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Sample records for hamstrings muscle strength

  1. The relationship between hamstring length and gluteal muscle strength in individuals with sacroiliac joint dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Massoud Arab, Amir; Reza Nourbakhsh, Mohammad; Mohammadifar, Ali

    2011-01-01

    It has been suggested that tight hamstring muscle, due to its anatomical connections, could be a compensatory mechanism for providing sacroiliac (SI) joint stability in patients with gluteal muscle weakness and SIJ dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between hamstring muscle length and gluteal muscle strength in subjects with sacroiliac joint dysfunction. A total of 159 subjects with and without low back pain (LBP) between the ages of 20 and 65 years parti...

  2. The relationship between hamstring length and gluteal muscle strength in individuals with sacroiliac joint dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massoud Arab, Amir; Reza Nourbakhsh, Mohammad; Mohammadifar, Ali

    2011-02-01

    It has been suggested that tight hamstring muscle, due to its anatomical connections, could be a compensatory mechanism for providing sacroiliac (SI) joint stability in patients with gluteal muscle weakness and SIJ dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between hamstring muscle length and gluteal muscle strength in subjects with sacroiliac joint dysfunction. A total of 159 subjects with and without low back pain (LBP) between the ages of 20 and 65 years participate in the study. Subjects were categorized into three groups: LBP without SIJ involvement (n = 53); back pain with SIJ dysfunction (n = 53); and no low back pain (n = 53). Hamstring muscle length and gluteal muscle strength were measured in all subjects. The number of individuals with gluteal weakness was significantly (P = 0.02) higher in subjects with SI joint dysfunction (66%) compared to those with LBP without SI joint dysfunctions (34%). In pooled data, there was no significant difference (P = 0.31) in hamstring muscle length between subjects with SI joint dysfunction and those with back pain without SI involvement. In subjects with SI joint dysfunction, however, those with gluteal muscle weakness had significantly (P = 0.02) shorter hamstring muscle length (mean = 158±11°) compared to individuals without gluteal weakness (mean = 165±10°). There was no statistically significant difference (P>0.05) in hamstring muscle length between individuals with and without gluteal muscle weakness in other groups. In conclusion, hamstring tightness in subjects with SI joint dysfunction could be related to gluteal muscle weakness. The slight difference in hamstring muscle length found in this study, although statistically significant, was not sufficient for making any definite conclusions. Further studies are needed to establish the role of hamstring muscle in SI joint stability.

  3. Serial Changes of Quadriceps and Hamstring Muscle Strength Following Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Young-Wan; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Ahn, Hyeong-Sik; Lee, Dae-Hee

    2016-01-01

    This meta-analysis was performed to analyze serial changes in thigh muscles, including quadriceps and hamstring muscles, from before to one year after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). All studies sequentially comparing isokinetic quadriceps and hamstring muscle strengths between the TKA side and the contralateral uninjured limb were included in this meta-analysis. Five studies with 7 cohorts were included in this meta-analysis. The mean differences in the strengths of quadriceps and hamstring muscles between the TKA and uninjured sides were greatest three months after surgery (26.8 N∙m, 12.8 N∙m, Pstrengths relative to preoperative levels were 9.2 N∙m and 4.9 N∙m, respectively, three months postoperatively (P = 0.041), but were no longer significant after six months and one year. During the year after TKA, quadriceps and hamstring muscle strengths were lowest after 3 months, recovering to preoperative level after six months, but not reaching the muscle strength on the contralateral side. Relative to preoperative levels, the difference in muscle strength between the TKA and contralateral knees was only significant at three months. Because decrease of strength of the quadriceps was significantly greater than decrease in hamstring muscle strength at postoperative three months, early rehabilitation after TKA should focus on recovery of quadriceps muscle strength.

  4. Serial Changes of Quadriceps and Hamstring Muscle Strength Following Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Meta-Analysis.

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    Young-Wan Moon

    Full Text Available This meta-analysis was performed to analyze serial changes in thigh muscles, including quadriceps and hamstring muscles, from before to one year after total knee arthroplasty (TKA. All studies sequentially comparing isokinetic quadriceps and hamstring muscle strengths between the TKA side and the contralateral uninjured limb were included in this meta-analysis. Five studies with 7 cohorts were included in this meta-analysis. The mean differences in the strengths of quadriceps and hamstring muscles between the TKA and uninjured sides were greatest three months after surgery (26.8 N∙m, 12.8 N∙m, P<0.001, but were similar to preoperative level at six months (18.4 N∙m, 7.4 N∙m P<0.001 and were maintained for up to one year (15.9 N∙m, 4.1 N∙m P<0.001. The pooled mean differences in changes in quadriceps and hamstring strengths relative to preoperative levels were 9.2 N∙m and 4.9 N∙m, respectively, three months postoperatively (P = 0.041, but were no longer significant after six months and one year. During the year after TKA, quadriceps and hamstring muscle strengths were lowest after 3 months, recovering to preoperative level after six months, but not reaching the muscle strength on the contralateral side. Relative to preoperative levels, the difference in muscle strength between the TKA and contralateral knees was only significant at three months. Because decrease of strength of the quadriceps was significantly greater than decrease in hamstring muscle strength at postoperative three months, early rehabilitation after TKA should focus on recovery of quadriceps muscle strength.

  5. Association between maximal hamstring strength and hamstring muscle pre-activity during a movement associated with non-contact ACL injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov Husted, Rasmus; Bencke, Jesper; Thorborg, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    and maximal isometric hamstring muscle strength. Material and Methods Eighty-five female athletes (17 ± 1 yrs) were screened for neuromuscular pre-activity in medial (ST) and lateral (BF) hamstring muscle during a sidecutting maneuver. Maximal hamstring muscle strength [N/kg BW] (MVC) was measured in a static...... dynamometer. Neuromuscular activity calculated as average EMG amplitude obtained during side-cutting in the 10 ms interval prior to initial contact (IC) was normalized to peak EMG amplitude obtained during MVC. The correlation between % EMG pre-activity (mean of ST and BF) and MVC was evaluated by Spearman...... rank correlation analysis. Results The correlation coefficient (rs) between hamstring pre-landing EMG activity and MVC was 0.109 (P=0.319). Conclusion No direct association was observed between preparatory hamstring muscle activity and MVC. This indicates that high muscle strength may not per se...

  6. COMPARISON OF CONCENTRIC AND ECCENTRIC HAMSTRING STRENGTH TRAINING IN IMPROVING MUSCLE STRENGTH AND POWER AMONG FUTSAL PLAYERS A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL

    OpenAIRE

    Arunkumar Nedunchezhiyan; Syed Abudaheer Kajamohideen; Ilayaraja AlagiaThiruvevenkadam; Karthikeyan Rajendran; Lorrian Shin Chee Lim; Anithabhavani Nedunchezhiyan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hamstring injury is a common problem in many sports, especially those involving acceleration and maximal sprints. Hamstring strains are both common and painful. During sprinting the hip flexor and knee extensor torques are frequently produced and is opposed by the hamstring muscles, hence there are numerous studies done on the muscle strength training to prevent the hamstring strain injury as it is statistically stated as the highest rate involved injury in the contact sport. This...

  7. Influence of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tear on Thigh Muscle Strength and Hamstring-to-Quadriceps Ratio: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Jung; Lee, Jin-Hyuck; Ahn, Sung-Eun; Park, Min-Ji; Lee, Dae-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical compensation after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear could cause quadriceps weakness and hamstring activation, preventing anterior tibial subluxation and affecting the expected hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio. Although quadriceps weakness often occurs after ACL tears, it remains unclear whether hamstring strength and hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio increase in ACL deficient knees. This meta-analysis compared the isokinetic muscle strength of quadriceps and hamstring muscles, and the hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio, of the injured and injured limbs of patients with ACL tears. This meta-analysis included all studies comparing isokinetic thigh muscle strengths and hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio in the injured and uninjured legs of patients with ACL tear, without or before surgery. Thirteen studies were included in the meta-analysis. Quadriceps and hamstring strengths were 22.3 N∙m (95% CI: 15.2 to 29.3 N∙m; Pmuscles of patients with ACL tear, with the decrease in quadriceps strength being 3-fold greater. These uneven reductions slightly increase the hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio in ACL deficient knees.

  8. Influence of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tear on Thigh Muscle Strength and Hamstring-to-Quadriceps Ratio: A Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Jung Kim

    Full Text Available Theoretical compensation after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL tear could cause quadriceps weakness and hamstring activation, preventing anterior tibial subluxation and affecting the expected hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio. Although quadriceps weakness often occurs after ACL tears, it remains unclear whether hamstring strength and hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio increase in ACL deficient knees. This meta-analysis compared the isokinetic muscle strength of quadriceps and hamstring muscles, and the hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio, of the injured and injured limbs of patients with ACL tears. This meta-analysis included all studies comparing isokinetic thigh muscle strengths and hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio in the injured and uninjured legs of patients with ACL tear, without or before surgery. Thirteen studies were included in the meta-analysis. Quadriceps and hamstring strengths were 22.3 N∙m (95% CI: 15.2 to 29.3 N∙m; P<0.001 and 7.4 N∙m (95% CI: 4.3 to 10.5 N∙m; P<0.001 lower, respectively, on the injured than on the uninjured side. The mean hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio was 4% greater in ACL deficient than in uninjured limbs (95% CI: 1.7% to 6.3%; P<0.001. Conclusively, Decreases were observed in both the quadriceps and hamstring muscles of patients with ACL tear, with the decrease in quadriceps strength being 3-fold greater. These uneven reductions slightly increase the hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio in ACL deficient knees.

  9. The relationship between previous hamstring injury and the concentric isokinetic knee muscle strength of irish gaelic footballers

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    O'Ceallaigh Brian

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hamstring injury is one of the most common injuries affecting gaelic footballers, similar to other field sports. Research in other sports on whether residual hamstring weakness is present after hamstring injury is inconsistent, and no study has examined this factor in irish gaelic footballers. The aim of this study was to examine whether significant knee muscle weakness is present in male Irish gaelic footballers who have returned to full activity after hamstring injury. Methods The concentric isokinetic knee flexion and extension strength of 44 members of a university gaelic football team was assessed at 60, 180 and 300 degrees per second using a Contrex dynamometer. Results Fifteen players (34% reported a history of hamstring strain, with 68% of injuries affecting the dominant (kicking limb. The hamstrings were significantly stronger (p 0.05 using this comparison. The previously unilaterally injured hamstrings were significantly weaker (p Conclusion Hamstring muscle weakness was observed in male Irish gaelic footballers with a history of hamstring injury. This weakness is most evident when comparisons are made to multiple control populations, both within and between subjects. The increased strength of the dominant limb should be considered as a potential confounding variable in future trials. The study design does not allow interpretation of whether these changes in strength were present before or after injury.

  10. EFFECT OF TREADMILL TRAINING ON QUADRICEPS AND HAMSTRING MUSCLES STRENGTH IN CHILDREN WITH KNEE HEAMARTHROSIS

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    Amira Mahmoud Abd-Elmonem,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Heamarthrosis is the most disabling complication of hemophilia causing pain, swelling, limited joint range, and weakness. Without appropriate treatment, chronic heamarthrosis remains a serious problem with permanent disability. The Purpose of this work was to study the effect of treadmill training on quadriceps and hamstring muscles strength in children with knee heamarthrosis. Material and methods: Thirty hemophilic male children with unilateral knee heamarthrosis, their ages ranged from 8 to 12 years. They were divided randomly into two groups in equal numbers, control (A and study (B, 15 patients each. Both groups received traditional treatment program for one hour 5 days / weak, in addition the study group received treadmill training for 15 minutes. Peak torque of quadriceps and hamstring muscles was measured by Biodex Isokinetic Dynamometer. Knee swelling was measured by tape measurement. Assessment was performed before and after three successive months of treatment. Results: The results revealed significant difference in all tested variables (p<0.05 after three months of treatment in both groups in favor to the study group. Conclusion: Treadmill training is beneficial in increasing muscle strength and reducing joint swelling in children with knee heamarthrosis.

  11. Changes in muscle architecture of biceps femoris induced by eccentric strength training with nordic hamstring exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Fernandez, D; Docampo-Blanco, P; Martinez-Fernandez, J

    2017-03-17

    Eccentric strength training alters muscle architecture, but it is also an important factor for the prevention of hamstring injuries. The purpose was to determine the architectural adaptations of the biceps femoris long head (BFlh) after eccentric strength training with nordic hamstring exercise (NHE), followed by a subsequent detraining period. The participants in this intervention (n=23) completed a period of 13 weeks consisting of a first week of control and prior training, followed by 8 weeks of eccentric strength training with NHE, and concluding with a 4-week period of detraining. The architectural characteristics of the BFlh were measured at rest using two-dimensional ultrasound before (M1-week 1) and after (M2-week 9) the eccentric strength training, and at the end of the detraining period (M3-week 13). The muscle fascicle length significantly increased (t=-7.73, d=2.28, P<.001) in M2 compared to M1, as well as the muscle thickness (t=-5.23, d=1.54, P<.001), while the pennation angle presented a significant decrease (t=7.81, d=2.3, P<.001). The muscle fascicle length decreased significantly (t=6.07, d=1.79, P<.001) in M3 compared to M2, while the pennation angle showed a significant increase (t=-4.63, d=1.36, P<.001). The results provide evidence that NHE may cause alterations in the architectural conditions of the BFlh and may have practical implications for injury prevention and rehabilitation programs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. COMPARISON OF CONCENTRIC AND ECCENTRIC HAMSTRING STRENGTH TRAINING IN IMPROVING MUSCLE STRENGTH AND POWER AMONG FUTSAL PLAYERS A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunkumar Nedunchezhiyan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hamstring injury is a common problem in many sports, especially those involving acceleration and maximal sprints. Hamstring strains are both common and painful. During sprinting the hip flexor and knee extensor torques are frequently produced and is opposed by the hamstring muscles, hence there are numerous studies done on the muscle strength training to prevent the hamstring strain injury as it is statistically stated as the highest rate involved injury in the contact sport. This study has been focused to evaluate the effectiveness of concentric and eccentric exercises in improving hamstring muscle strength and power among futsal players. Method: Thirty recreational futsal players were recruited for the study and were randomly divided into two groups. Each group received either hamstring curl exercise (concentric or Nordic hamstring exercise (eccentric twice a week for 4 weeks. The manual muscle test (MMT and 40-yard dash test was used to evaluate the muscle strength and power respectively by comparing the pretest and posttest values for both groups. Results: Wilcoxon signed rank test showed that there is no statistically significant difference between pre and post test values of MMT (Concentric (right side, z=.317; left side, z=.157, Eccentric (right side, z=.157; left side, z=.317 in both groups. Based on paired 't' test there is a significant difference between the pre and post test on improving muscle power [Concentric group, P=.020; Eccentric Group, P=.000]. Mann–Whitney U test and unpaired 't' test showed that there is no significant difference between both groups of MMT (z=.775 and 40-yard dash test (P=.707 respectively. Conclusion: The concentric strength training and eccentric strength training have a similar effect in improving hamstring muscle power in futsal players.

  13. The hamstring muscle complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Made, A D; Wieldraaijer, T; Kerkhoffs, G M; Kleipool, R P; Engebretsen, L; van Dijk, C N; Golanó, P

    2015-07-01

    The anatomical appearance of the hamstring muscle complex was studied to provide hypotheses for the hamstring injury pattern and to provide reference values of origin dimensions, muscle length, tendon length, musculotendinous junction (MTJ) length as well as width and length of a tendinous inscription in the semitendinosus muscle known as the raphe. Fifty-six hamstring muscle groups were dissected in prone position from 29 human cadaveric specimens with a median age of 71.5 (range 45-98). Data pertaining to origin dimensions, muscle length, tendon length, MTJ length and length as well as width of the raphe were collected. Besides these data, we also encountered interesting findings that might lead to a better understanding of the hamstring injury pattern. These include overlapping proximal and distal tendons of both the long head of the biceps femoris muscle and the semimembranosus muscle (SM), a twist in the proximal SM tendon and a tendinous inscription (raphe) in the semitendinosus muscle present in 96 % of specimens. No obvious hypothesis can be provided purely based on either muscle length, tendon length or MTJ length. However, it is possible that overlapping proximal and distal tendons as well as muscle architecture leading to a resultant force not in line with the tendon predispose to muscle injury, whereas the presence of a raphe might plays a role in protecting the muscle against gross injury. Apart from these architectural characteristics that may contribute to a better understanding of the hamstring injury pattern, the provided reference values complement current knowledge on surgically relevant hamstring anatomy. IV.

  14. RAPID HAMSTRINGS/QUADRICEPS STRENGTH CAPACITY IN PROFESSIONAL SOCCER PLAYERS WITH DIFFERENT CONVENTIONAL ISOKINETIC MUSCLE STRENGTH RATIOS

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    Camila C. Greco

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Muscle strength imbalance can be an important factor in hamstrings muscle strain. A hamstrings/quadriceps (H/Q strength ratio based on concentric peak torque values (Hcon:Qcon has traditionally been used to describe the potential for knee-joint destabilization. Because certain standard actions in soccer are explosive, the analysis of the H/Q strength ratio based on the rate of torque development (Hrtd:Qrtd might also be useful in the evaluation of joint stability. The objective of this study was to compare the Hrtd:Qrtd between professional soccer players with heterogeneous values of Hcon:Qcon. Thirty-nine professional soccer players took part in the following procedures on different days: 1 Familiarization session with the isokinetic dynamometer, and 2 Two maximal isometric actions and five maximal concentric actions at 60°·s-1 for hamstrings (H and quadriceps (Q. Participants were ranked according to their Hcon:Qcon ratio. The median third was excluded to form a high torque group (HTG, and a low torque group (LTG. Peak isometric (H and concentric (H and Q torques and rate of torque development (H were significantly greater in the HTG group. Similarly, Hcon:Qcon (0.68 ± 0.02 vs. 0.52 ± 0.03 and Hrtd:Qrtd (0.54 ± 0.12 vs. 0.43 ± 0.16 were significantly greater in the HTG group than in the LTG group. There was no significant correlation between Hcon:Qcon and Hrtd:Qrtd. It can be concluded that Hcon:Qcon and Hrtd:Qrtd are determined, but not fully defined, by shared putative physiological mechanisms. Thus, the physiologic and clinical significance of Hcon:Qcon and Hrtd:Qrtd to an athlete's individual evaluation might be different

  15. Association between maximal hamstring muscle strength and hamstring muscle pre-activity during a movement associated with non-contact ACL injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zebis, M. K.; Sorensen, R. S.; Thorborg, K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Reduced hamstring pre-activity during sidecutting increases the risk for non-contact ACL injury. During the last decade resistance training of the lower limb muscles has become an integral part ofACLinjury prevention in e.g. soccer and handball. However, it is not known whether a strong...... levels of muscle pre-activity during movements like the sidecutting maneuver. Implications: Other exercise modalities (i.e. neuromuscular training) are needed to optimize hamstring muscle pre-activity during movements associated with non-contact ACL injury....

  16. Hamstrings-to-quadriceps strength and size ratios of male professional soccer players with muscle imbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denadai, Benedito Sérgio; de Oliveira, Felipe Bruno Dias; Camarda, Sérgio Ricardo de Abreu; Ribeiro, Leandro; Greco, Camila Coelho

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between the concentric hamstrings/quadriceps muscle strength (Hcon :Qcon ) and cross-sectional area ratios (Hcsa :Qcsa ) in professional soccer players with Hcon :Qcon imbalance. Nine male professional soccer players (25·3 ± 4·1 years) performed five maximal concentric contractions of the knee extensors (KE) and flexors (KF) at 60 s(-1) to assess Hcon :Qcon . The test was performed using the dominant (preferred kicking), and non-dominant limb with a 5-min recovery period was allowed between them. Only players with Hcon :Qcon muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) of KE and KF was determined by magnetic resonance imaging. The correlations between Hcon :Qcon and Hcsa :Qcsa in the dominant leg (r = -0·33), non-dominant leg (r = 0·19) and in the both legs combined (r = 0·28) were not statistically significant (P>0·05). Thus, the Hcon :Qcon seems not to be determined by Hcsa :Qcsa in professional soccer players with Hcon :Qcon imbalance.

  17. Isokinetic quadriceps and hamstring muscle strength and knee function 5 years after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: comparison between bone-patellar tendon-bone and hamstring tendon autografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautamies, Riitta; Harilainen, Arsi; Kettunen, Jyrki; Sandelin, Jerker; Kujala, Urho M

    2008-11-01

    Existing clinical studies have not proven which graft is to be preferred in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. In recent years, bone-patellar tendon-bone and hamstring tendons have been the most frequently used graft types. Muscle strength deficit is one of the consequences after ACL reconstruction. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible differences in hamstring and quadriceps muscle strength and knee function 5 years after ACL reconstruction between the BPTB and the STG groups. The study group consisted of 288 patients (132 women, 156 men) with a unilateral ACL rupture who had received a BPTB (175 patients) or STG (113 patients) ACL reconstruction. Lower extremity concentric isokinetic peak extension and flexion torques were assessed at the angular velocities of 60 degrees /s and 180 degrees /s. The International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC), the Tegner activity level, the Lysholm knee and the Kujala patellofemoral scores were also collected. Isokinetic quadriceps peak torque (percentage of the contralateral side) was 3.9% higher in the STG group than in the BPTB group at the velocity of 60 degrees /s and 3.2% higher at the velocity of 180 degrees /s and the isokinetic hamstring peak torque 2% higher in the BPTB group than in the STG group at the velocity of 60 degrees /s and 2.5% higher at the velocity of 180 degrees /s. In both groups the subjects had weaker quadriceps and hamstring muscle strength in the injured extremity compared with the uninjured one. In the single-leg hop test (according to the IKDC recommendations) there was a statistically significant difference (P = 0.040) between the groups. In the STG group, 68% of the patients had the single-leg hop ratio (injured vs. uninjured extremity) > or =90%, 31% of the patients 75-89% and 1% of the patients <75%, while in the BPTB group the corresponding percentages were 72, 21 and 7%. However, no statistically significant differences in clinical outcome were found between the

  18. Lower eccentric hamstring strength and single leg hop for distance predict hamstring injury in PETE students.

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    Goossens, L; Witvrouw, E; Vanden Bossche, L; De Clercq, D

    2015-01-01

    Hamstring injuries have not been under research in physical education teacher education (PETE) students so far. Within the frame of the development of an injury prevention program, for this study we conducted an analysis of modifiable risk factors for hamstring injuries in PETE students. Hamstring injuries of 102 freshmen bachelor PETE students were registered prospectively during one academic year. Eighty-one students completed maximum muscle strength tests of hip extensors, hamstrings, quadriceps (isometric) and hamstrings (eccentric) at the start of the academic year. Sixty-nine of the latter completed a single leg hop for distance (SLHD). Risk factors for hamstring injuries were statistically detected using logistic regression. Sixteen hamstring injuries (0.16 injuries/student/academic year; 0.46 injuries/1000 h) occurred to 10 participants. Eight cases were included in the risk factor analysis. Lower eccentric hamstring strength (odds ratio (ODD) = 0.977; p = 0.043), higher isometric/eccentric hamstring strength ratio (ODD = 970.500; p = 0.019) and lower score on the SLHD (ODD = 0.884; p = 0.005) were significant risk factors for hamstring injury. A combination of eccentric hamstring strength test and SLHD could give a good risk analysis of hamstring injuries in PETE students. This might offer great perspectives for easily applicable screening in a clinical setting.

  19. Eccentric hamstring strength and hamstring injury risk in Australian footballers.

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    Opar, David A; Williams, Morgan D; Timmins, Ryan G; Hickey, Jack; Duhig, Steven J; Shield, Anthony J

    2015-04-01

    Are eccentric hamstring strength and between-limb imbalance in eccentric strength, measured during the Nordic hamstring exercise, risk factors for hamstring strain injury (HSI)? Elite Australian footballers (n = 210) from five different teams participated. Eccentric hamstring strength during the Nordic exercise was obtained at the commencement and conclusion of preseason training and at the midpoint of the season. Injury history and demographic data were also collected. Reports on prospectively occurring HSI were completed by the team medical staff. Relative risk (RR) was determined for univariate data, and logistic regression was employed for multivariate data. Twenty-eight new HSI were recorded. Eccentric hamstring strength below 256 N at the start of the preseason and 279 N at the end of the preseason increased the risk of future HSI 2.7-fold (RR, 2.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.3 to 5.5; P = 0.006) and 4.3-fold (RR, 4.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.7 to 11.0; P = 0.002), respectively. Between-limb imbalance in strength of greater than 10% did not increase the risk of future HSI. Univariate analysis did not reveal a significantly greater RR for future HSI in athletes who had sustained a lower limb injury of any kind within the last 12 months. Logistic regression revealed interactions between both athlete age and history of HSI with eccentric hamstring strength, whereby the likelihood of future HSI in older athletes or athletes with a history of HSI was reduced if an athlete had high levels of eccentric strength. Low levels of eccentric hamstring strength increased the risk of future HSI. Interaction effects suggest that the additional risk of future HSI associated with advancing age or previous injury was mitigated by higher levels of eccentric hamstring strength.

  20. The effect of hamstring flexibility on peak hamstring muscle strain in sprinting

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    Xianglin Wan

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: A potential for hamstring injury exists during the late swing phase of sprinting. Peak hamstring muscle strains in sprinting are negatively correlated to hamstring flexibility across individuals. The magnitude of peak muscle strains is different among hamstring muscles in sprinting, which may explain the different injury rate among hamstring muscles.

  1. Effects of a 10-Week Nordic Hamstring Exercise and Russian Belt Training on Posterior Lower-Limb Muscle Strength in Elite Junior Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Ezequiel; Paz-Domínguez, Álvaro; Porcel-Almendral, David; Paredes-Hernández, Víctor; Barcala-Furelos, Roberto; Abelairas-Gómez, Cristian

    2017-05-01

    Rey, E, Paz-Domínguez, Á, Porcel-Almendral, D, Paredes-Hernández, V, Barcala-Furelos, R, and Abelairas-Gómez, C. Effects of a 10-week Nordic hamstring exercise and Russian belt training on posterior lower-limb muscle strength in elite junior soccer players. J Strength Cond Res 31(5): 1198-1205, 2017-The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of 2 eccentric hamstring training exercises, Nordic hamstring exercise (NHE) and Russian belt (RB), on lower-limb strength and bilateral asymmetry using the single-leg hamstring bridge (SLHB) test. Forty-seven elite junior soccer players (age 17.7 ± 0.5 years, height 175.3 ± 3.6 cm, body mass 68.1 ± 7.4 kg) were randomized into 1 of 3 groups, the NHE group (n = 16), RB group (n = 15), or the control group (CG) (n = 16). The eccentric training intervention consisted of 27 supervised training sessions over 10 weeks. Within-group analysis showed significant improvements (p < 0.001) in right SLHB (+25.52% for NHE and +18.33% for RB) and left SLHB (+28.92% for NHE and +20.08% for RB) from pretest to posttest in NHE and RB. However, no significant pre-post changes were observed for the CG in any variable. In addition, a significant time effect (p = 0.028) was also observed for NHE in bilateral asymmetry decreasing from pre- to posttest. In the between-groups analysis, significant better results were found in right SLHB and left SLHB, in the NHE group and RB group in comparison with CG. However, there were no differences between the eccentric training groups (NHE vs. RB). The RB seems to be a viable alternative to the NHE to developing posterior lower-limb muscle strength based on SLHB.

  2. EFFECTIVENESS OF CONCENTRIC AND ECCENTRIC RESISTANCE TRAINING OF QUADRICEPS AND HAMSTRINGS ON MUSCLE STRENGTH, ROM, AND PAIN IN ACL RECONSTRUCTED SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Hari Babu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ligament injury accounts for nearly 40% of all injury problems in anterior cruciate ligament injury constitute nearly 50% of all knee ligament injuries. Anterior cruciate ligament deficiency affects not only the mobility, self-confidence and lifestyle of the affected persons in short term but also causes arithmetic changes in the affected knee in the long run. Purpose of study to find the effectiveness of concentric and eccentric for post anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction subjects on muscle strength, joint range of motion and pain. Methods: 24 samples with age group of 35 years were randomly assigned to two groups Concentric and Eccentric groups. The Concentric group, performed 9 (3sets concentric contractions for knee extensors and 9 concentric contractions for knee flexor muscles. The eccentric group done 9 (3 sets eccentric contractions for knee extensors and 9 eccentric contractions for knee flexors. Results: Pain is significantly decreased in concentric group. But not significantly decreased in eccentric group (t = 2.85, P = 0.009; and t = 1.40; P = 0.17. The range of motion is significantly increased in both concentric knee extension and flexion and eccentric knee extension and flexion (t = 3.53, P = 0.0023; and t = 4.55; P < 0.001. The quadriceps muscle strength is significantly improved in both concentric and eccentric groups at 60° / sec and 90° / sec. Conclusion: The eccentric exercises are better than concentric exercises in improving the strength of hamstring and quadriceps muscles.

  3. DEVELOPMENTS IN THE USE OF THE HAMSTRING/QUADRICEPS RATIO FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF MUSCLE BALANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Garbutt

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Isokinetic moment ratios of the hamstrings (H and quadriceps (Q muscle groups, and their implication in muscle imbalance, have been investigated for more than three decades. The conventional concentric H/Q ratio with its normative value of 0.6 has been at the forefront of the discussion. This does not account for the joint angle at which moment occurs and the type of muscle action involved. Advances towards more functional analyses have occurred such that previous protocols are being re-examined raising questions about their ability to demonstrate a relationship between thigh muscle imbalance and increased incidence or risk of knee injury. This article addresses the function of the hamstring-quadriceps ratio in the interpretation of this relationship using the ratios Hecc/Qcon (ratio of eccentric hamstring strength to concentric quadriceps strength, representative of isolated knee extension and Hcon/Qecc (ratio of concentric hamstring strength to eccentric quadriceps strength, representative of isolated knee flexion.

  4. Hamstring Fatigue and Muscle Activation Changes During Six Sets of Nordic Hamstring Exercise in Amateur Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Paul W M; Lovell, Ric; Knox, Michael F; Brennan, Scott L; Siegler, Jason C

    2015-11-01

    The Nordic hamstring exercise (NHE) is a bodyweight movement commonly prescribed to increase eccentric hamstring strength and reduce the incidence of strain injury in sport. This study examined hamstring fatigue and muscle activation responses throughout 6 sets of 5 repetitions of the NHE. Ten amateur-level soccer players performed a single session of 6 sets of 5 repetitions of NHE. Maximal eccentric and concentric torque output (in newton meters) was measured after every set. Hamstrings electromyograms (EMG) were measured during all maximal contractions and exercise repetitions. Hamstring maximal eccentric torque was reduced throughout the range of motion after only a single set of NHE between 7.9 and 17.1% (p ≤ 0.05), with further reductions in subsequent sets. Similarly, maximal concentric torque reductions between 7.8 and 17.2% were observed throughout the range of motion after 1 set of NHE (p ≤ 0.05). During the descent phase of the NHE repetitions, hamstring muscle activity progressively increased as the number of sets performed increased. These increases were observed in the first half of the range of motion. During the ascent phase, biceps femoris muscle activity but not medial hamstrings was reduced from the start of exercise during latter sets of repetitions. These data provide unique insight into the extent of fatigue induced from a bodyweight only exercise after a single set of 5 repetitions. Strength and conditioning coaches need to be aware of the speed and extent of fatigue induced from NHE, particularly in practical settings in which this exercise is now prescribed before sport-specific training sessions (i.e., the FIFA-11 before soccer training).

  5. Comparison of the electromyographic activity, quadriceps: hamstring coactivation ratio and strength changes of dominant leg muscles in collegiate football and volleyball players during different forms of exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanzila Taj

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The preliminary study was aimed to compare Electromyographic (EMG activity, Quadriceps: Hamstring coactivation (Q: H ratio and 1- Repetition maximum (RM squat changes of dominant leg muscles in collegiate football and volleyball players during different forms of exercises. Surface EMG analysis was carried out in 24 university level trained male players, football (n=12 and volleyball (n=12 while performing the following exercises: unilateral bridges, lunges, lateral step up to a 20.32 cm (8 inch platform, quadruped arm/ lower extremity lift in the first session. The EMG activities of vastus medialis obliquus (VMO and hamstrings muscles of dominant leg of the players of both groups were recorded using Power Lab EMG system (Lab Chart, AD instruments, ML-818, Australia. On the next session, 1-RM squat tests were also performed on the same players of both groups. In footballers, the lateral step-up, lunges and quadruped arm/ lower extremity lift and in volleyball players, only lunges produced EMG levels greater than 45% maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC in the VMO, which suggests that they may be beneficial for strengthening that muscle. All the exercises produced EMG levels less than 45% MVIC in hamstrings in both groups of players, so they may be more beneficial for training endurance and stabilization. The study also revealed smallest Q: H coactivation ratio in all exercises in volleyball players suggesting more hamstring activity than quadriceps but in footballers, moderate Q:H coactivation ratios were obtained establishing the quadriceps dominant activation in all these exercises. The 1- RM squat testing also showed significantly greater value (p=0.00 in football players than volleyball players. The findings in this study may be used to select specific exercises to enhance a core training program depending on the individual needs of an athlete or as per the requirement of the specific sport.

  6. Acute effects of static and dynamic stretching on hamstring eccentric isokinetic strength and unilateral hamstring to quadriceps strength ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Francisco; De Ste Croix, Mark; Sainz De Baranda, Pilar; Santonja, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    The main purposes of this study were to investigate the acute effects of static and dynamic lower limb stretching routines: (a) on peak torque, total external work and joint angle at peak torque of the hamstrings during maximal eccentric isokinetic leg flexion; (b) on unilateral hamstring to quadriceps (H/Q) strength ratios; as well as (c) to determine whether static and dynamic routines elicit similar responses. A total of 49 active adults completed the following intervention protocols in a randomised order on separate days: (a) non-stretching (control condition), (b) static stretching, and (c) dynamic stretching. After the stretching or control intervention, eccentric isokinetic peak torque, the angle of peak torque and total external work were assessed with participants prone at 1.04 and 3.14 rad · s(-1). Unilateral strength ratios of the knee were also recorded. Measures were compared via a fully-within-groups factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA). There were no main effects for eccentric isokinetic peak torque, angle of peak torque, total external work and unilateral H/Q strength ratios. The results suggest that dynamic and static stretching has no influence on eccentric strength profile and unilateral H/Q strength ratios and hence both forms of stretching do not reduce these two primary risk factors for muscle injury.

  7. MRI-Based Regional Muscle Use during Hamstring Strengthening Exercises in Elite Soccer Players

    OpenAIRE

    Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto; Suarez-Arrones, Luis; Rodas, Gil; Fernandez-Gonzalo, Rodrigo; Tesch, Per; Linnehan, Richard; Kreider, Richard; Di Salvo, Valter

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined site-specific hamstring muscles use with functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in elite soccer players during strength training. Thirty-six players were randomized into four groups, each performing either Nordic hamstring, flywheel leg-curl, Russian belt or the hip-extension conic-pulley exercise. The transverse relaxation time (T2) shift from pre- to post-MRI were calculated for the biceps femoris long (BFl) and short (BFs) heads, semitendinosus (ST) and semi...

  8. Knee extension and flexion muscle power after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with patellar tendon graft or hamstring tendons graft: a cross-sectional comparison 3 years post surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ageberg, Eva; Roos, Harald; Silbernagel, Karin

    2008-01-01

    to 2 years post surgery, but not later. In these studies, isokinetic muscle torque was used. However, muscle power has been suggested to be a more sensitive and sport-specific measures of strength. The aim was to study quadriceps and hamstring muscle power in patients with ACL injury treated...... for at least 4 months, were assessed with reliable, valid, and responsive tests of quadriceps and hamstring muscle power at 3 years (SD 0.9, range 2-5) after surgery. The mean difference between legs (injured minus uninjured), the hamstring to quadriceps (H:Q, hamstring divided by quadriceps) ratio....... The lower hamstring muscle power, and the lower hamstring to quadriceps ratio in the HT graft group than in the PT graft group 3 years (range 2-5) after ACL reconstruction, reflect imbalance of knee muscles after reconstruction with HT graft that may have a negative effect on dynamic knee...

  9. A comprehensive strength testing protocol offers no clinical value in predicting risk of hamstring injury: a prospective cohort study of 413 professional football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dyk, Nicol; Bahr, Roald; Burnett, Angus F; Whiteley, Rod; Bakken, Arnhild; Mosler, Andrea; Farooq, Abdulaziz; Witvrouw, Erik

    2017-07-29

    Hamstring injuries remain prevalent across a number of professional sports. In football, the incidence has even increased by 4% per year at the Champions League level over the last decade. The role of muscle strength or strength ratios and their association with risk of hamstring injury remain restricted by small sample sizes and inconclusive results. The purpose of this study is to identify risk factors for hamstring injury in professional football players in an adequately powered, prospective cohort study. Using both established (isokinetic) and novel (eccentric hamstring test device) measures of muscle strength, we aimed to investigate the relationship between these strength characteristics over the entire range of motion with risk of hamstring injury. All teams (n=18) eligible to compete in the premier football league in Qatar underwent a comprehensive strength assessment during their annual periodic health evaluation at Aspetar Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital in Doha, Qatar. Variables included isokinetic strength, Nordic hamstring exercise strength and dynamic hamstring: quadriceps ratios. Of the 413 players included (68.2% of all league players), 66 suffered a hamstring injury over the two seasons. Only isokinetic quadriceps concentric at 300°/s (adjusted for bodyweight) was associated with risk of hamstring injury when considered categorically. Age, body mass and playing position were also associated with risk of hamstring injury. None of the other 23 strength variables examined were found to be associated with hamstring injury. The clinical value of isolated strength testing is limited, and its use in musculoskeletal screening to predict future hamstring injury is unfounded. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Four weeks of Nordic hamstring exercise reduce muscle injury risk factors in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breno de A R Alvares, João; Marques, Vanessa Bernardes; Vaz, Marco Aurélio; Baroni, Bruno Manfredini

    2017-04-26

    The Nordic hamstring exercise (NHE) is a field-based exercise designed for knee-flexor eccentric strengthening, aimed at muscle strains prevention. However, possible effects of NHE programmes on other hamstring injury risk factors remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a NHE training programme on multiple hamstring injury risk factors. Twenty physically active young adults were allocated into two equal sized groups: control group (CG) and training group (TG). The TG was engaged in a 4-week NHE programme, twice a week, 3 sets of 6-10 repetitions; while CG received no exercise intervention. The knee flexor and extensor strength was assessed through isokinetic dynamometry, the biceps femoris long head muscle architecture through ultrasound images, and the hamstring flexibility through sit-and-reach test. The results showed that CG subjects had no significant change in any outcome. TG presented higher percent changes than CG for hamstring isometric peak torque (9%; effect size=0.27), eccentric peak torque (13%; effect size=0.60), eccentric work (18%; effect size=0.86), and functional hamstring-to-quadriceps torque ratio (13%; effect size=0.80). The NHE programme led also to increased fascicle length (22%; effect size=2.77) and reduced pennation angle (-17%; effect size=1.27) in biceps femoris long head of the TG, without significant changes on muscle thickness. In conclusion, a short-term NHE training programme (4 weeks; 8 training sessions) counteracts multiple hamstring injury risk factors in physically active young adults.

  11. Effect of an eccentrically biased hamstring strengthening home program on knee flexor strength and the length-tension relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orishimo, Karl F; McHugh, Malachy P

    2015-03-01

    The purposes of this study were to document relative activation intensities of the hamstrings and gluteus maximus during 4 eccentric hamstring strengthening exercises and to assess the effects of a short-term strengthening program comprised of these exercises on knee flexor strength and the length-tension relationship. Twelve healthy subjects participated in this study. Electromyographic (EMG) activities from the biceps femoris, semitendinosus, and gluteus maximus were recorded as subjects performed (a) standing hip extension with elastic resistance, (b) trunk flexion in single limb stance (diver), (c) standing split (glider), and (d) supine sliding bridge (slider). Baseline isometric knee flexor strength was measured at 90, 70, 50, and 30° of flexion at the knee with the subject seated and the hip flexed to 50° from horizontal. After completing the 4-week training program, strength tests were repeated. Repeated-measures analysis of variance were used to compare EMG activity between muscles and to assess angle-specific strength improvements. Hamstring activity exceeded gluteus maximus activity for resisted hip extension, glider, and slider exercises (p Knee flexor strength improved by 9.0% (p = 0.005) but was not angle specific (training by angle p = 0.874). The short-term home training program effectively targeted the hamstrings and resulted in strength gains that were similar at short and long muscle lengths. These data demonstrate that hamstring strength can be improved using eccentrically biased unilateral exercises without the use of weights or other equipments.

  12. Immediate Effects of Neurodynamic Sliding versus Muscle Stretching on Hamstring Flexibility in Subjects with Short Hamstring Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background. Hamstring injuries continue to affect active individuals and although inadequate muscle extensibility remains a commonly accepted factor, little is known about the most effective method to improve flexibility. Purpose. To determine if an isolated neurodynamic sciatic sliding technique would improve hamstring flexibility to a greater degree than stretching or a placebo intervention in asymptomatic subjects with short hamstring syndrome (SHS). Study Design. Randomized double-blind...

  13. Effects of High Velocity Elastic Band versus Heavy Resistance Training on Hamstring Strength, Activation, and Sprint Running Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janusevicius, Donatas; Snieckus, Audrius; Skurvydas, Albertas; Silinskas, Viktoras; Trinkunas, Eugenijus; Cadefau, Joan Aureli; Kamandulis, Sigitas

    2017-06-01

    Hamstring muscle injuries occur during high-speed activities, which suggests that muscular strength at high velocities may be more important than maximal strength. This study examined hamstring adaptations to training for maximal strength and for strength at high velocities. Physically active men (n = 25; age, 23.0 ± 3.2 years) were randomly divided into: (1) a resistance training (RT, n = 8) group, which performed high-load, low-velocity concentric-eccentric hamstring contractions; (2) a resistance training concentric (RTC; n = 9) group, which performed high-load, low-velocity concentric-only hamstring contractions; and (3) a high-velocity elastic band training (HVT, n = 8) group, which performed low-load, high-velocity concentric-eccentric hamstring contractions. Pre- and posttraining tests included hamstring strength on a hamstring-curl apparatus, concentric knee extension-flexion at 60°/s, 240°/s, and 450°/s, eccentric knee flexion at 60°/s and 240°/s, hamstring and quadriceps coactivation, knee flexion and extension frequency in the prone position, and 30-m sprint running speed from a stationary start and with a running start. Knee flexor torque increased significantly by 21.1% ± 8.1% in the RTC group and 16.2% ± 4.2% in the RT group (p training at high velocities is superior to traditional heavy resistance training for increasing knee flexor strength at high velocities, movement frequency, and sprint running performance. These findings also indicate that traditional training approaches are effective for increasing knee flexor strength and reducing knee extensor coactivation, but this outcome is limited to low and moderate speeds.

  14. A dynamic warm-up model increases quadriceps strength and hamstring flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Alain J; DiStefano, Lindsay J; Brown, Cathleen N; Herman, Daniel C; Guskiewicz, Kevin M; Padua, Darin A

    2012-04-01

    Research suggests that static stretching can negatively influence muscle strength and power and may result in decreased functional performance. The dynamic warm-up (DWU) is a common alternative to static stretching before physical activity, but there is limited research investigating the effects of a DWU. The purpose of this study was to compare the acute effects of a DWU and static stretching warm-up (SWU) on muscle flexibility, strength, and vertical jump using a randomized controlled trial design. Forty-five volunteers were randomly assigned into a control (CON), SWU, or DWU group. All participants rode a stationary bicycle for 5 minutes and completed a 10-minute warm-up protocol. During this protocol, the DWU group performed dynamic stretching and running, the SWU group performed static stretching, and the CON group rested. Dependent variables were measured immediately before and after the warm-up protocol. A digital inclinometer measured flexibility (degrees) for the hamstrings, quadriceps, and hip flexor muscles. An isokinetic dynamometer measured concentric and eccentric peak torque (N·m/kg) for the hamstrings and quadriceps. A force plate was used to measure vertical jump height (meters) and power (watts). In the DWU group, there was a significant increase in hamstring flexibility (pretest: 26.4 ± 13.5°, posttest: 16.9 ± 9.4°; p 0.05). The DWU significantly improved eccentric quadriceps strength and hamstrings flexibility, whereas the SWU did not facilitate any positive or negative changes in muscle flexibility, strength, power, or vertical jump. Therefore, the DWU may be a better preactivity warm-up choice than an SWU.

  15. Evaluation of the hamstring muscle complex following acute injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koulouris, George; Connell, David [Department of Radiology, St Francis X Cabrini, Wattletree Rd, 3144, Malvern, Victoria (Australia)

    2003-10-01

    To evaluate the imaging findings following acute hamstring injury. We retrospectively reviewed the imaging findings of hamstring muscle complex (HMC) strain in 170 patients referred to our institution over a 3-year period. A total of 179 injuries to the HMC were demonstrated in 170 patients (154 male, 16 female, mean age 28.2 years). The mean duration of symptoms was 4.7 days (range 1-10 days). MR imaging was performed in 97 cases and sonography in 102 cases (both modalities were performed in 20 examinations). Attention was directed to the frequency of muscle involvement, the location of the injury within the muscle-tendon unit, the extent of the injury and discriminating avulsion from muscle injury. Twenty-one patients had proximal tendon injury, with sixteen avulsions and five partial tears. Sixteen of these patients had surgical confirmation of hamstring avulsion from the ischial tuberosity (14 conjoint, 2 biceps femoris alone) and all were reliably diagnosed with MR imaging (16/16), but less so with sonography (7/12). Four distal tendon avulsions were also observed (three semitendinosus, one biceps femoris). With respect to muscle injury, the biceps femoris was most commonly injured (124/154). Semimembranosus was an uncommon muscle injury (21/154) and semitendinosus rare (9/154). Imaging can discriminate a hamstring tendon avulsion from musculotendinous strain and helps identify which patients necessitate surgical management as opposed to conservative treatment. (orig.)

  16. 中国女子曲棍球运动员膝关节伸、屈肌群等速力量测试研究%Isokinetic strength of hamstring and quadriceps muscles in Chinese women hockey players

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付颖; 闫琪

    2011-01-01

    通过对19名国家女子曲棍球队队员膝关节伸屈肌群的等速力量测试,探讨我国优秀女曲队员的下肢力量特点,为科学训练提供依据.结果表明:我国优秀女子曲棍运动员下肢屈肌力量较强,屈肌和伸肌群力量之间的比率(H/Q)比较合理;仅快速运动时(300°/s)弱侧屈膝肌群力量相对较弱,需加强该侧屈肌快速力量训练.%The isokinetic strength of hamstring and quadriceps muscles of 19 elite Chinese women hockey players were determined using Cybex 6000 system.The results indicated that the ratio of H/Q in these players was reasonable;the isokinetic strength of left knee flexors was lower at 300°/sec,and this speed strength would be enhanced.

  17. Sport stretching : Effect on passive muscle stiffness of short hamstrings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halbertsma, JPK; vanBolhuis, AI; Goeken, LNH

    1996-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of one 10-minute stretch on muscle stiffness in subjects with short hamstrings. Design: Randomized control trial. Setting: Laboratory for human movement sciences in the department of rehabilitation of a university hospital. Subjects: Sixteen students from the Depar

  18. Rehabilitation of hamstring muscle injuries: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Amorim Ramos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Hamstring injuries are among the most frequent in sports. The high relapse rate is a challenge for sports medicine and has a great impact on athletes and sport teams. The treatment goal is to provide the athlete the same functional level as before the injury. Thus, functional rehabilitation is very important to the success of the treatment. Currently, several physical therapy modalities are used, according to the stage of the lesion, such as cryotherapy, laser therapy, therapeutic ultrasound, therapeutic exercise, and manual therapy. However, the evidence of the effectiveness of these modalities in muscle injuries is not fully established due to the little scientific research on the topic. This article presents an overview of the physiotherapy approach in the rehabilitation of hamstring muscle injuries.

  19. Immediate Effects of Neurodynamic Sliding versus Muscle Stretching on Hamstring Flexibility in Subjects with Short Hamstring Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellote-Caballero, Yolanda; Valenza, Maríe C; Puentedura, Emilio J; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Alburquerque-Sendín, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Background. Hamstring injuries continue to affect active individuals and although inadequate muscle extensibility remains a commonly accepted factor, little is known about the most effective method to improve flexibility. Purpose. To determine if an isolated neurodynamic sciatic sliding technique would improve hamstring flexibility to a greater degree than stretching or a placebo intervention in asymptomatic subjects with short hamstring syndrome (SHS). Study Design. Randomized double-blinded controlled trial. Methods. One hundred and twenty subjects with SHS were randomized to 1 of 3 groups: neurodynamic sliding, hamstring stretching, and placebo control. Each subject's dominant leg was measured for straight leg raise (SLR) range of motion (ROM) before and after interventions. Data were analyzed with a 3 × 2 mixed model ANOVA followed by simple main effects analyses. Results. At the end of the study, more ROM was observed in the Neurodynamic and Stretching groups compared to the Control group and more ROM in the Neurodynamic group compared to Stretching group. Conclusion. Findings suggest that a neurodynamic sliding technique will increase hamstring flexibility to a greater degree than static hamstring stretching in healthy subjects with SHS. Clinical Relevance. The use of neurodynamic sliding techniques to improve hamstring flexibility in sports may lead to a decreased incidence in injuries; however, this needs to be formally tested.

  20. Immediate Effects of Neurodynamic Sliding versus Muscle Stretching on Hamstring Flexibility in Subjects with Short Hamstring Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Castellote-Caballero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hamstring injuries continue to affect active individuals and although inadequate muscle extensibility remains a commonly accepted factor, little is known about the most effective method to improve flexibility. Purpose. To determine if an isolated neurodynamic sciatic sliding technique would improve hamstring flexibility to a greater degree than stretching or a placebo intervention in asymptomatic subjects with short hamstring syndrome (SHS. Study Design. Randomized double-blinded controlled trial. Methods. One hundred and twenty subjects with SHS were randomized to 1 of 3 groups: neurodynamic sliding, hamstring stretching, and placebo control. Each subject’s dominant leg was measured for straight leg raise (SLR range of motion (ROM before and after interventions. Data were analyzed with a 3×2 mixed model ANOVA followed by simple main effects analyses. Results. At the end of the study, more ROM was observed in the Neurodynamic and Stretching groups compared to the Control group and more ROM in the Neurodynamic group compared to Stretching group. Conclusion. Findings suggest that a neurodynamic sliding technique will increase hamstring flexibility to a greater degree than static hamstring stretching in healthy subjects with SHS. Clinical Relevance. The use of neurodynamic sliding techniques to improve hamstring flexibility in sports may lead to a decreased incidence in injuries; however, this needs to be formally tested.

  1. Relationships of hamstring muscle volumes to lateral tibial slope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Randy J; Kulas, Anthony S; Shultz, Sandra J; Waxman, Justin P; Wang, Hsin-Min; Kraft, Robert A

    2017-09-29

    Greater posterior-inferior directed slope of the lateral tibial plateau (LTS) has been demonstrated to be a prospective ACL injury risk factor. Trainable measures to overcome a greater LTS need to be identified for optimizing injury prevention protocols. It was hypothesized that Healthy individuals with greater LTS who have not sustained an ACL injury would have a larger lateral hamstring volume. Eleven healthy females (mean +/- standard deviation) (1.63±0.07m, 62.0±8.9kg, 22.6±2.9years) & 10 healthy males (1.80±0.08m, 82.3±12.0kg, 23.2±3.4years) underwent magnetic resonance imaging of the left knee and thigh. LTS, semitendinosus muscle volume, and biceps femoris long head muscle volume were obtained from imaging data. After controlling for potential sex confounds (R(2)=.00; P=.862), lesser semitendinosus volume and greater biceps femoris-long head volume were indicative of greater LTS (R(2)∆=.30, P=.008). Healthy individuals with greater LTS have a muscular morphologic profile that includes a larger biceps femoris-long head volume. This may be indicative of a biomechanical strategy that relies more heavily on force generation of the lateral hamstring and is less reliant on force generation of the medial hamstring. Level IV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Medial hamstring muscle activation patterns are affected 1-6 years after ACL reconstruction using hamstring autograft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnason, Stefán Magni; Birnir, Bjartmar; Guðmundsson, Tómas Emil; Guðnason, Garðar; Briem, Kristín

    2014-05-01

    Although changes in hamstring muscle morphology after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) using a semitendinosus autograft hamstrings-gracilis (HG) of the ipsilateral limb are recognized, alterations in muscle activation patterns have not been extensively studied. The purpose of this controlled laboratory trial was therefore to monitor muscle activation levels of the medial (MH) and lateral (LH) hamstring muscles in athletes who had undergone ACLR using a HG autograft and to contrast these to activation levels demonstrated by healthy controls. Surface electromyography (EMG) was sampled from bilateral hamstring muscles of 18 athletes 1-6 years after ACLR and 18 matched controls (CTRL) during the performance of two dissimilar exercises, both involving eccentric knee flexor activity. Peak normalized muscle activation levels were identified for MH and LH of both limbs during the performance of the Nordic Hamstring (NH) exercise and TRX) hamstring curl (TRX) exercise. A statistically significant limb by exercise interaction was found for peak activation levels of LH, due to significant interlimb differences in activation during the performance of the TRX exercise compared to more symmetrical activation during the NH (p exercise type (p = 0.025). Whereas CTRL group participants consistently favoured one limb over the other during the performance of both exercises, ACLR participants demonstrated dissimilar peak MH activation patterns between limbs during the performance of the NH exercise compared to the TRX. In light of these results and considering the surgical procedure, patients who undergo ACLR using a HG autograft from the ipsilateral limb may benefit from post-operative rehabilitation that involves muscle activation and strengthening specifically targeting the MH component.

  3. Knee flexor strength recovery following hamstring tendon harvest for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Ardern

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The hamstring tendons are an increasingly popular graft choice for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction due to preservation of quadriceps function and the absence of anterior knee pain post-operatively. Two commonly used hamstring grafts are a quadruple strand semitendinosus graft (4ST and a double strand semitendinosus-double strand gracilis graft (2ST-2G. It has been suggested that concurrent harvest of the semitendinsous and gracilis tendons may result in sub-optimal hamstring strength recovery as the gracilis may play a role in reinforcing the semitendinosus particularly in deep knee flexion angles. The objective of this systematic review was to synthesize the findings of available literature and determine whether semitendinosus and gracilis harvest lead to post-operative hamstring strength deficits when compared to semitendinosus harvest alone. Seven studies were identified which compared hamstring strength outcomes between the common hamstring graft types. The methodological quality of each paper was assessed, and where possible effect sizes were calculated to allow comparison of results across studies. No differences were reported between the groups in isokinetic hamstring strength. Deficits in hamstring strength were reported in the 2ST-2G groups when compared to the 4ST groups in isometric strength testing at knee flexion angles ≥70°, and in the standing knee flexion angle. Preliminary evidence exists to support the hypothesis that harvesting the semitendinosus tendon alone is preferable to harvesting in combination with the gracilis tendon for minimizing post-operative hamstring strength deficits at knee flexion angles greater than 70°. However, due to the paucity of research comparing strength outcomes between the common hamstring graft types, further investigation is warranted to fully elucidate the implications for graft harvest.

  4. A comparison of hamstring muscle activity during different screening tests for non-contact ACL injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Rasmus S; Bencke, Jesper; Andersen, Lars Louis

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reduced ability to activate the medial hamstring muscles during a sports-specific sidecutting movement has been found to be a potential risk factor for non-contact ACL injury. However, whether a reduced ability to activate the medial hamstring muscle is a general neuromuscular phenome...

  5. Muscle and intensity based hamstring exercise classification in elite female track and field athletes: implications for exercise selection during rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsaklis P

    2015-06-01

    exercise. An electrogoniometer synchronized to the EMG was used to determine whether peak EMG activity occurred during muscle-tendon unit lengthening, shortening, or no change in length. Mean EMG values were compared between the two recording sites for each exercise using the Student's t-test.Results: The lunge, dead lift, and kettle swings were low intensity (<50% MVIC and all showed higher EMG activity for semitendinosus than for biceps femoris. Bridge was low but approaching medium intensity, and the TRX, hamstring bridge, and hamstring curl were all medium intensity exercises (≥50% or <80% MVIC. The Nordic, fitball, and slide leg exercises were all high intensity exercises. Only the fitball exercise showed higher EMG activity in the biceps femoris compared with the semitendinosus. Only lunge and kettle swings showed peak EMG in the muscle-tendon unit lengthening phase and both these exercises involved faster speed.Conclusion: Some exercises selectively activated the lateral and medial distal hamstrings. Low, medium, and high intensity exercises were demonstrated. This information enables the clinician, strength and conditioning coach and physiotherapist to better understand intensity- and muscle-specific activation during hamstring muscle rehabilitation. Therefore, these results may help in designing progressive strengthening and rehabilitation and prevention programs.Keywords: hamstring injuries, exercise, rehabilitation

  6. Muscle activation patterns in the Nordic hamstring exercise: Impact of prior strain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, M N; Opar, D A; Williams, M D; Al Najjar, A; Shield, A J

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to determine: (a) the spatial patterns of hamstring activation during the Nordic hamstring exercise (NHE); (b) whether previously injured hamstrings display activation deficits during the NHE; and (c) whether previously injured hamstrings exhibit altered cross-sectional area (CSA). Ten healthy, recreationally active men with a history of unilateral hamstring strain injury underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging of their thighs before and after six sets of 10 repetitions of the NHE. Transverse (T2) relaxation times of all hamstring muscles [biceps femoris long head (BFlh); biceps femoris short head (BFsh); semitendinosus (ST); semimembranosus (SM)] were measured at rest and immediately after the NHE and CSA was measured at rest. For the uninjured limb, the ST's percentage increase in T2 with exercise was 16.8%, 15.8%, and 20.2% greater than the increases exhibited by the BFlh, BFsh, and SM, respectively (P < 0.002 for all). Previously injured hamstring muscles (n = 10) displayed significantly smaller increases in T2 post-exercise than the homonymous muscles in the uninjured contralateral limb (mean difference -7.2%, P = 0.001). No muscles displayed significant between-limb differences in CSA. During the NHE, the ST is preferentially activated and previously injured hamstring muscles display chronic activation deficits compared with uninjured contralateral muscles. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Preventive Effects of Eccentric Training on Acute Hamstring Muscle Injury in Professional Baseball

    OpenAIRE

    Seagrave, Richard A.; Perez, Luis; McQueeney, Sean; Toby, E. Bruce; Key, Vincent; Nelson, Joshua D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hamstring injuries are the second most common injury causing missed days in professional baseball field players. Recent studies have shown the preventive benefit of eccentric conditioning on the hamstring muscle group in injury prevention. Specifically, Nordic-type exercises have been shown to decrease the incidence of acute hamstring injuries in professional athletes. Purpose: This was a prospective study performed in coordination with a single Major League Baseball (MLB) organiz...

  8. Relationship between muscle volume and muscle torque of the hamstrings after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Yu; Fukubayashi, Toru

    2010-01-01

    The muscle torque per unit volume of the hamstrings on the injured and uninjured sides in patients with ACL reconstruction were compared with participants with no history of knee injury to examine whether a similar mechanism leading to quadriceps weakness exists in the hamstrings of these patients. The study population consisted of 18 and 52 patients at torque per unit volume, the peak torque of knee flexion was divided by the hamstring volume. Most muscle torque per unit volume indexes were not significantly different between the patients at torque per unit volume of patients at 12 months in both injured (0.118+/-0.03 Nm/cm(3), 60 degrees /s; 0.092+/-0.02 Nm/cm(3), 180 degrees /s) and uninjured sides (0.120+/-0.03 Nm/cm(3) at 60 degrees /s; 0.094+/-0.02 Nm/cm(3), 180 degrees /s) were significantly lower than those of controls (P<0.01). We found no evidence of recruitment disorder in the hamstrings of the patients. The results of this study indicated that the mechanism of muscle weakness of the hamstrings after reconstruction was different from that of the quadriceps, although the precise mechanism remains to be determined.

  9. Comparison of hamstring muscle behavior for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) patient and normal subject during local marching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amineldin@Aminudin, Nurul Izzaty Bt.; Rambely, A. S.

    2014-09-01

    This study aims to investigate the hamstring muscle activity after the surgery by carrying out an electromyography experiment on the hamstring and to compare the behavior of the ACL muscle activity between ACL patient and control subject. Electromyography (EMG) is used to study the behavior of muscles during walking activity. Two hamstring muscles involved which are semitendinosus and bicep femoris. The EMG data for both muscles were recorded while the subject did maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) and marching. The study concluded that there were similarities between bicep femoris of the ACL and control subjects. The analysis showed that the biceps femoris muscle of the ACL subject had no abnormality and the pattern is as normal as the control subject. However, ACL patient has poor semitendinosus muscle strength compared to that of control subject because the differences of the forces produced. The force of semitendinosus value for control subject was two times greater than that of the ACL subject as the right semitendinosus muscle of ACL subject was used to replace the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) that was injured.

  10. Effects on hamstring muscle extensibility, muscle activity, and balance of different stretching techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kyoung-Il; Nam, Hyung-Chun; Jung, Kyoung-Sim

    2014-02-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of two different stretching techniques on range of motion (ROM), muscle activation, and balance. [Subjects] For the present study, 48 adults with hamstring muscle tightness were recruited and randomly divided into three groups: a static stretching group (n=16), a PNF stretching group (n=16), a control group (n=16). [Methods] Both of the stretching techniques were applied to the hamstring once. Active knee extension angle, muscle activation during maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVC), and static balance were measured before and after the application of each stretching technique. [Results] Both the static stretching and the PNF stretching groups showed significant increases in knee extension angle compared to the control group. However, there were no significant differences in muscle activation or balance between the groups. [Conclusion] Static stretching and PNF stretching techniques improved ROM without decrease in muscle activation, but neither of them exerted statistically significant effects on balance.

  11. Effects on Hamstring Muscle Extensibility, Muscle Activity, and Balance of Different Stretching Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kyoung-Il; Nam, Hyung-Chun; Jung, Kyoung-Sim

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of two different stretching techniques on range of motion (ROM), muscle activation, and balance. [Subjects] For the present study, 48 adults with hamstring muscle tightness were recruited and randomly divided into three groups: a static stretching group (n=16), a PNF stretching group (n=16), a control group (n=16). [Methods] Both of the stretching techniques were applied to the hamstring once. Active knee extension angle, muscle activation during maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVC), and static balance were measured before and after the application of each stretching technique. [Results] Both the static stretching and the PNF stretching groups showed significant increases in knee extension angle compared to the control group. However, there were no significant differences in muscle activation or balance between the groups. [Conclusion] Static stretching and PNF stretching techniques improved ROM without decrease in muscle activation, but neither of them exerted statistically significant effects on balance. PMID:24648633

  12. Magnitudes of muscle activation of spine stabilizers, gluteals, and hamstrings during supine bridge to neutral position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youdas, James W; Hartman, James P; Murphy, Brooke A; Rundle, Ashley M; Ugorowski, Jenna M; Hollman, John H

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the magnitude of selective core muscle activation during supine bridging to neutral exercises (three on a stable and three on an unstable surface). Surface EMG analysis was performed on the lumbar multifidus, gluteus medius, gluteus maximus, and hamstrings from 13 male and 13 female subjects. Lumbar multifidus recruitment was not influenced by exercise or condition and ranged between 29.2 and 35.9% of maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). Peak gluteus medius activation (42.0% MVIC) occurred in unstable single-leg bridge. Maximum recruitment of gluteus maximus (32.6% MVIC) appeared during stable single-leg bridge. Peak hamstring activation (59.6% MVIC) occurred during stable double-leg hamstring curl. Regardless of condition, hamstrings demonstrated high (51.9-59.6% MVIC) muscle recruitment during double-leg hamstring curls compared with the single-leg bridge or double-leg bridge. Various supine bridging to neutral exercises activated the hamstrings at levels conducive to strengthening, whereas recruitment of lumbar multifidus, gluteus medius, and gluteus maximus promoted endurance training. Clinically, we were unable to conclude the unstable support surface was preferable to the stable surface for boosting muscle recruitment of spine stabilizers, gluteals, and hamstring muscles during supine bridge to neutral position.

  13. The acute effect of match play on hamstring strength and lower limb flexibility in elite youth football players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wollin, M; Thorborg, K; Pizzari, T

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of competitive football match play on hamstring strength and lower limb flexibility. Fifteen male international youth football players were included. Hamstring strength and associated pain ratings, ankle dorsiflexion, hip extension, knee extension....... Competitive football match play has a significant acute and transient effect on isometric hamstring strength and associated pain levels during resisted knee flexion in male international youth players. Range of motion measures appear to remain relatively unaffected by match play. Isometric hamstring strength...

