in schools. This collection of articles describes a new role for school administrators--particulary for business managers: administrators as "entrepreneurs."…

  2. South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brixen, Peter; Tarp, Finn

    1996-01-01

    This paper explores the macroeconomic situation and medium-term perspectives of the South African economy. Three fully quantified and internally consistent scenarios are presented. The projections demonstrate that there is room for increased public spending in real terms to help address South Afr...... macro-economic balance and avoid unsustainable public sector deficits...

  3. South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brixen, Peter; Tarp, Finn

    1996-01-01

    This paper explores the macroeconomic situation and medium-term perspectives of the South African economy. Three fully quantified and internally consistent scenarios are presented. The projections demonstrate that there is room for increased public spending in real terms to help address South Afr...... macro-economic balance and avoid unsustainable public sector deficits....

  4. Dynamics of health status of residents in the Lugyny district after the accident at the ChNPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godlevsky, I.; Nasvit, O.

    1998-01-01

    The Lugyny district lies in the northern part of the Zhytomyr region of Ukraine within 110-150 km from the Chernobyl nuclear power station (ChNPS). Its territory is crossed by the southern and south-western tracks that were formed by the Chernobyl accident in April 1986. The total territory of the district constitutes approximately 900 km 2 , the territory of agricultural land - more than 300 km 2 , and about 190 km 2 of them arable land. Practically all agricultural land in the district have the 137 Cs contamination density higher than 1 Ci/km 2 . Prior to the Chernobyl accident about 30 thousand residents were living in the Lugyny district. By the present moment the population of the district has dropped to approximately 22 thousand people due to resettlement from the most contaminated territories and the decrease in the birth-rate. (J.P.N.)

  5. Location - Managed Facility - St. Paul District (MVP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — St. Paul District - US Army Corps of Engineers Managed Facility locations. District headquarters, Natural Resource, Recreation, Lock and Dam, and Regulatory offices...

  6. U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This layer is a polygonal dataset that represents land and maritime boundaries for each representative United States Coast Guard district, which includes district 1,...

  7. VT Data - Overlay District 20170228, Richmond

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The following overlay districts are included in the data:Shoreline Protection OverlayFlood Hazard OverlayDetails about these overlay districts, as well as zoning...

  8. Reading a District Budget: Reporter Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Michele

    2013-01-01

    Every school budget tells a story--about a district's spending plan, its priorities, goals, and financial health. The challenge is to wade through the jargon and numbers to unlock that story. Although budgets can vary significantly from district to district, and state to state, this primer seeks to introduce reporters to the fundamental components…

  9. 7 CFR 958.27 - Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...; (2) changes in the relative position of existing districts with respect to onion production; (3) the... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ONIONS GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED... Districts. (a) For the purpose of selecting committee members, the following districts of the production...

  10. Sexual Harassment Policies in Florida School Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienzo, Barbara A.; Moore, Michele Johnson

    1998-01-01

    Investigated the extent to which Florida's school districts complied with the Florida Department of Education's (FDOE) recommendations for addressing sexual harassment in schools. Surveys of district equity coordinators and analysis of policies indicated that most districts approved sexual harassment policies incorporating many FDOE…

  11. School District Cash Management. Program Audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Legislative Commission on Expenditure Review, Albany.

    New York State law permits school districts to invest cash not immediately needed for district operation and also specifies the kinds of investments that may be made in order to ensure the safety and liquidity of public funds. This audit examines cash management and investment practices in New York state's financially independent school districts.…

  12. 7 CFR 982.31 - Grower districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grower districts. 982.31 Section 982.31 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... importance of production in each district and the number of growers in each district; (2) the geographic...

  13. Conflict Management in Declining School Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, William Lowe; Wheaton, Dennis R.

    1983-01-01

    Professional literature about managing conflicts associated with declining enrollments indicates the existing tension in this area. A research study shows that, while upper-middle class districts may succeed using a rational approach to decision making, lower class districts, for various reasons, may not. Special problems of urban districts are…

  14. Regional District Attorney's Offices - Alaska Department of Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    District Stephen B. Wallace, District Attorney Physical Address: 204 Chief Eddie Hoffman Hwy. Bethel, AK Hours M-TH 8-4:30, F 8-12 Kenai - 3rd Judicial District Scot H. Leaders, District Attorney Trading Bay

  15. Geology and fluorspar deposits, Northgate district, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven, Thomas A.

    1960-01-01

    Pliocene time following deposition of the North Park formation. North Park strata in south-central North Park were folded into a northwest-trending syncline, and the central part of the Northgate district probably was warped up along a north- or northwestward-trending axis. Four north- to northwestward-trending faults cut the Precambrian rocks and White River formation on Pinkham Mountain and the area to the southeast. Similar faults 2½ and 15 miles west of the Northgate district cut rocks of the North Park formation, and all probably formed during the Pliocene period of deformation. The known commercial fluorspar deposits are localized along the two larger faults of the Northgate district, and they have been studied in detail. The White River formation in early Oligocene time covered a hilly terrain drained by southward-flowing streams. By late Miocene, the northward-flowing streams had cut to about the same levels reached by the pre-White River streams and had partly exhumed and modified the older terrain. During late Miocene and early Pliocene (?) time, the Northgate area was buried beneath the clays, sands, and gravels of the North Park formation. Subsequent erosion removed the higher part of the North Park formation, cut a surface of low relief across the exhumed Precambrian rocks, and removed all topographic evidence of the Pliocene period of deformation. The present courses of the major streams were superimposed across the buried terrains during this period of erosion. Rejuvenation during middle Pleistocene caused all major streams to become incised in sharp canyons. Copper minerals occur in small concentrations in some of the pegmatite masses in the gneiss complex. The copper-rich masses rarely exceed a few feet in diameter and constitute only a small part of the associated pegmatite body.Vermiculite is exposed in prospect pits and mine workings along the west margin of the Northgate district. All the venniculite that was seen is associated with small masses of

  16. 78 FR 58049 - Proposed Establishment of the Adelaida District, Creston District, El Pomar District, Paso Robles...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    ... Shallow, well- Deep alluvial Deep to moderate Mostly shallow drained, residual soils, with clay, depth... neither an approval nor an endorsement by TTB of the wine produced in that area. Requirements Section 4.25... Adelaida District viticultural area are hillside residual soils, which generally have shallow rooting...

  17. Economies of scale in the Korean district heating system: A variable cost function approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sun-Young; Lee, Kyoung-Sil; Yoo, Seung-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the cost efficiency of South Korea’s district heating (DH) system by using a variable cost function and cost-share equation. We employ a seemingly unrelated regression model, with quarterly time-series data from the Korea District Heating Corporation (KDHC)—a public utility that covers about 59% of the DH system market in South Korea—over the 1987–2011 period. The explanatory variables are price of labor, price of material, capital cost, and production level. The results indicate that economies of scale are present and statistically significant. Thus, expansion of its DH business would allow KDHC to obtain substantial economies of scale. According to our forecasts vis-à-vis scale economies, the KDHC will enjoy cost efficiency for some time yet. To ensure a socially efficient supply of DH, it is recommended that the KDHC expand its business proactively. With regard to informing policy or regulations, our empirical results could play a significant role in decision-making processes. - Highlights: • We examine economies of scale in the South Korean district heating sector. • We focus on Korea District Heating Corporation (KDHC), a public utility. • We estimate a translog cost function, using a variable cost function. • We found economies of scale to be present and statistically significant. • KDHC will enjoy cost efficiency and expanding its supply is socially efficient.

