This month I’m writing from Song Jiang Number Two Middle School, my home for the summer holidays. There are six other foreign teachers here——three British, two Americans and one Peruvian. After two weeks together we’re really good mates, sharing adventures on a daily basis.
FOUR days after the adjournment of the 8th Chinese Women’s National Congress, President Jiang Zemin received all the newly-elected members of the executive committee and several deputies at Zhongnanhai. Gu Xiulian, Vice President and the First Member of the Secretariat of the All-China Women’s Federation (ACWF), briefed Jiang on the congress. She said deputies had reached consensus on certain issues: that women should capitalize on their abilities in the overall social participation; that the uplifting of women’s quality should be seen as a long-term strategy; and that women’s development requires a supportive social environment. Jiang Zemin listened attentively to the speeches delivered by seven deputies. Jiang Daguo, president of Hubei Provincial Women’s Federation, from one of the
Hiina president Jiang Zemini riigivisiidist Eestisse, kohtumisest peaminister Siim Kallasega. Samas: Pidulik õhtusöök: President Arnold Rüütel andis koos Ingrid Rüütliga piduliku õhtusöögi Hiina Rahvavabariigi presidendi Jiang Zemini ja proua Wang Yepingi auks 12. juunil 2002 Mustpeade Majas Tallinnas: menüü ; muusika
Hiina president Jiang Zemini riigivisiidist Eestisse, kohtumisest peaminister Siim Kallasega. Samas: Pidulik õhtusöök: President Arnold Rüütel andis koos Ingrid Rüütliga piduliku õhtusöögi Hiina Rahvavabariigi presidendi Jiang Zemini ja proua Wang Yepingi auks 12. juunil 2002 Mustpeade Majas Tallinnas: menüü ; muusika
<正>At the invitation of the India Council of Cultural Relations (ICCR), Jiang Zhenghua, president of the China-India Friendship Association (CIFA) and former vice chairman of the Standing Committee of the National
<正>It is an artistic treat to enjoy the landscape paintings drawn by Jiang Linjun, who not only makes use of traditional skills but also absorbs new aesthetic concepts in creating his works.By dint of years’ creative practice, Jiang has made deep researches of the paintings and calligraphy in the dynasties of Song, Yuan, Ming and Qing (960-1911) and kept copying them to learn a lot from the masters’ works and enrich his painting knowledge and skills.
Miss Jiang:I want to know more about the International HouseholdUtensil Exhibition.Ms.Brown:It is an exhibition with a 32-year history,catering to clientsfrom South Africa and Mexico.Over the past 32 years,the exhibition hasbeen well known for its high efficiency in signing contracts.
ANCHORWOMAN Chang Jiang of China Central Television (CCTV) enjoys popularity for her Automobiles and China program, which she writes and hosts. The program which started in 1994 aroused a comparatively strong response in the society because of its serious and deep thought about this absorbing topic. It took her twenty months to finish this program. Hundreds of people were interviewed and five notebooks were filled with reference materials. The script was revised seven times.
Loiseau, F.; Desrats, C.; Petit, P.; Liu, J.
With lots of references for 4-blade bulb turbines, such as these of Wu Jin Xia (4 units - 36.1 MW per unit - 9.2 m rated head), Chang Zhou (15 units - 46.7 MW per unit - 9.5 m rated head) and Tong Wan (4 units - 46.2 MW per unit - 11 m rated head), ALSTOM Power Hydro is one of the major suppliers of bulb turbines operating under medium head for the Chinese market. ALSTOM Power Hydro has been awarded in November 2010 a contract by Jiang Xi Province Xia Jiang Water Control Project Headquarters to equip Xia Jiang's new hydropower plant. The power dam is located on the Gan Jiang river, at about 160 km away from Nan Chang town in South Eastern China. The supply will consist in 5 bulb units including the furniture of both the turbine and its generator, for a total capacity of 200 MW, under a rated net head of 8.6 m. The prototype turbine is a 7.8 m diameter runner, rotating at 71.4 rpm speed. For this project, ALSTOM has proposed a fully new design of 4-blade bulb runner. This paper outlines the main steps of the hydraulic development. First of all, a fine tuning of the blade geometry was performed to enhance the runner behaviour at high loads and low heads, so that to fulfill the demanding requirements of efficiencies and maximum output. The challenge was also to keep an excellent cavitation behaviour, especially at the outer blade diameter in order to avoid cavitation erosion on the prototype. The shape of the blade was optimized by using the latest tools in computational fluid dynamics. Steady state simulations of the distributor and the runner were performed, in order to simulate more accurately the pressure fields on the blade and the velocity distribution at the outlet of the runner. Moreover, draft tube computations have been performed close to the design point and at higher loads. Then, a model fully homologous with the prototype was manufactured and tested at ALSTOM's laboratory in Grenoble (France). The model test results confirmed the predicted ones: the
Full Text Available Review of: Thomas Mullaney, James Leibold, Stéphane Gros, and Eric Armand Vanden Bussche (eds. 2012. Critical Han Studies: The History, Representation, and Identity of China's Majority. Berkeley, Calif: University of California Press. This path-breaking volume is an academic collaboration that emerged out of the "Critical Han Studies Conference and Workshop" at Stanford University in April 2008. Eleven scholars contributed to the question of what it means to be 'Han' in China, both historically and at present. Constituting over ninety percent of China's population, the Han are not only the largest ethnic group in China, but are also one of the largest categories of collective identity in the world. Despite this, the dominant Han group has so far eluded careful scholarly scrutiny, with the Han often referred to as an unmarked majority category in contemporary China. This volume challenges such conventional views by conceptualizing new interdisciplinary approaches to the question of Hanness. The eleven essays of the volume are divided into three themes: 'Han and China', 'The Problem of Han Origins', and 'The Problem of Han Formations'. The first theme, comprised of four essays, analyzes the ties that bind the category of Han to those of Chinese ethnicity, race, and polity. Kevin Carrico in "Recentering China: The Cantonese in and Beyond the Han" questions a single, unitary Hanness that he believes conceals "countless other perceived and imagined lines of differentiation" (25. The study examines how multiple identities...
Interview med den kinesiske aktivist og billedkunstner Ai Weiwei, der sad fængslet i 81 dage i 2011. Hans pas er stadig (i februar 2014) inddraget af myndighederne, så han kan ikke forlade landet, selv om han har betalt en bøde på 13 mio. kr. for ”skatteunddragelse”. Både i sin kunst og i sine...
In responding to the ongoing development needs of the university, we are seeking to recruit Chair Professors and Visiting Professors of ＂Chang Jiang Scholars Program＂ at home and abroad. School of Medicine, Tsinghua University
Chen Xiabo; Wang Hui
@@ Based on the knowledge of diabetes in traditional Chinese medicine and modem biomedical sciences,Dr. Wang Hui (王晖) designed Jiang Zhuo Mixture (降浊合剂) , a preparation for treatment of fat diabetes type 2. Jiang Zhuo Mixture showed good actions of strengthening the spleen and stomach,separating the clear from the turbid, resolving the stasis and decreasing the blood glucose level. These were reported as follows.
Jin Liang; Lihe Wang
@@ Professor Jiang Lishang Professor Jiang Lishang was born in Shanghai in October 1935 in a family migrated from Suzhou. He graduated from Department of Mathematics, Beijing University in 1954, and then began his teaching career at Beijing Aviation College. In the spring of 1957, he returned to Beijing University to study partial differential equations as a graduate student of Professor Zhou Yulin. He graduated in 1961 and began his teaching career at Beijing University. He later taught in Suzhou University and now is teaching at Tongji University. Between 1989 and 1996, he was the president of Suzhou University. From 2001 to 2005, he was the chairman of Shanghai Mathematical Society.In his more than 50 years' research and teaching career, Professor Jiang has many great achievements.
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are invisible killers to our environment and health.Among the fighters against those toxic chemicals, there is Prof.JIANG Guibin from the CAS Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences.As director of the State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, this tall, humorous and confident scientist is leading a world-class team for POPs study to meet China's strategic demand and scale the heights of environmental science.During a recent interview with BCAS reporter XIN Ling, Prof.Jiang said the impetus comes from his academic interest and "a scientist's commitment to his motherland".
This article was written on the occasion of Hans Grauert receiving the Cantor Medallion of the Deutsche Mathematische Vereinigung. It is a brief overview of his mathematical contributions and attempts to convey the author's great respect for the man and his science.
The Danish author, Hans Christian Andersen, living in the 1800s expressed through his fairy tales and other stories an enthusiasm for the technological breakthroughs in that century with trains, etc. But he also showed great concern for what the natural science did to people by narrowing their mind...
"There are a handful of people who soar, whose accompalishments are so off-scale as to nearly defy belief. Hans Bethe (2 July 1906 - 6 March 2005) was of that caliber. As just one measure of his stature, imagine the task of copying his published opus by hand, for that is how he wrote most of it" (2 pages)
Book reviewJIANG YAJUN,World Englishes:A Metadisciplinary Perspective.Beijing:China Social Sciences Prfess,2008.349pp.ISBN-10:7500475799,ISBN-13:9787500475798,paper cover.This book adopts the concept of paradigm from Thomas Kuhn to testify the World Englishes (Wes) research is a science under the applied linguistics,mainly focusing on the levels of the structure,the research method and the research topics in the WEs disciplinary.
Johnsen, Sigfus Johann; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe; Steffensen, Jørgen Peder
In the mid-1990s, excellent results from the GRIP and GISP2 deep drilling projects in Greenland opened up funding for continued ice-coring efforts in Antarctica (EPICA) and Greenland (NorthGRIP). The Glaciology Group of the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, was assigned the task...... of providing drilling capability for these projects, as it had done for the GRIP project. The group decided to further simplify existing deep drill designs for better reliability and ease of handling. The drill design decided upon was successfully tested on Hans Tausen Ice Cap, Peary Land, Greenland, in 1995....... The 5.0 m long Hans Tausen (HT) drill was a prototype for the ~11 m long EPICA and NorthGRIP versions of the drill which were mechanically identical to the HT drill except for a much longer core barrel and chips chamber. These drills could deliver up to 4 m long ice cores after some design improvements...
In 1937, two years after he moved to the US to escape Nazi persecution, the physicist Hans Bethe sent a letter to his mother in Germany. In it, he wrote, "I think I am about the leading theoretician in America. [Eugene] Wigner is certainly better and [Robert] Oppenheimer and [Edward] Teller probably just as good. But I do more and talk more and that counts too."
According to the method of water balance,the parameters of groundwater resouce of Jian San Jiang area have been calculated in the paper. At the same time,the quality of water supplying and water mining can be calculated. Furthermore ,the groundwater resource have been evaluated. Thus ,the paper provides the important references for managers to using groundwater reasonable.
1945-2003 Hans Sann, an internationally recognized scientist, beloved colleague and friend, died in a tragic car accident, on May 27th, on one of his many travels to CERN. Employed at GSI, in Darmstadt, since 1979, Hans Sann devoted most of his scientific career to the development of large size gas detectors for nuclear and high-energy physics experiments at GSI, CERN and Berkeley. One of his main achievements, among many others, was the famous MUSIC detector, on which several projects at GSI, Berkeley and other research Institutes were based. The innovative results obtained in the study of the fluid-gas transition in nuclear matter would not have been possible without his contribution and the application of the MUSIC detector. A member of the ALICE Collaboration since 1996, Hans was leading two main ALICE sub-programmes, the development of the gas system and the cooling system for the TPC detector. In addition, he was involved in the development of a new technological concept for the resistor chain of the ...
Paul Celan skrev det vigtigste litterære vidnesbyrd om holocaust, inden han druknede sig i Seinen. Ny samling af hans uafrystelige og virtuost forfærdende poesi på dansk.......Paul Celan skrev det vigtigste litterære vidnesbyrd om holocaust, inden han druknede sig i Seinen. Ny samling af hans uafrystelige og virtuost forfærdende poesi på dansk....
HAN Hong had a happy childhood in the beautiful Xigaze City, Tibet. From the children's chorus, the military art troupe, the Prize Winning Competition on TV, up to the institute of art, she has never stopped singing. The difference to other singers her age is that she not only wishes to be a singer but a composer. Not satisfied with just singing the songs of others, she began expressing her happiness and sadness by writing her own. Finally she finished her first collection Rays in Tibet, which is the fi...
The Thorium Energy Conference, ThEC13, ran from 27 to 31 October at CERN, addressing the scientific and technical advances offered by thorium – a silvery white metal four times more abundant than uranium in the Earth's crust – in alternative nuclear technologies for energy production and for the destruction of nuclear waste. Conference Chair Egil Lillestol invited Swedish diplomat and politician Hans Blix to talk about "Thorium Nuclear Power and Non-Proliferation". In a career spanning more than 50 years, Blix has been head of the International Atomic Energy Agency and the United Nations Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission. During the 1990s, CERN has been pioneering thorium technologies research with experiments instigated by Nobel laureate Carlo Rubbia, testing the basic concepts of a thorium-fuelled reactor driven by a proton accelerator.
As a famous litterateur in the early Qing Dynasty, Jiang Kai(1634-1701)makes great achievement in ci (a Chinese poetic genre), poems, essays and other fields. But few people know about his life. This paper is a con⁃cise chronicle of Jiang Kai’s life sorted out from the relevant history biography, local records and other document literatures, and it gives a systematic and thorough introduction to his making friends and works.%江闿是清初徽州著名的文学家，他在诗、词、文等多个领域均有较高成就，但其生平事迹鲜为人知。文中从有关史乘、方志、文集等资料中整理其年谱简编，系统介绍他交游、仕履和著述概况。
@@ Jacky Chan is here, then Jet Lee comes, who else will come? He is a not movie star, but my viewfinder focuses on him. He is a Pragmatic person; however, he illustrates a colorful future for his people; He is an ambitious economy-centered man; whereas he pays equal attention to citizen's living to seek common welfare. He is Jiang Yuejin, the mayor of Dongyang city - center of China's largest textile province
Jacky Chan is here,then Jet Lee comes,who else will come?He is a not movie star,but my viewfinder focuses on him. He is a Pragmatic person; however,he illustrates a colorful future for his people; He is an ambitious economy-centered man; whereas he pays equal attention to citizen’s living to seek common welfare. He is Jiang Yuejin, the mayor of Dongyang city-center of China’s largest textile province
Three-dimensional equi-potential surfaces of a galactic system with supermassive binary black holes are discussed herein. The conditions of topological transitions for the important surfaces, i.e. Roche Lobes and Jiang-Yeh Lobe, are studied in this paper. In addition, the mathematical properties of the Jacobi surfaces are investigated analytically. Finally, a numerical procedure for determining the regions of the Roche Lobes and Jiang-Yeh Lobe is suggested.
Jürman, Hans, 1923-2014
Hans Jürmani lapsepõlvest, kooliaastatest ning ülikooliajast. Olles hariduselt eesti filoloog on Hans Jürman töötanud ka apteekrina ja õpetajana, kuid suurema osa oma elust raamatukogudes, põhiliselt Tallinna Keskraamatukogus ja Eesti NSV Riiklikus Avalikus Raamatukogus, viimasel ajal tegeleb terminoloogiaga
Jürman, Hans, 1923-2014
Hans Jürmani lapsepõlvest, kooliaastatest ning ülikooliajast. Olles hariduselt eesti filoloog on Hans Jürman töötanud ka apteekrina ja õpetajana, kuid suurema osa oma elust raamatukogudes, põhiliselt Tallinna Keskraamatukogus ja Eesti NSV Riiklikus Avalikus Raamatukogus, viimasel ajal tegeleb terminoloogiaga
The "Think Tank in the Plain of Golden Lotuses" played important roles in the founding of the Yuan Dynasty.It came into being because of the enthusiasm of Kublai towards Han cultures and his political ambitions.
邓维安; 杨洁琼; 李秋冬
The male of Mazarredia huanjiangensis Zheng et Jiang, 1994 was firstly found and described in this paper.The specimens are deposited in Department of Chemistry and Life Science, Hechi University, China (10 ♂ 6 ♀ ).%记述首次发现的采自广西环江木论国家自然保护区的环江玛蚱(Mazarredia huanjiangensis Zheng et Jiang)雄性,标本保存于广西河池学院动物标本室.
Theoretical debate and practice exploration on social security of migrant workers were introduced.The political direction and security layer on social security for migrant workers in Wan-jiang urban belt were analyzed:the first layer is to implement wage payment guarantee and employment injury insurance;the second layer is to emphasize serious disease insurance and endowment insurance;the third layer is unemployed insurance and social assistance.The primary strategy of building a social security system for migrant workers in Wan-jiang urban belt was put up:wage payment guarantee system that is united in certain regions should be promoted;employment injury insurance system that is undertaken by enterprises should be built;a social health care system for serious diseases should be set up;multi-layers endowment insurance system for migrant workers should be created;vocational training and training in how to start a business should be built as well as the unemployment insurance system;social assistant system based on the basic cost of living allowances should be set up.
LI Rui-yu; LI Meng; WANG Rui; LI Bin; GUO Ya-jing
To study the efficacy and safety of the Jiang Tang Fang Long Jiao Nang (Hypoglycemic Anti-Deafness Capsule) in treating non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus with hearing loss. Methods Two hundred ninety six patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and hearing loss were randomly assigned to a treatment group(n=164, 208 ears) and a control group(n=132,184 ears). Patients in the treatment group were treated with the Jiang Tang Fang Long Jiao Nang and supplement herbal preparations as indicated by traditional Chinese medicine dialectical assessment, while control patients received glibenclamide and conventional treatments for deafness. Hearing, fasting blood glucose (FBG), post-prandial blood glucose(PBG), 24 hour urine sugar, platelet function indices, blood superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lipid peroxides (LPO) levels, and symptom improvement were compared between the two groups. Results The rate of hearing improvement was 56.7% for the treatment group and 26.6% for the control. FBG, PBG and 24 hour urine sugar improved in both groups, but the last two were superior in the treatment group compared to the control. Symptoms improvement was also superior in the treatment group compared to the control. In patients receiving Jiang Tang Fang Long Jiao Nang treatment, platelet function indices, SOD and LPO were all improved, while only LOP improvement was noticed in control patients. No acute or long-term toxicity was demonstrated for the Jiang Tang Fang Long Jiao Nang in animal tests. The Jiang Tang Fang Long Jiao Nang lowered blood glucose and serum triglycerides in a rat model of alloxan-induced diabetes. Conclusion The Jiang Tang Fang Long Jiao Nang is effective in improving hearing and diabetic indices in diabetic patients with deafness, without significant side effects.
Snedigar, S. F.; Venezky, D. Y.
The Volcano Hazards Program (VHP) has developed a Hazard Notification System (HANS) for distributing volcanic activity information collected by scientists to airlines, emergency services, and the general public. In the past year, data from HANS have been used by airlines to make decisions about diverting or canceling flights during the eruption of Mount Redoubt. HANS was developed to provide a single system that each of the five U.S. volcano observatories could use for communicating and storing volcanic information about the 160+ potentially active U.S. volcanoes. The data that cover ten tables and nearly 100 fields are now stored in similar formats, and the information can be released in styles requested by our agency partners, such as the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). Currently, HANS has about 4500 reports stored; on average, two - three reports are added daily. HANS (at its most basic form) consists of a user interface for entering data into one of many release types (Daily Status Reports, Weekly Updates, Volcano Activity Notifications, etc.); a database holding previous releases as well as observatory information such as email address lists and volcano boilerplates; and a transmission system for formatting releases and sending them out by email or other web related system. The user interface to HANS is completely web based, providing access to our observatory scientists from any online PC. The underlying database stores the observatory information and drives the observatory and program websites' dynamic updates and archived information releases. HANS also runs scripts for generating several different feeds including the program home page Volcano Status Map. Each observatory has the capability of running an instance of HANS. There are currently three instances of HANS and each instance is synchronized to all other instances using a master-slave environment. Information can be entered on any node; slave nodes transmit data to the master node
Jiang Zemin has always attached great importance to theoretical and political work as well as its styles and methods. This paper generalizes Jiang's approaches such as instillation approach, environmental creation approach, interaction approach, guidance approach, the combination of theory with practice approach, the standardized system approach, affection education approach, model education approach, learning education approach and comprehension approach.
Denne prosjektoppgavens hovedperson er Silvio Berlusconi. Min hoved-problemstilling er hvordan en av Europas største økonomier har kunnet la seg lede av en så omstridt leder i så mange år. Gjennom underproblemstillingene har jeg diskutert Berlusconi i lys av teori rundt karismatisk og narsissistisk lederskap. Jeg har også sett på hvordan han har taklet det politiske spiller og hvordan han tilegnet seg og utøvet makt. Jeg har anvendt hermeneutikk som metode og foretatt intervjuer med noen utva...
YANG Yunxia; LI Ruiyu; JING Jianmei; ZHANG Yanzhuo; LI Meng; LI Bin; FENG Jinping; LI Li; LI Huizhen
Objective To study the influence of Jiang Tang Fang Long formula on insulin production and function in an animal model of diabetic hearing loss. Methods Wistar rats (n=60) were randomly divided into 6 groups (10 in each) to receive no treatment (the normal control, Group A), or to receive intra-peritoneal 55 mg/kg streptozotocin with (Groups C, D and E) or without (Group B) subsequent Jiang Tang Fang Long formula treatment at various doses or Yu Long Wan treatment (Group F). After 60 days, fasting blood glucose (FBG), body weight (BW) and fasting insulin (FINS) were recorded and the HOMA-IR and HOMA-βcalcu-lated. Insulin expression in pancreatic tissues was measured by radioimmunoassay. Results Compared with animals that received streptozotocin without rescue treatment (Group B), animals that received higher doses of Jiang Tang Fang Long formula(Groups D and E) showed improved indices of diabetes manifestation (P0.05). Conclusion Our results suggest that Jiang Tang Fang Long formula may improve pancreatic β-cells function which may explain its efficacy in treating diabetic hearing loss.
姜德友教授认为，失眠之因，无外乎虚实两端。因虚者，总责之于阴虚血少不能涵敛阳气，以致阳不入阴；或气虚血弱不能濡养心神，以致神无所归。因实者，总责之于实邪郁阻脉络，血难归心，阳不入阴；或内有邪热，扰动心神。多因平素思虑过重，气机郁结，以致血行滞涩瘀血内生，津液布达失畅，痰湿内停，阻塞脉络；或因气郁、痰结、血瘀日久，郁而化火，热扰心神而发。%Professor JIANG Deyou believes that the cause of insomnia,no outside the actual situation ends. Due to the deficiency and overall in syndrome of yin deficiency and blood less not Han Lian Yang,that Yang into yin;Qi de-ficiency and blood weak can’t moisten the mind that God. Due to the overall real persons,real evil obstructing the vein,blood to heart,Yang Yin;or in the evil heat,disturbed mind. Polygenetic alter ego,thinking too much,qi stagnation,so that the blood,unsmooth blood stasis in students,Buda of body fluid loss of smooth,phlegm within the stop,vein obstruction;or due to stagnation of Qi,phlegm and blood stasis with the passing of time,Yu and fire,the thermal disturbance of mind and the disease.
Antonio Caetano; Dorothee Haroske; 李天虹（译）; 黄飞敏（校）
Hans Triebel（1936年2月7日出生于Dessau）已于2001年从Friedrich—Schiller—Universitat Jena（德国耶拿市弗里德里希·席勒大学）退休．在1962年获得博士学位和1966年获得教授资格（Habilitation）之后，他在该校当了超过30年的分析领域的讲座教授．
Full Text Available The rocks of the Zhenzhuchong Member of the Ziliujing Formation, Jiulongshan–Jiange area in the Sichuan Basin, were analyzed by petrography, XRD, and SEM techniques to investigate their diagenetic history and properties, such as authigenic mineral types, evolution of mixed-layer illite–smectite minerals, the clay assembly, and the fraction of mixed-layer clay minerals. The results revealed that the Zhenzhuchong Member has experienced several important episodes of diagenetic alteration since the deposition, including compaction (pressure-solution, cementation, metasomatism, dissolution, fracturing, and infilling of caves and cracks. It was also observed that diagenetic properties of the Jiulongshan area were significantly different from those of the Jiange area. The rock samples from the Jiulongshan area were characterized by the composition of siliceous and calcareous cements, varying amounts of detrital grains, clay matrix and kaolinite replaced by calcites, a certain amount of rarely dissolved early-stage kaolinite, dickite, and infillings by late-stage calcite. On the other hand, for the rock samples from the Jiange area, the dissolution is a common phenomenon with features of abundant aluminosilicates-dissolution pores or components, but the replacement phenomenon has rarely been seen. These rock samples were characterized by the presence of clay mineral cements, quartz, and dolomite infillings. It indicated that there was a great difference of diagenesis between the two areas in the types, phase, and temperature of diagenetic fluids. Revealing the difference would provide theoretical and practical implications for the exploration of high quality oil and gas reservoirs.
＂Jiang lang cai jin＂ is the story of JIANG Yan,who is a famous writer of Fu.The Hen Fu and Bie Fu are the most famous masterpieces of him.In this paper,the allusions in JIANG Yan＇s fifteen Fu are summed up,analyzed and classified,on the basis,its features are concluded in order to provide more materials for Chinese allusion research.%＂江郎才尽＂典故中的主人公江淹是魏晋南北朝时期的著名赋作家,其《恨赋》与《别赋》最为著名,其中典故的运用也值得研究一番。本文主要对江淹的十五篇赋作中出现的典故进行总结,然后分类分析研究,最后得出其运用时所表现的特点,为汉语典故的研究提供更多的材料。
QIAN WeiHong; ZHU Jiang; WANG YongGuang; FU JiaoLan
The Jiang-Huai Meiyu rainy season can be distinguished into the Jiangnan Meiyu spell and the Huaihe Meiyu spell. The Jiangnan Meiyu spell appears on the last ten days in June and the Huaihe Meiyu spell lasts from early July to middle July. An inter-decadal transition was observed in 1998 respectively from the anomalies of Jiangnan Meiyu rainfall, the sea surface temperature (SST), and the subsurface tem-perature in the equatorial Pacific. Since the beginning of the 21 st century, opposite trends and biennial oscillations of the Meiyu rainfall are observed in the Jiangnan and Huaihe basins. Before the strong La Nina of 1999-2000, the positive SST anomalies usually occurred in the eastern equatorial Pacific. Since the beginning of the 21st century, a precursory warming signal of SST anomaly comes from the subsurface temperature which is centrally exposed near the dateline in the central equatorial Pacific. The above-normal Meiyu rainfall in 2003, 2005 and 2007 over the Huaihe basin followed the prior winter-spring positive SST anomaly near the dateline. A relationship shows that the more Jiangnan (Huaihe) Meiyu follows the winter-spring warm water in the eastern (central) equatorial Pacific.
The emotion is the ＂life＂ of an essay. Whether it is about memory of relatives or passions of ordinary people, the essays of Jiang Yang always deliver a thick and solid emotional quality. Natural language and plain writing style have displayed her well-knit writing skills. In her writing, she has abandoned affectation and pretense. Her writing content, writing style and her own personality as well as morality are like nature itself and can bring out the best in each other.%情感是散文的生命。杨绛的散文无论追忆亲人还是表现普通人的喜怒哀乐,都传达出厚重、坚实的情感质量。写实的语言、朴素的文风展示出她扎实的文字功底。在写作中,她摒除矫饰和虚伪,写作内容、手法及自身性格、品行浑然天成,相得益彰。
Full Text Available Changsen Tu, Liang Ye, Longfei Jiang, Yuwen Wang, Yingzi Li The Eye Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, People’s Republic of China Background: Although much research has been conducted on the impact of strabismus on the quality of life (QoL of adults, the effect of this condition on teenagers has not been extensively studied. This study therefore aimed to assess the effect of strabismus on the vision-related QoL of Chinese teenagers.Methods: The Chinese version of the 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ-25 was self-administered by 1,040 teenagers with strabismus and 1,002 individuals with normal vision. All the participants were from the Chinese Han population. The independent samples t-test was used to compare QoL between teenagers with and without strabismus.Results: The majority of scores on the NEI-VFQ-25 domains were significantly different between the two groups. QoL was significantly lower in individuals with strabismus compared with teenagers with normal vision on all domains, with the exception of social functioning.Conclusion: Statistically significantly lower vision-related QoL scores were found in Chinese Han teenagers with strabismus compared with those without strabismus. Keywords: quality of life, strabismus, NEI-VFQ-25, teenager, HRQoL
Full Text Available To examine how Jiang-Zhi-Ning (JZN regulates cholesterol metabolism and compare the role of its four main components. We established a beagle model of hyperlipidemia, fed with JZN extract and collected JZN-containing serum 0, 1, 2, 4, and 6 h later. Human liver cells Bel-7402 were stimulated with 10% JZN-containing serum as well as the four main components of JZN and Atorvastatin. The mRNA expression of LDL receptor (LDL-R, 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMG-CoAR, cytochrome P450 7A1 (CYP7A1, and acetyl-Coenzyme A acetyltransferase 2 (ACAT2 was measured by real-time PCR. LDL-R surface expression and LDL-binding and internalization were examined by flow cytometry. The results showed that JZN-containing serum significantly increased the mRNA expression of LDL-R, HMG-CoAR, and CYP7A1 in Bel-7402 cells. All the four components significantly increased the mRNA and protein expression of LDL-R and HMG-CoAR and decreased the mRNA and protein expression of ACAT2 in Bel-7402 cells. Hyperinand chrysophanol also markedly increased the mRNA expression of CYP7A1. Stimulation with stilbene glycosidesignificantly increased the surface expression of LDL-R and the binding and internalization of LDL. In conclusion, JZN and its four components have close relationship with the process of cholesterol metabolism, emphasizing their promising application as new drug candidates in the treatment of hyperlipidemia.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Non-toxic monopropellants have been developed that provide better performance than toxic hydrazine. Formulations based on hydroxylammonium nitrate (HAN) have...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Non-toxic monopropellants have been developed that provide better performance than toxic hydrazine. Formulations based on hydroxylammonium nitrate (HAN) have...
Han family with phoenix trees around is an extremely typical scholar-bureaucrat family po-litically and academically renowned in the Song Dynasty. Hart family started to become noble since Han Yi became an imperial scholar. And when his sons, Han Zong, Han Jiang, Han Wei and Han Zhen, got such positions as Prime Minister, deputy Prime Minister and official in charge of drafting imperial mandates, the family reached the highest nobility and enjoyed the greatest reputation for a time. The change of its native place and lineage succession of Han family are a microcosm of the rise and fall of typical scholar-bureaucrat families in the Song Dynasty.%桐木韩氏家族，是宋代极具代表性的以政治、学术显世的士大夫家族。自韩亿以进士起家，至其子韩综、韩绛、韩维、韩缜，产生了二宰相、一副宰相、一知制诰，衣冠之盛，一时为天下冠。其家族里籍变迁及世系传承就是典型宋代士大夫家族沉浮兴衰的缩影。
Grace Ji-Sun Kim
Full Text Available Today, nations exhibit imperial behaviour but not like the ancient agriculture driven landed empires or the 18-19th century mercantile empires. The land and trade divisions are not as clearly segregated as in the earlier ones, but Imperial nations do exist and do control other nations. Imperialism and colonialism has devastating effects on our world. It has nurtured self-worth through the accumulation of worldly goods for the purposes of serving their own interests and exploiting others for the sole purpose of self-gain. This is devastating not only to human beings but to the whole ecology of the planet. Consumerism drives trade, but consumer buying is now like an unchained beast with tooth and claw causing han for the exploited as well as the resources of the planet. Eco-theologians and feminist theologians examine the devastating effects to help ensure that we are seriously determined to preserve the planet. We will examine ways of rethinking and reimagining our errors and how we can work towards the right direction for a safer, sustainable planet. doi: 10.7833/111-1-15
Hsiao, S. S.-Y.; Hsu, T.-C.; Liu, J.-w.; Xie, X.; Zhang, Y.; Lin, J.; Wang, H.; Yang, J.-Y. T.; Hsu, S.-C.; Dai, M.; Kao, S.-J.
Nitrification is a series of processes that oxidizes ammonia to nitrate, which contributes to hypoxia development in coastal oceans, especially in eutrophicated regions. The nitrification rate of bulk water (NRb) and particle free water (NRpf, particle > 3 μm eliminated) were determined along the Chang Jiang River plume in August 2011 by nitrogen isotope tracer technique. Measurements of dissolved oxygen (DO), community respiration rate (CR), nutrients, dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), total suspended matter (TSM), particulate organic carbon/nitrogen (POC / PON), acid-leachable iron and manganese on suspended particles and both archaeal and β-proteobacterial ammonia monooxygenase subunit A gene (amoA) abundance on size-fractioned particles (> 3 μm and 0.22-3 μm) were conducted. The NRb ranged from undetectable up to 4.6 μmol L-1 day-1, peaking at a salinity of ~ 29. NRb values were positively correlated with ammonium concentration, suggesting the importance of substrate in nitrification. In the river mouth and the inner plume, NRb was much higher than NRpf, indicating that the nitrifying microorganism is mainly particle associated, which was supported by its significant correlation with amoA gene abundance and TSM concentration. The estimated oxygen demands of nitrification accounted for 0.32 to 318% of CR, in which 50% samples demanded more oxygen than that predicted by by the Redfield model (23%), indicating that oxygen might not be the sole oxidant though DO was sufficient (> 58 μmol kg-1) throughout the observation period. The excess nitrification-associated oxygen demand (NOD) showed a tendency to occur at lower DO samples accompanied by higher acid-leachable Fe / Mn, which implied reactive Fe3+ / Mn4+ may play a role as oxidant in the nitrification process. Stoichiometric calculation suggested that reactive Fe on particles was 10 times the oxidant demand required to complete ammonia oxidation in the entire plume. The potential involvement of reactive
Li, Chunhui; Li, Tim; Gu, Dejun; Lin, Ailan; Zheng, Bin
Sub-seasonal variability of summer (May-October) rainfall over the ChangJiang Valley exhibits two dominant timescales, one with a quasi-biweekly (QBW) period (10-20 days) and the other with an intraseasonal oscillation (ISO) period (20-60 days). A significant positive correlation (at a 99% confidence level) was found between the summer precipitation anomaly and the intensity of the QBW and ISO modes in the region. By examining the composite structure and evolution characteristics, we note that the QBW mode is characterized by a northwest-southeast oriented wave train pattern, moving southeastward. The perturbations associated with the ISO mode propagate northwestward in strong ISO years but southeastward in weak ISO years. A marked feature is the phase leading of low-level moisture to convection in both the QBW and ISO mode. When the summer rainfall is strong in the ChangJiang Valley, large-scale atmospheric conditions in the strong QBW/ISO activity region are characterized by deeper moist layer, convectively more unstable stratification and greater ascending motion. Such mean conditions favor the growth of the QBW and ISO perturbations. Thus, a significant positive correlation between the summer precipitation and the strength of sub-seasonal variability arises from the large-scale control of the summer mean flow to perturbations.
Full Text Available This article focuses on the specific forms of power that are embodied in the properties and functions of formalised language, as it was used by Jiang Zemin in crucial political documents on the Party’s policy towards intellectuals. This inquiry illuminates various possibilities for the normalisation and inculcation of formalised language in the understudied decade of the 1990s, when the mantra “without stability, nothing can be achieved” became a tautology. The internal constitution of the selected texts is examined with an eye to the dialogic interaction with the production and reception of Mao Zedong and Deng Xiaoping’s political discourses on intellectuals (Mao 1942; Deng 1978. The analysis of language practices and discursive formations in a comparative per-spective sheds light on the respective socio-political and historical contexts. It also reveals the extreme involution-devolution of formalised language in the Jiang Zemin era, when “preserving stability” was reaffirmed as a crucial concern of the Party leadership with the ultimate aim of preserving its monopoly of power.
Narva kultuurimajas etendub teater Varius etendus "Jutustan teile oma lugu", mis põhineb Hans Christian Anderseni elulool. Põhjamaade Ministrite Nõukogu esindus Eestis kingib Narva Linnavalitsusele 20 venekeelset Põhjamaade muinasjuttude kogumikku
张建琨; 王颖; 刘岐; 吴静芬
Objective:To extract and determinate the determination of polysaccharide content in Jiang Ban Xia formula granules. Methods:Anthrone sulfuric acid colorimetric method was used to determine the determination of polysaccharide content in Jiang Ban Xia formula granules.Results:The determination of polysaccharide content in Jiang Ban Xia formula granule was 0.2532%(n=3).Conclusion:The experimental method was simple,fast and accurate,and repeatability was good.It can be used for the determination of polysaccharide content in Jiang Ban Xia formula granules.%目的：提取并测定姜半夏配方颗粒多糖含量。方法：用硫酸-蒽酮比色法测定姜半夏配方颗粒中多糖含量。结果：姜半夏配方颗粒多糖的含量0.2532%(n=3)。结论：该实验方法简单、快速、准确、重复性好，可用于姜半夏配方颗粒多糖的测定。
Full Text Available The object of this study was to identify the major active ingredients of the Chinese Traditional Medicine Jiang-Zhi-Ning (JZN based on the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC profiles of plasma samples obtained from beagle dogs at different times after intragastric administration of JZN, crude JZN extracts, different extracted fractions, different subfractions of the active fraction and different isolated ingredients. 2-Hydroxy-1-methoxyaporphin (2H1M, an alkaloid from Nelumbo nucifera, one of the herbs that make up JZN, was identified as the constituent showing the major pharmacodynamic effect. The major metabolites of 2H1M were analyzed and identified as N-demethyl-2-hydroxy-1-methoxyaporphine-2-O-glycuronic acid, 2-hydroxy-1-methoxy-aporphine-2-O-glycuronic acid and 2-hydroxy-1-methoxy-aporphine-2-O-sulphate. This study provided a comprehensive insight into the active components of JZN.
Jiang Zemin, the central collective leadership core of the party's third generation, in face of the growing complicated situation at home and abroad, showed the deep consciousness of the political party in power. In the process of leading the party and the people to promote the reform and opening up and modernization, he analyzed comprehensively the risk and test of the party in the political, economic, cultural, social and party construction, and put forward some positive measures. Studying the suffering consciousness of Jiang Zemin, it has very vital and practical significance in improving the party's ruling ability and level and building a well-off society in an all-round way.%作为党的第三代中央领导集体核心的江泽民同志，面对日益严峻复杂的国内外形势，表现出深刻的执政忧患意识。他在领导党和人民不断推进改革开放和现代化事业的执政过程中，全面分析了党在政治、经济、文化、社会、党建等方面面临的风险和考验，并提出了积极的应对举措。研究江泽民同志的执政忧患意识，对于提高党的执政能力和执政水平，实现中国梦都具有十分重要的现实意义。
The IDSgrep structural query system for Han character dictionaries is presented. This dictionary search system represents the spatial structure of Han characters using Extended Ideographic Description Sequences (EIDSes), a data model and syntax based on the Unicode IDS concept. It includes a query...... language for EIDS databases, with a freely available implementation and format translation from popular third-party IDS and XML character databases. The system is designed to suit the needs of font developers and foreign language learners. The search algorithm includes a bit vector index inspired by Bloom...
Jansson, Torkel, 1947-
Raamatututvustus: Hans Pöhl - Estlandssvenskarnas hövding : en biografi över Hans Pöhl (1876-1930), estlandssvenskarnas främste företrädare och ledare = Hans Pöhl - rannarootslaste eestvõitleja : Hans Pöhli (1876-1930), Eesti rootslaste vaimse liidri ja valgustaja elulugu. (Stockholm ; Tallinn, 2010)
One of the unquestioned giants of physics and astrophysics, Hans Bethe, died on 6 March 2005, at the venerable age of 98, in his home town of Ithaca, New York. Seven decades of contributing to research and a Nobel Prize for his work on stellar hydrogen burning make a listing of his honors superfluou
<正>November 2,2013 marked the 1 st anniversary of the passing of the famous Anglo-Chinese writer Han Suyin.A memorial meeting jointly sponsored by the Sichuan Provincial People’s Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries(SIFA),the Sichuan Provincial Writers Association and the Culture and Sport Bureau of
Dreyer, Rasmus Hoeg Colbjørn
, hvis teologi bl.a. Hans Poulsen Resen identificerede som 'zwingliansk'. Pietismen og rationalismen (i en anden halvdel af det 18. århundrede) forsvarede derimod Tausen og benævnte ham endog 'den danske Luther' (Erich Pontoppidan), pga. det de antog at være særligt 'lutherske' aspekter i Tausens teologi...
One of the unquestioned giants of physics and astrophysics, Hans Bethe, died on 6 March 2005, at the venerable age of 98, in his home town of Ithaca, New York. Seven decades of contributing to research and a Nobel Prize for his work on stellar hydrogen burning make a listing of his honors superfluou
Peletier, Mark A
This is a former PhD student's take on his teacher's scientific philosophy. I describe a set of 'principles' that I believe are conducive to good applied mathematics, and that I have learnt myself from observing Hans van Duijn in action.
Sternberg, Robert J.
Hans Eysenck, who died in September 1997, was one of the most well-known psychologists in the world. A believer that intelligence is genetically controlled, Eysenck recognized the need for scientific investigation in the study of intelligence and creativity. He was characterized by extraordinary creativity and commitment to his scientific message.…
BEFORE paper-makingwas invented in China,bamboo or wooden slipsand silk were used for writtenmaterials.The following an-cient writings were all doneon bamboo slips:documentsunearthed in the Chu tombs inBaoshan in Hubei Province;Artof War by Sunzi,a famousChinese classic about militarystrategy and tactics,unearthedin the Han tombs in Yinques-
Bolognese, Ana Maria; Palomo, Juan Martin; Miyashita, Kunihiko; Nojima, Lincoln Issamu; Nojima, Matilde da Cunha Gonçalves
It is a great honor to conduct an interview with Professor Mark G. Hans, after following his outstanding work ahead of the Bolton-Brush Growth Study Center and the Department of Orthodontics at the prestigious Case Western Reserve School of Dental Medicine (CWRU) in Cleveland, Ohio. Born in Berea, Ohio, Professor Mark Hans attended Yale University in New Haven, CT, and earned his Bachelor of Science Degree in Chemistry. Upon graduation, Dr. Hans received his DDS and Masters Degree of Science in Dentistry with specialty certification in Orthodontics at Case Western Reserve University. During his education, Dr. Hans' Master's Thesis won the Harry Sicher Award for Best Research by an Orthodontic Student and being granted a Presidential Teaching Fellowship. As one of the youngest doctors ever certified by the American Board of Orthodontics, Dr. Hans continues to maintain his board certification. He has worked through academics on a variety of research interests, that includes the demographics of orthodontic practice, digital radiographic data, dental and craniofacial genetics, as obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, with selected publications in these fields. One of his noteworthy contributions to the orthodontic literature came along with Dr. Donald Enlow on the pages of "Essentials of Facial Growth", being reference on the study of craniofacial growth and development. Dr. Mark Hans's academic career is linked to CWRU, recognized as the renowned birthplace of research on craniofacial growth and development, where the classic Bolton-Brush Growth Study was historically set. Today, Dr. Hans is the Director of The Bolton-Brush Growth Study Center, performing, with great skill and dedication, the handling of the larger longitudinal sample of bone growth study. He is Associate Dean for Graduate Studies, Professor and Chairman of the Department of Orthodontics, working in clinical and theoretical activities with students of the Undergraduate Course from the School of Dental
The Jiang Family founded Jingkou Lifesaving Association during Kangxi's reign in the Qing Dynasty, which pioneered the folk lifesaving in China and in the world.Analysis of the textual research on historical data showed that the Jiang Family founded and inherited the lifesaving till the seventh generation for 163 years.The time sequence and connections between the founders and the inheritors were clearly seen from the history.%京口蒋氏救生会始创于清康熙年间，开中国和世界民间水上救生风气之先。从史料考证分析蒋氏一族创办和继承救生会历七世163年的历史，可以清晰梳理出京口救生会创始人及继承人之时间顺序和人脉关系。
Han is a destructive feeling in Korea. Although Korea accomplished significant exterior growth, Korean society is still experiencing the dark aspects of transforming han as evidenced by having the highest suicide rate in Asia. Some reasons for this may be the fragmentation between North and South Korea. If we can transform han then it can become constructive. I was challenged to think of possibilities for transforming han internally; this brings me to the correlational method through psychological and religious interpretation. This study is to challenge and encourage many han-ridden people in Korean society. Through the psychological and religious understanding of han, people suffering can positively transform their han. They can relate to han more subjectively, and this means the han-ridden psyche has an innate sacredness of potential to transform.
Saare maavanema kohusetäitja ja kandidaat Hans Teiv hindab oma võimalusi saada ametisse kinnitatud, räägib oma tegevusest maavalitsuse osakonnajuhataja ja maakonna juhina ning tutvustab Saaremaa arenguvisioone
Lepp, Hans, 1950-
Rootsi instituudi praegune kultuurinõunik Hans Lepp töötas esimese kultuuriatasheena taas avatud Rootsi suursaatkonnas. Töötamisest Rootsi instituudis, riigi välispoliitikast, suhetest Venemaaga, aprillisündmustest jm
Song Jiang,Li Kui are the main characters in "Outlaws of the Marsh".They have known each other in Jiangzhou died in swamp.They have been as close as hand -foot -and woe.They gathered in the "justice"as the basis and their emo-tions are the strongest on the surface,but it is full of internal sharp contradictions.Li Kui eventually became the "allegiance"victim of Song Jiang.The destiny is associated not only with the tragic fate of Song Jiang,but also the origins,cultural educa-tion,ideological pursuit and the tragic character and with the concept of the times,the sentiment of the author is closely linked.%宋江、李逵是《水浒传》中的主要人物。二人从江州相识到魂聚蓼儿洼，一直亲如手足，患难与共。他们的相聚以“义”为基础，表面上情分最重，但内部却充斥着尖锐的矛盾，李逵最后也成了宋江“忠”的牺牲品。两位主人公的悲惨结局不仅与二人的出身、文化教养、思想追求及悲剧性格有关，且与时代观念及作者情感倾向有紧密关系。
Jailson B. de Andrade
Full Text Available Hans Viertler, a visionary, an example of institutional commitment, a great scientist, excellent and dedicated teacher, highly respected as a professional and admired for his leadership, wisdom, generosity, good humor, professional capacity, and balance. A life dedicated to the consolidation of Chemistry in Brazil, the teaching chemistry, the IQ-USP, the Brazilian Chemical Society (SBQ and the CRQ-fourth region. Hans, a friend with a heart bigger than himself!
Hans, Mark G; Nojima, Matilde da Cunha Gonçalves
It is a great honor to conduct an interview with Professor Mark G. Hans, after following his outstanding work ahead of the Bolton-Brush Growth Study Center and the Department of Orthodontics at the prestigious Case Western Reserve School of Dental Medicine (CWRU) in Cleveland, Ohio. Born in Berea, Ohio, Professor Mark Hans attended Yale University in New Haven, CT, and earned his Bachelor of Science Degree in Chemistry. Upon graduation, Dr. Hans received his DDS and Masters Degree of Science in Dentistry with specialty certification in Orthodontics at Case Western Reserve University. During his education, Dr. Hans’ Master’s Thesis won the Harry Sicher Award for Best Research by an Orthodontic Student and being granted a Presidential Teaching Fellowship. As one of the youngest doctors ever certified by the American Board of Orthodontics, Dr. Hans continues to maintain his board certification. He has worked through academics on a variety of research interests, that includes the demographics of orthodontic practice, digital radiographic data, dental and craniofacial genetics, as obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, with selected publications in these fields. One of his noteworthy contributions to the orthodontic literature came along with Dr. Donald Enlow on the pages of “Essentials of Facial Growth”, being reference on the study of craniofacial growth and development. Dr. Mark Hans’s academic career is linked to CWRU, recognized as the renowned birthplace of research on craniofacial growth and development, where the classic Bolton-Brush Growth Study was historically set. Today, Dr. Hans is the Director of The Bolton-Brush Growth Study Center, performing, with great skill and dedication, the handling of the larger longitudinal sample of bone growth study. He is Associate Dean for Graduate Studies, Professor and Chairman of the Department of Orthodontics, working in clinical and theoretical activities with students of the Undergraduate Course from the School of
Full Text Available Autor: Hans Jonas (2005. Editorial: Losada, Madrid. Traducción: Illana Giner Comín. Basadas en las conversaciones con Rachel Salamander. Proemiode Lore Jonas. Prólogo de Rachel Salamander. Editor: Christian Wiese. Hans Jonas forma parte, con Koestler,Popper, Heidegger o Wittgenstein, del selecto grupo de pensadores y escritores a quienes tocó vivir en primera persona gran parte de las peripecias del turbulento siglo XX. Pero, como en todo, hay diferencias.La trayectoria vital de Jonas no dibuja el perfil de una desmesura excéntrica, como la de Wittgenstein, ni de una tenaz ambición teórica, como la de Popper, ni de un lamentable olvido del prójimo, como la de Heidegger, ni de un aventurismo desquiciado, como la de Koestler.
Applied optics was one of the major topics Hans Walter was engaged in during his scientific life. He contributed to the understanding of optical properties of thin films, which could be used to design coating layers to improve the properties of optical and other surfaces. He developed the theoretical description of the basic principles of phase-contrast, schlieren and interference optics applied to enhance low contrast details and to increase the resolution in studies of biological samples. And last, but not least, Hans Wolter proposed an optical system of two grazing--incidence mirrors for use in an X--ray imaging microscope. A microscope using such an optics never was put into practice, but the optical design turned out to be well suited for telescopes.
McKechnie, Timothy N.
Nontoxic monopropellants have been developed that provide better performance than toxic hydrazine. Formulations based on HAN have superior performance as compared to hydrazine with enhanced specific impulse (Isp), higher density and volumetric impulse, lower melting point, and much lower toxicity. However, HAN-based monopropellants require higher chamber temperatures (2,083 K vs. 883 K) to combust. Current hydrazine-based combustion chamber technology (Inconel® or niobium C103 and silicide coating) and catalyst (Shell 405) are inadequate. In Phase I, state-of-the-art iridium-lined rhenium chambers and innovative new foam catalysts were demonstrated in pulse and 10-second firings. Phase II developed and tested a flight-weight thruster for an environmentally green monopropellant.
烁朱; Hans; Strand
Wu, Lei; Long, Tian-Yu; Li, Chong-Ming
Xiao-jiang, with a basin area of almost 5,276 km(2) and a length of 182.4 km, is located in the center of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, and is the largest tributary of the central section in Three Gorges Reservoir Area, farmland accounts for a large proportion of Xiao-jiang watershed, and the hilly cropland of purple soil is much of the farmland of the watershed. After the second phase of water storage in the Three Gorges Reservoir, the majority of sub-rivers in the reservoir area experienced eutrophication phenomenon frequently, and non-point source (NPS) pollution has become an important source of pollution in Xiao-jiang Watershed. Because dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus non-point source pollution are related to surface runoff and interflow, using climatic, topographic and land cover data from the internet and research institutes, the Semi-Distributed Land-use Runoff Process (SLURP) hydrological model was introduced to simulate the complete hydrological cycle of the Xiao-jiang Watershed. Based on the SLURP distributed hydrological model, non-point source pollution annual output load models of land use and rural residents were respectively established. Therefore, using GIS technology, considering the losses of dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus in the course of transport, a dissolved non-point source pollution load dynamic model was established by the organic coupling of the SLURP hydrological model and land-use output model. Through the above dynamic model, the annual dissolved non-point source nitrogen and phosphorus pollution output as well as the load in different types were simulated and quantitatively estimated from 2001 to 2008, furthermore, the loads of Xiao-jiang Watershed were calculated and expressed by temporal and spatial distribution in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. The simulation results show that: the temporal changes of dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus load in the watershed are close to the inter-annual changes of rainfall runoff, and the
Drechsler, Wolfgang, 1963-
Rets.rmt.: The philosophy of Hans-Georg Gadamer : a review of the philosophy of Hans-Georg Gadamer / Lewis Edwin Hahn, ed. Chicago and La Salle, IL: Open Court, 1997. (The Library of Living Philosophers, vol. XXIV)
Drechsler, Wolfgang, 1963-
Rets.rmt.: The philosophy of Hans-Georg Gadamer : a review of the philosophy of Hans-Georg Gadamer / Lewis Edwin Hahn, ed. Chicago and La Salle, IL: Open Court, 1997. (The Library of Living Philosophers, vol. XXIV)
Uks kodu-uurimise valdkonda paotus Hans Kruusile Tartu Õpetajate Seminaris õppides 1910. aastal. 1920. aastatel elavnes Tartus teaduslik kodu-uurimine, hakkasid ilmuma koguteosed. Ajaloolasena oli nendes oma osa H. Kruusil. 1958. aastal sai Hans Kruusist Eesti NSV TA juures tegutseva kodu-uurimise komisjoni esimees. Hans Kruusi tabavaid ütlusi
Liivik, Olev, 1975-
Arvustus: Estlandssvenskarnas hövding. En biografi över Hans Pöhl (1876-1930), estlandssvenskarnas främste företrädare och ledare = Hans Pöhl - rannarootslaste eestvõileja : Hans Pöhl (1876-1930), Eesti rootslaste vaimse liidri ja valgustaja elulugu. Stockholm, 2010
德国家族企业Hans Kolb Wellpappe GmbH＆Co．KG公司致力于制造瓦楞设备，多年来，一直使用Kiwiplan公司的生产执行系统（MES）。最近，公司决定将品质检测记录电子化，以提高其运行速度、精准性和操作便利性，便采购了Kiwiplan公司的质量管理系统（QMS）模块。
Luik, Hans H., 1961-
Ekspress Grupi omanik ja nõukogu liige Hans H. Luik vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad Ekspress Grupi võimlikku börsile minekut, meediaportfelli laiendamist ning tema vastu suunatuid rünnakuid. Skeem: Ekspress Grupp. Tabelid: Eesti Ekspressi majandusnäitajad; Ekspress Grupi majandusnäitajad. Kommenteerivad: Tuomas Siltala, Karoly Kirber, Lauri Lind ja Peeter Koppel
韩国艺术家姜草的恐怖作品非常有特色，他一改以往恐怖作品的风格与特点，在作品中表现出高度的人文关怀。他的几部恐怖作品，主题表现出了某种程度的一致性，笔者就异化主题，时间主题与拯救主题进行细致的探究，试图挖掘姜草作品背后思路与主题的连贯与相关性，从而更好地理解姜草及作品。主题研究这个思路起源于德国民俗学，通常的主题研究，是指由纵向的角度对艺术家的作品进行探索，整体性地关注作品及作者的精神世界，从而丰富对作品及作者的阅读。%Korean artist ,Jiang Cao's terror works are very distinctive .He changed the terror work style and charac-teristic,showing high degree of human concern in the works .Several of his horror works ,subjects showed some de-gree of consistency ,the theme of alienation ,time subject and theme of salvation and meticulous research ,trying to dig out the ginger grass works behind the ideas and themes of coherence and relevance , and thus a better under-standing of ginger grass and works .The theme of this idea originated from German folklore ,the subject study usual-ly,refers to the exploration of the vertical angle of the artist's work,the whole attention to works and the author's spiritual world ,thus enriching the works and the author's reading .
在文人竞相咏梅的两宋，姜夔是创作梅词最多的词人之一。他叙写梅花，把对自己的人格、精神追求、人生感悟、相思之情以及对国势、时局的关注赋予梅花，写出梅之魂，在宋词豪放和婉约之间，别开清雅一派。姜夔的梅词呈现出空灵幽冷的意境和高雅的审美取向，其创作丰富了梅文化蕴含，提升了两宋梅词的文化品格。%In South and North Song Dynasty, literati chants plum, Jiang Kui is one of the most creative plum poet.He write plum, put on their own personality, the spirit of the pursuit, life, love of country, the attention given to write plum, plum spirit, between graceful and elegant in Song Dynasty, open a school.Jiang Kui plum words appeared in emptiness, cold artistic conception and aesthetic orientation, the creation of rich plum culture, enhance the cultural character in South and North Song Dynasty plum words.
