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Sample records for hamstring injury risk

  1. Risk factors for hamstring injuries in male soccer players: a systematic review of prospective studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijsterveldt, A.M.C. van; Port, L.G.L. van de; Vereijken, A.J.; Backx, F.J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Hamstring injuries are common injuries in soccer players. In view of the high incidence and the serious consequences, identifying risk factors related to hamstring injuries is essential. The aim of this systematic review was therefore to identify risk factors for hamstring injuries in male adult

  2. The prognostic value of MRI in determining reinjury risk following acute hamstring injury: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heumen, Moniek; Tol, Johannes L.; de Vos, Robert-Jan; Moen, Maarten H.; Weir, Adam; Orchard, John; Reurink, Gustaaf

    2017-01-01

    A challenge for sports physicians is to estimate the risk of a hamstring re-injury, but the current evidence for MRI variables as a risk factor is unknown. To systematically review the literature on the prognostic value of MRI findings at index injury and/or return to play for acute hamstring

  3. Risk factors for hamstring injuries in Australian male professional cricket players

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    John W. Orchard

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: Fast bowlers suffer more hamstring injuries than other playing roles in cricket, particularly in First Class (multi-day cricket. Batsmen are more likely to get injured in 50-over (one day cricket. Playing in Australia (compared to overseas venues leads to increased risk of hamstring injury.

  4. The prognostic value of MRI in determining reinjury risk following acute hamstring injury: a systematic review.

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    van Heumen, Moniek; Tol, Johannes L; de Vos, Robert-Jan; Moen, Maarten H; Weir, Adam; Orchard, John; Reurink, Gustaaf

    2017-09-01

    A challenge for sports physicians is to estimate the risk of a hamstring re-injury, but the current evidence for MRI variables as a risk factor is unknown. To systematically review the literature on the prognostic value of MRI findings at index injury and/or return to play for acute hamstring re-injuries. Databases of PubMed, Embase, MEDLINE, Scopus, CINAHL, Google Scholar, Web of Science, LILACS, SciELO, ScienceDirect, ProQuest, SPORTDiscus and Cochrane Library were searched until 20 June 2016. Studies evaluating MRI as a prognostic tool for determining the risk of re-injury for athletes with acute hamstring injuries were eligible for inclusion. Two authors independently screened the search results and assessed risk of bias using standardised criteria from a consensus statement. A best-evidence synthesis was used to identify the level of evidence. Post hoc analysis included correction for insufficient sample size. Of the 11 studies included, 7 had a low and 4 had a high risk of bias. No strong evidence for any MRI finding as a risk factor for hamstring re-injury was found. There was moderate evidence that intratendinous injuries were associated with increased re-injury risk. Post hoc analysis showed moderate evidence that injury to the biceps femoris was a moderate to strong risk factor for re-injury. There is currently no strong evidence for any MRI finding in predicting hamstring re-injury risk. Intratendinous injuries and biceps femoris injuries showed moderate evidence for association with a higher re-injury risk. Registration in the PROSPERO International prospective register of systematic reviews was performed prior to study initiation (registration number CRD42015024620). © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. A prospective cohort study of hamstring injuries in competitive sprinters: preseason muscle imbalance as a possible risk factor.

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    Yeung, S S; Suen, A M Y; Yeung, E W

    2009-08-01

    Hamstring injuries are common in sprinters. Identifying preseason risk factors is essential to target injury-prone athletes and develop injury preventive measures. To investigate the incidence of hamstring muscle injury in sprinters over an athletic season and to explore the preseason predictor of this injury. Prospective cohort study. 44 sprinters from the Hong Kong Sports Institute, the Hong Kong Amateur Athletic Association and intercollegiate athletic teams were recruited. Preseason assessment of hamstring flexibility, concentric and eccentric isokinetic peak torque and peak torque angle were obtained at the beginning of an athletic season. The athletes were followed over 12 months and were asked to report all injuries resulting from training and competition. Eight athletes sustained hamstring injuries over the season. The injury rate was 0.87 per 1000 h of exposure. The incidence of injuries was higher at the beginning of the season, with 58.3% injuries occurring in the first 100 h of exposure. Cox regression analysis revealed that athletes with a decrease in the hamstring : quadriceps peak torque ratio of less than 0.60 at an angular velocity of 180 degrees/s have a 17-fold increased risk of hamstring injury. Performing preseason hamstring : quadriceps peak torque ratio assessments may be useful to identify sprinters susceptible to hamstring injury.

  6. Hamstring injuries: update article

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    Lucio Ernlund

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Hamstring (HS muscle injuries are the most common injury in sports. They are correlated to long rehabilitations and have a great tendency to recur. The HS consist of the long head of the biceps femoris, semitendinosus, and semimembranosus. The patient's clinical presentation depends on the characteristics of the lesion, which may vary from strain to avulsions of the proximal insertion. The most recognized risk factor is a previous injury. Magnetic resonance imaging is the method of choice for the injury diagnosis and classification. Many classification systems have been proposed; the current classifications aim to describe the injury and correlate it to the prognosis. The treatment is conservative, with the use of anti-inflammatory drugs in the acute phase followed by a muscle rehabilitation program. Proximal avulsions have shown better results with surgical repair. When the patient is pain free, shows recovery of strength and muscle flexibility, and can perform the sport's movements, he/she is able to return to play. Prevention programs based on eccentric strengthening of the muscles have been indicated both to prevent the initial injury as well as preventing recurrence.

  7. A comprehensive strength testing protocol offers no clinical value in predicting risk of hamstring injury: a prospective cohort study of 413 professional football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dyk, Nicol; Bahr, Roald; Burnett, Angus F; Whiteley, Rod; Bakken, Arnhild; Mosler, Andrea; Farooq, Abdulaziz; Witvrouw, Erik

    2017-12-01

    Hamstring injuries remain prevalent across a number of professional sports. In football, the incidence has even increased by 4% per year at the Champions League level over the last decade. The role of muscle strength or strength ratios and their association with risk of hamstring injury remain restricted by small sample sizes and inconclusive results. The purpose of this study is to identify risk factors for hamstring injury in professional football players in an adequately powered, prospective cohort study. Using both established (isokinetic) and novel (eccentric hamstring test device) measures of muscle strength, we aimed to investigate the relationship between these strength characteristics over the entire range of motion with risk of hamstring injury. All teams (n=18) eligible to compete in the premier football league in Qatar underwent a comprehensive strength assessment during their annual periodic health evaluation at Aspetar Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital in Doha, Qatar. Variables included isokinetic strength, Nordic hamstring exercise strength and dynamic hamstring: quadriceps ratios. Of the 413 players included (68.2% of all league players), 66 suffered a hamstring injury over the two seasons. Only isokinetic quadriceps concentric at 300°/s (adjusted for bodyweight) was associated with risk of hamstring injury when considered categorically. Age, body mass and playing position were also associated with risk of hamstring injury. None of the other 23 strength variables examined were found to be associated with hamstring injury. The clinical value of isolated strength testing is limited, and its use in musculoskeletal screening to predict future hamstring injury is unfounded. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Eccentric Knee Flexor Strength and Risk of Hamstring Injuries in Rugby Union: A Prospective Study.

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    Bourne, Matthew N; Opar, David A; Williams, Morgan D; Shield, Anthony J

    2015-11-01

    Hamstring strain injuries (HSIs) represent the most common cause of lost playing time in rugby union. Eccentric knee flexor weakness and between-limb imbalance in eccentric knee flexor strength are associated with a heightened risk of HSIs in other sports; however, these variables have not been explored in rugby union. To determine if lower levels of eccentric knee flexor strength or greater between-limb imbalance in this parameter during the Nordic hamstring exercise are risk factors for HSIs in rugby union. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. This prospective study was conducted over the 2014 Super Rugby and Queensland Rugby Union seasons. In total, 178 rugby union players (mean age, 22.6 ± 3.8 years; mean height, 185.0 ± 6.8 cm; mean weight, 96.5 ± 13.1 kg) had their eccentric knee flexor strength assessed using a custom-made device during the preseason. Reports of previous hamstring, quadriceps, groin, calf, and anterior cruciate ligament injuries were also obtained. The main outcome measure was the prospective occurrence of HSIs. Twenty players suffered at least 1 HSI during the study period. Players with a history of HSIs had a 4.1-fold (95% CI, 1.9-8.9; P = .001) greater risk of subsequent HSIs than players without such a history. Between-limb imbalance in eccentric knee flexor strength of ≥15% and ≥20% increased the risk of HSIs by 2.4-fold (95% CI, 1.1-5.5; P = .033) and 3.4-fold (95% CI, 1.5-7.6; P = .003), respectively. Lower eccentric knee flexor strength and other prior injuries were not associated with an increased risk of future HSIs. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that the risk of reinjuries was augmented in players with strength imbalances. Previous HSIs and between-limb imbalance in eccentric knee flexor strength were associated with an increased risk of future HSIs in rugby union. These results support the rationale for reducing imbalance, particularly in players who have suffered a prior HSI, to mitigate the risk of future

  9. Nerve entrapment after hamstring injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohrer, Heinz; Nauck, Tanja; Konerding, Moritz A

    2012-09-01

    Hamstring muscle injuries are a frequent cause of athletic sequelae, and the frequency of reinjuries is high. Frequently, disability in sport is the consequence and performance is limited. A case report of a soccer player who was unable to play his sport after a minor hamstring muscle injury is presented. We introduce a previously undescribed lesion featured by a scar compromising a motor branch of the sciatic nerve to the long head of the biceps femoris muscle. Resection of the involved branch of the nerve resulted in complete pain relief and full sport capacity. This case report demonstrates that in very rare cases, a scar tissue-induced intramuscular entrapment of a branch of the sciatic nerve must be considered as a reason for athletic incapacity after minor hamstring injury. Both the degree of a muscular injury and its specific location within the injured muscle may therefore influence the functional outcome.

  10. The Preventive Effect of the Nordic Hamstring Exercise on Hamstring Injuries in Amateur Soccer Players : A Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Horst, Nick; Smits, Dirk-Wouter; Petersen, Jesper; Goedhart, Edwin A.; Backx, Frank J. G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069615039

    Background: Hamstring injuries are the most common muscle injuries in soccer, and they have a high rate of recurrence. Eccentric hamstrings strength is recognized as an important modifiable risk factor. This led to the development of prevention exercises such as the nordic hamstring exercise (NHE).

  11. The Effectiveness of Injury Prevention Programs to Modify Risk Factors for Non-Contact Anterior Cruciate Ligament and Hamstring Injuries in Uninjured Team Sports Athletes: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monajati, Alireza; Larumbe-Zabala, Eneko; Goss-Sampson, Mark; Naclerio, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Hamstring strain and anterior cruciate ligament injuries are, respectively, the most prevalent and serious non-contact occurring injuries in team sports. Specific biomechanical and neuromuscular variables have been used to estimate the risk of incurring a non-contact injury in athletes. The aim of this study was to systematically review the evidences for the effectiveness of injury prevention protocols to modify biomechanical and neuromuscular anterior cruciate and/or hamstring injuries associated risk factors in uninjured team sport athletes. PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, Cochrane Libraries, U.S. National Institutes of Health clinicaltrials.gov, Sport Discuss and Google Scholar databases were searched for relevant journal articles published until March 2015. A manual review of relevant articles, authors, and journals, including bibliographies was performed from identified articles. Nineteen studies were included in this review. Four assessment categories: i) landing, ii) side cutting, iii) stop-jump, and iv) muscle strength outcomes, were used to analyze the effectiveness of the preventive protocols. Eight studies using multifaceted interventions supported by video and/or technical feedback showed improvement in landing and/or stop-jump biomechanics, while no effects were observed on side-cutting maneuver. Additionally, multifaceted programs including hamstring eccentric exercises increased hamstring strength, hamstring to quadriceps functional ratio and/or promoted a shift of optimal knee flexion peak torque toward a more open angle position. Multifaceted programs, supported by proper video and/or technical feedback, including eccentric hamstring exercises would positively modify the biomechanical and or neuromuscular anterior cruciate and/or hamstring injury risk factors.

  12. The Effectiveness of Injury Prevention Programs to Modify Risk Factors for Non-Contact Anterior Cruciate Ligament and Hamstring Injuries in Uninjured Team Sports Athletes: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Monajati

    Full Text Available Hamstring strain and anterior cruciate ligament injuries are, respectively, the most prevalent and serious non-contact occurring injuries in team sports. Specific biomechanical and neuromuscular variables have been used to estimate the risk of incurring a non-contact injury in athletes.The aim of this study was to systematically review the evidences for the effectiveness of injury prevention protocols to modify biomechanical and neuromuscular anterior cruciate and/or hamstring injuries associated risk factors in uninjured team sport athletes.PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, Cochrane Libraries, U.S. National Institutes of Health clinicaltrials.gov, Sport Discuss and Google Scholar databases were searched for relevant journal articles published until March 2015. A manual review of relevant articles, authors, and journals, including bibliographies was performed from identified articles.Nineteen studies were included in this review. Four assessment categories: i landing, ii side cutting, iii stop-jump, and iv muscle strength outcomes, were used to analyze the effectiveness of the preventive protocols. Eight studies using multifaceted interventions supported by video and/or technical feedback showed improvement in landing and/or stop-jump biomechanics, while no effects were observed on side-cutting maneuver. Additionally, multifaceted programs including hamstring eccentric exercises increased hamstring strength, hamstring to quadriceps functional ratio and/or promoted a shift of optimal knee flexion peak torque toward a more open angle position.Multifaceted programs, supported by proper video and/or technical feedback, including eccentric hamstring exercises would positively modify the biomechanical and or neuromuscular anterior cruciate and/or hamstring injury risk factors.

  13. No Relationship Between Hamstring Flexibility and Hamstring Injuries in Male Amateur Soccer Players: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Doormaal, Mitchell C M; van der Horst, Nick; Backx, Frank J G; Smits, Dirk-Wouter; Huisstede, Bionka M A

    2017-01-01

    In soccer, although hamstring flexibility is thought to play a major role in preventing hamstring injuries, the relationship between hamstring flexibility and hamstring injuries remains unclear. To investigate the relationship between hamstring flexibility and hamstring injuries in male amateur soccer players. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. This study included 450 male first-class amateur soccer players (mean age, 24.5 years). Hamstring flexibility was measured by performing the sit-and-reach test (SRT). The relationship between hamstring flexibility and the occurrence of hamstring injuries in the following year, while adjusting for the possible confounding effects of age and previous hamstring injuries, was determined with a multivariate logistic regression analysis. Of the 450 soccer players, 21.8% reported a hamstring injury in the previous year. The mean (±SD) baseline score for the SRT was 21.2 ± 9.2 cm. During the 1-year follow-up period, 23 participants (5.1%) suffered a hamstring injury. In the multivariate analysis, while adjusting for age and previous injuries, no significant relationship was found between hamstring flexibility and hamstring injuries ( P = .493). In this group of soccer players, hamstring flexibility (measured with the SRT) was not related to hamstring injuries. Age and previous hamstring injuries as possible confounders did not appear to influence this relationship. Other etiological factors need to be examined to further elucidate the mechanism of hamstring injuries.

  14. Rehabilitation and return to sport after hamstring strain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren N. Erickson

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Hamstring strain injuries are common among sports that involve sprinting, kicking, and high-speed skilled movements or extensive muscle lengthening-type maneuvers with hip flexion and knee extension. These injuries present the challenge of significant recovery time and a lengthy period of increased susceptibility for recurrent injury. Nearly one third of hamstring strains recur within the first year following return to sport with subsequent injuries often being more severe than the original. This high re-injury rate suggests that athletes may be returning to sport prematurely due to inadequate return to sport criteria. In this review article, we describe the epidemiology, risk factors, differential diagnosis, and prognosis of an acute hamstring strain. Based on the current available evidence, we then propose a clinical guide for the rehabilitation of acute hamstring strains and an algorithm to assist clinicians in the decision-making process when assessing readiness of an athlete to return to sport.

  15. Hamstring Muscle Injuries, a Rehabilitation Protocol Purpose.

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    Valle, Xavier; L Tol, Johannes; Hamilton, Bruce; Rodas, Gil; Malliaras, Peter; Malliaropoulos, Nikos; Rizo, Vicenc; Moreno, Marcel; Jardi, Jaume

    2015-12-01

    Hamstring acute muscle injuries are prevalent in several sports including AFL football (Australian Football League), sprinting and soccer, and are often associated with prolonged time away from sport. In response to this, research into prevention and management of hamstring injury has increased, but epidemiological data shows no decline in injury and re-injury rates, suggesting that rehabilitation programs and return to play (RTP) criteria have to be improved. There continues to be a lack of consensus regarding how to assess performance, recovery and readiness to RTP, following hamstring strain injury. The aim of this paper was to propose rehabilitation protocol for hamstring muscle injuries based on current basic science and research knowledge regarding injury demographics and management options. Criteria-based (subjective and objective) progression through the rehabilitation program will be outlined along with exercises for each phase, from initial injury to RTP.

  16. Hamstring Muscle Injuries, a Rehabilitation Protocol Purpose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Xavier; L.Tol, Johannes; Hamilton, Bruce; Rodas, Gil; Malliaras, Peter; Malliaropoulos, Nikos; Rizo, Vicenc; Moreno, Marcel; Jardi, Jaume

    2015-01-01

    Context: Hamstring acute muscle injuries are prevalent in several sports including AFL football (Australian Football League), sprinting and soccer, and are often associated with prolonged time away from sport. Evidence Acquisition: In response to this, research into prevention and management of hamstring injury has increased, but epidemiological data shows no decline in injury and re-injury rates, suggesting that rehabilitation programs and return to play (RTP) criteria have to be improved. There continues to be a lack of consensus regarding how to assess performance, recovery and readiness to RTP, following hamstring strain injury. Results: The aim of this paper was to propose rehabilitation protocol for hamstring muscle injuries based on current basic science and research knowledge regarding injury demographics and management options. Conclusions: Criteria-based (subjective and objective) progression through the rehabilitation program will be outlined along with exercises for each phase, from initial injury to RTP. PMID:26715969

  17. Prevention of Hamstring Injuries in Collegiate Sprinters.

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    Sugiura, Yusaku; Sakuma, Kazuhiko; Sakuraba, Keishoku; Sato, Yamato

    2017-01-01

    No studies have been reported on how strength, agility, and flexibility training reduce the occurrence of hamstring injuries in sprinters. Therefore, a program for preventing hamstring injury in these athletes has not been established. To document the incidence of hamstring injuries during times when different prevention strategies were employed to see whether a particular prevention program reduced their occurrence. Descriptive epidemiology study. The study subjects were a total of 613 collegiate male sprinters trained by the same coach over 24 seasons. Tow training was used throughout the research period as a normal sprint training method. The hamstring injury prevention program evolved over time. From 1988 to 1991 (period 1), prevention focused on strength training alone; from 1992 to 1999 (period 2), a combination of strength and agility training was used; and from 2000 to 2011 (period 3), the program incorporated strength, agility, and flexibility training. The incidence of hamstring injuries was compared for each of the 3 prevention strategies. The incidence of hamstring injuries per athlete-seasons was 137.9 for period 1, 60.6 for period 2, and 6.7 for period 3. A significant difference was observed in the incidence of hamstring injury according to the different prevention programs (χ2(2) = 31.78, P sprinters decreased as agility and flexibility were added to strength training.

  18. The predictive validity of a single leg bridge test for hamstring injuries in Australian Rules Football Players.

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    Freckleton, Grant; Cook, Jill; Pizzari, Tania

    2014-04-01

    Hamstring muscle strain injuries (HMSI) are the greatest injury problem in kicking sports such as Australian Rules Football. Reduced hamstring muscle strength is commonly perceived to be a risk factor for hamstring injury; however, evidence is inconclusive. Testing hamstring strength with the hip and knee at functional angles and assessing endurance parameters may be more relevant for examining the risk of hamstring injury. The primary aim of this prospective study was to examine if reduced hamstring muscle strength assessed with the single leg hamstring bridge (SLHB) was a risk factor for hamstring injury. Hamstring muscle strength of 482 amateur and semielite players from 16 football clubs, mean age 20.7 (range 16-34 years), was tested during the 2011 preseason. Players were then monitored throughout the 2011 playing season for HMSI. A total of 28 hamstring injuries, 16 right and 12 left, were recorded. Players who sustained a right HMSI during the season had a significantly lower mean right SLHB score (p=0.029), were older (p=0.002) and were more likely to have sustained a past right hamstring injury (p=0.02) or right knee injury (p=0.035). For left-sided hamstring injury, the injured group was more likely to be left leg dominant (p=0.001), older athletes (p=0.002) and there was a trend towards a history of left hamstring injury (p=0.07). This study demonstrated a significant deficit in preseason SLHB scores on the right leg of players that subsequently sustained a right-sided hamstring injury. Age, previous knee injury and a history of hamstring injury were other risk factors supported in this study. Low hamstring strength appears to be a risk factor for hamstring injury; however, due to the confounding variables and low injury rate in this study, further studies are required.

  19. The effect of hamstring flexibility on peak hamstring muscle strain in sprinting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xianglin Wan; Feng Qu; William E. Garrett; Hui Liu; Bing Yu

    2017-01-01

    Background: The effect of hamstring flexibility on the peak hamstring muscle strains in sprinting, until now, remained unknown, which limited our understanding of risk factors of hamstring muscle strain injury (hamstring injury...

  20. EXERCISES THAT FACILITATE OPTIMAL HAMSTRING AND QUADRICEPS CO-ACTIVATION TO HELP DECREASE ACL INJURY RISK IN HEALTHY FEMALES: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedinsky, Rachel; Baker, Lindsey; Imbus, Samuel; Bowman, Melissa; Murray, Leigh

    2017-02-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is common among females due to many anatomic, hormonal, and neuromuscular risk factors. One modifiable risk factor that places females at increased risk of ACL injury is a poor hamstrings: quadriceps (H:Q) co-activation ratio, which should be 0.6 or greater in order to decrease the stress placed on the ACL. Exercises that produce more quadriceps dominant muscle activation can add to the tension placed upon the ACL, potentially increasing the risk of ACL injury. The purpose of this systematic review was to compare quadriceps and hamstring muscle activation during common closed kinetic chain therapeutic exercises in healthy female knees to determine what exercises are able to produce adequate H:Q co-activation ratios. Systematic Review. Multiple online databases were systematically searched and screened for inclusion. Eight articles were identified for inclusion. Data on mean electromyography (EMG) activation of both quadriceps and hamstring muscles, % maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), and H:Q co-activation ratios were extracted from the studies. Quality assessment was performed on all included studies. Exercises analyzed in the studies included variations of the double leg squat, variations of the single leg squat, lateral step-up, Fitter, Stairmaster® (Core Health and Fitness, Vancouver, WA), and slide board. All exercises, except the squat machine with posterior support at the level of the scapula and feet placed 50 cm in front of the hips, produced higher quadriceps muscle activation compared to hamstring muscle activation. Overall, two leg squats demonstrate poor H:Q co-activation ratios. Single leg exercises, when performed between 30 and 90 degrees of knee flexion, produce adequate H:Q ratios, thereby potentially reducing the risk of tensile stress on the ACL and ACL injury. 2a- Systematic Review of Cohort Studies.

  1. The preventive effect of the nordic hamstring exercise on hamstring injuries in amateur soccer players: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Horst, Nick; Smits, Dirk-Wouter; Petersen, Jesper; Goedhart, Edwin A; Backx, Frank J G

    2015-06-01

    Hamstring injuries are the most common muscle injuries in soccer, and they have a high rate of recurrence. Eccentric hamstrings strength is recognized as an important modifiable risk factor. This led to the development of prevention exercises such as the nordic hamstring exercise (NHE). The effectiveness of the NHE on hamstring injury prevention has never been investigated in amateur soccer. To investigate the preventive effect of the NHE on the incidence and severity of hamstring injuries in male amateur soccer players. Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. Male amateur soccer players (age, mean ± SD, 24.5 ± 3.8 years) from 40 teams were randomly allocated to an intervention (n = 20 teams, 292 players) or control group (n = 20 teams, 287 players). The intervention group was instructed to perform 25 sessions of NHE in a 13-week period. Both the intervention and control groups performed regular soccer training and were followed for hamstring injury incidence and severity during the 2013 calendar year. At baseline, personal characteristics (eg, age, injury history, field position) were gathered from all participants via a questionnaire. Primary outcome was injury incidence. Secondary outcomes were injury severity and compliance with the intervention protocol. A total of 38 hamstring injuries were recorded, affecting 36 of 579 players (6.2%). The overall injury incidence rate was 0.7 (95% CI, 0.6-0.8) per 1000 player hours, 0.33 (95% CI, 0.25-0.46) in training, and 1.2 (95% CI, 0.82-1.94) in matches. Injury incidence rates were significantly different between the intervention (0.25; 95% CI, 0.19-0.35) and control groups (0.8; 95% CI, 0.61-1.15), χ(2)(1, n = 579) = 7.865; P = .005. The risk for hamstring injuries was reduced in the intervention group compared with the control group (odds ratio, 0.282; 95% CI, 0.110-0.721) and was statistically significant (P = .005). No statistically significant differences were identified between the intervention and

  2. Predicting return to play after hamstring injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H. Moen (Maaike); G. Reurink (Gustaaf); A. Weir (Adam); J.L. Tol (Johannes); M. Maas (Mario); G.J. Goudswaard (Gert Jan)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Background Previous studies on the prognostic value of clinical and MRI parameters for the time to return to play (TTRTP) in acute hamstring injuries showed only limited to moderate evidence for the various investigated parameters. Some studies had multiple

  3. Predicting return to play after hamstring injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moen, M. H.; Reurink, G.; Weir, A.; Tol, J. L.; Maas, M.; Goudswaard, G. J.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies on the prognostic value of clinical and MRI parameters for the time to return to play (TTRTP) in acute hamstring injuries showed only limited to moderate evidence for the various investigated parameters. Some studies had multiple methodological limitations, including retrospective

  4. Association between maximal hamstring strength and hamstring muscle pre-activity during a movement associated with non-contact ACL injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov Husted, Rasmus; Bencke, Jesper; Thorborg, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Reduced hamstring pre-activity during side-cutting may predispose for non-contact ACL injury. During the last decade resistance training of the lower limb muscles has become an integral part of ACL injury prevention in e.g. soccer and handball. However, it is not known whether a strong...... hamstring (ACL-agonist) musculature is associated with a high level of hamstring muscle pre-activity during high risk movements such as side-cutting. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between hamstring muscle pre-activity recorded during a standardized sidecutting maneuver...... and maximal isometric hamstring muscle strength. Material and Methods Eighty-five female athletes (17 ± 1 yrs) were screened for neuromuscular pre-activity in medial (ST) and lateral (BF) hamstring muscle during a sidecutting maneuver. Maximal hamstring muscle strength [N/kg BW] (MVC) was measured in a static...

  5. The preventive effect of the Nordic hamstring exercise on hamstring injuries in amateur soccer players: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Horst, Nick; Smits, Dirk Wouter; Petersen, Jesper; Goedhart, Edwin A; Backx, Frank J G

    2014-08-01

    Hamstring injuries are the most common muscle injury in male amateur soccer players and have a high rate of recurrence, often despite extensive treatment and long rehabilitation periods. Eccentric strength and flexibility are recognised as important modifiable risk factors, which have led to the development of eccentric hamstring exercises, such as the Nordic hamstring exercise. As the effectiveness of the Nordic hamstring exercise in reducing hamstring injuries has never been investigated in amateur soccer players, the aim of this study is to investigate the effect of this exercise on the incidence and severity of hamstring injuries in male amateur soccer players. An additional aim is to determine whether flexibility is associated with hamstring injuries. Cluster-randomised controlled trial with soccer teams as the unit of cluster. Dutch male amateur soccer players, aged 18-40 years, were allocated to an intervention or control group. Both study groups continued regular soccer training during 2013, but the intervention group additionally performed the Nordic hamstring exercise (25 sessions over 13 weeks). Primary outcomes are the incidence of initial and recurrent hamstring injury and injury severity. Secondary outcomes are hamstring-and-lower-back flexibility and compliance. Compliance to the intervention protocol was also monitored. Eccentric hamstring strength exercises are hypothesised to reduce the incidence of hamstring injury among male amateur soccer players by 70%. The prevention of such injuries will be beneficial to soccer players, clubs, football associations, health insurance companies and society. NTR3664. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Association between maximal hamstring muscle strength and hamstring muscle pre-activity during a movement associated with non-contact ACL injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zebis, M. K.; Sorensen, R. S.; Thorborg, K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Reduced hamstring pre-activity during sidecutting increases the risk for non-contact ACL injury. During the last decade resistance training of the lower limb muscles has become an integral part ofACLinjury prevention in e.g. soccer and handball. However, it is not known whether a strong...... hamstring (ACL-agonist) musculature is associated with a high level of hamstring muscle pre-activity during high risk movements such as sidecutting. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between hamstring muscle pre-activity recorded during a standardized sidecutting maneuver...... and maximal isometric hamstring muscle strength. Methods: Eighty-five female athletes (17+/-1 yrs) were screened for neuromuscular pre-activity in medial (ST) and lateral (BF) hamstring muscle during a sidecutting maneuver. Maximal hamstring muscle strength [N/kg BW] (MVC) was measured in a static dynamometer...

  7. Acute Effects of Static Stretching of Hamstring on Performance and Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Risk During Stop-Jump and Cutting Tasks in Female Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Mianfang; Zhang, Qiang; Wu, Xie

    2017-05-01

    Ruan, M, Zhang, Q, and Wu, X. Acute effects of static stretching of hamstring on performance and anterior cruciate ligament injury risk during stop-jump and cutting tasks in female athletes. J Strength Cond Res 31(5): 1241-1250, 2017-There is limited research investigating antagonist stretch. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of static stretching of hamstrings (SSH) on performance and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury risk during stop-jump and 180° cutting tasks. Twelve female college athletes (age 20.8 ± 0.7 years; height 1.61 ± 0.05 m; mass 54.25 ± 4.22 kg) participated in this study. Subjects performed stop-jump and 180° cutting tasks under 2 conditions: after warm-up with 4 × 30 seconds SSH or after warm-up without SSH. Three-dimensional kinematic and kinetic data as well as electromyography of biceps femoris, rectus femoris, vastus medialis, and gastrocnemius medialis were collected during testing. Static stretching of hamstrings significantly enhanced jump height by 5.1% (p = 0.009) but did not change the takeoff speed of cutting. No significant changes in peak knee adduction moment or peak anterior tibia shear force were observed with SSH regardless of the task. The peak lateral tibia shear force during cutting was significantly (p = 0.036) reduced with SSH. The co-contraction of hamstring and quadriceps during the preactivation (stop-jump: p = 0.04; cutting: p = 0.05) and downward phases (stop-jump: p = 0.04; cutting: p = 0.05) was significantly reduced after SSH regardless of the task. The results suggest that SSH enhanced the performance of stop-jump because of decreased co-contraction of hamstring and quadriceps but did not change the performance of cutting. In addition, SSH did not increase ACL injury risk during stop-jump and cutting tasks and even reduced medial-lateral knee loading during cutting.

  8. Static stretching of the hamstring muscle for injury prevention in football codes: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Rogan, Slavko; Wüst, Dirk; Schwitter, Thomas; Schmidtbleicher, Dietmar

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Hamstring injuries are common among football players. There is still disagreement regarding prevention. The aim of this review is to determine whether static stretching reduces hamstring injuries in football codes. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted on the online databases PubMed, PEDro, Cochrane, Web of Science, Bisp and Clinical Trial register. Study results were presented descriptively and the quality of the studies assessed were based on Cochrane’s ‘risk of ...

  9. Prevention of hamstring injuries in male soccer : Exercise programs and return to play

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Horst, N

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the studies reported in this thesis was to investigate strategies for the prevention of hamstring injuries. Hamstring injuries are the most prevalent muscle injury in soccer. In spite of efforts to reduce the occurrence of hamstring injuries in soccer, injury rates have not decreased over

  10. Preventive effect of eccentric training on acute hamstring injuries in men's soccer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jesper; Thorborg, Kristian; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of acute hamstring injuries is high in several sports, including the different forms of football.......The incidence of acute hamstring injuries is high in several sports, including the different forms of football....

  11. Muscle injury is the principal injury type and hamstring muscle injury is the first injury diagnosis during top-level international athletics championships between 2007 and 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edouard, Pascal; Branco, Pedro; Alonso, Juan-Manuel

    2016-05-01

    During top-level international athletics championships, muscle injuries are frequent. To analyse the incidence and characteristics of muscle injuries and hamstring muscle injuries (hamstring injuries) occurring during top-level international athletics championships. During 16 international championships held between 2007 and 2015, national medical team and local organising committee physicians reported daily all injuries on a standardised injury report form. Only muscle injuries (muscle tears and muscle cramps) and hamstring injuries have been analysed. 40.9% of all recorded injuries (n=720) were muscle injuries, with 57.5% of them resulting in time loss. The overall incidence of muscle injuries was higher in male athletes than female athletes (51.9±6.0 vs 30.3±5.0 injuries per 1000 registered athletes, respectively; RR=1.71; 95% CI 1.45 to 2.01). Muscle injuries mainly affected the thigh (52.9%) and lower leg (20.1%), and were mostly caused by overuse with sudden onset (38.2%) and non-contact trauma (24.6%). Muscle injury risk varied according to the event groups. Hamstring injuries represented 17.1% of all injuries, with a higher risk in male compared to female athletes (22.4±3.4 vs 11.5±2.6 injuries per 1000 registered athletes, respectively; RR=1.94; 95% CI 1.42 to 2.66). During international athletics championships, muscle injury is the principal type of injury, and among those, the hamstring is the most commonly affected, with a two times higher risk in male than female athletes. Athletes in explosive power events, male athletes and older male athletes, in specific were more at risk of muscle injuries and hamstring injuries. Injury prevention strategies should be sex-specific. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  12. A comparison of hamstring muscle activity during different screening tests for non-contact ACL injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husted, Rasmus S; Bencke, Jesper; Andersen, Lars L; Myklebust, Grethe; Kallemose, Thomas; Lauridsen, Hanne B; Hölmich, Per; Aagaard, Per; Zebis, Mette K

    2016-06-01

    Reduced ability to activate the medial hamstring muscles during a sports-specific sidecutting movement has been found to be a potential risk factor for non-contact ACL injury. However, whether a reduced ability to activate the medial hamstring muscle is a general neuromuscular phenomenon and thereby observable independently of the type of clinical screening tests used is not known. This cross sectional study investigated the rank correlation of knee joint neuromuscular activity between three different ACL injury risk screening tests. Sixty-two adolescent female elite football and handball players (16.7±1.3years) participated in the study. Using surface electromyography (EMG) assessment, the neuromuscular activity of medial hamstring muscle (semitendinosus, ST), lateral hamstring muscle (biceps femoris, BF) and quadriceps muscle (vastus lateralis, VL) were monitored during three standardized screening tests - i.e. one-legged horizontal hop (OLH), drop vertical jump (DJ) and sidecutting (SC). Neuromuscular pre-activity was measured in the time interval 10ms prior to initial contact on a force plate. For neuromuscular hamstring muscle pre-activity, correlation analysis (Spearman correlation coefficient) showed low-to-moderate correlations between SC and 1) DJ (rs=0.34-0.36, Pinjury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Strength Measurements in Acute Hamstring Injuries: Intertester Reliability and Prognostic Value of Handheld Dynamometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reurink, Gustaaf; Goudswaard, Gert Jan; Moen, Maarten H.; Tol, Johannes L.; Verhaar, Jan A. N.; Weir, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Cohort study, repeated measures. Background Although hamstring strength measurements are used for assessing prognosis and monitoring recovery after hamstring injury, their actual clinical relevance has not been established. Handheld dynamometry (HHD) is a commonly used method of

  14. Effects of an eccentric training programme on hamstring strain injuries in women football players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    del Ama Espinosa Gurutze

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: to test the hypothesis that an eccentric training programme applied on women football players would reduce the hamstring injury rate by improving thigh muscle balance and, particularly, hamstring strength.

  15. Therapeutic interventions for acute hamstring injuries: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Reurink (Gustaaf); G.J. Goudswaard (Gert Jan); J.L. Tol (Johannes); J.A.N. Verhaar (Jan); A. Weir (Adam); M.H. Moen (Maaike)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground Despite the high rate of hamstring injuries, there is no consensus on their management, with a large number of different interventions being used. Recently several new injection therapies have been introduced. Objective To systematically review the literature on the

  16. Acute hamstring injuries in Danish elite football: a 12-month prospective registration study among 374 players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jesper; Thorborg, Kristian; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the incidence rates of acute hamstring injuries in Danish elite football sustained during training or match play. Furthermore, it was our intention to document details about the recurrence, severity and the injury seasonal distribution. Hamstring...... injuries among 374 elite football players were registered prospectively during a 12-month period. A total of 46 first-time and eight recurrent hamstring injuries were registered. The incidence rates for incurring a first-time hamstring injury showed a significantly (P28 days from injury to injury free...

  17. Rehabilitation of hamstring muscle injuries: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Amorim Ramos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Hamstring injuries are among the most frequent in sports. The high relapse rate is a challenge for sports medicine and has a great impact on athletes and sport teams. The treatment goal is to provide the athlete the same functional level as before the injury. Thus, functional rehabilitation is very important to the success of the treatment. Currently, several physical therapy modalities are used, according to the stage of the lesion, such as cryotherapy, laser therapy, therapeutic ultrasound, therapeutic exercise, and manual therapy. However, the evidence of the effectiveness of these modalities in muscle injuries is not fully established due to the little scientific research on the topic. This article presents an overview of the physiotherapy approach in the rehabilitation of hamstring muscle injuries.

  18. Diagnosis and prognosis of acute hamstring injuries in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkhoffs, Gino M M J; van Es, Nick; Wieldraaijer, Thijs; Sierevelt, Inger N; Ekstrand, Jan; van Dijk, C Niek

    2013-02-01

    Identification of the most relevant diagnostic and prognostic factors of physical examination and imaging of hamstring injuries in (elite) athletes. A literature search was conducted in MEDLINE and EMBASE for articles between 1950 and April 2011. A survey was distributed among the members of the European Society of Sports Traumatology, Knee Surgery and Arthroscopy, which focused on physical examination, prognosis, imaging and laboratory tests of hamstring injuries in (elite) athletes. Medical history, inspection and palpation of the muscle bellies and imaging are most valuable at the initial assessment according to the literature. Experts considered medical history, posture and gait inspection, inspection and palpation of muscle bellies, range of motion tests, manual muscle testing, referred pain tests and imaging to be most important in the initial assessment of hamstring injuries. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is preferred over ultrasonography and should take place within 3 days post-trauma. Important prognostic factors are injury grade, length of the muscle tear on MR images, MRI-negative injuries and trauma mechanism. Posture and gait inspection, inspection and palpation of muscle bellies, range of motion tests, manual muscle testing and referred pain tests within 2 days post-trauma were identified as the most relevant diagnostic factors. Literature review and expert opinion, Level V.

  19. Acute hamstring injuries in Danish elite football: a 12-month prospective registration study among 374 players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jesper; Thorborg, Kristian; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the incidence rates of acute hamstring injuries in Danish elite football sustained during training or match play. Furthermore, it was our intention to document details about the recurrence, severity and the injury seasonal distribution. Hamstring...... injuries among 374 elite football players were registered prospectively during a 12-month period. A total of 46 first-time and eight recurrent hamstring injuries were registered. The incidence rates for incurring a first-time hamstring injury showed a significantly (P28 days from injury to injury free......). Each team sustained a mean of 3.4 hamstring injuries per season, with a mean of 21.5 days missed per injury (range 3-136; median 16 days per injury). The seasonal distribution showed an accumulation of injuries in the first 2 months after a 3.5-month mid-season winter break....

  20. Successful management of hamstring injuries in Australian Rules footballers: two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoskins Wayne T

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hamstring injuries are the most prevalent injury in Australian Rules football. There is a lack of evidence based literature on the treatment, prevention and management of hamstring injuries, although it is agreed that the etiology is complicated and multi-factorial. We present two cases of hamstring injury that had full resolution after spinal manipulation and correction of lumbar-pelvic biomechanics. There was no recurrence through preventative treatment over a twelve and sixteen week period. The use of spinal manipulation for treatment or prevention of hamstring injury has not been documented in sports medicine literature and should be further investigated in prospective randomized controlled trials.

  1. Patient Satisfaction in the Treatment of Acute Hamstring Strain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LingLing- Lai

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The impact of musculoskeletal injuries often caused loss time in sport participation. Athletes who suffered from these injuries experienced a decrease in performance and physical disability. Although a variety of treatments have been implemented to the muscle injuries, the administration of autologous blood injection is replacing the conventional rehabilitation to expedite the process of muscle recovery. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP is relatively new in muscle injury treatment and there is lack of evidence of the satisfaction of PRP treatment in muscle injuries. Purposes: The study aimed to investigate the patient satisfaction in the administration of PRP treatment and rehabilitation program for acute hamstring strain injury. Methods: Participants (competitive, semi-competitive and recreational athletes with acute hamstring strain injury (Grade II were recruited. Participants were randomly divided into either the PRP treatment or rehabilitation program. Participants were required to attend weekly follow up assessment for recovery evaluation. All the participants were required to complete a patient satisfaction questionnaire (PSQ-18 at the end of study.  The questionnaire is divided into seven sub-scales: general satisfaction, technical quality, interpersonal manner, communication, financial aspect, time spent with doctor, accessibility and convenience. Results: Participants were 22.35 ± 3.41 years. Duration from injury to first presentation in clinic ranged from two to ten days. Mean duration of recovery was 5.64 weeks. No statistically significant difference in the patient satisfaction sub-scales score between the two groups (p>0.05. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that PRP treatment is as satisfactory as conventional rehabilitation program in managing acute hamstring strain injury. Both  modalities are correspondingly safe and have high degree of satisfaction. Given the acceptable outcomes, patients are likely to

  2. Eccentric training for prevention of hamstring injuries may depend on intervention compliance: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goode, Adam P; Reiman, Michael P; Harris, Lloyd; DeLisa, Lucia; Kauffman, Aaron; Beltramo, David; Poole, Charles; Ledbetter, Leila; Taylor, Andrea B

    2015-03-01

    Hamstring injury is a prevalent muscle injury in sports. Inconclusive evidence exists for eccentric hamstring strengthening to prevent hamstring injuries. One reason for this discrepancy may be the influence intervention non-compliance has on individual study estimates, and therefore pooled estimates. This systematic review aims to determine the effect of eccentric hamstring strengthening on the risk of hamstring injury and quantitatively explores the impact of intervention non-compliance on the precision, heterogeneity and strength of pooled estimates. A computer-assisted literature search of Medline, CINAHL, Cochrane, EMBASE, AMED, SportDiscus and PEDro databases was conducted with keywords related to eccentric strengthening and hamstring injury. The search was conducted from the end of a previous comprehensive review forward (1 December 2008 to 31 December 2013). Random-effects models were used for both main effects and a sensitivity analysis. Pooled estimate precision was measured with a confidence limit ratio (confidence limit ratio (CLR); upper limit divided by the lower limit) and heterogeneity was assessed with I(2), Cochrane's-Q and τ(2). A protocol was not registered for this review. Four out of 349 studies met the inclusion criteria. In main effects analysis, eccentric hamstring training did not reduce the risk of hamstring injury (risk ratio [RR]=0.59 ((95% CI 0.24 to 1.44)). This estimate was imprecise (CLR=6.0) with significant heterogeneity (p value 0.02, 69.6% variation and t(2)=0.57). Subjects compliant with eccentric strengthening had a significant (RR=0.35 ((95% CI 0.23 to 0.55)) reduction in hamstring injuries. This estimate was precise (CLR=2.4) and homogenous (p value=0.38, 2.8% variation and t(2)=0.007). The null-biased effect in using intent-to-treat methods from intervention non-compliance has a substantial impact on the precision, heterogeneity and the direction and strength of pooled estimates. Eccentric strengthening, with good

  3. MR observations of long-term musculotendon remodeling following a hamstring strain injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silder, Amy [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (US). Department of Biomedical Engineering, Madison, WI (United States); Heiderscheit, Bryan C. [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (US). Department of Biomedical Engineering, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (US). Department of Orthopedics and Rehabilitation, Madison, WI (United States); Thelen, Darryl G. [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (US). Department of Biomedical Engineering, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (US). Department of Orthopedics and Rehabilitation, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (US). Department of Mechanical Engineering, Madison, WI (United States); Enright, Timothy; Tuite, Michael J. [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Department of Radiology

    2008-12-15

    The objective of this study was to use magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to investigate long-term changes in muscle and tendon morphology following a hamstring strain injury. MR images were obtained from 14 athletes who sustained a clinically diagnosed grade I-II hamstring strain injury between 5 and 23 months prior as well as five healthy controls. Qualitative bilateral comparisons were used to assess the presence of fatty infiltration and changes in morphology that may have arisen as a result of the previous injury. Hamstring muscle and tendon-scar volumes were quantified in both limbs for the biceps femoris long head (BFLH), biceps femoris short head (BFSH), the proximal semimembranosus tendon, and the proximal conjoint biceps femoris and semitendinosus tendon. Differences in muscle and tendon volume between limbs were statistically compared between the previously injured and healthy control subjects. Increased low-intensity signal was present along the musculotendon junction adjacent to the site of presumed prior injury for 11 of the 14 subjects, suggestive of persistent scar tissue. The 13 subjects with biceps femoris injuries displayed a significant decrease in BFLH volume (p < 0.01), often accompanied by an increase in BFSH volume. Two of these subjects also presented with fatty infiltration within the previously injured BFLH. The results of this study provide evidence of long-term musculotendon remodeling following a hamstring strain injury. Additionally, many athletes are likely returning to sport with residual atrophy of the BFLH and/or hypertrophy of the BFSH. It is possible that long-term changes in musculotendon structure following injury alters contraction mechanics during functional movement, such as running and may contribute to reinjury risk. (orig.)

  4. The Diagnostic and Prognostic Value of Ultrasonography in Soccer Players With Acute Hamstring Injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jesper; Thorborg, Kristian; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An injury to the hamstring muscle complex is the most common injury in soccer. Ultrasound of acute hamstring injuries is often used as a clinical tool for diagnosing hamstring injuries and guiding players in when they can return to play. PURPOSE: To (1) investigate the characteristic...... sonographic findings of acute hamstring injuries in soccer players, (2) compare the mean injury severity (time to return to play) in injured players with and without sonographically verified abnormalities, and (3) correlate the length of the injured area and absence from soccer play (time to return to play...... with acute hamstring injuries, 51 underwent ultrasonographic examination of the injured thigh and were included in this study. RESULTS: Ultrasonographic examinations were performed 1 to 10 days after injury (mean, 5.2 ± 3.0 days), and sonographic findings were present in 31 of 51 cases (61%). Two thirds...

  5. Static Stretching of the Hamstring Muscle for Injury Prevention in Football Codes: a Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogan, Slavko; Wüst, Dirk; Schwitter, Thomas; Schmidtbleicher, Dietmar

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Hamstring injuries are common among football players. There is still disagreement regarding prevention. The aim of this review is to determine whether static stretching reduces hamstring injuries in football codes. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted on the online databases PubMed, PEDro, Cochrane, Web of Science, Bisp and Clinical Trial register. Study results were presented descriptively and the quality of the studies assessed were based on Cochrane's ‘risk of bias’ tool. Results The review identified 35 studies, including four analysis studies. These studies show deficiencies in the quality of study designs. Conclusion The study protocols are varied in terms of the length of intervention and follow-up. No RCT studies are available, however, RCT studies should be conducted in the near future. PMID:23785569

  6. Proximal Neuromuscular Control Protects Against Hamstring Injuries in Male Soccer Players: A Prospective Study With Electromyography Time-Series Analysis During Maximal Sprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuermans, Joke; Danneels, Lieven; Van Tiggelen, Damien; Palmans, Tanneke; Witvrouw, Erik

    2017-05-01

    With their unremittingly high incidence rate and detrimental functional repercussions, hamstring injuries remain a substantial problem in male soccer. Proximal neuromuscular control ("core stability") is considered to be of key importance in primary and secondary hamstring injury prevention, although scientific evidence and insights on the exact nature of the core-hamstring association are nonexistent at present. The muscle activation pattern throughout the running cycle would not differ between participants based on injury occurrence during follow-up. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Sixty amateur soccer players participated in a multimuscle surface electromyography (sEMG) assessment during maximal acceleration to full-speed sprinting. Subsequently, hamstring injury occurrence was registered during a 1.5-season follow-up period. Hamstring, gluteal, and trunk muscle activity time series during the airborne and stance phases of acceleration were evaluated and statistically explored for a possible causal association with injury occurrence and absence from sport during follow-up. Players who did not experience a hamstring injury during follow-up had significantly higher amounts of gluteal muscle activity during the front swing phase ( P = .027) and higher amounts of trunk muscle activity during the backswing phase of sprinting ( P = .042). In particular, the risk of sustaining a hamstring injury during follow-up lowered by 20% and 6%, with a 10% increment in normalized muscle activity of the gluteus maximus during the front swing and the trunk muscles during the backswing, respectively ( P < .024). Muscle activity of the core unit during explosive running appeared to be associated with hamstring injury occurrence in male soccer players. Higher amounts of gluteal and trunk muscle activity during the airborne phases of sprinting were associated with a lower risk of hamstring injuries during follow-up. Hence, the present results provide a basis for improved

  7. Hamstring injury prevention in soccer: Before or after training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, R; Knox, M; Weston, M; Siegler, J C; Brennan, S; Marshall, P W M

    2017-05-24

    We examined the effects of a 12-week program of Nordic hamstring exercises (NHE), administered before or after football training, upon eccentric hamstring strength, muscle activity, and architectural adaptations. Amateur soccer players were randomized into three groups. The control group (CON; n=11) undertook core stability exercises, whereas a periodized NHE program was delivered either before (NHEBEF ; n=10) or after (NHEAFT ; n=14) biweekly training sessions. Outcome measures included peak torque and concomitant normalized peak surface electromyography signals (sEMG) of the biceps femoris (BF) and medial hamstring (MH) muscles during knee flexor maximal eccentric contractions, performed at 30°·s(-1) . Ultrasonography was used to determine BF muscle thickness, muscle fiber pennation angle, and fascicle length. Performing the NHE derived likely moderate peak torque increases in both NHEBEF (+11.9%; 90% confidence interval: 3.6%-20.9%) and NHEAFT (+11.6%; 2.6%-21.5%) vs CON. Maximum sEMG increases were moderately greater in the BF of both NHE training groups vs CON. There were likely moderate increases in BF muscle thickness (+0.17 cm; 0.05-0.29 cm) and likely small pennation angle increases (+1.03°; -0.08° to 2.14°) in NHEAFT vs CON and NHEBEF . BF fascicle length increases were likely greater in NHEBEF (+1.58 cm; 0.48-2.68 cm; small effect) vs CON and NHEAFT . A 12-week eccentric hamstring strengthening program increased strength and sEMG to a similar magnitude irrespective of its scheduling relative to the football training session. However, architectural adaptations to support the strength gains differed according to the timing of the injury prevention program. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Intra- and interrater reliability of three different MRI grading and classification systems after acute hamstring injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wangensteen, Arnlaug; Tol, Johannes L.; Roemer, Frank W.; Bahr, Roald; Dijkstra, H. Paul; Crema, Michel D.; Farooq, Abdulaziz; Guermazi, Ali

    2017-01-01

    To assess and compare the intra-and interrater reliability of three different MRI grading and classification systems after acute hamstring injury. Methods: Male athletes (n = 40) with clinical diagnosis of acute hamstring injury and MRI <= 5 days were selected from a prospective cohort. Two

  9. Return to Play After Hamstring Injuries: A Qualitative Systematic Review of Definitions and Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Horst, Nick; van de Hoef, Sander; Reurink, Gustaaf; Huisstede, Bionka; Backx, Frank

    2016-06-01

    More than half of the recurrent hamstring injuries occur within the first month after return-to-play (RTP). Although there are numerous studies on RTP, comparisons are hampered by the numerous definitions of RTP used. Moreover, there is no consensus on the criteria used to determine when a person can start playing again. These criteria need to be critically evaluated, in an attempt to reduce recurrence rates and optimize RTP. To carry out a systematic review of the literature on (1) definitions of RTP used in hamstring research and (2) criteria for RTP after hamstring injuries. Systematic review. Seven databases (PubMed, EMBASE/MEDLINE, CINAHL, PEDro, Cochrane, SPORTDiscus, Scopus) were searched for articles that provided a definition of, or criteria for, RTP after hamstring injury. There were no limitations on the methodological design or quality of articles. Content analysis was used to record and analyze definitions and criteria for RTP after hamstring injury. Twenty-five papers fulfilled inclusion criteria, of which 13 provided a definition of RTP and 23 described criteria to support the RTP decision. "Reaching the athlete's pre-injury level" and "being able to perform full sport activities" were the primary content categories used to define RTP. "Absence of pain", "similar strength", "similar flexibility", "medical staff clearance", and "functional performance" were core themes to describe criteria to support the RTP decision after hamstring injury. Only half of the included studies provided some definition of RTP after hamstring injury, of which reaching the athlete's pre-injury level and being able to perform full sport activities were the most important. A wide variety of criteria are used to support the RTP decision, none of which have been validated. More research is needed to reach a consensus on the definition of RTP and to provide validated RTP criteria to facilitate hamstring injury management and reduce hamstring injury recurrence. PROSPERO

  10. Clinical benefit of the FIFA 11 programme for the prevention of hamstring and lateral ankle ligament injuries among amateur soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouni-Garcia, Rauf; Carratala-Munuera, Concepcion; Orozco-Beltran, Domingo; Lopez-Pineda, Adriana; Asensio-Garcia, María Rosario; Gil-Guillen, Vicente F

    2017-06-22

    To analyse the relationship between the implementation of 'the 11' protocol during the regular season in a men's amateur soccer team and the rate of hamstring and lateral ankle ligament (LAL) injuries, and to estimate the clinical benefit of the programme according to the type of injury and the position field. This cohort study was conducted in two different men's amateur soccer teams. During two seasons, the exposed group (43 players) performed 'the 11' protocol twice a week, and the unexposed group (43 players) performed the regular training programme. All players trained three times per week for 1.5 hours per day. Data collection was performed for every 1000 hours of play. 18 hamstring injuries (injury rate (IR) of 2.26 injuries/1000 training+competition hours) and 15 LAL injuries (IR of 1.88 injuries/1000) were registered in the exposed group. In the unexposed group, there were 25 LAL injuries (IR of 3.14 injuries/1000) and 35 hamstring injuries (IR of 4.39 injuries/1000). The number needed to treat to prevent one new case was 3.9 in LAL injuries, 3.31 in biceps femoris injuries and 10.7 in recurrent hamstring injuries. 'The 11' programme reduced the incidence of hamstring and LAL injuries in amateur players. According to the field position, the programme was effective for defenders and midfielders. In accordance with the type of injury, the exposed group had a lower risk of LAL, biceps femoris and hamstring injuries compared with those in the unexposed group. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Discussion about different cut-off values of conventional hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio used in hamstring injury prediction among professional male football players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Grygorowicz

    muscle injury detection. The use of 0.47 of Hcon/Qcon as a discriminate value resulted in significantly lower sensitivity when compared to 0.658 threshold (sensitivity of 16.7% vs. 91.7%, respectively; t = 6.125,p = 0.0133. Calculated values of specificity (when three different cut-off were applied were also significantly different. Threshold of 0.6 of Hcon/Qcon resulted with significantly lower specificity compared to 0.47 value (specificity of 46.9% vs. 94.5%, respectively; t = 153.0,p<0.0001, and significantly higher specificity when compared to 0.658 (specificity of 46.9% vs. 24.1%, respectively; t = 229.0, p<0.0001.The use of different cut-off values for Hcon/Qcon significantly affected the sensitivity and specificity of isokinetic testing. The interpretation of usefulness of isokinetic test as a screening tool in a group of male professional football players to predict hamstring injury occurrence within the next 12 months might be therefore significantly biased due to the different threshold values of Hcon/Qcon. Using one "normative" value as a cut-off (e.g. 0.47 or 0.60, or 0.658 to quantify soccer players (or not to the group with a higher risk of knee injury might result in biased outcomes due to the natural strength asymmetry that is observed within the group of soccer players.

  12. The preventive effect of the bounding exercise programme on hamstring injuries in amateur soccer players : The design of a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Hoef, S.; Huisstede, B. M. A.; Brink, M. S.; de Vries, N.; Goedhart, E. A.; Backx, F. J. G.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Hamstring injuries are the most common muscle injury in amateur and professional soccer. Most hamstring injuries occur in the late swing phase, when the hamstring undergoes a stretch-shortening cycle and the hamstring does a significant amount of eccentric work. The incidence of these

  13. A comparison between clinical assessment and magnetic resonance imaging of acute hamstring injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider-Kolsky, Michal E.; Hoving, Jan Lucas; Warren, Price; Connell, David A.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Physicians evaluating hamstring strains in professional football players are increasingly turning to magnetic resonance imaging to support the clinical diagnosis and management of the injury. However, little information is available to assess how magnetic resonance imaging compares with

  14. Major and Minor League Baseball Hamstring Injuries: Epidemiologic Findings From the Major League Baseball Injury Surveillance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Christopher S; Dick, Randall W; Snell, Edward; Kenney, Nick D; Curriero, Frank C; Pollack, Keshia; Albright, John P; Mandelbaum, Bert R

    2014-06-01

    Hamstring strains are a recognized cause of disability for athletes in many sports, but no study exists that reports the incidence and circumstances surrounding these injuries in professional baseball. Professional baseball players have a high incidence of hamstring strains, and these injuries are influenced by multiple factors including history of hamstring injury, time period within the season, and activity of base running. Descriptive epidemiologic study. For the 2011 season, injury data were prospectively collected for every Major League Baseball (MLB) major and minor league team and recorded in the MLB's Injury Surveillance System. Data collected for this study included date of injury, activity in which the player was engaged at the time of injury, and time loss. Injury rates were reported in injuries per athlete-exposure (A-E). Athlete-exposures were defined as the average number of players on a team who were participating in a game multiplied by the number of games. In the major leagues, 50 hamstring strains were reported for an injury rate (IR) of 0.7 per 1000 A-Es and averaged 24 days missed. In the minor leagues, 218 hamstring strains were reported for an IR of 0.7 per 1000 A-Es and averaged 27 days missed. Base running, specifically running to first base, was the top activity for sustaining a hamstring strain in both major and minor leagues, associated with almost two-thirds of hamstring strains. Approximately two-thirds of these injuries in both the major and minor leagues resulted in more than 7 days of time loss. Approximately 25% of these injuries kept the player out for 1 month or longer. History of a previous hamstring strain in the prior year, 2010, was found in 20% of the major league players and 8% of the minor league players. In the major leagues, the month of May had a statistically significant higher frequency of hamstring injuries than any other month in the season (P = .0153). Hamstring strains are a considerable cause of disability in

  15. Hamstring Injuries--An Examination of Possible Causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liemohn, Wendell

    On the basis of research, the following characteristics appear to be important factors relative to precluding hamstring strains in sprinters: bilaterality relative to hamstring and quadricep strength development, optimum strength ratios between ipsilateral antagonists throughout the range of movement, and above-normal hip-joint flexibility. (JD)

  16. The relationship between previous hamstring injury and the concentric isokinetic knee muscle strength of irish gaelic footballers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Ceallaigh Brian

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hamstring injury is one of the most common injuries affecting gaelic footballers, similar to other field sports. Research in other sports on whether residual hamstring weakness is present after hamstring injury is inconsistent, and no study has examined this factor in irish gaelic footballers. The aim of this study was to examine whether significant knee muscle weakness is present in male Irish gaelic footballers who have returned to full activity after hamstring injury. Methods The concentric isokinetic knee flexion and extension strength of 44 members of a university gaelic football team was assessed at 60, 180 and 300 degrees per second using a Contrex dynamometer. Results Fifteen players (34% reported a history of hamstring strain, with 68% of injuries affecting the dominant (kicking limb. The hamstrings were significantly stronger (p 0.05 using this comparison. The previously unilaterally injured hamstrings were significantly weaker (p Conclusion Hamstring muscle weakness was observed in male Irish gaelic footballers with a history of hamstring injury. This weakness is most evident when comparisons are made to multiple control populations, both within and between subjects. The increased strength of the dominant limb should be considered as a potential confounding variable in future trials. The study design does not allow interpretation of whether these changes in strength were present before or after injury.