  18. Natural gamma radioactivity in the villages of Kanyakumari district, Tamil Nadu, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padua, J. C.; Basil Rose, M. R.

    2013-01-01

    In situ radiometric survey carried out in 81 revenue villages of Kanyakumari District, Tamil Nadu (India), using a portable radiation dosemeter/detector, revealed the existence of radiation hotspots along the coastal belt. A close observation of the coastal villages specifically revealed high background radioactivity in 14 coastal villages. A very high intrinsic anomalous radioactivity of 41.03 μSv h -1 was observed, in a famous tourist spot in the coastal belt of Kanyakumari District. This is the highest level of radiation registered in South India, which is extremely higher than the permissible world average and is suggestive of causing severe clinical problems on continuous and prolonged exposure. (authors)

  19. Natural gamma radioactivity in the villages of Kanyakumari District, Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padua, Jeni Chandar; Basil Rose, M R

    2013-01-01

    In situ radiometric survey carried out in 81 revenue villages of Kanyakumari District, Tamil Nadu, India, using a portable radiation dosemeter/detector, revealed the existence of radiation hotspots along the coastal belt. A close observation of the coastal villages specifically revealed high background radioactivity in 14 coastal villages. A very high intrinsic anomalous radioactivity of 41.03 μSv h(-1) was observed, in a famous tourist spot in the coastal belt of Kanyakumari District. This is the highest level of radiation registered in South India, which is extremely higher than the permissible world average and is suggestive of causing severe clinical problems on continuous and prolonged exposure.

  20. South Africa

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cathy Egan

    prompted in part by the growth of the anti-apartheid movement. ... showing a new degree of organizational capacity and power in South Africa and among .... leading institutions in the generation and application of new knowledge to meet.

  1. The South Greenland uranium exploration programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armour-Brown, A.; Tukiainen, T.; Wallin, B.

    1982-11-01

    This is the final report of the reconnaissance phase of the SYDURAN Project which was initiated in 1st. December 1978 to outline areas of increased uranium potential where more detailed prospection would be warranted. Districts and smaller zones in South Greenland which have the potential for containing economically exploitable uranium occurrences were defined using airborne gamma-spectroscopic, reconnaissance geochemical and geological methods. Other districts and areas have been shown to have no uranium potential and can be eliminated. The three promising districts are: 1. a 2000 square kilometre sub-circular district surrounding Ilimaussaq complex in which there are small high grade pitchblende occurences in faults and fractures in the surrounding granite. 2. the eastern area of the Motzfeldt Centre where large parts of the centre is mineralised and may give rise to exploitable, large tonnage, low grade uranium ore with associated niobium and rare earth elements in extractable quantities. 3. uraniferous rich districts or zones associated with the migmatitic supracrustal units in the area between Kap Farvel and Lindenows Fjord. The areas which were eliminated from having any uranium potential include: the Ketilidian supracrustal unit. the Nunarssuit alkaline complex. The uranium mineralisation in South Greenland is confined to two Proterozoic episodes: a) a late phase of granitisation and migmatisation with the formation of disseminated uraninite in the Migmatite Complex in the south of the project area between 1700-1800 m.y. and, b) hydrothermal activity associated with Gardar magmatic events between 1090-1170 m.y. in the central Granite Zone. Future work should be directed towards the definition and location of drilling targets. (EG)

  2. Nuclear power for district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, R.B.; Sochaski, R.O.

    1975-09-01

    Current district heating trends are towards an increasing use of electricity. This report concerns the evaluation of an alternative means of energy supply - the direct use of thermal energy from CANDU nuclear stations. The energy would be transmitted via a hot fluid in a pipeline over distances of up to 40 km. Advantages of this approach include a high utilization of primary energy, with a consequent reduction in installed capacity, and load flattening due to inherent energy storage capacity and transport delays. Disadvantages include the low load factors for district heating, the high cost of the distribution systems and the necessity for large-scale operation for economic viability. This requirement for large-scale operation from the beginning could cause difficulty in the implementation of the first system. Various approaches have been analysed and costed for a specific application - the supply of energy to a district heating load centre in Toronto from the location of the Pickering reactor station about 40 km away. (author)

  3. South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that South Africa's main reason for entering the international nuclear market is, and always has been, to sell its uranium abroad. From 1939-45 South Africa took part in the war against Nazi Germany, and the South African government of the time sought to help the Allied war effort in all ways that were practical. Later, during the Cold War, it tried to help build up the West's nuclear arsenal. In 1944, the British government secretly asked General Smuts---prime minister of South Africa since 1939 and a member of Churchill's War Cabinet---to survey South Africa's deposits of uranium. The survey, carried out with U.S. and British help, showed that the deposits were large, generally low-grade, but, in most cases, associated with gold and therefore could be profitably mined. In 1951, South Africa became a significant producer, with lucrative contracts for the sale of all its output to the U.S.-U.K.-Canada Joint Development Agency and one of the three main suppliers to the U.S. nuclear weapons program. In time, government controls eased and uranium production and marketing became a purely commercial operation

  4. Guidelines for District Heating Substations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-15

    The present guidelines contain a set of recommendations focusing on planning, installation, use and maintenance of district heating (DH) substations within district heating systems throughout Europe. The recommendations were developed in order to enable readers to develop well-functioning substations and an effective heat and domestic warm water delivery. These guidelines are intended to give the most effective overall solutions for various parts of the customer installation. The guidelines are not meant to specify the different components of the substation such as meters or heat exchangers. The guidelines deal with a wide variety of issues concerning both present systems of today and district heating systems of the future. Specific handling and maintenance recommendations are mainly focused on present modern systems but are also intended to cover the future situation as much as is feasible. For this reason, certain existing systems are not dealt with in these guidelines. For instance, these guidelines do not cover steam systems, systems with temperatures exceeding 110 deg C and pressure levels above 1.6 MPa. The guidelines include a chapter on the heat meter, as the meter and especially the meter installation is always installed simultaneously with the rest of the substation. These guidelines aim to provide best-practice and easy-to-handle recommendations for: - those who are responsible for relations between district heating utilities and customers; - those who own or maintain a building connected to the district heating network; - those who manufacture, plan, purchase, test and install substations. These guidelines do not deal with investment or cost aspects, but in general, Euroheat and Power recommends looking at the lifetime cost of all components of the substation, instead of investment costs alone. An example of this is provided in Chapter 7.8. The Guidelines were developed based on the most optimal operating principles of substations and meters

  5. Uranium occurrences in the Gordonia and Kuruman districts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, M.

    1978-11-01

    This report highlights uranium occurrences discovered by the author in the Kuruman and Gordonia Districts. These discoveries are the result of follow-up work of the regional geological, hydrological and hydrochemical studies of the area, undertaken by the Geology Division of the Atomic Energy Board since 1974. A surficial uranium deposit was discovered on the farm Rus en Vrede in the Kuruman District, at the junction of a palaeo-river with the Kuruman River. Uranium occurs in carbonaceous diatomaceous earth, with surface samples assaying up to 308 ppm U 3 O 8 . As uranium is also present in calcrete 18 km south of this deposit, there is a distinct possibility that significant surficial deposits may occur under the Kalahari sand cover in this area. In the Gordonia District an interesting discovery was made on the farm Tsongnapan where four boreholes, drilled for water, intersected radioactive bands in the Dwyka Tillite Formation. These rocks, which outcrop in the northeast corner of the Tsongnapan, also proved to be radioactive. Some 35 km to the east of this occurrence, borehole logging indicated the existence of an anomalous zone near the base of the Dwyka. In some of these boreholes uranium anomalies were also found in the calcrete and gravel of the Kalahari Formation. It is evident, therefore, that the Gordonia District has the potential of becoming an economically important uranium province. A radiometric ground survey of one of the pans indicated that wind and water action is possibly responsible for the local dispersion and segregation of radioactive minerals [af

  6. Accountability in district nursing practice: key concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Richard

    2015-03-01

    Public trust and confidence in district nurses is essential to the nurse-patient relationship that underpins effective care and treatment. That trust and confidence has even greater focus for district nurses who care for patients in their own homes. Those patients need to be able to count on the professionalism and probity of their district nurses. The professionalism and probity of district nurses is based on their accountability, which protects the public by imposing standards on district nurses and holds them answerable for their acts and omissions. This is the first of a series of articles on accountability in district nursing practice to mark the introduction of the revised Nursing and Midwifery Code on the 31 March 2015. This month's article considers the key concepts of accountability.