Brad Mehldau (f. 1970) må kunne sies å være en av de store nålevende jazzpianistene, og han har gjort seg vel bemerket i både hans hjemland USA og internasjonalt. Han har samarbeidet med kjente utøvere som Pat Metheny, Joshua Redman, Kurt Rosenwinkel, Charlie Haden, Lee Konitz, etc. I sin egen trio, med bassist Larry Grenadier og trommeslager Jeff Ballard, spiller Mehldau en blanding av jazzstandardlåter, egne komposisjoner og poplåter i hans egne arrangementer. Denne oppgaven er sentrert run...
Priven, Silvia Waisse; Alfonso-Goldfarb, Ana M
One of the factors leading to the creation of embryology as a modern discipline at the end of the 19th century was Wilhelm Roux's formulation of the program of Entwicklungsmechanik (developmental mechanics). A look into the work of Hans Driesch, an equal contributor to developmental mechanics, may shed further light on this process. For Roux, developmental mechanics was an anatomical science, but for Driesch it was associated with a mathematical and physical approach to the natural world. Likewise, Roux used the concept of mechanics as an analogy, but Driesch used it literally. Driesch's generation had been trained in a pedagogic context that emphasized mathematics and physics, which may explain why he went a step further than Roux to state that a true "mechanics" of development required the reduction of morphogenetic problems to the known laws of physics. It is argued here that this difference in background is behind the enthusiastic adoption and further development of Roux's program by Driesch's generation, a generation that conceived Entwicklungsmechanik to be the reduction of embryological processes to "the laws of matter in motion." This same mathematical and physical mindset would underscore Driesch's later construction of entelechy as a regulating factor in embryogenesis, through mathematical analysis grounded on the notion of mathematical functions.
Burgui Burgui, Mario
This article discusses three of the problems that the German philosopher Hans Jonas studied. The first one addresses the need for a specific ethic dedicated to the moral dimension of environmental problems, from a different perspective to the traditional. The second problem is crucial in the discussion on environmental ethics: the value of the nature. Does the nature have an intrinsic value or an instrumental value only (to satisfy the interests of the human being)? The thesis of Jonas, which claimed that nature is a good in itself, were further elaborated here. And the third problem is the derivation of moral norms and the role of man in this ethic that recognizes a good in itself in nature. According to Jonas, the human being is not diminished by recognizing the intrinsic value of nature, since the man's uniqueness and value are unquestionable. From these three central issues, the paper highlights the importance of seeking the links between bioethics and environmental ethics to address the current environmental, social and economic crisis.
One of the unquestioned giants of physics and astrophysics, Hans Bethe, died on 6 March 2005, at the venerable age of 98, in his home town of Ithaca, New York. Seven decades of contributing to research and a Nobel Prize for his work on stellar hydrogen burning make a listing of his honors superfluous (besides being impossible in this space). Bethe was born in Strassburg, in then German Alsass Lothringen, on 2 July 1906. His father, Albrecht Julius Bethe (1872-1954), taught physiology at the University, and his mother, Anna Kuhn (1876-1966), was a musician and writer. Both his grandfathers were physicians. He spent his youth in Strassburg, Kiel, and Frankfurt, and some time in sanatoria due to tuberculosis. Hans's first scientific paper, at age 18, was with his father and a colleague, on dialysis. His education and early career in Germany brought him into contact with many top stars in the quantum revolution. Starting in Frankfurt in chemistry, Bethe soon switched to physics, taught there by Walter Gerlach and Karl Meissner, among others. In 1926, he successfully applied to join Arnold Sommerfeld's group in Munich, where he met one of his later long-term collaborators, Rudolf Peierls. Bethe considered his entry into physics to have come at an ideal time, with the new ideas of wave mechanics being developed and discussed right there; it was certainly also at an ideal place. His doctoral thesis was on the theory of electron diffraction by crystals, following the experimental work by Clinton Davisson and Lester Germer and the work on X-ray diffraction by Max von Laue and Paul Ewald. The newly minted doctor went from there briefly to Frankfurt and then to Ewald in Stuttgart, where he felt at home academically and personally. In 1939, Bethe would marry Ewald's daughter Rose. Not much later, though, Sommerfeld recalled him to Munich, where Sommerfeld created a Privatdozent position for him. There he worked out the solution for a linear chain of coupled spins by what we
Roy, Abhik; Starosta, William J.
Shows how Hans-Georg Gadamer's critical hermeneutics can be applied to intercultural communication. Suggests that by incorporating the philosophies of Hans-Georg Gadamer, intercultural communication scholars will be able to bring a fresh perspective to guide their theory, research, and practice. (Author/VWL)
Larsen, Erik Hviid
Hans Ussing was born on 30 December 1911 at Sorø Academy in Denmark, where his father Dr Henrik Ussing was a lecturer and, as historian, a leading Danish folklorist. After his doctoral thesis in marine biology, Hans Ussing came to August Krogh's laboratory, where he studied protein turnover by us...
Roy, Abhik; Starosta, William J.
Shows how Hans-Georg Gadamer's critical hermeneutics can be applied to intercultural communication. Suggests that by incorporating the philosophies of Hans-Georg Gadamer, intercultural communication scholars will be able to bring a fresh perspective to guide their theory, research, and practice. (Author/VWL)
Full Text Available Hasta la publicación de Sobre la esencia y el valor de la democracia, Hans Kelsen era solo conocido como experto en derecho público. El valor de este artículo de Lagi radica en rescatar de la obra kelseniana un aspecto casi por completo olvidado por la crítica, a saber, sus análisis sobre el significado y las características de la democracia parlamentaria en los Estados modernos. Se aborda la cuestión no solo desde el debate teórico sino también desde su contexto histórico¿político. La teoría política de Kelsen es considerada una parte integral de su doctrina central, presentada en Teoría pura del derecho, su obra más conspicua. Un análisis del trabajo sobre la esencia y el valor de la democracia nos restituye la imagen de un Kelsen como original pensador político. Se analizan las dos ediciones de Sobre la esencia y el valor de la democracia (1920¿1929 con estos propósitos: comprender por qué decidió dedicarse a la teoría de la democracia un teórico que rigurosamente defendió la separación de la esfera jurídica respecto de la historia, la filosofía y la política; y por qué no se limitó a explicar la esencia de la democracia sino que decidió concentrarse en clarificar qué se entiende por valor de la democracia.
Jiang Qingyi,a Manchurian blind poet,uses poetry to portray the colors of life. The poems of his recent work Language Coins are characterized by perception of life through sound,imagination of life through metaphor and verses of stretching force and modernity.%姜庆乙是一位满族盲诗人，他用诗歌感悟生命的色彩，《语言金币》组诗是近年来诗人创作的一组诗歌，由这组诗可以看出其诗歌特点在于用声音感知生命，富有生命的质感；用比喻想象生活，比喻新奇；诗句则充满张力，富含现代性。
《青春之歌》是中国现代文学之中的佼佼者,这部小说也是女作家杨沫创作的第一部小说。《青春之歌》塑造了一大批脍炙人口的人物形象,其中江华的形象更是深入人心。%The Song of Youth,the first work of a woman writer named Yang Mo,is a masterpiece in China＇s modern literature.This novel molded a series of characters,with Jiang Hua being the most impressive one.
Full Text Available Pollen and phytolith analyses were undertaken at the Jiangli site in Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, combined with studies on macrofossils by flotation. The concentration of pollen decreased while the percentage of Poaceae pollen in the profile increased from the late phase of the Majiabang Culture to the Songze Culture suggesting that human impact on the local environment intensified gradually. The discovery of rice paddy implies a relatively advanced rice cultivation in this area during the middle-late Holocene. Other than phytoliths, the high percentage of Oryza-type Poaceae pollen (larger than 40 µm supplied robust evidence for the existence of rice paddy. Moreover, the fact that the farther from the rice paddy, the lower the concentration and percentage of Poaceae pollen also proves that the dispersal and deposition of pollen is inversely proportional to the distance.
Qiu, Zhenwei; Jiang, Hongen; Ding, Jinlong; Hu, Yaowu; Shang, Xue
Pollen and phytolith analyses were undertaken at the Jiangli site in Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, combined with studies on macrofossils by flotation. The concentration of pollen decreased while the percentage of Poaceae pollen in the profile increased from the late phase of the Majiabang Culture to the Songze Culture suggesting that human impact on the local environment intensified gradually. The discovery of rice paddy implies a relatively advanced rice cultivation in this area during the middle-late Holocene. Other than phytoliths, the high percentage of Oryza-type Poaceae pollen (larger than 40 µm) supplied robust evidence for the existence of rice paddy. Moreover, the fact that the farther from the rice paddy, the lower the concentration and percentage of Poaceae pollen also proves that the dispersal and deposition of pollen is inversely proportional to the distance.
Full Text Available Pollen and phytolith analyses were undertaken at the Jiangli site in Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, combined with studies on macrofossils by flotation. The concentration of pollen decreased while the percentage of Poaceae pollen in the profile increased from the late phase of the Majiabang Culture to the Songze Culture suggesting that human impact on the local environment intensified gradually. The discovery of rice paddy implies a relatively advanced rice cultivation in this area during the middle-late Holocene. Other than phytoliths, the high percentage of Oryza-type Poaceae pollen (larger than 40 μm supplied robust evidence for the existence of rice paddy. Moreover, the fact that the farther from the rice paddy, the lower the concentration and percentage of Poaceae pollen also proves that the dispersal and deposition of pollen is inversely proportional to the distance.
A recent paper by Jiang et al.  provides a modifying of counter electrode (CE) with a poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) composite could be generated both energy conversion and storage. As the results, the generation of energy storage is due to the high dielectric constant of PVDF layer. Herein, we pointed out the energy storage can be formed with electrolyte consisted of Li+ ions and without using PVDF layer. This study also discusses the formation of energy storage at the CE. The finding in this work may pay the way for further development of an efficient CE for the large-scale applications of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) in the future, and energy storage of DSCs.
目的 研究姜夏止咳汤的急性毒性及主要药效学,以为该方的进一步开发提供实验数据.方法 采用最大给药量法测定急性毒性,氨水、二氧化硫引咳法观察止咳作用.气管酚红排泄法、毛细血管排痰法观察祛痰作用.采用二氧化硫慢性刺激诱导慢性支气管炎模型,观察止咳作用及抗氧化的作用.结果 姜夏止咳汤1次最大给药量为436 g原药材/kg体重,相当于成人日用量的968倍.可抑制氨水以及二氧化硫所致小鼠咳嗽反应.可促进小鼠气管酚红的排泄;并能促进大鼠毛细血管排痰.慢性支气管炎模型治疗后体重下降、咳嗽次数减少,肺组织匀浆SOD,GSH-Px活力升高,MDA含量下降,血清MPO含量降低;胸腺指数、脾指数均明显升高.结论 姜夏止咳汤安全有效,具有确切的止咳和祛痰作用,可对抗机体氧化损伤,增强机体抗氧化酶的活力,改善慢性支气管炎存在的氧化-抗氧化失衡,提高免疫功能.%Objective Investigate the acute toxicity and chief effects of JiangXiaZhiKeTang to provide its further development with experimental data. Methods Asminist the maximal dose of JiangXiaZhiKeTang to determine the acute toxicity of JiangXiaZhiKeTang on mice. Observe the antitussive effect of JiangXiaZhiKeTang on mice cough induced by ammonia and sulfur dioxide. Determine the expectorant effect of JiangXiaZhiKeTang by measuring the phenol red excreted in mice trachea or measuring the amount of phlegm siphoned by capillary. Build a chronic bronchitis animal model by sulfur dioxide, intrapulmonary superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase ( GSH-Px ), malondialdehyde ( MDA ) and myeloperoxidase( MPO ) in blood serum as indexes to evaluate JiangXiaZhiKeTang, as well as avoirdupois, the change in immune organs frame and tussive frequency. Results The primary maximal dose of JiangXiaZhiKeTang is 436 grams crude drug per kilogram with mouse, 968 times as many as adult daily dose
Jiang, X; Shin, H; Lee, B; Choi, C; Soh, K; Cheun, B; Baik, K; Soh, K; Jiang, Xiaowen; Kim, Hee-kyeong; Shin, Hak-soo; Lee, Byong-chon; Choi, Chunho; Soh, Kyung-soon; Cheun, Byeung-soo; Baik, Ku-youn; Soh, Kwang-sup
A method for observing intra blood vessel ducts which are threadlike bundle of tubules which form a part of the BongHan duct system. By injecting 10% dextrose solution at a vena femoralis one makes the intravascular BongHan duct thicker and stronger to be easily detectable after incision of vessels. The duct is semi-transparent, soft and elastic, and composed of smaller tubules whose diameters are of 10$\\mu$m order, which is in agreement with BongHan theory.
LUO Yong-jun; GAO Wen-xiang; GAO Yu-qi; CHEN Jian; TAN Xiao-ling; LIU Xin; CHEN Hai-hua
Objective:To explore the possible mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymorphism in Han Chinese.Methods:The complete mitochondrial genome of 26 unrelated healthy Han Chinese were extracted and sequenced.Results:The mtDNA nucleotide sites (2 706,7 028,8 860,11 719,and 15 326)were found totally different from the Revised Cambridge Reference Sequence (rCRS).These single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were 2 706 A→G,7 028 C→T,8 860 A→G,11 719 G→A,15 326 A→G.Conclusion:These findings provide new insights into the characteristics of Han Chinese mitochondrial genetic diversity.
Petter, Frank Anthonie
Profanum et Promissio The concept of ‘world’ in the missionary ecclesiologies of Hans Hoekendijk, Hans Jochen Margull and Ernst Lange. This study deals with the concept of ‘world’ in the missionary ecclesiologies of Hans Hoekendijk (1912-1975), Hans Jochen Margull (1925-1982) and Ernst Lange (1927-1
Petter, Frank Anthonie
Profanum et Promissio The concept of ‘world’ in the missionary ecclesiologies of Hans Hoekendijk, Hans Jochen Margull and Ernst Lange. This study deals with the concept of ‘world’ in the missionary ecclesiologies of Hans Hoekendijk (1912-1975), Hans Jochen Margull (1925-1982) and Ernst Lange
Petter, Frank Anthonie
Profanum et Promissio The concept of ‘world’ in the missionary ecclesiologies of Hans Hoekendijk, Hans Jochen Margull and Ernst Lange. This study deals with the concept of ‘world’ in the missionary ecclesiologies of Hans Hoekendijk (1912-1975), Hans Jochen Margull (1925-1982) and Ernst Lange (1927-1
Hollandi ajakirjanikud küsisid president Toomas Hendrik Ilveselt arvamust endise Hollandi suursaadiku Hans Glaubitzi tagakiusamise kohta. Eestis visiidil olnud Hollandi kuninganna Beatrix'i ja president Toomas Hendrik Ilvese kohtumisest
Hollandi ajakirjanikud küsisid president Toomas Hendrik Ilveselt arvamust endise Hollandi suursaadiku Hans Glaubitzi tagakiusamise kohta. Eestis visiidil olnud Hollandi kuninganna Beatrix'i ja president Toomas Hendrik Ilvese kohtumisest
Interview with Hans Rott, Professor of Architecture, on the history of Virginia Tech's College of Architecture and Urban Studies, his experiences with students and teaching, and his perspective on the importance and meaning of architecture.
SUMMARY An interview with Hans Clevers, Professor of Molecular Genetics at Utrecht University, in which he discusses his transition into applied science, the story behind his key findings in the stem cell and cancer fields, and the potential of organoid-based therapy for personalised medicine. Hans was interviewed by Ross Cagan, DMM Editor-in-Chief. The podcast is narrated by Paraminder Dhillon. To listen to this podcast, visit http://www.biologists.com/DMM/podcasts/index.html.
Jensen, Lars Bo
A categorization of moods, atmospheres and motifs connected with the children in Hans Christian Andersen’s five travel books (1831-1868). Surprisingly, death and darkness and, on the other side, eroticism and (red) light are the dominant two categories.......A categorization of moods, atmospheres and motifs connected with the children in Hans Christian Andersen’s five travel books (1831-1868). Surprisingly, death and darkness and, on the other side, eroticism and (red) light are the dominant two categories....
Andrés Pueyo, Antonio
El pasado día 4 de septiembre moría en Londres Hans Jürgen Eysenck, víctima de una rápida enfermedad que ha hecho desaparecer a una de las más grandes figuras de la psicología contemporánea.Hans Eysenck vivió en 'un tiempo muy interesante', como él mismo ha considerado en su autobiografía.
Qasim Khalid; Naveed Arshad; Nasir Khan; Taha Hassan; Fahad Javed; Jahangir Ikram
Home energy management systems (HEMs) are used to provide comfortable life for consumers as well as to save energy. An essential component of HEMs is a home area network (HAN) that is used to remotely control the electric devices at homes and buildings. Although HAN prices have dropped in recent years but they are still expensive enough to prohibit a mass scale deployments. In this paper, a very low cost alternative to the expensive HANs is presented. We have applied a combination of non-intrusive load monitoring (NILM) and very low cost one-way HAN to develop a HEM. By using NILM and machine learning algorithms we find the status of devices and their energy consumption from a central meter and communicate with devices through the one-way HAN. The evaluations show that the proposed machine learning algorithm for NILM achieves up to 99%accuracy in certain cases. On the other hand our radio frequency (RF)-based one-way HAN achieves a range of 80 feet in all settings.
Full Text Available Objective To analyze the outcomes and postoperative complications of renal transplant recipients of ethnic minorities and Han population in China, and investigate the differences between them. Methods Clinical data from 89 minorit y patients and 100 Han patients who had received renal transplant of Hans' donators in Organ Transplantation Center of PLA from 1990 to 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. The general data before transplantation, and rate of short-term survival of the graft, incidence of delayed graft function (DGF, acute rejection, and pulmonary infection after transplantation were analyzed and compared. Results No statistical difference was found in the preoperative personal profile between the recipients of minorities and Han nationality. In the recipients of minorities and Han nationality, the 1-year graft survival rate was 89.9% and 92%, the respective incidence of DGF was 28.1% and 27.0%, and the respective incidence of acute rejection was 22.5% and 19.0%, and there was no significant difference between them (P>0.05. The incidence of pulmonary infection was higher in minority recipients (30.3% than in Han recipients (10.0%, P0.05. Conclusion The short-term clinical outcome of renal transplant recipients seems to be similar in different Chinese ethnic groups, but the incidence of pulmonary infection is higher in minority recipients, so it is important to strengthen monitoring in early postoperative period.
"Reinhart Koselleck / Hans-Georg Gadamer (Hrsg.): Historik, Sprache und Hermeneutik â€“ Eine Rede und eine Antwort. Herausgegeben zum 100. Geburtstag von Hans-Georg Gadamer. Mit einem Nachwort von Hans-Peter Schütt."
Besprechung "Reinhart Koselleck / Hans-Georg Gadamer (Hrsg.): Historik, Sprache und Hermeneutik â€“ Eine Rede und eine Antwort. Herausgegeben zum 100. Geburtstag von Hans-Georg Gadamer. Mit einem Nachwort von Hans-Peter Schütt."
结合2013年江苏卫视跨年演唱会的艺术需求和现场条件，介绍其音频设计方案和音频系统的组成。% Audio system design and system construction about New Year Concert of JiangSu Broadcasting Corporation were introduced combined with its art needs and local condition.
As an independent and creative Chinese landscape painter, Jian Jiang had experienced the frustration of his early years with own loneliness and independence. Jian Jiang always claimed himself out of times in his lifetime, which led to becoming a monk on the prime of life. By the influence of Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism and traveling forest, Jian Jiang's spiritual character was included in Confucian's faith & filial piety of internalizing and meditating on Zen&Taoist of keeping out of the world. It was a great important to form his creation and style of landscape painting by indulging in landscape with Linquan heart.It is a great significance to appreciate Jian Jiang's landscape painting by lucubrating his life situation and spiritual character .%渐江作为一位极具独创精神的中国山水画家，早年经历坎坷、性情孤僻、特立独行，一生常叹“不合时宜”，壮年便出家为僧。渐江因受儒、道、佛思想和游居山林的影响，其精神品格既有内化于心的儒家忠孝品格和参禅悟道的出世精神，又习染了烟霞痼疾，心中常驻林泉之志，对其山水画创作和风格的形成产生了重要影响。深入研究渐江的人生处境与精神品格，对于欣赏渐江绘画具有重要意义。
Price, D.M. [Wollongong Univ., NSW (Australia). School of Geosciences
More than 80 pieces of T`ang Dynasty and 40 Han Dynasty style ceramic wares have been analysed to determine the amount of thermoluminescence (TL) accumulated since the initial firing of the object and the level of the radiation flux which has created the TL. This paper presents a summary of the thermoluminescence analysis results. Approximately 60% of Han ceramics and 45% of the T`ang pottery authenticated have been shown to belong to periods other than that stylistically suggested. Items which have been found not to be of the anticipated antiquity generally fall into distinct age groups. Of the T`ang wares the most commonly copied item is found to be the horse and for the Han pieces, human figures and ewers/pots/vases represent the most frequently reproduced wares.
Jiang Ying regards that vocal music is ＂an art of emotions＂ that life -oriented, humanism, emotional factors and humanistic connotation are the core dimensions of it. Based on the above factors, Jiang Ying stresses both the practitioners＇ music talent and their personalities. So, in her vocal music teaching, Jiang Ying focuses both on the systematic optimization of the trainee＇ s vocal skills and, more importantly, on the fully development of their personalities to achieve the artistic objective that the song is the style of the singer%蒋英认为，声乐艺术以生活为创作指向，以人民为服务受众，以情感表达为支撑，以人文内涵为张力，是一种“情感的艺术”。生活导向、人本主义、情感因素和人文内涵是蒋英声乐观的核心维度。以此为依据，蒋英的声乐教学方法论既注重音乐禀赋的认定，又注重人格品质的培养；既强调声乐技巧的系统优化，又强调艺术素养的全面养成，最终达到“歌如其人”的艺术目标。
以原型批评理论的视角窥探姜央形象,从文学形式层面的英雄原型批评、文学主题层面的英雄原型批评、美学层面的英雄原型批评以及原型化的原型层面三个层面对姜央形象进行了原型分析.在具体的批评实践之中,通过对姜央形象的把握可以挖掘《苗族古歌》文本的文学价值.%The paper studies the stature of Jiang Yang based on archetypal critical theory. The paper makes an archetypal analysis of Jiang Yang from the following three levels: the hero archetypal criticism from literature form, the hero archetypal criticism from literature theme, the hero archetypal criticism from aesthetics and the prototype level of prototype method. In the criticism practice, we can know more about the literature value of Miao Songs through the understanding of Jiang Yang's image.
The Group of Ping Jiang Jiu Lao should merit great attention as a group of Song’s adherents in the early Yuan Dynasty for a long time. However, so far they have not received their due attention because of the lack of the relevant information such as their personal life and writing activities. This paper attempts to research the group members, writing periods, and their birth and death years and also revise their existing works in order to act as a supplement of Quan Song Shi. Besides, the paper points out that the two poems were not collected in Quan Song Shi.%平江九老作为宋元之际的一个遗民群体，在湖南平江倡和时间较长，价值不容忽略。由于相关资料较少，诸人生平、著述隐晦不明。因此，迄今尚未引起学界注意。本文考订了其群体成员及活动时间，并考实了他们的生年、卒年；对存留的作品进行了校勘，可以补充《全宋诗》的疏漏；另有二诗，《全宋诗》未收。
The strengthening of the supervision of power is the key to punish corruption. Jiang Ze-min has inherited and developed the thought of people's supervision proposed by the first generation and second generation of the Chinese Communist Party's leaders, emphasizing the institution and legalization of people's supervision and advocating the methodology of the power control by virtue, by law and by the people in order to exert an effective supervision and restriction on the abusive use of power.%惩治腐败，关键是加强权力监督。江泽民继承和发展了中国共产党第一、第二代领导人关于人民监督的思想，强调人民监督的制度化、法律化建设，强调通过以德制权、以法制权、以民制权的方法，对权力的滥用进行有效的监督和制约。
以上坪汨罗江特大桥为工程依托,识别出桥梁上部结构和下部结构施工阶段的风险因素,用灰色关联性对其中主要风险进行分析排序,识别重大危险源,并采用理想解法风险评价模型进行风险评价,确定各风险等级,并在自然风险因素和人为风险因素两方面对风险进行控制,最终对风险因素的防范提出相应的对策.%This paper was raised by the engineer of Miluo Jiang bridge, detailing identificated the risk factor of bridge superstructure and substructure during construction phase , Using gray correlation analyze and sort the main risk, identificate the major dangerous source, and uses the method of ideal model for risk evaluation, determine the risk grade, and two aspects carries on control to the risk in which the nature of risk factors and human risk factors, and the corresponding countermeasure was put forward for risk factors prevention finally.
Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui bagaimana pengaturan susunan dan tertib hukum Indonesia dalam hirarki norma berdasarkan Stufenbautheorie Hans Kelsen. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah doctrinal research dengan menggunakan data sekunder yang diperoleh melalui studi pustaka. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pilihan hukum susunan norma hukum Indonesia berdasarkan teori Hans Kelsen adalah berjenjang dan berlapis-lapis, dari norma hukum lapisan terendah yang operatif-konkret-individual berjenjang dan bersumber pada norma hukum general-abstract berpuncak dalam pandangan dan cita hukum yang menjadi staatsnorm atau staatsfundamentalnorm, yaitu berpuncak pada Pancasila sebagai cita hukum.
The Han Dynasty is the first in the history of the unified and powerful country. It is a huge momentum has also affected the development of art, especially the art of eaves tile. Pattern of Han eaves tile is the art of the Chinese nation in the classic, rich artistic value for tile study of traditional ceramic art is very necessary in China. Through the research on Eave Tile Art, can be in-jected into the power of ceramic art in China's new development.
Chiung, Wi-vun Taiffalo
The Han sphere, including Vietnam, Korea, Japan, Taiwan and China, adopted Han characters and classical Han writing as the official written language before the 20th century. However, great changes came with the advent of the 20th century. After World War II, Han characters in Vietnam and Korea were officially replaced by the romanised "Chu…
Full Text Available Jiang Li,1 Jiajia Cui,2 Xiuhai Wang,3 Jianhua Ma,4 Haitao Niu,4 Xu Ma,5–7 Xinhua Zhang,2,4 Shiguo Liu8 1Physiatry Department, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, 2Department of Psychiatry, 3Department of Genetics, Medical College, Qingdao University, 4The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, People’s Republic of China; 5Graduate School, Peking Union Medical College, 6National Research Institute for Family Planning, 7World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Research in Human Reproduction, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 8Prenatal Diagnosis Center, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, People’s Republic of China Background: A recent genome-wide association study indicated that the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs rs11081062 in DLGAP1 and rs26728 in EFNA5 were associated with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD in Caucasians. The present case–control association study assessed the global relevance of these two SNPs with respect to OCD subtypes in a Chinese Han population. Methods: We recruited 320 OCD patients and 431 age- and sex-matched controls from a Chinese Han population. rs11081062 and rs26728 SNPs were genotyped by real-time TaqMan polymerase chain reaction, and the chi-squared test was used to compare allele and genotype frequencies of variants between the two groups. Results: No significant differences were found in allele or genotype frequencies of DLGAP1 rs11081062 and EFNA5 rs26728 between the OCD and control groups. Moreover, consistently negative results were observed when classifying by sex, onset age, and comorbidity. However, on analyzing OCD subphenotypes, significant associations were observed between rs11081062 and the presence of contamination obsessions and cleaning compulsions (χ2=7.724, P=0.021 by genotype; χ2=3.745, P=0.053 by allele; and χ2=0.821, P=0.365 by genotype, χ2=27.809, P=0.000 by allele, respectively, and rs26728 with the presence of
Heinrich, K; Walter, C
On the occasion of a rather incidental visit in the sanatorium "Berghof" at Davos, Hans Castorp, the--as to his primary personality--asthenic and low-profile protagonist of the "Zauberberg" is gradually getting caught up in the maelstrom of the there prevailing timelessness and irresponsibility, this being interrupted solely by two tapering to crisis episodes: his amouressness to Mme. Chauchat as an erotic crisis and by the visionary daydream during a snowstorm about the abilities of men as a cognitive, mental crisis. Both events are triggered by a pathoid irritability, following the maxim of Th. Mann that illness, decay and death as borderline experiences may be the presupposition for cognition and reversal. Both crises end without consequences--the "Zauberberg" is the negation of the novel of education and development in the narrower sense. The unsuccessfulness and undecidedness of Hans Castorp's existence culminate in the open end of the novel, regarding his surviving on the battle field, and is in strict contrast to Adrian Leverkühn's determined autoinfection with Lues with the aim of artistic perfection and the creative break-through of "Doctor Faustus". Hans Castorp's regression and self-fragmentation within the decadent-morbid atmosphere of the sanatorium lead to his storming into the battles of the First World War as a last and existential crisis; it is here where finally the individual and national fate are merging. Hans Castorp becomes the paradigma of the German pre-war bourgeoisie and its crisis-prone development.
The Danish scientist Hans Christian Ørsted (1777-1851) is most famous for his discovery of electromagnetism, a discovery that literally and irreversibly changed our world. In Denmark he is also known as a poet and essayist. Interestingly, his scientific and his aesthetic work are closely interrelate
Ruus, Kertu, 1977-
Autor võrdleb Apple'i asutajat ja juhti Steve Jobsi Eesti meediaärimehe Hans H. Luigega. Vt. samas: Jobs: ärge raisake aega teiste elu elamisele; Forbes: iPhone'ist saab Apple'i suur hitt; CV: Steven Paul Jobs. Diagramm: Apple'i aktsia
Elsaesser, T.; Machtans, K.; Ruehl, M.A.
A good deal of the interest aroused by the so-called New German Cinema in the 1970s and 1980s was generated by the impression - as well as the expectation - that the films of Werner Herzog, Rainer Werner Fassbinder, Hans-Jürgen Syberberg, Wim Wenders, and others were not just another European new wa
It was with deep sadness that we learned of the death of Professor Hans-Åke Gustafsson, an internationally recognized scientist, beloved colleague and friend. He passed away on Wednesday January 13th at the Lund University Hospital, surrounded by his loved ones, after a short battle against cancer. This is a great loss for all of us in ALICE and the whole heavy ion community. Hans-Åke, Professor at Lund University, was one of the pioneers of heavy ion physics with relativistic beams since its very beginning. He started his research at CERN, as a fellow at the ISOLDE ion beam facility, and immediately after, in the early 1980 joined the Plastic Ball collaboration at the Bevalac. One of the seminal papers of the field on the discovery of collective flow in relativistic nuclear collisions, co-authored by Hans-Åke, Hans Gutbrod and colleagues, stems from this period. From that point on he was always at the forefront of research with relativistic nuclear beams, being for three de...
<正>An Austrian goodwill delegation led by Hans . Ager, president of the Austrian Federal Coun-cil and board member of the Austrian Association for Promotion of Friendship and Cultural Relations with China (AAPFCRC), paid a friendly visit to China in November, 2003 at the invitation of the CPAFFC. On the delegation were Dietmar Bachmann, president of the Industrial Federation of
Ruus, Kertu, 1977-
Autor võrdleb Apple'i asutajat ja juhti Steve Jobsi Eesti meediaärimehe Hans H. Luigega. Vt. samas: Jobs: ärge raisake aega teiste elu elamisele; Forbes: iPhone'ist saab Apple'i suur hitt; CV: Steven Paul Jobs. Diagramm: Apple'i aktsia
郑灿龙; 李杰尊; 连小旺; 何春梅
摘要主要对新疆地产绵羊宰后不同部位肉的pH值、色泽、剪切值、挥发性盐基氮等理化品质及宰后变化规律进行系统的分析，为今后新疆肉用绵羊的品质研究及开发提供科学依据。研究表明：新疆地产绵羊宰后4h后腿部肉pH值为5．57、肋部肉pH值为5．42：前腿部肉色泽L值为33．69、A值为13．39、后腿部肉L值为31．41、A值为10．53、肋部肉L值为30．48、A值为9．29。前腿部肉剪切值8．39kg、后腿部肉3．08kg、肋部肉5．63kg。畜体宰后室温（25—270C）放置4—8h过程中，肋部肉和后腿部肉处于肉的成熟阶段。后腿部肉颜色鲜红，前腿部肉其次，肋部肉色泽较暗。在6d冷藏过程中（4℃）后腿部肉成熟缓慢，颜色鲜红，pH值从5．57升至5．70，比较稳定，肋部肉不稳定，pH值从5．42升至6．39，相比后腿部肉腐败变质较快。%pH, color, shear force, total volatile basic nitrogen, other physical and chemical quality of different parts and change regulation of Xin - jiang native mutton skeletal muscle after slaughter were analyzed systematically in this paper, to provide scientific basis for research and development on the quality of Xin - jiang meat in sheep. The results shows that ： pH of thigh meat and rib meat was 5.57 and 5.42 after slaughtered 4h; L and A value for shoulder meat was 33.69 and 13.39; L and A value for thigh meat was 31.41 and 10.53; L and A value for rib meat was 30.48 and 9.29; shear force for shoulder meat, thigh meat and rib meat was 8.39, 3.08 and 5.63 kg, respectively. The rib meat and thigh meat were in the mature stage after slaughtered body placed at room temperature （25 - 27℃ ） for 4 to 8 hours, thigh meat with bright red color and the color of rib meat was dark. In 6 days refrigerating process （4℃）, thigh meat matured slowly, with bright red color, pH value rose from 5.57 to 5.70 and stable. But rib meat was not stable, with p
姜可生的小说《春闺梦》塑造了一群色艺双全、重情重义但又境遇坎坷、结局凄惨的妓女形象。小说从不同角度、不同层次以不同的方式进行了刻画：运用全知视角进行客观讲述；通过细节描写来流露真情；运用侧面烘托手法揭示妓女的命运。小说表现了上海的繁华与畸形，具有极其丰富的史料价值，便于我们进一步了解民国时期的社会文化，同时也表现出作者超越同时期作家的进步女性观。%Jiang Kesheng’s novel The Spring Dream molded a group of frustrated and miserable prostitute images with great charm and unique artistic gift and emotions and described these images from different angles,different levels in different ways:objectively introducing them by use of omniscient point of view;showing true feelings through details description;disclosing the prostitutes’s fate with side foiling.Reflecting the bustling and deformity of Shanghai ,the novel is of extremely rich historical value to learn the social situations and culture of the Minguo Peri-od.It also demonstrated the writer’s progressive femalist views beyond other writers’ ones.
Shaw, B. D.
The objective of this research is to study combustion of monopropellant droplets and monopropellant droplet components in reduced-gravity environments so that spherical symmetry is strongly promoted. The experiments will use hydroxylammonium nitrate (HAN, chemical formula NH3OHNO3) based monopropellants. This class of monopropellant is selected for study because of its current relevance and also because it is relatively benign and safe to work with. The experimental studies will allow for accurate determination of fundamental data on deflagration rates, gas-phase temperature profiles, transient gas-phase flame behaviors, the onset of bubbling in droplets at lower pressures, and the low-pressure deflagration limit. The theoretical studies will provide rational models of deflagration mechanisms of HAN-based liquid propellants. Besides advancing fundamental knowledge, the proposed research should aid in applications (e.g., spacecraft thrusters and liquid propellant guns) of this unique class of monopropellants.
Christensen, Dan Charly
Hans Christian Orsted (1777-1851) is of great importance as a scientist and philosopher far beyond the borders of Denmark and his own time. At the centre of an international network of scholars, he was instrumental in founding the world picture of modern physics. Orsted was the physicist who brought Kant's metaphysics to fruition. In 1820 his discovery of electro-magnetism, a phenomenon that could not possibly exist according to his adversaries, changed the course of research in physics. It inspired Michael Faraday's experiments and discovery of the adverse effect, magneto-electric induction. The two physical phenomena were later described in mathematical equations by J.C. Maxwell. Together these discoveries constitute the prerequisites for the overwhelming development of modern technology. But Orsted was also one of the cultural leaders and organizers of the Danish Golden Age (together with Grundtvig, Kierkegaard, and Hans-Christian Andersen, his protege), and made significant contributions to aesthetics, ph...
Keifenheim, Katharina Eva
Hans von Hattingberg, geboren am 18.11.1879 in Wien, wird heute vor allem mit dem Deutschen Institut für Psychologische Forschung und Psychotherapie („Göring-Institut“) in Verbindung gebracht, wo er sich mit der „Neuen Deutschen Seelenheilkunde“ und der Erarbeitung von „Thesen zur Neurosenlehre“ befasste. Interessanterweise war Hattingberg bis 1932 eher eine Randfigur in der Psychotherapeutenszene und galt vielen als unbelehrbarer Querulant. Viele seiner Arbeiten wurden nie veröffentlicht, u...
La vita di Benito Mussolini, il fascismo e la Seconda guerra mondiale occupano una posizione ancora scomoda nella memoria storica italiana. È un po’ questo il pensiero dominante della biografia realizzata da Hans Woller. La stessa definizione di biografia, per questo volume, è decisamente riduttiva. Attraverso undici date e luoghi chiave della storia di Mussolini e del fascismo, Woller riesce in un’impresa non semplice: sintetizzare il più recente e completo stato della ricerca su quel period...
Jun, Tao; Yuan, Zhong
Abstract. Malnutrition is one of the most prevalent problems in older people, but there is little information about the nutritional status of the older women in China. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the nutritional status and clinically correlated factors for malnutrition in older Han women in China. In total, 2,556 hospital- and community-based Han women aged 60 years or older were recruited between May 2007 and December 2014. All women completed comprehensive geriatric assessment, and the Mini Nutritional Assessment Short Form (MNA-SF) was used to assess the nutritional status. The clinically corre- lated factors for malnutrition were also analyzed, including social factors, health status, and dietary behavior. The average age of these women was 75.9 ± 9.4 years, and 63.8% women lived in urban areas. Of the total respondents, 344 and 716 women were classified as malnutrition and at risk of malnutrition, respectively. Five factors were independently and positively correlated with poor nutrition, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), gastrointestinal disease, depression, cognitive impairment, and comorbidity (≥ 2). Three factors were independently and negatively correlated with poor nutrition, including economic status, meat intake, and fish intake. The older Han women with these five health problems should be given more attention with regards to their nutritional status. Improving economic status, eating more meat and fish were recommended for preventing poor nutrition in older women.
新疆是我国历史上佛教传入最早的地区,也是古代印度和中亚佛教传入中原的重要桥梁和纽带。新疆佛教传入的主要历史背景,分别是是印度孔雀王朝阿育王时代和中亚贵霜王朝迦尼色加王时代的对外弘法活动。新疆佛教经历了具有鲜明特征的三个发展阶段,一是佛教兴起,占据统治地位的阶段,二是伊斯兰教兴起,与佛教此消彼长的阶段,三是伊斯兰教占据统治地位,佛教虽然走向衰落,但仍然以新的形式顽强生存的阶段。%Xin Jiang was among the first to know Buddhism in China and meanwhile acted as an important bridge and link between inland China, ancient India and central Asia Buddhism. The chief historical background concerning introduction of Buddhism in Xin Jiang was related to Buddhism promotion in Maurya Dynasty in India and Kushan Empire in Central Asia. Buddhism went through three distinctly characterized stages in Xin Jiang, namely, the rise to domination of Buddhism, the rise and rival replacement of Islam and Buddhism, the rise of Islam to domination, in the last of which Buddhism declined and yet still managed to survive in new forms.
《阳光灿烂的日子》开启了姜文的导演之梦，《鬼子来了》奠定了他不可撼动的导演地位，《太阳照常升起》将他推向舆论争议的风口浪尖，《让子弹飞》让他再次回归商业和大众审美，赚得盆满钵满。尽管有人抱怨《太阳照常升起》晦涩难懂，怀疑《让子弹飞》商业色彩太浓，但是仍然有些东西我们只能在姜文的电影中找到，只能从他的思想深处挖掘。从叙事视角、叙事模式、叙事策略等方面出发，探究姜文电影的叙事风格，力求揭示出叙事风格背后构筑的视觉神话。%In the Heat of the Sun brought the movie director dream of Jiang Wen into reality and Devils on the Doorstep established his status as a director. The Sun Also Rises pushed Jiang Wen into the spotlight of controversies and Let the Bullets Fly brought him back to commercial movies, the general aesthetic tastes as well as considerable revenues. There are complaints about the obscurity of The Sun Also Rises and there are doubts on the conspicuous commercial qualities of Let the Bullets Fly. However, the true value of Jiang Wen＇s movies can only be discovered in his works and be appreciated from within the director＇s thoughts. The paper makes a study of Jiang Wen＇s narrative style from the aspects of narrative perspectives, modes and strategies and attempts to reveal the visual legend based on such a style.
Yunzhu Pu; Lingzhao Kong; Xin Huang; Guoji Ding; Naiyun Gao
Bromine-contained disinfectants and biocides are widely used in swimming pools,recreational waters and cooling towers.The objective of this study was to evaluate the formation of thrihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetonitriles (HANs) and their cytotoxicity in algae solutions during free bromine disinfection.Disinfection by-products formation potential experiments were conducted using modelsolutions containing 7mg/L (as total organic carbon) Microcystis aeruginosa cells.Effects of free bromine dosage,pH and ammonia were investigated.The results showed that brominated disinfection by-products were the major products when free bromine was applied.The total THMs formed during bromination was much as that formed during chlorination,whereas HANs were elevated by using bromination instead of chlorination.Dibromoacetonitrice (C2H2NBr2) and bromoform (CHBr3) were the only detected species during free bromine disinfection.The production of C2H2NBr2 and CHBr3 increased with disinfectant dosage but decreased with dosing ammonia.CHBr3 increased with the pH changing from 5 to 9.However,C2H2NBr2 achieved the highest production at neutral pH,which was due to a joint effect of variation in hydrolysis rate and free bromine reactivity.The hydrolysis of C2H2NBr2 was basecatalytic and nearly unaffected by disinfectant.Finally,estimation of cytotoxicity of the disinfected algae solutions showed that HANs formation was responsible for the majority of toxicity.Considering its highest toxicity among the measured disinfection by-products,the elevated C2H2NBr2 should be considered when using bromine-related algaecide.
Haiping Wang; Shujuan Shi; Wenjing Yan; Yan Song; Jingjing Zhan; Chen Zhang; Haiji Wang
Interleukin-18 gene promoter polymorphisms are potential risk factors for ischemic cerebrovascular disease, and the-607C al ele may increase ischemic stroke risk in the Han Chinese population. In the present study, we recruited 291 patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease from the Affi-liated Hospital of Qingdao University Medical Col ege, China, and 226 healthy controls. Both pa-tients and controls were from the Han population in northern China. Immunoresonance scattering assays detected increased serum amyloid A protein, C-reactive protein, and interleukin-18 levels in ischemic cerebrovascular disease patients compared with healthy controls. Analysis of the-607C/A (rs1946518) polymorphism in the interleukin-18 gene promoter showed ischemic cerebrovascular disease patients exhibited increased frequencies of the CC genotype and C al eles than healthy controls. Genotype and al ele frequencies of the interleukin-18-137G/C (rs187238) polymorphism and the-13T/C (rs11024595) polymorphism in the 5'-flanking region of serum amyloid A, showed no significant difference between the two groups. Multivariate logistic regression analysis on the interleukin-18 promoter A/C genetic locus, for correction of age, gender, history of smoking, hyper-tension, diabetes mel itus, hypercholesteremia, and an ischemic stroke family history, showed ischemic cerebrovascular disease risk in individuals without the A al ele (C homozygotes) was 2.2-fold greater than in A al ele carriers. Overal , our findings suggest that the-13T/C (rs11024595) polymorphism in the 5′-flanking region of serum amyloid A has no correlation with ischemic cere-brovascular disease, but the C al ele of the-607C/A (rs1946518) polymorphism in the interleukin-18 promoter is a high-risk factor for ischemic cerebrovascular disease in the Han population of northern China. In addition, the A al ele is likely a protective gene for ischemic cerebrovascular disease.
Full Text Available This article characterizes the modern Jewish debate around Zionism as a profound political theological controversy by juxtaposing the works of two significant twentieth-century Jewish scholars, Jakob Klatzkin (1882–1948 and Hans Jonas (1903–1993. While Klatzkin campaigned for Zionism as Gnosticism, Jonas critically challenged this link in his writings from the 1950s and 1960s. In presenting a theological reading of modern Jewish secular thought, the article transcends the political controversy between Zionists and Post-Zionists of the recent decades and proposes a new horizon in the study of Jewish modern-secular thought.
Although Hans Selye is mostly known for his discovery & development of the stress concept, he also introduced the first physiologically sound, structure-activity classification of steroids that was also based on the chemical structure of steroids in 1943. He not only introduced the names of glucocorticoids & mineralocorticoids but discovered the anti- & pro-inflammatory properties, respectively, of these steroids in animal models. Furthermore, he not only described the first stress-induced gastric ulcers in rats (1936) & characterized the first human 'stress ulcers' during the air-raids in London during World War 11 (1943). Thus, Selye was a much more productive & creative scientist than it is generally considered.
徐群; 张建业; 王勤友; 张世训; 司桂玲
Objective To evaluate the status of eight RHD specific exons in 131 Han Chinese blood donors who were classified as RhD-negative by serological methods and explore the genomic structure of RHD gene among the Han Chinese. The Rh blood group system has the highest prevalence of polymorphisms among human blood group systems and is clinically significant in transfusion medicine. The Rh antigens are expressed on polypeptides encoded by two highly homologous genes, RHD and RHCE. Recent molecular studies have shown that the RhD-negative trait could be generated by multiple genetic mechanisms and is ethnic group-dependent.Methods The polymerase chain reaction using-sequence specific primers (PCR-SSP) was used to amplify exons 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9 and 10 of RHD gene and exons 1, 2 and 5 of RHCE gene, as well as intron 4 in each of them.Results The 131 cases of RhD-negative phenotypes consisted of 60 ccee, 58 Ccee, 5 ccEe, 5 CcEe and 3 CCee. Among them, 83 with the Rh ccee or ccEe phenotypes (63.4%) lacked the eight RHD exons indicated above, while 26 cases with the Rh Ccee, CCee, CcEe phenotypes (19.9%) had all the RHD exons examined. Twenty-two individuals with the Ccee, CCee, CcEe phenotypes (16.8%) carried at least one RHD exon. The phenotypes of the RhD negative individuals carrying the RHD gene were Rh CC or Cc, but not cc. Conclusions Three classes of RhD-negative polymorphisms among a population of Han Chinese were observed. Antigen association analysis suggested the existence of a novel class of RhD-negative associated haplotype in Han Chinese. This haplotype consisted of a normal RHCE allele and a nonfunctional RHD gene. It may be beneficial to redefine the RhD-negative blood group among Chinese populations upon clarification of the mechanisms of RHD gene expression and RhD antigen immunization.
J. H. le Roux
Full Text Available Hans-George Gadamer and the Old Testament Some aspects of Gadamer�s hermeneutics are discussed below: his view on method, the finiteness of being human, the value of prejudices and so forth. With Gadamer�s help we are also able to think anew about our South African Old Testament tradition. He has perspectives and concepts which can help us to reword the basic questions of Old Testament scholarship. Of course, Gadamer is but one possibility, but he was one of the most important thinkers of the twentieth century. Whoever struggles with him also gains insight into the hermeneutical perspectives of the twentieth century.
Full Text Available Hans-Georg Gadamer explicitly agrees with Heidegger that ‘Being’ is always been understood through the language and the dimension of time. So to catch up the Being, we need to know the Being itself, and to understand it. To understand means to perceive within the time and historicity. This paper will make clear the ontological basics of Gadamer’s hermeneutics containing: the relationship between historical aspect and understanding; hermeneutic discourse and sequential distance; prejudice and understanding; effective historical consciousness; understanding as application; and the structure of questions and answers.DOI: 10.15408/ref.v13i4.911
This paper discusses the status and the development of Internet of Things industry in Wan-Jiang cities when facing with the opportunity of the industries transfer in Yangtze River Delta,and puts forward strategies on how to develop the Internet of Things industry in Wan-Jiang cities from the perspective of government,urban development order,science and technology,based on a comprehensive analysis of the advantages and influencing factors.%文章主要研究在承接长三角产业转移的新机遇下,皖江城市带物联网建设的重要地位和发展现状;综合分析了皖江城市带发展物联网技术的条件和影响因素,并从政府政策、城市发展顺序、科技研发等角度对皖江城市带物联网发展提出了相应策略。
Full Text Available Complete blood count (CBC reference intervals are important to diagnose diseases, screen blood donors, and assess overall health. However, current reference intervals established by older instruments and technologies and those from American and European populations are not suitable for Chinese samples due to ethnic, dietary, and lifestyle differences. The aim of this multicenter collaborative study was to establish CBC reference intervals for healthy Han Chinese adults.A total of 4,642 healthy individuals (2,136 males and 2,506 females were recruited from six clinical centers in China (Shenyang, Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Chengdu, and Xi'an. Blood samples collected in K2EDTA anticoagulant tubes were analyzed. Analysis of variance was performed to determine differences in consensus intervals according to the use of data from the combined sample and selected samples.Median and mean platelet counts from the Chengdu center were significantly lower than those from other centers. Red blood cell count (RBC, hemoglobin (HGB, and hematocrit (HCT values were higher in males than in females at all ages. Other CBC parameters showed no significant instrument-, region-, age-, or sex-dependent difference. Thalassemia carriers were found to affect the lower or upper limit of different RBC profiles.We were able to establish consensus intervals for CBC parameters in healthy Han Chinese adults. RBC, HGB, and HCT intervals were established for each sex. The reference interval for platelets for the Chengdu center should be established independently.
Kim, Hung-Soo [Sun Moon University, Chonan(Korea); Moon, Jang-Won; Kim, Jae-Hyung; Kim, Joong-Hoon [Korea Univ., Seoul(Korea)
The drought analysis is performed by applications of truncation level method and conditional probability concept for hydrologic time series in Han river basin. The distributed trend of conditional probability is determined using kriging method for the time series. This study uses daily flowrate, monthly rainfall, and daily high temperature data sets. The daily flowrate data of 12 years(1986-1997) is used for the analysis. Also, the 14 years' data sets(1986-1999) for monthly rainfall and daily high temperature obtained from the National Weather Service of Korea are used in this study. In the cases of flowrate and rainfall data sets, the estimated value corresponding to the truncation level is decreased as the truncation level is increased but in the high temperature data, the value is increased as the truncation level is increased. The conditional probability varies according to the observations and sites. However, the distributed trend of drought is similar over the basin. As a result, the possibility of the drought is high in the middle and lower parts of Han river basin and thus it is recommended the distributed trend of drought be considered when the plan or measures for drought are established. (author). 10 refs., 9 tabs., 5 figs.
Hans Elias (1907 to 1985) was an anatomist, an educator, a mathematician, a cinematographer, a painter, and a sculptor. Above all, he was a German of Jewish descent, who had to leave his home country because of the policies of the National Socialist (NS) regime. He spent his life in exile, first in Italy and then in the United States. His biography is exemplary for a generation of younger expatriates from National Socialist Germany who had to find a new professional career under difficult circumstances. Elias was a greatly productive morphologist whose artistic talent led to the foundation of the new science of stereology and made him an expert in scientific cinematography. He struggled hard to fulfill his own high expectations of himself in terms of his effectiveness as a scientist, educator, and politically acting man in this world. Throughout his life this strong-willed and outspoken man never lost his great fondness for Germany and many of its people, while reserving some of his sharpest criticism for fellow anatomists who were active in National Socialist Germany, among them his friend Hermann Stieve, Max Clara, and Heinrich von Hayek. Hans Elias' life is well documented in his unpublished diaries and memoirs, and thus allows fresh insights into a time period when some anatomists were among the first victims of NS policies and other anatomists became involved in the execution of such policies.
Larsen, Erik Hviid
As a zoologist, Hans H. Ussing began his scientific career by studying the marine plankton fauna in East Greenland. This brought him in contact with August Krogh at the time George de Hevesy, Niels Bohr and Krogh planned the application of artificial radioactive isotopes for studying the dynamic...... such as exchange diffusion, unidirectional fluxes, flux-ratio equation, and solvent drag. Combining methods of biophysics with radioactive isotope technology, Ussing introduced and defined the phrases ‘short-circuit current', ‘active transport pathway' and ‘shunt pathway', and with frog skin as experimental model...... studies of high and low resistance epithelia and generalized the description of epithelial transport. He devoted the last decade of his scientific life to solute-coupled water transport. He introduced the sodium recirculation theory of isotonic transport, and in an experimental study, he obtained...
Full Text Available This paper presents the philosopher Hans Jonas’s idea of an environmental ethics. Through an outline of the development of man’s relation to nature from Greek antiquity to the present it is argued that science and technology in modernity favour a relation of exploitation which is partly the cause of fatal climate changes. Through Jonas’s philosophical notion of an ontology of man as an alternative to classical dualism and by means of a turn to an ontological interpretation of Kant’s categorical imperative, it is argued that mankind has a responsibility to both coming generations and to the biosphere as a whole. Not only does this ontological shift from philosophy of mind to an ontology of man transcend dualism in philosophy, it throws a new critical light on the technological development and suggests a new way of considering man’s place in the cosmos.
Hans Hinterreiter (1902-1989) was a Swiss painter, belonging to the Constructivist movement, who spent most of his life in Ibiza, Spain. Since 1930 he occupied himself with the laws of form and colour. Parallel to Escher, he discovered laws of coloured symmetry before crystallographers started...... poster illustrates four different cases of this process, starting always with a plane-group pattern and showing both the application of non-linear transformations and coloured symmetry. In his more complex patterns, two of which are shown on the poster, Hinterreiter created domains of affinely......-step approach that combines plane group patterns with the principles of coloured symmetry and nonlinear transformations, his understanding of crystallographic and non-crystallographic symmetry and a meticulous application of these principles even to the most complex patterns produced a legacy close to the heart...
Hans Selye, the father of the stress concept, was a giant of science of the twentieth century. Beyond his best-known work on stress, he also made several discoveries on various other fields of experimental medicine. He described and characterized various pluricausal diseases. In addition, he made pivotal contributions to the broad field of endocrinology, especially to the classification of steroids and to our better understanding of their mode of action. He developed surgical technics and experimental animal models suitable for studying the pathogenesis and prevention of human diseases. Selye was an extremely well educated, highly intelligent and disciplined individual, an original and creative scientist, an outstanding teacher, a philosopher, a prolific author, a fabulous communicator and a gifted organizer successfully establishing, developing and managing a major academic research institution, the word-famous Institute of Experimental Medicine and Surgery of the University of Montreal.
This book reflects on the significant and highly original scientific contributions of Hans Primas. A professor of chemistry at ETH Zurich from 1962 to 1995, Primas continued his research activities until his death in 2014. Over these 50 years and more, he worked on the foundations of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, contributed to a number of significant issues in theoretical chemistry, helped to clarify central topics in quantum theory and the philosophy of physics, suggested innovative ways of addressing interlevel relations in the philosophy of science, and introduced cutting-edge approaches in the flourishing young field of scientific studies of consciousness. His work in these areas of research and its continuing impact is described by noted experts, colleagues, and collaborators of Primas. All authors contextualize their contributions to facilitate the mutual dialog between these fields.
Hans Lungwitz began to formulate his concept of philosophical and medical anthropology in 1924, and continued to develop it until his death in 1967. From his long experience as a neurologist, he arrived at a comprehensive theory of psychobiology which describes mental processes as biological / physiological function of neural structures in the human brain. Lungwitz's approach to holistic biological view of thought and experience to brain function and reflex behaviour, and provides a holistic biological view of the human brain, free from metaphysics. This is shown here as: the subject-object-relationship, the human being described as a reflex system; the psychobiology of language and speech; the way a person perceives (Weltanschauung); illness as infantilism in general and recover therefrom, especially in the context of treatment by the method of cognitive therapy, inaugurated by Lungwitz.