  14. The Preventive Effect of the Nordic Hamstring Exercise on Hamstring Injuries in Amateur Soccer Players : A Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Horst, Nick; Smits, Dirk-Wouter; Petersen, Jesper; Goedhart, Edwin A.; Backx, Frank J. G.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hamstring injuries are the most common muscle injuries in soccer, and they have a high rate of recurrence. Eccentric hamstrings strength is recognized as an important modifiable risk factor. This led to the development of prevention exercises such as the nordic hamstring exercise (NHE).

  15. The Preventive Effect of the Nordic Hamstring Exercise on Hamstring Injuries in Amateur Soccer Players : A Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Horst, Nick; Smits, Dirk-Wouter; Petersen, Jesper; Goedhart, Edwin A.; Backx, Frank J. G.

    Background: Hamstring injuries are the most common muscle injuries in soccer, and they have a high rate of recurrence. Eccentric hamstrings strength is recognized as an important modifiable risk factor. This led to the development of prevention exercises such as the nordic hamstring exercise (NHE).

  16. The Preventive Effect of the Nordic Hamstring Exercise on Hamstring Injuries in Amateur Soccer Players : A Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Horst, Nick; Smits, Dirk-Wouter; Petersen, Jesper; Goedhart, Edwin A.; Backx, Frank J. G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069615039

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hamstring injuries are the most common muscle injuries in soccer, and they have a high rate of recurrence. Eccentric hamstrings strength is recognized as an important modifiable risk factor. This led to the development of prevention exercises such as the nordic hamstring exercise (NHE).

  17. Effects of an eccentric training programme on hamstring strain injuries in women football players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    del Ama Espinosa Gurutze

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: to test the hypothesis that an eccentric training programme applied on women football players would reduce the hamstring injury rate by improving thigh muscle balance and, particularly, hamstring strength.

  18. Focusing on Increasing Velocity during Heavy Resistance Knee Flexion Exercise Boosts Hamstring Muscle Activity in Chronic Stroke Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Markus D.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Muscle strength is markedly reduced in stroke patients, which has negative implications for functional capacity and work ability. Different types of feedback during strength training exercises may alter neuromuscular activity and functional gains. Objective. To compare levels of muscle activity during conditions of blindfolding and intended high contraction speed with a normal condition of high-intensity knee flexions. Methods. Eighteen patients performed unilateral machine knee flexions with a 10-repetition maximum load. Surface electromyography (EMG) was recorded from the quadrics and hamstring muscles and normalized to maximal EMG (nEMG) of the nonparetic limb. Results. For the paretic leg, the speed condition showed higher values of muscle activity compared with the normal and blindfolded conditions for both biceps femoris and semitendinosus. Likewise, the speed condition showed higher co-contraction values compared with the normal and blindfolded conditions for the vastus lateralis. No differences were observed between exercise conditions for the nonparetic leg. Conclusion. Chronic stroke patients are capable of performing heavy resistance training with intended high speed of contraction. Focusing on speed during the concentric phase elicited higher levels of muscle activity of the hamstrings compared to normal and blindfolded conditions, which may have implications for regaining fast muscle strength in stroke survivors. PMID:27525118

  19. Rapid Hamstrings/Quadriceps strength in ACL-reconstructed elite alpine ski racers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Matthew J; Aagaard, Per; Herzog, Walter

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Due to the importance of hamstrings (HAM) and quadriceps (QUAD) strength for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention, and the high incidence of ACL injury in ski racing, HAM and QUAD maximal and explosive strength was assessed in ski racers with and without ACL reconstruction...

  20. Effects of Acute Fatigue of the Hip Flexor Muscles on Hamstring Muscle Extensibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muyor José M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the influence of acute fatigue of the hip flexor muscles on scores attained in tests frequently used in literature to measure hamstring muscle extensibility, namely the passive straight leg raise (PSLR, active straight leg raise (ASLR, passive knee extension (PKE, active knee extension (AKE, sit-and-reach (SR and toe-touch (TT tests. A total of seventy-five healthy and recreationally active adults voluntarily participated in this study. To reach fatigue, the participants actively lifted their legs alternately as many times as possible. In the passive tests, the results were 7.10 ± 5.21° and 5.68 ± 4.54° higher (p 0.05. Moderate (r = 0.40 to high (r = 0.97 correlation coefficients were found, which were statistically significant among all the measured flexibility tests both pre- and post-fatigue. In conclusion, the active implication of the hip flexor muscles until reaching fatigue had acute influences on the results of the PSLR, PKE and ASLR tests, but not on the results of the AKE, SR and TT tests. It is recommended to use the AKE test to assess hamstring muscle extensibility in situations where athletes show fatigue in their hip flexor muscles.

  1. The effect of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction on hamstring and quadriceps muscle function outcome ratios in male athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadija Marko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Maximal strength ratios such as the limb symmetry index (LSI and hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio (HQ may be considered the main outcome measures in the monitoring of recovery after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL reconstruction. Although explosive strength is much more important than maximal strength, it is generally disregarded in the follow-up of muscle function recovery. Objective. The purpose of this study was to compare ratios between maximal (Fmax and explosive strength (rate of force development - RFD in individuals with ACL reconstruction. Methods. Fifteen male athletes were enrolled and had maximum voluntary isometric quadriceps and hamstring contractions tested (4.0 ± 0.1 months post reconstruction. In addition to Fmax, RFD was estimated (RFDmax, as well as RFD at 50, 100, and 200 ms from onset of contraction and LSI and HQ ratios were calculated. Results. The involved leg demonstrated significant hamstring and quadriceps deficits compared to uninvolved leg (p < 0.01. Deficits were particularly significant in the involved quadriceps, causing higher HQ ratios (average 0.63, compared to the uninvolved leg (0.44. LSI was significantly lower for RFD variables (average 55% than for Fmax (66%. Conclusion. The assessment of RFD may be considered an objective recovery parameter for one’s readiness to return to sports and should be an integral part of standard follow-up protocol for athletes after ACL reconstruction. Moreover, the combination of indices derived from maximal and explosive strength may provide better insight in muscle strength balance, as well as a clear picture of functional implications. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175012 i br. 175037

  2. Isokinetic concentric quadriceps and hamstring strength variables from the NFL Scouting Combine are not predictive of hamstring injury in first-year professional football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvijac, John E; Toriscelli, Todd A; Merrick, Shannon; Kiebzak, Gary M

    2013-07-01

    There are conflicting reports regarding the association between isokinetic concentric quadriceps and hamstring strength deficits and ratios and risk for hamstring injuries in athletes. To determine if isokinetic concentric Cybex data collected during the annual National Football League (NFL) Scouting Combine are predictive of hamstring injury in professional American football players during their first season. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. All 32 NFL teams identified players selected during the first 5 rounds of the NFL annual draft who had hamstring injuries during their first professional season. Of these, 164 players with 172 injuries also had Cybex data from the previous year's Combine. Analyses compared injured legs with contralateral uninjured legs and also injured players with uninjured controls using a database of Cybex data from all players who participated in the NFL Scouting Combine from 2006 to 2011. No Cybex strength variable differentiated the injured legs from the contralateral uninjured legs or injured players from uninjured controls, even after taking into account days lost from activity. Mean ± SD peak torque for the injured and contralateral uninjured sides was as follows: 315.7 ± 70.0 and 313.5 ± 68.3 N · m, respectively (P = .773, paired t test), for quadriceps and 203.0 ± 42.4 and 205.3 ± 42.5 N · m, respectively (P = .608, paired t test), for hamstrings. The sensitivity and specificity for the hamstrings-to-quadriceps ratio predicting hamstring injury were 0.513 (95% confidence interval, 0.419-0.607) and 0.524 (0.495-0.554), indicating that the hamstrings-to-quadriceps ratio was not a useful predictor of injury (calculation used the mean ± SD ratio for injured legs, 0.656 ± 0.133). Side-to-side peak torque differences were also not predictive of injury, with more than a 10% difference (plus or minus) occurring commonly in both injured and uninjured players for quadriceps (53% prevalence for both injured and uninjured) and

  3. An anatomical and histological study of the structures surrounding the proximal attachment of the hamstring muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Bellmunt, Albert; Miguel-Pérez, Maribel; Brugué, Marc Blasi; Cabús, Juan Blasi; Casals, Martí; Martinoli, Carlo; Kuisma, Raija

    2015-06-01

    The proximal attachment of hamstring muscles has a very high incidence of injuries due to a wide number of factors and its morphology may be one of the underlying factors as scientific literature points out. The connective tissue component of the attachment of hamstring muscles is not well known. For this reason the aim of this study is to describe the anatomy and histology surrounding the proximal attachment of the hamstring muscles (PAHM) and its direct anatomic relations. Forty-eight cryopreserved lower limbs have sequentially been studied by means of dissection, anatomical sections and histology. All specimens studied presented an annular connective tissue structure that resembles a retinaculum, which covers and adapts to the attachment of hamstring muscles on the ischial tuberosity. The results show how this retinaculum is continuous with the long head of biceps femoris muscle, however there is a layer of loose connective tissue between the retinaculum and the semitendinosus muscle. Furthermore, this structure receives expansions of the anterior epimysium of the gluteus maximus muscle (GIM). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A novel device using the Nordic hamstring exercise to assess eccentric knee flexor strength: a reliability and retrospective injury study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opar, David A; Piatkowski, Timothy; Williams, Morgan D; Shield, Anthony J

    2013-09-01

    Reliability and case-control injury study. To determine if a novel device designed to measure eccentric knee flexor strength via the Nordic hamstring exercise displays acceptable test-retest reliability; to determine normative values for eccentric knee flexor strength derived from the device in individuals without a history of hamstring strain injury (HSI); and to determine if the device can detect weakness in elite athletes with a previous history of unilateral HSI. HSI and reinjury are the most common cause of lost playing time in a number of sports. Eccentric knee flexor weakness is a major modifiable risk factor for future HSI. However, at present, there is a lack of easily accessible equipment to assess eccentric knee flexor strength. Thirty recreationally active males without a history of HSI completed the Nordic hamstring exercise on the device on 2 separate occasions. Intraclass correlation coefficients, typical error, typical error as a coefficient of variation, and minimal detectable change at a 95% confidence level were calculated. Normative strength data were determined using the most reliable measurement. An additional 20 elite athletes with a unilateral history of HSI within the previous 12 months performed the Nordic hamstring exercise on the device to determine if residual eccentric muscle weakness existed in the previously injured limb. The device displayed high to moderate reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.83-0.90; typical error, 21.7-27.5 N; typical error as a coefficient of variation, 5.8%-8.5%; minimal detectable change at a 95% confidence level, 60.1-76.2 N). Mean ± SD normative eccentric flexor strength in the uninjured group was 344.7 ± 61.1 N for the left and 361.2 ± 65.1 N for the right side. The previously injured limb was 15% weaker than the contralateral uninjured limb (mean difference, 50.3 N; 95% confidence interval: 25.7, 74.9; P<.01), 15% weaker than the normative left limb (mean difference, 50.0 N; 95

  5. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury: Compensation during Gait using Hamstring Muscle Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalfamo, Paola Formento; Aguiar, Gerardo; Curi, Jorge; Braidot, Ariel

    2010-06-10

    Previous research has shown that an increase in hamstring activation may compensate for anterior tibial transalation (ATT) in patients with anterior cruciate ligament deficient knee (ACLd); however, the effects of this compensation still remain unclear. The goals of this study were to quantify the activation of the hamstring muscles needed to compensate the ATT in ACLd knee during the complete gait cycle and to evaluate the effect of this compensation on quadriceps activation and joint contact forces. A two dimensional model of the knee was used, which included the tibiofemoral and patellofemoral joints, knee ligaments, the medial capsule and two muscles units. Simulations were conducted to determine the ATT in healthy and ACLd knee and the hamstring activation needed to correct the abnormal ATT to normal levels (100% compensation) and to 50% compensation. Then, the quadriceps activation and the joint contact forces were calculated. Results showed that 100% compensation would require hamstring and quadriceps activations larger than their maximum isometric force, and would generate an increment in the peak contact force at the tibiofemoral (115%) and patellofemoral (48%) joint with respect to the healthy knee. On the other hand, 50% compensation would require less force generated by the muscles (less than 0.85 of maximum isometric force) and smaller contact forces (peak tibiofemoral contact force increased 23% and peak patellofemoral contact force decreased 7.5% with respect to the healthy knee). Total compensation of ATT by means of increased hamstring activity is possible; however, partial compensation represents a less deleterious strategy.

  6. Knee extension and flexion muscle power after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with patellar tendon graft or hamstring tendons graft: a cross-sectional comparison 3 years post surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ageberg, Eva; Roos, Harald P; Silbernagel, Karin Grävare; Thomeé, Roland; Roos, Ewa M

    2009-02-01

    Hamstring muscles play a major role in knee-joint stabilization after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Weakness of the knee extensors after ACL reconstruction with patellar tendon (PT) graft, and in the knee flexors after reconstruction with hamstring tendons (HT) graft has been observed up to 2 years post surgery, but not later. In these studies, isokinetic muscle torque was used. However, muscle power has been suggested to be a more sensitive and sport-specific measures of strength. The aim was to study quadriceps and hamstring muscle power in patients with ACL injury treated with surgical reconstruction with PT or HT grafts at a mean of 3 years after surgery. Twenty subjects with PT and 16 subjects with HT grafts (mean age at follow up 30 years, range 20-39, 25% women), who were all included in a prospective study and followed the same goal-based rehabilitation protocol for at least 4 months, were assessed with reliable, valid, and responsive tests of quadriceps and hamstring muscle power at 3 years (SD 0.9, range 2-5) after surgery. The mean difference between legs (injured minus uninjured), the hamstring to quadriceps (H:Q, hamstring divided by quadriceps) ratio, and the limb symmetry index (LSI, injured leg divided by uninjured and multiplied by 100) value, were used for comparisons between the groups (analysis of variance). The mean difference between the injured and uninjured legs was greater in the HT than in the PT group for knee flexion power (-21.3 vs. 7.7 W, p = 0.001). Patients with HT graft had lower H:Q ratio in the injured leg than the patients with PT graft (0.63 vs. 0.77, p = 0.012). They also had lower LSI for knee flexion power than those in the PT group (88 vs. 106%, p knee extension power. The lower hamstring muscle power, and the lower hamstring to quadriceps ratio in the HT graft group than in the PT graft group 3 years (range 2-5) after ACL reconstruction, reflect imbalance of knee muscles after reconstruction with HT graft that

  7. Repeated passive stretching : Acute effect on the passive muscle moment and extensibility of short hamstrings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halbertsma, JPK; Mulder, [No Value; Goeken, LNH; Eisma, WH; Mulder, I.; Göeken, L.N.

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To examine the response of short hamstring muscles to repeated passive stretching. Design: A repeated measures design. Setting: A university laboratory for human movement analysis in a department of rehabilitation. Subjects: Students (7 men, 10 women) from the Department of Human Movement

  8. Hamstring injuries: Prevention and rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KALLIS KALLI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A review was conducted to present current views and effectiveness of prevention and rehabilitation methods of hamstring injuries. Methods: a review searching on the electronic data bases, including Proquest, Medline, Sport Discus, Cinahl plus, Health source Nursing / Academic edition, Academic search complete, Pub med and Scholar Google. Only randomized control studies (RCT'S were included which contained the intervention and control groups concerning either the prevention or rehabilitation of hamstrings. Results: fourteen randomized control studies were included. Twelve concerned the prevention and two the rehabilitation of hamstring injuries. From the analysis of the articles concerning prevention we concluded that stretching, especially static and warm up program named "The 11" did not show any benefits in preventing hamstring injuries whilst strength training exercises with eccentric contraction (Nordic exercises and warm-up program "The 11+" containing eccentric exercises of hamstring showed significant differences regarding the prevention. It is postulated that the effectiveness of this may be due to the fact that the researchers had targeted the progressive increase in the intensity and frequency of eccentric exercises. Conclusions: eccentric exercises seem (based on the findings included in this study to have an important role in the prevention and strengthening immediately after hamstring injury and also significantly role on reducing the risk of reinjury. A rehabilitation program that includes mainly stretching exercises with eccentric loading of hamstrings muscles and secondly an exercise program which includes core stability and progressive agility exercises were found to be the most effective for recovery after hamstrings injury.

  9. Hamstrings and psoas lengths during normal and crouch gait: implications for muscle-tendon surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delp, S L; Arnold, A S; Speers, R A; Moore, C A

    1996-01-01

    Crouch gait, one of the most common movement abnormalities among children with cerebral palsy, is characterized by persistent flexion of the knee during the stance phase. Short hamstrings are thought to be the cause of crouch gait; thus, crouch gait is often treated by surgical lengthening of the hamstrings. In this study, a graphics-based model of the lower extremity was used in conjunction with three-dimensional kinematic data obtained from gait analysis to estimate the lengths of the hamstrings and psoas muscles during normal and crouch gaits. Only three of 14 subjects with crouch gait (four of 20 limbs with knee flexion of 20 degrees or more throughout stance) had hamstrings that were shorter than normal by more than 1 SD during walking. Most (80%) of the subjects with crouch gait had hamstrings of normal length or longer, despite persistent knee flexion during stance. This occurred because the excessive knee flexion was typically accompanied by excessive hip flexion throughout the gait cycle. All of the subjects with crouch gait had a psoas that was shorter than normal by more than 1 SD during walking. These results emphasize the need to consider the geometry and kinematics of multiple joints before performing surgical procedures aimed at correcting crouch gait.

  10. The use of MRI to evaluate posterior thigh muscle activity and damage during nordic hamstring exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendiguchia, Jurdan; Arcos, Asier L; Garrues, Mirian A; Myer, Gregory D; Yanci, Javier; Idoate, Fernando

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the Nordic hamstring exercise on the biceps femoris long head (BFlh), biceps femoris short head (BFsh), semitendinosus (SMT), and semimembranosus (SMM) muscles. The Nordic hamstring strengthening exercise has been widely used in injury prevention, yet not much is known about the site-specific activation of this exercise on different muscles of the thigh. Eight male national-level referees were assigned to a Nordic hamstring exercise protocol (5 sets of 8 repetitions). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the subjects' thighs was performed before, within 3 minutes after, and repeated again 72 hours after the exercise intervention. Fifteen axial scans of the thigh interspaced by a distance of 1 of 15 right femur length were obtained from the level of 1 of 15 Lf to 15 of 15 Lf. The MRI data were analyzed for signal intensity changes. After 72 hours, significant changes in transverse (spin-spin) relaxation time signal intensity and cross-sectional area were maintained distally at BFsh cranial portion and concretely at the nondominant limb, whereas no significant changes were observed in transverse (spin-spin) relaxation time signal intensity at BFlh, SMM, or SMT. This study demonstrated that the Nordic hamstring exercise did not result in a uniform response (training stimulus) neither interhamstring (dominant vs. nondominant) nor intrahamstring muscles (same leg) and was better suited for loading proximal BFsh.

  11. Muscle Activation Profiles and Co-Activation of Quadriceps and Hamstring Muscles around Knee Joint in Indian Primary Osteoarthritis Knee Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sanjeev Kumar; Yadav, Shiv Lal; Singh, U; Wadhwa, Sanjay

    2017-05-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) of knee is a common joint disease. It is associated with reduced knee joint stability due to impaired quadriceps strength, pain, and an altered joint structure. There is altered muscle activation in knee OA patients, which interferes with normal load distribution around the knee and facilitates disease progression. Our primary aim was to determine activation patterns of the muscles i.e., quadriceps and hamstrings in knee OA patients during walking. We also studied co-activation of muscles around knee joint in primary OA knee patients including directed medial and lateral co-contractions. This observational study was done at Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India. Fourty-four patients with medial compartment primary knee OA were included in study after satisfying inclusion and exclusion criteria. All the patients were assessed for mean, peak and integrated Root Mean Square (RMS), EMG values, muscle activation patterns and co-activation of muscles around knee joint by surface Electromyography (EMG) analysis of Vastus Medialis Obliques (VMO), Vastus Lateralis (VL), Semitendinosus (SMT) and Biceps Femoris (BF) muscles during gait cycle. The EMG waveform for each muscle was amplitude normalized and time normalized to 100% of gait cycle and plotted on graph. Quantitative variables were assessed for normal distribution and accordingly mean±SD or median (range), as appropriate, was computed. For primary OA knee, mean age 61±5 years, mean weight 63.7±10.1 kg, mean height 153.9±7.2 cm, and mean Body Mass Index (BMI) 26.8±3.0 kg/m(2) was found. The muscle activity of hamstrings (SMT muscle and BF) was increased during midstance, late stance and early swing phase of gait cycle as compared to quadriceps (VMO and VL) muscle activity respectively, suggesting co-contraction of opposing muscles around knee joint. Patients with knee OA walk with increased hamstring muscle activity (during

  12. The predictive validity of a single leg bridge test for hamstring injuries in Australian Rules Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freckleton, Grant; Cook, Jill; Pizzari, Tania

    2014-04-01

    Hamstring muscle strain injuries (HMSI) are the greatest injury problem in kicking sports such as Australian Rules Football. Reduced hamstring muscle strength is commonly perceived to be a risk factor for hamstring injury; however, evidence is inconclusive. Testing hamstring strength with the hip and knee at functional angles and assessing endurance parameters may be more relevant for examining the risk of hamstring injury. The primary aim of this prospective study was to examine if reduced hamstring muscle strength assessed with the single leg hamstring bridge (SLHB) was a risk factor for hamstring injury. Hamstring muscle strength of 482 amateur and semielite players from 16 football clubs, mean age 20.7 (range 16-34 years), was tested during the 2011 preseason. Players were then monitored throughout the 2011 playing season for HMSI. A total of 28 hamstring injuries, 16 right and 12 left, were recorded. Players who sustained a right HMSI during the season had a significantly lower mean right SLHB score (p=0.029), were older (p=0.002) and were more likely to have sustained a past right hamstring injury (p=0.02) or right knee injury (p=0.035). For left-sided hamstring injury, the injured group was more likely to be left leg dominant (p=0.001), older athletes (p=0.002) and there was a trend towards a history of left hamstring injury (p=0.07). This study demonstrated a significant deficit in preseason SLHB scores on the right leg of players that subsequently sustained a right-sided hamstring injury. Age, previous knee injury and a history of hamstring injury were other risk factors supported in this study. Low hamstring strength appears to be a risk factor for hamstring injury; however, due to the confounding variables and low injury rate in this study, further studies are required.

  13. The effect of previous hamstring strain injuries on the change in eccentric hamstring strength during preseason training in elite Australian footballers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opar, David A; Williams, Morgan D; Timmins, Ryan G; Hickey, Jack; Duhig, Steven J; Shield, Anthony J

    2015-02-01

    Hamstring strain injuries (HSIs) are the most common injury type in Australian football, and the rate of recurrence has been consistently high for a number of years. Long-lasting neuromuscular inhibition has been noted in previously injured athletes, but it is not known if this influences the athlete's adaptive response to training. To determine if elite Australian footballers with a prior unilateral HSI (previously injured group) display less improvement in eccentric hamstring strength during preseason training compared with athletes without a history of HSIs (control group). Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. A total of 99 elite Australian footballers (17 with a history of unilateral HSIs in the previous 12-month period) participated in this study. Eccentric hamstring strength was assessed at the start and end of preseason training using an instrumented Nordic hamstring device. The change in eccentric strength across the preseason was determined in absolute terms and normalized to the start of preseason strength. The start of preseason strength was used as a covariate to control for differences in starting strength. The left and right limbs in the control group showed no difference in absolute or relative change (left limb: 60.7 ± 72.9 N and 1.28 ± 0.34 N, respectively; right limb: 48.6 ± 83.8 N and 1.24 ± 0.43 N, respectively). Similarly, the injured and uninjured limbs in the previously injured group showed no difference in either absolute or relative change (injured limb: 13.1 ± 57.7 N and 1.07 ± 0.18 N, respectively; uninjured limb: 14.7 ± 54.0 N and 1.07 ± 0.22 N, respectively). The previously injured group displayed significantly less increase in eccentric hamstring strength across the preseason (absolute change, 13.9 ± 55.0 N; relative change, 1.07 ± 0.20 N) compared with the control group (absolute change, 54.6 ± 78.5 N; relative change, 1.26 ± 0.39 N) for both absolute and relative measures (P < .001), even after controlling for differences

  14. Validity and Reliability of a New Device (WIMU®) for Measuring Hamstring Muscle Extensibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyor, José M

    2017-09-01

    The aims of the current study were 1) to evaluate the validity of the WIMU(®) system for measuring hamstring muscle extensibility in the passive straight leg raise (PSLR) test using an inclinometer for the criterion and 2) to determine the test-retest reliability of the WIMU(®) system to measure hamstring muscle extensibility during the PSLR test. 55 subjects were evaluated on 2 separate occasions. Data from a Unilever inclinometer and WIMU(®) system were collected simultaneously. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for the validity were very high (0.983-1); a very low systematic bias (-0.21°--0.42°), random error (0.05°-0.04°) and standard error of the estimate (0.43°-0.34°) were observed (left-right leg, respectively) between the 2 devices (inclinometer and the WIMU(®) system). The R(2) between the devices was 0.999 (p<0.001) in both the left and right legs. The test-retest reliability of the WIMU(®) system was excellent, with ICCs ranging from 0.972-0.995, low coefficients of variation (0.01%), and a low standard error of the estimate (0.19-0.31°). The WIMU(®) system showed strong concurrent validity and excellent test-retest reliability for the evaluation of hamstring muscle extensibility in the PSLR test. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Effects of hamstring stretching on passive muscle stiffness vary between hip flexion and knee extension maneuvers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, N; Hirata, K; Kanehisa, H

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether the effects of hamstring stretching on the passive stiffness of each of the long head of the biceps femoris (BFl), semitendinosus (ST), and semimembranosus (SM) vary between passive knee extension and hip flexion stretching maneuvers. In 12 male subjects, before and after five sets of 90 s static stretching, passive lengthening measurements where knee or hip joint was passively rotated to the maximal range of motion (ROM) were performed. During the passive lengthening, shear modulus of each muscle was measured by ultrasound shear wave elastography. Both stretching maneuvers significantly increased maximal ROM and decreased passive torque at a given joint angle. Passive knee extension stretching maneuver significantly reduced shear modulus at a given knee joint angle in all of BFl, ST, and SM. In contrast, the stretching effect by passive hip flexion maneuver was significant only in ST and SM. The present findings indicate that the effects of hamstring stretching on individual passive muscles' stiffness vary between passive knee extension and hip flexion stretching maneuvers. In terms of reducing the muscle stiffness of BFl, stretching of the hamstring should be performed by passive knee extension rather than hip flexion. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Effectiveness of injury prevention programs on developing quadriceps and hamstrings strength of young male professional soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshjoo, Abdolhamid; Rahnama, Nader; Mokhtar, Abdul Halim; Yusof, Ashril

    2013-12-18

    Muscular strength is an important factor which is crucial for performance and injury prevention in most sports. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of the FIFA's Medical Assessment and Research Centre 11+ and HarmoKnee injury prevention programs on knee strength of young professional male soccer players. Thirty-six soccer players (age: 18.9 ± 1.4 years) were divided equally into three groups; the 11+, HarmoKnee and control groups. The programs were performed for 24 sessions. Hamstring and quadriceps strength was measured using the Biodex System 3 at 30°, 60° and 90° of knee flexion. The 11+ increased quadriceps strength in the dominant leg by 19.7% and 47.8% at 60°and 90° knee flexion, respectively, and in the non-dominant leg by 16%, 35.3% and 78.1 % at 30°, 60° and 90° knee flexion, respectively. The HarmoKnee group, however, showed increased quadriceps strength only at 90° i.e., by 85.7% in the dominant leg and 73.8% in the non-dominant leg. As for hamstring strength, only the 11+ group demonstrated an increment by 24.8% and 19.8% at 30° and 60° knee flexion in the dominant leg, and in the non-dominant leg, by 28.7% and 13.7% at 30° and 60° knee flexion, respectively. In conclusion, both warm-up programs improve quadriceps strength. The 11+ demonstrated improvement in hamstring strength while the HarmoKnee program did not indicate any improvement. We suggest adding eccentric hamstring components such as Nordic hamstring exercise to the HarmoKnee program in order to enhance hamstring strength.

  17. Patterns of Hamstring Muscle Tears in the General Population: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Kuske

    Full Text Available Hamstring tears are well recognised in the sporting population. Little is known about these injuries in the general population.Evaluating the rates, patterns and risk factors of non-sporting hamstring tears, compared to sporting related hamstring tears.MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (1989-2015.Studies reporting patients with a grade 2 or 3 hamstring muscle tear, identified clinically, confirmed by MRI imaging or direct visualisation during surgical exploration.144 sets of linked data were extracted for analysis. Most injuries were in males (81.3%, where mean age at injury was lower (30.2, 95% CI 29.1-31.3 than in females (35.4, 95% CI 32.4-38.4 p = 0.06. Key differences were found in the proportion of non-sporting injuries in patients under and over the age 40 (p = 0.001. The proportion of non-sporting injuries was significantly higher in females compared to males (25.9% female non-sporting injuries, versus 8.5% male; p = 0.02. Avulsions were more frequently reported in non-sporting activities (70.5%. The proportion of such injuries was notably higher in females, though this failed to meet significance (p = 0.124. Grouped by age category a bimodal distribution was noted, with the proportion of avulsions greater in younger (age 40 (p = 0.008. 86.8% of patients returned to pre-injury activity levels with a similar frequency across all study variables; age, activity (sporting vs non-sporting and injury type (avulsion vs tear.This review highlights a proportion of adults suffering grade 2 or 3 hamstring injuries from activities other than the classic sports trauma. The majority of these non-sporting injuries were avulsion injuries that clustered in older female and skeletally immature patients suggesting a potential link to bone mineral density.

  18. Patterns of Hamstring Muscle Tears in the General Population: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuske, Barbara; Hamilton, David F; Pattle, Sam B; Simpson, A Hamish R W

    2016-01-01

    Hamstring tears are well recognised in the sporting population. Little is known about these injuries in the general population. Evaluating the rates, patterns and risk factors of non-sporting hamstring tears, compared to sporting related hamstring tears. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (1989-2015). Studies reporting patients with a grade 2 or 3 hamstring muscle tear, identified clinically, confirmed by MRI imaging or direct visualisation during surgical exploration. 144 sets of linked data were extracted for analysis. Most injuries were in males (81.3%), where mean age at injury was lower (30.2, 95% CI 29.1-31.3) than in females (35.4, 95% CI 32.4-38.4) p = 0.06. Key differences were found in the proportion of non-sporting injuries in patients under and over the age 40 (p = 0.001). The proportion of non-sporting injuries was significantly higher in females compared to males (25.9% female non-sporting injuries, versus 8.5% male; p = 0.02). Avulsions were more frequently reported in non-sporting activities (70.5%). The proportion of such injuries was notably higher in females, though this failed to meet significance (p = 0.124). Grouped by age category a bimodal distribution was noted, with the proportion of avulsions greater in younger (age 40) (p = 0.008). 86.8% of patients returned to pre-injury activity levels with a similar frequency across all study variables; age, activity (sporting vs non-sporting) and injury type (avulsion vs tear). This review highlights a proportion of adults suffering grade 2 or 3 hamstring injuries from activities other than the classic sports trauma. The majority of these non-sporting injuries were avulsion injuries that clustered in older female and skeletally immature patients suggesting a potential link to bone mineral density.

  19. Muscle strength and knee range of motion after femoral lengthening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhave, Anil; Shabtai, Lior; Woelber, Erik; Apelyan, Arman; Paley, Dror; Herzenberg, John E

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose Femoral lengthening may result in decrease in knee range of motion (ROM) and quadriceps and hamstring muscle weakness. We evaluated preoperative and postoperative knee ROM, hamstring muscle strength, and quadriceps muscle strength in a diverse group of patients undergoing femoral lengthening. We hypothesized that lengthening would not result in a significant change in knee ROM or muscle strength. Patients and methods This prospective study of 48 patients (mean age 27 (9–60) years) compared ROM and muscle strength before and after femoral lengthening. Patient age, amount of lengthening, percent lengthening, level of osteotomy, fixation time, and method of lengthening were also evaluated regarding knee ROM and strength. The average length of follow-up was 2.9 (2.0–4.7) years. Results Mean amount of lengthening was 5.2 (2.4–11.0) cm. The difference between preoperative and final knee flexion ROM was 2° for the overall group. Congenital shortening cases lost an average of 5% or 6° of terminal knee flexion, developmental cases lost an average of 3% or 4°, and posttraumatic cases regained all motion. The difference in quadriceps strength at 45° preoperatively and after lengthening was not statistically or clinically significant (2.7 Nm; p = 0.06). Age, amount of lengthening, percent lengthening, osteotomy level, fixation time, and lengthening method had no statistically significant influence on knee ROM or quadriceps strength at final follow-up. Interpretation Most variables had no effect on ROM or strength, and higher age did not appear to be a limiting factor for femoral lengthening. Patients with congenital causes were most affected in terms of knee flexion. PMID:27892743

  20. Comparison of Three Methods of Assessing Muscle Strength and Imbalance Ratios of the Knee

    OpenAIRE

    Moss, Crayton L.; Wright, P. Thomas

    1993-01-01

    Three strength measurement methods for determining muscle strength and imbalance ratios of the knee were compared in 41 (23 female, 18 male) NCAA Division I track and field athletes. Peak quadriceps extensions and hamstring flexions were measured isotonically, isometrically, and isokinetically. Isokinetic measurements were performed on a Cybex II at 60°/s. Isometric extension and flexion measurements were performed using the Nicholas Manual Muscle Tester (Lafayette Instruments; Lafayette, Ind...

  1. Effectiveness of passive stretching versus hold relax technique in flexibility of hamstring muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauri Shankar

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare the effectiveness of passive stretching and hold relax technique in the flexibility of hamstring muscle. Methods: A total of 80 normal healthy female subjects between age group 20-30 years referred to the department of physiotherapy, Sumandeep Vidyapeeth University, sampling method being convenient sampling. The subjects were randomly divided in two groups i.e. passive stretching group (n=40 and PNF group (n=40 and given passive stretching and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation technique respectively. Active knee extension range was measured before and after the intervention by goniometer. Results: t test showed a highly significant (p=0.000 increase in range of motion in PNF group. Conclusion: Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation technique is more effective in increasing hamstring flexibility than the passive stretching.

  2. Eccentric Knee Flexor Strength and Risk of Hamstring Injuries in Rugby Union: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Matthew N; Opar, David A; Williams, Morgan D; Shield, Anthony J

    2015-11-01

    Hamstring strain injuries (HSIs) represent the most common cause of lost playing time in rugby union. Eccentric knee flexor weakness and between-limb imbalance in eccentric knee flexor strength are associated with a heightened risk of HSIs in other sports; however, these variables have not been explored in rugby union. To determine if lower levels of eccentric knee flexor strength or greater between-limb imbalance in this parameter during the Nordic hamstring exercise are risk factors for HSIs in rugby union. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. This prospective study was conducted over the 2014 Super Rugby and Queensland Rugby Union seasons. In total, 178 rugby union players (mean age, 22.6 ± 3.8 years; mean height, 185.0 ± 6.8 cm; mean weight, 96.5 ± 13.1 kg) had their eccentric knee flexor strength assessed using a custom-made device during the preseason. Reports of previous hamstring, quadriceps, groin, calf, and anterior cruciate ligament injuries were also obtained. The main outcome measure was the prospective occurrence of HSIs. Twenty players suffered at least 1 HSI during the study period. Players with a history of HSIs had a 4.1-fold (95% CI, 1.9-8.9; P = .001) greater risk of subsequent HSIs than players without such a history. Between-limb imbalance in eccentric knee flexor strength of ≥15% and ≥20% increased the risk of HSIs by 2.4-fold (95% CI, 1.1-5.5; P = .033) and 3.4-fold (95% CI, 1.5-7.6; P = .003), respectively. Lower eccentric knee flexor strength and other prior injuries were not associated with an increased risk of future HSIs. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that the risk of reinjuries was augmented in players with strength imbalances. Previous HSIs and between-limb imbalance in eccentric knee flexor strength were associated with an increased risk of future HSIs in rugby union. These results support the rationale for reducing imbalance, particularly in players who have suffered a prior HSI, to mitigate the risk of future

  3. Nordic hamstring exercise training alters knee joint kinematics and hamstring activation patterns in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delahunt, Eamonn; McGroarty, Mark; De Vito, Giuseppe; Ditroilo, Massimiliano

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the kinematic and muscle activation adaptations during performance of the Nordic hamstring exercise (NHE) to a 6-week eccentric hamstring training programme using the NHE as the sole mode of exercise. Twenty-nine healthy males were randomly allocated to a control (CG) or intervention (IG) group. The IG participated in a 6-week eccentric hamstring exercise programme using the NHE. The findings of the present study were that a 6-week eccentric hamstring training programme improved eccentric hamstring muscle strength (202.4 vs. 177.4 nm, p = 0.0002, Cohen's d = 0.97) and optimized kinematic (longer control of the forward fall component of the NHE, 68.1° vs. 73.7°, p = 0.022, Cohen's d = 0.90) and neuromuscular parameters (increased electromyographic activity of the hamstrings, 83.2 vs. 56.6 % and 92.0 vs. 54.2 %, p 1.25) associated with NHE performance. This study provides some insight into potential mechanisms by which an eccentric hamstring exercise programme utilizing the NHE as the mode of exercise may result in an improvement in hamstring muscle control during eccentric contractions.

  4. The Effects of a 10-Kilometer Run on Muscle Strength and Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Ana L.; Radzwich, Robert J.; Denegar, Craig R.; Volek, Jeff S.; Rubin, Martyn R.; Bush, Jill A.; Doan, Brandon K.; Wickham, Robbin B.; Mazzetti, Scott A.; Newton, Robert U.; French, Duncan N.; Hakkinen, Keijo; Ratamess, Nicholas A.; Kraemer, William J.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated recovery of maximal force and power following a 10-km race. Data collected on 10 healthy male distance runners pre-race, immediately post-race, and 48 hours later indicated that strength and power capabilities of these 10-km runners were for the most part restored 48 hours after the race. Only the hamstring muscle group was not fully…

  5. Muscle strength and function before and after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using semitendonosus and gracilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keays, S L; Bullock-Saxton, J; Keays, A C; Newcombe, P

    2001-10-01

    This study assessed the quadriceps and hamstring strength before and 6 months after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructive surgery using the hamstrings and related the findings to functional performance. Six months after surgery is a critical time for assessment as this is when players are returning to sport. Maximum isokinetic strength of 31 patients with complete unilateral ACL ruptures was measured at speeds of 60 degrees and 120 degrees per second. Functional assessment included the single hop, the triple hop, the shuttle run, side-step and carioca tests. All patients underwent a controlled quadriceps emphasized home-based physiotherapy program both before and after surgery. Results show that before surgery there was a 7.3% quadriceps strength deficit at 60 degrees per second compared to the uninjured leg but no hamstring strength deficit. After surgery there was a statistically significant but relatively small loss of muscle strength. The quadriceps strength deficit had increased to 12% and there was a 10% hamstring deficit. Post-operatively there was an 11% and 6.3% improvement in the hop tests, a 9% (P < 0.01) improvement in the shuttle run, a 15% (P < 0.001) improvement in the side step and a 24% (P < 0.001) improvement in the carioca tests (P < 0.001) despite the loss of muscle strength.

  6. Muscle Strength and Poststroke Hemiplegia: A Systematic Review of Muscle Strength Assessment and Muscle Strength Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Otto H; Stenager, Egon; Dalgas, Ulrik

    2017-02-01

    To systematically review (1) psychometric properties of criterion isokinetic dynamometry testing of muscle strength in persons with poststroke hemiplegia (PPSH); and (2) literature that compares muscle strength in patients poststroke with that in healthy controls assessed by criterion isokinetic dynamometry. A systematic literature search of 7 databases was performed. Included studies (1) enrolled participants with definite poststroke hemiplegia according to defined criteria; (2) assessed muscle strength or power by criterion isokinetic dynamometry; (3) had undergone peer review; and (4) were available in English or Danish. The psychometric properties of isokinetic dynamometry were reviewed with respect to reliability, validity, and responsiveness. Furthermore, comparisons of strength between paretic, nonparetic, and comparable healthy muscles were reviewed. Twenty studies covering 316 PPSH were included. High intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) inter- and intrasession reliability was reported for isokinetic dynamometry, which was independent of the tested muscle group, contraction mode, and contraction velocity. Slightly higher ICC values were found for the nonparetic extremity. Standard error of the mean (SEM) values showed that a change of 7% to 20% was required for a real group change to take place for most muscle groups, with the knee extensors showing the smallest SEM% values. The muscle strength of paretic muscles showed deficits when compared with both healthy and nonparetic muscles, independent of muscle group, contraction mode, and contraction velocity. Nonparetic muscles only showed minor strength impairments when compared with healthy muscles. Criterion isokinetic dynamometry is a reliable test in persons with stroke, generally showing marked reductions in muscle strength of paretic and, to a lesser degree, nonparetic muscles when compared with healthy controls, independent of muscle group, contraction mode, and contraction velocity. Copyright

  7. COMPARATIVE EFFECT OF STATIC AND DYNAMIC STRETCHING EXERCISE TO IMPROVE FLEXIBILITY OF HAMSTRING MUSCLES AMONG NON ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jibi Paul

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stretching exercises have been routinely used in persons with hamstring tightness and athletes to increase flexibility of muscle and to reduce joint injuries. Many studies have reported effect of static and dynamic stretching on flexibility of this muscle. Finding the best method to improve flexibility of hamstring muscle is important for athletes and individuals to reduce their injuries. Objective of the study was to find out the effect of static stretching exercise and dynamic stretching exercise on flexibility of hamstring muscle and also to compare the effect of static and dynamic stretching exercise on flexibility of hamstring muscle. Methods: This was a comparative experimental study with seventy four female healthy subjects from physiotherapy department of KPJ Healthcare University College, Malaysia. Convenient sampling method used to select the samples. The subjects were selected by inclusion criteria and randomly divided equally in to two with 37 subjects in each group. Static stretching exercise and dynamic stretching exercise were given as intervention program for four weeks respectively for experimental and control group. Pre and post data of restricted range of movement for knee extension was measured using goniometry and documented separately for both group. Result: In experimental and control group, pre-post statistical analysis found significant effect in increase of hamstring flexibility with P<0.0001, for right and left side. Comparative study between experimental and control group found that static stretching exercise have significant effect in increase of hamstring flexibility for right and left side with P<0.04. Conclusion: This study concluded that static stretching exercise is more effective to improve hamstring flexibility compared to dynamic stretching exercise.

  8. 'Serious thigh muscle strains': beware the intramuscular tendon which plays an important role in difficult hamstring and quadriceps muscle strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brukner, Peter; Connell, David

    2016-02-01

    Why do some hamstring and quadriceps strains take much longer to repair than others? Which injuries are more prone to recurrence? Intramuscular tendon injuries have received little attention as an element in 'muscle strain'. In thigh muscles, such as rectus femoris and biceps femoris, the attached tendon extends for a significant distance within the muscle belly. While the pathology of most muscle injures occurs at a musculotendinous junction, at first glance the athlete appears to report pain within a muscle belly. In addition to the musculotendinous injury being a site of pathology, the intramuscular tendon itself is occasionally injured. These injuries have a variety of appearances on MRIs. There is some evidence that these injuries require a prolonged rehabilitation time and may have higher recurrence rates. Therefore, it is important to recognise the tendon component of a thigh 'muscle strain'.

  9. A comparison of two stretching programs for hamstring muscles: A randomized controlled assessor-blinded study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoulin, Christophe; Wolfs, Sébastien; Chevalier, Madeline; Granado, Caroline; Grosdent, Stéphanie; Depas, Yannick; Roussel, Nathalie; Hage, Renaud; Vanderthommen, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Most parameters regarding hamstring flexibility training programs have been investigated; however, the joint (i.e. hip or knee) on which the stretching should preferentially be focused needs to be further explored. This randomized controlled assessor-blinded study aimed to investigate the influence of this parameter. We randomly assigned 111 asymptomatic participants with tight hamstring muscles in three groups: a control group and two groups following a different home-based 8-week (five 10-minute sessions per week) hamstring stretching program (i.e. stretching performed by flexing the hip while keeping the knee extended [SH] or by first flexing the hip with a flexed knee and then extending the knee [SK]). Range of motion (ROM) of hip flexion and knee extension were measured before and after the stretching program by means of the straight leg raising test and the passive knee extension angle test, respectively. Eighty-nine participants completed the study. A significant increase in ROM was observed at post-test. Analyses showed significant group-by-time interactions for changes regarding all outcomes. Whereas the increase in hip flexion and knee extension ROM was higher in the stretching groups than in the CG (especially for the SH group p stretching groups were observed (p > 0.05). In conclusion, the fact that both stretching programs resulted in similar results suggests no influence of the joint at which the stretching is focused upon, as assessed by the straight leg raising and knee extension angle tests.

  10. Comparison of Lower Body Specific Resistance Training on the Hamstring to Quadriceps Strength Ratios in Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorgo, Sandor; Edupuganti, Pradeep; Smith, Darla R.; Ortiz, Melchor

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we compared hamstring (H) and quadriceps (Q) strength changes in men and women, as well as changes in conventional and functional H:Q ratios following an identical 12-week resistance training program. An isokinetic dynamometer was used to assess 14 male and 14 female participants before and after the intervention, and conventional…

  11. Muscle Strength and Poststroke Hemiplegia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Otto H; Stenager, Egon; Dalgas, Ulrik

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To systematically review (1) psychometric properties of criterion isokinetic dynamometry testing of muscle strength in persons with poststroke hemiplegia (PPSH); and (2) literature that compares muscle strength in patients poststroke with that in healthy controls assessed by criterion...... isokinetic dynamometry. DATA SOURCES: A systematic literature search of 7 databases was performed. STUDY SELECTION: Included studies (1) enrolled participants with definite poststroke hemiplegia according to defined criteria; (2) assessed muscle strength or power by criterion isokinetic dynamometry; (3) had...... undergone peer review; and (4) were available in English or Danish. DATA EXTRACTION: The psychometric properties of isokinetic dynamometry were reviewed with respect to reliability, validity, and responsiveness. Furthermore, comparisons of strength between paretic, nonparetic, and comparable healthy muscles...

  12. Effect of modified hold-relax stretching and static stretching on hamstring muscle flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Hashim; Iqbal, Amir; Anwer, Shahnawaz; Alghadir, Ahmad

    2015-02-01

    [Purpose] The aim of present study was to compare the effectiveness of modified hold-relax stretching and static stretching in improving the hamstring muscle flexibility. [Subjects and Methods] Forty-five male subjects with hamstring tightness were included in this study. The subjects were randomly placed into three groups: the modified hold-relax stretching, static stretching and control groups. The modified hold-relax stretching group performed 7 seconds of isometric contraction and then relaxed for 5 seconds, and this was repeated five times daily for five consecutive days. The static stretching group received 10 minutes of static stretching with the help of a pulley and weight system for five consecutive days. The control group received only moist heat for 20 minutes for five consecutive days. A baseline reading of passive knee extension (PKE) was taken prior to the intervention; rest measurements were taken immediate post intervention on day 1, day 3, day 5, and after a 1 week follow-up, i.e., at the 12th day. [Results] On comparing the baseline readings of passive knee extension (PKE), there was no difference noted between the three groups. On comparing the posttest readings on day 5 between the 3 groups, a significant difference was noted. However, post hoc analysis revealed an insignificant difference between the modified hold-relax stretching and static stretching groups. There was a significant difference between the static stretching and control groups and between the modified hold-relax stretching and control groups. [Conclusion] The results of this study indicate that both the modified hold-relax stretching technique and static stretching are equally effective, as there was no significant difference in improving the hamstring muscle flexibility between the two groups.

  13. Effects of warm-up on hamstring muscles stiffness: Cycling vs foam rolling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Artacho, A J; Lacourpaille, L; Guilhem, G

    2017-01-26

    This study investigated the effects of active and/or passive warm-up tasks on the hamstring muscles stiffness through elastography and passive torque measurements. On separate occasions, fourteen males randomly completed four warm-up protocols comprising Control, Cycling, Foam rolling, or Cycling plus Foam rolling (Mixed). The stiffness of the hamstring muscles was assessed through shear wave elastography, along with the passive torque-angle relationship and maximal range of motion (ROM) before, 5, and 30 minutes after each experimental condition. At 5 minutes, Cycling and Mixed decreased shear modulus (-10.3% ± 5.9% and -7.7% ± 8.4%, respectively; P≤.0003, effect size [ES]≥0.24) and passive torque (-7.17% ± 8.6% and -6.2% ± 7.5%, respectively; P≤.051, ES≥0.28), and increased ROM (+2.9% ± 2.9% and +3.2% ± 3.5%, respectively; P≤.001, ES≥0.30); 30 minutes following Mixed, shear modulus (P=.001, ES=0.21) and passive torque (P≤.068, ES≥0.2) were still slightly decreased, while ROM increased (P=.046, ES=0.24). Foam rolling induced "small" immediate short-term decreases in shear modulus (-5.4% ± 5.7% at 5 minutes; P=.05, ES=0.21), without meaningful changes in passive torque or ROM at any time point (P≥.12, ES≤0.23). These results suggest that the combined warm-up elicited no acute superior effects on muscle stiffness compared with cycling, providing evidence for the key role of active warm-up to reduce muscle stiffness. The time between warm-up and competition should be considered when optimizing the effects on muscle stiffness.

  14. Muscle strength in myasthenia gravis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cejvanovic, S; Vissing, J

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Myasthenia gravis (MG) is characterized by fatigue and fluctuating muscle weakness as a result of impaired neuromuscular transmission (NMT). Although MG is a prototypic fatiguing disorder, little is known about how the condition affects fixed weakness, and if present, whether weakness...... is related to disease duration or gender. The aim of this study was to quantify the strength of patients with MG and investigate whether it is related to disease duration. METHODS: Eight muscle groups were tested by manual muscle testing and with a hand-held dynamometer in 38 patients with generalized MG...... and 37 healthy age- and gender-matched controls. The disease duration was recorded and compared with strength measures. RESULTS: On average, muscle strength was decreased by 28% compared with controls (Pmuscle...

  15. Short Term Effects of Neurodynamic Stretching and Static Stretching Techniques on Hamstring Muscle Flexibility in Healthy Male Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Rashad Ahmed

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Flexibility is a key component of rehabilitation and inadequate muscle extensibility remains a commonly accepted factor for musculoskeletal disorders. Studies on the most optimal technique for improving muscle flexibility are a widely debated. The aim of the study was to compare the effectiveness of neurodynamic and static stretching techniques on hamstring flexibility in healthy male subjects. This study was a randomized experimental trial; forty healthy male subjects with hamstring tightness were randomly divided into two equal groups: The neurodynamic group and the static stretching group. Treatment was given for 5 consecutive days and the outcomes were measured using Active knee Extension Test and Straight Leg Raising. There was a significant improvement in hamstring flexibility following application of both neurodynamic and static stretching but the improvement in the neurodynamic group (p<0.001 was better than that of the static group (p<0.02. Results suggest that a neurodynamic stretching could increase hamstring flexibility to a greater extent than static stretching in healthy male subjects with a tight hamstring.

  16. The influence of prior hamstring injury on lengthening muscle tissue mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silder, Amy; Reeder, Scott B; Thelen, Darryl G

    2010-08-26

    Hamstring strain injuries often occur near the proximal musculotendon junction (MTJ) of the biceps femoris. Post-injury remodeling can involve scar tissue formation, which may alter contraction mechanics and influence re-injury risk. The purpose of this study was to assess the affect of prior hamstring strain injury on muscle tissue displacements and strains during active lengthening contractions. Eleven healthy and eight subjects with prior biceps femoris injuries were tested. All previously injured subjects had since returned to sport and exhibited evidence of residual scarring along the proximal aponeurosis. Subjects performed cyclic knee flexion-extension on an MRI-compatible device using elastic and inertial loads, which induced active shortening and lengthening contractions, respectively. CINE phase-contrast imaging was used to measure tissue velocities within the biceps femoris during these tasks. Numerical integration of the velocity information was used to estimate two-dimensional tissue displacement and strain fields during muscle lengthening. The largest tissue motion was observed along the distal MTJ, with the active lengthening muscle exhibiting significantly greater and more homogeneous tissue displacements. First principal strain magnitudes were largest along the proximal MTJ for both loading conditions. The previously injured subjects exhibited less tissue motion and significantly greater strains near the proximal MTJ. We conclude that localized regions of high tissue strains during active lengthening contractions may predispose the proximal biceps femoris to injury. Furthermore, post-injury remodeling may alter the in-series stiffness seen by muscle tissue and contribute to the relatively larger localized tissue strains near the proximal MTJ, as was observed in this study. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Hamstring muscle length and lumbar lordosis in subjects with different lifestyle and work setting: comparison between individuals with and without chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab, Amir Massoud; Nourbakhsh, Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    Shortened hamstring muscle length has been noted in persons with low back pain (LBP). Prolonged sitting postures, such as those adopted during different work settings and sedentary lifestyle has been associated with hamstring shortness and LBP. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of lifestyle and work setting on hamstring length and lumbar lordosis in subjects with and without LBP and to identify the relationship between hamstring muscles length and lumbar lordosis in individuals with different lifestyle and work setting. A total of 508 subjects between the ages of 20 and 65 were selected. Subjects were categorized into two groups of individuals with and without LBP. A questionnaire was used to obtain information about the subjects' lifestyle and work setting. Hamstring muscle length and lumbar lordosis were measured in all subjects. The results showed no significant difference in the number of subjects with different work setting or lifestyle in individuals with and without LBP. Hamstring muscle length or lumbar lordosis was not affected by type of work setting and lifestyle. Our data showed significant difference in hamstring length and no significant difference in lumbar lordosis between subjects with and without LBP in all categories. Lumbar lordosis was not different between individuals with and without hamstring tightness in normal and LBP subjects with different work setting and lifestyle. The findings of this study did not support the assumption that work setting and sedentary lifestyle would lead to hamstring tightness in subjects with LBP. It seems that work setting and lifestyle was not a contributing factor for hamstring tightness in subjects with LBP.

  18. The Influence of Radiographic Severity on the Relationship between Muscle Strength and Joint Loading in Obese Knee Osteoarthritis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Aaboe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the relationship between knee muscle strength and the external knee adduction moment during walking in obese knee osteoarthritis patients and whether disease severity influences this relationship. Methods. This cross-sectional study included 136 elderly obese (BMI>30 adults with predominant medial knee osteoarthritis. Muscle strength, standing radiographic severity as measured by the Kellgren and Lawrence scale, and the peak external knee adduction moment were measured at self-selected walking speed. Results. According to radiographic severity, patients were classified as “less severe” (KL 1-2, N=73 or “severe” (KL 3-4, N=63. A significant positive association was demonstrated between the peak knee adduction moment and hamstring muscle strength in the whole cohort (P=.047. However, disease severity did not influence the relationship between muscle strength and dynamic medial knee joint loading. Severe patients had higher peak knee adduction moment and more varus malalignment (P<.001. Conclusion. Higher hamstring muscle strength relates to higher estimates of dynamic knee joint loading in the medial compartment. No such relationship existed for quadriceps muscle strength. Although cross sectional, the results suggest that hamstrings function should receive increased attention in future studies and treatments that aim at halting disease progression.

  19. Do Running and Strength Exercises Reduce Daily Muscle Inactivity Time?

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    Taija Finni

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how a specific exercise changes daily activity patterns is important when designing physical activity interventions. We examined the effects of strength and interval running exercise sessions on daily activity patterns using recordings of quadriceps and hamstring muscle electromyographic (EMG activity and inactivity. Five male and five female subjects taking part in a 10-week training programme containing both strength and interval running training sessions were measured for daily muscle EMG activities during three days: on a strength day, an interval running day, and a day without exercise. EMG was measured using textile electrodes embedded into sport shorts that were worn 9.1 ± 1.4 hours/day and results are given as % of recording time. During the total measurement time the muscles were inactive 55 ± 26%, 53 ± 30% and 71 ± 12% during strength training day, interval running day, and day without exercise (n.s.. When compared to the day without exercise, the change in muscle inactivity correlated negatively with change in light muscle activity in strength (r = -0.971,p< 0.001 and interval running days (r = -0.965,p< 0.001. While interval running exercise bout induced a more systematic decrease in muscle inactivity time (from 62 ± 15% to 6 ± 6%,p< 0.001, reductions in muscle inactivity in response to strength exercise were highly individual (range 5–70 pp despite the same training programme. Strength, but not running exercise bout, increased muscle activity levels occurring above 50% MVC (p< 0.05 when compared to a similar period without exercise. The effect of strength exercise bout on totaldaily recording time increased the EMG amplitudes across the entire intensity spectrum. While strength and interval running exercise are effective in increasing muscle moderate-to-vigorous activity when compared to a similar period without exercise, it comprises only a small part of the day and does not seem to have a systematic effect

  20. Hamstring Architectural and Functional Adaptations Following Long vs. Short Muscle Length Eccentric Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guex, Kenny; Degache, Francis; Morisod, Cynthia; Sailly, Matthieu; Millet, Gregoire P.

    2016-01-01

    Most common preventive eccentric-based exercises, such as Nordic hamstring do not include any hip flexion. So, the elongation stress reached is lower than during the late swing phase of sprinting. The aim of this study was to assess the evolution of hamstring architectural (fascicle length and pennation angle) and functional (concentric and eccentric optimum angles and concentric and eccentric peak torques) parameters following a 3-week eccentric resistance program performed at long (LML) vs. short muscle length (SML). Both groups performed eight sessions of 3–5 × 8 slow maximal eccentric knee extensions on an isokinetic dynamometer: the SML group at 0° and the LML group at 80° of hip flexion. Architectural parameters were measured using ultrasound imaging and functional parameters using the isokinetic dynamometer. The fascicle length increased by 4.9% (p torque did not change in the SML (p = 0.37) and the LML (p = 0.23) groups, whereas eccentric peak torque increased by 12.9% (p < 0.01, small effect size) and 17.9% (p < 0.001, small effect size) in the SML and the LML group, respectively. No group-by-time interaction was found for any parameters. A correlation was found between the training-induced change in fascicle length and the change in concentric optimum angle (r = −0.57, p < 0.01). These results suggest that performing eccentric exercises lead to several architectural and functional adaptations. However, further investigations are required to confirm the hypothesis that performing eccentric exercises at LML may lead to greater adaptations than a similar training performed at SML. PMID:27536252

  1. Muscle strength in patients with chronic pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wilgen, C.P.; Akkerman, L.; Wieringa, J.; Dijkstra, P.U.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To analyse the influence of chronic pain on muscle strength. Design: Muscle strength of patients with unilateral nonspecific chronic pain, in an upper or lower limb, were measured according to a standardized protocol using a hand-held dynamometer. Before and after muscle strength

  2. Muscle strength in patients with chronic pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wilgen, C.P.; Akkerman, L.; Wieringa, J.; Dijkstra, P.U.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To analyse the influence of chronic pain on muscle strength. Design: Muscle strength of patients with unilateral nonspecific chronic pain, in an upper or lower limb, were measured according to a standardized protocol using a hand-held dynamometer. Before and after muscle strength measurem

  3. [Incidence of short hamstrings and leg muscles at ages 3-17 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodersen, A; Pedersen, B; Reimers, J

    1993-11-15

    In 1991, 769 children and adolescents, 98% of the pupils in the various age groups in seven schools and ten kindergartens on Funen, were examined. Seventy-five percent of the boys and 35% of the girls over the age of ten proved to have such short hamstrings that one knee had a extension deficit without violence of > or = 40 degrees when the hip was flexed 90 degrees. More than 10% of the boys over the age of ten had an extension deficit of > or = 60 degrees. Forty-five children had a difference > or = 15 degrees between the two legs. The triceps surae muscles are too short if the corrected foot can only be pressed slowly to the right angle. This was found to be the case for 25-64% of the children from the age of three to 17. Therefore, we must conclude that it is necessary to allow time in kindergarten and school for the children to stretch their muscles a few minutes daily.

  4. METODE ACTIVE ISOLATED STRETCHING (AIS DAN METODE HOLD RELAX STRETCHING (HRS SAMA EFEKTIF DALAM MENINGKATKAN FLEKSIBILITAS OTOT HAMSTRING PADA MAHASISWA AKADEMI FISIOTERAPI WIDYA HUSADA SEMARANG YANG MENGALAMI HAMSTRING MUSCLE TIGHTNESS (HMTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhmad alfajri

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Students with Hamstring Muscle Tightness (HMTs will be at risk of Anterior Crusiatum Ligament (ACL, Low Back Pain (LBP and also Plantar Faciitis. One of the efforts to reduce tightness and improve hamstring muscle flexibility is stretching. Active Isolated Stretching (AIS and Hold Relax Stretching (HRS are the methods of influential stretching to improve muscle flexibility. The goal of the research is to prove that AIS method is equally effective with the HRS method to improve hamstring muscle flexibility to the HMTs patients. The research method was true experimental with pre and post test group design. The research was conducted for 3 weeks and the samples are 23 students in range of 18-25 years old students of physical therapy in Physical Therapy Academy of Widya Husada Semarang which divided into 2 groups; AIS group (n= 12 and HRS group (n= 11. The research used Sit and Reach Test (SRT as the measurement instrument. The result of the research was the average result of AIS group used SRT before treatment was 1.75 cm, SB= 4.309 and after treatment was 10. 58 cm, SB = 8. 005 within p= 0.000 (p 0.05. Those explain that the improvement of hamstring muscle flexibility to the two groups does not show any significant difference. Conclusion from this study was active isolated stretching method and hold relax stretching method are equally effective to improving muscle flexibility of hamstring muscle tightness students of physical therapy in Physical Therapy Academy of Widya Husada Semarang.

  5. The influence of the training program on muscle activity of lower limb muscles in relation to the risk factors of hamstring injury at soccer players

    OpenAIRE

    Hnátová, Iva

    2013-01-01

    CHARLES UNIVERSITY IN PRAG Faculty of Physical Educational and Sport Department of Physiotherapy THE INFLUENCE OF THE TRAINING PROGRAM ON MUSCLE ACTIVITY OF LOWER LIMB MUSCLES IN RELATION TO THE RISK FACTORS OF HAMSTRING INJURY AT SOCCER PLAYERS Dissertation thesis Supervisor: Author: Doc. PaedDr. Dagmar Pavlů, CSc. Mgr. Iva Hnátová Consultant: PhDr. Aleš Kaplan, PhD. November 2012 SUMMARY Titel: The influence of the training program on muscle activity of lower limb muscles in relation to the...

  6. Effects of an Elastic Hamstring Assistance Device During Downhill Running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldret Randy L

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the appropriateness of using an elastic hamstring assistance device to reduce perceived levels of soreness, increase isometric strength, increase passive range of motion, and decrease biomarkers of muscle damage after eccentric exercise, specifically, downhill running This study was conducted in a university exercise physiology laboratory placing sixteen apparently healthy males (X = 21.6 ± 2.5 years into two groups using a pre-test/post-test design. Pre-intervention measures taken included participants’ body height, body mass, body fat, capillary blood samples, VO2max, isometric hamstring strength at 45 and 90 degrees of flexion and passive hamstring range of motion. Post-intervention measures included blood biomarkers, passive range of motion, the perceived level of soreness and isometric strength. An analysis of normality of data was initially conducted followed by multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA of hamstring strength at 45 and 90 degrees of flexion, blood myoglobin and passive range of motion of the hamstrings. Statistically significant changes were noted in subject-perceived muscle soreness and isometric strength at 90 degrees at the 24-hour post-exercise trial measure between the two groups. Results would suggest the findings could be explained by the decrease in muscle soreness from utilizing the device during the exercise trial. Further research should be conducted to address sample size issues and to determine if the results are comparable on different surfaces.

  7. Effects of an Elastic Hamstring Assistance Device During Downhill Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldret, Randy L; Trahan, Brittany A; Davis, Greggory; Campbell, Brian; Bellar, David M

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the appropriateness of using an elastic hamstring assistance device to reduce perceived levels of soreness, increase isometric strength, increase passive range of motion, and decrease biomarkers of muscle damage after eccentric exercise, specifically, downhill running This study was conducted in a university exercise physiology laboratory placing sixteen apparently healthy males (X = 21.6 ± 2.5 years) into two groups using a pre-test/post-test design. Pre-intervention measures taken included participants' body height, body mass, body fat, capillary blood samples, VO2max, isometric hamstring strength at 45 and 90 degrees of flexion and passive hamstring range of motion. Post-intervention measures included blood biomarkers, passive range of motion, the perceived level of soreness and isometric strength. An analysis of normality of data was initially conducted followed by multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) of hamstring strength at 45 and 90 degrees of flexion, blood myoglobin and passive range of motion of the hamstrings. Statistically significant changes were noted in subject-perceived muscle soreness and isometric strength at 90 degrees at the 24-hour post-exercise trial measure between the two groups. Results would suggest the findings could be explained by the decrease in muscle soreness from utilizing the device during the exercise trial. Further research should be conducted to address sample size issues and to determine if the results are comparable on different surfaces.