  7. Rehabilitation of district heating networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ottosson, Peter [AaF-Energikonsult Syd AB (Sweden)

    1996-11-01

    Often the choice is between reparation or exchange of a damaged section of the network. If the exchange is based on the wrong assumptions, large sections of undamaged pipelines could be removed. Most important for the district heating company is to decide which strategy to use for the future exchange of the pipelines. Whichever strategy used, it has to based on an assessment of the network and/or assumptions based on that assessment. The question if it is possible extend the life span of the pipelines arises. What is the most economical choice, the exchange or the renovation. (au)

  8. A good year for district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakken, Stein Arne

    2003-01-01

    In Norway, high prices on electric power have caused economic progress for the district heating companies. The price of district heating is determined by the prices of power and fuel oil. However, the government wants to remove the tax on electricity to the industry, which is the district heating companies' major group of customers, along with public buildings. This is likely to entail a great loss of income

  9. Thermodynamic calculation of a district energy cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoehlein, B.; Bauer, A.; Kraut, G.; Scherberich, F.D.

    1975-08-01

    This paper presents a calculation model for a nuclear district energy circuit. Such a circuit means the combination of a steam reforming plant with heat supply from a high-temperature nuclear reactor and a methanation plant with heat production for district heating or electricity production. The model comprises thermodynamic calculations for the endothermic methane reforming reaction as well as the exothermic CO-hydrogenation in adiabatic reactors and allows the optimization of the district energy circuit under consideration. (orig.) [de

  10. South African Medical Journal - Vol 105, No 4 (2015)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Basic and comprehensive emergency obstetric and neonatal care in 12 South African health districts · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. RC Pattinson, JD Makin, Y Pillay, N van den Broek, J Moodley, 256-260 ...

  11. South Dakota Department of Education 2010 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Dakota Department of Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    South Dakota has many things to be proud of: Its students consistently outperform their peers on national assessments. The state has a high graduation rate, and it ranks among the top states in the nation for students going on to postsecondary. Credit for these achievements goes to the state's local school districts. This annual report covers key…

  12. South Dakota Department of Education Data Access Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Dakota Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The South Dakota Department of Education (DOE) collects education records from local schools and districts in accordance with federal and state laws and regulations. This policy document establishes the procedures and protocols for accessing, maintaining, disclosing, and disposing of confidential data records, including data records containing…

  13. Adolescent alcohol use in rural South African high schools | Onya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To examine psychosocial correlates of lifetime alcohol use among adolescents in rural South African high schools. Method: Questionnaires were administered to 1600 students from 20 randomly selected high schools in the Mankweng district within Limpopo province. Self-report data on alcohol use, demographic, ...

  14. The increasing burden of tuberculosis in rural South Africa - impact ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To determine the impact of the HIV epidemic on tuberculosis caseload in rural South Africa. Setting. Hlabisa health district, Kwazulu-Natal. Methods. Demographic and clinical data were extracted from the tuberculosis database for the period, May 1991 June 1995. The attributable fraction of HIV-infected ...

  15. Monitoring drinking water quality in South Africa: Designing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In South Africa, the management and monitoring of drinking water quality is governed by policies and regulations based on international standards. Water Service Authorities, which are either municipalities or district municipalities, are required to submit information regarding water quality and the management thereof ...

  16. 75 FR 43958 - Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Application for Amendment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ... to the Turlock Irrigation District's Tuolumne Substation; (2) 23-mile-long, 69-kV Don Pedro-Hawkins Line extending from the Don Pedro switchyard to the Turlock Irrigation District's Hawkins Substation...

  17. 7 CFR 920.12 - District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... (e) District 5 shall include the counties of San Joaquin, Calaveras, Tuolumne, Merced, Stanislaus, Contra Costa, El Dorado, Amador, Sacramento, Alpine, San Francisco, Alameda, San Mateo, Santa Clara...

  18. Reinstating district nursing: A UK perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Hannah

    2017-09-01

    As policy directives gather pace for service provision to be delivered in primary care, district nursing has not been recognised as a valuable asset to facilitate this agenda. Investment in district nursing and specialist district nursing education has fallen. This is concurrent with an ageing district nursing workforce, a lack of recruitment and growing caseloads, as district nursing adapts to meet the challenges of the complexities of contemporary healthcare in the community. The district nurse role is complex and multifaceted and includes working collaboratively and creatively to coordinate care. Redressing the shortages of specialist district nurse practitioners with increased numbers of health care support workers will not replace the skill, knowledge, experience required to meet the complex care needs of today's society. District nursing needs to be reinstated as the valuable asset it is, through renewed investment in the service, research development and in specialist practice education. To prevent extinction district nurses need to be able to demonstrate and articulate the complexities and dynamisms of the role to reinstate themselves to their commissioners as a valuable asset for contemporary practice that can meet current health and social care needs effectively. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. 4th Generation District Heating (4GDH)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Werner, Sven; Wiltshire, Robin

    2014-01-01

    This paper defines the concept of 4th Generation District Heating (4GDH) including the relations to District Cooling and the concepts of smart energy and smart thermal grids. The motive is to identify the future challenges of reaching a future renewable non-fossil heat supply as part...... of the implementation of overall sustainable energy systems. The basic assumption is that district heating and cooling has an important role to play in future sustainable energy systems – including 100 percent renewable energy systems – but the present generation of district heating and cooling technologies will have...

  20. District Fiscal Policy and Student Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary G. Huang

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available School restructuring raises questions about the role of school districts in improving student learning. Centralization by state governments and decentralization to individual schools as proposed in systemic reform leave districts' role unsettled. Empirical research on the district role in the context of ongoing reform is inadequate. This analysis of combined data from the NAEP and the Common Core of Data (CCD was intended to address the issue. We analyzed 1990, 1992, and 1996 NAEP 8th grade mathematics national assessment data in combination with CCD data of corresponding years to examine the extent to which student achievement was related to districts' control over instructional expenditure, adjusting for relevant key factors at both district and student levels. Upon sample modification, we used hierarchical linear modeling (HLM to estimate the relationships of student achievement to two district fiscal policy indictors, current expenditure per pupil (CEPP and districts' discretionary rates for instructional expenditure (DDR. Net of relevant district factors, DDR was found unrelated to districts' average 8th grade math performance. The null effect was consistent in the analysis of the combined NAEP-CCD data for 1990, 1992, and 1996. In contrast, CEPP was found related to higher math performance in a modest yet fairly consistent way. Future research may be productive to separately study individual states and integrate the findings onto the national level.