Hans Molisch (1856-1937) was an exceptionally gifted and productive researcher who had broad interests in plant biology, physiology and biochemistry. In addition, he pioneered in isolating a number of species of purple photosynthetic bacteria in pure culture (including Rhodobacter capsulatus), which facilitated his discovery of basic aspects of bacterial photosynthesis. Molisch demonstrated conclusively that molecular oxygen is not produced by photosynthetic bacteria, and discovered the photoheterotrophic growth mode. The range of Molisch's research accomplishments was impressive, and he emerges as a major figure in the history of photosynthesis research. This essay reviews the numerous research contributions made by Molisch, particularly in regard to advancing knowledge of the several forms of photosynthetic metabolism. An English translation of his 1914 paper on the photosynthetic creation of visual images on leaves is included as an Appendix.
@@ Professor HAN Jing-xian graduated from the Department of Medicine in Tianjin Medical University in 1970. He made a further study of experimental medicine in Kitasato University, Japan between 1987 and 1988. He was engaged in aging research in mouse in Kyoto University, Japan between 1988-1989, and in practicing traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) in Mutian and other Hospitals from 1991 to 1994. In 1997, he won an excellent returned students award from Ministry of Health and was awarded special allowance by State Council. As a research fellow, he won an award of national scientific and technical progress and seven awards of local scientific and technical progress. He published more than twenty articles at home and abroad, including five SCI papers; and wrote four monographs, one of which, Acupuncture Techniques (in Japanese) has been considered as a guidance book for acupuncture practice in the acupuncture circle in Japan.
Hatzinger, Martin; Kwon, S T; Langbein, S; Kamp, S; Häcker, Axel; Alken, Peter
Hans Christian Jacobaeus performed the first clinical laparoscopic surgery in Stockholm. This pioneering procedure was based on the animal experiments of Georg Kelling (1866-1945), a German physician from Dresden, who performed the first laparoscopic intervention in 1901 using a Nitz cystoscope in a dog. In 1910, Jacobaeus published his initial experiences with laparoscopic surgery in the Münchner Medizinischen Wochenschrift under the title "The Possibilities for Performing Cystoscopy in Examinations of Serous Cavities." He used this technique for diagnostic purposes in undefined abdominal complaints and functional impairment. Jacobaeus was the first who pointed out the possibility of injuring organs, especially the intestines, by inserting the trocar. In 1910, Jacobaeus recognized the immense diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities of laparoscopic surgery, as well as its difficulties and limits. He also was the first to realize the need for initial endoscopic training in animals and corpses. He promoted the development of special laparoscopic instruments to optimize and simplify the procedure.
杨晓梅; 汪江桦; 赵忠华
With the rapid development of information technology , new media has become one of the most used media of university students. This paper introduces the related concepts of new media and media literacy, analyzes on the current situation and existing problems of the minority university students’ media literacy under the new media perspective in Xin Jiang, and advances some idea for diverse media literacy education system.%本文介绍了新媒体视域下媒介素养教育的相关概念，分析了少数民族大学生媒介素养教育在新媒体视域下的现状和存在问题，提出了少数民族大学生媒介素养教育的具体方法和思路。
Professor JIANG Shu-min brings up the idea that treat peptic ulcer with positive Helicobacter pylori infection as carbuncle, he thinks peptic ulcer with positive Helicobacter pylori infection as internal-carbuncle, then makes treatments based on syndrome differentiation by using herbs which can regulate qi and activate blood circulation, and clear heat and detoxicate.%姜树民教授提出从痈论治幽门螺杆菌阳性的消化性溃疡,认为幽门螺杆菌阳性消化性溃疡乃内痈,运用理气活血、清热解毒药辨证施治.
Jiang Kai was the chief inspector of the Special Sino-German Institution of Higher Edu-cation (Deutsch-Chinesische Hochschule) in Qingdao that was accredited by the government of the Qing Dynasty .He has significant contribution in pioneering modern education in the history of higher education in Qingdao .His political career in the Qing Dynasty benefited from the help of Zhang Zhi-dong ,w hich reflected the complex psychology of the patriots in the struggle of all forces in the late Qing Dynasty .As one legend with great influence in Chinese modern history ,Jiang Kai was regarded as the leading protagonist for suppressing the Boxer rebellion in Pingyuan County .And he was also the summarist of practice and theory in harnessing the Yellow River and an expert in the Chinese his-tory of criminal law that had been skilled in the ideas of the authorities on criminal law .%蒋楷是清廷派驻中德合作青岛特别高等专门学堂的总稽查，在青岛高等教育史上具有开现代化教育风气之先的重要贡献。他的清宦生涯受惠于张之洞的提携，折射出晚清爱国士子奋争在各种势力博弈中的复杂心态。作为中国近代史上颇有影响的传奇人物，蒋楷曾被认为是镇压平原义和团起义的急先锋，又是山东治理黄河理论和实践的总结者，同时也是“夙精刑名家言”的中国刑法史研究专家。
A Chronological Life of Mr. Jiang Ziping by 1VAn Erchang is important in the study of Jiang Fan and even the academy in Qing dynasty, which has been collated by Qi Yongxiang, and also by Zheng Xiaoxia and Wu Ping. Qi＇s revision has 29 errors, including 14 word-missings, 6 abundant words, 8 word faults, 1 inverted mistake, as well as 8 punctuation errors, including 5 period and comma mistakes and 3 wrong marks. The version by Zheng X aoxia and Wu Ping have the following two problems： the wrong note format and punctuation errors.%闵尔昌《江子屏先生年谱》是研究江藩乃至清代学术的重要资料。漆永祥和郑晓霞、吴平分别对其进行了校点整理。漆永祥校点本存在文字错误共有29处，含脱误14处，衍误6处，讹误8处，倒误1处。另有标点错误8处，含句逗不当5处，专名线标示不当3处。郑晓霞、吴平标点本存在闵尔昌《江子屏先生年谱》注文标识不当以及标点失误两大问题。
In December 1933, Jiang Tingfu published an article of Revolution and Aboslutism, which publicly proposed a thought of“New Aboslutism”of implementing dictatorial rule in China. Jiang Tingfu’s “New Aboslutism”thought held that China priority is to establish a unified nation, revolution impedes unity, and“personal despotism”is an effective way to achieve national unity.“Worrying about the world”patriotism and“Dare”pioneering spirit of Hunan Culture is an important reason for the formation of the thought, and“Practical”pragmatic spirit is also the important characteristics of the thought.%1933年12月，蒋廷黻发表了《革命与专制》一文，公开提出在中国实行专制独裁统治的“新式专制”论。蒋的“新式专制”论认为，中国的当务之急是建立统一的民族国家，革命有碍统一，“个人专制”是实现国家统一的有效途径。湖湘文化中“心忧天下”的爱国精神和“敢为天下先”的开创精神是该理论形成的重要原因，湖湘文化中“经世致用”的务实精神是该理论的重要特点。
Gestalt theory, developed in Germany in early 20th century, is also known as Gestalt psychology theory or Gestalt theory, whose organization law mutually accommodates with imagery theory of Chinese classical po-etry.This paper analyzes image structure of Yanjidao's Lin Jiang Xian using the graphics background rule, close rule, concise rules, similarity law, law of closure, principle of continuity and symmetry rule from Gestalt psychol-ogy, and draws the results into mental mapping in order to explicitly and comprehensively appreciate the image structure and contents in Ling Jiang Xian.%20世纪初产生于德国的格式塔理论，又称完形心理学理论或完形理论，其组织法则与中国古典诗词学中的意象理论有许多相互融通之处。文章运用格式塔心理学所提出的图形背景法则、接近法则、简洁法则、相似法则、闭合法则、连续法则、对称法则等7个法则来分析晏几道《临江仙》的意象结构，并将分析结果绘制成心智图，以更清晰、全面地把握《临江仙》的意象构成及其系统性，达到对词作内容的深入鉴赏。
Hans Morgenthau'nun Uluslararası İlişkiler bilimine katkısı 1970'lere kadar alanda üstünlüğünü sürdürmüştür. Bu makalenin amacı, Morgenthau'nun realizm üzerine görüşlerinin uluslararası ilişkiler (IR) alanında daha sonraki çalışmalarda nasıl bir etki bıraktığını ve Morgenthau ve eleştirenleri arasında süregelen tartışmanın önemli yönlerini ortaya koymaktır. Morgenthau'nun realizminin açıklayıcı gücüne ve cimriliğinin ve açıklığının yararlarına bakmaksızın, Morgenthau'nun düşünüşüne, diğer ...
For some time psychoanalysts have tended to view Freud's cultural writings--concerning modernity, secularism, science, and religion--disparagingly, seeing them as the unscientific speculations of a misguided genius. But the questions Freud explored in those works are pressing topics that deserve serious attention. Just as fascism provided the historical context in which the critical theorists of the Frankfurt School developed a psychoanalytic social theory in the 1930s and 1940s, so the rise of fundamentalism demands a similar effort today. The "project of autonomy" conceptualized by the psychoanalyst-philosopher Castoriadis can be used to situate psychoanalysis in its broader historical context, as part of the emancipatory movement of modernity, and to elucidate fundamentalism as an attempt to turn back that project and reinstate the values of premodern traditional societies. Because the widespread aversion to secularism today is in no small degree the responsibility of secularists themselves--Freud's relatively crude and simplistic disregard of some of the deepest yearnings of humankind is a case in point--it is time to formulate, using the work of Hans Loewald, a more sensitive and sophisticated psychoanalytic view of religion. Yet psychoanalytic secularists must avoid overcompensating for past mistakes by giving too much ground to antisecularists. The legitimate desire to do justice to religion must not trump the need to advance the project of autonomy as a first priority.
Laura Díaz Traversa
Full Text Available Byung-Chul Han, Dr. en Filosofía de origen coreano, realizó sus estudios en Alemania, donde reside actualmente y se desempeña como docente de Filosofía y Estudios Culturales en la Universidad de las Artes de Berlín. Desde el punto de vista teórico-académico se inscribe en el Pensamiento Crítico de la escuela de Frankfurt, siendo alumno privilegiado de Honneth. Es considerado una de las voces filosóficas más prestigiosas de dicho país, y sus obras se caracterizan por ser breves, de fácil lectura, sorprendiendo al público por su fuerza y pertinencia en la actualidad. La agonía del Eros es la tercera obra del autor traducida al castellano y promete seguir el mismo camino que las anteriores, es decir, convertirse en una obra fundamental del Pensamiento Crítico.
Wang, Huidan; Chen, Haitao; Qin, Yingying; Shi, Zhuqing; Zhao, Xiaoming; Xu, Jianfeng; Ma, Bowen; Chen, Zi-Jiang
In this retrospective study, the relationship between demographic characteristics, past medical history, general lifestyle habits and susceptibility of premature ovarian failure (POF) in Han Chinese population was investigated. Five hundred and fifty-three patients with POF and 400 women with normal ovarian function were recruited. A questionnaire was designed to gather information from responders. Logistic regression was carried out to calculate odds ratios (OR), 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) and P-values. History of pelvic surgery, mumps, having relatives with menstrual abnormalities and exposure to chemical agents were significantly associated with increased risk of POF (OR 5.53 [2.15 to 14.23]; 3.26 [2.38 to 4.47]; 28.12 [8.84 to 89.46]; 4.47 [2.09 to 9.58]). Vegetarian diet, tea and mineral water consumption reduced the risk of POF (OR 0.27 [0.19 to 0.37]; 0.04 [0.03 to 0.07]; 0.63 [0.47 to 0.85], respectively). Heredity, pelvic surgery, mumps and exposure to chemical agents were identified as risk factors for POF, whereas vegetarian diet, tea consumption and mineral water drinking were protective. Therefore, genetic consultation could help those women whose relatives manifested an early or premature menopause to avoid the consequences of possible premature ovarian function cessation. Avoidance of exposure to endocrine disrupters and flavonoids intake should be considered.
Hans Morgenthau'nun Uluslararası İlişkiler bilimine katkısı 1970'lere kadar alanda üstünlüğünü sürdürmüştür. Bu makalenin amacı, Morgenthau'nun realizm üzerine görüşlerinin uluslararası ilişkiler (IR) alanında daha sonraki çalışmalarda nasıl bir etki bıraktığını ve Morgenthau ve eleştirenleri arasında süregelen tartışmanın önemli yönlerini ortaya koymaktır. Morgenthau'nun realizminin açıklayıcı gücüne ve cimriliğinin ve açıklığının yararlarına bakmaksızın, Morgenthau...
Schweber, Silvan S
On the fiftieth anniversary of Hiroshima, Nobel-winning physicist Hans Bethe called on his fellow scientists to stop working on weapons of mass destruction. What drove Bethe, the head of Theoretical Physics at Los Alamos during the Manhattan Project, to renounce the weaponry he had once worked so tirelessly to create? That is one of the questions answered by "Nuclear Forces", a riveting biography of Bethe's early life and development as both a scientist and a man of principle. As Silvan Schweber follows Bethe from his childhood in Germany, to laboratories in Italy and England, and on to Cornell University, he shows how these differing environments were reflected in the kind of physics Bethe produced. Many of the young quantum physicists in the 1930s, including Bethe, had Jewish roots, and Schweber considers how Liberal Judaism in Germany helps explain their remarkable contributions. A portrait emerges of a man whose strategy for staying on top of a deeply hierarchical field was to tackle only those problems h...
Hans Küpper has over 30 years of experience in the biotechnology industry in areas from research to R&D management, technology assessment and business acquisitions. He received his PhD in 1974 from the University of Heidelberg. After additional academic research at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in the USA and at the University of Heidelberg, Germany, he joined Biogen in 1980. Here, he held various R&D positions, the last of which was Assistant Research Director. In 1985, he joined Behringwerke AG, Marburg, to build up and head the company's Molecular Biology Department and thereafter became Head of R&D of the Immunology/Oncology Business Unit. In 1999 he joined Global Life Science Ventures at their Munich office. Dr Küpper is the author of numerous publications and patents/applications and has also served as a consultant to the Pharmaceutical Industry and the European Commission. He is a board member of several early stage companies in the life sciences.
In 1820 the Danish scientist Hans Christian Ørsted discovered the relationship between electricity and magnetism by his famous wire-compass experiment. Ørsted was one of the foremost scientists of the nineteenth century, and he was also one of the leading figures in Denmark in the 19th century with a vital influence in the fields of aesthetics, philosophy, education, politics and religion. In this paper the work and life of Ørsted is placed in a school context with the rationale to accentuate that learning of physics needs to be accompanied by learning about physics, its history, its interrelations with culture, worldviews, and commerce, its philosophical assumptions, its epistemology and methodology. Narratives are introduced as a pedagogical support to this approach and two concrete examples of teaching sequences centred on the work and life of Ørsted is described in grade 7 and grade 9 classes, respectively. A prominent feature of the sequences was that all the activities of the pupils as an outcome should have a product. Products like a movie, a loudspeaker, a fairy tale or a newspaper played an important role by encouraging the pupils to produce both personally meaningful works as well as products that are useful for their community.
Keifenheim, Katharina Eva
Hans von Hattingberg (1879-1944) worked as a neurologist and psychoanalyst in Munich and Berlin from about 1910 to 1944. He was a prolific writer, but met with increasing disapproval from Freud and his circle. An advocate of the union of different psychotherapeutic schools, he was initially a marginal figure in the professional field. With Hitler's rise to power his career prospered: He was offered the position of a lecturer for psychotherapy and became head of the research department at the "Göring Institute". He came to prominence with his writings on the "Neue deutsche Seelenheilkunde" despite the fact that this was never his preferred topic. The main themes of his publications were marriage, love and female emancipation. Those works contain only little of the standard Nazi ideology of the time. Not only was Hattingberg never a member of the NSDAP (the ruling party), but in some respects he could conceivably be considered a member of the resistance. The article outlines the most important stages of Hattingberg's life and focuses on the question of how he positioned himself after 1933, when it became vital for him to reconcile psychoanalysis and National Socialism.
Abdo Saif Dehwah, Mustafa; Shuang, Zhang; Yan, Wang; Chan, Peng; Huang, Qing-Yang
The aim of this study was to investigate the association between Pro12Ala polymorphism in the PPARγ2 gene and type 2 diabetes mellitus in Han Chinese in Hubei. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptorγ2 (PPARγ2) is a nuclear receptor plays a key role in regulation of adipocyte differentiation, lipid metabolism, insulin sensitivity and the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). There are various studies have provided evidence for the association between common Pro12Ala polymorphism in the PPARγ2 gene and type 2 diabetes mellitus, but the results are controversial and depend on ethnicity. So we conducted a case-control association study among 330 T2DM patients and 212 controls with family-based and random case-control designs. The genotypes of the PPARγ2 Pro12Ala polymorphism were detected by using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFL) method. The result indicated that the Pro12 allele was associated with type 2 diabetes in this study population.
Wang Weifan is a member of the standing committee of the China Christian Council, and a Christian theology education professor. He recently discovered that several Eastern Han Dynasty museum exhibits in the Jiangsu Xuzhou Han Dynasty Stone Carving Museum include depictions of the bible and of early
fyldigt omtalt i Ove Mallings meget læste: Store og gode Handlinger af Danske, Norske og Holstenere fra 1777, og der kom flere kobberstik med hans portræt. Hans Egede plejer de kobbesyge - en scene fra koppeepidemien i Godthåb 1733 af den bekendte kobberstikker Johann Friedrich Clemens efter tegning af...
Artiklen er en introduktion til Calvins liv og tankeverden i anledning af 500-året for hans fødsel. Udgangspunkt er hans selvforståelse, som den kommer til udtryk i hans Salmekommentar og den forståelse af Salmerne som en sjælens "anatomi" og en vejledning til bøn, som står ved roden af hans...... teologi. Calvins humanistiske baggrund, engagement i reformationen, eksil, og ydre og indre modstandere beskrives sammen med et overblik over hans teologi, som den fremstår i Institutio. Denne inkluderer den dobbelte erkendelse af Gud som Skaber og som Frelser, hvori forsynet er en væsentlig del af første...
'Little Hans' is one of the most highly commented cases in the psychoanalytic literature. His work as an opera director from 1925 in Europe and then in the United States of America is much less well known. This may seem especially surprising given that Freud very soon detects Hans's emerging interest in this subject. Yet Freud does not mention it either in 1909 when he reports the case, or when Hans visits him in 1922, even though Hans had already decided to become an opera director at this point. The author of this article endeavours to show how this artistic choice could be understood as a way of accommodating, in a double transference relationship with Freud and with his father, the unanalysed residue of the 'Krawall' (a term invented by Hans) and 'the black thing', both of which appeared during the phobic period.
Lu, Jing-Jing; Shi, Lei; Chen, Wen-Li; Wang, Li
In response to deprivation of combined nitrogen, the filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 develops heterocyst, which is specifically involved in the nitrogen fixation. In this study, we focused on the regulation of HanA, a histone-like protein, in heterocyst development. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay results showed that NtcA, a global nitrogen regulator necessary for heterocyst differentiation, could bind to two NtcA-binding motifs in the hanA promoter region. qPCR results also showed that NtcA may regulate the expression of hanA. By using the hanA promoter-controlled gfp as a reporter gene and performing western blot we found that the amount of HanA in mature heterocysts was decreased gradually.
在道经中，“寒池”、“寒庭”都有地狱刑罚之池、人身命门、月中广寒之池、北极元福弃贤世界郁单之国的神池等意思；“寒夜”则有地狱的意思，此外，该词还可作地狱曹府之名。%In Taoist scripture, ＂han chi＂ and ＂han ting＂ take the meanings like a pool with hell, penalty, fate, cold-evil, etc. Except the meaning of hell, ＂han ye＂ is the synonym of hell.
CHEN Fang-pey; CHEN Fun-jou; JONG Maw-shiou; TSAI Hui-lin; WANG Jen-ren; HWANG Shinn-jang
Background The Chinese medical archive,Shang-Han Lun,is said to be written by ZHANG Zhong-jing (150-219 A.D.).This great influential work introduced the specific symptoms of six-channel disorders (Tai-Yang,Yang-Ming,Shao-Yang,Tai-Yin,Shao-Yin,and Jue-Yin) and their corresponding treatments,the combined syndromes,deterioration due to malpractice,and the concept of six-channel transitions.The concept of Shang-Han Lun is widely accepted by Chinese herbal doctors.However,no clinical data about Shang-Han symptoms are described in oriental or western medical reports.Methods The clinical prescription data of traditional Chinese medicine visits were extracted under the National Health Insurance in Taiwan.The application rate of 42 Shang-Han formulae in clinical practice was analyzed in detail with the software SPSS.Results Between 1999 and 2002,the prescription rate of Shang-Han formula was only 5.22% among a total of 528 889 576 Chinese herbal formula prescriptions.The most frequently used formula was Tai-Yang formulae (71.31%),followed by Shao-Yang formulae (17.49%) and the most commonly prescribed individual Shang-Han formulae were Ge-Gen Tang (16.11%),Shao-Yao-Gan-Cao Tang (12.97%),Xiao-Qing-Long Tang (11.79%),Ban-Xia Xie-Xin Tang (10.24%),and Xiao-Chai-Hu Tang (9.11%),which comprised 60.22% of the utilization rate of total Shang-Han formulae.Conclusions From the prescription patterns of Shang-Han formulae,there was no evidence of transitions among the six channels.Despite the fundamental role of Shang-Han Lun in traditional Chinese medicine,prescription of Shang-Han formulae was limited in clinical practice.
古隆起成因机制及其演化的分析,可为探讨大陆陆内构造变形提供基础,古隆起也是重要油气勘探领域之一.地震剖面、钻井资料和野外露头等证据揭示,四川盆地北部须家河组上部地层缺失并非周边造山作用剥蚀形成,而是古隆起活动造成,本文称之为剑阁古隆起,对其进行厘定和描述.通过分析地震剖面和连井剖面的年代地层格架,并结合Bischke曲线分析法,确定古隆起的形成与演化历史.结合区域构造背景,分析古隆起成因.剑阁古隆起相对高部位的边界近似为须家河组缺失尖灭线,分布在江油—剑阁—广元—旺苍一带.它于晚三叠世须三期开始形成,主要发育期为须四期到须六期,持续到早侏罗世后衰亡,经历了一个完整的形成—演化—衰亡的隆起旋回,持续大约21 Ma,造成约350 m的地层沉积间断,后期改造使古隆起初始形态不复存在.剑阁古隆起的形成受控于勉略洋盆的关闭,大地构造位置属于晚三叠世扬子地块北缘前陆盆地的前隆部分,它的发现对分析扬子地块北缘构造演化和川北地区须家河组油气勘探具有重要意义.%Analysis of the formation mechanism and evolution of paleouplift could provide the basis for studying the inland tectonic movement.Paleouplift is now an important exploration target for hydrocarbon.Seismic profiles,well data and outcrops of North Sichuan Basin indicate that the lack of upper Xujiahe Formation in the study area was not caused by erosion due to surrounding orogeny,but by the formation of a paleouplift,which is named Jiange paleouplift and discussed in this study.Combined with Bischke Plot Analysis,we verified the formation and evolution history of the paleouplift by analyzing the time-strata relationship of seismic profiles and cross well lines.The high altitude boundary of the Jiange Paleouplift is equivalent to missing pinchout line of Xujiahe Formaiton,which distributes
陈婷婷; 刘彬; 韩彦华
目的：分析龙江医派名医陈景河治疗血瘀证的用药规律。方法收集、整理龙江医派名医陈景河在齐齐哈尔中医院门诊治疗血瘀证的中药方剂，建立数据库，利用统计学方法对用药情况进行统计分析。结果整理治疗血瘀证的中药方剂50首，涉及中药194种，用药总频数为610次。结论核心单味药依次为川芎、当归、黄芪、丹参、乳香、没药、党参、红花、白芍等；治疗血瘀证以活血化瘀药、补虚药、清热药、解表药等为主要功效的药物为主；药性以温、寒、平为主；药味以苦、辛、甘为主；归经以肝、脾、心、肺、肾为主。%objective To analyze the medication rule of famous doctor Chen Jing - he from Long Jiang Medical School in Treating blood stasis syndrome. Methods Prescriptions for treatment of blood stasis syndrome of outpa-tients from Qiqihaer Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine written by Long Jiang Medical School’s famous doctor Chen Jing-he were collected and arranged,database was established,and medication rule was analyzed with statistical method. Results The 50 pieces of TCM prescription against blood stasis syndrome were collected,which involved 194 kinds of herbs,and total frequency of medication use reached 610 times. Conclusion Core herbs in proper or-der are Ligusticum chuanxiong,angelica,astragalus,radix salviae miltiorrhizae,Radix Codonopsis,frankincense, myrrh,safflower,Radix Paeoniae Alba,etc;drugs for the treatment of blood stasis were mainly of blood circulation promoting,blood stasis removing,heat clearing and diaphoretic effect;the properties of the herbs were mainly warm, cold and peace;the herbs were mainly of bitter,acrid and sweet;the meridians entered were mainly liver,spleen, heart ,lung and kidney.
目的了解江岸区中小学生生长发育及健康状况，为开展常见病防治工作提供科学依据。方法采用SQL数据统计和SPSS统计分析相结合的数据处理方法对江岸区68所中小学的体检数据进行了分析。结果视力不良检出率为60.47%，超重肥胖率为26.92%，患眼科病检出率为0.46%，龋齿检出率为3.25%。结论江岸区中小学生的视力不良、肥胖问题较为突出，龋齿、眼病检出率较低。希望能引起家长和学校的广泛关注，加强对学生的卫生知识教育，促进学生健康成长。%Objective To investigate the growth development and health status of the primary and middle school students in Jiang'an District, to provide scientific basis for carrying out prevention and treatment of common diseases. Methods We used the data processing method which combined SQL with SPSS statistical analysis to analyze the examination data among 68 primary and middle schools of Jiang'an District. Results The detection rate of poor eyesight was 60.47%, the rate of overweight and obesity was 26.92%, the detection rate of eye disease was 0.46%, and the detection rate of dental caries was 3.25%. Conclusion The poor eyesight and obesity problem is very prominent, and the detection rate of dental caries and eye disease is low. Hope to cause the attention of parents and schools, to strengthen the students' health knowledge education, and promote the healthy growth of students.
Kamminga, H.; Marcelis, L.F.M.; Dagevos, H.
In de toekomst zullen tuinbouwbedrijven meer teelt- en consumentenonderzoek op eigen houtje laten uitvoeren. Voor veel ondernemers is dit nieuw. Wetenschappers Leo Marcelis en Hans Dagevos geven tips om zoveel mogelijk nuttige informatie uit onderzoek te halen.
Subjects: Implications for Contemporary Medical Research in. Nigeria. Ebeh J.I1 and ... Keywords: Human Research ethics, Nigeria, Hans Jonas. *Author for corresp .... 1998) reported a case of over sixty embryos that were transplanted into ...
Lepp, Hans, 1950-
Rootsi Instituudi kultuuri- ja ühiskonnaosakonna direktor Hans Lepp meenutab oma tegevust Rootsi kultuuriatašeena Eestis 1990ndatel aastatel. Ka autori meenutused kohtumisest RRi peadirektori Ivi Eenmaaga, ka rootsi saali asutamisest RRis
<正>Hans Dijkstal, former Netherlands deputy prime minister and current chairman of the Board of Atlantic & Pacific Exchange Programme (APEP) of the Netherlands, headed a 12-member goodwill delegation to visit Beijing and Shanghai from May 25 to
Full Text Available Theresa Morris, Hans Jonas’s Ethic of Responsibility: From Ontology to Ecology, Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, SUNY Series in Environmental Philosophy and Ethics, 2013, 236 p.
Nord, Ane Marie
I 14 år lagde Norma blomster ved det gravsted, hun troede indeholdt hendes bror. Det gjorde det ikke.Hun drømmer om at dø med vished om, at hans jordiske rester er fundet, om at have et gravsted at lægge blomster ved, og om at se de skyldige for hans død dømt. Men det er en drøm, der nok tvivlsomt...
Hans Rotgersi aktiivne tegutsemisperiood hõlmab 15. sajandi viimase ja 16. saj. esimese veerandi. Kõige ulatuslikuma kirjaliku pärandi on ta endast maha jätnud Niguliste kiriku eestseisjana. Niguliste kiriku olulistest daatumitest. Maksujõuliste tallinlaste surma kajastumisest Rotgersi ülestähendustes. Rotgersi käsikirjas säilinud astroloogiliste ja meditsiiniliste soovituste kogust. Hans Rotgersi testamendist.
Nord, Ane Marie
I 14 år lagde Norma blomster ved det gravsted, hun troede indeholdt hendes bror. Det gjorde det ikke.Hun drømmer om at dø med vished om, at hans jordiske rester er fundet, om at have et gravsted at lægge blomster ved, og om at se de skyldige for hans død dømt. Men det er en drøm, der nok tvivlsom...
As an example of Chinese arts and crafts, porcelain is an important element of Chinese culture. In ancient times, when transport and communications were extremely backward, the continuous flow of porcelain items between Han Chinese and Tibetans played an essential role in their material and cultural life. Put specifically, the close relationship between porcelain and Han-Tibetan cultural and artistic exchanges can be observed as follows:
Koehn, Hans O. A.
Maailma tippkvaliteediga määrdeaineid tootva Saksa õlifirma Addinol osanik dr. Hans O. A. Koehn on üks juhtivaid isikuid Saksamaa mineraalõli majanduses, tööst õlifirmas Valvoline, edasisest karjäärist ning Addinoli osanikuks saamisest
YANG XiaoYan; LIU ChangJiang; ZHANG JianPing; YANG WuZhan; ZHANG XiaoHu; L(U) HouYuan
A large amount of carbonized plant remains were discovered in one of the outer burial pits of the Han Yangling Mausoleum, which was built more than 2000 years ago for the Jing Emperor, Liu, Qi (188-141 cal a BC), the fourth emperor of the Western Han Dynasty. The remains are identified by phytolith analysis and macrofossil morphological features. Seeds from foxtail millet (Setaria italica), broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum), rice (Oryza sativa) and chenopod (possible Chenopodium giganteum) are identified, suggesting that these four crops might have been the staple plant foods in the capital area (Guanzhong area), Shaanxi Province during the Early Western Han Dynasty. Chenopods were often considered as weeds since they have only been rarely found as carbonized seeds in prehistoric sites. This is the first time such a large amount of seeds has been found at a site, which provides strong material evidence for chenopod cultivation with a long history in China. Wheat was thought to be promoted and popularized in the Guanzhong area since the Wu Emporor, Liu, Che (156-87 cal a BC), the fifth emperor of the Western Han Dynasty. No wheat was found at this site, which supports the historical document record that wheat was still secondary in the diet and agrarian economy before the Wu Emperor's reign.
Koehn, Hans O. A.
Maailma tippkvaliteediga määrdeaineid tootva Saksa õlifirma Addinol osanik dr. Hans O. A. Koehn on üks juhtivaid isikuid Saksamaa mineraalõli majanduses, tööst õlifirmas Valvoline, edasisest karjäärist ning Addinoli osanikuks saamisest
AbstrActThis article examines Han Chinese who has historically practiced Tibetan Buddhism in the Qinghai-Gansu border region. The main primary sources were published in the 1990s, based on surveys by Chinese social scientists who were sent around in the 1950s to collect data on Tibetan Buddhist institutions as well as additional independent surveys from the 1980s and my own site visits in 2006. On the basis of these sources, I argue that there are at least 100,000 and probably as many as 200,000 Han Chinese on the borders of Qinghai and Gansu (part of the Amdo cultural region for Tibetans) practicing Tibetan Buddhism, following traditions that seem to have been in place for centuries. I also discuss the sixteen historic cases of Han Chinese reincarnate lamas and the over one hundred monasteries in this region affiliated with Han Chinese. Finally, I note the sectarian affiliations (jiaopai: Nyingma, Geluk, etc.) and religious practices of these Chinese communities practicing Tibetan Buddhism.
Full Text Available Objectives. To fully analyze and compare BMI among Han, Tibetan, and Uygur university students, to discuss the differences in their physical properties and physical health, and thus to provide some theoretical suggestions for the improvement of students’ physical health. Methods. The cross-sectional random cluster sampling was used to investigate 10103 Han, Tibetan, and Uygur university students, aged 20–24 in Northwest China, and their height and weight were measured to calculate BMI. The BMI classification criteria for Chinese established by Work Group on Obesity in China (WGOC were used for screening. Results. Han, Tibetan, and Uygur university students show low obesity rates but high overweight rates. Han, Tibetan, and Uygur university students present a high rate of underweight, normal weight, and overweight, respectively. Female Han students show higher underweight and normal weight rates, but lower overweight and obesity rates, than male Han students. Female Tibetan students show higher normal weight rate, but lower overweight and obesity rates, than male Tibetan students. BMI increases with age for male students but decreases with age for female students. Male Uygur students show higher obesity rate than female Uygur students. Tibetan and Uygur university students have higher BMI than other minorities in South China.
Zhu, Li; Aili, Aikebaier; Zhang, Cheng; Saiding, Aili; Abudureyimu, Kelimu
AIM: To perform a single-centre survey of the prevalence of and possible risk factors for gallstones in Uighur and Han Chinese. METHODS: Complete medical data for 9455 patients were collected from the medical centre of our hospital, and the overall prevalence of gallstones as well as the prevalence in different ethnic groups was studied. The risk factors for gallstones in different ethnic groups were identified in a univariate analysis, and variables with statistical significance were analysed by unconditional multiple logistic regression, to primarily explore the similarities and differences in gallstone risk factors between different ethnic groups. RESULTS: The prevalence of gallstones was significantly higher in the Uighur population than in the Han population (22.87% vs 11.64%, P gallstones based on the different ethnic areas revealed that age was a risk factor for gallstones in both groups; triglycerides, body-mass index (BMI) and high-density lipoprotein were risk factors for gallstones in the Han population, while total cholesterol (TC), gender and fatty liver were risk factors in the Uighur population. The Uighur patients were older than the Han patients, and had higher BMI, TC, low-density lipoprotein, female rate and fatty liver rate, while the incidence of hypertension was lower than that in the Han patients. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of and risk factors for gallstones differ between the Uighur and Han populations. PMID:25356055
Full Text Available Trust is a vital lubricant that increases the sense of security in social interactions. In this study, we investigated the intergroup trust between the Uyghur and the Han, the two largest ethnic groups in Xinjiang, China, with a Go/No-Go Association Task. Specifically, we instructed Uyghur and Han participants to respond to ethnic faces (Uyghur vs. Han and trust/distrust words and measured the strength of the automatic associations between the faces and words for both in-group and out-group pairs. As expected, both ethnic groups showed implicit in-group trust and out-group distrust, but the Han group demonstrated stronger in-group trust and out-group distrust toward the Uyghur than the Uyghur group toward the Han. However, the magnitude of distrust of the Han toward the Uyghur was small to medium as compared with that reported by other intergroup relationship research. In addition, participant geographic location was associated with out-group distrust. These findings offer implications for developing effective strategies to encourage trust between conflicting groups.
Cervical intraepithelial neoplasias is a common clinical gynecological diseases, application of Chinese medicine treatment can receive better efficacy, the author concludes mentor LAN Hong-jiang CIN treatment of two decades of experience.And systematic dialectical classification type, and carries on the grouping to 68 patients of CIN, an application of SimiaoYongan Tang treatment of 34 cases, treatment is better than the control group.%宫颈上皮内瘤变(cervical intraepithelial neoplasias,CIN)是临床常见的妇科疾病,应用中医治疗可以收到较好的疗效,作者总结恩师兰宏江20年来对CIN治疗心得,并进行系统的辨证分型,并对68例CIN患者进行分组,应用四妙勇安汤治疗的34例,治疗效果优于对照组.
Take two thinking models of meditative thinking and calculative thinking of Heidegger as the theoretical framework, through the interpretation of"Jiang Xue"poetry, to point out the meditative thinking of poem t as poetic existence, therefore, in the process of translation of poetry, the translator should take open mind to interpret the original text, from the calculative thinking to exit, accept the excited meditative thinking, to create a translation sufficient to stimulate the reader by the similar way of thinking.% 以海德格尔关于玄想之思和算计之思的二分思维模式为理论框架，通过对《江雪》诗解读，提出诗文本激发读者诗意的玄思决定其作为诗的存在，因此，在翻译诗的过程中，译者应该以开放心态解读原文，从算计之思中退出，接纳原文所激发玄想之思，创造一个足以激发译文读者以相似方式玄思的译文。
The water delivery system of TaiPingJiang Hydropower Project in Myanmar is designed with two deep and big surge tanks. Improved method was adopted for excavation and support due to complicated geological condi⁃tion,incorporating middle guide hole,inverse pilot shaft,forward secondary expansion excavation and timely sup⁃port. The author discussed and analyzed the construction technique and experience of this excavation method in re⁃spects of technology,safety,quality ,progress and cost.%缅甸太平江水电站引水系统中两座深大调压井地质条件复杂，开挖和支护采用了改进的“中导孔＋反导井开挖＋正向二次扩挖＋及时支护”的方法。从技术、安全、质量、进度和经济方面进行了探讨、分析了这一开挖技术的施工工艺和经验。
Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the prevalence of diabetes and identify risk factors in the Uyghur and Han population in Xinjiang, China. Methods: A cross-sectional study in urban and rural areas in Xinjiang, including 2863 members of the Uyghur population and 3060 of the Han population aged 20 to 80 years, was conducted from June 2013 to August 2013. Data on fasting plasma glucose (FPG and personal history of diabetes were used to estimate the prevalence of diabetes. Data on demographic characteristics, lifestyle risk factors, and lipid profiles were collected to identify risks factors using the multivariate logistic regression model. Results: In urban areas, the age- and gender-standardized prevalence of diabetes was 8.21%, and the age- and gender-standardized prevalence of diabetes was higher in the Uyghur population (10.47% than in the Han population (7.36%. In rural areas, the age- and gender-standardized prevalence of diabetes was 6.08%, and it did not differ significantly between the Uyghur population (5.71% and the Han population (6.59%. The results of the multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that older age, obesity, high triglycerides (TG, and hypertension were all associated with an increased risk of diabetes in the Uyghur and Han population. Urban residence and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C were associated with an increased risk of diabetes in the Uyghur population. Being an ex-drinker was associated with an increased risk of diabetes and heavy physical activity was associated with a decreased risk of diabetes in the Han population. Conclusions: Our study indicates that diabetes is more prevalent in the Uyghur population compared with the Han population in urban areas. Strategies aimed at the prevention of diabetes require ethnic targeting.
Wakefield, Jerome C
Freud's interpretation of Little Hans's "phantasy of the two giraffes" is pivotal to his oedipal analysis that Hans has inchoate desires for sexual intercourse with his mother. Bowlby argued that Freud's focus on his oedipal theory led him to ignore preoedipal attachment-related factors that have equal plausibility in explaining the clinical data. However, Bowlby did not attempt to apply the attachment perspective to the interpretation of Hans's fantasies that form the core of the case material. A microanalysis of Hans's giraffe fantasy and the evidence used to support Freud's claims about it yields an attachment-based sibling rivalry account arguably of greater explanatory power than the oedipal account. Consistent with Bowlby's hypothesis, the evidence suggests that Hans's giraffe fantasy is about the sibling rivalry triangle involved in caregiver attachment access, rather than (or in addition to) the oedipal triangle. The issue of multiple levels of meaning and the methodological challenges raised by multiple determination is also considered. The giraffe fantasy's attachment-theoretic explanation encourages a rethinking of this classic case and strengthens Bowlby's claim that the case is fruitfully viewed from an attachment perspective.
Ryu, Jong-Sik; Lee, Kwang-Sik; Chang, Ho-Wan
SummaryThe Han River, the largest river in South Korea draining approximately 26,000 km 2, comprises two major tributaries: the North and the South Han Rivers. Seasonal and spatial variations in the major ion chemistry and isotope compositions of the Han River were monitored for one year at 14-23 locations, covering about 80% of the entire drainage basin. Compared to the South Han River (SHR), the North Han River (NHR) was much lower in total dissolved solids (TDS), Sr, and major ion concentrations, but higher in Si concentration, δ 34S SO 4 values, and 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios. These observations suggest strong influence of prevailing rock types in the drainage basins on the chemical and isotopic compositions of the river waters. These are silicate rocks in the NHR basin and carbonate rocks in the SHR basin. The headwaters of the NHR basin, where several flood control dams have been constructed, show enrichment in deuterium and oxygen-18, indicating evaporative loss. The δ 34S SO 4 data suggest dissolved sulfates in the NHR and SHR are mostly derived from atmospheric deposition, and variable mixtures of atmospheric deposition and sulfide oxidation, respectively. The 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios are much higher in the NHR (0.71793-0.72722) than in the SHR (0.71495-0.71785) with one exception, indicating weathering of Precambrian and Mesozoic granitic rocks and marine carbonates, respectively.
Full Text Available The factors driving the composition of gut microbiota are still only partly understood but appear to include environmental, cultural, and genetic factors. In order to obtain more insight into the relative importance of these factors, we analyzed the microbiome composition in subjects of Tibetan or Han descent living at different altitudes. DNA was isolated from stool samples. Using polymerase chain reaction methodology, the 16S rRNA V1-V3 regions were amplified and the sequence information was analyzed by principal coordinates analysis and Lefse analyses. Contrasting the Tibetan and Han populations both living at the 3600 m altitude, we found that the Tibetan microbiome is characterized by a relative abundance of Prevotella whereas the Han stool was enriched in Bacteroides. Comparing the microbiome of Han stool obtained from populations living at different altitudes revealed a more energy efficient flora in samples from those living at higher altitude relative to their lower-altitude counterparts. Comparison of the stool microbiome of Tibetan herders living at 4800 m to rural Tibetans living at 3600 m altitude shows that the former have a flora enriched in butyrate-producing bacteria, possibly in response to the harsher environment that these herders face. Thus, the study shows that both altitude and genetic/cultural background have a significant influence on microbiome composition, and it represents the first attempt to compare stool microbiota of Tibetan and Han populations in relation to altitude.
Zhang Gang＇ s ShangShuJiangYi was disappeared long ago. Compiled from other scholars＇ works, we can thoughts Zhang collect more than 50 thousands words. From these documents, we can find which ways and Gang used to expound ShangShu. Zhang Gang always explained the characters＇ means from its basic structural parts, even some basic structural parts only corrected with speech sounds. And he used to sep- arate a single word into two characters. He used thoughts of yin and yang, Taoists＇ and Legalists＇ and Logicians to expound ShartgShu. From these, we may research Zhang Gang＇ s thoughts and know where his thoughts came from. And we can research the influence of Wang Anshi＇ s thoughts and the trend of thoughts in Song Dynasty.%张纲《尚书讲义》早已亡佚,辑录诸家所引可得5万余字。张刚训诂好析字拆词,以会意说形声,强拆同义词为说。训诂重字词之义理阐发,主以阴阳思想、道家之说、刑名之学解经。在方法和思想上直承王安石。考索张纲《书》学,可以研究其思想及渊源,探究王安石《书》学之影响以及当时之社会思潮。
吴瑶洁; 于霞; 陈梦瑜
对2012年清水江流域福泉市段10个监控断面监测数据进行分析，结果表明：10个断面的 TP 污染最为严重，存在严重超标情况；通过相关性分析，氟化物、 TP 和 NH3-N 三者呈极显著相关关系，具有同一来源；根据综合污染负荷指数可知，高坪河、市化肥厂、川恒公司排口上游、黑塘桥、越都取水口5个断面能够达到 III 类水质的要求；根据 Tomlinson 污染负荷指数法，可判断福泉市水体整体处于中等污染水平。%Analyzed the data of 10 monitoring sections of Fuquan city in Qingshui Jiang river basin, the results showed that the concentration of total phosphorus was exceeded. By correlation analysis, the content of fluoride, TP and NH3-N showed significant correlation. According to Water Quality Identification Index, Gaoping river, municipal fertilizer plant, Chuanheng upstream discharge port, Heitang bridge, Yuedu water intake 5 sections were able to meet Class III water quality. According to Tomlinson pollution load index, Fuquan water was in the middle pollution levels.
何勇; 马可迅; 弓敏
Doctor Jiang Yangqing holds the point of view that more than half of the chronic diarrhea cases were caused by the hypoactivi -ty of Yang deficiency .The patients with cold type of chronic diarrhea were identified from the following aspects including texture of stool , constitution of patients , duration of diarrhea and diet-induced factors .For differentiation of chronic diarrhea due to cold syndrome , the distinction between hypoactivity of spleen yang and deficiency of kidney yang shall be distinguished clearly .For treatment of the chronic diarrhea due to cold syndrome , the warming therapy was suggested , and the common recipes were Fuzi Lizhong Pill , Zhenren Yangzang Decotion, Sishen Pill and Shenling Baizhu Powder .It was worthy of being mentioned that the herbs with property of warm and taste of pungency such as pieces of processed Fuzi , Rou gui, baked Rhizoma Zingiberis played an important role in improving the efficacy of chronic diarrhea .%江杨清老师认为，久泻病属阳气不振者占临床所见之大半。从大便质地、患者体质、泄泻时间、饮食诱发因素等方面入手，可以明确地辨识出久泻中属寒者。对寒证久泻，应当分清脾阳不振与肾阳亏虚，或两者兼挟之孰轻孰重。治疗上多以温法治之，常用附子理中丸、真人养脏汤、四神丸、参苓白术散等化裁。尤其是熟附片、肉桂、炮姜炭等辛热药，在提高久泻疗效中十分重要。
酒店筹建是饭店经营管理最重要的基础，好坏直接影响到酒店开业后的运营与效率。在分析目前我国酒店业投资建设中存在的问题基础上，应用酒店投资可行性分析方法和杰克。特劳特定位理论，以芗江酒店原红楼拆除改扩建工程(翠华楼)为例，强调组建酒店管理团队对筹建酒店的重要性，在充分评估市场的潜在需求的基础上，建立基于酒店经营的精准定位，以及定位下的特色经营、建筑功能布局和经济评价。%Hotel construction is the foundation of the hotel management is the most important, good or bad will directly affect the hotel opening after the operation and efficiency. In analysis at present our country hotel industry investment based on the problems existing in the construction of hotel investment feasibility analysis method and jack. Slaughter positioning theory, a drug to jiang hotel original red chamber) (cui hua building demolition reconstruction engineering, for example, stressed the importance of established hotel management team to build hotel, on the basis of fully assess the potential demand of market, establish precise positioning based on hotel management, and orientation of characteristic, architectural function layout and economic evaluation.
王春勇; 史成和; 邢殿文; 康雷
The experience of professor Jiang Liangduo in treating atrophic gastritis from the “state”was summarized in order to ex-plore this treating method,namely,under a macro perspective,the modern biological-psychological-social medical mode is adopted and under a micro perspective,combined with the modern understanding of atrophic gastritis,the diagnosis process focuses on both the microscopic state of stomach and the macro state of related zang-fu organs,triple energizer and qi and blood.The treating prin-ciples mainly based on the regulating of triple energizer.A holistic perspective should be adopted to grasp the general state of psy-chology,behavior and other factors to simplify and optimize the treatment of atrophic gastritis.%总结姜良铎教授从态论治萎缩性胃炎经验，论述从态论治萎缩性胃炎的思想内涵，即：针对萎缩性胃炎，宏观上采用当代的生物-心理-社会医学模式，微观上结合现代科学对萎缩性胃炎的最新认识，辨证时既要着眼于胃腑详细的微观状态，又要关注相关脏腑、三焦、气血宏观状态，立法以通调三焦为大法，治疗时整体把握，结合心理、行为等方法多因素干预，使复杂的萎缩性胃炎得以合理有效的治疗。
Wang, Ying; Liu, Chao; Zhang, Chu-chu; Li, Ran; Liu, Hong; Ou, Xue-ling; Li, Hai-xia; Sun, Hong-yu
In this study, we investigated the genetic polymorphisms of 24 Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat (Y-STR) loci in 885 unrelated Chinese Han male individuals from Guangdong Province, using a domestic AGCU Y24 STR kit. A total of 878 different haplotypes were observed at the 24 Y-STR loci; among them, 871 haplotypes were unique and 7 haplotypes occurred twice. The overall haplotype diversity was 0.99998 and the discrimination capacity was 99.2%. The gene diversity values ranged from 0.4354 at DYS438 to 0.9606 at DYS385a/b. Population relationships between the Guangdong Han population and seven other published Chinese populations were evaluated by Rst values and visualized in a two multi-dimensional scaling plot. The results showed the 24 Y-STR loci are highly polymorphic in Guangdong Han population and of great value in forensic application.
Sun Yuping; Yao Hua; Yao Wenhai; Li Qing; You Lan; Wang Qiuyun; Jiang Yan
Objectives Hyperuricemia is a common finding in hypertension and hyperlipidemia,they are all correlated to cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to find the relationship of uric acid and plasma lipid parameters of Han and Uygur ethnicity in Xinjiang. Methods This cross-sectional health examination survey was based on a population random sample from the Urumchi, It included 1166 subjects aged from 20 to 70 years. Serum biochemical testing by Automatic Analyzer (HITACHI 7600-010).Results The uric acid in Han was higher than in Uygur(P＜ 0.05), men were higher than women in two ethnicities; For lipid parameters men were higher than women, in TG and HDL women were higher than in men in two ethnicity (P ＜ 0.05). Serum uric acid was strongly related to serum triglycerides in Han as well as Uygur ethnicity ( P ＜ 0.001); Compared with the normal group, UA, TG, CHOL, VLDL had ascending trend and HDL had descending trend (P ＜0.05 ) among groups in Han and Uygur ethnicity,especially Hyperuricemia-hypertriglyceridemia group,uric acid and most some lipid parameters was higher than Hyperuricemia and hypertriglyceridemia group,The prevalence of different groups in Han and Urgur was significantly different (P ＜ 0.05). Conclusions This study shows that the UA and some lipid parameters are different in Han and Uygur ethnicity and show sexual difference; serum uric acid is markedly related to serum triglycerides; Hyperuricemia and hypertriglyceridemia show cooperated effect in uric acid and most lipid parameters. Considering the growing incidence of the potential link between hyperuricemia/hypertriglyceridemia and cardiovascular diseases, more emphasis should be put on the evolving prevalence of hyperuricemia and hypertriglyceridemia in Xinjiang.
The brocades (jin 锦) in Han Dynasty is very precious for the study of the history of ancient Chinese textiles. This paper introduces the study on the brocades of Han Dynasty, which excavated from the tumuli of the ancient nomadic tribe "Xiong-nu" (Hun 匈奴) in the Noin-Ula Mountains in Mongolia. The detailed analyses of the brocades in the collection of Philadelphia Museum of Art are given in this paper and a logical, reasonable conjecture for ancient weaving technology is proposed.
杨永清; 王宇; 尹磊淼
The Thinker (Le Penseur) is known as the masterpiece of Auguste Rodin, a distinguished French sculptor, signifying the intellectual activity and creativity of human being. Having put forward a way of "viewing the Earth from the Moon" in developing preclinical and clinical studies of acupuncture, Prof. CHEN Han-ping brought about imaginations to acupuncture scholars with his ideas on the soul, principle, skills and orientations of acupuncture. He deserves the title of "the thinker in principles and practice of acupuncture"[1-3]. The academic ideas of Prof. CHEN Han-ping are now summarized as follows.
@@ Commissioned by the state Task Force for scientific reconstruction of Zhang Heng's seismograph, the "Eastern Han Zhang Heng's seismograph" was successfully cast on August 5, 2008 at Shanxi Yuda Group, a national cultural industry demonstration base. After sophisticated assembly and debugging,the 1.7 m tall reconstructed Zhang Heng's seismograph was displayed at the Science and Technology Museum of China in August 2009,making the Eastern Han Zhang Heng's seismograph which had been lost for thousands of years reemerge in the world.
Wei, Haibin; Feng, Fangjun; Lou, Qiaojun; Xia, Hui; Ma, Xiaosong; Liu, Yunhua; Xu, Kai; Yu, Xinqiao; Mei, Hanwei; Luo, Lijun
The ongoing deficit of fresh water resource in rice growing regions has made the selection of water-saving and drought-resistance rice (WDR) a crucial factor in developing sustainable cultivation. HuHan2B, a new japonica maintainer for WDR breeding, had the same yield potential as recurrent parent HanFengB but showed improved drought resistance in fields. We investigated the genomic content accumulation and candidate genes passed from parent to offspring using the genomic and transcriptomic approaches. The genomic constitution indicated that the genetic similarity was 84% between HuHan2B and HanFengB; additionally, 7,256 genes with specific alleles were inherited by HuHan2B from parents other than HanFengB. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) under drought stress showed that biological function was significantly enriched for transcript regulation in HuHan2B, while the oxidation-reduction process was primarily enriched in HanFengB. Furthermore, 36 DEGs with specific inherited alleles in HuHan2B were almost involved in the regulatory network of TFs and target genes. These findings suggested that major-effect genes were congregated and transformed into offspring in manner of interacting network by breeding. Thus, exploiting the potential biological function of allelic-influencing DEGs would be of great importance for improving selection efficiency and the overall genetic gain of multiple complex traits.
Shi, Wendong; Wang, Lei; Chen, Baiyang
Haloacetonitriles (HANs) are a group of nitrogenous disinfection by-products (DBPs) commonly found in treated water with potential carcinogenic, cytotoxic, and genotoxic risks. In order to control HANs and understand their real intake levels by people via drinking water, this study evaluated a list of structural, operational, and environmental factors affecting the treatment of HANs by two domestic heating devices, i.e., an electric boiler and a microwave oven. Results show that the concentrations of HANs decreased exponentially over time with increasing temperature, water turbulence, and bubbles, and the phenomena were most likely due to a combined effect of volatilization and hydrolysis. Among HANs, the lability increased with increasing halogenation degrees (i.e., tri- > di- > mono- HANs) yet decreasing halogen molecular weights (i.e., Cl- > Br- > I- HANs); such trends were well captured by quantitative structure activity relationship models (R(2) = 0.99). Operational factors played critical roles in controlling HANs too, including the rate of heating, water volume, water temperature at time of pouring, cooling method, and capping condition, suggesting that people could benefit from proper handling methods and procedures. In addition, HANs added to tap water exhibited higher removals than those added to ultrapure water, probably because of the presence of free chlorine in tap water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
<正>A meeting for the publication of the Book Biography of Han Xu--Experience of a Diplomat was held in the auditorium of the CPAFFC on September 20. Chen Haosu, president of the CPAFFC, and Wang Chengjia, president of the World Affairs Press, co-chaired the meeting. About
Grohs, Birgit; Mheen, van der H.J.C.J.
In dit interview met Hans van der Mheen van het PPO-agv te Lelystad worden de mogelijkheden van het gebruik van etherische olie gewonnen uit oregano; origanum vulgare en origanum heracleoticum, geteeld in Nederland besproken. De olie kan gebruikt worden in voer voor pluimvee en varkens. Gezocht word
Objective To investigate the association between tumor necrosis factor(TNF) promoter polymorphisms and susceptibility to ulcerative colitis (UC) in the Chinese Han population. Methods Blood samples from 110 unrelated UC patients and 292 healthy controls from Zhejiang Province, Eastern China were studied. Genotyping for 6 common TNF promoter polymorphisms (TNF-
Full Text Available Book Review of the monograph: Zöllner, Hans-Bernd (2012, The Beast and the Beauty: The History of the Conflict between the Military and Aung San Suu Kyi in Myanmar, 1988–2011, Set in a Global Context Berlin: regiospectra Verlag, ISBN: 978-3-9401-3244-4, 592 pages
Oakes, Guy; Vidich, Arthur J.