  17. Longitudinal study comparing sonographic and MRI assessments of acute and healing hamstring injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Connell, David A.; Schneider-Kolsky, Michal E.; Hoving, Jan Lucas; Malara, Frank; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Koulouris, George; Burke, Frank; Bass, Cheryl

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We compared sonography and MRI for assessing hamstring injuries in professional football players (Australian football) 3 days, 2 weeks, and 6 weeks after an injury and identified imaging characteristics at baseline that may be useful in predicting the time needed for return to

  18. Clinical findings just after return to play predict hamstring re-injury, but baseline MRI findings do not

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J. de Vos (Robert-Jan); G. Reurink (Gustaaf); G.J. Goudswaard (Gert Jan); M.H. Moen (Maaike); A. Weir (Adam); J.L. Tol (Johannes)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Background Acute hamstring re-injuries are common and hard to predict. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between clinical and imaging findings and the occurrence of hamstring re-injuries. Methods We obtained baseline data (clinical and MRI

  19. The correlation between the imaging characteristics of hamstring injury and time required before returning to sports: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Kjell; Alricsson, Marie; Eckerman, Mattias; Magounakis, Theofilos; Werner, Suzanne

    2016-06-01

    Injuries to the hamstring muscles are common in athletes. Track and field, Australian football, American football and soccer are examples of sports where hamstring injuries are the most common. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there is a correlation between a hamstring injury prognosis and its characteristics of imaging parameters. The literature search was performed in the databases PubMed and CINAHL, and eleven articles were included. Seven out of the 11 articles showed a correlation between the size of the hamstring injury and length of time required before returning to sports. Different authors have reported contrasting results about length of time required before returning to sports due to location of injury within specific muscle. Majority of the articles found hamstring strain correlated to an extended amount of time required before returning to sports.

  20. Physical principles demonstrate that the biceps femoris muscle relative to the other hamstring muscles exerts the most force: implications for hamstring muscle strain injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolman, Bronwyn; Verrall, Geoffrey; Reid, Iain

    2014-01-01

    Summary Of the hamstring muscle group the biceps femoris muscle is the most commonly injured muscle in sports requiring interval sprinting. The reason for this observation is unknown. The objective of this study was to calculate the forces of all three hamstring muscles, relative to each other, during a lengthening contraction to assess for any differences that may help explain the biceps femoris predilection for injury during interval sprinting. To calculate the displacement of each individual hamstring muscle previously performed studies on cadaveric anatomical data and hamstring kinematics during sprinting were used. From these displacement calculations for each individual hamstring muscle physical principles were then used to deduce the proportion of force exerted by each individual hamstring muscle during a lengthening muscle contraction. These deductions demonstrate that the biceps femoris muscle is required to exert proportionally more force in a lengthening muscle contraction relative to the semimembranosus and semitendinosus muscles primarily as a consequence of having to lengthen over a greater distance within the same time frame. It is hypothesized that this property maybe a factor in the known observation of the increased susceptibility of the biceps femoris muscle to injury during repeated sprints where recurrent higher force is required. PMID:25506583

  1. Can clinical evaluation predict return to sport after acute hamstring injuries? : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schut, Lotte; Wangensteen, Arnlaug; Maaskant, Jolanda; Tol, Johannes L.; Bahr, Roald; Moen, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The current literature on the value of clinical evaluation for predicting time to return to sport (RTS) after acute hamstring injuries has not been systematically summarised. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature on the prognostic value of clinical

  2. Return to Play After Hamstring Injuries : A Qualitative Systematic Review of Definitions and Criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Horst, Nick; van de Hoef, Sander; Reurink, Gustaaf; Huisstede, Bionka; Backx, Frank

    BACKGROUND: More than half of the recurrent hamstring injuries occur within the first month after return-to-play (RTP). Although there are numerous studies on RTP, comparisons are hampered by the numerous definitions of RTP used. Moreover, there is no consensus on the criteria used to determine when

  3. Return to Play After Hamstring Injuries: A Qualitative Systematic Review of Definitions and Criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. van der Horst (Nick); S. van de Hoef (Sander); G. Reurink (Gustaaf); B.M.A. Huisstede (Bionka); F.J.G. Backx (Frank)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: More than half of the recurrent hamstring injuries occur within the first month after return-to-play (RTP). Although there are numerous studies on RTP, comparisons are hampered by the numerous definitions of RTP used. Moreover, there is no consensus on the criteria used to

  4. Association between incision technique for hamstring tendon harvest in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction and the risk of injury to the infra-patellar branch of the saphenous nerve: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Alberto; Perdisa, Francesco; Samuelsson, Kristian; Svantesson, Eleonor; Romagnoli, Matteo; Raggi, Federico; Gaziano, Teide; Mosca, Massimiliano; Ayeni, Olufemi; Zaffagnini, Stefano

    2018-02-08

    To determine how the incision technique for hamstring tendon (HT) harvest in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction affects the risk of injury to the IPBSN and clinical outcome. A systematic literature search of the MEDLINE/Pubmed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and EBSCOhost electronic databases and clinicaltrials.gov for unpublished studies was performed to identify comparative studies investigating injury to the IPBSN after HT ACL reconstruction by comparing at least two different incision techniques. Data were extracted for the number of patients with evidence of any neurologic deficit corresponding to injury to the IPBSN, area of sensory deficit, the Lysholm score and patient satisfaction. The mean difference (MD) in study outcome between incision groups was assessed. The relative risk (RR) and the number needed to treat (NNT) were calculated. The Chi-square and Higgins' I 2 tests were applied to test heterogeneity. Data were pooled using a Mantel-Haenszel random-effects model if the statistical heterogeneity was > 50% and a fixed-effects model if the statistical heterogeneity was < 50%. The risk of bias was evaluated according to the Cochrane Database questionnaire and the quality of evidence was graded according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) guidelines. A total of eight studies (three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and five comparative studies) were included, of which six compared vertical and oblique incisions, one horizontal and vertical incisions, and one compared all three techniques. HT harvest was performed through a vertical incision in 329 patients, through an oblique incision in 195 patients and through a horizontal incision in 151 patients. Considering the meta-analysis of the RCTs, the performance of a vertical incision significantly increased the risk of causing IPBSN deficiency compared with both oblique and horizontal incision [RR 1.65 (CI 1

  5. The effects of a closed-chain, eccentric training program on hamstring injuries of a professional football cheerleading team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenstein, Jay S; Bishop, Barton N; Edward, Jean S; Topp, Robert V

    2011-01-01

    Hamstring injuries are a common occurrence among professional football cheerleaders. The purpose of this study is to identify the effects of an eccentric, closed-chain hamstring exercise intervention on hamstring injury-associated pain during the course of the football season among professional football cheerleaders. Forty-three female cheerleaders participated in an eccentric, closed-chain hamstring exercise intervention protocol provided by doctors of chiropractic that incorporated loops of elastic-band or Thera-Band Loops (Hygenic Corporation, Akron, OH) during practice and at home during the regular football season. Hamstring injury-related pain was assessed in June, during team selection; in September, at the start of the season; and in December, at the end of season. No intervention was applied between June and September, although the sample participated in 4 hours of practice 2 to 3 times per week. The intervention was applied to the entire sample regardless of hamstring injury-related pain during the regular football season between September and December. The interventions included 2 exercises and were completed bilaterally 2 times per week at each biweekly practice and were encouraged to be done at least 3 additional times per week at home on nonpractice days. Among the subsample who reported hamstring-related injury pain between June and September, the exercise intervention significantly decreased (P cheerleaders. Copyright © 2011 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Clinical and Morphological Changes Following 2 Rehabilitation Programs for Acute Hamstring Strain Injuries: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    SILDER, AMY; SHERRY, MARC A.; SANFILIPPO, JENNIFER; TUITE, MICHAEL J.; HETZEL, SCOTT J.; HEIDERSCHEIT, BRYAN C.

    2013-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN Randomized, double-blind, parallel-group clinical trial. OBJECTIVES To assess differences between a progressive agility and trunk stabilization rehabilitation program and a progressive running and eccentric strengthening rehabilitation program in recovery characteristics following an acute hamstring injury, as measured via physical examination and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). BACKGROUND Determining the type of rehabilitation program that most effectively promotes muscle and functional recovery is essential to minimize reinjury risk and to optimize athlete performance. METHODS Individuals who sustained a recent hamstring strain injury were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 rehabilitation programs: (1) progressive agility and trunk stabilization or (2) progressive running and eccentric strengthening. MRI and physical examinations were conducted before and after completion of rehabilitation. RESULTS Thirty-one subjects were enrolled, 29 began rehabilitation, and 25 completed rehabilitation. There were few differences in clinical or morphological outcome measures between rehabilitation groups across time, and reinjury rates were low for both rehabilitation groups after return to sport (4 of 29 subjects had reinjuries). Greater craniocaudal length of injury, as measured on MRI before the start of rehabilitation, was positively correlated with longer return-to-sport time. At the time of return to sport, although all subjects showed a near-complete resolution of pain and return of muscle strength, no subject showed complete resolution of injury as assessed on MRI. CONCLUSION The 2 rehabilitation programs employed in this study yielded similar results with respect to hamstring muscle recovery and function at the time of return to sport. Evidence of continuing muscular healing is present after completion of rehabilitation, despite the appearance of normal physical strength and function on clinical examination. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Therapy, level 1b–. J Orthop

  7. Clinical and morphological changes following 2 rehabilitation programs for acute hamstring strain injuries: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silder, Amy; Sherry, Marc A; Sanfilippo, Jennifer; Tuite, Michael J; Hetzel, Scott J; Heiderscheit, Bryan C

    2013-05-01

    Randomized, double-blind, parallel-group clinical trial. To assess differences between a progressive agility and trunk stabilization rehabilitation program and a progressive running and eccentric strengthening rehabilitation program in recovery characteristics following an acute hamstring injury, as measured via physical examination and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Determining the type of rehabilitation program that most effectively promotes muscle and functional recovery is essential to minimize reinjury risk and to optimize athlete performance. Individuals who sustained a recent hamstring strain injury were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 rehabilitation programs: (1) progressive agility and trunk stabilization or (2) progressive running and eccentric strengthening. MRI and physical examinations were conducted before and after completion of rehabilitation. Thirty-one subjects were enrolled, 29 began rehabilitation, and 25 completed rehabilitation. There were few differences in clinical or morphological outcome measures between rehabilitation groups across time, and reinjury rates were low for both rehabilitation groups after return to sport (4 of 29 subjects had reinjuries). Greater craniocaudal length of injury, as measured on MRI before the start of rehabilitation, was positively correlated with longer return-to-sport time. At the time of return to sport, although all subjects showed a near-complete resolution of pain and return of muscle strength, no subject showed complete resolution of injury as assessed on MRI. The 2 rehabilitation programs employed in this study yielded similar results with respect to hamstring muscle recovery and function at the time of return to sport. Evidence of continuing muscular healing is present after completion of rehabilitation, despite the appearance of normal physical strength and function on clinical examination. Therapy, level 1b-.

  8. Return to play after hamstring injuries in football (soccer): a worldwide Delphi procedure regarding definition, medical criteria and decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Horst, Nick; Backx, Fjg; Goedhart, Edwin A; Huisstede, Bionka Ma

    2017-11-01

    There are three major questions about return to play (RTP) after hamstring injuries: How should RTP be defined? Which medical criteria should support the RTP decision? And who should make the RTP decision? The study aimed to provide a clear RTP definition and medical criteria for RTP and to clarify RTP consultation and responsibilities after hamstring injury. The study used the Delphi procedure. The results of a systematic review were used as a starting point for the Delphi procedure. Fifty-eight experts in the field of hamstring injury management selected by 28 FIFA Medical Centres of Excellence worldwide participated. Each Delphi round consisted of a questionnaire, an analysis and an anonymised feedback report. After four Delphi rounds, with more than 83% response for each round, consensus was achieved that RTP should be defined as 'the moment a player has received criteria-based medical clearance and is mentally ready for full availability for match selection and/or full training'. The experts reached consensus on the following criteria to support the RTP decision: medical staff clearance, absence of pain on palpation, absence of pain during strength and flexibility testing, absence of pain during/after functional testing, similar hamstring flexibility, performance on field testing, and psychological readiness. It was also agreed that RTP decisions should be based on shared decision-making, primarily via consultation with the athlete, sports physician, physiotherapist, fitness trainer and team coach. The consensus regarding aspects of RTP should provide clarity and facilitate the assessment of when RTP is appropriate after hamstring injury, so as to avoid or reduce the risk of injury recurrence because of a premature RTP. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Clinical findings just after return to play predict hamstring re-injury, but baseline MRI findings do not.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vos, Robert-Jan; Reurink, Gustaaf; Goudswaard, Gert-Jan; Moen, Maarten H; Weir, Adam; Tol, Johannes L

    2014-09-01

    Acute hamstring re-injuries are common and hard to predict. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between clinical and imaging findings and the occurrence of hamstring re-injuries. We obtained baseline data (clinical and MRI findings) of athletes who sustained an acute hamstring injury within 5 days of initial injury. We also collected data of standardised clinical tests within 7 days after return to play (RTP). The number of re-injuries was recorded within 12 months. We analysed the association between the possible predictive variables and re-injuries with a multivariate Cox proportional-hazards regression model. Eighty patients were included at baseline and 64 patients could be included in the final analysis because data after RTP were not available in 16 cases. There were 17 re-injuries (27%). None of the baseline MRI findings were univariately associated with re-injury. A higher number of previous hamstring injuries (adjusted OR (AOR) 1.33; 95% CI 1.11 to 1.61), more degrees of active knee extension deficit after RTP (AOR 1.13; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.25), isometric knee flexion force deficit at 15° after RTP (AOR 1.04; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.07) and presence of localised discomfort on hamstring palpation after RTP (AOR 3.95; 95% CI 1.38 to 11.37) were significant independent predictors of re-injury. Athletes with localised discomfort on hamstring palpation just after RTP were consequently almost four times more likely to sustain a re-injury. The number of previous hamstring injuries, active knee extension deficit, isometric knee flexion force deficit at 15° and presence of localised discomfort on palpation just after RTP are associated with a higher hamstring re-injury rate. None of the baseline MRI parameters was a predictor of hamstring re-injury. ClinicalTrial.gov number NCT01812564. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. Intramuscular tendon involvement on MRI has limited value for predicting time to return to play following acute hamstring injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Made, Anne D; Almusa, Emad; Whiteley, Rod; Hamilton, Bruce; Eirale, Cristiano; van Hellemondt, Frank; Tol, Johannes L

    2018-01-01

    Hamstring injury with intramuscular tendon involvement is regarded as a serious injury with a delay in return to play (RTP) of more than 50 days and reinjury rates up to 63%. However, this reputation is based on retrospective case series with high risk of bias. Determine whether intramuscular tendon involvement is associated with delayed RTP and elevated rates of reinjury. MRI of male athletes with an acute hamstring injury was obtained within 5 days of injury. Evaluation included standardised MRI scoring and scoring of intramuscular tendon involvement. Time to RTP and reinjury rate were prospectively recorded. Out of 70 included participants, intramuscular tendon disruption was present in 29 (41.4%) injuries. Injuries without intramuscular tendon disruption had a mean time to RTP of 22.2±7.4 days. Injuries with <50%, 50%-99% and 100% disruption of tendon cross-sectional area had a mean time to RTP of 24.0±9.7, 25.3±8.6 and 31.6±10.9 days, respectively. Injuries with full-thickness disruption took longer to RTP compared with injuries without disruption (p=0.025). Longitudinal intramuscular tendon disruption was not significantly associated with time to RTP. Waviness was present in 17 (24.3%) injuries. Mean time to RTP for injuries without and with waviness was 22.6±7.5 and 30.2±10.8 days (p=0.014). There were 11 (15.7%) reinjuries within 12 months, five (17.2%) in the group with intramuscular tendon disruption and six (14.6%) in the group without intramuscular tendon disruption. Time to RTP for injuries with full-thickness disruption of the intramuscular tendon and waviness is significantly longer (by slightly more than 1 week) compared with injuries without intramuscular tendon involvement. However, due to the considerable overlap in time to RTP between groups with and without intramuscular tendon involvement, its clinical significance for the individual athlete is limited. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text

  11. Angle-specific eccentric hamstring fatigue after simulated soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Daniel D; Zhao, Bingnan; Okwera, Brian; Matthews, Martyn J; Delextrat, Anne

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of simulated soccer on the hamstrings eccentric torque-angle profile and angle of peak torque (APTeccH), and on the hamstrings:quadriceps torque ratio at specific joint angles (ASHecc:Qcon). The authors assessed dominant-limb isokinetic concentric and eccentric knee flexion and concentric knee extension at 120°/s in 9 semiprofessional male soccer players immediately before and after they completed the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (LIST). The LIST resulted in significant decreases in eccentric hamstrings torque at 60°, 50°, and 10° and a significant (21.8%) decrease in ASHecc:Qcon at 10° (P soccer results in a selective loss of eccentric hamstrings torque and hamstrings-to-quadriceps muscle balance at an extended joint position and a shift in the eccentric hamstrings APT to a shorter length, changes that could increase vulnerability to hamstrings injury. These findings suggest that injury-risk screening could be improved by evaluating the eccentric hamstrings torque-angle profile and hamstrings strength-endurance and that the development of hamstrings fatigue resistance and long-length eccentric strength may reduce injury incidence.

  12. The preventive effect of the bounding exercise programme on hamstring injuries in amateur soccer players: the design of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Hoef, S; Huisstede, B M A; Brink, M S; de Vries, N; Goedhart, E A; Backx, F J G

    2017-08-22

    Hamstring injuries are the most common muscle injury in amateur and professional soccer. Most hamstring injuries occur in the late swing phase, when the hamstring undergoes a stretch-shortening cycle and the hamstring does a significant amount of eccentric work. The incidence of these injuries has not decreased despite there being effective injury prevention programmes focusing on improving eccentric hamstring strength. As this might be because of poor compliance, a more functional injury prevention exercise programme that focuses on the stretch-shortening cycle might facilitate compliance. In this study, a bounding exercise programme consisting of functional plyometric exercises is being evaluated. A cluster-randomized controlled trial (RCT). Male amateur soccer teams (players aged 18-45 years) have been randomly allocated to intervention and control groups. Both groups are continuing regular soccer training and the intervention group is additionally performing a 12-week bounding exercise programme (BEP), consisting of a gradual build up and maintenance programme for the entire soccer season. The primary outcome is hamstring injury incidence. Secondary outcome is compliance with the BEP during the soccer season and 3 months thereafter. Despite effective hamstring injury prevention programmes, the incidence of these injuries remains high in soccer. As poor compliance with these programmes may be an issue, a new plyometric exercise programme may encourage long-term compliance and is expected to enhance sprinting and jumping performance besides preventing hamstring injuries. NTR6129 . Retrospectively registered on 1 November 2016.

  13. The effect of hamstring flexibility on peak hamstring muscle strain in sprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianglin Wan

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: A potential for hamstring injury exists during the late swing phase of sprinting. Peak hamstring muscle strains in sprinting are negatively correlated to hamstring flexibility across individuals. The magnitude of peak muscle strains is different among hamstring muscles in sprinting, which may explain the different injury rate among hamstring muscles.

  14. Recurrent hamstring muscle injury: applying the limited evidence in the professional football setting with a seven-point programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brukner, Peter; Nealon, Andrew; Morgan, Christopher; Burgess, Darren; Dunn, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Recurrent hamstring injuries are a major problem in sports such as football. The aim of this paper was to use a clinical example to describe a treatment strategy for the management of recurrent hamstring injuries and examine the evidence for each intervention. A professional footballer sustained five hamstring injuries in a relatively short period of time. The injury was managed successfully with a seven-point programme—biomechanical assessment and correction, neurodynamics, core stability, eccentric strengthening, an overload running programme, injection therapies and stretching/relaxation. The evidence for each of these treatment options is reviewed. It is impossible to be definite about which aspects of the programme contributed to a successful outcome. Only limited evidence is available in most cases; therefore, decisions regarding the use of different treatment modalities must be made by using a combination of clinical experience and research evidence. PMID:23322894

  15. Aplicación de la dinamometría isocinética para establecer perfiles de riesgo de lesión isquiosural en futbolistas profesionales. [The use of isokinetic dynamometry to establish risk profiles of hamstring injury in professional football players].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Moreno-Perez

    2013-10-01

    torque of the hamstring musculature was found, are useful variables to establish risk profiles for hamstring injury in professional football players. Twenty players of a Second Division team of the Liga de Fútbol Profesional bilaterally performed an isokinetic test of eccentric knee flexion at 30º/s and concentric knee extension at 240º/s during the pre-season. The Flexexc30/Extcon240 ratio and the knee angle of peak torque were calculated, and the players’ injuries were registered throughout the season. The results showed that two of the five injured players had Flexexc30/Extcon240 ratios lower than 0.89, value that has been previously used to determine the imbalance between knee flexor and extensor strength and the risk of injury (Croisier, Ganteaume, Binet, Genty, and Ferret, 2008. In addition, another two injured players obtained ratios between 0.93 and 1.00. On the other hand, no differences in the knee angle of peak torque between injured and non-injured players were found. These results indicate that the Flexexc30/Extcon240 ratio may be a useful index to determine the risk of hamstring injury in professional football players.http://dx.doi.org/10.5232/ricyde2013.03403

  16. Injury incidence, risk factors and prevention in Australian rules football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrysomallis, Con

    2013-05-01

    Along with the enjoyment and the other positive benefits of sport participation, there is also the risk of injury that is elevated in contact sport. This review provides a summary of injury incidence in Australian rules football (ARF), identifies injury risk factors, assesses the efficacy of interventions to reduce injury risk and makes recommendations for future research. The most common injuries were found to be muscle strains, particularly hamstrings; joint ligament sprains, especially ankle; haematomas and concussion. The most severe joint injury was anterior cruciate ligament rupture. Mouthguards are commonly worn and have been shown to reduce orofacial injury. There is evidence that thigh pads can reduce the incidence of thigh haematomas. There is a reluctance to wear padded headgear and an attempt to assess its effectiveness was unsuccessful due to low compliance. The most readily identified risk factor was a history of that injury. There were conflicting findings as to the influence strength imbalances or deficit has on hamstring injury risk in ARF. Static hamstring flexibility was not related to risk but low hip flexor/quadriceps flexibility increased hamstring injury risk. High lower-limb and high hamstring stiffness were associated with an elevated risk of hamstring injury. Since stiffness can be modulated through strength or flexibility training, this provides an area for future intervention studies. Low postural balance ability was related to a greater risk of ankle injury in ARF, players with poor balance should be targeted for balance training. There are preliminary data signifying a link between deficiencies in hip range of motion and hip adductor strength with groin pain or injury. This provides support for future investigation into the effectiveness of an intervention for high-risk players on groin injury rate. Low cross-sectional area of core-region muscle has been associated with more severe injuries and a motor control exercise intervention

  17. Effect of electrical stimulation of hamstrings and L3/4 dermatome on gait in spinal cord injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Salm, Arjan; Veltink, Petrus H.; Hermens, Hermanus J.; Nene, A.V.; IJzerman, Maarten Joost

    2006-01-01

    Objective. To determine the effect of electrical stimulation of hamstrings and L3/4 dermatome on the swing phase of gait. Materials and Methods. Five subjects with incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI) with spasticity were included. Two electrical stimulation methods were investigated, i.e.,

  18. Hamstring Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Visit Our Schools Educators at Mayo Clinic train tomorrow’s leaders to deliver compassionate, high-value, safe patient ... Practices Reprint Permissions A single copy of these materials may be reprinted for noncommercial personal use only. " ...

  19. The hamstring muscle complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Made, A. D.; Wieldraaijer, T.; Kerkhoffs, G. M.; Kleipool, R. P.; Engebretsen, L.; van Dijk, C. N.; Golanó, P.

    2015-01-01

    The anatomical appearance of the hamstring muscle complex was studied to provide hypotheses for the hamstring injury pattern and to provide reference values of origin dimensions, muscle length, tendon length, musculotendinous junction (MTJ) length as well as width and length of a tendinous

  20. The financial cost of hamstring strain injuries in the Australian Football League.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Jack; Shield, Anthony J; Williams, Morgan D; Opar, David A

    2014-04-01

    Hamstring strain injuries (HSIs) have remained the most prevalent injury in the Australian Football League (AFL) over the past 21 regular seasons. The effect of HSIs in sports is often expressed as regular season games missed due to injury. However, the financial cost of athletes missing games due to injury has not been investigated. The aim of this report is to estimate the financial cost of games missed due to HSIs in the AFL. Data were collected using publicly available information from the AFL's injury report and the official AFL annual report for the past 10 competitive AFL seasons. Average athlete salary and injury epidemiology data were used to determine the average yearly financial cost of HSIs for AFL clubs and the average financial cost of a single HSI over this time period. Across the observed period, average yearly financial cost of HSIs per club increased by 71% compared with a 43% increase in average yearly athlete salary. Over the same time period the average financial cost of a single HSI increased by 56% from $A25,603 in 2003 to $A40,021 in 2012, despite little change in the HSI rates during the period. The observed increased financial cost of HSIs was ultimately explained by the failure of teams to decrease HSI rates, but coupled with increases in athlete salaries over the past 10 season. The information presented in this report highlights the financial cost of HSIs and other sporting injuries, raising greater awareness and the need for further funding for research into injury prevention strategies to maximise economical return for investment in athletes.

  1. Acute hamstring injuries in Swedish elite sprinters and jumpers: a prospective randomised controlled clinical trial comparing two rehabilitation protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askling, Carl M; Tengvar, Magnus; Tarassova, Olga; Thorstensson, Alf

    2014-04-01

    Hamstring strain is a common injury in sprinters and jumpers, and therefore time to return to sport and secondary prevention become of particular concern. To compare the effectiveness of two rehabilitation protocols after acute hamstring injury in Swedish elite sprinters and jumpers by evaluating time needed to return to full participation in the training process. Prospective randomised comparison of two rehabilitation protocols. Fifty-six Swedish elite sprinters and jumpers with acute hamstring injury, verified by MRI, were randomly assigned to one of two rehabilitation protocols. Twenty-eight athletes were assigned to a protocol emphasising lengthening exercises, L-protocol, and 28 athletes to a protocol consisting of conventional exercises, C-protocol. The outcome measure was the number of days to return to full training. Re-injuries were registered during a period of 12 months after return. Time to return was significantly shorter for the athletes in the L-protocol, mean 49 days (1SD±26, range 18-107 days), compared with the C-protocol, mean 86 days (1SD±34, range 26-140 days). Irrespective of protocol, hamstring injuries where the proximal free tendon was involved took a significantly longer time to return than injuries that did not involve the free tendon, L-protocol: mean 73 vs 31 days and C-protocol: mean 116 vs 63 days, respectively. Two reinjuries were registered, both in the C-protocol. A rehabilitation protocol emphasising lengthening type of exercises is more effective than a protocol containing conventional exercises in promoting time to return in Swedish elite sprinters and jumpers.

  2. Acute hamstring injury in football players: Association between anatomical location and extent of injury-A large single-center MRI report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crema, Michel D; Guermazi, Ali; Tol, Johannes L; Niu, Jingbo; Hamilton, Bruce; Roemer, Frank W

    2016-04-01

    To describe in detail the anatomic distribution of acute hamstring injuries in football players, and to assess the relationship between location and extent of edema and tears, all based on findings from MRI. Retrospective observational study. We included 275 consecutive male football players who had sustained acute hamstring injuries and had positive findings on MRI. For each subject, lesions were recorded at specific locations of the hamstring muscles, which were divided into proximal or distal: free tendon, myotendinous junction, muscle belly, and myofascial junction locations. For each lesion, we assessed the largest cross-sectional area of edema and/or tears. We calculated the prevalence of injuries by location. The relationships between locations and extent of edema and tears were assessed using a one-sample t-test, with significance set at pmuscles (pmuscle had larger tears than proximal locations (pmuscles) and proximal locations (LHBF muscle) are more commonly affected and are associated with a greater extent of edema in acute hamstring muscle injury. Distal locations (ST muscle), however, seem to be more commonly associated with larger tears. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Rationale, secondary outcome scores and 1-year follow-up of a randomised trial of platelet-rich plasma injections in acute hamstring muscle injury: the Dutch Hamstring Injection Therapy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reurink, Gustaaf; Goudswaard, Gert Jan; Moen, Maarten H; Weir, Adam; Verhaar, Jan A N; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita M A; Maas, Mario; Tol, Johannes L

    2015-09-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections are an experimental treatment for acute muscle injuries. We examined whether PRP injections would accelerate return to play after hamstring injury. The methods and the primary outcome measure were published in the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) as 'Platelet-rich plasma injections in acute muscle injury' (2014). This article shares information not available in the NEJM letter or online supplement, especially the rationale behind the study and the secondary outcome measures including 1 year re-injury data. We performed a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in 80 competitive and recreational athletes with acute hamstring muscle injuries. Details can be found in the NEJM (http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMc1402340). The primary outcome measure was the time needed to return to play during 6 months of follow-up. Not previously reported secondary outcome scores included re-injury at 1 year, alteration in clinical and MRI parameters, subjective patient satisfaction and the hamstring outcome score. In the earlier NEJM publication, we reported that PRP did not accelerate return to play; nor did we find a difference in the 2-month re-injury rate. We report no significant between-group difference in the 1-year re-injury rate (HR=0.89; 95% CI, 0.38 to 2.13; p=0.80) or any other secondary outcome measure. At 1-year postinjection, we found no benefit of intramuscular PRP compared with placebo injections in patients with acute hamstring injuries in the time to return to play, re-injury rate and alterations of subjective, clinical or MRI measures. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Return to play criteria after hamstring muscle injury in professional football: a Delphi consensus study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambaldi, Mattia; Beasley, Ian; Rushton, Alison

    2017-08-01

    Hamstring muscle injury (HMI) is the most common injury in professional football and has a high re-injury rate. Despite this, there are no validated criteria to support return to play (RTP) decisions. To use the Delphi method to reach expert consensus on RTP criteria after HMI in professional football. All professional football clubs in England (n=92) were invited to participate in a 3-round Delphi study. Round 1 requested a list of criteria used for RTP decisions after HMI. Responses were independently collated by 2 researchers under univocal definitions of RTP criteria. In round 2 participants rated their agreement for each RTP criterion on a 1-5 Likert Scale. In round 3 participants re-rated the criteria that had reached consensus in round 2. Descriptive statistics and Kendall's coefficient of concordance enabled interpretation of consensus. Participation rate was limited at 21.7% (n=20), while retention rate was high throughout the 3 rounds (90.0%, 85.0%, 90.0%). Round 1 identified 108 entries with varying definitions that were collated into a list of 14 RTP criteria. Rounds 2 and 3 identified 13 and 12 criteria reaching consensus, respectively. Five domains of RTP assessment were identified: functional performance, strength, flexibility, pain and player's confidence. The highest-rated criteria were in the functional performance domain, with particular importance given to sprint ability. This study defined a list of consensually agreed RTP criteria for HMI in professional football. Further work is now required to determine the validity of the identified criteria. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. BET 2: LASER THERAPY IN THE TREATMENT OF ACUTE HAMSTRING MUSCLE INJURIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Tom; Callaghan, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Local laser therapy has been suggested as a promising treatment for acute hamstring muscle tears. We carried out a shortcut systematic review to establish whether therapeutic lasers are beneficial for patients with acute hamstring tears. Despite a comprehensive literature search, no studies that were directly relevant to the question could be identified. The clinical bottom line is therefore that there is currently no evidence for the use of any form of laser therapy in the treatment of acute hamstring muscle tears. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Proximal hamstring strains of stretching type in different sports: injury situations, clinical and magnetic resonance imaging characteristics, and return to sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askling, Carl M; Tengvar, Magnus; Saartok, Tönu; Thorstensson, Alf

    2008-09-01

    Hamstring strains can be of at least 2 types, 1 occurring during high-speed running and the other during motions in which the hamstring muscles reach extreme lengths, as documented for sprinters and dancers. Hamstring strains in different sports, with similar injury situations to dancers, also show similarities in symptoms, injury location, and recovery time. Case series (prognosis); Level of evidence, 4. Thirty subjects from 21 different sports were prospectively included. All subjects were examined clinically and with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The follow-up period lasted until the subjects returned to or finished their sport activity. All injuries occurred during movements reaching a position with combined extensive hip flexion and knee extension. They were located proximally in the posterior thigh, close to the ischial tuberosity. The injuries were often complex, but 83% involved the semimembranosus and its proximal free tendon. Fourteen subjects (47%) decided to end their sports activity. For the remaining 16 subjects, the median time for return to sport was 31 weeks (range, 9-104). There were no significant correlations between specific clinical or MRI parameters and time to return to sport. In different sports, an injury situation in which the hamstring muscles reach extensive length causes a specific injury to the proximal posterior thigh, earlier described in dancers. Because of the prolonged recovery time associated with this type of injury, correct diagnosis, based on history and palpation, and adequate information to the subject are essential.

  7. Rehabilitation and Prevention of Proximal Hamstring Tendinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Nicholas R; Félix, Ioonna; Hettler, Jessica; Moley, Peter J; Wyss, James F

    Proximal hamstring tendinopathy (PHT) comprises a small but significant portion of hamstring injuries in athletes, especially runners. PHT is a chronic condition that is clinically diagnosed but can be supported with imaging. The main presenting complaint is pain in the lower gluteal or ischial region that may or may not radiate along the hamstrings in the posterior thigh. There is little scientific evidence on which to base the rehabilitation management of PHT. Treatment is almost always conservative, with a focus on activity modification, addressing contributing biomechanical deficiencies, effective tendon loading including eccentric training, and ultrasound-guided interventional procedures which may facilitate rehabilitation. Surgery is limited to recalcitrant cases or those involving concomitant high-grade musculotendinous pathology. The keys to PHT management include early and accurate diagnosis, optimal rehabilitation to allow for a safe return to preinjury activity level, and preventative strategies to reduce risk of reinjury.

  8. Influence on Strength and Flexibility of a Swing Phase-Specific Hamstring Eccentric Program in Sprinters' General Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guex, Kenny J; Lugrin, Véronique; Borloz, Stéphane; Millet, Grégoire P

    2016-02-01

    Hamstring injuries are common in sprinters and mainly occur during the terminal swing phase. Eccentric training has been shown to reduce hamstring injury rate by improving several risk factors. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that an additional swing phase-specific hamstring eccentric training in well-trained sprinters performed at the commencement of the winter preparation is more efficient to improve strength, ratio, optimum angle, and flexibility than a similar program without hamstring eccentric exercises. Twenty sprinters were randomly allocated to an eccentric (n = 10) or a control group (n = 10). Both groups performed their usual track and field training throughout the study period. Sprinters in the eccentric group performed an additional 6-week hamstring eccentric program, which was specific to the swing phase of the running cycle (eccentric high-load open-chain kinetic movements covering the whole hamstring length-tension relationship preformed at slow to moderate velocity). Isokinetic and flexibility measurements were performed before and after the intervention. The eccentric group increased hamstring peak torques in concentric at 60° · s(-1) by 16% (p training in sprinters seems to be crucial to address different risk factors for hamstring strain injuries, such as eccentric and concentric strength, hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio ratio, and flexibility.

  9. MRI findings and return to play in football: a prospective analysis of 255 hamstring injuries in the UEFA Elite Club Injury Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekstrand, Jan; Lee, Justin C; Healy, Jeremiah C

    2016-06-01

    The present study evaluated whether the MRI parameters of hamstring injuries in male professional football players correlate with time to return to play (RTP). 46 elite European football teams were followed prospectively for hamstring injuries between 2007 and 2014. Club medical staff recorded individual player exposure and time-loss after hamstring injury. MRI parameters were evaluated by two independent radiologists and correlated with the RTP data. A total of 255 grade 1 and 2 injuries were evaluated in this study. RTP was longer for grade 2 than grade 1 injuries (24±13, 95% CI 21 to 26 days vs 18±15, 95% CI 16 to 20 days; mean difference: 6, 95% CI 2 to 9 days, p=0.004, d=0.39). 84% of injuries affected the biceps femoris (BF) muscle, whereas 12% and 4% affected the semimembranosus (SM) and semitendinosus (ST), respectively. No difference in lay-off time was found for injuries to the three different muscles (BF 20±15 days, SM 18±11 days, ST 23±14 days; p=0.83). The recurrence rate was higher for BF injuries than for SM and ST injuries combined (18% vs 2%, p=0.009). The size of the oedema weakly correlated with time to RTP (r(2)=6-12%). No correlation was found between location of injury and time to RTP. The majority of the intramuscular injuries affected the MT junction (56% in grade 1 and 2 injuries), but no difference in lay-off time was found between the different types of injuries. The radiological grade and size of the oedema correlate with time to RTP for both, grade 1 and 2 injuries. No correlations were found between time to RTP and the location and type of injury. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  10. A comparison of hamstring muscle activity during different screening tests for non-contact ACL injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Rasmus S; Bencke, Jesper; Andersen, Lars Louis

    2016-01-01

    during three standardized screening tests - i.e. one-legged horizontal hop (OLH), drop vertical jump (DJ) and sidecutting (SC). Neuromuscular pre-activity was measured in the time interval 10ms prior to initial contact on a force plate. RESULTS: For neuromuscular hamstring muscle pre...

  11. Rapid hamstring/quadriceps force capacity in male vs. female elite soccer players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zebis, Mette K; Andersen, Lars L; Ellingsgaard, Helga

    2011-01-01

    Knee joint injuries are a serious issue in soccer. The ability to protect the knee from injury depends largely on the strength of the hamstring relatively to the quadriceps, that is, a low hamstring/quadriceps (H/Q) strength ratio is suggested as a risk factor. Although maximal muscle strength (MVC....../Q strength ratio in elite soccer players. Twenty-three elite soccer players (11 women, 12 men) performed maximal voluntary static contraction for the hamstring and quadriceps in an isokinetic dynamometer, from which the maximal muscles strength (MVC) and RFD were extracted. Test-retest reliability...

  12. The effect of Nordic hamstring strength training on muscle architecture, stiffness, and strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymore, Kayla D; Domire, Zachary J; DeVita, Paul; Rider, Patrick M; Kulas, Anthony S

    2017-05-01

    Hamstring strain injury is a frequent and serious injury in competitive and recreational sports. While Nordic hamstring (NH) eccentric strength training is an effective hamstring injury-prevention method, the protective mechanism of this exercise is not understood. Strength training increases muscle strength, but also alters muscle architecture and stiffness; all three factors may be associated with reducing muscle injuries. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of NH eccentric strength training on hamstring muscle architecture, stiffness, and strength. Twenty healthy participants were randomly assigned to an eccentric training group or control group. Control participants performed static stretching, while experimental participants performed static stretching and NH training for 6 weeks. Pre- and post-intervention measurements included: hamstring muscle architecture and stiffness using ultrasound imaging and elastography, and maximal hamstring strength measured on a dynamometer. The experimental group, but not the control group, increased volume (131.5 vs. 145.2 cm 3 , p < 0.001) and physiological cross-sectional area (16.1 vs. 18.1 cm 2 , p = 0.032). There were no significant changes to muscle fascicle length, stiffness, or eccentric hamstring strength. The NH intervention was an effective training method for muscle hypertrophy, but, contrary to common literature findings for other modes of eccentric training, did not increase fascicle length. The data suggest that the mechanism behind NH eccentric strength training mitigating hamstring injury risk could be increasing volume rather than increasing muscle length. Future research is, therefore, warranted to determine if muscle hypertrophy induced by NH training lowers future hamstring strain injury risk.

  13. Return to play after hamstring injuries in football (soccer) : A worldwide Delphi procedure regarding definition, medical criteria and decision-making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Horst, Nick; Backx, F. J.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069615039; Goedhart, Edwin A.; Huisstede, Bionka M.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/298688719

    2017-01-01

    There are three major questions about return to play (RTP) after hamstring injuries: How should RTP be defined? Which medical criteria should support the RTP decision? And who should make the RTP decision? The study aimed to provide a clear RTP definition and medical criteria for RTP and to clarify

  14. Quadriceps and hamstrings coactivation during common therapeutic exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begalle, Rebecca L; Distefano, Lindsay J; Blackburn, Troy; Padua, Darin A

    2012-01-01

    Anterior tibial shear force and knee valgus moment increase anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) loading. Muscle coactivation of the quadriceps and hamstrings influences anterior tibial shear force and knee valgus moment, thus potentially influencing ACL loading and injury risk. Therefore, identifying exercises that facilitate balanced activation of the quadriceps and hamstrings might be beneficial in ACL injury rehabilitation and prevention. To quantify and compare quadriceps with hamstrings coactivation electromyographic (EMG) ratios during commonly used closed kinetic chain exercises. Cross-sectional study. Research laboratory. Twenty-seven healthy, physically active volunteers (12 men, 15 women; age = 22.1 ± 3.1 years, height = 171.4 ± 10 cm, mass = 72.4 ± 16.7 kg). Participants completed 9 separate closed chain therapeutic exercises in a randomized order. Surface electromyography quantified the activity level of the vastus medialis (VM), vastus lateralis (VL), medial hamstrings (MH), and biceps femoris (BF) muscles. The quadriceps-to-hamstrings (Q:H) coactivation ratio was computed as the sum of average quadriceps (VM, VL) EMG amplitude divided by the sum of average hamstrings (MH, BF) EMG amplitude for each trial. We used repeated-measures analyses of variance to compare Q:H ratios and individual muscle contributions across exercises (α = .05), then used post hoc Tukey analyses. We observed a main effect for exercise (F(3,79) = 22.6, Pprevention programs. They also could be used in postinjury rehabilitation programs in a safe and progressive manner.

  15. The effect of a sports chiropractic manual therapy intervention on the prevention of back pain, hamstring and lower limb injuries in semi-elite Australian Rules footballers: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Pollard Henry; Hoskins Wayne

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Hamstring injuries are the most common injury in Australian Rules football. It was the aims to investigate whether a sports chiropractic manual therapy intervention protocol provided in addition to the current best practice management could prevent the occurrence of and weeks missed due to hamstring and other lower-limb injuries at the semi-elite level of Australian football. Methods Sixty male subjects were assessed for eligibility with 59 meeting entry requirements and r...

  16. Multiple extensor tendons reconstruction with hamstring tendon grafts and flap coverage for severe dorsal hand injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbaydar, M; Orman, O; Ozel, O; Altan, E

    2017-10-10

    Treatment of patients with traumatic loss of skin and multiple extensor tendons on the dorsum of the hand is a challenge. The aim of this study was to assess the outcome after reconstruction of soft tissues and multiple extensor tendons in patients who suffered traumatic loss of skin and multiple extensor tendons. Ten patients were enrolled in the study. These patients underwent single-stage reconstruction with autogenous hamstring tendon grafts for multiple extensor tendon defects and fasciocutaneous flaps for coverage of dorsal hand defects. In total, 25 tendons (2 tendons in 5 patients and 3 tendons in 5 patients) were reconstructed. The semitendinosus tendon was used in all patients and the gracilis tendon was added in five patients for tendon reconstruction. Total tendon length requiring reconstruction was between 9cm and 31cm. Free anterolateral thigh flaps were used in six patients and reverse pedicled forearm flaps were used in four patients. According to Miller's scoring system, 8 fingers had excellent results, 12 fingers had good results and 5 fingers had fair results at the final follow-up. Hamstring tendons can be used satisfactorily for primary reconstruction of multiple digital extensor tendons due to their availability and compatibility, with a fasciocutaneous flap. IV. Copyright © 2017 SFCM. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Magnetic resonance neurography evaluation of chronic extraspinal sciatica after remote proximal hamstring injury: a preliminary retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucknor, Matthew D; Steinbach, Lynne S; Saloner, David; Chin, Cynthia T

    2014-08-01

    Extraspinal sciatica can present unique challenges in clinical diagnosis and management. In this study, the authors evaluated qualitative and quantitative patterns of sciatica-related pathology at the ischial tuberosity on MR neurography (MRN) studies performed for chronic extraspinal sciatica. Lumbosacral MRN studies obtained in 14 patients at the University of California, San Francisco between 2007 and 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. The patients had been referred by neurosurgeons or neurologists for chronic unilateral sciatica (≥ 3 months), and the MRN reports described asymmetrical increased T2 signal within the sciatic nerve at the level of the ischial tuberosity. MRN studies were also performed prospectively in 6 healthy volunteers. Sciatic nerve T2 signal intensity (SI) and cross-sectional area at the ischial tuberosity were calculated and compared between the 2 sides in all 20 subjects. The same measurements were also performed at the sciatic notch as an internal reference. Adjacent musculoskeletal pathology was compared between the 2 sides in all subjects. Seven of the 9 patients for whom detailed histories were available had a specific history of injury or trauma near the proximal hamstring preceding the onset of sciatica. Eight of the 14 patients also demonstrated soft-tissue abnormalities adjacent to the proximal hamstring origin. The remaining 6 had normal muscles, tendons, and marrow in the region of the ischial tuberosity. There was a significant difference in sciatic nerve SI and size between the symptomatic and asymptomatic sides at the level of the ischial tuberosity, with a mean adjusted SI of 1.38 compared with 1.00 (p sciatica remains a diagnosis of exclusion, this distinct category of patients has not been described in the radiographic literature and merits special attention from clinicians and radiologists in the management of extraspinal sciatica. Magnetic resonance neurography is useful for evaluating chronic sciatic neuropathy both

  18. A descriptive study of a manual therapy intervention within a randomised controlled trial for hamstring and lower limb injury prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoskins Wayne

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is little literature describing the use of manual therapy performed on athletes. It was our purpose to document the usage of a sports chiropractic manual therapy intervention within a RCT by identifying the type, amount, frequency, location and reason for treatment provided. This information is useful for the uptake of the intervention into clinical settings and to allow clinicians to better understand a role that sports chiropractors offer. Methods All treatment rendered to 29 semi-elite Australian Rules footballers in the sports chiropractic intervention group of an 8 month RCT investigating hamstring and lower-limb injury prevention was recorded. Treatment was pragmatically and individually determined and could consist of high-velocity, low-amplitude (HVLA manipulation, mobilization and/or supporting soft tissue therapies. Descriptive statistics recorded the treatment rendered for symptomatic or asymptomatic benefit, delivered to joint or soft tissue structures and categorized into body regions. For the joint therapy, it was recorded whether treatment consisted of HVLA manipulation, HVLA manipulation and mobilization, or mobilization only. Breakdown of the HVLA technique was performed. Results A total of 487 treatments were provided (mean 16.8 consultations/player with 64% of treatment for asymptomatic benefit (73% joint therapies, 57% soft tissue therapies. Treatment was delivered to approximately 4 soft tissue and 4 joint regions each consultation. The most common asymptomatic regions treated with joint therapies were thoracic (22%, knee (20%, hip (19%, sacroiliac joint (13% and lumbar (11%. For soft tissue therapies it was gluteal (22%, hip flexor (14%, knee (12% and lumbar (11%. The most common symptomatic regions treated with joint therapies were lumbar (25%, thoracic (15% and hip (14%. For soft tissue therapies it was gluteal (22%, lumbar (15% and posterior thigh (8%. Of the joint therapy, 56% was HVLA

  19. A descriptive study of a manual therapy intervention within a randomised controlled trial for hamstring and lower limb injury prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskins, Wayne; Pollard, Henry

    2010-08-09

    There is little literature describing the use of manual therapy performed on athletes. It was our purpose to document the usage of a sports chiropractic manual therapy intervention within a RCT by identifying the type, amount, frequency, location and reason for treatment provided. This information is useful for the uptake of the intervention into clinical settings and to allow clinicians to better understand a role that sports chiropractors offer. All treatment rendered to 29 semi-elite Australian Rules footballers in the sports chiropractic intervention group of an 8 month RCT investigating hamstring and lower-limb injury prevention was recorded. Treatment was pragmatically and individually determined and could consist of high-velocity, low-amplitude (HVLA) manipulation, mobilization and/or supporting soft tissue therapies. Descriptive statistics recorded the treatment rendered for symptomatic or asymptomatic benefit, delivered to joint or soft tissue structures and categorized into body regions. For the joint therapy, it was recorded whether treatment consisted of HVLA manipulation, HVLA manipulation and mobilization, or mobilization only. Breakdown of the HVLA technique was performed. A total of 487 treatments were provided (mean 16.8 consultations/player) with 64% of treatment for asymptomatic benefit (73% joint therapies, 57% soft tissue therapies). Treatment was delivered to approximately 4 soft tissue and 4 joint regions each consultation. The most common asymptomatic regions treated with joint therapies were thoracic (22%), knee (20%), hip (19%), sacroiliac joint (13%) and lumbar (11%). For soft tissue therapies it was gluteal (22%), hip flexor (14%), knee (12%) and lumbar (11%). The most common symptomatic regions treated with joint therapies were lumbar (25%), thoracic (15%) and hip (14%). For soft tissue therapies it was gluteal (22%), lumbar (15%) and posterior thigh (8%). Of the joint therapy, 56% was HVLA manipulation only, 36% high-HVLA and

  20. Acute neuromuscular and performance responses to Nordic hamstring exercises completed before or after football training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Ric; Siegler, Jason C; Knox, Michael; Brennan, Scott; Marshall, Paul W M

    2016-12-01

    The optimal scheduling of Nordic Hamstring exercises (NHEs) relative to football training sessions is unknown. We examined the acute neuromuscular and performance responses to NHE undertaken either before (BT) or after (AT) simulated football training. Twelve amateur players performed six sets of five repetitions of the NHE either before or after 60 min of standardised football-specific exercise (SAFT(60)). Surface electromyography signals (EMG) of the hamstring muscles were recorded during both the NHE, and maximum eccentric actions of the knee flexors (0.52 rad · s(-1)) performed before and after the NHE programme, and at 15 min intervals during SAFT(60). Ten-metre sprint times were recorded on three occasions during each 15 min SAFT(60) segment. Greater eccentric hamstring fatigue following the NHE programme was observed in BT versus AT (19.8 %; very likely small effect), which was particularly apparent in the latter range of knee flexion (0-15°; 39.6%; likely moderate effect), and synonymous with hamstring EMG declines (likely small-likely moderate effects). Performing NHE BT attenuated sprint performance declines (2.0-3.2%; likely small effects), but decreased eccentric hamstring peak torque (-14.1 to -18.9%; likely small effects) during football-specific exercise. Performing NHE prior to football training reduces eccentric hamstring strength and may exacerbate hamstring injury risk.

  1. Hamstring strain - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... does not seem to be healing as expected. Alternative Names Pulled hamstring muscle; Sprain - hamstring References Ali K, Leland JM. Hamstring strains and tears in the athlete. Clin Sports Med . 2012;31(2):263-272. PMID: 22341016 ...

  2. Hamstring muscle strains in professional football players: a 10-year review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Marcus C C W; Zarins, Bertram; Powell, John W; Kenyon, Charles D

    2011-04-01

    Investigations into hamstring strain injuries at the elite level exist in sports such as Australian Rules football, rugby, and soccer, but no large-scale study exists on the incidence and circumstances surrounding these injuries in the National Football League (NFL). Injury rates will vary between different player positions, times in the season, and across different playing situations. Descriptive epidemiology study. Between 1989 and 1998, injury data were prospectively collected by athletic trainers for every NFL team and recorded in the NFL's Injury Surveillance System. Data collected included team, date of injury, activity the player was engaged in at the time of injury, injury severity, position played, mechanism of injury, and history of previous injury. Injury rates were reported in injuries per athlete-exposure (A-E). An athlete-exposure was defined as 1 athlete participating in either 1 practice or 1 game. Over the 10-year study period 1716 hamstring strains were reported for an injury rate (IR) of 0.77 per 1000 A-E. More than half (51.3%) of hamstring strains occurred during the 7-week preseason. The preseason practice IR was significantly elevated compared with the regular-season practice IR (0.82/1000 A-E and 0.18/1000 A-E, respectively). The most commonly injured positions were the defensive secondary, accounting for 23.1% of the injuries; the wide receivers, accounting for 20.8%; and special teams, constituting 13.0% of the injuries in the study. Hamstring strains are a considerable cause of disability in football, with the majority of injuries occurring during the short preseason. In particular, the speed position players, such as the wide receivers and defensive secondary, as well as players on the special teams units, are at elevated risk for injury. These positions and situations with a higher risk of injury provide foci for preventative interventions.

  3. DEVELOPMENTS IN THE USE OF THE HAMSTRING/QUADRICEPS RATIO FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF MUSCLE BALANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Garbutt

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Isokinetic moment ratios of the hamstrings (H and quadriceps (Q muscle groups, and their implication in muscle imbalance, have been investigated for more than three decades. The conventional concentric H/Q ratio with its normative value of 0.6 has been at the forefront of the discussion. This does not account for the joint angle at which moment occurs and the type of muscle action involved. Advances towards more functional analyses have occurred such that previous protocols are being re-examined raising questions about their ability to demonstrate a relationship between thigh muscle imbalance and increased incidence or risk of knee injury. This article addresses the function of the hamstring-quadriceps ratio in the interpretation of this relationship using the ratios Hecc/Qcon (ratio of eccentric hamstring strength to concentric quadriceps strength, representative of isolated knee extension and Hcon/Qecc (ratio of concentric hamstring strength to eccentric quadriceps strength, representative of isolated knee flexion.

  4. Calf muscle strain injuries in sport: a systematic review of risk factors for injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Brady; Pizzari, Tania

    2017-08-01

    To systematically review the literature to identify risk factors for calf strain injury, and to direct future research into calf muscle injuries. Systematic review DATA SOURCES: Database searches conducted for Medline, CINAHL, EMBASE, AMED, AUSPORT, SportDiscus, PEDro and Cochrane Library. Manual reference checks, ahead of press searches, citation tracking. From inception to June 2016. Studies evaluating and presenting data related to intrinsic or extrinsic risk factors for sustaining future calf injury. Ten studies were obtained for review. Subjects across football, Australian football, rugby union, basketball and triathlon were reported on, representing 5397 athletes and 518 calf/ lower leg muscle injuries. Best evidence synthesis highlights chronological age and previous history of calf strain are the strongest risk factors for future calf muscle injury. Previous lower limb injuries (hamstring, quadriceps, adductor, knee) show some limited evidence for an association. Numerous factors lack evidence of an association, including height, weight, gender and side dominance. Increasing age and previous calf strain injury are the most predictive of future calf injury. The overall paucity of evidence and the trend for studies of a high risk of bias show that further research needs to be undertaken. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Football injuries – surveillance, incidence and prevention

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    followed over three seasons, a proprioceptive training programme significantly reduced the incidence of injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament.32. In another study concentrating on hamstring strains, eccentric training combined with warm- up stretching significantly reduced the risk of hamstring strains in male elite football.

  6. Decrease in eccentric quadriceps and hamstring strength in recreational alpine skiers after prolonged skiing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Arnold; Fuchs, Birgit; Leichtfried, Veronika; Schobersberger, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Background To effectively prevent injury in recreational alpine skiing, it is important to identify modifiable risk factors that can be targeted through exercise and training. Fatigue is a potential risk factor in recreational skiing, but no investigations have evaluated concentric/eccentric quadriceps and hamstring fatigue in recreational skiers. We tested the hypothesis that recreational skiing is associated with more pronounced eccentric as compared with concentric muscle fatigue. Methods Twenty-four healthy and fit recreational skiers (14 male and 10 female) performed an isokinetic muscle test 1 day before, 1 h after, and 24 h after a 4 h skiing session. The testing protocol consisted of concentric and eccentric quadriceps and hamstring contractions for both legs. Results Eccentric peak hamstring torque (both thighs) and eccentric peak quadriceps torque (left thigh) were reduced in male and female participants (pskiing session. There were no other significant findings. Summary Recreational skiing is associated with prolonged (at least 24 h) eccentric quadriceps (left thigh) and hamstring (both thighs) fatigue in men and women. Eccentric quadriceps and hamstring fatigue may be a potential injury risk factor in male and female recreational skiers. This provides some justification for judicious use of additional eccentric training modalities for alpine skiing. PMID:27900115

  7. The influence of hamstring autograft size on patient-reported outcomes and risk of revision after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a Multicenter Orthopaedic Outcomes Network (MOON) Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariscalco, Michael W; Flanigan, David C; Mitchell, Joshua; Pedroza, Angela D; Jones, Morgan H; Andrish, Jack T; Parker, Richard D; Kaeding, Christopher C; Magnussen, Robert A

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of graft size on patient-reported outcomes and revision risk after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. A retrospective chart review of prospectively collected cohort data was performed, and 263 of 320 consecutive patients (82.2%) undergoing primary ACL reconstruction with hamstring autograft were evaluated. We recorded graft size; femoral tunnel drilling technique; patient age, sex, and body mass index at the time of ACL reconstruction; Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) and International Knee Documentation Committee score preoperatively and at 2 years postoperatively; and whether each patient underwent revision ACL reconstruction during the 2-year follow-up period. Revision was used as a marker for graft failure. The relation between graft size and patient-reported outcomes was determined by multiple linear regression. The relation between graft size and risk of revision was determined by dichotomizing graft size at 8 mm and stratifying by age. After we controlled for age, sex, operative side, surgeon, body mass index, graft choice, and femoral tunnel drilling technique, a 1-mm increase in graft size was noted to correlate with a 3.3-point increase in the KOOS pain subscale (P = .003), a 2.0-point increase in the KOOS activities of daily living subscale (P = .034), a 5.2-point increase in the KOOS sport/recreation function subscale (P = .004), and a 3.4-point increase in the subjective International Knee Documentation Committee score (P = .026). Revision was required in 0 of 64 patients (0.0%) with grafts greater than 8 mm in diameter and 14 of 199 patients (7.0%) with grafts 8 mm in diameter or smaller (P = .037). Among patients aged 18 years or younger, revision was required in 0 of 14 patients (0.0%) with grafts greater than 8 mm in diameter and 13 of 71 patients (18.3%) with grafts 8 mm in diameter or smaller. Smaller hamstring autograft size is a predictor of poorer KOOS sport

  8. MRI does not add value over and above patient history and clinical examination in predicting time to return to sport after acute hamstring injuries: a prospective cohort of 180 male athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wangensteen, Arnlaug; Almusa, Emad; Boukarroum, Sirine; Farooq, Abdulaziz; Hamilton, Bruce; Whiteley, Rodney; Bahr, Roald; Tol, Johannes L.

    2015-01-01

    MRI is frequently used in addition to clinical evaluation for predicting time to return to sport (RTS) after acute hamstring injury. However, the additional value of MRI to patient history taking and clinical examination remains unknown and is debated. To prospectively investigate the predictive

  9. Evaluation of hip internal and external rotation range of motion as an injury risk factor for hip, abdominal and groin injuries in professional baseball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinning Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal hip range of motion (ROM is essential in running and transfer of energy from lower to upper extremities during overhead throwing. Dysfunctional hip ROM may alter lower extremity kinematics and predispose athletes to hip and groin injuries. The purpose of this study is characterize hip internal/external ROM (Arc and its effect on the risk of hip, hamstring, and groin injuries in professional baseball players. Bilateral hip internal and external ROM was measured on all baseball players (N=201 in one professional organization (major and minor league during spring training. Players were organized according to their respective positions. All injuries were documented prospectively for an entire MLB season (2010 to 2011. Data was analyzed according to position and injuries during the season. Total number of players (N=201 with an average age of 24±3.6 (range=17-37. Both pitchers (N=93 and catchers (N=22 had significantly decreased mean hip internal rotation and overall hip arc of motion compared to the positional players (N=86. Players with hip, groin, and hamstring injury also had decreased hip rotation arc when compared to the normal group. Overall, there is a correlation between decreased hip internal rotation and total arc of motion with hip, hamstring, and groin injuries.

  10. COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT THERAPUTIC TECHINQUES ON HAMSTRING FLEXBILITY IN NORMAL ADULTS: RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL

    OpenAIRE

    Doaa I. Amin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hamstring muscles involve a rate of intense musculoskeletal injuries. Hamstring flexibility, shorting, and exhaustion are hazard variables connected with hamstring strain. Enhanced flexibility has for quite some time been viewed as an imperative part in anticipation of musculotendinous strain. Expanding hamstring flexibility can assume a vital part in counteracting lower furthest point injuries. In any case, few research has been performed on the best technique. This study was con...