  1. Agricultural Land Use in Ahlat District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necmettin ELMASTAŞ

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Ahlat district has suitable topography for growing of agricultural products. Almost half of Ahlat district is suitable for agricultural. Today, 32.7% of the land use in Ahlat is agricultural area. 90% of agricultural area is dry farming area. 10% of agricultural area is irrigated. 60.3%of land use in Ahlat district is pasturage area. The economy of Ahlat is based on agricultural and animal husbandry. Today, agricultural products such as wheat, potato and sugar beet are grown in agricultural areas. Ahlat district has some problems like unplanned production, irrigation and marketing.

  2. The Implementation Of Development Policy Of Airport And Road Transport Infrastructure In Malinau District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The implementation of development policy the airport and road transport in South Kayan District and the Kayan upstream in Malinau Regency is not yet optimal observe through observation perspective of Grindle 1980 as well as Sabatier and Mazmanian 1980 who saw the implementation of policies from the side of the interests of which are affected type benefits degrees change actorthe executive agency and technical difficulties. Geographical location of both districts that located between Indonesia and Malaysia the borded by mountainous dense jungle and the condition of erratic weather causing equipment and materials used in the project being difficult in mobilization of the trip to the region. In addition the executive policy the airport transportation and the General Working Agency to road infrastructure has a duty which includes a broad and diverse all areas East Kalimantan so that the both district was not development priority. Inland Border Area Management Board and Disadvantaged Areas BPKP2DT who specialized in shape to manage of border areas tend to only perform the function of coordination course so it does not have the authority in the implementation of development directly. So it is with telecommunication limited means of located in the area so that obstructed of coordination and oversight. However residents in the south kayan district kayan upstream support the governments policy in the construction of that infrastructure because policy felt the benefits both in the economic and social.

  3. Budget Stability, Revenue Volatility, and District Relations: Determinants of Georgia ELOST Distribution to Municipal School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinagel, Tyler P.

    2014-01-01

    School districts across the United States are often forced into situations where limited public funds must be distributed among multiple districts. These are often reliant on distribution rates negotiated by district leadership and elected officials. An example of this is Georgia's 1% Education Local Option Sales Tax (ELOST). The tax is collected…

  4. Revisiting "Rodriguez v. Los Angeles Unified School District": A Case of Intra-District Inequities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Ruben W.

    2010-01-01

    The educational community and the courts continue to struggle with the challenges of intra-district resource inequality revealed by the California Supreme Court landmark case "Rodriguez v. Los Angeles Unified School District" (1992). Intra-district school resource inequality is one of the remaining bastions of major inequalities in the…

  5. 77 FR 63326 - Huron Wetland Management District, Madison Wetland Management District, and Sand Lake Wetland...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-16

    ..., consistent with sound principles of fish and wildlife management, conservation, legal mandates, and our... FXRS1265066CCP0] Huron Wetland Management District, Madison Wetland Management District, and Sand Lake Wetland Management District, SD; Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Finding of No Significant Impact for...

  6. Wootz Crucible Steel: A Newly Discovered Production Site in South India

    OpenAIRE

    Sharad Srinivasan

    1994-01-01

    During the course of field investigations of copper mining and smelting in South India, the author of this paper came across a previously unrecorded archaeometallurgical site in Mel-siruvalur, South Arcot district, Tamil Nadu, which investigations have confinned was a production centre for wootz crucible steel in the Deccan. The find of this production centre supports the idea that wootz steel production was relatiYely widespread in South India, and extends the known horizons of this technolo...

  7. South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of South Africa was acquired on May 14, 2000, by NASA's Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, or MODIS. The image was produced using a combination of the sensor's 250-m and 500-m resolution visible wavelength bands. As part of the opening ceremony to begin the joint U.S.-South Africa SAFARI Field Experiment, NASA presented print copies of this image as GIFts to Dr. Ben Ngubane, Minister of Arts, Science and Technology, and Honorable Advocate Ngoaka Ramathlodi, Premier of the Northern Province, South Africa. The area shown in this image encompasses seven capital cities and a number of the region's distinctive geological features can be seen clearly. Toward the northern (top) central part of the image, the browns and tans comprise the Kalahari Desert of southern Botswana. The Tropic of Capricorn runs right through the heart of the Kalahari and the Botswanan capital city of Gaborone sits on the Limpopo River, southeast of the Kalahari. Along the western coastline of the continent is the country of Namibia, where the Namib Desert is framed against the sea by the Kaokoveld Mountains. The Namibian capital of Windhoek is obscured by clouds. Looking closely in the center of the image, the Orange River can be seen running from east to west, demarcating the boundary between Namibia and South Africa. On the southwestern corner of the continent is the hook-like Cape of Good Hope peninsula and Cape Town, the parliamentary capital of South Africa. Running west to east away from Cape Town are the Great Karroo Mountains. The shadow in this image conveys a sense of the very steep grade of the cliffs along the southern coast of South Africa. Port Elizabeth sits on the southeasternmost point of South Africa, and a large phytoplankton bloom can be seen in the water about 100 miles east of there. Moving northward along the east coast, the Drakensberg Mountains are visible. The two small nations of Lesotho and Swaziland are in this region, completely

  8. State and district policy influences on district-wide elementary and middle school physical education practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chriqui, Jamie F; Eyler, Amy; Carnoske, Cheryl; Slater, Sandy

    2013-01-01

    To examine the influence of state laws and district policies on district-wide elementary school and middle school practices related to physical education (PE) time and the percentage of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) time during PE. Multivariate, cross-sectional analysis of state laws, district wellness and PE policies, and district PE practices for school year 2010-2011 controlling for district-level urbanicity, region, size, race/ethnicity of students, and socioeconomic status and clustered on state. One hundred ninety-five public school districts located in 42 states. District-level PE coordinators for the included districts who responded to an online survey. Minutes and days of PE per week and percent time spent in MVPA during PE time. District PE coordinators reported significantly less PE time than national standards-82.9 and 189.6 minutes at the elementary school and middle school levels, respectively. Physical education was provided an average of 2.5 and 3.7 days per week, respectively; and the percentage of MVPA time in PE was 64.4% and 65.7%, respectively. At the elementary school level, districts in either states with laws governing PE time or in a state and district with a law/policy reported significantly more days of PE (0.63 and 0.67 additional days, respectively), and districts in states with PE time laws reported 18 more minutes of PE per week. At the middle school level, state laws were associated with 0.73 more days of PE per week. Neither state laws nor district policies were positively associated with percent MVPA time in PE. State laws and district policies can influence district-level PE practices-particularly those governing the frequency and duration of PE-although opportunities exist to strengthen PE-related laws, policies, and practices.

  9. Crafting Legitimacy in District-Community Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechasseur, Kimberly

    2017-01-01

    Background/Context: Partnering across districts, schools, and other community organizations has become ubiquitous as a policy for promoting change. Despite growing attention to and scholarship on district-community partnerships, there is little examination of the organizational mechanisms involved in sustaining them. Purpose/Objectives: This study…

  10. Smallholder agricultural technology development in Soroti district ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    National Agricultural Advisory and Development Services (NAADS) in Soroti district. The study shows that .... important additions are HIV/AIDS, basic principles of nutrition ... in supplying inputs to farmers and technology delivery, while the .... Table 3. Social differentiation of NAADS and FFS groups in Soroti district 2004.