Using the collaboration between sociologist C. Wright Mills and Hans H. Gerth and their studies of the work of Max Weber as a point of departure for a sustained discussion of academic ethics, this book explores how concealment, secrecy, and deception contribute to the building of academic reputation and how the balance of knowledge and power in a…
Hippler, Kathrin; Viding, Essi; Klicpera, Christian; Happe, Francesca
Hans Asperger originally used the term "autistic psychopathy" to describe his patients on the autism spectrum, leading to a possible confusion with psychopathic disorder and delinquent behaviour. We conducted a penal register search for 177 former patients of Asperger's clinic with a childhood diagnosis of "autistic…
Full Text Available Aim. To study the correlation between intestinal flora and ulcerative colitis by analyzing the abundance of Bacteroides, Fusobacterium, Clostridium, Bifidobacterium spp., and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii in the intestinal of ulcerative colitis (UC patients and healthy controls with Uygur and Han ethnic. Methods. Bacterial genomic DNA was extracted from fecal samples and analyzed with real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR to identify the abundance of Bacteroides, Fusobacterium, Clostridium, Bifidobacterium spp., and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. Results. The samples from UC patients, Uygur and Han ethnic combined, had higher abundance of Bacteroides (P=0.026 but lower Clostridium (P=0.004, Bifidobacterium spp. (P=0.009, and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (P=0.008 than those from healthy controls. Among UC patients, Bacteroides population was raised in acute UC patients (P≤0.05, while the abundance of Clostridium, Bifidobacterium spp., Fusobacterium, and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii decreased (P≤0.05 compared with the remission. In both UC patients group and control group, no difference was observed in the abundance of these 5 bacteria between the Han and the Uygur group. Conclusions. Variations in the abundance of these five bacterial strains in intestines may be associated with the occurrence of UC in Uygur and Han populations; however, these variations were not associated with ethnic difference.
Lindhout, Alexandra E.
Full Text Available In his autobiography, Hans J. Massaquoi describes the discrimination he encountered in Nazi Germany and Liberia because of his mixed racial background. Throughout his life Massaquoi had to cope with identity crises. Through the self-therapeutic discourse in the form of his autobiography, however, Massaquoi developed his hybrid transatlantic African American and African German identity.
Hippler, Kathrin; Viding, Essi; Klicpera, Christian; Happe, Francesca
Hans Asperger originally used the term "autistic psychopathy" to describe his patients on the autism spectrum, leading to a possible confusion with psychopathic disorder and delinquent behaviour. We conducted a penal register search for 177 former patients of Asperger's clinic with a childhood diagnosis of "autistic psychopathy" or features of the…
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Androgenetic alopecia (AGA is a well-characterized type of progressive hair loss commonly seen in men, with different prevalences in different ethnic populations. It is generally considered to be a polygenic heritable trait. Several susceptibility genes/loci, such as AR/EDA2R, HDAC9 and 20p11, have been identified as being involved in its development in European populations. In this study, we aim to validate whether these loci are also associated with AGA in the Chinese Han population. METHODS: We genotyped 16 previously reported single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs with 445 AGA cases and 546 healthy controls using the Sequenom iPlex platform. The trend test was used to evaluate the association between these loci and AGA in the Chinese Han population. Conservatively accounting for multiple testing by the Bonferroni correction, the threshold for statistical significance was P ≤ 3.13 × 10(-3. RESULTS: We identified that 5 SNPs at 20p11 were significantly associated with AGA in the Chinese Han population (1.84 × 10(-11 ≤ P ≤ 2.10 × 10(-6. CONCLUSIONS: This study validated, for the first time, that 20p11 also confers risk for AGA in the Chinese Han population and implicated the potential common genetic factors for AGA shared by both Chinese and European populations.
Väre, Hans, 1979-
Saksa kaubandusketi Lidl Eesti tütarfirma ostis kaubanduskeskuse rajamiseks Viljandi bussipargi kinnistu. Lidl taotleb kvartali detailplaneeringu algatamist eesmärgiga muuta kruntide piire, määrata ehitusõigus ja liikluskorraldus. Vanemarhitekt Leelo Saare selgitused. Vaata ka Hans Väre kommentaari "Mis tuleb bussiparki?" lk. 5
Klerck, A.R. de
Bronzino e il porcellino: Hans Christian Andersen e Stendhal nella Firenze del XIX secolo La storia dell’arte dell’Ottocento non sembra aver avuto particolarmente a cuore gli artisti italiani delle generazioni successive ai grandi maestri rinascimentali, quali Raffaello e Michelangelo. Così, ad
ter Schure, L
In recent writings historian Eelco Runia (Groningen) and literary theorist Hans Ulrich Gumbrecht (Stanford) have introduced the notion of presence, a new and promising way of thinking about history. Although there are differences between the two authors, both think of presence as the antithesis of '
Yao, Ping; Cui, Min; Wang, Haikun; Gao, Hongliang; Wang, Lei; Yang, Tao; Cheng, Yongbo
Aim. To study the correlation between intestinal flora and ulcerative colitis by analyzing the abundance of Bacteroides, Fusobacterium, Clostridium, Bifidobacterium spp., and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii in the intestinal of ulcerative colitis (UC) patients and healthy controls with Uygur and Han ethnic. Methods. Bacterial genomic DNA was extracted from fecal samples and analyzed with real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify the abundance of Bacteroides, Fusobacterium, Clostridium, Bifidobacterium spp., and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. Results. The samples from UC patients, Uygur and Han ethnic combined, had higher abundance of Bacteroides (P = 0.026) but lower Clostridium (P = 0.004), Bifidobacterium spp. (P = 0.009), and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (P = 0.008) than those from healthy controls. Among UC patients, Bacteroides population was raised in acute UC patients (P ≤ 0.05), while the abundance of Clostridium, Bifidobacterium spp., Fusobacterium, and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii decreased (P ≤ 0.05) compared with the remission. In both UC patients group and control group, no difference was observed in the abundance of these 5 bacteria between the Han and the Uygur group. Conclusions. Variations in the abundance of these five bacterial strains in intestines may be associated with the occurrence of UC in Uygur and Han populations; however, these variations were not associated with ethnic difference.
Ameeting for the publication of the Book Biography of Han Xu——Experience of a Diplomat was held in the auditorium of the CPAFFC on September 20. Chen Haosu, president of the CPAFFC, and Wang Chengjia, president of the World Affairs Press, co-chaired the meeting. About 60 former colleagues, subordinates,
Zhao, Jing; Wang, Songfeng; Gao, Qi; Cai, Xia; La, Xiaolin
To estimate the prevalence and associated factors of current infertility for Han, Uygur, and Kazakh ethnicities in Xinjiang rural residents. Chinese Uygur, Kazakh, and Han populations represent > 90% of the total population of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, and their customs, culture, and food consumption are different. The effect of ethnic differences on infertility risk factors is rarely studied. A cross-sectional study of 5,086 married and common-law couples, with a female partner aged 18-49, living in Hami, Kuche, or Xinyuan counties in Xinjiang, China. General information for the study subjects, including demographic characteristics, life customs, sexual history, history of contraception use, and history of disease, was collected by questionnaire. General health, gynecologic examinations, and sociodemographic characteristics were also carried out. A total of 5,086 females from Xinjiang Province were surveyed, including 493 with infertility. The standardized prevalence rate of infertility was 9.7% (95% CI 8.9-10.5), and the prevalence of infertility in Han, Uygur, and Kazakh ethnicities was 6.8% (95% CI 5.7-7.9), 10.9% (95% CI 8.0-13.8), and 10.1% (95% CI 7.4-12.8), respectively. The present study suggests that the prevalence of infertility was lower in the Han as compared to the Kazakh and Uygur ethnicities.
Vare, Raivo, 1958-
Oma esimest töökohta meenutavad Tallinna abilinnapea, AS-i Trio LSL nõukogu esimees Rein Lang, AS-i Pakterminal juhatuse esimees Raivo Vare ja Eesti Ekspressi vastutav väljaandja ning Ekspress Grupi nõukogu liige Hans H. Luik
Trass, Hans, 1928-
Eesti looduskaitse ja looduse uurimise hetkeseisust. 17. aug. 2006 vastu võetud määrusest Lääne-Eesti saarestiku biosfääri kaitseala kehtetuks tunnistamise kohta, mis näitab, et Eesti ignoreerib UNESCO loodud biosfääri kaitseala programmi. Lisatud Hans-Voldemar Trassi eluloolised andmed
As we all know, "Translation is the communication of the meaning of a source-language text by means of an equivalent target-language text." This report is going to analyze the E-C and C-E translation process of two works in "Han Suyin Award for Young Translators".
In this article, Anniina Leiviskä argues that the educational relevance of Hans-Georg Gadamer's concept of tradition has remained unacknowledged because of the conservatism that has been associated with Gadamer's hermeneutics, particularly his notion of tradition. Therefore, Leiviskä seeks to reveal the reflective, nonconservative nature of…
This article addresses the ways in which the German-Jewish philosopher Hans Jonas (1903–1993) employed Gnosticism in his philosophical critique of modernity. Far from treating it as an “antiquarian concern” or attempting to “overcome” it, I argue that Jonas continuously used Gnosticism, including...
Objective To analyze the genetic polymorphism of 6 STR loci (D12S358, D12S1675, D12S1663, D12S1697, D12S1725 and D12S1613) on chromosome 12 in Chinese Han population. Methods EDTA-blood specimens were collected from 153 unrelated individuals of Chinese Han population in Shaanxi province. Allele and genotype frequencies for the 6 STR loci were estimated and statistical parameters of polymorphism were calculated. Results 8 alleles and 18 genotypes, 10 alleles and 17 genotypes, 9 alleles and 15 genotypes, 12alleles and 29 genotypes, 12 alleles and 31 genotypes, 8 alleles and 11 genotypes were observed at D12S358, D12S1675, D12S1663, D12S1697, D12S1725 and D12S1613, respectively. No deviations of the observed allele frequency from Hardy-weinberg equilibrium expectations were found for any of these loci. The Heterozygotes of these 6 loci were 78.89%, 66.10%, 54.95%, 79.10%, 71.98% and 59.48%, respectively. It indicated the high genetic polymorphism of the loci in Chinese Han population. Conclusion The 6 STR loci belonged to the genetic marker system of high discriminutesation and high information in Chinese Han population and can be used in the study of gene-related diseases.
Zhang, Chunyu; Lan, Tian; Zhe, Yan; Hu, Baolige; Zhang, Guohua; He, Juan; Wang, Zhiguang; Jiang, Mingfang; Hu, Riletemuer
To discuss the status of epidemiology of stroke in the Mongolian and Han population aged over 45 years and to understand the treatment and prevention of stroke. Data collected on stroke populations aged over 45 years in the six areas in Inner Mongolia were analyzed by using stratified multi-stage cluster sampling. The prevalence rate of stroke in patients aged over 45 years in Inner Mongolia was 4.62%. The stroke prevalence rate increased with age in both males and females, the Han and Mongolian populations, and was higher in males than in females in Inner Mongolia. The prevalence rate of stroke in the Mongolian population was higher than in the Han population. The incidence rate of stroke in patients aged over 45 years in Inner Mongolia was 0.28%, of which the rate of relapsed ischemic stroke was 23.29%. The proportion of ischemic stroke in the stroke patients was higher than hemorrhagic stroke. The prevalence and incidence rates of stroke in patients aged over 45 years in Inner Mongolia were high. The prevalence rate of stroke in both the Han population and the Mongolian population increased with age. Ischemic stroke was the major form of stroke.
Klerck, A.R. de
Bronzino e il porcellino: Hans Christian Andersen e Stendhal nella Firenze del XIX secolo La storia dell’arte dell’Ottocento non sembra aver avuto particolarmente a cuore gli artisti italiani delle generazioni successive ai grandi maestri rinascimentali, quali Raffaello e Michelangelo. Così, ad ese
Kemp, Dawn E.; Center, David B.
This paper examines antisocial behavior in children and youth in relation to the biosocial personality theory of Hans Eysenck. It explains Eysenck's theory, which includes a significant role for biological factors in the development of antisocial behavior. The theory holds that three temperament traits--Psychoticism (P), Extroversion (E), and…
This paper has analyzed the discrepancies of the perception of English learning between ethnic students and Han studens in a trilingual language context. The research results will be expected to broaden our understanding of the ethnic group students in the minority regions, and to provide some empirical references and implications for teachers.
In this article, Anniina Leiviskä argues that the educational relevance of Hans-Georg Gadamer's concept of tradition has remained unacknowledged because of the conservatism that has been associated with Gadamer's hermeneutics, particularly his notion of tradition. Therefore, Leiviskä seeks to reveal the reflective, nonconservative nature of…
Hippler, Kathrin; Viding, Essi; Klicpera, Christian; Happe, Francesca
Hans Asperger originally used the term "autistic psychopathy" to describe his patients on the autism spectrum, leading to a possible confusion with psychopathic disorder and delinquent behaviour. We conducted a penal register search for 177 former patients of Asperger's clinic with a childhood diagnosis of "autistic…
Shi has been introduced from Qin Dynasty to the Western Han Dynasty and the Eastern Han Dynasty. In both dynasties, there has been much citation of it in the order and report of the emperors and officials. Thus two schools appeared in the defined period with Xi＇an as the center of Western Han Dynasty and Luoyang the center of Eastern Han Dynasty. The two centers have demonstrated different styles of citation both in the amount and the features of application owing to their different historical periods and different development of social poli- tics, economics and ideological trends, which have reflected developmental changes and histori- cal features of Shi. These differences have manifested the development and completion of the combination of classicality and historicity of Shi and have been the perfect integration of the po- litical citation of Shi in the Chun Qiu period and the textual citation in the Warring States Period%《诗》自先秦传人两汉，在两汉历朝君臣的下诏和上奏中都大量引用到《诗》，它们分别以西汉的长安和东汉的洛阳为中心，俨然形成两个用《诗》集团。由于所处的历史时代不同和不同历史时段社会政治、经济与学术思想发展的差异，这两个用《诗》集团在引用《诗》之“风”、“雅”、“颂”的数量和在诏奏中征引时所呈现出的应用特征，又有不同；而在此中则反映出了《诗》学在两汉时期的发展流变和时代特征，显示了《诗》之经典性与历史性融通的进行和完成，是春秋时期政治用《诗》和战国时期文本用《诗》的完美融合和发展。
Full Text Available Objective To investigate the pathogenic characteristics of hyperuricemia and the correlation between hyperuricemia and the polymorphism of xanthine oxidase (XO in young Han males at an altitude of 4520m. Methods Two hundred and forty Han Chinese young men, aged 16-36 years (mean 22.1 years, moved to an altitude of 4520m for 0.25-10.8 years (mean 2.3 years, were selected. The general information and physiological index were collected by using questionnaires and routine examination; Fasting venous blood was collected in the morning, serum uric acid and XO concentration were measured, and the rs17038412 polymorphism of XO gene was analyzed. Results There were 186 hyperuricemia patients (hyperuricemia group in 240 subjects, accounting for 77.5%, and 54 people with normal serum uric acid (normal group, accounting for 22.5%. Compared with normal group, the concentrations of XO and hemoglobin were significantly higher, the blood oxygen saturation significantly lower (P<0.01, and blood uric acid concentration was positively correlated to both hemoglobin level and XO concentration in hyperuricemia group (P<0.01, P<0.001. The frequency of AT genotype was significantly higher in hyperuricemia group than in normal group (P<0.01. Logistic regression analysis showed that the AT genotype was a risk factor for hyperuricemia in the young Han men (OR=3.96, 95%CI 1.42-11.08. Conclusions Incidence rate of hyperuricemia is high in young Han men. Serum uric acid concentration is positively correlated with the concentrations of XO and hemoglobin. AT genotype at a polymorphic site rs17038412 in XO may be related to the risk of hyperuricemia in the young Han men. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.10.13
Hai-Xia; Zhao; Li; Zhang; Wen-Ying; Guan
AIM: To investigate the differences in central corneal thickness(CCT) and curvature in myopic patients with different genders between Mongolian and Han nationalities in the Inner Mongolia region.METHODS: Patients with myopia, among whom 122cases(244 eyes) were Mongolian and 150 cases(300eyes) were Han, were selected. Pentacam was used to measure the corneal curvature, whereas CCT was determined by Pentacam, Orbscan and ultrasound pachymetry.RESULTS: Comparisons of the curvature of men and women in Mongolia showed a significant difference(P <0.05) by comparing of the CCT values measured by three methods in Han and Mongolian in Inner Mongolia, we can draw a conclusion that the CCT values measured by Pentacam are less than the values by Orbscan and ultrasound pachymetry, and there are statistically significant difference in CCT measurement among the instruments except between the Orbscan and ultrasound pachymetry. The CCT values of Mongolians are more than Han people, and the analysis exhibited statistical significance. The CCT values measured by Orbscan in Mongolia of women are more than men, the difference showed statistical significance.CONCLUSION: Corneal curvature in Mongolian females was significantly higher than that in males. However, no significant difference was observed among Han males and females. The CCT values of Mongolian females were higher than those of males. The normal CCT values measured by Pentacam in Mongolian myopic patients were smaller than those obtained by Orbscan or ultrasound. The normal CCT values of Mongolian patients with myopia were higher than those reported for domestic people.
Künnap, Ago, 1941-
Arvustus: Gao Jingyi. Han yu yu bei Ou yu yan : Han yu yu Wula'er yu yan ji Yin Ou yu yan tong yuan tan jiu = Chinese language and languages of northern Europe. Beijing : Zhongguo she hui ke xue chu ban she, 2008
Künnap, Ago, 1941-
Arvustus: Gao Jingyi. Han yu yu bei Ou yu yan : Han yu yu Wula'er yu yan ji Yin Ou yu yan tong yuan tan jiu = Chinese language and languages of northern Europe. Beijing : Zhongguo she hui ke xue chu ban she, 2008
Nu-jiang River basin is national ecological conservation area, Nu-jiang is one of Three Parallel Rivers which is world natural heritage area. And it is multi-ethnic region, state-level poverty area. The new dwelling house building in Nu-jiang basin is significant for improving the life quality of minority groups. At first, the paper analyzes the vernacular houses characteristics and space composition of Nu group and Li-su group in the middle reaches of Nu-jiang River basin. By comparing brick-concrete houses with vernacular houses, the paper comes up that vernacular houses are Low-carbon mode &. Low living quality and brick-concrete houses ore Hlge-carbon mode & 'high' living quality, also points out some problems of brick house. On the basis, it provides the guiding principles and practical strategies which compose the new regional building mode in order to improve the new regional house building.%怒江流域是国家级自然生态保护区、三江并流的世界自然遗产区；也是多民族混居区,国家级贫困区.怒江流域的新民居建设对于改善少数民族的生活质量意义重大.该文通过对怒江中游地区怒族、傈僳族传统民居的调研和实测,分析其建造特点及空间构成.同时,对比研究怒江流域大量新建的砖混民居,得出传统民居为低碳模式兼低的居住环境质量,而新建砖混房屋别为高碳模式兼“高”的居住环境质量,并指出新建民居存在的问题.在此基础上,提出新地域民居建设的指导原则以及具体实施策略.这些策略旨在形成一套新地域民居的建筑模式,积极推动新民居的建设.
陶秀芳; 郭晓芹; 张清慧
To investigate the hepatitis B's cognitive degree of the resident in SongJiang district .Mtehods:Applying basic information by questionnaire investigation , inputting these information into database with Epidata 3.1 software and using SPSS statistic package for data analysis .Results:The whole accuracy is 68.13%,the accuracy of the infected is 68.04%,the accuracy of the families of patients is 67.61%and the accuracy of community residents is 68.18%.In the aspect of health education , the effect on students before and after the intervention is remarkable;In the aspect of behavior , the infected have many exposures and residents'antibody examination is low.So residents'recognition of free vaccine is low .Conclusions:The hepatitis B's cognitive degree of different populations is need to be improved.We should strengthen the education of knowledge of hepatitis B , improve vaccine coverage and perfect the follow -up work of high-risk populations .%目的：调查松江区中山街道居民对乙肝防治知识的了解程度、暴露行为以及健康教育对其影响。方法：采用自编问卷调查，使用Epidata3．1软件建立数据库和SPSS软件包进行统计学分析。结果：乙肝知识总体回答正确率为68．13％，感染者回答正确率为68．04％，患者家属回答正确率为67．61％，社区群众回答正确率为68．18％；健康教育方面，对学生干预前后效果显著；行为方面，感染者暴露行为较多，普通群众抗体检查率较低，对免费疫苗认可度较低。结论：不同人群对乙肝认知程度均有待提高，应加强对乙肝知识的宣传教育，提高疫苗的接种率，完善对高危人群的随访工作。
Upon invitation by the Academy of Technology Assessment, Prof. Hans Schaefer, lecturing in physiology at Heidelberg University, established an expert`s opinion on the health hazards of the so-called electrosmog phenomenon. The study takes account of relevant publications up to the end of 1994 and is based mostly on original scientific publications. The methodology and findings of these studies were investigated in a meta-analysis. The article is a slightly abridged version of the comments of the Academy of Technology Assessment on Prof. Schaefer`s expert opinion. (orig./MG) [Deutsch] Im Auftrag der Akademie fuer Technikfolgenabschaetzung hat der Heidelberger Physiologe Professor Hans Schaefer ein Gutachten zur Frage der Gesundheitsgefaehrdung durch den sogenannten Elektrosmog erstellt. Es sollte der momentane Wissensstand durch einen Experten erfasst und metaanalytisch aufgearbeitet werden. Die Studie beruecksichtigt die relevante Literatur bis Ende 1994 und stuetzt sich hauptsaechlich auf wissenschaftliche Originalarbeiten. Methoden und Ergebnisse dieser Arbeiten wurden in einer Metaanalyse evaluiert. Der vorliegende Text ist eine leicht gekuerzte Fassung der Stellungnahme der Akademie fuer Technikfolgenabschaetzung zum Gutachten von Professor Schaefer. (orig./MG)
Valdei Lopes de Araujo
Full Text Available Neste artigo, apresento uma análise dos aspectos historiográficos da obra de Hans Ulrich Gumbrecht. Acompanhado o desenvolvimento de sua teoria da modernidade e das conseqüências dessa teoria para a escrita da história e para a auto-consciência disciplinar. Por fim, proponho uma releitura da história da historiografia através dos dois tipos de culturas propostas por Gumbrecht, ou seja, culturas de sentido e culturas de presença. Argumento que mesmo que a historiografia moderna possa ser caracterizada como predominantemente ancorada na produção de sentido, aspectos centrais de sua história só podem ser explicados através de elementos típicos da produção de presença.This paper analyses some historiographical aspects of Hans Ulrich Gumbrecht's work, particularly his theory of modernity and its consequences to the writing of history and its disciplinary self-conscious. Finally, it is proposed a reinterpretation of the history of historiography based on the distinction between cultures of presence and cultures of meaning. It is argued that despite the fact that the elements of meaning are predominant in the constitution of modern historiography, the forces acting in its constitution cannot be explained without typical elements of a culture of presence.
Zhang, R. Y.; Nie, S. Q.; Bazin, D.; Cheng, J. H.
Dan jiangkou hydropower station refurbished project, isan important project of Chinese refurbishment market. Tianjin Alstom Hydro Co., ltd won this contract by right of good performance and design technology,Its design took into account all the constraints linked to the existing frame. It results in a specific and highly advanced shape.The objective of this paper is to introduce the successful turbine hydraulic design, model test and mechanical design of Dan jiangkou project; and also analyze the cavitation phenomena occurred on runner band surface of Unit 4 after putting into commercial operation. These technology and feedback shall be a good reference and experience for other similar projects
Nataša VAMPELJ SUHADOLNIK
Full Text Available The present article is a detailed study of the image of an ancient Chinese goddess, The Queen Mother of the West, called Xiwangmu 西王母 in Chinese. In the mythological tradition, Xiwangmu is a goddess who possesses the elixir of immortality and dwells in the western paradise, on the magic mountain Kunlun 崑崙. While her image can be found in mural paintings, and on lacquered objects and bronze mirrors, it appears primarily in the form of relief images on the stones and bricks of grave chambers and temples in the Han (206 BCE–220 CE grave complexes. The literary tradition reveals a multifunctional role of the mother, with her many attributes developing in accordance with the changing values of social and mythological concepts. The article concludes with a detailed discussion of her image and role within the wider cosmological context of Han grave art.
Liu, Yang; Liu, Changhua
By witchcraft, it refers to the activities of imagining and intending to affect or control the object through"supernatural power". Ancient witchcraft was applied extensively in which those applied for medical purpose included sorcery, praying, superstitious art of anti-disaster, and tabooing, were collectively called"medical witchcraft". During the Qin-Han periods, witchcraft was transformed by the theory of Yin-Yang and Five-Phases as a part of technical profession. Among them, the system of demon-ghost witchcraft was replaced by the necromantic ghost system; exorcism and taboo system were infiltrated with the conception of the art of mathematics and technical system; whereas the superstitious art of anti-disaster was replaced by incantation. The remnants of medical witchcraft not yet totally transformed were also applied by the technical professionals of the Qin-Han Dynasties.
Min Su Kim
Full Text Available Objectives : Showing that Bong-Han corpuscles(BHC are suppliers of the stem cells in adulthood, and the Bong-Han ducts(BHD are transportation routes of stem cells. Methods : BHC and BHD were obtained from the internal organ-surfaces of rats. The sliced BHC and BHD were immunostained with various stem cell markers. Extracellular matrices were also analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Result : The presence of mesenchymal stem cells was confirmed by the expression of Integrin beta 1, Collagen type 1 and Fibronectin. But CD54 was not expressed. The hematopoietic stem cell marker, Thy 1 was strongly expressed. BHDs showed Collagen type 1, Fibronectin, and vWF expression. Conclusion : Both hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cell markers were expressed strongly in BHC similarly as in bone marrow. An endothelial cell marker(vWF demonstrated the possibility of the stem cell transportation routes of BHD.
We investigated the distribution of Y-chromosome haplotype using 19 Y-SNPs in Han Chinese populations from 22 provinces of China. Our data indicate distinctive patterns of Y chromosome between southern and northern Han Chinese populations. The southern populations are much more polymorphic than northern populations. The latter has only a subset of the southern haplotypes. This result confirms the genetic difference observed between southern and northern ethnic populations in East Asia. It supports the hypothesis that the first settlement of modern hu-mans of African origin occurred in the southern part of East Asia during the last Ice Age, and a northward migration led to the peopling of northern China.
Lv, Shen-Jin; Yang, Yan; Li, Fu-Kuan
The effects of parity and litter size on maternal behavior of Small Tail Han sheep was investigated at Linyi University, China. Sixty-eight ewes were observed from parturition to weaning. Continuous focal animal sampling was used to quantify the duration of maternal behaviors. Ewe feces were collected every 2 days and estradiol concentration was measured with an enzyme immunoassay kit. All lambs were weighed 24 h after parturition and again at 35 days of age. Parity increased sucking, following, grooming, low-pitched bleat, head-up and udder-refusal behavior and decreased aggressive behavior (P primiparous ewes at birth (P primiparous ewes. Parity and litter size may have effects on maternal behavior during lactation. Ewes that have 2-3 lambs may be more suitable for production of Small Tail Han sheep in China.
This article reviews the mysterious and recently published last book by Hans Kelsen, “Secular Religion. A Polemic Against the Misinterpretation of Modern Social Philosophy, Science and Politics as ‘New Religions’”, contextualizing it with reference to the little known dialogue between Hans Kelsen...... and Eric Voegelin. The confrontation between Kelsen and Voegelin, two of the most illustrious émigré scholars who found in America their new home, is important to revisit because it touches upon several axes of debate of crucial importance to postwar intellectual history: the religion/secularity debate......, the positivist/anti-positivist debates, and the controversy that also led to the famous Voegelin/Arendt debate: how to read the horrors of totalitarianism into a historical trajectory of modernity. Although the Kelsen/Voegelin exchange ended in failure and bitterness its substance matter goes to the heart...
Phongkaew, P; Arunyawat, U; Swatdipong, A; Hongtrakul, V
Nong-Han Lake, Thailand, sustains the whisker sheatfish (Micronema bleekeri Günther, 1864), which is a rare species of freshwater catfish. Wild-caught whisker sheatfish has been intensively harvested to meet market demand; yet, genetic information about this species remains unknown. To assist with the in situ conservation of whisker sheatfish populations in Nong-Han Lake, 35 and 34 individuals from the middle (MN) and lower (LN) areas of the lake, respectively, were studied using 7 microsatellite loci. Low genetic variation was detected in the MN (HO=0.338, AR=2.710) and LN (HO=0.394, AR=2.714) populations. Genetic differentiation between the 2 populations was significant (FST=0.063, PChao Phraya River basins is required to assist national-scale conservation efforts.
LING-LING XU; HONG-DING XIANG; CHANG-CHUN QIU; QUN XU
Objective To investigate the association of ghrelin gene polymorphisms with metabolic syndrome in Han Nationality Chinese. Methods A total of 240 patients with metabolic syndrome annd 427 adults aged above forty years were recruited. Genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment lengthpolymorphism analysis.Results The allelic frequency of the Leu72Met polymorphismwas 17.3% in the patient group and 11.9% in the control group(x2=7.36, P=0.007). Metabolic syndrome was more prevalent among carriers of the Met72 variant (43.8 vs 33.1%, age- and sex-adjusted odds ratio=1.57, P=0.01). No Arg51Gln variants were found in our study subjects. Conclusion Rather than being associated with its individual components, Leu72Met polymorphism is associated with metabolic syndrome in the Han Nationality Chinese. Arg51Gln polymorphism is rare in the Hart Nationality Chinese.
Ya-Jun Deng; Jiang-Wei Yan; Xiao-Guang Yu; Yuan-Zhe Li; Hao-Fang Mu; Yan-Qing Huang; Xiao-Tie Shi; Wei-Min Sun
Allele frequencies for 15 short tandem repeat (STR) loci (D8S1179, D21S11, D7S820, CSF1PO, D3S1358, TH01, D13S317, D16S539, D2S1338, D19S433, vWA, TPOX, D18S51, D5S818, and FGA) were obtained from 7,636 unrelated individuals of Chinese Han population living in Qinghai and Chongqing, China. Totally 206 alleles were observed, with the corresponding allele frequencies ranging from 0.0001-0.4982. Chi-square test showed that all of the STR loci agreed with the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. We also compared our data with previously published population data of other ethnics or areas. The results are valuable for human identification and paternity testing in Chinese Han population.
Wang, Hongli; Fan, Dongsheng; Zhang, Yingshuang
Angiogenin is associated with the pathogenesis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Here, we quenced the coding region of the angiogenin gene in genomic DNA from 207 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (129 diabetic peripheral neuropathy patients and 78 diabetic non-neuropathy patients) and 268 healthy controls. All subjects were from the Han population of northern China. No mutations were found. We then compared the genotype and allele frequencies of the angiogenin synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism rs11701 between the diabetic peripheral neuropathy patients and controls, and between the diabetic neuropathy and non-neuropathy patients, using a case-control design. We detected no statistically significant genetic associations. Angiogenin may not be associated with genetic susceptibility to diabetic peripheral neuropathy in the Han population of northern China.
Full Text Available In the summer of 1982, Hans-Peter Schultze and Gloria Arratia were invited to a small museum located on a fossiliferous site of the Devonian Escuminac Formation in Miguasha, Quebec, eastern Canada, Hans-Peter was to work with Marius Arsenault, the director of the Miguasha Museum, on the skull of the elpistostegalid Elpistostege watsoni, a species closely related to basal tetrapod. In addition, he went through the collections to describe and measure numerous juvenile specimens of the osteolepiform. Eusthenopteran foordi. As expected, there two projects turned out to be important contributions in lower vertebrate paleontology and systematics: one on the origin of tetrapods (1985, and the second one on growth patterns of a Late Devonian fish (1984. During his visit to Miguasha, Hans-Peter also spent time digging for fossils and drawing numerous specimens in the collection. In addition, in order to help the personnel of the museum to identify some of the Escuminac fished, he created an identification key based on the gross morphology of the scales. For a small group of undergraduate students, hired at the museum during the summer as naturalists, it was a unique opportunity to discuss paleontology with a leading researcher. We were amazed by his willingness to talk to us, even if then most of us only spoke French! For the first time, we were exposed to Hennigian methodology and its usage in vertebrate paleontology during and evening lecture that Hans-Peter prepared for us. His lecture was delightful; it was an intensive course in lower vertebrate anatomy, and an intellectual journey among the philosophers Karl Marx and Karl Popper, the entomologists Willy Hennig and Lars Brundin, and "The Band of Four" (Rosen et al., 1981. It was for most of us our first exposure to science, as it should be done. We were all impressed by his knowledge and above all by his simplicity and friendliness. Two years later I started my Ph.D. at The University of Kansas
Jiang, Long; Liu, Lu; Cheng, Yuyan; Lin, Yan; Shen, Changbing; Zhu, Caihong; Yang, Sen; Yin, Xianyong; Zhang, Xuejun
Missing heritability is a common problem in genome-wide association studies in complex diseases/traits. To quantify the unbiased heritability estimate, we applied the phenotype correlation-genotype correlation regression in psoriasis genome-wide association data in Han Chinese which comprises 1139 cases and 1132 controls. We estimated that 45.7% heritability of psoriasis in Han Chinese were captured by common variants (s.e.=12.5%), which reinforced that the majority of psoriasis heritability can be covered by common variants in genome-wide association data (68.2%). The results provided evidence that the heritability covered by psoriasis genome-wide genotyping data was probably underestimated in previous restricted maximum likelihood method. Our study highlights the broad role of common variants in the etiology of psoriasis and sheds light on the possibility to identify more common variants of small effect by increasing the sample size in psoriasis genome-wide association studies.
Oya Atalay Franck
Full Text Available Koç Holding is the most established conglomerate in Turkey. Th e company’s beginnings date from the mid 1920s, when Ahmet Vehbi Koç, founder of Koç Holding, had his first own company registered with the Ankara Chamber of Commerce. In 1932, Koç moved his business from his father’s store on Anafartalar Street to a new building, the first Koç Han, erected the same year on Çankırı Street Nr.13 in Ulus. Th e building’s designer was Swiss-Austrian architect Ernst Arnold Egli, who had come to Turkey only five years earlier upon invitation by the government to work as chief architect of the Ministry of National Education. During his stay, which lasted from 1927 until 1940, Egli realized about 40 projects and worked on many more. Koç Han is the rare example of a commercial building by Egli. At a time when the urban aspect of the old town center of Ankara consisted mostly of one-or two-storeyed stone-and-wood houses, the first Koç Han represented an altogether new building type for the town, in being a multipurpose edifice with space for shops at street level, with large storage facilities below ground, and providing off ices and housing on the upper fl oors. Th e functional rigor of the plan and the sober modernism of the building’s facades contrasted strongly with the architecture of the time. In this respect, the first Koç Han was a strong statement regarding Ahmet Vehbi Koç’s belief in a modern Turkey and to the contribution of the building’s architect, Ernst Arnold Egli, to this project.
Paulo Eduardo Viana Vidal
Full Text Available As we will try to show in the article, initial result of a research on the symptom in Freud and Lacan, Freud's case study of Little Hans, published over one hundred years ago, teaches us how a subject whose world collapsed and who is taken by anguish, can invent, rig up with the remaining fragments a symptom that reorganizes for himself a liveable world.
Jeferson José Moebus Retondar
Full Text Available The purpose of the test is to point out the place of the game / joke within the context of Freudian psychoanalytic theory from the texts of Beyond the Pleasure and Little Hans principle as metaphors for thinking about the game / play and possible teacher intervention of the repercussions of physical education in kindergarten to consider the psychoanalysis of appropriation so the playful manifestation.
Maria Antonieta Amarante de Mendonça Coh
Full Text Available Neste trabalho, discute-se a relação entre a psicanálise, a linguageme sua origem sexual, tendo por base dois autores: Hans Sperber(1912, cuja proposta é a de que a linguagem humana falada temuma origem e um desenvolvimento vinculados ao sexual; SigmundFreud, nos textos em que trata de questões relativas à linguagemem sentido estrito.
Full Text Available Keloid is benign fibroproliferative dermal tumors with unknown etiology. Recently, a genome-wide association study (GWAS in Japanese population has identified 3 susceptibility loci (rs873549 at 1q41, rs940187 and rs1511412 at 3q22.3, rs8032158 at 15p21.3 for keloid. In order to examine whether these susceptibility loci are associated with keloid in the Chinese Han population, twelve previously reported SNPs were selected for replication in 714 cases and 2,944 controls by using Sequenom MassArray system. We found three SNPs in two regions showed significant association with keloid in the Chinese Han population: 1q41 (rs873549, P = 3.03×10(-33, OR = 2.05, 95% CI: 1.82-2.31 and rs1442440, P = 9.85×10(-18, OR = 0.56, 95% CI: 0.49-0.64, respectively and 15q21.3 (rs2271289 located in NEDD4, P = 1.02×10(-11, OR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.58-0.74. We also detected one risk haplotype AG (P = 1.36×10(-31, OR = 2.02 and two protective haplotypes of GA and AA (GA, P = 1.94×10(-19, OR = 0.53, AA, P = 0.00043, OR = 0.78, respectively from the two SNPs (rs873549 and rs1442440. Our study confirmed two previously reported loci 1q41 and 15q21.3 for keloid in the Chinese Han population, which suggested the common genetic factor predisposing to the development of keloid shared by the Chinese Han and Japanese populations.
Pöttering, Hans-Gert, 1945-
Ilmunud ka: Virumaa Teataja, 23. märts 2007, lk. 1; Pärnu Postimees, 24. märts 2007, lk. 19; Koit, 24. märts 2007, lk. 6; Põhjarannik, 24. märts 2007, lk. 2; Severnoje Poberezhje, 24. märts 2007, lk. 2. Euroopa Parlamendi presidendi Hans-Gert Pötteringi mõtted Euroopa Ühenduse asutamislepingu sõlmimise 50. aastapäeva puhul
Mª Milagros Latasa Asso
Full Text Available La Torre de Hanói es uno de los hallazgos matemáticos más ingeniosos de la matemática recreativa. Gracias a una leyenda con tinte oriental hoy se conoce de modo universal. Se describen en este artículo las relaciones entre las soluciones del rompecabezas y los ciclos hamiltonianos en los grafos Qn.
Kong, Xiaomu; Xing, Xiaoyan; Hong, Jing; Zhang, Xuelian; Yang, Wenying
Abstract Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is highly phenotypically heterogeneous. Genetics of the heterogeneity of lean and obese T2D is not clear. The aim of the present study was to identify the associations of T2D-related genetic variants with the risks for lean and obese T2D among the Chinese Han population. A case–control study consisting of 5338 T2D patients and 4663 normal glycemic controls of Chinese Han recruited in the Chinese National Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders Study was conducted. T2D cases were identified according to the 1999 World Health Organization criteria. Lean T2D was defined as T2D patient with a body mass index (BMI) CAMK1D, HHEX, and TCF2 were associated with the risk for lean T2D, and SNPs in or near KCNQ1 and FTO were associated with the risk for obese T2D. The results showed that the GRS for 25 T2D-related SNPs was more strongly associated with the risk for lean T2D (Ptrend = 2.66 × 10−12) than for obese T2D (Ptrend = 2.91 × 10−5) in our study population. Notably, the T2D GRS contributed to lower obesity-related measurements and greater β-cell dysfunction, including lower insulin levels in oral glucose tolerance test, decreased insulinogenic index, and Homeostasis Model Assessment for β-cell Function. In conclusion, our findings identified T2D-related genetic loci that contribute to the risk of lean and obese T2D individually and additively in a Chinese Han population. Moreover, the study highlights the contribution of known T2D genomic loci to the heterogeneity of lean and obese T2D in Chinese Hans. PMID:27281091
Schweber, Silvan [Brandeis University
I will present some facets of Hans Bethe’s life to illustrate how I have used biography to narrate certain aspects of the history of twentieth century physics. I will focus on post World War II quantum field theory, on the relation between solid state/condensed matter physics and high energy physics, and make some observations regarding certain “top down” views in solid state physics in postmodernity.
Full Text Available Este ensaio investiga a importância da violência na entrevista de Hubert Fichte com Hans Eppendorfer, o Homem de Couro - no plano conteudístico e no plano estrutural. Tenta-se demonstrar como Fichte manipula (violentamente o entrevistado. A violência que é tema da entrevista é examinada dentro do horizonte da teoria fichtiana do ritual.
The purpose of this paper is to explore briefly the role that a more phenomenological conception of dialectical development of consciousness plays in Hans-Georg Gadamer's work on hermeneutics. This is done with both an implicit understanding of the dialectical development of consciousness and self-consciousness in Gadamer and some explicit references to Hegel’s Phenomenology of Spirit and his Science of Logic in connection with Gadamer's work. However, the twentieth century departures from H...
The Stable of central authorities in Han dynasty was set up inside and outside Changan city. The amount of the stables of central authorities in the latter Han was lower than those in the Former Han.The stable of central authorities was administered by the system of emperor finance. The horses of the stable were chosen from the traditional herse breeding area.Confiscation and requisition from the local government were al⁃so the main sources. The horses were provided for emperor and his families to ride, sacrifices, complement to the regional post house, and as army horse. The officers of the stable were including of ling(令), cheng(丞),and jian(监). They were close to emperor in spite of their humble status. The change of stable in Han dynasty reflect⁃ed the development of the administrative system.%汉代中央的厩设置于长安城内外。东汉中央厩的数目较之西汉有所减省。中央厩由帝室财政系统掌管，其马匹主要从传统养马区选择，罚没、从地方征调也是中央厩马的重要来源。厩马主要供皇帝及帝室成员骑乘，祭祀、补充地方传置，以及作为军马等。中央厩所设置的职官主要有令、丞、监等，其秩级虽低，但和皇帝关系密切。厩在两汉时期的变化从一个侧面反映了汉代行政体系逐渐发育成熟。
Chen, Ling; Lu, Huijie; Qiu, Pingming; Yang, Xingyi; Liu, Chao
AmpFℓSTR Sinofiler PCR Amplification Kit is specially developed for Chinese forensic laboratories, but there are little population-genetic data about this kit for Southern China. This kit contains 15 STR loci: D8S1179, D21S11, D7S820, CSF1PO, D3S1358, D13S317, D16S539, D2S1338, D19S433, vWA, D18S51, D6S1043, D12S391, D5S818 and FGA. We have conducted genotyping experiments on the 15 STR loci in 5234 unrelated individuals from Guangdong (Southern China). We observed a total of 243 alleles in the group with the allelic frequency values ranging from less than 0.0001 to 0.3686. Our statistic analysis indicates that the 15 STR loci conform to the Hardy-Weinberg's equilibrium (p>0.05). The highest polymorphism was found at D6S1043 locus and the lowest was found at D3S1358. The combined power of discrimination reached 0.99999999999999999977431 and the combined probability of paternity exclusion reached 0.999999721 for 15 STR loci. Guangdong Han population had significant differences compared with Shaanxi, Shandong and Henan province of Northern China. A Neighbor-joining tree indicates that the Guangdong Han has a close genetic relationship with the Yunnan population. Significant differences were found between Guangdong Han population and other reported populations (Japanese, Philippine, African American, Caucasian, Hispanic and Western Romanian) at 2-11 STR loci. The results may provide useful information for forensic sciences and population genetics studies. The present findings indicate that all the 15 STR loci are highly genetically polymorphic in the Han population of Guangdong.
<正>At the invitation of the Mexican Council on Foreign Relations(COMEXI)and the World Peace Council(WPC),Mr.Han Qide,Vice Chairman of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference(CPPCC)and President of the Chinese People’s Association for Peace and Disarmament(CPAPD)attended the WPC international conference,visited Mexico and Argentina,and transited through
Zhang, C; Lu, W; Wang, Z; Ni, J; Zhang, J; Tang, W; Fang, Y
A novel susceptibility locus (rs11098403) for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (BD) was identified in an Ashkenazi Jewish population by a recent large-scale genome-wide association study. The rs11098403 is located in the vicinity of the gene encoding N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase (heparan glucosaminyl) 3, (NDST3). This study aimed to replicate the results in a Han Chinese population and then potentially extend these findings. We performed a two-stage study to investigate the association of NDST3 with the schizophrenia and BD risk in the Han Chinese. In stage 1, a total of 632 patients with schizophrenia, 654 patients with BD and 684 healthy controls were recruited from the Shanghai region. In stage 2, 522 schizophrenia patients and 547 normal subjects were enrolled from the Hangzhou region. Then, we conducted a meta-analysis based on the present literature. In stage 1, the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs11098403 showed a significant association with schizophrenia (corrected P=0.005). The frequency of the rs11098403 G allele was significantly lower among schizophrenia patients than among the controls (odds ratio (OR)=0.68, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.55-0.84, corrected P=0.002). No significant difference was observed in individual SNP marker genotypes or allele distributions between the BD and control groups. In stage 2, the association of rs11098403 with schizophrenia could be validated (genotypic P=0.001 and allelic P=0.0003). After pooling all data from 1861 patients with schizophrenia and 2081 controls, we observed a significant association of the rs11098403 G allele with schizophrenia (Z=5.56, Pschizophrenia in the Han Chinese. Further investigations are warranted to identify the precise mechanism regulating brain NDST3 expression in the Han Chinese. These results would help to explain the pathophysiological mechanism of schizophrenia.
Limin Sun; Man Bai; Lujie Xiang; Guishan Zhang; Wei Ma; Huaizhi Jiang
The Qianhua Mutton Merino (QHMM) is a new sheep (Ovis aries) variety with better meat performance compared with the traditional local variety Small Tail Han (STH) sheep. We aimed to evaluate the transcriptome regulators associated with muscle growth and development between the QHMM and STH. We used RNA-Seq to obtain the transcriptome profiles of the longissimus muscle from the QHMM and STH. The results showed that 960 genes were differentially expressed (405 were up-regulated and 555 were dow...
In a paper published in this Journal, Hans Radder argues that a detailed analysis of the degenerating phase of Bohr's programme reveals the basic incorrectness of Lakatos' own reconstruction of this period. Furthermore the corrected version shows the impossibility to account for the development in Lakatosian concepts. In this reply I try to point out that a slight modification of Lakatos' reconstruction is sufficient for reconciling the theory with the historical data. It is not Lakatos's the...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Autism, a heterogeneous disease, is described as a genetic psychiatry disorder. Recently, abnormalities at the synapse are supposed to be important for the etiology of autism.SHANK3 (SH3 and multiple ankyrin repeat domains protein gene encodes a master synaptic scaffolding protein at postsynaptic density (PSD of excitatory synapse. Rare mutations and copy number variation (CNV evidence suggested SHANK3 as a strong candidate gene for the pathogenesis of autism. Methods We performed an association study between SHANK3 gene polymorphisms and autism in Chinese Han population. We analyzed the association between five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of the SHANK3 gene and autism in 305 Chinese Han trios, using the family based association test (FBAT. Linkage disequilibrium (LD analysis showed the presence of LD between pairwise markers across the locus. We also performed mutation screening for the rare de novo mutations reported previously. Results No significant evidence between any SNPs of SHANK3 and autism was observed. We did not detect any mutations described previously in our cohort. Conclusion We suggest that SHANK3 might not represent a major susceptibility gene for autism in Chinese Han population.
Sun, Ying; Yuan, Yi; Yang, Hua; Li, Jingjie; Feng, Tian; Ouyang, Yongri; Jin, Tianbo; Liu, Ming
Objective: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrinopathies affecting 5-7% of reproductive age women worldwide. The aim of our study was to explore the PCOS-related single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associations between common genetic variants and PCOS risk in a Han Chinese women population. Methods: In this case-control study, 285 Chinese Han women aged 28.50±6.858 years with PCOS and 299 controls of a mean age of 32.66±7.018 years were compared. We selected recently published genome-wide association studies (GWAS) which identified several genetic loci in PCOS. All the SNPs were genotyped by Sequenom Mass-ARRAY technology. Associations between the gene and the risk of PCOS were tested using various genetic models by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences and Plink. Results: We found that rs705702 in the RAB5B/SUOX was associated with PCOS (odds ratio=1.42; 95% confidence interval=1.08-1.87, p=0.011) and increased the PCOS risk. The genotypic model analysis also showed that rs705702 was associated with PCOS risk. Conclusion: Our results suggest that SNPs rs705702 in gene RAB5B/SUOX was associated with PCOS in Han Chinese women. PMID:27217259
Qing, Maofeng; Qiu, Lihua; Gao, Zhi; Bhandari, Kishor
The purpose of the study was to estimate the chronology of third molar mineralization in Han population of southwestern China and find its unique characteristics so that it would provide a reference in several legal cases like forensic age estimation. The study used Demirjian's staging method to study 2192 orthopantomograms of 984 male and 1208 female subjects aged between 8 and 25 years. The statistical data was analyzed by Student's t test and ANOVA. The conclusions of the study are: (1) The chronological mineralization age of third molars of Han population in Southwestern China is similar to the Turkish and the Japanese, was earlier than the Austrian and Han of South China, but later than the Spanish. (2) The mineralization timing of the third molars between two sides in maxilla or mandible has no significant differences in the same gender group. (3) There is no significant difference in mineralization of third molars between male and female, except for tooth 48 in Demirjian's stage E. (4) The mineralization of third molar in maxilla is earlier than mandible.
Full Text Available With the rapid development of hydropower exploitation in China, changes in runoff and sediment transport have become a significant issue that cannot be neglected. In this study, the Han River was selected as a study case, where the runoff variation and changes in sediment load at the Baihe, Huangjiagang, Huangzhuang, and Xiantao stations were analyzed in different time periods. The results indicate that impact of cascade hydropower exploitation on runoff and sediment transport is significantly different even during the same time periods. After reservoir regulation, the decreasing of sediment load is faster than that of runoff. Strong positive correlation between runoff and sediment load exists during different time periods, while reservoir operation leads to different turning points at the Baihe, Huangjiagang, Huangzhuang, and Xiantao stations in the middle and lower Han River. As a key driving factor, runoff variation contributed to sediment transport with different impact index CR. The impact index CR before and after the first change point at the Baihe, Huangjiagang, Huangzhuang, and Xiantao stations is 43.35%, −3.68%, 11.17%, and 30.12%, respectively. This study helps us understand and evaluate the hydrological changes under cascade hydropower exploitation in the middle and lower Han River.
Full Text Available To determine whether genetic heterogeneity exists in patients with Graves' disease (GD, the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated 4 (CTLA-4 gene, which is implicated a susceptibility gene for GD by considerable genetic and immunological evidence, was used for association analysis in a Chinese Han cohort recruited from various geographic regions. Our association study for the SNPs in the CTLA4 gene in 2640 GD patients and 2204 control subjects confirmed that CTLA4 is the susceptibility gene for GD in the Chinese Han population. Moreover, the logistic regression analysis in the combined Chinese Han cohort revealed that SNP rs231779 (allele frequencies p = 2.81x10(-9, OR = 1.35, and genotype distributions p = 2.75x10(-9, OR = 1.42 is likely the susceptibility variant for GD. Interestingly, the logistic regression analysis revealed that SNP rs35219727 may be the susceptibility variant to GD in the Shandong population; however, SNP, rs231779 in the CTLA4 gene probably independently confers GD susceptibility in the Xuzhou and southern China populations. These data suggest that the susceptibility variants of the CTLA4 gene varied between the different geographic populations with GD.
Wöhrle, Johannes C; Haas, Frithjof
Hans von Bülow (1830-1894) was a conductor and pianist of worldwide reputation and founder of many stylistic interpretations of classic and romantic symphonies. The close friendship with Richard Wagner, but not the enthusiastic admiration of his dramatic musical opus, ended abruptly when Hans von Bülow became aware of the betrayal of his wife Cosima and Richard Wagner. Hans von Bülow reported symptoms and signs of neurological disease in many letters that were kept and edited by his second wife Marie. For decades he suffered from chronic neuralgiforme headaches, which were caused by a tumor of the cervical radicular nerves. At the age of 45 years, he suddenly developed a motorsensory deficit in the right arm and hand and a contralateral facial deficit, suggestive of brainstem infarction. He recovered and celebrated even greater successes as a musician, although phases of major depression also interfered with his professional life. In the last, phase of his life, he experienced the consequences of generalized atherosclerosis and cerebral microangiopathy. It was a second cerebrovascular accident of the brainstem that caused his death, only 10 months after his last concert performance. Although his death occurred in Egypt, an autopsy was performed by Professor Ludwig Edinger and the results will be presented.
About 21 times of cattle epidemic with rather strong infectivity happened during the Han-Tang Period, including 6 in the Eastern Han Dynasty, 2 in the Jin Dynasty, 4 in the Southern and Northern Dynasties, 8 in the Tang Dynasty and 1in the Five Dynasty. Most of them were spread along the Yellow River and the northern region of the Huai River. The type of cattle epidemic included the acute cattle plague, cattle bovine mange, cattle yellow fever and cattle rotten hoof disease, etc. Its occurrence and prevalence brought a serious influentce on the society of the Han and Tang Dynasties, causing massive mortality of farm cattle, and then the shortage of animal power, and threatening the agriculture, which drew the attention of the governments, physicians, agriculturists, astrologists and Taoists. The medical measures and economic measures were adopted for the prevention and treatment of cattle epidemic. Especially, prescriptions in the books of medicine and agriculture exerted positive effects on the containment of cattle epidemic. On the other hand, its prevalence and the mass mortality of farm cattle, in a way, promoted, to certain extent, the improvement of the government's function of relief, the updating of the methods of agriculture and the creation of new farm tools, and being regarded as a main cause for the technological innovation of agriculture.
苏奋翔; 张艳霞; 安方玉; 李明淑; 陈绍仪
目的：观察林氏降脂方对高脂血症大鼠血脂及血液流变学指标的影响。方法：取60只雄性SD大鼠，随机分为正常对照组，模型组，脂脉康胶囊组，林氏降脂方高(1.2962 g/mL)、中(0.6481 g/mL)、低剂量组(0.3241 g/mL)，每组10只。正常对照组普通饲料喂养，其余各组高脂乳剂联合高脂饲料喂养建立高脂血症模型并按实验方案给药，6周后，处死各组大鼠，测定血清血脂水平及血液流变学指标。结果：与模型组相比较，脂脉康胶囊组及林氏降脂方高剂量组胆固醇(TC)，甘油三酯(TG)，低密度脂蛋白(LDL)均明显降低(P＜0.05)，高密度脂蛋白(HDL-C)明显升高(P＜0.05)，与模型组相比较，脂脉康胶囊组及林氏降脂方高、中、低剂量组高切、中切、低切全血黏度均明显降低(P＜0.05)。结论：林氏降脂方可改善高脂血症大鼠血脂及血液流变学状态。%Objective:To observe the influence of LinShiJiangZhi prescription on blood lipid and hemorheolo-gy of the rats with hyperlipoidemia. Methods: Sixty rats were randomized into normal control group, the model group, ZhiMaiKang capsules group, high (1.296 2 g/mL), moderate (0.648 1 g/mL) and low (0.324 1 g/mL) doses groups of LinShiJiangZhi prescription randomly, ten rats each group. The rats in normal control group were fed with ordinary fodder, other groups were fed with high fat emulsion combined with high fat fodder to establish the model with hyperlipoidemia, they were medicated according to experimental plan and sacrificed in six weeks to detect the levels of blood lipid and the indexes of hemorheology. Results:Compared with the model group, TC, TG and LDL of ZhiMaiKang capsules group and high doses group of LinShiJiangZhi prescription decreased obviously (P<0.05), HDL-C raised obviously (P<0.05). Compared with the model group, high shear, moderate shear and low shear whole blood viscosity of ZhiMaiKang capsules group, high
Yao, Jun; Wang, Bao-Jie
In the present study, we investigated the genetic characteristics of 25 Y-chromosomal and 15 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci in 305 unrelated Han Chinese male individuals from Liaoning Province using AmpFISTR® Yfiler® Plus and IdentifilerTM PCR amplification kits. Population comparison was performed between Liaoning Han population and different ethnic groups to better understand the genetic background of the Liaoning Han population. For Y-STR loci, the overall haplotype diversity was 0.9997 and the discrimination capacity was 0.9607. Gene diversity values ranged from 0.4525 (DYS391) to 0.9617 (DYS385). Rst and two multi-dimensional scaling plots showed that minor differences were observed when the Liaoning Han population was compared to the Jilin Han Chinese, Beijing Han Chinese, Liaoning Manchu, Liaoning Mongolian, Liaoning Xibe, Shandong Han Chinese, Jiangsu Han Chinese, Anhui Han Chinese, Guizhou Han Chinese and Liaoning Hui populations; by contrast, major differences were observed when the Shanxi Han Chinese, Yunnan Bai, Jiangxi Han Chinese, Guangdong Han Chinese, Liaoning Korean, Hunan Tujia, Guangxi Zhuang, Gansu Tibetan, Xishuangbanna Dai, South Korean, Japanese and Hunan Miao populations. For autosomal STR loci, DP ranged from 0.9621 (D2S1338) to 0.8177 (TPOX), with PE distributing from 0.7521 (D18S51) to 0.2988 (TH01). A population comparison was performed and no statistically significant differences were detected at any STR loci between Liaoning Han, China Dong, and Shaanxi Han populations. The results showed that the 25 Y-STR and 15 autosomal STR loci in the Liaoning Han population were valuable for forensic applications and human genetics, and Liaoning Han was an independent endogenous ethnicity with a unique subpopulation structure.