  11. The effect of a sports chiropractic manual therapy intervention on the prevention of back pain, hamstring and lower limb injuries in semi-elite Australian Rules footballers: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollard Henry

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hamstring injuries are the most common injury in Australian Rules football. It was the aims to investigate whether a sports chiropractic manual therapy intervention protocol provided in addition to the current best practice management could prevent the occurrence of and weeks missed due to hamstring and other lower-limb injuries at the semi-elite level of Australian football. Methods Sixty male subjects were assessed for eligibility with 59 meeting entry requirements and randomly allocated to an intervention (n = 29 or control group (n = 30, being matched for age and hamstring injury history. Twenty-eight intervention and 29 control group participants completed the trial. Both groups received the current best practice medical and sports science management, which acted as the control. Additionally, the intervention group received a sports chiropractic intervention. Treatment for the intervention group was individually determined and could involve manipulation/mobilization and/or soft tissue therapies to the spine and extremity. Minimum scheduling was: 1 treatment per week for 6 weeks, 1 treatment per fortnight for 3 months, 1 treatment per month for the remainder of the season (3 months. The main outcome measure was an injury surveillance with a missed match injury definition. Results After 24 matches there was no statistical significant difference between the groups for the incidence of hamstring injury (OR:0.116, 95% CI:0.013-1.019, p = 0.051 and primary non-contact knee injury (OR:0.116, 95% CI:0.013-1.019, p = 0.051. The difference for primary lower-limb muscle strains was significant (OR:0.097, 95%CI:0.011-0.839, p = 0.025. There was no significant difference for weeks missed due to hamstring injury (4 v14, χ2:1.12, p = 0.29 and lower-limb muscle strains (4 v 21, χ2:2.66, p = 0.10. A significant difference in weeks missed due to non-contact knee injury was noted (1 v 24, χ2:6.70, p = 0.01. Conclusions This study

  12. The effect of a sports chiropractic manual therapy intervention on the prevention of back pain, hamstring and lower limb injuries in semi-elite Australian Rules footballers: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskins, Wayne; Pollard, Henry

    2010-04-08

    Hamstring injuries are the most common injury in Australian Rules football. It was the aims to investigate whether a sports chiropractic manual therapy intervention protocol provided in addition to the current best practice management could prevent the occurrence of and weeks missed due to hamstring and other lower-limb injuries at the semi-elite level of Australian football. Sixty male subjects were assessed for eligibility with 59 meeting entry requirements and randomly allocated to an intervention (n = 29) or control group (n = 30), being matched for age and hamstring injury history. Twenty-eight intervention and 29 control group participants completed the trial. Both groups received the current best practice medical and sports science management, which acted as the control. Additionally, the intervention group received a sports chiropractic intervention. Treatment for the intervention group was individually determined and could involve manipulation/mobilization and/or soft tissue therapies to the spine and extremity. Minimum scheduling was: 1 treatment per week for 6 weeks, 1 treatment per fortnight for 3 months, 1 treatment per month for the remainder of the season (3 months). The main outcome measure was an injury surveillance with a missed match injury definition. After 24 matches there was no statistical significant difference between the groups for the incidence of hamstring injury (OR:0.116, 95% CI:0.013-1.019, p = 0.051) and primary non-contact knee injury (OR:0.116, 95% CI:0.013-1.019, p = 0.051). The difference for primary lower-limb muscle strains was significant (OR:0.097, 95%CI:0.011-0.839, p = 0.025). There was no significant difference for weeks missed due to hamstring injury (4 v 14, chi2:1.12, p = 0.29) and lower-limb muscle strains (4 v 21, chi2:2.66, p = 0.10). A significant difference in weeks missed due to non-contact knee injury was noted (1 v 24, chi2:6.70, p = 0.01). This study demonstrated a trend towards lower limb injury prevention

  13. Immediate Effects of Neurodynamic Sliding versus Muscle Stretching on Hamstring Flexibility in Subjects with Short Hamstring Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Yolanda Castellote-Caballero; Valenza, Maríe C.; Puentedura, Emilio J.; César Fernández-de-las-Peñas; Francisco Alburquerque-Sendín

    2014-01-01

    Background. Hamstring injuries continue to affect active individuals and although inadequate muscle extensibility remains a commonly accepted factor, little is known about the most effective method to improve flexibility. Purpose. To determine if an isolated neurodynamic sciatic sliding technique would improve hamstring flexibility to a greater degree than stretching or a placebo intervention in asymptomatic subjects with short hamstring syndrome (SHS). Study Design. Randomized double-blind...

  14. Assessment of neuromuscular risk factors for anterior cruciate ligament injury through tensiomyography in male soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; Alvarez-Diaz, Pedro; Ramon, Silvia; Marin, Miguel; Steinbacher, Gilbert; Boffa, Juan José; Cuscó, Xavier; Ballester, Jordi; Cugat, Ramon

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the role of mechanical and contractile properties of skeletal muscles of the thigh, assessed through tensiomyography (TMG), as risk factors for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in male soccer players. Male soccer players with confirmed ACL tear included in this study underwent resting TMG assessment of thigh muscles of the uninjured side. The same values were obtained from a sex-, sports level-matched control group in both sides. The maximal displacement (Dm), delay time (Td), contraction time (Tc), sustained time (Ts), and half-relaxation time (Tr) were obtained for the following muscles in all subjects: vastus medialis (VM), vastus laterals (VL), rectus femoris (RF), semitendinosus (ST), and biceps femoris (BF). TMG values of the uninjured side in ACL-injured group were compared to mean values between both sides in the control subjects. There were 40 ACL-injured and 38 control individuals. The vast majority of TMG parameters were higher in the uninjured side of ACL-injured individuals compared to the control group. The VL-Tr, RF-Tc, RF-Ts, RF-Tr, and BF-Dm values were significantly higher in the uninjured side compared to the control group. Quadriceps muscles demonstrated more significant between-group differences than hamstring muscles. Specifically, RF was the muscle where most significant between-group differences were found. Resistance to fatigue and muscle stiffness in the hamstring muscles may be risk factors for ACL injury in male soccer players. In addition, a predominant impairment in TMG characteristics of the quadriceps over hamstrings may indicate an altered muscular co-contraction (imbalance) between both muscle groups, which might be another risk factor for ACL injury in this population. These findings should be taken into account when screening athletes at high risk of ACL injury and also to design adequate prevention programs for ACL injury in male soccer players.

  15. Sprint mechanics return to competition follow-up after hamstring injury on a professional soccer player: A case study with an inertial sensor unit based methodological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setuain, Igor; Lecumberri, Pablo; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2017-10-03

    The present research aimed to describe an inertial unit (IU)-based sprint mechanics evaluation model for assessing players' readiness to return to competition after suffering a grade I hamstring injury. A professional male football player (age 19years; height 177cm; weight 70kg, midfielder, Spanish, 3° Division) with a grade 1 biceps femoris injury was evaluated at pre-season, at return to play after injury and at the end of the competitive season. Sprint mechanics were analyzed via the use of an inertial orientation tracker (Xsens Technologies B.V. Enschede, Netherlands) attached over the L3-L4 region of the subject's lumbar spine. Sprint mechanics such as horizontal components of ground reaction force were assessed in both legs during sprinting actions. Findings and interpretation: Both the coefficient of the horizontal force application (SFV) and the ratio of forces (DRF) applied at increasing velocity were decreased in the injured limb compared with the contralateral healthy limb at the return to play evaluation (73% and 76% reductions, respectively) and returned to symmetrical levels at the end-season evaluation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Decrease in eccentric quadriceps and hamstring strength in recreational alpine skiers after prolonged skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Arnold; Fuchs, Birgit; Leichtfried, Veronika; Schobersberger, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    To effectively prevent injury in recreational alpine skiing, it is important to identify modifiable risk factors that can be targeted through exercise and training. Fatigue is a potential risk factor in recreational skiing, but no investigations have evaluated concentric/eccentric quadriceps and hamstring fatigue in recreational skiers. We tested the hypothesis that recreational skiing is associated with more pronounced eccentric as compared with concentric muscle fatigue. Twenty-four healthy and fit recreational skiers (14 male and 10 female) performed an isokinetic muscle test 1 day before, 1 h after, and 24 h after a 4 h skiing session. The testing protocol consisted of concentric and eccentric quadriceps and hamstring contractions for both legs. Eccentric peak hamstring torque (both thighs) and eccentric peak quadriceps torque (left thigh) were reduced in male and female participants (pfatigue in men and women. Eccentric quadriceps and hamstring fatigue may be a potential injury risk factor in male and female recreational skiers. This provides some justification for judicious use of additional eccentric training modalities for alpine skiing.

  17. Geometric and architectural contributions to hamstring musculotendinous stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, J Troy; Pamukoff, Derek N

    2014-01-01

    Greater hamstring musculotendinous stiffness is associated with lesser anterior cruciate ligament loading mechanisms during both controlled joint perturbations and dynamic tasks, suggesting a potential protective mechanism. Additionally, lesser hamstring stiffness has been reported in females, potentially contributing to their greater risk of anterior cruciate ligament injury. However, the factors which contribute to high vs. low stiffness are unclear. Muscle geometry and architecture influence force production and may, therefore, influence stiffness. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the contributions of geometric and architectural muscle characteristics to hamstring stiffness. Thirty healthy individuals (15 males, 15 females) volunteered for participation. Biceps femoris long head cross-sectional area, pennation angle, fiber length, tendon stiffness, and posterior thigh fat thickness were assessed via ultrasound imaging, and strength was measured via isometric contraction. Stiffness was assessed via the damped oscillatory technique. Following normalization to anthropometric factors, only strength (r=0.535) and posterior thigh fat thickness (Spearman ρ=-0.305) were correlated with stiffness. Normalized tendon stiffness (0.06 vs. 0.10N/m·kg(-1)) and strength (7.1 vs. 10.0N·kg(-1)) were greater in males, while posterior thigh fat thickness (10.4 vs. 5.0mm) was greater in females. Greater posterior thigh fat thickness may influence stiffness by contributing to greater intramuscular fat and shank segment mass, and lesser muscle per unit mass in the thigh segment. These findings suggest that training designed to increase hamstring strength and decrease fat mass may be beneficial for anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention. © 2013.

  18. Injury risk factors for runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Rodal Abal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine those risk factors that may cause running injuries in general, and particularly damage to the muscle mass, and the tendon. Twenty six male and female Galician runners were evaluated about their lower limb flexibility and length, knee Q angle, explosive power and training features such as kilometers and sessions per week, level of competition, shoes, surface, injuries last year, use of insoles, athletic specially, age, weight and height. During next 12 weeks runners continued training as they had been doing regularly and we recorded all injuries that appeared in this period. After that and from the liner regression we obtained different models that explained the variability of general injuries, tendon injuries and damages to the muscle mass. We also find positive correlations between previous injuries and training volume, and these with the dependent variable «injuries in 12 weeks». In regard to tendinopathy and muscle mass injuries, we observed that the synthetic material present in the track is a risk factor for these muscle injuries. Meanwhile, the increasing age and the Q angle, increments the occurrence of tendon injuries.

  19. Predicting Mild Traumatic Brain Injury with Injury Risk Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Tyler

    2013-01-01

    To assess the safety of various products, equipment, and vehicles during traumatic events injury risk curves have been developed correlate measurable parameters with risk of injury. The first risk curves to predict head injuries focused on severe head injuries such as skull fractures. These curves were generated by impacting cadaver heads. To understand the biomechanics of mild traumatic brain injuries, cadaver heads have also been used to monitor pressure and strain in the brain during impac...

  20. Evaluating injury risk in first and second league professional Portuguese soccer: muscular strength and asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho Alberto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Strength imbalances between the hamstrings and quadriceps are an essential predictor for hamstring strain in soccer. The study aimed to investigate and compare the muscle strength imbalances of professional soccer players of different performance levels. One hundred and fifty nine senior male professional soccer players from first (n = 75 and second league (n = 84 Portuguese clubs participated in this study. Muscle strength was evaluated with a REV9000 isokinetic dynamometer. Maximal peak torque data were used to calculate quadriceps and hamstrings strength during concentric and eccentric actions, bilateral asymmetry, conventional strength ratios and dynamic control ratios. Second league athletes produced slightly lower conventional strength ratios in the right and left legs (ES = 0.22, p = 0.17 and ES = 0.36, p = 0.023, respectively compared to the first league athletes. No significant differences were found in dynamic control ratios or in bilateral asymmetry among first and second league athletes. These findings do not show a clear link between the competitive level and injury risk in soccer players. However, some of the differences found, particularly in conventional strength ratios, highlight the importance of performing off-season and pre-season strength assessments to prescribe and adjust individual strength training programs among professional soccer players.

  1. Injury profile and injury risk factors in junior tennis players

    OpenAIRE

    Hjelm, Nina

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to prospectively study injuries sustained by a cohort of junior players at all levels in a typical tennis club with respect to gender, anatomic location of injuries, type of injuries, and their degree of severity as well as cause of injuries, injury occasion and time of the year when injured. A further aim was to evaluate potential intrinsic as well as extrinsic injury risk factors in the same junior tennis players. All 12-18 year...

  2. MRI does not add value over and above patient history and clinical examination in predicting time to return to sport after acute hamstring injuries: a prospective cohort of 180 male athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangensteen, Arnlaug; Almusa, Emad; Boukarroum, Sirine; Farooq, Abdulaziz; Hamilton, Bruce; Whiteley, Rodney; Bahr, Roald; Tol, Johannes L

    2015-12-01

    MRI is frequently used in addition to clinical evaluation for predicting time to return to sport (RTS) after acute hamstring injury. However, the additional value of MRI to patient history taking and clinical examination remains unknown and is debated. To prospectively investigate the predictive value of patient history and clinical examination at baseline alone and the additional predictive value of MRI findings for time to RTS using multivariate analysis while controlling for treatment confounders. Male athletes (N=180) with acute onset posterior thigh pain underwent standardised patient history, clinical and MRI examinations within 5 days, and time to RTS was registered. A general linear model was constructed to assess the associations between RTS and the potential baseline predictors. A manual backward stepwise technique was used to keep treatment variables fixed. In the first multiple regression model including only patient history and clinical examination, maximum pain score (visual analogue scale, VAS), forced to stop within 5 min, length of hamstring tenderness and painful resisted knee flexion (90°), showed independent associations with RTS and the final model explained 29% of the total variance in time to RTS. By adding MRI variables in the second multiple regression model, maximum pain score (VAS), forced to stop within 5 min, length of hamstring tenderness and overall radiological grading, showed independent associations and the adjusted R(2) increased from 0.290 to 0.318. Thus, additional MRI explained 2.8% of the variance in RTS. There was a wide variation in time to RTS and the additional predictive value of MRI was negligible compared with baseline patient history taking and clinical examinations alone. Thus, clinicians cannot provide an accurate time to RTS just after an acute hamstring injury. This study provides no rationale for routine MRI after acute hamstring injury. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01812564. Published by the BMJ Publishing

  3. TEMPORAL PATTERN OF KINESIOLOGY TAPE EFFICACY ON HAMSTRING EXTENSIBILITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquharson, Claire; Greig, Matt

    2015-12-01

    Kinesiology tape has been advocated as a means of improving muscle flexibility, a potential modifiable risk factor for injury, over time. The epidemiology and etiology of hamstring injuries in sport have been well documented. To compare the temporal pattern of efficacy of kinesiology tape and traditional stretching techniques on hamstring extensibility over a five day period. Controlled laboratory study. Thirty recreationally active male participants (Mean ± SD: age 20.0 ± 1.55 years; height 179.3 ± 4.94 cm; mass 76.9 ± 7.57 kg) completed an active knee extension assessment (of the dominant leg) as a measure of hamstring extensibility. Three experimental interventions were applied in randomized order: Kinesiology tape (KT), static stretch (SS), proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF). Measures were taken at baseline, +1min, + 30mins, + 3days and +5days days after each intervention. The temporal pattern of change in active knee extension was modelled as a range of regression polynomials for each intervention, quantified as the regression coefficient. Hamstring ROM with KT application at +3days was significantly greater than baseline (129.18 ± 15.46%, p = 0.01), SS (106.99 ± 9.84%, p = 0.03) and PNF (107.42 ± 136.13%, p = 0.03) interventions. The temporal pattern of changes in ROM for SS and PNF were best modelled by a negative linear function, although the strength of the correlation was weak in each case. In contrast, the KT data was optimised using a quadratic polynomial function (r(2) = 0.60), which yielded an optimum time of 2.76 days, eliciting a predicted ROM of 129.6% relative to baseline. Each intervention displayed a unique temporal pattern of changes in active knee extension. SS was best suited to immediate improvements, and PNF to +30 minutes in hamstring extensibility, whereas kinesiology tape offered advantages over a longer duration, peaking at 2.76 days. These findings have implications for the

  4. Active living and injury risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkkari, J; Kannus, P; Natri, A; Lapinleimu, I; Palvanen, M; Heiskanen, M; Vuori, I; Järvinen, M

    2004-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to get reliable insight into injury risk in various commuting and lifestyle activities, as well as recreational and competitive sports. A cohort of 3 657 persons was randomly selected from the 15- to 74-year-old Finnish population. Ninety-two percent (n = 3 363) of the subjects accepted to participate the one-year follow-up, record all their physical activities that lasted 15 min or more, and register all acute and overuse injuries that occurred during these activities. To collect the information, the study subjects were interviewed by phone by the trained personnel of the Statistics Finland three times in four-month intervals. The individual injury risk per exposure time was relatively low, ranging from 0.19 to 1.5 per 1 000 hours of participation, in commuting and lifestyle activities including walking and cycling to work, gardening, home repair, hunting and fishing, and, in sports such as golf, dancing, swimming, walking, and rowing. The risk was clearly higher in squash, orienteering, and contact and team sports, such as judo, wrestling, karate, rinkball, floorball, basketball, soccer, ice hockey, volleyball, and Finnish baseball ranging from 6.6 to 18.3 per 1 000 hours of participation. However, the highest absolute number of injuries occurred in low-risk activities, such as gardening, walking, home-repair, and cycling, because they are performed so often. In conclusion, individual injury risk per exposure hours is relatively low in commuting and lifestyle activities compared to many recreational and competitive sports. However, at a population level, these low-to-moderate intensity activities are widely practised producing a rather high absolute number of injuries, and thus, preventive efforts are needed in these activities, too.

  5. Anatomy, physiology and biomechanics of hamstrings injury in football and effective strength and flexibility exercises for its prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan, Zorić

    2012-01-01

    The muscles of the back of the thigh with its particular role in movement of athletes and people in general and, therefore, the position of the musculoskeletal system require specific attention in the athlete's training planned procession. As a group of muscles, which has an impact on two joint systems performs multiple missions, it is susceptible to various injuries. They act on the hip joints and knees, which are very important in basic movements of football players. Stabilizing role during...

  6. Immediate Effects of Neurodynamic Sliding versus Muscle Stretching on Hamstring Flexibility in Subjects with Short Hamstring Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Castellote-Caballero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hamstring injuries continue to affect active individuals and although inadequate muscle extensibility remains a commonly accepted factor, little is known about the most effective method to improve flexibility. Purpose. To determine if an isolated neurodynamic sciatic sliding technique would improve hamstring flexibility to a greater degree than stretching or a placebo intervention in asymptomatic subjects with short hamstring syndrome (SHS. Study Design. Randomized double-blinded controlled trial. Methods. One hundred and twenty subjects with SHS were randomized to 1 of 3 groups: neurodynamic sliding, hamstring stretching, and placebo control. Each subject’s dominant leg was measured for straight leg raise (SLR range of motion (ROM before and after interventions. Data were analyzed with a 3×2 mixed model ANOVA followed by simple main effects analyses. Results. At the end of the study, more ROM was observed in the Neurodynamic and Stretching groups compared to the Control group and more ROM in the Neurodynamic group compared to Stretching group. Conclusion. Findings suggest that a neurodynamic sliding technique will increase hamstring flexibility to a greater degree than static hamstring stretching in healthy subjects with SHS. Clinical Relevance. The use of neurodynamic sliding techniques to improve hamstring flexibility in sports may lead to a decreased incidence in injuries; however, this needs to be formally tested.

  7. Immediate Effects of Neurodynamic Sliding versus Muscle Stretching on Hamstring Flexibility in Subjects with Short Hamstring Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellote-Caballero, Yolanda; Valenza, Maríe C; Puentedura, Emilio J; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Alburquerque-Sendín, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Background. Hamstring injuries continue to affect active individuals and although inadequate muscle extensibility remains a commonly accepted factor, little is known about the most effective method to improve flexibility. Purpose. To determine if an isolated neurodynamic sciatic sliding technique would improve hamstring flexibility to a greater degree than stretching or a placebo intervention in asymptomatic subjects with short hamstring syndrome (SHS). Study Design. Randomized double-blinded controlled trial. Methods. One hundred and twenty subjects with SHS were randomized to 1 of 3 groups: neurodynamic sliding, hamstring stretching, and placebo control. Each subject's dominant leg was measured for straight leg raise (SLR) range of motion (ROM) before and after interventions. Data were analyzed with a 3 × 2 mixed model ANOVA followed by simple main effects analyses. Results. At the end of the study, more ROM was observed in the Neurodynamic and Stretching groups compared to the Control group and more ROM in the Neurodynamic group compared to Stretching group. Conclusion. Findings suggest that a neurodynamic sliding technique will increase hamstring flexibility to a greater degree than static hamstring stretching in healthy subjects with SHS. Clinical Relevance. The use of neurodynamic sliding techniques to improve hamstring flexibility in sports may lead to a decreased incidence in injuries; however, this needs to be formally tested.

  8. Hamstring Tendon Regeneration After Harvesting: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suijkerbuijk, Mathijs A M; Reijman, Max; Lodewijks, Susanne J M; Punt, Jorien; Meuffels, Duncan E

    2015-10-01

    Hamstring tendons are often used as autografts for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. However, no systematic review has been performed describing consequences such as hamstring tendon regeneration rate and determinants of hamstring tendon regeneration. To summarize the current literature regarding hamstring tendon rate regeneration, the time course of regeneration, and determinants of hamstring regeneration. Systematic review. A search was performed in the Embase, Medline (OvidSP), Web of Science, Cochrane, PubMed, and Google Scholar databases up to June 2014 to identify relevant articles. A study was eligible if it met the following inclusion criteria: tendons were harvested, regeneration at harvest site was assessed, population size was at least 10 human subjects, full-text article was available, and the study design was either a randomized controlled trial, prospective cohort study, retrospective cohort study, or case control study. A risk of bias assessment of the eligible articles was determined. Data describing hamstring tendon regeneration rates were pooled per time period. A total of 18 publications met the inclusion criteria. The mean regeneration rate for the semitendinosus and gracilis tendons was, in all cases, 70% or higher. More than 1 year after harvesting, 79% (median [IQR], 80 [75.5-90]) of the semitendinosus tendons and 72% (median [IQR], 80 [61-88.5]) of the gracilis tendons were regenerated. No significant differences in regeneration rate could be found considering patient sex, age, height, weight, or duration of immobilization. Results did not clearly show whether absence of regeneration disadvantages the subsequent hamstring function. Five studies measured the regeneration rate at different moments in time. Hamstring tendons regenerated in the majority of patients after ACL reconstruction. The majority of the hamstring tendon regeneration was found to occur between 1 month and 1 year after harvest. No significant determinants for

  9. Screening the lumbopelvic muscles for a relationship to injury of the quadriceps, hamstrings, and adductor muscles among elite Australian Football League players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hides, Julie A; Brown, Cassandra T; Penfold, Lachlan; Stanton, Warren R

    2011-10-01

    Longitudinal observational study. To examine the relationship between severity of preseason hip, groin, and thigh (HGT) muscle injuries, and lumbopelvic muscle size, asymmetry, and function at the start and end of the preseason. In Australian Rules Football, HGT muscle injuries have the highest prevalence and incidence. Deficits within the lumbopelvic region, such as impaired muscle function and muscle asymmetry, could contribute to injuries in the preseason, and injury could, in turn, affect muscle size and function. MRI examinations were performed on 47 male elite Australian Rules Football players at the start and at the end of the football preseason. The cross-sectional area (CSA) of multifidus, psoas major, and quadratus lumborum muscles was measured, as well as change in trunk CSA due to the function of voluntarily contracting the transversus abdominis muscle. Injuries occurring during each preseason training session were routinely recorded by the club's performance staff. Analysis of variance indicated that players with more severe preseason HGT injuries (more training sessions missed) had significantly smaller multifidus muscle CSA compared to players with no HGT injury (P = .006). No relationship was found for size or asymmetry of the quadratus lumborum or psoas major muscles, or ability to contract the transversus abdominis muscle through drawing in of the abdominal wall (P>.05). Small multifidus muscle size at L5 predicted 5 of 6 players who incurred a more severe HGT injury. An association between multifidus muscle size (relative to age, height, and weight) and preseason injury suggests a way to identify players at risk of severe HGT injuries. This result needs to be replicated in a larger sample before resources are committed to intervention efforts.

  10. Angle-specific hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio: a comparison of football players and recreationally active males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelidis, Pavlos Eleftherios; Pain, Matthew Thomas Gerard; Folland, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    It is currently unclear how football participation affects knee-joint muscle balance, which is widely considered a risk factor for hamstrings injury. This study compared the angle-specific functional hamstring-to-quadriceps (H:Q) ratio (hamstrings eccentric torque as a ratio of quadriceps concentric torque at the same knee-joint angle) of football players with recreationally active controls. Ten male footballers and 14 controls performed maximal voluntary isometric and isovelocity concentric and eccentric contractions (60, 240 and 400° s(-1)) of the knee extensors and flexors. Gaussian fitting to the raw torque values was used to interpolate torque values for knee-joint angles of 100-160° (60° s(-1)), 105-160° (240° s(-1)) and 115-145° (400° s(-1)). The angle-specific functional H:Q ratio was calculated from the knee flexors eccentric and knee extensors concentric torque at the same velocity and angle. No differences were found for the angle-specific functional H:Q ratio between groups, at any velocity. Quadriceps and hamstrings strength relative to body mass of footballers and controls was similar for all velocities, except concentric knee flexor strength at 400° s(-1) (footballers +40%; P < 0.01). In previously uninjured football players, there was no intrinsic muscle imbalance and therefore the high rate of hamstring injuries seen in this sport may be due to other risk factors and/or simply regular exposure to a high-risk activity.

  11. Artificial neural networks in knee injury risk evaluation among professional football players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyna, Michałowska; Tomasz, Walczak; Krzysztof, Grabski Jakub; Monika, Grygorowicz

    2018-01-01

    Lower limb injury risk assessment was proposed, based on isokinetic examination that is a part of standard athlete's biomechanical evaluation performed mainly twice a year. Information about non-contact knee injury (or lack of the injury) sustained within twelve months after isokinetic test, confirmed in USG were verified. Three the most common types of football injuries were taken into consideration: anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture, hamstring and quadriceps muscles injuries. 22 parameters, obtained from isokinetic tests were divided into 4 groups and used as input parameters of five feedforward artificial neural networks (ANNs). The 5th group consisted of all considered parameters. The networks were trained with the use of Levenberg-Marquardt backpropagation algorithm to return value close to 1 for the sets of parameters corresponding injury event and close to 0 for parameters with no injury recorded within 6 - 12 months after isokinetic test. Results of this study shows that ANN might be useful tools, which simplify process of simultaneous interpretation of many numerical parameters, but the most important factor that significantly influence the results is database used for ANN training.

  12. Influence of hip-flexion angle on hamstrings isokinetic activity in sprinters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guex, Kenny; Gojanovic, Boris; Millet, Grégoire P

    2012-01-01

    Hamstrings strains are common and debilitating injuries in many sports. Most hamstrings exercises are performed at an inadequately low hip-flexion angle because this angle surpasses 70° at the end of the sprinting leg's swing phase, when most injuries occur. To evaluate the influence of various hip-flexion angles on peak torques of knee flexors in isometric, concentric, and eccentric contractions and on the hamstrings-to-quadriceps ratio. Descriptive laboratory study. Research laboratory. Ten national-level sprinters (5 men, 5 women; age = 21.2 ± 3.6 years, height = 175 ± 6 cm, mass = 63.8 ± 9.9 kg). For each hip position (0°, 30°, 60°, and 90° of flexion), participants used the right leg to perform (1) 5 seconds of maximal isometric hamstrings contraction at 45° of knee flexion, (2) 5 maximal concentric knee flexion-extensions at 60° per second, (3) 5 maximal eccentric knee flexion-extensions at 60° per second, and (4) 5 maximal eccentric knee flexionextensions at 150° per second. Hamstrings and quadriceps peak torque, hamstrings-to-quadriceps ratio, lateral and medial hamstrings root mean square. We found no difference in quadriceps peak torque for any condition across all hip-flexion angles, whereas hamstrings peak torque was lower at 0° of hip flexion than at any other angle (P .05). Hip-flexion angle influenced hamstrings peak torque in all muscular contraction types; as hip flexion increased, hamstrings peak torque increased. Researchers should investigate further whether an eccentric resistance training program at sprint-specific hip-flexion angles (70° to 80°) could help prevent hamstrings injuries in sprinters. Moreover, hamstrings-to-quadriceps ratio assessment should be standardized at 80° of hip flexion.

  13. Rapid hamstring/quadriceps force capacity in male vs. female elite soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebis, Mette K; Andersen, Lars L; Ellingsgaard, Helga; Aagaard, Per

    2011-07-01

    Knee joint injuries are a serious issue in soccer. The ability to protect the knee from injury depends largely on the strength of the hamstring relatively to the quadriceps, that is, a low hamstring/quadriceps (H/Q) strength ratio is suggested as a risk factor. Although maximal muscle strength (MVC) has often been used to evaluate the H/Q ratio, the ability to rapidly develop force (rate of force development [RFD]) is more relevant in relation to fast dynamic movements. The aim of this study was to introduce and investigate a rapid RFD H/Q strength ratio compared with the traditional MVC H/Q strength ratio in elite soccer players. Twenty-three elite soccer players (11 women, 12 men) performed maximal voluntary static contraction for the hamstring and quadriceps in an isokinetic dynamometer, from which the maximal muscles strength (MVC) and RFD were extracted. Test-retest reliability for the RFD H/Q ratio was high (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.664-0.933). The initial contraction phase up to 50 milliseconds from the onset of contraction showed a low RFD H/Q ratio compared to the MVC H/Q ratio (p MVC H/Q ratio, compared with the group mean-sustained ACL rupture at a later occasion. The high reliability of the new RFD H/Q strength ratio indicates that the method is a relevant tool in standardized clinical evaluation of the knee joint agonist-antagonist relationship.

  14. Injury risk management plan for volleyball athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Lachlan P; Kelly, Vincent G; Beckman, Emma M

    2014-09-01

    Volleyball is an increasingly popular team sport. As with any competitive sport, there is an inherent risk of injury that must be recognized and collaboratively managed. This article provides a practical approach to the management of volleyball injuries within a team or organization. A brief review of the epidemiological data is presented which establishes (i) ankle sprain, (ii) shoulder overuse injury, (iii) patella tendinopathy, and (iv) anterior cruciate ligament injury as the primary injuries to address amongst these athletes. The interaction of modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors for these injuries are used to classify athletes into high-, medium- and low-risk groups. Targeted training interventions are suggested, based upon the risk level of the athlete, to minimize the occurrence of these injuries. Practical methods for integrating these activities into a training plan are also discussed.

  15. Alcohol intake and risk of injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremonte, Mariana; Cherpitel, Cheryl J

    2014-01-01

    Injuries constitute a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the world, with intentional injuries and those related to traffic most important, due to their social impact and high prevalence. Although alcohol consumption has been identified as a risk factor for injuries, few studies have assessed risk separately for intentional injuries and unintentional injuries caused by traffic, and by other causes. The objective of this paper was to estimate the risk of injuries after acute alcohol consumption for intentional injuries and unintentional traffic and non-traffic injuries, using, alternatively, two exposure measures: self-reported drinking prior to the event and blood alcohol concentration. A probability sample was collected of 540 patients from the emergency department of a hospital in Argentina. Logistic regressions were performed, with and without adjusting for gender, age and drinking pattern. Higher risks were found when blood alcohol concentration was used as a measure of consumption, compared to self-report. The highest risk estimates were obtained for intentional injuries, followed by unintentional traffic and, lastly, by unintentional non-traffic injuries. After controlling for confounders, risks for intentional and unintentional traffic injuries appeared similar for those above and below the legal limit. Results point to a significant involvement of alcohol in the regional context.

  16. Alcohol intake and risk of injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Cremonte

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Injuries constitute a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the world, with intentional injuries and those related to traffic most important, due to their social impact and high prevalence. Although alcohol consumption has been identified as a risk factor for injuries, few studies have assessed risk separately for intentional injuries and unintentional injuries caused by traffic, and by other causes. The objective of this paper was to estimate the risk of injuries after acute alcohol consumption for intentional injuries and unintentional traffic and non-traffic injuries, using, alternatively, two exposure measures: self-reported drinking prior to the event and blood alcohol concentration. A probability sample was collected of 540 patients from the emergency department of a hospital in Argentina. Logistic regressions were performed, with and without adjusting for gender, age and drinking pattern. Higher risks were found when blood alcohol concentration was used as a measure of consumption, compared to self-report. The highest risk estimates were obtained for intentional injuries, followed by unintentional traffic and, lastly, by unintentional non-traffic injuries. After controlling for confounders, risks for intentional and unintentional traffic injuries appeared similar for those above and below the legal limit. Results point to a significant involvement of alcohol in the regional context.

  17. Transient risk factors of acute occupational injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerlund, Anna H; Lander, Flemming; Nielsen, Kent

    2017-01-01

    occupational injuries seen in 2013 at two emergency departments in Denmark. Effect estimates were calculated using the matched-pair interval approach. Results Increased risk for an occupational injury was found for time pressure [odds ratio (OR) 1.6, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.3-2.0], feeling sick (OR......Objectives The objectives of this study were to (i) identify transient risk factors of occupational injuries and (ii) determine if the risk varies with age, injury severity, job task, and industry risk level. Method A case-crossover design was used to examine the effect of seven specific transient...... risk factors (time pressure, disagreement with someone, feeling sick, being distracted by someone, non-routine task, altered surroundings, and broken machinery and materials) for occupational injuries. In the study, 1693 patients with occupational injuries were recruited from a total of 4002...

  18. The Effects of Cupping on Hamstring Flexibility in Collegiate Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jeffrey G; Gard, Hannah I; Gregory, Jeana M; Gibson, Amy; Austin, Jennifer

    2018-01-24

    Collegiate soccer players suffer hamstring injuries due to inflexibility and repetitive motions involving intense hamstring lengthening and contraction during sport. Although a popular intervention for muscular injury, there exists limited evidence of the effects of therapeutic cupping on hamstring flexibility. To determine the effect of cupping therapy on hamstring flexibility in collegiate soccer players. Cohort design. Athletic training clinic. Twenty-five, asymptomatic, NCAA Division III soccer players (10 males, 15 females) (age = 19.4 ± 1.30 years, height = 175.1 ± 8.2 cm, mass = 69.5 ± 6.6 kg). A 7-minute therapeutic cupping treatment was delivered to the treatment group. Four 2-inch cups were fixed atop trigger point locations within the hamstring muscle bellies of participants' dominant legs. Control group participants received no intervention between pre- and post-test measurements. Pretest and posttest measurements of hamstring flexibility, using a Passive Straight Leg Raise (PSLR), were performed on both groups. PSLR measurements were conducted by blinded examiners using a digital inclinometer. An independent samples t-test was used to analyze changes in hamstring flexibility from pre- to post-treatment with p-values set a priori at 0.05. An independent samples t-test demonstrated no significant difference in change in hamstring flexibility between participants in the treatment group and those in the control group (t23 = -.961, p = .35). The findings of this study demonstrated no statistically significant changes in hamstring flexibility following a cupping treatment.

  19. Surveillance of injuries among Kenya Rugby Union (KRU) players ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and backs are anterior cruciate ligament and hamstring injury respectively (6). This paper explores the injury experience and the asso- ciated risk profile during the Kenya 2010 15-side rugby season. Methodology. The prospective whole population cohort study of 364 players was conducted in the 2010 15-aside season. It.

  20. Sprint and jump performance in elite male soccer players following a 10-week Nordic Hamstring exercise Protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krommes, K; Petersen, J; Nielsen, M B

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The preseason Nordic Hamstring Protocol (NHP) reduces hamstring strain injuries in football players. Despite persisting injury rates, elite clubs are reluctant to apply the NHP often over concerns of negative impacts on performance. This pilot study investigated if sprint or jump...

  1. Risk Factors for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Helen C.; Vacek, Pamela; Johnson, Robert J.; Slauterbeck, James R.; Hashemi, Javad; Shultz, Sandra; Beynnon, Bruce D.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) of the knee are immediately debilitating and can cause long-term consequences, including the early onset of osteoarthritis. It is important to have a comprehensive understanding of all possible risk factors for ACL injury to identify individuals who are at risk for future injuries and to provide an appropriate level of counseling and programs for prevention. Objective: This review, part 1 of a 2-part series, highlights what is known an...

  2. Risk Factors for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Helen C.; Vacek, Pamela; Johnson, Robert J.; Slauterbeck, James R.; Hashemi, Javad; Shultz, Sandra; Beynnon, Bruce D.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) are immediately disabling and are associated with long-term consequences, such as posttraumatic osteoarthritis. It is important to have a comprehensive understanding of all possible risk factors for ACL injury to identify individuals who are at risk for future injuries and to provide an appropriate level of counseling and programs for prevention. Objective: This review, part 2 of a 2-part series, highlights what is known and still unkn...

  3. Brain injury risk from primary blast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafaels, Karin A; Bass, Cameron R Dale; Panzer, Matthew B; Salzar, Robert S; Woods, William A; Feldman, Sanford H; Walilko, Tim; Kent, Richard W; Capehart, Bruce P; Foster, Jonathan B; Derkunt, Burcu; Toman, Amanda

    2012-10-01

    Military service members are often exposed to at least one explosive event, and many blast-exposed veterans present with symptoms of traumatic brain injury. However, there is little information on the intensity and duration of blast necessary to cause brain injury. Varying intensity shock tube blasts were focused on the head of anesthetized ferrets, whose thorax and abdomen were protected. Injury evaluations included physiologic consequences, gross necropsy, and histologic diagnosis. The resulting apnea, meningeal bleeding, and fatality were analyzed using logistic regressions to determine injury risk functions. Increasing severity of blast exposure demonstrated increasing apnea immediately after the blast. Gross necropsy revealed hemorrhages, frequently near the brain stem, at the highest blast intensities. Apnea, bleeding, and fatality risk functions from blast exposure to the head were determined for peak overpressure and positive-phase duration. The 50% risk of apnea and moderate hemorrhage were similar, whereas the 50% risk of mild hemorrhage was independent of duration and required lower overpressures (144 kPa). Another fatality risk function was determined with existing data for scaled positive-phase durations from 1 millisecond to 20 milliseconds. The first primary blast brain injury risk assessments for mild and moderate/severe injuries in a gyrencephalic animal model were determined. The blast level needed to cause a mild/moderate brain injury may be similar to or less than that needed for pulmonary injury. The risk functions can be used in future research for blast brain injury by providing realistic injury risks to guide the design of protection or evaluate injury.

  4. Effect of fatigue on hamstring reflex responses and posterior-anterior tibial translation in men and women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Behrens

    Full Text Available Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL rupture ranks among the most common injuries in sports. The incidence of ACL injuries is considerably higher in females than in males and the underlying mechanisms are still under debate. Furthermore, it has been suggested that muscle fatigue can be a risk factor for ACL injuries. We investigated gender differences in hamstring reflex responses and posterior-anterior tibial translation (TT before and after fatiguing exercise. We assessed the isolated movement of the tibia relative to the femur in the sagittal plane as a consequence of mechanically induced TT in standing subjects. The muscle activity of the hamstrings was evaluated. Furthermore, isometric maximum voluntary torque (iMVT and rate of torque development (RTD of the hamstrings (H and quadriceps (Q were measured and the MVT H/Q as well as the RTD H/Q ratios were calculated. After fatigue, reflex onset latencies were enhanced in women. A reduction of reflex responses associated with an increased TT was observed in females. Men showed no differences in these parameters. Correlation analysis revealed no significant associations between parameters for TT and MVT H/Q as well as RTD H/Q. The results of the present study revealed that the fatigue protocol used in this study altered the latency and magnitude of reflex responses of the hamstrings as well as TT in women. These changes were not found in men. Based on our results, it is conceivable that the fatigue-induced decrease in neuromuscular function with a corresponding increase in TT probably contributes to the higher incidence of ACL injuries in women.

  5. [Injuries and injury risk in skiing and snowboarding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschauer, E; Ritter, E; Resch, H; Thoeni, H; Spatzenegger, H

    2007-04-01

    An extensive gathering of data should contribute to evaluate the risk and to reduce prejudices. Within 6 weeks 57 different criteria according to accident, person and circumstances from 3,512 skiers and snowboarders were gathered and collected in a database. For analysis additional data about frequency of transportation and weather and piste conditions were available. Injury risk for piste sports is 0.7%. The risk is especially influenced by bad weather conditions. Young people represent a risk group. The carving technique has led to a reduction of injury risk, but caused a shift of the injury pattern. Protectors reduce the risk up to 50%. Skiing and snowboarding are among the safest sports because of improved material and pistes. The new injury pattern with the carving technique is due to higher speeds in curves resulting in higher centrifugal forces; 18% of skiing accidents are collisions and 14% of all skiers do not know the FIS rules of conduct. There was no increase in injury risk at the pistes in recent years. The use of protectors has a positive effect and should be supported in the future too.

  6. Medial and lateral hamstrings and quadriceps co-activation affects knee joint kinematics and ACL elongation: a pilot study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Serpell, Benjamin G; Scarvell, Jennie M; Pickering, Mark R; Ball, Nick B; Newman, Phillip; Perriman, Diana; Warmenhoven, John; Smith, Paul N

    2015-01-01

    Many injury prevention and rehabilitation programs aim to train hamstring and quadriceps co-activation to constrain excessive anterior tibial translation and protect the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) from injury...

  7. Can application of a pelvic belt change injured hamstring muscle activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumugam, Ashokan; Milosavljevic, Stephan; Woodley, Stephanie; Sole, Gisela

    2012-02-01

    Hamstring injuries are commonly reported in various sports involving sprinting, high-velocity running and kicking. Aberrant biomechanics and neuromotor control of the lumbopelvic and thigh segments have been reported to play a significant role in hamstring injury incidence and recurrence. Recent evidence suggests that external pelvic compression (EPC) applied with a pelvic belt can augment the stability of the pelvic joints, and alter neuromotor control of the lumbopelvic and thigh muscles in individuals with and without (somatic) lumbopelvic and groin dysfunction. However, the effects of EPC on neuromotor control of injured hamstring muscles remain unknown. We have explored the putative neuromotor link between the lumbopelvic segment and hamstring muscles, and generated hypotheses based on plausible mechanisms through which EPC could affect injured hamstring muscle strength and recruitment. Recent guidelines argue that rehabilitation of hamstring injuries should follow a multi-modal approach and include strategies to improve stability and neuromotor control of the lumbopelvic segment. Further investigations exploring these hypotheses would confirm whether EPC could be recommended as an assessment, intervention and rehabilitation tool for hamstring injury. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. inflammatory drugs fail to enhance healing of acute hamstring

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of two non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. (NSAIDs), meclofenamate and diclofenac, in combination with physiotherapy modalities on the rate of healing of acute hamstring muscle tears were studied in a double- blind, placebo-controlled trial. Forty-four of the 75 patients with this injury recruited were assessed ...

  9. Different roles of the medial and lateral hamstrings in unloading the anterior cruciate ligament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guelich, David R; Xu, Dali; Koh, Jason L; Nuber, Gordon W; Zhang, Li-Qun

    2016-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament injuries are closely associated with excessive loading and motion about the off axes of the knee, i.e. tibial rotation and knee varus/valgus. However, it is not clear about the 3-D mechanical actions of the lateral and medial hamstring muscles and their differences in loading the ACL. The purpose of this study was to investigate the change in anterior cruciate ligament strain induced by loading the lateral and medial hamstrings individually. Seven cadaveric knees were investigated using a custom testing apparatus allowing for six degree-of-freedom tibiofemoral motion induced by individual muscle loading. With major muscles crossing the knee loaded moderately, the medial and lateral hamstrings were loaded independently to 200N along their lines of actions at 0°, 30°, 60° and 90° of knee flexion. The induced strain of the anterior cruciate ligament was measured using a differential variable reluctance transducer. Tibiofemoral kinematics was monitored using a six degrees-of-freedom knee goniometer. Loading the lateral hamstrings induced significantly more anterior cruciate ligament strain reduction (mean 0.764 [SD 0.63] %) than loading the medial hamstrings (mean 0.007 [0.2] %), (P=0.001 and effect size=0.837) across the knee flexion angles. The lateral and medial hamstrings have significantly different effects on anterior cruciate ligament loadings. More effective rehabilitation and training strategies may be developed to strengthen the lateral and medial hamstrings selectively and differentially to reduce anterior cruciate ligament injury and improve post-injury rehabilitation. The lateral and medial hamstrings can potentially be strengthened selectively and differentially as a more focused rehabilitation approach to reduce ACL injury and improve post-injury rehabilitation. Different ACL reconstruction procedures with some of them involving the medial hamstrings can be compared to each other for their effect on ACL loading. Copyright

  10. The effect of warm-up, static stretching and dynamic stretching on hamstring flexibility in previously injured subjects.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, Kieran

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Warm-up and stretching are suggested to increase hamstring flexibility and reduce the risk of injury. This study examined the short-term effects of warm-up, static stretching and dynamic stretching on hamstring flexibility in individuals with previous hamstring injury and uninjured controls. METHODS: A randomised crossover study design, over 2 separate days. Hamstring flexibility was assessed using passive knee extension range of motion (PKE ROM). 18 previously injured individuals and 18 uninjured controls participated. On both days, four measurements of PKE ROM were recorded: (1) at baseline; (2) after warm-up; (3) after stretch (static or dynamic) and (4) after a 15-minute rest. Participants carried out both static and dynamic stretches, but on different days. Data were analysed using Anova. RESULTS: Across both groups, there was a significant main effect for time (p < 0.001). PKE ROM significantly increased with warm-up (p < 0.001). From warm-up, PKE ROM further increased with static stretching (p = 0.04) but significantly decreased after dynamic stretching (p = 0.013). The increased flexibility after warm-up and static stretching reduced significantly (p < 0.001) after 15 minutes of rest, but remained significantly greater than at baseline (p < 0.001). Between groups, there was no main effect for group (p = 0.462), with no difference in mean PKE ROM values at any individual stage of the protocol (p > 0.05). Using ANCOVA to adjust for the non-significant (p = 0.141) baseline difference between groups, the previously injured group demonstrated a greater response to warm-up and static stretching, however this was not statistically significant (p = 0.05). CONCLUSION: Warm-up significantly increased hamstring flexibility. Static stretching also increased hamstring flexibility, whereas dynamic did not, in agreement with previous findings on uninjured controls. The effect of warm-up and static stretching on flexibility was greater in those with reduced

  11. Effects of sports injury prevention training on the biomechanical risk factors of anterior cruciate ligament injury in high school female basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Bee-Oh; Lee, Yong Seuk; Kim, Jin Goo; An, Keun Ok; Yoo, Jin; Kwon, Young Hoo

    2009-09-01

    Female athletes have a higher risk of anterior cruciate ligament injury than their male counterparts who play at similar levels in sports involving pivoting and landing. The competitive female basketball players who participated in a sports injury prevention training program would show better muscle strength and flexibility and improved biomechanical properties associated with anterior cruciate ligament injury than during the pretraining period and than posttraining parameters in a control group. Controlled laboratory study. A total of 22 high school female basketball players were recruited and randomly divided into 2 groups (the experimental group and the control group, 11 participants each). The experimental group was instructed in the 6 parts of the sports injury prevention training program and performed it during the first 20 minutes of team practice for the next 8 weeks, while the control group performed their regular training program. Both groups were tested with a rebound-jump task before and after the 8-week period. A total of 21 reflective markers were placed in preassigned positions. In this controlled laboratory study, a 2-way analysis of variance (2 x 2) experimental design was used for the statistical analysis (P training effects on all strength parameters (P = .004 to .043) and on knee flexion, which reflects increased flexibility (P = .022). The experimental group showed higher knee flexion angles (P = .024), greater interknee distances (P = .004), lower hamstring-quadriceps ratios (P = .023), and lower maximum knee extension torques (P = .043) after training. In the control group, no statistical differences were observed between pretraining and posttraining findings (P = .084 to .873). At pretraining, no significant differences were observed between the 2 groups for any parameter (P = .067 to .784). However, a comparison of the 2 groups after training revealed that the experimental group had significantly higher knee flexion angles (P = .023

  12. Injury risk of nonpowder guns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laraque, Danielle

    2004-11-01

    Nonpowder guns (ball-bearing [BB] guns, pellet guns, air rifles, paintball guns) continue to cause serious injuries to children and adolescents. The muzzle velocity of these guns can range from approximately 150 ft/second to 1200 ft/second (the muzzle velocities of traditional firearm pistols are 750 ft/second to 1450 ft/second). Both low- and high-velocity nonpowder guns are associated with serious injuries, and fatalities can result from high-velocity guns. A persisting problem is the lack of medical recognition of the severity of injuries that can result from these guns, including penetration of the eye, skin, internal organs, and bone. Nationally, in 2000, there were an estimated 21840 (coefficient of variation: 0.0821) injuries related to nonpowder guns, with approximately 4% resulting in hospitalization. Between 1990 and 2000, the US Consumer Product Safety Commission reported 39 nonpowder gun-related deaths, of which 32 were children younger than 15 years. The introduction of high-powered air rifles in the 1970s has been associated with approximately 4 deaths per year. The advent of war games and the use of paintball guns have resulted in a number of reports of injuries, especially to the eye. Injuries associated with nonpowder guns should receive prompt medical management similar to the management of firearm-related injuries, and nonpowder guns should never be characterized as toys.

  13. Risk factors in iatrogenic spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalva-Iborra, A; Alcanyis-Alberola, M; Grao-Castellote, C; Torralba-Collados, F; Giner-Pascual, M

    2017-09-01

    In the last years, there has been a change in the aetiology of spinal cord injury. There has been an increase in the number of elderly patients with spinal cord injuries caused by diseases or medical procedures. The aim of this study is to investigate the frequency of the occurrence of iatrogenic spinal cord injury in our unit. The secondary aim is to study what variables can be associated with a higher risk of iatrogenesis. A retrospective, descriptive, observational study of patients with acute spinal cord injury admitted from June 2009 to May 2014 was conducted. The information collected included the patient age, aetiology, neurological level and grade of injury when admitted and when discharged, cardiovascular risk factors, a previous history of depression and any prior treatment with anticoagulant or antiplatelet drugs. We applied a logistic regression. The grade of statistical significance was established as Pinjury was the thoracic level (48%). The main aetiology of spinal cord injury caused by iatrogenesis was surgery for degenerative spine disease, in patients under the age of 30 were treated with intrathecal chemotherapy. Iatrogenic spinal cord injury is a frequent complication. A statistically significant association between a patient history of depression and iatrogenic spinal cord injury was found as well as with anticoagulant and antiplatelet drug use prior to iatrogenic spinal cord injury.

  14. Injury Risk in International Rugby Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Isabel S.; Ranson, Craig; Mathema, Prabhat

    2015-01-01

    Background: Within international Rugby Union, only injury rates during the Rugby World Cup have been reported. Therefore, injury rates and types during other international tournaments are unknown. Purpose: To assess the 3-year incidence, severity, nature, and causes of match and training injuries sustained during different international tournaments played by the Welsh national Rugby Union team. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: Injury data for all players (n = 78) selected for 1 national Rugby Union team over a 3-year period were analyzed using the international consensus statement methods. Player height (cm) and mass (kg) were recorded. Tournaments were grouped for comparisons as: autumn tournaments (2012 and 2013), Rugby World Cup (RWC; 2011), Six Nations (2012, 2013, and 2014), and summer tournaments (2012, 2013, and 2014). Injury incidence (injuries/1000 hours), prevalence (% of players unavailable), and severity (days lost) were calculated for each tournament. Injury location, type, and cause of match and training injuries were analyzed. Results: Match injury incidence was highest during autumn tournaments (262.5/1000 match-hours) and lowest during the RWC (178.6/1000 match-hours). Summer tournaments had the highest training incidence (5.5 injuries/1000 training-hours). Mild injuries were most likely during the RWC (risk ratio [RR], 2.02; 95% CI, 1.26-3.24), while severe injuries were most likely during autumn tournaments (RR, 3.27; 95% CI, 1.70-6.29). Quadriceps hematomas (18.8/1000 match-hours; 95% CI, 11.3-31.1) and concussions (13.8/1000 match-hours; 95% CI, 7.6-24.8) were the most common match injuries, with shoulder dislocations being the most severe (111 mean days lost per injury). Conclusion: Injury rates were considerably higher than those previously reported for multiple teams during RWC tournaments. Further investigation of injury rates and risk factors is recommended to accurately gauge their impact within international Rugby

  15. EFFECTIVENESS OF ECCENTRIC TRAINING, DYNAMIC RANGE OF MOTION EXERCISES AND STATIC STRETCHING ON FLEXIBILITY OF HAMSTRING MUSCLE AMONG FOOTBALL PLAYERS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Askar P.V

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hamstring stretch is an important part of treatment programs aimed at decreasing the likelihood of hamstring injury. Few studies have examine the effect of eccentric training, static stretching and dynamic range of motion(DROM exercise in improving hamstring flexibility this study compares the effect of eccentric training and static stretching in improving hamstring flexibility. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of Eccentric training, Static stretching and Dynamic range of motion (DROM exercise in improving hamstring flexibility and the second objective is find which technique is more effective in improving hamstring flexibility when compared with a control group. Study design is Experimental pre-test post-test design. Methods: 88 male subjects with limited hamstring flexibility were recruited for this study were assigned to four group. Group1 received eccentric training, group2 received dynamic range of motion exercise, group3 received static stretching and group4 was served as control group. Hamstring length was measured pre intervention and post intervention using a self-monitored active knee extension test. Results: Eccentric training, static stretching and dynamic range of motion exercise showed a significant increase in hamstring length between pre and post intervention. Following a between group analysis done by independent t test revealed a significant difference between group1 group2 and group3 Conclusion: It is concluded that eccentric training, dynamic range of motion (DROM exercise and static stretching groups improved hamstring flexibility.

  16. Hamstring-to-quadriceps fatigue ratio offers new and different muscle function information than the conventional non-fatigued ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, M D; Blazevich, A J; Andersen, L L; Mil-Homens, P; Pinto, R S

    2017-04-04

    Commonly used injury risk prediction tests such as the hamstring-to-quadriceps (H:Q) strength ratio appear to be poor predictors of non-contact injury. However, these tests are typically performed in a non-fatigued state, despite accumulated fatigue being an important risk factor for both hamstring strain (HS) and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in professional soccer players. After the effect of different H:Q calculation methods were compared and contrasted, the influence of neuromuscular fatigue on the H:Q strength ratio and the association between fatigued and non-fatigued ratio scores were examined. Thirty-five professional soccer players performed a 30-repetition isokinetic fatigue test protocol. Peak knee joint moments were computed for each repetition, and the H:Q conventional ratio (H:QCR ) was calculated using several different, previously published, methods. Knee extensor and flexor moments were statistically decreased by the sixth repetition and continued to decrease until the end of the protocol. However, the H:Q ratio was statistically decreased at the end of the test due to a significant reduction in knee flexor moment (correlation between change in knee flexor moment and change in H:Q, r≈.80; Pdifferent (rs =0.25, P=.15). The present data suggest that H:Q ratio measurement during a fatiguing test (H:QFatigue ) provides different outcomes to the traditional H:QCR . The observed significant hamstring fatigue and the difference, and weak correlation, between H:QCR and H:QFatigue indicate that useful information might be obtained with respect to the prediction of HS and ACL injury risk. The potential predictive value of H:QFatigue warrants validation in future prospective trials. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Epidemiology of Hamstring Strains in 25 NCAA Sports in the 2009-2010 to 2013-2014 Academic Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Sara L; Kerr, Zachary Y; Dompier, Thomas P

    2015-11-01

    The epidemiology of hamstring strains among student-athletes has been extensively researched. However, there is a paucity of recent data describing patterns of hamstring strains. To describe the epidemiology of hamstring strains in 25 National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) championship sports. Descriptive epidemiology study. Hamstring strains data were analyzed from the NCAA Injury Surveillance Program during the 2009-2010 to 2013-2014 academic years. Hamstring strain injury rates, rate ratios (RRs), and injury proportion ratios were reported with 95% CIs. During the study period, 1142 hamstring strains were reported, leading to an injury rate of 3.05 per 10,000 athlete-exposures (AEs). Most hamstring strains occurred during practices (68.2%). However, the competition rate (5.24 per 10,000 AEs) was larger than the practice rate (2.56 per 10,000 AEs; RR = 2.05; 95% CI, 1.81-2.32). A slight majority occurred during the regular season (52.9%). However, the preseason rate (5.00 per 10,000 AEs) was larger than the regular season/postseason rate (2.34 per 10,000 AEs; RR = 2.14; 95% CI, 1.90-2.40). Men's football, men's soccer, and women's soccer contributed the greatest proportion of hamstring strains (35.3%, 9.9%, and 8.3%, respectively). Most hamstring strains were due to noncontact (72.3%). Of all hamstring strains, 12.6% were recurrent, 37.7% resulted in a time loss of 3 weeks. Variations in hamstring strain patterns existed by sport. The hamstring strain rate was larger in men than in women in soccer (RR = 1.60; 95% CI, 1.22-2.11), baseball/softball (RR = 1.66; 95% CI, 1.07-2.59), and indoor track (RR = 1.88; 95% CI, 1.26-2.78). In addition, proportions of hamstring strains that were recurrent were higher among men in most sex-comparable sports, but this difference was not significant. Hamstring strain rates were higher in the preseason and in competition. Student-athletes should be acclimatized to the rigors of preseason participation. Meanwhile, further

  18. Effect of gender and maturity on quadriceps-to-hamstring strength ratio and anterior cruciate ligament laxity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Christopher S; Clark, A Martin; Heilmann, Niels; Schoeb, J Scott; Gardner, Thomas R; Levine, William N

    2006-03-01

    Exercise programs have been introduced to reduce the ACL injury risk in female athletes. The most effective age at which to start these programs is not known. Age and gender affect ligament laxity and quadriceps-to-hamstring strength ratio. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Fifty-three female and 70 male recreational soccer players, 10 to 18 years of age, were studied with physical examination, KT-1000 arthrometry, and manual maximum quadriceps and hamstring strength using a handheld dynamometer. The subjects were separated into 4 groups to examine maturity-related intergender differences: group G1, premenarchal girls (n = 24); group B1, boys 13 years and younger (n = 38); group G2, girls 2 or more years after menarche (n = 29); and group B2, boys 14 years and older (n = 32). Both knees of 123 soccer players were evaluated. The mean ages for groups G1, B1, G2, and B2 were 11.50 +/- 1.69, 10.63 +/- 1.85, 15.5 +/- 1.43, and 15.59 +/- 1.24 years, respectively, and the mean laxity measurements were 8.84 +/- 2.12, 8.51 +/- 1.61, 8.85 +/- 1.86, and 7.33 +/- 1.27 mm, respectively. Laxity was significantly less for the mature boys (P = .0015) than for the immature boys, mature girls, and immature girls. With increasing maturity, significant increases in both quadriceps and hamstring muscle strength were observed for both boys and girls (P ligament injury. Anterior cruciate ligament-prevention programs based on improving dynamic control of the knee by emphasizing hamstring strengthening should be instituted for girls after menarche.