  11. Districts Adjust to Growth in Older Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2012-01-01

    The 1,000-student Allegheny Valley district in Pennsylvania boasts generations of alumni and a community so involved with the schools that high school graduation becomes an open celebration in downtown Springdale Borough. Yet the district hasn't asked for a tax increase in three years, and it is pushing out a message to older residents about…

  12. Performance of District Disaster Management Teams after ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Uganda is vulnerable to several natural, man-made and a hybrid of disasters including drought, famine, floods, warfare, and disease outbreaks. We assessed the district disaster team's performance, roles and experiences following the training. Findings: The disasters most commonly experienced by the district ...

  13. Wireless Wide Area Networks for School Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Prakash

    This paper considers a basic question that many schools districts face in attempting to develop affordable, expandable district-wide computer networks that are resistant to obsolescence: Should these wide area networks (WANs) employ wireless technology, stick to venerable hard-wired solutions, or combine both. This publication explores the…

  14. District Leaders' Framing of Educator Evaluation Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woulfin, Sarah L.; Donaldson, Morgaen L.; Gonzales, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Educator evaluation systems have recently undergone scrutiny and reform, and district and school leaders play a key role in interpreting and enacting these systems. This article uses framing theory to understand district leaders' interpretation and advancement of a state's new educator evaluation policy. Research Methods: The article…

  15. Income Segregation between Schools and School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Ann; Reardon, Sean F.; Jencks, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Although trends in the racial segregation of schools are well documented, less is known about trends in income segregation. We use multiple data sources to document trends in income segregation between schools and school districts. Between-district income segregation of families with children enrolled in public school increased by over 15% from…

  16. the creation of new districts in Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    However, it focuses also on the financial burden that these newly created districts place on the locality and ..... Reports on one of the newly created districts paint a grim picture: “For more than 10 .... of the Consolidated Fund for such grants.80.

  17. Comprehensive District Reform: Philadelphia's Grand Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Useem, Elizabeth; Balfanz, Robert

    2002-01-01

    This report describes "Philadelphia's Grand Experiment" in comprehensive school district reform, from its conception through its initial months of implementation. In 2001, as part of the remedy for low student performance, the governor ordered the state to take over governance of the Philadelphia School District, with a substantial…

  18. Salaryfax for Nine Districts 1972-73.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque Public Schools, NM.

    This study compares salaries as well as benefits of school district personnel in the nine metropolitan school districts that include Albuquerque, New Mexico; Denver, Colorado; El Paso, Texas; Memphis, Tennessee; Phoenix and Tucson, Arizona; Wichita, Kansas; and Mobile, Alabama. The tables aggregate all the elements in the total compensation…

  19. Collaborative Strategic Decision Making in School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazer, S. David; Rich, William; Ross, Susan A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The dual purpose of this paper is to determine how superintendents in US school districts work with stakeholders in the decision-making process and to learn how different choices superintendents make affect decision outcomes. Design/methodology/approach: This multiple case study of three school districts employs qualitative methodology to…

  20. Energy Assessment of Automated Mobility Districts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yuche [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-03

    Automated vehicles (AVs) are increasingly being discussed as the basis for on-demand mobility services, introducing a new paradigm in which a fleet of AVs displace private automobiles for day-to-day travel in dense activity districts. This project examines such a concept to displace privately owned automobiles within a region containing dense activity generators (jobs, retail, entertainment, etc.), referred to as an automated mobility district (AMDs). The project reviews several such districts including airport, college campuses, business parks, downtown urban cores, and military bases, with examples of previous attempts to meet the mobility needs apart from private automobiles, some with automated technology and others with more traditional transit based solutions. The issues and benefits of AMDs are framed within the perspective of intra-district, inter-district, and border issues, and the requirements for a modeling framework are identified to adequately reflect the breadth of mobility, energy, and emissions impact anticipated with AMDs.

  1. Sustainable residential districts : the residents' role in project success

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdalla, G.

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable residential districts have been realized worldwide. These districts are promoted to be efficient in the use of natural materials and sustainable energy resources. Realization of sustainable residential districts can strongly contribute to achieve environmental objectives as imposed by

  2. South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This document provides information on the status of institutional and financial arrangements in South Africa for the long term management of HLW and SNF, It includes the following elements: A consistent set of requirements for the technical and legal infrastructure including: funding, liability, institutional control, records management, and research activities; An organizational structure with clearly defined responsibilities; and Provisions for participation by interested parties in decisions and outcomes

  3. VT Data - Cons/Rec Overlay District 20110301, Winhall

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Conservation and Recreatioal Protection overaly districts for the Town of Winhall, Vermont. Other overlay districts (Transfer of Development Rights, and Scenic...

  4. Ontario Power Authority district energy research report : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-02-01

    This paper presented an analysis of the technical and economic characteristics of district energy in Ontario. The market context for district energy was evaluated, and institutional issues that may influence the future development and operation of district energy systems in Ontario were explored. Technical, economic, and environmental analyses of district energy based on different neighbourhood sizes, types, and district energy systems were presented. Three case studies were included to demonstrate real world district energy applications. A set of interviews conducted with representatives of the province's district energy supply chain was also provided in order to provide a framework for district energy opportunities and challenges within the province. 22 tabs., 16 figs.

  5. The Impact of Regional Differences on Elementary School Teachers' Attitudes towards Their Students' Use of Code Switching in a South Texas School District (El impacto de las diferencias regionales en las actitudes de docentes de primaria respecto a la alternancia de códigos por parte de los estudiantes en un distrito escolar del sur de Texas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava Gómez, Guadalupe Nancy; García, Hilda

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on investigating whether the teachers' geographical distribution influences their attitudes towards their students' use of code switching. The study was guided by the following research question: Are there differences between teachers' opinions of the north elementary schools and teachers' opinions of the south elementary…

  6. Legislative Districts, Four layers - One State Assembly district, one State Senate district, one US House of Rep district, and one US Senate district showing the locations in the County of Polk, WI., Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Polk County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Legislative Districts dataset current as of 2007. Four layers - One State Assembly district, one State Senate district, one US House of Rep district, and one US...

  7. Louisiana State House Districts from LEGIS source data, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (2004) [la_house_districts_LEGIS_2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — Louisiana State House Districts. The district boundaries are the result of legislative acts and redistricting. Reapportionment (redistricting) occurs during the next...

  8. Louisiana State Senate Districts from LEGIS source data, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (2004) [la_senate_districts_LEGIS_2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — Louisiana State Senate Districts. The district boundaries are the result of legislative acts and redistricting. Reapportionment (redistricting) occurs during the...

  9. Effective team management by district nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, Julie

    2004-12-01

    This article considers the key role played by the district nurse in managing the district nursing team in order to provide high quality health care. It considers how the district nurse can use key managerial roles (interpersonal, informational and decision-making) in order to ensure unity within the team. The importance of shared goals and trust to achieve unity is explored and a strategy for managing conflict is discussed. Finally, the article suggests a set of ground rules which could be used to facilitate effective team working.

  10. The Relationship of State Funding of Education to Student Performance on State Mandated Assessments in South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Joel Philip

    2012-01-01

    This study determined the relationship of state funding to student performance on state mandated assessments in South Dakota between the years of 2003-2009. A cohort group of 40 school districts between 200 ADM and 600 ADM who had not reorganized were selected. Data was collected using the Dakota STEP assessment portal on the South Dakota…

  11. 75 FR 6347 - Notice of Determination of Pest-Free Areas in the Republic of South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    ... the findings of a pest risk analysis, can be safely imported subject to one or more of the designated...] Notice of Determination of Pest-Free Areas in the Republic of South Africa AGENCY: Animal and Plant... recognizing 16 additional magisterial districts in 3 provinces in the Republic of South Africa as pest-free...