This study was purposed to determine the mode and size of human platelet antigens (HPA) typed platelet apheresis donor bank. The published data of HPA distribution collected from Chinese Han population of 16 provinces were analyzed. The combined data were tested with the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The results showed that the bb homozygote was not detected in HPA-1, -4, -6, -10, and b gene was not found in HPA-7-9, 11-14, -16. There were 648 combined HPA 1-16 genotypes in Chinese Han population, and the cumulative frequency of 42 combinations higher than 0.001 were 0.9763. The highest frequency (0.2012) in combination was HPA-(7-8-9-11-12-13-14-16) aa - (1-4-5-6-10) aa-2aa-3ab-15ab. The probability of HPA dual antigen mismatch in HPA-15, -3 and -2 was higher than the 0.1, and the probability in the HPA-1, -5, and -6 was between 0.01 - 0.1. The probability of full-match in HPA1-16 antigens was 0.3195 in Chinese Han population after the random blood transfusion. According to the curve drawn by donor number (N) versus frequency (F), the regression equation LogN = -0.4394 x Ln (F) +0.4324 was derived at P = 95%. If the derived frequency (product of HPA frequency and ABO frequency) is 0.005, then the N should be 576.07 at least in Chinese Han population. It is concluded that the mode of regional, multi-center database of HPA-typed platelet apheresis donor bank may be acceptable in Chinese Han population, and the suitable number of HPA-typed platelet donor in one bank may be 600. Therefore, the bank can be used to treat the platelet transfusion refractoriness (PTR) caused by HPA-15, 3 and 2 mismatch mainly, and can be expanded effectively in similar genetic background to deal with the low-frequency HPA antigens mismatch. The number of HPA-typed platelet apheresis donor influences not only on the frequency of HPA, but also on the frequency of ABO group.
Zeng, Dong Lin; Wu, Zhi Ling; Cui, Min Yi
In order to study the chronology of age of third molar mineralization of Han in southern China, Demirjian staging method was used to determine the stage of four third molars (18, 28, 38, 48) mineralization in 3,100 Han in southern China aged 4.1-26.9 years based on radiological evidence from digital orthopantomograms. The mean age of the 3,100 patients was 15.96 +/- 4.73 years, including 1,200 male (mean age, 15.32 +/- 4.62) and 1,900 female (mean age, 16.35 +/- 4.76). Results show that there was no significant difference in mineralization between 18 and 28 and 38 and 48 of male or female. However, significant difference was observed between 28 and 38 of female at stage C; 28 was 0.25 years earlier than 38. In male, at stage G, 38 was 0.61 years earlier than 28, and 48 was 0.62 years earlier than 18. At stages D, E, F, G, and H, male 48 was 0.34, 0.66, 0.72, 1.34, and 0.76 years earlier than that of female, respectively. At stages A, D, E, F, G, and H, male 38 was 0.73, 0.26, 0.56, 0.91, 1.29, and 0.70 years earlier than that of female, respectively. At stages B, E, F, G, and H, the mineralization mean age of male 18 was 0.54, 0.50, 0.76, 0.92, and 0.58 years earlier than that of female, respectively. At stages E, F, G, and H, the mineralization mean age of male 28 was 0.51, 0.76, 0.92, and 0.49 years earlier than that of female, respectively. After reviewing the literature, the chronological mineralization age of 48, at stages D to G, of Han in southern China was 1 to 4.6 years earlier than that of Japanese and 1 to 3 years earlier than that of German. The mean age at stage H of 48 of Han in southern China was similar to Turkish, Black African, Japanese, and German, but was later than Spanish. Finally, the conclusions are: (1) in the same gender group of Han in southern China, the mineralization ages between two sides in upper or lower jaw are very similar, and (2) the chronology mean age and complete time of third molar mineralization of male were earlier than
During the Jiaqing and Daoguang periods of the Qing dynasty,Fang Dongshu published the Hanxue Shangdui,which launched a fierce attack on the Han School and marked the open contentions between the Han and the Song schools.While defending the Song Learning.Fang attacked the shortcomings of the Han School.mainly in four aspects:the Han School's methods of scholarship,various concepts of philosophy proposed by the Han-Learning scholars,the trivial and piecemeal character,and the heterodoxy of the Han School.Fang Dongshu criticized the Han-Learning scholars who Paid attention only to the books and neglected the social affairs.Sharp and reasonable as it was,his criticism however seemed less objective,especially when he tried to use the emperor's authority to threaten the Han School,which was beyond the range of the normal academic debates.
Objective To explore the status of infections of soil-transmitted nematodes of residents in Shuyang County,Jiang-su Province from 2011 to 2012. Methods Totally 2 140 residents of Machang Town and Longji Town in Shuyang County,Jiangsu Province were investigated,and their stool samples were collected and detected by Kato-Katz technique,and in addition,the chil-dren aged 3-12 years were examined by the cellophane anal swab method,in 2011 and 2012. Results In 2011,the total infec-tion rate of soil-transmitted nematodes was 1.06%(11/1 034),the infection rate of hookworm was 1.06%(11/1 034),the infec-tion rate of Ascaris lumbricoides was 0,the infection rate of Trichuris trichiura was 0,and the infection rate of Enterobius vermicu-laris was 0;In 2012,the total infection rate of soil-transmitted nematodes was 0.99%(11/1 106),the infection rate of hookworm was 0.27%(3/1 106),the infection rate of A. lumbricoides was 0.09(1/1 106),the infection rate of T. trichiura was 0,and the in-fection rate of E. vermicularis was 2.69%(7/223). Conclusion The infection rate of soil-transmitted nematodes of residents in Shuyang County is low,but the surveillance is still necessary.%目的：了解2011-2012年江苏省沭阳县居民土源性线虫感染状况。方法采用Kato-Katz法对沭阳县马厂镇葛荡村和龙集镇吴圩村2140名居民开展土源性寄生虫感染调查，对3～12岁儿童加做透明胶纸肛拭法检测。结果2011年和2012年沭阳县居民土源性线虫总感染率分别为1.06%（11/1034）和0.99%（11/1106）；钩虫感染率分别为1.06%（11/1034）和0.27%（3/1106），蛔虫感染率分别为0（0/1034）和0.09%（1/1106），鞭虫感染率均为0；3～12岁儿童蛲虫感染率分别为0（0/198）和2.69%（7/223）。结论沭阳县居民土源性线虫感染率较低，需做好监测工作。
南朝刘宋范晔撰著的《后汉书》本纪和列传，配以西晋司马彪《续汉书》诸志，是研治东汉一朝史事最为重要的基本史料。惟研究西汉以及汉代以前各个时期的地理问题，范哗《后汉书》和包括《郡国志》在内的《续汉书》诸志，同样具有很多《汉书·地理志》以及《史记》和《汉书》其他部分所不具备的独特史料价值。%The imperial and collective biographies of Hou Han Shu compiled by Fan Ye from theLiu Song Dynasty, along with the records of Xu Han Shu compiled by Sima Biao from the Jin Dynasty, are the most important fundamental historical texts for studying the histories during the EasternHan Dynasty. Regarding the research on geographical issues before and during Han Dynasty, Fan Ye "s Hou Han Shu and Xu Han Shu including Jun Guo Zhi possess unique historical texts that Han Shuincluding its Treaties on Geography and Shiji do not have.
<正>During stay in Mexico,Mr.Han Qide meets with Mr.Cervantes,President of the Senate in May 2014.Mr.Han Qide and his party attend the"Seminar on the Opportunities and Challenges in China-Mexico Cooperation".Mr.Han Qide meets with persons in charge of the Ministry of Health of Mexico.Mr.Han Qide visits the Mexican Council on Foreign Relations.
Jose Luis Gallizo
Full Text Available Objecte: En aquest estudi és porta a terme un anàlisi comparatiu sobre l’evolució de l’estructura econòmica i financera que presenten les empreses familiars i no familiars de Catalunya en un context d’intensa crisi econòmica. La seva finalitat és poder donar resposta a dos qüestions principals: identificar les característiques diferencials de l’EF respecte a l’EnF i comprovar si aquestes característiques diferencials han permès a les EF aguantar millor la crisi econòmica. Disseny/metodologia: S’ha analitzat una mostra de 750 grans i mitjanes empreses de Catalunya (550 familiars i 200 no familiars durant el període 2008-2012. Les dades s’han obtingut a través de la base de dades SABI, i per a la classificació de les empreses en familiars i no familiars s’ha dut a terme una comprovació individual de cadascuna d’elles per evitar habituals errors de classificació. Posteriorment les empreses s’han classificat en funció de la seva dimensió per dotar d’una major robustes els resultats. També s’ha procurat que la distribució d’empreses per sectors fos similar en les diferents categories per evitar que un efecte sectorial pogués tergiversar els resultats de l’estudi. Aportacions i resultats: L’estudi ha permès constatar les hipòtesis establertes sobre el finançament de les empreses familiars i concloure que aquestes presenten una estructura financera diferent a les Empreses no familiars. Les empreses familiars als seus balanços, presenten un major nivell d’autofinançament gràcies a la seva menor distribució de dividends. A més a més, les EF presenten millors resultats en quant a nivells de cobertura i liquiditat, ja que es troben més capitalitzades i presenten uns nivells d’endeutament inferior que les Empreses no familiars. Aquestes característiques patrimonials i financeres han contribuït a que les empreses familiars aguantin millor els anys de crisi, produint-se durant aquests anys
Objective To investigate the association of thyroid stimulating hormone receptor(TSHR)gene polymorphisms and haplotypes with Graves’disease(GD)in Han population from coastal areas in Shandong province
Inscriptions on the Han period pictorial stones, as this sort of relief itself, are broadly distributed across the country. With extensively involving contents, they present one aspect of the change of the mourning concept in the Han period and reflect the intensify of care for living people. They tell of the existence of folk versions on historical figures' careers beyond history books written in biographical style. Meanwhile, they provide a standard for the chronological study of Han pictorial stones.The official positions mentioned in these inscriptions can be used in comparative study of archaeological and literal evidence to supply omission in historical documents and especially to correct errors in textual records. It is known from pictorial stone inscriptions that there already existed the official position of Mt.Tai governor in the Eastern Han period.
Banerjee, Sourav; Shetty, Sharath A.; Gowrav, M. N.; Oommen, Charlie; Bhattacharya, Atanu
We have performed density functional theory calculations with the generalized gradient approximation to investigate the catalytic decomposition reactions of one of the most promising monopropellants, hydroxylammonium nitrate (HAN), on two catalytically active single crystal Pd(100) and Ir(100) surfaces, aiming at exploring different reaction pathways and reactivities of these two surfaces towards the catalytic decomposition of HAN. We find that the HAN molecule binds both the Pd(100) and Ir(100) surfaces molecularly in different orientations with respect to the surface. The HONO elimination is found to possess the lowest activation energy on the Pd(100) surface; whereas, NO2 elimination is predicted to show the lowest activation energy on the Ir(100) surface. Exothermicities associated with different reaction steps are also discussed. This is the first theoretical report on the catalytic decomposition reactions of the HAN molecule on the single crystal Pd(100) and the Ir(100) surfaces using the periodic DFT calculations.
CHEN Zhe-yu; HUANG Ai-jun; LU Chang-lin; WU Xiang-fu; HE Cheng
To study the sequence and function of the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) transcript in subjects of Han nationality. Methods: The Han nationality GDNF transcript was amplified by RT-PCR and expressed by baculovirus expression system. Biological activity of the expressed product was measured by the primary culture of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Results: There only existed the shorter GDNF transcript of 555 bp in the Han nationality. The secretory expression product of the shorter transcript in insect cells promoted the survival and differentiation of dopaminergic neurons. Conclusion: It is found that there is a 78 bp deletion in the Han nationality GDNF transcript compared with the reported 633 bp GDNF transcript. The 78 bp deletion does not affect the secretory expression and biological activity of GDNF mature protein.
Ambassador Hans Brattskar signing the guest book with Director for international relations Charlotte Warakaulle and Director-General Fabiola Gianotti; Deputy Permanent Representative and Minister Kjersti Sommerset and CERN Advisers Pippa Wells and Jens Vigen are also present.
Junming Ye; Zuyu Zhu; Cheng Huang; Jun Wei
BACKGROUND:Han's acupoint ncwve stimulator(HANS)has been frequently used to relieve pain by promoting the central ncrvve system's release of endogenous opioid peptides through electric stimulation to the body surface.OBJECTIVE:To investigate the pain-relieving effects of HANS,combined with patient-controlled analgesia,following neurosurgery,and to observe adverse reactions and effects.DESIGN,TIME AND SETTING:A randomized centrel observation was performed at the Department of Neurology in the First Affiliated Hospital of Gannan MeScal College(Ganzhou,Jiangxi Province,China)from January 2005 to February 2006.PARTICIPANTS:Forty patients,who were selected for craniotomy and required pain relief following surgery at the Department of Neurology in the First Affiliated Hospital of Garman Medical College(China),were included in this study.METHODS:Forty patients underwent neurosurgery and were randomly divided into two groups:patient-controlled analgesia plus HANS(+HANS,n=20)and patient-controlled analgesia(-HANS,n=20).Both groups were well matched in baseline data.Automatic syringe infusion pump ZZB-150 was the product of Nantong Aipeng Medical Instruments Co.,Ltd.(China).Patient-controlled analgesia consisted of 100 mL 0.02% lappaconitine/0.02% metoclopramide.LH-402 HANS instrument was produced in Beijing(China),with a serial number of 402183.The HANS instrumentation was used to stimulate the Hegu-Laogong acupoint on one side and Jiaogan,Shenmen penetrating Shen,Waifei,Naogan penetrating Pizhixia ear acupoints on the affected side for one hour,with 2-hour intervals.The disperse-dense wave was alternating,with a 2/100 Hz frequency of dectrical stimulation.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE:The scores of visual analogue scale and incidence of adverse reaction were observed in two groups following surgery.RESULTS:Compared with the-HANS group,the visual analogue scale scores were remarkably lower in the+HANS group six hours after surgery(P<0.01),and the incidence rate of adverse reactions
Hongdan, Wang; Bing, Kang; Ning, Su; Miao, He; Bo, Zhang; Yuxin, Guo; Bofeng, Zhu; Shixiu, Liao; Zhaoshu, Zeng
At present, the Han nationality is China's main ethnic group and also the most populous nation in the world. This is a great resource to study microsatellite mutations and for the study of ethnogeny. The aim of this study is to investigate the genetic polymorphisms and mutations of 22 autosomal STR loci in 2475 individuals from Henan province, China. DNA is amplified and genotyped using PowerPlex™24 system. The gene frequencies, forensic parameters, and the mutation rate of the 22 STR loci are analyzed. A total of 295 alleles are observed in this Henan Han population, and the allelic frequencies ranged from 0.0003 to 0.5036. In order to investigate the genetic relationships between the Henan Han and the other 14 different populations, our present data were compared with previously published data for the same 15 STR loci. The results indicated that the Henan Han had closer genetic relationships the groups including Minnan Han, Maonan, Yi and Guangdong Han groups while the South morocco population, the Moroccan population, the Malay group, and the Uigur stand away from Henan Han. Except of D2S441, D13S317, PentaE, D2S1338, D5S818, TPOX and D19S433, the mutation events are found in the other 15 STR loci. A total of 40 mutation events are observed in the 15 STR loci. The mutation rates are ranged from 0 to 4.85 × 10(-3). In this study, 39 mutations are single-step mutations, and only one at FGA comprised two steps. STR mutation is commonly existed in paternity testing, while there are no STR mutation studies of the 22 STR loci in the Henan Han population. It is of great importance in forensic individual discrimination and paternal testing.
选取15个评价指标,依据搜集的数据,运用因子分析和聚类分析法,对皖江城市带8个城市的经济质量作出评价研究,客观反映经济质量状况.分析表明:经济发展因子、资源环境因子和生活水平因子是影响经济质量的三个主要因子;皖江城市带的三个主要因子得分普遍较低,反映经济质量状况依然不容乐观;因子得分排序和聚类分析发现其经济质量状况分三个层次, 表明皖江城市带的经济质量状况存在明显差距. 在此基础上,提出应分类指导因地制策与转方式调结构双管齐下助推皖江城市带经济质量的提升.%This paper will objectively evaluate and reflect the economic quality of 8 cities in Wan Jiang City Belt, based on 15 in-dexes and the related data about quality of urban economy, by the methods of factor analysis and cluster analysis. The results of research show that: firstly, the three main factors which effect the economic quality are economic development, resources and environment and living standard; secondly, the three main factors in Wan Jiang City Belt generally get low scores, so the economic quality is not opti-mistic; thirdly, according to the score ranking of factors and cluster analysis, quality of the economy can be divided into three levels, which reveals the obvious gaps existing in the economic quality status. Based on these, we should adopt different developmental strategies according to local conditions and transformation of economic development pattern and the adjustment of industrial structure to improve the quality of economy of Wan Jiang City Belt.
Hu, Yang; He, Liu; Wu, Yangfeng; Ma, Guansheng; Li, Liming; Hu, Yonghua
It remains unclear whether the body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure (BP) profile are clustered within families in Chinese Han population. The aim of this study is to explore familial aggregation and parent-offspring correlations of BMI and blood pressure in Chinese Han population. 6,369 Han nucleus families, consisting of parents and at least one biological adult child who were living together, were enrolled from the nation-wide cross-sectional study (China National Nutrition and Health Survey) which was conducted in 2002, with a total number of 19,107 participants aged 18-64 years (6,369 sets of parents, 4,132 sons and 2,237 daughters). Family aggregation (Intra-class correlations, ICCs) and parent-offspring correlations in BMI, systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) were estimated using linear mixed effect regression models. BMI and BP levels in two generations and ICCs of BMI, SBP and DBP varied across the country. Familial aggregation of overweight/obesity was observed in rural area (ICC=5.4%, pfamilies (ICC=4.4%, pfamilies (ICC=2.6%). Additionally, offspring with more parents being overweight/obese tend to have higher BMI. The similar trend was found for high BP. However, we did not observe that same-sex parent-offspring correlations of BMI and BP were stronger than the correlations for mother-son or father-daughter. Our study suggested that familial environments, alongside the impact of genetic factors, could be important non-communicable chronic diseases (NCD) risk factors. Family-based intervention taking both mother and father into account might have great potential in NCD prevention for younger generation.
Liu, Yangbo; Li, Liangda; Shi, Shanfen; Chen, Xin; Gao, Jianqing; Zhu, Minyu; Yuan, Jiandong
The susceptibility loci of ERAP1 polymorphisms have been found to be strongly associated with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). The researches in multiple ethnic cohorts suggested that the population attributable risk in ERAP1 polymorphisms is at a high significance level. This study was undertaken to estimate the prevalence and incidence of subsets of AS and investigate the specific variants of ERAP1 polymorphisms in AS susceptibility, in the Han ethnic Chinese population in Zhejiang Province. AS patients were selected, diagnosed, and confirmed by a qualified rheumatologist. The basal clinical and demographic characteristics were compared with all subjects. Genotypes for eight selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ERAP1 gene (rs27038, rs27037, rs27434, rs27980, rs7711564, rs30187, rs10050860, and rs17482078) were determined by using the Sequenom MassARRAY iPLEX platform in Zhejiang Han Chinese population. Association analyses were performed on the whole genotyped data set in 707 unrelated ankylosing spondylitis cases and 837 ethnically matched controls. We observed the strongest association between AS and HLA-B27, which confers over 90 % of ankylosing spondylitis cases. Moreover, we found three loci of ERAP1 polymorphisms were at a high significance level (rs27037 P = 0.00451; rs27434 P = 0.00012; rs27980 P = 0.00682) with AS in Zhejiang population. We also confirmed polymorphism locus of ERAP1 previously reported association with AS (rs27434; P = 5.3 × 10(-12)). Our results indicated a difference in the mechanism of susceptibility loci in subsets of Zhejiang Han Chinese population and provided further evidence that rs27434 is the key polymorphism associated with AS in ERAP1 gene.
Full Text Available This study aims to determine whether the genetic polymorphisms of IL-12B gene is a susceptibility factor to Ankylosing spondylitis (AS in mainland Han Chinese population.Eight single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs (rs10045431, rs11167764, rs3212227, rs6556412, rs6556416, rs6871626, rs6887695 and rs7709212 in the IL-12B gene were genotyped by iMLDR Assay technology in 400 patients [96% (384/400 HLA-B27(+] and 395 geographically and ethnically matched healthy controls in mainland Han Chinese population. The correlation between IL-12B genetic polymorphisms and AS activity index (BASDAI, BASFI were tested.The significant difference was found in genotype distribution between AS and healthy controls (χ2 = 6.942, P-value = 0.031 of the SNP rs6871626. Furthermore, significant evidence was also detected under the recessive model for minor allele A. The AA genotype carrier had 1.830 fold risk compared with C allele carrier (with CC and AC genotypes [OR (95% CI = 1.830 (1.131-2.961, P-value = 0.014]. Nevertheless, the difference was no longer significant after Bonferroni correction. Subset analysis on cases with HLA-B27(+ did find the same results. Three genotypic groups (AA, CC and CA in rs6871626 site was highly associated with the BASDAI and BASFI (P-value = 0.012 and P-value = 0.023, respectively, after adjustment for effect of age, sex, and disease duration, the P-value was 0.031 and 0.041, respectively. The AA genotype of rs6871626 was also significantly correlated with an increased BASDAI and BASFI compared to the AC and CC genotypes in AS patients.Our findings suggest that rs6871626 may be associated AS susceptibility and with disease activity (BASDAI, BASFI in mainland Han Chinese population.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma is a genetically heterogeneous disease. Polymorphisms of genes encoding components of the vitamin D pathway have been reported to associate with the risk of asthma. We have previously demonstrated that vitamin D status was associated with lung function in Chinese asthma patients. In this study, we tested whether polymorphisms of genes encoding for vitamin D receptor (VDR, vitamin D 25-hydroxylase (CYP2R1 and vitamin D binding protein (GC were associated with asthma in the Chinese Han population. Methods We sequenced all 8 exons of VDR and all 5 exons of CYP2R1 in a Chinese case-control cohort of asthma consisting of 467 cases and 288 unrelated healthy controls. Two mutations were identified in these regions. These variants were specified as rs2228570 in exon 2 of VDR and rs12794714 in exon 1 of CYP2R1. We also genotyped two common polymorphisms in GC gene (rs4588 and rs7041 by a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP method. We analyzed the association between these 4 polymorphisms and asthma susceptibility and asthma-related traits. Results Polymorphic markers in VDR and CYP2R1 were not associated with asthma in the Chinese Han cohort. Importantly, variants in GC gene, which give rise to the two most common electrophoretic isoforms of the vitamin D binding protein, were associated with asthma susceptibility. Compared with isoform Gc1, Gc2 was significantly associated with the risk of asthma (OR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.01-1.78 p = 0.006. Conclusions The results provide supporting evidence for association between GC variants and asthma susceptibility in the Chinese Han population.
Full Text Available Several studies have been conducted to explore risk factors for dyslexia. However, most studies examining dyslexia have been skewed toward Western countries, and few have considered two nationalities simultaneously. This study focused on differences in dyslexia prevalence and potential environmental risk factors between Han and Uyghur children.A cross-sectional study was conducted in Kashgar and Aksu, cities in Xinjiang province, China. A two-stage sampling strategy was used to recruit 2,854 students in grades 3-6 from 5 primary schools in 5 districts; 2,348 valid student questionnaires were included in the analysis. Dyslexia checklists for Chinese and Uyghur children and pupil rating scales were used to identify children with dyslexia. Questions related to the home literacy environment and reading ability were used to evaluate potential environmental risk factors. Single factor analysis and multivariate logistic regression were used to examine prevalence and risk factors for dyslexia.Dyslexia prevalence differed significantly between Han (3.9% and Uyghur (7.0% children (P < 0.05, and the boy-to-girl diagnosis ratio was almost 2:1. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that ethnic differences in dyslexia prevalence between Han and Uyghur children could have occurred because of factors such as mother's occupation (P = 0.02, OR = 0.04, 95% CI = 0.01-0.68 and the frequency with which parents told stories (P = 0.00, OR = 4.50, 95% CI = 1.67-12.11.The prevalence of dyslexia was high in all children, particularly those in the Uyghur group. Environmental factors could have been responsible for some of the differences observed. The results contribute to the early identification and management of dyslexia in children from these two groups and research examining developmental dyslexia and differences in racial genetics.
Zhao, Hua; Zhang, Baoping; Chen, Yun; Zhou, Xiang
Background Several studies have been conducted to explore risk factors for dyslexia. However, most studies examining dyslexia have been skewed toward Western countries, and few have considered two nationalities simultaneously. This study focused on differences in dyslexia prevalence and potential environmental risk factors between Han and Uyghur children. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Kashgar and Aksu, cities in Xinjiang province, China. A two-stage sampling strategy was used to recruit 2,854 students in grades 3–6 from 5 primary schools in 5 districts; 2,348 valid student questionnaires were included in the analysis. Dyslexia checklists for Chinese and Uyghur children and pupil rating scales were used to identify children with dyslexia. Questions related to the home literacy environment and reading ability were used to evaluate potential environmental risk factors. Single factor analysis and multivariate logistic regression were used to examine prevalence and risk factors for dyslexia. Results Dyslexia prevalence differed significantly between Han (3.9%) and Uyghur (7.0%) children (P boy-to-girl diagnosis ratio was almost 2:1. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that ethnic differences in dyslexia prevalence between Han and Uyghur children could have occurred because of factors such as mother’s occupation (P = 0.02, OR = 0.04, 95% CI = 0.01–0.68) and the frequency with which parents told stories (P = 0.00, OR = 4.50, 95% CI = 1.67–12.11). Conclusions The prevalence of dyslexia was high in all children, particularly those in the Uyghur group. Environmental factors could have been responsible for some of the differences observed. The results contribute to the early identification and management of dyslexia in children from these two groups and research examining developmental dyslexia and differences in racial genetics. PMID:27416106
WANG Tong; ZHANG Li-li; ZHANG Yun; SUN Xiao-fang; ZHANG Qian; HUANG Yi; XIAO Xin-hua; WANG Duen-mei; DIAO Cheng-ming; ZHANG Feng; XU Ling-ling; ZHANG Yong-biao; LI Wen-hui
Background Genome-wide association studies for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) identified FTO gene as a locus conferring increased risk for common obesity in many populations with European ancestry. However, the involvement of FTO gene in obesity or T2DM related metabolic traits has not been consistently established in Chinese populations. The objective of this study was to investigate the association of FTO genetic polymorphisms with metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Han Chinese.Methods We tested 41 FTO single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for association between FTO and MetS-related traits. There were a total of 236 unrelated subjects (108 cases and 128 controls), grouped according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria.Results Of the 41 SNPs examined, only SNP rs8047395 exhibited statistical significance (P=0.026) under a recessive model, after Bonferroni adjustment for multiple testing (OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.11-2.42; P=0.014). The common distributions of this polymorphism among Chinese-with a minor allele frequency (MAF) of 36% in the control group versus 48% in the MetS group-greatly improved our test power in a relatively small sample size for an association study. Previously identified obesity-(or T2DM-) associated FTO SNPs were less common in Han Chinese and were not associated with MetS in this study. No significant associations were found between our FTO SNPs and any endophenotypes of MetS.Conclusions A more common risk-conferring variant of FTO for MetS was identified in Han Chinese. Our study substantiated that genetic variations in FTO locus are involved in the pathogenesis of MetS.
Rui Chen; Fu-Kang Luo; Ya-Li Wang; Jin-Liang Tang; You-Sheng Liu
AIM: To explore the associations of polymorphisms of lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP), cluster of differentiation 14 (CD14), toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) with the colorectal carcinoma (CRC) risk in Han Chinese. METHODS: Polymorphisms of LBP (rs1739654, rs2232596, rs2232618), CD14 (rs77083413, rs4914), TLR-4 (rs5030719), IL-6 (rs13306435) and TNF-α (rs35131721) were genotyped in 479 cases of sporadic colorectal carcinoma and 486 healthy controls of Han Chinese in a case-control study. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) between cases and controls were analyzed by unconditional logistic regression. RESULTS: GA and GG genotypes of LBP rs2232596 were associated with a significantly increased risk of CRC [odds ratio (OR) = 1.51, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15-1.99, P = 0.003; OR = 2.49, 95% CI 1.16-5.38, P = 0.016, respectively]. A similar association was also observed for the CG genotype of CD14 rs4914 (OR= 1.69, 95% CI 1.20-2.36, P = 0.002). In addition, a combination of polymorphisms in LBP rs2232596 and CD14 rs4914 led to a 3.4-fold increased risk of CRC (OR = 3.44,95% CI 1.94-6.10, P = 0.000).CONCLUSION: This study highlights the LBP rs2232596 and CD14 rs4914 polymorphisms as biomarkers for elevated CRC susceptibility in the Chinese Han population.
Wang, Wen Yi; Tian, Wei; Liu, Xue Xiang; Li, Li Xin
In this study, exons 2-4 and 3'untranslated region (3'UTR) of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G gene were investigated for 201 and 104 healthy unrelated Han samples recruited from Hunan Province, southern China and central Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, northern China, respectively, using sequence-based typing and cloning methods. Totally 12 HLA-G alleles in the coding region, 9 variable sites in 3'UTR, 8 3'UTR haplotypes and 15 HLA-G extended haplotypes (EHs) incorporating the coding region and 3'UTR were observed. Very strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) was observed between HLA-A and HLA-G, and between HLA-G coding region and 3'UTR in each population (all global P=0.0000). Seven HLA-A-G haplotypes showed significant LD in both populations. Three HLA-G alleles in the coding region, 4 polymorphic sites in the 3'UTR, 3 3'UTR haplotypes and 4 HLA-G EHs differed significantly in their distributions between the 2 Chinese Han populations (all P≤0.0001). There was evidence for balancing selection acting on HLA-G 3'UTR positions +3010, +3142 and +3187 in the two populations. The NJ dendrograms demonstrated the existence of two basic HLA-G lineages and indicated that, HLA-G*01:01:01, the most common HLA-G allele, formed a separate lineage from other alleles. Our results shed new lights into HLA-G genetics among Chinese Han populations. The findings reported here are of importance for future studies related to post-transcriptional regulation of HLA-G allelic expression and the potential role of HLA-G in disease association in populations of Chinese ancestry.
Yang, Yi; Zhang, Ping; Lv, Rong; He, Qiang; Zhu, Yiling; Yang, Xianghong; Chen, Jianghua
To determine whether the main mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups of the Han people are associated with neurological recovery from septic encephalopathy. We studied 137 individuals with septic encephalopathy who were sequentially admitted to the intensive care unit or the emergency intensive care unit at the First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, and the People's Hospital of Zhejiang Province. Demographic and clinical data were recorded along with clinical outcome over 28 days. The Glasgow coma scale (GCS) score was calculated daily until it reached 15 or until the patient died during the 28-day period. Follow-up was completed for all study participants. We then determined the mtDNA haplogroups of the patients by analyzing sequences of hypervariable mtDNA segments and testing diagnostic polymorphisms in the mtDNA coding region with DNA probes. MtDNA haplogroup R, one of the main mtDNA haplogroups of the Han people, was a strong independent predictor of outcome following septic encephalopathy, conferring a 4.053-fold (95% CI 1.803-9.110, p = 0.001) increased chance of neurological recovery within 28 days compared with those with a non-R mtDNA haplogroup. In the Han population, mtDNA haplogroup R is a strong independent predictor of the outcome of septic encephalopathy, conferring an increased chance of neurological recovery compared with individuals with a non-R haplogroup. Our results provide potential insights into the mechanisms involved in septic encephalopathy, and reveal that the mtDNA haplogroup R is an independent predictor of the outcome of septic encephalopathy.
Conde, Juan Luis
Full Text Available Han Feizi (3rd century B.C. is the main representative of the Chinese Legalist school (făjiā. The tenets of this political theory have earned him the nickname “the Chinese Machiavelli”. His ideas were adopted by Qin Shihuang, the so-called First Emperor, who unified China and unleashed a despotic régime characterized by the crackdown of any political debate and the suppression of free speech. The connexion between rhetorical development and the political sphere in the context of Classical China’s last stage may set the scene for a wider discussion about that link. Comparative rhetoric will provide further ground for connexions between classical Chinese Legalist ideas and contemporary Neoliberal discourse.Han Feizi (s. III a.C. es el principal representante de la escuela legista china (făjiā. Los principios de su teoría política le han granjeado el apodo de “el Maquiavelo chino”. Sus ideas serían adoptadas por Qin Shihuang, el Primer Emperador, quien unificó China e impuso un régimen despótico caracterizado por la represión del debate político y la supresión de la libertad de expresión. La conexión entre el desarrollo de la retórica y la situación política en el contexto de la última etapa del clasicismo chino puede servir de fondo para una consideración más amplia de dicho nexo. La retórica comparada proporciona las bases para relacionar el pensamiento legista chino con el discurso neoliberal contemporáneo.
Actualmente la industria de software local se enfrenta a una situación interesante: de una parte se evidencia un auge en la adopción de las prácticas ágiles, que buscan encontrar mejores formas de trabajo de los equipos de desarrollo de software y, de otra parte, algunas de estas industrias, ya han realizado proyectos de mejora de procesos utilizando CMMI como el modelo referente, e incluso algunas de estas compañías cuentan con valoraciones oficiales de madurez en niveles 2, 3 y superiores -...
Minister of National Defence, 2012 © Sa Majesté la Reine (en droit du Canada), telle que représentée par le ministre de la Défense nationale, 2012...HanDles afin qu’il fasse la distinction entre bonnes et mauvaises critiques de film. Nous avons exécuté ce scénario à trois reprises dans le but de...vérifier à quel point il parvient à classifier correctement les documents. Le premier essai portait sur des critiques de l’appareil Kindle d’Amazon
Bo Liang; Chunjun Yang; Xianbo Zuo; Yang Li; Yantao Ding; Yujun Sheng; Fusheng Zhou; Hui Cheng; Xiaodong Zheng; Gang Chen; Zhengwei Zhu; Jun Zhu; Xuhui Fu; Tao Wang; Ying Dong
BACKGROUND: Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is a well-characterized type of progressive hair loss commonly seen in men, with different prevalences in different ethnic populations. It is generally considered to be a polygenic heritable trait. Several susceptibility genes/loci, such as AR/EDA2R, HDAC9 and 20p11, have been identified as being involved in its development in European populations. In this study, we aim to validate whether these loci are also associated with AGA in the Chinese Han popul...
Full Text Available Este artigo destaca a importância de pensar a racionalidade ocidental a partir dacategoria da alteridade e da responsabilidade ética. A razão instrumental colaborousignificativamente para com a profunda crise pela qual passa a nossa racionalidade ocidental.Hans Jonas propõe uma nova ética nesta época em que somos chamados a escolher o nossofuturo. Isso implica refletir sobre a questão do ser (humano e não humano como fim em simesmo, pois somos uma comunidade terrestre com um destino comum.
Objective To investigate association between tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) in Chinese Han population.Methods Plasma concentrations of TNF-α were measured in 61 drug-free patients who fulfilled DSM-Ⅳ criteria for OCD and 93 healthy controls.TNF-α concentrations in blood were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).Two polymorphisms of TNF-α gene were investigated in the same patients and healthy controls:-308 G/A and-238 G/A.The allelic and genoty...
Kihl, Preben; Gregersen, K.; Sterum, N.
Sources contemporary with Danish author Hans Christian Andersen claimed that he did not master the Danish Language, which modern studies interpret as specific dyslexia. A systematic study of his diaries from age 20 to 70 found a mean spelling error percentage of approximately 1.7 (SD=1%, range 0...... and 15 times lower than the mean percentages in studies of individuals with dyslexia. A structural analysis of Andersen's spelling errors shows that they are mainly phonologically plausible from ages 11 to 70, and that the proportion of phonologically plausible/implausible errors match those of normal...... achievers, but not those of individuals with dyslexia....
In the years 1912 and 1913 there occured an epistolary encounter between the founder-father of psychoanalysis and the young Hans Bluher who had been active in the Wandervogel movement, a German youth movement with strong traditionalist and nationalist leanings. Their correspondence centered around the evaluation of male homosexuality, a point on which Freud and Bluher were not in entire agreement. In his introduction Neubauer outlines the intellectual nub of this debate and sketches Bluher's later career and his gradual transformation into a biologistically motivated anti-Semite completely and utterly disowned by Freud.
Full Text Available If the surrealist group has attracted the interest of philosophers, one can also note that some of these artists have attempted to develop their own philosophical reflection. This was the case of Hans Bellmer obsessed with the themes of desire, body and metamorphosis and, through that, with the games of identity and otherness. The anatomy of the image, one of Bellmer’s essential books, also shows the role of the artistic creation in the efforts to illuminate the “enigma of existence”.
Mancilla Muñoz, Mauricio
Se busca mostrar la mutua correspondencia entre experiencia e historicidad en la obra de Hans-Georg Gadamer. La experiencia es entendida como el movimiento fundamental de la existencia histórica, la cual articula las diversas esferas de la acción humana. La experiencia hermenéutica pone de manifiesto que el comprender no puede fundarse en un procedimiento metódico, sino en la forma del existir situado en el mundo. El acto hermenéutico es entendido como un continuo proceso de apropiación, que ...
Lin, Hong-Zin; Pang, Cheng-Yoong; Chen, Shee-Ping; Tsai, Rong-Kung
In this report, we describe a Taiwanese (Han Chinese) family with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy. The family carried a mitochondrial DNA mutation (mtDNA m.14484T>C) associated with spontaneous visual improvement. A 15-year-old boy from this family was diagnosed with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy 6 months after losing his vision. His vision recovered after 8 months of supportive treatment. His mother, older brother, and two sisters also had the same mutation and had previously experienced vision loss. In this family, there was no male predominance.
Yang Zhuo; Xingye Zeng; Dadao Huang; Xuexue Zhou
BACKGROUND: It is of significance for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs),a difference of rank, which exists widely in biology, genetics and other fields.OBJECTIVE: To detect polymorphism sites in exon-4 of p53 gene, promotor of Fas gene and intron-7 of Fas gene of healthy people in Han nationality in Zhejiang province.DESIGN: Simple random sampling.SETTING: Department of Surgery of the 118 Hospital of Chinese PLA.PARTICIPANTS: A total of 80 healthy people in Han nationality were selected from hospitals in Zhejiang province from August 2005 to January 2006. There were 43 males and 37 females aged from 3 to 78 years with the mean age of 39.5 years, and all subjects were consent. DNA which was used in genetic analysis was selected from peripheral venous blood of all subjects and maintained at -20 ℃.METHODS: Polymorphism sites in exon-4 of p53 gene, promotor of Fas gene and intron-7 of Fas gene were detected with directly DNA sequencing technique.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Polymorphism sites in exon-4 of p53 gene, promotor of Fas gene and intron-7 of Fas gene of healthy people in Han nationality in Zhejiang province.RESULTS: A total of 80 samples were involved in the final analysis. SNPs sites were found at the 119th base of exon-4 of p53 gene (the 72nd codon of p53 gene), the 670th base of upper start codon in promotor of Fas gene (Fas-670), and the 995th base of intron-7 of Fas gene, especially SNPs in the 995th base of intron-7 pf Fas gene, I.e. C→A transversion, was a new site.CONCLUSION: One unknown SNPs site is discovered in intron-7 of Fas gene of people in Han nationality in Zhejiang province. This study also proves that the 72nd codon exists in p53 gene and the -670 polymorphism site exists in promotor of Fas gene.
Ya-Fang Chen; Wan-Jin Chen; Xiao-Zhen Lin; Qi-Jie Zhang; Jiang-Ping Cai; Chia-Wei Liou; Ning Wang
Background:Mitochondrial dysfunction is linked to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD).However,the precise role of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variations is obscure.On the other hand,mtDNA haplogroups have been inconsistently reported to modify the risk of PD among different population.Here,we try to explore the relationship between mtDNA haplogroups and sporadic PD in a Han Chinese population.Methods:Nine single-nucleotide polymorphisms,which define the major Asian mtDNA haplogroups (A,B,C,D,F,G),were detected via polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism or denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in 279 sporadic PD patients and 510 matched controls of Han population.Results:Overall,the distribution ofmtDNA haplogroups did not show any significant differences between patients and controls.However,after stratification by age at onset,the frequency of haplogroup B was significantly lower in patients with early-onset PD (EOPD) compared to the controls (odds ratio [OR] =0.225,95％ confidence interval [CI]:0.082-0.619,P =0.004),while other haplogroups did not show significant differences.After stratification by age at examination,among subjects younger than 50 years of age:Haplogroup B also showed a lower frequency in PD cases (OR =0.146,95％ CI:0.030-0.715,P =0.018) while haplogroup D presented a higher risk of PD (OR =3.579,95％ CI:1.112-11.523,P =0.033),other haplogroups also did not show significant differences in the group.Conclusions:Our study indicates that haplogroup B might confer a lower risk for EOPD and people younger than 50 years in Han Chinese,while haplogroup D probably lead a higher risk of PD in people younger than 50 years of age.In brief,particular Asian mtDNA haplogroups likely play a role in the pathogenesis of PD among Han Chinese.
This study is a comparative analysis of the political philosophies of the ancient Chinese thinker Han Fei (ca. 280-233 BC) and the Western Renaissance thinker Niccolò Machiavelli (AD 1469-1527). In the thought of these pioneers of strategic political thought – both notorious for their hardheaded and “realist” approach to political life – the special problems of power maintenance and political stability are focused. The strong focus on these issues in the two thinkers must be seen in the l...
Kihl, Preben; Gregersen, K.; Sterum, N.
Sources contemporary with Danish author Hans Christian Andersen claimed that he did not master the Danish Language, which modern studies interpret as specific dyslexia. A systematic study of his diaries from age 20 to 70 found a mean spelling error percentage of approximately 1.7 (SD=1%, range 0...... and 15 times lower than the mean percentages in studies of individuals with dyslexia. A structural analysis of Andersen's spelling errors shows that they are mainly phonologically plausible from ages 11 to 70, and that the proportion of phonologically plausible/implausible errors match those of normal...... achievers, but not those of individuals with dyslexia....
Full Text Available Quand il entreprend de traduire l’ensemble du corpus Bouvard et Pécuchet, Hans-Horst Henschen est déjà un traducteur reconnu. Ses traductions et/ou éditions de Barthes, Lévi-Strauss, Lyotard, Althusser, Michel Serres ou Jean Starobinski font de lui en Allemagne un relais important de la pensée française. Et à ces traductions d’auteurs ou de courants critiques, s’ajoutent celles qui s’y rattachent par raccroc ; celles qui semblent au contraire quitter les champs de l’anthropologie, de la psych...
Christopher Nolan’s caped crusader trilogy—Batman Begins, The Dark Knight, and The Dark Knight Rises—is considered by many to be one of the finest translations of comic book characters to the big screen. The second film in the series, The Dark Knight, was both a critical and commercial success, featuring an Oscar-winning performance by Heath Ledger as the Joker. The score—by Academy Award winner Hans Zimmer and eight-time Oscar nominee James Newton Howard—also received accolades, including a ...
and J. D. Knapton, BRL, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 1000 Break 1020 "Quantitative Analysis of HAN-Based Liquid Propellants" by Dr. H. J. de Greiff ...Backof Dr. H. Joachin de Greiff 0721-4640-382 0721-4640-321 Rolf Hausen 0721-4640- 170 Fraunhofer- Institut-fuer K-urzzeitd3namik Ernst- Mach...6106 Ron Sasse’ Leon Decker (301) 278-6172 (301) 278-6167 Andrez Miziokel Wm F. McBratney (301) 278-6157 (301) 278-6171 227 I 4 228 DISTRIBUTION LIST No
García-Sancho, Miguel; González-Silva, Matiana; Jesús Santesmases, María; Rheinberger, Hans-Jörg
Historical epistemology, according to the historian of science Hans-Jörg Rheinberger, is a space through which "to take experimental laboratory work into the realm of philosophy". This key concept, together with the crucial events and challenges of his career, were discussed in a public conversation which took place on the occasion of Rheinberger's retirement. By making sense of natural phenomena in the laboratory, the act of experimenting shapes the object; it is this shaping which became the core of Rheinberger's own research across biology and philosophy into history. For his intellectual agenda, a history of the life sciences so constructed became "epistemologically demanding".
Full Text Available Although rooted in the work of the T’ang poet Han-shan, this paper is ultimately about the ways in which writers and artists engage with what they experience in the world. The work of filmmaker Trin T Minh-Ha, poems by W.S. Merwin, Burtin Watson’s translations, and the thoughts on the creative process of translation by Tony Barnstone and Gary Snyder have all informed my work as an artist and the images I present here.
The first-person and the third-person narrative angles are applied in the narrative poems in Han Music Collection. The different narrative angle produces the different aesthetic effect.%汉乐府叙事诗所采用的叙事角度多为第一人称及第三人称叙事视角,也有不少作品根据情节设置的需要转换视角,不同的叙事角度产生不同的审美效果。
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Moyamoya disease (MMD is an uncommon cerebrovascular disorder characterized by progressive occlusion of the internal carotid artery causing cerebral ischemia and hemorrhage. Genetic factors in the etiology and pathogenesis of MMD are being increasingly recognized. Previous studies have shown that the RNF213 gene was related to MMD susceptibility in the Japanese population. However, there is no large scale study of the association between this gene and MMD in the Chinese Han population. Thus we designed this case-control study to validate the R4810K mutation and to define the further spectrum of RNF213 mutations in Han Chinese. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Genotyping of the R4810K mutation in the RNF213 gene was performed in 170 MMD cases and 507 controls from a Chinese Han population. The R4810K mutation was identified in 22 of 170 MMD cases (13%, including 21 heterozygotes and a single familial homozygote. Two of the 507 controls (0.4% were heterozygous R4810K carriers. The R4810K mutation greatly increased the risk for MMD (OR = 36.7, 95% CI: 8.6~156.6, P = 6.1 E-15. The allele frequency of R4810K was significantly different between patients with ischemia and hemorrhage (OR = 5.4, 95% CI: 1.8~16.1, P = 0.001. Genomic sequencing covering RNF213 exon 40 to exon 68 also identified eight other non-R4810K variants; P4007R, Q4367L, A4399T, T4586P, L4631V, E4950D, A5021V and M5136I. Among them A4399T polymorphism was found in 28/170 cases (16.5% and 45/507 controls (8.9% and was associated with MMD (OR = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.2~3.3, P = 0.004, especially with hemorrhage (OR = 2.8, 95% CI: 1.2~6.5, P = 0.014. CONCLUSIONS: RNF213 mutations are associated with MMD susceptibility in Han Chinese. The ischemic type MMD is particularly related to the R4810K mutation. However, A4399T is also a susceptible variant for MMD, primarily associated with hemorrhage. Identification of novel variants in the RNF213 gene further highlights the genetic
Zhao, Yong-Bin; Zhang, Ye; Zhang, Quan-Chao; Li, Hong-Jie; Cui, Ying-Qiu; Xu, Zhi; Jin, Li; Zhou, Hui; Zhu, Hong
The Han Chinese are the largest ethnic group in the world, and their origins, development, and expansion are complex. Many genetic studies have shown that Han Chinese can be divided into two distinct groups: northern Han Chinese and southern Han Chinese. The genetic history of the southern Han Chinese has been well studied. However, the genetic history of the northern Han Chinese is still obscure. In order to gain insight into the genetic history of the northern Han Chinese, 89 human remains were sampled from the Hengbei site which is located in the Central Plain and dates back to a key transitional period during the rise of the Han Chinese (approximately 3,000 years ago). We used 64 authentic mtDNA data obtained in this study, 27 Y chromosome SNP data profiles from previously studied Hengbei samples, and genetic datasets of the current Chinese populations and two ancient northern Chinese populations to analyze the relationship between the ancient people of Hengbei and present-day northern Han Chinese. We used a wide range of population genetic analyses, including principal component analyses, shared mtDNA haplotype analyses, and geographic mapping of maternal genetic distances. The results show that the ancient people of Hengbei bore a strong genetic resemblance to present-day northern Han Chinese and were genetically distinct from other present-day Chinese populations and two ancient populations. These findings suggest that the genetic structure of northern Han Chinese was already shaped 3,000 years ago in the Central Plain area.
Pu Fang; Wenyuan Xu; Chengsi Wu; Min Zhu; Xiaobing Li; Daojun Hong
A previous study of European Caucasian patients with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis demonstrated that a polymorphism in the microtubule-associated protein Tau (MAPT) gene was significantly associated with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis pathogenesis. Here, we tested this association in 107 sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients and 100 healthy controls from the Chinese Han population. We screened the mutation-susceptible regions of MAPT-the 3′and 5′untranslated regions as wel as introns 9, 10, 11, and 12-by direct sequencing, and identified 33 genetic variations. Two of these, 105788 A>G in intron 9 and 123972 T>A in intron 11, were not present in the control group. The age of onset in patients with the 105788 A>G and/or the 123972 T>A variant was younger than that in patients without either genetic variation. Moreover, the pa-tients with a genetic variation were more prone to bulbar palsy and breathing difficulties than those with the wild-type genotype. This led to a shorter survival period in patients with a MAPT genetic variant. Our study suggests that the MAPT gene is a potential risk gene for sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in the Chinese Han population.
胡瑞成; 徐永健; 张珍祥; 倪望; 陈士新
Background Inherited factors are involved in the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study was designed to investigate the relationship between polymorphisms of HDEFB1 668 C/G and 1654G/A loci and susceptibility to COPD in Chinese Han population.Methods After the process of extracting genomic DNA from peripheral blood of COPD smokers and healthy smokers, the loci of genotypes 668C/G and 1654G/A were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism analysis. Results With respect to HDEFB1 668 locus, the occurences of CC, CG, GG genotypes were 72.7%, 25.0%, 2.3% in COPD smokers and 53.2%, 38.3%, 8.5% in healthy smokers (P<0.05, respectively). The allele frequencies of 668 C and 668G were 85.2% and 14.8% in COPD smokers and 72.3% and 27.7% in healthy smokers (P<0.01, respectively, odds ratio was 2.32 with 95% confidence interval 1.37 to 3.72). As to HDEFB1 1654G/A locus, neither genotype distribution difference nor allele distribution difference was found when comparing COPD smokers with healthy smokers. Conclusion The polymorphism of HDEFB1 668C/G is associated with susceptibility to COPD in Chinese Han population; furthermore, the 668G allele represents relatively lower susceptibility to COPD.
Ding, Yipeng; Xu, Heping; Yao, Jinjian; Xu, Dongchuan; He, Ping; Yi, Shengyang; Li, Quanni; Liu, Yuanshui; Wu, Cibing; Tian, Zhongjie
Objective We investigated the association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms in regulation of telomere elongation helicase 1 (RTEL1), which has been associated with telomere length in several brain cancers and age-related diseases, and the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in a Chinese Han population. Methods In a case–control study that included 279 COPD cases and 290 healthy controls, five single-nucleotide polymorphisms in RTEL1 were selected and genotyped using the Sequenom MassARRAY platform. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using unconditional logistic regression after adjusting for age and gender. Results In the genotype model analysis, we determined that rs4809324 polymorphism had a decreased effect on the risk of COPD (CC versus TT: OR =0.28; 95% CI =0.10–0.82; P=0.02). In the genetic model analysis, we found that the “C/C” genotype of rs4809324 was associated with a decreased risk of COPD based on the codominant model (OR =0.33; 95% CI =0.13–0.86; P=0.022) and recessive model (OR =0.32; 95% CI =0.12–0.80; P=0.009). Conclusion Our data shed new light on the association between genetic polymorphisms of RTEL1 and COPD susceptibility in the Chinese Han population.
Yang, W Q
Previous studies have shown that cytokines can affect serum lipoprotein concentrations. The aim of this study was to examine the association between IL-10 gene polymorphisms and serum lipoprotein levels of Han Chinese individuals. A total of 359 Han Chinese people were enrolled in this investigation. IL-10 -592, -819, and -1082 genotypes were established using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. An automatic biochemistry analyzer was used to determine serum concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) in each individual. We observed that the three IL-10 polymorphisms did not significantly differ in terms of age or age of carrier (P > 0.05), and the -592 and -819 variants did not significantly affect serum lipoprotein levels (P > 0.05). HDL concentrations were higher and TG levels were lower in carriers of the -1082 GA genotype compared to those with the AA genotype, and these differences were statistically significant (P 0.05). Our results suggest that the polymorphism at position -1082 in the promoter region of IL-10 may affect serum HDL and TG concentrations, while other variants of this gene appear to have no relationship with serum lipoprotein levels.
Li, Jun; You, Yang; Yue, Weihua; Yu, Hao; Lu, Tianlan; Wu, Zhiliu; Jia, Meixiang; Ruan, Yanyan; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Dai; Wang, Lifang
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a group of severe neurodevelopmental disorders. Epigenetic factors play a critical role in the etiology of ASD. Enhancer of zest homolog 2 (EZH2), which encodes a histone methyltransferase, plays an important role in the process of chromatin remodeling during neurodevelopment. Further, EZH2 is located in chromosome 7q35-36, which is one of the linkage regions for autism. However, the genetic relationship between autism and EZH2 remains unclear. To investigate the association between EZH2 and autism in Chinese Han population, we performed a family-based association study between autism and three tagged single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that covered 95.4% of the whole region of EZH2. In the discovery cohort of 239 trios, two SNPs (rs740949 and rs6464926) showed a significant association with autism. To decrease false positive results, we expanded the sample size to 427 trios. A SNP (rs6464926) was significantly associated with autism even after Bonferroni correction (p=0.008). Haplotype G-T (rs740949 and rs6464926) was a risk factor for autism (Z=2.655, p=0.008, Global p=0.024). In silico function prediction for SNPs indicated that these two SNPs might be regulatory SNPs. Expression pattern of EZH2 showed that it is highly expressed in human embryonic brains. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that EZH2 might contribute to the genetic etiology of autism in Chinese Han population.
In 1931 two pharmaceutical drawers containing mineral specimens, belonging to Sir Hans Sloane, the 18th century collector, Royal Physician, President of the Royal Society and of the Royal College of Physicians of London, were found in the Department of Botany of the Natural History Museum (NHM) of London. The drawers, each divided into 49 compartments, contained a total of 107 mineral pharmaceutical specimens, some labelled as mercury or white arsenic. Their registration, identification with the Sloane Manuscript Catalogues and subsequent transfer to the Mineralogy department of the NHM where one of these drawers is now on public display, had been documented by 1935. In antiquity therapeutic empiricism attributed medicinal properties to animal products, plants and minerals, including the soil of specific geographic locations. This communication traces the medicinal use of certain earths and minerals, listed in Sir Hans Sloane's manuscript catalogues, to classical antiquity with a reference to Arsenic compounds, which in our time are finding application in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukaemia and to Terra Lemnia, a celebrated antidote of repute spanning twenty centuries, also included in the Sloane collections.