  19. Effects of bicycle saddle height on knee injury risk and cycling performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, Rodrigo; Hume, Patria A; Croft, James L

    2011-06-01

    Incorrect bicycle configuration may predispose athletes to injury and reduce their cycling performance. There is disagreement within scientific and coaching communities regarding optimal configuration of bicycles for athletes. This review summarizes literature on methods for determining bicycle saddle height and the effects of bicycle saddle height on measures of cycling performance and lower limb injury risk. Peer-reviewed journals, books, theses and conference proceedings published since 1960 were searched using MEDLINE, Scopus, ISI Web of Knowledge, EBSCO and Google Scholar databases, resulting in 62 references being reviewed. Keywords searched included 'body positioning', 'saddle', 'posture, 'cycling' and 'injury'. The review revealed that methods for determining optimal saddle height are varied and not well established, and have been based on relationships between saddle height and lower limb length (Hamley and Thomas, trochanteric length, length from ischial tuberosity to floor, LeMond, heel methods) or a reference range of knee joint flexion. There is limited information on the effects of saddle height on lower limb injury risk (lower limb kinematics, knee joint forces and moments and muscle mechanics), but more information on the effects of saddle height on cycling performance (performance time, energy expenditure/oxygen uptake, power output, pedal force application). Increasing saddle height can cause increased shortening of the vastii muscle group, but no change in hamstring length. Length and velocity of contraction in the soleus seems to be more affected by saddle height than that in the gastrocnemius. The majority of evidence suggested that a 5% change in saddle height affected knee joint kinematics by 35% and moments by 16%. Patellofemoral compressive force seems to be inversely related to saddle height but the effects on tibiofemoral forces are uncertain. Changes of less than 4% in trochanteric length do not seem to affect injury risk or performance

  20. The Effect of Pilates Method in Scholar's Trunk Strength and Hamstring Flexibility: Gender Differences

    OpenAIRE

    Noelia González-Gálvez; María Carrasco Poyatos; Pablo Jorge Marcos Pardo; Yuri Feito

    2014-01-01

    Musculoskeletal injuries in school children could be reduced improving trunk strength and hamstring flexibility. Low levels of trunk muscle strength and hamstring flexibility may result in acute and musculoskeletal chronic diseases. The Pilates Method can be appropriate to improve these physical condition attributes and has been rarely employed by this social group. On the other hand, it has been shown that trunk strength and flexibility are different between genders, but...

  1. Active release technique in hamstrings strain: Rehabilitation and return to play – a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hariharasudhan Ravichandran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hamstring injuries and its rehabilitation in competitive events such as football targets safe and early return to play. This is because hamstring injuries are more related to prolonged recovery time and high rate of re-injury. In this case study, Zakeer Mundampara, 26-year-old footballer of Chennaiyin FC team (Indian super league tournament, who was rehabilitated for Grade 2 hamstring strain was briefed. To describe the importance of conservative rehabilitation in hamstring injuries and report on player's rehabilitation program and clinical outcome. Zakeer Mundampara was conservatively treated with active release technique for 2 weeks duration. Data collected includes passive knee extension test range of motion and verbal rating score. After 2 weeks of rehabilitation, Zakeer Mundampara had nearly full range of pain-free movement, normal gait and trained to run safely. By the 3rd week, he started to perform all sports specific drills. He was rehabilitated and set fit to play after 4 weeks from the date of injury. Active release technique is effective in hamstring injuries. In this case study, rehabilitation program with an emphasis on active release technique is found to be effective in returning the footballer back to play.

  2. Head injury and risk for Parkinson disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kenborg, Line; Rugbjerg, Kathrine; Lee, Pei-Chen

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between head injuries throughout life and the risk for Parkinson disease (PD) in an interview-based case-control study. METHODS: We identified 1,705 patients diagnosed with PD at 10 neurologic centers in Denmark in 1996-2009 and verified their diagnoses...

  3. Two stretching treatments for the hamstrings: proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation versus kinesio taping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Che-Hsiu; Huang, Tsun-Shun; Chai, Huei-Ming; Jan, Mei-Hwa; Lin, Jiu-Jenq

    2013-02-01

    Recent studies have shown that the static stretch (SS) may adversely affect leg-muscle performance. The authors examined the short-term effects of 2 stretching exercises on hamstrings muscle before and after exercise. Crossover. Laboratory. 9 healthy, physically active men. There were 3 protocols in a randomized order with a 7-d interval: nonstretching (CON protocol), hamstrings static stretching (SS) with proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF), and SS with kinesio-taping application on the hamstrings. Outcome measures included first-felt and maximum tolerant-felt range of motion (FROM and TROM), maximal knee-flexion peak torque (PT) at 180°/s, and hamstrings muscle stiffness. Groups were not different at prestretching in terms of hamstrings flexibility, PT, and muscle stiffness. At poststretching, both stretching protocols showed significant increases in FROM and TROM (P .05). The stretching protocols improve hamstrings flexibility immediately, but after exercise hamstrings peak torque is diminished in the SS+PNF but not in the SS+Taping group. This means that SS+Taping can prevent negative results from exercise, which may prevent muscle injury.

  4. Motor imagery during action observation increases eccentric hamstring force: an acute non-physical intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Matthew; Taylor, Stephen; Chesterton, Paul; Vogt, Stefan; Eaves, Daniel Lloyd

    2017-03-21

    Rehabilitation professionals typically use motor imagery (MI) or action observation (AO) to increase physical strength for injury prevention and recovery. Here we compared hamstring force gains for MI during AO (AO + MI) against two pure MI training groups. Over a 3-week intervention physically fit adults imagined Nordic hamstring exercises in both legs and synchronized this with a demonstration of the same action (AO + MI), or they purely imagined this action (pure MI), or imagined upper-limb actions (pure MI-control). Eccentric hamstring strength gains were assessed using ANOVAs, and magnitude-based inference (MBI) analyses determined the likelihood of clinical/practical benefits for the interventions. Hamstring strength only increased significantly following AO + MI training. This effect was lateralized to the right leg, potentially reflecting a left-hemispheric dominance in motor simulation. MBIs: The right leg within-group treatment effect size for AO + MI was moderate and likely beneficial (d = 0.36), and only small and possibly beneficial for pure MI (0.23). Relative to pure MI-control, effects were possibly beneficial and moderate for AO + MI (0.72), although small for pure MI (0.39). Since hamstring strength predicts injury prevalence, our findings point to the advantage of combined AO + MI interventions, over and above pure MI, for injury prevention and rehabilitation. Implications for rehabilitation While hamstring strains are the most common injury across the many sports involving sprinting and jumping, Nordic hamstring exercises are among the most effective methods for building eccentric hamstring strength, for injury prevention and rehabilitation. In the acute injury phase it is crucial not to overload damaged soft tissues, and so non-physical rehabilitation techniques are well suited to this phase. Rehabilitation professionals typically use either motor imagery or action observation techniques to safely improve physical

  5. Risk Factors for Complications of Traumatic Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aguiar Júnior, Wagner; Saleh, Carmen Mohamad Rida; Whitaker, Iveth Yamaguchi

    2016-01-01

    Complications in hospitalized trauma patients are major causes of morbidity and mortality. The aims of this study were to identify the in-hospital trauma patients' complications and identify the risk factors for complications in this population. A retrospective analysis was conducted in a sample from a Brazilian hospital. The sample consisted of 407 patients, 194 (47.66%) of whom had records of complications. The most common complications were infections (41.80%). The risk factors related to the complications were age, length of hospital stay, external causes, and injury severity. The complications were frequent in this sample, and the risk for complications was characterized by multiple factors.

  6. Patient transfers and risk of back injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinstrup, Jonas; Madeleine, Pascal; Jakobsen, Markus Due

    2017-01-01

    . The objective measurements on muscle load and body positions during patient handlings will be applied to the fortnightly replies regarding frequency of patient transfer and use of different assistive devices, in order to identify risk factors for back injuries related to patient transfers and intensity of LBP......BACKGROUND: More than one third of nurses experience musculoskeletal pain several times during a normal work week. Consistent use of assistive devices during patient transfers is associated with a lower risk of occupational back injuries and low back pain (LBP). While uncertainties exist regarding...... which type of assistive devices most efficiently prevent LBP, exposure assessments using technological advancements allow for quantification of muscle load and body positions during common work tasks. OBJECTIVE: The main objectives of this study are (1) to quantify low back and neck/shoulder muscle load...

  7. Foot Marching, Load Carriage, and Injury Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Knapik, and J.J. 1994. Exercise, training and injuries. Sports Med 18(3): 202-1. 35. APHC (Prov) Blister Prevention Factsheet. 2015. Available at...1.5 Flashlight, other equipment 2 Approach Load Fighting Load + 32*pounds = 102* pounds Assault rucksack with attachments 9 Hydration bladder...Men 475,745) Source: Knapik J et al. Stress Fracture Risk Factors in Basic Combat Training, 2012. Int J Sports Med, 33: 940–946. Men n

  8. The role of hamstring tightness in plantar fasciitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labovitz, Jonathan M; Yu, Jenny; Kim, Chul

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this prospective cohort study was to determine if hamstring tightness was an increased risk in plantar fasciitis. It was thought that there is an increased risk of plantar fasciitis when hamstring tightness is present. A total of 105 patients (68 women, 37 men) were included in the study, 79 of whom were diagnosed with plantar fasciitis. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated and the presence of plantar fasciitis, equinus, and calcaneal spurs were assessed. The popliteal angle was measured using standard diagnostic techniques. Without controlling for covariates, BMI, the presence of a calcaneal spur, tightness in the gastrocnemius, gastrocnemius-soleus, and hamstring all had statistically significant association with plantar fasciitis. After controlling for covariates, patients with hamstring tightness were about 8.7 times as likely to experience plantar fasciitis (P 35 were approximately 2.4 times as likely to experience plantar fasciitis compared with those with BMI plantar fasciitis and should be addressed along with equinus and obesity when providing treatment to patients with this diagnosis.

  9. Intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors for muscle strains in Australian football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchard, J W

    2001-01-01

    Muscle strains are common injuries in Australian football and other sports involving sprinting. Between 1992 and 1999, 83,503 player-matches in the Australian Football League were analyzed for risk of muscle strain injuries using logistic regression analysis. There were 672 hamstring, 163 quadriceps, and 140 calf muscle strain injuries. All three types of muscle strains were associated with significant risk factors. For all injuries, the strongest risk factor was a recent history of that same injury and the next strongest risk factor was a past history of the same injury. History of one type of muscle strain increased the risk for certain types of other muscle strains. Age was a risk factor for hamstring and calf muscle strains (even when adjusted for injury history) but was not a risk factor for quadriceps muscle strains. Quadriceps muscle injuries were more common in shorter players and were more likely when there had been less rainfall at the match venue in the previous week. Quadriceps muscle injuries were significantly more common in the dominant kicking leg, whereas hamstring and calf muscle injuries showed no difference in frequency between the dominant and nondominant legs.

  10. Knee extension and flexion muscle power after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with patellar tendon graft or hamstring tendons graft: a cross-sectional comparison 3 years post surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ageberg, Eva; Roos, Harald; Silbernagel, Karin

    2008-01-01

    Hamstring muscles play a major role in knee-joint stabilization after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Weakness of the knee extensors after ACL reconstruction with patellar tendon (PT) graft, and in the knee flexors after reconstruction with hamstring tendons (HT) graft has been observed up...

  11. Subsequent Injuries Are More Common Than Injury Recurrences: An Analysis of 1 Season of Prospectively Collected Injuries in Professional Australian Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Caroline F; Cook, Jill; Kunstler, Breanne E; Akram, Muhammad; Orchard, John

    2017-07-01

    It is known that some people can, and do, sustain >1 injury over a playing season. However, there is currently little high-quality epidemiological evidence about the risk of, and relationships between, multiple and subsequent injuries. To describe the subsequent injuries sustained by Australian Football League (AFL) players over 1 season, including their most common injury diagnoses. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Within-player linked injury data on all date-ordered match-loss injuries sustained by AFL players during 1 full season were obtained. The total number of injuries per player was determined, and in those with >1 injury, the Subsequent Injury Classification (SIC) model was used to code all subsequent injuries based on their Orchard Sports Injury Classification System (OSICS) codes and the dates of injury. There were 860 newly recorded injuries in 543 players; 247 players (45.5%) sustained ≥1 subsequent injuries after an earlier injury, with 317 subsequent injuries (36.9% of all injuries) recorded overall. A subsequent injury generally occurred to a different body region and was therefore superficially unrelated to an index injury. However, 32.2% of all subsequent injuries were related to a previous injury in the same season. Hamstring injuries were the most common subsequent injury. The mean time between injuries decreased with an increasing number of subsequent injuries. When relationships between injuries are taken into account, there is a high level of subsequent (and multiple) injuries leading to missed games in an elite athlete group.

  12. Prevention of non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injuries in soccer players. Part 1: Mechanisms of injury and underlying risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; Myer, Gregory D; Silvers, Holly J; Samitier, Gonzalo; Romero, Daniel; Lázaro-Haro, Cristina; Cugat, Ramón

    2009-07-01

    Soccer is the most commonly played sport in the world, with an estimated 265 million active soccer players by 2006. Inherent to this sport is the higher risk of injury to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) relative to other sports. ACL injury causes the most time lost from competition in soccer which has influenced a strong research focus to determine the risk factors for injury. This research emphasis has afforded a rapid influx of literature defining potential modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors that increase the risk of injury. The purpose of the current review is to sequence the most recent literature that reports potential mechanisms and risk factors for non-contact ACL injury in soccer players. Most ACL tears in soccer players are non-contact in nature. Common playing situations precluding a non-contact ACL injury include: change of direction or cutting maneuvers combined with deceleration, landing from a jump in or near full extension, and pivoting with knee near full extension and a planted foot. The most common non-contact ACL injury mechanism include a deceleration task with high knee internal extension torque (with or without perturbation) combined with dynamic valgus rotation with the body weight shifted over the injured leg and the plantar surface of the foot fixed flat on the playing surface. Potential extrinsic non-contact ACL injury risk factors include: dry weather and surface, and artificial surface instead of natural grass. Commonly purported intrinsic risk factors include: generalized and specific knee joint laxity, small and narrow intercondylar notch width (ratio of notch width to the diameter and cross sectional area of the ACL), pre-ovulatory phase of menstrual cycle in females not using oral contraceptives, decreased relative (to quadriceps) hamstring strength and recruitment, muscular fatigue by altering neuromuscular control, decreased "core" strength and proprioception, low trunk, hip, and knee flexion angles, and high

  13. Perception of injury risk among amateur Muay Thai fighters

    OpenAIRE

    Strotmeyer, Stephen; Lystad, Reidar P.

    2017-01-01

    Background Muay Thai is a style of kickboxing that allows full-contact blows to an unprotected head, torso and legs, and, as in any combat sport, there is an inherent risk of injury. Previous observational studies have shown there is a substantial risk of injury in competitive kickboxing. None of these studies, however, have investigated the potential role of psychological risk factors and, consequently, little is known about the perception of injury risk among these athletes. Notwithstanding...

  14. Some risk factors in trampolining illustrated by six serious injuries.

    OpenAIRE

    Hammer, A.; Schwartzbach, A. L.; Paulev, P. E.

    1982-01-01

    Four case histories out of 75 significant trampoline injuries (from a total of 198 injuries re-examined) plus two recent accidents (1979) are presented, illustrating that the trampoline is posing an undue risk of serious injury. It is argued that the only single factor capable of preventing trampoline injuries is a trampoline ban. This is imperative in schools. Trampoline clubs are advised to reconsider the risk factors involved.

  15. Hamstring-and-Lower-Back Flexibility in Male Amateur Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Horst, Nick; Priesterbach, Annique; Backx, Frank; Smits, Dirk-Wouter

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the hamstring-and-lower-back flexibility (HLBF) of male adult amateur soccer players, using the sit-and-reach test (SRT), with a view to obtaining population-based reference values and to determining whether SRT scores are associated with player characteristics. Cross-sectional cohort study. Teams from high-level Dutch amateur soccer competitions were recruited for participation. Dutch male high-level amateur field soccer players (n = 449) of age 18 to 40 years. Players with a hamstring injury at the moment of SRT-measurement or any other injury that prevented them from following the SRT protocol were excluded. Sit-and-reach test scores were measured and then population-based reference values were calculated as follows: >2SD below mean (defining "very low" HLBF), 1SD-2SD below mean ("low" HLBF), 1SD below mean to 1SD above mean ("normal" HLBF), 1SD-2SD above mean ("high" HLBF), and >2SD above mean ("very high" HLBF). Whether SRT scores were correlated with player characteristics was determined using a Pearson correlation coefficient or Spearman rho. Sit-and-reach test scores ranged from 0 to 43.5 cm (mean 22.0 cm, SD 9.2). The cutoff points for population-based reference values were 40.5 cm for "very high". Sit-and-reach test scores were significantly associated with players' height (ρ = -0.132, P = 0.005), body mass index (r = 0.114, P = 0.016), and history of anterior cruciate ligament surgery (P amateur soccer players. The SRT reference values with cutoff points may facilitate evidence-based decision making regarding HLBF, and the SRT might be a useful tool to assess injury risk, performance, or for diagnostic purposes.

  16. Caffeinated Alcohol, Sensation Seeking, and Injury Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Mary Claire; McCoy, Thomas P; Egan, Kathleen L; Goldin, Shoshanna; Rhodes, Scott D; Wolfson, Mark

    2013-06-01

    College students who consume caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CaffAlc) are at increased injury risk. This study examines the extent to which a sensation-seeking personality accounts for the relationship between consumption of CaffAlc and negative outcomes. A Web-based survey was administered to stratified random samples of 4907 college students from eight North Carolina universities in Fall 2009. Sensation seeking was assessed using the Brief Sensation-Seeking Scale (BSSS) (α=0.81). Data were analyzed using linear and logistic regression. 3390 students (71.2%) reported past 30-day drinking, of whom 786 (23.2%) consumed CaffAlc. CaffAlc past 30-day drinkers had higher BSSS scores (3.8 vs. 3.4; pConsumption of CaffAlc was associated with more frequent binge drinking (pstudents were more likely to be taken advantage of sexually (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=1.70, p=0.012), drive under the influence of alcohol (AOR=2.00, palcohol (AOR=1.87, pstudents with higher BSSS-8 scores (interaction p=0.024), even after adjustment for drinking levels and student characteristics. Sensation seeking does not fully account for the increase in risky drinking among college students who consume CaffAlc, nor does it moderate the relationship between CaffAlc and drinking behaviors. Sensation seeking moderates the risk of alcohol-associated injury requiring medical treatment among college students who consume CaffAlc. Those with strong sensation-seeking dispositions are at the highest risk of alcohol-associated injury requiring medical treatment.

  17. Validation of hamstrings musculoskeletal modeling by calculating peak hamstrings length at different hip angles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Krogt, M.M.; Doorenbosch, C.A.M.; Harlaar, J.

    2008-01-01

    Accurate estimates of hamstrings lengths are useful, for example, to facilitate planning for surgical lengthening of the hamstrings in patients with cerebral palsy. In this study, three models used to estimate hamstrings length (M1: Delp, M2: Klein Horsman, M3: Hawkins and Hull) were evaluated. This

  18. Perception of injury risk among amateur Muay Thai fighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strotmeyer, Stephen; Lystad, Reidar P

    2017-12-01

    Muay Thai is a style of kickboxing that allows full-contact blows to an unprotected head, torso and legs, and, as in any combat sport, there is an inherent risk of injury. Previous observational studies have shown there is a substantial risk of injury in competitive kickboxing. None of these studies, however, have investigated the potential role of psychological risk factors and, consequently, little is known about the perception of injury risk among these athletes. Notwithstanding the important role risk perception may play in the occurrence and prevention of sports injuries, there is very limited empirical data pertaining to athletes in full-contact combat sports such as Muay Thai. Because the development and successful implementation of effective injury prevention policies for combat sports are likely to benefit from an increased understanding of the perception of injury risk and sport safety attitudes and behavior of its participants, further study is warranted. Muay Thai fighters were invited to complete an online survey in which they rated the perceived risk of injury in a range of different sports, including Muay Thai kickboxing. Perceived comparative risk was obtained indirectly by subtracting perceived risk of injury to oneself from perceived risk of injury to a peer. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, comparison of means, and ordinal logistic regression. Contrary to the best available epidemiological evidence, Muay Thai fighters perceived the risk of injury in their own sport to be average and significantly lower than that in other collision and contact sports, including popular combat sports such as boxing and mixed martial arts. On average, Muay Thai fighters perceived their own risk injury to be significantly lower compared to their peers (p < 0.001). There appears to be a mismatch between injury risk perception and actual risk among Muay Thai fighters. Moreover, these athletes also exhibit a slight degree comparative optimism or

  19. Risk Factors for Injuries in Professional Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haxhiu, Bekim; Murtezani, Ardiana; Zahiti, Bedri; Shalaj, Ismet; Sllamniku, Sabit

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify risk factors related to the occurrence of injuries in football players. The study included 216 football players from 12 teams in the elite football league. Football-related injury data were collected prospectively during the 2012/2013 competitive season. At baseline the following information was collected for the players: anthropometric measurements (weight, height, BMI, subcutaneous skinfolds), playing experience, injury history, physical fitness performance test (agility run), peak oxygen uptake. The incidence, type and severity of injuries and training and game exposure times were prospectively documented for each player. Most of the players (n = 155, 71.7%) sustained the injures during the study period. The overall injury incidence during the regular season was 6.3 injuries per 1000 athlete-exposures (95% confidence interval, 4.31-9.67). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that playing experience (odds ratio [OR] = 0.44; 95% CI = 0.32-0.61, p injuries. Body mass index was not associated with risk of injury. Strains (34.19%) and sprains (25.81%) were the major injury types. Twenty-seven percent of injured players were absent from football for more than 1 month, with knee injuries (25.42%) being the most severe type. The risk factors that increase injury rates in football players were previous injury, higher age and years of playing. Future research should include adequate rehabilitation program to reduce the risk of injuries.

  20. The functional significance of hamstrings composition: is it really a "fast" muscle group?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelidis, Pavlos E; Massey, Garry J; Ferguson, Richard A; Wheeler, Patrick C; Pain, Matthew T G; Folland, Jonathan P

    2017-11-01

    Hamstrings muscle fiber composition may be predominantly fast-twitch and could explain the high incidence of hamstrings strain injuries. However, hamstrings muscle composition in vivo, and its influence on knee flexor muscle function, remains unknown. We investigated biceps femoris long head (BFlh) myosin heavy chain (MHC) composition from biopsy samples, and the association of hamstrings composition and hamstrings muscle volume (using MRI) with knee flexor maximal and explosive strength. Thirty-one young men performed maximal (concentric, eccentric, isometric) and explosive (isometric) contractions. BFlh exhibited a balanced MHC distribution [mean ± SD (min-max); 47.1 ± 9.1% (32.6-71.0%) MHC-I, 35.5 ± 8.5% (21.5-60.0%) MHC-IIA, 17.4 ± 9.1% (0.0-30.9%) MHC-IIX]. Muscle volume was correlated with knee flexor maximal strength at all velocities and contraction modes (r = 0.62-0.76, P composition was not related to any maximal or explosive strength measure. BFlh MHC composition was not found to be "fast", and therefore composition does not appear to explain the high incidence of hamstrings strain injury. Hamstrings muscle volume explained 38-58% of the inter-individual differences in knee flexor maximum strength at a range of velocities and contraction modes, while BFlh muscle composition was not associated with maximal or explosive strength. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT THERAPUTIC TECHINQUES ON HAMSTRING FLEXBILITY IN NORMAL ADULTS: RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doaa I. Amin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hamstring muscles involve a rate of intense musculoskeletal injuries. Hamstring flexibility, shorting, and exhaustion are hazard variables connected with hamstring strain. Enhanced flexibility has for quite some time been viewed as an imperative part in anticipation of musculotendinous strain. Expanding hamstring flexibility can assume a vital part in counteracting lower furthest point injuries. In any case, few research has been performed on the best technique. This study was conducted to correlate the effect of different therapeutic techniques (active release, muscle energy and Mulligan on increasing hamstring flexibility. Methods: Fifty seven normal healthy male subjects with hamstring tightness were assigned randomly to one of the four study groups: Group (113subjects received active release technique. Group (215subjects received muscle energy technique. Group (3 12subjects received Mulligan’s technique. Group (417subjects did not get any intercession. Popliteal angle (active knee extension test and sit-reach flexibility test were measured pre and post the intervention period. Results: MANOVA test for active knee extension test and sit-reach test among the four groups for post intervention values there was no significant difference between Group 1 and Group 2 in the post values of AKE with both groups showed significant increases than Group 3. Group 1 versus Group 3: p < 0.0001, CI: 3.5-11.8; Group 2 versus Group 3: p < 0.0001, CI: 4.6-12.8. Conclusion: It can be reasoned that both active release and muscle energy techniques have similar impact in enhancing hamstring flexibility than Mulligan technique in normal male adults.

  2. Transcendence of musculoskeletal injury in athletes with disability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hamstring injuries are common in jumping and sprinting athletes. This case series documents acute grade I - II hamstring injuries in two Paralympic athletes. These athletes were able to transcend their injuries to compete 4 and 6 days after injury to attain personal best achievements.

  3. Risk perception of musculoskeletal injury among critical care nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo-Jeong; Faucett, Julia; Gillen, Marion; Krause, Niklas; Landry, Lynette

    2013-01-01

    Nursing is known as an occupation with high risk of musculoskeletal injury. Nurses' perceptions about the risk of injury may have a role in preventing such injury. The aim of this study was to investigate how nurses perceived the risk of musculoskeletal injury from work and identify factors associated with their risk perception. In a cross-sectional study using a postal survey, 361 critical care nurses reported on risk perception, physical workload, psychosocial job factors, safety climate, musculoskeletal symptoms, and safe work behavior. Of all critical care nurse respondents, 83% perceived that they were more likely than not to have a musculoskeletal injury within 1 year. On average, nurses perceived the risk of musculoskeletal injury as lower to themselves than to coworkers. This more positive perception of risk to self had stronger correlations with symptom experiences. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that higher risk perception of injury was associated with greater job strain, greater physical workload, lack of availability of lifting devices or lifting teams, and more symptoms. Study findings indicated that most critical care nurses were concerned about their ergonomic job risks. Their risk perceptions about musculoskeletal injury risk were affected by physical work exposures, psychosocial job stressors, and experience with musculoskeletal symptoms, but not by perceived workplace safety climate. The findings underscore the need for management efforts to improve physical and psychosocial working conditions and create a safe work environment.

  4. Injuries in professional football: current concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, David; Sikka, Robby S; Labounty, Abby; Christensen, Trent

    2013-01-01

    Professional football is one of the most popular sports in the United States. There is a common constellation of injuries that are seen frequently. Much attention has been focused on concussions and their long-term outcomes in this population. Other common causes of morbidity include cervical spine injuries, knee injuries including anterior cruciate ligament and other ligamentous injuries, ankle sprains, and medical issues including cardiac and sickle trait. Several recent studies have focused on hip impingement and hamstring injuries, among others, as sources of missed playing time as well. This review describes some of the frequently seen injuries and medical issues in professional football players. Proper management of both medical disease and on-field injuries can reduce morbidity and may lead to faster return to play and reduced risk of future injury.

  5. Risk factors for acute knee injury in female youth football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hägglund, Martin; Waldén, Markus

    2016-03-01

    To prospectively evaluate risk factors for acute time-loss knee injury, in particular ACL injury, in female youth football players. Risk factors were studied in 4556 players aged 12-17 years from a randomised controlled trial during the 2009 season. Covariates were both intrinsic (body mass index, age, relative age effect, onset of menarche, previous acute knee injury or ACL injury, current knee complaints, and familial disposition of ACL injury) and extrinsic (no. of training sessions/week, no. of matches/week, match exposure ratio, match play with other teams, and artificial turf exposure). Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated from individual variable and multiple Cox regression analyses. Ninety-six acute knee injuries were recorded, 21 of them ACL injuries. Multiple Cox regression showed a fourfold higher ACL injury rate for players with familial disposition of ACL injury (HR 3.57; 95% CI 1.48-8.62). Significant predictor variables for acute knee injury were age >14 years (HR 1.97; 95% CI 1.30-2.97), knee complaints at the start of the season (HR 1.98; 95% CI 1.30-3.02), and familial disposition of ACL injury (HR 1.96; 95% CI 1.22-3.16). No differences in injury rates were seen when playing on artificial turf compared with natural grass. Female youth football players with a familial disposition of ACL injury had an increased risk of ACL injury and acute knee injury. Older players and those with knee complaints at pre-season were more at risk of acute knee injury. Although the predictive values were low, these factors could be used in athlete screening to target preventive interventions. II.

  6. Rehabilitation of proximal hamstring tendinopathy utilizing eccentric training, lumbopelvic stabilization, and trigger point dry needling: 2 case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaseelan, Dhinu J; Moats, Nick; Ricardo, Christopher R

    2014-03-01

    Case report. Proximal hamstring tendinopathy is a relatively uncommon overuse injury seen in runners. In contrast to the significant amount of literature guiding the evaluation and treatment of hamstring strains, there is little literature about the physical therapy management of proximal hamstring tendinopathy, other than the general recommendations to increase strength and flexibility. Two runners were treated in physical therapy for proximal hamstring tendinopathy. Each presented with buttock pain with running and sitting, as well as tenderness to palpation at the ischial tuberosity. Each patient was prescribed a specific exercise program focusing on eccentric loading of the hamstrings and lumbopelvic stabilization exercises. Trigger point dry needling was also used with both runners to facilitate improved joint motion and to decrease pain. Both patients were treated in 8 to 9 visits over 8 to 10 weeks. Clinically significant improvements were seen in pain, tenderness, and function in each case. Each patient returned to running and sitting without symptoms. Proximal hamstring tendinopathy can be difficult to treat. In these 2 runners, eccentric loading of the hamstrings, lumbopelvic stabilization exercises, and trigger point dry needling provided short- and long-term pain reduction and functional benefits. Further research is needed to determine the effectiveness of this cluster of interventions for this condition. Therapy, level 4.

  7. Evaluation of Head and Brain Injury Risk Functions Using Sub-Injurious Human Volunteer Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Erin J; Gabler, Lee F; McGhee, James S; Olszko, Ardyn V; Chancey, V Carol; Crandall, Jeff R; Panzer, Matthew B

    2017-08-15

    Risk assessment models are developed to estimate the probability of brain injury during head impact using mechanical response variables such as head kinematics and brain tissue deformation. Existing injury risk functions have been developed using different datasets based on human volunteer and scaled animal injury responses to impact. However, many of these functions have not been independently evaluated with respect to laboratory-controlled human response data. In this study, the specificity of 14 existing brain injury risk functions was assessed by evaluating their ability to correctly predict non-injurious response using previously conducted sled tests with well-instrumented human research volunteers. Six degrees-of-freedom head kinematics data were obtained for 335 sled tests involving subjects in frontal, lateral, and oblique sled conditions up to 16 Gs peak sled acceleration. A review of the medical reports associated with each individual test indicated no clinical diagnosis of mild or moderate brain injury in any of the cases evaluated. Kinematic-based head and brain injury risk probabilities were calculated directly from the kinematic data, while strain-based risks were determined through finite element model simulation of the 335 tests. Several injury risk functions substantially over predict the likelihood of concussion and diffuse axonal injury; proposed maximum principal strain-based injury risk functions predicted nearly 80 concussions and 14 cases of severe diffuse axonal injury out of the 335 non-injurious cases. This work is an important first step in assessing the efficacy of existing brain risk functions and highlights the need for more predictive injury assessment models.

  8. Elastography Study of Hamstring Behaviors during Passive Stretching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Le Sant

    Full Text Available The mechanical properties of hamstring muscles are usually inferred from global passive torque/angle relationships, in combination with adjoining tissues crossing the joint investigated. Shear modulus measurement provides an estimate of changes in muscle-tendon stiffness and passive tension. This study aimed to assess the passive individual behavior of each hamstring muscle in different stretching positions using shear wave elastography.The muscle shear modulus of each hamstring muscle was measured during a standardized slow passive knee extension (PKE, 80% of maximal range of motion on eighteen healthy male volunteers. Firstly, we assessed the reliability of the measurements. Results were good for semitendinosus (ST, CV: 8.9%-13.4%, semimembranosus (SM, CV: 10.3%-11.2% and biceps femoris long-head (BF-lh, CV: 8.6%-13.3%, but not for biceps femoris short-head (BF-sh, CV: 20.3%-44.9%. Secondly, we investigated each reliable muscle in three stretch positions: 70°, 90° and 110° of hip flexion. The results showed different values of shear modulus for the same amount of perceived stretch, with the highest measurements in the high-flexed hip situation. Moreover, individual muscles displayed different values, with values increasing or BF-lh, SM and ST, respectively. The inter-subject variability was 35.3% for ST, 27.4% for SM and 30.2% for BF-lh.This study showed that the hip needs to be high-flexed to efficiently tension the hamstrings, and reports a higher muscle-tendon stress tolerance at 110° of hip angle. In addition muscles have different passive behaviors, and future works will clarify if it can be linked with rate of injury.

  9. Acrobatic gymnastics injury: occurrence, site and training risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnell, Melinda; Shirley, Debra; Nicholson, Leslie; Adams, Roger

    2010-05-01

    To determine the incidence and risk factors for injury associated with the performance of acrobatic gymnastics. Retrospective injury and training survey. New South Wales acrobatic gymnastics clubs. Surveys were completed by 73 acrobatic gymnasts (69 female) aged 8-26 years. Data on injury incidence and frequency for injury site were collected. Multiple-regression and ROC curve analysis were used to evaluate training-associated injury risk factors. Half (50.7%) of the participants had sustained an injury associated with acrobatic gymnastics in the past 12 months, with 28.8% of participants affected by chronic injury at the time of the study. Age of onset for acute and chronic acrobatics-related injury averaged 13.9 (SD +/- 3.03) and 14.7 (SD +/- 3.85) years, respectively. Injury sites were predominately the knee, ankle and wrist. Risk factors for injury were having an age of >or=13 years and training for >or=8 h per week at age 11 years. The results suggest that the 11-15 years age period is critical for the occurrence of injury in acrobatic gymnasts. This is possibly due to the adolescent growth spurt which may create an increased vulnerability to injury if training volume during this time is above a certain threshold.

  10. Alpine ski and snowboarding traumatic injuries: incidence, injury patterns, and risk factors for 10 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBeth, Paul B; Ball, Chad G; Mulloy, Robert H; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W

    2009-05-01

    Alpine skiing and snowboarding are popular winter sports in Canada. Every year participation in these activities results in traumatic injury. The purpose of this study was to identify the incidence and injury patterns, as well as risk factors associated with ski and snowboarding injuries. A comprehensive 10-year retrospective review of Alpine ski and snowboarding injuries from 1996 to 2006 was conducted. The Alberta Trauma Registry was used as the primary source of data. A total of 196 patients (56.6% skiers, 43.4% snowboarders) were identified as having major traumatic injuries (Injury Severity Score, >or=12). Forty-three patients required intensive care unit support. The majority of injuries were related to falls and collisions with natural objects. Head injuries were most common, followed by chest, spinal, and extremity trauma. Seventy-nine patients required emergency surgery. Skiing and snowboarding represent activities with high potential for traumatic injury. Safety initiatives should be developed to target this population.

  11. Australian farm work injuries: incidence, diversity and personal risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, J M; Griffith, G R; Alston, C L

    1996-08-01

    Information on farm work-related injuries was sought to assist in the design of effective farm safety prevention programs. A telephone survey was conducted using a stratified random sample of 919 sheep/wool, beef cattle and dryland broadacre cropping farms from three shires in the wheat/sheep belt of New South Wales. The adjusted response rate was 84%. There were 425 reported injuries over an 18-month period. One in five farms reported at least one injury per year, while one in 12 farms reported at least one serious injury per year. Animal-related injuries were the largest major category for agent of injury, while the largest category for nature of injury was sprain and strain, recording almost one-quarter of all injuries. The farm workshop or shed was the most common location of injury, with more than 20% of all reported injuries occurring there. Personal risk factors thought to contribute to these farm work-related injuries were examined. The statistically significant personal risk factors for injury occurrence were age (and/or experience), previous injury status, body mass index, hours of sleep, a variable measuring daytime drowsiness and a variable measuring perceived stress.

  12. Functional Movement Screen: Pain versus composite score and injury risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemany, Joseph A; Bushman, Timothy T; Grier, Tyson; Anderson, Morgan K; Canham-Chervak, Michelle; North, William J; Jones, Bruce H

    2017-11-01

    The Functional Movement Screen (FMS™) has been used as a screening tool to determine musculoskeletal injury risk using composite scores based on movement quality and/or pain. However, no direct comparisons between movement quality and pain have been quantified. Retrospective injury data analysis. Male Soldiers (n=2154, 25.0±1.3years; 26.2±.7kg/m(2)) completed the FMS (scored from 0 points (pain) to 3 points (no pain and perfect movement quality)) with injury data over the following six months. The FMS is seven movements. Injury data were collected six months after FMS completion. Sensitivity, specificity, receiver operator characteristics and positive and negative predictive values were calculated for pain occurrence and low (≤14 points) composite score. Risk, risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for injury risk. Pain was associated with slightly higher injury risk (RR=1.62) than a composite score of ≤14 points (RR=1.58). When comparing injury risk between those who scored a 1, 2 or 3 on each individual movement, no differences were found (except deep squat). However, Soldiers who experienced pain on any movement had a greater injury risk than those who scored 3 points for that movement (pmovements in which pain occurrence increased, so did injury risk (p<0.01). Pain occurrence may be a stronger indicator of injury risk than a low composite score and provides a simpler method of evaluating injury risk compared to the full FMS. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Risk of childhood injuries after prenatal exposure to maternal bereavement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virk, Jasveer; Li, Jiong; Lauritsen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the risk of injuries among children exposed to a stressful life exposure (defined as bereavement) before conception or during fetal life.......The aim of this study was to assess the risk of injuries among children exposed to a stressful life exposure (defined as bereavement) before conception or during fetal life....

  14. Perceived Injury Risk among Junior Cricketers: A Cross Sectional Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna J. Gamage

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how junior athletes perceive injury risks when participating in sport and the environment they play in is an important component of injury prevention. This study investigates how Sri Lankan junior cricketers (n = 365, aged 11–14 years, boys perceive injury risks associated with playing cricket. The study used a Sri Lankan modification of an Australian junior cricket injury risk perception survey that considered playing cricket versus other sports, different cricket playing positions and roles, and different ground conditions. The risk of playing cricket was considered to be greater than that for cycling, but lower than that for rugby and soccer. Fast-bowlers, batters facing fast-bowlers, fielding close in the field, and wicket-keeping without a helmet were perceived to pose greater risks of injury than other scenarios. Playing on hard, bumpy and/or wet ground conditions were perceived to have a high risk opposed to playing on a grass field. Fielding in the outfield and wicket-keeping to fast-bowlers whilst wearing a helmet were perceived as low risk actions. The risk perceptions of junior cricketers identified in this study, do not necessarily reflect the true injury risk in some instances. This information will inform the development of injury prevention education interventions to address these risk perceptions in junior cricketers.

  15. Perceived Injury Risk among Junior Cricketers: A Cross Sectional Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamage, Prasanna J.; Fortington, Lauren V.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding how junior athletes perceive injury risks when participating in sport and the environment they play in is an important component of injury prevention. This study investigates how Sri Lankan junior cricketers (n = 365, aged 11–14 years, boys) perceive injury risks associated with playing cricket. The study used a Sri Lankan modification of an Australian junior cricket injury risk perception survey that considered playing cricket versus other sports, different cricket playing positions and roles, and different ground conditions. The risk of playing cricket was considered to be greater than that for cycling, but lower than that for rugby and soccer. Fast-bowlers, batters facing fast-bowlers, fielding close in the field, and wicket-keeping without a helmet were perceived to pose greater risks of injury than other scenarios. Playing on hard, bumpy and/or wet ground conditions were perceived to have a high risk opposed to playing on a grass field. Fielding in the outfield and wicket-keeping to fast-bowlers whilst wearing a helmet were perceived as low risk actions. The risk perceptions of junior cricketers identified in this study, do not necessarily reflect the true injury risk in some instances. This information will inform the development of injury prevention education interventions to address these risk perceptions in junior cricketers. PMID:28829390

  16. Injury Risk and Noise Exposure in Firefighter Training Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neitzel, Richard L; Long, Rachel N; Sun, Kan; Sayler, Stephanie; von Thaden, Terry L

    2016-05-01

    Firefighters have high rate of injuries and illnesses, as well as exposures to high levels of noise. This study explored the relationship between noise exposure and injury among firefighters. We recruited firefighters undergoing vehicle extrication and structural collapse emergency response training at a highly realistic training facility. Demographics, health status, body mass index (BMI), and history of serious injuries (i.e. injuries requiring first aid treatment, treatment in a medical clinic or office, or treatment at a hospital) were assessed at baseline, and daily activities, injury events, and near misses were assessed daily via surveys. Participants' noise exposures were monitored for one 24-h period using noise dosimeters. We used a mixed-effects logistic regression model to estimate the odds of injury events and near misses associated with noise exposure as an independent variable. Of 56 subjects, 20 (36%) reported that they had ever suffered a serious injury during firefighting activities, and 9 (16%) reported a serious injury within the past year. We estimated rates of 6.6 lifetime serious injuries per 100 FTE 16.1 serious injuries per 100 FTE within the past year. Our models indicated a significant increase in injury events and near misses among those with higher BMI, and as well as a dose-response relationship between near misses/injuries and increasing noise levels. Noise levels >90 dBA in the 30 min prior to time of injury or near miss were associated with substantially increased odds ratios for injury or near miss. Our models further indicated that perceived job demands were significantly associated with increased risk of injury or near miss. Our results suggest that noise exposures may need to be incorporated into injury prevention programs for firefighters to reduce injuries among this high-risk occupational group. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  17. Injury rates and injury risk factors among U.S. Army wheel vehicle mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapik, Joseph J; Jones, Sarah B; Darakjy, Salima; Hauret, Keith G; Bullock, Steven H; Sharp, Marilyn A; Jones, Bruce H

    2007-09-01

    This study describes injury rates, injury diagnoses, anatomical locations of injuries, limited duty days, and activities associated with injuries in a sample of Army mechanics. Medical records of 518 male and 43 female Army mechanics were screened for injuries during 1 year at a large U.S. Army installation. Weight, height, age, and ethnicity were also extracted from the medical records. Body mass index was calculated as weight/height2. Overall injury rates for men and women were 124 and 156 injuries/100 person-years, respectively, with a rate of 127 injuries/100 person-years for all soldiers combined. Women had higher overuse injury rates while men had higher traumatic injury rates. Limited duty days for men and women were 2,076 and 1,966 days/100 person-years, respectively. The lower back, knee, ankle, foot, and shoulder involved 61% of the injuries. Activities associated with injury included (in order of incidence) physical training, mechanical work, sports, airborne-related activities, road marching, garrison/home activities, and chronic conditions. Among the men, elevated injury risk was associated with higher body weight and higher body mass index. It may be possible to prevent many injuries by implementation of evidenced-based interventions currently available in the literature.

  18. Surgical Treatment for Failure of Repair of Patellar and Quadriceps Tendon Rupture With Ipsilateral Hamstring Tendon Graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffulli, Nicola; Papalia, Rocco; Torre, Guglielmo; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2017-03-01

    Tears of the patellar and quadriceps tendon are common in the active population, especially in athletes. At present, several techniques for surgical repair and reconstruction are available. When reruptures occur, a reconstruction is mandatory. In the present paper, we describe a surgical technique for patellar and quadriceps tendon reconstruction using ipsilateral hamstring autograft. After routine hamstring tendon harvesting, the tendon ends are prepared using a whip stitch. A transverse tunnel is drilled in the midportion of the patella, the hamstring graft is passed through the patella, and firmly secured to the patellar tunnel openings with sutures. The details of the technique are fully described. Autologous ipsilateral hamstring tendon grafts provide a secure sound means to manage these challenging injuries.

  19. Risk of marginal mandibular nerve injury in neck dissection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Martin Nue; Sørensen, Christian Hjort

    2012-01-01

    The immediate and permanent frequency of injury to the marginal mandibular branch of the facial nerve (MMN) after neck dissection has only scarcely been addressed in the medical literature. We investigated the risk of injury in 159 consecutive patients after neck dissection for various reasons....... Recognition of the MMN during the operation, pre- or postoperative radiation therapy, re-operation for deep hemorrhage, age, gender or postoperative infection did not have any statistically significant influence on the frequency of MMN injury. In conclusion we found a moderate risk of injury to the MMN after...

  20. A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON EFFECTIVENESS OF STATIC STRETCH AND HOLD RELAX TECHNIQUES OVER HAMSTRING FLEXIBILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Vamsidhar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Flexibility is important in prevention of injury, muscular and postural imbalance more over the Hamstring flexibility has a lion share in sports performances and preventing DOMS. Stretching procedures increases the ROM by embarking on biomechanics and Neurologic and molecular mechanics. Hamstrings, the two joint muscle plays a crucial role in two joints integrity and also spine as they are in closed kinematic chain. The hamstring muscles represent the primary flexors of Knee. Hamstrings tightness results in Limits Knee extension when hip is flexed, Posterior Pelvic tilt, and flatten the lumbar spine. Methods: The subjects selected randomly and divided into two groups (Experimental group and control group.30 samples in One group applied with Static Stretch once a day for 3 repetitions 5 days a week for six weeks and 30 samples in other group applied with Hold relax technique once a day for 4 repetitions 5 days a week for six weeks. The knee joint range of motion was measured at the end of every week with Universal goniometer. Results: By comparing the means of Group – I, given Static Stretch and Group – II, given Hold relax Technique for six weeks implied that there is improvement of flexibility in Group – II and the ‘P’ value < 0.01 shows the difference is highly significant. Conclusion: This study concludes that the hold relax Technique method has proved to be better technique then the static stretch for improving hamstring flexibility.

  1. Effects of a pilates school program on hamstrings flexibility of adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia González-Gálvez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Low levels of hamstring flexibility may trigger certain acute and chronic pathologies and injuries. Poor flexibility is observed among teenagers and several authors have recommended the use of specific programs in this population to improve flexibility levels. The Pilates Method (PM may be an appropriate intervention to achieve this purpose and has rarely been used with this population. Objective: Study was to assess changes in the flexibility of hamstrings after running a didactic PM unit for high-school students.METHODS: This research was developed through a quasi-experimental design. The sample consisted of 66 high-school students divided into experimental group (EG=39 and control group (CG=27. The intervention was carried out 2 times a week for six weeks. Each session lasted 55 minutes divided into three parts: warm-up, main part and cool down. Hamstring flexibility was assessed using the toe-touch test. Paired Student t-test and t-test for independent samples were applied. The size of the effect (d was determined.RESULTS: The EG showed significant provident in hamstring flexibility (+3.54±3.9cm. The effect size was low (d>d>0,2d>0.21.15 which means that a large proportion of participants improved their results.CONCLUSION: This study showed that six-weeks of Pilates training in Physical Education classes has significantly improved the hamstrings flexibility among adolescents.

  2. Monitoring of sport participation and injury risk in young athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malisoux, Laurent; Frisch, Anne; Urhausen, Axel; Seil, Romain; Theisen, Daniel

    2013-11-01

    Careful modulation of training characteristics in high-level sports optimizes performance and avoids inappropriate workloads and associated sports injury risk. The aims of this study were to compare sport participation characteristics in different youth sport categories and to investigate their relationship with injury. Prospective cohort follow-up. Young (12-19 years) high-level athletes (n=154) from a regional sport school were followed during 41 weeks regarding sport participation characteristics and traumatic and overuse sports injuries (time-loss definition). All data were self-recorded by the athletes in an electronic system "TIPPS" (Training and Injury Prevention Platform for Sports) and subject to a systematic data quality control. Volume and intensity (self-rated perceived exertion) of each sport session were used to compute weekly load, monotony and strain. Sport categories were defined as team, racket, and individual sports. All sport participation characteristics were dependent on sport category (psports were associated with lower injury risk (HR=0.37 and 0.34, p=0.001 and psports. Average sport participation characteristics were not related to injury according to the survival analysis. However, intensity during the week prior to injury was significantly higher (psport participation pattern and injury risk in young athletes. The monitoring method was sensitive to variations according to pertinent variables and might help identify athletes with increased sports injury risk. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Anterior cruciate ligament injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haim, Amir; Pritsch, Tamir; Yosepov, Lior; Arbel, Ron

    2006-03-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are common, especially in young individuals who participate in sports activities associated with pivoting, decelerating and jumping. About 70% of ACL injuries do not result from direct contact. Establishing risk factors is important for prevention strategies. Risk factors for ACL injuries include environmental factors (e.g. high level of friction between shoes and the playing surface) and anatomical factors (e.g. narrow femoral intercondylar notch and increased joint laxity). History taking and physical examination provide the basis for diagnosis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is highly sensitive and specific and provides information about associated injuries such as meniscal tears. ACL-injury leads to knee instability which is associated with both acute dysfunction and long-term degenerative changes, such as osteoarthritis and meniscal damage. Surgical treatment of ACL-tears is effective in regard to short term rehabilitation but does not necessarily alter the natural course of this injury and its long-term complications. Therefore, surgical treatment should be reserved primarily for young individuals and for those who are high risk for ACL injury. ACL reconstruction is the standard surgery; however, a wide variety of reconstruction procedures is available and a gold standard procedure has not been defined. Nevertheless, arthroscopic reconstruction with either bone-patellar tendon-bone or a hamstring tendon graft is the most widely used method. Surgical timing is important. Early surgical intervention (i.e. within 4 weeks of injury) might increase complications.

  4. Increased risk of injury following red and yellow cards, injuries and goals in FIFA World Cups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryynänen, Jaakko; Dvorak, Jiri; Peterson, Lars; Kautiainen, Hannu; Karlsson, Jón; Junge, Astrid; Börjesson, Mats

    2013-10-01

    To study the relationship between potentially game-disrupting incidents (PGDIs; red and yellow cards, goals and injuries) and the injury incidence in football. Prospective injury surveillance during three FIFA World Cups in 2002, 2006 and 2010. Official match statistics were obtained for all the matches played in the three tournaments. 2002, 2006 and 2010 FIFA World Cups. Team physicians at the 2002, 2006 and 2010 FIFA World Cups. Injury incidences and incidence rate ratios (IRRs). The injury incidence was significantly higher during match periods within the minute of, or during a five-minute period following a yellow card, red card, another injury or a goal (PGDIs) than during other match periods (76.7/1000 match hours; 95% CI (66.6 to 87.9) vs 54.0/1000 match hours (46.9 to 61.9), p<0.001). There were significant differences in injury incidence between different match periods, with the highest injury incidence seen in the last 15 min of the first half (p<0.001). The PGDIs (other than injury) had a tendency to increase towards the end of the game and the most frequent PGDI was a yellow card. There was a risk ratio of 1.17 (95% CI 1.08 to 1.26) for injury, per PGDI (other injuries excluded) (p<0.001), and 1.15 (95% CI 1.06 to 1.24) after adjusted match time (p<0.001). The injury incidence is high within the five minutes following a PGDI. For both team management and players, being aware of the increased risk of injury directly after a PGDI may be of clinical relevance, as it may enable them to take precautions in order to prevent injuries. There are significant differences in injury incidence between different match periods and game-related factors, such as PGDIs, appear partly to contribute to this variation.

  5. Injury risk evaluation in sport climbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhof, A; Hennig, F F; Schöffl, I; Schöffl, V

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify and rate acute sport climbing injuries. Acute sport climbing injuries occurring from 2002 to 2006 were retrospectively assessed with a standardized web based questionnaire. A total number of 1962 climbers reported 699 injuries, which is equivalent to 0.2 injuries per 1 000 h of sport participation. Most (74.4%) of the injuries were of minor severity rated NACA I or NACA II. Injury distribution between the upper (42.6%) and lower extremities (41.3%) was similar, with ligament injuries, contusions and fractures being the most common injury types. Years of climbing experience (pclimbing time per week during summer (pclimbing experience (pclimbing level (pclimbing was lower than in previous studies on general rock climbing and higher than in studies on indoor climbing. In order to perform inter-study comparisons of future studies on climbing injuries, the use of a systematic and standardized scoring system (UIAA score) is essential. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Brief report: Behavioral risk factors for youth soccer (football) injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwebel, David C; Banaszek, Mark M; McDaniel, McCall

    2007-05-01

    By most reports, soccer (football) is among the most played and most popular sports in the world. This study prospectively examined behavioral risk factors for youth soccer injury. Sixty 11- and 12-year-old boys who played on six teams in a suburban recreational soccer league were followed over the course of a season. Six predictors were assessed prior to the start of the season via self-report measures from coaches, parents, and the players themselves: inhibition, aggression, risk-taking, skill, experience playing soccer, and physical size. All games were videotaped, and tapes were reviewed to record players' collisions with other players, fouls, falls during the course of play, and injuries. Greater skill and less experience playing soccer best predicted injury risk. Inhibition, aggression, and risk-taking did not emerge as predictors. Results are discussed with respect to previous research in youth sport and general pediatric injury risk.

  7. Cyclists' clothing and reduced risk of injury in crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rome, Liz; Boufous, Soufiane; Georgeson, Thomas; Senserrick, Teresa; Ivers, Rebecca

    2014-12-01

    A majority of cyclists' hospital presentations involve relatively minor soft tissue injuries. This study investigated the role of clothing in reducing the risk of cyclists' injuries in crashes. Adult cyclists were recruited and interviewed through hospital emergency departments in the Australian Capital Territory. This paper focuses on 202 who had crashed in transport related areas. Eligible participants were interviewed and their self-reported injuries corroborated with medical records. The association between clothing worn and injury was examined using logistic regression while controlling for potential confounders of injury. A high proportion of participants were wearing helmets (89%) and full cover footwear (93%). Fewer wore long sleeved tops (43%), long pants (33%), full cover gloves (14%) or conspicuity aids (34%). The primary cause of injury for the majority of participants (76%) was impact with the ground. Increased likelihood of arm injuries (Adj. OR=2.06, 95%CI: 1.02-4.18, p=0.05) and leg injuries (Adj. OR=3.37, 95%CI: 1.42-7.96, p=0.01) were associated with wearing short rather than long sleeves and pants. Open footwear was associated with increased risk of foot or ankle injuries (Adj. OR=6.21, 95%CI: 1.58-23.56, p=0.01) compared to enclosed shoes. Bare hands were associated with increased likelihood of cuts, lacerations or abrasion injuries (Adj. OR=4.62, 95%CI: 1.23-17.43, p=0.02) compared to wearing full cover gloves. There were no significant differences by fabric types such as Lycra/synthetic, natural fiber or leather. Clothing that fully covers a cyclist's body substantially reduced the risk of injuries in a crash. Coverage of skin was more important than fabric type. Further work is necessary to determine if targeted campaigns can improve cyclists' clothing choices and whether impact protection can further reduce injury risk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Occupational injury risk in the shoe industry: frequency, types of injuries and equipment involved, improvement interventions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tognon, Ilaria Desirée

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the work has been to evaluate the risk of injuries connected to the use of machinery and work tools in the footwear industry. The analysis of the data related to injuries in the footwear industry, deduced from the registers of injuries collected in the investigated factories, shows that most accidents arise from the contact of the operator's hands with tools and machinery parts during their use. Risk factors generally include the inherent specific danger of some work tools and machines, the lack or inadequacy of safety devices, the obsolescence of the equipment, the imprudence and underestimation of risk.

  9. Teens' Knowledge of Risk Factors for Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Cynthia W.

    2004-01-01

    Youth participation in sports has increased greatly over the past 20 years. Consequently, there has been a rise in the number of sports injuries. A study was conducted to determine teen's level of physical activity, knowledge about risk factors for sports injuries, use of protective equipment, and parental involvement. Two groups of teens, one of…

  10. Injuries in epilepsy: a review of its prevalence, risk factors, type of injuries and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Tellez-Zenteno

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there is intense clinical research into various aspects of the medical risks relating to epilepsy, including total and cause-specific mortality, accidents and injuries in patients with epilepsy and mortality related with seizures. Seizures occurring in precarious situations and resulting in injuries are still an important concern for patients with epilepsy, their employers and their caregivers. Submersion injuries, motor vehicle accidents, burns, and head injuries are among the most feared epilepsy-related injuries. These concerns seem valid because the hallmark of epilepsy, episodic impairment of consciousness and motor control, may occur during interictal EEG epileptiform discharges, even in the absence of a clinical seizure. In addition, psychomotor comorbidity and side effects of antiepileptic drugs may contribute to the risk of injuries in patients with epilepsy. Published risk factors for injuries include the number of antiepileptic drugs, history of generalized seizures, and seizure frequency. In general, epidemiological information about incidence of injuries has been conflicting and sparse. In general, studies focusing on populations with more severe forms of epilepsy tend to report substantially higher risks of injuries than those involving less selected populations. On the other hand, studies based on non-selected populations of people with epilepsy have not shown an increased frequency of injuries in people with epilepsy compared with the general population. Some studies have shown that patients with epilepsy are more frequently admitted to the hospital following an injury. Possible explanations include: more cautious attitude of clinicians toward injuries occurring in the setting of seizures; hospitalization required because of seizures and not to the injuries themselves; and hospitalization driven by other issues, such as comorbidities, which are highly prevalent in patients with epilepsy. Potentially the high rate of

  11. Ski and snowboard school programs: Injury surveillance and risk factors for grade-specific injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sran, R; Djerboua, M; Romanow, N; Mitra, T; Russell, K; White, K; Goulet, C; Emery, C; Hagel, B

    2017-12-19

    The objective of our study was to evaluate incidence rates and profile of school program ski and snowboard-related injuries by school grade group using a historical cohort design. Injuries were identified via Accident Report Forms completed by ski patrollers. Severe injury was defined as those with ambulance evacuation or recommending patient transport to hospital. Poisson regression analysis was used to examine the school grade group-specific injury rates adjusting for risk factors (sex, activity, ability, and socioeconomic status) and accounting for the effect of clustering by school. Forty of 107 (37%) injuries reported were severe. Adolescents (grades 7-12) had higher crude injury rates (91 of 10 000 student-days) than children (grades 1-3: 25 of 10 000 student-days; grades 4-6: 65 of 10 000 student-days). Those in grades 1-3 had no severe injuries. Although the rate of injury was lower in grades 1-3, there were no statistically significant grade group differences in adjusted analyses. Snowboarders had a higher rate of injury compared with skiers, while higher ability level was protective. Participants in grades 1-3 had the lowest crude and adjusted injury rates. Students in grades 7-12 had the highest rate of overall and severe injuries. These results will inform evidence-based guidelines for school ski/snowboard program participation by school-aged children. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Retrospective Injury Epidemiology and Risk Factors for Injury in CrossFit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalvo, Alicia M; Shaefer, Hilary; Rodriguez, Belinda; Li, Tan; Epnere, Katrina; Myer, Gregory D

    2017-03-01

    The objective of the study is to examine injury epidemiology and risk factors for injury in CrossFit athletes. A survey was administered to athletes at four owner-operated facilities in South Florida. Respondents reported number, location of injury, and training exposure from the preceding six months and answered questions regarding potential risk factors for injury. Fifty out of 191 athletes sustained 62 injuries during CrossFit participation in the preceding six months. The most frequently injured locations were the shoulder, knee, and lower back. Injury incidence was 2.3/1000 athlete training hours. Competitors were more likely to be injured (40% v 19%, p = 0.002) and had greater weekly athlete training hours (7.3 ± 7.0 v 4.9 ± 2.9, p CrossFit and location of injuries were similar to those previously reported. Injury incidence was similar to related sports, including gymnastics and powerlifting. While being a competitor was related to injury, increased exposure and length of participation in CrossFit likely underlied this association. Specifically, increased exposure to training in the form of greater weekly athlete training hours and weekly participations may contribute to injury. Increased height and body mass were also related to injury which is likely reflective of increased load utilized during training. Further research is warranted to determine if biomechanical factors associated with greater height and ability to lift greater loads are modifiable factors that can be adapted to reduce the increase risk of injury during CrossFit.

  13. Pain on Functional Movement Screen Tests and Injury Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushman, Timothy T; Grier, Tyson L; Canham-Chervak, Michelle C; Anderson, Morgan K; North, William J; Jones, Bruce H

    2015-11-01

    The Functional Movement Screen (FMS) is a tool intended to evaluate limitations or asymmetries of movement to detect individuals at risk for exercise- and sports-related injury. The purpose was to determine the association and predictive value of specific FMS tests with injury risk in physically active men. Soldiers aged 18-57 years completed the FMS (n = 2,476). Demographic and fitness data were collected by survey. Medical record data for any, overuse, and traumatic injury 6 months after the assessment were obtained. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value were calculated along with receiver operator characteristics to determine area under the curve (AUC). Risks, risk ratios, odds ratios (ORs), and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to assess injury risks. Multivariate logistic regression identified that pain on 5 of the 7 tests was associated with greater risk for any injury (OR = 1.50-3.51): deep squat, hurdle step, in-line lunge, trunk stability push-up, and rotary stability. However, FMS registered low sensitivity, PPV, and AUC for all 7 tests for the 3 injury types (2-24% sensitivity, 16-74% PPV, and 50-58% AUC). Although the presence of pain was associated with a higher risk of injury on 5 tests, a low sensitivity, PPV, and AUC were displayed. Therefore, caution is advised when implementing the FMS as a screening tool in an Army or similarly active population as it could lead to prevention and treatment resources being directed toward individuals who are not at greater risk for injury.