  12. Perfil clínico-epidemiológico dos casos suspeitos de Dengue em um bairro da zona sul de Teresina, PI, Brasil Perfíl clinico-epidemiológico de los casos sospechosos de Dengue en un distrito de la zona sur de Teresina, PI, Brasil Clinical-epidemiologic profile of Dengue suspicious cases in a district in the south zone of Teresina, PI, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyana da Costa Ribeiro

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi traçar o perfil clínico-epidemiológico dos casos suspeitos de Dengue em um bairro da zona sul de Teresina. Realizou-se um estudo descritivo-exploratório, por meio de inquérito domiciliar mediante aplicação de formulário com 28 pessoas. 88,9% tinham coleta de lixo 3 vezes por semana; 57,1% dos depósitos encontrados foram material de construção/peças de carro; 75% destinam as águas servidas a céu aberto; 60,7% desenvolveram primo-infecção, 75% realizaram sorologia, com 33,3% confirmados. Faltou uma maior efetividade de ações de saneamento por parte do poder público e um envolvimento da população no desenvolvimento de medidas preventivas no combate à dengue.El un objetivo del estudio fue establecer un perfil clínico-epidemiológico de los casos sospechosos de Dengue en un distrito de la zona sur de la cuidad de Teresina, PI, Brasil. Tratase de un estudio descriptivo-exploratorio en lo cual se aplicó un cuestionario a 28 residentes del área del estudio. 88,9% tenían colección de basura 3 veces por la semana; 57,1% de los depósitos analizados tenían material de construcción o piezas de auto; 75% de las casas tenían el escoto con destino a áreas libres; 60,7% tuvieron prima-infección, 75% fueron sometidos a serología, con 33,3% confirmaciones. Mayor efectividad de acciones sanitarias por el gobierno y un envolvimiento de la población en el desarrollo de programas preventivos de combate a la Dengue son necesarios.The objective of the study was to establish a clinical-epidemiologic profile of Dengue suspicious cases in a district in the south zone of Teresina, PI, Brazil. This study is a descriptive-exploratory survey in which it was applied a questionnaire to 28 residents of the mentioned district. 88.9% had garbage collection 3 times per week; 57.1% of the deposits had construction material or car parts; 75% destine served waters to opencast; 60.7% had developed first-infection, 75% were submitted to

  13. Hot springs in Hokuriku District

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, K. (Hot Springs Research Center, Japan)

    1971-01-01

    In the Hokuriku district including Toyama, Ishikawa, and Fukui Prefectures, hot springs of more than 25/sup 0/C were investigated. In the Toyama Prefecture, there are 14 hot springs which are located in an area from the Kurobe River to the Tateyama volcano and in the mountainous area in the southwest. In Ishikawa Prefecture there are 16 hot springs scattered in Hakusan and its vicinity, the Kaga mountains, and in the Noto peninsula. In northern Fukui Prefecture there are seven hot springs. The hot springs in Shirakawa in Gifu Prefecture are characterized as acid springs producing exhalations and H/sub 2/S. These are attributed to the Quaternary volcanoes. The hot springs of Wakura, Katayamazu, and Awara in Ishikawa Prefecture are characterized by a high Cl content which is related to Tertiary andesite. The hot springs of Daishoji, Yamanaka, Yamashiro, Kuritsu, Tatsunokuchi, Yuwaku, and Yunotani are characterized by a low HCO/sub 3/ content. The Ca and SO/sub 4/ content decreases from east to west, and the Na and Cl content increases from west to east. These fluctuations are related to the Tertiary tuff and rhyolite. The hot springs of Kuronagi, Kinshu, and Babadani, located along the Kurobe River are characterized by low levels of dissolved components and high CO/sub 2/ and HCO/sub 3/ content. These trends are related to late Paleozoic granite. Hot springs resources are considered to be connected to geothermal resources. Ten tables, graphs, and maps are provided.

  14. SECURE nuclear district heating plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson; Hannus, M.

    1978-01-01

    The role foreseen for the SECURE (Safe Environmentally Clean Urban REactor) nuclear district heating plant is to provide the baseload heating needs of primarily the larger and medium size urban centers that are outside the range of waste heat supply from conventional nuclear power stations. The rationale of the SECURE concept is that the simplicity in design and the inherent safety advantages due to the use of low temperatures and pressures should make such reactors economically feasible in much smaller unit sizes than nuclear power reactors and should make their urban location possible. It is felt that the present design should be safe enough to make urban underground location possible without restriction according to any criteria based on actual risk evaluation. From the environmental point of view, this is a municipal heat supply plant with negligible pollution. Waste heat is negligible, gaseous radioactivity release is negligible, and there is no liquid radwaste release. Economic comparisons show that the SECURE plant is competitive with current fossil-fueled alternatives. Expected future increase in energy raw material prices will lead to additional energy cost advantages to the SECURE plant

  15. Sacramento District History (1929-2004)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Collins, Willie; Asay, Laura; Davy, Barbara J; Doyle, Brian; Fast, James P; Gonzalez, Jennifer L; Layton, Debra A; Nevins, Michael J; Taylor, James H; Van Dam, Carl

    2004-01-01

    Although the Sacramento District was established in 1929, this document recaptures the legendary history from the mid-1800's and the repercussions the Central Valley endured regarding the navigation...

  16. VT Data - Overlay District 20170802, Shelburne

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The following Overlay Districts are included in the data:Lakeshore Conservation OverlyNeighborhood OverlayVillage Design Review OverlayVillage Core OverlayWater...

  17. NM Property Tax Districts November 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico tax district "OUT" categories and incorporated/municipal "IN" categories as identified on the "Certificate of Tax...

  18. NM Property Tax Districts December 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico tax district "OUT" categories and incorporated/municipal "IN" categories as identified on the "Certificate of Tax...

  19. FOUNDING OF THE DISTRICT HOSPITAL IN NIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misa Zivic

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available After the liberation of Nis from the Turks which took place on January 11th, 1878, there were two military hospitals: one was next to The Skull Tower and the other on the road to Leskovac and there was Islahana the civil institution which was not the forerunner of the district hospital in Nis. At first, they founded the military hospital in Nis in 1878 and then they founded The District Hospital on July 17th in 1881. The first director of the District hospital was Anton Zajicek. He is also the first graduated medical doctor in Nis. The District Hospital was situated on the left bank of the Nisava river in a private house.

  20. Allegheny County Voting District (2016) Web Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This webmap demarcates municipal voting districts in Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data...

  1. VT Data - Overlay District 20170407, Burlington

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The following Overlay District Data is included:Design Review OverlayInstitutional Core Campus OverlayRH Density Bonus OverlayNatural Resource Protection OverlayRL...

  2. School District Finance Survey, 2013-14

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Education — School District Finance Survey, 2013–14 (F-33 2013–14) is a study that is part of the Common Core of Data (CCD) program; program data is available since 1989–90 at ....

  3. Solar district heating and cooling: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez-Mora, Nicolas; Bava, Federico; Andersen, Martin

    2018-01-01

    and decentralized solar district heating as well as block heating. For the different technologies, the paper describes commonly adopted control strategies, system configurations, types of installation, and integration. Real‐world examples are also given to provide a more detailed insight into how solar thermal...... technology can be integrated with district heating. Solar thermal technology combined with thermally driven chillers to provide cooling for cooling networks is also included in this paper. In order for a technology to spread successfully, not only technical but also economic issues need to be tackled. Hence......Both district heating and solar collector systems have been known and implemented for many years. However, the combination of the two, with solar collectors supplying heat to the district heating network, is relatively new, and no comprehensive review of scientific publications on this topic could...