  8. Knee Moment-Angle Characteristics and Semitendinosus Muscle Morphology in Children with Spastic Paresis Selected for Medial Hamstring Lengthening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberfehlner, Helga; Jaspers, Richard T; Rutz, Erich; Becher, Jules G; Harlaar, Jaap; van der Sluijs, Johannes A; Witbreuk, Melinda M; Romkes, Jacqueline; Freslier, Marie; Brunner, Reinald; Maas, Huub; Buizer, Annemieke I

    2016-01-01

    To increase knee range of motion and improve gait in children with spastic paresis (SP), the semitendinosus muscle (ST) amongst other hamstring muscles is frequently lengthened by surgery, but with variable success. Little is known about how the pre-surgical mechanical and morphological characteristics of ST muscle differ between children with SP and typically developing children (TD). The aims of this study were to assess (1) how knee moment-angle characteristics and ST morphology in children with SP selected for medial hamstring lengthening differ from TD children, as well as (2) how knee moment-angle characteristics and ST morphology are related. In nine SP and nine TD children, passive knee moment-angle characteristics and morphology of ST (i.e. fascicle length, muscle belly length, tendon length, physiological cross-sectional area, and volume) were assessed by hand-held dynamometry and freehand 3D ultrasound, respectively. At net knee flexion moments above 0.5 Nm, more flexed knee angles were found for SP compared to TD children. The measured knee angle range between 0 and 4 Nm was 30% smaller in children with SP. Muscle volume, physiological cross-sectional area, and fascicle length normalized to femur length were smaller in SP compared to TD children (62%, 48%, and 18%, respectively). Sixty percent of the variation in knee angles at 4 Nm net knee moment was explained by ST fascicle length. Altered knee moment-angle characteristics indicate an increased ST stiffness in SP children. Morphological observations indicate that in SP children planned for medial hamstring lengthening, the longitudinal and cross-sectional growth of ST muscle fibers is reduced. The reduced fascicle length can partly explain the increased ST stiffness and, hence, a more flexed knee joint in these SP children.

  9. A COMPARISON BETWEEN MULLIGAN TRACTION STRAIGHT LEG RAISE TECHNIQUE VS MUSCLE ENERGY TECHNIQUE ON HAMSTRING TIGHTNESS IN ASYMPTOMATIC MALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesudas Mazumdar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: The Hamstring muscles of the back thigh are found to be the most prevalent for the tightness in the body. The purpose of this study is to compare effectiveness of Mulligan Traction Straight Leg Raise and Muscle Energy Technique methods in increasing range of motion and flexibility of knee joint. Methods: The 60 subjects (n = 60 with hamstring tightness randomly divided into two groups. Each group consist of 30 male subjects. However group A had 28 as two dropout and group B had 26 as four dropout . Group A was treated with Mulligan TSLR and Group B had MET. The total treatment session was 3 times a week on alternate days for three consecutive weeks. The outcome measures were measured by active knee extension ROM by universal Goniometer. Results: Independent t-test and paired t- test were used to analyse the data. The inter group comparison ROM score showed high significant difference after 3 weeks between the groups. The results of the study showed that MET may increase Knee ROM significantly more then Mulligan TSLR when applied for 3 weeks. Conclusion: This study led to interference that Mulligan TSLR and MET are effective in reducing the hamstring tightness. When both groups are compared MET was found to be more effective than TSLR .

  10. Procedural Options for Measuring Muscle Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mindova S.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to provide alternative means of measurement and evaluation of muscle strength in rehabilitation practice and diagnostics. In the last few years many electronic devices for evaluation of muscle strength have developed. Contemporary studies have shown that in addition to the standard manual muscle testing muscle strength can be assessed more objectively and analytically using electronic dynamometers and equipment. The strain gauges are used as a tool of precision in the industry that allows measurement of mechanical loads by dynamometers. By using these tools is possible to obtain continuous digital measurement and recording of muscle strength.

  11. Effects of cryotherapy and thermotherapy associated with static stretching on the flexibility of hamstring muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to analyze the effect of cryotherapy and muscular warming on the flexibility of the hamstring muscles associated with three minutes of static stretching. Forty young male and female volunteers were randomly included in one of four groups: Group 1 – Control group, Group 2 – Three minutes of static stretching, Group 3 – Stretching preceded by warming using shortwave diathermy (20 minutes, and Group 4 – Stretching preceded by applying cryotherapy (20 minutes to the posterior thigh region. The program consisted of three series of stretching during five consecutive days and flexibility was assessed by goniometric evaluations of the extensor angle of the knee at the beginning of the protocol, at the end of the day and at the end of the protocol. The intergroup comparison was made through ANOVA post-hoc Tukey and the intragroup by paired t test, all with 5% level of significance. The three experimental groups significantly increased their range of motion in relation to the control group. However, differences were not observed among groups submitted to the different stretching programs. In conclusion, increases in flexibility were due to stretching and did not depend on previous application of hyperthermia and/or hypothermia.

  12. HAMSTRING ARCHITECTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL ADAPTATIONS FOLLOWING LONG VS. SHORT MUSCLE LENGTH ECCENTRIC TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenny Guex

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Most common preventive eccentric-based exercises, such as Nordic hamstring do not include any hip flexion. So, the elongation stress reached is lower than during the late swing phase of sprinting. The aim of this study was to assess the evolution of hamstring architectural (fascicle length and pennation angle and functional (concentric and eccentric optimum angles and concentric and eccentric peak torques parameters following a 3-week eccentric resistance program performed at long (LML versus short muscle length (SML. Both groups performed eight sessions of 3-5x8 slow maximal eccentric knee extensions on an isokinetic dynamometer: the SML group at 0° and the LML group at 80° of hip flexion. Architectural parameters were measured using ultrasound imaging and functional parameters using the isokinetic dynamometer. The fascicle length increased by 4.9% (p<0.01, medium effect size in the SML and by 9.3% (p<0.001, large effect size in the LML group. The pennation angle did not change (p=0.83 in the SML and tended to decrease by 0.7° (p=0.09, small effect size in the LML group. The concentric optimum angle tended to decrease by 8.8° (p=0.09, medium effect size in the SML and by 17.3° (p<0.01, large effect size in the LML group. The eccentric optimum angle did not change (p=0.19, small effect size in the SML and tended to decrease by 10.7° (p=0.06, medium effect size in the LML group. The concentric peak torque did not change in the SML (p=0.37 and the LML (p=0.23 groups, whereas eccentric peak torque increased by 12.9% (p<0.01, small effect size and 17.9% (p<0.001, small effect size in the SML and the LML group, respectively. No group-by-time interaction was found for any parameters. A correlation was found between the training-induced change in fascicle length and the change in concentric optimum angle (r=-0.57, p<0.01. These results suggest that performing eccentric exercises lead to several architectural and functional adaptations. However

  13. The preventive effect of the Nordic hamstring exercise on hamstring injuries in amateur soccer players: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Horst, Nick; Smits, Dirk Wouter; Petersen, Jesper; Goedhart, Edwin A; Backx, Frank J G

    2014-08-01

    Hamstring injuries are the most common muscle injury in male amateur soccer players and have a high rate of recurrence, often despite extensive treatment and long rehabilitation periods. Eccentric strength and flexibility are recognised as important modifiable risk factors, which have led to the development of eccentric hamstring exercises, such as the Nordic hamstring exercise. As the effectiveness of the Nordic hamstring exercise in reducing hamstring injuries has never been investigated in amateur soccer players, the aim of this study is to investigate the effect of this exercise on the incidence and severity of hamstring injuries in male amateur soccer players. An additional aim is to determine whether flexibility is associated with hamstring injuries. Cluster-randomised controlled trial with soccer teams as the unit of cluster. Dutch male amateur soccer players, aged 18-40 years, were allocated to an intervention or control group. Both study groups continued regular soccer training during 2013, but the intervention group additionally performed the Nordic hamstring exercise (25 sessions over 13 weeks). Primary outcomes are the incidence of initial and recurrent hamstring injury and injury severity. Secondary outcomes are hamstring-and-lower-back flexibility and compliance. Compliance to the intervention protocol was also monitored. Eccentric hamstring strength exercises are hypothesised to reduce the incidence of hamstring injury among male amateur soccer players by 70%. The prevention of such injuries will be beneficial to soccer players, clubs, football associations, health insurance companies and society. NTR3664. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Experimental knee pain reduces muscle strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Marius; Rosager, Sara; Aaboe, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Pain is the principal symptom in knee pathologies and reduced muscle strength is a common observation among knee patients. However, the relationship between knee joint pain and muscle strength remains to be clarified. This study aimed at investigating the changes in knee muscle strength following...... experimental knee pain in healthy volunteers, and if these changes were associated with the pain intensities. In a crossover study, 18 healthy subjects were tested on 2 different days. Using an isokinetic dynamometer, maximal muscle strength in knee extension and flexion was measured at angular velocities 0....... Knee pain reduced the muscle strength by 5 to 15% compared to the control conditions (P muscle strength was positively correlated to the pain intensity. Experimental knee pain significantly reduced knee extension...

  15. Static Stretching of the Hamstring Muscle for Injury Prevention in Football Codes: a Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Rogan, Slavko; Wüst, Dirk; Schwitter, Thomas; Schmidtbleicher, Dietmar

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Hamstring injuries are common among football players. There is still disagreement regarding prevention. The aim of this review is to determine whether static stretching reduces hamstring injuries in football codes. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted on the online databases PubMed, PEDro, Cochrane, Web of Science, Bisp and Clinical Trial register. Study results were presented descriptively and the quality of the studies assessed were based on Cochrane’s ‘risk of ...

  16. THE MID - TERM EFFECT OF KINESIO TAPING ON PEAK POWER OF QUADRICEPS AND HAMSTRING MUSCLES AFTER ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amel Khabazan Mahdi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess mid- term effect of Kinesio tape on peak power of quadriceps and hamstrings muscles after ACL reconstruction 24 hours after taping. Material: Thirty six men who had undergone ACL reconstruction and completed physiotherapy periods (6 months were assigned to no taping, placebo and taping groups. Peak power was tested before and 24 hours after taping by Isokinetic dynamometry. Data was analyzed by SPSS software 19. ANOVA and post hoc test (LSD were used for interpretive analysis. Results: The results showed that the effect of Kinesio tape on peak power of quadriceps muscles at velocities of 180°/s and 300°/s was significant. In the hamstring muscles, significant effects were obtained at velocities of 60°/s, 180°/s & 300°/s. Conclusion: Positive impacts of Kinesio tape on muscular peak power among athletes who had ACL reconstruction were observed. Regardless of psychological effect and reducing re - injury fear, Kinesio - tape causes to stabilize and increase effective range of motion of the knee, so it is recommended that in the explosive training, athletes who have ACL reconstruction should use tape to reduce the probability of re-injury and increase muscle power.

  17. Effects of a Strength Training Session After an Exercise Inducing Muscle Damage on Recovery Kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaïdia, Abd-Elbasset; Delecroix, Barthélémy; Leduc, Cédric; Lamblin, Julien; McCall, Alan; Baquet, Georges; Dupont, Grégory

    2017-01-01

    Abaïdia, A-E, Delecroix, B, Leduc, C, Lamblin, J, McCall, A, Baquet, G, and Dupont, G. Effects of a strength training session after an exercise inducing muscle damage on recovery kinetics. J Strength Cond Res 31(1): 115-125, 2017-The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an upper-limb strength training session the day after an exercise inducing muscle damage on recovery of performance. In a randomized crossover design, subjects performed the day after the exercise, on 2 separate occasions (passive vs. active recovery conditions) a single-leg exercise (dominant in one condition and nondominant in the other condition) consisting of 5 sets of 15 eccentric contractions of the knee flexors. Active recovery consisted of performing an upper-body strength training session the day after the exercise. Creatine kinase, hamstring strength, and muscle soreness were assessed immediately and 20, 24, and 48 hours after exercise-induced muscle damage. The upper-body strength session, after muscle-damaging exercise accelerated the recovery of slow concentric force (effect size = 0.65; 90% confidence interval = -0.06 to 1.32), but did not affect the recovery kinetics for the other outcomes. The addition of an upper-body strength training session the day after muscle-damaging activity does not negatively affect the recovery kinetics. Upper-body strength training may be programmed the day after a competition.

  18. Hamstring injuries. Current trends in treatment and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujala, U M; Orava, S; Järvinen, M

    1997-06-01

    Pre-exercise stretching and adequate warm-up are important in the prevention of hamstring injuries. A previous mild injury or fatigue may increase the risk of injury. Hamstring muscle tear is typically partial and takes place during eccentric exercise when the muscle develops tension while lengthening, but variation in injury mechanisms is possible. Diagnosis of typical hamstring muscle injury is usually based on typical injury mechanism and clinical findings of local pain and loss of function. Diagnosis of avulsion in the ischial tuberosity, with the need for longer immobilisation, and a complete rupture of the hamstring origin, in which immediate operative treatment is necessary, poses a challenge to the treating physician. X-rays, ultrasonography or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may be helpful in differential diagnostics. After first aid with rest, compression, cold and elevation, the treatment of hamstring muscle injury must be tailored to the grade of injury. Conservative treatment is based on a knowledge of the biological background of the healing process of the muscle. Experimental studies have shown that a short period of immobilisation is needed to accelerate formation of the granulation tissue matrix following injury. The length of the immobilisation is, however, dependent on the grade of injury and should be optimised so that the scar can bear the pulling forces operating on it without re-rupture. Mobilisation, on the other hand, is required in order to regain the original strength of the muscle and to achieve good final results in resorption of the connective tissue scar and re-capillarisation of the damaged area. Another important aim of mobilisation--especially in sports medical practice--is to avoid muscle atrophy and loss of strength and extensibility, which rapidly result from prolonged immobilisation. Complete ruptures with loss of function should be operated on, as should cases resistant to conservative therapy in which, in the late phase of

  19. The effect of kinesio taping versus stretching techniques on muscle soreness, and flexibility during recovery from nordic hamstring exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozmen, Tarik; Yagmur Gunes, Gokce; Dogan, Hanife; Ucar, Ilyas; Willems, Mark

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of static stretching, proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching, or kinesio taping (KT) on muscle soreness and flexibility during recovery from exercise. Sixty-five females were randomly assigned to four groups: PNF stretching (n = 15), static stretching (n = 16), KT (n = 17), and control (n = 17). All participants performed nordic hamstring exercise (5 sets of 8 repetitions). In all groups, hamstring flexibility at 24 h and 48 h was not changed from baseline (p > .05). The muscle soreness was measured higher at 48 h post-exercise compared with baseline in the control group (p = .04) and at 24 h post-exercise compared with baseline in the PNF group (p  .05). The KT application and pre-exercise stretching have no contribute to flexibility at 24 h and 48 h after exercise, but may attenuate muscle soreness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Asymmetry of Muscle Strength in Elite Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drid, Patrik; Drapsin, Miodrag; Trivic, Tatjana; Lukac, Damir; Obadov, Slavko; Milosevic, Zoran

    2009-01-01

    "Study aim": To determine muscle strength variables in elite judoists and wrestlers since thigh muscle strength and bilaterally balanced flexor-to-extensor ratio minimise injury risk and are desirable for achieving sport successes. "Material and methods": Judoists, wrestlers and untrained subjects, 10 each, were subjected to isokinetic strength…

  1. Prolonged electrical stimulation-induced gluteal and hamstring muscle activation and sitting pressure in spinal cord injury : Effect of duty cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Christof A. J.; Legemate, Karin J. A.; de Koning, Anja; de Groot, Sonja; Stolwijk-Swuste, Janneke M.; Janssen, Thomas W. J.

    2013-01-01

    Pressure ulcers (PUs) are highly prevalent in people with spinal cord injury (SCI). Electrical stimulation (ES) activates muscles and might reduce risk factors. Our objectives were to study and compare the effects of two duty cycles during 3 h of ES-induced gluteal and hamstring activation on interf

  2. Pilates: Build Strength in Your Core Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Fitness Pilates may sound intimidating, but it's an accessible way to build strength in your core muscles for better posture, balance and flexibility. By Mayo Clinic Staff Pilates isn't just for fitness fanatics. It's actually ...

  3. Personality Typology in Relation to Muscle Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terracciano, Antonio; Milaneschi, Yuri; Metter, E. Jeffrey; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity plays a central role in the age-related decline in muscle strength, an important component in the process leading to disability. Personality, a significant determinant of health behaviors including physical activity, could therefore impact muscle strength throughout adulthood and affect the rate of muscle strength decline with aging. Personality typologies combining “high neuroticism” (N≥55), “low extraversion” (Epersonality types. Facet analyses suggest an important role for the N components of depression and hostility. Physical activity level appears to partly explain some of these associations. Conclusion Findings provide support for the notion that the typological approach to personality may be useful in identifying specific personality types at risk of low muscle strength and offer the possibility for more targeted prevention and intervention programs. PMID:21614452

  4. Selective contribution of each hamstring muscle to anterior cruciate ligament protection and tibiofemoral joint stability in leg-extension exercise: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biscarini, Andrea; Botti, Fabio Massimo; Pettorossi, Vito Enrico

    2013-09-01

    A biomechanical model was developed to simulate the selective effect of the co-contraction force provided by each hamstring muscle on the shear and compressive tibiofemoral joint reaction forces, during open kinetic-chain knee-extension exercises. This model accounts for instantaneous values of knee flexion angle [Formula: see text], angular velocity and acceleration, and for changes in magnitude, orientation, and application point of external resistance. The tibiofemoral shear force (TFSF) largely determines the tensile force on anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL). Biceps femoris is the most effective hamstring muscle in decreasing the ACL-loading TFSF developed by quadriceps contractions for [Formula: see text]. In this range, the semimembranosus generates the dominant tibiofemoral compressive force, which enhances joint stability, opposes anterior/posterior tibial translations, and protects cruciate ligaments. The semitendinosus force provides the greatest decreasing gradient of ACL-loading TFSF for [Formula: see text], and the greatest increasing gradient of tibiofemoral compressive force for [Formula: see text]. However, semitendinosus efficacy is strongly limited by its small physiological section. Hamstring muscles behave as a unique muscle in enhancing the PCL-loading TFSF produced by quadriceps contractions for [Formula: see text]. The levels of hamstrings co-activation that suppress the ACL-loading TFSF considerably shift when the knee angular acceleration is changed while maintaining the same level of knee extensor torque by a concurrent adjustment in the magnitude of external resistance. The knowledge of the specific role and the optimal activation level of each hamstring muscle in ACL protection and tibiofemoral stability are fundamental for planning safe and effective rehabilitative knee-extension exercises.

  5. Differences between two subgroups of low back pain patients in lumbopelvic rotation and symmetry in the erector spinae and hamstring muscles during trunk flexion when standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-hee; Yoo, Won-gyu; Choi, Bo-ram

    2013-04-01

    The present study was performed to examine lumbopelvic rotation and to identify asymmetry of the erector spinae and hamstring muscles in people with and without low back pain (LBP). The control group included 16 healthy subjects, the lumbar-flexion-rotation syndrome LBP group included 17 subjects, and the lumbar-extension-rotation syndrome LBP group included 14 subjects. Kinematic parameters were recorded using a 3D motion-capture system, and electromyography parameters were measured using a Noraxon TeleMyo 2400T. The two LBP subgroups showed significantly more lumbopelvic rotation during trunk flexion in standing than did the control group. The muscle activity and flexion-relaxation ratio asymmetries of the erector spinae muscles in the lumbar-flexion-rotation syndrome LBP group were significantly greater than those in the control group, and the muscle activity and flexion-relaxation ratio asymmetry of the hamstring muscles in the lumbar-extension-rotation syndrome LBP group were significantly greater than those in the control group. Imbalance or asymmetry of passive tissue could lead to asymmetry of muscular activation. Muscle imbalance can cause asymmetrical alignment or movements such as unexpected rotation. The results showed a greater increase in lumbopelvic rotation during trunk flexion in standing among the lumbar-flexion-rotation syndrome and lumbar-extension-rotation syndrome LBP groups compared with the control group. The differences between the two LBP subgroups may be a result of imbalance and asymmetry in erector spinae and hamstring muscle properties.

  6. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP): an adjuvant to hasten hamstring muscle recovery. A randomized controlled trial protocol (ISCRTN66528592).

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Hamid, Mohamad Shariff; Mohamed Ali, Mohamed Razif; Yusof, Ashril; George, John

    2012-08-06

    Muscle injuries are one of the commonest injuries affecting athletes. It often leads to significant pain and disability causing loss of training and competition time. With current treatment, the duration to return-to-play ranges form six weeks to never, depending on injury severity. Recent researches have suggested that autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injection into the injured site may hasten soft tissues healing. To-date, there has been no randomised clinical trials to evaluate the effects of PRP on muscle healing. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of autologous PRP on duration to return-to-play after muscle injury. A randomised, single blind controlled trial will be conducted. Twenty-eight patients aged 18 years and above with a recent grade-2 hamstring injury will be invited to take part. Participants will be randomised to receive either autologous PRP injection with rehabilitation programme, or rehabilitation programme only. Participants will be followed up at day three of study and then weekly for 16 weeks. At each follow up visit, participants will be assessed on readiness to return-to-play using a set of criteria. The primary end-point is when participants have fulfilled the return-to-play criteria or end of 16 weeks.The main outcome measure of this study is the duration to return-to-play after injury. This study protocol proposes a rigorous and potential significant evaluation of PRP use for grade-2 hamstring injury. If proven effective such findings could be of great benefit for patients with similar injuries. Current Controlled Trials ISCRTN66528592.

  7. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP: an adjuvant to hasten hamstring muscle recovery. A randomized controlled trial protocol (ISCRTN66528592

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Hamid Mohamad

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Muscle injuries are one of the commonest injuries affecting athletes. It often leads to significant pain and disability causing loss of training and competition time. With current treatment, the duration to return-to-play ranges form six weeks to never, depending on injury severity. Recent researches have suggested that autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP injection into the injured site may hasten soft tissues healing. To-date, there has been no randomised clinical trials to evaluate the effects of PRP on muscle healing. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of autologous PRP on duration to return-to-play after muscle injury. Methods and design A randomised, single blind controlled trial will be conducted. Twenty-eight patients aged 18 years and above with a recent grade-2 hamstring injury will be invited to take part. Participants will be randomised to receive either autologous PRP injection with rehabilitation programme, or rehabilitation programme only. Participants will be followed up at day three of study and then weekly for 16 weeks. At each follow up visit, participants will be assessed on readiness to return-to-play using a set of criteria. The primary end-point is when participants have fulfilled the return-to-play criteria or end of 16 weeks. The main outcome measure of this study is the duration to return-to-play after injury. Conclusion This study protocol proposes a rigorous and potential significant evaluation of PRP use for grade-2 hamstring injury. If proven effective such findings could be of great benefit for patients with similar injuries. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISCRTN66528592

  8. The comparison of the immediate effects of application of the suboccipital muscle inhibition and self-myofascial release techniques in the suboccipital region on short hamstring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sung-Hak; Kim, Soo-Han; Park, Du-Jin

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to research the effect of performing the suboccipital muscle inhibition (SMI) and self-myofascial release (SMFR) techniques in the suboccipital area on the flexibility of the hamstring. [Subjects] Fifty persons with short hamstrings participated in this research. According to the results of the finger-floor distance (FFD) test, the subjects were allocated to SMI and SMFR groups of 25 subjects each. [Methods] The SMI and SMFR techniques were applied to the groups. For the analysis, we used the FFD test and the straight leg raise (SLR) test for the flexibility of hamstring. The evaluator was blindfolded. [Results] In the SMI group, FFD, SLR, and PA were significantly changed after the intervention, and in the SMFR group, there was a significant change in SLR after the intervention. In a comparison between the groups, FED was found to be significantly increased in the SMI group. [Conclusion] Application of the SMI and SMFR to persons with short hamstrings resulted in immediate increases in flexibility of the hamstring. However, we could see that the SMI technique was more effective.

  9. EFFECTIVENESS OF SUPERVISED FITNESS AND MOBILITY EXERCISE PROGRAM ON FITNESS, MOBILITY AND MUSCLE STRENGTH IN YOUNG ADULTS WITH STROKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sandhya kiran

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stroke is a major disabling health problem in developing countries like India & causes long term disability. Long term disability furthers leads to global burden and other psychological problems.The FAME i.e., fitness and mobility exercise program has been designed to improve mobility, fitness and muscle strength. This protocol is community based protocol and helps in patients independent lifestyle.Objective is to examine the effect of supervised FAME protocol on fitness with 6minutes walk test, on mobility with timed up go test & on hamstrings muscle strength measured as hamstrings peak torque with isokinetic analyzer. Methods: Stroke participants were recruited into the study as per the inclusion and exclusion criteria and randomized into intervention group (n = 15 and control group (n = 15.The intervention group underwent supervised fitness and mobility exercise program & the control group underwent home exercises with printed FAME material (telugu & English version.This program was designed for 8 weeks (3 sessions / week. 6MWT- used to evaluate cardio respiratory fitness, TUG test- used to evaluate mobility, Isokinetic analyzer- used to evaluate hamstrings peak torque. Base line measurements are taken prior to the intervention and post intervention values taken after the 8 weeks of intervention. Results: Variables within the groups were compared by using paired t test and between the groups by using independent t test. According to obtained values, the pre & posttest values of 6MWT, TUG test & hamstrings peak toque had a significant effect on p-values <0.05 in experimental group. Conclusion: After 8 weeks of intervention program, the present study concludes that the supervised FAME protocol had showed statistically significant improvement in fitness, mobility & leg muscle strength in intervention group.

  10. The effect of whole-body vibration and resistance training on muscle strength in a 13-year-old boy with m. biceps femoris lesion and posttraumatic calcification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantović Milan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Skeletal muscle atrophy is a common adaptation after major muscle lesion of m. biceps femoris that results in numerous health-sport related complications. Resistance strength training and whole-body vibration (WBV have been recognized as an effective tool, which attenuates atrophy and evokes hypertrophy. Case report. We presented a 13-year-old boy with a lesion of m. biceps femoris and posttraumatic calcification sustained in soccer training session 6 month prior participation in this study. The patient underwent training 3 times a week for 7 weeks, including unilateral progressive WBV + resistance training (RT of the right hamstrings muscle group using WBV and weights. Hamstrings muscle strength was measured using a Cybex isokinetic dynamometer. At the end of week 4, the patient peak torque value of the involved leg increased from 39% body weight (BW to 72% BW and bilateral deficit decreased from -64% to -35%; at the end of week 7 the participant’s peak torque value of the involved leg increased from 72% BW to 98% BW and bilateral deficit decreased from -35% to -3%, respectively. Conclusion. Unilateral WBV + RT protocol evokes strength increase in the hamstrings muscle group. This case study suggests that adding WBV, as well as the RT program have to be considered in the total management of strength disbalance. Further studies are needed to verify the efficiency of WBV + RT protocol over the classic physical therapy exercise program.

  11. Effect of twisting hamstring tendon grafts on strength and joint laxity through the range of knee movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidwell, A; Wilson, D; Wild, P

    2004-01-01

    Twisting or braiding of hamstring tendon grafts for use in anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions has been advocated to increase their strength and stiffness under load. In this study, a two-dimensional model was used to determine the failure strength of twisted and parallel grafts and associated knee laxity under simulated physiological loading conditions. For validation, mechanical tests of tendon grafts were also simulated with these models. The simulated physiological loading of the graft models showed that knees with twisted grafts had greater laxity than knees with parallel grafts, although there was little difference in failure load between the two graft configurations. The tensile loading of the graft models showed little difference in failure load when the tendons were modelled using line segments. When the tendons were considered as three-dimensional helical elements, which more accurately describe the tendon structure, the failure load of the twisted graft decreased significantly. This research provided no evidence to support the belief that a twisted tendon graft is a superior graft configuration relative to a parallel tendon graft.

  12. Usefulness of diagnostic ultrasound for detecting myofascial change of the hamstring muscles due to lmmobilization: Experimental study with caged rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Yoon Kyoo; Kim, Joo Hyun; Lee, Chang Hyung; Kim, Jung Ryul; Kim, Han Kyum [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    To evaluate the usefulness of diagnostic ultrasound in the localization of soft tissue changes in the region of clinically suspected myofascial pain syndrome and to investigate the ultrasonographic and pathologic differences of the hamstring muscles between caged and freely mobile rabbits. A total of eight caged rabbits were used in this study. Four rabbits (age; two were 3-4 months, and the other two were 8-9 months) were raised in a small cage (40 X 50 X 30 cm), and the other four rabbits (age; two were 3-4 months while the other two 8-9 months) raised in a yard where they were free to move around. First, clinically identified myofascial trigger point-taut band or nodule was identified followed by diagnostic ultrasound examination of the hamstring and gluteus muscles and injection of Indian ink of the band or nodule. Biopsies were performed to include the hyperechoic regions as well as clinically identified myofascial trigger points, and the obtained specimens were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and masson-trichrome. The analysis of the results of the ultrasound study and pathologic study found correlation between the pathologic identification of myofascial trigger point and diagnostic ultrasound, where palpable nodules of caged animal, older more than younger one should greater extent of increment of echogenicity and degenerative pathologic changes such as fatty changes and appearance of hyaline fibers. Diagnostic ultrasound could be applied to identify or observe soft tissue changes in the regions of clinically identified myofascial trigger points. A pattern has emerged where soft tissue changes were ore likely to be observed in the caged animal where their movements were restricted and prone to fixed position. Further study to investigate the reversibility of pathologic changes of caged animal should be carried out.

  13. Effects of strength training and detraining on knee extensor strength, muscle volume and muscle quality in elderly women

    OpenAIRE

    Correa, Cleiton Silva; Baroni, Bruno Manfredini; Radaelli, Régis; Lanferdini,Fábio Juner; Cunha, Giovani dos Santos; Reischak-Oliveira, Álvaro; Vaz, Marco Aurélio; Pinto, Ronei Silveira

    2012-01-01

    Strength training seems to be an interesting approach to counteract decreases that affect knee extensor strength, muscle mass and muscle quality (force per unit of muscle mass) associated with ageing. However, there is no consensus regarding the changes in muscle mass and their contribution to strength during periods of training and detraining in the elderly. Therefore, this study aimed at verifying the behaviour of knee extensor muscle strength, muscle volume and muscle quality in elderly wo...

  14. EFFECTIVENESS OF ECCENTRIC TRAINING, DYNAMIC RANGE OF MOTION EXERCISES AND STATIC STRETCHING ON FLEXIBILITY OF HAMSTRING MUSCLE AMONG FOOTBALL PLAYERS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Askar P.V

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hamstring stretch is an important part of treatment programs aimed at decreasing the likelihood of hamstring injury. Few studies have examine the effect of eccentric training, static stretching and dynamic range of motion(DROM exercise in improving hamstring flexibility this study compares the effect of eccentric training and static stretching in improving hamstring flexibility. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of Eccentric training, Static stretching and Dynamic range of motion (DROM exercise in improving hamstring flexibility and the second objective is find which technique is more effective in improving hamstring flexibility when compared with a control group. Study design is Experimental pre-test post-test design. Methods: 88 male subjects with limited hamstring flexibility were recruited for this study were assigned to four group. Group1 received eccentric training, group2 received dynamic range of motion exercise, group3 received static stretching and group4 was served as control group. Hamstring length was measured pre intervention and post intervention using a self-monitored active knee extension test. Results: Eccentric training, static stretching and dynamic range of motion exercise showed a significant increase in hamstring length between pre and post intervention. Following a between group analysis done by independent t test revealed a significant difference between group1 group2 and group3 Conclusion: It is concluded that eccentric training, dynamic range of motion (DROM exercise and static stretching groups improved hamstring flexibility.

  15. Long-term outcome of muscle strength in ulnar and median nerve injury: Comparing manual muscle strength testing, grip and pinch strength dynamometers and a new intrinsic muscle strength dynamometer

    OpenAIRE

    Schreuders, Ton; Roebroeck, Marij; Jaquet, Jean; Hovius, Steven; Stam, Henk

    2004-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To compare the outcome of muscle strength with manual muscle strength testing grip and pinch strength measurements and a dynamometer which allows for measurements of the intrinsic muscles of the hand in isolation (the Rotterdam Intrinsic Hand Myometer, RIHM). Methods: Thirty-four patients more than 2 years after ulnar and/or median nerve injury. Muscle strength was evaluated using manual muscle strength testing (MMST), grip, pinch and intrinsic muscle strength measureme...

  16. A stochastic model of knee angle in response to electrical stimulation of the quadriceps and hamstrings muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Cheryl L; Popovic, Milos R

    2011-12-01

    A novel stochastic model of knee angle in response to stimulation of the quadriceps and hamstrings muscle groups is presented. This model includes uncertainty due to fatigue and day-to-day changes in the stimulated muscles. The model consists of a normally distributed random variable whose mean and standard deviation vary with time and is characterized using data from a complete spinal cord injuries subject. The experimental data show a significant difference between the left and right legs under certain conditions, and suggest that fatigue-related and day-to-day variation may also be important. The purpose of this model is to generate more realistic electrically stimulated knee movements. This stochastic modeling technique could be incorporated into a comprehensive model of a joint actuated with electrical stimulation, and has great potential as a tool for analyzing closed-loop performance of electrically stimulated systems. © 2011, Copyright the Authors. Artificial Organs © 2011, International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Three-layered architecture of the popliteal fascia that acts as a kinetic retinaculum for the hamstring muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Masahiro; Yoshino, Hiroyuki; Fujimura, Akira; Hitomi, Jiro; Isogai, Sumio

    2016-09-01

    When patients report pain in the popliteal fossa upon knee extension, the pain is usually localized in the lower region of the popliteal fossa. However, some patients complain of pain in the upper region of the popliteal fossa as the knee is flexed, which motivated us to examine the role of the popliteal fascia as the retinaculum of the hamstring muscles. Thirty-four thighs from 19 Japanese cadavers were dissected. The popliteal fascia was defined as the single aponeurotic sheet covering the popliteal fossa. We found that the fascia acted as a three-layered retinaculum for the flexor muscles of the thigh and provided a secure route for neurovascular structures to the lower leg in any kinetic position of the knee joint. The superficial layer of the popliteal fascia covering the thigh was strongly interwoven with the epimysium of biceps femoris along its lateral aspect and with that of the semimembranosus along its medial aspect, ensuring that the flexor muscles remained in their correct positions. The intermediate layer arose from the medial side of biceps femoris and merged medially with the superficial layer. The profound layer stretched transversely between the biceps femoris and the semimembranosus. Moreover, we investigated the nerve distribution in the popliteal fascia using Sihler's staining and whole-mount immunostaining for neurofilaments. The three-layered fascia was constantly innervated by branches from the posterior femoral cutaneous or saphenous nerve. The nerves were closely related and distributed to densely packed collagen fibers in the superficial layer as free or encapsulated nerve endings, suggesting that the fascia is involved in pain in the upper region of the popliteal fossa.

  18. Acute neuromuscular and performance responses to Nordic hamstring exercises completed before or after football training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Ric; Siegler, Jason C; Knox, Michael; Brennan, Scott; Marshall, Paul W M

    2016-12-01

    The optimal scheduling of Nordic Hamstring exercises (NHEs) relative to football training sessions is unknown. We examined the acute neuromuscular and performance responses to NHE undertaken either before (BT) or after (AT) simulated football training. Twelve amateur players performed six sets of five repetitions of the NHE either before or after 60 min of standardised football-specific exercise (SAFT(60)). Surface electromyography signals (EMG) of the hamstring muscles were recorded during both the NHE, and maximum eccentric actions of the knee flexors (0.52 rad · s(-1)) performed before and after the NHE programme, and at 15 min intervals during SAFT(60). Ten-metre sprint times were recorded on three occasions during each 15 min SAFT(60) segment. Greater eccentric hamstring fatigue following the NHE programme was observed in BT versus AT (19.8 %; very likely small effect), which was particularly apparent in the latter range of knee flexion (0-15°; 39.6%; likely moderate effect), and synonymous with hamstring EMG declines (likely small-likely moderate effects). Performing NHE BT attenuated sprint performance declines (2.0-3.2%; likely small effects), but decreased eccentric hamstring peak torque (-14.1 to -18.9%; likely small effects) during football-specific exercise. Performing NHE prior to football training reduces eccentric hamstring strength and may exacerbate hamstring injury risk.

  19. Strength training and aerobic exercise training for muscle disease (Review)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voet, N.B.M.; Kooi, E.L. van der; Riphagen, I.I.; Lindeman, E.; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Geurts, A.C.H.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Strength training or aerobic exercise programmes might optimise muscle and cardiorespiratory function and prevent additional disuse atrophy and deconditioning in people with a muscle disease. OBJECTIVES: To examine the safety and efficacy of strength training and aerobic exercise trainin

  20. Strength training and aerobic exercise training for muscle disease (Review)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voet, N.B.M.; Kooi, E.L. van der; Riphagen, I.I.; Lindeman, E.; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Geurts, A.C.H.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Strength training or aerobic exercise programmes might optimise muscle and cardiorespiratory function and prevent additional disuse atrophy and deconditioning in people with a muscle disease. OBJECTIVES: To examine the safety and efficacy of strength training and aerobic exercise trainin

  1. Treadmill Training with Virtual Reality Improves Gait, Balance, and Muscle Strength in Children with Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Chunhee; Hwang, Wonjeong; Hwang, Sujin; Chung, Yijung

    2016-03-01

    Independent walking is an important goal of clinical and community-based rehabilitation for children with cerebral palsy (CP). Virtual reality-based rehabilitation therapy is effective in motivating children with CP. This study investigated the effects of treadmill training with virtual reality on gait, balance, muscular strength, and gross motor function in children with CP. Eighteen children with spastic CP were randomly divided into the virtual reality treadmill training (VRTT) group (9 subjects, mean age, 10.2 years) and treadmill training (TT) group (9 subjects, mean age, 9.4 years). The groups performed their respective programs as well as conventional physical therapy 3 times/week for 8 weeks. Muscle strength was assessed using a digitalized manual muscle tester. Gross motor function was assessed using the Gross Motor Functional Measure (GMFM). Balance was assessed using the Pediatric Balance Scale (PBS). Gait speed was assessed using the 10-meter walk test (10MWT), and gait endurance was assessed using the 2-minute walk test (2MWT). After training, gait and balance was improved in the VRTT compared to the TT group (P strength was significantly greater in the VRTT group than the TT group, except for right hamstring strength. The improvements in GMFM (standing) and PBS scores were greater in the VRTT group than the TT group (P strength, and gross motor function in children with CP.

  2. The preventive effect of the nordic hamstring exercise on hamstring injuries in amateur soccer players: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Horst, Nick; Smits, Dirk-Wouter; Petersen, Jesper; Goedhart, Edwin A; Backx, Frank J G

    2015-06-01

    Hamstring injuries are the most common muscle injuries in soccer, and they have a high rate of recurrence. Eccentric hamstrings strength is recognized as an important modifiable risk factor. This led to the development of prevention exercises such as the nordic hamstring exercise (NHE). The effectiveness of the NHE on hamstring injury prevention has never been investigated in amateur soccer. To investigate the preventive effect of the NHE on the incidence and severity of hamstring injuries in male amateur soccer players. Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. Male amateur soccer players (age, mean ± SD, 24.5 ± 3.8 years) from 40 teams were randomly allocated to an intervention (n = 20 teams, 292 players) or control group (n = 20 teams, 287 players). The intervention group was instructed to perform 25 sessions of NHE in a 13-week period. Both the intervention and control groups performed regular soccer training and were followed for hamstring injury incidence and severity during the 2013 calendar year. At baseline, personal characteristics (eg, age, injury history, field position) were gathered from all participants via a questionnaire. Primary outcome was injury incidence. Secondary outcomes were injury severity and compliance with the intervention protocol. A total of 38 hamstring injuries were recorded, affecting 36 of 579 players (6.2%). The overall injury incidence rate was 0.7 (95% CI, 0.6-0.8) per 1000 player hours, 0.33 (95% CI, 0.25-0.46) in training, and 1.2 (95% CI, 0.82-1.94) in matches. Injury incidence rates were significantly different between the intervention (0.25; 95% CI, 0.19-0.35) and control groups (0.8; 95% CI, 0.61-1.15), χ(2)(1, n = 579) = 7.865; P = .005. The risk for hamstring injuries was reduced in the intervention group compared with the control group (odds ratio, 0.282; 95% CI, 0.110-0.721) and was statistically significant (P = .005). No statistically significant differences were identified between the intervention and

  3. Muscle strength, pain and disability in patients with osteoarthritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steultjens, M.P.M.; Dekker, J.; Baar, M.E. van; Oostendorp, R.A.B.; Bijlsma, J.W.J.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: Reduced muscle strength is regarded as a risk factor for pain and disability in osteoarthritis (OA). Currently, various indices for muscle strength are used when assessing determinants of pain and disability. The goal of the present study was to evaluate these indices of muscle strength.

  4. Muscle strength, pain and disability in patients with osteoarthritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steultjens, M.P.M.; Dekker, J.; Baar, M.E. van; Oostendorp, R.A.B.; Bijlsma, J.W.J.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: Reduced muscle strength is regarded as a risk factor for pain and disability in osteoarthritis (OA). Currently, various indices for muscle strength are used when assessing determinants of pain and disability. The goal of the present study was to evaluate these indices of muscle strength.

  5. The Associations between Pain Sensitivity and Knee Muscle Strength in Healthy Volunteers: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Henriksen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To investigate associations between muscle strength and pain sensitivity among healthy volunteers and associations between different pain sensitivity measures. Methods. Twenty-eight healthy volunteers (21 females participated. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs were obtained from 1 computer-controlled pressure algometry on the vastus lateralis and deltoid muscles and on the infrapatellar fat pad and 2 computerized cuff pressure algometry applied on the lower leg. Deep-tissue pain sensitivity (intensity and duration was assessed by hypertonic saline injections into the vastus lateralis, deltoid, and infrapatellar fat pad. Quadriceps and hamstring muscle strength was assessed isometrically at 60-degree knee flexion using a dynamometer. Associations between pain sensitivity and muscle strength were investigated using multiple regressions including age, gender, and body mass index as covariates. Results. Knee extension strength was associated with computer-controlled PPT on the vastus lateralis muscle. Computer-controlled PPTs were significantly correlated between sites (r>0.72 and with cuff PPT (r>0.4. Saline induced pain intensity and duration were correlated between sites (r>0.39 and with all PPTs (r<-0.41. Conclusions. Pressure pain thresholds at the vastus lateralis are positively associated with knee extensor muscle strength. Different pain sensitivity assessment methods are generally correlated. The cuff PPT and evoked infrapatellar pain seem to reflect the general pain sensitivity. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01351558.

  6. Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation and strength training to gain muscle strength in elderly women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cesário, Denise Ferreira; Mendes, Geovânia Barbosa da Silva; Uchôa, Érica Patrícia Borba Lira; Veiga, Paulo Henrique Altran

    2014-01-01

    ...: To perform comparative analyze of results of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) techniques and strength training to gain muscle strength of biceps and quadriceps and grip in the elderly...

  7. FUNCTIONAL AND NEUROMUSCULAR CHANGES IN THE HAMSTRINGS AFTER DROP JUMPS AND LEG CURLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nejc Sarabon

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to use a holistic approach to investigate changes in jumping performance, kinaesthesia, static balance, isometric strength and fast stepping on spot during a 5-day recovery period, following an acute bout of damaging exercise consisted of drop jumps and leg curls, where specific emphasis was given on the hamstring muscles. Eleven young healthy subjects completed a series of highly intensive damaging exercises for their hamstring muscles. Prior to the exercise, and during the 5-day recovery period, the subjects were tested for biochemical markers (creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase, perceived pain sensation, physical performance (squat jump, counter movement jump, maximal frequency leg stamping, maximal isometric torque production and maximally explosive isometric torque production, kinaesthesia (active torque tracking and static balance. We observed significant decreases in maximal isometric knee flexion torque production, the rate of torque production, and majority of the parameters for vertical jump performance. No alterations were found in kinaesthesia, static balance and fast stepping on spot. The highest drop in performance and increase in perceived pain sensation generally occurred 24 or 48 hours after the exercise. Damaging exercise substantially alters the neuromuscular functions of the hamstring muscles, which is specifically relevant for sports and rehabilitation experts, as the hamstrings are often stretched to significant lengths, in particular when the knee is extended and hip flexed. These findings are practically important for recovery after high-intensity trainings for hamstring muscles

  8. Transcriptional abnormalities of hamstring muscle contractures in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lucas R; Chambers, Henry G; Subramaniam, Shankar; Lieber, Richard L

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is an upper motor neuron disease that results in a spectrum of movement disorders. Secondary to the neurological lesion, muscles from patients with CP are often spastic and form debilitating contractures that limit range of motion and joint function. With no genetic component, the pathology of skeletal muscle in CP is a response to aberrant complex neurological input in ways that are not fully understood. This study was designed to gain further understanding of the skeletal muscle response in CP using transcriptional profiling correlated with functional measures to broadly investigate muscle adaptations leading to mechanical deficits.Biopsies were obtained from both the gracilis and semitendinosus muscles from a cohort of patients with CP (n = 10) and typically developing patients (n = 10) undergoing surgery. Biopsies were obtained to define the unique expression profile of the contractures and passive mechanical testing was conducted to determine stiffness values in previously published work. Affymetrix HG-U133A 2.0 chips (n = 40) generated expression data, which was validated for selected transcripts using quantitative real-time PCR. Chips were clustered based on their expression and those from patients with CP clustered separately. Significant genes were determined conservatively based on the overlap of three summarization algorithms (n = 1,398). Significantly altered genes were analyzed for over-representation among gene ontologies and muscle specific networks.The majority of altered transcripts were related to increased extracellular matrix expression in CP and a decrease in metabolism and ubiquitin ligase activity. The increase in extracellular matrix products was correlated with mechanical measures demonstrating the importance in disability. These data lay a framework for further studies and development of novel therapies.

  9. Transcriptional abnormalities of hamstring muscle contractures in children with cerebral palsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas R Smith

    Full Text Available Cerebral palsy (CP is an upper motor neuron disease that results in a spectrum of movement disorders. Secondary to the neurological lesion, muscles from patients with CP are often spastic and form debilitating contractures that limit range of motion and joint function. With no genetic component, the pathology of skeletal muscle in CP is a response to aberrant complex neurological input in ways that are not fully understood. This study was designed to gain further understanding of the skeletal muscle response in CP using transcriptional profiling correlated with functional measures to broadly investigate muscle adaptations leading to mechanical deficits.Biopsies were obtained from both the gracilis and semitendinosus muscles from a cohort of patients with CP (n = 10 and typically developing patients (n = 10 undergoing surgery. Biopsies were obtained to define the unique expression profile of the contractures and passive mechanical testing was conducted to determine stiffness values in previously published work. Affymetrix HG-U133A 2.0 chips (n = 40 generated expression data, which was validated for selected transcripts using quantitative real-time PCR. Chips were clustered based on their expression and those from patients with CP clustered separately. Significant genes were determined conservatively based on the overlap of three summarization algorithms (n = 1,398. Significantly altered genes were analyzed for over-representation among gene ontologies and muscle specific networks.The majority of altered transcripts were related to increased extracellular matrix expression in CP and a decrease in metabolism and ubiquitin ligase activity. The increase in extracellular matrix products was correlated with mechanical measures demonstrating the importance in disability. These data lay a framework for further studies and development of novel therapies.

  10. Mechanisms behind Estrogens’ Beneficial Effect on Muscle Strength in Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Dawn A.; Baltgalvis, Kristen A.; Greising, Sarah M.

    2010-01-01

    Muscle weakness ensues when serum testosterone declines with age in men. Testosterone’s female counterpart, estrogen, has also been implicated in age-related strength loss but these results are less conclusive. Our working hypothesis is that estrogens do benefit muscle strength, and that the underlying mechanism involves estrogen receptors to improve muscle quality more so than quantity. PMID:20335737

  11. Autism Severity and Muscle Strength: A Correlation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Janet K.; Geier, David A.; Adams, James B.; Troutman, Melissa R.; Davis, Georgia; King, Paul G.; Young, John L.; Geier, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between muscle strength, as measured by hand grip strength, and autism severity, as measured by the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). Thirty-seven (37) children with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were evaluated using the CARS and then tested for hand muscle strength using a hand grip…

  12. Recurrent hamstring muscle injury: applying the limited evidence in the professional football setting with a seven-point programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brukner, Peter; Nealon, Andrew; Morgan, Christopher; Burgess, Darren; Dunn, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Recurrent hamstring injuries are a major problem in sports such as football. The aim of this paper was to use a clinical example to describe a treatment strategy for the management of recurrent hamstring injuries and examine the evidence for each intervention. A professional footballer sustained five hamstring injuries in a relatively short period of time. The injury was managed successfully with a seven-point programme—biomechanical assessment and correction, neurodynamics, core stability, eccentric strengthening, an overload running programme, injection therapies and stretching/relaxation. The evidence for each of these treatment options is reviewed. It is impossible to be definite about which aspects of the programme contributed to a successful outcome. Only limited evidence is available in most cases; therefore, decisions regarding the use of different treatment modalities must be made by using a combination of clinical experience and research evidence. PMID:23322894

  13. Experimental knee joint pain during strength training and muscle strength gain in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, T J; Langberg, Henning; Hodges, P W

    2012-01-01

    Knee joint pain and reduced quadriceps strength are cardinal symptoms in many knee pathologies. In people with painful knee pathologies, quadriceps exercise reduces pain, improves physical function, and increases muscle strength. A general assumption is that pain compromises muscle function...... and thus may prevent effective rehabilitation. This study evaluated the effects of experimental knee joint pain during quadriceps strength training on muscle strength gain in healthy individuals....

  14. The Effect of Body Mass on Eccentric Knee-Flexor Strength Assessed With an Instrumented Nordic Hamstring Device (Nordbord) in Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchheit, Martin; Cholley, Yannick; Nagel, Mark; Poulos, Nicholas

    2016-09-01

    To examine the effect of body mass (BM) on eccentric knee-flexor strength using the Nordbord and offer simple guidelines to control for the effect of BM on knee-flexor strength. Data from 81 soccer players (U17, U19, U21, senior 4th French division, and professionals) and 41 Australian Football League (AFL) players were used for analysis. They all performed 1 set of 3 maximal repetitions of the bilateral Nordic hamstring exercise, with the greatest strength measure used for analysis. The main regression equation obtained from the overall sample was used to predict eccentric knee-flexor strength from a given BM (moderate TEE, 22%). Individual deviations from the BM-predicted score were used as a BM-free index of eccentric knee- flexor strength. There was a large (r = .55, 90% confidence limits .42;.64) correlation between eccentric knee-flexor strength and BM. Heavier and older players (professionals, 4th French division, and AFL) outperformed their lighter and younger (U17-U21) counterparts, with the soccer professionals presenting the highest absolute strength. Professional soccer players were the only ones to show strength values likely slightly greater than those expected for their BM. Eccentric knee-flexor strength, as assessed with the Nordbord, is largely BM-dependent. To control for this effect, practitioners may compare actual test performances with the expected strength for a given BM, using the following predictive equation: Eccentric strength (N) = 4 × BM (kg) + 26.1. Professional soccer players with specific knee-flexor-training history and enhanced neuromuscular performance may show higher than expected values.

  15. Subcutaneous immunoglobulin preserves muscle strength in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvardsen, Lars Høj; Harbo, Thomas; Sindrup, Søren Hein

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Subcutaneous immunoglobulin (SCIG) is superior to placebo treatment for maintenance of muscle strength during 12 weeks in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). The present study evaluated whether SCIG preserves muscle strength for 1 year...... evaluated after 3, 6 and 12 months. Primary end-points were changes in muscle strength evaluated by isokinetic dynamometry in four affected muscle groups and a composite score of muscle performance and function tests, including Medical Research Council (MRC) score, grip strength, 40-m walking test (40-MWT...... remained unchanged. CONCLUSION: SCIG preserves muscle strength and functional ability in patients with CIDP who previously responded to IVIG. SCIG should be considered as an alternative in long-term treatment of CIDP patients....

  16. Long-term outcome of muscle strength in ulnar and median nerve injury: Comparing manual muscle strength testing, grip and pinch strength dynamometers and a new intrinsic muscle strength dynamometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. Schreuders (Ton); M.E. Roebroeck (Marij); J.B. Jaquet (Jean); S.E.R. Hovius (Steven); H.J. Stam (Henk)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To compare the outcome of muscle strength with manual muscle strength testing grip and pinch strength measurements and a dynamometer which allows for measurements of the intrinsic muscles of the hand in isolation (the Rotterdam Intrinsic Hand Myometer, RIHM). Methods:

  17. Long-term outcome of muscle strength in ulnar and median nerve injury: Comparing manual muscle strength testing, grip and pinch strength dynamometers and a new intrinsic muscle strength dynamometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. Schreuders (Ton); M.E. Roebroeck (Marij); J.B. Jaquet (Jean); S.E.R. Hovius (Steven); H.J. Stam (Henk)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To compare the outcome of muscle strength with manual muscle strength testing grip and pinch strength measurements and a dynamometer which allows for measurements of the intrinsic muscles of the hand in isolation (the Rotterdam Intrinsic Hand Myometer, RIHM). Methods: Thirty-f

  18. Prevention of hamstring injuries in male soccer : Exercise programs and return to play

    OpenAIRE

    van der Horst, N

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the studies reported in this thesis was to investigate strategies for the prevention of hamstring injuries. Hamstring injuries are the most prevalent muscle injury in soccer. In spite of efforts to reduce the occurrence of hamstring injuries in soccer, injury rates have not decreased over the last three decades. Therefore, research on hamstring injury prevention is necessary to reduce hamstring injury rates. Exercise programs to reduce soccer injuries are easy to implement during r...

  19. In cirrhotic patients reduced muscle strength is unrelated to muscle capacity for ATP turnover suggesting a central limitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gam, Christiane Marie Bourgin; Nielsen, H B; Secher, Niels H.

    2011-01-01

      We investigated whether in patients with liver cirrhosis reduced muscle strength is related to dysfunction of muscle mitochondria.......  We investigated whether in patients with liver cirrhosis reduced muscle strength is related to dysfunction of muscle mitochondria....

  20. The Effects of Hamstring Stretching on Leg Rotation during Knee Extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Atsushi

    2013-06-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of hamstring stretching on leg rotation during active knee extension. [Subjects] Subjects were 100 bilateral legs of 50 healthy women without articular disease. [Methods] Hamstring hardness, leg rotation and muscle activities of the knee extensors during active knee extension were measured before and after hamstring stretching. [Results] Hamstring hardness was significantly decreased after hamstring stretching. The leg rotation angle, variation in leg rotation angle, variation in leg external rotation angle, and muscle activities of the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris were significantly increased after hamstring stretching. A moderate positive correlation was found between variation in leg rotation and variation in muscle hardness in hamstring. [Conclusion] Leg rotation during active knee extension was increased by hamstring stretching. Hamstring stretching would be effective as a pretreatment for restoring proper leg rotation when knee extension is conducted as a therapeutic exercise.

  1. Does muscle strength predict future musculoskeletal disorders and sickness absence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, A; Sell, L; Hansen, J V

    2012-01-01

    High muscle strength is considered relevant for preventing musculoskeletal disorders and long-term sickness absence. However, prospective studies on the association between muscle strength and future musculoskeletal disorders and long-term sickness absence are few and show contrasting results....

  2. Knee muscle strength correlates with joint cartilage T2 relaxation time in young participants with risk factors for osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macías-Hernández, Salvador Israel; Miranda-Duarte, Antonio; Ramírez-Mora, Isabel; Cortés-González, Socorro; Morones-Alba, Juan Daniel; Olascoaga-Gómez, Andrea; Coronado-Zarco, Roberto; Soria-Bastida, María de Los Angeles; Nava-Bringas, Tania Inés; Cruz-Medina, Eva

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study is to correlate T2 relaxation time (T2RT), measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with quadriceps and hamstring strength in young participants with risk factors for knee osteoarthritis (OA). A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted with participants between 20 and 40 years of age, without diagnosis of knee OA. Their T2 relaxation time was measured through MRI, and their muscle strength (MS) was measured with an isokinetic dynamometer. Seventy-one participants were recruited, with an average age of 28.3 ± 5.5 years; 39 (55 %) were females. Negative correlations were found between T2RT and quadriceps peak torque (QPT) in males in the femur r = -0.46 (p = 0.01), tibia r = -0.49 (p = 0.02), and patella r = -0.44 (p = 0.01). In women, correlations were found among the femur r = -0.43 (p = 0.01), tibia r = -0.61 (p = 0.01), and patella r = -0.32 (p = 0.05) and among hamstring peak torque (HPT), in the femur r = -0.46 (p = 0.01), hamstring total work (HTW) r = -0.42 (p = 0.03), and tibia r = -0.33 (p = 0.04). Linear regression models showed good capacity to predict T2RT through QPT in both genders. The present study shows that early changes in femoral, tibial, and patellar cartilage are significantly correlated with MS, mainly QPT, and that these early changes might be explained by MS, which could play an important role in pre-clinical phases of the disease.

  3. Objective Evaluation of Muscle Strength in Infants with Hypotonia and Muscle Weakness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reus, Linda; van Vlimmeren, Leo A.; Staal, J. Bart; Janssen, Anjo J. W. M.; Otten, Barto J.; Pelzer, Ben J.; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W. G.

    2013-01-01

    The clinical evaluation of an infant with motor delay, muscle weakness, and/or hypotonia would improve considerably if muscle strength could be measured objectively and normal reference values were available. The authors developed a method to measure muscle strength in infants and tested 81 typically developing infants, 6-36 months of age, and 17…

  4. Objective Evaluation of Muscle Strength in Infants with Hypotonia and Muscle Weakness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reus, Linda; van Vlimmeren, Leo A.; Staal, J. Bart; Janssen, Anjo J. W. M.; Otten, Barto J.; Pelzer, Ben J.; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W. G.

    2013-01-01

    The clinical evaluation of an infant with motor delay, muscle weakness, and/or hypotonia would improve considerably if muscle strength could be measured objectively and normal reference values were available. The authors developed a method to measure muscle strength in infants and tested 81 typically developing infants, 6-36 months of age, and 17…

  5. Prevention of Hamstring Injuries in Collegiate Sprinters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Yusaku; Sakuma, Kazuhiko; Sakuraba, Keishoku; Sato, Yamato

    2017-01-01

    Background: No studies have been reported on how strength, agility, and flexibility training reduce the occurrence of hamstring injuries in sprinters. Therefore, a program for preventing hamstring injury in these athletes has not been established. Purpose: To document the incidence of hamstring injuries during times when different prevention strategies were employed to see whether a particular prevention program reduced their occurrence. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: The study subjects were a total of 613 collegiate male sprinters trained by the same coach over 24 seasons. Tow training was used throughout the research period as a normal sprint training method. The hamstring injury prevention program evolved over time. From 1988 to 1991 (period 1), prevention focused on strength training alone; from 1992 to 1999 (period 2), a combination of strength and agility training was used; and from 2000 to 2011 (period 3), the program incorporated strength, agility, and flexibility training. The incidence of hamstring injuries was compared for each of the 3 prevention strategies. Results: The incidence of hamstring injuries per athlete-seasons was 137.9 for period 1, 60.6 for period 2, and 6.7 for period 3. A significant difference was observed in the incidence of hamstring injury according to the different prevention programs (χ2(2) = 31.78, P < .001, effect size: Cramer V = 0.23, 1 − β = 0.999). Residual analysis showed that the number of hamstring injuries for period 1 was significantly greater than the expected value (P < .01), whereas that for period 3 was significantly lower than the expected value (P < .01). Conclusion: The incidence of hamstring injuries in sprinters decreased as agility and flexibility were added to strength training. PMID:28210652

  6. Generalization of Muscle Strength Capacities as Assessed From Different Variables, Tests, and Muscle Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuk, Ivan; Prebeg, Goran; Sreckovic, Sreten; Mirkov, Dragan M; Jaric, Slobodan

    2017-02-01

    Cuk, I, Prebeg, G, Sreckovic, S, Mirkov, DM, and Jaric, S. Generalization of muscle strength capacities as assessed from different variables, tests, and muscle groups. J Strength Cond Res 31(2): 305-312, 2017-The muscle strength capacities to exert force under various movement conditions have been indiscriminately assessed from various strength tests and variables applied on different muscles. We tested the hypotheses that the distinctive strength capacities would be revealed (H1) through different strength tests, and (H2) through different strength variables. Alternatively, (H3) all strength variables independent of the selected test could depict the same strength capacity of the tested muscle. Sixty subjects performed both the standard strength test and the test of alternating contractions of 6 pairs of antagonistic muscles acting in different leg and arm joints. The dependent variables obtained from each test and muscle were the maximum isometric force and the rate of force development. A confirmatory principle component analysis set to 2 factors explained 31.9% of the total variance. The factor loadings discerned between the tested arm and leg muscles, but not between the strength tests and variables. An exploratory analysis applied on the same data revealed 6 factors that explained 60.1% of the total variance. Again, the individual factors were mainly loaded by different tests and variables obtained from the same pair of antagonistic muscles. Therefore, a comprehensive assessment of the muscle strength capacity of the tested individual should be based on a single strength test and variable obtained from a number of different muscles, than on a single muscle tested through different tests and variables. The selected muscles should act in different limbs and joints, while the maximum isometric force should be the variable of choice.

  7. Supplementation with a polyphenolic blend improves post-exercise strength recovery and muscle soreness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelli A. Herrlinger

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exercise can initiate a cascade of inflammatory and oxidative stress–related events leading to delayed onset muscle soreness. Polyphenols possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Objective: The current study examined the effects of a proprietary polyphenolic blend (PB, containing catechins and theaflavins, on exercise performance and recovery following an eccentric exercise challenge. Design: Male participants (18–35 years of age received placebo or PB at a low dose (PB-L, 1,000 mg/d or high dose (PB-H, 2,000 mg/d for 13 weeks. During the 13th week of supplementation, participants completed an eccentric exercise (40 min downhill treadmill run followed by a strength assessment (peak torque on isokinetic leg extensions pre-exercise, and 24, 48, and 96 h post-exercise. Muscle soreness (subjective questionnaire, markers of muscle stress (cortisol and creatine phosphokinase [CK], and antioxidant capacity (ferric reducing ability of plasma [FRAP] were also assessed. Results: PB-H attenuated the decrease in peak torque observed in the placebo group from pre-exercise to 48 h (p=0.012 and 96 h (p=0.003 post-exercise. At 48 h post-exercise, PB-H reduced whole body and hamstring soreness (p=0.029 versus placebo. Chronic consumption of PB improved serum FRAP (p=0.039. As expected, serum cortisol and CK increased from pre- to post-exercise in all groups; however, by 96 h, cortisol and CK levels returned to pre-exercise levels following PB supplementation. At 96 h, the change in cortisol from pre- to post-exercise was significantly greater in placebo versus PB-H (p=0.039. Conclusion: These findings show that chronic consumption of PB improved antioxidant status, reduced markers of muscle stress, and promoted strength recovery post-exercise.

  8. Quantitative evaluation of trunk muscle strength in wheelchair basketball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sileno da Silva Santos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Trunk muscle strength affects trunk controlling playing an important role in performance and to define the classes of wheelchair basketball players. Trunk control capacity differs among players and quantitative assessments of trunk muscle strength have not been investigated. The aim of this study was to identify and correlate quantitative measures of trunk muscle strength with the wheelchair basketball players' classification. Forty-two male wheelchair basketball players with spinal cord injury, amputation, post-poliomyelitis sequelae, and cerebral palsy had their trunk extension and flexion strength evaluated with isokinetic dynamometer. The classes 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, and 4.0 were considered for statistical analysis. Comparison of trunk muscle strength differed significantly between classes: 1.0 and 3.0; 1.0 and 4.0; 2.0 and 3.0; and 2.0 and 4.0. High correlation was found between the trunk muscle strength and players' classes. The findings of the present study showed a strong correlation of trunk muscle strength and wheelchair basketball classes being able to distinguish players in their classes. However, this quantitative method of evaluation of the trunk muscle strength cannot be solely used to make a decision on the full trunk control.