  14. The effects of therapeutic application of heat or cold followed by static stretch on hamstring muscle length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, B F; Waring, C A; Brashear, T A

    1995-05-01

    Hamstring stretching is an important part of treatment programs aimed at decreasing the likelihood of hamstring injury. Few studies have examined the use of superficial thermal modalities in conjunction with hamstring stretching. The purpose of this study was to determine if the application of a superficial heating or cooling modality, followed by static stretch, increased the efficacy of static stretching of the hamstring muscles. This study examined 12 male and 12 female subjects, ages 18-38. All subjects received each of the following treatments: heat followed by static stretch, cold followed by static stretch, and static stretch alone. Each treatment was separated by at least 1 week. Pre- and post-treatment measurements of hamstring length were obtained using the Active-Knee-Extension (AKE) test. The data were analyzed via a 2 x 3 analysis of variance experimental design. Results indicated that there was an increase in hamstring length regardless of stretch treatment used, with F(1,23) = 35.49, p stretch treatments, F stretching can occur without the use of a superficial thermal modality.

  15. Women in agriculture: risk and injury experiences on family farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruth, A K; Skarke, L; Moffett, B; Prestholdt, C

    2001-01-01

    To determine the one-year incidence of nonfatal farm injuries among women actively engaged in farm work; to determine the distribution of these injuries by external cause, severity, and other characteristics; and to determine the potential risk factors for injuries among farm women. A population-based study of the occurrence of agricultural injuries during the previous year was conducted in a stratified, random sample of 1096 actively working farm women in Texas and Louisiana. Sampling pools were generated from county plat listings in Texas and maintained mailing lists in Louisiana; counties were selected based on geographical and agricultural diversity. Eligible women were interviewed by phone about injury occurrences and patterns. The cumulative one-year incidence of farm injuries for women in this area was 5% (95% CI = 3.7-6.3), based on the number of farm women injured. Lower extremities were the most frequently injured body parts. The leading external causes were contact with foreign object/substance, falls, and overdoing/lifting/hauling. Most injuries occurred in the summer or spring. Factors predictive of increased injury risk in adjusted logistic regression included working on large-animal farms, more time spent in farm work, persistent back pain or weakness during the previous 12 months, driving a tractor, and hauling farm goods to market. Most women consulted physicians as a result of their injuries. Physicians are in a unique position to institute interventions to prevent risky behaviors.

  16. Musculoskeletal Lower Limb Injury Risk in Army Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Kimberley A; Grimshaw, Paul N; Kelso, Richard M; Bentley, David J

    Injuries are common within military populations, with high incidence rates well established in the literature. Injuries cause a substantial number of working days lost, a significant cost through compensation claims and an increased risk of attrition. In an effort to address this, a considerable amount of research has gone into identifying the most prevalent types of injury and their associated risk factors. Collective evidence suggests that training and equipment contribute to a large proportion of the injuries sustained. In particular, the large loads borne by soldiers, the high intensity training programs and the influence of footwear have been identified as significant causative factors of lower limb injury in military populations. A number of preventative strategies have been developed within military bodies around the world to address these issues. The relative success of these strategies is highly variable; however, with advancements in technology, new approaches will become available and existing strategies may become more effective.

  17. Relationship between balance ability, training and sports injury risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrysomallis, Con

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally, balance training has been used as part of the rehabilitation programme for ankle injuries. More recently, balance training has been adopted to try and prevent injuries to the ankle and knee joints during sport. The purpose of this review is to synthesise current knowledge in the area of balance ability, training and injury risk, highlight the findings and identify any future research needs. A number of studies have found that poor balance ability is significantly related to an increased risk of ankle injuries in different activities. This relationship appears to be more common in males than females. Multifaceted intervention studies that have included balance training along with jumping, landing and agility exercises have resulted in a significant decrease in ankle or knee injuries in team handball, volleyball and recreational athletes. It is unknown which component of the multifaceted intervention was most effective and whether the effects are additive. As a single intervention, balance training has been shown to significantly reduce the recurrence of ankle ligament injuries in soccer, volleyball and recreational athletes; however, it has not been clearly shown to reduce ankle injuries in athletes without a prior ankle injury. Balance training on its own has also been shown to significantly reduce anterior cruciate ligament injuries in male soccer players. Surprisingly, it was also found to be significantly associated with an increased risk of major knee injuries in female soccer players and overuse knee injuries in male and female volleyball players. The studies with the contrasting findings differed in aspects of their balance training programmes. It would appear that balance training, as a single intervention, is not as effective as when it is part of a multifaceted intervention. Research is required to determine the relative contribution of balance training to a multifaceted intervention so as to generate an effective and efficient preventative

  18. Pedestrian injury patterns and risk in minibus collisions in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kui; Fan, Xiaoxiang; Yin, Zhiyong

    2015-03-10

    The minibus, with a nearly flat front, is widely used in China, especially in the underdeveloped regions, and results in large numbers of pedestrian injuries and deaths. The purpose of this study was to determine the injury patterns and risk for pedestrians involved in these crashes. We conducted an in-depth investigation of minibus/pedestrian accidents in Chongqing, China, occurring between September 2000 and April 2014. The enrolled pedestrians was classified into 3 groups: young (aged 14-44 years), middle-aged (aged 45-59 years), and elderly (aged over 60 years). Pedestrian injuries were coded according to the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS). A total of 109 pedestrians, with an average age of 55.7±16.2 years, were injured or killed--30.3% were young, 23.9% were middle-aged, and 45.9% were elderly. Pedestrians hit by a minibus had a high proportion of head, chest, and extremity injuries--84.4%, 50.5%, and 52.3%, respectively. In addition, impact speeds in excess of 75 km/h all ultimately resulted in fatalities. At an impact speed of 30 km/h, the risk of pedestrian fatality and AIS3+ injury are approximately 12.0% and 37.2%, respectively. At 50 km/h the risks are 65.2% and 96.9%, respectively, and at 70 km/h the risks are 96.3% and 99.9%, respectively. A higher likelihood of chest injury was associated with being older and impact speed of over 40 km/h in minibus/pedestrian collision. Our data suggest that the injury patterns of pedestrians in minibus collisions differ from that in other vehicle/pedestrian collisions. These findings could contribute to better understanding of the injury patterns and risk of pedestrian in minibus collisions in China, which may play an important role in developing measures to improve traffic safety.

  19. Hamstrings stiffness and landing biomechanics linked to anterior cruciate ligament loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, J Troy; Norcross, Marc F; Cannon, Lindsey N; Zinder, Steven M

    2013-01-01

    Greater hamstrings stiffness is associated with less anterior tibial translation during controlled perturbations. However, it is unclear how hamstrings stiffness influences anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) loading mechanisms during dynamic tasks. To evaluate the influence of hamstrings stiffness on landing biomechanics related to ACL injury. Cross-sectional study. Research laboratory. A total of 36 healthy, physically active volunteers (18 men, 18 women; age = 23 ± 3 years, height = 1.8 ± 0.1 m, mass = 73.1 ± 16.6 kg). Hamstrings stiffness was quantified via the damped oscillatory technique. Three-dimensional lower extremity kinematics and kinetics were captured during a double-legged jump-landing task via a 3-dimensional motion-capture system interfaced with a force plate. Landing biomechanics were compared between groups displaying high and low hamstrings stiffness via independent-samples t tests. Hamstrings stiffness was normalized to body mass (N/m·kg(-1)). Peak knee-flexion and -valgus angles, vertical and posterior ground reaction forces, anterior tibial shear force, internal knee-extension and -varus moments, and knee-flexion angles at the instants of each peak kinetic variable were identified during the landing task. Forces were normalized to body weight, whereas moments were normalized to the product of weight and height. Internal knee-varus moment was 3.6 times smaller in the high-stiffness group (t22 = 2.221, P = .02). A trend in the data also indicated that peak anterior tibial shear force was 1.1 times smaller in the high-stiffness group (t22 = 1.537, P = .07). The high-stiffness group also demonstrated greater knee flexion at the instants of peak anterior tibial shear force and internal knee-extension and -varus moments (t22 range = 1.729-2.224, P prevention programs.

  20. Noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injuries: risk factors and prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, L Y; Agel, J; Albohm, M J; Arendt, E A; Dick, R W; Garrett, W E; Garrick, J G; Hewett, T E; Huston, L; Ireland, M L; Johnson, R J; Kibler, W B; Lephart, S; Lewis, J L; Lindenfeld, T N; Mandelbaum, B R; Marchak, P; Teitz, C C; Wojtys, E M

    2000-01-01

    An estimated 80,000 anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears occur annually in the United States. The highest incidence is in individuals 15 to 25 years old who participate in pivoting sports. With an estimated cost for these injuries of almost a billion dollars per year, the ability to identify risk factors and develop prevention strategies has widespread health and fiscal importance. Seventy percent of ACL injuries occur in noncontact situations. The risk factors for non-contact ACL injuries fall into four distinct categories: environmental, anatomic, hormonal, and biomechanical. Early data on existing neuromuscular training programs suggest that enhancing body control may decrease ACL injuries in women. Further investigation is needed prior to instituting prevention programs related to the other risk factors.

  1. Neck injury criteria formulation and injury risk curves for the ejection environment: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Jeffrey C; Miller, Michael E; Pellettiere, Joseph A; Erich, Roger A

    2013-12-01

    Helmet mounted displays provide increased pilot capability, but can also increase the risk of injury during ejection. The National Highway Transportation Safety Administration's (NHTSA's) neck injury criteria (Nij) metric is evaluated for understanding the impact of helmet mass on the risk of injury and modified risk curves are developed which are compatible with the needs of the aviation community. Existent human subject data collected under various accelerative and head loading conditions were applied to understand the sensitivity of the Nij construct to changes in acceleration and helmet mass, as well as its stability with respect to gender, body mass, neck circumference, and sitting height. A portion of this data was combined with data from an earlier postmortem human subject study to create pilot study modified risk curves. These curves were compared and contrasted with the NHTSA risk curves. A statistically significant difference in the peak mean Nij was observed when seat acceleration increased by 2 G, but not when helmet mass was varied from 1.6 kg to 2 kg at a constant seat acceleration of 8 G. Although NHTSA risk curves predict a 13% risk of AIS 2+ injury for the 8-G, 2-kg helmet condition mean Nij of 0.138, no AIS 2+ injuries were observed. Modified risk curves were produced which predict a 0.91% risk of AIS 2+ injury under these conditions. The Nij was shown to be sensitive to changes in acceleration and generally robust to anthropometric differences between individuals. Modified risk curves are proposed which improve risk prediction at lower Nij values.

  2. Self-Mobilization Using a Foam Roller Versus a Roller Massager: Which Is More Effective for Increasing Hamstrings Flexibility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBruyne, Danielle M; Dewhurst, Marina M; Fischer, Katelyn M; Wojtanowski, Michael S; Durall, Chris

    2017-01-01

    Clinical Scenario: Increasing the length of the muscle-tendon unit may prevent musculotendinous injury. Various methods have been proposed to increase muscle-tendon flexibility, including self-mobilization using foam rollers or roller massagers, although the effectiveness of these devices is uncertain. This review was conducted to determine if the use of foam rollers or roller massagers to improve hamstrings flexibility is supported by moderate- to high-quality evidence. Are foam rollers or roller massagers effective for increasing hamstrings flexibility in asymptomatic physically active adults? Summary of Key Findings: The literature was searched for studies on the effects of using foam rollers or roller massagers to increase hamstrings flexibility in asymptomatic physically active adults. Four randomized controlled trials were included; 2 studies provided level 2 or 3 evidence regarding foam rollers and 2 studies provided level 2 or 3 evidence regarding roller massagers. Both roller-massager studies reported increases in hamstrings flexibility after treatment. Data from the foam-roller studies did not demonstrate a statistically significant increase in hamstrings flexibility, but 1 study did demonstrate a strong effect size. Clinical Bottom Line: The reviewed moderate-quality studies support the use of roller massagers but provide limited evidence on the effectiveness of foam rolling to increase hamstrings flexibility in asymptomatic physically active adults. Flexibility gains may be improved by a longer duration of treatment and administration by a trained therapist. Gains appear to decline rapidly postrolling. Neither device has been shown to confer a therapeutic benefit superior to static stretching, and the effectiveness of these devices for preventing injury is unknown. Strength of Recommendation: Grade B evidence supports the use of roller massagers to increase hamstrings flexibility in asymptomatic physically active adults.

  3. Gestational age, birth weight, and risk for injuries in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuelian; Hsu, Paul; Vestergaard, Mogens; Christensen, Jakob; Li, Jiong; Olsen, Jørn

    2010-09-01

    Some children experience more injuries than others due to personal or environmental risk factors, or to chance. Most injury studies have focused on proximal causes; few have examined the role of neonatal characteristics such as birth weight and gestational age. We carried out a population-based cohort study of 1,524,114 singletons born in Denmark between 1 January 1978 and 31 December 2004. We obtained information on gestational age, birth weight, and injury from the Danish Medical Birth Registry and the National Hospital Register. We followed participants up to age 29 years and estimated the incidence rate ratio (IRR) of hospitalization for injury, using Poisson regression models. The risk of injury throughout childhood (mainly before 12 years of age) increased with decreasing gestational age and birth weight. The IRR of injury in the first 12 years of life was 4.2 (95% CI = 3.5-5.1), 2.3 (2.0-2.5), and 1.5 (1.3-1.6), respectively, for children born at gestational weeks 20-32, 33-36, and 37-38, compared with those born at gestational weeks 39-41. The IRR was 4.0 (3.4-4.6), 2.5 (2.1-2.8), and 1.4 (1.3-1.6) for children with a birth weight less than 2000 g, 2000-2499 g, and 2500-2999 g, compared with children of 3000-3999 g. Birth weight was also associated with increased risks of injury after adjusting for gestational age. Children born with adverse neonatal conditions have a marked increased risk of injury. This suggests an opportunity to identify children who may benefit from injury prevention. More research is needed to identify the causal pathways driving these associations.

  4. [Risk factors for road traffic injury in agricultural vehicle drivers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, M J; Chen, Y; Li, Y; Hu, J; Zhang, X J

    2017-08-20

    Objective: To examine the risk factors for road traffic injury in agricultural vehicle drivers. Methods: A total of 103 drivers (who had suffered agricultural vehicle road traffic injury within the past year based on the road traffic injury registrar from the Traffic Management Bureau) who were involved in the annual agricultural vehicle inspection from December 2014 to January 2015 were randomly sampled from the Yixing Agricultural Vehicle Station as the case group for this study. Based on a 1∶2 assignment ratio and matched for sex, age, and education, a total of 206 drivers who had not suffered any agricultural vehicle road traffic injury within the past year were selected as the control group. The general information, vehicle information, driving information, driving behavior, and accident details of the agricultural vehicle drivers were analyzed. Results: The incidence rate of road traffic injury was 7.24% given the 103 agricultural vehicle drivers who had suffered agricultural vehicle road traffic injury in the past year. Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that drinking, debt, pressure, history of car accident, history of drunk driving, smoking and phone use during driving, fatigue driving, and driving with illness were the risk factors for road traffic injury in agricultural vehicle drivers (OR=2.332, 2.429, 19.778, 5.589, 8.517, 2.125, 3.203, 10.249 and 5.639, respectively) . Multivariate logistic regression analysis also demonstrated that pressure, history of car accident, history of drunk driving, fatigue driving, and driving with illness were the risk factors for road traffic injury in agricultural vehicle drivers (OR=12.139, 11.184, 6.729, 5.939, and 6.544, respectively) . Conclusion: Pressure, history of car accident, history of drunk driving, fatigue driving, and driving with illness are the major risk factors for road traffic injury in agricultural vehicle drivers.

  5. Retrospective Injury Epidemiology and Risk Factors for Injury in CrossFit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia M. Montalvo, Hilary Shaefer, Belinda Rodriguez, Tan Li, Katrina Epnere, Gregory D. Myer

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to examine injury epidemiology and risk factors for injury in CrossFit athletes. A survey was administered to athletes at four owner-operated facilities in South Florida. Respondents reported number, location of injury, and training exposure from the preceding six months and answered questions regarding potential risk factors for injury. Fifty out of 191 athletes sustained 62 injuries during CrossFit participation in the preceding six months. The most frequently injured locations were the shoulder, knee, and lower back. Injury incidence was 2.3/1000 athlete training hours. Competitors were more likely to be injured (40% v 19%, p = 0.002 and had greater weekly athlete training hours (7.3 ± 7.0 v 4.9 ± 2.9, p < 0.001 than non-competitors. Athletes who reported injury also reported significantly higher values for the following risk factors: years of participation (2.7 ± 1.8 v 1.8 ± 1.5, p = 0.001, weekly athlete training hours (7.3 ± 3.8 v 4.9 ± 2.1, p = 0.020, weekly athlete-exposures (6.4 ± 3.8 v 4.7 ± 2.1, p = 0.003, height (1.72 ± 0.09 m v 1.68 ± 0.01 m, p = 0.011, and body mass (78.24 ± 16.86 kg v 72.91 ± 14.77 kg, p = 0.037. Injury rates during CrossFit and location of injuries were similar to those previously reported. Injury incidence was similar to related sports, including gymnastics and powerlifting. While being a competitor was related to injury, increased exposure and length of participation in CrossFit likely underlied this association. Specifically, increased exposure to training in the form of greater weekly athlete training hours and weekly participations may contribute to injury. Increased height and body mass were also related to injury which is likely reflective of increased load utilized during training. Further research is warranted to determine if biomechanical factors associated with greater height and ability to lift greater loads are modifiable factors that can be adapted to reduce

  6. The proximal hamstring muscle–tendon–bone unit: A review of the normal anatomy, biomechanics, and pathophysiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltran, Luis, E-mail: luisbeltran@mac.com [Department of Radiology, Hospital for Joint Diseases, NYU, New York, NY (United States); Ghazikhanian, Varand, E-mail: varandg@aol.com [Department of Radiology, Maimonides Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY (United States); Padron, Mario, E-mail: mario.padron@cemtro.es [Clinica CEMTRO, Avenida del Ventisquero de la Condesa 42, 28035 Madrid (Spain); Beltran, Javier, E-mail: Jbeltran46@msn.com [Department of Radiology, Maimonides Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Proximal hamstring injuries occur during eccentric contraction with the hip and the knee on extension; hence they are relatively frequent lesions in specific sports such as water skiing and hurdle jumping. Additionally, the trend toward increasing activity and fitness training in the general population has resulted in similar injuries. Myotendinous strains are more frequent than avulsion injuries. Discrimination between the two types of lesions is relevant for patient management, since the former is treated conservatively and the latter surgically. MRI and Ultrasonography are both well suited techniques for the diagnosis and evaluation of hamstring tendon injuries. Each one has its advantages and disadvantages. The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of the anatomy and biomechanics of the proximal hamstring muscle–tendon–bone unit and the varied imaging appearances of hamstring injury, which is vital for optimizing patient care. This will enable the musculoskeletal radiologist to contribute accurate and useful information in the treatment of athletes at all levels of participation.

  7. Muscle and intensity based hamstring exercise classification in elite female track and field athletes: implications for exercise selection during rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsaklis P

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Panagiotis Tsaklis,1,2 Nikos Malliaropoulos,3–5,10 Jurdan Mendiguchia,6 Vasileios Korakakis,7–9 Kyriakos Tsapralis,11 Debasish Pyne,5 Peter Malliaras101Department of Physiotherapy, Laboratory of Biomechanics and Ergonomics, Alexander Technological Educational Institute of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece; 2Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bioengineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA; 3National Track and Field Centre, Sports Injury Clinic, Sports Medicine Clinic of SEGAS, 4Thessaloniki Sports Medicine Clinic, Thessaloniki, Greece; 5Rheumatology Department, Sports Medicine Clinic, Mile End Hospital, London, UK; 6Department of Physical Therapy, Zentrum Rehabilitation and Performance Center, Pamplona, Spain; 7Aspetar, Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital, Doha, Qatar; 8Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Science, University of Thessaly, Trikala, 9Hellenic Orthopaedic Manipulative Therapy Diploma, Athens, Greece; 10Centre for Sports and Exercise Medicine, Queen Mary, University of London, London, UK; 11K Tsapralis Isokinetic Medical Group, Bologna, ItalyBackground: Hamstring injuries are common in many sports, including track and field. Strains occur in different parts of the hamstring muscle but very little is known about whether common hamstring loading exercises specifically load different hamstring components. The purpose of this study was to investigate muscle activation of different components of the hamstring muscle during common hamstring loading exercises.Methods: Twenty elite female track and field athletes were recruited into this study, which had a single-sample, repeated-measures design. Each athlete performed ten hamstring loading exercises, and an electromyogram (EMG was recorded from the biceps femoris and semitendinosus components of the hamstring. Hamstring EMG during maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC was used to normalize the mean data across ten repetitions of each

  8. The effect of fatigue and velocity on the relative timing of hamstring activation in relation to quadriceps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbaszadeh-Amirdehi, Maryam; Khademi-Kalantari, Khosro; Talebian, Saeed; Rezasoltani, Asghar; Hadian, Mohammad Reza

    2012-10-01

    Inter-muscular coordination has an important role in proper function and prevention of injuries in the knee joint. The purpose of this study was to characterize the effect of velocity and fatigue on the relative activation onset of hamstring to quadriceps muscles during knee extension. Thirty one healthy and non-athletic volunteers (24 women, 7 men) were recruited for the study. The onset time of vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, medial and lateral hamstring were measured during maximum voluntary extension of the knee joint at velocities of 45° /s, 150° /s & 300° /s before and after fatigue and the mean delay onset of all pairs of H-Q were measured. A two-way repeated measures ANOVA test was used to compare across the mean delayed onset of hamstring related to quadriceps muscles at various velocities. Hamstring muscle showed a delayed activation related to quadriceps and increasing the velocity of shortening has a prominent effect on the inter-muscular coordination with early activation of hamstring related to quadriceps muscles (F = 6.7, p muscles to over strain and possible injuries. The main effect of fatigue condition and its interaction with velocity however, showed statistically nonsignificant result. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Risk of injury by driving with alcohol and other drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hels, Tove; Bernhoft, Inger Marie; Lyckegaard, Allan

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this deliverable is to assess the risk of driving with alcohol, illicit drugs and medicines in various European countries. In total nine countries participated in the study on relative risk of serious injury/fatality while positive for psychoactive substances. Six countries contr...

  10. Risk of severe driver injury by driving with psychoactive substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hels, Tove; Lyckegaard, Allan; Bernhoft, Inger Marie

    2013-01-01

    Driving with alcohol and other psychoactive substances imposes an increased risk of severe injury accidents. In a population-based case-control design, the relative risks of severe driver injury (MAIS ≥ 2) by driving with ten substance groups were approximated by odds ratios (alcohol, amphetamines...... (N = 2490) were collected from severely injured drivers of passenger cars or vans in selected hospitals in various regions of the countries. Control samples (N = 15,832) were sampled in a uniform sampling scheme stratified according to country, time, road type and season. Relative risks were...... driver injury with increasing age. It is concluded that among psychoactive substances alcohol still poses the largest problem in terms of driver risk of getting injured. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  11. A Randomised, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Neurodynamic Sliders on Hamstring Responses in Footballers with Hamstring Tightness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areeudomwong, Pattanasin; Oatyimprai, Ketsarakon; Pathumb, Saranchana

    2016-11-01

    Neurodynamics intervention is known to increase apparent muscle extensibility, but information regarding hamstring responses after a neurodynamic sliders (NS) technique is scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of NS on apparent hamstring extensibility and activity in footballers with hamstring tightness. Forty eligible healthy male footballers with hamstring tightness were each randomly allocated to either a 4-week NS technique or a control group (CG) receiving placebo shortwave intervention. Knee extension angles were measured with the passive knee extension test, and maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) of hamstrings was measured by a surface electromyography at baseline and after intervention sessions. The results showed that NS produced a statistically and clinically significant increase in knee extension angle compared to CG (P technique improved apparent hamstring extensibility but did not change the hamstring activity in footballers with hamstring tightness.

  12. Risk of Neurological Injuries in Spinal Deformity Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Julian J H; Curtis, Mary; Carter, Emma; Cowan, Joseph; Lehovsky, Jan

    2016-06-01

    A retrospective study. Rate of neurological injuries is widely reported for spinal deformity surgery. However, few have included the influence of the subtypes and severity of the deformity, or anterior versus posterior corrections. The purpose of this study is to quantify these risks. The risk of neurological injuries was examined in a single institution. Quantification of risk was made between operations, and for different subtypes of spinal deformity. Prospectively entered neuromonitoring database between 2006 and 2012 was interrogated, including all deformity cases under 21 years of age. Tumor, fracture, infection, and revision cases were excluded. All major changes in monitoring ("red alerts") were identified and detailed examinations of the neuromonitoring records, clinical notes, and radiographs were made. Diagnosis, deformity severity, and operative details were recorded. Of 2291 deformity operations, there were 2068 scoliosis (1636 idiopathic, 204 neuromuscular, 216 syndromic, 12 others), 89 kyphosis, 54 growing rod procedures, and 80 operations for hemivertebra. Six hundred ninety-six anterior and 1363 posterior operations were performed for scoliosis (nine not recorded), and 38 anterior and 51 posterior kyphosis corrections. Sixty-seven "red alerts" were identified (62 posterior, five anterior). Average Cobb angle was 88°. There were 14 transient and six permanent neurological injuries. One permanent injury was sustained during kyphosis correction and five during scoliosis correction. Common surgeon reactions after "red alerts" were surgical pause with anesthetic interventions (n = 39) and the Stagnara wake-up test (n = 22). Metalwork was partially removed in 20, revised in 12, and completely removed in nine. Thirteen procedures were abandoned. The overall risk of permanent neurological injury was 0.2%. The highest risk groups were posterior corrections for kyphosis, and scoliosis associated with a syndrome. Four percent of all posterior

  13. Is depression a risk factor for meatpacking injuries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lander, Lina; Sorock, Gary S; Smith, Lynette M; Stentz, Terry L; Kim, Seung-Sup; Mittleman, Murray A; Perry, Melissa J

    2015-01-01

    While meatpacking is a physically demanding industry, the effect of depression on risks for injury has not been studied. To assess depressive disorders (major depression and dysthymia) using a validated screening tool administered to injured and uninjured meatpacking workers in two Midwestern plants. Matched case-control analyses were conducted among 134 workers to evaluate the association between depressive disorder and the occurrence of laceration injury. Of the 268 workers, 13.8% screened positive for depressive disorder, whereas the general population prevalence estimate for depressive disorder using the same tool was 3.4% . Depressive disorder was not associated with an increased risk for injury; 17% of cases who experienced a laceration injury and 15% of uninjured controls reported depressive disorder (OR 0.81, 95% CI: 0.39-1.69). Evaluation of depression causes among meatpacking workers is needed to elucidate prevention and treatment strategies.

  14. Injury prevention risk communication: A mental models approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austin, Laurel Cecelia; Fischhoff, Baruch

    2012-01-01

    Individuals' decisions and behaviour can play a critical role in determining both the probability and severity of injury. Behavioural decision research studies peoples' decision-making processes in terms comparable to scientific models of optimal choices, providing a basis for focusing interventi......Individuals' decisions and behaviour can play a critical role in determining both the probability and severity of injury. Behavioural decision research studies peoples' decision-making processes in terms comparable to scientific models of optimal choices, providing a basis for focusing...... interventions on the most critical opportunities to reduce risks. That research often seeks to identify the ‘mental models’ that underlie individuals' interpretations of their circumstances and the outcomes of possible actions. In the context of injury prevention, a mental models approach would ask why people...... and uses examples to discuss how the approach can be used to develop scientifically validated context-sensitive injury risk communications....

  15. Can child injury prevention include healthy risk promotion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brussoni, Mariana; Brunelle, Sara; Pike, Ian; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Herrington, Susan; Turner, Heather; Belair, Scott; Logan, Louise; Fuselli, Pamela; Ball, David J

    2015-01-01

    To reflect on the role of risk-taking and risky play in child development and consider recommendations for the injury prevention field, a symposium was held prior to the November 2013 Canadian Injury Prevention and Safety Promotion Conference. Delegates heard from Canadian and international researchers, practitioners and play safety experts on child development, play space design and playground safety, provision of recreation, and legal and societal perceptions of risk and hazard. The presenters provided multidisciplinary evidence and perspectives indicating the potential negative effect on children's development of approaches to injury prevention that prioritise safety and limit children's opportunities for risky play. Delegates considered the state of the field of injury prevention and whether alternative approaches were warranted. Each presenter prepared a discussion paper to provide the opportunity for dialogue beyond attendees at the symposium. The resulting discussion papers provide a unique opportunity to consider and learn from multiple perspectives in order to develop a path forward. PMID:25535208

  16. Days to Return to Participation After a Hamstrings Strain Among American Collegiate Soccer Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Kevin M.; Saliba, Susan A.; Conaway, Mark; Gurka, Kelly K.; Hertel, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Context Among US collegiate soccer players, the incidence rate and the event characteristics of hamstrings strains differ between sexes, but comparisons in the return-to-participation (RTP) time have not been reported. Objective To compare the RTP time between male and female collegiate soccer players and analyze the influence of event characteristics on the RTP time for each sex. Design Descriptive epidemiology study. Setting Data were collected from collegiate teams that voluntarily participated in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance System. Patients or Other Participants Collegiate soccer athletes who sustained 507 hamstrings strains (306 men, 201 women) during the 2004 through 2009 fall seasons. Main Outcome Measure(s) Nonparametric statistics were used to evaluate RTP time differences between sexes and among categories of each event characteristic (ie, time of season, practice or competition, player position). Negative binomial regression was used to model the RTP time for each sex. All analyses were performed separately for first-time and recurrent strains. Results We found no differences in the RTP time between sexes for first-time (median: men = 7.0 days, women = 6.0 days; P = .07) or recurrent (median: men = 11 days, women = 5.5 days; P = .06) hamstrings strains. For male players with first-time strains, RTP time was increased when the strain occurred during competition or the in-season/postseason and varied depending on the division of play. Among female players with first-time strains, we found no differences in RTP time within characteristics. For male players with recurrent hamstrings strains, the RTP time was longer when the injury occurred during the in-season/postseason. Among female players with recurrent strains, RTP time was longer for forwards than for midfielders or defenders. Conclusions Although we found no differences in the RTP time after hamstrings strains in male and female collegiate soccer players, each sex

  17. Benefits and risks of anticoagulation resumption following traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Jennifer S; Liu, Xinggang; Baumgarten, Mona; Langenberg, Patricia; Rattinger, Gail B; Smith, Gordon S; Gambert, Steven R; Gottlieb, Stephen S; Zuckerman, Ilene H

    2014-08-01

    The increased risk of hemorrhage associated with anticoagulant therapy following traumatic brain injury creates a serious dilemma for medical management of older patients: Should anticoagulant therapy be resumed after traumatic brain injury, and if so, when? To estimate the risk of thrombotic and hemorrhagic events associated with warfarin therapy resumption following traumatic brain injury. Retrospective analysis of administrative claims data for Medicare beneficiaries aged at least 65 years hospitalized for traumatic brain injury during 2006 through 2009 who received warfarin in the month prior to injury (n = 10,782). Warfarin use in each 30-day period following discharge after hospitalization for traumatic brain injury. The primary outcomes were hemorrhagic and thrombotic events following discharge after hospitalization for traumatic brain injury. Hemorrhagic events were defined on inpatient claims using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes and included hemorrhagic stroke, upper gastrointestinal bleeding, adrenal hemorrhage, and other hemorrhage. Thrombotic events included ischemic stroke, pulmonary embolism, deep venous thrombosis, and myocardial infarction. A composite of hemorrhagic or ischemic stroke was a secondary outcome. Medicare beneficiaries with traumatic brain injury were predominantly female (64%) and white (92%), with a mean (SD) age of 81.3 (7.3) years, and 82% had atrial fibrillation. Over the 12 months following hospital discharge, 55% received warfarin during 1 or more 30-day periods. We examined the lagged effect of warfarin use on outcomes in the following period. Warfarin use in the prior period was associated with decreased risk of thrombotic events (relative risk [RR], 0.77 [95% CI, 0.67-0.88]) and increased risk of hemorrhagic events (RR, 1.51 [95% CI, 1.29-1.78]). Warfarin use in the prior period was associated with decreased risk of hemorrhagic or ischemic stroke (RR, 0.83 [95% CI, 0

  18. Scrum injury risk in English professional rugby union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Aileen E; Kemp, Simon; Trewartha, Grant; Stokes, Keith A

    2014-07-01

    To assess and evaluate the injury risk associated with the scrum in English professional rugby union in the 2011-2012 season. Prospective, cohort. Players at English Premiership rugby union clubs. Frequency of team scrum-events per match; incidence (injuries per 1000 player-hours; propensity (injuries/1000 events); risk (days absence per 1000 player-hours and days absence per 1000 events). 31% of scrums in competitive matches resulted in collapse. Injury incidence associated with collapsed scrum-events (incidence: 8.6 injuries/1000 scrum-events) was significantly higher than those scrums that did not collapse (incidence: 4.1/1000 scrum-events). The injury risk associated with collapsed scrum supports the continued focus on reducing scrum collapse through changes in, and strict application of, the laws surrounding the scrum. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Upper Extremity Sports Injury : Risk Factors in Comparison to Lower Extremity Injury in More Than 25 000 Cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sytema, Renee; Dekker, Rienk; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; ten Duis, Hendrik J.; van der Sluis, Corry K.

    Objective: To analyze differences in sports injury characteristics of the upper and lower extremity and to identify factors that contribute to the risk of sustaining an upper extremity injury compared with the risk of sustaining a lower extremity injury. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Setting:

  20. Risk Factors for Knee Injury in Golf: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Matthew L; Epari, Devakar R; Lorenzetti, Silvio; Sayers, Mark; Boutellier, Urs; Taylor, William R

    2017-12-01

    Golf is commonly considered a low-impact sport that carries little risk of injury to the knee and is generally allowed following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Kinematic and kinetic studies of the golf swing have reported results relevant to the knee, but consensus as to the loads experienced during a swing and how the biomechanics of an individual's technique may expose the knee to risk of injury is lacking. Our objective was to establish (1) the prevalence of knee injury resulting from participation in golf and (2) the risk factors for knee injury from a biomechanical perspective, based on an improved understanding of the internal loading conditions and kinematics that occur in the knee from the time of addressing the ball to the end of the follow-through. A systematic literature search was conducted to determine the injury rate, kinematic patterns, loading, and muscle activity of the knee during golf. A knee injury prevalence of 3-18% was established among both professional and amateur players, with no clear dependence on skill level or sex; however, older players appear at greater risk of injury. Studies reporting kinematics indicate that the lead knee is exposed to a complex series of motions involving rapid extension and large magnitudes of tibial internal rotation, conditions that may pose risks to the structures of a natural knee or TKA. To date, the loads experienced by the lead knee during a golf swing have been reported inconsistently in the literature. Compressive loads ranging from 100 to 440% bodyweight have been calculated and measured using methods including inverse dynamics analysis and instrumented knee implants. Additionally, the magnitude of loading appears to be independent of the club used. This review is the first to highlight the lack of consensus regarding knee loading during the golf swing and the associated risks of injury. Results from the literature suggest the lead knee is subject to a higher magnitude of stress and more demanding

  1. Comparison of injuries in elite senior and junior Australian football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchard, J; Wood, T; Seward, H; Broad, A

    1998-06-01

    Three thousand and thirty one AFL and 1034 injuries in the VSFL U/18 competition were recorded by club doctors over the 1992, 1993 and 1994 seasons. Hamstring strains had the highest incidence (86.4 per 10,000 player hours) and prevalence (30.2 hours missed per 1000 hours) of any injury in the AFL, but were significantly less common in the U/18 competition. Other injuries which were common in both competitions were ankle sprains, thigh haematomas, concussion, groin strains and head lacerations. Injury prevalence was higher overall in the AFL, with lower limb muscle strains (hamstring, calf, quadriceps) being significantly more prevalent than in the U/18 competition. Injuries which were significantly more prevalent in the U/18 competition included stress fractures and concussion. Subsequent to this study, coaches and medical staff in the U/18 competition were made aware of the high risk of stress fractures in young footballers with heavy training loads. The AFL injury survey is ongoing and in the process of being computerised; risk factors for specific injuries with high rates are being studied further.

  2. An anatomical and histological study of the structures surrounding the proximal attachment of the hamstring muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Bellmunt, Albert; Miguel-Pérez, Maribel; Brugué, Marc Blasi; Cabús, Juan Blasi; Casals, Martí; Martinoli, Carlo; Kuisma, Raija

    2015-06-01

    The proximal attachment of hamstring muscles has a very high incidence of injuries due to a wide number of factors and its morphology may be one of the underlying factors as scientific literature points out. The connective tissue component of the attachment of hamstring muscles is not well known. For this reason the aim of this study is to describe the anatomy and histology surrounding the proximal attachment of the hamstring muscles (PAHM) and its direct anatomic relations. Forty-eight cryopreserved lower limbs have sequentially been studied by means of dissection, anatomical sections and histology. All specimens studied presented an annular connective tissue structure that resembles a retinaculum, which covers and adapts to the attachment of hamstring muscles on the ischial tuberosity. The results show how this retinaculum is continuous with the long head of biceps femoris muscle, however there is a layer of loose connective tissue between the retinaculum and the semitendinosus muscle. Furthermore, this structure receives expansions of the anterior epimysium of the gluteus maximus muscle (GIM). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Can the hamstring muscles protect the anterior cruciate ligament during a side-cutting maneuver?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, E B; Magnusson, S P; Bencke, J; Naesborg, H; Havkrog, M; Ebstrup, J F; Sørensen, H

    2000-04-01

    Because anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are common in European handball the present study assessed knee joint shear forces to estimate ACL loading in six elite female handball players during a side-cutting maneuver. A pilot investigation in three dimensions showed that peak moments occurred in the sagittal plane at a high velocity. Therefore, analysis of the movement was performed in two dimensions using high-speed cinematography, ground reaction forces, and electromyography (EMG). Film and force plate data allowed for calculation of net joint moments (inverse dynamics), estimates of instantaneous muscle-tendon lengths, contraction velocities, and peak loading of the ACL. During the breaking phase of the maneuver the peak knee joint moment was 239 Nm (99-309), which yielded an ACL-load of 520 N (215-673). The corresponding peak EMG amplitudes for the hamstring muscles were 34-39% of maximum EMG. During the breaking phase the quadriceps muscle contracted eccentrically with a velocity of 216-253% fiber length/s. In contrast, the hamstring muscles contracted concentrically with a velocity of 222-427% fiber length/s. These results suggest that a side-cutting maneuver produces loads that are insufficient to rupture the ACL. Furthermore, the rapid concentric hamstring contraction suggests that even during maximal activation, the ability of the hamstrings to reduce the ACL load is marginal.

  4. Youth Participation and Injury Risk in Martial Arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demorest, Rebecca A; Koutures, Chris

    2016-12-01

    The martial arts can provide children and adolescents with vigorous levels of physical exercise that can improve overall physical fitness. The various types of martial arts encompass noncontact basic forms and techniques that may have a lower relative risk of injury. Contact-based sparring with competitive training and bouts have a higher risk of injury. This clinical report describes important techniques and movement patterns in several types of martial arts and reviews frequently reported injuries encountered in each discipline, with focused discussions of higher risk activities. Some of these higher risk activities include blows to the head and choking or submission movements that may cause concussions or significant head injuries. The roles of rule changes, documented benefits of protective equipment, and changes in training recommendations in attempts to reduce injury are critically assessed. This information is intended to help pediatric health care providers counsel patients and families in encouraging safe participation in martial arts. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  5. Polo pony injuries: player-owner reported risk, perception, mitigation and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inness, C M; Morgan, K L

    2015-07-01

    Polo, one of the world's oldest sports, is unique in merging human skill and balance with animal agility and performance in a contact sport. These modern-day 'centaurs' offer medical, dental and veterinary scientists an unrivalled, if quirky, opportunity to collaborate. Collection of epidemiological data on injuries to UK polo riders and ponies is the first step. To measure the reported risk and risk factors for injuries to UK polo ponies, their perception and mitigation by player-owners. A retrospective cohort design and telephone interviews were used. Data on equine injuries, preseason training and risk perception were collected from a random sample of player-owners using a structured questionnaire. Injuries were defined as requiring veterinary treatment. Frequencies were represented as percentages and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Risk factors for injuries were identified by univariable and multivariable analyses. The cumulative incidence of player-owner-reported injury was 10.6% (95% CI 8.4-12.7). Tendon injuries were most common (4.3%; 95% CI 2.9-5.7), followed by wounds and splints. The only risk factor was stabling all season (odds ratio 4.79; 95% CI 1.46-15.73). Tendon injuries were perceived as the major risk and hard ground the most important risk factor. Risk mitigation practices were bandaging before exercise (45.7%; 95% CI 34.8-56.5), checking tendons (84.0%; 95% CI 76.0-91.9), cold hosing (40.7%; 95% CI 30.0-51.4), bandaging (38.3%; 95% CI 27.7-48.9) and using clays and coolants after exercise (24.7%; 15.3-34.1). Cuts and wounds were considered most frequent by only 2.5% (95% CI 0.0-3.6) of players but were the second most common injury, accounting for 21.6% of veterinary treatments. Splints accounted for 12.5% of injuries. The risk of injury to polo ponies is similar to that in the general horse population; musculoskeletal injuries, particularly tendon injuries, are most common, followed by wounds and splints. The association between stabling and

  6. Functional Movement ScreenTM and history of injury in assessment of potential risk of injury among team handball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slodownik, Robert; Ogonowska-Slodownik, Anna; Morgulec-Adamowicz, Natalia

    2017-09-29

    Handball is known to be one of the team sports representing the highest risk of injury. Several investigators have tried to identify injury risk factors in team sports including handball and suggested the need to develop an optimal tool to capture and quantify the potential risk of injury. The aim of the study was to evaluate potential risk of injury among handball players. It was a mixed design study. Handball players from 1st and 2nd division were evaluated (n = 30) using the Functional Movement ScreenTM (FMSTM). Additionally, self-reported history of injury was collected during FMSTM evaluation and after 6 months. Competitive level, training experience, playing position, anthropometric features, symmetry of movement patterns and history of previous injury were analysed while assessing the potential risk of injury. Significant difference between the right and left side (upper limb) was revealed for Shoulder Mobility Test (U = 308.5, p = 0.014). Odds Ratio analysis revealed that having previous injury in the last 12 months is the only statistically significant injury risk factor (OR = 13.71, p = 0.02). Based on this study we can assume that previous injury history reports are crucial in predicting injuries. FMSTM can help in identifying a typical adaptation in throwing shoulder among handball players, but should not be used alone to assess injury risk.

  7. Self-reported previous knee injury and low knee function increase knee injury risk in adolescent female football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, M B; Tang, L; Zebis, M K

    2015-01-01

    Knee injuries are common in adolescent female football. Self-reported previous knee injury and low Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) are proposed to predict future knee injuries, but evidence regarding this in adolescent female football is scarce. The aim of this study...... was to investigate self-reported previous knee injury and low KOOS subscale score as risk factors for future knee injuries in adolescent female football. A sample of 326 adolescent female football players, aged 15-18, without knee injury at baseline, were included. Data on self-reported previous knee injury and KOOS...... questionnaires were collected at baseline. Time-loss knee injuries and football exposures were reported weekly by answers to standardized text-message questions, followed by injury telephone interviews. A priori, self-reported previous knee injury and low KOOS subscale scores (

  8. Association between Lower Extremity Muscle Strength and Noncontact ACL Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Kathrin; Nilstad, Agnethe; Kristianslund, Eirik Klami; Myklebust, Grethe; Bahr, Roald; Krosshaug, Tron

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to prospectively investigate the association between isolated and functional lower extremity muscle strength and the risk for noncontact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in Norwegian female elite handball and football players. From 2007 through 2015, premier league players participated in strength testing and were prospectively followed for ACL injury risk. At baseline, we recorded player demographics, playing and ACL injury history, and measured peak concentric isokinetic quadriceps and hamstring torques (60°·s), hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio, isometric hip abduction strength, and one-repetition maximum in a seated leg press. We followed a predefined statistical protocol where we generated five separate logistic regression models, one for each of the proposed strength risk factors and adjusted for confounding factors. New ACL injury was the outcome, using the leg as the unit of analysis. A total of 57 (6.6%) of 867 players (age = 21 ± 4 yr, height = 170 ± 6 cm, body mass = 66 ± 8 kg) suffered from a noncontact ACL injury after baseline testing (1.8 ± 1.8 yr). The OR of sustaining a new injury among those with an ACL injury history was 3.1 (95% confidence interval = 1.6-6.1). None of the five strength variables selected were statistically associated with an increased risk of ACL rupture when adjusted for sport, dominant leg, ACL injury history, and height. Peak lower extremity strength was not associated with an increased ACL injury risk among female elite handball and football players. Hence, peak strength, as measured in the present study, cannot be used to screen elite female athletes to predict injury risk.

  9. The effect of previous traumatic injury on homicide risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Russell L; Davis, Gregory G; Levitan, Emily B; MacLennan, Paul A; Redden, David T; McGwin, Gerald

    2014-07-01

    Research has reported that a strong risk factor for traumatic injury is having a previous injury (i.e., recidivism). To date, the only study examining the relationship between recidivism and homicide reported strong associations, but was limited by possible selection bias. The current matched case-control study utilized coroner's data from 2004 to 2008. Subjects were linked to trauma registry data to determine whether the person had a previous traumatic injury. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for the association between homicide and recidivism. Homicide risk was increased for those having a previous traumatic injury (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.09-2.99) or a previous intentional injury (OR 2.53, 95% CI 1.24-5.17). These results suggest an association between homicide and injury recidivism, and that trauma centers may be an effective setting for screening individuals for secondary prevention efforts of homicide through violence prevention programs. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  10. Functional Assessment and Injury Risk in a Professional Soccer Team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Gómez-Piqueras

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available At the last World Conference on Sport and Physical Therapy celebrated in Bern (Switzerland, 2015, it was confirmed that the functional skills of an athlete are a very important variable to be considered in the recovery of an injury. On the other hand, its use as a predictive risk tool still lacks solid evidence. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a battery of functional tests (FPT could be used as a preliminary measure for the season in order to identify the injury risk in a professional soccer team in the Spanish Second Division B League. Fifty-two soccer players (ages of 25.3 ± 4.6 years, 10.33% ± 0.9% fat were functionally assessed during two seasons (2012–2013 and 2013–2014 and analyzed from an injury perspective. A total of 125 injuries were recorded. The sample was grouped based on the number of injuries and the required absence days. Except for the bipodal vertical jump (CMJ, none of the functional tests revealed differences among the groups. The correlation study between the functional condition and the suffered injuries did not show any significant results.

  11. Association Between Previous Injury and Risk Factors for Future Injury in Preprofessional Ballet and Contemporary Dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Sarah J; Palacios-Derflingher, Luz; Shi, Qian; Whittaker, Jackie L; Emery, Carolyn A

    2017-10-20

    To determine the prevalence of self-reported 1-year injury history and examine its association with preparticipation evaluation components aimed at predicting future injury risk (PPE-IP) among preprofessional ballet and contemporary dancers. Cross-sectional study. Preprofessional ballet school, university contemporary dance program. Full-time preprofessional ballet and contemporary dancers. Preparticipation evaluation consisted of the Athletic Coping Skills Inventory-28, body mass index, total bone mineral density, ankle range of motion, active standing turnout, lumbopelvic control, unipedal dynamic balance, and Y-Balance test. Self-reported 1-year history of dance-related medical attention and/or time-loss injury. A total of 155 ballet [n = 90, 80 females, median age 15 years (range 11-19)] and contemporary [n = 65, 63 females, median age 20 years (range 17-30)] dancers participated. Forty-six percent (95% confidence interval (CI), 38.4-54.6) reported a 1-year injury history. Self-reported injury history was not associated with any PPE-IP, however, an influence of age and psychological coping skills on the relationship between 1-year injury history and PPE-IP was identified. Multivariable analyses revealed that prevalence of 1-year injury history did not differ by age [referent group 18 years: OR 0.69 (95% CI, 0.30-1.56)], or level of psychological coping skills [OR 1.35 (95% CI, 0.61-2.94)]. The prevalence of self-reported 1-year injury history among preprofessional ballet and contemporary dancers is high. Although measures of PPE-IP did not differ based on injury history, it is important that age and psychological coping skills are considered in future dance injury prevention and prediction research. Level 3 evidence.

  12. Head Injury as Risk Factor for Psychiatric Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlovska, Sonja; Pedersen, Michael Skaarup; Benros, Michael Eriksen

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Studies investigating the relationship between head injury and subsequent psychiatric disorders often suffer from methodological weaknesses and show conflicting results. The authors investigated the incidence of severe psychiatric disorders following hospital contact for head injury....... METHOD: The authors used linkable Danish nationwide population-based registers to investigate the incidence of schizophrenia spectrum disorders, unipolar depression, bipolar disorder, and organic mental disorders in 113,906 persons who had suffered head injuries. Data were analyzed by survival analysis...... and adjusted for gender, age, calendar year, presence of a psychiatric family history, epilepsy, infections, autoimmune diseases, and fractures not involving the skull or spine. RESULTS: Head injury was associated with a higher risk of schizophrenia (incidence rate ratio [IRR]=1.65, 95% CI=1...

  13. Risk of Parkinson's disease after hospital contact for head injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rugbjerg, Kathrine; Ritz, Beate; Korbo, Lise

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a hospital contact for a head injury increases the risk of subsequently developing Parkinson's disease. DESIGN: Population based case-control study. SETTING: Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: 13 695 patients with a primary diagnosis of Parkinson's disease in the Danish national...... of history of head injury. RESULTS: An overall 50% increase in prevalence of hospital contacts for head injury was seen before the first registration of Parkinson's disease in this population (odds ratio 1.5, 95% confidence interval 1.4 to 1.7). The observed association was, however, due almost entirely...... to injuries that occurred during the three months before the first record of Parkinson's disease (odds ratio 8.0, 5.6 to 11.6), and no association was found between the two events when they occurred 10 or more years apart (1.1, 0.9 to 1.3). CONCLUSIONS: The steeply increased frequency of hospital contacts...

  14. Perioperative aspirin and clonidine and risk of acute kidney injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garg, Amit X; Kurz, Andrea; Sessler, Daniel I

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Acute kidney injury, a common complication of surgery, is associated with poor outcomes and high health care costs. Some studies suggest aspirin or clonidine administered during the perioperative period reduces the risk of acute kidney injury; however, these effects are uncertain...... and each intervention has the potential for harm. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether aspirin compared with placebo, and clonidine compared with placebo, alters the risk of perioperative acute kidney injury. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A 2 × 2 factorial randomized, blinded, clinical trial of 6905...... patients undergoing noncardiac surgery from 88 centers in 22 countries with consecutive patients enrolled between January 2011 and December 2013. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were assigned to take aspirin (200 mg) or placebo 2 to 4 hours before surgery and then aspirin (100 mg) or placebo daily up to 30 days...

  15. Social environments, risk-taking and injury in farm adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, William; Berg, Richard L; Marlenga, Barbara

    2017-12-01

    Farm environments are especially hazardous for young people. While much is known about acute physical causes of traumatic farm injury, little is known about social factors that may underlie their aetiology. In a nationally representative sample of young Canadians aged 11-15 years, we described and compared farm and non-farm adolescents in terms of the qualities of their social environments, engagement in overt multiple risk-taking as well as how such exposures relate aetiologically to their reported injury experiences. Cross-sectional analysis of survey reports from the 2014 (Cycle 7) Canadian Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children study was conducted. Children (n=2567; 2534 weighted) who reported living or working on farms were matched within schools in a 1:1 ratio with children not living or working on farms. Scales examining quality of social environments and overt risk-taking were compared between the two groups, stratified by gender. We then related the occurrence of any serious injury to these social exposures in direct and interactive models. Farm and non-farm children reported social environments that were quite similar, with the exception of overt multiple risk-taking, which was demonstrably higher in farm children of both genders. Engagement in overt risk-taking, but not the other social environmental factors, was strongly and consistently associated with risks for serious injury in farm as well as non-farm children, particularly among males. Study findings highlight the strength of associations between overt multiple risk-taking and injury among farm children. This appears to be a normative aspect of adolescent farm culture. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. Risk factors affecting injury severity determined by the MAIS score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Sara; Amorim, Marco; Couto, Antonio

    2017-07-04

    . This study showed the impact of variables, such as the presence of blood alcohol, the use of protection devices, the type of crash, and the site characteristics, on the injury severity classified according to the MAIS score. Additionally, the sex and age of the victims were analyzed as risk factors, showing that elderly and male road users are highly associated with MAIS 3+ injuries. The comparison between the marginal effects of the variables estimated by the MAIS and LHS models showed significant differences. In addition to the differences in the magnitude of impact of each variable, we found that the impact of the road environment variable was dependent on the injury severity classification. The differences in the effects of risk factors between the classifications highlight the importance of using a reliable classification of injury severity. Additionally, the relationship between LHS and MAIS levels is quite different among countries, supporting the previous conclusion that bias is expected in the assessment of risk factors if an injury severity classification other than MAIS is used.

  17. Civil engineering airman at increased risk for injuries and injury-related musculoskeletal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Timothy S; Wells, Timothy S

    2011-03-01

    With the advent of electronic records, the opportunity to conduct research on workplace-related injuries and musculoskeletal disorders has increased dramatically. The purpose of this study was to examine the United States Air Force Civil Engineering career field to determine if they are negatively impacted by their work environment. Specifically, the objective of this study was to determine if enlisted Civil Engineering Airmen (n = 25,385) were at increased risk for injury or injury-related musculoskeletal disorders compared to enlisted Information Management/Communications Airmen (n = 28,947). Using an historical prospective design, electronic data were assembled and analyzed using Cox's proportional hazards modeling. Models were stratified by gender and adjusted for race/ethnicity, marital status, birth year, and deployment status. Male Civil Engineers were observed to be at greater risk for both inpatient injury-related musculoskeletal disorders (HR = 1.86; 95% CI = 1.54-2.26) and injuries (HR = 1.77; 95% CI = 1.48-2.11), while female Civil Engineers were more than double the risk for both inpatient injury-related musculoskeletal disorders (HR = 2.18; 95% CI = 1.28-3.73) and injuries (HR = 2.22; 95% CI = 1.27-3.88) compared to Information Management/Communications Airmen. Although analyses do not allow exploration of specific causes, they highlight the utility of using electronic data to identify occupations for further evaluation. Based on these results, additional resources were allocated to survey Civil Engineers on their physical work demands and job requirements to identify key problem areas for further study and mitigation. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Father-Child Interactions and Children's Risk of Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    StGeorge, Jennifer; Fletcher, Richard; Freeman, Emily; Paquette, Daniel; Dumont, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Unintentional injury is an important cause of infant and child hospitalisation and parents play a key role in reducing children's risk-taking behaviour. Studies show that maternal and paternal parenting and supervision of children differ, but there is little research showing how fathers' parenting may influence children's tendency to engage in…

  19. Biomechanical factors associated with the risk of knee injury when ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To systematically assess the literature investigating biomechanical knee injury risk factors when an individual lands from a jump. Data sources. Four electronic databases were searched for peer-reviewed English journals containing landing biomechanical studies published over 14 years (1990 - 2003).

  20. Constraints influencing sports wheelchair propulsion performance and injury risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The Paralympic Games are the pinnacle of sport for many athletes with a disability. A potential issue for many wheelchair athletes is how to train hard to maximise performance while also reducing the risk of injuries, particularly to the shoulder due to the accumulation of stress placed on this joint during activities of daily living, training and competition. The overall purpose of this narrative review was to use the constraints-led approach of dynamical systems theory to examine how various constraints acting upon the wheelchair-user interface may alter hand rim wheelchair performance during sporting activities, and to a lesser extent, their injury risk. As we found no studies involving Paralympic athletes that have directly utilised the dynamical systems approach to interpret their data, we have used this approach to select some potential constraints and discussed how they may alter wheelchair performance and/or injury risk. Organism constraints examined included player classifications, wheelchair setup, training and intrinsic injury risk factors. Task constraints examined the influence of velocity and types of locomotion (court sports vs racing) in wheelchair propulsion, while environmental constraints focused on forces that tend to oppose motion such as friction and surface inclination. Finally, the ecological validity of the research studies assessing wheelchair propulsion was critiqued prior to recommendations for practice and future research being given. PMID:23557065

  1. Anthropometric Injury Risk Factors in Elite-standard Youth Soccer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemper, G. L. J.; van der Sluis, A.; Brink, M. S.; Visscher, C.; Frencken, W. G. P.; Elferink-Gemser, M. T.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether an increased risk of injury occurrence can be determined through frequent anthropometric measurements in elite-standard youth soccer players. Over the course of one season, we followed 101 male elite-standard youth soccer players between 11 and 19

  2. MRI-Based Regional Muscle Use during Hamstring Strengthening Exercises in Elite Soccer Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto; Suarez-Arrones, Luis; Rodas, Gil; Fernandez-Gonzalo, Rodrigo; Tesch, Per; Linnehan, Richard; Kreider, Richard; Di Salvo, Valter

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined site-specific hamstring muscles use with functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in elite soccer players during strength training. Thirty-six players were randomized into four groups, each performing either Nordic hamstring, flywheel leg-curl, Russian belt or the hip-extension conic-pulley exercise. The transverse relaxation time (T2) shift from pre- to post-MRI were calculated for the biceps femoris long (BFl) and short (BFs) heads, semitendinosus (ST) and semimembranosus (SM) muscles at proximal, middle and distal areas of the muscle length. T2 values increased substantially after flywheel leg-curl in all regions of the BFl (from 9±8 to 16±8%), BFs (41±6–71±11%), and ST (60±1–69±7%). Nordic hamstring induced a substantial T2 increase in all regions of the BFs (13±8–16±5%) and ST (15±7–17±5%). T2 values after the Russian belt deadlift substantially increased in all regions of the BFl (6±4–7±5%), ST (8±3–11±2%), SM (6±4–10±4%), and proximal and distal regions of BFs (6±6–8±5%). T2 values substantially increased after hip-extension conic-pulley only in proximal and middle regions of BFl (11±5–7±5%) and ST (7±3–12±4%). The relevance of such MRI-based inter- and intra-muscle use in designing more effective resistance training for improving hamstring function and preventing hamstring injuries in elite soccer players should be explored with more mechanistic studies. PMID:27583444

  3. Effect of an internally versus externally focused acl injury prevention program on injury risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dallinga, J.; Benjaminse, A.; Gokeler, A.; Otten, Egbert; Lemmink, K.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention programs have shown mixed results, which may be in part due to suboptimal training components. OBJECTIVE: Determine effects of a prevention program with external and internal focus of attention on (potential) biomechanical risk factors

  4. Risk factors for unintentional injuries in children: are grandparents protective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishai, David; Trevitt, Jamie L; Zhang, Yiduo; McKenzie, Lara B; Leventhal, Tama; Gielen, Andrea Carlson; Guyer, Bernard

    2008-11-01

    We sought to identify sociodemographic and familial correlates of injury in children aged 2 to 3 years. The Healthy Steps data set describes 5565 infants who were enrolled at birth in 15 US cities in 1996-1997 and had follow-up until they were 30 to 33 months of age. Data were linked to medical claims reporting children's medically attended office visits by age 30 to 33 months. Each claim was accompanied by a reason for the visit. An analytical sample of 3449 was derived from the children who could be effectively followed up and linked to medical charts. Missing data were imputed by using multiple imputation with chained equations. The analytical sample showed no systematic evidence of sample selection bias. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the odds ratios of injury events. Odds of medically attended injuries were decreased for children who received care from grandparents. Odds were increased for children who lived where fathers did not co-reside or in households where the parents never married. Statistical results were robust to the addition of a variety of covariates such as income, education, age, gender, and race. Children are at higher risk for medically attended injury when their parents are unmarried. Having grandparents as caregivers seems to be protective. Household composition seems to play a key role in placing children at risk for medically attended injuries.