Modern criminology--if one wants to consider it a separate scientific discipline at all--is usually perceived as being mainly influenced by the methods of natural sciences supplemented by components from the field of psychology, which, at least in some of its conceptions, tends to define itself as a natural science, too. If we take a look at the history of science, we will see development of criminology in this direction was not necessarily inevitable. The scientific work of the Austrian Hans Gross (1847-1915), one of the founding fathers of scientific criminology, serves as an example of the way how natural sciences and their exact methods became established in the methodological apparatus of modern criminology, although in praxi his claim for the application of exact methods was all too often replaced by irrational and intuitive ways of working. Still, Hans Gross' fundamental decision for the exact methods derived from the natural sciences is an important step towards a criminology that can be understood as a part of natural sciences, largely superseding the methods of cultural sciences and anthropological philosophy. This approach made the (criminal) human being an object of measurement and can result in the concept of man as a mere phenomenon of quantity. This is, on the one hand, ethically questionable; on the other hand, it made modern criminology more efficient and successful.
Bram de Klerck
Full Text Available Bronzino e il porcellino: Hans Christian Andersen e Stendhal nella Firenze del XIX secoloLa storia dell’arte dell’Ottocento non sembra aver avuto particolarmente a cuore gli artisti italiani delle generazioni successive ai grandi maestri rinascimentali, quali Raffaello e Michelangelo. Così, ad esempio, lo stile delle opere del pittore fiorentino Agnolo Bronzino (1503-1572 veniva giudicato con termini alquanto ostici come ‘vuoto’, ‘offensivo’, o come il risultato di ‘pedanteria anatomica’. Autori con meno preoccupazioni determinate dalla storia dell'arte lasciano tuttavia intravedere di aver apprezzato altre caratteristiche di questi artisti. Almeno gli scritti di un poeta ed un romanziere, ambedue grandi amatori dell’Italia e di firenze, rivelano una valutazione sorprendentemente diversa di un’importante opera del pittore, la sua Discesa di Cristo al Limbo del 1552. Si tratta di Hans Christian Andersen e di Stendhal. Questo contributo alla ricezione dello stile ‘manierista’ del quadro sulla Discesa al Limbo del Bronzino prende in esame sia la critica d’arte del XIX secolo che il modo con cui l’opera è stata trattata dall’immaginazione letteraria, così come risulta dal racconto di Andersen intitolato Il porcellino di bronzo e dal resoconto originale delle esperienze di Stendhal a Firenze, considerate poi come i sintomi della ‘sindrome’ che porta il suo nome.
ZUO Peng-xiang; WU Han-rong; LI Zeng-chun; CAO Xu-dong; PANG Li-juan; YANG Lan; LIU Fan; ZHAO Feng
Background Genetic association studies on populations of European origin have identified the DCDC2 gene as a susceptibility locus for developmental dyslexia.Here,we sought to investigate the association of DCDC2 polymorphisms with developmental dyslexia in children of Han Chinese origin.Methods We undertook a case-control genetic association study on 76 dyslexic children and 79 non-dyslexic matched controls.We isolated DNA from oral mucosal cell samples and genotyped two DCDC2 coding-sequence single nucleotide polymorphisms,rs2274305 and rs6456593,in each sample using SNaPshot single nucleotide extension.We compared the allele and genotype frequencies between the groups using the X2 test and analyzed the relationship between dyslexia and the polymorphism at both loci using unconditional logistic regression.We also predicted haplotypes and compared their frequencies between the two groups.Results The differences in the genotype distribution and the allelic genes of the two single nucleotide luci of the DCDC2 gene,rs2274305 and rs6456593,between the two dyslexic and non-dyslexic groups were statistically meaningless (P ＞0.05).The differences in the haplotype distributions of the DCDC2 gene between the dyslexic and normal group were statistically meaningless (P ＞0.05).Conclusion The DCDC2 gene may not be a susceptibility factor for developmental dyslexia among the Han Chinese.However,methodological issues may have prevented the detection of oositive associations.
Zhang, Chan; Ding, Heng; Cheng, Yujing; Chen, Wanlu; Li, Qi; Li, Qing; Dai, Run; Luo, Manlin
We investigated the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ALDH2, which has been associated with alcohol dependence and several types of diseases, and the risk of drug addiction in a Chinese Han population. In a case-control study that included 692 cases and 700 healthy controls, eight SNPs in ALDH2 were selected and genotyped using the Sequenom MassARRAY platform. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using unconditional logistic regression after adjusting for age and gender. We determined that rs671 is significantly associated with a 1.551-fold increased drug addiction risk (95% CI = 1.263-1.903; p drug addiction under additive, dominant and recessive models (p drug addiction risk under additive and recessive model, respectively (p drug addiction risk (OR = 1.668; 95% CI, 1.328-2.094, p drug addiction risk (OR = 0.444; 95% CI, 0.281-0.704, p drug addiction in the Chinese Han population.
The Han Dynasty market was a very prosperous integrated market which consisted with va-rious specialized markets ,like horse market ,book market ,wine market ,and so on .These markets were stared spontaneously ,while on the contrary ,the city markets were always under the construction planning with column and square shape .Both of these two were reflected on the prosperous market development of the Han Dynasty .It also reflected the idea of physiocracy about the trade .%汉代集市贸易繁荣，有马市、书市、酒市等专业性的市场。这些集市多自发形成，城市集市则多经人为规划建设。城市集市都是方形，市列纵横。这反映了汉代集市贸易的繁荣和汉代“重农抑商”理念对贸易的阻碍。
Zhi-Hua Li; Jie Han; Yu-Fei Wang; Jun Dai; Hui Zhang; Chun-Xia Li; Qun Ma
Objective:The interleukin-23 receptor (IL-23R) has been shown to be associated with autoimmune diseases in many different populations.This study aimed to investigate the association between IL-23R gene polymorphism and susceptibility to Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) in Chinese Han population of Shandong.Methods:A case-control cohort study was performed in 145 HT patients from First People's Hospital of Jining between February 2010 to October 2013 and 150 healthy controls.Two single nucleotide polymorphisms located in the promoter region ofIL-23R gene (rs 17375018 and rs7517847) were examined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was performed using the Chi-square test.Genotype frequencies were estimated by direct counting,and allele and genotype frequencies between patients and controls were analyzed by the Chi-square test.Results:The rs 17375018 GG genotype and the G allele were significantly increased in HT patients compared with healthy controls (P =0.034 and P =0.013,respectively).No association was identified between HT patients and healthy controls in rs7517847.Conclusion:The study demonstrated that polymorphism of IL-23R gene rs17375018 is highly associated with HT in Chinese Han population of Shandong,suggesting that IL-23R gene polymorphism (rs 17375018 G) may play a critical role in susceptibility to HT.
Wang, Hui-Fu; Tan, Lan; Yu, Jin-Tai; Ma, Xiao-Ying; Liu, Qiu-Yan; Wang, Wei
Genetic factors play an important role in the Alzheimer's disease (AD) development and memory impairment is a cardinal clinical feature of AD. Kidney and brain expressed protein (KIBRA), owing to its connection with human episodic memory, became an interesting candidate gene for AD. Recently, KIBRA (rs17070145) was reported to be associated with AD in the genetic and functional levels in Caucasian and African-American, and the association might be different across age groups. To investigate the possibility of age-dependent association of KIBRA with AD in Asian, we conducted an independent replication study in a cohort of 1,586 subjects from Han Chinese (including 790 LOAD patients and 796 healthy controls). The results revealed no significant differences in the distributions of genotype or allele between LOAD and control groups in the total sample. However, when these data were stratified by their age, we observed a significant difference in the genotypes and alleles frequencies (genotype: p = 0.004, allele: p = 0.035) in the young subgroup. Moreover, the association was further demonstrated in logistic regression analysis (rs17070145: p = 0.045, OR = 0.428). Our data suggested that KIBRA might associate with younger AD patients (≤74 years) in a Northern Han Chinese population.
Mingcheng WANG; Enzhong LI; Gailing WANG
The present work aimed to investigate the microscopic and ultramicro-scopic structure of the liver to assess the level of hepatic impairment during preg-nancy toxemia. Seven pregnant smal-tailed Han sheep of negative urine ketone bodies were assessed in this study. Toxemia was induced by limiting food and movement late in pregnancy. Three sheep developed obvious clinical symptoms with motor weakness, depression, anorexia, locomotion disturbances, blindness and lan-guishment. We harvested their liver tissues as pathological material, and used rou-tine histological and electronic microscopy methods to observe the histopathological changes in smal-tailed Han sheep induced by pregnancy toxemia. Autopsy of the livers of the sheep revealed deep yel ow coloration, intumescence and hemorrhage on the surface. Microstructural features indicated fatty degeneration, which is a main characteristic of fatty liver. Hepatocel ular ultrastructural changes were observed un-der an electronic microscope. The characteristic findings were nucleolus concentra-tion, vacuolation of mitochondria and excessive glycogen granules in the cytoplasm. Via this experimental protocol, pregnancy toxemia of sheep was successful y in-duced, providing a pathological model for the study of this disease. After the experi-mental induction of pregnancy toxemia, the clinical symptoms of pathogenic sheep and pathological changes to their livers exhibited obvious characteristics of pregnan-cy toxemia.
Yin, Caiyong; Hu, Li; Huang, Huijie; Yu, Yanfang; Li, Zheng; Ji, Qiang; Kong, Xiaochao; Wang, Zhongqun; Yan, Jinchuan; Yan, Jiangwei; Zhu, Bofeng; Chen, Feng
Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor genes, namely KIRs, cluster together within the 160 kb genomic DNA region. In this study, we used PCR-SSP approach and successfully identified the genotype of 17 KIR genes in 123 independent healthy donors residing in the Jiangsu province, China. All individuals were positive at the 7 genes. The observed carrier gene frequencies (OFs) of remaining 10 KIRs ranged from 14.63% (KIR2DS3) to 95.93% (KIR3DL1). We found 27 distinct genotypes excluding KIR1D. The most frequent occurred in 63 individuals (51.22%). The linkage disequilibrium analysis signified 29 positive and 6 negative relations in 45 pairwise comparisons. To study population differentiation, we drew a Heatmap based on the data of KIRs from 59 populations and conducted Hierarchical Clustering by Euclidean distances. We next validated our results by estimating pairwise DA distances and illustrating a Neighbor-Joining tree, as well as a MDS plot covering 3 additional Chinese Han groups. The phylogenetic reconstruction and cluster analysis strongly indicated a genetically close relationship between Eastern and Jilin Hans. In conclusion, the present study provided a meritorious resource of KIR genotyping for population genetics, and could be helpful to uncover the genetic mechanism of KIRs in immune disease in the future. PMID:28205529
Yin, Caiyong; Hu, Li; Huang, Huijie; Yu, Yanfang; Li, Zheng; Ji, Qiang; Kong, Xiaochao; Wang, Zhongqun; Yan, Jinchuan; Yan, Jiangwei; Zhu, Bofeng; Chen, Feng
Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor genes, namely KIRs, cluster together within the 160 kb genomic DNA region. In this study, we used PCR-SSP approach and successfully identified the genotype of 17 KIR genes in 123 independent healthy donors residing in the Jiangsu province, China. All individuals were positive at the 7 genes. The observed carrier gene frequencies (OFs) of remaining 10 KIRs ranged from 14.63% (KIR2DS3) to 95.93% (KIR3DL1). We found 27 distinct genotypes excluding KIR1D. The most frequent occurred in 63 individuals (51.22%). The linkage disequilibrium analysis signified 29 positive and 6 negative relations in 45 pairwise comparisons. To study population differentiation, we drew a Heatmap based on the data of KIRs from 59 populations and conducted Hierarchical Clustering by Euclidean distances. We next validated our results by estimating pairwise DA distances and illustrating a Neighbor-Joining tree, as well as a MDS plot covering 3 additional Chinese Han groups. The phylogenetic reconstruction and cluster analysis strongly indicated a genetically close relationship between Eastern and Jilin Hans. In conclusion, the present study provided a meritorious resource of KIR genotyping for population genetics, and could be helpful to uncover the genetic mechanism of KIRs in immune disease in the future.
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Reelin gene (RELN) are likely candidates to confer risk for autism. The objective of the present study is to investigate the association of RELN gene SNPs with autism. A total of 367 Chinese Han subjects were recruited, including 186 autism patients and 181 unrelated healthy controls. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and DNA sequencing methods were used to detect RELN gene polymorphisms. The association between SNPs and autism was analyzed in this study. The g.333509A>C in intron12 and g.504742G>A in exon60 were detected in the RELN gene and a significant association was found between the g.504742G>A polymorphism and autism. Allele and genotype frequencies for the g.504742G>A polymorphism in autistic patients were significantly different for healthy subjects. There was no significantly difference in g.333509A>C polymorphism and autism in the studied populations. Our findings indicated that g.333509A>C was not significantly associated with autism. The g.504742G>A polymorphic variant in the RELN gene might affect subjects susceptibility toward autism in Chinese Han population.
Li, S M; Guo, H; Yang, H J; Lv, M Q; Zhou, D X
Osteoporosis is a common disease characterized by low bone mineral density, deterioration in bone microarchitecture, and increased fracture risk and is more prevalent in postmenopausal women. HLA is a complex gene family; previous studies have shown that it plays an important role in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis among Japanese and Greek populations. Prompted by these findings, this study was designed to explore the associations between HLA-A gene polymorphisms and postmenopausal osteoporosis in the Han Chinese population. The polymerase chain reaction-sequence-based typing method was used for DNA genotyping at the HLA-A locus in 70 patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis and 73 healthy controls. We identified 17 HLA-A alleles in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis and 20 HLA-A alleles in control subjects. Furthermore, we found that the frequency of the HLA-A* 02:07 allele was significantly higher in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis than in control subjects (P = 0.023), and the relative risk was 4.065 (95% confidence interval = 1.109-14.893). Our study provides supportive evidence for the contribution of HLA-A gene polymorphisms to the susceptibility to postmenopausal osteoporosis and suggests that HLA-A* 02:07 is likely an important genetic risk factor for postmenopausal osteoporosis in the Han Chinese population.
Li, S-M; Zhou, D-X; Liu, M-Y
Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disease, which is more prevalent in postmenopausal women. Osteoporosis likely develops beginning with genetic risk. This study explored the relationships between polymorphisms of HLA-B gene and postmenopausal osteoporosis in a Chinese Han population. Polymerase chain reaction sequence-based typing (PCR-SBT) method was used for DNA typing at HLA-B locus in 70 patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis and 73 healthy controls in female Han population of Shaanxi Province, situated in north-western China. We found that 40 HLA-B alleles in postmenopausal osteoporosis patients and control subjects, respectively. Furthermore, the frequency of HLA-B* 3501 allele was significantly higher in postmenopausal osteoporosis patients than in the control group (P = 0.033), and the relative risk was 7.632 (95% CI: 0.927-62.850). Our results suggest that HLA-B* 3501 was likely an important risk factor for postmenopausal osteoporosis. As different populations have different HLA polymorphisms, further investigation of the relationship of various HLA genes and osteoporosis with larger sample size is still necessary in the future.
Yue-ping XU; Sheng-ji LIN; Yan HUANG; Qin-qing ZHANG; Qi-hua RAN
Regional drought analysis provides useful information for sustainable water resources management. In this paper, a standardized precipitation index (SPI) at multiple time scales was used to investigate the spatial patterns and trends of drought in the Han River Basin, one of the largest tributaries of Yangtze River, China. It was found that, in terms of drought severity, the upper basin of the Hart River is the least, while the growing trend is the most conspicuous; a less conspicuous growing trend can be observed in the middle basin; and there is an insignificant decreasing trend in the lower basin. Meanwhile, the impact of drought on the Middle Route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project was investigated, and it is suggested that water intake must be reduced in times of drought, particularly when successive or simultaneous droughts in the upper and middle basins of the Han River Basin occur. The results can provide substantial information for future water allocation schemes of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project.
Chunshu Rong; Yingqi Xing; Xinmei Jiang; Juan Wang; Baoshan Gao; Jianjun Zhao; Kangding Liu
The angiotensin-converting enzyme gene is a candidate gene of stroke. The present study involved 62 healthy volunteers and 148 patients with middle cerebral artery stenosis as confirmed by brain color ultrasound from a Han population in North China, and determined the peripheral blood angiotensin-converting enzyme genotype using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The results showed that the frequencies of the DD genotype and D allele were increased in patients with middle cerebral artery stenosis, but the difference was not statistically significant compared with healthy controls. The findings of this study on the relationship between stroke genes and middle cerebral artery stenosis indicate no significant correlation between the frequencies of the DD genotype and D allele of angiotensin-converting enzyme and middle cerebral artery stenosis in this Han population from North China. In the future, studies will be carried out to investigate correlations between multiple stroke candidate gene synergy and middle cerebral artery stenosis to provide a foundation for the development of gene therapy.
Shuangding Li; Chunxia Yan; Yajun Deng; Ruilin Wang; Jian Wang; Huanming Yang; Shengbin Li
Nine short tandem repeat (STR) markers (D3S1358, VWA, FGA, THO1, TPOX,CSFIPO, D5S818, D13S317, and D7S820) and a sex-identification marker (Amel-ogenin locus) were amplified with multiplex PCR and were genotyped with afour-color fluorescence method in samples from 174 unrelated Han individuals inNorth China. The allele frequencies, genotype frequencies, heterozygosity, prob-ability of discrimination powers, probability of paternity exclusion and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium expectations were determined. The results demonstratedthat the genotypes at all these STR loci in Han population conform to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium expectations. The combined discrimination power (DP) was1.05 × 10-10 within nine STR loci analyzed and the probability of paternity exclusion(EPP) was 0.9998. The results indicate that these nine STR loci and the Amelo-genin locus are useful markers for human identification, paternity and maternitytesting and sex determination in forensic sciences.
Huang, Chong-Ya; Xun, Xiao-Jie; Wang, A-Jing; Gao, Ya; Ma, Jing-Yuan; Chen, Yuan-Tang; Jin, Tian-Bo; Hou, Peng; Gu, Shan-Zhi
Lung cancer is the most frequent cancer among men in many countries. It is the result of interactions between genetic and environmental factors, among which tobacco smoking is a key environmental factor. CHRNA5, Cholinergic Receptor, Neuronal Nicotinic, Alpha Polypeptide-5, was previously reported to be associated with lung cancer risk. To identify the genetic susceptibility and tobacco smoking that influence lung cancer risk in Han population, we performed a case-control study in 228 patients and 301 controls. These data were compared using the χ2-test, genetic model analysis, and haplotype analysis. rs495956, rs680244, rs601079, rs555018, 588765 and rs11637635 showed an increased risk of lung cancer in both allelic model and genetic mode analysis. The genotype G/A-A/A of rs11637635 was most strongly associated with a 2.17-fold increased risk of lung cancer in dominant model (p = 0.018). One SNP, rs684513, was associated with a 0.645-fold decreased risk (p = 0.033) in allelic model analysis. By haplotype association analysis, haplotype sequences CTTATCAAAGA and GA of CHRNA5 were found to be associated with a 2.03-fold and 1.91-fold increased lung cancer risk (p < 0.05). Our results, combined with those from previous studies, suggest that genetic variation in CHRNA5 may influence susceptibility to lung cancer among Han smokers. PMID:26693074
CAO Shang; LUO Peng-fei; LI Wei; TANG Wan-qin; CONG Xiao-na; WEI Ping-min
Background In epidemiological studies,tuberculosis (TB) appears intimately with vitamin D insufficiency whereas its relationship with vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphism caused by radical difference remains unspecified.This study aimed to investigate the relationship between vitamin D genetic polymorphism and tuberculosis in Han ethnic group.Methods Meta-analysis was adopted in the synthetic quantitative analysis of documents home and abroad on the relationship between vitamin D genetic polymorphisms and tuberculosis,which were openly published during June 2000 to January 2010.Random effect model and fixed effect model analyses were used to calculate the incorporated odds ratio (OR) based on the heterogeneity test data.Results A total of 6 eligible studies were included in this analysis.The Fokl-ff genotype showed a significant marginal association (Fixed effect model:OR 1.91,95％ CI 1.44-2.52; Random effect model:OR 1.91,95％ CI 0.94-3.88),yet Taql polymorphisms was not significantly related to TB.Conclusion The interaction between FoKI genotype polymorphism and TB observed demonstrates that vitamin D deficiency might exist as a risk factor during the development of TB in Han ethnic group and more evidences needed to validate the conclusion.
Xiuyan, Ruan; Weini, Wang; Yaran, Yang; Bingbing, Xie; Jing, Chen; Yacheng, Liu; Jiangwei, Yan
In this study, we studied the genetic polymorphisms of short tandem repeat (STR) loci from 13 CODIS and 26 non-CODIS system in Beijing Han population for the first time, and established a database of 39 STR loci whose forensic parameters were further evaluated. Our results demonstrated no significant deviation from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium of 39 STR loci and no pairwise linkage disequilibrium between them. The power of discriminations, expected heterozygosity, polymorphic information content, and power of exclusion of 39 STR loci ranged from 0.7740-0.9818, 0.6000-0.9350, 0.5317-0.9047 and 0.2909-0.8673. The cumulated discrimination power and cumulative probability of exclusion were 0.999999999999999999999999999999999999999964971 and 0.999999999973878, respectively. Moreover, the genetic distance was calculated based on allele frequency and phylogenetic tree was built using STR loci data from Beijing Han and other 11 Chinese ethnic groups.This study provides important basic data for Chinese forensic DNA database and population genetics database, and has important significance in carrying out forensic individual identification, paternity testing, and population genetic study.
Full Text Available Adiponectin secreted by adipose tissue has been implicated in prostate carcinogenesis. Genetic variations in ADIPOQ are thought to influence the activity of adiponectin, thus relating to cancer occurrence. In this hospital-based case-control study of 917 prostate cancer (PCa cases and 1036 cancer-free controls, we evaluated the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in ADIPOQ with risk of PCa and adiponectin levels in Chinese Han men. Variants of ADIPOQ were genotyped by Taqman polymerase chain reaction method. The plasma adiponectin concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA in a subset of cases and controls. We found that the ADIPOQ rs3774262 variant AA genotype was associated with both decreased PCa risk [adjusted odds ratio (OR: 0.66, 95% confidence interval (CI =0.48-0.92] and increased plasma adiponectin levels (P = 0.036 and 0.043, with significant difference by tumor grade, clinical stage, and aggressiveness. A significant interaction between ADIPOQ rs3774262 and body mass index was observed in modifying the risk of PCa (P = 6.7 × 10−3 . ADIPOQ rs266729 and rs182052 were not related to PCa risk or plasma adiponectin levels. Our data support that ADIPOQ rs3774262 may affect PCa risk in combination with plasma adiponectin levels in Chinese Han men. It may contribute to the molecular basis for the association between obesity and PCa.
SHEN Lei; LI Zhong-zhi; SHEN A-dong; LIU Hui; BAI Song; GUO Jian; YUAN Feng
Background Congenital heart disease (CHD) is a diverse group of diseases determined by genetic and environmental factors.Considerable research has been done on genes associated with the development of the heart.Recently,focus is on the role of transcription factor NFATc1 in the development of proper valve and septa.As part of a larger study,high density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) scanning was used to explore the relationship between NFATc1 gene polymorphism and susceptibility to ventricular septal defect (VSD) in the Chinese Han population.Methods One hundred and ninety-two pediatric patients with congenital VSD and 192 matching healthy control subjects were studied.The haplotype reconstructions were calculated by PHASE2.0 software.Haploview software was used to perform linkage disequilibrium assessment and define haplotype blocks.The algorithm used for defining the blocks was the confidence interval method.Results The NFATc1 gene region can be divided into 11 haplotype blocks.Strong linkage disequilibrium existed within blocks 6,8,9,and 11.Three SNPs (rs7240256,rs11665469,and rs754505) within the NFATc1 gene had significant correlation with VSD by single marker association analysis.In addition,two haplotypes correlated with VSD.Conclusions NFATc1 is associated with the occurrence of VSD and it may be a predisposing gene to CHD in Han Chinese.This finding has set a direction for further genetic and functional studies.
YANG Shan-shan; TENG Da; YOU Ding-yun; SU Zhi-qiang; LI Fang; ZHAO Ji-yang
Background The mortality and disability associated with progressing ischemic stroke are much higher than general ischemic stroke. This study was conducted to determine the risk factors for progressing ischemic stroke in the Han population of northeast China.Methods A total of 2511 patients with ischemic stroke within 24 hours admitted to Department of Neurology, First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University were studied, from November 2007 to May 2009. All of the patients were classified into the progressing or non-progressing group according to the scores of the Scandinavian Neurological Stroke Scale. Fifteen putative risk factors were evaluated. The influence of risk factors for progressing ischemic stroke was analyzed with the simple Logistic analysis, the multiple Logistic analysis, and the stepwise Logistic regression model. All the statistical analysis was performed by SAS 9.1.Results Totally 359 (14.3%) patients met the criteria for progressing ischemic stroke. The Logistic analysis showed that age, family stroke history, smoking history, hypertension on admission, a drop in blood pressure after admission to the hospital, high serum glucose on admission, and fever were related to progressing ischemic stroke in the Han population of northeast China.Conclusion People of the ischemic stroke with these factors are more likely to develop progressing ischemic stroke.
Full Text Available Both genome wide association study (GWAS and biochemical studies of Caucasian populations indicate a robust association between the miR-137 genetic variant rs1625579 and schizophrenia, but inconsistent results have been reported. To assay the association between this variant and schizophrenia, we genotyped 611 schizophrenic patients from Southern Chinese Han population for the risk single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs1625579 using the SNaPshot technique and compared the clinical profiles of different genotypes. Additionally, a meta-analysis was performed using the combined sample groups from five case-control publications and the present study. Both the genotype and allele distributions of the rs1625579 SNP were significantly different between patients and controls (P=0.036 and 0.026, SNP. TT genotype carriers showed slightly lower Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia- (BACS- derived working memory performance than G carriers (15.58 ± 9.56 versus 19.71 ± 8.18, P=0.045. In the meta-analysis, we observed a significant association between rs1625579 and schizophrenia under different genetic models (all P<0.05. The results of our study and meta-analysis provide convincing evidence that rs1625579 is significantly associated with schizophrenia. Furthermore, the miR-137 polymorphism influences the working memory performance of schizophrenic patients in a Chinese Han population.
Cao, Shang; Luo, Peng-fei; Li, Wei; Tang, Wan-qin; Cong, Xiao-na; Wei, Ping-min
In epidemiological studies, tuberculosis (TB) appears intimately with vitamin D insufficiency whereas its relationship with vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphism caused by radical difference remains unspecified. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between vitamin D genetic polymorphism and tuberculosis in Han ethnic group. Meta-analysis was adopted in the synthetic quantitative analysis of documents home and abroad on the relationship between vitamin D genetic polymorphisms and tuberculosis, which were openly published during June 2000 to January 2010. Random effect model and fixed effect model analyses were used to calculate the incorporated odds ratio (OR) based on the heterogeneity test data. A total of 6 eligible studies were included in this analysis. The FokI-ff genotype showed a significant marginal association (Fixed effect model: OR 1.91, 95%CI 1.44-2.52; Random effect model: OR 1.91, 95%CI 0.94-3.88), yet TaqI polymorphisms was not significantly related to TB. The interaction between FoKI genotype polymorphism and TB observed demonstrates that vitamin D deficiency might exist as a risk factor during the development of TB in Han ethnic group and more evidences needed to validate the conclusion.
Full Text Available Han Shin Gwang, born in an early Christian family in Korea in 1902, could get western education different from the ordinary Korean girls in that period. She participated in the 1919 Samil Independence Movement in her teens, and got nursing and midwifery education in a missionary hospital. She got a midwife license and worked as a member in an early mother-and-child health center. She organized 'Korean Nurses' Association' in 1924 and focused on public health movement as the chairwoman. She actively participated in women's movement organizations, and Gwangjoo Student's Movement. She was known to be a representative of leading working women, and wrote articles on woman's right, the needs and works of nurses and midwives. From late Japanese colonial period, she opened her own clinic and devoted herself to midwifery. After the Korean Liberation in 1945, she began political movement and went in for a senate election. During the Korean War, she founded a shelter for mothers and children in help. After the War, she reopened a midwifery clinic and devoted to the works of Korean Midwives' Association. Han Shin Gwang's life and works belong to the first generation of Korean working women in modern times. She actively participated in women's movement, nurses' and midwives professional movement, Korea liberation movement, and mother-and-child health movement for 60 years. Her life is truly exemplary as one of the first generation of working women in modern Korea, distinguished of devotion and calling.
ZHU Jin; ZHENG Wen-jie; ZHANG Wei-juan; WANG He-yao; WANG Chen
Background Warfarin is the most commonly prescribed anticoagulant worldwide.Factors which influence warfarin's inter-individual requirements including age,weight,and genetic factors explained about 50％ of dose variance,and unidentified factors still remain.The aim of this study was to explore whether white blood cell count affects warfarin dose requirements.Methods Three hundred and twenty-two patients suffering from venous thromboembolism (VTE) and taking warfarin were recruited in this study.Genotyping of selected genes was conducted and other information was collected using the Epidata software.Dosing algorithms were constructed by multivariate linear regression analyses.Results In addition to well-known factors such as age,body weight,CYP2Cg*3,and VKORC1 c.1173C＞T,white blood cell counts negatively related to warfarin dose requirements and contributed to warfarin variability in Han Chinese by about 0.6％.Conclusion White blood cell count has a small but significant contribution to warfarin dose requirements in Han Chinese.
Prof. Hans Georg Trüper, one of the most important scientists in the field of halophile research, passed away on 9 March 2016 at the age of 79. I here present a brief obituary with special emphasis on Prof. Trüper’s contributions to our understanding of the halophilic prokaryotes and their adaptations to life in hypersaline environments. He has pioneered the study of the halophilic anoxygenic phototrophic sulfur bacteria of the Ectothiorhodospira—Halorhodospira group. Some of the species he and his group isolated from hypersaline and haloalkaline environments have become model organisms for the study of the mechanisms of haloadaptation: the functions of three major organic compounds – glycine betaine, ectoine, and trehalose – known to serve as “compatible solutes” in halophilic members of the Bacteria domain, were discovered during studies of these anoxygenic phototrophs. Prof. Trüper’s studies of hypersaline alkaline environments in Egypt also led to the isolation of the first known extremely halophilic archaeon (Natronomonas pharaonis). The guest editors dedicate this special volume of Life to the memory of Prof. Hans Georg Trüper. PMID:27187481
Zhao, Y; Ding, M; Pang, H; Xu, X M; Wang, B J
Dopamine (DA) has been implicated in the pathophysiol-ogy of several psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. Thus, genes related to the dopaminergic (DAergic) system are good candidate genes for schizophrenia. One of receptors of the DA receptor system is dopa-mine receptor 5 (DRD5). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the regulatory regions of DRD5 gene may affect gene expression, influence biosynthesis of DA and underlie various neuropsychiatric disorders re-lated to DA dysfunction. The present study explored the association of SNPs within the DRD5 gene with paranoid schizophrenia in Han Chinese. A total of 176 patients with schizophrenia and 206 healthy controls were genotyped for four DRD5 SNPs (rs77434921, rs2076907, rs6283, and rs1800762). Significant group differences were observed in the allele and genotype frequencies of rs77434921 and rs1800762 and in the frequen-cies of GC haplotypes corresponding to rs77434921-rs1800762. Our find-ings suggest that common genetic variations of DRD5 are likely to con-tribute to genetic susceptibility to paranoid schizophrenia in Han Chinese. Further studies in larger samples are needed to replicate this association.
R. de Bruin
Full Text Available Dr Hans Max Hirschfeld: A Man without a Moral Compass? On Dislodging PerceptionsEven though his father was Jewish, Hans Max Hirschfeld became one of the most prominent Dutch civil servants during the German Occupation of the Netherlands. In the interest of the Dutch population, Hirschfeld was supposed to co-operate with the German Reichskommissariat. However, various measures made him very unpopular with the government in exile and the resistance movement. In his well-read history of the Netherlands under Nazi rule, Dutch historian Loe de Jong portrayed Hirschfeld as the personification of the aloofness that was characteristic of many Dutch people with regard to the persecution of the Jews. De Jong characterized Hirschfeld as a typical ‘negotiator’, who had learned to shield his emotions regarding the fate of the Jews. In the past few years, two biographies on Hirschfeld have been published, in which De Jong’s characterizations play a major role. This article, based on research of De Jong’s records, claims that the characterizations were largely inventions of De Jong, rooted in images projected in the illegal press during the German Occupation.
Full Text Available Psoriasis vulgaris is defined by a series of linked cellular changes in the skin: hyperplasia of epidermal keratinocytes, vascular hyperplasia and ectasia, and infiltration of T lymphocytes, neutrophils and other types of leukocytes in the affected skin. Catechol-O-methyltransferase ( COMT 158 polymorphism can reduce the activity of the COMT enzyme that may trigger defective differentiation of keratinocytes in psoriasis. Immunocytes can degrade and inactivate catecholamines via monamine oxidase (MAO and COMT in the cells. We hypothesized that the COMT-158 G > A polymorphism was associated with the risk of psoriasis vulgaris in Han Chinese people. In a hospital-based case-control study, 524 patients with psoriasis vulgaris and 549 psoriasis-free controls were studied. COMT-158 G > A polymorphism was genotyped using the PCR sequence-specific primer (PCR-SSP technique. We found no statistically significant association between the COMT-158 allele A and the risk of psoriasis vulgaris (p = 0.739 adjusted OR = 1.03; 95% CI = 0.81-1.31. This suggests that the COMT-158 G > A polymorphism may not contribute to the etiology of psoriasis vulgaris in the Han Chinese population.
Wen, Zujia; Chen, Jianhua; Khan, Raja Amjad Waheed; Song, Zhijian; Wang, Meng; Li, Zhiqiang; Shen, Jiawei; Li, Wenjin; Shi, Yongyong
Schizophrenia, major depressive disorder, and bipolar disorder are three major psychiatric disorders affecting around 0.66%, 3.3%, and 1.5% of the Han Chinese population respectively. Several genetic linkage analyses and genome wide association studies identified NRG1 as a susceptibility gene of schizophrenia, which was validated by its role in neurodevelopment, glutamate, and other neurotransmitter receptor expression regulation. To further investigate whether NRG1 is a shared risk gene for major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder as well as schizophrenia, we performed an association study among 1,248 schizophrenia cases, 1,056 major depression cases, 1,344 bipolar disorder cases, and 1,248 controls. Totally 15 tag SNPs were genotyped and analyzed, and no population stratification was found in our sample set. Among the sites, rs4236710 (corrected Pgenotye = 0.015) and rs4512342 (Pallele = 0.03, Pgenotye = 0.045 after correction) were associated with schizophrenia, and rs2919375 (corrected Pgenotye = 0.004) was associated with major depressive disorder. The haplotype rs4512342-rs6982890 showed association with schizophrenia (P = 0.03 for haplotype "TC" after correction), and haplotype rs4531002-rs11989919 proved to be a shared risk factor for both major depressive disorder ("CC": corrected P = 0.009) and bipolar disorder ("CT": corrected P = 0.003). Our results confirmed that NRG1 was a shared common susceptibility gene for major mental disorders in Han Chinese population.
Full Text Available Objective To investigate the correlation between-572G/C and-174G/C polymorphism of IL-6 gene and sepsis of Chinese Han population in Henan province.Methods A population-based case-control study involving 99 patients with sepsis and 260 health volunteers(control was carried out.The-572C/G and-174G/C polymorphism of IL-6 gene was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment-length polymorphism(PCR-RFLP technique.Results The genotype frequencies of all 359 cases were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium(P>0.05.No polymorphism was found in-174 site(GG genotype only,while alleles G,C and genotypes GG,GC,CC were found in-572 site,and no significant difference of allele frequency existed between patients and controls.Unconditional logistic regression analysis showed-G572C polymorphism was related to sepsis,the susceptibility to sepsis of patients with GG genotype was significantly higher than that of patients with CC genotype(OR=2.411,95% CI=1.045-5.562,P=0.039 after age and gender correction.Conclusions The-G572C polymorphism of IL-6 gene associates with sepsis,and the GG is the risk genotype of sepsis.There maybe no polymorphism in-G174C of IL-6 gene of Chinese Han population in Henan province.
Wang, D; Xu, L; Lv, L; Su, L-Y; Fan, Y; Zhang, D-F; Bi, R; Yu, D; Zhang, W; Li, X-A; Li, Y-Y; Yao, Y-G
Leprosy is a chronic infectious and neurological disease that is caused by infection of Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae). A recent genome-wide association study indicated a suggestive association of LRRK2 genetic variant rs1873613 with leprosy in Chinese population. To validate this association and further identify potential causal variants of LRRK2 with leprosy, we genotyped 13 LRRK2 variants in 548 leprosy patients and 1078 healthy individuals from Yunnan Province and (re-)analyzed 3225 Han Chinese across China. Variants rs1427267, rs3761863, rs1873613, rs732374 and rs7298930 were significantly associated with leprosy per se and/or paucibacillary leprosy (PB). Haplotype A-G-A-C-A was significantly associated with leprosy per se (P=0.018) and PB (P=0.020). Overexpression of the protective allele (Thr2397) of rs3761863 in HEK293 cells led to a significantly increased nuclear factor of activated T-cells' activity compared with allele Met2397 after lipopolysaccharides stimulation. Allele Thr2397 could attenuate 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine-induced autophagic activity in U251 cells. These data suggest that the protective effect of LRRK2 variant p.M2397T on leprosy might be mediated by increasing immune response and decreasing neurotoxicity after M. leprae loading. Our findings confirm that LRRK2 is a susceptible gene to leprosy in Han Chinese population.
Constanza Nieto Yusta
Full Text Available En la producción artística de Hans Bellmer confluyen factores que se inscriben tanto en el ámbito de la creación artística como en el mundo especulativo. Es en este sentido cómo pueden entenderse sus famosas poupées, objetos poéticos y científicos a través de los cuales es posible desgranar aquellos temas que obsesionaron al artista desde su más temprana juventud y que engloban desde los temores inocentes y los juegos de la primera infancia hasta la posterior exploración de la aniquilación a través del veneno, la sexualidad y el movimiento.The artistic production of the surrealist Hans Bellmer shows the importance of two elements, opposed in appearance: Poetry and Science. Is in this sense how his lifesize dolls can be considered, as poetic and scientific objects where it is possible to find the subjects that turned into obsessions since his most early childhood: games, science mechanisms, poison, sexuality, movement and death.
Full Text Available Prof. Hans Georg Trüper, one of the most important scientists in the field of halophile research, passed away on 9 March 2016 at the age of 79. I here present a brief obituary with special emphasis on Prof. Trüper’s contributions to our understanding of the halophilic prokaryotes and their adaptations to life in hypersaline environments. He has pioneered the study of the halophilic anoxygenic phototrophic sulfur bacteria of the Ectothiorhodospira—Halorhodospira group. Some of the species he and his group isolated from hypersaline and haloalkaline environments have become model organisms for the study of the mechanisms of haloadaptation: the functions of three major organic compounds – glycine betaine, ectoine, and trehalose – known to serve as “compatible solutes” in halophilic members of the Bacteria domain, were discovered during studies of these anoxygenic phototrophs. Prof. Trüper’s studies of hypersaline alkaline environments in Egypt also led to the isolation of the first known extremely halophilic archaeon (Natronomonas pharaonis. The guest editors dedicate this special volume of Life to the memory of Prof. Hans Georg Trüper.
Sherpa, Jangbu; Sah, Gopal; Rong, Zeng; Wu, Lipeng
To assess applicability of the Tanaka-Johnston and Moyers prediction methods in a Han ethnic group from Northeast China and to develop prediction equations for this same population. Cross-sectional study. Department of Orthodontics, School of Stomatology, Jiamusi University, Heilongjiang, China. A total of 130 subjects (65 male and 65 female) aged 16-21 years from a Han ethnic group of Northeast China were recruited from dental students and patients seeking orthodontic treatment. Ethnicity was verified by questionnaire. Mesio-distal tooth width was measured using Digital Vernier calipers. Predicted values were obtained from the Tanaka-Johnston and Moyers methods in both arches were compared with the actual measured widths. Based on regression analysis, prediction equations were developed. Tanaka-Johnston equations were not precise, except for the upper arch in males. However, the Moyers 85th percentile in the upper arch and 75th percentile in the lower arch predicted the sum precisely in males. For females, the Moyers 75th percentile predicted the sum precisely for the upper arch, but none of the Moyers percentiles predicted in the lower arch. Both the Tanaka-Johnston and Moyers method may not be applied universally without question. Hence, it may be safer to develop regression equations for specific populations. Validating studies must be conducted to confirm the precision of these newly developed regression equations.
Full Text Available The primo vascular system (PVS was first introduced by Bong-Han Kim via his five research reports. Among these the third report was most extensive and conclusive in terms of the PVS anatomy and physiology relating to the acupuncture meridians. His study results, unfortunately, were not reproduced by other scientists because he did not describe the materials and methods in detail. In 2002, a research team in Seoul National University reinitiated the PVS research, confirmed the existence of PVS in various organs, and discovered new characteristics of PVS. Two important examples are as follows: PVS was found in the adipose tissue and around cancer tissues. In parallel to these new findings, new methods for observing and identifying PVS were developed. Studies on the cell and material content inside the PVS, including the immune function cells and stem cells, are being progressed. In this review, Bong-Han Kim’s study results in his third report are summarized, and the new results after him are briefly reviewed. In the last section, the obstacles in finding the PVS in the skin as an anatomical structure of acupuncture meridian are discussed.
Soh, Kwang-Sup; Kang, Kyung A; Ryu, Yeon Hee
The primo vascular system (PVS) was first introduced by Bong-Han Kim via his five research reports. Among these the third report was most extensive and conclusive in terms of the PVS anatomy and physiology relating to the acupuncture meridians. His study results, unfortunately, were not reproduced by other scientists because he did not describe the materials and methods in detail. In 2002, a research team in Seoul National University reinitiated the PVS research, confirmed the existence of PVS in various organs, and discovered new characteristics of PVS. Two important examples are as follows: PVS was found in the adipose tissue and around cancer tissues. In parallel to these new findings, new methods for observing and identifying PVS were developed. Studies on the cell and material content inside the PVS, including the immune function cells and stem cells, are being progressed. In this review, Bong-Han Kim's study results in his third report are summarized, and the new results after him are briefly reviewed. In the last section, the obstacles in finding the PVS in the skin as an anatomical structure of acupuncture meridian are discussed.
崔晨; 王蠡; 侯海慧; 耿琦
通过分析蒋健教授从痰瘀互阻辨治1则多发性神经纤维瘤验案,探讨本病的中医辨治思路.认为多发性神经纤维瘤的病机为痰瘀互阻,治疗应以活血化瘀、化痰散结为法.%This paper explores the differentiation and treatment of neurofibromatosis by analyzing one proven case treated by Professor Jiang. It views that the patho-genesis of neurofibromatosis is stagnation of phlegm and blood stasis, and activating blood to resolve stagnation and resolving phlegm to dissipate stagnation methods should be used for the treatment.
吕立勋; 李唐棣; 赵琳琳; 赵利刚; 吴范武
目的：探讨自制三清降糖缓释片对糖尿病兔血糖、血脂及体内氧化应激水平的影响。方法：采用高脂高糖饮食喂养健康雄性家兔4周后，静脉注射链脲佐菌素制备糖尿病模型。将造模成功的家兔随机分为正常组、模型组、格列美脲组、三清降糖方汤剂、三清降糖缓释片组5组，灌胃给药4周后，生化法测血脂、血糖浓度；放免法测血清胰岛素，并计算胰岛素抵抗指数；双抗体夹心-ELISA法测肿瘤坏死因子-α(TNF-α)；WST法测超氧化物歧化酶；比色法测丙二醛和谷胱甘肽。结果：糖尿病兔各给药组与用药前比较血糖、血脂及SOD值、血清胰岛素及其抵抗指数均有所下降(P＜0.05)，谷胱甘肽水平无变化（P＞0.05）；而MDA、TNF-α水平升高，各给药组比较无统计学差异（P＞0.05）。结论：三清降糖缓释片对糖尿病兔具有降血糖、降脂作用，同时能减轻氧化应激改变。%Objective: To explore the effects of self-made SanQing JiangTang sustained-release tablets on blood lipid, blood glucose and the level of oxidative stress of diabetic rabbits. Methods:Diabetic rabbit models were established by feeding them high fat and sugar diet and intravenous injection of streptozotocin. After the models were successfully made, the rabbits were randomized into the normal group, model group, glimepride group, San-Qing JiangTang prescription group and SanQing JiangTang sustained-release tablets group. After medicated for four weeks, the concentrations of blood lipid and blood glucose were detected by biochemical method;the insulin in the serum was measured by radioimmunoassay, insulin resistance index calculated;TNF-α with double antibody sand-wich ELISA method;SOD by WST method, MDA and glutathione (GSH) by chromatometry. Results:Blood glu-cose, blood lipid and SOD value were decreased when the medication groups after treating were compared with be-fore treating (P0
陈伟业; 王爱群; 张立贤
目的:评估韩氏穴位神经刺激仪(HANS)对妊娠晚期下腰痛的疗效及安全性.方法:95例妊娠晚期下腰痛孕妇随机分入HANS组(n=46)和对照组(n=49).HANS组给予每周一次的HANS治疗,持续6周；对照组未予治疗.采用视觉模拟评分(VAS)评估孕妇下腰痛程度.记录HANS治疗即时反应、孕妇早产率、新生儿情况和分娩方式.结果:对照组孕妇下腰痛有加重趋势.HANS组孕妇下腰痛程度比治疗前好转,较对照组也显著减轻(P＜0.05),未发现严重不良反应.两组孕妇早产率、新生儿情况、分娩方式差异无显著性意义(P＞0.05).结论:HANS可安全用于孕妇并减轻妊娠晚期下腰痛.%Objective: To evaluate the analgesic effect and safety of HANS for low back pain during the third trimester of pregnancy. Methods: 95 women in late pregnancy with low back pain were randomized into HANS group (n = 46) and control group (n = 49). HANS group has HANS treatment once a week for 6 weeks and control group without treatment. Self-reported pain intensity was assessed on a visual analog scale (VAS). Immediate events of HANS treatment, incidence of preterm delivery, neonatal outcome and mode of delivery were also recorded. Results: The intensity after low back pain in control group increased as pregnancy advanced. HANS group showed reduction in the intensity of low back pain after treatment, and were less than that in control group (P < 0.05). No serious adverse effects were found in HANS group. There was no difference on data of the neonatal outcome, incidence of preterm delivery and mode of delivery between the two groups. Conclusion: HANS can be safely used and reduced the intensity of low back pain in late pregnancy.
He, Kuanjun; Wang, Qingzhong; Chen, Jianhua; Li, Tao; Li, Zhiqiang; Li, Wenjin; Wen, Zujia; Qiang, Yu; Wang, Meng; Shen, Jiawei; Song, Zhijian; Ji, Jue; Feng, Guoyin; Qi, Shuguang; Lin, He; Shi, Yongyong; Cheng, Zaohuo
As a major extracellular matrix component, ITIHs played an important role in inflammation and carcinogenesis. Several genome-wide association studies have reported that some positive signals which were derived from the tight linkage disequilibrium region on chromosome 3p21 were associated with both schizophrenia and bipolar disorders in the Caucasian population. To further investigate whether this genomic region is also a susceptibility locus of schizophrenia and major depressive disorder in the Han Chinese population, we conducted this study by recruiting 1235 schizophrenia patients, 1045 major depressive disorder patients and 1235 healthy control subjects in the Han Chinese samples for a case-control study. We genotyped seven SNPs within this region using TaqMan® technology. We found that rs2710322 was significantly associated with schizophrenia (adjusted P(allele) = 0.0018, adjusted P(genotype) = 0.006, OR [95% CI] = 1.278 [1.117-1.462]) while rs1042779 was weakly associated with schizophrenia (adjusted P(allele) = 0.048, OR [95% CI] = 1.164 [1.040-1.303]) and major depressive disorder (adjusted P(allele) = 0.042, OR [95% CI] = 1.178 [1.047-1.326]); it was also our finding that rs3821831 was positively associated with major depressive disorder (adjusted P(allele) = 0.003, adjusted P(genotype) = 0.006, OR [95% CI] = 1.426 [1.156-1.760]). Furthermore, no haplotype was found to be associated with schizophrenia and major depressive disorder. Via the association analysis which combines the schizophrenia and major depressive disorder cases, we also notice that rs1042779 and rs3821831 were significantly associated with combined cases (rs1042779: adjusted P(allele) = 0.012, adjusted P(genotype) = 0.018, OR [95% CI] = 1.171 [1.060-1.292]; rs3821831:adjusted P(genotype) = 0.012, OR [95% CI] = 1.193 [1.010-1.410]). Our results revealed that the shared genetic risk factors of both schizophrenia and major depressive disorder exist in ITIH family genes in the Han Chinese
Carlos Alberto Rubio Torres
Full Text Available
Resumen. El 2 de abril del 2005 se realizó una doble celebración: el bicentenario del natalicio del escritor danés Hans Christian Andersen y el Día Internacional del Libro Infantil. Se considera a este autor como el creador de la literatura para niños contemporánea, por introducir discursos reservados, hasta aquel momento, exclusivamente para adultos.
La “Carta abierta” fue leída a estudiantes de la Universidad Centroamericana (UCA en Managua, Nicaragua, en el marco del Festival dedicado a Andersen, organizado por la Fundación Libros para Niños con el apoyo de las embajadas de Noruega y Dinamarca. En ella, se trata de establecer un perfil biográfico de Andersen y se exploran posibles lecturas de sus cuentos, desde perspectivas educativas, psicológicas y psicoanalíticas. Concluye con una interpretación de Andersen como metáfora del entendimiento y el diálogo entre Costa Rica y Nicaragua.
Asimismo, este trabajo es la base para el suplemento Educare en el aula, el cual contiene ideas para la motivación a la lectura. Como complemento, se adiciona el cuento El porquerizo de Hans Christian Andersen.
Abstract. April 2nd, 2005 was a day for a double celebration: the bicentennial of the birth of Danish writer Hans Christian Andersen and the International Children’s Book Day. Andersen is known as the creator of contemporary children literature, for his fairy tales introduce language that at that time was used by adults only.
Students from Central American University (UCA in Managua, Nicaragua, read an “Open Letter” during a Festival that the Books for Children Foundation organized in honor of the author along with the Norwegian and Danish embassies. The letter presents Andersen’s biography and explores alternative readings of his fairy tales from educational, psychological and psychoanalytical perspectives. The letter concludes
Full Text Available Resumen En 1952, Hans Baron concluye su obra más importante: The Crisis of the early Italian Renaissance, publicada por la Universidad de Princeton en dos volúmenes, en 1955. En ella, Baron desarrolla el concepto de “humanismo civil”, desde el cual analiza el humanismo florentino del siglo XV y, en particular, la obra de Leonardo Bruni. Para Baron, los humanistas florentinos, en su lucha por la libertad de Florencia ante la amenaza de la Milán de los Visconti, articularon una novedosa relación entre intelectualidad y política. Este movimiento intelectual, al mismo tiempo, abrió las puertas al pensamiento moderno. Numerosas críticas recibió, desde entonces, el trabajo de Baron, centralmente, por parte de aquellos que reivindicaron las continuidades entre la Edad Media y el Renacimiento, así como también por parte de los que han leído críticamente el éxito que tuvo la Crisis en las academias norteamericanas y su influencia en la consolidación de la “ideología americana”. El artículo propone una revisión de la tesis de Baron así como de las controversias generadas en torno a ella, para, finalmente, esbozar la posibilidad de revisar el concepto de “humanismo civil” desde la obra de Leon Battista Alberti. Abstract In 1952, Hans Baron finished his most important work, The Crisis of the Early Italian Renaissance, published in two volumes by Princeton University in 1955. In this work, the author expounds on the concept of “civil humanism” which he uses to analyze the Florentine humanism of the fifteenth century, and in particular, Leonardo Bruni’s work. According to Baron, Florentine humanists, fighting for Florence’s freedom against the threat of Visconti’s Milan, developed a novel relationship between intellectualism and politics. This intellectual movement also paved the way for modern thought. Baron’s work has been critically reviewed many times since then, especially, by those who vindicated the
CHEN Qing; LI Ming; LI Min; LU Xue-song; L(U) Rong; SUN Jun; LIU Zhong
Background Rh blood group system is the most complex and immunogenetic blood group system.Prevalent RHD alleles varied in different populations.The purpose of this study is to determine the molecular basis of weak D and DEL phenotype in Anhui Chinese Han population.Methods The D antigen was determined with IgM monoclonal anti-D conformed to the guidelines for donor testing in China.Weak D samples were identified by an indirect antiglobulin test.DEL phenotype was determined by adsorption and elution test.All the RHD 10 exons were screened by PCR with sequence-specific priming or sequenced for the first-time donors who typed weak D,DEL or D negative by serologic test.Results Of all the 30 799 blood donors,155 blood samples were found D negative with IgM anti-D; 34 blood samples were found D positive by indirect antiglobulin test or absorption elution test.RHD alleles were identified by nucleotide sequencing.Total 4 RHD alleles were found including two new.One hundred and twenty of 155 (77.4％) of the serologically D negative samples lacked the RHD gene.One D negative was RHD(615de12).Thirty-two of 155 (20.6％)carried RHD(K409K) among them one carrying 1227G＞A and 845G＞A.Two of 155 (1.3％) was weak D type 15.Conclusions In this study at the molecular level,all DEL phenotype is RHD(K40gK); weak D type 15 is the prevalent weak D allele in Anhui Chinese Han population.Additionally,an improved more efficient method was adopted to amplify all the RHD exons in one PCR program.Our study added to the understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying D antigen expression in Anhui Han population and provided useful information for adopting suitable genotyping strategies in routine use.