  9. Do Muscle Strength Deficits of the Uninvolved Hip and Knee Exist in Young Athletes Before Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Joseph; Wang-Price, Sharon; Goto, Shiho; Garrison, J. Craig; Bothwell, James M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Muscle strength of the involved limb is known to be decreased after injury. Comparison with the uninvolved limb has become standard of practice to measure progress and for calculation of limb symmetry indices (LSIs) to determine readiness to return to sport. However, some literature suggests strength changes in the uninvolved limb also are present after lower extremity injury. Purpose: To examine the uninvolved limb strength in a population of adolescent athletes after an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and compare strength values with those of the dominant limb in a healthy control group. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: A total of 64 athletes were enrolled in this study, including 31with injured ACLs (mean age, 15.6 ± 1.4 years) and 33 healthy controls (mean age, 14.9 ± 1.9 years). The median time from injury to testing was 23 days for the ACL-injured group. Participants underwent Biodex isokinetic strength testing at 60 deg/s to assess quadriceps and hamstring strength. Isometric hip strength (abduction, extension, external rotation) was measured using a handheld dynamometer. The muscle strength of the uninvolved limb of the ACL-injured group was compared with that of the dominant limb of the healthy control group. Results: The results showed a significant difference in quadriceps muscle strength between the 2 study groups (P ACL group was significantly decreased by 25.5% (P ACL injury as compared with healthy controls. Consideration should be taken when using the uninvolved limb for comparison when assessing quadriceps strength in a population with an ACL injury. PMID:28203600

  10. Rapid hamstring/quadriceps force capacity in male vs. female elite soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebis, Mette K; Andersen, Lars L; Ellingsgaard, Helga; Aagaard, Per

    2011-07-01

    Knee joint injuries are a serious issue in soccer. The ability to protect the knee from injury depends largely on the strength of the hamstring relatively to the quadriceps, that is, a low hamstring/quadriceps (H/Q) strength ratio is suggested as a risk factor. Although maximal muscle strength (MVC) has often been used to evaluate the H/Q ratio, the ability to rapidly develop force (rate of force development [RFD]) is more relevant in relation to fast dynamic movements. The aim of this study was to introduce and investigate a rapid RFD H/Q strength ratio compared with the traditional MVC H/Q strength ratio in elite soccer players. Twenty-three elite soccer players (11 women, 12 men) performed maximal voluntary static contraction for the hamstring and quadriceps in an isokinetic dynamometer, from which the maximal muscles strength (MVC) and RFD were extracted. Test-retest reliability for the RFD H/Q ratio was high (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.664-0.933). The initial contraction phase up to 50 milliseconds from the onset of contraction showed a low RFD H/Q ratio compared to the MVC H/Q ratio (p rupture at a later occasion. The high reliability of the new RFD H/Q strength ratio indicates that the method is a relevant tool in standardized clinical evaluation of the knee joint agonist-antagonist relationship.

  11. The association between hip muscle cross-sectional area, muscle strength, and bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahedi, Harbeer; Aitken, Dawn; Scott, David; Blizzard, Leigh; Cicuttini, Flavia; Jones, Graeme

    2014-07-01

    Studies examining the association between muscle size, muscle strength, and bone mineral density (BMD) are limited. Thus, this study aimed to describe the association between hip muscles cross-sectional area (CSA), muscle strength, and BMD of the hip and spine. A total of 321 subjects from the Tasmanian Older Adult Cohort study with a right hip MRI scan conducted between 2004 and 2006 were included. Hip muscles were measured on MR images by OsiriX (Geneva) software measuring maximum muscle CSA (cm(2)) of gluteus maximus, obturator externus, gemelli, quadratus femoris, piriformis, pectineus, sartorius, and iliopsoas. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measured total hip, femoral neck, and spine BMD, and lower limb muscle strength was assessed by dynamometer. Muscle CSA of the hip flexors (pectineus, sartorius, and iliopsoas) and the hip rotators, obturator externus, and quadratus femoris were associated with both total hip and femoral neck BMD (all p muscles (except gluteus maximus and gemelli) were positively associated with leg strength (p = 0.02 to strength was weakly associated with BMD (p = 0.11-0.007). Hip muscle CSA, and to a lesser extent muscle strength, were positively associated with hip BMD. These data suggest that both higher muscle mass and strength may contribute to the maintenance of bone mass and prevention of disease progression in older adults.

  12. Progressive resistance muscle strength training of hospitalized frail elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, D H; Wall, P T; Bariola, J R; Bopp, M M; Frost, Y M

    2001-07-01

    To determine whether frail elderly patients recuperating from acute illnesses could safely participate in and gain appreciable improvement in muscle strength from progressive resistance muscle strength training. Muscle strength (one repetition maximum), functional abilities (sit-to-stand maneuver and 20-sec maximal safe gait speed), and body composition were measured before and at the conclusion of a 10-wk program of lower limb progressive resistance muscle strength training. The nonrandomized study was conducted in a 30-bed geriatric rehabilitation unit of a university-affiliated Veterans Affairs hospital and a 28-bed transitional care unit of a community nursing home. Participants included 19 recuperating elderly subjects (14 male, 5 female; 13 ambulatory, 6 nonambulatory) >64 yr (mean age, 82.8+/-7.9 yr). The one repetition maximum increased an average of 74%+/-49% (median, 70%; interquartile range, 38%-95%, and an average of 20+/-13 kg (P = 0.0001). Sit-to-stand maneuver times improved in 15 of 19 cases (79%). Maximum safe gait speeds improved in 10 of 19 cases (53%). Four of the six nonambulatory subjects progressed to ambulatory status. No subject experienced a complication. A carefully monitored program of progressive resistance muscle strength training to regain muscle strength is a safe and possibly effective method for frail elderly recuperating from acute illnesses. A randomized control study is needed to examine the degree to which progressive resistance muscle strength training offers advantages, if any, over routine posthospital care that includes traditional low-intensity physical therapy.

  13. Relationship between Muscle Strength and Front Crawl Swimming Velocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gola Radosław

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. competitive performance in swimming depends on a number of factors including, among others, the development of relevant muscle groups. The aim of the study was to clarify the relationship between muscle strength and swimming velocity and the role of individual muscle groups in front crawl swimming. Methods. sixteen physical education university students participated in the study. The strength values, defined as torque produced during isometric contractions, of eight upper and lower extremity muscle groups were measured. Data were compared with participants' front crawl swim times in the 25m and 50m distances. Results. correlation analysis demonstrated a relationship between muscle strength and swimming velocity. statistically significant relationships were observed between swimming velocity and the torque values of the elbow flexor and shoulder extensor muscles as well as the sum of upper extremity muscle torque values (p ⋋ 0.05. Conclusions. The results indicate the need for a focus on training those muscle groups identified as having a statistically significant relationship with swimming velocity for a given distance, as the sample showed deficiencies in the strength of those muscle groups responsible for generating propulsive force in the front crawl. Additionally, the collected data can serve as a diagnostic tool in evaluating the development of muscle groups critical for swimming performance.

  14. Relation between hand grip strength, respiratory muscle strength and spirometric measures in male nursing home residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahat, Gulistan; Tufan, Asli; Ozkaya, Hilal; Tufan, Fatih; Akpinar, Timur Selçuk; Akin, Sibel; Bahat, Zumrut; Kaya, Zuleyha; Kiyan, Esen; Erten, Nilgün; Karan, Mehmet Akif

    2014-09-01

    Adverse-outcomes related to sarcopenia are mostly mentioned as physical disability. As the other skeletal muscles, respiratory muscles may also be affected by sarcopenia. Respiratory muscle strength is known to affect pulmonary functions. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the relations between extremity muscle strength, respiratory muscle strengths and spirometric measures in a group of male nursing home residents. Among a total of 104 male residents, residents with obstructive measures were excluded and final study population was composed of 62 residents. Mean age was 70.5 ± 6.7 years, body mass index: 27.7 ± 5.3 kg/m2 and dominant hand grip strength: 29.7 ± 6.5 kg. Hand grip strength was positively correlated with maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) and maximal expiratory pressure (MEP) (r = 0.35, p strength; among spirometric measures only parameter significantly related to grip strength was peak cough flow (PCF). The association of PCF with grip strength disappeared when MIP alone or "MIP and MEP" were included in the regression analysis. In the latter case, PCF was significantly associated only with MIP. We found peripheric muscle strength be associated with MIP and PCF but not with MEP or any other spirometric parameters. The relation between peripheral muscle strength and PCF was mediated by MIP. Our findings suggest that sarcopenia may affect inspiratory muscle strength earlier or more than the expiratory muscle strength. Sarcopenia may cause decrease in PCF in the elderly, which may stand for some common adverse respiratory complications.

  15. The role of passive muscle stiffness in symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, M P; Connolly, D A; Eston, R G; Kremenic, I J; Nicholas, S J; Gleim, G W

    1999-01-01

    We examined whether passive stiffness of an eccentrically exercising muscle group affects the subsequent symptoms of muscle damage. Passive hamstring muscle stiffness was measured during an instrumented straight-leg-raise stretch in 20 subjects (11 men and 9 women) who were subsequently classified as "stiff" (N = 7), "normal" (N = 6), or "compliant" (N = 7). Passive stiffness was 78% higher in the stiff subjects (36.2 +/- 3.3 N.m.rad(-1)) compared with the compliant subjects (20.3 +/- 1.8 N.m.rad(-1)). Subjects then performed six sets of 10 isokinetic (2.6 rad.s(-1)) submaximal (60% maximal voluntary contraction) eccentric actions of the hamstring muscle group. Symptoms of muscle damage were documented by changes in isometric hamstring muscle strength, pain, muscle tenderness, and creatine kinase activity on the following 3 days. Strength loss, pain, muscle tenderness, and creatine kinase activity were significantly greater in the stiff compared with the compliant subjects on the days after eccentric exercise. Greater symptoms of muscle damage in subjects with stiffer hamstring muscles are consistent with the sarcomere strain theory of muscle damage. The present study provides experimental evidence of an association between flexibility and muscle injury. Muscle stiffness and its clinical correlate, static flexibility, are risk factors for more severe symptoms of muscle damage after eccentric exercise.

  16. Kinematic and electromyographic analysis of the Nordic Hamstring Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditroilo, Massimiliano; De Vito, Giuseppe; Delahunt, Eamonn

    2013-10-01

    The Nordic Hamstring Exercise (NHE) has been introduced as a training tool to improve the efficiency of eccentric hamstring muscle contraction. The aim of this study was to perform a biomechanical analysis of the NHE. Eighteen participants (20.4±1.9years) performed two sets of five repetitions each of the NHE and maximal eccentric voluntary contraction (MEVC) of the knee flexors on an isokinetic dynamometer whilst knee angular displacement and electrical activity (EMG) of biceps femoris were measured. EMG was on average higher during the NHE (134.3% of the MEVC). During the forward fall of the NHE, the angle at which a sharp increase in downward velocity occurred varied between 47.9 and 80.5deg, while the peak knee angular velocity (pVelocity) varied between 47.7 and 132.8degs(-1). A significant negative correlation was found between pVelocity and peak EMG (r=-0.62, p<0.01) and EMG at 45deg (r=-0.75, p<0.01) expressed as a percentage of peak MEVC EMG. Some of the variables analyzed exhibited good to excellent levels of intra- and inter-session reliability. This type of analysis could be used to indirectly monitor the level of eccentric strength of the hamstring muscles while performing the NHE and potentially any training- or injury-related changes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Progress on cervical muscle strength and soft tissue stiffness testing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ming; Zhang, Shi-min

    2015-08-01

    Biomechanical evaluation of neck muscles has important significance in the diagnosis and treatment for cervical spondylosis, the neck muscle strength and soft tissue stiffness test is two aspects of biomechanical testing. Isometric muscle testing operation is relatively simple, the cost is lower, which can evaluate the muscle force below grade 3. However, isokinetic muscle strength testing can assess the muscle strength of joint motion in any position. It is hard to distinguish stiffness difference in different soft tissues when the load-displacement curve is used to evaluate the local soft tissue stiffness. Elasticity imaging technique can not only show the elastic differences of different tissues by images, but also quantify the elastic modulus of subcutaneous tissues and muscles respectively. Nevertheless, it is difficult to observe the flexibility of the cervical spine by means of the analysis of the whole neck stiffness. In a word, a variety of test method will conduce not only the biomechanical evaluation of neck muscles, but also making an effective biomechanics mathematical model of neck muscles. Besides, isokinetic muscle testing and the elasticity imaging technology still need further validation and optimization before they are better applied to neck muscles biomechanical testing.

  18. Muscle Strength, Muscle Mass, and Physical Disability in Women with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, James S.; Trupin, Laura; Schmajuk, Gabriela; Barton, Jennifer; Margaretten, Mary; Yazdany, Jinoos; Yelin, Edward H.; Katz, Patricia P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Limited data exist describing relationships between muscle strength, muscle mass, and physical disability among individuals with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The present study examines the relationship of muscle strength and muscle mass with physical disability among adult women with SLE. Methods One hundred forty-six women from a longitudinal SLE cohort participated in the study. All measures were collected during an in-person research visit. Lower extremity muscle strength was assessed by peak knee torque of extension and flexion and by chair-stand time. Total lean body mass, appendicular lean mass, and fat mass (kg/m2) were measured by whole-body dual energy absorptiometry. Self-reported physical disability was assessed using the SF-36 Physical Functioning subscale and Valued Life Activities (VLA) Disability scale. Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients tested the correlations between muscle strength, muscle mass, and disability scores. Regression analyses modeled the effect of lower extremity muscle strength and mass on SF-36 and VLA disability scores controlling for age, SLE duration, SLE disease activity measured with the Systemic Lupus Activity Questionnaire (SLAQ), physical activity level, prednisone use, body composition, and depression. Results On all measures, reduced lower extremity muscle strength was associated with poorer SF-36 and VLA disability scores. Trends persisted after adjustment for covariates. Muscle mass was moderately correlated with muscle strength, but did not contribute significantly to adjusted regression models. Conclusions Lower extremity muscle strength, but not muscle mass, was strongly associated with physical disability scores. While further studies are needed, these findings suggest that improving muscle strength may reduce physical disability among women with SLE. PMID:25049114

  19. INFLUENCE OF STRENGTH TRAINING PROGRAM ON ISOMETRIC MUSCLE STRENGTH IN YOUNG ATHLETES

    OpenAIRE

    Dragan Radovanovic; Aleksandar Ignjatovic; Ratko Stankovic

    2007-01-01

    Strength training, or resistance training, is a form of physical conditioning used to increase the ability to resist force. Since muscular strength is required for success in many sports, it is logical to assume that stronger and more powerful young athletes will achieve better results. The aim of the study was to examine the effects of strength training on young athletes. An eight-week strength training program for developing muscle strength was performed in this study. Training protocol was...

  20. Muscle mass, muscle strength, and muscle fat infiltration as predictors of incident mobility limitations in well-functioning older persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M.; Goodpaster, B.H.; Kritchevsky, S.B.; Newman, A.B.; Nevitt, M.C.; Rubin, S.M.; Simonsick, E.M.; Harris, T.B.

    2005-01-01

    .05). Among men and women, associations were similar for blacks and whites. CONCLUSION: Lower muscle mass (smaller cross-sectional thigh muscle area), greater fat infiltration into the muscle, and lower knee extensor muscle strength are associated with increased risk of mobility loss in older men

  1. Muscle mass, muscle strength, and muscle fat infiltration as predictors of incident mobility limitations in well-functioning older persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M.; Goodpaster, B.H.; Kritchevsky, S.B.; Newman, A.B.; Nevitt, M.C.; Rubin, S.M.; Simonsick, E.M.; Harris, T.B.

    2005-01-01

    .05). Among men and women, associations were similar for blacks and whites. CONCLUSION: Lower muscle mass (smaller cross-sectional thigh muscle area), greater fat infiltration into the muscle, and lower knee extensor muscle strength are associated with increased risk of mobility loss in older men an

  2. Changes in Muscle Strength in U19 Soccer Players During an Annual Training Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehnert Michal

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the seasonal variation in isokinetic strength of the knee flexors and extensors, and conventional (H/QCONV and functional (H/QFUNC hamstring to quadriceps strength ratios in highly trained adolescent soccer players. The players (n=11; age 17.8±0.3 were measured at the end of the competitive season (autumn, at the beginning and the end of pre-season (winter and during the sixth week of a new competitive season. Isokinetic peak torque (concentric and eccentric was measured at 60°•s-1 in a sitting position with the hip flexed at 100°. The testing range of motion was set from 10 - 90° of knee flexion. The players performed a set of five maximum repetitions for both the dominant and non-dominant leg. Statistically significant differences (p<0.001 between the four seasonal measurements were noted for peak torque of the dominant leg knee flexors in concentric muscle action only. A post hoc analysis revealed a statistically significant increase in peak torque from the 1st to the 4th measurement (p<0.001; d=0.692 and from the 2nd to the 4th (p<0.01; d=0.564. The differences in the changes of peak torque of the knee flexors and extensors depending on type of muscle action and tendencies found in the H/Q ratios throughout the annual training cycle indicate that strength assessment of the knee flexors and extensors and their balance throughout the annual training cycle could be beneficial for elite male adolescent soccer players both in terms of performance and risk of injury.

  3. Absolute reliability of hamstring to quadriceps strength imbalance ratios calculated using peak torque, joint angle-specific torque and joint ROM-specific torque values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, F; De Ste Croix, M; Sainz de Baranda, P; Santonja, F

    2012-11-01

    The main purpose of this study was to determine the absolute reliability of conventional (H/Q(CONV)) and functional (H/Q(FUNC)) hamstring to quadriceps strength imbalance ratios calculated using peak torque values, 3 different joint angle-specific torque values (10°, 20° and 30° of knee flexion) and 4 different joint ROM-specific average torque values (0-10°, 11-20°, 21-30° and 0-30° of knee flexion) adopting a prone position in recreational athletes. A total of 50 recreational athletes completed the study. H/Q(CONV) and H/Q(FUNC) ratios were recorded at 3 different angular velocities (60, 180 and 240°/s) on 3 different occasions with a 72-96 h rest interval between consecutive testing sessions. Absolute reliability was examined through typical percentage error (CVTE), percentage change in the mean (CM) and intraclass correlations (ICC) as well as their respective confidence limits. H/Q(CONV) and H/Q(FUNC) ratios calculated using peak torque values showed moderate reliability values, with CM scores lower than 2.5%, CV(TE) values ranging from 16 to 20% and ICC values ranging from 0.3 to 0.7. However, poor absolute reliability scores were shown for H/Q(CONV) and H/Q(FUNC) ratios calculated using joint angle-specific torque values and joint ROM-specific average torque values, especially for H/Q(FUNC) ratios (CM: 1-23%; CV(TE): 22-94%; ICC: 0.1-0.7). Therefore, the present study suggests that the CV(TE) values reported for H/Q(CONV) and H/Q(FUNC) (≈18%) calculated using peak torque values may be sensitive enough to detect large changes usually observed after rehabilitation programmes but not acceptable to examine the effect of preventitive training programmes in healthy individuals. The clinical reliability of hamstring to quadriceps strength ratios calculated using joint angle-specific torque values and joint ROM-specific average torque values are questioned and should be re-evaluated in future research studies.

  4. Arginylation of Myosin Heavy Chain Regulates Skeletal Muscle Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabelle S. Cornachione

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Protein arginylation is a posttranslational modification with an emerging global role in the regulation of actin cytoskeleton. To test the role of arginylation in the skeletal muscle, we generated a mouse model with Ate1 deletion driven by the skeletal muscle-specific creatine kinase (Ckmm promoter. Ckmm-Ate1 mice were viable and outwardly normal; however, their skeletal muscle strength was significantly reduced in comparison to controls. Mass spectrometry of isolated skeletal myofibrils showed a limited set of proteins, including myosin heavy chain, arginylated on specific sites. Atomic force microscopy measurements of contractile strength in individual myofibrils and isolated myosin filaments from these mice showed a significant reduction of contractile forces, which, in the case of myosin filaments, could be fully rescued by rearginylation with purified Ate1. Our results demonstrate that arginylation regulates force production in muscle and exerts a direct effect on muscle strength through arginylation of myosin.

  5. Hamstring Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... avulsion fractures, while ultrasound and MRIs can visualize tears in your muscles and tendons. The initial goal of treatment is ... or shinbone, orthopedic surgeons can reattach it. Severe muscle tears also can be repaired. For immediate self-care ...

  6. Hamstring Injuries--An Examination of Possible Causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liemohn, Wendell

    On the basis of research, the following characteristics appear to be important factors relative to precluding hamstring strains in sprinters: bilaterality relative to hamstring and quadricep strength development, optimum strength ratios between ipsilateral antagonists throughout the range of movement, and above-normal hip-joint flexibility. (JD)

  7. Strength training and aerobic exercise training for muscle disease (Review)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voet, N.B.M.; Kooi, E.L. van der; Riphagen, I.I.; Lindeman, E.; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Geurts, A.C.H.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Strength training or aerobic exercise programmes might optimise muscle and cardiorespiratory function and prevent additional disuse atrophy and deconditioning in people with a muscle disease. This is an update of a review first published in 2004. OBJECTIVES: To examine the safety and eff

  8. CORRELATIONS BETWEEN MUSCLE MASS, MUSCLE STRENGTH, PHYSICAL PERFORMANCE, AND MUSCLE FATIGUE RESISTANCE IN COMMUNITY-DWELLING ELDERLY SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the correlations between muscle mass, muscle strength, physical performance, and muscle fatigue resistance in community-dwelling elderly people in order to elucidate factors which contribute to elderly’s performance of daily activities. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on community-dwelling elderly in Bandung from September to December 2014. One hundred and thirty elderly, 60 years old or above, were evaluated using bioelectrical impedance analysis to measure muscle mass; grip strength to measure muscle strength and muscle fatigue resistance; habitual gait speed to measure physical performance; and Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ to assess physical activity. Results: There were significant positive correlations between muscle mass (r=0,27, p=0,0019, muscle strength (r=0,26, p=0,0024, and physical performance (r=0,32, p=0,0002 with muscle fatigue resistance. Physical performance has the highest correlation based on multiple regression test (p=0,0025. In association with muscle mass, the physical activity showed a significant positive correlation (r=0,42, p=0,0000. Sarcopenia was identified in 19 (14.61% of 130 subjects. Conclusions: It is suggested that muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical performance influence muscle fatigue resistance.

  9. The Efficacy of Botulinum Toxin Type a Injection in the Hamstring and Calf Muscles With and Without Serial Foot Casting in Gait Improvement in Children With Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamsodini A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The goal of this study was to compare the efficacy of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A injection in the hamstring and calf muscles with and without ankle serial casting in the improvement of gait in children with cerebral palsy (CP.Methods : This double-blind prospective clinical trial was performed on 25, 2 to 8-year-old children with hemiplegic or diplegic CP in Tehran, Iran in 2010. The participants were chosen by simple randomized sampling and were matched for age, gross motor function classification system (GMFCS and type of CP and were randomly divided into two groups: children in the first group (13 only received BTX-A injection, but the second group (12 received BTX-A and serial foot casting starting one week after the injection.Results : Comparison of the gross motor function, right and left knee spasticities and passive ROM of both knees between the two groups before and 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after the injections were not statistically significant (P>0.1. Furthermore, comparison of the right and left ankle spasticities and passive ROM before the injections and in1 and 3-month follow-ups did not show a statistically significant difference (P>0.1, but the differences were significant in 6 and 12-month follow-ups (P<0.05.Conclusion: BTX-A injection with serial foot casting vs. BTX-A alone was more effective in decreasing spasticity and improving passive ROM in the ankle of children with CP, but such injections in the hamstrings were not useful in these regards.

  10. Positive effects of 1-year football and strength training on mechanical muscle function and functional capacity in elderly men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus Due; Andersen, Lars Louis; Andersen, Thomas Rostgaard; Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Helge, Jørn Wulff; Suetta, Charlotte; Schmidt, Jakob Friis; Bangsbo, Jens; Krustrup, Peter; Aagaard, Per

    2016-06-01

    A decline in physical capacity takes place with increasing age that negatively affects overall physical function including work ability and the ability to perform typical activities of daily living (ADL). The overall aim of the present study was to determine the neuromuscular adaptations to long-term (1 year) football and strength training in older untrained adults, and to assess the concurrent effect on functional ADL capacity. Twenty-seven healthy elderly males (68.2 ± 3.2 years) were randomly assigned to 12 months of either recreational football training (FT: n = 10), strength training (ST: n = 9) or served as inactive controls (CON: n = 8). Recreational football training consisted of small-sided training sessions whereas strength training consisted of high intensity exercises targeting the lower extremity and upper body. Maximal thigh muscle strength and rate of force development (RFD) were assessed with isokinetic dynamometry, while postural balance and vertical jumping performance were evaluated using force plate analysis. Furthermore, functional ability was evaluated by stair-ascent and chair-rising testing. A total of nine, nine and seven participants from FT, ST and CON, respectively, were included in the analysis. Both exercise regimens led to substantial gains in functional ability, evidenced by 24 and 18 % reduced stair-ascent time, and 32 and 21 % increased chair-rising performance in FT and ST, respectively (all P football training mainly resulted in enhanced hamstring strength (18 %, P football training mainly included enhanced strength and rapid force capacity of the hamstring muscles. Gains in functional ability were observed in response to both training regimens, evidenced by reduced stair-ascent time and increased chair-rising performance. Long-term football exercise and strength training both appear to be effective interventional strategies to improve factors of importance for ADL by counteracting the age-related decline in lower

  11. Velocity-specific and time-dependent adaptations following a standardized Nordic Hamstring Exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, T; Nodler, Y T; Severin, J; Knicker, A J; Strüder, H K

    2017-03-01

    The Nordic Hamstring Exercise (NHE) is effective for selective hamstring strengthening to improve muscle balance between knee flexors and extensors. The purpose of this study (within subject design of repeated measures) was to determine the effects of a standardized 4-week NHE training on thigh strength and muscle balance with concomitant kinetic and kinematic monitoring. Sixteen male sprinters (22 years, 181 cm, 76 kg) performed a standardized 4-week NHE training consisting of three sessions per week (each 3×3 repetitions). Six rope-assisted and six unassisted sessions were performed targeting at a constant knee extension angular velocity of ~15°/s across a ~90-100° knee joint range of motion. Kinetic (peak and mean moment, impulse) and kinematic parameters (eg, ROM to downward acceleration, ROMDWA ) were recorded during selected sessions. Unilateral isokinetic tests of concentric and eccentric knee flexors and extensors quantified muscle group-, contraction mode-, and velocity-specific training adaptations. Peak moments and contractional work demonstrated strong interactions of time with muscle group, contraction modes, and angular velocities (η²>.150). NHE training increased eccentric hamstring strength by 6%-14% as well as thigh muscle balance with biggest adaptations at 150°/s 2 weeks after NHE training. Throughout the training period significant increases (P.05). A 4-week NHE training significantly strengthened the hamstrings and improved muscle balance between knee flexors and extensors. Despite the slow training velocity, biggest adaptations emerged at the highest velocity 2 weeks after training ended. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Indoor mobility-related fatigue and muscle strength in nonagenarians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mänty, Minna; Ekmann, Anette; Thinggaard, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    significantly (P muscle strength during the entire study period. Longitudinal analyses indicated slightly slower decline in muscle strength among participants with fatigue compared to those without; however, observed selective dropout of participants with fatigue and poor performance at baseline...... needs to be considered when interpreting the results. Accordingly, participants without fatigue had significantly higher chances of being alive and having muscle strength above gender-specific median at first (RR 1.32, 95 % CI 1.07-1.58), second (RR 1.51, 1.06-1.96) and third (RR 1.39, 1......BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Mobility-related fatigue is an important indicator of functional decline in old age, however, very little is known about fatigue in the oldest old population segment. The aim of this study was to examine the association between indoor mobility-related fatigue and muscle...

  13. Physical function and muscle strength in sporadic inclusion body myositis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anders N; Aagaard, Per; Nielsen, Jakob L

    2017-01-01

    chair stand performance were evaluated. In addition, patients were tested for knee extensor muscle strength (isokinetic dynamometer) and leg extension power (Nottingham power rig). RESULTS: TUG performance was the strongest predictor of self-reported physical function (r(2) = 0.56, P ... extension strength and between-limb strength asymmetry were the strongest multi-regression indicators of TUG performance (r(2) = 0.51, P 2) = 0.49, P

  14. Stature is an essential predictor of muscle strength in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hogrel Jean-Yves

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children with growth retardation or short stature generally present with lower strength than children of the same chronological age. The aim of the study was to establish if strength was dependent on variables related to stature in a population of healthy children and to propose practical predictive models for the muscle functions tested. A secondary aim was to test for any learning effects concerning strength measured at two successive visits by children. Methods Hand grip, elbow flexion and extension, and knee flexion and extension were measured by fixed dynamometry in 96 healthy subjects (47 girls and 49 boys, aged from 5 to 17 years. Results For the present paediatric population, muscle strength was highly dependent on height. Predictive models are proposed for the muscle functions tested. No learning effect between the first and the second visit was detected for any of the muscle functions tested. Conclusions This work shows that strength measurements using fixed dynamometry are reliable in children when using appropriate standardization of operating procedures. It underlines the particular relationship between body stature and muscle strength. Predictive equations may help with assessing the neuromuscular involvement in children suffering from various disorders, particularly those affecting their stature.

  15. Prevention of hamstring injuries in male soccer : Exercise programs and return to play

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Horst, N

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the studies reported in this thesis was to investigate strategies for the prevention of hamstring injuries. Hamstring injuries are the most prevalent muscle injury in soccer. In spite of efforts to reduce the occurrence of hamstring injuries in soccer, injury rates have not decreased over

  16. Prevention of hamstring injuries in male soccer : Exercise programs and return to play

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, Nick van der

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the studies reported in this thesis was to investigate strategies for the prevention of hamstring injuries. Hamstring injuries are the most prevalent muscle injury in soccer. In spite of efforts to reduce the occurrence of hamstring injuries in soccer, injury rates have not decreased over

  17. The Diagnostic and Prognostic Value of Ultrasonography in Soccer Players With Acute Hamstring Injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jesper; Thorborg, Kristian; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An injury to the hamstring muscle complex is the most common injury in soccer. Ultrasound of acute hamstring injuries is often used as a clinical tool for diagnosing hamstring injuries and guiding players in when they can return to play. PURPOSE: To (1) investigate the characteristic ...

  18. Relation between isokinetic muscle strength and functional capacity in recreational athletes with chondromalacia patellae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Y; Aydin, T; Sekir, U; Cetin, C; Ors, F; Alp, K

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the effects of isokinetic exercise on pain and functional test scores of recreational athletes with chondromalacia patellae (CMP) and to examine the correlation between isokinetic parameters and functional tests or pain score. Methods: The functional ability of 30 recreational athletes with unilateral CMP was evaluated using six different tests. Pain scores were assessed during daily activities before and after the treatment protocol. Isokinetic exercise sessions were carried out at angular velocities of 60°/s (25–90° range of flexion) and 180°/s (full range). These sessions were repeated three times a week for six weeks. Results: Quadriceps and hamstring peak torque, total work, and endurance ratios had improved significantly after the treatment, as did the functional parameters and pain scores. There was a poor correlation between the extensor endurance ratio and one leg standing test. A moderate correlation between the visual analogue scale and the extensor endurance ratio or flexion endurance ratio was also found. Conclusions: The isokinetic exercise programme used in this study had a positive effect on muscle strength, pain score, and functional ability of knees with CMP. The improvement in the functional capacity did not correlate with the isokinetic parameters. PMID:14665581

  19. Respiratory muscle training increases respiratory muscle strength and reduces respiratory complications after stroke: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kênia KP Menezes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Question: After stroke, does respiratory muscle training increase respiratory muscle strength and/or endurance? Are any benefits carried over to activity and/or participation? Does it reduce respiratory complications? Design: Systematic review of randomised or quasi-randomised trials. Participants: Adults with respiratory muscle weakness following stroke. Intervention: Respiratory muscle training aimed at increasing inspiratory and/or expiratory muscle strength. Outcome measures: Five outcomes were of interest: respiratory muscle strength, respiratory muscle endurance, activity, participation and respiratory complications. Results: Five trials involving 263 participants were included. The mean PEDro score was 6.4 (range 3 to 8, showing moderate methodological quality. Random-effects meta-analyses showed that respiratory muscle training increased maximal inspiratory pressure by 7 cmH2O (95% CI 1 to 14 and maximal expiratory pressure by 13 cmH2O (95% CI 1 to 25; it also decreased the risk of respiratory complications (RR 0.38, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.96 compared with no/sham respiratory intervention. Whether these effects carry over to activity and participation remains uncertain. Conclusion: This systematic review provided evidence that respiratory muscle training is effective after stroke. Meta-analyses based on five trials indicated that 30 minutes of respiratory muscle training, five times per week, for 5 weeks can be expected to increase respiratory muscle strength in very weak individuals after stroke. In addition, respiratory muscle training is expected to reduce the risk of respiratory complications after stroke. Further studies are warranted to investigate whether the benefits are carried over to activity and participation. Registration: PROSPERO (CRD42015020683. [Menezes KKP, Nascimento LR, Ada L, Polese JC, Avelino PR, Teixeira-Salmela LF (2016 Respiratory muscle training increases respiratory muscle strength and reduces respiratory

  20. Isometric hip muscle strength in posttraumatic below-knee amputees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jandrić Slavica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Traumas and war injuries, next to chronic occlusive artery disease and diabetes mellitus-derived complications, are the most frequent cause of the lower limbs amputation. They affect mostly younger population that need a higher level of activities as compared with the elderly. Medical rehabilitation is very significant for the muscle performance improvement in this population providing their social reintegration. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of below-knee amputation on the hip isometric muscle strength and effect of rehabilitation on improvement of hip muscle strength in below-knee amputees, secondary to war wounding. Methods. Forty below-knee amputees (after war wounding, average age 35.6±10.6 years, that were included in primary rehabilitation program with prosthetics, were examined. Objective parameters were used to evaluate therapeutical effects. Isometric muscle strength of hip flexors, extensors, abductors and adductors was measured by dynamometer and expressed in Newton (N at admission, control and discharge for each patient. Average length of the treatment was 51 ± 34.1 days. Results. For isometric hip flexors (t = - 1.99346, p < 0.05, extensors (t = -4.629073, p < 0.001, abductors (t = -4.9408, p < 0.001 and adductors (t = -2.00228, p < 0.05, muscle strength was significantly less on the amputated than on nonamputated side. The highest differences in muscle strength between amputated and nonamputated limbs were noted for hip abductors (26.6% and extensors (23.3%. There was significant improvement of mean values of strength for all examined hip muscles after rehabilitation and prosthetics for both legs in comparison to beginning of the therapy. The hip abductor on the amputated side was for 19.4% weaker after rehabilitation in comparison to the nonamputated limb. Conclusion. Decreases of isometric muscle strength in all examined hip muscles were observed, more in the amputated limb. Rehabilitation

  1. No Relationship between Hamstring Flexibility and Hamstring Injuries in Male Amateur Soccer Players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Doormaal, Mitchell C M; Van Der Horst, Nick; Backx, Frank J G|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069615039; Smits, Dirk Wouter; Huisstede, Bionka M A

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In soccer, although hamstring flexibility is thought to play a major role in preventing hamstring injuries, the relationship between hamstring flexibility and hamstring injuries remains unclear. PURPOSE: To investigate the relationship between hamstring flexibility and hamstring injuries

  2. No Relationship between Hamstring Flexibility and Hamstring Injuries in Male Amateur Soccer Players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Doormaal, Mitchell C M; Van Der Horst, Nick; Backx, Frank J G; Smits, Dirk Wouter; Huisstede, Bionka M A

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In soccer, although hamstring flexibility is thought to play a major role in preventing hamstring injuries, the relationship between hamstring flexibility and hamstring injuries remains unclear. PURPOSE: To investigate the relationship between hamstring flexibility and hamstring injuries

  3. Variation of neck muscle strength along the human cervical spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oi, Nelson; Pandy, Marcus G; Myers, Barry S; Nightingale, Roger W; Chancey, Valeta Carol

    2004-11-01

    The aim of this study was to describe and explain the variation of neck muscle strength along the cervical spine. A three-dimensional model of the head-neck complex was developed to test the hypothesis that the moment-generating capacity of the neck musculature is lower in the upper cervical spine than in the lower cervical spine. The model calculations suggest that the neck muscles can protect the lower cervical spine from injury during extension and lateral bending. The maximum flexor moment developed in the lower cervical spine was 2 times higher than that developed in the upper spine. The model also predicted that the neck musculature is 30% stronger in the lower cervical spine during lateral bending. Peak compressive forces (up to 3 times body weight) were higher in the lower cervical spine. These results are consistent with the clinical finding that extension loading of the neck often leads to injuries in the upper cervical spine. Analysis of the model results showed that neck flexor strength was greater in the lower cervical spine because of the relatively large size of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. The hyoid muscles developed significant flexor moments about the joints of the upper cervical spine, as these muscles had relatively large flexor moment arms; however, this effect was offset by the action of the sternocleidomastoid, which exerted a large extensor moment in the upper spine. Lateral bending strength of the neck muscles was governed by geometry (i.e., moment arms) rather than by muscle size.

  4. Hamstring strain injuries: factors that lead to injury and re-injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opar, David A; Williams, Morgan D; Shield, Anthony J

    2012-03-01

    Hamstring strain injuries (HSIs) are common in a number of sports and incidence rates have not declined in recent times. Additionally, the high rate of recurrent injuries suggests that our current understanding of HSI and re-injury risk is incomplete. Whilst the multifactoral nature of HSIs is agreed upon by many, often individual risk factors and/or causes of injury are examined in isolation. This review aims to bring together the causes, risk factors and interventions associated with HSIs to better understand why HSIs are so prevalent. Running is often identified as the primary activity type for HSIs and given the high eccentric forces and moderate muscle strain placed on the hamstrings during running these factors are considered to be part of the aetiology of HSIs. However, the exact causes of HSIs remain unknown and whilst eccentric contraction and muscle strain purportedly play a role, accumulated muscle damage and/or a single injurious event may also contribute. Potentially, all of these factors interact to varying degrees depending on the injurious activity type (i.e. running, kicking). Furthermore, anatomical factors, such as the biarticular organization, the dual innervations of biceps femoris (BF), fibre type distribution, muscle architecture and the degree of anterior pelvic tilt, have all been implicated. Each of these variables impact upon HSI risk via a number of different mechanisms that include increasing hamstring muscle strain and altering the susceptibility of the hamstrings to muscle damage. Reported risk factors for HSIs include age, previous injury, ethnicity, strength imbalances, flexibility and fatigue. Of these, little is known, definitively, about why previous injury increases the risk of future HSIs. Nevertheless, interventions put in place to reduce the incidence of HSIs by addressing modifiable risk factors have focused primarily on increasing eccentric strength, correcting strength imbalances and improving flexibility. The response to

  5. A Randomised, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Neurodynamic Sliders on Hamstring Responses in Footballers with Hamstring Tightness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areeudomwong, Pattanasin; Oatyimprai, Ketsarakon; Pathumb, Saranchana

    2016-01-01

    Background Neurodynamics intervention is known to increase apparent muscle extensibility, but information regarding hamstring responses after a neurodynamic sliders (NS) technique is scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of NS on apparent hamstring extensibility and activity in footballers with hamstring tightness. Methods Forty eligible healthy male footballers with hamstring tightness were each randomly allocated to either a 4-week NS technique or a control group (CG) receiving placebo shortwave intervention. Knee extension angles were measured with the passive knee extension test, and maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) of hamstrings was measured by a surface electromyography at baseline and after intervention sessions. Results The results showed that NS produced a statistically and clinically significant increase in knee extension angle compared to CG (P < 0.001); however, there was no difference between the groups receiving MVIC of hamstrings. Within group comparison, NS also provided a significant increase in knee extension angle (P < 0.001), whereas the control group did not. There was no change in hamstring MVIC in either group after intervention. Conclusions The findings of this study reveal that four weeks of NS technique improved apparent hamstring extensibility but did not change the hamstring activity in footballers with hamstring tightness. PMID:28090180

  6. Acute effect of different stretching methods on isometric muscle strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Vasconcellos de Lima Costa e Silva

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated the acute effect of static stretching methods (SS and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF on the static muscle strength (SMS. Eleven young male subjects with strength training experience, performed 3 tests with a 48h interval between them, randomly selected, where each one subject carried out all procedures: a hand grip without stretching; b hand grip preceded by static stretching of wrist flexors muscles; c hand grip preceded by PNF stretching of wrist flexors muscles. The Shapiro-Wilk test verified the normality of data, and a one-way ANOVA with repeated measures, followed by Tukey’s post hoc test, evaluated the differences between the groups. The significance was set at p 0.05. In conclusion, both stretching methods had caused negative effects on isometric strength, reducing its levels.

  7. Muscle strength in girls with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodda, C; Jones, D A; Round, J; Grant, D B

    1987-05-01

    To assess whether exposure to excessive adrenal androgens increases muscle strength in girls with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, eighteen girls with 21 hydroxylase type congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), aged 4.3-12.1 years were studied and compared with 78 healthy control girls aged 4-16 years. Maximum voluntary isometric strength was measured using a muscle testing chair, and the highest value from at least three attempts with each leg was recorded. Height and weight were also measured in the patients and controls. When compared with normal girls of similar age, some of the girls with CAH seemed unusually strong, but this difference was less marked when the CAH girls were compared with controls of similar weights. However, our data suggest that girls diagnosed later in childhood may have unusual muscle strength.

  8. Evaluation of Respiratory Muscle Strength in Mouth Breathers: Clinical Evidences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunha, Renata Andrade da

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The child who chronically breathes through the mouth may develop a weakness of the respiratory muscles. Researchers and clinical are seeking for methods of instrumental evaluation to gather complementary data to clinical evaluations. With this in mind, it is important to evaluate breathing muscles in the child with Mouth Breathing. Objective To develop a review to investigate studies that used evaluation methods of respiratory muscle strength in mouth breathers. Data Synthesis  The authors were unanimous in relation to manovacuometry method as a way to evaluate respiratory pressures in Mouth Breathing children. Two of them performed with an analog manovacuometer and the other one, digital. The studies were not evaluated with regard to the method efficacy neither the used instruments. Conclusion There are few studies evaluating respiratory muscle strength in Mouth Breathing people through manovacuometry and the low methodological rigor of the analyzed studies hindered a reliable result to support or refuse the use of this technique.

  9. Clinical measurements of proprioception, muscle strength and laxity in relation to function in the ACL-injured knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, D; Ageberg, E; Andersson, G; Fridén, T

    2007-01-01

    A knee injury with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture may cause deficits in proprioception, increased laxity and decreased muscle strength. Although it may be common knowledge that these factors affect knee function, only a few studies have been performed where this has been investigated in the clinical situation, and the results are not conclusive. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate how and to what extent proprioception, laxity and strength affect knee joint function and evaluate if the methods commonly used for estimating these factors clinically seem to be relevant. The study encompassed 36 patients with ACL deficiency. A single-leg hop test for distance and subjective rating of knee function were defined as dependent variables and analyzed separately in stepwise linear regression models where proprioception, knee joint laxity, hamstrings and quadriceps strength, age and sex were defined as independent variables. Higher threshold values (poorer proprioception), increased side-to-side difference of anterior laxity and poorer strength significantly predicted shorter length of the hop test. Higher rating of subjective function corresponded to female gender, lesser side-to-side difference of anterior laxity and better proprioception.

  10. Muscle strength and endurance following lowerlimb suspension in man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesch, Per A.; Berg, Hans E.; Haggmark, Tom; Ohlsen, Hans; Dudley, Gary A.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of lower-limb suspension on the muscle strength and muscle endurance was investigated in six men subjected to four weeks of unilateral unloading of a lower limb (using of a harness attached to a modified shoe), followed by seven weeks of weight-bearing recovery. Results showed a decrease in the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the thigh muscle and in the average peak torque (APT) during three bouts of 30 concentric knee extensions. While the the thigh muscle CSA returned to normal after seven weeks of recovery, the APT recovery was still reduced by 11 percent, suggesting that muscle metabolic function was severely affected by unloading and was not restored by ambulation.

  11. Acute effect of different stretching methods on isometric muscle strength

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Vasconcellos de Lima Costa e Silva; Anderson Luiz Bezerra da Silveira; Fabrízio Di Masi; Cláudio Melibeu Bentes; Maria do Socorro Cirilo de Sousa; Jefferson da Silva Novaes

    2014-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.4025/actascihealthsci.v36i1.15581 This study investigated the acute effect of static stretching methods (SS) and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) on the static muscle strength (SMS). Eleven young male subjects with strength training experience, performed 3 tests with a 48h interval between them, randomly selected, where each one subject carried out all procedures: a) hand grip without stretching; b) hand grip preceded by static stretching of wrist flexor...

  12. Changes in muscle strength and morphology after muscle unloading in Special Forces missions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlund, J B; Jakobsen, O; Madsen, T

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the changes in maximal muscle strength, rapid force capacity, jumping performance and muscle morphology following a Special Forces military operation involving 8 days of muscle unloading. Nine male Special Forces soldiers were tested before (pre......) and immediately after (post1) an 8-day simulated special support and reconnaissance (SSR) mission and after 3 h of active recovery (post2). Maximal muscle strength (MVC) and rate of force development (RFD) were measured along with maximal counter movement jump height (JH). Muscle biopsies were obtained from...... the vastus lateralis at pre and post1. Acute reductions were found in MVC (11%), JH (10%) and RFD (17-22%) after 8 days of muscle unloading (post1) (P...

  13. Associations of Sarcopenia and Sarcopenic Obesity With Metabolic Syndrome Considering Both Muscle Mass and Muscle Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: We investigated the associations of sarcopenia-defined both in terms of muscle mass and muscle strength-and sarcopenic obesity with metabolic syndrome. Methods: Secondary data pertaining to 309 subjects (85 men and 224 women) were collected from participants in exercise programs at a health center in a suburban area. Muscle mass was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis, and muscle strength was measured via handgrip strength. Sarcopenia based on muscle mass alone was defined as a weight-adjusted skeletal muscle mass index more than two standard deviations below the mean of a sex-specific young reference group (class II sarcopenia). Two cut-off values for low handgrip strength were used: the first criteria were sarcopenia and being in the two highest quintiles of total body fat percentage among the subjects. The associations of sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity with metabolic syndrome were evaluated using logistic regression models. Results: The age-adjusted risk ratios (RRs) of metabolic syndrome being compared in people with or without sarcopenia defined in terms of muscle mass were 1.25 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06 to 1.47, p=0.008) in men and 1.12 (95% CI, 1.06 to 1.19, psarcopenia defined in terms of muscle mass and sarcopenic obesity with metabolic syndrome were statistically significant in both men and women. Therefore, sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity must be considered as part of the community-based management of non-communicable diseases. PMID:26841883

  14. Diagnostic methods to assess inspiratory and expiratory muscle strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Pedro; Albuquerque, André Luis Pereira de; Santana, Pauliane Vieira; Cardenas, Leticia Zumpano; Ferreira, Jeferson George; Prina, Elena; Trevizan, Patrícia Fernandes; Pereira, Mayra Caleffi; Iamonti, Vinicius; Pletsch, Renata; Macchione, Marcelo Ceneviva; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    Impairment of (inspiratory and expiratory) respiratory muscles is a common clinical finding, not only in patients with neuromuscular disease but also in patients with primary disease of the lung parenchyma or airways. Although such impairment is common, its recognition is usually delayed because its signs and symptoms are nonspecific and late. This delayed recognition, or even the lack thereof, occurs because the diagnostic tests used in the assessment of respiratory muscle strength are not widely known and available. There are various methods of assessing respiratory muscle strength during the inspiratory and expiratory phases. These methods are divided into two categories: volitional tests (which require patient understanding and cooperation); and non-volitional tests. Volitional tests, such as those that measure maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures, are the most commonly used because they are readily available. Non-volitional tests depend on magnetic stimulation of the phrenic nerve accompanied by the measurement of inspiratory mouth pressure, inspiratory esophageal pressure, or inspiratory transdiaphragmatic pressure. Another method that has come to be widely used is ultrasound imaging of the diaphragm. We believe that pulmonologists involved in the care of patients with respiratory diseases should be familiar with the tests used in order to assess respiratory muscle function.Therefore, the aim of the present article is to describe the advantages, disadvantages, procedures, and clinical applicability of the main tests used in the assessment of respiratory muscle strength.

  15. Relation between body mass index percentile and muscle strength ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Noha Abdel Kader Abdel Kader Hasan

    2016-02-01

    Feb 1, 2016 ... time to fatigue to evaluate endurance time. ... a positive correlation between muscle strength and body mass index ... Isokinetic dynamometry, hand-held dynamometry, field tests, .... dominant side of each child was selected and attached. ... toward elbow flexion (since the elbow flexors were not measured.

  16. The relationship between oestrogen and muscle strength: a current perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsty Jayne Elliott-Sale

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between muscle strength and oestrogen is ambiguous and is still largely unresolved. The evidence for and against an effect of oestradiol on determinants of muscle function is equivocal and often contradictory. The bulk of the research in this area was performed during the eighties and nineties, using models of reproductive functioning such as; the menstrual cycle, the menopause and hormone replacement therapy, oral contraceptives and in vitro fertilisation treatment, to alter the female hormonal milieu. In the last decade, approximately 15 papers have demonstrated a relationship, both positive and negative, between the concentration of oestrogen and skeletal muscle strength. Conversely, around 20 articles have not shown any influence of oestrogen on a number of strength measures. The majority of these studies were performed using post-menopausal and eumenorrheic females. Most current studies use hormonal assays to confirm oestrogen status, however no recent studies have reported the bioavailable concentration of oestradiol. Similarly, no research in the last 10 years has used in vitro fertilisation treatment or pregnancy as acute and chronic models of supra-physiological changes in sex hormone concentration. Future work should focus on performing meta-analyses on each of the key components of muscle strength in an attempt to elucidate a causal relationship. In addition, models of reproductive functioning that cause the greatest magnitude of change to oestrogen concentration should be used, while controlling as many confounding factors as possible.

  17. Effects of high and low volume of strength training on muscle strength, muscle volume and lipid profile in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleiton Silva Correa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes in lipid profile are considered a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD, especially in postmenopausal woman who have been associated with age-related loss of muscle mass. The beneficial role of aerobic exercise in the prevention of CVD has been well documented. However, the effect of strength training has not been established. The purpose of this study was to determine the changes of lipoprotein levels after 12 weeks of different volumes of strength training and its correlation with strength and muscle volume in postmenopausal women. The participants were randomized into three groups: low volume (LVST; n = 12, 1 set and high volume of strength training (HVST; n = 11, 3 sets, or control group (n = 12. Training groups performed 12 weeks of supervised strength exercises, 15 maximum repetitions, five times a week, 20 minutes for LVST and 40 minutes for HVST for each training session. Measurements included body composition, strength and muscle volume, as well as blood analysis (glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein pre- and post-training. The HVST and LVST improved the one-repetition maximum knee extension strength (p < 0.001, maximal dynamic strength (p < 0.001, and muscle volume (p = 0.048. Post-training triglyceride was lower in HVST when compared to LVST and the control group (p = 0.047. Even though they present the same neuromuscular and morphological adaptations in postmenopausal women, the HVST is more effective than LVST in improving the lipid profile of postmenopausal woman, and can be considered as an ideal program of intervention to reverse changes in lipid metabolism commonly found in this group.

  18. Myotonometry as a Surrogate Measure of Muscle Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, B. S.; Feeback, D. L.; Leonard, C. T.; Sykes, J.; Kruger, E.; Clarke, M. S. F.

    2007-01-01

    Space flight-induced muscle atrophy/neuromuscular degradation and the consequent decrements in crew-member performance are of increasing concern as mission duration lengthens, and planetary exploration after extended space flight is planned. Pre- to post-flight strength measures have demonstrated that specific countermeasures, such as resistive exercise, are effective at countering microgravity-induced muscle atrophy and preventing decrements in muscle strength. However, in-flight assessment/monitoring of exercise countermeasure effectiveness will be essential during exploration class missions due to their duration. The ability to modify an exercise countermeasure prescription based on such real-time information will allow each individual crew member to perform the optimal amount and type of exercise countermeasure to maintain performance. In addition, such measures can be used to determine if a crew member is physically capable of performing a particular mission-related task during exploration class missions. The challenges faced in acquiring such data are those common to all space operations, namely the requirement for light-weight, low power, mechanically reliable technologies that make valid measurements in microgravity, in this case of muscle strength/neuromuscular function. Here we describe a simple, light-weight, low power, non-invasive device, known as the Myotonometer, that measures tissue stiffness as an indirect measure of muscle contractile state and muscle force production. Repeat myotonometer measurements made at the same location on the surface of the rectis femoris muscle (as determined using a 3D locator device, SEM plus or minus 0.34 mm) were shown to be reproducible over time at both maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and at rest in a total of 17 sedentary subjects assessed three times over a period of seven days. In addition, graded voluntary isometric force production (i.e. 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% & 100% of MVC) during knee extension was shown to

  19. Levator plate upward lift and levator muscle strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostaminia, Ghazaleh; Peck, Jennifer; Quiroz, Lieschen; Shobeiri, S. Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of study was to compare digital palpation with the levator plate lift measured by endovaginal and transperineal dynamic ultrasound. Methods Dynamic transperineal and endovaginal ultrasound were performed as part of multicompartmental pelvic floor functional assessment. Patients were instructed to perform Kegels while a probe captured the video clip of the levator plate movement at rest and during contraction in 2D mid-sagittal posterior view. We measured the distance between the levator plate and the probe on endovaginal ultrasound as well as the distance between the levator plate and the gothic arch of the pubis in transperineal ultrasound. The change in diameter (lift) and a levator plate lift ratio (lift / rest) x 100) were calculated. Pelvic floor muscle strength was assessed by digital palpation and divided into functional and non-functional groups using the Modified Oxford Scale (MOS). Mean differences in levator plate upward lifts were compared by MOS score using student t-tests and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results 74 women were available for analysis. The mean age was 55 (SD±11.9). When measured by vaginal dynamic ultrasound, mean values of the lift and lift/rest ratio increased with increasing MOS score (ANOVA p=0.09 and p=0.04, respectively). When MOS scores were categorized to represent non-functional (MOS 0-1) and functional (MOS 2-5) muscle strength groups, the mean values of the lift (3.2 mm vs. 4.6 mm, p=0.03) and lift/rest ratio (13% vs 20%, p=0.01) were significantly higher in women with functional muscle strength. All patients with ≥ 30% lift detected by vaginal ultrasound had functional muscle strength. Conclusions Greater levator plate lift ratio detected by dynamic endovaginal ultrasound was associated with higher muscle strength as determined by MOS. This novel measurement can be incorporated into ultrasound evaluation of the levator ani function. PMID:26333568

  20. Muscle strength, working capacity and effort in patients with fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørregaard, J; Bülow, P M; Lykkegaard, J J

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the physical capacity and effort in patients with fibromyalgia. Muscle strength and the coefficient of variation of the strength measurements of 181 female fibromyalgia patients and 126 healthy females were compared. These measurements and ergometer...... exercise capacity, work status and psychometric scoring (SCL-90-R) were correlated. The fibromyalgia patients exhibited significant reduction in voluntary muscle strength of the knee and elbow, flexors and extensors in the order of 20-30%. However, the coefficient of variation was higher among patients...... scores. Work status was related to psychometric scoring, but not to physical capacity or effort. In conclusion, we found a low degree of effort but near normal physical capacity in the fibromyalgia patients....

  1. The Pilates Method increases respiratory muscle strength and performance as well as abdominal muscle thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomini, Mateus Beltrame; da Silva, Antônio Marcos Vargas; Weber, Laura Menezes; Monteiro, Mariane Borba

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the effects of the Pilates Method (PM) training program on the thickness of the abdominal wall muscles, respiratory muscle strength and performance, and lung function. This uncontrolled clinical trial involved 16 sedentary women who were assessed before and after eight weeks of PM training. The thickness of the transversus abdominis (TrA), internal oblique (IO) and external oblique (EO) muscles was assessed. The respiratory muscle strength was assessed by measuring the maximum inspiratory (MIP) and expiratory (MEP) pressure. The lung function and respiratory muscle performance were assessed by spirometry. An increase was found in MIP (p = 0.001), MEP (p = 0.031), maximum voluntary ventilation (p = 0.020) and the TrA (p abdominal wall muscle hypertrophy and an increase in respiratory muscle strength and performance, preventing weakness in abdominal muscles and dysfunction in ventilatory mechanics, which could favor the appearance of illnesses.

  2. Decline in lumbar extensor muscle strength the older adults: correlation with age, gender and spine morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Devinder Kaur Ajit; Bailey, Martin; Lee, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Background Muscle morphology, age and gender may be determinants of muscle strength in older adults. However, very few research studies have directly examined such correlation in the ageing spine. The aim of the study was to examine the correlation between lumbar extensor muscle strength, its muscle fibre angles, thoracolumbar curvature, age and gender in the older and younger adults. Methods Muscle fibre angles of lumbar extensor muscles, thoracolumbar curvature and lumbar extensor muscle st...

  3. Exercise, muscle, and the applied load-bone strength balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giangregorio, L; El-Kotob, R

    2017-01-01

    A fracture occurs when the applied load is greater than the bone can withstand. Clinical practice guidelines for the management of osteoporosis include recommendations for exercise; one of the few therapies where the proposed anti-fracture mechanisms that include effects on both bone strength and applied loads, where applied loads can come in the form of a fall, externally applied loads, body weight, or muscle forces. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the clinical evidence pertaining to the potential efficacy of exercise for preventing fractures in older adults, including its direct effects on outcomes along the causal pathway to fractures (e.g., falls, posture, bone strength) and the indirect effects on muscle or the muscle-bone relationship. The evidence is examined as it pertains to application in clinical practice. Considerations for future research are discussed, such as the need for trials in individuals with low bone mass or students that evaluate whether changes in muscle mediate changes in bone. Future trials should also consider adequacy of calorie or protein intake, the confounding effect of exercise-induced weight loss, or the most appropriate therapeutic goal (e.g., strength, weight bearing, or hypertrophy) and outcome measures (e.g., fracture, disability, cost-effectiveness).

  4. Increased inspiratory and expiratory muscle strength following respiratory muscle strength training (RMST) in two patients with late-onset Pompe disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harrison N; Moss, Tronda; Edwards, Laurie; Kishnani, Priya S

    2011-11-01

    Respiratory muscle strength training (RMST) is an exercise-based intervention which targets respiratory muscle weakness. We implemented RMST in two patients with late-onset Pompe disease (LOPD), both who had received long-term enzyme replacement therapy and had severe respiratory weakness. Over 16-32 weeks, inspiratory muscle strength increased by 73-74%. Expiratory muscle strength increased 31-48% over 12-22 weeks. These findings suggest that RMST may increase respiratory muscle strength, even in the setting of LOPD and severe baseline weakness.

  5. Associations between personality traits, physical activity level, and muscle strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolea, Magdalena I; Terracciano, Antonio; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Metter, E Jeffrey; Costa, Paul T; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2012-06-01

    Associations among personality as measured by the Five Factor Model, physical activity, and muscle strength were assessed using data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (N = 1220, age: mean = 58, SD = 16). General linear modeling with adjustment for age, sex, race, and body mass index, and bootstrapping for mediation were used. We found neuroticism and most of its facets to negatively correlate with strength. The extraversion domain and its facets of warmth, activity, and positive-emotions were positively correlated with strength, independent of covariates. Mediation analysis results suggest that these associations are partly explained by physical activity level. Findings extend the evidence of an association between personality and physical function to its strength component and indicate health behavior as an important pathway.

  6. The Effectiveness of Injury Prevention Programs to Modify Risk Factors for Non-Contact Anterior Cruciate Ligament and Hamstring Injuries in Uninjured Team Sports Athletes: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monajati, Alireza; Larumbe-Zabala, Eneko; Goss-Sampson, Mark; Naclerio, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Hamstring strain and anterior cruciate ligament injuries are, respectively, the most prevalent and serious non-contact occurring injuries in team sports. Specific biomechanical and neuromuscular variables have been used to estimate the risk of incurring a non-contact injury in athletes. The aim of this study was to systematically review the evidences for the effectiveness of injury prevention protocols to modify biomechanical and neuromuscular anterior cruciate and/or hamstring injuries associated risk factors in uninjured team sport athletes. PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, Cochrane Libraries, U.S. National Institutes of Health clinicaltrials.gov, Sport Discuss and Google Scholar databases were searched for relevant journal articles published until March 2015. A manual review of relevant articles, authors, and journals, including bibliographies was performed from identified articles. Nineteen studies were included in this review. Four assessment categories: i) landing, ii) side cutting, iii) stop-jump, and iv) muscle strength outcomes, were used to analyze the effectiveness of the preventive protocols. Eight studies using multifaceted interventions supported by video and/or technical feedback showed improvement in landing and/or stop-jump biomechanics, while no effects were observed on side-cutting maneuver. Additionally, multifaceted programs including hamstring eccentric exercises increased hamstring strength, hamstring to quadriceps functional ratio and/or promoted a shift of optimal knee flexion peak torque toward a more open angle position. Multifaceted programs, supported by proper video and/or technical feedback, including eccentric hamstring exercises would positively modify the biomechanical and or neuromuscular anterior cruciate and/or hamstring injury risk factors.

  7. TEMPORAL PATTERN OF KINESIOLOGY TAPE EFFICACY ON HAMSTRING EXTENSIBILITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquharson, Claire; Greig, Matt

    2015-12-01

    Kinesiology tape has been advocated as a means of improving muscle flexibility, a potential modifiable risk factor for injury, over time. The epidemiology and etiology of hamstring injuries in sport have been well documented. To compare the temporal pattern of efficacy of kinesiology tape and traditional stretching techniques on hamstring extensibility over a five day period. Controlled laboratory study. Thirty recreationally active male participants (Mean ± SD: age 20.0 ± 1.55 years; height 179.3 ± 4.94 cm; mass 76.9 ± 7.57 kg) completed an active knee extension assessment (of the dominant leg) as a measure of hamstring extensibility. Three experimental interventions were applied in randomized order: Kinesiology tape (KT), static stretch (SS), proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF). Measures were taken at baseline, +1min, + 30mins, + 3days and +5days days after each intervention. The temporal pattern of change in active knee extension was modelled as a range of regression polynomials for each intervention, quantified as the regression coefficient. Hamstring ROM with KT application at +3days was significantly greater than baseline (129.18 ± 15.46%, p = 0.01), SS (106.99 ± 9.84%, p = 0.03) and PNF (107.42 ± 136.13%, p = 0.03) interventions. The temporal pattern of changes in ROM for SS and PNF were best modelled by a negative linear function, although the strength of the correlation was weak in each case. In contrast, the KT data was optimised using a quadratic polynomial function (r(2) = 0.60), which yielded an optimum time of 2.76 days, eliciting a predicted ROM of 129.6% relative to baseline. Each intervention displayed a unique temporal pattern of changes in active knee extension. SS was best suited to immediate improvements, and PNF to +30 minutes in hamstring extensibility, whereas kinesiology tape offered advantages over a longer duration, peaking at 2.76 days. These findings have implications for the

  8. Force steadiness, muscle activity, and maximal muscle strength in subjects with subacromial impingement syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandholm, Thomas; Rasmussen, Lars; Aagaard, Per

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the effects of the subacromial impingement syndrome (SIS) on shoulder sensory-motor control and maximal shoulder muscle strength. It was hypothesized that both would be impaired due to chronic shoulder pain associated with the syndrome. Nine subjects with unilateral SIS who remained...... physically active in spite of shoulder pain and nine healthy matched controls were examined to determine isometric and isokinetic submaximal shoulder-abduction force steadiness at target forces corresponding to 20%, 27.5%, and 35% of the maximal shoulder abductor torque, and maximal shoulder muscle strength...... (MVC). Electromyographic (EMG) activity was assessed using surface and intramuscular recordings from eight shoulder muscles. Force steadiness was impaired in SIS subjects during concentric contractions at the highest target force level only, with muscle activity largely unaffected. No between...

  9. Muscle strength, working capacity and effort in patients with fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørregaard, J; Bülow, P M; Lykkegaard, J J

    1997-01-01

    exercise capacity, work status and psychometric scoring (SCL-90-R) were correlated. The fibromyalgia patients exhibited significant reduction in voluntary muscle strength of the knee and elbow, flexors and extensors in the order of 20-30%. However, the coefficient of variation was higher among patients...... scores. Work status was related to psychometric scoring, but not to physical capacity or effort. In conclusion, we found a low degree of effort but near normal physical capacity in the fibromyalgia patients....