  5. Injury risk due to collisions in Major League Baseball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, D A; Davis, S W

    2014-07-01

    Purpose is to determine if Major League Baseball plays at risk for collisions have higher injury rates than typical base running plays. 2002-2011 Major League Baseball play data was obtained: non-force putouts by catcher at home plate (Catcher Tag Out), groundball force outs at 2(nd) base with less than 2 outs (Double Play Attempt), and the control play, outfield assisted non-force putouts of runners attempting to advance to 2(nd) or 3(rd) base (Outfield Assist 2(nd)/3(rd)). This list was cross-referenced with 2002-2011 disabled lists to see if an involved player went on the disabled list the day of or day after the play. An on-line search for each match determined if the injury was attributable to that play. Rate calculated per 1 000 plays, severity in days on disabled list. Injury rate and severity for Catcher Tag Out was 6.98 and 45.6 respectively, Double Play Attempt 0.42 and 41.3, Outfield Assist 2(nd/)3(rd) 1.56 and 47.0. Injury rate for Catcher Tag Out was higher (P = 0.03) than the control while Double Play Attempt trended lower (P = 0.05). There was no difference in severity. Catcher Tag Outs carry greater injury risk than typical base running plays. Major League Baseball should consider prohibiting base path collisions. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Car insurance and the risk of car crash injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blows, Stephanie; Ivers, Rebecca Q; Connor, Jennie; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Norton, Robyn

    2003-11-01

    Despite speculation about the role of vehicle insurance in road traffic accidents, there is little research estimating the direction or extent of the risk relationship. Data from the Auckland Car Crash Injury Study (1998-1999) were used to examine the association between driving an uninsured motor vehicle and car crash injury. Cases were all cars involved in crashes in which at least one occupant was hospitalized or killed anywhere in the Auckland region. Controls were 588 drivers of randomly selected cars on Auckland roads. Participants completed a structured interview. Uninsured drivers had significantly greater odds of car crash injury compared to insured drivers after adjustment for age, sex, level of education, and driving exposure (odds ratio 4.77, 95% confidence interval 2.94-7.75). The causal mechanism for insurance and car crash injury is not easily determined. Although we examined the effects of multiple potential confounders in our analysis including socioeconomic status and risk-taking behaviours, both of which have been previously observed to be associated with both insurance status and car crash injury, residual confounding may partly explain this association. The estimated proportion of drivers who are uninsured is between 5 and 15% in developed countries, representing a significant public health problem worthy of further investigation.

  7. Training loads and injury risk in Australian football-differing acute: chronic workload ratios influence match injury risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, David L; Blanch, Peter; Ong, Kok-Leong; Crossley, Kay M; Crow, Justin; Morris, Meg E

    2017-08-01

    (1) To investigate whether a daily acute:chronic workload ratio informs injury risk in Australian football players; (2) to identify which combination of workload variable, acute and chronic time window best explains injury likelihood. Workload and injury data were collected from 53 athletes over 2 seasons in a professional Australian football club. Acute:chronic workload ratios were calculated daily for each athlete, and modelled against non-contact injury likelihood using a quadratic relationship. 6 workload variables, 8 acute time windows (2-9 days) and 7 chronic time windows (14-35 days) were considered (336 combinations). Each parameter combination was compared for injury likelihood fit (using R 2 ). The ratio of moderate speed running workload (18-24 km/h) in the previous 3 days (acute time window) compared with the previous 21 days (chronic time window) best explained the injury likelihood in matches (R 2 =0.79) and in the immediate 2 or 5 days following matches (R 2 =0.76-0.82). The 3:21 acute:chronic workload ratio discriminated between high-risk and low-risk athletes (relative risk=1.98-2.43). Using the previous 6 days to calculate the acute workload time window yielded similar results. The choice of acute time window significantly influenced model performance and appeared to reflect the competition and training schedule. Daily workload ratios can inform injury risk in Australian football. Clinicians and conditioning coaches should consider the sport-specific schedule of competition and training when choosing acute and chronic time windows. For Australian football, the ratio of moderate speed running in a 3-day or 6-day acute time window and a 21-day chronic time window best explained injury risk. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Risk factors for anterior cruciate ligament injury: a review of the literature-part 2: hormonal, genetic, cognitive function, previous injury, and extrinsic risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Helen C; Vacek, Pamela; Johnson, Robert J; Slauterbeck, James R; Hashemi, Javad; Shultz, Sandra; Beynnon, Bruce D

    2012-03-01

    Injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) are immediately disabling and are associated with long-term consequences, such as posttraumatic osteoarthritis. It is important to have a comprehensive understanding of all possible risk factors for ACL injury to identify individuals who are at risk for future injuries and to provide an appropriate level of counseling and programs for prevention. This review, part 2 of a 2-part series, highlights what is known and still unknown regarding hormonal, genetic, cognitive function, previous injury, and extrinsic risk factors for ACL injury. Studies were identified from MEDLINE (1951-March 2011) using the MeSH terms anterior cruciate ligament, knee injury, and risk factors. The bibliographies of relevant articles and reviews were cross-referenced to complete the search. Prognostic case-control and prospective cohort study designs to evaluate risk factors for ACL injury were included in this review. A total of 50 case-control and prospective cohort articles were included in parts 1 and 2. Twenty-one focused on hormonal, genetic, cognitive function, previous injury, and extrinsic risk factors. Several risk factors are associated with increased risk of suffering ACL injury-such as female sex, prior reconstruction of the ACL, and familial predisposition. These risk factors most likely act in combination with the anatomic factors reviewed in part 1 of this series to influence the risk of suffering ACL injury.

  9. Identifying and mitigating risks for agricultural injury associated with obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan King

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In some occupational contexts overweight and obesity have been identified as risk factors for injury. The purpose of this study was to examine this hypothesis within farm work environments and then to identify specific opportunities for environmental modification as a preventive strategy. Data on farm-related injuries, height and weight used to calculate body mass index (BMI, and demographic characteristics were from the Phase 2 baseline survey of the Saskatchewan Farm Injury Cohort; a large cross-sectional mail-based survey conducted in Saskatchewan, Canada from January through May 2013. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine associations between BMI and injury. Injury narratives were explored qualitatively. Findings were inconsistent and differed according to gender. Among women (n = 927, having overweight (adjusted OR: 2.94; 95% CI: 1.29 to 6.70 but not obesity (1.10; 95% CI: 0.35 to 3.43 was associated with an increased odds of incurring a farm-related injury. No strong or statistically significant effects were observed for men (n = 1406 with overweight or obesity. While injury-related challenges associated with obesity have been addressed in other occupational settings via modification of the worksite, such strategies are challenging to implement in farm settings because of the diversity of work tasks and associated hazards. We conclude that the acute effects of overweight in terms of injury do require consideration in agricultural populations, but these should also be viewed with a differentiation based on gender.

  10. Trampoline related injuries in children: risk factors and radiographic findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimek, Peter Michael; Juen, David; Stranzinger, Enno; Wolf, Rainer; Slongo, Theddy

    2013-05-01

    Backyard trampolines are immensely popular among children, but are associated with an increase of trampoline-related injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate radiographs of children with trampoline related injuries and to determine the risk factors. Between 2003 and 2009, 286 children under the age of 16 with backyard trampoline injuries were included in the study. The number of injuries increased from 13 patients in 2003 to 86 in 2009. The median age of the 286 patients was 7 years (range: 1-15 years). Totally 140 (49%) patients were males, and 146 (51%) females. Medical records and all available diagnostic imaging were reviewed. A questionnaire was sent to the parents to evaluate the circumstances of each injury, the type of trampoline, the protection equipment and the experience of the children using the trampoline. The study was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee of the University Hospital of Bern. The questionnaires and radiographs of the 104 patients were available for evaluation. A fracture was sustained in 51 of the 104 patients. More than 75% of all patients sustaining injuries and in 90% of patients with fractures were jumping on the trampoline with other children at the time of the accident. The most common fractures were supracondylar humeral fractures (29%) and forearm fractures (25%). Fractures of the proximal tibia occurred especially in younger children between 2-5 years of age. Children younger than 5 years old are at risk for specific proximal tibia fractures ("Trampoline Fracture"). A child jumping simultaneously with other children has a higher risk of suffering from a fracture.

  11. Optimization of the anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention paradigm: novel feedback techniques to enhance motor learning and reduce injury risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ariel V. Dowling; Gregory D. Myer; Timothy E. Hewett; Anne Benjaminse; James A. Onate; Alli Gokeler; Avery Faigenbaum; Kevin R. Ford; Bert Otten

    2015-01-01

    Primary anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention programs effectively reduce ACL injury risk in the short term. Despite these programs, ACL injury incidence is still high, making it imperative to continue to improve cur- rent prevention strategies. A potential limitation of current ACL

  12. Optimization of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Prevention Paradigm : Novel Feedback Techniques to Enhance Motor Learning and Reduce Injury Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benjaminse, Anne; Gokeler, Alli; Dowling, Ariel V.; Faigenbaum, Avery; Ford, Kevin R.; Hewett, Timothy E.; Onate, James A.; Otten, Bert; Myer, Gregory D.

    SYNOPSIS: Primary anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention programs effectively reduce ACL injury risk in the short term. Despite these programs, ACL injury incidence-is still high, making it imperative to continue to improve current prevention strategies. A potential limitation of current

  13. Modifiable risk factors of obstetric anal sphincter injury in primiparous women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jango, Hanna; Langhoff-Roos, Jens; Rosthøj, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    To determine modifiable risk factors and incidence of obstetric anal sphincter injury (OASIS) in primiparous women.......To determine modifiable risk factors and incidence of obstetric anal sphincter injury (OASIS) in primiparous women....

  14. Diving the wreck: risk and injury in sport scuba diving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, J C

    1996-07-01

    This paper utilizes psychoanalytic theory to examine risk and injury in the case of a male deep sea diver. It examines the unconscious conflicts which appeared to fuel the diver's involvement in deep diving and to lead to a near fatal incident of decompression sickness. Particular attention is paid to the role of the diver's father in the evolution of the preoedipal and oedipal fantasies and conflicts which appear to be linked to the injury. The research is based on interviews with and fieldwork among recreational and deep divers.

  15. Injury risk is low among world-class volleyball players: 4-year data from the FIVB Injury Surveillance System

    OpenAIRE

    Bere, Tone Tufte; Kruczynski, Jacek; Veintimilla, Nadege; Hamu, Yuichiro; Bahr, Roald

    2015-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the rate and pattern of injuries in international volleyball competition. Objective: To describe the risk and pattern of injuries among world-class players based on data from the The International Volleyball Federation (FIVB) Injury Surveillance System (ISS) (junior and senior, male and female). Methods: The FIVB ISS is based on prospective registration of injuries by team medical staff during all major FIVB tournaments (World Championships, World Cup...

  16. Musculoskeletal Injuries and Their Associated Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Jahangiri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims :Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs is high among office workers. Long time seated posture, working with computer, repetitive movements and inappropriate environmental conditions may have causal effects in these disorders. High prevalence rate of MSDs makes ergonomics assessment and working conditions improvement necessary. Designing an assessment checklist and calculating ergonomics indices can be useful in this evaluation. This study was conducted with the objectives of determination of prevalence rate, ergonomics assessment of working conditions and determination of factors associated with MSDs among office workers. Methods:In this study 400 randomly selected office workers participated. Nordic musculoskeletal disorders questionnaire was applied to determine prevalence rate of MSDs. Working conditions were assessed by the designed ergonomics checklist and ergonomic risk factors were identified. Data were analyzed using statistical tests including t-test, Chi-square and test of proportion by SPSS software (Version 12.0. Results:The highest prevalence rates of MSDs were reported in lower back and neck regions (49% and 47%, respectively. Statistical analysis revealed that there were significant association between occurrence of MSDs and calculated ergonomics indices (P<0.05. The mean of ergonomics index among those suffered from MSDs were less than other healthy workers indicating inappropriate ergonomics conditions. Calculation of OR also revealed that ergonomics conditions was associated with MSDs occurrence among workers (P<0.05. Totally, 53.3% of the office workers studied had poor working conditions. Awkward working posture and inappropriate workstation design were recognized as the main risk factors in the office workplace.  Conclusion:Most ergonomics problems were originated from bad postures and inappropriate design of workstation. Any interventional program for working conditions improvement should

  17. Motorcycle helmet type and the risk of head injury and neck injury during motorcycle collisions in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhardt, Taryn; Rice, Thomas; Troszak, Lara; Zhu, Motao

    2016-01-01

    The use of novelty motorcycle helmets is often prompted by beliefs that wearing a standard helmet can contribute to neck injury during traffic collisions. The goal of this analysis was to examine the association between helmet type and neck injury risk and the association between helmet type and head injury. Data were collected during the investigation of motorcycle collisions of any injury severity by the California Highway Patrol (CHP) and 83 local law enforcement agencies in California between June 2012 and July 2013. We estimated head injury and neck injury risk ratios from data on 7051 collision-involved motorcyclists using log-binomial regression. Helmet type was strongly associated with head injury occurrence but was not associated with the occurrence of neck injury. Rider age, rider alcohol use, and motorcycle speed were strong, positive predictors of both head and neck injury. Interventions to improve motorcycle helmet choice and to counteract misplaced concerns surrounding neck injury risk are likely to lead to reductions in head injury, brain injury, and death. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Applying personal genetic data to injury risk assessment in athletes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle T Goodlin

    Full Text Available Recent studies have identified genetic markers associated with risk for certain sports-related injuries and performance-related conditions, with the hope that these markers could be used by individual athletes to personalize their training and diet regimens. We found that we could greatly expand the knowledge base of sports genetic information by using published data originally found in health and disease studies. For example, the results from large genome-wide association studies for low bone mineral density in elderly women can be re-purposed for low bone mineral density in young endurance athletes. In total, we found 124 single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with: anterior cruciate ligament tear, Achilles tendon injury, low bone mineral density and stress fracture, osteoarthritis, vitamin/mineral deficiencies, and sickle cell trait. Of these single nucleotide polymorphisms, 91% have not previously been used in sports genetics. We conducted a pilot program on fourteen triathletes using this expanded knowledge base of genetic variants associated with sports injury. These athletes were genotyped and educated about how their individual genetic make-up affected their personal risk profile during an hour-long personal consultation. Overall, participants were favorable of the program, found it informative, and most acted upon their genetic results. This pilot program shows that recent genetic research provides valuable information to help reduce sports injuries and to optimize nutrition. There are many genetic studies for health and disease that can be mined to provide useful information to athletes about their individual risk for relevant injuries.

  19. Anthropometric Injury Risk Factors in Elite-standard Youth Soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, G L J; van der Sluis, A; Brink, M S; Visscher, C; Frencken, W G P; Elferink-Gemser, M T

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether an increased risk of injury occurrence can be determined through frequent anthropometric measurements in elite-standard youth soccer players. Over the course of one season, we followed 101 male elite-standard youth soccer players between 11 and 19 years of age. Height and body mass were monitored at monthly measurement intervals and fat percentage was assessed every 3 months by use of the sum of skinfold method. Growth in height (cm), alternations in body mass index (kg/m(2)), fat percentage and fat-free mass index (kg/m(2)) were calculated. Injuries were recorded in accordance with the recommendations of the FIFA Consensus Model for Injury Registration. Odds ratio scores and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using binary logistic regression analyses. The following anthropometric injury risk factors were identified: ≥ 0.6 centimeter growth per month (p=0.03; OR=1.63; 95% CI: 1.06-2.52), ≥ 0.3 kg/m(2) increase of body mass index value per month (p=0.03; OR=1.61; 95% CI: 1.04-2.49) and low fat percentage; i. e., youth soccer. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Risk Factors for Knee Injuries in Children 8 to 15 Years: The CHAMPS Study DK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junge, Tina; Runge, Lisbeth; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit; Wedderkopp, Niels

    2016-04-01

    Knee injuries are frequent in children, with most studies reporting traumatic knee injuries. Evidence of risk factors for knee injuries in children is sparse. The purpose of this study was to report the extent of traumatic and overuse knee injuries in children and to evaluate intrinsic and extrinsic factors for risk of these injuries. Weekly musculoskeletal pain, sport participation, and sports type were reported by 1326 school children (8-15 yr). Knee injuries were classified as traumatic or overuse. Multinomial logistic regression was used for analyses. During the study period, 952 (15% traumatic and 85% overuse) knee injuries were diagnosed. Period prevalence for traumatic and overuse knee injuries were 0.8/1000 and 5.4/1000 sport participations, respectively. Participation in tumbling gymnastics was a risk factor for traumatic knee injuries (OR, 2.14). For overuse knee injuries, intrinsic risk factors were sex (girls OR, 1.38) and previous knee injury (OR, 1.78), whereas participation in soccer (OR, 1.64), handball (OR, 1.95), basket (OR, 2.07), rhythmic (OR, 1.98), and tumbling gymnastics (OR, 1.74) were additional risk factors. For both injury types, sport participation above two times per week increased odds (OR, 1.46-2.40). Overuse knee injuries were the most frequent injury type. For traumatic knee injuries, participation in tumbling gymnastics was a risk factor. Risk factors for overuse knee injuries were being a girl; previous knee injury; and participation in soccer, handball, basket, and rhythmic and tumbling gymnastics. Further risk factors for both types of injury were participation in sports above two times per week. Although growth-related overuse knee injuries are a self-limiting condition, a major part of children are affected by these injuries with unknown short- and long-term consequences.

  1. Thigh Injuries in American Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamplot, Joseph D; Matava, Matthew J

    Quadriceps and hamstring injuries occur frequently in football and are generally treated conservatively. While return to competition following hamstring strains is relatively quick, a high rate of injury recurrence highlights the importance of targeted rehabilitation and conditioning. This review describes the clinical manifestations of thigh-related soft-tissue injuries seen in football players. Two of these-muscle strains and contusions-are relatively common, while a third condition-the Morel-Lavallée lesion-is a rare, yet relevant injury.

  2. Hamstring myoelectrical activity during three different kettlebell swing exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Monte, Michael J; Opar, David A; Timmins, Ryan G; Ross, James; Keogh, Justin Wl; Lorenzen, Christian

    2017-09-11

    Kettlebell exercises have become an increasingly popular form of resistance training and component of lower body rehabilitative training programs; despite a lack of scientific literature illustrating internal mechanisms and effectiveness of these approaches. Participants (n=14) performed three different styles of kettlebell swings (hip hinge, squat and double knee extension) and were assessed for medial hamstrings (MH) and biceps femoris (BF) myoelectrical activity via surface electromyography (sEMG). Bipolar pre-gelled Ag/AgCl surface electromyography (sEMG) electrodes (10mm diameter, 20mm inter-electrode distance) were placed on the participant's dominant limb after correct skin preparation.There was a main effect for swing type (p = 0.004), where the hip hinge swing elicited a greater overall MH and BF sEMG in comparison to the squat swing (mean difference = 3.92; 95% CI = 1.53 to 6.32; p = 0.002) and the double knee extension swing (mean difference = 5.32; 95% CI = 0.80 to 9.83; p = 0.020). Across all swing types, normalised percentage of MH sEMG was significantly higher compared to the BF (mean difference = 9.93; 95% CI = 1.67 to 18.19; p = 0.022). The hip hinge kettlebell swing produced the greatest amount of hamstring sEMG for the three styles of kettlebell swings assessed. These findings have implications for the application of kettlebell swing exercises in strength and conditioning, injury prevention and rehabilitation programs.

  3. Sprint and jump performance in elite male soccer players following a 10-week Nordic Hamstring exercise Protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krommes, K; Petersen, J; Nielsen, M B

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The preseason Nordic Hamstring Protocol (NHP) reduces hamstring strain injuries in football players. Despite persisting injury rates, elite clubs are reluctant to apply the NHP often over concerns of negative impacts on performance. This pilot study investigated if sprint or jump...... split times) and countermovement jump (CMJ height) was measured before the mid-seasonal break and again after 10 weeks of performing the NHP at the end of pre-season. Dropouts were due to transfers and injuries unrelated to performing NHP (NHP = 0, CG = 5). Sprint performance on the short split...... to negatively affect sprint and vertical jump performance outcomes in the present study, while in fact showing some promise for the more explosive characteristics such as the short 5 and 10 m split-times and maximal CMJ height, which all are highly relevant performance parameters in elite football....

  4. The Adolescent Athlete: A Developmental Approach to Injury Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Damien; Broderick, Carolyn; Steinbeck, Katharine

    2016-11-01

    With the advent of long-term athlete development programs and early sport specialization, the training of elite athletes now spans the period of adolescence. Adolescence represents a period of physical, psychosocial and cognitive development, but also a time of physical and psychological vulnerability. Changes in skeletal and physiological attributes coincide with an increased risk of sport related injury. A window of vulnerability is shaped by the properties of the musculoskeletal system, the influence of pubertal hormones and the lag time between physical and cognitive development. This article aims to challenge the assumption of adolescence as a time of increased vigor alone, by highlighting the presence of specific vulnerabilities, and proposing that the hormonal, musculoskeletal, and neurocognitive changes of adolescence may represent intrinsic risk factors for sport related injury.

  5. Risk factors for acute kidney injury after partial hepatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredt, Luis Cesar; Peres, Luis Alberto Batista

    2017-06-28

    To identify risk factors for the occurrence of acute kidney injury (AKI) in the postoperative period of partial hepatectomies. Retrospective analysis of 446 consecutive resections in 405 patients, analyzing clinical characteristics, preoperative laboratory data, intraoperative data, and postoperative laboratory data and clinical evolution. Adopting the International Club of Ascites criteria for the definition of AKI, potential predictors of AKI by logistic regression were identified. Of the total 446 partial liver resections, postoperative AKI occurred in 80 cases (17.9%). Identified predictors of AKI were: Non-dialytic chronic kidney injury (CKI), biliary obstruction, the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score, the extent of hepatic resection, the occurrence of intraoperative hemodynamic instability, post-hepatectomy haemorrhage, and postoperative sepsis. The MELD score, the presence of non-dialytic CKI and biliary obstruction in the preoperative period, and perioperative hemodynamics instability, bleeding, and sepsis are risk factors for the occurrence of AKI in patients that underwent partial hepatectomy.

  6. Potential risk factors for prolonged recovery following whiplash injury

    OpenAIRE

    Osti, Orso L.; Gun, Richard T.; Abraham, George; Pratt, Nicole L.; Eckerwall, Goran; Nakamura, Hiroaki

    2004-01-01

    A retrospective analysis of insurance data was made of 600 individuals claiming compensation for whiplash following motor vehicle accidents. Three hundred randomly selected claimants who had settled their injury claims within 9 months of the accident were compared with 300 who had settled more than 24 months after the accident. We compared the two groups to identify possible risk factors for prolonged recovery, for which settlement time greater than 24 months was a marker. Variables considere...

  7. A prospective epidemiological study of injury incidence and injury patterns in a Hong Kong male professional football league during the competitive season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Wai-Yuk Lee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the match and training injury incidence, injury patterns and severity, and their monthly variation in a Hong Kong male professional football league. The study design was a prospective cohort study. Seven teams in the Hong Kong Football Association first division league and 152 players from 10 professional teams participated in this study. On a weekly basis throughout the 9-month season, time-loss injuries and individual exposure were collected from injury recorders team visits. Operational injury definitions and procedures followed the recommendations of a football consensus. The overall injury incidence was 7.4 injuries/1000 player hours and 296 injuries were recorded. The relative risk of match injury was 17 times greater than the risk of training injury [relative ratio (RR, 17.3; 95% confidence injury (CI, 11.6–25.7; p < 0.001]. Ankle sprain was the most common injury type (16.2% of all injuries and 52% of these injuries were recurrent. Thigh strain was the second most common injury type with 82% of the injuries involving the hamstring muscle and 80% of hamstring strains were noncontact injuries. During the competitive season, the relative risk of injury was highest in October (RR, 6.8; 95% CI, 6.7–6.9; p < 0.001 and February (RR, 4.7; 95% CI, 4.3–5.2; p < 0.001. This highlighted that Hong Kong professional football has a high match injury incidence. The relative risk of injury was highest at the beginning of the competitive season. A prospective multicentre epidemiological study is warranted to examine regional differences in injury risks. Coaches, players, health professionals, and researchers should join their efforts to investigate the effect on injury incidence and injury pattern associated with the duration and content of the preseason period, and the number of friendly matches held during preseason.

  8. Driver Injury Risk Variability in Finite Element Reconstructions of Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN) Frontal Motor Vehicle Crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaewsky, James P; Weaver, Ashley A; Koya, Bharath; Stitzel, Joel D

    2015-01-01

    A 3-phase real-world motor vehicle crash (MVC) reconstruction method was developed to analyze injury variability as a function of precrash occupant position for 2 full-frontal Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN) cases. Phase I: A finite element (FE) simplified vehicle model (SVM) was developed and tuned to mimic the frontal crash characteristics of the CIREN case vehicle (Camry or Cobalt) using frontal New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) crash test data. Phase II: The Toyota HUman Model for Safety (THUMS) v4.01 was positioned in 120 precrash configurations per case within the SVM. Five occupant positioning variables were varied using a Latin hypercube design of experiments: seat track position, seat back angle, D-ring height, steering column angle, and steering column telescoping position. An additional baseline simulation was performed that aimed to match the precrash occupant position documented in CIREN for each case. Phase III: FE simulations were then performed using kinematic boundary conditions from each vehicle's event data recorder (EDR). HIC15, combined thoracic index (CTI), femur forces, and strain-based injury metrics in the lung and lumbar vertebrae were evaluated to predict injury. Tuning the SVM to specific vehicle models resulted in close matches between simulated and test injury metric data, allowing the tuned SVM to be used in each case reconstruction with EDR-derived boundary conditions. Simulations with the most rearward seats and reclined seat backs had the greatest HIC15, head injury risk, CTI, and chest injury risk. Calculated injury risks for the head, chest, and femur closely correlated to the CIREN occupant injury patterns. CTI in the Camry case yielded a 54% probability of Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) 2+ chest injury in the baseline case simulation and ranged from 34 to 88% (mean = 61%) risk in the least and most dangerous occupant positions. The greater than 50% probability was consistent with the case occupant's AIS 2

  9. Pedestrian injuries in children: who is most at risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xun Yi Jasmine; Nah, Shireen Anne; Lee, York Tien; Lin, Yea-Chyi; Chiang, Li Wei

    2015-11-01

    This study evaluates the demographics of paediatric pedestrian injuries with the aim of identifying the group of children who is most vulnerable and the risk factors for major trauma (MT). Data was extracted from the integrated trauma system of a regional paediatric referral hospital. All paediatric cases involving road traffic accidents from January 2011 to December 2013 were studied. Demographics, injury mechanism, treatment and outcome were evaluated. Patients were categorised as MT or non-MT (NMT) based on their Injury Severity Score, admission to the intensive care unit, type of surgery (e.g. life/limb-saving) and death. Data analysis was done using nonparametric tests and Fisher's exact test. A total of 261 children were admitted for pedestrian injuries during the study period. The median age was ten years (range 14 months-16 years) and the median weight was 42.4 (range 8.6-93.7) kg. Half (i.e. 50.2%) of the children were primary-schoolers. The majority of the accidents occurred on roads (i.e. 83.1%), between 12 pm and 6 pm (i.e. 52.8%). Among the 261 children, 177 (67.8%) were unaccompanied by an adult at the time of the accident; 17 (6.5%) children sustained MT, while 244 (93.5%) suffered NMT. MT patients were more likely to have lost consciousness (p < 0.001) and been flung (p = 0.001). Most paediatric pedestrian injuries involved primary-schoolers walking home from school unaccompanied by adults. This information should inform future road safety campaigns. Being flung and loss of consciousness predicted MT in children who sustained pedestrian injuries.

  10. A Systematic Review of the Association Between Physical Fitness and Musculoskeletal Injury Risk: Part 3 - Flexibility, Power, Speed, Balance, and Agility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Motte, Sarah J; Lisman, Peter; Gribbin, Timothy C; Murphy, Kaitlin; Deuster, Patricia A

    2017-12-11

    We performed a systematic review and evaluation of the existing scientific literature on the association between flexibility, power, speed, balance, and agility, and musculoskeletal injury (MSK-I) risk in military and civilian populations. MEDLINE, EBSCO, EMBASE, and the Defense Technical Information Center were searched for original studies published from 1970 through 2015 that examined associations between these physical fitness measures (flexibility, power, speed, balance, and agility) and MSK-I. Methodological quality and strength of the evidence were determined following criteria adapted from previously published systematic reviews. Twenty-seven of 4,229 citations met our inclusion criteria. Primary findings indicate there is (a) moderate evidence that hamstring flexibility, as measured by performance on a sit-and-reach test or active straight-leg raise test assessed with goniometry, and ankle flexibility, assessed with goniometry, are associated with MSK-I risk; (b) moderate evidence that lower body power, as measured by performance on a standing broad jump or vertical jump with no countermovement, is associated with MSK-I risk; (c) moderate evidence that slow sprint speed is associated with MSK-I risk; (d) moderate evidence that poor performance on a single-leg balance test is associated with increased risk for ankle sprain; and (e) insufficient evidence that agility is associated with MSK-I risk. Several measures of flexibility, power, speed, and balance are risk factors for training-related MSK-I in military and civilian athletic populations. Importantly, these findings can be useful for military, first responder, and athletic communities who are seeking evidence-based metrics for assessing or stratifying populations for risk of MSK-I.

  11. Improving access to comprehensive injury risk assessment and risk factor reduction in older adult populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressley, Joyce C; Barlow, Barbara; Quitel, Lodze; Jafri, Aisha

    2007-04-01

    Preventing injuries in older populations (aged 50-86 years) is more complex than in younger populations because of frailty, comorbidities, polypharmacy, and physical and cognitive functional limitations. To improve accessibility and delivery of comprehensive, focused injury prevention, we developed a model incorporating applicable features of our national children's program with additional elements to address challenges of older populations. The older adult injury prevention model addresses gaps in prevention by improving access to risk factor screening, safety devices, education, counseling, medical care, and referrals.

  12. ACL injury risk in elite female youth soccer: Changes in neuromuscular control of the knee following soccer-specific fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ste Croix, M B A; Priestley, A M; Lloyd, R S; Oliver, J L

    2015-10-01

    Fatigue is known to influence dynamic knee joint stability from a neuromuscular perspective, and electromechanical delay (EMD) plays an important role as the feedback activation mechanism that stabilizes the joint. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of soccer-specific fatigue on EMD in U13-, U15-, and U17-year-old female soccer players. Thirty-six youth soccer players performed eccentric actions of the hamstrings in a prone position at 60, 120, and 180°/s before and after a soccer-specific fatigue trial. Surface electromyography was used to determine EMD from the semitendinosus, biceps femoris and gastrocnemius. A time × age × muscle × velocity repeated measures analysis of variance was used to explore the influence of fatigue on EMD. A significant main effect for time (P = 0.001) indicated that EMD was significantly longer post- compared with pre-fatigue (58.4% increase). A significant time × group interaction effect (P = 0.046) indicated EMD was significantly longer in the U13 age group compared with the U15 (P = 0.011) and U17 (P = 0.021) groups and greater post-fatigue. Soccer-specific fatigue compromised neuromuscular feedback mechanisms and the age-related effects may represent a more compliant muscle-tendon system in younger compared with older girls, increasing risk of injury. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Risk Factors for Knee Injuries in Children 8-15 Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junge, Tina; Runge, Lisbeth; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    .14). For overuse knee injuries, intrinsic risk factors were sex (girls OR 1.38), and previous knee injury (OR 1.78), while participation in soccer (OR 1.64), handball (OR 1.95), basket (OR 2.07), rhythmic (OR 1.98), and tumbling gymnastics (OR 1.74) were additional risk factors. For both injury types, sport...... and participation in soccer, handball, basket, rhythmic and tumbling gymnastics. Further risk factors for both types of injury were participation in sports above two times/week. Although growth-related overuse knee injuries are a self-limiting condition, a major part of children are affected by these injuries......: During the study period, 952 (15% traumatic, 85% overuse) knee injuries were diagnosed. Period prevalence for traumatic and overuse knee injuries were 0.8/1000 and 5.4/1000 sport participations, respectively. Participation in tumbling gymnastics was a risk factor for traumatic knee injuries (OR 2...

  14. Injury risk and severity in a sample of Maryland residents with serious mental illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daumit, Gail L.; McGinty, Emma Elizabeth; Baker, Susan; Steinwachs, Donald

    2013-01-01

    Adults with serious mental illness experience premature mortality and heightened risk for medical disease, but little is known about the burden of injuries in this population. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 6234 Maryland Medicaid recipients with serious mental illness from 1994–2001. Injuries were classified using the Barell Matrix. Relative risks were calculated to compare injury rates among the study cohort with injury rates in the United States population. Cox proportional hazards modeling with time dependent covariates was used to assess factors related to risk of injury and injury-related death. Forty-three percent of the Maryland Medicaid cohort had any injury diagnosis. Of the 7298 injuries incurred, the most common categories were systemic injuries due to poisoning (10.4%), open wounds to the head/face (8.9%), and superficial injuries, fractures, and sprains of the extremities (8.6%, 8.5%, and 8.4%, respectively). Injury incidence was 80% higher and risk for fatal injury was more than four and a half times higher among the cohort with serious mental illness compared to the general population. Alcohol and drug abuse were associated with both risk of injury and risk of injury-related death with hazard ratios of 1.87 and 4.76 at the Pmental illness and their caregivers. PMID:22661205

  15. Patients at risk for contrast-induced acute kidney injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Meschi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Subjects with hypovolemia and/or dehydration and pre-existing renal failure are considered at highest risk for radiocontrast-medium-induced acute kidney injury (RCI-AKI, and this risk increases in the presence of glomerular filtration rate or creatinine clearance rates lower than 60 mL/min (stage 3-5 chronic kidney disease according to the National Kidney Foundation. The authors critically review the evidence-based literature on RCI-AKI, its diagnosis, epidemiological aspects, predisposing conditions, and markers of risk, including advanced age. Procedures requiring the use of iodinated contrast media are increasingly performed in patients over 70 years of age, and there is no definitive consensus regarding the role of advanced age as a marker of risk for RCI-AKI.

  16. Injury and the orchestral environment: part I. The role of work organisation and psychosocial factors in injury risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickert, Dale L; Barrett, Margaret S; Ackermann, Bronwen J

    2013-12-01

    That orchestral musicians are exposed to a high risk of playing-related injury is well established, but despite this, little is known about how work organisation and psychosocial factors may contribute to this risk. Lack of research in this area is surprising considering the importance of these factors in managing occupational health risks in a wide range of other working populations. To address this, we conducted a qualitative study with the following aims: to investigate orchestral musicians' and managers' perceptions of those workplace environmental factors that contribute to injury, and to investigate the potential influence of work organisation and psychosocial factors on injury risk for orchestral musicians. Using a qualitative case-study methodology, in-depth, semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 10 professional orchestral cellists (2 casual and 8 full-time members) from a single Australian orchestra. After initial data analysis, further interviews were undertaken with a set of 5 orchestral management staff as a means of data triangulation. All data were analysed using a "themes-based" analysis of narrative approach. The findings indicate that musicians perceive that stress in the orchestral environment increases injury risk. The perceived stressors were divided into two broad categories: psychosocial injury risks, which included performance stress and interpersonal relationships, and combined psychosocial/physical injury risks such as work organisation and lack of control. This article evaluates the findings in terms of existing literature and makes recommendations for better management of environmental injury risk for orchestral musicians.

  17. A Comparison between Australian Football League (AFL Injuries in Australian Indigenous versus Non-indigenous Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Orchard

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available It has previously been shown that being of aboriginal descent is a risk factor for hamstring injuries in Australian football. The aim of this study was to review the Australian Football League (AFL injury database to determine whether there were any injuries where indigenous players had different relative risks to non-indigenous players. Analysis was conducted using data from the AFL injury database, which included data from 4,492 players over 21 years (1992–2012, covering 162,683 player-matches at AFL level, 91,098 matches at lower levels and 328,181 weeks (possible matches of exposure. Compared to non-indigenous players, indigenous players had a significantly higher risk of hamstring injuries (RR 1.52, 95% CI 1.32–1.73 and calf strains (RR 1.30, 95% CI 1.00–1.69. Conversely, indigenous players had a significantly lower risk of lumbar/thoracic spine injuries (RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.41–0.91, groin strains/osteitis pubis (RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.58–0.96 and Achilles tendon injuries (RR 0.32, 95% CI 0.12–0.86. The results for the above injuries were also significant in terms of games missed. There was no difference between overall risk of injury (RR 1.03, 95% CI 0.96–1.10 or missed games (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.97–1.04. This suggests that indigenous AFL players have the same overall number of injuries and missed games, but a slightly different injury profile.

  18. Examining Measures of Weight as Risk Factors for Sport-Related Injury in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A. Richmond

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To examine body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC as risk factors for sport injury in adolescents. Design. A secondary analysis of prospectively collected data from a pilot cluster randomized controlled trial. Methods. Adolescents (n=1,040 at the ages of 11–15 years from two Calgary junior high schools were included. BMI (kg/m2 and WC (cm were measured from direct measures at baseline assessment. Categories (overweight/obese were created using validated international (BMI and national (WC cut-off points. A Poisson regression analysis controlling for relevant covariates (sex, previous injury, sport participation, intervention group, and aerobic fitness level estimated the risk of sport injury [incidence rate ratios (IRR with 95% confidence intervals (CI]. Results. There was an increased risk of time loss injury (IRR = 2.82, 95% CI: 1.01–8.04 and knee injury (IRR = 2.07, 95% CI: 1.00–6.94 in adolescents that were overweight/obese; however, increases in injury risk for all injury and lower extremity injury were not statistically significant. Estimates suggested a greater risk of time loss injury [IRR = 1.63 (95% CI: 0.93–2.47] in adolescents with high measures of WC. Conclusions. There is an increased risk of time loss injury and knee injury in overweight/obese adolescents. Sport injury prevention training programs should include strategies that target all known risk factors for injury.

  19. Injury risk in Danish youth and senior elite handball using a new SMS text messages approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moller, Merete; Attermann, Jorn; Myklebust, Grethe; Wedderkopp, Niels

    2012-06-01

    To assess the injury incidence in elite handball, and if gender and previous injuries are risk factors for new injuries. Cohort study of 517 male and female elite handball players (age groups under (u)16, u-18 and senior). Participants completed a web survey establishing injury history, demographic information and sports experience, and provided weekly reports of time-loss injuries and handball exposure for 31 weeks by short message service text messaging (SMS). Injuries were further classified by telephone interview. The weekly response rate ranged from 85% to 90% illustrating the promise of the SMS system as a tool in injury surveillance. Of 448 reported injuries, 165 injuries (37%) were overuse injuries and 283 (63%) traumatic injuries. Knee (19%) and ankle (29%) were the most common traumatic injuries. The injury incidence during match play was 23.5 (95% CI 17.8 to 30.4), 15.1 (95% CI 9.7 to 22.2), 11.1 (95% CI 7.0 to 16.6) injuries per 1000 match hours among senior, u-18 and u-16 players, respectively. U-18 male players had an overall 1.76 (95% CI 1.10 to 2.80) times higher risk of injury compared to females. Having had two or more previous injuries causing absence from handball for more than 4 weeks increased the risk of new injury in the u-16 group (IRR: 1.79 (95% CI 1.03 to 3.11)-2.23 (95% CI 1.22 to 4.10)). The incidence of time-loss injuries in elite handball was higher during match play than previously reported in recreational handball. Previous injuries were a risk factor for new injuries among u-16 players. Male players had a significant higher injury rate in the u-18 group.

  20. Risk factors for deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism after traumatic injury: A competing risks analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gent, Jan-Michael; Calvo, Richard Yee; Zander, Ashley L; Olson, Erik J; Sise, C Beth; Sise, Michael J; Shackford, Steven R

    2017-12-01

    Venous thromboembolism, including deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), is typically reported as a composite measure of the quality of trauma center care. Given that recent data suggesting postinjury DVT and PE are distinct clinical processes, a better understanding may result from analyzing them as independent, competing events. Using competing risks analysis, we evaluated our hypothesis that the risk factors and timing of postinjury DVT and PE are different. We examined all adult trauma patients admitted to our Level I trauma center from July 2006 to December 2011 who received at least one surveillance duplex ultrasound of the lower extremities and who were at high risk or greater for DVT. Outcomes included DVT and PE events, and time-to-event from admission. We used competing risks analysis to evaluate risk factors for DVT while accounting for PE as a competing event, and vice versa. Of 2,370 patients, 265 (11.2%) had at least one venous thromboembolism event, 235 DVT only, 19 PE only, 11 DVT and PE. Within 2 days of admission, 38% of DVT cases had occurred compared with 26% of PE. Competing risks modeling of DVT as primary event identified older age, severe injury (Injury Severity Score, ≥ 15), mechanical ventilation longer than 4 days, active cancer, history of DVT or PE, major venous repair, male sex, and prophylactic enoxaparin and prophylactic heparin as associated risk factors. Modeling of PE as the primary event showed younger age, nonsevere injury (Injury Severity Score, < 15), central line placement, and prophylactic heparin as relevant factors. The risk factors for PE and DVT after injury were different, suggesting that they are clinically distinct events that merit independent consideration. Many DVT events occurred early despite prophylaxis, bringing into question the preventability of postinjury DVT. We recommend trauma center quality reporting program measures be revised to account for DVT and PE as unique events. Epidemiologic

  1. Risk factors for vertebral artery injuries in cervical spine trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanjundappa S. Harshavardhana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Blunt cerebrovascular injuries (i.e. involvement of carotid and vertebral arteries are increasingly being recognized in setting of cervical spine trauma/fractures and are associated with high incidence of stroke/morbidity and mortality. The incidence of vertebral artery injuries (VAI is more common than previously thought and regular screening is seldom performed. However there exists no screening criteria and conflicting reports exists between spine and trauma literature. Many clinicians do not routinely screen/evaluate patients presenting with cervical spine trauma for potential VAI. This article provides a brief summary of existing evidence regarding the incidence of VAI in the background of cervical trauma/fractures. The type and fracture pattern that is associated with a high risk of VAI warranting mandatory screening/further work-up is discussed. A brief overview of diagnostic modalities and their respective sensitivity/specificity along with available treatment options is also summarized.

  2. Rate and Risk of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Among Sportswomen in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vauhnik, Renata; Morrissey, Matthew C.; Rutherford, Olga M.; Turk, Zmago; Pilih, Iztok A.; Perme, Maja Pohar

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Context: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-injury rate is greater among female athletes than among male athletes. Objective: To investigate the rate and risk of ACL injury among Slovenian sportswomen playing professional basketball, team handball, or volleyball. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: The Slovenian National Organizations of basketball, team handball, and volleyball. Patients or Other Participants: During the 2003–2004 season, we prospectively followed 585 Slovenian sportswomen registered in the Slovenian National Organizations of basketball, team handball, and volleyball. Main Outcome Measure(s): We asked sportswomen and coaches to document the occurrence of every significant traumatic knee injury requiring medical attention. Injury rate and injury risk were calculated for sportswomen in each sport group. To calculate injury rate, we estimated the average exposure of each sportswoman during the research period. Results: During the 2003–2004 season, 585 Slovenian sportswomen sustained 12 ACL injuries. The ACL-injury risk was different in athletes participating in the various sports, with basketball players having the greatest ACL-injury risk and volleyball players having the lowest ACL-injury risk (P  =  .04). The risk of ACL injury among Slovenian sportswomen was 2.1 per 100 athletes (95% confidence interval  =  0.9, 3.2), whereas the rate of ACL injury was 0.037 per 1000 exposure hours (95% confidence interval  =  0.016, 0.06). Conclusions: Overall differences in injury risk were found among sports, but no differences were noted among divisions within sports. No differences for injury rate were observed between or within sports. The rate and risk of ACL injury among Slovenian sportswomen are high, with basketball players having the greatest ACL-injury risk. PMID:21214356

  3. Relationship between muscle volume and muscle torque of the hamstrings after anterior cruciate ligament lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Yu; Kinugasa, Ryuta; Oda, Toshiaki; Tsukazaki, Satoshi; Fukubayashi, Toru

    2012-11-01

    This study was conducted to identify factors other than morphological muscle strength factors that affect injured and uninjured sides of knee flexors with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) lesions. The study population consisted of 22 patients with ACL lesions. Their hamstring muscle volume was measured on MRI, and muscle torque per muscle volume was calculated as the peak torque of knee flexion divided by hamstring muscle volume. The mean muscle torque per unit volume of hamstrings in patients with ACL rupture was 0.09 ± 0.02 Nm/cm(3) at 60°/s and 0.08 ± 0.01 Nm/cm(3) at 180°/s on the injured side, and 0.11 ± 0.02 Nm/cm(3) at 60°/s and 0.08 ± 0.01 Nm/cm(3) at 180°/s on the uninjured side. The mean muscle torque per unit volume of hamstrings in control subjects was 0.11 ± 0.02 Nm/cm(3) at 60°/s and 0.08 ± 0.03 Nm/cm(3) at 180°/s. One-factor ANOVA analysis found no significant differences between the three groups at either flexion velocity. Neurological dysfunction does not appear to exist in knee flexor muscles after ACL injury, unlike the quadriceps. Since the mechanism of muscle weakness will differ depending on the muscle, it is important for clinicians to take this discrepancy into consideration. II.

  4. Rock climbing injury rates and associated risk factors in a general climbing population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backe, S; Ericson, L; Janson, S; Timpka, T

    2009-12-01

    The objective was to examine injury rates and associated risk factors in a representative sample of climbers. A random sample (n=606) of the Swedish Climbing Association members was sent a postal survey, with an effective response rate of 63%. Self-reported data regarding climbing history, safety practices and retrospective accounts of injury events (recall period 1.5 years) were obtained. Descriptive statistical methods were used to calculate injury incidences, and a two-step method including zero-inflated Poisson's regression analysis of re-injuries was used to determine the combination of risk factors that best explained individual injury rates. Overall, 4.2 injuries per 1000 climbing hours were reported, overuse injuries accounting for 93% of all injuries. Inflammatory tissue damages to fingers and wrists were the most common injury types. The multivariate analysis showed that overweight and practicing bouldering generally implied an increased primary injury risk, while there was a higher re-injury risk among male climbers and a lower risk among the older climbers. The high percentage of overuse injuries implies that climbing hours and loads should be gradually and systematically increased, and climbers regularly controlled for signs and symptoms of overuse. Further study of the association between body mass index and climbing injury is warranted.

  5. Temporal efficacy of kinesiology tape vs. Traditional stretching methods on hamstring extensibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquharson, Claire; Greig, Matt

    2015-02-01

    The epidemiology and aetiology of hamstring injuries in sport have been well documented. Kinesiology tape has been advocated as a means of improving muscle flexibility, with potential implications for injury prevention. To compare the temporal pattern of efficacy of kinesiology tape and traditional stretching techniques on hamstring extensibility. Controlled laboratory study. Thirty recreationally active male participants (Mean ± SD: age 21.0 ± 0.1 years; height 180 ± 6 cm; mass 79.4 ± 6.9 kg) completed an active knee extension assessment (of the dominant leg) as a measure of hamstring extensibility. Three experimental interventions of equal time duration were applied in randomized order: Kinesiology tape (KT), static stretch (SS), proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF). Measures were taken at baseline, +1, +10 and +30 mins after each intervention. The temporal pattern of change in active knee extension (AKE) was modelled as a range of regression polynomials for each intervention, quantified as the regression coefficient. With baseline scores not statistically different between groups, and baseline AKE set at 100%, PNF showed a significant improvement immediately post-intervention (PNF+1 = 107.7 ± 8.2%, p = .01). Thereafter, only KT showed significant improvements in active knee extension (KT+10 = 106.0 ± 7.1%, p = .05; KT+30 = 106.9 ± 5.0%, p = .02). The temporal pattern of changes in active knee extension after intervention was best modelled as a positive quadratic for KT, with a predicted peak of 108.8% baseline score achieved at 24.2 mins. SS was best modelled as a negative linear function, and PNF as a negative logarithmic function, reflecting a rapid decrease in active knee extension after an immediate positive effect. Each intervention displayed a unique temporal pattern of changes in active knee extension. PNF was best suited to affect immediate improvements in hamstring extensibility, whereas kinesiology tape offered advantages over a

  6. [Severe trampoline injuries and their risk factors among children and the young].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinikumpu, Juha-Jaakko; Salokorpi, Niina; Suo-Palosaari, Maria; Pesälä, Juha; Serlo, Willy

    2016-01-01

    Although the majority of trampoline injuries in children are minor, severe injuries occur as well. We have analyzed the risk factors, treatment and outcome of severe trampoline injuries treated in the Oulu University Hospital in children and the young between April and November 2105. There was a total of eight severe injuries. Five injuries involved a danger of death. Almost all severe trampoline injuries resulted from an unsuccessful trick. A safety net was in use in half of the cases. All cervical spine injuries would have been avoided provided that the children would have refrained from doing a somersault on the trampoline.

  7. Cerebral Infarction after Traumatic Brain Injury: Incidence and Risk Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Bae, Dong-Hyeon; Choi, Kyu-Sun; Yi, Hyeong-Joong; Chun, Hyoung-Joon; Ko, Yong; Bak, Koang Hum

    2014-01-01

    Objective Post-traumatic cerebral infarction (PTCI) is one of the most severe secondary insults after traumatic brain injury (TBI), and is known to be associated with poor outcome and high mortality rate. We assessed the practical incidence and risk factors for the development of PTCI. Methods We conducted retrospective study on 986 consecutive patients with TBI from the period May 2005 to November 2012 at our institution. The definition of PTCI was made on non-enhanced CT scan based on a wel...

  8. Injury-free running - a utopia? Risk factors of running-related injuries in men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worp, M.P. van der

    2016-01-01

    Running is a popular sport worldwide and has a positive effect on health and well-being. However, the rate of running-related injuries and the associated costs are high. Van der Worp performed a systematic review to examine which factors increase the risk of running injuries, and whether this is the

  9. Mechanisms, Prediction, and Prevention of ACL Injuries: Cut Risk With Three Sharpened and Validated Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewett, Timothy E.; Myer, Gregory D.; Ford, Kevin R.; Paterno, Mark V.; Quatman, Carmen E.

    2017-01-01

    Economic and societal pressures influence modern medical practice to develop and implement prevention strategies. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury devastates the knee joint leading to short term disability and long term sequelae. Due to the high risk of long term osteoarthritis in all treatment populations following ACL injury, prevention is the only effective intervention for this life-altering disruption in knee health. The “Sequence of Prevention” Model provides a framework to monitor progress towards the ultimate goal of preventing ACL injuries. Utilizing this model, our multidisciplinary collaborative research team has spent the last decade working to delineate injury mechanisms, identify injury risk factors, predict which athletes are at-risk for injury, and develop ACL injury prevention programs. Within this model of injury prevention, modifiable factors (biomechanical and neuromuscular) related to injury mechanisms likely provide the best opportunity for intervention strategies aimed to decrease the risk of ACL injury, particularly in female athletes. Knowledge advancements have led to the development of potential solutions that allow athletes to compete with lowered risk of ACL injury. Design and integration of personalized clinical assessment tools and targeted prevention strategies for athletes at high risk for ACL injury may transform current prevention practices and ultimately significantly reduce ACL injury incidence. This 2016 OREF Clinical Research Award focuses on the authors' work and contributions to the field. The author's acknowledge the many research groups who have contributed to the current state of knowledge in the fields of ACL injury mechanisms, injury risk screening and injury prevention strategies. PMID:27612195

  10. Motor Performance as Risk Factor for Lower Extremity Injuries in Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Runge, Lisbeth; Kristensen, Peter Lund; Junge, Tina

    2016-01-01

    for distance, core stability tests, vertical jump, shuttle run, and a cardiorespiratory fitness test. Lower extremity injuries were registered by clinicians by weekly questionnaires and classified according to the ICD-10 system. RESULTS: Poor balance increased risk for traumatic injury in the foot region (IRR......=1.09-1.15), and good performance in single leg hop for distance protected against traumatic knee injuries (IRR=0.66-0.68). Good performance in core stability tests and vertical jump increased the risk for traumatic injuries in the foot region (IRR=1.12-1.16). Poor balance increased the risk...... for overuse injuries in the foot region (IRR=1.65), as did good performance in core stability tests and shuttle run, especially for knee injuries (IRR=1.07-1.18). CONCLUSIONS: Poor balance (sway) performance was a consistent predictor of traumatic injuries, in particular for traumatic ankle injuries. Good...

  11. Does employee resistance during a robbery increase the risk of customer injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Rebecca K; Casteel, Carri; Nocera, Maryalice; Bishop, Stephanie F; Peek-Asa, Corinne

    2015-04-01

    Retail business robberies can lead to employee and customer injury. Previous work demonstrates that employee resistance increases employee injury risk; limited research has investigated customer injuries. This study examines associations between employee resistance against perpetrators and the risk of customer injury. Retail and service robbery reports were obtained from a metropolitan police department. Generalized estimating equations estimated risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Customers were injured in 75 out of 697 robberies. Employees resisted the perpetrator in 32 out of 697 robberies. Customers had higher injury risk when employees resisted the perpetrator, compared with robberies where employees did not resist (adjusted risk ratio [95% CI], 2.6 [1.5 to 4.5]). Employee resistance against a perpetrator during a robbery increased customer injury risk. Businesses can train employees to not resist during a robbery, providing benefits for both customers and the business itself.

  12. Cricket fast bowling workload patterns as risk factors for tendon, muscle, bone and joint injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchard, John W; Blanch, Peter; Paoloni, Justin; Kountouris, Alex; Sims, Kevin; Orchard, Jessica J; Brukner, Peter

    2015-08-01

    To assess workload-related risk factors for injuries to particular tissue types in cricket fast bowlers. 235 fast bowlers who bowled in 14600 player innings over a period of 15 years were followed in a prospective cohort risk factor study to compare overs bowled in each match (including preceding workload patterns) and injury risk in the 3-4 weeks subsequent to the match. Injuries were categorised according to the affected tissue type as either: bone stress, tendon injuries, muscle strain or joint injuries. Workload risk factors were examined using binomial logistic regression multivariate analysis, with a forward stepwise procedure requiring a significance of injuries, but high medium term (3-month workload) was protective. For bone stress injuries, high medium term workload and low career workload were risk factors. For joint injuries, high previous season and career workload were risk factors. There was little relationship between muscle injury and workload although high previous season workload was slightly protective. The level of injury risk for some tissue types varies in response to preceding fast bowling workload, with tendon injuries most affected by workload patterns. Workload planning may need to be individualised, depending on individual susceptibility to various injury types. This study supports the theory that tendons are at lowest risk with consistent workloads and susceptible to injury with sudden upgrades in workload. Gradual upgrades are recommended, particularly at the start of a bowler's career to reduce the risk of bone stress injury. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Mild traumatic brain injury: a risk factor for neurodegeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Recently, it has become clear that head trauma can lead to a progressive neurodegeneration known as chronic traumatic encephalopathy. Although the medical literature also implicates head trauma as a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease, these findings are predominantly based on clinical diagnostic criteria that lack specificity. The dementia that follows head injuries or repetitive mild trauma may be caused by chronic traumatic encephalopathy, alone or in conjunction with other neurodegenerations (for example, Alzheimer's disease). Prospective longitudinal studies of head-injured individuals, with neuropathological verification, will not only improve understanding of head trauma as a risk factor for dementia but will also enhance treatment and prevention of a variety of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:20587081

  14. Acknowledging the Risk for Traumatic Brain Injury in Women Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoroso, Timothy; Iverson, Katherine M

    2017-04-01

    Since the Iraq and Afghanistan wars began, an unprecedented number of women have been engaging in combat operations. Likewise, the number of women using Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) services has doubled since 2001. Military service, and deployment to combat in particular, poses certain risks for traumatic brain injury (TBI)-for all service members. However, women may have additional military and nondeployment risk factors such as intimate partner violence (IPV). We briefly review the definition and classification issues related to TBI, as well as common acute and chronic health symptoms after TBI. Specific sex differences in prognosis after TBI, in particular the neurobehavioral symptoms, are also reviewed. We then focus on the emerging literature regarding TBI in women veterans including the etiologies, outcomes, and unique challenges this population faces. The article concludes with suggestions for enhanced screening by VA and non-VA providers alike, as well as directions for future research and clinical inquiry.

  15. Is Pre-Injury Leg Length Discrepancy A Risk Factor for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury in the Skeletally Immature Athlete?

    OpenAIRE

    Lazaro, Lionel E; van der List, Jelle P.; Cordasco, Frank A.; Green, Daniel W.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Recognition of modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in children and adolescent athletes is paramount to develop effective strategies for prevention and treatment. We hypothesize that the intrinsic risk factors leg length discrepancy (LLD) and lateral mechanical axis deviation (MAD) are not uncommon in skeletally immature athletes that suffered an acute ACL injury. Methods: We prospectively obtained full-length hip-to-ankle radiog...

  16. Injury risk during different physical activity behaviours in children: a systematic review with bias assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauta, Joske; Martin-Diener, Eva; Martin, Brian W; van Mechelen, Willem; Verhagen, Evert

    2015-03-01

    The current focus on a physically active lifestyle in children puts children at increased physical activity-related injury risk. To summarise, in a systematic review, the evidence for the injury risk of several physical activity behaviours in 6- to 12-year-old children. An electronic search was performed in three databases (Embase, PubMed and SPORTDiscus). Inclusion criteria were: age 6-12 years; report on injuries related to overall physical activity, active commuting, unorganised leisure time physical activity, physical education and/or organised sports; incidence rates expressed as injuries per hours of physical activity; and published after January 1st 2000. Risk of bias was assessed for all studies included. Eight studies were included. The risk of bias assessment resulted in two studies with a score that was higher than 75 %; risk bias of those two studies was considered low. The medically treated, injury incidence rate was reported to be between 0.15 and 0.27 injuries per 1,000 h of physical activity. The absolute number of injuries related to unorganised leisure time physical activity was higher than the absolute number of injuries reported in organised sports. The respective injury incidence rate expressed per 1,000 h exposure was, however, generally lower during unorganised leisure time than during organised sports. Reported injury incidence rates related to active commuting were comparable to those for unorganised leisure time physical activity. Conflicting injury incidence rates were reported for physical education. Subgroup analysis suggested that girls and children with low habitual levels of physical activity are at increased injury risk. A limitation of the review is that no standard bias assessment was available for this specific context. Children are at an inherent injury risk while participating in physical activities. Most injury prevention efforts have focussed on the sports setting, but our results suggest that many children sustain an injury

  17. Risk factors for injuries in young children in four developing countries: the Young Lives Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, L D; Huttly, S R A; Abramsky, T

    2006-10-01

    To assess the occurrence of child injury in four developing country settings and to explore potential risk factors for injury. Injury occurrence was studied in cohorts of 2000 children of age 6-17 months at enrolment, in each of Ethiopia, Peru, Vietnam and India (Andhra Pradesh). Generalized estimating equation models were used to explore potential risk factors for child injury. Occurrence of child injury was high in all countries. Caregiver depression emerged as a consistent risk factor for all types of injury measured (burns, serious falls, broken bones and near-fatal injury) across all countries. Other risk factors also showed consistent associations, including long-term child health problems, region of residence and the regular care of the child by a non-household member. This report provides further evidence of the importance of childhood injury in developing countries and emphasizes the importance of including infants in injury research and prevention strategies. It provides strong evidence of an association between caregiver mental health and child injury risk and contributes to the limited knowledge base on risk factors for child injury in developing countries.