  4. District heating in Italy: Extent of use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacchi, E.

    1992-01-01

    The Author surveys the trend that has been established over the last two decades in the use of district heating in Italy. Comparison with the European situation reveals that Italy is lagging behind. The reason for this the Author states is the Italian public's aversion to unknown risks involved in the utilization of innovative technologies associated with cogeneration/district heating (current preference is given to autonomous methane fuelled building space heating systems), and the current opinion of some misinformed public administrations that cogeneration/district heating plants are too costly. Citing the successful campaign by the natural gas industry to promote the public acceptance of methane as a safe, readily available and competitively priced energy source, he suggests that similar efforts be made to have the public also accept cogeneration (with methane fired gas turbines)/district heating as being safe and environmentally, as well as, economically beneficial

  5. Allegheny County Voting District (2015) Web Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This webmap demarcates municipal voting districts in Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data...

  6. Allegheny County Magisterial Districts Outlines (2015)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset shows the magisterial districts in Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data portal...

  7. Utilization of Yard for Vegetable Hydroponics in Serut Village, Panti Sub-District, Jember District

    OpenAIRE

    dewanti, parawita

    2018-01-01

    Vegetables as a horticultural product is a food source that is always consumed by humans daily, including in urban areas. Assorted Vegetables can be eaten raw or processed and it takes as a decoration on the food. Needs vegetables including lettuce, green pakcoy and other vegetables from day to day continues to increase. Therefore, it needs supply of vegetables from the area around the town of Jember including Serut Village, District Panti Sub-District, Jember District. Serut village has the ...

  8. Stratigraphy of Slick Rock district and vicinity, San Miguel and Dolores Counties, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawe, Daniel R.; Simmons, George C.; Archbold, Norbert L.

    1968-01-01

    The Slick Rock district covers about 570 square miles in western San Miguel and Dolores Counties, in southwestern Colorado. It is at the south edge of the salt-anticline region of southwestern Colorado and southeastern Utah and of the Uravan mineral belt.Deposition of Paleozoic sedimentary rocks in the district and vicinity was principally controlled by development of the Paradox Basin, and of Mesozoic rocks by development of a depositional basin farther west. The Paleozoic rocks generally are thickest at the northeast side of the Paradox Basin in a northwest- trending trough which seems to be a wide graben in Precambrian igneous and metamorphic basement rocks; Mesozoic rocks generally thicken westward and southwestward from the district.Sedimentary rocks rest on a Precambrian basement consisting of a variety of rocks, including granite and amphibolite. The surface of the Precambrian rocks is irregular and generally more than 2,000 feet below sea level and 7,000-11,000 feet below the ground surface. In the northern part of the district the Precambrian surface plunges abruptly northeastward into the trough occupying the northeast side of the Paradox Basin, and in the southern part it sags in a narrow northeasterly oriented trough. Deepening of both troughs, or crustal deformation in their vicinity, influenced sedimentation during much of late Paleozoic and Mesozoic time.The maximum total thickness of sedimentary rocks underlying the district is 13,000 feet, and prior to extensive erosion in the late Tertiary and the Quaternary it may have been as much as about 18,000 feet. The lower 5,000 feet or more of the sequence of sedimentary rocks consists of arenaceous strata of early Paleozoic age overlain by dominantly marine carbonate rocks and evaporite beds interbedded with lesser amounts of clastic sediments of late Paleozoic age. Overlying these rocks is about 4,500 feet of terrestrial clastic sediments, dominantly sandstone with lesser amounts of shale, mudstone

  9. South African Music Studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAMUS: South African Music Studies is the official organ for the South African ... Shifty Records in Apartheid South Africa: Innovations in Independent Record ... Experiences of Belonging and Exclusion in the Production and Reception of ...

  10. Swedish district heating - owners, prices and profitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Sofie; Werner, S.

    2001-01-01

    Owners, prices and profitability are examined in this report for 152 Swedish district heating companies during 1999. Only public information available has been used: Prices from a national annual consumer study, energy supplied, lengths of district heating pipes installed, and average prices for energy supplied. These companies are responsible for 96 % of all district heat supplied in Sweden. District heating systems owned by municipalities were responsible for 65 % of all district heat supply, while the share of power companies was 34 %. Other private owners accounted for 1 %. Only 12 % of the board members are women and more than 40 % of the companies have no woman in the board. The prices gathered by the annual consumer study are good estimates of the price level of district heating in Sweden. The average revenues are only 4,1 % lower than the effective average of prices gathered. Price of district heating decrease with size and market share. Use of combined heat and power plants decrease prices slightly. Lower prices with size can mainly be explained by lower energy supply costs. Calculated rates of return in relation to calculated replacement values increase slightly by size and are almost independent of age and market share. The purport of these conclusions is that the district heating companies share the cost reduction from size with their customers, while the whole benefit from high market shares is repaid to the customers. Calculated rates of return vary among the owner groups examined. Lower rates are accepted by municipalities, while power companies have higher rates at the average costs used. Total replacement costs for the 152 companies has been estimated to 89 billion Swedish crowns or 10 billion Euro. Only correlation analyses using one dimension have been used in this study. A higher degree of quality can be obtained by using multi-dimensional analyses

  11. District heating in sequential energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, Urban; Werner, Sven

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► European excess heat recovery and utilisation by district heat distribution. ► Heat recovery in district heating systems – a structural energy efficiency measure. ► Introduction of new theoretical concepts to express excess heat recovery. ► Fourfold potential for excess heat utilisation in EU27 compared to current levels. ► Large scale excess heat recovery – a collaborative challenge for future Europe. -- Abstract: Increased recovery of excess heat from thermal power generation and industrial processes has great potential to reduce primary energy demands in EU27. In this study, current excess heat utilisation levels by means of district heat distribution are assessed and expressed by concepts such as recovery efficiency, heat recovery rate, and heat utilisation rate. For two chosen excess heat activities, current average EU27 heat recovery levels are compared to currently best Member State practices, whereby future potentials of European excess heat recovery and utilisation are estimated. The principle of sequential energy supply is elaborated to capture the conceptual idea of excess heat recovery in district heating systems as a structural and organisational energy efficiency measure. The general conditions discussed concerning expansion of heat recovery into district heating systems include infrastructure investments in district heating networks, collaboration agreements, maintained value chains, policy support, world market energy prices, allocation of synergy benefits, and local initiatives. The main conclusion from this study is that a future fourfold increase of current EU27 excess heat utilisation by means of district heat distribution to residential and service sectors is conceived as plausible if applying best Member State practice. This estimation is higher than the threefold increase with respect to direct feasible distribution costs estimated by the same authors in a previous study. Hence, no direct barriers appear with

  12. Optimising corrosion monitoring in district heating systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel; Thorarinsdottir, R.I.; Andersen, A.

    2002-01-01

    A three-year project - financially supported by the Nordic Industrial Fund - on monitoring of corrosion in district heating systems has been initiated with participation of researchers and industrial partners in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. The primary objective of the project...... is to improve the quality control in district heating systems by corrosion monitoring. In Danish systems electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), linear polarisation resistance (LPR), high-sensitive electrical resistance (ER) technology, crevice corrosion probes, as well as weight loss coupons...