  10. Muscle Strength and Flexibility without and with Visual Impairments Judoka's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakoc, Onder

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine muscle strength and flexibility of judoka with and without visual impairments. A total of 32 male national judoka volunteered to participate in this study. There were 20 male judoka without visual impairments (mean ± SD; age: 19.20 ± 5.76 years, body weight: 66.45 ± 11.09 kg, height: 169.60 ± 7.98 cm, sport…

  11. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP): an adjuvant to hasten hamstring muscle recovery. A randomized controlled trial protocol (ISCRTN66528592)

    OpenAIRE

    A Hamid Mohamad; Mohamed Ali Mohamed; Yusof Ashril; George John

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Muscle injuries are one of the commonest injuries affecting athletes. It often leads to significant pain and disability causing loss of training and competition time. With current treatment, the duration to return-to-play ranges form six weeks to never, depending on injury severity. Recent researches have suggested that autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injection into the injured site may hasten soft tissues healing. To-date, there has been no randomised clinical trial...

  12. Concentric resistance training increases muscle strength without affecting microcirculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Marc-Andre [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: MarcAndre.Weber@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Hildebrandt, Wulf [Immunochemistry, German Cancer Research Center (dkfz), Heidelberg (Germany); Schroeder, Leif [Medical Physics in Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (dkfz), Heidelberg (Germany); Kinscherf, Ralf [Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Krix, Martin [Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (dkfz), Heidelberg (Germany); Bachert, Peter [Medical Physics in Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (dkfz), Heidelberg (Germany); Delorme, Stefan; Essig, Marco [Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (dkfz), Heidelberg (Germany); Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Krakowski-Roosen, Holger [National Center for Tumor Diseases (NCT), Heidelberg (Germany)

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: While the evidence is conclusive regarding the positive effects of endurance training, there is still some controversy regarding the effects of resistance training on muscular capillarity. Thus, the purpose was to assess whether resistance strength training influences resting skeletal muscle microcirculation in vivo. Materials and methods: Thirty-nine middle-aged subjects (15 female, 24 male; mean age, 54 {+-} 9 years) were trained twice a week on an isokinetic system (altogether 16 sessions lasting 50 min, intensity 75% of maximum isokinetic and isometric force of knee flexors and extensors). To evaluate success of training, cross-sectional area (CSA) of the quadriceps femoris muscle and its isokinetic and isometric force were quantified. Muscular capillarization was measured in biopsies of the vastus lateralis muscle. In vivo, muscular energy and lipid metabolites were quantified by magnetic resonance spectroscopy and parameters of muscular microcirculation, such as local blood volume, blood flow and velocity, by contrast-enhanced ultrasound analyzing replenishment kinetics. Results: The significant (P < 0.001) increase in CSA (60 {+-} 16 before vs. 64 {+-} 15 cm{sup 2} after training) and in absolute muscle strength (isometric, 146 {+-} 44 vs. 174 {+-} 50 Nm; isokinetic, 151 {+-} 53 vs. 174 {+-} 62 Nm) demonstrated successful training. Neither capillary density ex vivo (351 {+-} 75 vs. 326 {+-} 62) nor ultrasonographic parameters of resting muscle perfusion were significantly different (blood flow, 1.2 {+-} 1.2 vs. 1.1 {+-} 1.1 ml/min/100 g; blood flow velocity, 0.49 {+-} 0.44 vs. 0.52 {+-} 0.74 mm s{sup -1}). Also, the intensities of high-energy phosphates phosphocreatine and {beta}-adenosintriphosphate were not different after training within the skeletal muscle at rest ({beta}-ATP/phosphocreatine, 0.29 {+-} 0.06 vs. 0.28 {+-} 0.04). Conclusion: The significant increase in muscle size and strength in response to concentric isokinetic and isometric

  13. Relation between body mass index percentile and muscle strength and endurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noha Abdel Kader Abdel Kader Hasan

    2016-10-01

    Conclusion: The study shows that the BMI of children had a positive correlation with the muscle strength of quadriceps, triceps, and abdominal muscles while a negative correlation with the endurance time of these muscles.

  14. Efficacy observation on treating thigh hamstring injury by electro-acupuncture combined with muscle stretching exercises%电针配合肌肉伸展练习治疗大腿后肌拉伤疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒育芳

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect on treating thigh hamstring injury by electro-acupuncture combined with muscle stretching exercises. Methods:Give priority to Ashi point, and treated by electro-acupuncture for 20 minutes once per day, cooperating with muscle stretching exercises. Results: 29 out of 50 patients were recovered (accounting for 58%) and 21 were improved (accounting for 42%). The total efficiency was 100%. Conclusion: Satisfied with the efficacy of treating thigh hamstring injury by electro-acupuncture combined with muscle stretching exercises.%  目的:观察电针配合肌肉伸展练习治疗大腿后肌拉伤的疗效。方法:阿是穴为主,用电针治疗20min,1次/d,配合肌肉伸展练习。结果:50例中治愈29例(58%),好转21例(42%),总有效率100%。结论:电针配合肌肉伸展练习治疗大腿后肌拉伤的疗效满意。

  15. Balance and Muscle Strength in Elderly Women Who Dance Samba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Marcos Maurício; Alonso, Angelica Castilho; Peterson, Mark; Mochizuki, Luis; Greve, Júlia Maria D'Andréa; Garcez-Leme, Luiz Eugênio

    2016-01-01

    Considering the growth of the aging population, and the increasing risk for falls and related morbidity, it is vital to seek efficient, comprehensive, and culturally relevant prevention programs for elderly people to reduce risks for falls. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the postural balance and muscle strength among women participating in the "Wing of Baianas" in the carnival parades. One hundred and ten women, with an average age of 67.4±5.9 years, were divided into two groups: Baianas group-elderly participants of the carnival parades in the "Wing of Baianas", and a Control group of women who do not dance samba. Assessments included a physical activity questionnaire, isokinetic muscle strength testing for the knee extensors and flexors, and a postural balance assessment completed on a force platform. There were no differences between groups, for postural balance outcomes, during the eyes open condition; however, with eyes closed, there was a significant effect between groups (Baianas vs Control) in all variables. The Baianas group showed less medio-lateral displacement (p balance with closed eyes, but there were no differences between dancers and non-dancers for muscle strength.

  16. ELECTRICAL MUSCLE STIMULATION (EMS IMPLEMENTATION IN EXPLOSIVE STRENGTH DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Đokić

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Electrical muscle stimulation (EMS, is also known as neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES may be used for therapeutic purposes and training. EMS is causing muscle contractions via electrical impulses. The survey was conducted as a case study. The study was conducted on subject of 3 male of different ages. The study lasted 4 weeks, and the respondents have not used any type of training or activity, which would affect the development of explosive strength of the lower extremities. Electrical stimulation was performed in the evening, every other day, with COMPEX mi sport apparatus (Medical SA - All rights reserved - 07/06 - Art. 885,616 - V.2 model. In 4 week period, a total of 13 treatments were performed on selected muscle groups - quadriceps femoris and gastrocnemius. Program of plyometric training (Plyometric (28 min per treatment, for each muscle group were applied. The main objective of this study was to quantify and compare explosive leg strength, using different vertical jump protocols, before and after the EMS program. The initial and final testing was conducted in the laboratory of the Faculty of Sport and Tourism in Novi Sad, on the contact plate AXON JUMP (Bioingeniería Deportiva, VACUMED, 4538 Westinghouse Street Ventura, CA 93 003 under identical conditions. In all three of the respondents indicated an increase in vertical jump in all applied protocols.

  17. Does grip strength on the unaffected side of patients with hemiparetic stroke reflect the strength of other ipsilateral muscles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Jumpei; Nishiyama, Toru; Matsushima, Yoshimasa

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] Grip strength is used as an indicator of overall body muscular strength. However, most studies on grip strength have been performed in healthy people, and no study has evaluated it in the unaffected side of patients with hemiparetic stroke. The purpose of this study was to determine if grip strength on the unaffected side of patients with hemiparetic stroke correlates with the strength of other ipsilateral musculature. [Subjects and Methods] The maximal strengths of the muscles on the unaffected side of 31 patients with hemiparetic stroke were measured, and correlation coefficients were calculated. [Results] The results revealed significant positive correlations between grip strength on the unaffected side and the strength of the other ipsilateral muscle groups, with relatively high correlations being observed for the upper extremity muscle groups. [Conclusion] This suggests that grip strength on the unaffected side of patients with hemiparetic stroke can be used as a simple way to estimate overall strength on that side.

  18. Reliability of the Q Force; a mobile instrument for measuring isometric quadriceps muscle strength

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douma, K W; Regterschot, G R H; Krijnen, W P; Slager, G E C; van der Schans, C P; Zijlstra, W

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The ability to generate muscle strength is a pre-requisite for all human movement. Decreased quadriceps muscle strength is frequently observed in older adults and is associated with a decreased performance and activity limitations. To quantify the quadriceps muscle strength and to monito

  19. Reliability of the Q Force; a mobile instrument for measuring isometric quadriceps muscle strength

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douma, K.W.; Regterschot, G.R.H.; Krijnen, W.P.; Slager, G.E.C.; Schans, C.P. van der; Zijlstra, W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The ability to generate muscle strength is a pre-requisite for all human movement. Decreased quadriceps muscle strength is frequently observed in older adults and is associated with a decreased performance and activity limitations. To quantify the quadriceps muscle strength and to monito

  20. Is back pain during childhood or adolescence associated with muscle strength, muscle endurance or aerobic capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lardon, Arnaud; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte; Le Scanff, Christine

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Back pain is a common condition during childhood and adolescence. The causes of back pain are largely unknown but it seems plausible that some physical factors such as back muscle strength, back muscle endurance and aerobic capacity may play a role in its development, in particular...... in the early years. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this review were to investigate in childhood and adolescence 1) if muscular strength in trunk extension is associated with back pain, 2) if muscular endurance in trunk extension is associated with back pain and 3) if aerobic capacity is associated with back...

  1. Effect of Gender, Disease Duration and Treatment on Muscle Strength in Myasthenia Gravis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citirak, Gülsenay; Cejvanovic, Sanja; Andersen, Henning

    2016-01-01

    : Patients had reduced strength in all tested muscle group compared to control subjects (pevident, with proximal muscles being more affected. Interestingly...... are the most affected muscle groups and 4) disease duration or treatment intensity alone are not predictors of loss of muscle strength in gMG....

  2. Hamstring Tendon Regeneration After Harvesting: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suijkerbuijk, Mathijs A M; Reijman, Max; Lodewijks, Susanne J M; Punt, Jorien; Meuffels, Duncan E

    2015-10-01

    hamstring tendon regeneration could be identified because of a lack of research. The function and strength of the regenerated hamstring remained unclear. © 2014 The Author(s).

  3. Effects of whole-body vibration after eccentric exercise on muscle soreness and muscle strength recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timon, Rafael; Tejero, Javier; Brazo-Sayavera, Javier; Crespo, Carmen; Olcina, Guillermo

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate whether or not a single whole-body vibration treatment after eccentric exercise can reduce muscle soreness and enhance muscle recovery. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty untrained participants were randomly assigned to two groups: a vibration group (n=10) and control group (n=10). Participants performed eccentric quadriceps training of 4 sets of 5 repetitions at 120% 1RM, with 4 min rest between sets. After that, the vibration group received 3 sets of 1 min whole body vibration (12 Hz, 4 mm) with 30 s of passive recovery between sets. Serum creatine kinase, blood urea nitrogen, muscle soreness (visual analog scale) and muscle strength (peak isometric torque) were assessed. [Results] Creatine kinase was lower in the vibration group than in the control group at 24 h (200.2 ± 8.2 vs. 300.5 ± 26.1 U/L) and at 48 h (175.2 ± 12.5 vs. 285.2 ± 19.7 U/L) post-exercise. Muscle soreness decreased in vibration group compared to control group at 48 h post-exercise (34.1 ± 11.4 vs. 65.2 ± 13.2 mm). [Conclusion] Single whole-body vibration treatment after eccentric exercise reduced delayed onset muscle soreness but it did not affect muscle strength recovery.

  4. Muscle strength in the oldest old and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Ferreira Cardoso

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this cross-sectional household-based study was to investigate the factors associated with muscle strength in the oldest old (≥ 80 years living in a rural area, of southern Brazil. We interviewed a total of 56 men (85.0 ± 4.4 y and 78 women (84.5 ± 4.8 y. Prevalence of poor performance in the handgrip test (isometric strength was 39.2% and was associated with illiteracy, underweight, and cognitive deficit. Poor performance in the "chair stand" test (lower body strength/physical function was observed in 48.5% of the elderly and was more prevalent in men and among those who consumed more alcoholic drink/week. The results may be useful as indicators to public health surveillance, and to the development of prevention and intervention actions.

  5. Angle-specific hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio: a comparison of football players and recreationally active males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelidis, Pavlos Eleftherios; Pain, Matthew Thomas Gerard; Folland, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    It is currently unclear how football participation affects knee-joint muscle balance, which is widely considered a risk factor for hamstrings injury. This study compared the angle-specific functional hamstring-to-quadriceps (H:Q) ratio (hamstrings eccentric torque as a ratio of quadriceps concentric torque at the same knee-joint angle) of football players with recreationally active controls. Ten male footballers and 14 controls performed maximal voluntary isometric and isovelocity concentric and eccentric contractions (60, 240 and 400° s(-1)) of the knee extensors and flexors. Gaussian fitting to the raw torque values was used to interpolate torque values for knee-joint angles of 100-160° (60° s(-1)), 105-160° (240° s(-1)) and 115-145° (400° s(-1)). The angle-specific functional H:Q ratio was calculated from the knee flexors eccentric and knee extensors concentric torque at the same velocity and angle. No differences were found for the angle-specific functional H:Q ratio between groups, at any velocity. Quadriceps and hamstrings strength relative to body mass of footballers and controls was similar for all velocities, except concentric knee flexor strength at 400° s(-1) (footballers +40%; P < 0.01). In previously uninjured football players, there was no intrinsic muscle imbalance and therefore the high rate of hamstring injuries seen in this sport may be due to other risk factors and/or simply regular exposure to a high-risk activity.

  6. Associations of Sarcopenia and Sarcopenic Obesity With Metabolic Syndrome Considering Both Muscle Mass and Muscle Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jihye; Hong, Yeon-pyo; Shin, Hyun Ju; Lee, Weonyoung

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the associations of sarcopenia-defined both in terms of muscle mass and muscle strength-and sarcopenic obesity with metabolic syndrome. Secondary data pertaining to 309 subjects (85 men and 224 women) were collected from participants in exercise programs at a health center in a suburban area. Muscle mass was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis, and muscle strength was measured via handgrip strength. Sarcopenia based on muscle mass alone was defined as a weight-adjusted skeletal muscle mass index more than two standard deviations below the mean of a sex-specific young reference group (class II sarcopenia). Two cut-off values for low handgrip strength were used: the first criteria were obesity was defined as the combination of class II sarcopenia and being in the two highest quintiles of total body fat percentage among the subjects. The associations of sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity with metabolic syndrome were evaluated using logistic regression models. The age-adjusted risk ratios (RRs) of metabolic syndrome being compared in people with or without sarcopenia defined in terms of muscle mass were 1.25 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06 to 1.47, p=0.008) in men and 1.12 (95% CI, 1.06 to 1.19, pmetabolic syndrome being compared in people with or without sarcopenic obesity were 1.31 in men (95% CI, 1.10 to 1.56, p=0.003) and 1.17 in women (95% CI, 1.10 to 1.25, pobesity with metabolic syndrome were statistically significant in both men and women. Therefore, sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity must be considered as part of the community-based management of non-communicable diseases.

  7. Fatigue affects peak joint torque angle in hamstrings but not in quadriceps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coratella, Giuseppe; Bellin, Giuseppe; Beato, Marco; Schena, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Primary aim of this study was to investigate peak joint torque angle (i.e. the angle of peak torque) changes recorded during an isokinetic test before and after a fatiguing soccer match simulation. Secondarily we want to investigate functional Hecc:Qconc and conventional Hconc:Qconc ratio changes due to fatigue. Before and after a standardised soccer match simulation, twenty-two healthy male amateur soccer players performed maximal isokinetic strength tests both for hamstrings and for quadriceps muscles at 1.05 rad · s(‒1), 3.14 rad · s(‒1) and 5.24 rad · s(‒1). Peak joint torque angle, peak torque and both functional Hecc:Qconc and conventional Hconc:Qconc ratios were examined. Both dominant and non-dominant limbs were tested. Peak joint torque angle significantly increased only in knee flexors. Both eccentric and concentric contractions resulted in such increment, which occurred in both limbs. No changes were found in quadriceps peak joint torque angle. Participants experienced a significant decrease in torque both in hamstrings and in quadriceps. Functional Hecc:Qconc ratio was lower only in dominant limb at higher velocities, while Hconc:Qconc did not change. This study showed after specific fatiguing task changes in hamstrings only torque/angle relationship. Hamstrings injury risk could depend on altered torque when knee is close to extension, coupled with a greater peak torque decrement compared to quadriceps. These results suggest the use eccentric based training to prevent hamstrings shift towards shorter length.

  8. CCL2 and CCR2 variants are associated with skeletal muscle strength and change in strength with resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Brennan T; Orkunoglu-Suer, E Funda; Adham, Kasra; Larkin, Justin S; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Clarkson, Priscilla M; Thompson, Paul D; Angelopoulos, Theodore J; Gordon, Paul M; Moyna, Niall M; Pescatello, Linda S; Visich, Paul S; Zoeller, Robert F; Hubal, Monica J; Tosi, Laura L; Hoffman, Eric P; Devaney, Joseph M

    2010-12-01

    Baseline muscle size and muscle adaptation to exercise are traits with high variability across individuals. Recent research has implicated several chemokines and their receptors in the pathogenesis of many conditions that are influenced by inflammatory processes, including muscle damage and repair. One specific chemokine, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2), is expressed by macrophages and muscle satellite cells, increases expression dramatically following muscle damage, and increases expression further with repeated bouts of exercise, suggesting that CCL2 plays a key role in muscle adaptation. The present study hypothesizes that genetic variations in CCL2 and its receptor (CCR2) may help explain muscle trait variability. College-aged subjects [n = 874, Functional Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms Associated With Muscle Size and Strength (FAMUSS) cohort] underwent a 12-wk supervised strength-training program for the upper arm muscles. Muscle size (via MR imaging) and elbow flexion strength (1 repetition maximum and isometric) measurements were taken before and after training. The study participants were then genotyped for 11 genetic variants in CCL2 and five variants in CCR2. Variants in the CCL2 and CCR2 genes show strong associations with several pretraining muscle strength traits, indicating that inflammatory genes in skeletal muscle contribute to the polygenic system that determines muscle phenotypes. These associations extend across both sexes, and several of these genetic variants have been shown to influence gene regulation.

  9. Changes in lower extremity muscle mass and muscle strength after weight loss in obese patients with knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Marius; Christensen, Robin; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effects of low-energy diet-induced weight loss on lower-extremity muscle mass and knee muscle strength in obese patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA), and the associations of these effects.......To investigate the effects of low-energy diet-induced weight loss on lower-extremity muscle mass and knee muscle strength in obese patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA), and the associations of these effects....

  10. Sports related hamstring strains--two cases with different etiologies and injury sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askling, C; Tengvar, M; Saartok, T; Thorstensson, A

    2000-10-01

    Hamstring strains are common injuries in sports. Knowledge about their etiology and localization is, however, limited. The two cases described here both had acute hamstring strains, but the etiologies were entirely different. The sprinter was injured when running at maximal speed, whereas the hamstring strain in the dancer occurred during slow stretching. Also the anatomical localizations of the injuries clearly differed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed pathological changes in the distal semitendinosus muscle in the sprinter and the proximal tendon of the semimembranosus muscle in the dancer. Subjectively, both athletes severely underestimated the recovery time. These case observations suggest a possible link between etiology and localization of hamstring strains.

  11. Effect of Gender, Disease Duration and Treatment on Muscle Strength in Myasthenia Gravis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citirak, Gülsenay; Cejvanovic, Sanja; Andersen, Henning; Vissing, John

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this observational, cross-sectional study was to quantify the potential presence of muscle weakness among patients with generalized myasthenia gravis (gMG). The influence of gender, treatment intensity and disease duration on muscle strength and disease progression was also assessed. Methods Muscle strength was tested in 8 muscle groups by manual muscle testing and by hand-held dynamometry in 107 patients with gMG and 89 healthy age- and gender-matched controls. Disease duration, severity and treatment history were reviewed and compared with muscle strength. Results Patients had reduced strength in all tested muscle group compared to control subjects (p<0.05). Women with gMG were stronger than men (decrease in strength 22.6% vs. 32.7% in men, P<0.05). Regional differences in muscle weakness were also evident, with proximal muscles being more affected. Interestingly, muscle strength did not correlate with disease duration and treatment intensity. Conclusions The results of this study show that in patients with gMG; 1) there is significant muscle weakness, 2) muscle weakness is more pronounced in men than women, 3) shoulder abductors, hip flexors, and neck muscles are the most affected muscle groups and 4) disease duration or treatment intensity alone are not predictors of loss of muscle strength in gMG. PMID:27741232

  12. Muscle strength rather than muscle mass is associated with standing balance in elderly outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijlsma, Astrid Y; Pasma, Jantsje H; Lambers, Dorine; Stijntjes, Marjon; Blauw, Gerard Jan; Meskers, Carel G M; Maier, Andrea B

    2013-07-01

    Assessment of the association of muscle characteristics with standing balance is of special interest, as muscles are a target for potential intervention (ie, by strength training). Cross-sectional study. Geriatric outpatient clinic. The study included 197 community-dwelling elderly outpatients (78 men, 119 women; mean age 82 years). Muscle characteristics included handgrip and knee extension strength, appendicular lean mass divided by height squared (ALM/height(2)), and lean mass as percentage of body mass. Two aspects of standing balance were assessed: the ability to maintain balance, and the quality of balance measured by Center of Pressure (CoP) movement during 10 seconds of side-by-side, semitandem, and tandem stance, with both eyes open and eyes closed. Logistic and linear regression models were adjusted for age, and additionally for height, body mass, cognitive function, and multimorbidity. Handgrip and knee extension strength, adjusted for age, were positively related to the ability to maintain balance with eyes open in side-by-side (P = .011; P = .043), semitandem (P = .005; P = .021), and tandem stance (P = .012; P = .014), and with eyes closed in side-by-side (P = .004; P = .004) and semitandem stance (not significant; P = .046). Additional adjustments affected the results only slightly. ALM/height(2) and lean mass percentage were not associated with the ability to maintain standing balance, except for an association between ALM/height(2) and tandem stance with eyes open (P = .033) that disappeared after additional adjustments. Muscle characteristics were not associated with CoP movement. Muscle strength rather than muscle mass was positively associated with the ability to maintain standing balance in elderly outpatients. Assessment of CoP movement was not of additional value. Copyright © 2013 American Medical Directors Association, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Hamstring injuries: prevention and treatment—an update

    OpenAIRE

    Brukner, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Despite increased knowledge of hamstring muscle injuries, the incidence has not diminished. We now know that not all hamstring injuries are the same and that certain types of injuries require prolonged rehabilitation and return to play. The slow stretch type of injury and injuries involving the central tendon both require longer times to return to play. A number of factors have been proposed as being indicators of time taken to return to play, but the evidence for these is conflicting. Recurr...

  14. Relative appendicular skeletal muscle mass is associated with isokinetic muscle strength and balance in healthy collegiate men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Eun; Hong, Ju; Cha, Jun-Youl; Park, Jung-Min; Eun, Denny; Yoo, Jaehyun; Jee, Yong-Seok

    2016-11-01

    There are few studies on the relationship between skeletal muscle mass and balance in the young ages. We investigated the relationship between appendicular skeletal muscle mass, isokinetic muscle strength of lower extremity, and balance among healthy young men using relative skeletal muscle index. Thirty men were grouped according to relative appendicular skeletal muscle mass index: higher skeletal muscle group (n = 15) and lower skeletal muscle group (n = 15). Static and dynamic balance abilities were measured using the following: a test where participants stood on one leg with eyes closed, a modified Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction on Balance (mCTSIB) with eyes open and eyes closed, a stability test, and limits of stability test. The muscle strength of lower extremities was measured with an isokinetic analyser in hip, knee, and ankle joints. Participants with higher appendicular skeletal muscle mass were significantly more stable in maintaining dynamic balance than those with lower appendicular skeletal muscle mass. Moreover, appendicular skeletal muscle mass index was positively correlated with dynamic balance ability. Participants with higher appendicular skeletal muscle mass had stronger strength in the lower extremity, and there were significant differences in the isokinetic torque ratios between groups. From these results, it can be inferred that higher appendicular skeletal muscle mass relates to muscle strength and the alteration in the peak torque ratio of the lower extremity, contributing to the maintenance of balance.

  15. The impact of obesity on skeletal muscle strength and structure through adolescence to old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, D J; Erskine, R M; Morse, C I; Winwood, K; Onambélé-Pearson, Gladys

    2016-06-01

    Obesity is associated with functional limitations in muscle performance and increased likelihood of developing a functional disability such as mobility, strength, postural and dynamic balance limitations. The consensus is that obese individuals, regardless of age, have a greater absolute maximum muscle strength compared to non-obese persons, suggesting that increased adiposity acts as a chronic overload stimulus on the antigravity muscles (e.g., quadriceps and calf), thus increasing muscle size and strength. However, when maximum muscular strength is normalised to body mass, obese individuals appear weaker. This relative weakness may be caused by reduced mobility, neural adaptations and changes in muscle morphology. Discrepancies in the literature remain for maximal strength normalised to muscle mass (muscle quality) and can potentially be explained through accounting for the measurement protocol contributing to muscle strength capacity that need to be explored in more depth such as antagonist muscle co-activation, muscle architecture, a criterion valid measurement of muscle size and an accurate measurement of physical activity levels. Current evidence demonstrating the effect of obesity on muscle quality is limited. These factors not being recorded in some of the existing literature suggest a potential underestimation of muscle force either in terms of absolute force production or relative to muscle mass; thus the true effect of obesity upon skeletal muscle size, structure and function, including any interactions with ageing effects, remains to be elucidated.

  16. Reproducibility of Muscle Strength Testing for Children with Spina Bifida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jia Ling; Thomas, Nicole Maree; Johnston, Leanne Marie

    2017-11-01

    Examine the inter-rater reliability of the Daniels and Worthingham (D&W) manual muscle test (MMT) protocol for children with spina bifida between experienced and novice physiotherapists. Thirteen children with spina bifida (two males) aged 6 to 18 years were recruited from a spina bifida service in a state-wide tertiary children's hospital. Each child had the muscle strength of 19, and lower limb muscles were measured bilaterally by one experienced and one novice physiotherapist using the D&W MMT protocol. Examiner and limb order were counterbalanced. Standard training and recording sheets were used. Agreement between raters was examined with quadratic weighted kappa (κw2), percentage exact agreement (%EA), and the Bland-Altmann Limits of Agreement (LoA). Minimal detectable change (MDC) was calculated. Inter-rater agreement between the experienced and novice raters was excellent (κw2 = 0.95; 95% confidence interval: 0.94-0.96); %EA was good (72.3%); and clinically appropriate LoA levels were -1.30-1.40. The MDC was 1.11 points on a six-point MMT scale. The D&W MMT protocol, when used after standard training and with standard recording sheets, was reproducible for children with spina bifida, aged 6-18 years.

  17. Effect of intravaginal electrical stimulation on pelvic floor muscle strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, João Luiz; Gameiro, Mônica Orsi; Padovani, Carlos Roberto

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of intravaginal electrical stimulation (IES) on pelvic floor muscle (PFM) strength in patients with mixed urinary incontinence (MUI). Between January 2001 and February 2002, 40 MUI women (mean age: 48 years) were studied. Urge incontinence was the predominant symptom; 92.5% also presented mild stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Selection criteria were clinical history and urodynamics. Pre-treatment urodynamic study showed no statistical differences between the groups. Ten percent of the women in each group had involuntary detrusor contractions. Patients were randomly distributed, in a double-blind study, into two groups. Group G1 (n=20), effective IES, and group G2 (n=20), sham IES, with follow-up at 1 month. The following parameters were studied: (1) clinical questionnaire, (2) examiner's evaluation of perineal muscle strength, (3) objective evaluation of perineal muscle by perineometry, (4) vaginal weight test, and (5) urodynamic study. The IES protocol consisted of three 20-min sessions per week over a 7-week period using a Dualpex Uro 996 at 4 Hz. There was no statistically significant difference in the demographic data of both groups. The number of micturitions per 24 h after treatment was reduced significantly in both groups. Urge incontinence, present in all patients before treatment, was reduced to 15% in G1 and 31.5% in G2 post-treatment. The subjective evaluation of PFM strength demonstrated a significant improvement in G1. Objective evaluation of PFM force by perineometer showed a significant improvement in maximum peak contraction post-treatment in both groups. In the vaginal weight test, there was a significant increase in average number of cone retentions post-treatment in both groups. With regard to satisfaction level, after treatment, 80% of the patients in G1 and 65% of the patients in G2 were satisfied. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups. There was a significant

  18. Effects of strength training, detraining and retraining in muscle strength, hypertrophy and functional tasks in older female adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Cleiton S; Cunha, Giovani; Marques, Nise; Oliveira-Reischak, Ãlvaro; Pinto, Ronei

    2016-07-01

    Previous studies presented different results regarding the maintenance time of muscular adaptations after strength training and the ability to resume the gains on muscular performance after resumption of the training programme. This study aimed to verify the effect of strength training on knee extensors and elbow flexor muscle strength, rectus femoris muscle volume and functional performance in older female adults after 12 weeks of strength training, 1 year of detraining and followed by 12 weeks of retraining. Twelve sedentary older women performed 12 weeks of strength training, 1 year of detraining and 12 weeks of retraining. The strength training was performed twice a week, and the assessment was made four times: at the baseline, after the strength training, after the detraining and after the retraining. The knee extensor and elbow flexor strength, rectus femoris muscle volume and functional task were assessed. Strength of knee extensor and elbow flexor muscles, rectus femoris muscle volume and 30-s sit-to-stand increased from baseline to post-training (respectively, 40%, 70%, 38% and 46%), decreased after detraining (respectively, -36%, -64%, -35% and -43%) and increased again these parameters after retraining (35%, 68%, 36% and 42%). Strength training induces gains on strength and hypertrophy, also increased the performance on functional tasks after the strength training. The stoppage of the strength caused strength loss and reduction of functional performance. The resumption of the strength training promoted the same gains of muscular performance in older female adults. © 2015 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The effect of a resistance-training program on muscle strength, physical workload, muscle fatigue and musculoskeletal discomfort: An experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamberg-Reenen, H.H. van; Visser, B.; Beek, A.J. van der; Blatter, B.M.; Dieën, J.H. van; Mechelen, W. van

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of a resistance-training program on muscle strength of the back and neck/shoulder muscles, relative physical workload, muscle fatigue and musculoskeletal discomfort during a simulated assembly and lifting task. Twenty-two workers were randomi

  20. The effect of a resistance-training program on muscle strength, physical workload, muscle fatigue and musculoskeletal discomfort: an experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamberg-van Reenen, Heleen H; Visser, Bart; van der Beek, Allard J; Blatter, Birgitte M; van Dieën, Jaap H; van Mechelen, Willem

    2009-05-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of a resistance-training program on muscle strength of the back and neck/shoulder muscles, relative physical workload, muscle fatigue and musculoskeletal discomfort during a simulated assembly and lifting task. Twenty-two workers were randomized over an 8-week resistance-training group, and a control group. Isokinetic muscle strength was assessed using the Cybex dynamometer, muscle fatigue was measured using EMG, and perceived discomfort was measured using a 10-point scale. At the follow-up, we found no effect of the resistance-training program on isokinetic muscle strength of the back and shoulder muscles. Furthermore, we did not find any effect on EMG data, nor on musculoskeletal discomfort during the simulated work tasks. However, trained workers performed the lifting tasks for a longer time before reporting considerable discomfort than those in the control group.

  1. Relationship between muscle strength and motor function in Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milene F. Nunes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Measuring muscle strength and motor function is part of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD assessment. However, the relationship between these variables is controversial. Objective To investigate the relationship between muscle strength and motor function and between these variables and age. Method Muscle strength was measured by Medical Research Council (MRC scale and motor function, by Motor Function Measure (MFM, in 40 non-ambulatory patients. Spearman tests investigated the relationships between muscle strength, motor function and age. Results Total MRC and MFM scores were strongly related to each other (r = 0.94; p 0.05. Strong and moderate relationships between partial muscle strength and motor function scores were found. Higher correlation coefficients were found between total scores and Dimensions 2 (axial/ proximal control and 3 (distal control of MFM. Conclusion Muscle strength and motor function are strongly correlated and seem to decrease proportionally in DMD.

  2. Diurnal and day-to-day variation of isometric muscle strength in myasthenia gravis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinge, Lotte; Jakobsen, Johannes; Pedersen, Asger Roer

    2016-01-01

    medical treatment and in 10 control subjects. To determine diurnal and day-to-day variation, muscle strength was measured 4 times during day 1 and once at day 2. RESULTS: Knee extension strength decreased during the day in both patients and controls. Neither diurnal nor day-to-day variation of muscle...... strength was higher in patients compared with controls. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with mild to moderate MG did not have increased variation of isometric muscle strength during the day or from day-to-day compared with controls. This suggests that isometric muscle performance can be determined with high......INTRODUCTION: In patients with myasthenia gravis (MG), muscle strength is expected to decrease gradually during the day due to physical activities. METHODS: Isometric muscle strength at the shoulder, knee, and ankle was determined in 10 MG patients (MGFA class II-IV) who were receiving usual...

  3. Progression of mechanical properties during on-field sprint running after returning to sports from a hamstring muscle injury in soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendiguchia, J; Samozino, P; Martinez-Ruiz, E; Brughelli, M; Schmikli, S; Morin, J-B; Mendez-Villanueva, A

    2014-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the consequences of an acute hamstring injury on performance and mechanical properties of sprint-running at the time of returning to sports and after the subsequent ~2 months of regular soccer training after return. 28 semi-professional male soccer players, 14 with a recent history of unilateral hamstring injury and 14 without prior injury, participated in the study. All players performed two 50-m maximal sprints when cleared to return to play (Test 1), and 11 injured players performed the same sprint test about 2 months after returning to play (Test 2). Sprint performance (i. e., speed) was measured via a radar gun and used to derive linear horizontal force-velocity relationships from which the following variables obtained: theoretical maximal velocity (V(0)), horizontal force (F(H0)) and horizontal power (Pmax). Upon returning to sports the injured players were moderately slower compared to the uninjured players. F H0 and Pmax were also substantially lower in the injured players. At Test 2, the injured players showed a very likely increase in F(H0) and Pmax concomitant with improvements in early acceleration performance. Practitioners should consider assessing and training horizontal force production during sprint running after acute hamstring injuries in soccer players before they return to sports.

  4. Effects of Static and Dynamic Stretching on the Isokinetic Peak Torques and Electromyographic Activities of the Antagonist Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serefoglu, Abdullah; Sekir, Ufuk; Gür, Hakan; Akova, Bedrettin

    2017-01-01

    of the non-stretched agonist quadriceps or hamstring muscles. Key points The effects of dynamic stretching of the antagonist muscles on strength performance are unknown. We showed that both static and dynamic stretching of the antagonist muscle does not influence strength and EMG activities in the agonist muscles. Further research should focus on the effects of antagonist stretching using other techniques like PNF or ballistic stretching and/or different volumes of stretching. PMID:28344445

  5. Muscle activity during functional coordination training: implications for strength gain and rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Andersen, Lars Louis; Kirk, Niels

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate if different types, body positions, and levels of progression of functional coordination exercises can provide sufficiently high levels of muscle activity to improve strength of the neck, shoulder, and trunk muscles. Nine untrained women were familiarized...... training can be performed with a muscle activity sufficient for strength gain. Functional coordination training may therefore be a good choice for prevention or rehabilitation of musculoskeletal pain or injury in the neck, shoulder, or trunk muscles....

  6. Combining strength training and botulinum neurotoxin intervention in children with cerebral palsy: the impact on muscle morphology and strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Sîan A; Elliott, Catherine; Valentine, Jane; Gubbay, Anna; Shipman, Peter; Reid, Siobhan

    2013-04-01

    Investigate the combination effects of strength training and Botulinum Toxin Type-A (BoNT-A) on muscle strength and morphology in children with Cerebral Palsy (CP). Fifteen children receiving BoNT-A, classified as Spastic Diplegic CP, GMFCS I-II, and aged 5-12 years were recruited for this study. Randomly allocated to 10 weeks of strength training either before or after BoNT-A, children were assessed over 6 months. Eight of the 15 children also completed a control period. The Modified Ashworth Scale measured spasticity. The Goal Attainment Scale (GAS) assessed achievement of functional goals. Magnetic Resonance Imaging assessed muscle volume (MV). Instrumented dynamometry assessed strength. Spasticity was significantly reduced following BoNT-A injection (p = 0.033). Children made significant isokinetic strength gains (mean p = 0.022, ES = 0.57) in the intervention period compared to the control period (mean p = 0.15, ES = 0.56). Irrespective of timing, significant strength improvements were seen immediately (10 weeks) and over 6 months for all children. This was also the case for improvements in the GAS (immediately: mean p = 0.007, ES = 4.17, 6 months: mean p = 0.029, ES = 0.99), and improvements in MV in all assessed muscles. The simultaneous use of BoNT-A and strength training was successful in spasticity reduction, improving strength and achieving functional goals, over and above treatment with BoNT-A alone. Muscles targeted for BoNT-A injection should be included in strength training. Cerebral Palsy• Botulinum toxin type-A (BoNT-A) and strength training are available interventions that, on their own have found success in managing spasticity and muscle weakness (both significant motor impairments), respectively in children with Cerebral Palsy (CP). • This study has demonstrated that the concurrent treatment of BoNT-A and strength training can achieve positive outcomes in terms of strength, spasticity and for the achievement of set functional goals. • The

  7. Muscle strength after anterior shoulder stabilization: arthroscopic versus open Bankart repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Yong Girl; Lim, Chan Teak; Cho, Nam Su

    2007-11-01

    A number of reports have been made on the muscle strength at the last follow-up after arthroscopic or open Bankart repairs. Few have analyzed the change over time in muscle strength and compared the changes between different operative methods. Muscle strength recovers faster after arthroscopic Bankart repair than after open Bankart repair, and the final muscle strength is not different between the 2 procedures. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Sixty patients with anterior shoulder instability and an isolated Bankart lesion were enrolled for this study. Thirty patients underwent open Bankart repair (open group), and 30 patients went through arthroscopic Bankart repair (arthroscopic group). The open group demonstrated markedly weaker muscle strength during forward elevation than did the arthroscopic group up to 3 months after surgery, but the difference narrowed to about 5% at 6 months (P = .074). At 6 months after surgery, the muscle strength of the open group measured 85.8% +/- 11.5% in forward elevation, 89.5% +/- 10.3% in external rotation, and 89.3% +/- 13.3% in internal rotation. The corresponding figures of the arthroscopic group were 90.6% +/- 8.6%, 92.1% +/- 9.1%, and 92.1% +/- 11.7%. As for external and internal rotations, the open group demonstrated markedly weaker muscle strength 6 weeks after surgery, but the differences were reduced to about 6% and 4%, respectively, at 3 months (P = .092 and .163, respectively). There was no statistically significant difference in final muscle strength 12 months after the operation between the 2 groups (P = .503, .468, and .659, respectively). Muscle strength recovered faster with an arthroscopic procedure than with an open procedure during the early postoperative periods, and strength was restored to the level of the unaffected side at 6 months postoperatively. In the group with open Bankart repairs, the muscle strength during forward elevation recovered slower than did external and internal rotation muscle

  8. Strength training for the intrinsic flexor muscles of the foot: effects on muscle strength, the foot arch, and dynamic parameters before and after the training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Takayuki; Sakuraba, Keishoku

    2014-03-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to verify the effects of intrinsic foot flexor strength training. [Subjects] The subjects were 12 healthy males without motor system disease. [Methods] A training method that involved flexion of all toe interphalangeal and metatarsophalangeal joints against a 3-kg load was implemented and was performed for 200 repetitions once per day, three times per week, for a period of eight weeks. [Results] Significant changes were observed for intrinsic foot flexor strength scores, foot arches, vertical jumping, 1-legged long jumping, and 50-m dash time. [Conclusion] This muscle strength training method significantly improved muscle strength scores, foot arch shape, and movement performance.

  9. Acute fatigue impairs neuromuscular activity of anterior cruciate ligament-agonist muscles in female team handball players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zebis, M K; Bencke, J; Andersen, L L

    2011-01-01

    In sports, like team handball, fatigue has been associated with an increased risk of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. While effects of fatigue on muscle function are commonly assessed during maximal isometric voluntary contraction (MVC), such measurements may not relate to the muscle...... for neuromuscular activity [electromyography (EMG)] during a sidecutting maneuver on a force plate, pre and post a simulated handball match. MVC was obtained during maximal isometric quadriceps and hamstring contraction. The simulated handball match consisted of exercises mimicking handball match activity. Whereas...... the simulated handball match induced a decrease in MVC strength for both the quadriceps and hamstring muscles (P

  10. Effects of Growth Hormone Administration on Muscle Strength in Men over 50 Years Old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. W. Tavares

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone (GH use has been speculated to improve physical capacity in subjects without GH deficiency (GHD through stimulation of collagen synthesis in the tendon and skeletal muscle, which leads to better exercise training and increased muscle strength. In this context, the use of GH in healthy elderly should be an option for increasing muscle strength. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of GH therapy on muscle strength in healthy men over 50 years old. Fourteen healthy men aged 50–70 years were evaluated at baseline for body composition and muscle strength (evaluated by leg press and bench press exercises, which focus primarily on quadriceps—lower body part and pectoralis major—upper body part—muscles, resp.. Subjects were randomised into 2 groups: GH therapy (7 subjects and placebo (7 subjects and reevaluated after 6 months of therapy. Thirteen subjects completed the study (6 subjects in the placebo group and 7 subjects in the GH group. Subjects of both groups were not different at baseline. After 6 months of therapy, muscle strength in the bench press responsive muscles did not increase in both groups and showed a statistically significant increase in the leg press responsive muscles in the GH group. Our study demonstrated an increase in muscle strength in the lower body part after GH therapy in healthy men. This finding must be considered and tested in frail older populations, whose physical incapacity is primarily caused by proximal muscle weakness. The trial was registered with NCT01853566.

  11. Muscle Strength Predicts Changes in Physical Function in Women with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, James S.; Trupin, Laura; Schmajuk, Gabriela; Barton, Jennifer; Margaretten, Mary; Yazdany, Jinoos; Yelin, Edward H.; Katz, Patricia P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Cross-sectional studies have observed that muscle weakness is associated with worse physical function among women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The present study examines whether reduced upper and lower extremity muscle strength predict declines in function over time among adult women with SLE. Methods One hundred forty-six women from a longitudinal SLE cohort participated in the study. All measures were collected during in-person research visits approximately 2 years apart. Upper extremity muscle strength was assessed by grip strength. Lower extremity muscle strength was assessed by peak knee torque of extension and flexion. Physical function was assessed using the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). Regression analyses modeled associations of baseline upper and lower extremity muscle strength with follow-up SPPB scores controlling for baseline SPPB, age, SLE duration, SLE disease activity (Systemic Lupus Activity Questionnaire [SLAQ]), physical activity level, prednisone use, body composition, and depression. Secondary analyses tested whether associations of baseline muscle strength with follow-up in SPPB scores differed between intervals of varying baseline muscle strength. Results Lower extremity muscle strength strongly predicted changes over 2 years in physical function even when controlling for covariates. The association of reduced lower extremity muscle strength with reduced future physical function was greatest among the weakest women. Conclusions Reduced lower extremity muscle strength predicted clinically significant declines in physical function, especially among the weakest women. Future studies should test whether therapies that promote preservation of lower extremity muscle strength may prevent declines in function among women with SLE. PMID:25623919

  12. Effect of expiratory muscle strength training on swallowing-related muscle strength in community-dwelling elderly individuals: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji-Su; Oh, Dong-Hwan; Chang, Moon-Young

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of expiratory muscle strength training (EMST) on swallowing-related muscle strength in community-dwelling elderly individuals. Expiratory muscle strength training is an intervention for patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia. This training is associated with respiration, coughing, speech and swallowing, and its effectiveness has been proven in previous studies. However, the effects of EMST on elderly individuals and evidence are still lacking. This study included 24 community-dwelling senior citizens aged ≥65 years (12 men and 12 women). The experimental group trained at the 70% threshold value of the maximum expiratory pressure using an EMST device 5 days per week for 4 weeks and comprised five sets of five breaths through the device for 25 breaths per day. The placebo group trained with a resistance-free sham device. Post-intervention, muscle strength of the bilateral buccinator and the orbicularis oris muscles (OOM) was measured using the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument. Surface electromyography was used to measure activation of the suprahyoid muscles (SM). After intervention, the strength of the buccinator and the OOM in the experimental group showed statistically significant improvement. There was also statistically significant activation of the SM. In the placebo group, the strength of the orbicularis oris muscle alone improved. No statistically significant differences between groups were found for the strength of the buccinator and the OOM and the activation of the SM. EMST had a positive effect on swallowing-related muscle strength in elderly participants. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. The variation of the strength of neck extensor muscles and semispinalis capitis muscle size with head and neck position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezasoltani, A; Nasiri, R; Faizei, A M; Zaafari, G; Mirshahvelayati, A S; Bakhshidarabad, L

    2013-04-01

    Semispinalis capitis muscle (SECM) is a massive and long cervico-thoracic muscle which functions as a main head and neck extensor muscle. The aim of this study was to detect the effect of head and neck positions on the strength of neck extensor muscles and size of SECM in healthy subjects. Thirty healthy women students voluntarily participated in this study. An ultrasonography apparatus (Hitachi EUB 525) and a system of tension-meter were used to scan the right SECM at the level of third cervical spine and to measure the strength of neck extensor muscles at three head and neck positions. Neck extensor muscles were stronger in neutral than flexion or than extension positions while the size of SECM was larger in extension than neutral or than flexion position. The force generation capacity of the main neck extensor muscle was lower at two head and neck flexion and extension positions than neutral position. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Muscle strength and fatigue in newly diagnosed patients with myasthenia gravis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinge, Lotte; Andersen, Henning

    2016-01-01

    significantly with manual muscle testing (MG Composite). Dynamometry revealed improved muscle strength of up to 50% (median 17%, range -1.8 - 49.8) despite no change in the MG Composite score. DISCUSSION: Dynamometry appears to be a more sensitive method of identifying changes in limb strength than MG...

  15. Impact on nutrition on muscle strength and performance in older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscle strength plays an important role in determining risk for falls, which result in fractures and other injuries. While bone loss has long been recognized as an inevitable consequence of aging, sarcopenia-the gradual loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength that occurs with advancing age-has rec...

  16. The Changes of Muscle Strength and Functional Activities During Aging in Male and Female Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Jung Cheng

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: We noted that the muscle strength and functional activities were decreased earlier in female than male individuals. The decrease of functional activities during the aging process seems to be earlier than the decrease of muscle strength. It is important to implement functional activities training in addition to strengthening exercise to maintain functional levels of the geriatric population.

  17. Screen time viewing behaviors and isometric trunk muscle strength in youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Anders; Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Froberg, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the association of screen time viewing behavior with isometric trunk muscle strength in youth.......The objective of this study was to examine the association of screen time viewing behavior with isometric trunk muscle strength in youth....

  18. Strength, power output and symmetry of leg muscles: effect of age and history of falling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Mark C; Carville, Serena F; Smith, I Christopher H; Rutherford, Olga M; Newham, Di J

    2007-07-01

    Risk factors for medically unexplained falls may include reduced muscle power, strength and asymmetry in the lower limbs. Conflicting reports exist about strength and there is little information about power and symmetry. Forty-four healthy young people (29.3 +/- 0.6 years), 44 older non-fallers (75.9 +/- 0.6 years), and 34 older fallers (76.4 +/- 0.8 years) were studied. Isometric, concentric and eccentric strength of the knee and ankle muscles and leg extension power were measured bilaterally. The younger group was stronger in all muscles and types of contraction than both older groups (P muscles and types of contraction but overall the fallers had 85% of the strength and 79% of the power of the non-fallers (P muscles and some contraction types. This was similar overall in the two older groups. Both older groups had greater asymmetry in power than the young (P muscle groups.

  19. Effect of strength training on muscle function in elderly hospitalized patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suetta, C; Magnusson, S P; Beyer, N

    2007-01-01

    to induce muscle hypertrophy and increase muscle strength and functional performance in frail elderly individuals. Furthermore, there is increasing evidence that strength training is an effective method to restore muscle function in post-operative patients and in patients with chronic diseases. Despite this......Immobilization due to hospitalization and major surgery leads to an increased risk of morbidity, disability and a decline in muscle function especially in frail elderly individuals. In fact, many elderly patients fail to regain their level of function and self-care before admission to hospital....... Given that reduced lower limb muscle strength and loss of skeletal muscle mass (i.e. sarcopenia) have been associated with functional impairments and disability with aging, attempts to counteract this process seem highly relevant. In recent years, strength training has emerged as an effective method...

  20. Striated muscle fiber size, composition and capillary density in diabetes in relation to neuropathy and muscle strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Christer Swan; Jensen, Jacob Malte; Jakobsen, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    study was to evaluate histologic properties and capillarization of diabetic skeletal muscle in relation to DPN and muscle strength. METHODS: Twenty type 1 and 20 type 2 diabetic (T1D and T2D, respectively) patients underwent biopsy of the gastrocnemic muscle, isokinetic dynamometry at the ankle......, electrophysiological studies, clinical examination, and quantitative sensory examinations. Muscle biopsies were stained immunohistochemically and muscle fiber diameter, fiber type distribution, and capillary density determined. Twenty control subjects were also included in the study. RESULTS: No relationship was found...

  1. Abdominal muscle strength is related to the quality of life among older adults with lumbar osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Suenimeire; Dibai-Filho, Almir Vieira; Brandino, Hugo Evangelista; Ferreira, Vânia Tie Koga; Scheicher, Marcos Eduardo

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the association between abdominal muscle strength and quality of life among older adults with lumbar osteoarthritis. A blind, cross-sectional study was conducted involving 40 older adults: 20 with lumbar osteoarthritis (12 women and 8 men, mean age of 65.90 ± 4.80 years) and 20 controls (14 women and 6 men, mean age of 67.90 ± 4.60 years). The volunteers were submitted to an abdominal muscle strength test. Quality of life was evaluated using the SF-36 questionnaire. Both abdominal muscle strength and quality of life scores were significantly lower in the group with lumbar osteoarthritis in comparison to the controls (p muscle strength and the subscales of the SF-36 questionnaire (p muscle strength have a better quality of life.

  2. Effect of strength training on regional hypertrophy of the elbow flexor muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Marcos D M; Szmuchrowski, Leszek A; Goulart, Karine N O; Couto, Bruno P

    2016-10-01

    Muscle hypertrophy is the main structural adaptation to strength training. We investigated the chronic effects of strength training on muscle hypertrophy in different regions of the elbow flexor muscles. Eleven untrained men (21.8 ± 1.62 years) underwent magnetic resonance imaging to determine the proximal, medial, distal, and mean cross-sectional areas (CSA) of the elbow flexors. The volunteers completed 12 weeks of strength training. The training protocol consisted of 4 sets of 8-10 maximum repetitions of unilateral elbow flexion. The interval between sets was 120 s. The training frequency was 3 sessions per week. The magnetic resonance images verified the presence of significant and similar hypertrophy in the distal, medial, and proximal portions of the elbow flexor muscles. Muscle hypertrophy may be assessed using only the medial CSA. We should not expect different degrees of hypertrophy among the regions of the elbow flexor muscles. Muscle Nerve 54: 750-755, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The determination of isokinetic performance values of knee joint and Hamstring (flexor/Quadriceps (extensor ratios differences in Volleyball players’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Yenigün

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determined the values of isokinetic performance in knee joint and the ratios of hamstring/quadriceps (H/Q between volleyball players and controls. 30 male volleyball players (age: 19,46±2,1 and 30 male controls (age: 19,66±2,0 were participated in this study. This study investigated hamstring and quadriceps muscles strength ratio obtained during concentric muscle contraction. The ratio of H/Q muscle strength which was an indicator of normal balance between the knee flexors and extensor and it is important to estimate of the capacity for stabilization of knee joint and the preventation of disability. Knee flexion and extension measurements were tested on biodex system–3 dynamometer in %60, %180 and %300 deg/sec test protocols. The range of motion of knee Joint was evaluated by biodex system–3 dynamometer. There was no statistical difference in the ROM of the knee joint between volleyball players and controls (p>0,05. The isokinetic values of volleyball players were significantly higher than controls (p<0,05. H/Q values must be determined to prevent disability. For the aim of get ready for the season and supply the continuity of performance level increases, preseason isokinetic testing of athletes may be helpful to test for strength imbalance and to determine the correct exercises which is suitable for remove the H/Q disproportion.

  4. Effect of abdominal muscle training on respiratory muscle strength and forced expiratory flows in sedentary, healthy adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Núñez, Iván; Navarro, Ximena; Gatica, Darwin; Manterola, Carlos

    2016-10-01

    Respiratory muscle training is the most commonly used method to revert respiratory muscle weakness; however, the effect of protocols based on non-respiratory maneuvers has not been adequately studied in the pediatric population. The objective of this study was to establish the effect of abdominal muscle training on respiratory muscle strength and forced expiratory flows in healthy adolescents. This was a quasi-experiment. The sample was made up of healthy adolescents divided into two groups: an experimental group who completed eight weeks of active abdominal muscle training, and an equivalent control group. The following indicators were measured: abdominal muscle strength, maximal inspiratory pressure, maximal expiratory pressure (MEP), peak expiratory flow, and peak cough flow, before and after protocol completion. A value of p training, MEP and peak expiratory flow increased in healthy (sedentary) adolescents. Such effects were associated with intervention-induced increases in cough peak flow. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  5. Respiratory muscle strength and aerobic performance of wheelchair basketball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael N. Pereira

    Full Text Available Abstract The respiratory system has been described as a limiting factor in the performance of athletes. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the respiratory muscle strength (RMS and aerobic performance of wheelchair basketball players (WCBPs. We evaluated 19 male WCBPs who were divided into two groups: trunk control group (TCG and without trunk control group (WTCG. All participants underwent a pulmonary function test, evaluation of maximal inspiratory (MIP and expiratory (MEP pressures, and an aerobic performance test. The MIP of both groups and the MEP values of TCG exceeded the predicted values for age and gender. No differences were observed in the MIP and aerobic performance between the groups although a difference was observed in the MEP values. Positive correlations were observed between MIP/MEP and the aerobic performance for both groups. These results suggested that the overall RMS of this group of WCBPs fell within or above the predicted values. Hence, the study concluded that RMS can positively influence the aerobic performance of WCBP.

  6. Ultrasonographic quantification of intrinsic hand muscle cross-sectional area; Reliability and validity for predicting muscle strength

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohseny, Behnam; Nijhuis, Tim H.; Hundepool, Caroline A.; Janssen, Wim G.; Selles, Ruud W.; Coert, J. Henk

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether ultrasonographic measurement of the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the intrinsic hand muscles can be used to predict muscle strength in a valid and reliable manner, and to determine if this method can be used for follow-up of patients with peripheral nerve injury betw

  7. The Gluteus Medius Vs. Thigh Muscles Strength Ratio and Their Relation to Electromyography Amplitude During a Farmer’s Walk Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stastny Petr

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The strength ratio between hamstrings and quadriceps (H/Q is associated with knee injuries as well as hip abductor muscle (HAB weakness. Sixteen resistance trained men (age, 32.5 ± 4.2 years performed 5 s maximal isometric contractions at 75° of knee flexion/extension and 15° of hip abduction on a dynamometer. After this isometric test they performed a Farmer´s walk exercise to find out if the muscle strength ratio predicted the electromyography amplitude expressed as a percentage of maximum voluntary isometric contraction (%MVIC. The carried load represented a moderate intensity of 75% of the exercise six repetitions maximum (6RM. Electromyography data from the vastus medialis (VM, vastus lateralis (VL, biceps femoris (BF and gluteus medius (Gmed on each leg were collected during the procedure. The groups selected were participants with H/Q ≥ 0.5, HQ < 0.5, HAB/H ≥ 1, HAB/H < 1, HAB/Q ≥ 0.5 and HAB/Q < 0.5. One way ANOVA showed that Gmed activity was significantly greater in the group with HAB/H < 1 (42 ± 14 %MVIC as compared to HAB/H ≥ 1 (26 ± 10 %MVIC and HAB/Q < 0.5 (47 ± 19 %MVIC compared to HAB/Q ≥ 0.5 (26 ± 12 %MVIC. The individuals with HAB/H < 1 were found to have greater activation of their Gmed during the Farmer’s walk exercise. Individuals with HAB/Q < 0.5 had greater activation of the Gmed. Gmed strength ratios predict the muscle involvement when a moderate amount of the external load is used. The Farmer’s walk is recommended as an exercise which can strengthen the gluteus medius, especially for individuals with a HAB/H ratio < 1 and HAB/Q < 0.5.

  8. Muscle strength in patients with acromegaly at diagnosis and during long-term follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Füchtbauer, Laila; Olsson, Daniel S; Bengtsson, Bengt-Åke; Norrman, Lise-Lott; Sunnerhagen, Katharina S; Johannsson, Gudmundur

    2017-08-01

    Patients with acromegaly have decreased body fat (BF) and increased extracellular water (ECW) and muscle mass. Although there is a lack of systematic studies on muscle function, it is believed that patients with acromegaly may suffer from proximal muscle weakness despite their increased muscle mass. We studied body composition and muscle function in untreated acromegaly and after biochemical remission. Prospective observational study. Patients with acromegaly underwent measurements of muscle strength (dynamometers) and body composition (four-compartment model) at diagnosis (n = 48), 1 year after surgery (n = 29) and after long-term follow-up (median 11 years) (n = 24). Results were compared to healthy subjects. Untreated patients had increased body cell mass (113 ± 9% of predicted) and ECW (110 ± 20%) and decreased BF (67 ± 7.6%). At one-year follow-up, serum concentration of IGF-I was reduced and body composition had normalized. At baseline, isometric muscle strength in knee flexors and extensors was normal and concentric strength was modestly increased whereas grip strength and endurance was reduced. After one year, muscle strength was normal in both patients with still active disease and patients in remission. At long-term follow-up, all patients were in remission. Most muscle function tests remained normal, but isometric flexion and the fatigue index were increased to 153 ± 42% and 139 ± 28% of predicted values, respectively. Patients with untreated acromegaly had increased body cell mass and normal or modestly increased proximal muscle strength, whereas their grip strength was reduced. After biochemical improvement and remission, body composition was normalized, hand grip strength was increased, whereas proximal muscle fatigue increased. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  9. Kinesio taping effect on biceps brachii muscle strength

    OpenAIRE

    Králová Dagmar; Novotný Jan; Řezaninová Jana

    2013-01-01

    This work aimed at presenting the idea of inventor Dr. Kenzo Kase that kinesio tape application with proximal base leads to muscle contraction facilitation and application with distal base leads to muscle contraction inhibition. Twenty male volleyball players with the dominant shoulder girdle muscle imbalance between the ages of 25 and 30 participated in this study. There were compared two techniques which were placed on biceps brachii muscle in shoulder and elbow joint extension. Isokinetic ...

  10. Abdominal muscle and quadriceps strength in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Background: Quadriceps muscle weakness is common in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but is not observed in a small hand muscle (adductor pollicis). Although this could be explained by reduced activity in the quadriceps, the observation could also be explained by anatomical location of the muscle or fibre type composition. However, the abdominal muscles are of a similar anatomical and fibre type distribution to the quadriceps, although they remain active in COPD. Cough gastric pre...

  11. Quadriceps Strength and Endurance After Posterior Cruciate Ligament Tears Versus Matched Group With Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dae-Hee; Han, Seung-Beom; Lee, Jin-Hyuck; Lee, Seok-Joo; Suh, Dong-Won; Jeong, Hye-Jin

    2015-06-01

    This study was designed to compare the preoperative strengths and endurances of the quadriceps and hamstring muscles in patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) versus posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) tears. Quadriceps and hamstring muscle strength and endurance were compared between 20 prospectively enrolled patients with isolated PCL tears and a retrospective, matched control group of 20 patients with isolated ACL tears. The maximal torque (60°/s) and total work (180°/s) of the quadriceps and hamstring were evaluated with an isokinetic testing device. Total work (1,094.4 ± 505.8 J v 797.5 ± 332.7 J, P = .035) and peak torque (129.9 ± 56.2 N ∙ m v 98.2 ± 37.4 N ∙ m, P = .046) of the quadriceps muscle on the involved side were higher in the PCL tear group than in the ACL tear group. However, there were no significant differences between the PCL tear group and ACL tear group in hamstring muscle strength (45.8 ± 42.3 N ∙ m and 46.0 ± 24.4 N ∙ m, respectively; P = .940) and endurance (429.3 ± 238.9 J and 382.4 ± 256.1 J, respectively; P = .574) on the involved side. The strength and endurance of the quadriceps muscle of the injured limb were greater after PCL tears than after ACL tears. However, there were no significant between-group differences in hamstring muscle strength and endurance on the involved side. Level III, retrospective comparative study. Copyright © 2015 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of Age on Strength and Morphology of Toe Flexor Muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickle, Karen J; Angin, Salih; Crofts, Gillian; Nester, Christopher J

    2016-12-01

    Study Design Descriptive, cross-sectional. Background Age-related muscle atrophy is common in lower-limb muscles. We therefore speculated that foot muscles may also diminish with age. However, there is a paucity of literature characterizing foot muscle strength and morphology, and any relationship between these 2, in older people. Objective To compare the strength and size of the toe flexor muscles of older adults relative to their younger counterparts. Methods Seventeen young adults with a normal foot type were matched by sex and body mass index to 17 older adults with a normal foot type, from an available sample of 41 younger (18 to 50 years of age) and 44 older (60 or more years of age) adults. Among the matched groups (n = 34), muscle thickness and cross-sectional area for 5 intrinsic and 2 extrinsic toe flexor muscles were obtained using ultrasound. Toe strength was assessed using a pressure platform. Differences in toe flexor strength and muscle size between the young and older matched groups were determined using analysis of covariance (controlling for height). Correlations between strength and size of the toe flexor muscles of the pooled group (n = 34) were also calculated. Results Toe strength and the thickness and cross-sectional area of most foot muscles were significantly reduced in the older adults (Pstrength values were strongly correlated with the size of the intrinsic toe flexor muscles. Conclusion The smaller foot muscles appear to be affected by sarcopenia in older adults. This could contribute to reduced toe flexion force production and may affect the ability of older people to walk safely. Interventions aimed at reversing foot muscle atrophy in older people require further investigation. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(12):1065-1070. Epub 29 Oct 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6597.

  13. Muscle Strength Is Protective Against Osteoporosis in an Ethnically Diverse Sample of Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Ryan P; Kraemer, William J; Vincent, Brenda M; Hall, Orman T; Peterson, Mark D

    2017-09-01

    McGrath, RP, Kraemer, WJ, Vincent, BM, Hall, OT, and Peterson, MD. Muscle strength is protective against osteoporosis in an ethnically diverse sample of adults. J Strength Cond Res 31(9): 2586-2589, 2017-The odds of developing osteoporosis may be affected by modifiable and nonmodifiable factors such as muscle strength and ethnicity. This study sought to (a) determine whether increased muscle strength was associated with decreased odds of osteoporosis and (b) identify whether the odds of osteoporosis differed by ethnicity. Data from the 2013 to 2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. Muscle strength was measured with a hand-held dynamometer, and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry was used to assess femoral neck bone mineral density. A T-score of ≤2.5 was used to define osteoporosis. Separate covariate-adjusted logistic regression models were performed on each sex to determine the association between muscle strength and osteoporosis. Odds ratios (ORs) were also generated to identify if the association between muscle strength and osteoporosis differed by ethnicity using non-Hispanic blacks as the reference group. There were 2,861 participants included. Muscle strength was shown to be protective against osteoporosis for men (OR: 0.94; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.94-0.94) and women (OR: 0.90; CI: 0.90-0.90). Although ORs varied across ethnicities, non-Hispanic Asian men (OR: 6.62; CI: 6.51-6.72) and women (OR: 6.42; CI: 6.37-6.48) were at highest odds of osteoporosis. Increased muscle strength reduced the odds of osteoporosis among both men and women in a nationally representative, ethnically diverse sample of adults. Non-Hispanic Asians had the highest odds of developing osteoporosis. Irrespective of sex or ethnicity, increased muscle strength may help protect against the odds of developing osteoporosis.