  18. The Functional Movement Screen and Injury Risk: Association and Predictive Value in Active Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushman, Timothy T; Grier, Tyson L; Canham-Chervak, Michelle; Anderson, Morgan K; North, William J; Jones, Bruce H

    2016-02-01

    The Functional Movement Screen (FMS) is a series of 7 tests used to assess the injury risk in active populations. To determine the association of the FMS with the injury risk, assess predictive values, and identify optimal cut points using 3 injury types. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Physically active male soldiers aged 18 to 57 years (N = 2476) completed the FMS. Demographic and fitness data were collected by survey. Medical record data for overuse injuries, traumatic injuries, and any injury 6 months after the FMS assessment were obtained. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated along with the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) to determine the area under the curve (AUC) and identify optimal cut points for the risk assessment. Risks, risk ratios (RRs), odds ratios (ORs), and 95% CIs were calculated to assess injury risks. Soldiers who scored ≤14 were at a greater risk for injuries compared with those who scored >14 using the composite score for overuse injuries (RR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.63-2.09), traumatic injuries (RR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.03-1.54), and any injury (RR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.45-1.77). When controlling for other known injury risk factors, multivariate logistic regression analysis identified poor FMS performance (OR [score ≤14/19-21], 2.00; 95% CI, 1.42-2.81) as an independent risk factor for injuries. A cut point of ≤14 registered low measures of predictive value for all 3 injury types (sensitivity, 28%-37%; PPV, 19%-52%; AUC, 54%-61%). Shifting the injury risk cut point of ≤14 to the optimal cut points indicated by the ROC did not appreciably improve sensitivity or the PPV. Although poor FMS performance was associated with a higher risk of injuries, it displayed low sensitivity, PPV, and AUC. On the basis of these findings, the use of the FMS to screen for the injury risk is not recommended in this population because of the low predictive value and misclassification of the

  19. Exploring Genitoanal Injury and HIV Risk Among Women: Menstrual Phase, Hormonal Birth Control, and Injury Frequency and Prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brawner, Bridgette M; Sommers, Marilyn S; Moore, Kendra; Aka-James, Rose; Zink, Therese; Brown, Kathleen M; Fargo, Jamison D

    2016-02-01

    Genital, anal, and oral injuries sustained from sexual intercourse may explain HIV transmission among women. We determined the variability in genitoanal injury frequency and prevalence in women after consensual sexual intercourse, exploring the role of menstrual phase and hormonal birth control. We used a longitudinal observational design with a convenience sample of 393 women aged 21 years and older. Participants had a baseline interview with gynecological examination, followed by consensual sexual intercourse with a male partner and a second gynecological examination. We analyzed injury prevalence with logistic regression and injury frequency with negative binomial regression among women who were (1) menstrual, not using hormonal birth control, (2) menstrual, using hormonal birth control, or (3) menopausal. We also compared injury among menstrual women in the follicular, ovulatory, and luteal phases. Women using hormonal birth control had 38% more external genitalia injuries [adjusted rate ratio (ARR) = 1.38, P = 0.030] and more than twice the anal injuries (ARR = 2.67, P = 0.005) as the nonhormonal birth control menstruating group. Menopausal women had more than 3 times the anal injuries (ARR = 3.36, P = 0.020) than those in the nonhormonal menstrual group. Among menstrual women, those in the follicular phase had a greater prevalence and frequency of external genitalia injuries than those in other phases. Increased rates of postcoital genitoanal injuries are noted among women using hormonal birth control and/or in the follicular phase of menstruation. Biological factors that influence women's risk for HIV warrant further investigation.

  20. TREATMENT OF HAMSTRING STRAIN IN A COLLEGIATE POLE‐VAULTER INTEGRATING DRY NEEDLING WITH AN ECCENTRIC TRAINING PROGRAM: A RESIDENT'S CASE REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westrick, Richard B.; Zylstra, Edo; Johnson, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Hamstring strain injuries are among the most common injuries seen in sports. Management is made difficult by the high recurrence rates. Typical time to return to sport varies but can be prolonged with recurrence. Eccentric strength deficits remain post‐injury, contributing to reinjury. Eccentric training has shown to be an effective method at prevention of hamstring injury in multiple systematic reviews and prospective RCTs but limited prospective rehabilitation literature. Functional dry needling is a technique that has been reported to be beneficial in the management of pain and dysfunction after muscle strains, but there is limited published literature on its effects on rehabilitation or recurrence of injury. Purpose: The purpose of this case report is to present the management and outcomes of a patient with hamstring strain, treated with functional dry needling and eccentric exercise. Case Description: The subject was an 18‐year‐old collegiate pole‐vaulter who presented to physical therapy with an acute hamstring strain and history of multiple strains on uninvolved extremity. He was treated in Physical Therapy three times per week for 3 weeks with progressive eccentric training and 3 sessions of functional dry needling. Outcomes: By day 12, his eccentric strength on the involved extremity was greater than the uninvolved extremity and he reported clinically meaningful improvement in outcome scores. By Day 20, he was able to return to full sports participation without pain or lingering strength deficits. Discussion: The patient in this case report was able to return to sport within 20 days and without recurrence. He demonstrated significant decreases in pain and dysfunction with dry needling. He had greater strength on the injured extremity compared to contra‐lateral previously injured extremity. Conclusions: This case illustrates the use of functional dry needling and eccentric exercise leading to a favorable outcome in a patient with

  1. Treatment of hamstring strain in a collegiate pole-vaulter integrating dry needling with an eccentric training program: a resident's case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembowski, Scott C; Westrick, Richard B; Zylstra, Edo; Johnson, Michael R

    2013-06-01

    Hamstring strain injuries are among the most common injuries seen in sports. Management is made difficult by the high recurrence rates. Typical time to return to sport varies but can be prolonged with recurrence. Eccentric strength deficits remain post-injury, contributing to reinjury. Eccentric training has shown to be an effective method at prevention of hamstring injury in multiple systematic reviews and prospective RCTs but limited prospective rehabilitation literature. Functional dry needling is a technique that has been reported to be beneficial in the management of pain and dysfunction after muscle strains, but there is limited published literature on its effects on rehabilitation or recurrence of injury. The purpose of this case report is to present the management and outcomes of a patient with hamstring strain, treated with functional dry needling and eccentric exercise. The subject was an 18-year-old collegiate pole-vaulter who presented to physical therapy with an acute hamstring strain and history of multiple strains on uninvolved extremity. He was treated in Physical Therapy three times per week for 3 weeks with progressive eccentric training and 3 sessions of functional dry needling. By day 12, his eccentric strength on the involved extremity was greater than the uninvolved extremity and he reported clinically meaningful improvement in outcome scores. By Day 20, he was able to return to full sports participation without pain or lingering strength deficits. The patient in this case report was able to return to sport within 20 days and without recurrence. He demonstrated significant decreases in pain and dysfunction with dry needling. He had greater strength on the injured extremity compared to contra-lateral previously injured extremity. This case illustrates the use of functional dry needling and eccentric exercise leading to a favorable outcome in a patient with hamstring strain. Level 4.

  2. Assessment scale of risk for surgical positioning injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Camila Mendonça de Moraes; Haas, Vanderlei José; Dantas, Rosana Aparecida Spadoti; Oliveira, Cheila Gonçalves de; Galvão, Cristina Maria

    2016-08-29

    to build and validate a scale to assess the risk of surgical positioning injuries in adult patients. methodological research, conducted in two phases: construction and face and content validation of the scale and field research, involving 115 patients. the Risk Assessment Scale for the Development of Injuries due to Surgical Positioning contains seven items, each of which presents five subitems. The scale score ranges between seven and 35 points in which, the higher the score, the higher the patient's risk. The Content Validity Index of the scale corresponded to 0.88. The application of Student's t-test for equality of means revealed the concurrent criterion validity between the scores on the Braden scale and the constructed scale. To assess the predictive criterion validity, the association was tested between the presence of pain deriving from surgical positioning and the development of pressure ulcer, using the score on the Risk Assessment Scale for the Development of Injuries due to Surgical Positioning (pDesarrollo de Lesiones Debidas al Posicionamiento Quirúrgico contiene siete ítems, siendo que cada uno presenta cinco subítems. La puntuación de esa escala varia de siete a 35 puntos en que, cuanto mayor la puntuación, mayor el riesgo del paciente. El Índice de Validez de Contenido de la escala fue 0,88. Mediante la aplicación de la prueba t de Student, para igualdad de medias, fue constatada validez de criterio concurrente entre los scores de la escala de Braden y de la escala construida. Para evaluar la validez de criterio predictiva, fue testada la asociación de la presencia de dolor debido al posicionamiento quirúrgico y el desarrollo de úlcera por presión con el score de la Escala de Evaluación de Riesgo para el Desarrollo de Lesiones Debidas al Posicionamiento Quirúrgico (p<0,001). La confiabilidad interobservadores fue verificada mediante el coeficiente de correlación intraclase, cuyo valor alcanzado fue 0,99 (p<0,001). la escala es un

  3. Association between ambient noise exposure, hearing acuity, and risk of acute occupational injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantley, Linda F; Galusha, Deron; Cullen, Mark R; Dixon-Ernst, Christine; Rabinowitz, Peter M; Neitzel, Richard L

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the associations between acute workplace injury risk, ambient noise exposure, and hearing acuity, adjusting for reported hearing protection use. In a cohort of 9220 aluminum manufacturing workers studied over six years (33 300 person-years, 13 323 person-jobs), multivariate mixed effects models were used to estimate relative risk (RR) of all injuries as well as serious injuries by noise exposure category and hearing threshold level (HTL) adjusting for recognized and potential confounders. Compared to noise exposure was associated with elevated risk in a monotonic and statistically significant exposure-response pattern for all injuries and serious injuries with higher risk estimates observed for serious injuries [82-84.99 dBA: RR 1.26, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.96-1.64; 85-87.99 dBA: RR 1.39, 95% CI 1.05-1.85; ≥88 dBA: RR 2.29, 95% CI 1.52-3.47]. Hearing loss was associated with increased risk for all injuries, but was not a significant predictor of risk for the subset of more serious injuries. Compared to those without hearing loss, workers with HTL ≥25 dB had 21% increased all injury risk (RR 1.21, 95% CI 1.09-1.33) while those with HTL 10-24.99 dB had 6% increased risk (RR 1.06, 95% CI 1.00-1.13). Reported hearing protection type did not predict injury risk. Noise exposure levels as low as 85 dBA may increase workplace injury risk. HTL was associated with increased risk for all, but not the subset of serious, injuries. Additional study is needed both to confirm the observed associations and explore causal pathways.

  4. Factors Influencing Running-Related Musculoskeletal Injury Risk Among U.S. Military Recruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, Joseph M

    2016-06-01

    Running-related musculoskeletal injuries among U.S. military recruits negatively impact military readiness. Low aerobic fitness, prior injury, and weekly running distance are known risk factors. Physical fitness screening and remedial physical training (or discharging the most poorly fit recruits) before entry-level military training have tended to reduce injury rates while decreasing attrition, training, and medical costs. Incorporating anaerobic running sessions into training programs can offset decreased weekly running distance and decrease injury risk. Varying lower extremity loading patterns, stride length or cadence manipulation, and hip stability/strengthening programming may further decrease injury risk. No footstrike pattern is ideal for all runners; transitioning to forefoot striking may reduce risk for hip, knee, or tibial injuries, but increase risk for calf, Achilles, foot or ankle injuries. Minimal evidence associates running surfaces with injury risk. Footwear interventions should focus on proper fit and comfort; the evidence does not support running shoe prescription per foot type to reduce injury risk among recruits. Primary injury mitigation efforts should focus on physical fitness screening, remedial physical training (or discharge for unfit recruits), and continued inclusion of anaerobic running sessions to offset decreased weekly running distance. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  5. Risk Factors Associated with Self-Injurious Behavior among a National Sample of Undergraduate College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taliaferro, Lindsay A.; Muehlenkamp, Jennifer J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidality among undergraduates represent important public health issues. This analysis identified risk factors that distinguished 3 groups, those who reported no history of self-harm; self-injury, but no suicide attempts (NSSI only); and self-injury and a suicide attempt (NSSI + SA) in the past year.…

  6. Injury risk in Danish youth and senior elite handball using a new SMS text messages approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Merete; Attermann, Jørn; Myklebust, Grethe

    2012-01-01

    ObjectiveTo assess the injury incidence in elite handball, and if gender and previous injuries are risk factors for new injuries.MethodsCohort study of 517 male and female elite handball players (age groups under (u)16, u-18 and senior). Participants completed a web survey establishing injury.......8 to 30.4), 15.1 (95% CI 9.7 to 22.2), 11.1 (95% CI 7.0 to 16.6) injuries per 1000 match hours among senior, u-18 and u-16 players, respectively. U-18 male players had an overall 1.76 (95% CI 1.10 to 2.80) times higher risk of injury compared to females. Having had two or more previous injuries causing......% illustrating the promise of the SMS system as a tool in injury surveillance. Of 448 reported injuries, 165 injuries (37%) were overuse injuries and 283 (63%) traumatic injuries. Knee (19%) and ankle (29%) were the most common traumatic injuries. The injury incidence during match play was 23.5 (95% CI 17...

  7. Comparison of risk factors for cervical spine, head, serious, and fatal injury in rollover crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, James R; Cormier, Joseph M; Manoogian, Sarah J

    2012-03-01

    Previous epidemiological studies of rollover crashes have focused primarily on serious and fatal injuries in general, while rollover crash testing has focused almost exclusively on cervical spine injury. The purpose of this study was to examine and compare the risk factors for cervical spine, head, serious, and fatal injury in real world rollover crashes. Rollover crashes from 1995-2008 in the National Automotive Sampling System-Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) were investigated. A large data set of 6015 raw cases (2.5 million weighted) was generated. Nonparametric univariate analyses, univariate logistic regression, and multivariate logistic regression were conducted. Complete or partial ejection, a lack of seatbelt use, a greater number of roof inversions, and older occupant age significantly increased the risk of all types of injuries studied (pseating position increased the risk of fatal, head, and cervical spine injury (p<0.05), but not serious injury in general. Higher BMI was associated with an increased risk of fatal, serious, and cervical spine injury (p<0.05), but not head injury. Greater roof crush was associated with a higher rate of fatal and cervical spine injury (p<0.05). Vehicle type, occupant height, and occupant gender had inconsistent and generally non-significant effects on injury. This study demonstrates both common and unique risk factors for different types of injuries in rollover crashes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Incidence and Risk Factors for Upper Extremity Climbing Injuries in Indoor Climbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Middelkoop, M; Bruens, M L; Coert, J H; Selles, R W; Verhagen, E; Bierma-Zeinstra, S M A; Koes, B W

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence, incidence and risk factors for climbing-related injuries of the upper extremities in recreational climbers. A total of 426 recreational climbers were recruited from indoor climbing halls. The baseline questionnaire included questions on potential risk factors for climbing injuries: personal factors, climbing-related factors and upper extremity injuries that had occurred in the previous 12 months. Follow-up questionnaires collected information on new injuries that occurred during the follow-up period. The incidence of climbing-related injuries during one-year follow-up was 42.4% with 13 injuries per 1000 h of climbing. The finger was the most frequently affected injury location (36.0%). The following risk factors were associated with the occurrence of upper extremity injuries: higher age (OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.01;1.05), performing a cooling-down (OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.28;3.18), climbing with campus board (OR 2.48, 95% CI 1.23;5.02), finger strength middle finger (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.05;1.18) and previous injuries (OR 3.05, 95% CI 2.01;4.83). Climbing injuries of the upper body extremities are very common among recreational climbers in indoor halls and several risk factors can be identified that are related to a higher injury risk. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. The prevalence, risk factors predicting injury and the severity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kathryn van Boom

    Injuries to the face included 16 episodes of epistaxis, and five auricular hematomas. Return- to- play (RTP) times. Lower limb injuries were responsible for the longest time off play. The average RTP after injury was 7.7 weeks. Lower limb injuries included anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) ...

  10. Self-reported psychological characteristics as risk factors for injuries in female youth football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, K; Pensgaard, A M; Bahr, R

    2009-06-01

    Identifying and understanding injury risk factors are necessary to target the injury-prone athlete and develop injury prevention measurements. The influence of psychological factors on injuries in football is poorly documented. The purpose of this 8-month prospective cohort study therefore was to examine whether psychological player characteristics assessed by a self-administered questionnaire represent risk factors for injury. At baseline, female football players (14-16 years) were asked to complete a detailed questionnaire covering player history, previous injuries, perception of success and motivational climate, life stress, anxiety and coping strategies. During the 2005 season, a total of 1430 players were followed up to record injuries. A history of a previous injury [odds ratio (OR)=1.9 (1.4; 2.5), Pfootball players.

  11. Older siblings as potential supervisors of younger siblings: sibling supervisors' recognition of injury-risk behaviours and beliefs about supervisee risk taking and potential injury outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrongiello, B A; Schell, S L; Stewart, J

    2015-07-01

    Past research has shown that increased injury risk for supervisees during sibling supervision is in part due to the supervision practices of older siblings. The current study used a photo sorting task to examine older siblings' recognition of injury-risk behaviours, their perceived likelihood of supervisees engaging in, or being injured while engaging in, these behaviours, and awareness of past risk-taking behaviours of supervisees. Mothers completed the same measures and an interview about sibling supervision in the home. Mothers reported that sibling supervision occurred most frequently in the kitchen, living room, and children's bedrooms, for approximately 39 min/day, and that the more time the children spent together in a room, the more frequently the older sibling supervised the younger one. The most common reasons mothers gave for why sibling supervision was allowed included beliefs that the older child knows about hazards and unsafe behaviours and that the child could provide adequate supervision. Photo sort results revealed that older siblings were able to correctly identify about 98% of risk behaviours, with these scores significantly higher than what mothers expected (79%). However, compared with mothers, older siblings were less aware of risk behaviours that their younger siblings had engaged in previously. In addition, mothers rated supervisees as 'fairly likely' both to engage in risk behaviours and to experience an injury if they tried these behaviours, whereas sibling supervisors rated both supervisee risk behaviour and injury outcomes as 'not likely' to occur. Older siblings showed good knowledge of hazards but failed to realize that younger children often engage in injury-risk behaviours. Efforts to improve the supervision practices of sibling supervisors need to include changing their perception of supervisees' injury vulnerability and potential injury severity, rather than targeting to increase knowledge of injury-risk behaviours per se.

  12. Potential risk factors for prolonged recovery following whiplash injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osti, Orso L; Gun, Richard T; Abraham, George; Pratt, Nicole L; Eckerwall, Goran; Nakamura, Hiroaki

    2005-02-01

    A retrospective analysis of insurance data was made of 600 individuals claiming compensation for whiplash following motor vehicle accidents. Three hundred randomly selected claimants who had settled their injury claims within 9 months of the accident were compared with 300 who had settled more than 24 months after the accident. We compared the two groups to identify possible risk factors for prolonged recovery, for which settlement time greater than 24 months was a marker. Variables considered included demographic factors, type of collision, degree of vehicle damage, workers compensation, prior claim or neck disability, treatment and time to settlement. Consulting a solicitor was associated with a highly significant, four-fold increase of late settlement of the claim. A concurrent workers' compensation claim, prior neck disability and undergoing physiotherapy or chiropractic treatment were weakly associated with late settlement. The degree of damage to the vehicle (as indicated by cost of repairs) was not a significant predictor of late settlement. Late settlement may be the direct effect of legal intervention, independent of the severity of the injury. Whilst the financial benefit to the claimant of consulting a solicitor is apparent, the benefit of prolonged disability is not. It may be to the advantage of both insurers and claimants if those likely to proceed to late settlement could be recognised early and their claims settled expeditiously.

  13. Evaluation of injury and fatality risk in rock and ice climbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöffl, Volker; Morrison, Audry; Schwarz, Ulrich; Schöffl, Isabelle; Küpper, Thomas

    2010-08-01

    Rock and ice climbing are widely considered to be 'high-risk' sporting activities that are associated with a high incidence of severe injury and even death, compared with more mainstream sports. However, objective scientific data to support this perception are questionable. Accordingly, >400 sport-specific injury studies were analysed and compared by quantifying the injury incidence and objectively grading the injury severity (using the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics score) per 1000 hours of sporting participation. Fatalities were also analysed. The analysis revealed that fatalities occurred in all sports, but it was not always clear whether the sport itself or pre-existing health conditions contributed or caused the deaths. Bouldering (ropeless climbing to low heights), sport climbing (mostly bolt protected lead climbing with little objective danger) and indoor climbing (climbing indoors on artificial rock structures), showed a small injury rate, minor injury severity and few fatalities. As more objective/external dangers exist for alpine and ice climbing, the injury rate, injury severity and fatality were all higher. Overall, climbing sports had a lower injury incidence and severity score than many popular sports, including basketball, sailing or soccer; indoor climbing ranked the lowest in terms of injuries of all sports assessed. Nevertheless, a fatality risk remains, especially in alpine and ice climbing. In the absence of a standard definition for a 'high-risk' sport, categorizing climbing as a high-risk sport was found to be either subjective or dependent on the definition used. In conclusion, this analysis showed that retrospective data on sport-specific injuries and fatalities are not reported in a standardized manner. To improve preventative injury measures for climbing sports, it is recommended that a standardized, robust and comprehensive sport-specific scoring model should be developed to report and fully evaluate the injury risk, severity

  14. Prior trauma and psychiatric history as risk factors for intentional and unintentional injury in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Meaghan L; Creamer, Mark; Elliott, Peter; Bryant, Richard; McFarlane, Alexander; Silove, Derrick

    2009-02-01

    Preliminary evidence suggests that injury survivors are at increased risk for having experienced traumatic events before their injury or having a lifetime psychiatric history. We aimed to extend the previous research by examining in the same sample whether trauma history or lifetime psychiatric history represented risk pathways to injury for intentional or unintentional injury survivors. We also aimed to describe the co-occurrence between trauma history and psychiatric history in unintentionally injured survivors. In this multisited study, randomly selected injury survivors admitted to five trauma services in three states of Australia (April 2004 to February 2006) completed two structured clinical interviews that assessed their history of traumatic life events and lifetime psychiatric disorder (n = 1,167). chi analyses were conducted to compare the lifetime prevalence of traumatic events and psychiatric history for intentional and unintentional injury with population norms. Both intentional and unintentional injury survivors were at increased risk for reporting all types of trauma and reporting all measured psychiatric diagnoses compared with population norms. The majority of unintentional injury survivors with a psychiatric history were likely to have a trauma history. In this study, we identified that prior trauma or prior psychiatric illness may represent risk for injury in both intentionally and unintentionally injured survivors. The results highlight the need for injury-care services to address mental health issues in injury patients as part of routine care.

  15. Injuries and risk factors in an 18-day Marine winter mountain training exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, K; Williams, J; Miller, C; Mathis, A; Dettori, J

    2000-12-01

    This study determined the incidence of and risk factors for injuries among 356 Marines during a winter mountain training exercise. Marines received a podiatry screening and completed a questionnaire on race, education, tobacco use, height, weight, and fitness (4.8-km run, sit-ups, pull-ups). Forty-five Marines (12.6%) reported at least one injury each, 68.9% of which were traumatic injuries. Total injuries resulted in 114 days of limited duty time. A final foot examination (N = 141) revealed 118 injuries (82.2% blisters and abrasions, 11.9% frostnip). White ethnicity was a risk factor for overall injuries, and forefoot varus alignment was a risk factor for traumatic injuries. Lower education and rank and smokeless tobacco use were associated with foot injuries. The Marine ski-march leather boot and smoking were related to foot cold injuries. Military winter training is associated with injuries and lost training time. Risk factors were identified, suggesting that these injuries may be preventable.

  16. Parental social determinants of risk for intentional injury: a cross-sectional study of Swedish adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engström, Karin; Diderichsen, Finn; Laflamme, Lucie

    2004-01-01

    in the household (1- or 2-parent home), receipt of welfare benefits, parental country of birth, and population density as exposures and compiled relative risks and population-attributable risks (PARs) for self-inflicted and interpersonal violence-related injury. RESULTS: For both genders and for both injury types......, receipt of welfare benefits showed the largest crude and net relative risks and the highest PARs. The socioeconomic status-related PAR for self-inflicted injury and the PAR related to number of parents in the household for interpersonal violence-related injury also were high. CONCLUSIONS: Intentional...

  17. Dental trauma. Combination injuries 2. The risk of pulp necrosis in permanent teeth with subluxation injuries and concomitant crown fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Eva Fejerskov; Hermann, Nuno Vibe; Gerds, Thomas Alexander

    2012-01-01

    The reported risk of pulp necrosis (PN) is generally low in teeth with subluxation injuries. A concomitant crown fracture may increase the risk of PN in such teeth. Aim:  To analyse the influence of a concomitant trauma-related infraction, enamel-, enamel–dentin- or enamel–dentin–pulp fracture...... on the risk of PN in permanent teeth with subluxation injury. Material and Methods:  The study included 404 permanent incisors with subluxation injury from 289 patients (188 male, 101 female). Of these teeth, 137 had also suffered a concomitant crown fracture. All the teeth were examined and treated according...... age, crown fracture type, mobility and response to an electric pulp test (EPT) at the initial examination. Results:  Teeth with immature root development: The risk of PN was increased in teeth with a concomitant enamel fracture (log-rank test: P = 0.002), enamel–dentin fracture (log-rank test: P

  18. Risk prediction models for acute kidney injury following major noncardiac surgery: systematic review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilson, Todd; Quan, Samuel; Cheema, Kim; Zarnke, Kelly; Quinn, Rob; de Koning, Lawrence; Dixon, Elijah; Pannu, Neesh; James, Matthew T

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a serious complication of major noncardiac surgery. Risk prediction models for AKI following noncardiac surgery may be useful for identifying high-risk patients to target with prevention strategies...

  19. Proximal hamstring lengthening in the sitting cerebral palsy patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, E B; Wenger, D R; Mubarak, S J; Sutherland, D H

    1992-01-01

    We retrospectively studied 62 nonambulatory children with spastic quadriplegic cerebral palsy who underwent proximal hamstring lengthening to improve hip and spine positioning. Preoperatively, all had hamstring contracture, with difficulty sitting due to hip extensor thrust and increased kyphosis. Thirty-five patients with follow-up greater than or equal to 2 years were studied using a modified Reimer scale to assess sitting ability. Sitting ability improved significantly (p less than 0.01) postoperatively, along with popliteal angle (p less than 0.001) and straight leg raising (p less than 0.001). Proximal hamstring lengthening is effective in treating severe hamstring contractures in the wheelchair-bound child with cerebral palsy.

  20. Risk Factors of Poor Prognosis after Whiplash Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samy Suissa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Whiplash, a common injury following motor vehicle crashes, is associated with high costs and a prognosis that is variable and difficult to predict. In this paper, we review findings from the Quebec cohort epidemiological study on predictive factors of recovery from whiplash injury after a motor vehicle crash. We formed a population-based incident cohort of all 4,759 individuals who sustained a whiplash injury resulting from a motor vehicle crash in the province of Québec, Canada, in 1987, and followed these patients for up to seven years. The data were obtained from the universal automobile insurance plan (SAAQ that covers all seven million residents of the Province for all vehicular-related injuries. From this cohort, we formed the cohort of 3,014 for whom a police report was completed. For this cohort, we obtained data on crash-related factors directly from the police report. We also formed the cohort of 2,627 subjects who had strictly a whiplash injury, without associated injuries. For this cohort, the data on signs and symptoms were obtained from the medical charts kept by the SAAQ. For both cohorts, data on the outcome, the recovery time from whiplash, was obtained from the SAAQ databases. The crash-related cohort study found that socio-demographic factors associated with a longer recovery from whiplash include older age, female sex, having dependents and not being employed full time and that each decreases the rate of recovery by 14 to 16 per cent. Factors related to the crash conditions indicate that being in a truck or bus, with a decrease of 52% in the rate of recovery, being a passenger in the vehicle (15%, colliding with a moving vehicle (16%, and a side or frontal collision (15% all decrease the rate of recovery. We introduce a combined risk score that predicts longer recovery. In the cohort of subjects with signs and symptoms, the median recovery time was 32 days and 12% of subjects had still not recovered after 6 months. The signs

  1. Identification and measurement of work-related psychological injury: piloting the psychological injury risk indicator among frontline police.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winwood, Peter C; Tuckey, Michelle R; Peters, Roger; Dollard, Maureen F

    2009-09-01

    To develop a self-report measure of work-related psychological injury, the Psychological Injury Risk Indicator (PIRI), with a comparable level of accuracy and reliability to individual clinical assessment by a skilled clinical psychologist. Two pilot studies investigated the responses of a) 34 frontline police officers completing the PIRI measure who were also examined by a highly experienced clinical psychologist and b) 217 officers who completed the PIRI measure and also the General Health Questionnaire 12 measure. The PIRI scale identified both the presence and the level of psychological injury in the clinical group with a remarkably high level of correspondence to concurrent clinical assessment (r = 0.80). The PIRI scale can be used both for the individual assessment of psychological injury and as a potential online screening tool. Its latter use is that it could enable the early identification of evolving psychological injury among workers, facilitating timely and career-preserving intervention.

  2. Risk factors for lower extremity injuries in elite female soccer players

    OpenAIRE

    Nilstad, Agnethe; Andersen, Thor Einar; Bahr, Roald; Holme, Ingar Morten K.; Steffen, Kathrin

    2014-01-01

    Background: The incidence of lower extremity injuries in female soccer players is high, but the risk factors for injuries are unknown. Purpose: To investigate risk factors for lower extremity injuries in elite female soccer players. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Players in the Norwegian elite female soccer league (N = 12 teams) participated in baseline screening tests before the 2009 competitive soccer season. The screening included tests assessi...

  3. Investigating injury severity risk factors in automobile crashes with predictive analytics and sensitivity analysis methods

    OpenAIRE

    Delen, Dursun; Tomak, Leman; Topuz, Kazim; Eryarsoy, Enes

    2017-01-01

    Investigation of the risk factors that contribute to the injury severity in motor vehicle crashes has proved to be a thought-provoking and challenging problem. The results of such investigation can help better understand and potentially mitigate the severe injury risks involved in automobile crashes and thereby advance the well-being of people involved in these traffic accidents. Many factors were found to have an impact on the severity of injury sustained by occupants in the event of an auto...

  4. Risk factors for injury in talented soccer and tennis players : A maturation-driven approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, Alien

    2017-01-01

    Talented athletes having their growth spurt have an increased injury risk Young talented athletes that mature have an increased injury risk. Human movement scientist Alien van der Sluis studied soccer players of the talent development program of FC Groningen and tennis players of the talented

  5. A Prospective Investigation of Injury Incidence and Risk Factors Among Army Recruits in Combat Engineer Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    a risk fac - tor for future injuries. In the absence of stronger evi- dence, common sense dictates that soldiers who have sustained injuries should be...Intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors for muscle strains in Australian football . Am J Sports Med 2001, 29:300–303. 92. Voaklander DC, Saunders LD

  6. Injury Risk During Different Physical Activity Behaviours in Children: A Systematic Review with Bias Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, J.; Martin-Diener, E.; Martin, B.W.; van Mechelen, W.; Verhagen, E.A.L.M.

    2015-01-01

    Results: Eight studies were included. The risk of bias assessment resulted in two studies with a score that was higher than 75 %; risk bias of those two studies was considered low. The medically treated, injury incidence rate was reported to be between 0.15 and 0.27 injuries per 1,000 h of physical

  7. Weekly running volume and risk of running-related injuries among marathon runners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Christina Haugaard; Nielsen, Rasmus Østergaard; Juul, Martin Serup

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSEBACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate if the risk of injury declines with increasing weekly running volume before a marathon race.......PURPOSEBACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate if the risk of injury declines with increasing weekly running volume before a marathon race....

  8. Weekly running volume and risk of running-related injuries among marathon runners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Christina Haugaard; Nielsen, R.O.; Juul, Martin Serup

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate if the risk of injury declines with increasing weekly running volume before a marathon race.......The purpose of this study was to investigate if the risk of injury declines with increasing weekly running volume before a marathon race....

  9. Teen drivers and the risk of injury to child passengers in motor vehicle crashes

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, I.; Elliott, M; Durbin, D.; Winston, F

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: The first aim was to examine the relationship between driver's age (novice teens, older teens, and adults) and child passenger's restraint status, front row seating, and injury risk. The second aim was to explore whether there was an excess injury risk to child passengers in teen crashes compared to those in adult crashes by examining the contributing factors.

  10. Risk of intracranial injury after minor head trauma in patients with pre-injury use of clopidogrel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Michael; Wyler, Benjamin; Lovecchio, Frank; Roque, Pedro; Raja, Ali S

    2014-01-01

    Clopidogrel is an adenosine diphosphate receptor antagonist. The risk of intracranial hemorrhage following minor head trauma in patients with pre-injury use of clopidogrel has not been fully determined. This case-controlled study examined the effects of pre-injury use of clopidogrel in adult (age 14 years and older) patients with minor head trauma. During the study period, 1660 patients head computed tomography scans were performed in the emergency department, of which 658 met inclusion criteria. Intracranial hemorrhage was noted in 30% of patients on clopidogrel, compared with 2.2% of those patients without pre-injury use of clopidogrel. After performing a logistic regression analysis for confounders, the pre-injury use of clopidogrel was significantly associated with intracranial hemorrhage in this study population (OR 16.7; 95% CI 1.71-162.7). The use of clopidogrel is associated with a significantly increased risk of developing intracranial hemorrhage following minor trauma. © 2013.

  11. Risk factors for anterior cruciate ligament injury: a review of the literature - part 1: neuromuscular and anatomic risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Helen C; Vacek, Pamela; Johnson, Robert J; Slauterbeck, James R; Hashemi, Javad; Shultz, Sandra; Beynnon, Bruce D

    2012-01-01

    Injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) of the knee are immediately debilitating and can cause long-term consequences, including the early onset of osteoarthritis. It is important to have a comprehensive understanding of all possible risk factors for ACL injury to identify individuals who are at risk for future injuries and to provide an appropriate level of counseling and programs for prevention. This review, part 1 of a 2-part series, highlights what is known and still unknown regarding anatomic and neuromuscular risk factors for injury to the ACL from the current peer-reviewed literature. Studies were identified from MEDLINE (1951-March 2011) using the MeSH terms anterior cruciate ligament, knee injury, and risk factors. The bibliographies of relevant articles and reviews were cross-referenced to complete the search. Prognostic studies that utilized the case-control and prospective cohort study designs to evaluate risk factors for ACL injury were included in this review. A total of 50 case-control and prospective cohort articles were included in the review, and 30 of these studies focused on neuromuscular and anatomic risk factors. Several anatomic and neuromuscular risk factors are associated with increased risk of suffering ACL injury-such as female sex and specific measures of bony geometry of the knee joint, including decreased intercondylar femoral notch size, decreased depth of concavity of the medial tibial plateau, increased slope of the tibial plateaus, and increased anterior-posterior knee laxity. These risk factors most likely act in combination to influence the risk of ACL injury; however, multivariate risk models that consider all the aforementioned risk factors in combination have not been established to explore this interaction.

  12. Sleep quality and the risk of work injury: a Swiss case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehli, Katrin; Miedinger, David; Bingisser, Roland; Dürr, Selina; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Maier, Sabrina; Mehta, Amar J; Müller, Roland; Schindler, Christian; Zogg, Stefanie; Künzli, Nino; Leuppi, Jörg D

    2014-10-01

    Sleep problems are a well-known risk factor for work injuries, but less is known about which vulnerable populations are most at risk. The aims of this study were to investigate the association between sleep quality and the risk of work injury and to identify factors that may modify the association. A case-control study including 180 cases and 551 controls was conducted at the University Hospital in Basel, Switzerland, from 1 December 2009 to 30 June 2011. Data on work injuries and sleep quality were collected. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of the association between sleep quality and work injury were estimated in multivariable logistic regression analyses and were stratified by hypothesized effect modifiers (age, gender, job risk, shift work, sleep duration and working hours). Poor sleep quality was associated significantly with work injury of any type (P work injury was significantly higher for workers older than 30 years (odds ratio>30 1.30 versus odds ratio≤30 0.91, P 7 0.79, P working 50 h or more per week (odds ratio≥50 1.79 versus odd ratioWork injury risk increased with increasing severity of sleep problems (P work injury frequency increased with decreasing sleep quality (P working hours may enhance the risk of work injuries associated with sleep quality. © 2014 European Sleep Research Society.

  13. Student-inflicted injuries to staff in schools: comparing risk between educators and non-educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Katherine E; Ryan, Andrew D; Stroinski, Craig

    2017-10-27

    Student-inflicted injury to staff in the educational services sector is a growing concern. Studies on violence have focused on teachers as victims, but less is known about injuries to other employee groups, particularly educational assistants. Inequities may be present, as educational assistants and non-educators may not have the same wage, benefits, training and employment protections available to them as professional educators. We identified risk factors for student-related injury and their characteristics among employees in school districts. Workers' compensation data were used to identify incidence and severity of student-related injury. Rates were calculated using negative binomial regression; risk factors were identified using multivariate models to calculate rate ratios (RR) and 95% CIs. Over 26% of all injuries were student-related; 8% resulted in lost work time. Special and general education assistants experienced significantly increased risk of injury (RR=6.0, CI 5.05 to 7.15; RR=2.07, CI 1.40 to 3.07) as compared with educators. Risk differed by age, gender and school district type. Text analyses categorised student-related injury. It revealed injury from students acting out occurred most frequently (45.4%), whereas injuries involving play with students resulted in the highest percentage of lost-time injuries (17.7%) compared with all interaction categories. Student-inflicted injury to staff occurs frequently and can be severe. Special education and general assistants bear the largest burden of injury compared with educators. A variety of prevention techniques to reduce injury risk and severity, including policy or environmental modifications, may be appropriate. Equal access to risk reduction methods for all staff should be prioritised. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Nonsuicidal Self-Injury and Suicidal Risk Among Emerging Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamza, Chloe A; Willoughby, Teena

    2016-10-01

    Although nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) has been differentiated from suicidal behavior on the basis of nonlethal intent in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, NSSI often is associated with increased suicidal risk. However, there is a paucity of large-scale longitudinal examinations on the associations among NSSI, suicidal ideation, and suicidal attempts, particularly among community-based samples. In the present study, we examined whether NSSI in first-year university was associated with increased risk for later suicidal ideation and attempts over time among students. Participants included 940 emerging adults (70.8% female, mean age = 19.05 years) from a mid-sized Canadian university who volunteered to participate in a longitudinal research project starting in first-year university (participants were surveyed annually over five waves). Binary logistic regression analyses revealed that the odds of experiencing suicidal ideation across times 2-5 were 2.04 times as high for emerging adults who engaged in NSSI at baseline (even after controlling for suicidal ideation and attempts at baseline) as for individuals who did not engage in NSSI. Furthermore, the odds of attempting suicide across times 2-5 were 3.46 times as high for emerging adults who engaged in NSSI at baseline (even after controlling for suicidal ideation and attempts at baseline) as for individuals who did not engage in NSSI. Findings suggest that the presence of NSSI in first-year university may be an important marker of later suicidal risk, reflecting increased risk for both suicidal ideation and attempts across the university years among emerging adults. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A Nurse-Initiated Perioperative Pressure Injury Risk Assessment and Prevention Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, Anita J; Beinlich, Nancy R; Hammonds, Tracy L

    2016-12-01

    Pressure injuries negatively affect patients physically, emotionally, and economically. Studies report that pressure injuries occur in 69% of inpatients who have undergone a surgical procedure while hospitalized. In 2012, we created a nurse-initiated, perioperative pressure injury risk assessment measure for our midwestern, urban, adult teaching hospital. We retrospectively applied the risk assessment to a random sample of 350 surgical patients which validated the measure. The prospective use of the risk assessment and prevention measures in 350 surgical patients resulted in a 60% reduction in pressure injuries compared with the retrospective group. Our findings support the use of a multipronged approach for the prevention of health care-associated pressure injuries in the surgical population, which includes assessment of risk, implementation of evidence-based prevention interventions for at-risk patients, and continuation of prevention beyond the perioperative setting to the nursing care unit. Copyright © 2016 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Risk factors for severe injury following indoor and outdoor falls in geriatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Hyu

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to examine the characteristics of indoor and outdoor falls in older patients and the factors related to severe injury in the emergency department (ED). In total, 26,515 patients fell indoors and 19,581 outdoors. The general and clinical characteristics were compared between the two groups and factors associated with severe injury following the falls were evaluated. Younger males fell more frequently outdoors than indoors. The common activities during outdoor falls were sports and leisure activities. Environmental hazards lead to more outdoor falls than indoor falls. Factors associated with severe injury after indoor falls were transport to the ED by public ambulance or from another medical facility rather than individual transportation, fall from stairs rather than fell over, and a head and neck injury rather than a lower extremity injury. Factors related to severe injury after outdoor falls were male sex, transport to the ED by public ambulance or from another medical facility or by another method rather than individual transportation, state employed, fall from stairs rather than fell over, head and neck or thorax or abdomen injury rather than a lower extremity injury. Transport to the ED by public ambulance or from another medical facility, and head and neck injury were risks for severe injury following indoor and outdoor falls in elderly subjects. Efforts to identify the risk factors for severe injury and for falling itself are important to prevent and reduce fall injuries in elderly subjects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Child injury: using national emergency department monitoring systems to identify temporal and demographic risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Karen; McHale, Philip; Wyke, Sacha; Lowey, Helen; Bellis, Mark A

    2014-04-01

    Injury is a leading cause of death in children. Emergency department (ED) data offer a potentially rich source of data on child injury. This study uses an emerging national ED data collection system to examine sociodemographics and temporal trends in child injury attendances in England. Cross sectional examination of ED attendances for key injury types made by children aged 0-14 years between April 2010 and March 2011 (road traffic injury (RTI) n=21 670; assault n=9529; deliberate self harm (DSH) n=3066; sports injury n=88 250; burns n=22 222; poisoning n=12 446). Multivariate analyses examined the impact of demographics (age, gender, residential deprivation) and temporal events (day, month, school and public holidays) on risk of attendance for different injury types. For most injury types, attendance increased with deprivation. The attendance ratio between children from the poorest and richest deprivation quintiles was greatest for assaults (4.21:1). Conversely, sports injury attendance decreased with deprivation. Males made more attendances than females for all but DSH. Age and temporal profiles varied by injury type. Assault attendances reduced at weekends while burns attendances increased. RTI and sports injury attendances were increased during school term times. ED data can provide a major epidemiological resource for examining both temporal and demographic risks of child injury. Emerging systems, such as the one analysed here, can already inform the targeting of prevention, and with improved data coding and use, their utility would be greatly strengthened.

  18. Cerebral Infarction after Traumatic Brain Injury: Incidence and Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Dong-Hyeon; Choi, Kyu-Sun; Yi, Hyeong-Joong; Chun, Hyoung-Joon; Ko, Yong; Bak, Koang Hum

    2014-10-01

    Post-traumatic cerebral infarction (PTCI) is one of the most severe secondary insults after traumatic brain injury (TBI), and is known to be associated with poor outcome and high mortality rate. We assessed the practical incidence and risk factors for the development of PTCI. We conducted retrospective study on 986 consecutive patients with TBI from the period May 2005 to November 2012 at our institution. The definition of PTCI was made on non-enhanced CT scan based on a well-demarcated or fairly discernible region of low attenuation following specific vascular territory with normal initial CT. Clinical and radiological findings that related to patients' outcome were reviewed and statistically compared. PTCI was observed in 21 (2.1%) patients. Of various parameters, age (p=0.037), initial Glasgow coma scale score (paccident and PTCI, patterns of TBI and vascular territory of PTCI were not specific. The mortality rates were significantly higher in patients with PTCI than without PTCI. The development of PTCI is rare after TBI, but it usually results in serious outcome and high mortality. Early recognition for risks and aggressive managements is mandatory to prevent PTCI.

  19. Prevalence of unintentional injuries and related risk factors among university students in Canakkale city, western Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakar, Coşkun; Cevizci, Sibel; Gündoğar, Duru; Işin, Handan; Karaman, Özişik

    2014-09-01

    We examined the prevalence of unintentional injuries and associated risk factors among university students in Canakkale city, Turkey. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2007-2008. Atotal of 4,762 students completed the questionnaire. Risk factors associated with the rate of accidents were assessed by chi-square analysis and effects of these factors on unintentional injuries were described by logistic regression analysis. The rate of unintentional injuries among university students was 14.9% during the previous 12 months. The most reported injuries occurred on the road (43.8%), at home (33.2%) and outside the home (26.9%) such as workplaces, schools or sports venues. The prevalence of unintentional injuries was significantly higher in males than females (18.1% vs. 12.0% p school (OR 1.34), perception of very bad (OR 0.49) or good economic status (OR 0.49), drinking alcohol (OR 1.52), using illicit substances (OR 1.70), having a diagnosed illness (OR 1.36), or having risk of developing depres- sion (OR 1.54) had significant effects on the risk of unintentional injuries (p schools, illicit substance use, poor economic conditions, having a diagnosed illness and risk of developing depression can be risk factors for unintentional injuries among university students. Public health training programmes giving priorityto high-risk groups such as university and high school students may be a valuable tool in reducing unintentional injuries among young people.

  20. Effect of systematic ergonomic hazard identification and control implementation on musculoskeletal disorder and injury risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantley, Linda F; Taiwo, Oyebode A; Galusha, Deron; Barbour, Russell; Slade, Martin D; Tessier-Sherman, Baylah; Cullen, Mark R

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the effect of an ergonomic hazard control (HC) initiative, undertaken as part of a company ergonomics standard, on worker injury risk. Using the company's ergonomic hazards database to identify jobs with and without ergonomic HC implementation and linking to individual job and injury histories, injury risk among person-jobs with HC implementation (the HC group) was compared to those without HC (NoHC group) using random coefficient models. Further analysis of the HC group was conducted to determine the effect of additional ergonomic hazards controlled on injury risk. Among 123 jobs at 17 plant locations, 347 ergonomic hazards were quantitatively identified during the study period. HC were implemented for 204 quantified ergonomic hazards in 84 jobs, impacting 10 385 persons (12 967 person-jobs). No HC were implemented for quantified ergonomic hazards in the remaining 39 jobs affecting 4155 persons (5046 person-jobs). Adjusting for age, sex, plant origin, and year to control for any temporal trend in injury risk, the relative risk (RR) for musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) was 0.85 and the RR for any injury or MSD was 0.92 in the HC compared to NoHC group. Among the HC group, each ergonomic hazard controlled was associated with risk reduction for MSD and acute injury outcomes (RR 0.93). Systematic ergonomic HC through participatory ergonomics, as part of a mandatory company ergonomics standard, is associated with MSD and injury risk reduction among workers in jobs with HC implemented.

  1. Racial/ethnic and gender differences in individual workplace injury risk trajectories: 1988-1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdahl, Terceira A

    2008-12-01

    I examined workplace injury risk over time and across racial/ethnic and gender groups to observe patterns of change and to understand how occupational characteristics and job mobility influence these changes. I used hierarchical generalized linear models to estimate individual workplace injury and illness risk over time ("trajectories") for a cohort of American workers who participated in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1988-1998). Significant temporal variation in injury risk was observed across racial/ethnic and gender groups. At baseline, White men had a high risk of injury relative to the other groups and experienced the greatest decline over time. Latino men demonstrated a pattern of lower injury risk across time compared with White men. Among both Latinos and non-Latino Whites, women had lower odds of injury than did men. Non-Latino Black women's injury risk was similar to Black men's and greater than that for both Latino and non-Latino White women. Occupational characteristics and job mobility partly explained these differences. Disparities between racial/ethnic and gender groups were dynamic and changed over time. Workplace injury risk was associated with job dimensions such as work schedule, union representation, health insurance, job hours, occupational racial segregation, and occupational environmental hazards.

  2. Identifying high risk loading conditions for in-season injury in elite Australian football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stares, Jordan; Dawson, Brian; Peeling, Peter; Heasman, Jarryd; Rogalski, Brent; Drew, Michael; Colby, Marcus; Dupont, Gregory; Lester, Leanne

    2018-01-01

    To examine different timeframes for calculating acute to chronic workload ratio (ACWR) and whether this variable is associated with intrinsic injury risk in elite Australian football players. Prospective cohort study. Internal (session rating of perceived exertion: sRPE) and external (GPS distance and sprint distance) workload and injury data were collected from 70 players from one AFL club over 4 seasons. Various acute (1-2 weeks) and chronic (3-8 weeks) timeframes were used to calculate ACWRs: these and chronic load categories were then analysed to determine the injury risk in the subsequent month. Poisson regression with robust errors within a generalised estimating equation were utilised to determine incidence rate ratios (IRR). Altering acute and/or chronic timeframes did not improve the ability to detect high injury risk conditions above the commonly used 1:4 week ACWR. Twenty-seven ACWR/chronic load combinations were found to be "high risk conditions" (IRR>1, pload was low or very low and ACWR was either low (1.5). Once a high injury risk condition was entered, the elevated risk persisted for up to 28 days. Injury risk was greatest when chronic load was low and ACWR was either low or high. This heightened risk remained for up to 4 weeks. There was no improvement in the ability to identify high injury risk situations by altering acute or chronic time periods from 1:4 weeks. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Analysis and assessment of injury risk in female gymnastics:Bayesian Network approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmila Dimitrova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a Bayesian network (BN model for estimating injury risk in female artistic gymnastics. The model illustrates the connections betweenunderlying injury risk factorsthrough a series ofcausal dependencies. The quantitativepart of the model – the conditional probability tables, are determined using ТNormal distribution with parameters, derived by experts. The injury rates calculated by the network are in an agreement with injury statistic data and correctly reports the impact of various risk factors on injury rates. The model is designed to assist coaches and supporting teams in planning the training activity so that injuries are minimized. This study provides important background for further data collection and research necessary to improve the precision of the quantitative predictions of the model.

  4. Status and risk factors of unintentional injuries among Chinese undergraduates: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Qiang

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Injuries affect all age groups but have a particular impact on young people. To evaluate the incidence of non-fatal, unintentional, injuries among undergraduates in Wenzhou, China, assess the burden caused by these injuries, and explore the associated risk factors for unintentional injuries among these undergraduates, we conducted a college-based cross-sectional study. Methods Participants were selected by a multi-stage random sampling method, and 2,287 students were asked whether they had had an injury in the last 12 months; the location, cause, and consequences of the event. The questionnaire included demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, lifestyle habits, and the scale of type A behaviour pattern (TABP. Multivariate logistic regression models were used; crude odds ratios (ORs, adjusted ORs and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs were estimated, with students having no injuries as the reference group. Results The incidence of injuries among undergraduates in Wenzhou was 18.71 injuries per 100 person-years (95%CI: 17.12~20.31 injuries per 100 person-years. Falls were the leading cause of injury, followed by traffic injuries, and animal/insect bites. Male students were more likely to be injured than female students. Risk factors associated with unintentional injuries among undergraduates were: students majoring in non-medicine (adjusted OR: 1.53; 95% CI: 1.19-1.96; type A behaviour pattern (adjusted OR: 2.99; 95% CI: 1.45-6.14; liking sports (adjusted OR: 1.86; 95% CI: 1.41-2.45. Conclusions Injuries have become a public health problem among undergraduates. Falls were the major cause of non-fatal injury. Therefore, individuals, families, schools and governments should promptly adopt preventive measures aimed at preventing and controlling morbidity due to non-fatal injury, especially among students identified to be at high-risk; such as male students with type A behaviour pattern who like sports.

  5. Status and risk factors of unintentional injuries among Chinese undergraduates: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hongying; Yang, Xinjun; Huang, Chenping; Zhou, Zumu; Zhou, Qiang; Chu, Maoping

    2011-07-05

    Injuries affect all age groups but have a particular impact on young people. To evaluate the incidence of non-fatal, unintentional, injuries among undergraduates in Wenzhou, China, assess the burden caused by these injuries, and explore the associated risk factors for unintentional injuries among these undergraduates, we conducted a college-based cross-sectional study. Participants were selected by a multi-stage random sampling method, and 2,287 students were asked whether they had had an injury in the last 12 months; the location, cause, and consequences of the event. The questionnaire included demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, lifestyle habits, and the scale of type A behaviour pattern (TABP). Multivariate logistic regression models were used; crude odds ratios (ORs), adjusted ORs and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated, with students having no injuries as the reference group. The incidence of injuries among undergraduates in Wenzhou was 18.71 injuries per 100 person-years (95%CI: 17.12~20.31 injuries per 100 person-years). Falls were the leading cause of injury, followed by traffic injuries, and animal/insect bites. Male students were more likely to be injured than female students. Risk factors associated with unintentional injuries among undergraduates were: students majoring in non-medicine (adjusted OR: 1.53; 95% CI: 1.19-1.96); type A behaviour pattern (adjusted OR: 2.99; 95% CI: 1.45-6.14); liking sports (adjusted OR: 1.86; 95% CI: 1.41-2.45). Injuries have become a public health problem among undergraduates. Falls were the major cause of non-fatal injury. Therefore, individuals, families, schools and governments should promptly adopt preventive measures aimed at preventing and controlling morbidity due to non-fatal injury, especially among students identified to be at high-risk; such as male students with type A behaviour pattern who like sports.

  6. Anterior cruciate ligament injuries in soccer: Loading mechanisms, risk factors, and prevention programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyi Dai

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injuries are common in soccer. Understanding ACL loading mechanisms and risk factors for ACL injury is critical for designing effective prevention programs. The purpose of this review is to summarize the relevant literature on ACL loading mechanisms, ACL injury risk factors, and current ACL injury prevention programs for soccer players. Literature has shown that tibial anterior translation due to shear force at the proximal end of tibia is the primary ACL loading mechanism. No evidence has been found showing that knee valgus moment is the primary ACL loading mechanism. ACL loading mechanisms are largely ignored in previous studies on risk factors for ACL injury. Identified risk factors have little connections to ACL loading mechanisms. The results of studies on ACL injury prevention programs for soccer players are inconsistent. Current ACL injury prevention programs for soccer players are clinically ineffective due to low compliance. Future studies are urgently needed to identify risk factors for ACL injury in soccer that are connected to ACL loading mechanisms and have cause-and-effect relationships with injury rate, and to develop new prevention programs to improve compliance.

  7. Injuries in runners; a systematic review on risk factors and sex differences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten P van der Worp

    Full Text Available The popularity of running continues to increase, which means that the incidence of running-related injuries will probably also continue to increase. Little is known about risk factors for running injuries and whether they are sex-specific.The aim of this study was to review information about risk factors and sex-specific differences for running-induced injuries in adults.The databases PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL and Psych-INFO were searched for relevant articles.Longitudinal cohort studies with a minimal follow-up of 1 month that investigated the association between risk factors (personal factors, running/training factors and/or health and lifestyle factors and the occurrence of lower limb injuries in runners were included.Two reviewers' independently selected relevant articles from those identified by the systematic search and assessed the risk of bias of the included studies. The strength of the evidence was determined using a best-evidence rating system. Sex differences in risk were determined by calculating the sex ratio for risk factors (the risk factor for women divided by the risk factor for men.Of 400 articles retrieved, 15 longitudinal studies were included, of which 11 were considered high-quality studies and 4 moderate-quality studies. Overall, women were at lower risk than men for sustaining running-related injuries. Strong and moderate evidence was found that a history of previous injury and of having used orthotics/inserts was associated with an increased risk of running injuries. Age, previous sports activity, running on a concrete surface, participating in a marathon, weekly running distance (30-39 miles and wearing running shoes for 4 to 6 months were associated with a greater risk of injury in women than in men. A history of previous injuries, having a running experience of 0-2 years, restarting running, weekly running distance (20-29 miles and having a running distance of more than 40 miles per week were associated with a greater

  8. Change in muscle thickness under contracting conditions following return to sports after a hamstring muscle strain injury—A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuharu Nagano

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to measure the change in hamstring muscle thickness between contracting and relaxing conditions following a return to sports after a hamstring muscle strain and thereby evaluate muscle function. Six male track and field sprinters participated in this study. All had experienced a prior hamstring strain injury that required a minimum of 2 weeks away from sport participation. Transverse plane scans were performed at the following four points on the affected and unaffected sides under contracting and relaxing conditions: proximal biceps femoris long head, proximal semitendinosus, middle biceps femoris long head, and middle semitendinosus. The results demonstrated an increase in the thickness of the middle biceps femoris long head and middle semitendinosus regions on the unaffected side with contraction, whereas the affected side did not show a significant increase. The proximal semitendinosus muscle thickness was increased with contraction on both the unaffected and the affected sides. By contrast, the proximal biceps femoris muscle thickness did not show a significant increase on both sides. The results of this study show that evaluation of muscle thickness during contraction may be useful for assessing the change in muscle function after a hamstring muscle strain injury.

  9. Concept Analysis and Content Validation of Risk of Injury to the Urinary Tract: Nursing Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbuio, Danielle C; de Carvalho, Emília C; Napoleão, Anamaria A

    2015-10-01

    To elaborate, propose, and validate risk for urinary tract injury as a nursing diagnosis. Methodology was divided into three phases: analysis of the concept of urinary tract injury, elaboration of the diagnosis, and validation by a group of specialists. Diagnosis label, definition, and inclusion in taxonomy were validated. In 15 risk factors proposed, 12 were validated. Risk of urinary tract injury was validated as a nursing diagnosis to contemplate the vulnerability of patients using urinary catheters. Identification of these risk factors contributes to the elaboration of care plans to improve quality of care. © 2014 NANDA International, Inc.

  10. Injury rates, types, mechanisms and risk factors in female youth ice hockey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decloe, Melissa D; Meeuwisse, Willem H; Hagel, Brent E; Emery, Carolyn A

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this cohort study were to examine the rate, types, mechanisms and risk factors for injury in female youth (ages 9-17) ice hockey players in the Girls Hockey Calgary Association. The main outcome was ice hockey injury, defined as any injury occurring during the 2008/2009 season that required medical attention, and/or removal from a session and/or missing a subsequent session. Potential risk factors included age group, level of play, previous injury, ice hockey experience, physical activity level, weight, height, position of play and menarche. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) were estimated with Poisson Regression adjusted for cluster (team). Exposure data were collected for every session for each participating player. Twenty-eight teams (n=324) from Atom (ages 9-10), PeeWee (11-12), Bantam (13-14) and Midget (15-17) participated with 53 reported injuries. The overall injury rate was 1.9 injuries/1000 player-hours (95% CI 1.4 to 2.7). Previous injury (IRR=2.7, 95% CI 1.7 to 4.3), games (IRR=2.1, 95% CI 1.1 to 4.2), menarche (PeeWee) (IRR=4.1, 95% CI 1.0 to 16.8) were significant risk factors. In Midget, the more elite divisions were associated with a lower injury risk (A-IRR=0.2, 95% CI 0.1 to 0.5) (AAA-IRR=0.5, 95% CI 0.2 to 0.9). Injury rates were lower in this study than previously found in male youth and women's ice hockey populations. Previous injury and game play as risk factors are consistent with the literature. Menarche as a risk factor is a new finding in this study. This research will inform future studies of the development of injury prevention strategies in this population.

  11. METODE ACTIVE ISOLATED STRETCHING (AIS DAN METODE HOLD RELAX STRETCHING (HRS SAMA EFEKTIF DALAM MENINGKATKAN FLEKSIBILITAS OTOT HAMSTRING PADA MAHASISWA AKADEMI FISIOTERAPI WIDYA HUSADA SEMARANG YANG MENGALAMI HAMSTRING MUSCLE TIGHTNESS (HMTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhmad alfajri

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Students with Hamstring Muscle Tightness (HMTs will be at risk of Anterior Crusiatum Ligament (ACL, Low Back Pain (LBP and also Plantar Faciitis. One of the efforts to reduce tightness and improve hamstring muscle flexibility is stretching. Active Isolated Stretching (AIS and Hold Relax Stretching (HRS are the methods of influential stretching to improve muscle flexibility. The goal of the research is to prove that AIS method is equally effective with the HRS method to improve hamstring muscle flexibility to the HMTs patients. The research method was true experimental with pre and post test group design. The research was conducted for 3 weeks and the samples are 23 students in range of 18-25 years old students of physical therapy in Physical Therapy Academy of Widya Husada Semarang which divided into 2 groups; AIS group (n= 12 and HRS group (n= 11. The research used Sit and Reach Test (SRT as the measurement instrument. The result of the research was the average result of AIS group used SRT before treatment was 1.75 cm, SB= 4.309 and after treatment was 10. 58 cm, SB = 8. 005 within p= 0.000 (p 0.05. Those explain that the improvement of hamstring muscle flexibility to the two groups does not show any significant difference. Conclusion from this study was active isolated stretching method and hold relax stretching method are equally effective to improving muscle flexibility of hamstring muscle tightness students of physical therapy in Physical Therapy Academy of Widya Husada Semarang.