Full Text Available Zhao Ma, Yong Yang,* JiSheng Lin, XiaoDong Zhang, Qian Meng, BingQiang Wang, Qi Fei* Department of Orthopedics, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: To develop a simple new clinical screening tool to identify primary osteoporosis by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA in postmenopausal women and to compare its validity with the Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool for Asians (OSTA in a Han Chinese population.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted, enrolling 1,721 community-dwelling postmenopausal Han Chinese women. All the subjects completed a structured questionnaire and had their bone mineral density measured using DXA. Using logistic regression analysis, we assessed the ability of numerous potential risk factors examined in the questionnaire to identify women with osteoporosis. Based on this analysis, we build a new predictive model, the Beijing Friendship Hospital Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool (BFH-OST. Receiver operating characteristic curves were generated to compare the validity of the new model and OSTA in identifying postmenopausal women at increased risk of primary osteoporosis as defined according to the World Health Organization criteria.Results: At screening, it was found that of the 1,721 subjects with DXA, 22.66% had osteoporosis and a further 47.36% had osteopenia. Of the items screened in the questionnaire, it was found that age, weight, height, body mass index, personal history of fracture after the age of 45 years, history of fragility fracture in either parent, current smoking, and consumption of three of more alcoholic drinks per day were all predictive of osteoporosis. However, age at menarche and menopause, years since menopause, and number of pregnancies and live births were irrelevant in this study. The logistic regression analysis and item reduction yielded a final tool (BFH-OST based on age
Ma, Zhao; Yang, Yong; Lin, JiSheng; Zhang, XiaoDong; Meng, Qian; Wang, BingQiang; Fei, Qi
Purpose To develop a simple new clinical screening tool to identify primary osteoporosis by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in postmenopausal women and to compare its validity with the Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool for Asians (OSTA) in a Han Chinese population. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted, enrolling 1,721 community-dwelling postmenopausal Han Chinese women. All the subjects completed a structured questionnaire and had their bone mineral density measured using DXA. Using logistic regression analysis, we assessed the ability of numerous potential risk factors examined in the questionnaire to identify women with osteoporosis. Based on this analysis, we build a new predictive model, the Beijing Friendship Hospital Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool (BFH-OST). Receiver operating characteristic curves were generated to compare the validity of the new model and OSTA in identifying postmenopausal women at increased risk of primary osteoporosis as defined according to the World Health Organization criteria. Results At screening, it was found that of the 1,721 subjects with DXA, 22.66% had osteoporosis and a further 47.36% had osteopenia. Of the items screened in the questionnaire, it was found that age, weight, height, body mass index, personal history of fracture after the age of 45 years, history of fragility fracture in either parent, current smoking, and consumption of three of more alcoholic drinks per day were all predictive of osteoporosis. However, age at menarche and menopause, years since menopause, and number of pregnancies and live births were irrelevant in this study. The logistic regression analysis and item reduction yielded a final tool (BFH-OST) based on age, body weight, height, and history of fracture after the age of 45 years. The BFH-OST index (cutoff =9.1), which performed better than OSTA, had a sensitivity of 73.6% and a specificity of 72.7% for identifying osteoporosis, with an area under the receiver operating
Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease in terms of transcriptional aberrations; moreover, microarray gene expression profiles had defined 5 molecular subtypes based on certain intrinsic genes. This study aimed to evaluate the prediction consistency of breast cancer molecular subtypes from 3 distinct intrinsic gene sets (Sørlie 500, Hu 306 and PAM50 as well as clinical presentations of each molecualr subtype in Han Chinese population. Methods In all, 169 breast cancer samples (44 from Taiwan and 125 from China of Han Chinese population were gathered, and the gene expression features corresponding to 3 distinct intrinsic gene sets (Sørlie 500, Hu 306 and PAM50 were retrieved for molecular subtype prediction. Results For Sørlie 500 and Hu 306 intrinsic gene set, mean-centring of genes and distance-weighted discrimination (DWD remarkably reduced the number of unclassified cases. Regarding pairwise agreement, the highest predictive consistency was found between Hu 306 and PAM50. In all, 150 and 126 samples were assigned into identical subtypes by both Hu 306 and PAM50 genes, under mean-centring and DWD. Luminal B tended to show a higher nuclear grade and have more HER2 over-expression status than luminal A did. No basal-like breast tumours were ER positive, and most HER2-enriched breast tumours showed HER2 over-expression, whereas, only two-thirds of ER negativity/HER2 over-expression tumros were predicted as HER2-enriched molecular subtype. For 44 Taiwanese breast cancers with survival data, a better prognosis of luminal A than luminal B subtype in ER-postive breast cancers and a better prognosis of basal-like than HER2-enriched subtype in ER-negative breast cancers was observed. Conclusions We suggest that the intrinsic signature Hu 306 or PAM50 be used for breast cancers in the Han Chinese population during molecular subtyping. For the prognostic value and decision making based on intrinsic subtypes, further prospective
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder with a high estimated heritability. ATP2B2, located on human chromosome 3p25.3, encodes the plasma membrane calcium-transporting ATPase 2 which extrudes Ca(2+ from cytosol into extracellular space. Recent studies reported association between ATP2B2 and autism in samples from Autism Genetic Resource Exchange (AGRE and Italy. In this study, we investigated whether ATP2B2 polymorphisms were associated with autism in Chinese Han population. METHODS: We performed a family based association study between five SNPs (rs35678 in exon, rs241509, rs3774180, rs3774179, and rs2278556 in introns in ATP2B2 and autism in 427 autism trios of Han Chinese descent. All SNPs were genotyped using the Sequenom genotyping platform. The family-based association test (FBAT program was used to perform association test for SNPs and haplotype analyses. RESULTS: This study demonstrated a preferential transmission of T allele of rs3774179 to affected offsprings under an additive model (T>C, Z = 2.482, p = 0.013. While C allele of rs3774179 showed an undertransmission from parents to affected children under an additive and a dominant model, respectively (Z = -2.482, p = 0.013; Z = -2.591, p = 0.0096. Haplotype analyses revealed that three haplotypes were significantly associated with autism. The haplotype C-C (rs3774180-rs3774179 showed a significant undertransmission from parents to affected offsprings both in specific and global haplotype FBAT (Z = -2.037, p = 0.042; Global p = 0.03. As for the haplotype constructed by rs3774179 and rs2278556, C-A might be a protective haplotype (Z = -2.206, p = 0.027; Global p = 0.04, while T-A demonstrated an excess transmission from parents to affected offsprings (Z = 2.143, p = 0.032. These results were still significant after using the permutation method to obtain empirical p values. CONCLUSIONS: Our research suggested that ATP2B2
We conducted a genome-wide scan,in which 358 well distributed fluorescent dye-labe- led microsatellite marker sets were applied in 32 Chinese Han type 2 diabetes families from Northern China to search for the susceptibility gene loci.The data collected from screening all the chromosomes of genome were genotyped by using genescan and genotyping software,then,parametric and non-parametric multipoint test,and affected sib-pair analysis as well,were used to analyze the data.We identified some susceptibility gene loci residing in chromosomes 1,12,18,20,respectively,or precisely,located around D1S214,D1S207,D1S218,D1S235,D12S336,D18S61 and D20S118.The comparison of this result with those from other regions and races reflected the complexity and heterogeneity of type 2 diabetes.
Juan A. Estrada
Full Text Available Autor: Hans Albert (2002 Editorial: Síntesis, Madrid, 238 pp. Desde su tratado sobre la razón crítica, Albert no ha cesado de precisar su concepción filosófica, desde un diálogo constante con Popper y respondiendo a las diversas críticas de la hermenéutica y la fenomenología, de la teoría crítica y de la misma teología. En este volumen ofrece varios trabajos con el subtítulo de «Cuatro capítulos para una sátira del pensamiento ilusorio», precedida de un denso y buen prólogo de Ángeles J. Perona.
In the Han Dynasty, as compared to younger children, children aged eight to fifteen- year- old children were regarded as quasi- adult children. Some of them were intelligent, filial piety, had awe - inspiring spirit, even with extraordinary talent and martial skill. They had extraordinary, social influence and were outstanding representatives of children.%在汉代，相对于年龄较小的幼童，八至十五岁年龄段的儿童则属于成童。他们中的一些聪慧、孝顺，有令人折服的气概，甚至具备非凡的辩才及武功。他们有着不凡的社会影响力，是当时儿童群体的杰出代表。
Zhou, Jianguang; Liu, Changyun; Shan, Peijia; Zhou, Yingqi; Xu, Erli; Ji, Yufeng
This study documented the prevalence and clinical features of white coat hypertension (WCH) among Chinese Han patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Clinic and ambulatory blood pressure (BP) measurements were compared in 856 patients with T2DM to determine the frequency of WCH (WCH was defined as clinical blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg and daytime blood pressure hypertension. Age, course of T2DM, male WC were independent protective factors, whereas female sex, smoking and alcohol consumption were independent risk factors for WCH in T2DM. Non-dippers and reverse dippers made up larger proportion of the WCH group (p hypertension (EH), and WCH patients also exhibit significant differences in clinical parameters.
Full Text Available According to recent research in literary studies, literature has a specific knowledge about things. My contribution supports this thesis by analyzing the world of things in Hans Christian Andersen's fairy tales. Exemplary readings reveal how Andersen's texts acknowledge the power of things in modern life and how these texts thus question scientific and philosophical concepts of subjectivity that dominated in the nineteenth century. The agency of things in Andersen's texts challenges the ideal of a rational subject that acts autonomously. Current theoretical approaches, notably Actor-Network-Theory, allow us to understand the realism of acting things in Andersen's work. That which is marvelous, which is prevalently used to define the genre Fairy Tale in literary studies, is inherent to modernity. The relationship between magic and modernity is different than expected: modernity consists of an interplay between enchantment and disenchantment.
Full Text Available According to recent research in literary studies, literature has a specific knowledge about things. My contribution supports this thesis by analyzing the world of things in Hans Christian Andersen's fairy tales. Exemplary readings reveal how Andersen's texts acknowledge the power of things in modern life and how these texts thus question scientific and philosophical concepts of subjectivity that dominated in the nineteenth century. The agency of things in Andersen's texts challenges the ideal of a rational subject that acts autonomously. Current theoretical approaches, notably Actor-Network-Theory, allow us to understand the realism of acting things in Andersen's work. That which is marvelous, which is prevalently used to define the genre Fairy Tale in literary studies, is inherent to modernity. The relationship between magic and modernity is different than expected: modernity consists of an interplay between enchantment and disenchantment
Karl, Stephan; Bachhiesl, Christian
In some cases, forensics and criminology have to cooperate with disciplines that usually are counted among the humanities, e.g. with archaeology. This article examines the significance of this cooperation for the criminological epistemology at the turn of the 19th century. These methodological considerations are illustrated by an example: When Hans Gross, who became the founder of the Austrian School of Criminology later, saw an unusually shaped hill near Feldbach, a town in southern Styria, he assumed this hill to be a burial mound and informed the responsible archaeological authorities immediately. Further investigations showed, however, that this hill was a natural formation. This is an early example for interdisciplinary cooperation, which proves that both in archaeology and in criminology a thorough inspection of the site is decisive for further scientific analysis of the topic of research.
Hans von Gerssdorff and Hieronymus Brunschwig, who flourished in Germany in the latter half of the fifteenth century, have both left early printed treatises on Surgery which give excellent woodcuts showing pictures of instruments, operations, and costumes, at the end of the medieval period. Hieronymus Brunschwig or Hieronymus Brunschwygk (ca. 1450 - ca. 1512), was a German surgeon (wundartzot), alchemist and botanist. He was notable for his methods of treatment of gunshot wounds. His most influential book was the Buch der Cirurgia. Gersdorff(1455-1529) was a military surgeon who gained wide experience during 40 years of campaigning and was an expert in the treatment of battlefield injuries. His work covers anatomy, surgery, leprosy, and glossaries of anatomical terms, diseases, and medications.
Psychoanalysts have long recognized the complex interaction between clinical data and formal psychoanalytic theories. While clinical data are often used to provide "evidence" for psychoanalytic paradigms, the theoretical model used by the analyst also structures what can and cannot be seen in the data. This delicate interaction between theory and clinical data can be seen in the history of interpretations of Freud's "Analysis of a Phobia in a Five-Year-Old Boy" ("Little Hans"). Freud's himself revised his reading of the case in 1926, after which a number of psychoanalysts--including Melanie Klein, Jacques Lacan, and John Bowlby--reinterpreted the case in the light of their particular models of the mind. These analysts each found "evidence" for their theoretical model within this classic case study, and in doing so they illuminated aspects of the case that had previously been obscured, while also revealing a great deal about the shifting preoccupations of psychoanalysis as a field.
Sainz Gutiérrez, Victoriano
En un texto de carácter autobiográfico redactado hacia el final de su vida, Hans van der Laan señalaba, al recordar sus años de infancia y adolescencia, que el principal objetivo en esos años cruciales para su formación había sido el conocimiento de la naturaleza: «Lento pero seguro escribe, me adentraba en la vida de la naturaleza, siendo consciente de que había sido creada por Dios. Mi hermana mayor, la que murió durante la guerra, tuvo como profesora, tanto en la enseñanza primaria como en...
Zhu, Yuzhang; Zhang, Hongni; Shi, Shenxun; Gao, Jingfang; Li, Youhui; Tao, Ming; Zhang, Kerang; Wang, Xumei; Gao, Chengge; Yang, Lijun; Li, Kan; Shi, Jianguo; Wang, Gang; Liu, Lanfen; Zhang, Jinbei; Du, Bo; Jiang, Guoqing; Shen, Jianhua; Zhang, Zhen; Liang, Wei; Sun, Jing; Hu, Jian; Liu, Tiebang; Wang, Xueyi; Miao, Guodong; Meng, Huaqing; Li, Yi; Hu, Chunmei; Li, Yi; Huang, Guoping; Li, Gongying; Ha, Baowei; Deng, Hong; Mei, Qiyi; Zhong, Hui; Gao, Shugui; Sang, Hong; Zhang, Yutang; Fang, Xiang; Yu, Fengyu; Yang, Donglin; Liu, Tieqiao; Chen, Yunchun; Hong, Xiaohong; Wu, Wenyuan; Chen, Guibing; Cai, Min; Song, Yan; Pan, Jiyang; Dong, Jicheng; Pan, Runde; Zhang, Wei; Shen, Zhenming; Liu, Zhengrong; Gu, Danhua; Wang, Xiaoping; Liu, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Qiwen; Li, Yihan; Chen, Yiping; Kendler, Kenneth Seedman; Flint, Jonathan; Liu, Ying
The relationship between suicidality and major depression is complex. Socio- demography, clinical features, comorbidity, clinical symptoms, and stressful life events are important factors influencing suicide in major depression, but these are not well defined. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess the associations between the above-mentioned factors and suicide ideation, suicide plan, and suicide attempt in 6008 Han Chinese women with recurrent major depression (MD). Patients with any suicidality had significantly more MD symptoms, a significantly greater number of stressful life events, a positive family history of MD, a greater number of episodes, a significant experience of melancholia, and earlier age of onset. Comorbidity with dysthymia, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), social phobia, and animal phobia was seen in suicidal patients. The present findings indicate that specific factors act to increase the likelihood of suicide in MD. Our results may help improve the clinical assessment of suicide risk in depressed patients, especially for women.
Hodtani, Ghosheh Abed
Allowing the input auxiliary random variables to be correlated and using the binning scheme, the Han-Kobayashi (HK) rate region for general interference channel is partially improved. The obtained partially new achievable rate region (i) is compared to the HK region and its simplified description, i.e., Chong-Motani-Garg (CMG) region, in a detailed and favorable manner, by considering different versions of the regions, and (ii) has an interesting and easy interpretation: as expected, any rate in our region has generally two additional terms in comparison with the HK region (one due to the input correlation and the other as a result of the binning scheme). Keywords. Interference channel, Input correlation, Binning scheme
Full Text Available Hans-Georg Gadamer’s philosophical hermeneutics is a popular qualitative research interpretive method aiming to explore the meaning of individual experiences in relation to understanding human interpretation. Gadamer identifies that authentic engagement with reading requires awareness of the inter-subjective nature of understanding in order to promote a reflective engagement with the text. The main concepts of Gadamer’s view of reading and understanding are explored in this paper in relation to interpreting text. Concepts such as; inter-subjectivity, Being, authenticity, fore-structure, pre-suppositions, prejudice, temporality and history are all help to enhance health and social science researchers’ understanding of his theory and its application.
Fricke, Rudolf G. A.; Schlegel, Kristian
Julius Elster and Hans Geitel contributed to the physics at the turn of the 19-20th century in many ways. We first summarize the life of these exceptional scientists. Then - owing to the topic of this journal - we focus on their atmospheric electricity research. With their experiments, careful evaluations and ingenious interpretation, Elster and Geitel made important contributions to precipitation electricity, the influence of solar radiation on the electric state of the atmosphere, the nature of charge carriers and the ionization of air by radioactivity. They proved their experimental skills by inventing new instruments with unprecedented accuracy and reliability. A very modern concept was their attitude to undertake long-term measurements at various locations. A section on their recognition in the physics community and their scientific distinctions concludes the paper.
Revelle, William; Oehlberg, Katherine
A fundamental aspect of Hans Eysenck's research was his emphasis upon using all the tools available to the researcher to study personality. This included correlational, experimental, physiological, and genetic approaches. Fifty years after Cronbach's call for the reunification of the two disciplines of psychology (Cronbach, 1957) and 40 years after Eysenck's plea for experimental approaches to personality research (H. J. Eysenck, 1966), what is the status of the unification? Should personality researchers use experimental techniques? Do experimental techniques allow us to tease out causality, and are we communicating the advantages of combining experimental with multivariate correlational techniques? We review the progress made since Cronbach's and Eysenck's original papers and suggest that although it is still uncommon to find experimental studies of personality, psychology would benefit from the joint use of correlational and experimental approaches.
Lingiardi, V; Grieco, A
Taking as our starting point Plato's metaphor of the doctor as philosopher we reflect on some aspects of the epistemological status of medicine. The framework to this paper is the hermeneutics of Hans-Georg Gadamer which shows the paradoxical nature of Western medicine in choosing the body-object as its investigative starting point, while in actual fact dealing with subjects. Gadamer proposes a model of medicine as the art of understanding and dialogue, which is capable of bringing together its various constituent parts, i.e. knowledge, knowing how to do and knowing how to be, in medical practice and in the physician's training. The paper concludes with a brief discussion of the dyadic figure of the physician as Platonic "master of the living totality" and wounded healer, capable of activating the patient's self-healing capacity.
The paper begins with an overview of the historical roots of philosophical hermeneutics grounded in the work of Husserl and Heidegger. It goes on to explore the philosophical hermeneutics of Hans Georg Gadamer as a philosophy useful to nursing research. The four concepts of prejudice, the fusion of horizons, the hermeneutic circle and play are discussed, as are the implications these concepts have for nursing research. These concepts have been utilized in the author's own research and examples from this research are given to illuminate how these concepts can be shaped to the purposes of nursing research. While the concepts discussed stem from the work of Gadamer, the ways they have been utilized by the author do not represent a Gadamerian method. Gadamer's project is purely philosophical.
Full Text Available The relationship between suicidality and major depression is complex. Socio- demography, clinical features, comorbidity, clinical symptoms, and stressful life events are important factors influencing suicide in major depression, but these are not well defined. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess the associations between the above-mentioned factors and suicide ideation, suicide plan, and suicide attempt in 6008 Han Chinese women with recurrent major depression (MD. Patients with any suicidality had significantly more MD symptoms, a significantly greater number of stressful life events, a positive family history of MD, a greater number of episodes, a significant experience of melancholia, and earlier age of onset. Comorbidity with dysthymia, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD, social phobia, and animal phobia was seen in suicidal patients. The present findings indicate that specific factors act to increase the likelihood of suicide in MD. Our results may help improve the clinical assessment of suicide risk in depressed patients, especially for women.
Yang, Xin; Gasser, Robin B; Fang, Rui; Zeng, Jinrong; Zhu, Kaixiang; Qi, Mingwei; Zhang, Zongze; Tan, Li; Lei, Weiqiang; Zhou, Yanqin; Zhao, Junlong; Hu, Min
Diseases caused by parasitic helminths cause considerable production and economic losses in livestock worldwide. Understanding the epidemiology of these parasites has important implications for controlling them. The main purpose of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of key parasitic helminths in goats along the Han River in Zhanggang, Hubei Province (from January to December 2014). We used faecal flotation and sedimentation techniques as well as PCR-based DNA sequencing to detect and identify helminths. Results showed that the prevalence of helminths was high throughout the year, particularly for gastrointestinal nematodes. These first findings provide useful baseline information for goat helminths in Zhanggang, and a starting point for the implementation of control programs. With an increased expansion of the goat industry in China, the findings also emphasise the need to undertake prevalence surveys in other regions of China where extensive farming practices are used.
Jeg vil i denne indledning give en udlægning af Luhmanns teori i fugleperspektiv, der ud fra en videnskabsteoretisk og metametodologisk vinkel henvender sig til interesserede i organisationsteori og organisationskommunikation, der gerne vil tilegne sig Luhmanns organisationsteori i forhold til hans...... overordnede teoriramme. Hver af de følgende artikler tager en problematik op ift. organisationer, fx, værdier og anskueliggør hvordan den kan tænkes ud fra Luhmann. Indledningen selv tager Luhmanns systemteori og udlægger den ved at formidle en række grundbegreber i en sammenhæng der begynder med...... iagttagelsesbegrebet og bevæger sig over autopoiesis, forskellige systemtyper, kommunikation og sociale systemtyper til begrebet organisation. Jeg begynder altså med iagttagelse, med refleksion over muligheden og betingelserne for overhovedet at udsige noget om verden. Ved Luhmann foregår dette uden ontologiske...
Brizotto, Bruno; Universidade de Caxias do Sul; Bertussi, Lisana Teresinha; Universidade de Caxias do Sul
Exame das relações entre hermenêutica e Estética da recepção, sobretudo da hermenêutica literária, ramo da hermenêutica, cuja organização metodológica é exigida e providenciada por Hans Robert Jauss, um dos maiores expoentes da Escola de Constança, berço da Estética da recepção. Corolário desse exercício é a efetivação de um rico e produtivo diálogo entre a filosofia e os estudos literários.
Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a neurodevelopmental disorder with strong genetic components. Several recent genome-wide association (GWA studies in Caucasian samples have reported a number of gene regions and loci correlated with the risk of ASD--albeit with very little consensus across studies.A two-stage GWA study was employed to identify common genetic variants for ASD in the Taiwanese Han population. The discovery stage included 315 patients with ASD and 1,115 healthy controls, using the Affymetrix SNP array 6.0 platform for genotyping. Several gene regions were then selected for fine-mapping and top markers were examined in extended samples. Single marker, haplotype, gene-based, and pathway analyses were conducted for associations.Seven SNPs had p-values ranging from 3.4~9.9*10-6, but none reached the genome-wide significant level. Five of them were mapped to three known genes (OR2M4, STYK1, and MNT with significant empirical gene-based p-values in OR2M4 (p = 3.4*10(-5 and MNT (p = 0.0008. Results of the fine-mapping study showed single-marker associations in the GLIS1 (rs12082358 and rs12080993 and NAALADL2 (rs3914502 and rs2222447 genes, and gene-based associations for the OR2M3-OR2T5 (olfactory receptor genes, p = 0.02, and GLIPR1/KRR1 gene regions (p = 0.015. Pathway analyses revealed important pathways for ASD, such as olfactory and G protein-coupled receptors signaling pathways.We reported Taiwanese Han specific susceptibility genes and variants for ASD. However, further replication in other Asian populations is warranted to validate our findings. Investigation in the biological functions of our reported genetic variants might also allow for better understanding on the underlying pathogenesis of autism.
Denis, Réne; Gross, Dominik
Hans Neuffer had a well established, civil familiary background. He was raised according to Christian values and remained a practising Christian until the end of his life. Before 1945 he was no person in public life. In spite of the fact that he disapproved the Nazi rule, he did not practise open resistance. After World War Two politically guiltless physicians were needed. Neuffer had this quality and on top of that he had a talent for organisation. In the beginning he was medical functionary in his swabian hometown Stuttgart. In 1949 he took over tasks as medical functionary nationwide. Under his leadership the German physicians succeeded in creating the structures of self administration, that still exist today. Big improvements in income were achieved. The German physicians profited from this until the seventy years of the last century. In addition to this the German doctors managed to become fully accepted members of the World Medical Association (WMA). Besides his work as medical functionary, Neuffer was occupied with ethical questions. The premise of Neuffer's medical ethics were the physician's close ties to God. The responsibility to God was more important than responsibility to conscience, science, the people or the government. One of the foundations of Neuffer's ethics lies in the doctor's personality. Like an artist the "true" physician felt an inner calling. He possessed high mental capacity and had special psychological abilities. Such high moral, mental and psychological demands could only be fulfilled in freedom. Freedom required an adequate income and physicians' self administration. This kind of medical ethics fitted well to the political aims of West Germany's General Medical Council. The freedom of the medical profession and independence from society or government were crucial positions. Hans Neuffer was a politically and morally guiltless medical functionary. At the end of his presidency in 1959, West Germany's physicians had achieved all
Anneliese Meis W.
Full Text Available El presente estudio aborda el concepto de persona de Hans Urs von Balthasar en cuanto singularidad concreta, descubierto a través de una intensa lectura analítica de su voluminosa obra, búsqueda a la luz de la pregunta ¿por qué yo soy precisamente yo? En efecto, el teólogo suizo nunca sistematiza su comprensión de persona la distingue sí de los conceptos "individuo", "sujeto" y "espíritu, pese a que se sirve de aquella como de uno de los pilares más significativos de su pensamiento. Los resultados obtenidos evidencian la complejidad de factores conceptuales, que demuestran que el yo tiene su fundamento último en el acto libre del amor infinito, que como tal constituye la persona desde el dinamismo intradivino de las relaciones opuestas entre Padre, Hijo y Espíritu SantoThis paper regards the concept of person as a concrete singularity in Hans Urs Von Balthasar's work. Such concept rose after a deep analytical reading of his voluminous work, in the light of the guiding question; Why am I, precisely I? The Swiss theologian distinguishes person from the concepts "individual", "subject" and "spirit", but he never synthesises his understanding of person, even though he uses it as one of the most significant pillars of his thought. The results obtained from the research confirm the complexity of the conceptual factors, which show that one's self has its deepest foundation in the free act of the infinite love, which as such, constitutes the person from the intra-divine dynamism of the opposed relations between the Father, Son and Holy Spirit
Hans Selye has a historic role in the development of the stress concept. Before his short article in Nature in 1936, the neuroendocrine response to nonspecific injury was thought to be restricted to the release of catecholamines, as recognized by Cannon. Selye was the first to appreciate the crucial role of the adrenal cortex/hypophysis axis in the stress response. He also insisted on the nonspecificity of this neuroendocrine response, and he named the stress-causing agent "stressors". His last major contribution was the distinction between negative, that is, distress, and positive, that is, eustress reactions. The "triad of stress" (adrenal hypertrophy, gastrointestinal ulcers, thymolymphatic atrophy) was also first described by Selye, who was fascinated by the fact that in stressed rodents only gastric and not duodenal ulcers would develop. It was not until the recognition of duodenal ulcerogenic properties of propionitrile and cysteamine as well as the subsequent quantitative structure-activity studies predicting the duodenal ulcerogenic action of complex molecules that pathogenetic investigations allowed a molecular and mechanistic approach for studying the etiology and pathogenesis of duodenal ulceration. Recent studies on the role of sulfhydryls, TRH, ET, and growth factors provide new insights into central and peripheral pre-ulcer pathways. We were surprised to learn that an organ-specific ET-1 release may play a role both in ulcer induction and healing, which seems to start with the expression of immediate early genes such as egr-1 and stimulation of the local synthesis of growth factors such as bFGF and PDGF. Thus, a historic review originating with Hans Selye and extending through the next 60 years allows a cellular and molecular approach to the better understanding of stress-related disorders such as gastroduodenal ulceration.
Gabriel A. Knudsen
Full Text Available Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA is the brominated flame retardant with the largest production volume worldwide. NTP 2-year bioassays found TBBPA dose-dependent increases in uterine tumors in female Wistar Han rats; evidence of reproductive tissues carcinogenicity was equivocal in male rats. To explain this apparent sex-dependence, the disposition and toxicokinetic profile of TBBPA were investigated using female Wistar Han rats, as no data were available for female rats. In these studies, the primary route of elimination following [14C]-TBBPA administration (25, 250 or 1000 mg/kg was in feces; recoveries in 72 h were 95.7 ± 3.5%, 94.3 ± 3.6% and 98.8 ± 2.2%, respectively (urine: 0.2–2%; tissues: <0.1. TBBPA was conjugated to mono-glucuronide and -sulfate metabolites and eliminated in the bile. Plasma toxicokinetic parameters for a 250 mg/kg dose were estimated based on free TBBPA, as determined by UV/radiometric-HPLC analyses. Oral dosing by gavage (250 mg/kg resulted in a rapid absorption of compound into the systemic circulation with an observed Cmax at 1.5 h post-dose followed by a prolonged terminal phase. TBBPA concentrations in plasma decreased rapidly after an IV dose (25 mg/kg followed by a long elimination phase. These results indicate low systemic bioavailability (F < 0.05, similar to previous reports using male rats. Elimination pathways appeared to become saturated leading to delayed excretion after a single oral administration of the highest dose (1000 mg/kg; no such saturation or delay was detected at lower doses. Chronic high exposures to TBBPA may result in competition for metabolism with endogenous substrates in extrahepatic tissues (e.g., SULT1E1 estrogen sulfation resulting in endocrine disruption.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammatory mechanisms are important in stroke risk, and genetic variations in components of the inflammatory response have been implicated as risk factors for stroke. We tested the inflammatory gene polymorphisms and their association with ischemic stroke in a Chinese Han population. Methods A total of 1,124 ischemic stroke cases and 1,163 controls were genotyped with inflammatory panel strips containing 51 selected inflammatory gene polymorphisms from 35 candidate genes. We tested the genotype-stroke association with logistic regression model. Results We found two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in CCL11 were associated with ischemic stroke. After adjusting for multiple testing using false discovery rate (FDR with a 0.20 cut-off point, CCL11 rs4795895 remained statistically significant. We further stratified the study population by their hypertension status. In the hypertensive group, CCR2 rs1799864, CCR5 rs1799987 and CCL11 rs4795895 were nominally associated with increased risk of stroke. In the non-hypertensive group, CCL11 rs3744508, LTC4S rs730012, FCER1B rs569108, TGFB1 rs1800469, LTA rs909253 and CCL11 rs4795895 were associated with ischemic stroke. After correction for multiple testing, CCR2 rs1799864 and CCR5 rs1799987 remained significant in the hypertensive group, and CCL11 rs3744508, LTC4S rs730012, FCER1B rs569108, TGFB1 rs1800469, LTA rs909253 remained significant in the non-hypertensive group. Conclusions Our results indicate that inflammatory genetic variants are associated with increased risk of ischemic stroke in a Chinese Han population, particularly in non-hypertensive individuals.
Lv, S-J; Yang, Y; Dwyer, C M; Li, F-K
The aim of this experiment was to study the effects of pen size and parity on maternal behaviour of twin-bearing Small-Tail Han ewes. A total of 24 ewes were allocated to a 2×2 design (six per pen), with parity (primiparous or multiparous) and pen size (large: 6.0×3.0 m; small: 6.0×1.5 m) as main effects at Linyi University, Shandong Province, China. Behaviour was observed from after parturition until weaning. All ewes were observed for 6 h every 5 days from 0700 to1000 h and from 1400 to 1700 h. Continuous focal animal sampling was used to quantify the duration of maternal behaviours: sucking, grooming and following as well as the frequency of udder accepting, udder refusing and low-pitched bleating. Oestradiol and cortisol concentrations in the faeces (collected in the morning every 5 days) were detected using EIA kits. All lambs were weighed 24 h after parturition and again at weaning at 35 days of age. The small pen size significantly reduced following (Pprimiparous ewes (Pprimiparous ewes (P<0.001), and ewes in small pens had higher faecal cortisol levels compared with ewes in larger pens (P<0.001). As lambs increased in age, the duration of maternal grooming, following and suckling as well as frequency of udder acceptance and low-pitched bleating all declined, and the frequency of udder refusing increased (P<0.001 for all). Ewe parity, but not pen size, affected lamb weight gain during the period of observation (P<0.001). This is the first study to show that pen size, interacting with parity, can affect the expression of maternal behaviour in sheep during lactation. The study is also the first to report on the maternal behaviour of Chinese native sheep breeds (Small-Tail Han sheep), with implications for the production of sheep in China.
Cao, Jin; Wang, Chunxia; Zhang, Guang; Ji, Xiang; Liu, Yanxun; Sun, Xiubin; Yuan, Zhongshang; Jiang, Zheng; Xue, Fuzhong
Background: Hyperuricemia (HUA) contributes to gout and many other diseases. Many hyperuricemia-related risk factors have been discovered, which provided the possibility for building the hyperuricemia prediction model. In this study we aimed to explore the incidence of hyperuricemia and develop hyperuricemia prediction models based on the routine biomarkers for both males and females in urban Han Chinese adults. Methods: A cohort of 58,542 members of the urban population (34,980 males and 23,562 females) aged 20–80 years old, free of hyperuricemia at baseline examination, was followed up for a median 2.5 years. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to develop gender-specific prediction models. Harrell’s C-statistics was used to evaluate the discrimination ability of the models, and the 10-fold cross-validation was used to validate the models. Results: In 7139 subjects (5585 males and 1554 females), hyperuricemia occurred during a median of 2.5 years of follow-up, leading to a total incidence density of 49.63/1000 person years (64.62/1000 person years for males and 27.12/1000 person years for females). The predictors of hyperuricemia were age, body mass index (BMI) systolic blood pressure, serum uric acid for males, and BMI, systolic blood pressure, serum uric acid, triglycerides for females. The models’ C statistics were 0.783 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.779–0.786) for males and 0.784 (95% CI, 0.778–0.789) for females. After 10-fold cross-validation, the C statistics were still steady, with 0.782 for males and 0.783 for females. Conclusions: In this study, gender-specific prediction models for hyperuricemia for urban Han Chinese adults were developed and performed well.
Full Text Available Previous studies have suggested an important role for IL-17, mainly secreted by Th17 cells, in the development of systemic inflammation in preeclampsia (PE. This study therefore investigated the association between genetic variants in IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-17RA and susceptibility to PE in Chinese Han women. We recruited 1,031 PE patients and 1,298 controls of later pregnant women, and used TaqMan allelic discrimination real-time PCR to genotype the polymorphisms of IL17A rs2275913, IL-17F rs763780, and IL-17RA rs4819554. No significant differences in genotypic or allelic frequencies were found at all three polymorphic sites between PE patients and controls (rs2275913: genotype χ2 = 0.218, p = 0.897 and allele χ2 = 0.157, p = 0.692, OR = 1.024, 95%CI 0.911-1.152; rs763780: genotype χ2 = 1.948, p = 0.377 and allele χ2 = 1.242, p = 0.265, OR = 0.897, 95%CI 0.741-1.086; rs4819554: genotype χ2 = 0.633, p = 0.729 and allele χ2 = 0.115, p = 0.735, OR = 1.020, 95%CI 0.908-1.146. There were also no significant differences in genetic distributions between mild/severe PE or early/late-onset PE and control subgroups. Our data indicate that the genetic variants of rs2275913 in IL-17A, rs763780 in IL-17F, and rs4819554 in IL-17RA may not play a role in the pathogenesis of PE in Chinese Han women. However, these findings should be confirmed in other ethnic populations.
Yuan, Li; Ge, Jianye; Lu, Di; Yang, Xue
Allele frequencies and forensic statistics of 21 autosomal short tandem repeat loci (i.e., D6S474, D12ATA63, D22S1045, D10S1248, D1S1677, D11S4463, D1S1627, D3S4529, D2S441, D6S1017, D4S2408, D19S433, D17S1301, D1GATA113, D18S853, D20S482, D14S1434, D9S1122, D2S1776, D10S1435 and D5S2500) were estimated in Han population from northern China (n = 220). Significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was detected only for D22S1045. The observed heterozygosity, the expected heterozygosity, the discrimination power, the probability of paternity exclusion in trios, the probability of paternity exclusion in duos and the polymorphic information content ranged from 0.591 to 0.836, 0.594 to 0.830, 0.762 to 0.948, 0.341 to 0.659, 0.189 to 0.487 and 0.535 to 0.807, respectively. Triallelic patterns were observed at D19S433 and D10S1435. Mutations occurred at D22ATA63, D10S1248, D19S433 and D14S1434 loci with all single-step mutations. The expected mutation rates of these four loci are 0.0042 with 95% confidence interval [0.0001, 0.0232] in a total of 238 meioses. Our results show that these 21 non-CODIS STR loci are highly polymorphic and can be useful for human identification and kinship analysis in Northern Han population in China.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: Cytokine-inducible SRC homology 2 domain protein (CISH is the first member of the suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS protein family. An association between multiple CISH polymorphisms and susceptibility to infectious diseases has been reported. This study aimed to investigate the possible association of these single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in CISH gene with different outcomes of Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection. METHODS: 1019 unrelated Chinese Han subjects, including 240 persistent asymptomatic HBV carriers, 217 chronic hepatitis B patients, 137 HBV-related liver cirrhosis patients, and 425 cases of spontaneously recovered HBV as controls, were studied. Four SNPs (rs622502, rs2239751, rs414171 and rs6768300 in CISH gene were genotyped with the snapshot technique. Transcriptional activity of the CISH promoter was assayed in vitro using the dual-luciferase reporter assay system. RESULTS: At position rs414171, A allele and AA genotype frequencies were significantly higher in the HBV-resolved group as compared to the persistent HBV infection group. At position rs2239751, TT genotype was further observed in the HBV-resolved group. Using asymptomatic HBV carriers as controls, our results indicated that the rs414171 and rs2239751 polymorphisms were unrelated to HBV progression. The other two SNPs (rs622502 and rs6768300 showed no association with persistent HBV infection. Haplotype analysis revealed that the GGCA haplotype was associated with spontaneous clearance of HBV in this population. Moreover, luciferase activity was significantly higher in the PGL3-Basic-rs414171T construct as compared to the PGL3-Basic-rs414171A construct (p<0.001. CONCLUSION: Two SNPs (rs414171 and rs2239751 in the CISH gene were associated with persistent HBV infection in Han Chinese population, but not with HBV progression.
Full Text Available Interleukin (IL-17 is a proinflammatory cytokine mainly secreted by activated T helper 17 cells and involved in inflammatory immune responses. This study aimed to investigate the association between IL-17 variants as well as serum IL-17 levels with gout in male Chinese Han individuals. A total of 1,101 male gout patients and 1,239 ethic-matched controls were enrolled. Genetic distributions of three variants (rs2275913 in IL-17A, rs763780 in IL-17F, and rs4819554 in IL-17RA were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction using the Taqman probe method. The plasma concentrations of IL-17A and IL-17F were measured in 228 gout patients and 198 controls that came from above samples by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. No significant differences were observed in the genetic distribution of these polymorphisms between cases and controls (rs2275913: χ2 = 0.15, p = 0.928 by genotype, χ2 = 0.14, p = 0.711 by allele; rs763780: χ2 = 2.24, p = 0.326 by genotype, χ2 = 0.26, p = 0.609 by allele; rs4819554: χ2 = 1.79, p = 0.409 by genotype, χ2 = 1.46, p = 0.227 by allele. Levels of serum IL-17A and IL-17F were significantly decreased in gout patients (both p0.05. Although the genetic variants in IL-17 we studied in this research do not appear to be involved in the development of gout in male Chinese Han individuals, the IL-17 cytokine family may participate in gouty inflammation in an undefined way, which requires further validation.
Yan, Aijuan; Cai, Gaoyu; Fu, Ningzhen; Feng, Yulan; Sun, Jialan; Maimaiti, Yiming; Zhou, Weijun; Fu, Yi
Recent research on genome-wide associations has implicated that the serum resistin level and its gene polymorphism are associated with cerebral infarction (CI) morbidity and prognosis, and could thereby regulate CI. This study aimed to investigate the association between the resistin single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and the susceptibility to CI in the Chinese Han population. A total of 550 CI patients and 313 healthy controls were genotyped. Nine SNPs of the resistin gene previously shown were sequenced and assessed for an association with CI. The numbers of GG genotype carriers of rs3219175 and rs3486119 in the CI group were significantly higher than those in the control group among the middle-aged group (aged 45-65), at 76% vs 67.9% (P=0.025) and 75.5% vs 67.9% (P=0.031). rs3219175 and rs34861192 were associated with CI in the dominant and superdominant models according to the genetic model analysis (P<0.05). Meanwhile, there was strong linkage disequilibrium among the rs34124816, rs3219175, rs34861192, rs1862513, rs3745367, 180C/G and rs3745369 sites. In a haplotype analysis, the occurrence rate of the haplotype AGGCAGC was 1.97 times (P<0.05) higher in the patient group than in the control group. In addition, the numbers of GG genotype carriers of rs3219175 and rs3486119 in the middle-aged male CI patients and the middle-aged small artery occlusion (SAO) CI patients were higher than those in the control group (P<0.05). In the Chinese Han middle-aged population, the GG gene type carriers of the resistin gene sites rs3219175 and rs34861192 had a high risk for CI onset, especially in middle-aged male patients and SAO CI in all middle-aged patients. PMID:27699082
Zhang, Yan; Li, Sha; Zhu, Cheng-Gang; Guo, Yuan-Lin; Wu, Na-Qiong; Xu, Rui-Xia; Dong, Qian; Liu, Geng; Li, Jian-Jun
ABO blood type locus has been reported to have ethnic difference and to be a pivotal genetic determinant of cardiovascular risk, whereas few prospective data regarding the impact on cardiovascular outcomes are available in a large cohort of patients with angiography-proven coronary artery disease, especially from the Chinese population. The objective of this study was to assess the prognostic role of blood type in future cardiovascular events (CVEs) in Chinese Han patients undergoing coronary angiography.The population of this prospective cohort study consisted of 3823 eligible patients, and followed annually to capture all CVEs. Baseline characteristics and ABO blood type were obtained. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the risk of ABO blood type on CVEs.New CVEs occurred in 348 patients [263 (10.3%) non-O and 85 (7.8%) O] during a median period of 24.6 months follow-up. Significantly, non-O blood group was related to the presence and severity of coronary atherosclerosis and several risk factors including inflammatory markers. The log-rank test revealed that there was a significant difference between non-O and O blood groups in event-free survival analysis (P = 0.026). In particular, the Cox proportional hazards models revealed that non-O blood type was associated with increased CVEs risk [hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) 1.320 (1.033-1.685)], even after adjusting for potential confounders [adjusted hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) non-O: 1.289 (1.003-1.656); A: 1.083 (0.797-1.472); B: 1.481 (1.122-1.955); AB: 1.249 (0.852-1.831), respectively].Non-O blood type is associated with future CVEs in Chinese Han patients undergoing coronary angiography.
Zhu-qing JIN; Wei-feng JI; Jian-gang ZHANG; Yong-sheng FAN; Jing DING; Mei CHEN; Wei FAN; Guang-ji ZHANG; Bin-hui ZHANG; Suo-jing YU; Yong-sheng ZHANG
AIM: To study the association between APOE polymorphisms and cerebral infarction through a case-control study among the Chinese Han population. METHODS: First-ever cerebral infarction patients (n=226) whose ages ranged from 40 to 60 years old were recruited from Department of Neurology, Zhongshan Hospital, Shanghai, and Zhejiang Chinese Traditional Medicine Hospital, Zhejiang, China. Unrelated healthy controls (n=201) were selected from the general population in the same area with similar age and sex distribution. APOE was amplified by one-stage PCR using the forward primer: 5'-GGC ACG GCT GTC CAA GGA GCT-3' and reverse primer: 5'-GAT GGC GCT GAG GCC GCG CT-3'. The PCR product was digested directly with 5 U of CfoI and separated by a 20 % polyacrylamide (acrylamide: bis-acrylamide=29:1) nondenaturing gel. RESULTS: Both cerebral infarction patient and control groups were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The allele frequency ofAPOE*2, APOE*3, and APOE*4 was 4.6 %,81.9 %, and 13.5 % respectively in the patients with cerebral infarction; 5.7 %, 87.3 %, and 7.0 % respectively in the healthy control group. Compared with APOE3/3 subjects, APOE4/4 carriers had a 2.1-fold risk of cerebral infarction (odds ratio 2.1, 95 % confidence limits 1.3 to 3.4). The allele frequency of APOE*4 in the cerebral infarction patient group was significantly higher than that in the control group (13.5 % vs 7.0 %; P=0.002).CONCLUSION: APOE 4 is a risk factor for cerebral infarction among the Chinese Han population.
Fu, Lingyu; Zhao, Yanyan; Wu, Xiaomei; Liu, Hong; Shi, Jingpu; Lu, Jingyu; Zhou, Bo
This study investigated the association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; rs3808607 and rs1125226) within the CYP7A1 promoter and hypertension susceptibility in a Han Chinese population. From 2003 through 2006, a population-based case-control study was performed in a cohort of 1187 randomly selected Han Chinese subjects. A sib-pair study for a transmission disequilibrium test analysis was carried out in 76 hypertensive (HT) families (n=312) from northeastern Liaoning province. SNPs were detected using real-time PCR. No significant differences were found in the genotype or allele frequencies of either SNP (P>0.05), with no excessive allele sharing. For rs3808607, the frequency of the AA genotype in obese hypertensive patients was 31.91%, significantly higher than in normotensive (NT) subjects (12.73%; odds ratio (OR)=3.21, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.35-7.66). For rs3808607, the AA genotype frequency was significantly higher in obese male HT subjects (27.87%) than in matched NTs (7.41%; OR=4.83, 95% CI=1.03-22.65). After adjustment for environmental risk factors in obese participants, the AA genotype was associated with hypertension (OR=3.395, 95% CI=1.412-8.162). Among subjects with body mass index 28 kg m(-2), the HT and NT groups had significantly different frequencies of Hap I (C/C) and Hap IV (A/A). The frequencies of rs3808607 alleles in the CYP7A1 gene differed significantly between obese HT and NT men. Haplotypes I and IV were associated with hypertension in obese participants.
Zhao, G L; Li, Q J; Lu, H Y
The enzyme endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS3) is an important mediator of atherosclerotic disease and is associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). There is growing evidence that polymorphisms in NOS3 influence the progression of CAD; however, there is also a controversy regarding the association of polymorphisms in the gene encoding NOS3 and CAD. To determine if the NOS3 genetic variants are associated with CAD in the Han Chinese, we examined the potential association between CAD and eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs1799983, rs2070744, rs11771443, rs3918188, rs2853796, rs7830, rs1541861, and rs2853792) of the NOS3 using the MassARRAY system. The allelic and genotypic frequencies of the rs1799983 (promoter regions) and rs2070744 (intron 1) polymorphisms in patients with CAD were significantly different from those in healthy controls. These patients had significantly higher frequencies of the rs1799983 T allele (χ2 = 7.717, P = 0.007, OR = 1.649, 95%CI = 1.41-2.382) and the rs2070744 G allele (χ2 = 4.548, P = 0.033, OR = 1.490, 95%CI = 1.031-2.153). Strong linkage disequilibrium was observed in three blocks (D' > 0.9). In block 1, significantly more T-T-C haplotypes (χ2 = 5.537, P = 0.019, OR = 0.632, 95%CI = 0.430-0.927) were found in controls. These findings point to a role for NOS3 polymorphisms in CAD in the Chinese Han population, and may be useful for future investigations on the pathogenesis of CAD.
CAO Qian; ZHU Qin; WU Min-liang; HU Wei-ling; GAO Min; SI Jian-min
Background Tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) is an important proinflammatory cytokine that has been implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Recent studies have evaluated the role of TNF promoter polymorphisms in IBD, whereas the data are inconsistent. Trans-racial mapping in an ethnically distinct but homogenous population may help clarify these associations. We investigate the association between TNF promoter polymorphisms and susceptibility to ulcerative colitis (UC) in the Chinese Han ethnic population.Methods We studied 110 unrelated UC patients and 292 healthy controls from Zhejiang Province, China.Genotyping for 6 common TNF promoter polymorphisms (TNF -1031T/C, -863C/A, -857C/T, -380G/A,-308G/A, -238G/A) was carried out by polymerase chain reaction sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP).Results TNF-308A was associated with disease (allele frequency patients 14.6% vs controls 8.9%, P=0.02).TNF -857T was increased in patients but without statistical significance (allele frequency 17.3% vs 12.2%,P=0.06). Haplotype analysis revealed 6 haplotypes including two (H5 and H3), which contained TNF -308A. H5was associated with disease (haplotype frequency patients -12.3% vs controls 7.5%, P=0.03). Of note the rare haplotype H3 has not previously been identified in Caucasian populations. Homozygosity for the haplotype H4comprising the common alleles at each TNF promoter single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was negatively associated with disease (patients vs controls 24.5% vs 34.9%, P＜0.05).Conclusions We report the association with TNF -308A polymorphisms in Chinese patients with ulcerative colitis. The functional study in Chinese Han ethnic population is now required.
Chen, F; Zhou, J; Xue, Y; Yang, S; Xiong, M; Li, Y; Liu, Q
A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the TNRC9 gene was identified as a breast cancer susceptibility genetic variant in recent genome-wide association studies of women of European ancestry. We investigated whether TNRC9 polymorphisms are associated with risk of breast cancer in Chinese women of the Han nationality. We genotyped the SNPs rs3803662, rs1362548, rs1123428 in 870 women, including 388 breast cancer patients and 482 healthy controls, via the PCR-single strand conformation polymorphism procedure and by sequence detection. We found that the T allele and the TT genotype of the SNP rs38033662 is significantly associated with risk for breast cancer in Chinese Han women; however, no significant association was found for rs1362548 or rs1123428. We conclude that SNP rs3803662 is a putative risk factor for breast cancer in Chinese Han women.
Yang, Li-Tao; Wang, Ning; Li, Zeng-Xian; Liu, Cui; He, Xin; Zhang, Jian-Fei; Han, Hua; Wen, You-Feng; Qian, Yi-Hua; Xi, Huan-Jiu
The study of somatotypes has important significance for medical and physical anthropology as well as sports science. The aim of this study was to understand the somatotype components of the Han population in Xi'an and compare the somatotypes of the Han and five other nationalities in China. The study sample consisted of 429 people of Han nationality (207 males, 222 females) from Xi'an, China, aged ≥20 years old. The Heath-Carter anthropometric method was employed. We evaluated the differences in age and sex by one-way ANOVA and t test. A comparison of somatotypes between the Han and other nationalities was made using the U test. The results showed that the male and female samples all could be classified as having a mesomorphic endomorph profile. The difference in endomorphy was strongest between sexes in all age groups (P < 0.01). There were prominent differences in mesomorphy and ectomorphy between males and females in the 50-59- and ≥60-year-old age groups. In females, the differences in somatotype components appeared to be distinguished between ages (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05). However, in males, there were prominent differences in somatotype components between the 20-29 year olds and all other age groups (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05) except for between those 20-29 and ≥60 years old in endomorphy. Compared with the other five nationalities, there were prominent differences in somatotype components between males and females. These results suggest that the somatotype of the Han population in Xi'an, China, has a predominantly mesomorphic endomorph profile. The endomorphic component shows distinct differences between ages and genders, respectively. Additionally, there are distinct differences in the somatotype components between Xi'an Han and five other nationalities in China in males and females.
Hendricks, Vincent Fella
Donald Trump vandt primærvalget ved hjælp af personangreb. I præsidentvalgkampens slutspurt har han nu taget den strategi op igen, selvom alle dømte den ude – og det er måske slet ikke så dumt, for det er det, Trump kan......Donald Trump vandt primærvalget ved hjælp af personangreb. I præsidentvalgkampens slutspurt har han nu taget den strategi op igen, selvom alle dømte den ude – og det er måske slet ikke så dumt, for det er det, Trump kan...
A. J. Groenewald
Full Text Available Nietzsche's theorem 'God-is-dead' and the reading models of HansKüng and Jürgen Moltmann. In this article the meaning and significance of Nietzsche's theorem 'God-is-dead' is examined. Through the reading models of Hans Küng and Jürgen Moltmann, an atempt is made to indicate that Nietzsche did not per se acknowledged or denied the existence of God. These reading models, although different, eliminate vaious theological misunderstandings and misinterpretations. This is important for the current theological debate.
Hao; Liang; Hui-Yi; Zuo; Jin-Mao; Chen; Jie; Cai; Yu-Zhua; Qin; Yu-Ping; Huang; Ying-Ying; Chen; Dong-Yong; Tang; Shao-Jian; Tan
AIM: To investigate the corneal endothelial cell density and morphology and central corneal thickness in the Guangxi Maonan and Han adolescent students of China.METHODS: Noncontact specular microscope(Topcon SP3000 P, Tokyo, Japan) was performed in 133 adolescent students of Maonan nationality(M:F 54:79)and 105 adolescent students of Han nationality(M:F 50:55),5 to 20 y of age, who were randomly selected from 3schools in Huanjiang Maonan Autonomous County of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of China.Parameters studied included endothelial cell density,mean cell area, coefficient of variation in cell size,percentage hexagonality and central corneal thickness. RESULTS: Endothelial cell density, mean cell area,coefficient of variation in cell size, percentage hexagonality and central corneal thickness in the study population were(2969.50 ±253.93) cells/mm2,(339.23 ±29.44) μm2,(29.96 ±4.07) %,(64.58 ±9.41) % and(523.71 ±32.82) μm in Maonan and(2998.26 ±262.65) cells/mm2,(336.11±30.07) μm2,(29.89±5.03) %,(64.91±11.64) % and(524.39 ±33.15) μm in Han, respectively. No significant differences were observed in endothelial cell density,mean cell area, coefficient of variation in cell size,percentage hexagonality and central corneal thickness between Maonan and Han(P =0.615, 0.659, 0.528, 0.551,0.999). In Maonan and Han, we found age was negatively correlated with endothelial cell density and percentagehexagonality and positively correlated with mean cell area and coefficient of variation in cell size. Negative correlation was also found between central corneal thickness and age in Han, whereas no correlation was found in Maonan. CONCLUSION: There were no differences between Maonan and Han in corneal endothelial cell density and morphology and central corneal thickness. In these two nationalities, there were statistically significant decrease in endothelial cell density and percentage hexagonality with increasing age and statistically significant increase in
田黎明; 谢红付; 杨婷; 胡耀华; 李吉; 王玮蓁
In this case-control study,the relationship between M196R(676 T→G) variant in exon 6 of tumor necrosis factor receptor type 2(TNFR2) gene and genetic susceptibility of acne vulgaris in Han Chinese was investigated.A total of 93 acne vulgaris patients and 90 healthy subjects from Han Chinese ethnic group were enrolled in this study.Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism(PCR-RFLP) technique was adopted to analyze the single nucleotide polymorphisms(SNPs) of TNFR2 M196R gene,and to ...
In Jiang Jia Gou gully, the height drop is 2 227 m, the percentage of forest cover is only 8.59%, the average gradient is in the range of 35°～45° and the slope cutting density is 6.35 kw/kw2. There are 200 or more lateral ditches in different sizes in Jiang Jia Gou, and the loose solid material reserves of its upper and middle reaches are about 1.23×109 m3 . Under the effects of inside and outside stress, debris flow takes place 12～20 times per year, making the percentage of exposed field get to 26.1%. The ecosystem in Jiang Jia Gou keep in degrading and it is very difficult to restore vegetation there. Common Eulaliopsis ( Eulaliopsis binata ) basal leaf sheath and flower head are densely fluffy, while Common Eulaliopsis has the characteristic of drought enduring and the adaptability of growing in poor soil. In Jiang Jia Gou gully, we have succeeded in planting the introduced Common Eulaliopsis in breeding holes, contour ridge and contour trench by the method of plant division breeding, direct seeding and seedling transplantation. Seedlings drought - resistance preserve rate is 2 times more than that of self-grown grass when Common Eulaliopsis is applied in slopes where debris content is greater than 40 %. Survival rate and preserve rate of seedling transplantation are 1.4 times and 2 times, respectively, that of direct seeding. In this method, the percentage of grass cover can get to 80 %, the yield of hay is 5 602.8 kg/hm2, and the thickness of surface litter layer is 2～3 cm. We also find the content of soil organic substance can increase 16 times, the base of grassy can retain debris and sand layer thick in 2～3 crm, and the root of it, which is as long as 0.5～1 m, can fix soil of 0.2～0.3 m3. In contrast with exposed field, the grass field with Common Eulaliopsis can lower the land temperature to 48 % of former field, increase the moisture content and porosity of soil to 3.2 times and 1.6 times respectively. Experiments shows that introducing
中国士人自古就有以道自任之传统，但其作为整体力量的发抒，则是在东汉一朝。东汉士林在与外戚、宦官针锋相对的斗争中显示出直面生死、抗愤奸邪的勇气，谱写了一曲士林的正气之歌。范晔《后汉书》序论赞对东汉士林精神作了历史性阐发，对后世士人精神气骨有很大的溉养之功。%Scholars of China have a good tradition of dedicating themselves to Tao.They make a show of whole force in Eastern Han.When they wage tit-for-tat struggle against eunuch and the relatives of an emperor on side of his mother or wife,scholars of Eastern Han show courage of facing death unflinchingly.Compliment com-mentary of the Book ofLater Han elucidate historic to scholars’spirit of Eastern Han,composing a healthy trend melody of scholars and having deep effect on scholars’spirit of later ages.