  14. Twitch interpolation technique in testing of maximal muscle strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, P M; Nørregaard, J; Danneskiold-Samsøe, B

    1993-01-01

    The aim was to study the methodological aspects of the muscle twitch interpolation technique in estimating the maximal force of contraction in the quadriceps muscle utilizing commercial muscle testing equipment. Six healthy subjects participated in seven sets of experiments testing the effects on...

  15. Quality of life correlates with muscle strength in patients with dermato- or polymyositis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Karina B; Alexanderson, Helene; Dalgård, Christine

    2017-01-01

    and included 75 patients with DM or PM and 48 healthy controls. HQoL was assessed by the Short Form 36 questionnaire (SF-36). Muscle strength of the patients was assessed using the Manual Muscle Test-8 (MMT8). Covariables and possible confounding factors were collected by validated tools. Associations were......The aim of this study was to compare health-related quality of life (HQoL) in adults with dermatomyositis (DM) or polymyositis (PM) with a healthy control group and to assess whether muscle strength was associated with HQoL in patients with DM or PM. A cross-sectional study was performed...... Muscle strength was associated with one domain in the patients; Physical Function (β = 1.2; 95% confidence interval 0.37 to 2.1). No statistically significant associations were found between muscle strength and HQoL in the remaining domains. Patients with DM or PM have reduced HQoL compared...

  16. Muscle strength training to improve gait function in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eek, Meta Nyström; Tranberg, Roy; Zügner, Roland; Alkema, Kristina; Beckung, Eva

    2008-10-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of muscle strength training on gait outcomes in children with cerebral palsy. Sixteen children (two females, 14 males, Gross Motor Function Classification System levels I-II, mean age 12y 6mo, range 9y 4mo-15y 4mo) underwent muscle strength measurement using a handheld device, Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) assessment, three-dimensional gait analysis, joint range of motion assessment, and grading of spasticity before and after 8 weeks of training. All participants had a diagnosis of spastic diplegia and could walk without aids. Training consisted of exercises for lower extremity muscles with free weights, rubber bands, and body weight for resistance, three times a week. Values for muscle strength below normal were identified in all children; this was most pronounced at the ankle, followed by the hip muscles. After training, muscle strength and GMFM scores increased, velocity was unchanged, stride length increased, and cadence was reduced. There was an increase in hip extensor moment and power generated at push off. Eight weeks of muscle strength training can increase muscle strength and improve gait function.

  17. Neck and shoulder muscle strength in patients with tension-type headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bjarne K; Søgaard, Karen; Andersen, Lars L.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Tension-type headache (TTH) is highly prevalent in the general population, and it is characterized by increased muscle tenderness with increasing headache frequency and intensity. AIM: The aim of this case-control study was to compare muscle strength in neck and shoulder muscles....... Patients were included if they had TTH ≥8 days per month. The MVC neck extensor and flexor muscles were tested with the participant seated upright. MVC shoulder abduction was tested with the individual lying supine. RESULTS: Compared to controls TTH patients had significantly weaker muscle strength in neck...... extension (p = 0.02), resulting in a significantly lower extension/flexion moment ratio (p = 0.03). TTH patients also showed a tendency toward significantly lower muscle strength in shoulder abduction (p = 0.05). Among the 60 TTH patients, 25 had frequent episodic TTH (FETTH), and 35 had chronic TTH (CTTH...

  18. Effect of muscle contraction strength on gating of somatosensory magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Kazuhiro; Onishi, Hideaki; Yamashiro, Koya; Kotan, Shinichi; Kojima, Sho; Miyaguchi, Shota; Tsubaki, Atsuhiro; Kirimoto, Hikari; Tamaki, Hiroyuki; Shirozu, Hiroshi; Kameyama, Shigeki

    2016-11-01

    Afferent somatosensory information is modulated before the afferent input arrives at the primary somatosensory cortex during voluntary movement. The aim of the present study was to clarify the effect of muscular contraction strength on somatosensory evoked fields (SEFs) during voluntary movement. In addition, we examined the differences in gating between innervated and non-innervated muscle during contraction. We investigated the changes in gating effect by muscular contraction strength and innervated and non-innervated muscles in human using 306-channel magnetoencephalography. SEFs were recorded following the right median nerve stimulation in a resting condition and during isometric muscular contractions from 10 % electromyographic activity (EMG), 20 and 30 % EMG of the right extensor indicis muscle and abductor pollicis brevis muscle. Our results showed that the equivalent current dipole (ECD) strength for P35m decreased with increasing strength of muscular contraction of the right abductor pollicis brevis muscle. However, changes were observed only at 30 % EMG contraction level of the right extensor indicis muscle, which was not innervated by the median nerve. There were no significant changes in the peak latencies and ECD locations of each component in all conditions. The ECD strength did not differ significantly for N20m and P60m regardless of the strength of muscular contraction and innervation. Therefore, we suggest that the gating of SEF waveforms following peripheral nerve stimulation was affected by the strength of muscular contraction and innervation of the contracting muscle.

  19. Alteration in Peripheral Muscle Strength among Overweight and Obese Individuals: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikram Mohan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral muscle dysfunction in Overweight (OW and Obesity (OB leads to fatigue and activity limitations. However, there are contradictory views regarding the exact level with regard to hand grip and quadriceps muscle strength in OW and OB. The main objective of the present systematic review was to synthesize the literature for the strength part of the hand grip and quadriceps muscle strength among OW and OB. Literature search of Scopus, EBSCO and PubMed databases from 01.01.2004 to 30.06.2016, was performed. We set our search strategy using the terms “overweight OR obesity” AND “muscle strength” AND “grip OR quadriceps”. Two reviewers administered established eligible criteria and extracted the data. Strengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE was used to assess the risk of bias. Sixteen articles which were included identified Handgrip Strength (HGS, shoulder flexor, elbow flexor and knee extensor were found to be altered. There were consistent results with an increase in quadriceps muscle strength, whereas differed results were found in hand grip to increase and decrease in muscle strength in the presence of OW and OB. It is concluded that HGS appeared to be diversified with findings of increased and decrease strength, whereas regarding the quadriceps muscles, the findings were homogeneous.

  20. Ultrasonographic quantification of intrinsic hand muscle cross-sectional area; reliability and validity for predicting muscle strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohseny, Behnam; Nijhuis, Tim H; Hundepool, Caroline A; Janssen, Wim G; Selles, Ruud W; Coert, J Henk

    2015-05-01

    To investigate whether ultrasonographic measurement of the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the intrinsic hand muscles can be used to predict muscle strength in a valid and reliable manner, and to determine if this method can be used for follow-up of patients with peripheral nerve injury between the wrist and elbow. Repeated-measures cross-sectional study. Clinical and academic hospital. Healthy adults (n=31) and patients with ulnar and median nerve injuries (n=16) between the wrist and elbow who were visiting the Erasmus Medical Center or Maasstad Hospital were included in the study (N=47). Not applicable. Correlation between measured muscle CSA and strength and assessment of inter- and intrarater reliability. Ultrasound and strength measurements of the intrinsic hand muscles were conducted bilaterally. To establish validity, the CSA of 4 muscles (abductor digiti minimi, first dorsal interosseus, abductor pollicis brevis, opponens pollicis) was compared with strength measurements of the same muscles conducted with the Rotterdam Intrinsic Hand Myometer. Repeated measures were conducted to assess inter- and intrarater reliability. The assessed CSA strongly correlated with strength measurements, with correlations ranging from 0.82 to 0.93 in healthy volunteers and from 0.63 to 0.94 in patients. Test-retest reliability showed excellent intrarater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient range, 0.99-1.00) in patients and volunteers and good interrater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient range, 0.88-0.95) in healthy volunteers. We found that ultrasound is a valid and reliable method to assess the CSA of specific muscles in the hand. Therefore, this technique could be useful to monitor muscle reinnervation in patients suffering from peripheral nerve injury as a valuable addition to strength dynamometers. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of Kinesio Tape application to quadriceps muscles on isokinetic muscle strength, gait, and functional parameters in patients with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekiz, Timur; Aslan, Meryem Doğan; Özgirgin, Neşe

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Kinesio Tape (KT) application to quadriceps muscles on isokinetic muscle strength, gait, and functional parameters in patients with stroke. Twenty-four patients were allocated into KT and control groups. All patients participated in the same conventional rehabilitation program 5 times/wk for 4 wk. In addition, KT was applied to quadriceps muscles bilaterally to the patients in the KT group. Compared with baseline, peak torque levels increased significantly in both groups (all p 0.05). KT application to quadriceps muscles in addition to conventional exercises for 4 wk is effective on isokinetic but not functional parameters.

  2. The aerobic capacity and muscle strength are correlated in candidates for liver transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Homercher Galant

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Liver diseases are responsible for metabolic and cardiorespiratory alterations. The objective of this paper is to correlate the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max and respiratory muscle strength and evaluating the quality of life in liver transplant candidates. Cross-sectional study consisted of 26 patients with cirrhosis who underwent maximal exercise testing, respiratory muscle strength and SF-36. There was a correlation of VO2max with MIP (r = 0.61 and low scores of quality of life. A correlation of VO2max to muscle strength and decreased quality of life in patients with liver disease.

  3. Deficits in muscle strength, mass, quality and mobility in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roig, Marc; Eng, Janice J; MacIntyre, Donna L;

    2011-01-01

    strength, mass, and IF were not associated with mobility measures. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with healthy controls, patients with moderate to severe COPD show marked deficits in muscle strength, mass, quality, and mobility. More studies with larger sample size are required to elucidate whether any......PURPOSE: Midthigh intramuscular fat (IF), a feature of reduced muscle quality, is an important predictor of self-reported mobility loss in the elderly. This study compared measures of muscle strength, mass, IF, and mobility in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and healthy...

  4. Muscle strength in athletes-hand kettlebell sport for different meteorological situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulthickiy Z.I.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Considered indicators of the strength of muscles of hands of students of general physical training and weightlifting athletes. The study involved 16 students of general physical training, 16 weightlifting athletes (III level and 16 athletes (II level. Age 18-23 years of study (men. Investigations were carried out at meteorological situations I and type III. It is established that muscle strength depends on the athletes and sports category varies for different types of weather. When the type III weather in all surveyed groups of athletes, a decrease of muscle strength.

  5. Induced acceleration analysis of the hamstrings during standing in crouch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrijver, Annemare; Stewart, Caroline; Postans, Neil; Roberts, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to use a simple 2D model to calculate the induced accelerations of the hamstring muscles during standing in different degrees of crouch. Comparison was made with previous experimental data and a sensitivity analysis performed.

  6. Relationships between Lower Limb Muscle Strength and Locomotor Capacity in Children and Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy Who Walk Independently

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferland, Chantale; Lepage, Celine; Moffet, Helene; Maltais, Desiree B.

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to quantify relationships between lower limb muscle strength and locomotor capacity for children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) to identify key muscle groups for strength training. Fifty 6- to 16-year-olds with CP (Gross Motor Function Classification System level I or II) participated. Isometric muscle strength of hip…

  7. Relationships between Lower Limb Muscle Strength and Locomotor Capacity in Children and Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy Who Walk Independently

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferland, Chantale; Lepage, Celine; Moffet, Helene; Maltais, Desiree B.

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to quantify relationships between lower limb muscle strength and locomotor capacity for children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) to identify key muscle groups for strength training. Fifty 6- to 16-year-olds with CP (Gross Motor Function Classification System level I or II) participated. Isometric muscle strength of hip…

  8. Ipsilateral corticomotor responses are confined to the homologous muscle following cross-education of muscular strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Joel; Frazer, Ashlyn K; Horvath, Deanna M; Pearce, Alan J; Avela, Janne; Howatson, Glyn; Kidgell, Dawson J

    2017-08-22

    Cross-education of strength occurs when strength-training one limb increases the strength of the untrained limb and is restricted to the untrained homologous muscle. Cortical circuits located ipsilateral to the trained limb might be involved. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to determine the corticomotor responses from the untrained homologous (biceps brachii) and non-homologous (flexor carpi radialis) muscle following strength-training of the right elbow flexors. Motor evoked potentials were recorded from the untrained left biceps brachii and flexor carpi radialis during a submaximal contraction from 20 individuals (10 women, 10 men, aged 18-35 years; training group; n = 10 and control group; n = 10) before and after 3-weeks of strength-training the right biceps brachii at 80% of 1-repetition maximum (1-RM). Recruitment-curves for corticomotor excitability and inhibition of the untrained homologous and non-homologous muscle were constructed and assessed by examining the area under the recruitment curve (AURC). Strength-training increased strength of the trained elbow flexors (29%), resulting in a 18% increase in contralateral strength of the untrained elbow flexors (P homologous muscle (P homologous muscle (P > 0.05). These findings show that the cross-education of muscular strength is spatially distributed; however, the neural adaptations are confined to the motor pathway ipsilateral to the untrained homologous agonist.

  9. Vitamin D and muscle strength throughout the life course: a review of epidemiological and intervention studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, E K; Kiely, M

    2015-12-01

    The putative role of vitamin D in muscle function and strength throughout the life course is of interest because muscle strength is required for engagement in physical activity at all ages. As vitamin D deficiency is widely reported in the population, especially in countries at high latitude, the potential importance of vitamin D in muscle function throughout life, and the potential impacts on growth and development, participation in physical activity, and effects on skeletal and cardio-metabolic health, comprise an important topic for discussion. This review provides an overview of muscle function and summarises the role of the vitamin D receptor and the proposed molecular mechanisms of action of vitamin D in muscle cells. In addition, the review provides a comprehensive assessment of the clinical evidence surrounding the association between vitamin D and muscle strength. Among adults, particularly older adults, cross-sectional and cohort studies reported a positive association between vitamin D status and muscle strength. These associations have been largely confirmed by intervention studies. Limited research has been carried out in adolescents and children; two cross-sectional studies in adolescents have suggested an association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and muscle strength. However, the two intervention studies in adolescents have yielded conflicting results. Other than a single observational study, data in young children are very limited and further investigation in under 12-year-olds is warranted.

  10. Measurement of muscle strength with handheld dynamometer in Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi R Samosawala

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intensive Care Unit (ICU acquired weakness is a common complication in critically ill patients affecting their prognosis. The handheld dynamometry is an objective method in detecting minimum muscle strength change, which has an impact on the physical function of ICU survivors. The minimal change in the force can be measured in units of weight such as pounds or kilograms. Aim of the Study: To detect the changes in peripheral muscle strength with handheld dynamometer in the early stage of ICU stay and to observe the progression of muscle weakness. Methodology: Three upper and three lower limb muscles force measured with handheld dynamometer during ICU stay. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA to detect changes in force generated by muscle on alternate days of ICU stay. Results: There was a reduction in peripheral muscle strength from day 3 to day 5 as well from day 5 to day 7 of ICU stay (P < 0.01. The average reduction in peripheral muscle strength was 11.8% during ICU stay. Conclusion: This study showed a progressive reduction in peripheral muscle strength as measured by handheld dynamometer during early period of ICU stay.

  11. Cycle training induces muscle hypertrophy and strength gain: strategies and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Hayao; Loenneke, J P; Thiebaud, R S; Abe, T

    2015-03-01

    Cycle training is widely performed as a major part of any exercise program seeking to improve aerobic capacity and cardiovascular health. However, the effect of cycle training on muscle size and strength gain still requires further insight, even though it is known that professional cyclists display larger muscle size compared to controls. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to discuss the effects of cycle training on muscle size and strength of the lower extremity and the possible mechanisms for increasing muscle size with cycle training. It is plausible that cycle training requires a longer period to significantly increase muscle size compared to typical resistance training due to a much slower hypertrophy rate. Cycle training induces muscle hypertrophy similarly between young and older age groups, while strength gain seems to favor older adults, which suggests that the probability for improving in muscle quality appears to be higher in older adults compared to young adults. For young adults, higher-intensity intermittent cycling may be required to achieve strength gains. It also appears that muscle hypertrophy induced by cycle training results from the positive changes in muscle protein net balance.

  12. Relation between systemic inflammatory markers, peripheral muscle mass, and strength in limb muscles in stable COPD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Renata; Caram, Laura M O; Faganello, Marcia M; Sanchez, Fernanda F; Tanni, Suzana E; Godoy, Irma

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between systemic inflammatory mediators and peripheral muscle mass and strength in COPD patients. Fifty-five patients (69% male; age: 64±9 years) with mild/very severe COPD (defined as forced expiratory volume in the first second [FEV1] =54%±23%) were evaluated. We evaluated serum concentrations of IL-8, CRP, and TNF-α. Peripheral muscle mass was evaluated by computerized tomography (CT); midthigh cross-sectional muscle area (MTCSA) and midarm cross-sectional muscle area (MACSA) were obtained. Quadriceps, triceps, and biceps strength were assessed through the determination of the one-repetition maximum. The multiple regression results, adjusted for age, sex, and FEV1%, showed positive significant association between MTCSA and leg extension (0.35 [0.16, 0.55]; P=0.001), between MACSA and triceps pulley (0.45 [0.31, 0.58]; P=0.001), and between MACSA and biceps curl (0.34 [0.22, 0.47]; P=0.001). Plasma TNF-α was negatively associated with leg extension (-3.09 [-5.99, -0.18]; P=0.04) and triceps pulley (-1.31 [-2.35, -0.28]; P=0.01), while plasma CRP presented negative association with biceps curl (-0.06 [-0.11, -0.01]; P=0.02). Our results showed negative association between peripheral muscle mass (evaluated by CT) and muscle strength and that systemic inflammation has a negative influence in the strength of specific groups of muscles in individuals with stable COPD. This is the first study showing association between systemic inflammatory markers and strength in upper limb muscles.

  13. Quadriceps and hamstrings prelanding myoelectric activity during landing from different heights among male and female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Britto, Morgana Alves; Carpes, Felipe P; Koutras, Georgios; Pappas, Evangelos

    2014-08-01

    ACL tear is a major concern among athletes, coaches and sports scientists. More than taking the athlete away from training and competition, ACL tear is a risk factor for early-onset of knee osteoarthritis, and, therefore addressing strategies to avoid such injury is pertinent not only for competitive athletes, but for all physically active subjects. Imbalances in the prelanding myoelectric activity of the hamstrings and quadriceps muscles have been linked to ACL injuries. We investigated the effect of landing from different heights on prelanding myoelectric activity of the hamstrings and quadriceps muscles in recreational athletes. Thirty recreational athletes (15 male and 15 female) performed three bilateral drop jumps from two different heights; 20cm and 40cm while myoelectric activity of the vastus medialis, rectus femoris, biceps femoris and medial hamstrings were collected. When increasing the height of drop landing tasks prelanding normalized myoelectric activity of the quadriceps was increased by 15-20% but no significant changes were found for the hamstrings. Female athletes exhibited higher activity of the medial hamstrings compared to their male counterparts. We concluded that increasing the height of drop landing tasks is associated with increased myoelectric activity of the quadriceps but not the hamstrings in recreational athletes. These differences in muscle activity may be related to increased risk for ACL injury when the height is increased. Female athletes demonstrated higher recruitment of the medial hamstrings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Elastography Study of Hamstring Behaviors during Passive Stretching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Le Sant

    Full Text Available The mechanical properties of hamstring muscles are usually inferred from global passive torque/angle relationships, in combination with adjoining tissues crossing the joint investigated. Shear modulus measurement provides an estimate of changes in muscle-tendon stiffness and passive tension. This study aimed to assess the passive individual behavior of each hamstring muscle in different stretching positions using shear wave elastography.The muscle shear modulus of each hamstring muscle was measured during a standardized slow passive knee extension (PKE, 80% of maximal range of motion on eighteen healthy male volunteers. Firstly, we assessed the reliability of the measurements. Results were good for semitendinosus (ST, CV: 8.9%-13.4%, semimembranosus (SM, CV: 10.3%-11.2% and biceps femoris long-head (BF-lh, CV: 8.6%-13.3%, but not for biceps femoris short-head (BF-sh, CV: 20.3%-44.9%. Secondly, we investigated each reliable muscle in three stretch positions: 70°, 90° and 110° of hip flexion. The results showed different values of shear modulus for the same amount of perceived stretch, with the highest measurements in the high-flexed hip situation. Moreover, individual muscles displayed different values, with values increasing or BF-lh, SM and ST, respectively. The inter-subject variability was 35.3% for ST, 27.4% for SM and 30.2% for BF-lh.This study showed that the hip needs to be high-flexed to efficiently tension the hamstrings, and reports a higher muscle-tendon stress tolerance at 110° of hip angle. In addition muscles have different passive behaviors, and future works will clarify if it can be linked with rate of injury.

  15. Effects of a resistance training program and subsequent detraining on muscle strength and muscle power in multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Perez, Carlos; de Souza-Teixeira, Fernanda; Fernandez-Gonzalo, Rodrigo; de Paz-Fernandez, Jose Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Although resistance training adaptations in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients have been described, the detraining response in this population is largely unknown. [corrected] This study was designed to evaluate the effects of a 12-week detraining period on muscle strength (isometric and endurance) and muscle power of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients that had previously carried out a 12-week resistance training program (RTP). Forty-two MS patients were randomly assigned into two groups: an exercise group (EG) that performed a 12-week RTP for the knee extensors muscles; and a control group (CG), that did not perform any specific training. Knee extension maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), muscle power and muscle endurance were evaluated before and after the RTP, as well as 12 weeks after training completion. A strain gauge was used to measure the maximal voluntary isometric contraction and muscle power was assessed with a linear encoder. Muscle endurance was interpreted as the number of repetitions that a patient could perform in a single set of knee extension exercise. The EG increased MVIC and muscle power after the training period, although the training did not affect muscle endurance. After 12 weeks of detraining, MVIC returned to pre-training values but muscle power was still greater than pre-training values in the EG. The CG did not present any change in the variables measured during the intervention. A 12-week RTP improved MVIC and muscle power in MS patients. Additionally, 12 weeks of detraining blunted strength training adaptations in MS patients, although muscle power training adaptations were still evident after the detraining period.

  16. Respiratory muscle strength and training in stroke and neurology: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Ross D; Rafferty, Ged F; Moxham, John; Kalra, Lalit

    2013-02-01

    We undertook two systematic reviews to determine the levels of respiratory muscle weakness and effects of respiratory muscle training in stroke patients. Two systematic reviews were conducted in June 2011 using a number of electronic databases. Review 1 compared respiratory muscle strength in stroke and healthy controls. Review 2 was expanded to include randomized controlled trials assessing the effects of respiratory muscle training on stroke and other neurological conditions. The primary outcomes of interest were maximum inspiratory and expiratory mouth pressure (maximum inspiratory pressure and maximum expiratory pressure, respectively). Meta-analysis of four studies revealed that the maximum inspiratory pressure and maximum expiratory pressure were significantly lower (P muscle training on maximum inspiratory pressure in neurological patients compared with control subjects (weighted mean difference 6·94 cmH(2) O) while no effect on maximum expiratory pressure. Respiratory muscle strength appears to be impaired after stroke, possibly contributing to increased incidence of chest infection. Respiratory muscle training can improve inspiratory but not expiratory muscle strength in neurological conditions, although the paucity of studies in the area and considerable variability between them is a limiting factor. Respiratory muscle training may improve respiratory muscle function in neurological conditions, but its clinical benefit remains unknown.

  17. Relationship between functional hamstring: quadriceps ratios and running economy in highly trained and recreational female runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundby, Oyvind H; Gorelick, Mark L S

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between running economy (RE), functional hamstring:quadriceps peak torque ratios (f-H:Q), and flexibility among female runners. Seven highly trained (HT) female runners (age: 25.7 ± 4.7 years, VO2peak of 62.0 ± 4.8 ml·kg-1·min-1) and 11 recreational female runners (age of 28.8 ± 5.6 years, VO2peak of 49.2 ± 4.6 ml·kg-1·min-1) were measured for maximal aerobic power (VO2peak), RE, heart rate, respiratory exchange ratio, f-H:Q (Hecc:Qcon and Hcon:Qecc), and sit-and-reach hamstring/trunk flexibility. On 2 separate days, RE was measured on a treadmill at 1% grade at 2 velocities (160.9 and 201.2 m·min-1) for 6 minutes each, and isokinetic knee strength was measured at 3 angular velocities (60, 120, and 180°·s-1) for both concentric and eccentric muscle actions. The unpaired t-tests showed a consistent trend toward higher f-H:Q ratios at all angular velocities among the HT runners. Highly trained runners had significantly higher Hecc:Qcon at 120°·s-1 (p ≤ 0.05) and 180°·s-1 (p ≤ 0.05). Whole group correlations demonstrated a significant correlation between Hcon:Qecc at 180°·s-1 and RE (ml·kg-1·km-1) at 201.2 m·min-1 (R = -0.48, p ≤ 0.05). No significant relationships were found between flexibility, or hamstring and quadriceps peak torque (N·m) and RE (p > 0.05). This cross-sectional analysis suggests that higher f-H:Q torque ratios, and not muscle strength per se, are associated with a lower metabolic cost of running. Therefore, runners should consider implementing hamstring exercises to improve their f-H:Q ratios.

  18. Effect of whole-body vibration on muscle strength, spasticity, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of whole-body vibration on muscle strength, spasticity, and motor performance in spastic diplegic cerebral palsy children. ... program for spastic diplegic CP and the WBV group received the same program in addition to WBV training.

  19. Effect of whole-body vibration on muscle strength, spasticity, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marwa M. Ibrahim

    ) training on muscle strength, spasticity, and motor performance in spastic diplegic cerebral ... force power, velocity and jump performance immediately after ... 90° and resistance was given by the examiner anteriorly 5 cm ... Statistical analysis.

  20. Relationships between the fibromyalgia impact questionnaire, tender point count, and muscle strength in female patients with fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Marius; Lund, Hans Peter; Christensen, Robin

    2009-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that fibromyalgia (FM) patients with reduced lower extremity strength are more symptomatic and tender than FM patients with normal muscle strength.......To test the hypothesis that fibromyalgia (FM) patients with reduced lower extremity strength are more symptomatic and tender than FM patients with normal muscle strength....

  1. Addition of an anabolic steroid to strength training promotes muscle strength in the nonparetic lower limb of poststroke hemiplegia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimodozono, Megumi; Kawahira, Kazumi; Ogata, Atsuko; Etoh, Seiji; Tanaka, Nobuyuki

    2010-09-01

    In this prospective observer-blinded open-label nonrandomized controlled trial, 25 inpatients with hemiplegia 1-8 months after stroke were assigned to an anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS; n = 14) or a control (n = 11) group: the former received 100 mg metenolone enanthate by intramuscular injection once a week for 6 weeks along with rehabilitation therapy including muscle strength training of the nonparetic lower limb, which consisted of 100 repetitions of isokinetic reciprocal knee extension/flexion (60 degrees /s) on a dynamometer once a day for 5 days a week over 6 weeks, and the latter received rehabilitation therapy alone. The maximal peak torque of the nonparetic lower limb, including the isokinetic (60 degrees /s, 120 degrees /s, and 180 degrees /s), isotonic, and isometric muscle strength of knee extension/flexion, measured every 2 weeks, was compared with the baseline values. Significant increases in peak torque were seen at 2 weeks in 9 of the 10 conditions and at 6 weeks in 8 of the 10 conditions tested for the AAS group but in only 1 and 5 conditions for the control group, respectively. While no contraindications for AAS were encountered, the combination of AAS and muscle strength training tended to have a positive effect on muscle strength after stroke.

  2. Astym Therapy Improves Bilateral Hamstring Flexibility and Achilles Tendinopathy in a Child with Cerebral Palsy: A Retrospective Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheer, Nicole A.; Alstat, Lucas R.; Van Zant, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this case report was to describe the use of Astym therapy to improve hamstring flexibility and Achilles tendinopathy in a child with cerebral palsy. CASE DESCRIPTION An eight-year-old female with cerebral palsy was referred to physical therapy for the treatment of bilateral hamstring inflexibility and Achilles tendinopathy. Treatment focused on an Astym therapy protocol of eccentric exercise, stretching, active and passive range of motion, gait training, and a home exercise program. The patient underwent a total of 11 physical therapy treatment sessions. OUTCOMES At the conclusion of treatment, the patient demonstrated improved resting muscle tone in bilateral lower extremities with active 90/90 hamstring flexibility measured at 165° and ankle dorsiflexion active range of motion of 5° without pain at 0° and 90° knee flexion. The patient exhibited an improved gait pattern with even stride length and diminished genu recurvatum, decreased pain with standing and walking, discontinued use of ankle–foot orthoses, and improved activity tolerance and overall function for daily activities. DISCUSSION The results of this case report indicate that physical therapy rehabilitation utilizing an Astym therapy protocol can successfully achieve gains in flexibility and strength and allow for improved function of bilateral lower extremities in a patient with cerebral palsy. CONCLUSION Based on the findings of this case report, clinicians should consider the use of Astym therapy in treating musculoskeletal soft tissue dysfunction in pediatric patients with cerebral palsy.

  3. Effect of Neck Muscle Strength and Anticipatory Cervical Muscle Activation on the Kinematic Response of the Head to Impulsive Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckner, James T.; Oh, Youkeun K.; Joshi, Monica S.; Richardson, James K.; Ashton-Miller, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Greater neck strength and activating the neck muscles to brace for impact are both thought to reduce an athlete's risk of concussion during a collision by attenuating the head's kinematic response after impact. However, the literature reporting the neck's role in controlling postimpact head kinematics is mixed. Furthermore, these relationships have not been examined in the coronal or transverse planes or in pediatric athletes. Hypotheses In each anatomic plane, peak linear velocity (DV) and peak angular velocity (Dv) of the head are inversely related to maximal isometric cervical muscle strength in the opposing direction (H1). Under impulsive loading, DV and Dv will be decreased during anticipatory cervical muscle activation compared with the baseline state (H2). Study Design Descriptive laboratory study. Methods Maximum isometric neck strength was measured in each anatomic plane in 46 male and female contact sport athletes aged 8 to 30 years. A loading apparatus applied impulsive test forces to athletes' heads in flexion, extension, lateral flexion, and axial rotation during baseline and anticipatory cervical muscle activation conditions. Multivariate linear mixed models were used to determine the effects of neck strength and cervical muscle activation on head DV and Dv. Results Greater isometric neck strength and anticipatory activation were independently associated with decreased head DV and Dv after impulsive loading across all planes of motion (all P\\.001). Inverse relationships between neck strength and head DV and Dv presented moderately strong effect sizes (r = 0.417 to r = 0.657), varying by direction of motion and cervical muscle activation. Conclusion In male and female athletes across the age spectrum, greater neck strength and anticipatory cervical muscle activation (“bracing for impact”) can reduce the magnitude of the head's kinematic response. Future studies should determine whether neck strength contributes to the observed sex and

  4. Effect of back muscle strength and sagittal spinal imbalance on locomotive syndrome in Japanese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Kenichi; Imagama, Shiro; Hasegawa, Yukiharu; Wakao, Norimitsu; Muramoto, Akio; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2012-07-01

    The Japanese Orthopaedic Association has proposed the term locomotive syndrome to designate a condition of individuals in high-risk groups with musculoskeletal disease who are highly likely to require nursing care. This study investigates the influence of spinal factors on locomotive syndrome in Japanese men. A total of 105 men older than 50 years were enrolled in the study. Those answering yes to least 1 of 7 categories in a self-assessment checklist for locomotive syndrome were defined as having locomotive syndrome. The authors evaluated lateral lumbar radiographs, sagittal parameters, sagittal balance using the spinal inclination angle as an index, spinal range of motion as determined with SpinalMouse (Idiag, Volkerswill, Switzerland), back muscle strength, and body mass index. Age, back muscle strength, and spinal inclination angle significantly correlated with locomotive syndrome. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that a decrease in back muscle strength (odds ratio, 0.964; Pmuscle strength had significant negative correlations with age and spinal inclination angle. Spinal inclination angle had significant negative correlations with back muscle strength and lumbar and total spinal range of motion and significant positive correlations with age, body mass index, sacral slope angle, and lumbar kyphosis. A decrease in back muscle strength and an increase in spinal inclination angle may be the most important risk factors for locomotive syndrome in Japanese men. Back muscle strengthening and spinal range of motion exercises could be useful for improving the symptoms of locomotive syndrome.

  5. Evaluation of peripheral muscle strength of patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelli Maria Souza Santos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Peripheral muscle strength has been little explored in the literature in the context of cardiac rehabilitation. Objective: To evaluate the peripheral muscle strength of patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery. Methods: This was a longitudinal observational study. The peripheral muscle strength was measured using isometric dynamometry lower limb (knee extensors and flexors at three different times: preoperatively (M1, the day of discharge (M2 and hospital discharge (M3. Participants received physiotherapy pre and postoperatively during the days of hospitalization during the morning and afternoon. Results: Twenty-two patients were evaluated. The values of peripheral muscle strength of knee extensors preoperative found were about 50% lower than those predicted for the healthy population. When comparing muscle strength prior (M1, with the remaining evaluation, found himself in a fall of 29% for the movement of knee extension and 25% for knee flexion in M2 and a decrease of 10% movement for knee extension and 13% for knee flexion in M3 when comparing with M1. Conclusion: The values of peripheral muscle strength prior of the study patients were lower than predicted for the healthy population of the same age. After the surgical event this reduction is even more remarkable, being reestablished until the time of discharge, to values close to baseline.

  6. Changes in the Muscle strength and functional performance of healthy women with aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roghayeh Mousavikhatir

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Lower limbs antigravity muscles weakness and decreased functional ability have significant role in falling. The aim of this study was to find the effects of aging on muscle strength and functional ability, determining the range of decreasing strength and functional ability and relationship between them in healthy women. Methods: Across-section study was performed on 101 healthy women aged 21-80 years. The participants were divided into six age groups. The maximum isometric strength of four muscle groups was measured using a hand-held dynamometer bilaterally. The functional ability was measured with functional reach (FR, timed get up and go (TGUG, single leg stance (SLS, and stairs walking (SW tests. Results: Muscle strength changes were not significant between 21-40 years of age, but decreased significantly thereafter. Also, there was a significant relationship between muscle strength and functional ability in age groups. Conclusion: Both muscle strength and functional ability is reduced as a result of aging, but the decrease in functional ability can be detected earlier.

  7. VO2 Max and Back and Leg Muscle Strength Profile of Universitas Padjadjaran Swimming Team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitriyani Nurul Pajar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiorespiratory endurance (VO2 max and back and leg muscle strength are a few components required to support the performance of swimming athlete during competition. The objective of this study was to determine the VO2 max and back and leg muscle strength in high category level of Universitas Padjadjaran swimming team period 2014. Methods: A descriptive study was conducted to 19 swimmers of Universitas Padjadjaran in September 2014. The variables of this study were VO2 max and back and leg muscle strength. Then, the data were categorized based on the standard of The National Sports Committee of Indonesia. Results: The data obtained showed that the VO2 max of the majority of subjects was in the very good category (6/19 subjects and the back muscle strength of the majority of subjects was in the very good category (10/19 subjects. In contrast, the leg muscle strength of majority of subjects was in the low category (11/19 subjects. Conclusions: The VO2 max and back muscle strength in high category level of the swimming team fulfilled the standard of The National Sports Committee of Indonesia.

  8. Comparison of Hip Abductor and Adductor Muscle Strength in Taekwondo and Non-taekwondo Practitioners

    OpenAIRE

    Seet Jia Sheng; Fachry Ambia Tandjung; Marietta Shanti Prananta

    2016-01-01

    Background: Taekwondo is an empty hand combat that entails the use of the whole body. Spinning and turning kicks are the proper way of kicking in taekwondo which allow one to maximally perform the hip abductor and adductor muscles simultaneously. To measure the hip abductor and adductor muscles of Taekwondo and Non-taekwondo practitioners, Hand-Held Dynamometer (HHD) is used. This study aimed to compare the hip abductor and adductor muscles strength in Taekwondo and Non-taekwondo practitioner...

  9. Reduced Neck Muscle Strength and Altered Muscle Mechanical Properties in Cervical Dystonia Following Botulinum Neurotoxin Injections: A Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirpa Mustalampi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate changes in the strength and mechanical properties of neck muscles and disability in patients with cervical dystonia (CD during a 12-week period following botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT injections. Methods Eight patients with CD volunteered for this prospective clinical cohort study. Patients had received BoNT injections regularly in neck muscles at three-month intervals for several years. Maximal isometric neck strength was measured by a dynamometer, and the mechanical properties of the splenius capitis were evaluated using two myotonometers. Clinical assessment was performed using the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (TWSTRS before and at 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks after the BoNT injections. Results Mean maximal isometric neck strength at two weeks after the BoNT injections decreased by 28% in extension, 25% in rotation of the affected side and 17% in flexion. At four weeks, muscle stiffness of the affected side decreased by 17% and tension decreased by 6%. At eight weeks, the muscle elasticity on the affected side increased by 12%. At two weeks after the BoNT injections, the TWSTRS-severity and TWSTRS-total scores decreased by 4.3 and 6.4, respectively. The strength, muscle mechanical properties and TWSTRS scores returned to baseline values at 12 weeks. Conclusions Although maximal neck strength and muscle tone decreased after BoNT injections, the disability improved. The changes observed after BoNT injections were temporary and returned to pre-injection levels within twelve weeks. Despite having a possible negative effect on function and decreasing neck strength, the BoNT injections improved the patients reported disability.

  10. Reduced Neck Muscle Strength and Altered Muscle Mechanical Properties in Cervical Dystonia Following Botulinum Neurotoxin Injections: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustalampi, Sirpa; Ylinen, Jari; Korniloff, Katariina; Weir, Adam; Häkkinen, Arja

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate changes in the strength and mechanical properties of neck muscles and disability in patients with cervical dystonia (CD) during a 12-week period following botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) injections. Methods Eight patients with CD volunteered for this prospective clinical cohort study. Patients had received BoNT injections regularly in neck muscles at three-month intervals for several years. Maximal isometric neck strength was measured by a dynamometer, and the mechanical properties of the splenius capitis were evaluated using two myotonometers. Clinical assessment was performed using the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (TWSTRS) before and at 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks after the BoNT injections. Results Mean maximal isometric neck strength at two weeks after the BoNT injections decreased by 28% in extension, 25% in rotation of the affected side and 17% in flexion. At four weeks, muscle stiffness of the affected side decreased by 17% and tension decreased by 6%. At eight weeks, the muscle elasticity on the affected side increased by 12%. At two weeks after the BoNT injections, the TWSTRS-severity and TWSTRS-total scores decreased by 4.3 and 6.4, respectively. The strength, muscle mechanical properties and TWSTRS scores returned to baseline values at 12 weeks. Conclusions Although maximal neck strength and muscle tone decreased after BoNT injections, the disability improved. The changes observed after BoNT injections were temporary and returned to pre-injection levels within twelve weeks. Despite having a possible negative effect on function and decreasing neck strength, the BoNT injections improved the patients reported disability. PMID:26828215

  11. The effect of strength training on muscle cellular stress in prostate cancer patients on ADT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T S Nilsen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT for prostate cancer (PCa is associated with several side effects, including loss of muscle mass. Muscle atrophy is associated with reduced mitochondrial function and increased muscle cellular stress that may be counteracted by strength training. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of strength training on mitochondrial proteins and indicators of muscle cellular stress in PCa patients on ADT. Methods Men diagnosed with locally advanced PCa receiving ADT were randomised to a strength training group (STG (n=16 or a control group (CG (n=15 for 16 weeks. Muscle biopsies were collected pre- and post-intervention from the vastus lateralis muscle, and analysed for mitochondrial proteins (citrate synthase, cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV (COXIV, HSP60 and indicators of muscle cellular stress (heat shock protein (HSP 70, alpha B-crystallin, HSP27, free ubiquitin, and total ubiquitinated proteins using Western blot and ELISA. Results No significant intervention effects were observed in any of the mitochondrial proteins or indicators of muscle cellular stress. However, within-group analysis revealed that the level of HSP70 was reduced in the STG and a tendency towards a reduction in citrate synthase levels was observed in the CG. Levels of total ubiquitinated proteins were unchanged in both groups. Conclusion Although reduced HSP70 levels indicated reduced muscle cellular stress in the STG, the lack of an intervention effect precluded any clear conclusions.

  12. Hamstring transfer for quadriceps paralysis in post polio residual paralysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagadish J Patwa

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: H to Q transfer in the presence of quadriceps paralysis with good power in hamstring is a better alternative than supracondylar osteotomy because it is a dynamic correction and it produces some degree of recurvatum with increasing stability of knee in extension while walking. While inserting hamstring over patella the periosteum is not cut in an I-shaped fashion to create a flap which gives additional strength to new insertion and also patella act as a fulcrum during the extension of knee by producing the bowstring effect.

  13. Hip abductors and thigh muscles strength ratios and their relation to electromyography amplitude during split squat and walking lunge exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Stastny

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The hip abductors (HAB, quadriceps (Q and hamstrings (H reciprocal strength ratios are predictors of electromyography (EMG amplitude during load carrying walking at moderate intensity. Therefore, these strength ratios might predict also the EMG during the exercises as walking lunge (WL or split squat (SSq at submaximal intensity. Objective: To determine whether the EMG amplitude of vastus mediali (VM, vastus laterali (VL, biceps femoris (BF and gluteus medius (Gmed is associated with muscle strength ratio during SSqs and WLs. To determine whether the EMG amplitude differs between individuals with HAB/H ratio above and below one and between individuals with H/Q or HAB/Q ratio above and below 0.5 during SSqs and WLs. Methods: 17 resistance-trained men (age 29.6 ± 4.6 years with at least 3 years of strength training performed in cross-sectional design 5 s maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC on an isokinetic dynamometer for knee extension, knee flexion, and hip abduction. The MVIC was used to normalize the EMG signal and estimate the individual strength ratios. Than participants performed WL and SSq for a 5 repetition maximum, to find out muscle activity at submaximal intensity of exercise. Results: The H/Q ratio was associated by Kendall's tau (τ with VM (τ = .33 and BF (τ = -.71 amplitude, HAB/Q ratio was associated with BF (τ = -.43 and Gmed (τ = .38 amplitude, as well as HAB/H was associated with VM (τ = -.41 and Gmed (τ = .74 amplitude. ANOVA results showed significant differences between SSq and WL (F(4, 79 = 10, p < .001, ηp2 = .34 in Gmed amplitude, where WL resulted in higher Gmed amplitude compared to SSq. Other significant differences were found between H/Q groups (F(4, 29 = 3, p = .04, ηp2 = .28 in VM and Gmed amplitude, where group with H/Q > 0.5 showed higher VMO amplitude and lower Gmed amplitude. Furthermore, significant difference was found

  14. Pelvic floor muscle strength in primiparous women according to the delivery type: cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilaine de Paula Batista Mendes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives: to compare the pelvic floor muscle strength in primiparous women after normal birth and cesarean section, related to the socio-demographic characteristics, nutritional status, dyspareunia, urinary incontinence, perineal exercise in pregnancy, perineal condition and weight of the newborn. Methods: this was a cross-sectional study conducted after 50 - 70 postpartum days, with 24 primiparous women who underwent cesarean delivery and 72 who had a normal birth. The 9301 PeritronTM was used for analysis of muscle strength. The mean muscle strength was compared between the groups by two-way analysis of variance. Results: the pelvic floor muscle strength was 24.0 cmH2O (±16.2 and 25.4 cmH2O (±14.7 in postpartum primiparous women after normal birth and cesarean section, respectively, with no significant difference. The muscular strength was greater in postpartum women with ≥ 12 years of study (42.0 ±26.3 versus 14.6 ±7.7 cmH2O; p= 0.036 and in those who performed perineal exercises (42.6±25.4 11.8±4.9 vs. cmH2O; p = 0.010, compared to caesarean. There was no difference in muscle strength according to delivery type regarding nutritional status, dyspareunia, urinary incontinence, perineal condition or newborn weight. Conclusion: pelvic floor muscle strength does not differ between primiparous women based on the type of delivery. Postpartum women with normal births, with higher education who performed perineal exercise during pregnancy showed greater muscle strength.

  15. Isokinetic strength of the trunk Xexor muscles after surgical repair for incisional hernia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. den Hartog (Dennis); H.H. Eker (Hasan); W.E. Tuinebreijer (Wim); G.J. Kleinrensink (Gert Jan); H.J. Stam (Henk); J.F. Lange (Johan)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractPurpose The repair of incisional hernias can be accomplished by open or laparoscopic techniques. The Biodex® dynamometer measures muscle strength during isokinetic movement. The objectives of this study are to compare the strength of the trunk Xexors between patients who underwent repair

  16. Muscle activation strategies during strength training with heavy loading versus repetitions to failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D; Andersen, Christoffer H;

    2012-01-01

    Going to failure - or not, have probably been one of the most debated issues during the history of strength training. However, few studies have directly compared the physiological effect of failure versus non-failure strength training. The purpose of this study was to evaluate muscle activation...

  17. Response of growth and myogenic factors in human skeletal muscle to strength training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.; Heinichen, M.; Wirth, K.; Schmidtbleicher, D.; Steinacker, J. M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the response to different strength training techniques of growth and myogenic factors in human skeletal muscle, with particular emphasis on satellite cell (SC) activation. Methods: 24 volunteers were divided into two groups and performed a 6-week strength training (group A

  18. Effects of Different Environment Temperatures on Some Motor Characteristics and Muscle Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakir, Ergün; Yüksek, Selami; Asma, Bülent; Arslanoglu, Erkal

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was determine the effects of different environment temperatures on motor characteristics and muscle strength. 15 athletes participated to study. Flexibility, vertical jump, hand grip-leg strength, 30m sprint, 20-meter shuttle run and coordination-agility tests were measured in five different environment temperatures. (22°C,…

  19. The Isolated Effect of Adductor Canal Block on Quadriceps Femoris Muscle Strength After Total Knee Arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Johan Kløvgaard; Jæger, Pia; Dahl, Jørgen Berg

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Using peripheral nerve block after total knee arthroplasty (TKA), without impeding mobility, is challenging. We hypothesized that the analgesic effect of adductor canal block (ACB) could increase the maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) of the quadriceps femoris muscle after......, expressed as a percentage of postoperative preblock values. In this manner, the effect of the ACB could be isolated from the detrimental effect on muscle strength caused by the surgery. Secondary end points were differences between groups in mobility and pain scores. We planned a subgroup analysis dividing......: ACB improves quadriceps femoris muscle strength, but whether this translates into enhanced mobility is not clearly supported by this study....

  20. NO DECREASE IN MUSCLE STRENGTH AFTER BOTULINUM NEUROTOXIN-A INJECTION IN CHILDREN WITH CEREBRAL PALSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meta Nyström Eek

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Spasticity and muscle weakness is common in children with cerebral palsy (CP. Spasticity can be treated with Botulinum Neurotoxin-A (BoNT-A, but this drug has also been reported to induce muscle weakness. Our purpose was to describe the effect on muscle strength in the lower extremities after BoNT-A injections in children with cerebral palsy. A secondary aim was to relate the effect of BoNT-A to gait pattern and range of motion.Twenty children with spastic cerebral palsy were included in the study, eight girls and 12 boys (mean age 7.7 years. All were able to walk without support, but with increased muscle tone interfering with motor function and gait pattern. Sixteen children had unilateral spastic CP and four bilateral spastic CP. Twenty-four legs received injections with BoNT-A in the plantar flexor muscles. The children were tested before treatment, around six weeks after at the peak effect of BoNT-A, and at six months after treatment, with measurement of muscle strength, gait analysis and range of motion.There were no differences in muscle strength in plantar flexors of treated legs at peak effect compared to baseline. Six months after treatment, there was still no change in untreated plantar flexor muscles, but an increasing trend in plantar flexor strength in legs treated with BoNT-A. Parents reported positive effects in all children, graded as: small in three children, moderate in eight, and large in nine children. The gait analysis showed a small improvement in knee extension at initial contact, and there was a small increase in passive range of motion for ankle dorsiflexion. Two children had a period with transient weakness and pain.We found that voluntary force production in plantar flexor muscles did not decrease after BoNT-A, instead there was a trend to increased muscle strength at follow-up. The increase may be explained as an effect of the blocking of involuntary nerve impulses, leading to an opportunity to using and training the

  1. No Decrease in Muscle Strength after Botulinum Neurotoxin-A Injection in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eek, Meta N.; Himmelmann, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Spasticity and muscle weakness is common in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Spasticity can be treated with botulinum neurotoxin-A (BoNT-A), but this drug has also been reported to induce muscle weakness. Our purpose was to describe the effect on muscle strength in the lower extremities after BoNT-A injections in children with CP. A secondary aim was to relate the effect of BoNT-A to gait pattern and range of motion. Twenty children with spastic CP were included in the study, 8 girls and 12 boys (mean age 7.7 years). All were able to walk without support, but with increased muscle tone interfering with motor function and gait pattern. Sixteen children had unilateral spastic CP and four bilateral spastic CP. Twenty-four legs received injections with BoNT-A in the plantar flexor muscles. The children were tested before treatment, around 6 weeks after at the peak effect of BoNT-A, and at 6 months after treatment, with measurement of muscle strength, gait analysis, and range of motion. There were no differences in muscle strength in plantar flexors of treated legs at peak effect compared to baseline. Six months after treatment, there was still no change in untreated plantar flexor muscles, but an increasing trend in plantar flexor strength in legs treated with BoNT-A. Parents reported positive effects in all children, graded as: small in three children, moderate in eight, and large in nine children. The gait analysis showed a small improvement in knee extension at initial contact, and there was a small increase in passive range of motion for ankle dorsiflexion. Two children had a period with transient weakness and pain. We found that voluntary force production in plantar flexor muscles did not decrease after BoNT-A, instead there was a trend to increased muscle strength at follow-up. The increase may be explained as an effect of the blocking of involuntary nerve impulses, leading to an opportunity to using and training the muscles with voluntary control. Adequate

  2. No Decrease in Muscle Strength after Botulinum Neurotoxin-A Injection in Children with Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eek, Meta N; Himmelmann, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Spasticity and muscle weakness is common in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Spasticity can be treated with botulinum neurotoxin-A (BoNT-A), but this drug has also been reported to induce muscle weakness. Our purpose was to describe the effect on muscle strength in the lower extremities after BoNT-A injections in children with CP. A secondary aim was to relate the effect of BoNT-A to gait pattern and range of motion. Twenty children with spastic CP were included in the study, 8 girls and 12 boys (mean age 7.7 years). All were able to walk without support, but with increased muscle tone interfering with motor function and gait pattern. Sixteen children had unilateral spastic CP and four bilateral spastic CP. Twenty-four legs received injections with BoNT-A in the plantar flexor muscles. The children were tested before treatment, around 6 weeks after at the peak effect of BoNT-A, and at 6 months after treatment, with measurement of muscle strength, gait analysis, and range of motion. There were no differences in muscle strength in plantar flexors of treated legs at peak effect compared to baseline. Six months after treatment, there was still no change in untreated plantar flexor muscles, but an increasing trend in plantar flexor strength in legs treated with BoNT-A. Parents reported positive effects in all children, graded as: small in three children, moderate in eight, and large in nine children. The gait analysis showed a small improvement in knee extension at initial contact, and there was a small increase in passive range of motion for ankle dorsiflexion. Two children had a period with transient weakness and pain. We found that voluntary force production in plantar flexor muscles did not decrease after BoNT-A, instead there was a trend to increased muscle strength at follow-up. The increase may be explained as an effect of the blocking of involuntary nerve impulses, leading to an opportunity to using and training the muscles with voluntary control. Adequate

  3. Effects of core instability strength training on trunk muscle strength, spinal mobility, dynamic balance and functional mobility in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granacher, Urs; Lacroix, Andre; Muehlbauer, Thomas; Roettger, Katrin; Gollhofer, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Age-related postural misalignment, balance deficits and strength/power losses are associated with impaired functional mobility and an increased risk of falling in seniors. Core instability strength training (CIT) involves exercises that are challenging for both trunk muscles and postural control and may thus have the potential to induce benefits in trunk muscle strength, spinal mobility and balance performance. The objective was to investigate the effects of CIT on measures of trunk muscle strength, spinal mobility, dynamic balance and functional mobility in seniors. Thirty-two older adults were randomly assigned to an intervention group (INT; n = 16, aged 70.8 ± 4.1 years) that conducted a 9-week progressive CIT or to a control group (n = 16, aged 70.2 ± 4.5 years). Maximal isometric strength of the trunk flexors/extensors/lateral flexors (right, left)/rotators (right, left) as well as of spinal mobility in the sagittal and the coronal plane was measured before and after the intervention program. Dynamic balance (i.e. walking 10 m on an optoelectric walkway, the Functional Reach test) and functional mobility (Timed Up and Go test) were additionally tested. Program compliance was excellent with participants of the INT group completing 92% of the training sessions. Significant group × test interactions were found for the maximal isometric strength of the trunk flexors (34%, p strength, spinal mobility, dynamic balance and functional mobility can be mitigated by CIT. This training regimen could be used as an adjunct or even alternative to traditional balance and/or resistance training. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. The influence of training status on the drop in muscle strength after acute exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pingel, Jessica; Moerch, L; Kjaer, M

    2009-01-01

    to running exercise immediately after immobilization, the muscle strength of the triceps-surae muscles dropped even further, but just in the immobilized leg (41%; P muscle endurance when evaluating the effect of immobilization on muscle......Skeletal muscles fatigue after exercise, and reductions in maximal force appear. A difference in training status between the legs was introduced by unilateral immobilization of the calf muscles for 2 weeks in young men, who were randomly assigned to two groups, either a RUN group (n = 8......) that was exposed to prolonged exercise (1-h running: individual pace) or a REST group (n = 12) that did no exercise after immobilization. Cross-sectional area (CSA) of the triceps-surae muscles was calculated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force of the plantar flexors...

  5. Muscle strain injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, W E

    1996-01-01

    One of the most common injuries seen in the office of the practicing physician is the muscle strain. Until recently, little data were available on the basic science and clinical application of this basic science for the treatment and prevention of muscle strains. Studies in the last 10 years represent action taken on the direction of investigation into muscle strain injuries from the laboratory and clinical fronts. Findings from the laboratory indicate that certain muscles are susceptible to strain injury (muscles that cross multiple joints or have complex architecture). These muscles have a strain threshold for both passive and active injury. Strain injury is not the result of muscle contraction alone, rather, strains are the result of excessive stretch or stretch while the muscle is being activated. When the muscle tears, the damage is localized very near the muscle-tendon junction. After injury, the muscle is weaker and at risk for further injury. The force output of the muscle returns over the following days as the muscle undertakes a predictable progression toward tissue healing. Current imaging studies have been used clinically to document the site of injury to the muscle-tendon junction. The commonly injured muscles have been described and include the hamstring, the rectus femoris, gastrocnemius, and adductor longus muscles. Injuries inconsistent with involvement of a single muscle-tendon junction proved to be at tendinous origins rather than within the muscle belly. Important information has also been provided regarding injuries with poor prognosis, which are potentially repairable surgically, including injuries to the rectus femoris muscle, the hamstring origin, and the abdominal wall. Data important to the management of common muscle injuries have been published. The risks of reinjury have been documented. The early efficacy and potential for long-term risks of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents have been shown. New data can also be applied to the field

  6. Long-term aerobic exercise is associated with greater muscle strength throughout the life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Justin D; Macneil, Lauren G; Tarnopolsky, Mark A

    2013-06-01

    Aging is associated with a progressive decline in muscle strength, muscle mass, and aerobic capacity, which reduces mobility and impairs quality of life in elderly adults. Exercise is commonly employed to improve muscle function in individuals of all ages; however, chronic aerobic exercise is believed to largely impact cardiovascular function and oxidative metabolism, with minimal effects on muscle mass and strength. To study the effects of long-term aerobic exercise on muscle strength, we recruited 74 sedentary (SED) or highly aerobically active (ACT) men and women from within three distinct age groups (young: 20-39 years, middle: 40-64 years, and older: 65-86 years) and tested their aerobic capacity, isometric grip and knee extensor strength, and dynamic 1 repetition maximum knee extension. As expected, ACT subjects had greater maximal oxygen uptake and peak aerobic power output compared with SED subjects (p aerobic exercise appears to attenuate age-related reductions in muscle strength in addition to its cardiorespiratory and metabolic benefits.

  7. [Use of pulmonary rehabilitation in the treatment of decreased respiratory muscle strength].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumannová, Kateřina

    2015-01-01

    Decreased respiratory muscle strength could lead to other health problems, which can decrease the quality of life of those patients. Ineffective expectoration and dyspnoea during physical activities and during activity of daily living are the most frequent disorders associated with decreased respiratory muscle strength. Multidisciplinary treatment including pulmonary rehabilitation programme is very important for those patients. Ventilatory muscle training (strength and endurance type of training), airway clearance techniques - active (e.g. autogenic drainage, instrumental techniques) and passive (e.g. manual thoracic compression, mechanical insufflator/exsufflator machine) and exercise training are the most frequent used techniques in these patients. Assessment of all respiratory muscles function - especially their respiratory and postural function - is important at the beginning of rehabilitation treatment.

  8. Muscle strength in youth and cardiovascular risk in young adulthood (the European Youth Heart Study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Anders; Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Møller, Niels Christian

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Whether muscle strength in youth is related to cardiovascular risk later in life independent of cardiorespiratory fitness is unclear. METHODS: We examined the independent association of isometric muscle strength in youth with cardiovascular risk factors in young adulthood using data...... and cardiorespiratory fitness was obtained from a maximal cycle ergometer test. Cardiovascular risk factors were obtained in youth and in young adulthood. Associations were examined using multivariable-adjusted regression models including major confounding factors. RESULTS: Each 1 SD difference in isometric muscle...... -1.03 to -0.20) in young adulthood in multivariable-adjusted analyses including fitness. Associations to triglyceride, diastolic BP and the cardiovascular risk factor score remained with additional adjustment for waist circumference or BMI. Each 1 SD difference in isometric muscle strength in youth...

  9. The biomechanics of running in athletes with previous hamstring injury: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, C; Persson, U McCarthy; Twycross-Lewis, R; Woledge, R C; Morrissey, D

    2016-04-01

    Hamstring injury is prevalent with persistently high reinjury rates. We aim to inform hamstring rehabilitation by exploring the electromyographic and kinematic characteristics of running in athletes with previous hamstring injury. Nine elite male Gaelic games athletes who had returned to sport after hamstring injury and eight closely matched controls sprinted while lower limb kinematics and muscle activity of the previously injured biceps femoris, bilateral gluteus maximus, lumbar erector spinae, rectus femoris, and external oblique were recorded. Intergroup comparisons of muscle activation ratios and kinematics were performed. Previously injured athletes demonstrated significantly reduced biceps femoris muscle activation ratios with respect to ipsilateral gluteus maximus (maximum difference -12.5%, P = 0.03), ipsilateral erector spinae (maximum difference -12.5%, P = 0.01), ipsilateral external oblique (maximum difference -23%, P = 0.01), and contralateral rectus femoris (maximum difference -22%, P = 0.02) in the late swing phase. We also detected sagittal asymmetry in hip flexion (maximum 8°, P = 0.01), pelvic tilt (maximum 4°, P = 0.02), and medial rotation of the knee (maximum 6°, P = 0.03) effectively putting the hamstrings in a lengthened position just before heel strike. Previous hamstring injury is associated with altered biceps femoris associated muscle activity and potentially injurious kinematics. These deficits should be considered and addressed during rehabilitation.

  10. Tinetti mobility test is related to muscle mass and strength in non-institutionalized elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curcio, Francesco; Basile, Claudia; Liguori, Ilaria; Della-Morte, David; Gargiulo, Gaetano; Galizia, Gianluigi; Testa, Gianluca; Langellotto, Assunta; Cacciatore, Francesco; Bonaduce, Domenico; Abete, Pasquale

    2016-12-01

    Elderly people are characterized by a high prevalence of falls and sarcopenia. However, the relationship among Tinetti mobility test (TMT) score, a powerful tool to detect elderly people at risk of falls, and sarcopenia is still not thoroughly investigated. Thus, to determine the relationship between TMT score and muscle mass and strength, 337 elderly participants (mean age 77.1 ± 6.9 years) admitted to comprehensive geriatric assessment were enrolled. TMT score, muscle mass by bioimpedentiometer, and muscle strength by grip strength were evaluated. Muscle mass progressively decreased as TMT score decreased (from 15.3 ± 3.7 to 8.8 ± 1.8 kg/m(2); p for trend Tinetti score decreased (from 34.7 ± 8.0 to 23.7 ± 8.7 kg; p for trend 0.001). Linear regression analysis demonstrated that TMT score is linearly related with muscle mass (y = 4.5x + 0.4, r = 0.61; p score and muscle mass (r = 0.48, p = 0.024) and strength (r = 0.39, p = 0.046). The present study indicates that TMT score is significantly related to muscle mass and strength in non-institutionalized elderly participants. This evidence suggests that TMT score, together with evaluation of muscle mass and strength, may identify sarcopenic elderly participants at high risk of falls.

  11. Muscle strength as a predictor of onset of ADL dependence in people aged 75 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rantanen, Taina; Avlund, Kirsten; Suominen, Harri

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this prospective study over 5 years was to examine maximal isometric strength of multiple muscle groups as a predictor of losing independence in activities of daily living (ADL). The participants were from the Nordic Research on Aging (NORA75). These analyses are restricted to 567 people....... Of the 227 initially ADL independent men, 21 (9.3%) became dependent in ADL. In women, the figures were 30 (8.8%) of 340. Multiple logistic regression models were used to predict the risk of ADL dependence in groups based on strength tertiles. After confirming that the association of muscle strength...... dependent because of poor muscle strength, and who could reduce their risk by strengthening exercises....

  12. FKBP12 deficiency reduces strength deficits after eccentric contraction-induced muscle injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona, Benjamin T.; Rouviere, Clement; Hamilton, Susan L.; Ingalls, Christopher P.

    2008-01-01

    Strength deficits associated with eccentric contraction-induced muscle injury stem, in part, from excitation-contraction uncoupling. FKBP12 is a 12-kDa binding protein known to bind to the skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release channel [ryanodine receptor (RyR1)] and plays an important role in excitation-contraction coupling. To assess the effects of FKBP12 deficiency on muscle injury and recovery, we measured anterior crural muscle (tibialis anterior and extensor digitorum longus muscles) strength in skeletal muscle-specific FKBP12-deficient and wild-type (WT) mice before and after a single bout of 150 eccentric contractions, as well as before and after the performance of six injury bouts. Histological damage of the tibialis anterior muscle was assessed after injury. Body weight and peak isometric and eccentric torques were lower in FKBP12-deficient mice compared with WT mice. There were no differences between FKBP12-deficient and WT mice in preinjury peak isometric and eccentric torques when normalized to body weight, and no differences in the relative decreases in eccentric torque with a single or multiple injury bouts. After a single injury bout, FKBP12-deficient mice had less initial strength deficits and recovered faster (especially females) than WT mice, despite no differences in the degree of histological damage. After multiple injury bouts, FKBP12-deficient mice recovered muscle strength faster than WT mice and exhibited significantly less histological muscle damage than WT mice. In summary, FKBP12 deficiency results in less initial strength deficits and enhanced recovery from single (especially females) and repeated bouts of injury than WT mice. PMID:18511525

  13. Intrarater reliability of assessing strength of the shoulder and scapular muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Derya; Dirican, Ahmet; Baltaci, Gul

    2012-02-29

    Handheld dynamometry (HHD) is considered an objective method of measuring strength, but the reliability of the procedure can be compromised by inadequate tester strength and insufficient stabilization of the dynamometer especially, for the scapular muscles. Primarily, to determine the intrarater reliability of HHD when testing shoulder and scapular muscle strength, and secondarily, to report reliability when corrected for body-mass index (BMI). Technical report. University physiotherapy department. 57 adults (17 men, 40 women; mean age = 35.05 ± 13.5 y), both healthy individuals and patients with shoulder impingement. HHD. Muscle strength of the upper, middle, and lower trapezius; anterior deltoid; serratus anterior; supraspinatus; and latissimus dorsi determined by HHD. Each muscle was assessed 3 times, and the mean value was calculated. The subjects were divided into 3 groups according to BMI. Group 1: BMI ≤ 20 kg/m(2) (n = 22); Group 2: BMI ≤ 24.9 kg/m(2) (n = 54); and Group 3: BMI ≤ 29.9 kg/m(2) (n = 38). Correlations were calculated for each pair of strength scores. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) ranged from .77 to .99 in healthy subjects and from .75 to .99 in patients, for all muscle groups except the upper trapezius (P muscle strength illustrates that as BMI increases, there is a decrease in reliability values of the lower trapezius (ICC = .35-.65). The study demonstrates that evaluating the strength of scapular and shoulder muscles using HHD presents reliable results for both patients with impingement syndrome and healthy subjects. Reliability values were compressed when testing the trapezius in subjects with higher BMI. This is likely a result of the examiner's difficulty in overcoming the patients with this maneuver.