  13. Land Suitability for Developing Soybean Crops in Bumi Nabung and Rumbia Districts, Central Lampung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Wijanarko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bumi Nabung district consists of 6 villages with a total area of 7,810 ha which are divided into 251 ha of rain fed rice lands, 4,908 ha of dry land, 1,317 ha of lowland, 1,158 ha of yards and 176 ha of others. Rumbia district consists of 14 villages which has a total area of 22,696 ha of land consisting of 2,728 ha of yards, 17,358 ha of dry land, 326 rainfed paddy field, 839 ha of swamp land, 1,470 ha of lowland and 4,232 ha of others. Bumi Nabung and Rumbia districts have a low soil fertility potential that is reflected by the lowof soil pH, CEC, total N, available P, and high level of exchangeable Al and Al saturation. The results assessment based on the physical and chemical characteristics showed that Bumi Nabung district have 5 villages on suitable class S-2 (North Bumi Nabung, East Bumi Nabung, Bumi Nabung Ilir, South Bumi Nabung, and Sri Kencono and one village New Bumi Nabung has less suitable class S-3. In the Rumbia District, there were 14 villages belonged to suitable class (S-2, namely Reno Basuki, Rekso Binangun, Teluk Dalam Ilir, Rukti Basuki, Restu Baru, Restu Buana, Bina Karya Buana, Bina Karya Putra, Bina Karya Jaya, Bina Karya Utama, Bina Karya Sakti, Joharan, Rantau Jaya Ilir and Rantau Jaya Baru. Bumi Nabung and Rumbia districts have the potential fertility and land suitability for extensification and development of soybean crops. The main technology components to support this program are the use of ameliorant (dolomite and zeolite, the application of organic fertilizers (manure and compost and inorganic fertilizers (NPK.

  14. Biomass universal district heating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltero, Victor Manuel; Rodríguez-Artacho, Salvador; Velázquez, Ramón; Chacartegui, Ricardo

    2017-11-01

    In mild climate regions Directive 27/2012 EU application for developing sustainable district heating networks in consolidated urban nucleus is a challenge. In Spain most of the municipalities above 5,000 inhabitants have a reliable natural gas network and individual heating systems at homes. In this work a new heating network paradigm is proposed, the biomass universal heating network in rural areas. This model involves all the economic, legal and technical aspects and interactions between the different agents of the systems: provider company, individual and collective end-users and local and regional administration. The continental region in Spain has 588 municipalities with a population above 1,500 inhabitants close to forest biomass with renewable use. In many of these cases the regulation identifies the ownership of the forest resources use. The universal heating networks are a great opportunity for energy saving of 2,000 GWh, avoiding 2.7 million tons of CO2 emissions and with a global annual savings for end users of 61.8 million of euros. The presented model is easily extrapolated to other small municipalities in Europe. The real application of the model is presented for three municipalities in different locations of Spain where Universal Heating Networks are under development. The analysis show the interest of the integrated model for the three cases with different structural agents and relationships between them. The use of sustainable forest resources, extracted and managed by local companies, strengths circular economy in the region with a potential global economic impact above 200 M€.

  15. Natural disasters in the Shikoku district. 1. ; Landslide. Shikoku ni okeru shizen saigai. 1. ; Chisuberi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yatabe, R [Ehime Univ., Ehime (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1991-09-25

    There are more than ten thousand places in Japan which are in danger of landsliding, and they are mostly distributed in Hokuriku and Shikoku districts. Shikoku is a district which suffers many typhoon disasters, and the rate of ground disasters among the typhoon disasters has been getting higher in recent years. Reports are made on the general characteristics and soil mechanical properties of fractured zone landslides, which are the majority of landslides occurred in the Shikoku district. Most of the landslides in the Shikoku district occurred in Sanbagawa zone, south of the central tectonic line, and little landslides occurred in the granite zone in the Inland Sea area. Although rocks in landslided areas are fractured, little progress is observed for clay formation. The scales of the landslides are from several tens of meters to over 1km, with the average of about 20m, in length and from 200 to 300m in width. Although some of them have the depth of more than 50m, the average is about 20m. Descriptions are made on the relationship between the movement of landslide and rainfall, strength constants of cohesive soil in the slid strata, and the variance in the dynamic constants of cohesive soil in the slid strata. 6 refs., 9 figs.

  16. The Partnership Pact: Fulfilling School Districts' Research Needs with University-District Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, Nicole; Weitzel, Bruce; Waggoner, Jacqueline; Naegele, Zulema; Smith, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    There has been a recent shift in university-district partnership models from traditional transactional partnerships, which lack a shared purpose, to transformational partnerships that are mutually beneficial to both universities and school districts. These transformational research-practice partnerships have gained popularity in the United States…

  17. Solar heat storages in district heating networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellehauge, K. (Ellehauge og Kildemoes, AArhus (DK)); Engberg Pedersen, T. (COWI A/S, Kgs. Lyngby (DK))

    2007-07-15

    This report gives information on the work carried out and the results obtained in Denmark on storages for large solar heating plants in district heating networks. Especially in Denmark the share of district heating has increased to a large percentage. In 1981 around 33% of all dwellings in DK were connected to a district heating network, while the percentage in 2006 was about 60% (in total 1.5 mio. dwellings). In the report storage types for short term storage and long term storages are described. Short term storages are done as steel tanks and is well established technology widely used in district heating networks. Long term storages are experimental and used in connection with solar heating. A number of solar heating plants have been established with either short term or long term storages showing economy competitive with normal energy sources. Since, in the majority of the Danish district heating networks the heat is produced in co-generation plants, i.e. plants producing both electricity and heat for the network, special attention has been put on the use of solar energy in combination with co-generation. Part of this report describes that in the liberalized electricity market central solar heating plants can also be advantageous in combination with co-generation plants. (au)

  18. Sun, Sand and Water: A History of the Jacksonville District U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 1821-1975

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    centuries-old ecological balance which had been developed in nature was not understood, considered, or known by those early pioneers who envisioned tap...could only see that "water will run down hill," brought ecological disasters to south Florida; the Jacksonville District Engineers, studying the...guided by the experienced man on the job. Starrett Brothers also shifted to prefabrication to aid construction. They set up plans for building

  19. Enhancing assertiveness in district nurse specialist practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Julie

    2016-08-02

    District nurse (DN) care delivery has undergone substantial change in recent years due to changing demographics and service delivery demands that have called for a move of care delivery from secondary to primary care. The title District Nurse is recorded with the Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) on completion of the Specialist Practice Qualification in District Nursing (SPQ DN), which purports to be a 'transformational' course that prepares future caseload holders to manage their team and prioritise care delivery effectively. This article explores the need for assertiveness skills in this role in response to Australian research, and outlines the pedagogic interventions implemented during the SPQ DN course to enhance this skill. Assertiveness scores were monitored for the duration of the course and demonstrated a significant increase-a topic that is now the subject of a future, funded study.

  20. Performance analysis of hybrid district heating system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikulandric, Robert; Krajačić, Goran; Khavin, Gennadii

    2013-01-01

    District heating system could contribute to more efficient heat generation through cogeneration power plants or waste heat utilization facilities and to increase of renewable energy sources share in total energy consumption. In the most developed EU countries, renewable energy sources have been...... as problems related to transportation, storage and environmental impacts of biomass and waste utilisation. Implementation of heat storages in district heating systems could contribute to integration of intermittent energy sources. Hybridisation of heat production facility combines two or more different energy...... more extensively used in district heating systems either separately or as a supplement to traditional fossil fuels in order to achieve national energy policy objectives. However, they are still facing problems such as high intermittences, high energy production costs and low load factors as well...