The method of immunohistochemistry assay for the detection of scrapie in Chinese Short-tailed Han sheep was established using monoclonal antibody. Genomic DNA was isolated from Chinese Short-tailed Han sheep blood. Using the polymerase chain reaction technique, PrP27-30 gene sequence was amplified from Chinese Short-tailed Han sheep genomic DNA. By recombinant DNA technology, the recombinant protein of Chinese Short-tailed Han sheep PrP27-30 was obtained. Then, using standard methodology of myeloma cell fusion, a panel of monoclonal antibodies was generated. With mAbs, scrapie in Chinese Short-tailed Han sheep was detected by immunohistochemistry assay. The recombinant protein of Chinese Short-tailed Han sheep PrP27-30 was obtained and a panel of six hybridoma cell lines secreting specific antibodies to Chinese Short-tailed Han sheep PrP27-30 related to scrapie was obtained with one fusion between myeloma Sp2/0 and spleen cells from mice immunized with the purified recombinant protein. Four hybridoma cell lines can be used in immunohistochemistry assay for the detection of scrapie in Chinese Short-tailed Han sheep. So that the special monoclonal antibody developed in author's institute can be used to detect PrPsc of scrapie in Chinese Short-tailed Han sheep by immunohistochemistry in China.
History of Han Dynasty recorded in the prequel Emperor Wu Di of Han dynasty. Additions and deletions to“The Re⁃cords of the Grand Historian”, the description of Han Xin is no exception. Through the related comparison of “The Records of the Grand Historian ” and History of Han Dynasty about Han Xin in the records it is found that Ban Gu made changes to the original, mainly for the addition, deletion and revision. Reading between the lines presents the history and characters of different cognitive e⁃valuation. At the same time, the writing styles of the two authors have different features, in the account of Han Xin’ s real-time bright performance. From the subtlety to start with Han Xin’ s analysis of the similarities and differences between Sima Qian and Ban Gu’ s narration, the different historical connotation is the focus of the paper.%《汉书》记载汉武帝以前纪传，多在引用《史记》原有材料的基础上进行增删补充，其对于韩信的记述也不例外。通过比较《史》《汉》中与韩信有关的历史撰述可发现，班固在摘录旧文时因材料取舍标准不同及个人治史思想差异而进行改动，其变更表现为增、删、改三方面，并于文字变化中呈现出与司马迁不同的史事认知和人物评价。同时，两位作者的语言文笔各有特点，这在记写韩信相关史实时表现鲜明。从细微处入手，以韩信为切入点剖析班马异同，有针对性地分析所考篇章不同处的史学内涵。
SUN Xiu-qin; LUO Ying-ying; AN Ling-wang; CHU Lin; HUO Li-li; HAN Xue-yao; ZHOU Xiang-hai; REN Qian; JI Li-nong
Background The Akt2 protein kinase is thought to be a key mediator of the insulin signal transduction process. Akt2 is suggested to play a role in glucose metabolism and the development or maintenance of proper adipose tissue and islet mass. In order to determine whether the Akt2 gene plays a role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes characterized by insulin resistance, and to further identify if variations in this gene have a relationship with type 2 diabetes, we sequenced the entire coding region and splice junctions of Akt2 and made a further case-control study to explore the association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in this gene and type 2 diabetes in the Chinese Han population.Methods We selected 23 probands with a type 2 diabetic pedigree whose family members' average onset age was within 25 to 45 years old. The body mass index of all the participants was lower than 28 kg/m2 and all of them were insulin-resistant (the fasting insulin level ＞100 pmol/L or 16 μlU/ml). The entire coding region and splice junctions of Akt2 were directly sequenced in these 23 probands. SNPs with a frequency of minor allele over 20 percent were selected to be further studied in a case-control study. We chose 743 non-diabetic subjects as the control group and 742 type 2 diabetic patients as the case group. All these subjects were genotyped. A Snapshot Technology Platform (Applied Biosystems) was used for genotyping.Results The Akt2 genes from all 23 subjects were successfully sequenced. We did not identify any mutation in the type 2 diabetic pedigree. Two SNPs were identified, 13010323T＞C and 13007939G＞T. 13010323T＞C was in intron 9, which was the location of rs2304188 reported in Genbank. Its minor allele frequency was 13.04%. 13007939G＞T was in the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of exon 14, which was the location of rs2304186 reported in Genbank. Its minor allele frequency was 34.78%. The allele frequency of rs2304188 and rs2304186 were consistent with
Full Text Available PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to examine whether or not hepatocyte growth factor (HGF genetic variations are associated with susceptibility to primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG in the Han Chinese population. METHODS: Three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs-rs5745718, rs17427817, and rs3735520-in the HGF gene were genotyped in 238 adult patients with PACG and 287 age-, sex-, and ethnically matched healthy controls by using a polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. Data was analyzed by χ(2 analysis. RESULTS: The three tested analyzed polymorphisms in the HGF gene were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, in all the subjects. The frequencies of the genotype and allele of rs5745718 and rs1742817 in the HGF gene were significantly different between the PACG patients and the controls. On one hand, the frequencies of the CC genotype and C allele of rs5745718 were significantly decreased in PACG patients compared with controls (Pc = 1.40×10(-3; Pc = 3.21×10(-4, respectively; however, on the other hand, significantly decreased frequencies of the GG genotype and the G allele of rs17427817 were observed in PACG patients compared with the controls (Pc = 0.006,; Pc = 6.06×10(-4, respectively. A comparison of the distributions of the genotypes and alleles of rs3735520 showed no statistically significant differences between the PACG patients and the controls (pc>0.05. The haplotype analysis results showed that the CGC haplotype frequency was significantly decreased in the patients with PACG compared with the controls (pc<0.001. No difference was detected between the patients and the controls with regard to the other haplotypes. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that rs5745718 and rs17427817 are associated with a decreased risk of PACG in the Chinese Han population. The CGC haplotype was demonstrated to possibly play a protective role against PACG in this population.
Full Text Available Wei Li,* Qi Qiu,* Lin Sun, Ling Yue, Tao Wang, Xia Li, Shifu Xiao Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Disorders Center, Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Sex differences in Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment have been well recognized. However, sex differences in cognitive function and obesity in cognitively normal aging Chinese Han population have not attracted much attention. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between sex, obesity, and cognitive function in an elderly Chinese population with normal cognitive function. Subjects and methods: A total of 228 cognitively normal aging participants (males/females =93/135 entered this study. Their general demographic information (sex, age, and education was collected by standardized questionnaire. Apolipoprotein E (APOE genotype and serum lipid levels were measured. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA was used to assess participants’ cognitive function. Results: The prevalence of obesity in elderly women (18/133, 13.5% was significantly higher than that in men (5/92, 5.4%, P=0.009. Regression analyses showed that obesity was associated with drinking alcohol (OR =13.695, P=0.045 and triglyceride (OR =1.436, P=0.048 in women and limited to low-density lipoprotein (OR =11.829, P=0.023 in men. Women performed worse on the naming score for MoCA than men (P<0.01. Stepwise linear regression analysis showed that education (t=3.689, P<0.001 and smoking (t=2.031, P=0.045 were related to the score of naming in female, while high-density lipoprotein (t=–2.077, P=0.041 was related to the score of naming in male; however, no correlation was found between body mass index and cognitive function in both male and female (P>0.05. Conclusion: Our finding suggests that there are significant sex differences in obesity and
Full Text Available Despite Apolipoprotein E (ApoE being one of the main apolipoproteins in the blood, the association between its genotype and the high cholesterol or blood glucose levels commonly seen in clinical practice is inconclusive. Such research is also lacking in the Han population. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between APOE genotype, diabetes, and plasma glucose and lipid levels. We included 243 community-dwelling elderly residents in this study. Participant APOE genotypes were assessed and were simultaneously tested for weight, height, blood glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, and high- and low-density lipoprotein. In addition, gender, age, years of education, cognitive function, and medical history was recorded. Subjects were divided into 3 groups based on APOE genotype: APOE ε2 group (ε2/ε2 and ε2/ε3, APOE ε3 group (ε3/ε3, and APOE ε4 group (ε2/ε4, ε3/ε4 and ε4/ε4. Comparisons between groups were conducted for the incidence of diabetes, high blood pressure, and dementia, as well as for differences in body-mass index, fasting plasma glucose, and blood lipids. The APOE ε3/ε3 genotype exhibited the highest frequency (70.4% among the subjects. Participants in the APOE ε3 group demonstrated significantly higher levels of fasting plasma glucose than those in the APOE ε2 and APOE ε4 groups (P<0.05. The APOE ε3 group had slightly higher abnormal fasting plasma glucose values than did the APOE ε2 group (P = 0.065. Furthermore, the APOE3 genotype was significantly correlated with both fasting plasma glucose level and glucose abnormality (P< 0.05 and trended toward statistically significant correlation with diabetes (P = 0.082. The correlation between APOE2 and low low-density lipoprotein levels also approached statistical significance (P = 0.052. Thus, elderly community dwelling residents of Han ethnicity carrying the APOE ε3/ε3 genotype might have higher plasma glucose levels and a higher occurrence of
This paper purports to identify and analyze the medical information of the frontline soldiers in the Northwest borderland provinces of Han Dynasty, especially Juyan and Dunhuang region, through an heuristic reading of the Juyan Bamboo Slips and the Dunhuang Bamboo Slips of the Han Dynasty. My findings are as follows. The most frequent disease found in the bamboo slips was the external injury. The injury of the frontline soldiers mainly occurred from the quarrels among armed soldiers using weapons. The bamboo slips also demonstrate that the quarrels usually arose due to the fierce tension caused by the frontier line service such as heavy guard activity and labour duty. Undernourishment and chronic stress the soldiers suffered might be another reasons. The second most common disease harassing the soldiers was exogenous febrile disease. In most cases reviewed in this paper, the exogenous febrile disease was usually concurrent with complex symptoms such as chills, fever, headache, etc. The bamboo slips show that the exogenous febrile disease was related to the harsh climate of the Northwest provinces, featuring extremely dry weather and the large magnitude of diurnal temperature fluctuations. In addition, the annual temperature range in the Northwest province was huge, fluctuating between very cold and dry winter and very hot and dry summer. The third most common disease this study identified was the disorder of the digestive system and respiratory system. However, these two types of disease were virtually indistinguishable in the bamboo slips, because the ancient Chinese chroniclers did not distinguish them, usually dubbing both diseases simply 'abdominal pain.' It should be mentioned that a few slips mention contagious disease such as dysentery and dermatolosis, and sudden death, as well. Overall, the bamboo slips demonstrate extremely poor status of the soldiers' heath condition and poor medical environment surrounding the soldiers stationing in the Northwest
GU Chen-juan; LI Min; LI Qing-yun; LI Ning; SHI Guo-chao; WAN Huan-ying
Background Increasingly,evidence from population,clinic-based and laboratory studies supports an independent association between obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and an increased risk of type 2 diabetes; however,this observation has yet to be replicated in China and the potential mechanisms that link these two conditions are not clear.Methods A total of 179 Han Chinese subjects were enrolled in this study.All subjects underwent polysomnography,the oral glucose tolerance-insulin releasing test (OGTT-IRT) and serum HbA1c measurement.Indexes including homeostasis model assessment-IR (HOMA-IR),Matsuda index,HOMA-β,early phase insulinogenic index (△I30 / △G30),AUC-I180 and oral disposition index (DIo) were calculated for the assessment of insulin resistance and pancreatic β-cell function.Results Based on OGTT,25.4％,44.6％ and 54.5％ subjects were diagnosed having glucose metabolic disorders respectively in control,mild to moderate and severe OSAS groups (P ＜0.05).Serum HbA1c levels were highest in subjects with severe OSAS (P ＜0.05).In contrast,compared with normal subjects,HOMA-β,△I30/△G30 and DIo were lower in severe OSAS group (P ＜0.05).In stepwise multiple linear regressions,0-min glucose and HbA1c were positively correlated with the percentage of total sleep time below an oxyhemoglobin saturation of 90％ (T90) (Beta =0.215 and 0.368,P ＜0.05); 30-min and 60-min glucose was negatively correlated with the lowest SpO2 (LSpO2) (Beta =-0.214 and -0.241,P ＜0.05).HOMA-β and Dlowere negatively correlated with T90 (Beta =-0.153 and-0.169,P ＜0.05) while body mass index (BMI) was the only determinant of HOMA-IR and Matsuda index.Conclusions OSAS is associated with impairment in glucose tolerance and pancreatic β-cell function in Han Chinese subjects while insulin sensitivity is mainly determined by obesity.
Loos, Sibren; Sumihar, Julius; Min, Joong-Hyuk; El Serafy, Ghada; Kim, Kyunghyun; Weerts, Albrecht
Data assimilation in operational systems is a promising method to enhance the lead-time and reduce the uncertainty of water quality forecasts and provides a good base for the setup of monitoring schemes in large catchments (locations and frequency of sampling). In the River Han (Korea) three weirs have been constructed to prevent flooding and improve the water quality in the main stream. With real-time automated data imports and two water quality models, HSPF and EFDC, embedded in the FEWS-NIER forecasting platform, information about the current water quality status and daily water quality forecasts seven days ahead is provided to -water management agencies in the basin. To improve both the quality and the lead time of the water quality forecasts the EFDC hydrodynamics and water quality model has been implemented in OpenDA, an open interface standard for data assimilation (DA) in numerical models. The setup of this real-time water quality data assimilation system to enhance the algal dynamics modelling and the forecasts in the Han River basin (20,960 km² in size) was performed by a number of steps using Ensemble Kalman Filtering (EnKF). Using a twin experiment the correct working of the algorithm was tested. Noise was applied to several water quality variables in the main tributaries with a sequential simulation algorithm, to obtain correct noise settings that result in a realistic spread between the individual ensemble members. As the next step, the inclusion of observations in the main stream for data assimilation was tested using the EnKF algorithm to define their effect on the model results. Noise was applied to global solar radiation to improve water temperature forecasts, as well as to phosphate, nitrate and chlorophyll-α concentrations in the large tributaries to improve the prediction of algal level upstream of the weirs. Different combinations of noise and observation settings (standard deviation and time correlation) to find the best model update of
Huang, Fuhua; Li, Li; Shen, Chong; Wang, Hairu; Chen, Jinfeng; Chen, Wen; Chen, Xin
Antecedentes: Factor de crecimiento transformante receptor II (TGFBR2) es un componente clave de la via de señalización de TGF - .TGFBR2 puede ser detectado en la generación de corazón. Los embriones de ratón de TGFBR2 gene knockout mostraron defectos congénitos del corazon. Métodos: Hemos realizado un estudio de casos y controles para investigar la asociación entre polimorfismos del gen TGFBR2 y defectos congénitos del corazón en la población china han. 125 pacientes con defectos congénitos del corazón y 615 unrelated controles fueron reclutados. Marcado de dos polimorfismos de nucleótido único (tagsnps) en 5 ‘aguas arriba del gen TGFBR2 (rs6785358, - 3779a / g; rs764522, - 1444c / g) fueron seleccionados y genotipados por reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR) - polimorfismos de longitud de fragmentos de restricción (RFLP) de ensayo. Resultados: Se observó una diferencia significativa en la distribución de genotipos entre pacientes con defectos congénitos del corazón y controles para SNP rs6785358 (P = 0043). La SNP rs6785358 el porteador del alelo G (AG / GG genotipo) mostraron un importante crecimiento y mayor riesgo de defectos congénitos del corazón en comparación con AA homocigotos (OR = 1.545, IC del 95%: 1.013–2.356). Más análisis por sexo estratificación indicó que los individuos con alelo G (AG / GG genotipo) para SNP rs6785358 tienen una mayor susceptibilidad a defectos congénitos del corazón (OR = 2.088, IC del 95%: 1.123-3.883, p = 0.019) en machos, pero no en las mujeres (OR = 1.195, IC del 95%: 0.666-2.146, p = 0.55). No hay significación estadística fue detectado en la distribución de los genotipos y frecuencias de alelos de SNP rs764522 entre pacientes y controles. Conclusión: Nuestros resultados sugieren que el SNP rs6785358 de gen TGFBR2 se asoció con un mayor riesgo de defectos congénitos del corazón en los chinos han hombres y más investigación estaría justificada.
羅鳳珠、白璧玲、廖泫銘、范毅軍 、鄭錦全 Feng-Ju Lo,Pi-Ling Pai,Hsiung-Ming Liao,I-Chun Fan,Chin-Chuan Cheng
Full Text Available Geographic environments affect literary contents and genre and thus, since ancient times, geographical area has been used to classify Chinese literature. In 1936 Liang Qichao was keenly aware of the relationship between literature and geography and brought up the idea of “literarygeography”. In 1979 Professor Chen Zhengxiang produced maps of birthplaces of Tang and Song poets to show the shift of Chinese cultural center from north to south. Furthermore, in the pastdecade, the attention to research in literary geography and geographical distribution of writersgradually increased. However, most studies focused on geographical distribution of birthplaces of writers and very few focused on the relationship between poets’ journey and the contents of their writings and their geographic environment. Meanwhile, geographic information system and aerialphotography have developed quickly and have become useful tools for the study of literary geography.Since then, the academic circles in Taiwan have built a solid foundation in this area. While Li Baiand Du Fu were called poetic immortal and poetic sage of the middle and end periods of the heydayof Tang Dynasty, respectively, Han Yu advocated the classical Chinese movement and becameone of the eight great authors of Tang and Song dynasties. Han Yu was also the best representative of Middle Tang poets. While the styles of these three poets differed from each other, they held key positions in the development and evolution of Tang poetry. Their footprints spread all over the countryand greatly affected later developments and contemporary of poetry. This project makes use of the digital Tang Dynasty maps by Tan Qixiang, Tang Dynasty transportation route maps by Yan Gengwang,aerial maps, the All Tang Poems, and chronicles of the poets to build the three poets’ relocation maps and study their poetic literature, language, geography, and interactions with others, in hopesof opening a new research direction
Duan, Shi-Jun; Huang, Ning; Zhang, Bi-He; Shi, Jia-Yu; He, Sha; Ma, Jian; Yu, Qiong-Qiong; Shi, Bing
Background Genome wide association studies (GWAS) already have identified tens of susceptible loci for nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCL/P). However, whether these loci associated with nonsyndromic cleft palate only (NSCPO) remains unknown. Material and Methods In this study, we replicated 38 SNPs (Single nucleotide polymorphisms) which has the most significant p values in published GWASs, genotyping by using SNPscan among 144 NSCPO trios from Western Han Chinese. We performed the transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) on individual SNPs and gene-gene (GxG) interaction analyses on the family data; Parent-of-Origin effects were assessed by separately considering transmissions from heterozygous fathers versus heterozygous mothers to affected offspring. Results Allelic TDT results showed that T allele at rs742071 (PAX7) (p=0.025, ORtransmission=3.00, 95%CI: 1.09-8.25) and G allele at rs2485893 (10kb 3’ of SYT14) were associated with NSCPO (p=0.0036, ORtransmission= 0.60, 95%CI: 0.42-0.85). Genotypic TDT based on 3 pseudo controls further confirmed that rs742071 (p-value=0.03, ORtransmission=3.00, 95%CI: 1.09-8.25) and rs2485893 were associated with NSCPO under additive model (p-value= 0.02, ORtransmission= 0.66, 95%CI: 0.47-0.92). Genotypic TDT for epistatic interactions showed that rs4844913 (37kb 3’ of DIEXF) interacted with rs11119388 (SYT14) (p-value=1.80E-08) and rs6072081 (53kb 3’ of MAFB) interacted with rs6102085 (33kb 3’ of MAFB) (p-value=3.60E-04) for NSCPO, suggesting they may act in the same pathway in the etiology of NSCPO. Conclusions In this study, we found that rs742071 and rs2485893 were associated NSCPO from Han Chinese population; also, interactions of rs4844913:rs11119388 and rs6072081:rs6102085 for NSCPO were identified, gene-gene interactions have been proposed as a potential source of the remaining heritability, these findings provided new insights of the previous GWAS. Key words:GWAS, NSCPO, TDT, parent
Notermans, Mathijs Eugène
Hans Kelsen staat in de wereld van de rechtsfilosofie en –theorie bekend als één van de belangrijkste rechtsgeleerden van de 20ste eeuw en zijn belangrijkste werk dat hem die bekendheid heeft opgeleverd, de Reine Rechtslehre, is dan ook ‘wereldberoemd’. Minder bekendheid geniet hij als juridisch pac
Wan, Ji-Peng; Wang, Hong; Li, Chang-Zhong; Zhao, Han; You, Li; Shi, Dong-Hong; Sun, Xiu-Hua; Lv, Hong; Wang, Fei; Wen, Ze-Qing; Wang, Xie-Tong; Chen, Zi-Jiang
Preeclampsia, characterized by hypertension and proteinuria, remains a leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. Recently, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified the single-nucleotide polymorphism, rs2681472, as a new hypertension susceptibility genetic variant. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between preeclampsia and rs268172 in a Northern Han Chinese population. We genotyped 1218 unrelated Northern Han Chinese women, including 515 patients with preeclampsia and 703 healthy controls. No significant differences were detected in the allele frequencies between patients and controls (P = .23). When patients were divided into early-onset and late-onset preeclampsia according to gestational age of disease onset, the allele frequencies significantly differed between controls and patients with early-onset preeclampsia (P = .02). Genotype frequencies also were significantly different between controls and patients early-onset preeclampsia when data were analyzed under additive (P = .03) and dominant (P = .009) models. We replicated this association in an independent Northern Han Chinese population and observed a significant difference in the allele frequencies between patients with early-onset preeclampsia and controls (P = .011). We report that rs2681472 is associated with early-onset preeclampsia in Northern Han Chinese women. © The Author(s) 2014.
Neli arvamusliidrit (politoloog Iivi Masso, ajaloolane Andrei Hvostov, meediaärimees Hans H. Luik ja kirjanik Mati Unt) jagavad näpunäiteid Estonia kontserdisaali presidenti valima tulevatele valijameestele. Samas diagramm: Kas tulevane president võib olla kuulunud komparteisse?
Gravemeijer, K.P.E.; Terwel, J.
Se describen las principales ideas del trabajo de Hans Freudenthal (1905-1990), el matemático y educador matemático holandés, relacionadas con teoría curricular y didáctica. Se explora el credo educacional de Freudenthal: “la matemática es una actividad humana”. Desde este punto de partida
Pöttering, Hans-Gert, 1945-
Euroopa Parlamendi presidendi Hans-Gert Pötteringi sõnul reformilepingu vastu võtmine on hädavajalik selleks, et EL saaks 21. sajandil kaitsta oma huve ja väärtusi. Lissaboni lepingus ettenähtud reformideta on uute riikide liitumine EL-ga vaevalt et võimalik
《韩非子》的文学研究中叙事研究是一大亮点，然而从论法的角度进行叙事学研究却无人问津。文章将从叙事论法的角度切入文本研究，并且将之分为三个板块：第一是《韩非子》论法的叙事语境；第二是《韩非子》的审美叙事和艺术论法；第三是《韩非子》论法叙事中对诸子思想的继承。%"Han Feizi" literary narrative research study is a major bright spot,however,no one Narrative Studies conducted from the perspective of the Law cares.This paper will cut into the narrative of the Law of this paper, and divided it into three sections:the first is the"Han Feizi"Narrative context of law;second,"Han Feizi"aesthetic and artistic narrative of Law;Third is"Han Feizi"Narrative of the Law on the various schools of thought in succession.
Conclusion: This study demonstrates that MUAC and AHtR are simple, inexpensive, and accurate measurements that may be used to identify overweight and obese Han children. Compared with MUAC, AHtR is a nonage-dependent index with higher applicability to screen for overweight and obese children.
Eesti Posti juhatuse esimehe kohalt vabastatud Hans Teivi sõnul lahkus ta ametist, kuna tema nägemus Eesti Postist kui olulist sotsiaalset tähtsust omavast ettevõttest ei lähe kokku ärilist poolt peatähtsaks pidava suunaga
Zhi-Hong Chen; Chun Wang; Lin-Gan Wang; Mu-Qing Zhuo; Zhi-Hong Tang; Qiong-Xiang Zhai; Qian Chen; Yu-Xiong Guo; Yu-Xin Zhang
Objective: To detect the CHRNA7 gene mutation and polymorphism in Southern Han Chinese patients with nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE). Methods: Blood samples were collected from 215 Southern Han Chinese patients with NFLE and 200 healthy Southern Han Chinese control subjects. Genomic DNA was extracted, and CHRNA7 whole genome exons were amplified by the polymerase chain reaction and subjected to Sanger sequencing. Results:No CHRNA7 gene mutation was detected in all of the NFLE patients. However, five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in sporadic cases were found, located in exons 5, 6, and 7 of the CHRNA7 gene. Among them, c.690G>A and c.698A>G are known SNPs, while c.370G>A, c.654C>T, and c.497-498delTG were newly discovered SNPs. These SNPs were also found in some of the healthy controls. Conclusions: No CHRNA7 gene mutation was identified in Southern Han Chinese patients with NFLE. The CHRNA7 gene is probably not responsible for NFLE in this population.
Objective To explore the association of serum uric acid level with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD) in Han and Uyghur ethnic groups. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed in the population in 2011 in the First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University.
Deng, Min; Wei, Ling; Zuo, Xianbo; Tian, Yanghua; Xie, Fei; Hu, Panpan; Zhu, Chunyan; Yu, Fengqiong; Meng, Yu; Wang, Honghao; Zhang, Fangfang; Ma, Huijuan; Ye, Rong; Cheng, Huaidong; Du, Jing; Dong, Wenwen; Zhou, Shanshan; Wang, Changqing; Wang, Yu; Wang, Jingye; Chen, Xianwen; Sun, Zhongwu; Zhou, Nong; Jiang, Yubao; Liu, Xiuxiu; Li, Xiaogang; Zhang, Nan; Liu, Na; Guan, Yingjun; Han, Yongsheng; Han, Yongzhu; Lv, Xinyi; Fu, Yu; Yu, Hui; Xi, Chunhua; Xie, Dandan; Zhao, Qiyuan; Xie, Peng; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Zhijun; Shen, Lu; Cui, Yong; Yin, Xianyong; Cheng, Hui; Liang, Bo; Zheng, Xiaodong; Lee, Tatia M. C.; Chen, Gang; Zhou, Fusheng; Veldink, Hendrik; Robberecht, Wim; Landers, John E.; Andersen, Peter M.; Al-Chalabi, Ammar; Shaw, Chris; Liu, Chunfeng; Tang, Beisha; Xiao, Shangxi; Robertson, Janice; Zhang, Fengyu; van den Berg, Leonard H.; Sun, Liangdan; Liu, Jianjun; Yang, Sen; Ju, Xiaodong; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Xuejun
To identify susceptibility genes for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in 506 individuals with sporadic ALS and 1,859 controls of Han Chinese ancestry. Ninety top SNPs suggested by the current GWAS and 6 SNPs identified by previous GWAS were ana
ZHANG Si-min; XIAO Jian-zhong; REN Qian; HAN Xue-yao; TANG Yong; YANG Wen-ying; JI Li-nong
Background The association between IGF2BP2 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been repeatedly confirmed among different ethnic populations.However,in several genome-wide association studies (GWAS) from the Chinese Han population,the gene IGF2BP2 has not been replicated.The results of relevant studies for the association between IGF2BP2 and T2DM showed controversy in Chinese Han population.It is necessary to systematically evaluate the contribution of common variants in IGF2BP2 to T2DM in Chinese Han population.Methods Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs,rs4402960 and rs1470579) in IGF2BP2 were genotyped in Chinese Han population (3807 controls/4531 T2DM cases) by Illumina GoldenGate Indexing assay.The association between SNPs and T2DM was evaluated by multiple Logistic Regression analysis.A meta-analysis was used to estimate the effects of IGF2BP2 in 20854 Chinese Han individuals.Results rs1470579 and rs4402960 were confirmed to have strong association with T2DM in the Chinese Han population (rs1470579 P=-1.80x10-7,OR (95％ CI)=1.22 (1.14-1.32),rs4402960 P=7.46x10-9,OR (95％ CI)=1.26 (1.17-1.37),respectively).Moreover,11 studies for rs4402960 were included in the meta-analysis and 7 studies for rs1470579.The meta-analysis also showed the association between T2DM and IGF2BP2 (rs1470579 OR of 1.15 (95％ CI=1.10-1.19),P ＜0.0001 under an additive model and rs4402960 OR of 1.14 (95％ CI=1.10-1.18),P ＜0.0001 under an additive model).Conclusion IGF2BP2 was strongly associated with the risk of T2DM in Chinese Han population.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid socioeconomic development resulting in changing lifestyles and life expectancy appears to be accompanied by an increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Genetic predisposition related to ethnicity is a major determinant of diabetes risk. This study investigates the prevalences of diabetes and prediabetes in different ethnic populations residing in the Mudanjiang area located in the northeast of China. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out among Han, Manchu and Korean Chinese aged 20 years or older. Diabetes and prediabetes were diagnosed using standard oral glucose tolerance tests. Results The prevalence of diabetes in Manchu (8.39% and Korean Chinese (9.42% was significantly lower than that in Han (12.10%. The prevalence of prediabetes was 18.96%, 19.36% and 20.47% in Han, Manchu and Korean populations, respectively. Korean Chinese had a lower prevalence of isolated impaired fasting glucose and higher prevalence of isolated impaired glucose tolerance than the other two ethnic groups. Most patients with diabetes, especially ethnic minority patients, were undiagnosed. A multiple logistic regression analysis showed that age, family history of diabetes, control of diet, self-monitoring of weight, central obesity, increased heart rate, hypertension, elevated plasma triglyceride level, elevated plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and Han ethnicity were significantly associated with an increased risk of diabetes. Further, Manchu Chinese were found to have the lowest risk of diabetes. Conclusions Our study indicates that diabetes is a major public health problem in the Mudanjiang area of China. Ethnicity plays a role in the different prevalences of diabetes and prediabetes among the three ethnic groups. Diabetes is less prevalent among Manchu Chinese compared with Han and Korean Chinese.
LU Sheng-xia; CHANG Hong; JI De-jun; Tsunoda Kenji; REN Zhan-jun; REN Xiang-lian; SUN Wei; YANG Zhang-ping; CHANG Guo-bin
Using the method of "random sampling in typical colonies of the central area of the habitat" and several electrophoresis techniques, the variations of 17 structural loci encoding blood proteins in 60 Small-Tailed Han sheep and 73 Tan sheep were examined and compared with those of 14 other sheep populations in China and other countries to investigate their levels of genetic differentiation. The average heterozygosities of Small-Tailed Han sheep and Tan sheep were 0.2360 and 0.2587, respectively. The average polymorphic information content values were 0.1974 and 0.2102, respectively. The average effective numbers of alleles were 1.5723 and 1.5751, respectively. The coefficients of gene differentiation in the four groups (including 4, 6, 13, and 16 sheep populations, respectively) were 0.049323, 0.059987, 0.1728, and 0.201256,respectively, indicating that the degree of gene differentiation at the structural loci was the least in Hu sheep, Tong sheep,Small-Tailed Han sheep, and Tan sheep; followed by the above-mentioned four sheep populations and two Mongolian sheep populations; and was the highest in sheep populations belonging to the Mongolian sheep group, South Asian sheep, and European sheep. The earlier researchers' conclusions that both Small-Tailed Han sheep and Tan sheep evolved from Mongolian sheep were further verified by the results of this study. Hu sheep, Tong sheep, Small-Tailed Han sheep, and Tan sheep were decreasingly affected by the bloodline of Mongolian sheep to different degrees. The relationships among sheep populations were not closely related to the geographical distances among sheep populations.
Eli, Mayinur; Mollayup, Ablikim; Muattar; Liu, Chao; Zheng, Chao; Bao, Yong-Xing
To investigate the K-ras genetic mutation status in colorectal cancer patients, compare the difference of K-ras genetic mutation rate in Han and Uygur nationality and analyze the influencing factor. 91 cases (52 cases of Han nationality and 39 cases of Uygur nationality) of colorectal biopsy or surgical ablation pathology specimen from the first affiliated hospital of Xinjiang Medical University during January, 2010 to March, 2013 were collected to detect the 12th and 13th code mutation status of K-ras gene exon 2 with pyrosequencing method and compare the difference of K-ras gene mutation rate between Han and Uygur nationality patients. Single factor analysis and multiple factor logistic regression analysis were utilized to analyze the influencing factor for K-ras genetic mutation. 33 cases of patients with K-ras genetic mutation were found from the 91 cases colorectal cancer patients and the total mutation rate was 36.3%. Among them, 24 cases (72.7%) were found with mutation only in the 12th code, 9 cases (27.3%) were found with mutation only in the 13th code and no one case was found with mutation in both the two codes. Mutation rate of the 12th code in the Uygur nationality was significantly higher than that in the Han nationality (P0.05). There were no associativity (P>0.05) between the K-ras genetic mutation and sex, age, smoking history, drinking history, tumor location, macropathology type, differentiation level, staging, invasive depth, lymph nodes transferring and metastasis in colorectal cancer patients (P>0.05). K-ras genetic mutation rate is high in colorectal cancer patients. The mutation rate of 12th code in Uygur nationality is higher than that in Han nationality. There is no significant associativity between K-ras genetic mutation rate and patients' clinical pathology characteristic.
Liu Yuanyuan; Sui Yuelin; Yin Shuai; Ding Wenfeng; Mu Zhaoxin
Objective:In order to obtain the data for diet and physical exercise, we analyzed the rules and characteristics of somatotype distribution of college students in Cangzhou by Heath-carter method. Methods:332 college students (172 males and 160 females) of Han nationality aged 19 to 24 were somatotyped by Health-carter anthropometry. Every index was measured 3 times and average values were adopted, and compared to that of other regions. Results:①The mean somatotype for female was 4. 3-3. 6-2. 9. The values of HWR, SAM, BMI and the rate of body fat were 42. 9, 2. 0, 20. 6 and 19. 7%, respectively. The mean somatotype for male was 3. 8-4. 3-3. 3. The values of HWR, SAM, BMI and the rate of body fat were 43. 5, 2. 4, 21. 5 and 17. 7%, respectively. The significant sexual difference was found in somatotype of Han nationality college students (P<0. 01). ②The weight, height, perimeter of the upper arm, calf girth, biepicondylar breadth of the humerus and biepicondylar breadth of the femur of male samples were greater than the female samples, the skinfold of the male samples were thinner than the male samples ( P<0 . 05 ) . ③The somatotypes of Han nationality in Changzhou were closer to the Han nationali-ty in Shandong province, but the gap was larger with Manchu and Mongolian nationality. ④Compared with foreign female college students, except Czechoslovakia and Canada, the somatotypes of Han nationality in Changzhou were similar to other countries. Conclusions:①The characteristics of male showed less body fat, stronger skeletal mus-cles, while that of female showed more body fat. ②Compared with other groups, it showed that somatotypes may be related to innate genetic, geographical climate, lifestyle, eating habits and other factors.
严冬; 方祝元; 钱玉良; 杨益虎; 陈剑; 符步清
目的:通过肾动脉血流动力学变化评价降压益肾颗粒对高血压病早期肾损害的保护作用.方法:应用彩色多普勒超声检测高血压早期肾损害病人,观察超声肾血流参数并分析.结果:治疗后2组参数与治疗前比较,治疗组差异明显(P<0.05,P<0.01);治疗后2组间比较,治疗组RI降低较对照组改善明显,有统计学差异(P<0.05)、右肾Vd升高较对照组改善明显,有统计学差异(P<0.05).结论:降压益肾颗粒通过降低RI,提高肾血流速度,改善肾脏血流进行肾脏保护.%Objective; The protection effect of the granule of JiangYaYiShen in essential hypertension patients with kidneys injured in early stage was evaluated by the variety of blood flow in renal arterial. Method; Forty cases of hypertension with kidneys injured in early stage received color Doppler ultra-sonography to determine blood stream of IRA. The parameters in both groups were analyzed. Result; The parameters of treatment group were improved than those before treatment (P < 0. 05, P < 0. 01). After treatment, RI of the treatment group were lower than those of the control group (P < 0. 05 ). Vd of the treat group in right kidneys were higher than these of the control group ( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion: The granule of JiangYaYiShen could protect kidney injured by hypertension in early stage, it could decrease the renal arterial vessel resistance and increase the renal blood flow and improve the renal vessel structure to protect kidneys of high blood pressure patients.
Wang, Jierui; Zhao, Xi; Mi, Congbo; Raza, Iqbal
Facial profile is an important aspect in physical anthropology, forensic science, and cosmetic research. Thus, facial soft tissue measurement technology plays a significant role in facial restoration. A considerable amount of work has investigated facial soft tissue thickness, which significantly varies according to gender, age, and race. However, only few studies have considered the nutritional status of the investigated individuals. Moreover, no sufficient research among Chinese ethnic groups, particularly Xinjiang population in China, is currently available. Hence, the current study investigated the adaptability of facial soft tissue to the underlying hard tissue among young adults of Han population in Xinjiang, China; the analysis was performed on the basis of gender, skeletal class, and body mass index (BMI). Measurements were obtained from the lateral cephalometric radiographs of 256 adults aged 18-26 years old. Differences in soft tissue thickness were observed between genders and among skeletal classes. With regard to gender, significant differences in soft tissue thickness were found at rhinion, glabella, subnasale, stomion, labrale superius, pogonion, and gnathion among different BMI groups. Thus, nutritional status should be considered when reconstructing an individual's facial profile. Results showed that the thinnest and thickest craniofacial soft tissues existed in rhinion and lip regions, respectively. Overall, this research provides valuable data for forensic facial reconstruction and identification of young adults in Xinjiang, China.
Chen, Kuan-Chung; Chang, Su-Sen; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Chen, Calvin Yu-Chian
Insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) gene is one of the type 2 diabetes mellitus susceptibility genes specific to the Han Chinese population. IDE, a zinc-metalloendopeptidase, is a potential target for controlling insulin degradation. Potential lead compounds for IDE inhibition were identified from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) through virtual screening and evaluation of their pharmacokinetic properties of absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was performed to validate the stability of complexes from docking simulation. The top three TCM compounds, dihydrocaffeic acid, isopraeroside IV, and scopolin, formed stable H-bond interactions with key residue Asn139, and were linked to active pocket residues His108, His112, and Glu189 through zinc. Torsion angle trajectories also indicated some stable interactions for each ligand with IDE. Molecular level analysis revealed that the TCM candidates might affect IDE through competitive binding to the active site and steric hindrance. Structural feature analysis reveals that high amounts of hydroxyl groups and carboxylic moieties contribute to anchor the ligand within the complex. Hence, we suggest the top three TCM compounds as potential inhibitor leads against IDE protein to control insulin degradation for type 2 diabetes mellitus. An animated interactive 3D complement (I3DC) is available in Proteopedia at http://proteopedia.org/w/Journal:JBSD:29.
Bi, Rui; Tang, Jinsong; Zhang, Wen; Li, Xiao; Chen, Shi-Yi; Yu, Dandan; Chen, Xiaogang; Yao, Yong-Gang
The relationship between mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variants and schizophrenia has been strongly debated. To test whether mtDNA variants are involved in schizophrenia in Han Chinese patients, we sequenced the entire mitochondrial genomes of probands from 11 families with a family history and maternal inheritance pattern of schizophrenia. Besides the haplogroup-specific variants, we found 11 nonsynonymous private variants, one rRNA variant, and one tRNA variant in 5 of 11 probands. Among the nonsynonymous private variants, mutations m.15395 A>G and m.8536 A>G were predicted to be deleterious after web-based searches and in silico program affiliated analysis. Functional characterization further supported the potential pathogenicity of the two variants m.15395 A>G and m.8536 A>G to cause mitochondrial dysfunction at the cellular level. Our results showed that mtDNA variants were actively involved in schizophrenia in some families with maternal inheritance of this disease.
Xiang, Yang-Lin; Zhang, Deng-Feng; Wang, Dong; Li, Yu-Ye; Yao, Yong-Gang
Leprosy is an ancient chronic infection caused by Mycobacterium leprae. Onset of leprosy was highly affected by host nutritional condition and energy production, (partially) due to genomic loss and parasitic life style of M. leprae. The optic atrophy 1 (OPA1) gene plays an essential role in mitochondria, which function in cellular energy supply and innate immunity. To investigate the potential involvement of OPA1 in leprosy. We analyzed 7 common genetic variants of OPA1 in 1110 Han Chinese subjects with and without leprosy, followed by mRNA expression profiling and protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis. We observed positive associations between OPA1 variants rs9838374 (Pgenotypic=0.003) and rs414237 (Pgenotypic=0.002) with lepromatous leprosy. expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analysis showed that the leprosy-related risk allele C of rs414237 is correlated with lower OPA1 mRNA expression level. Indeed, we identified a decrease of OPA1 mRNA expression in both with patients and cellular model of leprosy. In addition, the PPI analysis showed that OPA1 protein was actively involved in the interaction network of M. leprae induced differentially expressed genes. Our results indicated that OPA1 variants confer risk of leprosy and may affect OPA1 expression, mitochondrial function and antimicrobial pathways. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Clausen, H.B.; Stampe, Mia; Hammer, C.U.
The paper presents studies of various chemical and isotopical parameters from ice cores drilled in the northernmost located ice cap, Hans Tausen Iskappe, Pearyland, Greenland (HT). The 346 m main core (MC95) was drilled to bedrock in 1995 as well as a 35 m shallow core (SC95). A 60 m shallow core...... exist along the 1995 cores (MC95 and SC95) and finally detailed records of dust and water soluble ion concentrations exist on selected parts of MC95. To determine a time scale for the ice core is an important prerequisite for the interpretation of other records. The age scale is based on acid layers......, caused by known volcanic eruptions, and by comparison of the chemical composition of these layers to that found in ice cores from other arctic locations. The total b-activity data from SC75 and SC76 provide fixed points to the time scale because a pronounced increase in total b-activity is related...
Carlos Eduardo de Abreu Boucault
Full Text Available This article aims to examine the reception of « Pure theory of Law », of Hans Kelsen in some South-American countries, throughout institutional approaches and also the diffusion of this theory as well its acceptance by cultural agents who represented academic and professional law environment, in Uruguay, Colombia, Argentina and Brazil. The historical period of this study concerns the early times of 40 till our days. Although the reference of Kelsen’s thought about theory of law may appear as a constant feature on South-American jurists, mainly till the decade of 1980, actually we can identify real problems that claim for a falsehood about the guidelines of the pure theory of law and ambiguities in connection to theoretical issues within positivist traditions in face of authoritarian governments in Latin America.
Gong, Bo; Liu, Liping; Li, Zhiwei; Ye, Zimeng; Xiao, Ying; Zeng, Guangqun; Shi, Yi; Wang, Yumeng; Feng, Xiaoyun; Li, Xiulan; Hao, Fang; Liu, Xiaoqi; Qu, Chao; Li, Yuanfeng; Mu, Guoying; Yang, Zhenglin
The cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) gene has been shown to be related to homocystinuria. This study was aimed to detect the mutations in CBS in a Han Chinese family with homocystinuria. A four-generation family from Shandong Province of China was recruited in this study. All available members of the family underwent comprehensive medical examinations. Genomic DNA was collected from peripheral blood of all the participants. The coding sequence of CBS was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), followed by direct DNA sequencing. Among all the family members, three affected individuals showed typical clinical features of homocystinuria. Two novel compound heterozygous mutations in the CBS gene, c.407T > C (p. L136P) and c.473C > T (p.A158V), were identified by sequencing analysis in this family. Both of the two missense mutations were detected in the three patients. Other available normal individuals, including the patients' parents, grand parents, her younger sister and brother in this family either carried one of the two mutations, or none. In addition, the two mutations were not found in 600 ethnically matched normal controls. This study provides a mutation spectrum of CBS resulting in homocystinuriain a Chinese population, which may shed light on the molecular pathogenesis and clinical diagnosis of CBS-associated homocystinuria.
Allesch, Christian G
In 1925, the German biologist and philosopher Hans Driesch published a booklet entitled The Crisis in Psychology. It was originally published in English and was based on lectures given at various universities in China, Japan and the USA. The "crisis" in psychology of that time, in Driesch's opinion, lies in the necessity to decide about "the road which psychology is to follow in the future". This necessity refers to five "critical points", namely (1) to develop the theory of psychic elements to a theory of meaning by phenomenological analysis, (2) the overcoming of association theory, (3) to acknowledge that the unconscious is a fact and a "normal" aspect of mental life, (4) to reject "psychomechanical parallelism" or any other epiphenomenalistic solution of the mind-body problem, and (5) the extension of psychical research to new facts as described by parapsychology, for instance. Driesch saw close parallels between the development of modern psychology and that of biology, namely in a theoretical shift from "sum-concepts" like association and mechanics, to "totality-concepts" like soul and entelechy. The German translation of 1926 was entitled Grundprobleme der Psychologie (Fundamental Problems of Psychology) while "the crisis in psychology" forms just the subtitle of this book. This underlines that Driesch's argumentation--in contrast to that of Buehler--dealt with ontological questions rather than with paradigms.
Pilling, Andrew M; Jones, Stewart A; Endersby-Wood, Helen J; McCormack, Nicola A M; Turton, John A
Spontaneous follicular and C-cell tumors of the thyroid gland in the Han Wistar rat were examined using two morphologic procedures. Firstly, in situ hybridization (ISH) was used to localize thyroglobulin (TG) and calcitonin (CT) mRNAs. Secondly, the proteins for these markers were detected using immunohistochemistry (IHC). The aim was to study the morphology of the tumors and to examine the usefulness of TG and CT markers in the differential diagnosis of these lesions. Follicular tumors with cystic, papillary and follicular patterns showed relatively consistent expression of TG mRNA by ISH, thereby confirming the diagnostic value of this technique. However, no staining for TG markers was observed in solid lesions. In general, C-cell tumors comprised well-differentiated cells that continued to express CT mRNA and peptides even after embolic spread and metastasis. Therefore, the performance of either ISH or IHC for CT markers can be used for diagnostic confirmation. Additional features noted in C-cell tumors included the appearance of tumor emboli or metastases in association with small primary lesions (less than 5 average follicular diameters in size) and the presence of eosinophilic (amyloid-like) material showing immunopositivity for CT peptides. Finally, evidence is provided for the sequestration of TG protein by proliferating C-cells.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia, characterized by hypertension and proteinuria, is a multifactorial disease caused by complex interactions between environmental and genetic factors. A recent genome-wide association study of blood pressure reported an association between hypertension and rs11646213. This study evaluated the association between preeclampsia and rs11646213. METHODS: A total of 454 cases and 460 controls were recruited to participate in this study. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs11646213 was genotyped by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and direct sequencing. RESULTS: The allele frequency of rs11646213 was significantly different between the preeclampsia and control groups (P = 0.017, OR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.06-1.76. Differences were particularly significant in the severe preeclampsia subgroup (P = 0.002, OR = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.17-2.03 and the early-onset preeclampsia subgroup (P = 0.004, OR = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.16-2.13. Genotyping analysis showed that the T allele of rs11646213 could confer a risk for preeclampsia, severe preeclampsia and early-onset preeclampsia. CONCLUSIONS: Rs11646213 upstream of the CDH13 gene is associated with preeclampsia in Han Chinese women.
Zhou, Yan; Dai, Kaimei; Liu, Rongchuan; Hsia, Yuanfu; Jiang, Zanchu
The grey pottery figure manufactured in the Western-Han Dynasty (175-118 B.C.) and the clay gathered from the same site of Beidongshan in Xuzhou have been studied by X-ray Diffraction(XRD). X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), and Mössbauer spectroscopy. They were simultaneously fired under the same conditions in different atmospheres at various temperature up to 1100°C. This study deals with the original firing atmosphere, original firing temperature and its provenance. The information mentioned above can be inferred from the method of the refiring pottery and the firing clay. The results of the original firing temperature deduced from both of them are in goodself agreement. It is found that the values of the Mössbauer parameters for the unrefired pottery figure are approximately the same as those for the clay fired at 950°C for five hours in a reduced atmosphere. The XRF analysis confirmed the locality of this pottery figure.
Full Text Available Background. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is a complex immune disease. The genetic variation in the IL-12b gene was found to associate with SLE in Caucasian population. In this study, we examined this association in Chinese Han population by a recently developed method, unlabeled probe-based high resolution melting analysis. Methods. A total of 297 SLE patients and 351 controls were recruited. Unlabeled probe-based high resolution melting analysis (HRMA was used in genotyping. Results. Statistically significant differences were observed in both genotype and allele frequencies for rs6887695 in the SLE patients as compared with the controls. Minor allele (C of rs6887695 (P=0.031, OR 0.78, [95% CI 0.63-0.98] was found to be protective against SLE. The association of SNP rs6887695 with the diagnostic criteria of SLE was also examined. Minor allele (C exerts protective effect on the incidence of arthritis (P=0.013, OR = 0.65, 95% CI = 0.47-0.92 and abnormalities of antinuclear antibody (P=0.022, OR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.49–0.95. IL-12b SNPs were irrelevant to other diagnostic criteria of SLE. Summary. Polymorphisms of rs6887695 in IL-12b gene were associated with disease risk, as well as arthritis and antinuclear antibody synthesis, of systemic lupus erythematosus in Chinese population.
Full Text Available Objective. Previous studies have confirmed that GCKR rs780093 polymorphism is associated with triglyceride (TG, a known risk factor of coronary heart disease (CHD. The goal of our study is to explore the association of GCKR rs780093 polymorphism with CHD in Han Chinese population. Methods and Results. A total of 568 CHD cases and 494 non-CHD controls were enrolled in the current case-control study. Genotyping was done using melting temperature shift (Tm-shift approach. Our results also showed that GCKR rs780093 polymorphism was significantly associated with TG level (P=0.0016. Although there was no significant association between cases and controls (P>0.05, a breakdown analysis by age yielded a significant association of GCKR rs780093 polymorphism with CHD in individuals aged 65 and older (genotype: χ2=6.86; df = 2; P=0.03; allele: χ2=4.11; df = 1; P=0.04. Conclusion. Our findings confirmed the contribution of GCKR rs780093 polymorphism to TG metabolism and demonstrated GCKR rs780093 as a risk factor of CHD in individuals aged 65 and older.
Richard Ekins, Ph.D., FRSA
Full Text Available I appreciate the valuable comments from Hans Thulesius and Vivian Martin. Both reviewers usefully and most helpfully pinpoint salient issues to be considered in forging future routes for my ongoing research in jazz historiography. I agree with Vivian Martin that ‘authenticating’ works better for early jazz and first wave USA revivalism (including Bunk Johnson and would like to say that at the time I wrote the abstract, I was favouring ‘managing authenticity’ over ‘authenticating’ as the core category in order to provide a more embracive category within which to consider early jazz, the 1940s New Orleans jazz revival (including Bunk Johnson, and the world-wide New Orleans jazz revivalist movement which continues to this day. I have, indeed, written elsewhere of all the various phases of New Orleans style jazz considered in terms of the core category/basic social process of ‘authenticating’, e.g., ‘Authenticity as Authenticating – The Case of New Orleans Jazz Revivalism: An Approach from Grounded Theory and Social World Analysis’ (Ekins, forthcoming.
Johnson-McDaniel, Darrah; Salguero, Tina T
In a visualized example of the ancient past connecting with modern times, we describe the preparation and exfoliation of CaCuSi4O10 and BaCuSi4O10, the colored components of the historic Egyptian blue and Han blue pigments. The bulk forms of these materials are synthesized by both melt flux and solid-state routes, which provide some control over the crystallite size of the product. The melt flux process is time intensive, but it produces relatively large crystals at lower reaction temperatures. In comparison, the solid-state method is quicker yet requires higher reaction temperatures and yields smaller crystallites. Upon stirring in hot water, CaCuSi4O10 spontaneously exfoliates into monolayer nanosheets, which are characterized by TEM and PXRD. BaCuSi4O10 on the other hand requires ultrasonication in organic solvents to achieve exfoliation. Near infrared imaging illustrates that both the bulk and nanosheet forms of CaCuSi4O10 and BaCuSi4O10 are strong near infrared emitters. Aqueous CaCuSi4O10 and BaCuSi4O10 nanosheet dispersions are useful because they provide a new way to handle, characterize, and process these materials in colloidal form.
Ronald Campos López
Full Text Available Se presenta una propuesta metodológica de lecturas de diez cuentos de Hans Christian Andersen, aplicable a una situación de aula de estudiantes de quinto grado de la Escuela de San Rafael de Coronado. Dicho enfoque se orienta desde una perspectiva del valor pragmático de la literatura, en donde el niño y la niña se constituyan a sí mismos como lectores-estudiantesindividuos sociales simultáneamente, a medida que ejecutan su capacidad crítico-analítica, abstracta, simbólica, comparativa, lingüística y representativa sobre la discursividad hegemónica de la identidad y en contra de la dogmática función social del abordaje metodológico cotidiano de los textos literarios aún en las aulas costarricenses. Es por ello que resultan imperativos lecturas y análisis (deconstructivos de textos, literarios propiamente en este caso, los cuales problematicen la institucionalidad del lenguaje en los procesos de enseñanza y aprendizaje.
Full Text Available Objective To explore the clinical features, genetic characters and the importance of prenatal diagnosis in spinocerebellar ataxia 3 (SCA3 patients. Methods SCA3/ATXN3 gene was determined by using PCR and segmental analysis techniques in 2 patients among a SCA3 Chinese Han family which included 9 patients in four generations. One patient was the proband's fetus. The clinical characters were also documented and analyzed in this family. Results There were 9 patients in this family with autosomal dominant inheritance feature. The initial symptoms in all affected members except the fetus were the gait disorders accompanied by dysphasia. Inability of upward gaze and bilateral Barbinski's signs were noted in proband. The onset age became earlier from generation to generation in this family which was around 50 year-old, 40 to 45 year-old, 28 year-old in generation Ⅰ, Ⅱ and Ⅲ, respectively. CAG repeats in SCA3/ATXN3 allele were 77 in proband, as well as in the fetus, while the normal SCA3/ATXN3 allele CAG repeats were less than 44. Conclusion SCA3 is the most frequent subtype of SCA in Asian. Unsteadiness of gait are first noted in most patients accompanied by other different symptoms and signs. Genetic anticipation was found in SCA3. But gene analysis revealed less dynamic mutation frequence in this family. Since there was no effective treatment in SCA3, hereditary consultation and prenatal diagnosis play an important role in disease prevention and hereditary.
Dang, J; Peng, L; Zhong, H J; Huo, Z H
The androgen receptor (AR) is involved in the differentiation and growth of breast cancer. Genetic markers in the AR gene have a plausible role in modulating the risk of breast cancer. In this study, we studied the association of breast cancer and the trinucleotide repeat polymorphism (CAG)n in exon 1 of the AR gene in 202 patients with breast cancer and 183 healthy controls from our hospital (Yinchuan, China). Repeat lengths were determined by fluorescent DNA fragment analysis using the ABI GeneScan software and DNA sequencing. We detected 17 short tandem repeat alleles in exon 1 in the Han population of Ningxia Province, China. The CAG repeat number ranged from 14 to 31 and the frequency ranged from 0.339 to 24.460%. Generally, (CAG)n repeat lengths 22 were classified as long (L). No association was found between breast cancer and the S/L (CAG) variants. However, the frequency of the (CAG)25 repeats in the breast cancer group was significantly higher than that in the control group (P = 0.033, odds ratio = 1.790, 95% confidence interval = 1.044-3.069). These findings indicate a role for AR gene (CAG)n variations in breast cancer and might be informative for future genetic or biological studies on breast cancer, although these findings need replication in other populations.