  14. Degree of Contracture Related to Residual Muscle Shoulder Strength in Children with Obstetric Brachial Plexus Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gelein Vitringa, Valerie M; van Noort, Arthur; Ritt, Marco J P F; van Royen, Barend J; van der Sluijs, Johannes A

    2015-12-01

     Little is known about the relation between residual muscle strength and joint contracture formation in neuromuscular disorders. This study aimed to investigate the relation between residual muscle strength and shoulder joint contractures in children with sequelae of obstetric brachial plexus lesion (OBPL). In OBPL a shoulder joint contracture is a frequent finding. We hypothesize that residual internal and external rotator strength and their balance are related to the extent of shoulder joint contracture.  Clinical assessment was performed in 34 children (mean 10.0 years) with unilateral OBPL and Narakas classes I-III. External and internal rotation strengths were measured with the shoulder in neutral position using a handheld dynamometer. Strength on the affected side was given as percentage of the normal side. Contracture was assessed by passive internal and external rotations in degrees (in 0° abduction). Mallet classification was used for active shoulder function.  External and internal rotation strengths on the affected side were approximately 50% of the normal side and on average both equally affected: 56% (SD 18%) respectively 51% (SD 27%); r = 0.600, p = 0.000. Residual strengths were not related to passive internal or external rotation (p > 0.200). Internal rotation strength (r =  - 0.425, p muscle strength influence contracture formation cannot be confirmed in this study. Our results are of interest for the understanding of contracture formation in OBPL.

  15. Changes in maximum muscle strength and rapid muscle force characteristics after long-term special support and reconnaissance missions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Astrup; Jacobsen, Jacob Ole; Thorlund, Jonas B

    2008-01-01

    of force development, and maximal jump height were tested to assess muscle strength/power along with whole-body impedance analysis before and after SSR. RESULTS: Body weight, fat-free mass, and total body water decreased (4-5%) after SSR, along with impairments in maximal jump height (-8%) and knee...

  16. Evaluation of sedentary women’s ambulatory blood pressure and its relation to muscle strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramires Alsamir Tibana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the ambulatory blood pressure in women with different values of relative muscle strength. Methods: Data from 21 (aged 33.8±8.0 years sedentary women from Vila Telebrasília was collected during the period of November 2010 to July 2011. The volunteers were submitted to the evaluation of the handgrip strength and ambulatory monitoring of blood pressure (AMBP for a 72-hour period. Following the evaluation of handgrip strength to determine the absolute muscle strength, an adjustment in the body mass was made, in order to determine the relative muscle strength. Based on the relative value of muscular strength, the sample was divided into tertiles to compare systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressure during the periods of 24 hours, daytime and night-time, by using an one-way ANOVA, followed by Bonferroni test when appropriate, with a significance level of p<0.05. Results: Significant differences were found for systolic blood pressure between tertile 1 (99.3±12.2 and tertile 3 (106.8±11.1 in the night-time (P<0.05. Values of mean blood pressure were also significantly different between tertile 1 (70.2±6.3 and tertile 3 (80.3 ± 8.8 in the night-time (p<0,05. Conclusion: Women with higher relative muscle strength present lower values of blood pressure during night-time

  17. Determinants of inspiratory muscle strength in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Peter I; Johnson, Michael A; Sharpe, Graham R

    2014-06-01

    We investigated (1) the relationship between the baseline and inspiratory muscle training (IMT) induced increase in maximal inspiratory pressure (P(I,max)) and (2) the relative contributions of the inspiratory chest wall muscles and the diaphragm (P(oes)/P(di)) to P(I,max) prior to and following-IMT. Experiment 1: P(I,max) was assessed during a Müeller manoeuvre before and after 4-wk IMT (n=30). Experiment 2: P(I,max) and the relative contribution of the inspiratory chest wall muscles to the diaphragm (P(oes)/P(di)) were assessed during a Müeller manoeuvre before and after 4-wk IMT (n=20). Experiment 1: P(I,max) increased 19% (Pinspiratory muscles relative to the diaphragm affect, in part, baseline and IMT-induced P(I,max). Great care should be taken when designing future IMT studies to ensure parity in the between-subject baseline P(I,max).

  18. Early changes in muscle strength after total knee arthroplasty. A 6-month follow-up of 30 knees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, J S; Petersen, M M; Brot, C

    1999-01-01

    to surgery, and after 3 and 6 months, isokinetic and isometric muscle strength in both legs were measured, using a Cybex 6000 dynamometer. Isokinetic tests showed a bilateral, significant, and progressive increase (30-53%) in flexor muscle strength most pronounced in the operated legs. Isokinetic extensor...... to the preoperative level. No significant change in isometric strength was observed in the contralateral legs. The knee pain during the muscle strength measurements decreased significantly from the preoperative level, which may indicate that the substantial pain relief within 3 months after a TKA is an important...... factor for evaluation of muscle strength....

  19. The effects of kinesio taping on architecture, strength and pain of muscles in delayed onset muscle soreness of biceps brachii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Sin; Bae, Sea Hyun; Hwang, Jin Ah; Kim, Kyung Yoon

    2015-02-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to confirm the effects of kinesio taping (KT) on muscle function and pain due to delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) of the biceps brachii. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-seven subjects with induced DOMS were randomized into either Group I (control, n=19) or Group II (KT, n=18). Outcome measures were recorded before the intervention (application of KT) and at 24, 48, and 72 hours after the intervention. DOMS was induced, and muscle thickness was measured using ultrasonic radiography. Maximal voluntary isometric contraction (%MVIC) was measured via electromyography (EMG). Subjective pain was measured using a visual analogue scale (VAS). [Results] Group I exhibited a positive correlation between muscle thickness and elapsed time from intervention (24, 48, and 72 hours post induction of DOMS); they also showed a significant decrease in MVIC(%). Group II showed significant increases in muscle thickness up to the 48-hour interval post induction of DOMS, along with a significant decrease in MVIC (%). However, in contrast to Group I, Group II did not show a significant difference in muscle thickness or MVIC (%) at the 72-hour interval in comparison with the values prior to DOMS induction. [Conclusion] In adults with DOMS, activation of muscles by applying KT was found to be an effective and faster method of recovering muscle strength than rest alone.

  20. Relation between systemic inflammatory markers, peripheral muscle mass, and strength in limb muscles in stable COPD patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrari R

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Renata Ferrari,1 Laura MO Caram,1 Marcia M Faganello,2 Fernanda F Sanchez,3 Suzana E Tanni,1 Irma Godoy1 1Botucatu Medical School, Department of Internal Medicine, Pneumology Area, Botucatu, São Paulo, 2Paulista State University, Department of Physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy, Marilia, São Paulo, 3Federal University of Amazonas, Department of Physiotherapy, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between systemic inflammatory mediators and peripheral muscle mass and strength in COPD patients. Fifty-five patients (69% male; age: 64±9 years with mild/very severe COPD (defined as forced expiratory volume in the first second [FEV1] =54%±23% were evaluated. We evaluated serum concentrations of IL-8, CRP, and TNF-α. Peripheral muscle mass was evaluated by computerized tomography (CT; midthigh cross-sectional muscle area (MTCSA and midarm cross-sectional muscle area (MACSA were obtained. Quadriceps, triceps, and biceps strength were assessed through the determination of the one-repetition maximum. The multiple regression results, adjusted for age, sex, and FEV1%, showed positive significant association between MTCSA and leg extension (0.35 [0.16, 0.55]; P=0.001, between MACSA and triceps pulley (0.45 [0.31, 0.58]; P=0.001, and between MACSA and biceps curl (0.34 [0.22, 0.47]; P=0.001. Plasma TNF-α was negatively associated with leg extension (-3.09 [-5.99, -0.18]; P=0.04 and triceps pulley (-1.31 [-2.35, -0.28]; P=0.01, while plasma CRP presented negative association with biceps curl (-0.06 [-0.11, -0.01]; P=0.02. Our results showed negative association between peripheral muscle mass (evaluated by CT and muscle strength and that systemic inflammation has a negative influence in the strength of specific groups of muscles in individuals with stable COPD. This is the first study showing association between systemic inflammatory markers and strength in upper limb muscles. Keywords

  1. The correlation between the imaging characteristics of hamstring injury and time required before returning to sports: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Kjell; Alricsson, Marie; Eckerman, Mattias; Magounakis, Theofilos; Werner, Suzanne

    2016-06-01

    Injuries to the hamstring muscles are common in athletes. Track and field, Australian football, American football and soccer are examples of sports where hamstring injuries are the most common. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there is a correlation between a hamstring injury prognosis and its characteristics of imaging parameters. The literature search was performed in the databases PubMed and CINAHL, and eleven articles were included. Seven out of the 11 articles showed a correlation between the size of the hamstring injury and length of time required before returning to sports. Different authors have reported contrasting results about length of time required before returning to sports due to location of injury within specific muscle. Majority of the articles found hamstring strain correlated to an extended amount of time required before returning to sports.

  2. Correlation Analysis in Walking Ability and Lower Limb Muscle Strength of Children with Cerebral Palsy%痉挛型双瘫脑瘫患儿步行能力与下肢肌力的相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵英子; 郭宝慧; 高生平; 于景坤; 王嘉怡; 侯凤冬

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the relationship between walking ability and lower limb muscle strength of children with cerebral palsy. Methods:60 cases of children with spastic diplegia adopted manual muscle test and walking function scale to assess the lower limb muscle strength and walk-ing ability, as well as the correlation. Results:The average lower extremity muscle strength of each group was level 2.11±0.17, each level of different muscle strength;walking ability of grade 0 with 8 cases (13.33%), grade 1 with 14 cases (23.33%), grade 2 with 16 cases (26.67%), grade 3 with 11 cases (18.33%), grade 4 with 11 cases (18.33%);the walking ability of children with spastic diplegia was positively correlated with myodynamia of iliopsoas, gluteus medius, hamstrings, quadriceps femoris and gastrocnemius muscle (P<0.05). Conclusion:Cerebral palsy of spastic diplegia is asso-ciated with lower limb muscle strength and walking ability, muscle strength of lower limbs and walking ability are positively correlated.%目的:探讨痉挛型双瘫脑瘫患儿步行能力与下肢肌力的关系.方法:选取痉挛型双瘫患儿60例,采用徒手肌力检查法及步行功能量表对其进行下肢肌力评估和步行能力评定,探讨两者相关性.结果:患儿下肢各组肌肉平均肌力为2.11±0.17级,各组肌肉肌力减低程度不同;步行能力分级0级8例(13.33%),1级14例(23.33%),2级16例(26.67%),3级11例(18.33%), 4级11例(18.33%);痉挛型双瘫患儿步行能力与髂腰肌、臀中肌、腘绳肌、股四头肌、腓肠肌肌力呈正相关(P<0.05).结论:痉挛型双瘫脑瘫患儿下肢肌力与步行能力相关,下肢肌力越好则步行能力越好.

  3. Effect of strength training with blood flow restriction on muscle power and submaximal strength in eumenorrheic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Ana L S; Neto, Gabriel R; Sousa, Maria S C; Dias, Ingrid; Vianna, Jeferson; Nunes, Rodolfo A M; Novaes, Jefferson S

    2017-03-01

    Blood flow restriction (BFR) training stimulates muscle size and strength by increasing muscle activation, accumulation of metabolites and muscle swelling. This method has been used in different populations, but no studies have evaluated the effects of training on muscle power and submaximal strength (SS) in accounted for the menstrual cycle. The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of strength training (ST) with BFR on the muscle power and SS of upper and lower limbs in eumenorrheic women. Forty untrained women (18-40 years) were divided randomly and proportionally into four groups: (i) high-intensity ST at 80% of 1RM (HI), (ii) low-intensity ST at 20% of 1RM combined with partial blood flow restriction (LI + BFR), (iii) low-intensity ST at 20% of 1RM (LI) and d) control group (CG). Each training group performed eight training sessions. Tests with a medicine ball (MB), horizontal jump (HJ), vertical jump (VJ), biceps curls (BC) and knee extension (KE) were performed during the 1st day follicular phase (FP), 14th day (ovulatory phase) and 26-28th days (luteal phase) of the menstrual cycle. There was no significant difference among groups in terms of the MB, HJ, VJ or BC results at any time point (P>0·05). SS in the KE exercise was significantly greater in the LI + BFR group compared to the CG group (P = 0·014) during the LP. Therefore, ST with BFR does not appear to improve the power of upper and lower limbs and may be an alternative to improve the SS of lower limbs of eumenorrheic women.

  4. Isokinetic Evaluation of Knee Extensor/Flexor Muscle Strength in Behcet’s Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekir Durmus

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Behçet’s disease (BD is an idiopathic, multisystemic, progressive disease. The purpose of this study is to compare the knee flexor and extensor isokinetic muscle strengths of Behcet’s patients with that of healthy subjects. Methods: Twenty-five (13 male and 12 female patients with BD and 25 (15 male and 10 female healthy individuals were included in the study. Velocities of 90°/sec, 120°/sec, and 150°/sec were used for the isokinetic muscle strength testing. Patients with active inflammatory knee arthritis were excluded. Peak torque (Nm and peak torque adjusted to body weight (% were taken into consideration for comparison between study groups. Results: Compared to healthy controls, there was a statistically significant decrease in both the bilateral knee extensor and flexor muscle isokinetic peak torques(Nm as well as the peak torques adjusted to body weight (% at velocities of 90°/sec, 120°/sec and 150°/sec in patients with BD (p < 0.05. However, there was no significant difference in the agonist-antagonist ratio of the isokinetic peak torques of knee muscles between the two groups. Conclusion: In light of these findings, we have concluded that both knee flexor and extensor isokinetic muscle strengths are lower in BD. We therefore recommend careful monitoring of patients with BD in terms of muscle strength.

  5. Adductor pollicis muscle and hand grip strength: potential methods of nutritional assessment in outpatients with stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Rocha Oliveira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate and compare the effectiveness of different methods used for nutritional assessment of outpatients who had hemiplegic stroke. Methods: A cross-section study with adult and elderly patients of both genders enrolled in a rehabilitation center. The analyzed variables were anthropometric measurements, bioelectrical impedance, hand grip strength and thickness of the adductor pollicis muscle. The Pearson χ2 test was used to check the association between variables with a significance level of α = 5%. Results: When evaluating the association between indicators of muscle mass, it was observed that the hand grip strength in both genders was positively correlated with arm muscle circumference (p = 0.0196 and lean mass (p = 0.0002. Fat mass measured by the bioelectrical impedance method already showed a significant inverse relationship with the grip (r = -0.3879. The thickness of the adductor pollicis muscle showed significant association with lean mass (p = 0.0052 and hand grip (p = 0.0024. Conclusion: In this study, the hand grip strength and thickness of the adductor pollicis muscle were well correlated with measurements determined by anthropometry and bioimpedance. The results show the applicability of grip strength and thickness of the adductor pollicis muscle in clinical practice as nutritional assessment methods for this population, especially elderly patients, since they detect functional changes not captured by other parameters in the short term and are important for early identification of risk nutrition.

  6. Strength improvement of knee extensor muscles in patients with chronic heart failure by neuromuscular electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quittan, M; Sochor, A; Wiesinger, G F; Kollmitzer, J; Sturm, B; Pacher, R; Mayr, W

    1999-05-01

    Patients with severe chronic heart failure (CHF) suffer from marked weakness of skeletal muscles. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) proved to be an alternative to active strength training. The objective of this study was to test the feasibility and effectiveness of NMES in patients with chronic heart failure. Seven patients (56.0 +/- 5.0 years, CHF for 20 +/- 4 months, left ventricular ejection fraction 20.1 +/- 10.0%) finished an 8 week course of NMES of the knee extensor muscles. The stimulator delivered biphasic, symmetric, constant voltage impulses of 0.7 ms pulse width with a frequency of 50 Hz, 2 s on and 6 s off. No adverse effects occurred. After the stimulation period, the isokinetic peak torque of the knee extensor muscles increased by 13% from 101.0 +/- 8.7 Nm to 113.5 +/- 7.2 Nm (p = 0.004). The maximal isometric strength increased by 20% from 294.3 +/- 19.6 N to 354.14 +/- 15.7 N (p = 0.04). This increased muscle strength could be maintained in a 20 min fatigue test indicating decreased muscle fatigue. These results demonstrate that NMES of skeletal muscles in patients with severe chronic heart failure is a promising method for strength training in this group of patients.

  7. Outcome of Grade I and II Hamstring Injuries in Intercollegiate Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Kilcoyne, Kelly G.; Dickens, Jonathan F.; Keblish, David; Rue, John-Paul; Chronister, Ray

    2011-01-01

    Background: Hamstring muscle strains represent a common and disabling athletic injury with variable recurrence rates and prolonged recovery times. Objectives: To present the outcomes of a novel rehabilitation protocol for the treatment of proximal hamstring strains in an intercollegiate sporting population and to determine any significant differences in the rate of reinjury and time to return to sport based on patient and injury characteristics. Study Design: Retrospective case series. Method...

  8. Longer Interset Rest Periods Enhance Muscle Strength and Hypertrophy in Resistance-Trained Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Brad J; Pope, Zachary K; Benik, Franklin M; Hester, Garrett M; Sellers, John; Nooner, Josh L; Schnaiter, Jessica A; Bond-Williams, Katherine E; Carter, Adrian S; Ross, Corbin L; Just, Brandon L; Henselmans, Menno; Krieger, James W

    2016-07-01

    Schoenfeld, BJ, Pope, ZK, Benik, FM, Hester, GM, Sellers, J, Nooner, JL, Schnaiter, JA, Bond-Williams, KE, Carter, AS, Ross, CL, Just, BL, Henselmans, M, and Krieger, JW. Longer interset rest periods enhance muscle strength and hypertrophy in resistance-trained men. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 1805-1812, 2016-The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of short rest intervals normally associated with hypertrophy-type training versus long rest intervals traditionally used in strength-type training on muscular adaptations in a cohort of young, experienced lifters. Twenty-one young resistance-trained men were randomly assigned to either a group that performed a resistance training (RT) program with 1-minute rest intervals (SHORT) or a group that employed 3-minute rest intervals (LONG). All other RT variables were held constant. The study period lasted 8 weeks with subjects performing 3 total body workouts a week comprised 3 sets of 8-12 repetition maximum (RM) of 7 different exercises per session. Testing was performed prestudy and poststudy for muscle strength (1RM bench press and back squat), muscle endurance (50% 1RM bench press to failure), and muscle thickness of the elbow flexors, triceps brachii, and quadriceps femoris by ultrasound imaging. Maximal strength was significantly greater for both 1RM squat and bench press for LONG compared to SHORT. Muscle thickness was significantly greater for LONG compared to SHORT in the anterior thigh, and a trend for greater increases was noted in the triceps brachii (p = 0.06) as well. Both groups saw significant increases in local upper body muscle endurance with no significant differences noted between groups. This study provides evidence that longer rest periods promote greater increases in muscle strength and hypertrophy in young resistance-trained men.

  9. Impact of backpack type on respiratory muscle strength and lung function in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Ana Christina; Ribeiro, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    We examine the influence of backpack type on lung function and respiratory muscle strength in children. Thirty-seven children were assessed for lung function and inspiratory and expiratory muscle strength under four randomly determined conditions: unloaded erect standing and three conditions carrying 15% of the child's body weight. In these three conditions, children carried the weight on a backpack with bilateral shoulder straps carried over both shoulders, on a backpack with bilateral shoulder straps carried over one shoulder and on a backpack with a mono shoulder strap. Significantly lower forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second and maximal expiratory pressure were observed when children carried a backpack with a mono shoulder strap compared to the unloaded standing position. In conclusion, the restrictive effect and the decrease in expiratory muscle strength were more pronounced for the backpack with a mono shoulder strap, suggesting that a double strap backpack is preferable to a mono shoulder strap backpack. Practitioner summary: There is little known about the effect of schoolbags on respiratory muscle function. We investigated the influence of backpack type on lung function and respiratory muscle strength. A backpack with a mono shoulder strap created a restrictive effect and a decrease in strength, suggesting that a double strap backpack is preferable to a mono shoulder strap backpack.

  10. Effects of increasing physical activity on foot structure and ankle muscle strength in adults with obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoguang; Tsujimoto, Takehiko; Kim, Bokun; Katayama, Yasutomi; Wakaba, Kyousuke; Wang, Zhennan; Tanaka, Kiyoji

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of increasing physical activity on foot structure and ankle muscle strength in adults with obesity and to verify whether the rate of change in foot structure is related to that in ankle muscle strength. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-seven adults with obesity completed a 12-week program in which the intensity of physical activity performed was gradually increased. Physical activity was monitored using a three-axis accelerometer. Foot structure was assessed using a three-dimensional foot scanner, while ankle muscle strength was measured using a dynamometry. [Results] With the increasing physical activity, the participants’ feet became thinner (the rearfoot width, instep height, and girth decreased) and the arch became higher (the arch height index increased) and stiffer (the arch stiffness index increased); the ankle muscle strength also increased after the intervention. Additionally, the changes in the arch height index and arch stiffness index were not associated with changes in ankle muscle strength. [Conclusion] Increasing physical activity may be one possible approach to improve foot structure and function in individuals with obesity. PMID:27630426

  11. Core muscle strength and endurance measures in ambulatory persons with multiple sclerosis: validity and reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Donna K; Huang, Min; Rodda, Becky J

    2015-09-01

    This study examined the test-retest reliability and validity of three core muscle strength tests in individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS). Twenty-one ambulatory individuals with MS completed the curl-up, flexor endurance, and pelvic tilt stabilization tests of core muscle strength. They were retested 1-2 weeks after the first test. The sit-to-stand (STS) test was also conducted on the first test. Descriptive statistics, intraclass correlation coefficients, SEM, and minimal detectable change (MDC) were calculated for each test. Pearson's correlations were calculated between all variables for the first test date. The curl-up test demonstrated excellent test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient=0.995), requiring 3.4 additional repetitions in 60 s to demonstrate a detectable change. The curl-up test was moderately correlated with the STS. The flexor endurance and pelvic tilt stabilization tests demonstrated moderate test-retest reliability, with relatively large SEMs and MDCs and only a low correlation with the STS. The curl-up test is recommended as a valid and reliable test of core muscle strength in individuals with MS. The flexor endurance test and the pelvic tilt stabilization test of core muscle strength are not recommended due to large SEM and MDC scores. Further study of core muscle strength and endurance measures is indicated to seek additional tests that are valid and reliable in the MS population.

  12. Skeletal muscle strength in older adults. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE genotype affects: an UPDATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA PEREIRA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement : Previous studies have associated angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE with variability inthe skeletal muscle baseline strength, though conclusions have been inconsistent across investigations.Approach: The purpose of this study was to review the most important studies that have been exanimate thepossible association between ACE genotype and skeletal muscle baseline strength in elite male and femaleathletes involved in elderly populations. This research is needed because the possibility that the DD genotypemay be associated with a greater proportion of fast twitch fibers could explain the influence of the ACE D alleleupon strength/ power, particularly at high velocities, but this evidence remains equivocal in older people becausemore studies are necessary.Results: Thus, according to scientific evidence, changes in muscle strength with exercise training in olderindividuals may be dependent on ACE I/D genotype. Of note, the results provide a novel insight that thesegenetic variations may interact to determine muscle mass in older women specially. The determination of thispredisposition in this population, highlighting the interest of study, for the prophylactic attitude on the factorsand causes of aging (sarcopenia, osteoporosis, risk of falls, reduction of functional physical go through thisanalysis.Conclusions/Recommendations: In this work, the state of the art related to the influence of the ACE genotypeon skeletal muscle strength was presented and some important relations were reported

  13. Self directed home based electrical muscle stimulation training improves exercise tolerance and strength in healthy elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, Brian; Prendergast, Ann; Rainsford, Gary; Minogue, Conor

    2013-01-01

    Advancing age is associated with a gradual decline in muscle strength, exercise tolerance and subsequent capacity for activities of daily living. It is important that we develop effective strategies to halt this process of gradual decline in order to enhance functional ability and capacity for independent living. To achieve this, we must overcome the challenge of sustaining ongoing engagement in physical exercise programmes in the sedentary elderly population, particularly those who experience barriers to exercise participation. Recent developments in electrical muscle stimulation technology could provide a potential solution. In this pilot case-control study we investigated the effects of a self-directed home based programme of electrical muscle stimulation training on muscle strength and exercise tolerance in a group of 16 healthy elderly volunteers (10f, 6m). Study participants completed 30 separate 1-hour electrical muscle stimulation sessions at home over a 6-week period. We observed significant improvements in quadriceps muscle strength and 6-minute walk distance, suggesting that this form of electrical muscle stimulation training has promise as an exercise modality in the elderly population.

  14. Isometric hip muscle strength in posttraumatic below-knee amputees

    OpenAIRE

    Jandrić Slavica

    2007-01-01

    Background/Aim. Traumas and war injuries, next to chronic occlusive artery disease and diabetes mellitus-derived complications, are the most frequent cause of the lower limbs amputation. They affect mostly younger population that need a higher level of activities as compared with the elderly. Medical rehabilitation is very significant for the muscle performance improvement in this population providing their social reintegration. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of below-kne...

  15. Cognitive status, muscle strength, and subsequent disability in older Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raji, Mukaila A; Kuo, Yong-Fang; Snih, Soham Al; Markides, Kyriakos S; Peek, M Kristen; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J

    2005-09-01

    To examine the association between Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score and subsequent muscle strength (measured using handgrip strength) and to test the hypothesis that muscle strength will mediate any association between impaired cognition and incident activity of daily living (ADL) disability over a 7-year period in elderly Mexican Americans who were initially not disabled. A 7-year prospective cohort study (1993-2001). Five southwestern states (Texas, New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, and California). Two thousand three hundred eighty-one noninstitutionalized Mexican-American men and women aged 65 and older with no ADL disability at baseline. In-home interviews in 1993/1994, 1995/1996, 1998/1999, and 2000/2001 assessed social and demographic factors, medical conditions (diabetes mellitus, stroke, heart attack, and arthritis), body mass index (BMI), depressive symptomatology, handgrip muscle strength, and ADLs. MMSE score was dichotomized as less than 21 for poor cognition and 21 or greater for good cognition. Main outcomes measures were mean and slope of handgrip muscle strength over the 7-year period and incident disability, defined as new onset of any ADL limitation at the 2-, 5-, or 7-year follow-up interview periods. In mixed model analyses, there was a significant cross-sectional association between having poor cognition (MMSEMexican Americans with poor cognition had steeper decline in handgrip muscle strength over 7 years than those with good cognition, independent of other demographic and health factors. A possible mediating effect of muscle strength on the association between poor cognition and subsequent ADL disability was also indicated.

  16. Decreased neck muscle strength in patients with the loss of cervical lordosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpayci, Mahmut; Şenköy, Emre; Delen, Veysel; Şah, Volkan; Yazmalar, Levent; Erden, Metin; Toprak, Murat; Kaplan, Şeyhmus

    2016-03-01

    The loss of cervical lordosis is associated with some negative clinical outcomes. No previous study has examined cervical muscle strength, specifically in patients with the loss of cervical lordosis. This study aims to investigate whether there is weakness of the cervical muscles or an imbalance between cervical flexor and extensor muscle strength in patients with the loss of cervical lordosis compared with healthy controls matched by age, gender, body mass index (BMI), and employment status. Thirty-two patients with the loss of cervical lordosis (23 F, 9 M) and 31 healthy volunteers (23 F, 8 M) were included in the study. Maximal isometric neck extension and flexion strength, and the strength ratio between extension and flexion were used as evaluation parameters. All measurements were conducted by a blinded assessor using a digital force gauge. The participants were positioned on a chair in a neutral cervical position and without the trunk inclined during measurements. Maximal isometric neck extension and flexion strength values were significantly lower in the patients versus healthy controls (Plordosis have reduced neck muscle strength, especially in the extensors. These findings may be beneficial for optimizing cervical exercise prescriptions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Relationships between muscle power output using the stretch-shortening cycle and eccentric maximum strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaguchi, Kazuyoshi; Demura, Shinichi

    2008-11-01

    This study aimed to examine the relationships between muscle power output using the stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) and eccentric maximum strength under elbow flexion. Eighteen young adult males pulled up a constant light load (2 kg) by ballistic elbow flexion under the following two preliminary conditions: 1) the static relaxed muscle state (SR condition), and 2) using the SSC with countermovement (SSC condition).Muscle power was determined from the product of the pulling velocity and the load mass by a power measurement instrument that adopted the weight-loading method. We assumed the pulling velocity to be the subject's muscle power parameters as a matter of convenience, because we used a constant load. The following two parameters were selected in reference to a previous study: 1) peak velocity (m x s(-1)) (peak power) and 2) 0.1-second velocity during concentric contraction (m x s(-1)) (initial power). Eccentric maximum strength by elbow flexion was measured by a handheld dynamometer.Initial power produced in the SSC condition was significantly larger than that in the SR condition. Eccentric maximum strength showed a significant and high correlation (r = 0.70) with peak power in the SSC condition but not in the SR condition. Eccentric maximum strength showed insignificant correlations with initial power in both conditions. In conclusion, it was suggested that eccentric maximum strength is associated with peak power in the SSC condition, but the contribution of the eccentric maximum strength to the SSC potentiation (initial power) may be low.

  18. Effect of Injury Prevention Programs that Include the Nordic Hamstring Exercise on Hamstring Injury Rates in Soccer Players: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Attar, Wesam Saleh A; Soomro, Najeebullah; Sinclair, Peter J; Pappas, Evangelos; Sanders, Ross H

    2017-05-01

    Hamstring injuries are among the most common non-contact injuries in sports. The Nordic hamstring (NH) exercise has been shown to decrease risk by increasing eccentric hamstring strength. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate the effectiveness of the injury prevention programs that included the NH exercise on reducing hamstring injury rates while factoring in athlete workload. Two researchers independently searched for eligible studies using the following databases: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials via OvidSP, AMED (Allied and Complementary Medicine) via OvidSP, EMBASE, PubMed, MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, CINAHL and AusSportMed, from inception to December 2015. The keyword domains used during the search were Nordic, hamstring, injury prevention programs, sports and variations of these keywords. The initial search resulted in 3242 articles which were filtered to five articles that met the inclusion criteria. The main inclusion criteria were randomized controlled trials or interventional studies on use of an injury prevention program that included the NH exercise while the primary outcome was hamstring injury rate. Extracted data were subjected to meta-analysis using a random effects model. The pooled results based on total injuries per 1000 h of exposure showed that programs that included the NH exercise had a statistically significant reduction in hamstring injury risk ratio [IRR] of 0.490 (95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.291-0.827, p = 0.008). Teams using injury prevention programs that included the NH exercise reduced hamstring injury rates up to 51 % in the long term compared with the teams that did not use any injury prevention measures. This systematic review and meta-analysis demonstrates that injury prevention programs that include NH exercises decrease the risk of hamstring injuries among soccer players. A protocol was registered in the International Prospective Register of Systematic

  19. Effects of Massage on Muscular Strength and Proprioception After Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Mal-Soon; Sung, Yun-Hee

    2015-08-01

    Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD), which is commonly associated with eccentric exercise, unaccustomed exercise, and resistance training, may lead to delayed onset muscle soreness, swelling, decreased muscle strength, and range of motion. Many researchers have evaluated various interventions to treat the signs and symptoms of EIMD. However, the effects of massage after EIMD are unclear. Here, we investigated the effect of massage on muscle strength and proprioception after EIMD. All subjects randomly were divided into an EIMD-treated control group (n = 10) and a massage-treated after EIMD experimental group (n = 11). Exercise-induced muscle damage was induced by repeated exercise. Massage treatment was provided by physiotherapist for 15 minutes. It consists of light stroking, milking, friction, and skin rolling. Lactate was evaluated by Lactate Pro analyzer in pre- and postexercise. Surface electromyography (muscle activity) and sonography (muscle thickness) were used to confirm the muscular characteristics. Proprioception was investigated by dual inclinometer. As a result, massage treatment on the gastrocnemius after EIMD increased activation of the medial gastrocnemius during contraction (p ≤ 0.05). In the lateral and medial gastrocnemius, the θs, which is the angle between muscle fibers and superficial aponeurosis, showed a significant change (p ≤ 0.05). However, there are no differences in the θd, which is the angle between muscle fibers and deep aponeurosis. We also found that proprioceptive acuity in the ankle joint was significantly greater in the massage-treated experimental group compared with that in the control group (p ≤ 0.05). These findings suggest that massage of the gastrocnemius after EIMD can improve muscle strength and proprioception by influencing the superficial layer of the gastrocnemius.

  20. Effects of functional exercise training on performance and muscle strength after meniscectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ericsson, Y B; Dahlberg, L E; Roos, E M

    2008-01-01

    Muscular deficits and functional limitations have been found years after meniscectomy of the knee. The purpose of this randomized controlled trial was to examine the effect of functional exercise training on functional performance and isokinetic thigh muscle strength in middle-aged patients...... subsequent to meniscectomy for a degenerative tear. Four years after meniscectomy, 45 patients (29 men, 16 women) were randomized to functional exercise training, supervised by a physical therapist, three times weekly for 4 months or to no intervention. The exercise program comprised of postural stability...... training and functional strength and endurance exercises for leg and trunk muscles. Outcomes were three functional performance tests and isokinetic muscle strength. Thirty patients (16 exercisers/14 controls) completed the study. Compared with control patients, the exercise group showed significant...

  1. The association of muscle strength, aerobic capacity and swim time performance in young, competitive swimmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, P; Knudsen, H K; Juul-Kristensen, B

    2015-01-01

    for performance enhancement in swimming (Smith et al., 2002). In order to detail the individual training programme, reference values are needed. The aims of this study were firstly to determine the association between muscle strength and power, aerobic capacity and 100 m freestyle time (FT) in young, competitive......Swim time performance is affected by physiological factors such as muscle strength and power of the upper and lower extremities as well as aerobic capacity (Smith et al., 2002). The association between these factors and swim time performance may plausibly identify some of the determinants....... Conclusion Muscle strength and power tests for upper and lower extremities, expressed as GS and VJ, were found to be significantly and negatively associated with 100 m FT in the current study. Also, increasing aerobic capacity was found to improve swim time performance. These simple and low-cost tests...

  2. Influência do resfriamento e do aquecimento local na flexibilidade dos músculos isquiotibiais Influence of local cooling and warming on the flexibility of the hamstring muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JS Brasileiro

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O propósito deste estudo foi analisar os efeitos do resfriamento e do aquecimento sobre a flexibilidade dos músculos isquiotibiais, observando os efeitos agudos e crônicos. MÉTODOS: Quarenta voluntários foram aleatoriamente incluídos em um dos quatro grupos (n=10: 1 grupo controle; 2 grupo alongamento (técnica sustentar-relaxar para os músculos isquiotibiais, por duas semanas consecutivas; 3 grupo alongamento precedido da aplicação de crioterapia (25 minutos na região posterior da coxa e 4 grupo alongamento precedido de aquecimento com diatermia por ondas curtas (25 minutos. A avaliação da flexibilidade muscular foi realizada através de uma prancha acoplada a um sistema de goniometria, especialmente preparada para avaliar o ângulo extensor do joelho. RESULTADOS: Os três grupos experimentais aumentaram significativamente a ADM em relação ao grupo controle. Os ganhos médios diários, considerados efeitos agudos, mostraram diferenças significativas em favor do grupo submetido ao resfriamento, quando comparado aos demais (aumento de 2,6 ± 0,9°, 4,3 ± 1,5° e 2,4 ± 0,7° para os grupos 2, 3 e 4, respectivamente, p= 0,008. Em relação aos efeitos crônicos, não foi observada diferença significativa entre os três grupos experimentais, embora todos diferiram do controle (aumento de 1,5 ± 0,5°, 11,1 ± 6,1°, 14,4 ± 5,4° e 14,4 ± 6,2°, para os grupos 1, 2, 3 e 4, respectivamente. CONCLUSÕES: Sessões de alongamento, aplicadas diariamente, aumentaram significativamente a flexibilidade dos músculos isquiotibiais. Os efeitos agudos foram maiores no grupo submetido ao resfriamento, quando comparado aos grupos somente alongado ou aquecido. Os efeitos crônicos não foram influenciados pelo aquecimento nem pelo resfriamento.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze the acute and chronic effects of cooling and warming on hamstring muscle flexibility. METHOD: Forty volunteers were randomly included in one of

  3. Relationships between the fibromyalgia impact questionnaire, tender point count, and muscle strength in female patients with fibromyalgia: a cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Marius; Lund, Hans; Christensen, Robin;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that fibromyalgia (FM) patients with reduced lower extremity strength are more symptomatic and tender than FM patients with normal muscle strength. METHODS: A total of 840 FM patients and 122 healthy subjects were evaluated between 1998 and 2005. All of the patie......OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that fibromyalgia (FM) patients with reduced lower extremity strength are more symptomatic and tender than FM patients with normal muscle strength. METHODS: A total of 840 FM patients and 122 healthy subjects were evaluated between 1998 and 2005. All...... of the patients completed version 1 of the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) and were assessed for tender points and knee muscle strength. All subjects underwent bilateral isokinetic knee muscle strength testing in flexion and extension. Normative knee muscle strength values were calculated from the healthy...

  4. Relationships between core strength, hip external rotator muscle strength, and star excursion balance test performance in female lacrosse players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Angela T; Ambegaonkar, Jatin P; Caswell, Shane V

    2013-04-01

    PURPOSEBACKGROUND: Female athletes have high rates of lower extremity (LE) injuries. Core strength (CS) and hip external rotator (HER) strength have been suggested to be factors that influence LE injury risk. Better balance has also been shown to decrease LE injury risk. Still, little research has examined whether core strength and hip muscle strength can influence LE balance. Therefore the purpose of the current study was to examine the relationships between core strength, hip ER strength and lower extremity balance as measured by the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT). CS was examined via the bent knee lowering test (BKLT) (grades 1-5). Hip external rotator (HER) strength was measured singularly (HERL and HERR and combined (HERCOM) assessed via hand held dynamometry (reported in Newtons), and balance assessed via the SEBT expressed as % leg length, bilaterally in the postero-medial, postero-lateral, anterior directions and as a combined score (SEBTCOM). All outcomes were assessed in 45 female lacrosse players (16.0 ± 5.9 yrs, 65.1 ± 2.4 cm, 57.3 ± 7.4 kgs, experience=5.9 ± 2.9 yrs). Pearson product-moment correlations examined relationships between the BKLT, HER and SEBT. Linear regression analyses examined possible influences of CS and HER on balance (p ≤ .05). SEBTCOM was not correlated with BKLT [r(45)=-.20, p=.18] or HERCOM [r(45)=.20, p=.18]. There was no correlation between HER strength and CS (BKLT) [r(45)=.20, p=.20]. Overall scores on the BKLT were not correlated with any of the three balance SEBT scores. HERL [r(45)=.36, p=.02] and HERR [r(45)=.30, p=.05] were moderately positively correlated with left posteromedial SEBT direction. HERCOM and BKLT did not predict overall SEBTCOM balance scores (r(2)=.068, p=.23). BKLT scores and combined HER strength did not correlate with LE balance, as measured by the SEBT, in female lacrosse players. However, HER strength of both the left and right LE's (singularly) was moderately correlated with scores on one

  5. Effect of abdominal bracing training on strength and power of trunk and lower limb muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayashiki, Kota; Maeo, Sumiaki; Usui, Seiji; Miyamoto, Naokazu; Kanehisa, Hiroaki

    2016-09-01

    It is unknown whether maximal voluntary co-contraction of abdominal muscles, called abdominal bracing, can be a training maneuver for improving strength and power of trunk and lower limb muscles. The present study aimed to elucidate this. Twenty young adult men (23.3 ± 1.8 years) were allocated to training (TG, n = 11) or control (CG, n = 9) group. TG conducted an 8-week training program (3 days/week) consisting of 2-s maximal abdominal bracing followed by 2-s muscle relaxation (5 × 10 repetitions/day). Maximal voluntary isometric strength during trunk flexion and extension, hip extension, and knee extension, maximal lifting power from sitting position, and the thicknesses of abdominal muscles were measured before and after the intervention. In addition, surface electromyograms from trunk and lower limb muscles and intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) during the maximal abdominal bracing and maximal lifting tasks were also determined. After the intervention, TG showed significant increases in isometric trunk extension (+14.4 %) and hip extension (+34.7 %) strength and maximal lifting power (+15.6 %), while CG did not show any changes in strength and power variables. Furthermore, TG had significant gains in the muscle thickness of the oblique internal (+22.4 %), maximal IAP during abdominal bracing (+36.8 %), and the rate of IAP rise during lifting task (+58.8 %), without corresponding changes in CG. The current study indicates that a training style with maximal voluntary co-contraction of abdominal muscles can be an effective maneuver for increasing strength and power during movements involving trunk and hip extensions, without using external load.

  6. EMG and strength in trunk and hip muscles : particular the iliopsoas

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Eva A.

    1997-01-01

    EMG AND STRENGTH IN TRUNK AND HIP MUSCLES - PARTICULARLY THE ILIOPSOAS Eva A. Andersson Dissertation from the Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, and the Department of Human Biology, University College of Physical Education and Sports, Box 5626, S-l 14 86, Stockholm, Sweden. . The overall aim of this thesis was to study the myoelectric activity of all major muscles involved in the movements and stabilization of the trunk, pelvis and hips ...

  7. Hamstring exercises for track and field athletes: injury and exercise biomechanics, and possible implications for exercise selection and primary prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malliaropoulos, Nikos; Mendiguchia, Jurdan; Pehlivanidis, Hercules; Papadopoulou, Sofia; Valle, Xavier; Malliaras, Peter; Maffulli, Nicola

    2012-09-01

    Hamstring strain injuries are the most prevalent muscle injuries in track and field (TF). These injuries often cause prolonged symptoms and a high risk of re-injury. Strengthening of the hamstring muscles has been recommended for injury prevention. The authors review the possible role of eccentric training in TF hamstring injury prevention and introduce exercise classification criteria to guide clinicians in designing strengthening programmes adapted to TF. The principles exposed may serve as a foundation for future development and application of new eccentric programmes to decrease the high incidence of this type of injury in other sports.

  8. Isokinetic and Isometric Muscle Strength in a Healthy Population – with Special Reference to Age and Gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danneskiold-Samsøe, B; Bartels, E M; Bülow, P M

    2009-01-01

    was subgrouped according to age and gender. Isometric and isokinetic muscle strength was measured in each subject across the main joints in the body. A statistical model was developed that encompassed the three main muscle groups: upper limbs, trunk and lower limbs. Results: Muscle strength in healthy men...... decreases in a linear fashion from the age of 25 years down to between 54% and 89% at the age of 75 years, and seems not highly dependent on any other parameter than age. For women, the muscle strength is dependent on weight and is only related to age from around 40 years of age. The decrease in muscle...

  9. Respiratory Muscle Strength as a Predictive Biomarker for Survival in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polkey, Michael I; Lyall, Rebecca A; Yang, Ke; Johnson, Erin; Leigh, P Nigel; Moxham, John

    2017-01-01

    Biomarkers for survival in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) would facilitate the development of novel drugs. Although respiratory muscle weakness is a known predictor of poor prognosis, a comprehensive comparison of different tests is lacking. To compare the predictive power of invasive and noninvasive respiratory muscle strength assessments for survival or ventilator-free survival, up to 3 years. From a previously published report respiratory muscle strength measurements were available for 78 patients with ALS. Time to death and/or ventilation were ascertained. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to determine the cutoff point of each parameter. Each respiratory muscle strength assessment individually achieved statistical significance for prediction of survival or ventilator-free survival. In multivariate analysis sniff trans-diaphragmatic and esophageal pressure, twitch trans-diaphragmatic pressure (Tw Pdi), age, and maximal static expiratory mouth pressure were significant predictors of ventilation-free survival and Tw Pdi and maximal static expiratory mouth pressure for absolute survival. Although all measures had good specificity, there were differing sensitivities. All cutoff points for the VC were greater than 80% of normal, except for prediction of 3-month outcomes. Sequential data showed a linear decline for direct measures of respiratory muscle strength, whereas VC showed little to no decline until 12 months before death/ventilation. The most powerful biomarker for mortality stratification was Tw Pdi, but the predictive power of sniff nasal inspiratory pressure was also excellent. A VC within normal range suggested a good prognosis at 3 months but was of little other value.

  10. Decrease of muscle fiber conduction velocity correlates with strength loss after an endurance run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccia, Gennaro; Dardanello, Davide; Tarperi, Cantor; Rosso, Valeria; Festa, Luca; La Torre, Antonio; Pellegrini, Barbara; Schena, Federico; Rainoldi, Alberto

    2017-02-01

    Monitoring surface electromyographic (EMG) signals can provide useful insights for characterizing muscle fatigue, which is defined as an exercise-induced strength loss. This experiment investigated the muscle fiber conduction velocity (CV) changes induced by an endurance run. The day before and immediately after a half-marathon run (21.097 km) 11 amateur runners performed maximum voluntary contractions (MVCs) of knee extensor muscles. During the MVC, multichannel EMG was recorded from the vastus lateralis and EMG amplitude and CV were calculated. After the run, knee extensors showed a decreased strength (-13  ±  9%, p  =  0.001) together with a reduction in EMG amplitude (-13  ±  10%, p  =  0.003) and in CV (-6  ±  8%, p  =  0.032). Knee extensor strength loss positively correlated with vastus lateralis CV differences (r  =  0.76, p  =  0.006). Thus, the exercises-induced muscle fatigue was associated not only with a decrease in EMG amplitude, but also with a reduction in CV. This finding suggests that muscle fibers with higher CV (i.e. those with greater fiber size) were the most impaired during strength production after an endurance run.

  11. The associations between pain sensitivity and knee muscle strength in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Marius; Klokker, Louise; Bartholdy, Cecilie

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate associations between muscle strength and pain sensitivity among healthy volunteers and associations between different pain sensitivity measures. Methods. Twenty-eight healthy volunteers (21 females) participated. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were obtained from 1...... as covariates. Results. Knee extension strength was associated with computer-controlled PPT on the vastus lateralis muscle. Computer-controlled PPTs were significantly correlated between sites (r > 0.72) and with cuff PPT (r > 0.4). Saline induced pain intensity and duration were correlated between sites (r > 0.......39) and with all PPTs (r...

  12. Effect of whole body vibration exercise on muscle strength and proprioception in females with knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trans, T; Aaboe, J; Henriksen, M

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of whole body vibration (WBV) exercise on muscle strength and proprioception in female patients with osteoarthritis in the knee (knee-OA). A single blinded, randomised, controlled trial was performed in an outpatient clinic on 52 female patients...... groups trained twice a week for 8 weeks, with a progressively increasing intensity. The WBV groups performed unloaded static WBV exercise. The following were measured: knee muscle strength (extension/flexion) and proprioception (threshold for detection of passive movement (TDPM)). Self-reported disease...

  13. Shoulder muscle strength in paraplegics before and after kayak ergometer training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerkefors, Anna; Jansson, Anna; Thorstensson, Alf

    2006-07-01

    The purpose was to investigate if shoulder muscle strength in post-rehabilitated persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) was affected by kayak ergometer training and to compare shoulder strength in persons with SCI and able-bodied persons. Ten persons with SCI (7 males and 3 females, injury levels T3-T12) performed 60 min kayak ergometer training three times a week for 10 weeks with progressively increased intensity. Maximal voluntary concentric contractions were performed during six shoulder movements: flexion and extension (range of motion 65 degrees ), abduction and adduction (65 degrees ), and external and internal rotation (60 degrees ), with an angular velocity of 30 degrees s(-1). Position specific strength was assessed at three shoulder angles (at the beginning, middle and end of the range of motion) in the respective movements. Test-retests were performed for all measurements before the training and the mean intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.941 (95% CI 0.928-0.954). There was a main effect of kayak ergometer training with increased shoulder muscle strength after training in persons with SCI. The improvements were independent of shoulder movement, and occurred in the beginning and middle positions. A tendency towards lower shoulder muscle strength was observed in the SCI group compared to a matched reference group of able-bodied persons. Thus, it appears that post-rehabilitated persons with SCI have not managed to fully regain/maintain their shoulder muscle strength on a similar level as that of able-bodied persons, and are able to improve their shoulder muscle strength after a period of kayak ergometer training.

  14. [Association of muscle strength with early markers of cardiovascular risk in sedentary adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triana-Reina, Héctor Reynaldo; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2013-10-01

    To assess the association between muscle strength and early cardiovascular risk (CVR) markers in sedentary adults. A total of 176 sedentary subjects aged 18-30 years were enrolled. Body mass index and fat percentage were calculated, and waist circumference, grip strength by dynamometry, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, and maximal oxygen uptake by VO2max were measured as CVR markers. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to assess associations between muscle strength and CVR markers. Inverse correlations were found between muscle strength and adiposity (r=-.317; P=.001), waist circumference (r=-.309; P=.001), systolic blood pressure (r=-.401; P=.001), and mean arterial pressure (r=-.256; P=.001). Subjects with lower levels of muscle strength had a 5.79-fold (95% CI 1.57 to 9.34; P=.008) risk of having higher adiposity levels (≥25%) and a 9.67-fold (95% CI=3.86 to 19.22; Pcardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2012 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Respiratory muscle strength in healthy infants and those with surgically correctable anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassim, Zainab; Moxham, John; Davenport, Mark; Nicolaides, Kypros; Greenough, Anne; Rafferty, Gerrard F

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of respiratory muscle strength provides important diagnostic and prognostic information. Normative data in healthy, term infants is, however, limited. Surgically correctable birth defects, congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) and abdominal wall defects (AWD), commonly have impaired diaphragm function. The study aims were to obtain normative data for respiratory muscle strength in healthy, term born infants at birth and at 6 weeks postnatal age (PNA) and to investigate the influence of growth and maturation on inspiratory muscle strength in CDH/AWD infants. Maximal inspiratory (cPimax) and expiratory (cPemax) pressures during crying were measured at birth in 67 healthy, term born infants (mean (SD) gestational age (GA) 39.4 (1.7) weeks) and reassessed in 27 at 6 weeks PNA. cPimax and functional residual capacity (FRC) (22.3 (4.2) ml/kg) were also measured in 23 infants with AWD/CDH (mean (SD) GA 36.9 (2.1) weeks) and reassessed in 16 at median (range) 6.5 (1.5-15) months PNA. In healthy infants, mean (SD) cPimax was 88.8 (19.33) cmH2 O and cPemax 61.8 (13.5) cmH2 O at birth, increasing significantly at followup to 100.9 (15.2) cmH2 O (P muscle strength compared to healthy term born infants but strength increases markedly in early life.

  16. Arthroscopically assisted combined anterior and posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with autologous hamstring grafts-isokinetic assessment with control group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Piontek

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to: 1 evaluate the differences in pre-post operative knee functioning, mechanical stability, isokinetic knee muscle strength in simultaneous arthroscopic patients after having undergone an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL and the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL with hamstring tendons reconstruction, 2 compare the results of ACL/PCL patients with the control group. DESIGN: Controlled Laboratory Study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Results of 11 ACL/PCL patients had been matched with 22 uninjured control participants (CP. Prior to surgery, and minimum 2 years after it, functional assessment (Lysholm and IKDC 2000, mechanical knee joint stability evaluation (Lachman and "drawer" test and isokinetic tests (bilateral knee muscle examination had been performed. Different rehabilitation exercises had been used: isometric, passive exercises, exercises increasing the range of motion and proprioception, strength exercises and specific functional exercises. RESULTS: After arthroscopy no significant differences had been found between the injured and uninjured leg in all isokinetic parameters in ACL/PCL patients. However, ACL/PCL patients had still shown significantly lower values of strength in relative isokinetic knee flexors (p = 0.0065 and extensors (p = 0.0171 compared to the CP. There were no differences between groups regarding absolute isokinetic strength and flexors/extensors ratio. There was statistically significant progress in IKDC 2000 (p = 0.0044 and Lysholm (p = 0.0044 scales prior to (44 and 60 points respectively and after the reconstruction (61 for IKDC 2000 and 94 points for Lysholm. CONCLUSIONS: Although harvesting tendons of semitendinosus and/or gracilis from the healthy extremity diminishes muscle strength of knee flexors in comparison to the CP, flexor strength had improved. Statistically significant improvement of the knee extensor function may indicate that the recreation of joint mechanical stability is

  17. Improved skeletal muscle mass and strength after heavy strength training in very old individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechshøft, Rasmus Leidesdorff; Malmgaard-Clausen, Nikolaj Mølkjær; Gliese, Bjørn

    2017-01-01

    Age-related loss of muscle mass and function represents personal and socioeconomic challenges. The purpose of this study was to determine the adaptation of skeletal musculature in very old individuals (83 + years) performing 12 weeks of heavy resistance training (3 ×/week) (HRT) compared to a non...

  18. Handgrip strength does not represent an appropriate measure to evaluate changes in muscle strength during an exercise intervention program in frail elderly people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieland, C.A.B.; Verdijk, L.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Loon, van L.J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Although handgrip strength is considered a strong predictor of negative health outcomes, it is unclear whether handgrip strength represents a useful measure to evaluate changes in muscle strength following resistance-type exercise training in elderly people. We assessed whether measuring handgrip st

  19. Handgrip strength does not represent an appropriate measure to evaluate changes in muscle strength during an exercise intervention program in frail elderly people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieland, C.A.B.; Verdijk, L.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Loon, van L.J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Although handgrip strength is considered a strong predictor of negative health outcomes, it is unclear whether handgrip strength represents a useful measure to evaluate changes in muscle strength following resistance-type exercise training in elderly people. We assessed whether measuring handgrip

  20. EFFICACY OF MULLIGAN’S TWO LEG ROTATION AND BENT LEG RAISE TECHNIQUES IN HAMSTRING FLEXIBILITY IN SUBJECTS WITH ACUTE NON-SPECIFIC LOW BACK PAIN: RANDOMIZED CLINICAL TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratik .A. Phansopkar,

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Adequate flexibility of the Hamstring muscles and Core muscle strength is necessary for a healthy lower back. Mulligan’s techniques are fascinating Physiotherapy approach in treatment of hamstrings tightness in NS-LBP such as Mulligan’s Bent Leg Raise (BLR technique, Limited Literature is available on the efficacies of Mulligan’s Two Leg Rotation (TLR technique in Hamstrings flexibility. The objective of the present study was to determine the effectiveness of Mulligan’s TLR and BLR in treatment of acute NS-LBP. Methods: The present randomized clinical trial was conducted among 40 subjects which included both male and female symptomatic subjects between the age of 18 to 35 years with acute NS-LBP and they were randomly allocated into 2 groups namely Group A[SWD, HMP, Mulligan’s TLR, MCE] , Group B[SWD, HMP, Mulligan’s BLR, MCE]. Pre-interventional and 7th day Post-interventional outcome measurements were taken in the form of Visual Analogue Scale (VAS, Modified Oswestry Disability Questionnaire (MODQ, Active Knee Extension (AKE Measurement, Lumbar ROM and Core muscle strength. Results: Intra-group comparison for all the outcome parameters in both the groups showed statistical significance (p<0.001. Inter group comparison for all the outcome parameters had differences but showed no statistical significance. Conclusion: Mulligan’s Two Leg Rotation and Bent Leg Raise techniques are effective in increasing the hamstrings flexibility in subjects with acute non specific low back pain in terms of pain, range of motion and functional disability.

  1. Effects of whole body vibration training on body composition, skeletal muscle strength, and cardiovascular health

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Song-Young; Son, Won-Mok; Kwon, Oh-Sung

    2015-01-01

    Whole body vibration training (WBVT) has been used as a supplement to conventional exercise training such as resistance exercise training to improve skeletal muscle strength, specifically, in rehabilitation field. Recently, this exercise modality has been utilized by cardiovascular studies to examine whether WBVT can be a useful exercise modality to improve cardiovascular health. These studies reported that WBVT has not only beneficial effects on muscular strength but also cardiovascular heal...

  2. Comparison of muscle strength imbalance in powerlifters and jumpers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Hui-Ying; Winter, Christa; O'Neill, Elizabeth; Thompson, Brian A

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the bilateral and unilateral force production difference in powerlifters (bilateral) and field jumpers (unilateral) to determine the existence of leg dominance. Nineteen powerlifters (PL; n = 11) and field jumpers (J; n = 8) were included in the study. Five different no arm swing countermovement jumps were randomized for testing: (a) double-leg jump; (b) dominant leg-specified double-leg jump; (c) nondominant leg-specified double-leg jump; (d) dominant leg-specified single-leg jump; and (e) nondominant leg-specified single-leg jump. The force, velocity, and power were measured via a forceplate. The Limb Symmetry Index (LSI% = (1 - ND limb/D limb) × 100%) was calculated for force imbalance between the dominant (N) and nondominant (ND) limb between PL and J. Based on the analysis, PL (mean = 2.75 ± 2.45%) had a lower LSI (p imbalance force production between limbs. This phenomenon is important for the strength coach to acknowledge, to perform an appropriate strength balance test during the off-season, and to implement a training program to reduce the force disparity between limbs. Neglecting the development of force imbalance between limbs may predispose healthy players to injury.

  3. A Maximum Muscle Strength Prediction Formula Using Theoretical Grade 3 Muscle Strength Value in Daniels et al.'s Manual Muscle Test, in Consideration of Age: An Investigation of Hip and Knee Joint Flexion and Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Masashi; Ichikawa, Kazuna; Takei, Hitoshi

    2017-01-01

    This study attempted to develop a formula for predicting maximum muscle strength value for young, middle-aged, and elderly adults using theoretical Grade 3 muscle strength value (moment fair: Mf)—the static muscular moment to support a limb segment against gravity—from the manual muscle test by Daniels et al. A total of 130 healthy Japanese individuals divided by age group performed isometric muscle contractions at maximum effort for various movements of hip joint flexion and extension and knee joint flexion and extension, and the accompanying resisting force was measured and maximum muscle strength value (moment max, Mm) was calculated. Body weight and limb segment length (thigh and lower leg length) were measured, and Mf was calculated using anthropometric measures and theoretical calculation. There was a linear correlation between Mf and Mm in each of the four movement types in all groups, excepting knee flexion in elderly. However, the formula for predicting maximum muscle strength was not sufficiently compatible in middle-aged and elderly adults, suggesting that the formula obtained in this study is applicable in young adults only. PMID:28133549

  4. A Maximum Muscle Strength Prediction Formula Using Theoretical Grade 3 Muscle Strength Value in Daniels et al.'s Manual Muscle Test, in Consideration of Age: An Investigation of Hip and Knee Joint Flexion and Extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usa, Hideyuki; Matsumura, Masashi; Ichikawa, Kazuna; Takei, Hitoshi

    2017-01-01

    This study attempted to develop a formula for predicting maximum muscle strength value for young, middle-aged, and elderly adults using theoretical Grade 3 muscle strength value (moment fair: Mf )-the static muscular moment to support a limb segment against gravity-from the manual muscle test by Daniels et al. A total of 130 healthy Japanese individuals divided by age group performed isometric muscle contractions at maximum effort for various movements of hip joint flexion and extension and knee joint flexion and extension, and the accompanying resisting force was measured and maximum muscle strength value (moment max, Mm ) was calculated. Body weight and limb segment length (thigh and lower leg length) were measured, and Mf was calculated using anthropometric measures and theoretical calculation. There was a linear correlation between Mf and Mm in each of the four movement types in all groups, excepting knee flexion in elderly. However, the formula for predicting maximum muscle strength was not sufficiently compatible in middle-aged and elderly adults, suggesting that the formula obtained in this study is applicable in young adults only.

  5. A Maximum Muscle Strength Prediction Formula Using Theoretical Grade 3 Muscle Strength Value in Daniels et al.’s Manual Muscle Test, in Consideration of Age: An Investigation of Hip and Knee Joint Flexion and Extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideyuki Usa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study attempted to develop a formula for predicting maximum muscle strength value for young, middle-aged, and elderly adults using theoretical Grade 3 muscle strength value (moment fair: Mf—the static muscular moment to support a limb segment against gravity—from the manual muscle test by Daniels et al. A total of 130 healthy Japanese individuals divided by age group performed isometric muscle contractions at maximum effort for various movements of hip joint flexion and extension and knee joint flexion and extension, and the accompanying resisting force was measured and maximum muscle strength value (moment max, Mm was calculated. Body weight and limb segment length (thigh and lower leg length were measured, and Mf was calculated using anthropometric measures and theoretical calculation. There was a linear correlation between Mf and Mm in each of the four movement types in all groups, excepting knee flexion in elderly. However, the formula for predicting maximum muscle strength was not sufficiently compatible in middle-aged and elderly adults, suggesting that the formula obtained in this study is applicable in young adults only.

  6. Assessment of isokinetic muscle function in Korea male volleyball athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang-Gyun; Jeoung, Bog Ja

    2016-01-01

    Volleyball players performed numerous repetitions of spike actions, which uses and requires strong and explosive force, and control of the muscles of the shoulder, lower back, and legs. Muscle imbalance is one of the main causes of sport injuries. The purpose of this study was to assess isokinetic muscle functions in male volleyball players. We thus aim to accurately evaluate their muscle functions, and identify the best training strategy to achieve optimal muscle strength balance in future training programs. The participants in this study consisted of 14 male volleyball players. Muscle strength was measured using the isokinetic dynamometer. Muscle strength was evaluated in terms of peak torque and average power, calculated from five repeated measurements at an angular speed of 60°/sec. Three players who were left attackers showed shoulder imbalance, four players showed trunk joint imbalance, nine players had knee joint of extension/flexion imbalance and four players showed left/right imbalance. The results showed that the number of volleyball players with differences between the strength of the bilateral knee muscles, and between the strength of the hamstrings and quadriceps muscles was higher than the number of players with differences between the strength of the shoulder internal and external rotation muscles, and higher than the number of players with differences between the strength of the lower back extension and flexion muscles. PMID:27807521

  7. Comparison of pelvic floor muscle strength evaluations in nulliparous and primiparous women: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Orsi Gameiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare the pelvic floor muscle strength of nulliparous and primiparous women. METHODS: A total of 100 women were prospectively distributed into two groups: Group 1 (G1 (n = 50 included healthy nulliparous women, and Group 2 (G2 (n = 50 included healthy primiparous women. Pelvic floor muscle strength was subjectively evaluated using transvaginal digital palpation. Pelvic floor muscle strength was objectively assessed using a portable perineometer. All of the parameters were evaluated simultaneously in G1 and were evaluated in G2 during the 20th and 36th weeks of pregnancy and 45 days after delivery. RESULTS: In G2, 14 women were excluded because they left the study before the follow-up evaluation. The median age was 23 years in G1 and 22 years in G2; there was no significant difference between the groups. The average body mass index was 21.7 kg/m² in G1 and 25.0 kg/m² in G2; there was a significant difference between the groups (p = 0.0004. In G2, transvaginal digital palpation evaluation showed significant impairments of pelvic floor muscle strength at the 36th week of pregnancy (p = 0.0006 and 45 days after vaginal delivery (p = 0.0001 compared to G1. Objective evaluations of pelvic floor muscle strength in G2 revealed a significant decrease 45 days after vaginal delivery compared to nulliparous patients. CONCLUSION: Pregnancy and vaginal delivery may cause weakness of the pelvic floor muscles.

  8. The Foam Roll as a Tool to Improve Hamstring Flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junker, Daniel H; Stöggl, Thomas L

    2015-12-01

    Although foam rolling is a common myofascial therapy used to increase range of motion (ROM), research is limited on the effectiveness of foam rolling on soft tissue extensibility. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a 4-week training period of the foam roll method on hamstring flexibility. Furthermore, the study was designed to compare the effectiveness of the foam roll myofascial release with a conventional contract-relax proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching method and a control group. Forty healthy males (age: 17-47 years) were randomly assigned to a foam roll group (FOAM, n = 13), a contract-relax PNF stretching group (CRPNF, n = 14), or a control group (CG, n = 13). The FOAM group massaged their hamstring muscles with the foam roll 3 times per week for 4 weeks (12 training sessions). The CRPNF group was assigned to 12 sessions of contract-relax PNF stretching. The CG underwent no intervention. Hamstring flexibility (ROM) was measured by a stand-and-reach test before and after the intervention period. Two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance showed a significant global time effect (p FOAM and CRPNF compared with the CG, but no difference between the former. Delta changes from baseline to postintervention in ROM were not related to baseline ROM. The foam roll can be seen as an effective tool to increase hamstring flexibility within 4 weeks. The effects are comparable with the scientifically proven contract-relax PNF stretching method.

  9. Strength training's chronic effects on muscle architecture parameters of different arm sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matta, Thiago; Simão, Roberto; de Salles, Belmiro Freitas; Spineti, Juliano; Oliveira, Liliam Fernandes

    2011-06-01

    Strength training generates alterations in muscle geometry, which can be monitored by imaging techniques as, for example, the ultrasound (US) technique. There is no consensus about the homogeneity of hypertrophy in different muscle sites. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the muscle thickness (MT) and pennation angle (PA) in 3 different sites (50, 60, and 70% of arm length) of the biceps brachii and triceps brachii after 12 weeks of strength training. Forty-nine healthy untrained men were divided into 2 groups: Training Group ([TG, n = 40] 29.90 ± 1.72 years; 79.53 ± 11.84 kg; 173 ± 0.6 cm) and Control Group (n = 9 25.89 ± 3.59 years; 73.96 ± 9.86 kg; 171 ± 6 cm). The TG underwent a strength training program during 12 weeks, which included exercises such as a free-weight bench press, machine lat pull-down, triceps extension in lat pull-down, and standing free-weight biceps curl with a straight bar. A US apparatus was used to measure the PA and MT at the 3 sites. The maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) test was conducted for each muscle group. After 12 weeks of training, a significant difference was observed between MT in biceps brachii, with an improvement of 12% in the proximal site, whereas the distal site increased by only 4.7% (p MVC increased significantly for both muscle groups. The results indicated that the strength training program was efficient in promoting hypertrophy in both muscles, but with dissimilar responses of the pennated and fusiform muscle architecture at different arm sites.

  10. A mass-length scaling law for modeling muscle strength in the lower limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Tomas A; Pandy, Marcus G

    2011-11-10

    Musculoskeletal computer models are often used to study muscle function in children with and without impaired mobility. Calculations of muscle forces depend in part on the assumed strength of each muscle, represented by the peak isometric force parameter, which is usually based on measurements obtained from cadavers of adult donors. The aim of the present study was twofold: first, to develop a method for scaling lower-limb peak isometric muscle forces in typically-developing children; and second, to determine the effect of this scaling method on model calculations of muscle forces obtained for normal gait. Muscle volumes were determined from magnetic resonance (MR) images obtained from ten children aged from 7 to 13yr. A new mass-length scaling law was developed based on the assumption that muscle volume and body mass are linearly related, which was confirmed by the obtained volume and body mass data. Two musculoskeletal models were developed for each subject: one in which peak isometric muscle forces were estimated using the mass-length scaling law; and another in which these parameters were determined directly from the MR-derived muscle volumes. Musculoskeletal modeling and quantitative gait analysis were then used to calculate lower-limb muscle forces in normal walking. The patterns of muscle forces predicted by the model with scaled peak isometric force values were similar to those predicted by the MR-based model, implying that assessments of muscle function obtained from these two methods are practically equivalent. These results support the use of mass-length scaling in the development of subject-specific musculoskeletal models of children.

  11. STRETCHING EXERCISES - EFFECT ON PASSIVE EXTENSIBILITY AND STIFFNESS IN SHORT HAMSTRINGS OF HEALTHY-SUBJECTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HALBERTSMA, JPK; GOEKEN, LNH

    Passive muscle stretch tests are common practice in physical therapy and rehabilitation medicine. However, the effects of stretching exercises are not well known. With an instrumental straight-leg-raising set-up the extensibility, stiffness, and electromyographic activity of the hamstring muscles

  12. STRETCHING EXERCISES - EFFECT ON PASSIVE EXTENSIBILITY AND STIFFNESS IN SHORT HAMSTRINGS OF HEALTHY-SUBJECTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HALBERTSMA, JPK; GOEKEN, LNH

    1994-01-01

    Passive muscle stretch tests are common practice in physical therapy and rehabilitation medicine. However, the effects of stretching exercises are not well known. With an instrumental straight-leg-raising set-up the extensibility, stiffness, and electromyographic activity of the hamstring muscles ha

  13. Respiratory muscle strength and muscle endurance are not affected by acute metabolic acidemia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nizet, T.; Heijdra, Y.F.; Elshout, F.J.J. van den; Ven, M.J.T. van de; Bosch, F.H.; Mulder, P.H.M. de; Folgering, H.T.M.

    2009-01-01

    Respiratory muscle fatigue in asthma and chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) contributes to respiratory failure with hypercapnia, and subsequent respiratory acidosis. Therapeutic induction of acute metabolic acidosis further increases the respiratory drive and, therefore, may diminish ventilator

  14. Recovery in mechanical muscle strength following resurfacing vs standard total hip arthroplasty - a randomised clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Carsten; Aagaard, Per; Overgaard, S

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of resurfacing vs standard total hip replacement on post-surgery hip and knee muscle strength recovery in a prospective randomised controlled trial at the Department of Orthopaedics, University Hospital, Odense, Denmark. METHODS: Forty-three patients were......-29%) with the affected side being weakest (P ≤ 0.05) and hip flexors being most affected. Asymmetry was present in half of the muscle groups at 26 wks (P ≤ 0.05), and remained present for the hip flexors and hip adductors at 52 wks (P ≤ 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: R-THA patients showed an attenuated and delayed recovery...... in maximal lower limb muscle strength (in 2/6 muscle groups) compared to S-THA. Notably, the attenuated strength recovery following R-THA was most markedly manifested in the late phase (1 yr) of post-surgical recovery, and appeared to be due to the detachment of the lower half of the gluteus maximus muscle...

  15. Effects of 5 weeks of lower limb suspension on muscle size and strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesch, P. A.; Ploutz, L. L.; Dudley, G. A.

    1994-01-01

    Lack of weight-bearing, as occurs in space, appears to be associated with reductions in strength and mass of skeletal muscle. Very limited data, however, is at hand describing changes in skeletal muscle size and function following manned space missions. Our current knowledge therefore is mainly based on studies of space flown rats. It is obvious though that this information, only in part can be extrapolated to humans. A few bed rest studies have demonstrated that decreases in strength and muscle size are substantial. At this time, however, the magnitude or time course of such changes either in response to space flight or simulations of microgravity have not been defined. In the last few years we have employed a human model to simulate unloading of lower limb skeletal muscles that occurs in microgravity. This model was essentially adopted from the rat hindlimb suspension technique. The purpose of this study was to assess the magnitude of decreases in muscle strength and size as a result of five weeks of unilateral lower limb suspension.

  16. Effect of Expiratory Resistive Loading in Expiratory Muscle Strength Training on Orbicularis Oris Muscle Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagisawa, Yukio; Matsuo, Yoshimi; Shuntoh, Hisato; Horiuchi, Noriaki

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effect of expiratory resistive loading on orbicularis oris muscle activity. [Subjects] Subjects were 23 healthy individuals (11 males, mean age 25.5±4.3 years; 12 females, mean age 25.0±3.0 years). [Methods] Surface electromyography was performed to measure the activity of the orbicularis oris muscle during maximum lip closure and resistive loading at different expiratory pressures. Measurement was performed at 10%, 30%, 50%, and 100% of maximum expiratory pressure (MEP) for all subjects. The t-test was used to compare muscle activity between maximum lip closure and 100% MEP, and analysis of variance followed by multiple comparisons was used to compare the muscle activities observed at different expiratory pressures. [Results] No significant difference in muscle activity was observed between maximum lip closure and 100% MEP. Analysis of variance with multiple comparisons revealed significant differences among the different expiratory pressures. [Conclusion] Orbicularis oris muscle activity increased with increasing expiratory resistive loading. PMID:24648644

  17. Rejuvenation of the muscle stem cell population restores strength to injured aged muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, Benjamin D; Gilbert, Penney M; Porpiglia, Ermelinda; Mourkioti, Foteini; Lee, Steven P; Corbel, Stephane Y; Llewellyn, Michael E; Delp, Scott L; Blau, Helen M

    2014-03-01

    The elderly often suffer from progressive muscle weakness and regenerative failure. We demonstrate that muscle regeneration is impaired with aging owing in part to a cell-autonomous functional decline in skeletal muscle stem cells (MuSCs). Two-thirds of MuSCs from aged mice are intrinsically defective relative to MuSCs from young mice, with reduced capacity to repair myofibers and repopulate the stem cell reservoir in vivo following transplantation. This deficiency is correlated with a higher incidence of cells that express senescence markers and is due to elevated activity of the p38α and p38β mitogen-activated kinase pathway. We show that these limitations cannot be overcome by transplantation into the microenvironment of young recipient muscles. In contrast, subjecting the MuSC population from aged mice to transient inhibition of p38α and p38β in conjunction with culture on soft hydrogel substrates rapidly expands the residual functional MuSC population from aged mice, rejuvenating its potential for regeneration and serial transplantation as well as strengthening of damaged muscles of aged mice. These findings reveal a synergy between biophysical and biochemical cues that provides a paradigm for a localized autologous muscle stem cell therapy for the elderly.

  18. Strength Exercise Improves Muscle Mass and Hepatic Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Youth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Heijden, Gert-Jan; Wang, Zhiyue J.; Chu, Zili; Toffolo, Gianna; Manesso, Erica; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Sunehag, Agneta L.

    2010-01-01

    VAN DER HEIJDEN, G.-J., Z. J. WANG, Z. CHU, G. TOFFOLO, E. MANESSO, P. J. J. SAUER, and A. L. SUNEHAG. Strength Exercise Improves Muscle Mass and Hepatic Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Youth. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 42, No. 11, pp. 1973-1980, 2010. Introduction: Data on the metabolic effects of

  19. Isometric muscle strength and mobility capacity in children with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dallmeijer, Annet J.; Rameckers, Eugene A.; Houdijk, Han; de Groot, Sonja; Scholtes, Vanessa A.; Becher, Jules G.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the relationship between isometric leg muscle strength and mobility capacity in children with cerebral palsy (CP) compared to typically developing (TD) peers. Method: Participants were 62 children with CP (6-13 years), able to walk with (n=10) or without (n=52) walking aids,

  20. COMPARISON OF MUSCLE STRENGTH, SPRINT POWER AND AEROBIC CAPACITY IN ADULTS WITH AND WITHOUT CEREBRAL PALSY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Sonja; Dallmeijer, Annet J.; Bessems, Paul J. C.; Lamberts, Marcel L.; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; Janssen, Thomas W. J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare: (i) muscle strength, sprint power and maximal aerobic capacity; and (ii) the correlations between these variables in adults with and without cerebral palsy. Design: Cross-sectional study. Subjects: Twenty adults with and 24 without cerebral palsy. Methods: Isometric and isokin

  1. Is leg muscle strength correlated with functional balance and mobility among inpatients in geriatric rehabilitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasselgren, Låtta; Olsson, Lillemor Lundin; Nyberg, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Determinants of functional balance and mobility have rarely been investigated in geriatric wards. This study examined if leg muscle strength correlates to functional balance and mobility among geriatric inpatients. Fifty inpatients, 29 women and 21 men (mean age 79.6 years) were included. Functional balance was assessed with the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and mobility was assessed with the Physiotherapy Clinical Outcome Variable Scale (COVS). Strength in the leg extension muscles was measured as 1 Repetition Maximum (1RM) in a leg press and strength in the ankle muscles was measured with Medical Research Council grades (MRC, 0-5). The sum scores, and most of the single items, of the BBS and the COVS significantly correlated to 1RM/body weight, ankle dorsiflexion, and plantar flexion. In a stepwise multiple regression, ankle dorsiflexion and 1RM/body weight together accounted for 39% of the variance of the BBS and 41% of the variance of the COVS. Estimated values of the BBS and the COVS can be calculated from the equation. In clinical work, the knowledge about how leg muscle strength associates with balance and mobility may be useful in analyzing underlying causes of reduced balance and mobility function, and in planning rehabilitation programs.

  2. Strength Exercise Improves Muscle Mass and Hepatic Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Youth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Heijden, Gert-Jan; Wang, Zhiyue J.; Chu, Zili; Toffolo, Gianna; Manesso, Erica; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Sunehag, Agneta L.

    2010-01-01

    VAN DER HEIJDEN, G.-J., Z. J. WANG, Z. CHU, G. TOFFOLO, E. MANESSO, P. J. J. SAUER, and A. L. SUNEHAG. Strength Exercise Improves Muscle Mass and Hepatic Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Youth. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 42, No. 11, pp. 1973-1980, 2010. Introduction: Data on the metabolic effects of

  3. The twitch interpolation technique for the estimation of true quadriceps muscle strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nørregaard, J; Lykkegaard, J J; Bülow, P M; Danneskiold-Samsøe, B

    1997-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the reliability of the twitch interpolation technique when used to estimate the true isometric knee extensor muscle strength. This included an examination of whether submaximal activation causes any bias in the estimation of the true muscle strength and an examination of the precision of the method. Twenty healthy subjects completed three contraction series, in which the subjects were told to perform as if their voluntary strength was 60%, 80% or 100% of that determined by a maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). Electrical muscle stimulations were given at each of five different contraction levels in each series. At torque levels above 25% of MVC the relationship between torque and twitch size could be approximated to be linear. The true muscle strength (TMS) could therefore be estimated using linear regression of the twitch-torque relationship to the torque point of no twitch in each of the three series, termed TMS60, TMS80 and TMS100. The TMS80 was slightly lower (P estimated central activation of below 40-50% were excluded. The only moderate precision and the slightly lower estimations in subjects applying submaximal does, however, limit its usefulness.

  4. Tramadol Overdose Induced Transient Paresthesia and Decreased Muscle Strength: A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khosrow Ghasempouri

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Transient paresthesia and transient symmetrical decline in muscle strength of upper and lower limbs are potential neurologic complications following tramadol abuse and overdose. Further studies are needed to fully clarify the pathogenesis and mechanism of these complications following tramadol overdose.

  5. Motor Performance in Children with Generalized Hypermobility : The Influence of Muscle Strength and Exercise Capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanewinkel-van Kleef, Yvonne B.; Helders, Paul J. M.; Takken, Tim; Engelbert, Raoul H.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate whether muscle strength and functional exercise capacity (FEC) influence motor performance in children with generalized joint hypermobility. Methods: Forty-one children (mean age: 8.1 years) with symptomatic generalized hypermobility were included. M

  6. Effects of trunk stability on isometric knee extension muscle strength measurement while sitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Masahiro; Gomi, Masahiro; Katoh, Munenori

    2016-09-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the effect of trunk stability on isometric knee extension muscle strength measurement while sitting by performing simultaneous measurements with a handheld dynamometer (HHD) and an isokinetic dynamometer (IKD) in the same seated condition. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 30 healthy volunteers. Isometric knee extension muscle strength was simultaneously measured with a HHD and an IKD by using an IKD-specific chair. The measurement was performed twice. Measurement instrument variables and the number of measurements were examined by using the analysis of variance and correlation tests. [Results] The measurement instrument variables and the number of measurements were not significantly different. The correlation coefficients between the HHD and IKD measurements were ≥0.96. [Conclusion] Isometric knee extension muscle strength measurement using the HHD in the sitting position resulted in a lower value than that using the IKD, presumably because of the effect of trunk stability on the measurement. In the same seated posture with trunk stability, no significant difference in measurement values was observed between the HHD and IKD. The present findings suggest that trunk stability while seated during isometric knee extension muscle strength measurement influenced the HHD measurement.

  7. Motor Performance in Children with Generalized Hypermobility : The Influence of Muscle Strength and Exercise Capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanewinkel-van Kleef, Yvonne B.; Helders, Paul J. M.; Takken, Tim; Engelbert, Raoul H.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate whether muscle strength and functional exercise capacity (FEC) influence motor performance in children with generalized joint hypermobility. Methods: Forty-one children (mean age: 8.1 years) with symptomatic generalized hypermobility were included. M

  8. COMPARISON OF MUSCLE STRENGTH, SPRINT POWER AND AEROBIC CAPACITY IN ADULTS WITH AND WITHOUT CEREBRAL PALSY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Sonja; Dallmeijer, Annet J.; Bessems, Paul J. C.; Lamberts, Marcel L.; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; Janssen, Thomas W. J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare: (i) muscle strength, sprint power and maximal aerobic capacity; and (ii) the correlations between these variables in adults with and without cerebral palsy. Design: Cross-sectional study. Subjects: Twenty adults with and 24 without cerebral palsy. Methods: Isometric and

  9. Muscle strength and soccer practice as major determinants of bone mineral density in adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabra, André; Marques, Elisa; Brito, João

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To analyse the relationship between isokinetic strength of the lower limb muscles and bone mineral density and content (BMD, BMC) of adolescent male soccer players and age-matched controls not involved in sport (12-15years). METHODS: A random sample of 151 young males was divided...

  10. Wii balance board exercise improves balance and lower limb muscle strength of overweight young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriphorn, Akkradate; Chamonchant, Dannaovarat

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The potential health benefits of the Nintendo Wii balance board exercise have been widely investigated. However, no study has been conducted to examine the benefits of Wii exercise for overweight young adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise performed on a Nintendo Wii balance board on the balance and lower limb muscle strength in overweight young adults. [Subjects and Methods] Within-subject repeated measures analysis was used. Sixteen young adults (aged 21.87±1.13 years, body mass index 24.15 ± 0.50 kg/m(2)) were recruited. All subjects performed an exercise program on a Wii balance board for 8 weeks (30 min/session, twice a week for 8 weeks). A NeuroCom Balance Master and a hand-held dynamometer were used to measure balance performance and lower limb muscle strength. [Results] According to the comparison of pre- and post-intervention measurements, the Wii balance board exercise program significantly improved the limit of stability parameters. There was also a significant increase in strength of four lower-limb muscle groups: the hip flexor, knee flexor, ankle dorsiflexor and ankle plantarflexor. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that a Wii balance board exercise program can be used to improve the balance and lower limb muscle strength of overweight young adults.

  11. Relationships between Respiratory Muscle Strength and Daily Living Function in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui-Yi; Chen, Chien-Chih; Hsiao, Shih-Fen

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is a common childhood disorder characterized by motor disability. Children with CP are at risk of developing significant respiratory problems associated with insufficient respiratory muscle strength. It is crucial to identify important factors which are associated with the limitations in daily living function in such children.…

  12. Use of isokinetic muscle strength as a measure of severity of rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøttz-Christensen, Berit; Lyngberg, K; Keiding, N

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to study the association between isokinetic muscle strength (IMS) and other clinical indicators of disability and disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A cohort of 36 RA patients was followed over a 1-year period with five measurements of disease a...

  13. Is Walking Capacity in Subjects with Multiple Sclerosis Primarily Related to Muscle Oxidative Capacity or Maximal Muscle Strength? A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Hansen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose. Walking capacity is reduced in subjects with multiple sclerosis (MS. To develop effective exercise interventions to enhance walking capacity, it is important to determine the impact of factors, modifiable by exercise intervention (maximal muscle strength versus muscle oxidative capacity, on walking capacity. The purpose of this pilot study is to discriminate between the impact of maximal muscle strength versus muscle oxidative capacity on walking capacity in subjects with MS. Methods. From 24 patients with MS, muscle oxidative capacity was determined by calculation of exercise-onset oxygen uptake kinetics (mean response time during submaximal exercise bouts. Maximal muscle strength (isometric knee extension and flexion peak torque was assessed on dynamometer. All subjects completed a 6-minute walking test. Relationships between walking capacity (as a percentage of normal value and muscle strength (of knee flexors and extensors versus muscle oxidative capacity were assessed in multivariate regression analyses. Results. The expanded disability status score (EDSS showed a significant univariate correlation (r=-0.70, P<0.004 with walking capacity. In multivariate regression analyses, EDSS and mean response time, but not muscle strength, were independently related to walking capacity (P<0.05. Conclusions. Walking distance is, next to disability level and not taking neurologic symptoms/deficits into account, primarily related to muscle oxidative capacity in subjects with MS. Additional study is needed to further examine/verify these findings.

  14. A combination of resistance and endurance training increases leg muscle strength in COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iepsen, Ulrik Winning; Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl; Ringbæk, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    improvements in HRQoL, walking distance and exercise capacity. However, we found moderate quality evidence of a significant increase in leg muscle strength favouring a combination of RT and ET (standardized mean difference of 0.69 (95% confidence interval: 0.39-0.98). In conclusion, we found significantly...... increased leg muscle strength favouring a combination of RT with ET compared with ET alone. Therefore, we recommend that RT should be incorporated in rehabilitation of COPD together with ET.......Resistance training (RT) is thought to be effective in preventing muscle depletion, whereas endurance training (ET) is known to improve exercise capacity and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Our objectives were to assess the efficiency...

  15. The correlation of respiratory muscle strength and cough capacity in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Myeong-Rae; Kim, Nan-Soo

    2016-10-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between respiratory muscle strength and cough capacity in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Forty-two stroke patients were assigned to 2 different groups (intervention group=21, control group=21). Both groups participated in a conventional stroke rehabilitation program, with the intervention group also receiving respiratory muscle training for 20 to 30 minutes a day, 3 times a week for 8 weeks. Respiratory muscle strength (maximal inspiratory pressure, maximal expiratory pressure), forced vital capacity, and cough capacity were measured. [Results] The intervention group showed significant increases in maximal inspiratory pressure, maximal expiratory pressure, forced vital capacity, and cough capacity. The change in maximal inspiratory pressure, maximal expiratory pressure, and forced vital capacity showed a significant correlation with cough capacity, with maximal expiratory pressure showing the highest correlation. [Conclusion] The present study showed that the increase in maximal expiratory pressure plays an important role in improving the cough capacity of stroke patients.

  16. Age-related changes in muscle strength and spinal kyphosis angles in an elderly Japanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasukawa, Yuji; Miyakoshi, Naohisa; Hongo, Michio; Ishikawa, Yoshinori; Kudo, Daisuke; Suzuki, Masazumi; Mizutani, Takashi; Kimura, Ryouta; Ono, Yuichi; Shimada, Yoichi

    2017-01-01

    Lumbar kyphosis and the decreased mobility of the lumbar spine increase the risk of falls and impair both the quality of life and the ability to perform activities of daily living. However, in the elderly Japanese population, little is known about the age-related changes and sex-related differences in muscle strength, including of the upper and lower extremities and back extensors. An adequate kyphotic or lordotic angle has also not been determined. In this study, we evaluated the age-related changes in muscle strength and spinal kyphosis in 252 males and 320 females ≥50 years of age. Grip, back extensor, hip flexor, and knee extensor strength; thoracic and lumbar kyphosis; and spinal inclination in the neutral standing position were assessed, together with the range of motion of the thoracic and lumbar spine and spinal inclination. Grip strength, back extensor strength, and the strength of the hip flexors and knee extensors decreased significantly with aging, both in males (Pstrength and the thoracic kyphosis angle were significant variables influencing the lumbar kyphosis angle in both sexes. Spinal inclination correlated significantly with both the lumbar kyphosis angle and hip flexor strength in males, as well as with the lumbar kyphosis angle in females.

  17. Heritability estimates of muscle strength-related phenotypes: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zempo, H; Miyamoto-Mikami, E; Kikuchi, N; Fuku, N; Miyachi, M; Murakami, H

    2016-11-23

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the heritability estimates of human muscle strength-related phenotypes (H(2) -msp). A systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed (through August 22, 2016). Studies reporting the H(2) -msp for healthy subjects in a sedentary state were included. Random-effects models were used to calculate the weighted mean heritability estimates. Moreover, subgroup analyses were performed based on phenotypic categories (eg, grip strength, isotonic strength, jumping ability). Sensitivity analyses were also conducted to investigate potential sources of heterogeneity of H(2) -msp, which included age and sex. Twenty-four articles including 58 measurements were included in the meta-analysis. The weighted mean H(2) -msp for all 58 measurements was 0.52 (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 0.48-0.56), with high heterogeneity (I(2) =91.0%, Pstrength, other isometric strength, isotonic strength, isokinetic strength, jumping ability, and other power measurements was 0.56 (95% CI: 0.46-0.67), 0.49 (0.47-0.52), 0.49 (0.32-0.67), 0.49 (0.37-0.61), 0.55 (0.45-0.65), and 0.51 (0.31-0.70), respectively. The H(2) -msp decreased with age (Pstrength-related phenotypes is comparable. Moreover, the role of environmental factors increased with age. These findings may contribute toward an understanding of muscle strength-related phenotypes.

  18. Whey protein isolate attenuates strength decline after eccentrically-induced muscle damage in healthy individuals

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    Cribb Paul J

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined the effects of short-term consumption of whey protein isolate on muscle proteins and force recovery after eccentrically-induced muscle damage in healthy individuals. Methods Seventeen untrained male participants (23 ± 5 yr, 180 ± 6 cm, 80 ± 11 kg were randomly separated into two supplement groups: i whey protein isolate (WPH; n = 9; or ii carbohydrate (CHO; n = 8. Participants consumed 1.5 g/kg.bw/day supplement (~30 g consumed immediately, and then once with breakfast, lunch, in the afternoon and after the evening meal for a period of 14 days following a unilateral eccentric contraction-based resistance exercise session, consisting of 4 sets of 10 repetitions at 120% of maximum voluntary contraction on the leg press, leg extension and leg flexion exercise machine. Plasma creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH levels were assessed as blood markers of muscle damage. Muscle strength was examined by voluntary isokinetic knee extension using a Cybex dynamometer. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA with an alpha of 0.05. Results Isometric knee extension strength was significantly higher following WPH supplementation 3 (P Conclusions The major finding of this investigation was that whey protein isolate supplementation attenuated the impairment in isometric and isokinetic muscle forces during recovery from exercise-induced muscle injury.

  19. Submaximal fatigue of the hamstrings impairs specific reflex components and knee stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnyk, Mark; Gollhofer, Albert

    2007-05-01

    Rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the most serious sports-related injuries and requires long recovery time. The quadriceps and hamstring muscles are functionally important to control stability of the knee joint complex. Fatigue, however, is an important factor that may influence stabilizing control and thus cause ACL injuries. The objective of this study was therefore to assess how submaximal fatigue exercises of the hamstring muscles affect anterior tibial translation as a direct measure of knee joint stability. While 15 test participants were standing upright with the knees in 30 degrees of flexion, anterior tibial translation was induced by a force of 315 N. Two linear potentiometers placed on the tibial tuberosity and the patella recorded tibial motion relative to the femur. Reflex latencies and neuromuscular hamstring activity were determined using surface electromyography (EMG). Muscle fatigue produced a significant longer latency for the monosynaptic reflex latencies, whereas no differences in the latencies of the medium latency component were found. Fatigue significantly reduced EMG amplitudes of the short and medium latency components. These alterations were in line with significantly increased anterior tibial translation. Our results suggest that hamstring fatigue is effectively associated with mechanical loss of knee stability. This decrease in joint stability may at least in part explain higher risk of ACL injury, especially in fatigued muscles. Furthermore, we discuss why the present findings indicate that reduced motor activity rather than the extended latency of the first hamstring response is the reason for possible failure.

  20. Strength characterization of knee flexor and extensor muscles in Prader-Willi and obese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baccalaro Gabriele

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background despite evidence of an obesity-related disability, there is a lack of objective muscle functional data in overweight subjects. Only few studies provide instrumental strength measurements in non-syndromal obesity, whereas no data about Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS are reported. The aim of our study was to characterize the lower limb muscle function of patients affected by PWS as compared to non-syndromal obesity and normal-weight subjects. Methods We enrolled 20 obese (O females (age: 29.1 ± 6.5 years; BMI: 38.1 ± 3.1, 6 PWS females (age: 27.2 ± 4.9 years; BMI: 45.8 ± 4.4 and 14 healthy normal-weight (H females (age: 30.1 ± 4.7 years; BMI: 21 ± 1.6. Isokinetic strength during knee flexion and extension in both lower limbs at the fixed angular velocities of 60°/s, 180°/s, 240°/s was measured with a Cybex Norm dynamometer. Results the H, O and PWS populations appear to be clearly stratified with regard to muscle strength.: PWS showed the lowest absolute peak torque (PT for knee flexor and extensor muscles as compared to O (-55% and H (-47% (P = 0.00001. O showed significantly higher strength values than H as regard to knee extension only (P = 0.0014. When strength data were normalised by body weight, PWS showed a 50% and a 70% reduction in PT as compared to O and H, respectively. Knee flexors strength values were on average half of those reported for extension in all of the three populations. Conclusion the novel aspect of our study is the determination of objective measures of muscle strength in PWS and the comparison with O and H patients. The objective characterization of muscle function performed in this study provides baseline and outcome measures that may quantify specific strength deficits amendable with tailored rehabilitation programs and monitor effectiveness of treatments.

  1. How does back muscle strength change after posterior lumbar interbody fusion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chong-Suh; Kang, Kyung-Chung; Chung, Sung-Soo; Park, Won-Hah; Shin, Won-Ju; Seo, Yong-Gon

    2017-02-01

    OBJECTIVE There is a lack of evidence of how back muscle strength changes after lumbar fusion surgery and how exercise influences these changes. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in back muscle strength after posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) and to measure the effects of a postoperative exercise program on muscle strength and physical and mental health outcomes. METHODS This prospective study enrolled 59 women (mean age 58 years) who underwent PLIF at 1 or 2 spinal levels. To assess the effects of a supervised lumbar stabilization exercise (LSE), the authors allocated the patients to an LSE (n = 26) or a control (n = 33) group. The patients in the LSE group performed the LSEs between 3 and 6 months postoperatively. Back extensor strength, visual analog scale (VAS) scores in back pain, and physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) scores on the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey were determined for the both groups. RESULTS Mean strength of the back muscles tended to slightly decrease by 7.5% from preoperatively to 3 months after PLIF (p = 0.145), but it significantly increased thereafter and was sustained until the last follow-up (38.1%, p muscle strength was similar in the LSE and control groups preoperatively, but it increased significantly more in the LSE group (64.2%) than in the control group (21.7%) at the last follow-up 12 months after PLIF (p = 0.012). At the last follow-up, decreases in back pain VAS scores were more significant among LSE group patients, who had a pain reduction on average of 58.2%, than among control group patients (reduction of 26.1%) (p = 0.013). The patients in the LSE group also had greater improvement in both PCS (39.9% improvement) and MCS (20.7% improvement) scores than the patients in the control group (improvement of 18.0% and 1.1%, p = 0.042 and p = 0.035, respectively). CONCLUSIONS After PLIF, strength in back muscles decreased until 3 months postoperatively but significantly increased

  2. Effect of core training on inspiratory muscle strength in well-trained men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUSTAFA ÖZDAL

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the effects of core strength training program (Ct on inspiratory muscle strength (IMs in well-trained men. twenty four well-trained male athletes participated in the present study as subject, and they divided randomly two groups as the experimental (Ex, and control (Con. ten-weeks Ct program was administered on the Ex. the subjects were recruited to perform 2 times maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP pre- (t1 and post- (t2 10-weeks program. significant increase was found in the MIP (10.92 cmH2O of the Ex group after 10-weeks Ct program (p 0.05. Percent change in the MIP of the Ex was by 6.13%, and in the MIP of the Con was by 1.38%. When compared percent change in the MIP of groups, the increment of the Ex was found significantly higher than the Con (p < 0.05. In summary, respiratory muscle strength significantly increased after 10-weeks Ct program. as a conclusion, it could be said that core strength training causes improvement of respiratory muscle strength.

  3. Restorative Effect of Vitamin D Deficiency on Knee Pain and Quadriceps Muscle Strength in Knee Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Heidari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Both vitamin D deficiency and quadriceps muscle weakness are associated with kneeosteoarthritis (KOA and pain. The aim of this study was to determine the restorative effect of vitamin Ddeficiency on pain and quadriceps muscle strength in knee osteoarthritis. Patients with KOA aged≥30years, the presence of knee pain for at least one month or longer and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin (25-OHDdeficiencies were recruited in the study. Participants with KOA compatible with Kellgren-Lawrence grade4, joint instability, and effusion, history of surgery or inflammatory arthropathies were excluded. Serum25-OHD was assessed by ELISA method and concentrationsQuadriceps muscle strength was measured by dynamometry method and intensity of knee pain by WesternOntario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis index scored by Likert scale and visual analog scale. Allparticipants received 50.000 IU oral cholecalciferol weekly for at least two months. The influence ofraising serum 25-OHD on quadriceps muscle strength and pain was assessed by calculation of meanchanges from baseline at the end of the treatment period using paired t-test. A total of 67 patients withmean age of 50±6.6 years of age were treated for 2 months. Serum 25-OHD reached to sufficient levels inall except one patient. At the end of the study period, serum 25-OHD and quadriceps muscle strengthincreased significantly as compared with baseline (P=0.007 and P=0.002, respectively, whereas knee paindecreased significantly based on Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis index (P=0.001as well as visual analogue scale scores (P=0.001.These findings indicated that correction of vitamin Ddeficiency in patients with KOA exerts a significant favorable effect on quadriceps muscle strength andknee pain.

  4. Strength training improves muscle quality and insulin sensitivity in Hispanic older adults with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Brooks, Jennifer E. Layne, Patricia L. Gordon , Ronenn Roubenoff , Miriam E. Nelson , Carmen Castaneda-Sceppa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Hispanics are at increased risk of morbidity and mortality due to their high prevalence of diabetes and poor glycemic control. Strength training is the most effective lifestyle intervention to increase muscle mass but limited data is available in older adults with diabetes. We determined the influence of strength training on muscle quality (strength per unit of muscle mass, skeletal muscle fiber hypertrophy, and metabolic control including insulin resistance (Homeostasis Model Assessment –HOMA-IR, C-Reactive Protein (CRP, adiponectin and Free Fatty Acid (FFA levels in Hispanic older adults. Sixty-two community-dwelling Hispanics (>55 y with type 2 diabetes were randomized to 16 weeks of strength training plus standard care (ST group or standard care alone (CON group. Skeletal muscle biopsies and biochemical measures were taken at baseline and 16 weeks. The ST group show improved muscle quality (mean±SE: 28±3 vs CON (-4±2, p2 and type II fiber cross-sectional area (720±285µm2 compared to CON (type I: -164±290µm2, p=0.04; and type II: -130±336µm2, p=0.04. This was accompanied by reduced insulin resistance [ST: median (interquartile range -0.7(3.6 vs CON: 0.8(3.8, p=0.05]; FFA (ST: -84±30µmol/L vs CON: 149±48µmol/L, p=0.02; and CRP [ST: -1.3(2.9mg/L vs CON: 0.4(2.3mg/L, p=0.05]. Serum adiponectin increased with ST [1.0(1.8µg/mL] compared to CON [-1.2(2.2µg/mL, p

  5. Isometric abdominal wall muscle strength assessment in individuals with incisional hernia: a prospective reliability study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K. K.; Kjær, Michael; Jorgensen, L. N.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine the reliability of measurements obtained by the Good Strength dynamometer, determining isometric abdominal wall and back muscle strength in patients with ventral incisional hernia (VIH) and healthy volunteers with an intact abdominal wall. Methods Ten patients with VIH and ten...... healthy volunteers with an intact abdominal wall were each examined twice with a 1 week interval. Examination included the assessment of truncal flexion and extension as measured with the Good Strength dynamometer, the completion of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and the self......-assessment of truncal strength on a visual analogue scale (SATS). The test–retest reliability of truncal flexion and extension was assessed by interclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and Bland and Altman graphs. Finally, correlations between truncal strength, and IPAQ and SATS were examined. Results Truncal flexion...

  6. Quantitative analysis of the features of fasciculation potentials and their relation with muscle strength in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokuda, Kota; Shimizu, Toshio; Kimura, Hideki; Yamazaki, Toshihiro; Kamiyama, Tsutomu; Watabe, Kazuhiko; Kawata, Akihiro; Hayashi, Masaharu; Isozaki, Eiji

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to quantitatively analyze fasciculation potentials (FPs) and to investigate their relationship with muscle strength in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Fifty-one patients with sporadic ALS or progressive muscular atrophy (25 men, 26 women, mean age of 68 years) underwent needle EMG. We determined the duration, phase number, and amplitude of FPs from three muscles (upper trapezius, biceps brachii, and tibialis anterior) and examined their relations with muscle strength. In total, 878 FPs were analyzed. FP duration displayed a significant negative relation with the strength of all three muscles; the weaker muscles showed longer durations of FPs than the muscles with normal strength. The amplitude and phase number were not related with muscle strength, but there were significant correlations between the duration and amplitude of FPs in the trapezius and tibialis anterior muscles. The longer duration of FPs in muscles with weak strength suggests that the morphological changes of FPs were caused by temporal dispersion through progressively degenerating and/or immature reinnervating motor branches, and were observed uniformly in different muscles along with disease progression.

  7. Effects of combined endurance and strength training on muscle strength, power and hypertrophy in 40-67-year-old men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karavirta, L; Häkkinen, A; Sillanpää, E; García-López, D; Kauhanen, A; Haapasaari, A; Alen, M; Pakarinen, A; Kraemer, W J; Izquierdo, M; Gorostiaga, E; Häkkinen, K

    2011-06-01

    Both strength and endurance training have several positive effects on aging muscle and physical performance of middle-aged and older adults, but their combination may compromise optimal adaptation. This study examined the possible interference of combined strength and endurance training on neuromuscular performance and skeletal muscle hypertrophy in previously untrained 40-67-year-old men. Maximal strength and muscle activation in the upper and lower extremities, maximal concentric power, aerobic capacity and muscle fiber size and distribution in the vastus lateralis muscle were measured before and after a 21-week training period. Ninety-six men [mean age 56 (SD 7) years] completed high-intensity strength training (S) twice a week, endurance training (E) twice a week, combined training (SE) four times per week or served as controls (C). SE and S led to similar gains in one repetition maximum strength of the lower extremities [22 (9)% and 21 (8)%, Pmuscle fibers only increased in S [26 (22)%, P=0.002], while SE showed an inconsistent, non-significant change [8 (35)%, P=0.73]. Combined training may interfere with muscle hypertrophy in aging men, despite similar gains in maximal strength between the strength and the combined training groups. © 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. Associations between Muscle Strength Asymmetry and Impairments in Gait and Posture in Young Brain-Injured Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drijkoningen, D.; Caeyenberghs, K.; Linden, C. van der; Herpe, K. Van; Duysens, J.; Swinnen, S.P.

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can lead to deficits in gait and posture, which are often asymmetric. A possible factor mediating these deficits may be asymmetry in strength of the leg muscles. However, muscle strength in the lower extremities has rarely been investigated in (young) TBI patients. Here,

  9. Associations between Muscle Strength Asymmetry and Impairments in Gait and Posture in Young Brain-Injured Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drijkoningen, D.; Caeyenberghs, K.; Linden, C. van der; Herpe, K. Van; Duysens, J.; Swinnen, S.P.

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can lead to deficits in gait and posture, which are often asymmetric. A possible factor mediating these deficits may be asymmetry in strength of the leg muscles. However, muscle strength in the lower extremities has rarely been investigated in (young) TBI patients. Here,

  10. Knee extensor muscle strength in middle-aged and older individuals undergoing arthroscopic partial meniscectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Michelle; Juhl, Carsten B; Lund, Hans

    2015-01-01

    for a meniscal tear and used either a healthy control group or the contralateral leg to compare knee extensor muscle strength were included. Methodological quality was assessed using guidelines from the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination. RESULTS: Eleven studies, including predominately males were included (n......OBJECTIVE: People with meniscal tears are at high risk to develop or progress knee osteoarthritis. Knee extensor weakness is considered a risk factor for osteoarthritis and is often reported in these individuals. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate knee...... extensor strength in people undergoing an arthroscopic partial meniscectomy (APM). METHODS: Six databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, SportDISCUS, EMBASE, PEDro and AMED) were searched up to June 22(nd) , 2014. Studies that measured knee extensor muscle strength in people aged 30 years and older undergoing APM...

  11. The effect of regular strength training on telomere length in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kadi, F.; Ponsot, Elodie; Piehl-Aulin, Karin;

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: The length of DNA telomeres is an important parameter of the proliferative potential of tissues. A recent study has reported abnormally short telomeres in skeletal muscle of athletes with exercise-associated fatigue. This important report raises the question of whether long-term practice...... of sports might have deleterious effects on muscle telomeres. Therefore, we aimed to compare telomere length of a group of power lifters (PL; N = 7) who trained for 8 +/- 3 yr against that of a group of healthy, active subjects (C; N = 7) with no history of strength training. METHODS: Muscle biopsies were...... taken from the vastus lateralis, and the mean and minimum telomeric restriction fragments (TRF) (telomere length) were determined, using the Southern blot protocol previously used for the analysis of skeletal muscle. RESULTS: There was no abnormal shortening of telomeres in PL. On the contrary, the mean...

  12. Effect of Expiratory Resistive Loading in Expiratory Muscle Strength Training on Orbicularis Oris Muscle Activity

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effect of expiratory resistive loading on orbicularis oris muscle activity. [Subjects] Subjects were 23 healthy individuals (11 males, mean age 25.5±4.3 years; 12 females, mean age 25.0±3.0 years). [Methods] Surface electromyography was performed to measure the activity of the orbicularis oris muscle during maximum lip closure and resistive loading at different expiratory pressures. Measurement was performed at 10%, 30%, 50%, and 100% o...

  13. Amplitude and strength of muscle contraction are reduced in experimental tears of the rotator cuff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Dominik C; Gerber, Christian; Von Rechenberg, Brigitte; Wirth, Stephan H; Farshad, Mazda

    2011-07-01

    Chronic tendon tears lead to retraction, fatty infiltration, and atrophy of the respective muscle. These muscle changes are decision-making criteria in rotator cuff tear management. To investigate the functional implications of these morphological changes in a sheep rotator cuff tear model. Controlled laboratory study. The authors established chronic retraction of the musculotendinous unit accompanied with fatty infiltration and atrophy of the infraspinatus muscle in 20 sheep. The contractile force and passive tension of the muscle as a function of its length were measured and the active work capacity determined. After tendon release and chronic retraction (by 5.7 ± 0.9 cm), fatty infiltrated and atrophied infraspinatus muscles (with a density of 22.4 ± 10.4 Hounsfield units [HU] and a cross-sectional area of 65% ± 16% of the contralateral control side) had a mean contractile amplitude and strength of 2.7 ± 0.4 cm and 235 ± 71 N compared with the contralateral control shoulder of 4.1 ± 0.7 cm and 485 ± 78 N (P muscle was 2.8 ± 0.9 N·m for retracted and 8.8 ± 2.4 N·m for control muscles (P tears are associated not only with retraction, fatty infiltration, and atrophy but also with loss of strength and contractile amplitude. The functional changes can only indirectly and approximately be predicted by computed tomography imaging findings. The current criteria (atrophy, retraction, and fatty infiltration) may help to quantify the structural reparability of a chronically retracted musculotendinous unit after rotator cuff tendon tear but may only approximately predict the remaining function of the muscle.

  14. Resistance training vs. static stretching: effects on flexibility and strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Sam K; Whitehead, James R; Brinkert, Ronald H; Caine, Dennis J

    2011-12-01

    Morton, SK, Whitehead, JR, Brinkert, RH, and Caine, DJ. Resistance training vs. static stretching: Effects on flexibility and strength. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3391-3398, 2011-The purpose of this study was to determine how full-range resistance training (RT) affected flexibility and strength compared to static stretching (SS) of the same muscle-joint complexes in untrained adults. Volunteers (n = 25) were randomized to an RT or SS training group. A group of inactive volunteers (n = 12) served as a convenience control group (CON). After pretesting hamstring extension, hip flexion and extension, shoulder extension flexibility, and peak torque of quadriceps and hamstring muscles, subjects completed 5-week SS or RT treatments in which the aim was to stretch or to strength train the same muscle-joint complexes over similar movements and ranges. Posttests of flexibility and strength were then conducted. There was no difference in hamstring flexibility, hip flexion, and hip extension improvement between RT and SS, but both were superior to CON values. There were no differences between groups on shoulder extension flexibility. The RT group was superior to the CON in knee extension peak torque, but there were no differences between groups on knee flexion peak torque. The results of this preliminary study suggest that carefully constructed full-range RT regimens can improve flexibility as well as the typical SS regimens employed in conditioning programs. Because of the potential practical significance of these results to strength and conditioning programs, further studies using true experimental designs, larger sample sizes, and longer training durations should be conducted with the aim of confirming or disproving these results.

  15. Effects of inspiratory muscle training on lung volumes, respiratory muscle strength, and quality of life in patients with ataxia telangiectasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félix, Erika; Gimenes, Ana Cristina; Costa-Carvalho, Beatriz Tavares

    2014-03-01

    Ataxia telangiectasia (AT) is a genetic syndrome caused by a mutation of chromosome 11. The clinical features are cerebellar ataxia, telangiectasia, and progressive loss of muscular coordination, including an inefficient cough secondary to progression of neurological disease. To evaluate the effects of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) on ventilation, lung volume, dyspnoea, respiratory muscle strength, and quality of life in patients with AT. A longitudinal study was conducted with 11 AT patients and nine healthy volunteers. Ventilometry, subjective sensation of dyspnoea, maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP), maximal expiratory pressure (MEP), and quality of life were assessed before and after a 24-week IMT program. The IMT load used was set at 60% of the MIP, and the training was performed for 20 min daily. Patients with AT had lower height and weight and also had lower respiratory muscle strength and lung volume compared with healthy volunteers. Furthermore, patients with AT showed a significant improvement when pre- and post-IMT were compared for ventilatory pattern: Vt (476.5 ± 135 ml vs. 583.3 ± 66 ml, P = 0.015) and f (23.3 ± 6 rpm vs. 20.4 ± 4 rpm, P = 0.018), and VC (1,664 ± 463 ml/kg vs. 2,145 ± 750 ml/kg, P = 0.002). IMT also significantly improved the sensation of dyspnoea (median 0.5; minimum 0; maximum 1.0; P = 0.022) and respiratory muscle strength: MIP (-22.2 ± 2 cmH2O vs. -38 ± 9 cmH2O, P < 0.001) and MEP (29 ± 7 cmH2O vs. 40 ± 8 cmH2O, P = 0.001). The health and vitality domains of the SF-36 also showed significant improvement (P = 0.009 and P = 0.014, respectively) post-IMT. IMT was effective in improving ventilatory pattern, lung volume, respiratory muscle strength, and the health and vitality domains for quality of life in patients with AT. IMT may be an effective adjunct therapy to drug treatment for patients with AT. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Hamstring strain - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 88. Reider B, Davies GJ, Provencher MT. Muscle strains about the hip and thigh. In: Reider B, Davies GJ, Provencher MT, eds. Orthopaedic Rehabilitation of the Athlete . ...

  17. Effects of knee extensor muscle strength on the incidence of osteopenia and osteoporosis after 6 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Yasumoto; Takemura, Marie; Harada, Atsushi; Ando, Fujiko; Shimokata, Hiroshi

    2014-09-01

    The association of knee extensor muscle strength with bone mineral density (BMD) has been reported in cross-sectional epidemiological studies, but it remains unclear whether or not this is the case with longitudinal change. Thus, we investigated whether or not the knee extension strength can predict the incidence of osteopenia or osteoporosis after 6 years, then compared the difference between sexes. Subjects were 1255 community-dwelling Japanese men and menopaused women, aged 40-81 years. BMD of lumbar spine and femoral neck was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry twice at 6-year intervals. Subjects were divided into three groups, normal, osteopenia, and osteoporosis, depending on their young adult mean BMD % value. In the cross-sectional analysis the correlations between the knee extension strength and BMD of the two regions were examined, using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Longitudinal analyses were then conducted to determine the odds ratio, controlled for age and BMI, given that those who were normal in the initial stage developed osteopenia or osteoporosis after 6 years, for every 1 SD decrease in knee extension strength, as well as those who first had normal or osteopenia and then developed osteoporosis. Cross-sectional analysis showed a statistically significant relation between knee extensor muscle strength and BMD at both the lumbar spine (p = 0.02) and the femoral neck (p muscle strength on the loss of femoral neck BMD from normal to osteopenia or osteoporosis both in men (OR 1.84, 95 % CI 1.36-2.48, p strength to maintain the bone health of the proximal femur and spine in aging particularly in men.

  18. Muscle activation during selected strength exercises in women with chronic neck muscle pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L.L.; Kjaer, M.; Andersen, C.H.

    2008-01-01

    ) (luring selected strengthening exercises in women undergoing rehabilitation for chronic neck muscle pain (defined as a clinical diagnosis of trapezins myalgia). Subjects. The subjects were 12 female workers (age = 30-60 years) with a clinical diagnosis of trapezius myalgia and a mean baseline pain...

  19. Muscle activation during selected strength exercises in women with chronic neck muscle pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars L; Kjaer, Michael; Andersen, Christoffer H

    2008-01-01

    selected strengthening exercises in women undergoing rehabilitation for chronic neck muscle pain (defined as a clinical diagnosis of trapezius myalgia). SUBJECTS: The subjects were 12 female workers (age=30-60 years) with a clinical diagnosis of trapezius myalgia and a mean baseline pain intensity of 5...

  20. Modeling and Simulation to Muscle Strength Training of Lower Limbs Rehabilitation Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke-Yi Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the issues of lower limb rehabilitation robots with single control strategies and poor training types, a training method for improving muscle strength was put forward in this paper. Patients’ muscle strength could be achieved by targeted exercises at the end of rehabilitation. This approach could be realized through programming wires’ force. On the one hand, each wires force was measured by tension sensor and force closed loop control was established to control the value of wires’ force which was acted on trainees. On the other hand, the direction of output force was changed by detecting the trainees’ state of motion and the way of putting load to patient was achieved. Finally, the target of enhancing patients’ muscle strength was realized. Dynamic model was built by means of mechanism and training types of robots. Force closed loop control strategy was established based on training pattern. In view of the characteristics of the redundance and economy of wire control, the process for simple wire's load changes was discussed. In order to confirm the characteristics of robot control system, the controller was simulated in Matlab/Simulink. It was verified that command signal could be traced by control system availably and the load during muscle training would be provided effectively.

  1. Muscle strength and exercise intensity adaptation to resistance training in older women with knee osteoarthritis and total knee arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Gomes Ciolac

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To analyze muscle strength and exercise intensity adaptation to resistance training in older women with knee osteoarthritis and total knee arthroplasty. METHODS: Twenty-three community-dwelling women were divided into the following groups: older, with knee osteoarthritis and total knee arthroplasty in the contralateral limb (OKG; N= 7; older, without symptomatic osteoarthritis (OG; N= 8; and young and healthy (YG; N= 8. Muscle strength (1-repetition maximum strength test and exercise intensity progression (workload increases of 5%-10% were made whenever adaptation occurred were compared before and after 13 weeks of a twice-weekly progressive resistance-training program. RESULTS: At baseline, OKG subjects displayed lower muscle strength than those in both the OG and YG. Among OKG subjects, baseline muscle strength was lower in the osteoarthritic leg than in the total arthroplasty leg. Muscle strength improved significantly during follow-up in all groups; however, greater increases were observed in the osteoarthritic leg than in the total knee arthroplasty leg in OKG subjects. Greater increases were also seen in the osteoarthritic leg of OKG than in OG and YG. The greater muscle strength increase in the osteoarthritic leg reduced the interleg difference in muscle strength in OKG subjects, and resulted in similar posttraining muscle strength between OKG and OG in two of the three exercises analyzed. Greater exercise intensity progression was also observed in OKG subjects than in both OG and YG subjects. CONCLUSIONS: OKG subjects displayed greater relative muscle strength increases (osteoarthritic leg than subjects in the YG, and greater relative exercise intensity progression than subjects in both OG and YG. These results suggest that resistance training is an effective method to counteract the lower-extremity strength deficits reported in older women with knee osteoarthritis and total knee arthroplasty.

  2. Effects of Vibration Training and Detraining on Balance and Muscle Strength in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, Pedro J.; Martín-López, Aurora; Vicente-Campos, Davinia; Angulo-Carrere, MT; García-Pastor, Teresa; Garatachea, Nuria; Chicharro, José L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of 2 days/week versus 4 days/week of Whole Body Vibration (WBV) during eight weeks of WBV training on health-related quality of life (SF-36), balance and lower body strength, as well as short-term detraining (3 weeks) on balance and lower body strength among older adults. Thirty-four older adults were randomly assigned to a control group (Control; n = 11) or to one of the vibration training groups: WBV 2 days/week (WBV_2d; n = 11) or WBV 4 days/week (WBV_4d; n = 12). The WBV groups exercised for 8 weeks, following 3 weeks of detraining. Lower body strength increased significantly (p < 0.05) for both groups, WBV_2d and WBV_4d, after 8-week training. A significant reduction in strength was observed following 3 weeks of detraining only in WBV_2d group (p < 0.05). All variables of the SF-36 and the balance test did not change after intervention in any group. 2 days/week and 4 days/week of WBV during 8 weeks showed the same improvements on muscle strength. 3 weeks of detraining did not reverse the gains in strength made during 32 sessions of WBV. Key points 2 days and 4 days per week of WBV training during 8 weeks showed the same improvements on muscle strength. 3 weeks of detraining did not reverse the gains in strength made during 32 sessions of WBV exercise. 3 weeks of detraining did reverse the gains in strength made during 16 sessions of WBV exercise. PMID:24150633

  3. Effects of vibration training and detraining on balance and muscle strength in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, Pedro J; Martín-López, Aurora; Vicente-Campos, Davinia; Angulo-Carrere, Mt; García-Pastor, Teresa; Garatachea, Nuria; Chicharro, José L

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of 2 days/week versus 4 days/week of Whole Body Vibration (WBV) during eight weeks of WBV training on health-related quality of life (SF-36), balance and lower body strength, as well as short-term detraining (3 weeks) on balance and lower body strength among older adults. Thirty-four older adults were randomly assigned to a control group (Control; n = 11) or to one of the vibration training groups: WBV 2 days/week (WBV_2d; n = 11) or WBV 4 days/week (WBV_4d; n = 12). The WBV groups exercised for 8 weeks, following 3 weeks of detraining. Lower body strength increased significantly (p < 0.05) for both groups, WBV_2d and WBV_4d, after 8-week training. A significant reduction in strength was observed following 3 weeks of detraining only in WBV_2d group (p < 0.05). All variables of the SF-36 and the balance test did not change after intervention in any group. 2 days/week and 4 days/week of WBV during 8 weeks showed the same improvements on muscle strength. 3 weeks of detraining did not reverse the gains in strength made during 32 sessions of WBV. Key points2 days and 4 days per week of WBV training during 8 weeks showed the same improvements on muscle strength.3 weeks of detraining did not reverse the gains in strength made during 32 sessions of WBV exercise.3 weeks of detraining did reverse the gains in strength made during 16 sessions of WBV exercise.

  4. Test-retest reliability of innovated strength tests for hip muscles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Meyer

    Full Text Available The burden of hip muscles weakness and its relation to other impairments has been well documented. It is therefore a pre-requisite to have a reliable method for clinical assessment of hip muscles function allowing the design and implementation of a proper strengthening program. Motor-driven dynamometry has been widely accepted as the gold-standard for lower limb muscle strength assessment but is mainly related to the knee joint. Studies focusing on the hip joint are less exhaustive and somewhat discrepant with regard to optimal participants position, consequently influencing outcome measures. Thus, we aimed to develop a standardized test setup for the assessment of hip muscles strength, i.e. flexors/extensors and abductors/adductors, with improved participant stability and to define its psychometric characteristics. Eighteen participants performed unilateral isokinetic and isometric contractions of the hip muscles in the sagittal and coronal plane at two separate occasions. Peak torque and normalized peak torque were measured for each contraction. Relative and absolute measures of reliability were calculated using the intraclass correlation coefficient and standard error of measurement, respectively. Results from this study revealed higher levels of between-day reliability of isokinetic/isometric hip abduction/flexion peak torque compared to existing literature. The least reliable measures were found for hip extension and adduction, which could be explained by a less efficient stabilization technique. Our study additionally provided a first set of reference normalized data which can be used in future research.

  5. Do Psychosocial Factors Predict Muscle Strength, Pain, or Physical Performance in Patients With Knee Osteoarthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baert, Isabel A C; Meeus, Mira; Mahmoudian, Armaghan; Luyten, Frank P; Nijs, Jo; Verschueren, Sabine M P

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship of psychosocial factors, namely, pain catastrophizing, kinesiophobia, and maladaptive coping strategies, with muscle strength, pain, and physical performance in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA)-related symptoms. A total of 109 women (64 with knee OA-related symptoms) with a mean age of 65.4 years (49-81 years) were recruited for this study. Psychosocial factors were quantified by the Pain Catastrophizing Scale, Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia, and Pain Coping Inventory. Clinical features were assessed using isometric and isokinetic knee muscle strength measurements, visual analog scale, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index, and functional tests. Associations were examined using correlation and regression analysis. In knee OA patients, pain catastrophizing, kinesiophobia, and coping strategy explained a significant proportion of the variability in isometric knee extension and flexion strength (6.3%-9.2%), accounting for more overall variability than some demographic and medical status variables combined. Psychosocial factors were not significant independent predictors of isokinetic strength, knee pain, or physical performance. In understanding clinical features related to knee OA, such as muscle weakness, pain catastrophizing, kinesiophobia, and coping strategy might offer something additional beyond what might be explained by traditional factors, underscoring the importance of a biopsychosocial approach in knee OA management. Further research on individual patient characteristics that mediate the effects of psychosocial factors is, however, required in order to create opportunities for more targeted, personalized treatment for knee OA.

  6. Muscle Strength, Physical Activity, and Functional Limitations in Older Adults with Central Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra M. Germain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obesity and muscle weakness are independently associated with increased risk of physical and functional impairment in older adults. It is unknown whether physical activity (PA and muscle strength combined provide added protection against functional impairment. This study examines the association between muscle strength, PA, and functional outcomes in older adults with central obesity. Methods. Prevalence and odds of physical (PL, ADL, and IADL limitation were calculated for 6,388 community dwelling adults aged ≥ 60 with central obesity. Individuals were stratified by sex-specific hand grip tertiles and PA. Logistic models were adjusted for age, education, comorbidities, and body-mass index and weighted. Results. Overall prevalence of PL and ADL and IADL limitations were progressively lower by grip category. Within grip categories, prevalence was lower for individuals who were active than those who were inactive. Adjusted models showed significantly lower odds of PL OR 0.42 [0.31, 0.56]; ADL OR 0.60 [0.43, 0.84], and IADL OR 0.46 [0.35, 0.61] for those in the highest grip strength category as compared to those in the lowest grip category. Conclusion. Improving grip strength in obese elders who are not able to engage in traditional exercise is important for reducing odds of physical and functional impairment.

  7. Effects of age and regular exercise on muscle strength and endurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laforest, S; St-Pierre, D M; Cyr, J; Gayton, D

    1990-01-01

    Twenty male and 20 female non-professional tennis players were classified into two different age groups (n = 10 per group): young active men (30.4 +/- 3.3 years), young active women (27.5 +/- 4.3 years), elderly active men (64.4 +/- 3.7 years), and elderly active women (65.3 +/- 4.5 years). These individuals were matched (n = 10 per group) according to sex, age, height and mass to sedentary individuals of the same socio-economical background: young sedentary men (29.2 +/- 3.4 years), young sedentary women (25.6 +/- 4.4 years), elderly sedentary men (65.2 +/- 3.2 years) and elderly sedentary women (65.6 +/- 4.4 years). An isokinetic dynamometer was used to measure the strength of the knee extensors and flexors (two separate occasions) and the endurance of the extensors. Vastus lateralis electromyogram (EMG) was measured concomitantly. Significant sex, age and exercise effects (P less than 0.001) were observed for peak torque of both muscle groups. The effect of age on extensor strength was more pronounced at high speeds where men were also able to generate larger relative torques than women. No age or sex effects were noted for muscle endurance. However, muscles of active individuals demonstrated a greater resistance to fatigue than those of sedentary individuals. In conclusion, men were found to be stronger than women, age was associated with a decrease in muscle strength, but not of muscle endurance, and tennis players were stronger and had muscles that were more resistant to fatigue than their sedentary pairs in both age groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. The dance’s influence on muscle strength of lower limbs on the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseane Rodrigues da Silva

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of dance in the lower limb muscle strength on the elderly. This research has a qualitative-quantitative aproach. The sample was composed by ten elderly of both sexes, who practiced ballroom dancing classes during twelve weeks. The evaluation was performed before and after the classes and it was composed by a questionnaire with personal data and medical history, “test stand and sit in 30 seconds” and a semi-structured interview with a guiding question regarding the perception of muscular strength of the elderly. The quantitative analysis was performed using the Student’s t-test with a significance level of p<0,05%. The qualitative analysis was made according directions proposed by Minayo (1994. The evaluation of muscle strength measured by the test of sitting and standing up, showed that four participants had a decreased and six had an increase in the number of movements executed, but not existed a significant statistical difference between the values before and after intervention (p=0,1934. However, the speech of the participants showed an improvement on the perception in relation muscle strength, mobility, joviality and self-esteem. It suggests that the effect of the dance, performed in the frequency used in this study, has an effect on the well-being and psychosocial sphere of the elderly. Playful activities in physical therapy performed by groups, bringing benefits, however, it should not be an isolated activity, it should be associated with a specific training to improve muscle strength related to the needs of each elderly.

  9. Muscle strength, body composition, and performance of an elite shot-putter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzis, Gerasimos; Kyriazis, Thomas; Karampatsos, Giorgos; Georgiadis, Giorgos

    2012-12-01

    Although muscle mass and strength are thought to be closely related to throwing performance, there are few scientific data about these parameters in elite shot-putters. The purpose of this case report was to present longitudinal data for muscle strength and body composition in relation to performance of an elite male shot-putter. A male national champion with the best rotational shot-put performance of 20.36 m (in 2010) was followed from 2003 to 2011 (current age: 29 y). Data regarding body composition (dual X-ray absorptiometry), as well as 1-repetition-maximum muscle strength (bench press, squat, snatch) and rotational shot-put performance, were collected every February for the last 9 y, 4 wk before the national indoor championship event. The athlete's personal-best performances in squat, bench press, and snatch were 175 kg, 210 kg, and 112.5 kg, respectively. His peak total lean body mass was 92.4 kg, bone mineral density 1.55 g/cm2, and lowest body fat 12.9%. His shot-put performance over these 9 years was significantly correlated with 1-repetition-maximum squat strength (r = .93, P snatch (r = .92, P < .01). In contrast, shot-put performance was not significantly correlated with any of the body-composition parameters. The results of this case study suggest that elite rotational shot-put performance may not be directly correlated with lean body mass. Instead, it seems that it is closely related with measures of muscle strength.

  10. Angiotensin-converting enzyme genotype affects skeletal muscle strength in elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Aldo Matos; Silva, António José; Garrido, Nuno; Louro, Hugo; Marinho, Daniel Almeida; Cardoso Marques, Mário; Breitenfeld, Luiza

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have associated angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) D allele with variability in the skeletal muscle baseline strength, though conclusions have been inconsistent across investigations. The purpose of this study was to examine the possible association between ACE genotype and skeletal muscle baseline strength in elite male and female athletes involved in different event expertise. A group of 58 elite athletes, designated as Olympic candidates, were studied: 35 swimmers (19 males and 16 females, 18.8 ± 3.2 years) and 23 triathletes (15 males and 8 females, 18.7 ± 3.0 years). The athletes were classified as: short (≤ 200m) and middle (400m to 1500m) distance athletes, respectively. For each subject the grip strength in both hands was measure using an adjustable mechanical hand dynamometer. The maximum height in both squat jump (SJ) and counter movement jump (CMJ) were also assessed, using a trigonometric carpet (Ergojump Digitime 1000; Digitest, Jyvaskyla, Finland). DNA extraction was obtained with Chelex 100(®) and genotype determination by PCR-RFLP methods. Both males and females showed significantly higher right grip strength in D allele carriers compared to II homozygote's. We found that allelic frequency differs significantly by event distance specialization in both genders (p sprinter D allele carriers showed the superior scores in nearly all strength measurements (p < 0.05), in both genders. Among endurance athletes, the results also demonstrated that female D allele carriers exhibited the higher performance right grip and CMJ scores (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the ACE D allele seems associated with skeletal muscle baseline strength in elite athletes, being easily identified in females. Key pointsDD homozygote's and D allele carriers from both genders shows significantly higher right grip strength.Right grip strength remains significantly higher in the D allele carrier's female endurance group.Female's D allele carriers exhibited the higher

  11. Acute effects of static stretching on peak torque and the hamstrings-to-quadriceps conventional and functional ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, P B; Ryan, E D; Herda, T J; Walter, A A; Defreitas, J M; Stout, J R; Cramer, J T

    2013-02-01

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