  12. Is body mass index a risk factor for sport injury in adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Sarah A; Kang, Jian; Emery, Carolyn A

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the relationship between sport injury and body mass index in adolescents (12-19 years). Secondary analysis of data collected in junior and senior high school surveys in Alberta, Canada. Participants (n=4339) included students from 59 schools. All sport injury was defined as injury reported in the past one year. Medically treated injury, as any more serious sport related injury reported in the last year that required medical attention. Overweight, obese, and healthy was defined using international cut points, as the exposure. Multivariate logistic regression analysis controlling for clustering by school, and adjusting for potential risk factors was used. There was a 34% increased risk for all sport injury in obese adolescents compared to healthy adolescents [odds ratio (OR)=1.34 (95% CI: 1.02-1.80)]. There was increased risk for all sport injury and medically treated injury with hours of participation, where the highest group had a 4-fold increase in risk (OR=4.17, 95%CI: 2.77-6.30 and OR=3.80, 95%CI: 2.54-5.69, respectively). There was also increased risk for both all sport injury and medically treated injury in Caucasians compared to non-Caucasians [OR=1.45 (95%CI: 1.15-1.82), OR=1.94 (95%CI: 1.59-2.37), respectively], as well as for club/team play compared to less elite play [OR=1.87 (95%CI: 1.43-2.44) and OR=2.12 (95%CI: 1.57-2.87), respectively]. The risk of sustaining a sport injury in obese adolescents was greater compared to those of healthy weight. There is also a greater risk with increasing hours of play, in Caucasian adolescents, and those that play at a higher sporting level. Copyright © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Rapid Hamstrings/Quadriceps strength in ACL-reconstructed elite alpine ski racers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Matthew J; Aagaard, Per; Herzog, Walter

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Due to the importance of hamstrings (HAM) and quadriceps (QUAD) strength for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention, and the high incidence of ACL injury in ski racing, HAM and QUAD maximal and explosive strength was assessed in ski racers with and without ACL reconstruction...... (ACL-R). METHODS: Uninjured (n=13 males; n=8 females) and ACL-R (n=3 males; n=5 females; 25.0±11.3 months post-op) elite ski racers performed maximal voluntary isometric HAM and QUAD contractions to obtain maximal torque (MVC) and rate of torque development (RTD) at 0-50, 0-100, 0-150 and 0-200 ms. MVC...... to uninjured controls (Pski racing, our results suggest the importance of including HAM and QUAD...

  14. Incidence and risk factors of injuries in Brazilian elite handball players: A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroto, N; Hespanhol Junior, L C; Gomes, M R C; Lopes, A D

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence and risk factors for handball injuries in Brazilian elite handball players. Overall, 339 athletes from 21 handball teams who participated in the two main Brazilian championships were followed up during a season. In total, 312 injuries were reported by 201 athletes. The injury incidence rate during training was 3.7/1000 h, and during matches was 20.3/1000 matches. Ankle (19.4%, n = 46) and knee (13.5%, n = 32) were the body regions most affected by traumatic injuries. Shoulders (44.0%, n = 33) and knee (26.7%, n = 20) were the body regions most affected by overuse injuries. Muscle injuries (27.1%, n = 68) was the traumatic injury type most reported. Tendinopathy (91.8%, n = 56) was the overuse injury type most observed. Previous injury (OR: 2.42, CI 95%: 1.51-3.89) and an additional match per week (OR: 1.31, CI 95%: 1.05-1.62) were associated with a higher risk of overuse injury. Female athletes (OR: 1.56, CI 95%: 1.08-2.25) and an additional hour of training per week (OR: 1.09, CI 95%: 1.02-1.15) were associated with a higher risk of traumatic injury. This study showed that athletes with previous injury have shown a high risk of developing an overuse injury. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Determination of future prevention strategies in elite track and field: analysis of Daegu 2011 IAAF Championships injuries and illnesses surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Juan-Manuel; Edouard, Pascal; Fischetto, Giuseppe; Adams, Bob; Depiesse, Frédéric; Mountjoy, Margo

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the incidence and characteristics of newly incurred injuries and illnesses during international Athletics Championships, by improving the medical surveillance coverage, in order to determine future prevention strategies. Design Prospective recording of newly occurred injuries and illnesses. Setting 13th International Association of Athletics Federations World Championships in Athletics 2011 in Daegu, Korea. Participants National team and Local Organising Committee physicians; and 1851 registered athletes. Main outcome measures Incidence and characteristics of newly incurred injuries and illnesses. Results 82% of athletes were covered by medical teams participating with a response rate of 94%. A total of 249 injuries were reported, representing an incidence of 134.5 injuries per 1000 registered athletes, and 119 (48%) resulted in time loss from sport. A total of 185 injuries affected the lower limb (74%). Hamstring strain was the main diagnosis and 67% resulted in absence from sport. Overuse (n=148; 59%) was the predominant cause. A total of 126 illnesses were reported, signifying an incidence of 68.1 per 1000 registered athletes. Upper respiratory tract infection was the most common reported diagnosis (18%), followed by exercise-induced dehydration (12%), and gastroenteritis/diarrhoea (10%). The highest incidences of injuries were found in combined events and middle and long-distance events, and of illness in race walking events. Conclusion During elite Athletics World Championships, 135 injuries, 60 time-loss injuries and 68 illnesses per 1000 registered athletes were reported. Higher risks of injuries were found in combined events and long-distance runs. Preventive interventions should focus on overuse injuries and hamstring strains, decreasing the risk of transmission of infectious diseases, appropriate event scheduling and heat acclimatisation. PMID:22522588

  16. Extrinsic and intrinsic risk factors associated with injuries in young dancers aged 8-16 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Nili; Siev-Ner, Itzhak; Peleg, Smadar; Dar, Gali; Masharawi, Youssef; Zeev, Aviva; Hershkovitz, Israel

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we tried to determine the association between joint ranges of motion, anatomical anomalies, body structure, dance discipline, and injuries in young female recreational dancers. A group of 1336 non-professional female dancers (age 8-16 years), were screened. The risk factors considered for injuries were: range of motion, body structure, anatomical anomalies, dance technique, and dance discipline. Sixty-one different types of injuries and symptoms were identified and later classified into four major categories: knee injuries, foot or ankle tendinopathy, back injuries, and non-categorized injuries. We found that 569 (42.6%) out of the 1336 screened dancers, were injured.The following factors were found to be associated with injuries (P hip abduction are more prone to foot or ankle tendinopathies than dancers with hypo range of motion; (b) anatomical anomalies (scoliotic dancers manifested a higher rate of injuries than non-scoliotic dancers); (c) dance technique (dancers with incorrect technique of rolling-in were found to have more injuries than dancers with correct technique); (d) dance discipline (an association between time of practice en pointe and injury was observed); and (e) early age of onset of menarche decreased risk for an injury. No association between body structure and injury was found. Injuries among recreational dancers should not be overlooked, and therefore precautionary steps should be taken to reduce the risk of injury, such as screening for joint range of motion and anatomical anomalies. Certain dance positions (e.g. en pointe) should be practised only when the dancer has already acquired certain physical skills, and these practices should be time controlled.

  17. Head, face and neck injury in youth rugby: incidence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, A S; McCrory, P; Finch, C F; Wolfe, R

    2010-02-01

    In this study, the incidence of head, neck and facial injuries in youth rugby was determined, and the associated risk factors were assessed. Data were extracted from a cluster randomised controlled trial of headgear with the football teams as the unit of randomisation. No effect was observed for headgear use on injury rates, and the data were pooled. General school and club-based community competitive youth rugby in the 2002 and 2003 seasons. Young male rugby union football players participating in under-13, under 15, under 18 and under 21 years competitions. Eighty-two teams participated in year 1 and 87 in year 2. Injury rates for all body regions combined, head, neck and face calculated for game and missed game injuries. 554 head, face and neck injuries were recorded within a total of 28 902 h of rugby game exposure. Level of play and player position were related to injury risk. Younger players had the lowest rates of injury; forwards, especially the front row had the highest rate of neck injury; and inside backs had the highest rate of injuries causing the player to miss a game. Contact events, including the scrum and tackle, were the main events leading to injury. Injury prevention must focus on the tackle and scrum elements of a youth rugby game.

  18. Risk factors for lower extremity injuries in elite female soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilstad, Agnethe; Andersen, Thor Einar; Bahr, Roald; Holme, Ingar; Steffen, Kathrin

    2014-04-01

    The incidence of lower extremity injuries in female soccer players is high, but the risk factors for injuries are unknown. To investigate risk factors for lower extremity injuries in elite female soccer players. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Players in the Norwegian elite female soccer league (N = 12 teams) participated in baseline screening tests before the 2009 competitive soccer season. The screening included tests assessing maximal lower extremity strength, dynamic balance, knee valgus angles in a drop-jump landing, knee joint laxity, generalized joint laxity, and foot pronation. Also included was a questionnaire to collect information on demographic data, elite-level experience, and injury history. Time-loss injuries and exposure in training and matches were recorded prospectively in the subsequent soccer season using weekly text messaging. Players reporting an injury were contacted to collect data regarding injury circumstances. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for ±1 standard deviation of change. In total, 173 players underwent complete screening tests and registration of injuries and exposure throughout the season. A total of 171 injuries in 107 players (62%) were recorded; ligament and muscle injuries were the most frequent. Multivariate analyses showed that a greater body mass index (BMI) (OR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.21-1.90; P = .001) was the only factor significantly associated with new lower extremity injuries. A greater BMI was associated with new thigh injuries (OR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.08-2.11; P = .01), a lower knee valgus angle in a drop-jump landing was associated with new ankle injuries (OR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.41-1.00; P = .04), and a previous knee injury was associated with new lower leg and foot injuries (OR, 3.57; 95% CI, 1.27-9.99; P = .02), whereas none of the factors investigated influenced the risk of new knee injuries. A greater BMI was associated with

  19. A six stage operational framework for individualising injury risk management in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Mark; Malone, Shane; Blake, Catherine; Collins, Kieran; Gissane, Conor; Büttner, Fionn; Murphy, John C; Delahunt, Eamonn

    2017-09-20

    Managing injury risk is important for maximising athlete availability and performance. Although athletes are inherently predisposed to musculoskeletal injuries by participating in sports, etiology models have illustrated how susceptibility is influenced by repeat interactions between the athlete (i.e. intrinsic factors) and environmental stimuli (i.e. extrinsic factors). Such models also reveal that the likelihood of an injury emerging across time is related to the interconnectedness of multiple factors cumulating in a pattern of either positive (i.e. increased fitness) or negative adaptation (i.e. injury).The process of repeatedly exposing athletes to workloads in order to promote positive adaptations whilst minimising injury risk can be difficult to manage. Etiology models have highlighted that preventing injuries in sport, as opposed to reducing injury risk, is likely impossible given our inability to appreciate the interactions of the factors at play. Given these uncertainties, practitioners need to be able to design, deliver, and monitor risk management strategies that ensure a low susceptibility to injury is maintained during pursuits to enhance performance. The current article discusses previous etiology and injury prevention models before proposing a new operational framework.

  20. Risk factors of bicycle traffic injury among middle school students in chaoshan rural areas of china.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhen-Bin; Ji, Yan-Hu; Xiao, Qing-Yu; Luo, Li-Bo; Li, Li-Ping; Choi, Bernard

    2017-01-26

    Bicycle injuries are a leading cause of accidental death among children in the world, and bicycle-related injuries are also very common in China, thus to find out bicycle injury risk factors is imperative. This study aims to identify the cyclist-, bicycle- and road-related risk factors of bicycle injury, to develop health education programs as an intervention and to provide a scientific basis for establishing policies against bicycle injury. We selected two middle schools randomly among seven schools in Chaoshan rural areas,where the main means of transportation for students from home to school was bicycle. The subjects were middle school students from 7th to 9th grades from Gucuo Middle School and Hefeng Middle School. Cyclists were surveyed through questionnaires about bicycle injury in the past 12 months. Multivariable logistic analysis showed that compared with a combination-type road、 motor lane and a non-intact road were both risk factors of bicycle injuries. This was followed by riding with fatigue, non-motor lane and inattentive riding. Bicycle injuries are frequent in China. Three risk factors on bicycle traffic injury among middle school students in Chaoshan rural areas of China were identified. This study provides important data to develop intervention strategies for China and other developing countries.

  1. Understanding gender differences in childhood injuries: Examining longitudinal relations between parental reactions and boys' versus girls' injury-risk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrongiello, Barbara A; McArthur, Brae Anne; Spence, Jeffrey R

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study was to examine gender differences in children's hazard-directed behaviors when the parent was absent and determine whether parent reactions when present differentially influences boys' and girls' subsequent behaviors. Children and parents were video recorded in their home when a contrived burn hazard ('Gadget') was within view and reach of the child and the parent was sometimes present and absent. Videos were coded for teaching- and discipline-focused reactions by parents when children approached the Gadget in the parent's presence and children's hazard-directed behaviors when the parent was absent. Data were gathered monthly for a period of up to 6 months. Multilevel regression analyses examining temporal relationships between parents' reactions (teaching, discipline) and children's hazard-directed behaviors when the parent was absent revealed significant gender differences. For boys, reductions in hazard-directed behaviors over time were predicted from high teaching or low discipline reactions, with low teaching and high discipline reactions maintaining injury-risk behaviors over time. For girls, reductions in hazard-directed behaviors over time were predicted from low teaching or high discipline reactions, with high teaching and low discipline reactions maintaining injury-risk behaviors over time. To moderate young boys' injury-risk behaviors, caregivers should avoid frequent discipline-focused reactions in favor of frequent teaching when the child engages in injury-risk behaviors. For girls, however, frequent discipline-focused reactions reduced injury-risk behaviors over time more effectively than frequent teaching-focused reactions that sustained girls' interest in the hazard. Implications for injury prevention are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Recurrent obstetric anal sphincter injury and the risk of long-term anal incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jangö, Hanna; Langhoff-Roos, Jens; Rosthøj, Susanne; Sakse, Abelone

    2017-06-01

    Women with an obstetric anal sphincter injury are concerned about the risk of recurrent obstetric anal sphincter injury in their second pregnancy. Existing studies have failed to clarify whether the recurrence of obstetric anal sphincter injury affects the risk of anal and fecal incontinence at long-term follow-up. The objective of the study was to evaluate whether recurrent obstetric anal sphincter injury influenced the risk of anal and fecal incontinence more than 5 years after the second vaginal delivery. We performed a secondary analysis of data from a postal questionnaire study in women with obstetric anal sphincter injury in the first delivery and 1 subsequent vaginal delivery. The questionnaire was sent to all Danish women who fulfilled inclusion criteria and had 2 vaginal deliveries 1997-2005. We performed uni- and multivariable analyses to assess how recurrent obstetric anal sphincter injury affects the risk of anal incontinence. In 1490 women with a second vaginal delivery after a first delivery with obstetric anal sphincter injury, 106 had a recurrent obstetric anal sphincter injury. Of these, 50.0% (n = 53) reported anal incontinence compared with 37.9% (n = 525) of women without recurrent obstetric anal sphincter injury. Fecal incontinence was present in 23.6% (n = 25) of women with recurrent obstetric anal sphincter injury and in 13.2% (n = 182) of women without recurrent obstetric anal sphincter injury. After adjustment for third- or fourth-degree obstetric anal sphincter injury in the first delivery, maternal age at answering the questionnaire, birthweight of the first and second child, years since first and second delivery, and whether anal incontinence was present before the second pregnancy, the risk of flatal and fecal incontinence was still increased in patients with recurrent obstetric anal sphincter injury (adjusted odds ratio, 1.68 [95% confidence interval, 1.05-2.70), P = .03, and adjusted odds ratio, 1.98 [95% confidence interval, 1

  3. Catastrophic injury in rugby union: is the level of risk acceptable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Colin W

    2008-01-01

    Rugby union is a full contact sport with a relatively high overall risk of injury and a small specific risk of fatal and catastrophic spinal injury. Although catastrophic injuries in rugby union cause public concern and generate strong emotive reactions, the magnitude of society's concern about this type of injury is often dominated by people's perceptions rather than by actual levels of risk. This article assesses published values for the risk of catastrophic injuries in rugby union, evaluates these against the risk standards of the UK Health and Safety Executive (HSE) and compares the values with the risks associated with other common sport and non-sport activities. The assessment showed that the risks of sustaining a catastrophic injury in rugby union in England (0.8/100,000 per year), Ireland (0.9/100,000 per year) and Argentina (1.9/100,000 per year) were within the HSE's 'acceptable' region of risk (0.1-2/100,000 per year), whilst the risks in New Zealand (4.2/100,000 per year), Australia (4.4/100,000 per year) and Fiji (13/100,000 per year) were within the 'tolerable' region of risk (2-100/100,000 per year). The risk of sustaining a catastrophic injury in rugby union was generally lower than or comparable with the levels reported for a wide range of other collision sports, such as ice hockey (4/100,000 per year), rugby league (2/100,000 per year) and American Football (2/100,000 per year). In addition, the risk of catastrophic injury in rugby union was comparable with that experienced by most people in work-based situations and lower than that experienced by motorcyclists, pedestrians and car occupants. Whilst ranking risks provides an effective way of assessing their acceptability, it is recognized that representing risks by a single risk value can be misleading, as account must also be taken of the public's perception of the risks and the inherent differences in the types of risk being considered. However, an acceptable level of risk is often regarded as

  4. Injury risk is low among world-class volleyball players: 4-year data from the FIVB Injury Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bere, Tone; Kruczynski, Jacek; Veintimilla, Nadège; Hamu, Yuichiro; Bahr, Roald

    2015-01-01

    Background Little is known about the rate and pattern of injuries in international volleyball competition. Objective To describe the risk and pattern of injuries among world-class players based on data from the The International Volleyball Federation (FIVB) Injury Surveillance System (ISS) (junior and senior, male and female). Methods The FIVB ISS is based on prospective registration of injuries by team medical staff during all major FIVB tournaments (World Championships, World Cup, World Grand Prix, World League, Olympic Games). This paper is based on 4-year data (September 2010 to November 2014) obtained through the FIVB ISS during 32 major FIVB events (23 senior and 9 junior). Results The incidence of time-loss injuries during match play was 3.8/1000 player hours (95% CI 3.0 to 4.5); this was greater for senior players than for junior players (relative risk: 2.04, 1.29 to 3.21), while there was no difference between males and females (1.04, 0.70 to 1.55). Across all age and sex groups, the ankle was the most commonly injured body part (25.9%), followed by the knee (15.2%), fingers/thumb (10.7%) and lower back (8.9%). Injury incidence was greater for centre players and lower for liberos than for other player functions; injury patterns also differed between player functions. Conclusions Volleyball is a very safe sport, even at the highest levels of play. Preventive measures should focus on acute ankle and finger sprains, and overuse injuries in the knee, lower back and shoulder. PMID:26194501

  5. Injury risk is low among world-class volleyball players: 4-year data from the FIVB Injury Surveillance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bere, Tone; Kruczynski, Jacek; Veintimilla, Nadège; Hamu, Yuichiro; Bahr, Roald

    2015-09-01

    Little is known about the rate and pattern of injuries in international volleyball competition. To describe the risk and pattern of injuries among world-class players based on data from the The International Volleyball Federation (FIVB) Injury Surveillance System (ISS) (junior and senior, male and female). The FIVB ISS is based on prospective registration of injuries by team medical staff during all major FIVB tournaments (World Championships, World Cup, World Grand Prix, World League, Olympic Games). This paper is based on 4-year data (September 2010 to November 2014) obtained through the FIVB ISS during 32 major FIVB events (23 senior and 9 junior). The incidence of time-loss injuries during match play was 3.8/1000 player hours (95% CI 3.0 to 4.5); this was greater for senior players than for junior players (relative risk: 2.04, 1.29 to 3.21), while there was no difference between males and females (1.04, 0.70 to 1.55). Across all age and sex groups, the ankle was the most commonly injured body part (25.9%), followed by the knee (15.2%), fingers/thumb (10.7%) and lower back (8.9%). Injury incidence was greater for centre players and lower for liberos than for other player functions; injury patterns also differed between player functions. Volleyball is a very safe sport, even at the highest levels of play. Preventive measures should focus on acute ankle and finger sprains, and overuse injuries in the knee, lower back and shoulder. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Terror attacks increases the risk of vascular injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eitan eHeldenberg

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Extensive literature exists about military trauma as opposed to the very limited literature regarding terror-related civilian trauma. However, terror-related vascular trauma (VT, as a unique type of injury, is yet to be addressed.Methods: A retrospective analysis of the Israeli National Trauma Registry was performed. All patients in the registry from 09/2000 to 12/2005 were included. The subgroup of patients with documented vascular trauma (VT (N=1,545 was analyzedand further subdivided into those suffering from Terror-related Vascular Trauma (TVT and Non-Terror related Vascular Trauma (NTVT. Both groups were analyzed according to mechanism of trauma, type and severity of injury and treatment.Results: Out of 2,446 terror related trauma admissions 243 sustained TVT (9.9% compared to 1302 VT patients from Non Terror trauma (1.1%. TVT injuries tend to be more complex and most patients were operated on. ICU admissions and hospitallength of stay was higher in the TVT group. Penetrating trauma was the prominent cause of injury among the TVT group. TVT group had a higher proportion of patients with severe injuries (ISS>16 and mortality. Thorax injuries were more frequent in the TVT group. Extremity injuries were the most prevalent vascular injuries in both groups; however NTVT group had more upper extremity injuries, while the TVT group had significantly more lower extremity injuries.Conclusion: Vascular injuries are remarkably more common among terror attack victims than among non-terror trauma victims and the injuries of terror casualties tend to be more complex. The presence of a vascular surgeon will ensure a comprehensive clinical care.

  7. Terror attacks increase the risk of vascular injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldenberg, Eitan; Givon, Adi; Simon, Daniel; Bass, Arie; Almogy, Gidon; Peleg, Kobi

    2014-01-01

    Extensive literature exists about military trauma as opposed to the very limited literature regarding terror-related civilian trauma. However, terror-related vascular trauma (VT), as a unique type of injury, is yet to be addressed. A retrospective analysis of the Israeli National Trauma Registry was performed. All patients in the registry from 09/2000 to 12/2005 were included. The subgroup of patients with documented VT (N = 1,545) was analyzed and further subdivided into those suffering from terror-related vascular trauma (TVT) and non-terror-related vascular trauma (NTVT). Both groups were analyzed according to mechanism of trauma, type and severity of injury and treatment. Out of 2,446 terror-related trauma admissions, 243 sustained TVT (9.9%) compared to 1302 VT patients from non-terror trauma (1.1%). TVT injuries tend to be more complex and most patients were operated on. Intensive care unit admissions and hospital length of stay was higher in the TVT group. Penetrating trauma was the prominent cause of injury among the TVT group. TVT group had a higher proportion of patients with severe injuries (ISS ≥ 16) and mortality. Thorax injuries were more frequent in the TVT group. Extremity injuries were the most prevalent vascular injuries in both groups; however NTVT group had more upper extremity injuries, while the TVT group had significantly much lower extremity injuries. Vascular injuries are remarkably more common among terror attack victims than among non-terror trauma victims and the injuries of terror casualties tend to be more complex. The presence of a vascular surgeon will ensure a comprehensive clinical care.

  8. Rates and risk factors of injury in CrossFitTM: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Sebastian; Booker, Harry; Staines, Jacob; Williams, Sean

    2017-09-01

    CrossFitTM is a strength and conditioning program that has gained widespread popularity since its inception approximately 15 years ago. However, at present little is known about the level of injury risk associated with this form of training. Movement competency, assessed using the Functional Movement ScreenTM (FMS), has been identified as a risk factor for injury in numerous athletic populations, but its role in CrossFit participants is currently unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of injury risk associated with CrossFit training, and examine the influence of a number of potential risk factors (including movement competency). A cohort of 117 CrossFit participants were followed prospectively for 12 weeks. Participants' characteristics, previous injury history and training experience were recorded at baseline, and an FMS assessment was conducted. The overall injury incidence rate was 2.10 per 1000 training hours (90% confidence limits: 1.32-3.33). A multivariate Poisson regression model identified males (rate ratio [RR]: 4.44 ×/÷ 3.30, very likely harmful) and those with previous injuries (RR: 2.35 ×/÷ 2.37, likely harmful) as having a higher injury risk. Inferences relating to FMS variables were unclear in the multivariate model, although number of asymmetries was a clear risk factor in a univariate model (RR per two additional asymmetries: 2.62 ×/÷ 1.53, likely harmful). The injury incidence rate associated with CrossFit training was low, and comparable to other forms of recreational fitness activities. Previous injury and gender were identified as risk factors for injury, whilst the role of movement competency in this setting warrants further investigation.

  9. Agricultural Worker Injury Comparative Risk Assessment Methodology: Assessing Corn and Biofuel Switchgrass Production Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Charles V; Mosher, Gretchen A; Ryan, Saxon J

    2017-07-31

    Keeping workers safe is a continuing challenge in agricultural production. Risk assessment methodologies have been used widely in other industries to better understand systems and enhance decision making, yet their use in production agriculture has been limited. This article describes the considerations and the approach taken to measure the difference in worker injury risks between two agricultural production systems. A model was developed specifically for the comparison of worker injury risk between corn and biofuel switchgrass production systems. The model is composed of injury and exposure values that were used in a Monte Carlo simulation. The output of this risk assessment shows that approximately 99% of the values from the Monte Carlo simulation rank corn production as a greater worker injury risk than biofuel switchgrass production. Furthermore, the greatest contributing factors for each production system were identified as harvest, and that finding aligns with current literature. Copyright© by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers.

  10. Agricultural injury risk among rural California public high school students: prospective results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdy, Stephen A; Kwan, Jonathan A

    2012-07-01

    To characterize prospective agricultural injury experience among rural California Central Valley public high school students enrolled in agricultural sciences curriculum. The University of California, Davis Youth Agricultural Injury Study (UCD-YAIS) examined prospective farm-work injury among students from 10 California Central Valley public high schools. Of eligible subjects, 882 (62.5%) completed at least one annual follow-up survey. Of these, 489 reported farm work in the previous year, including 40 (8.2%) with at least one farm work-related injury. Fractures were the most common injury, especially among girls. Girls were more likely to suffer animal-related injury and boys injury from motor vehicles, machinery, or tool use. Prospective injury risk was strongly associated with prior-year farm injury (OR 8.53; 95% CI 4.02, 18.1) and farm work hours. After adjustment for farm work hours, grade level, and sex, risk was significantly associated with machinery operation, applying chemicals, number of hazardous tasks performed, riding motorcycles or mopeds, riding in back of an uncovered pick-up truck, and smoking. Risky attitude toward farm safety was associated prospectively with injury in stepwise fashion. Adolescents are at risk for serious farm-work injuries. Although limitations on hazardous tasks and farm work hours are likely to be the most efficacious means for reducing injury, education will play an important role. Education should include inculcating safety-related attitudes and habits and focus on hazardous tasks, such as those involving animals (for girls) and motor vehicles and machinery (for boys), especially among youth with prior farm injury. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Collapsed scrums and collision tackles: what is the injury risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Simon P; Trewartha, Grant; England, Mike; Stokes, Keith A

    2015-04-01

    To establish the propensity for specific contact events to cause injury in rugby union. Medical staff at participating English community-level rugby clubs reported any injury resulting in the absence for one match or more from the day of the injury during the 2009/2010 (n=46), 2010/2011 (n=67) and 2011/2012 (n=76) seasons. Injury severity was defined as the number of matches missed. Thirty community rugby matches were filmed and the number of contact events (tackles, collision tackles, rucks, mauls, lineouts and scrums) recorded. Of 370 (95% CI 364 to 378) contact events per match, 141 (137 to 145) were tackles, 115 (111 to 119) were rucks and 32 (30 to 33) were scrums. Tackles resulted in the greatest propensity for injury (2.3 (2.2 to 2.4) injuries/1000 events) and the greatest severity (16 (15 to 17) weeks missed/1000 events). Collision tackles (illegal tackles involving a shoulder charge) had a propensity for injury of 15 (12.4 to 18.3) injuries/1000 events and severity was 92 (75 to 112) weeks missed/1000 events, both of which were higher than any other event. Additional scrum analysis showed that only 5% of all scrums collapsed, but the propensity for injury was four times higher (2.9 (1.5 to 5.4) injuries/1000 events) and the severity was six times greater (22 (12 to 42) weeks missed/1000 events) than for non-collapsed scrums. Injury prevention in the tackle should focus on technique with strict enforcement of existing laws for illegal collision tackles. The scrum is a relatively controllable event and further attempts should be made to reduce the frequency of scrum collapse. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. Night work, long work weeks, and risk of accidental injuries. A register-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ann D; Hannerz, Harald; Møller, Simone V

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The aims of this study were to (i) investigate the association between night work or long work weeks and the risk of accidental injuries and (ii) test if the association is affected by age, sex or socioeconomic status. Methods The study population was drawn from the Danish version...... of the interview. We used Poisson regression to estimate the relative rates (RR) of accidental injuries as a function of night work or long work weeks (>40 hours per week) adjusted for year of interview, sex, age, socioeconomic status (SES), industry, and weekly working hours or night work. Age, sex and SES were....... No associations were found between long work weeks (>40 hours) and accidental injuries. Conclusion We found a modest increased risk of accidental injuries when reporting night work. No associations between long work weeks and risk of accidental injuries were observed. Age, sex and SES showed no trends when...

  13. Injury risk for matched front and rear seat car passengers by injury severity and crash type: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, R J; Bambach, M R; Toson, Barbara

    2015-09-01

    The risk of serious injury or death has been found to be reduced for some front compared to rear seat car passengers in newer vehicles. However, differences in injury severity between car occupants by seating position has not been examined. This study examines the injury severity risk for rear compared to front seat car passengers. A retrospective matched-cohort analysis was conducted of vehicle crashes involving injured rear vs front seat car passengers identified in linked police-reported, hospitalisation and emergency department (ED) presentation records during 2001-2011 in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Odds ratios were estimated using an ordinal logistic mixed model and logistic mixed models. There were 5419 front and 4588 rear seat passengers in 3681 vehicles. There was a higher odds of sustaining a higher injury severity as a rear-compared to a front seat car passenger, with a higher odds of rear seat passengers sustaining serious injuries compared to minimal injuries. Where the vehicle occupant was older, travelling in a vehicle manufactured between 1990 and 1996 or after 1997, where the airbag deployed, and where the vehicle was driven where the speed limit was ≥70km/h there was a higher odds of the rear passenger sustaining a higher injury severity then a front seated occupant. Rear seat car passengers are sustaining injuries of a higher severity compared to front seat passengers travelling in the same vehicle, as well as when travelling in newer vehicles and where the front seat occupant is shielded by an airbag deployed in the crash. Rear seat occupant protective mechanisms should be examined. Pre-hospital trauma management policies could influence whether an individual is transported to a hospital ED, thus it would be beneficial to have an objective measure of injury severity routinely available in ED records. Further examination of injury severity between rear and front seat passengers is warranted to examine less severe non-fatal injuries by car

  14. Accelerometer and GPS-derived running loads and injury risk in elite Australian footballers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Marcus J; Dawson, Brian; Heasman, Jarryd; Rogalski, Brent; Gabbett, Tim J

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between overall physical workload (global positioning systems [GPS]/accelerometer) measures and injury risk in elite Australian football players (n = 46) during a season. Workload data and (intrinsic) injury incidence were monitored across preseason and in-season (18 matches) phases. Multiple regression was used to compare cumulative (1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-weekly loads) and absolute change (from previous-to-current week) in workloads between injured and uninjured players for all GPS/accelerometer-derived variables: total distance, V1 distance (total distance above individual's aerobic threshold speed), sprint distance, force load, velocity load, and relative velocity change. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated to determine the relative injury risk. Cumulative loads showed the strongest relationship with greater intrinsic injury risk. During preseason, 3-weekly distance (OR = 5.489, p = 0.008) and 3-weekly sprint distance (OR = 3.667, p = 0.074) were most indicative of greater injury risk. During in-season, 3-weekly force load (OR = 2.530, p = 0.031) and 4-weekly relative velocity change (OR = 2.244, p = 0.035) were associated with greater injury risk. No differences in injury risk between years of Australian Football League system experience and GPS/accelerometer data were seen. From an injury risk (prevention) perspective, these findings support consideration of several GPS/accelerometer running load variables in Australian football players. In particular, cumulative weekly loads should be closely monitored, with 3-weekly loads most indicative of a greater injury risk across both seasonal phases.

  15. Identifying risk factors for contact injury in professional rugby league players--application of a frailty model for recurrent injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbett, Tim J; Ullah, Shahid; Finch, Caroline F

    2012-11-01

    Well-developed physical qualities may protect against contact injuries. However, the potential contribution of physical qualities as risk or protective factors to contact injury risk is yet to be determined for rugby league. This study applied a frailty survival model that accounts for recurrent injury to identify risk factors for all physiotherapist-reported contact injury in professional rugby league players. Prospective cohort study. Sixty-six professional rugby league players participated in this three successive year prospective study. At the start of each season, all players underwent measurements of standard anthropometry (height, body mass, and sum of seven skinfolds), speed (10 m and 40 m sprint), muscular strength (1 repetition maximum [RM] bench press, 1RM squat, 1RM weighted chin-ups), power (vertical jump, bench throw, 1RM power clean, jump squat), and endurance (maximum repetition bench press with 60 kg resistance), repeated-sprint ability (12 × 20 m sprints performed on a 20s cycle), prolonged high-intensity intermittent running ability (8 × 12 s maximal effort shuttles performed on a 48 s cycle), and maximal aerobic power (multi-stage fitness test). Data was used to demonstrate the application of the frailty model extension of the Cox proportional regression model for recurrent events to identify factors associated with a high hazard ratio (HR) of injury. Heavier (body mass, HR=2.6, 95% CI=1.2-5.7), and faster (40 m sprint, HR=2.1, 95% CI=1.0-4.2) players, and those with poorly developed prolonged high-intensity intermittent running ability (HR=2.9, 95% CI=1.7-5.0) and upper-body strength (chin-up, HR=2.2, 95% CI=1.3-3.7) had a higher incidence of contact injuries. This study demonstrates application of a novel statistical approach for the analysis of injury data that is recurrent in nature. This approach identified that the greater impact forces generated from heavier players with faster speed may result in an increase in recurrent contact injury

  16. Road traffic injuries among children and adolescents in Singapore - Who is at greatest risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Shu-Ling; Tyebally, Arif; Chew, Su Yah; Lim, Yang Chern; Feng, Xun Yi; Chin, Sock Teng; Lee, Lois K

    2017-03-01

    Pediatric road traffic injuries remain a significant cause of death and disability in many countries in Asia, despite the implementation of road traffic safety laws. We aim to describe the injuries, the use of restraints among road users, and risk factors associated with severe injuries for children in Singapore. We performed a retrospective chart review of road traffic injuries presenting to the only two pediatric tertiary care hospitals in Singapore, from January 2012 to April 2016. We included children injuries (death, urgent resuscitation and emergent surgery). We performed a multivariate logistic regression to determine risk factors associated with severe injury. There were 2468 patients during the study period. The mean age was 7.9 years (SD 4.7); 60.1% of road injuries involved motor vehicle occupants (1483/2468). Most bicyclist/motorcyclists were not wearing helmets (70.0%, 245/350) and 51.1% of motor vehicle passengers (758/1483) were not restrained. Compared to motor vehicle passengers, pedestrians (adjusted OR 2.38, 95% CI 1.41-3.99), bicyclists (adjusted OR 2.12, 95% CI 1.04-4.32) and motorcyclists (adjusted OR 6.09, 95% CI 2.04-18.24) were more likely to sustain severe injuries. Child pedestrians, bicyclists and motorcyclists are especially vulnerable for severe injures. Further injury prevention efforts must focus on the enforcement of legislation to protect these high-risk groups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Unintentional injuries in a twin study of preschool children: environmental, not genetic, risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordoñana, Juan R; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E

    2008-03-01

    To analyze the relative contribution of latent genetic and environmental factors to differences in the injury liability of children, and to examine the association between measured socio-economic, family, and child-behavior variables and unintentional injury risk. Unintentional injuries from birth to age 5, together with information regarding measured risk variables, were reported by mothers in a sample of 1027 same-sex twin pairs from a nationally representative 1994-1995 birth cohort. Child-specific environmental factors accounted for most of the variance (86.4%) in the likelihood of ever having an injury. When considering the risk of two or more injuries child-specific environmental factors explained 60.2% of the variance and family-wide environmental influence 39.8%. Measured socio-economic, family, and child-behavior factors predicted frequent injury. Results give little support to the concept of a heritable injury-prone trait in preschool children; environmental influences accounted for most of the injury variance in this sample. However, behavioral variables, especially the child's externalizing problem behaviors, are also important in explaining unintentional injuries.

  18. Insomnia symptoms and risk for unintentional fatal injuries--the HUNT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugsand, Lars Erik; Strand, Linn B; Vatten, Lars J; Janszky, Imre; Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon

    2014-11-01

    To assess the association between insomnia symptoms and risk of fatal unintentional injuries. Population-based prospective cohort study with a mean follow-up of 14 y, linking health survey data with information on insomnia symptoms to the National Cause of Death Registry. Nord-Trøndelag County, Norway. A total of 54,399 men and women 20-89 y of age who participated in the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study between 1995 and 1997. N/A. There were 277 unintentional fatal injuries, including 57 fatal motor vehicle injuries during follow-up. There was a dose-dependent association between the number of insomnia symptoms and risk of unintentional fatal injuries (P for trend 0.001) and fatal motor vehicle injuries (P for trend 0.023), respectively. The proportion of unintentional fatal injuries cases that could have been prevented in the absence of difficulties initiating sleep, difficulties maintaining sleep, and having a feeling of nonrestorative sleep were 8%, 9%, and 8%, respectively. The corresponding estimates for motor vehicle injuries were 34%, 11%, and 10%. Insomnia is a major contributor to both unintentional fatal injuries in general as well as fatal motor vehicle injuries. Increasing public health awareness about insomnia and identifying persons with insomnia may be important in preventing unintentional fatal injuries.

  19. Hamstring tendons insertion - an anatomical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Antonio Grassi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the anatomy of the hamstring tendons insertion and anatomical rela-tionships. METHODS: Ten cadaver knees with medial and anterior intact structures were selected. The dissection was performed from anteromedial access to exposure of the insertion of the flexor tendons (FT, tibial plateau (TP and tibial tuberosity (TT. A needle of 40 × 12 and a caliper were used to measure the distance of the tibial plateau of the knee flexor tendons insertion at 15 mm from the medial border of the patellar tendon and tibial tuberosity to the insertion of the flexor tendons of the knee. The angle between tibial plateau and the insertion of the flexor tendons of the knee (A-TP-FT was calculated using Image Pro Plus software. RESULTS: The mean distance TP-FT was 41 ± 4.6 mm. The distance between the TT-FT was 6.88 ± 1 mm. The (A-TP-FT was 20.3 ± 4.9°. CONCLUSION: In the anterior tibial flexor tendons are about 40 mm from the plateau with an average of 20°.

  20. The accuracy of the functional movement screen to identify individuals with an elevated risk of musculoskeletal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumrei, Kirk; Flanagan, Molly; Bruner, Josh; Durall, Chris

    2014-11-01

    Injuries are somewhat commonplace in highly active populations. One strategy for reducing injuries is to identify individuals with an elevated injury risk before participation so that remediative interventions can be provided. Preparticipation screenings have traditionally entailed strength and flexibility measures thought to be indicative of inflated injury risk. Some researchers, however, have suggested that functional movements/tasks should be assessed to help identify individuals with a high risk of future injury. One assessment tool used for this purpose is the Functional Movement Screen (FMS). The FMS generates a numeric score based on performance attributes during 7 dynamic tasks; this score is purported to reflect future injury risk. Expanding interest in the FMS has led researchers to investigate how accurately it can identify individuals with an increased risk of injury. Can the Functional Movement Screen accurately identify highly active individuals with an elevated risk of injury?

  1. Demographic and contextual infl uences in injury risk among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A travel time of more than 30 minutes to and from school was also associated with increased rates of injury (RRR = 1.61; CI = 1.13–2.29). Conclusions: Injuries are an important source of morbidity among school-attending adolescents in Dar es Salaam. The findings support more research into the contextual factors that ...

  2. risk indicators of morbidity and mortality in abdominal injuries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-12-11

    Dec 11, 2006 ... Conclusion: The greatest determinants of morbidity and mortality in abdominal injuries are the degree of injury and the physiological state of patient at admission. The rest of the indicators are interplays of these two factors. INTRODUCTION. Trauma remains a leading cause of surgical admission the world ...

  3. Injuries in runners; a systematic review on risk factors and sex differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worp, M.P. van der; Haaf, D.S. Ten; Cingel, R. van; Wijer, A. de; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.; Staal, J.B.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The popularity of running continues to increase, which means that the incidence of running-related injuries will probably also continue to increase. Little is known about risk factors for running injuries and whether they are sex-specific. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to review

  4. Risk Factors Associated with Self-Injurious Behaviors in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerden, Emma G.; Oatley, Hannah K.; Mak-Fan, Kathleen M.; McGrath, Patricia A.; Taylor, Margot J.; Szatmari, Peter; Roberts, S. Wendy

    2012-01-01

    While self-injurious behaviors (SIB) can cause significant morbidity for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), little is known about its associated risk factors. We assessed 7 factors that may influence self-injury in a large cohort of children with ASD: (a) atypical sensory processing; (b) impaired cognitive ability; (c) abnormal…

  5. Injuries in skiing and snowboarding: Epidemiology and risk factors as a basis for prevention measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ropret Robert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the subject of injury in alpine skiing and snowboarding and the aim was to define the characteristics of injuries and the risk factors as the basis for establishing preventive measures. The types of injuries and risk factors were analyzed by examining previous papers. During the last thirty years, the number of injuries has generally decreased by 50-70%. The changes were recorded in the types of injuries, and the number of certain injuries increased. It was found that there was a mutual difference in the number and structure of the injuries of skiers and snowboarders. Injuries can be classified topologically and according to risk factors. The risk factors may be manifold: the characteristics of the equipment, the characteristics of the trail and snow surface, protective equipment, age, gender, physical fitness, risky behaviours, time of day, skiing discipline, climate factors, the presence of other skiers and others. By the analysis of these factors it was concluded that there were three entities in the implementation of security measures: the state that stipulates laws (relevant ministries, owners or organizers who provide services in skiing (ski centres, ski services, ski schools, clubs and skiers and snowboarders themselves.

  6. [The time-related risk for knee osteoarthritis after ACL injury. Results from a systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spahn, G; Schiltenwolf, M; Hartmann, B; Grifka, J; Hofmann, G O; Klemm, H-T

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review was to evaluate the time-related risk for knee osteoarthritis in patients after ACL injury. The primary search was carried out in different medical databases with the deadline 12.01.2014. The search strategy for the evaluation was [ACL] AND [osteoarthritis] including "all fields". All 1656 title/abstracts were reviewed by two independent researchers who selected 140 papers for full text review. Finally, a total of 21 relevant publications were identified for inclusion in this current paper. The incidence of knee osteoarthritis rises significantly over time. Two years after injury it was 6.9%, after 5 years 32.2%, after 7 years 36.3%, and after 10 years 79.6%. At the same time, the crude relative risk of OA rises as the time interval since injury increases. The relative risk of OA has already doubled by 2 years after ACL injury). By 7 years it has increased fivefold and compared with OA status at the time of injury it is still increasing significantly after 10 years. The ACL injury is a significant risk factor for the development of early-onset secondary knee osteoarthritis. Within 5 years of the injury the knee shows clear signs of osteoarthritis on MRI. However, these lesions are often not associated with any clinical signs. Knee osteoarthritis as a severe disease starts 8 years or later after the injury, when it requires treatment.

  7. Injury incidence and selected biomechanical, postural and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The strongest predictors for lower extremity injuries (I>0.3) were uneven hips, pronated feet, tight hamstrings, anatomical leg length differences, gait pronation and a tall stature. It was concluded that certain postural and biomechanical imbalances in the lower extremities could contribute to injury among rugby union players.

  8. Mediated effects of physical risk factors, leader-member exchange and empowerment in predicting perceived injury risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muldoon, Jeffery; Matthews, Russell A; Foley, Caroline

    2012-04-01

    In the context of conservation of resources theory, we examine the indirect (mediated) effects of physical risk factors, leader-member exchange (LMX) and empowerment on perceived injury risk in a heterogeneous sample (N = 226) of individuals employed in occupations related to production, construction and installation/maintenance. Positioning work role stressors and upward safety communications as two important mediating variables, as predicted, LMX and empowerment demonstrated significant indirect effects on perceived injury risk. Results from our model also provide preliminary evidence that an asymmetrical dualistic process exists in terms of the effect physical risk factors have on perceived injury risk via depletion of both psychological (i.e. role stressors) and physical resources (i.e. physical symptoms). Theoretical and practical implications based on the results of our model are also discussed. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Effects of vehicle impact velocity, vehicle front-end shapes on pedestrian injury risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yong; Yang, Jikuang; Mizuno, Koji; Matsui, Yasuhiro

    2012-09-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effects of vehicle impact velocity, vehicle front-end shape, and pedestrian size on injury risk to pedestrians in collisions with passenger vehicles with various frontal shapes. A series of parametric studies was carried out using 2 total human model for safety (THUMS) pedestrian models (177 and 165 cm) and 4 vehicle finite element (FE) models with different front-end shapes (medium-size sedan, minicar, one-box vehicle, and sport utility vehicle [SUV]). The effects of the impact velocity on pedestrian injury risk were analyzed at velocities of 20, 30, 40, and 50 km/h. The dynamic response of the pedestrian was investigated, and the injury risk to the head, chest, pelvis, and lower extremities was compared in terms of the injury parameters head injury criteria (HIC), chest deflection, and von Mises stress distribution of the rib cage, pelvis force, and bending moment diagram of the lower extremities. Vehicle impact velocity has the most significant influence on injury severity for adult pedestrians. All injury parameters can be reduced in severity by decreasing vehicle impact velocities. The head and lower extremities are at greater risk of injury in medium-size sedan and SUV collisions. The chest injury risk was particularly high in one-box vehicle impacts. The fracture risk of the pelvis was also high in one-box vehicle and SUV collisions. In minicar collisions, the injury risk was the smallest if the head did not make contact with the A-pillar. The vehicle impact velocity and vehicle front-end shape are 2 dominant factors that influence the pedestrian kinematics and injury severity. A significant reduction of all injuries can be achieved for all vehicle types when the vehicle impact velocity is less than 30 km/h. Vehicle designs consisting of a short front-end and a wide windshield area can protect pedestrians from fatalities. The results also could be valuable in the design of a pedestrian-friendly vehicle front-end shape

  10. Risk of injury to vascular-nerve bundle after calcaneal fracture: comparison among three techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro José Labronici

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To ascertain whether the number of screws or pins placed in the calcaneus might increase the risk of injury when three different techniques for treating calcaneal fractures. METHOD: 126 radiographs of patients who suffered displaced calcaneal fractures were retrospectively analyzed. Three surgical techniques were analyzed on an interobserver basis: 31 radiographs of patients treated using plates that were not specific for the calcaneus, 48 using specific plates and 47 using an external fixator. The risk of injury to the anatomical structures in relation to each Kirschner wire or screw was determined using a graded system in accordance with the Licht classification. The total risk of injury to the anatomical structures through placement of more than one wire/screw was quantified using the additive law of probabilities for the product, for independent events. RESULTS: All of the models presented high explanatory power for the risk evaluated, since the coefficient of determination values (R2 were greater than 98.6 for all the models. Therefore, the set of variables studied explained more than 98.6% of the variations in the risks of injury to arteries, veins or nerves and can be classified as excellent models for prevention of injuries. CONCLUSION: The risk of injury to arteries, veins or nerves is not defined by the total number of pins/screws. The region and the number of pins/screws in each region define and determine the best distribution of the risk.

  11. Outcome of hamstring ligament harvest for Anterior Cruciate Ligament reconstruction with allograft versus autograft: a clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Moghtadaei

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The goal of this study was to evaluate, functional capacity of the knee in flexion and internal rotation after hamstring ligament harvest for Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL reconstruction.Methods: Fifty patients (male and 18-45 years old with isolated ACL injury, randomly allocated in two equal groups (in one group, ACL reconstruction was performed with Tibialis Posterior allograft and in another group with quadruple hamstring ligament auto graft and before and 6 months after surgery in both groups isokinetic flexion strength and isometric internal rotation strength of knee evaluated with Biodex System 4 dynamometer and rotational torque recorder, in order. Isokinetic flexion strength evaluated in sitting and prone position; the later position was performed for deep flexion strength evaluation. Also subjective and objective assessment of all patients pre operatively and 6 months post operatively was documented with International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC questionnaire. In this study for first time, rotational torque strength of knee was recorded with new design measure, from isometric aspect and not isokinetic.Results: Although significant improvements in IKDC scores, flexion and internal rotation capacity of the knee were observed in both groups, post operatively in respect to pre operatively; there was no significant difference between 2 groups. (P<0.05 or more than 95% confidence Interval of the differenceConclusion: This study demonstrates that ACL reconstruction surgery, improves knee performance in flexion and internal rotation, regardless of hamstring tendon harvesting. Considering potential complications of allograft (for example: transfer of harmful diseases from donor to recipient, it is logical to use hamstring auto graft ligament for ACL reconstruction surgery. Because result of this study is not longstanding follow up and limited to male sex, for more worthfull conclusion, we suggest future study in both sex

  12. Risk Factors and Prevention Strategies of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries in Young Females Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Forcada

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injuries are more common in young female athletes than in males, and its frequency is increasing. The aim of the present study is to determine the risk factors that promote these injuries and study the available strategy to prevent ACL injuries in young female athletes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Different database were used to perform the research (PubMed, Cochrane Plus, Trip Database, using the following keywords: anterior cruciate ligament injury, risk factors, prevention, female and athlete. RESULTS: Risk factors for ACL injuries include: dry weather, high temperatures, playing indoors, artificial boil, sleepless, fatigue, stress, sport specialization, burnout, low self-esteem, incorrect pivoting and landing techniques. Avoiding or modifying these risk factors could prevent ACL injuries as well as performing a specific neuromuscular training. CONCLUSION: There are different ways to prevent ACL injuries that have been proven to be effective, a passive one avoiding the risk factors, and active one, by practicing a specific neuromuscular training.

  13. Distracted walking: cell phones increase injury risk for college pedestrians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrinos, Despina; Byington, Katherine W; Schwebel, David C

    2011-04-01

    Distraction on cell phones jeopardizes motor-vehicle driver safety, but few studies examine distracted walking. At particular risk are college students, who walk frequently in and near traffic, have increased pedestrian injury rates compared to other age groups, and frequently use cell phones. Using an interactive and immersive virtual environment, two experiments studied the effect of cell phone conversation on distraction of college student pedestrians. In the first, we examined whether pedestrians would display riskier behavior when distracted by a naturalistic cell phone conversation than when undistracted. We also considered whether individual difference factors would moderate the effect of the distraction. In a second experiment, we examined the impact of three forms of distraction on pedestrian safety: (a) engaging in a cell phone conversation, (b) engaging in a cognitively challenging spatial task by phone, and (c) engaging in a cognitively challenging mental arithmetic task by phone. Results revealed that cell phone conversations distracted college pedestrians considerably across all pedestrian safety variables measured, with just one exception. Attention to traffic was not affected by the naturalistic phone conversation in Experiment 1, but was altered by the cognitively-demanding content of some types of conversation in Experiment 2. The content of the conversation did not play a major role in distraction across other variables; both mundane and cognitively complex conversations distracted participants. Moreover, no significant associations between individual difference factors and susceptibility to distraction emerged. Results may inform researchers, policy makers, and pedestrians themselves. Educational campaigns might discourage telephone conversations in pedestrian environments. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Evidence-based assessment of childhood injuries and physical risk-taking behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karazsia, Bryan T; Brown Kirschman, Keri J

    2013-09-01

    To offer a critical evidence-based review and summary of assessment methods of childhood injuries and physical risk-taking behaviors. A literature review was conducted to identify methodologies for assessing injury events and physical risk-taking behaviors. Methodologies reviewed included self- or parent-report scales, behavioral observations, and participant event monitoring. We classified methodologies according to published criteria of "well-established," "approaching well-established," or "promising." 7 methodologies were classified as "well-established", 9 were classified as "approaching well-established", and 8 were classified as "promising." Several approaches to assessing injuries or physical risk-taking behaviors have strong psychometric properties. Opportunities for further psychometric validation of techniques are noted. It is hoped that this review inspires researchers throughout the fields of pediatric and clinical child psychology to adopt assessments of injury and physical risk-taking in their ongoing research efforts.

  15. Child passenger injury risk in sibling versus non-sibling teen driver crashes: a US study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Senserrick, Teresa M; Kallan, Michael J; Winston, Flaura K

    2007-01-01

    .... The objective of this research was to examine differences in injury risk to US child passengers in crashes involving sibling versus non-sibling teen drivers, and to compare outcomes with crashes involving adult drivers...

  16. Assessing the Risk of Crew Injury Due to Dynamic Loads During Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, J. T.; Gernhardt, M.; Newby, N.

    2014-01-01

    Spaceflight requires tremendous amounts of energy to achieve Earth orbit and to attain escape velocity for interplanetary missions. Although the majority of the energy is managed in such a way as to limit the accelerations on the crew, several mission phases may result in crew exposure to dynamic loads. In the automotive industry, risk of serious injury can be tolerated because the probability of a crash is remote each time a person enters a vehicle, resulting in a low total risk of injury. For spaceflight, the level of acceptable injury risk must be lower to achieve a low total risk of injury because the dynamic loads are expected on each flight. To mitigate the risk of injury due to dynamic loads, the NASA Human Research Program has developed a research plan to inform the knowledge gaps and develop relevant tools for assessing injury risk. The risk of injury due to dynamic loads can be further subdivided into extrinsic and intrinsic risk factors. Extrinsic risk factors include the vehicle dynamic profile, seat and restraint design, and spacesuit design. Human tolerance to loads varies considerably depending on the direction, amplitude, and rise-time of acceleration therefore the orientation of the body to the dynamic vector is critical to determining crew risk of injury. Although a particular vehicle dynamic profile may be safe for a particular design, the seat, restraint, and suit designs can affect the risk of injury due to localized effects. In addition, characteristics intrinsic to the crewmember may also contribute to the risk of injury, such as crewmember sex, age, anthropometry, and deconditioning due to spaceflight, and each astronaut may have a different risk profile because of these factors. The purpose of the research plan is to address any knowledge gaps in the risk factors to mitigate injury risk. Methods for assessing injury risk have been well documented in other analogous industries and include human volunteer testing, human exposure to dynamic

  17. INJURY INCIDENCE IN A SPANISH SUB-ELITE PROFESSIONAL FOOTBALL TEAM: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY DURING FOUR CONSECUTIVE SEASONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Mallo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the injury incidence and injury characteristics of a Spanish sub-elite professional football team during four consecutive seasons. A team was followed prospectively from the season 2003-2004 to 2006-2007 and individual player exposure and time loss injuries were recorded during all club training sessions and matches. A total of 313 time-loss injuries were recorded. The mean injury incidence was 10.9 injuries/1000 hours (5.2 injuries/1000 training hours and 44.1 injuries/1000 match hours. The injury incidence during competitive matches was higher (p 28 days absence was 0.4 injuries/1000 hours. The thigh was the most commonly (35% injured region and caused 29% of all competitive match absence. Muscle injuries in the four main groups of the lower limbs (hamstrings, adductors, quadriceps and calf muscles caused 43% of competitive match unavailability. The results of this study show that the risk to sustain a major injury in the course of the season was low for sub- elite footballers in comparison to elite players. Thigh strains were the first cause of absence in competition due to injury.

  18. Injuries and Associated Risk Factors Among Adolescent Elite Orienteerers: A 26-Week Prospective Registration Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Rosen, Philip; Heijne, Annette I.-L. M.; Frohm, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Context:  In orienteering, the number of injury-registration studies is limited. Most researchers have used a cross-sectional design during specific events and, therefore, have mainly identified acute injuries. Objective:  To determine the prevalence of injuries by registering acute and overuse injuries in adolescent elite orienteerers over 26 weeks and to study the variation of injury prevalence over the season and the potential risk factors. Design:  Cohort study. Setting:  Two high schools in Sweden with national orienteering teams. Patients or Other Participants:  All athletes (33 adolescent girls, 31 adolescent boys; age = 17 ± 1 years) from 2 high schools with orienteering teams. Main Outcome Measure(s):  We used a weekly Web-based questionnaire to identify the incidence and prevalence of injuries and training variables. Risk factors for injury were calculated using multiple linear regression techniques. Results:  The average weekly prevalence of overuse and acute injuries was 35.7% (95% confidence interval = 34.8%, 36.6%) and 1.7% (95% confidence interval = 1.3%, 2.1%), respectively; overuse injuries (78.0%, n = 85) accounted for the majority. The incidence of acute and overuse injuries was highest for the foot/lower leg (48.6%, n = 53), and 71.6% (n = 78) of all injuries affected the foot/lower leg and knee area. Time to the first reported injury was associated with training volume (β = 0.184, P = .001), competition time (β = −0.701, P = .009), running on asphalt roads (β = −0.348, P = .008), and running on forest surfaces and trails (β = −0.331, P = .007), with a model fit of r 2 = 0.50 (intercept = 2.196, P injuries in the foot/lower leg (r 2 = 0.33, P = .001); the highest prevalence (26.9%) was at the beginning of the competitive season. Conclusions:  Overuse injuries, predominately in the foot/lower leg area, were more common than acute injuries in adolescent elite orienteerers. These injuries had the highest prevalence at

  19. Injuries and Illnesses of Vietnam War POWs Revisited: I. Navy Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-05

    Injury/Poisoning, Infectious, Nervous and Special Senses, Skin and Musculoskeletal (in descending order). The prevalence of any diagnosis in each of...documentation of the specific injury and illness diagnoses. The overwhelmingly most common diagnosis in the group was helminthiasis (88%), followed...relationship between the number of diagnosis at repatriation (i.e., IMEF) and various risk factors. We hypothesized that these risk factors would

  20. Low fitness, low body mass and prior injury predict injury risk during military recruit training: a prospective cohort study in the British Army.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Mark; Siddall, Andrew; Bilzon, James; Thompson, Dylan; Greeves, Julie; Izard, Rachel; Stokes, Keith

    2016-01-01

    Injuries sustained by military recruits during initial training impede training progression and military readiness while increasing financial costs. This study investigated training-related injuries and injury risk factors among British Army infantry recruits. Recruits starting infantry training at the British Army Infantry Training Centre between September 2008 and March 2010 were eligible to take part. Information regarding lifestyle behaviours and injury history was collected using the Military Pre-training Questionnaire. Sociodemographic, anthropometric, physical fitness and injury (lower limb and lower back) data were obtained from Army databases. Univariable and multivariable Cox regression models were used to explore the association between time to first training injury and potential risk factors. 58% (95% CI 55% to 60%) of 1810 recruits sustained at least 1 injury during training. Overuse injuries were more common than traumatic injuries (65% and 35%, respectively). The lower leg accounted for 81% of all injuries, and non-specific soft tissue damage was the leading diagnosis (55% of all injuries). Injuries resulted in 122 (118 to 126) training days lost per 1000 person-days. Slower 2.4 km run time, low body mass, past injury and shin pain were independently associated with higher risk of any injury. There was a high incidence of overuse injuries in British Army recruits undertaking infantry training. Recruits with lower pretraining fitness levels, low body mass and past injuries were at higher risk. Faster 2.4 km run time performance and minimal body mass standards should be considered for physical entry criteria.

  1. Mapping current research trends on anterior cruciate ligament injury risk against the existing evidence: In vivo biomechanical risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharir, Raihana; Rafeeuddin, Radin; Staes, Filip; Dingenen, Bart; George, Keith; Vanrenterghem, Jos; Robinson, Mark A

    2016-08-01

    Whilst many studies measure large numbers of biomechanical parameters and associate these to anterior cruciate ligament injury risk, they cannot be considered as anterior cruciate ligament injury risk factors without evidence from prospective studies. A review was conducted to systematically assess the in vivo biomechanical literature to identify biomechanical risk factors for non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injury during dynamic sports tasks; and to critically evaluate the research trends from retrospective and associative studies investigating non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injury risk. An electronic literature search was undertaken on studies examining in vivo biomechanical risk factors associated with non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injury. The relevant studies were assessed by classification; level 1 - a prospective cohort study, level 2 - a retrospective study or level 3 - an associative study. An initial search revealed 812 studies but this was reduced to 1 level 1 evidence study, 20 level 2 evidence studies and 175 level 3 evidence studies that met all inclusion criteria. Level 1 evidence showed that the knee abduction angle, knee abduction moment and ground reaction force were biomechanical risk factors. Nine level 2 studies and eighty-three level 3 studies used these to assess risk factors in their study. Inconsistencies in results and methods were observed in level 2 and 3 studies. There is a lack of high quality, prospective level 1 evidence related to biomechanical risk factors for non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injury. More prospective cohort studies are required to determine risk factors and provide improved prognostic capability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Inter-session reliability and sex-related differences in hamstrings total reaction time, pre-motor time and motor time during eccentric isokinetic contractions in recreational athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Francisco; De Ste Croix, Mark; Sainz de Baranda, Pilar; Santonja, Fernando

    2014-04-01

    The purposes were twofold: (a) to ascertain the inter-session reliability of hamstrings total reaction time, pre-motor time and motor time; and (b) to examine sex-related differences in the hamstrings reaction times profile. Twenty-four men and 24 women completed the study. Biceps femoris and semitendinosus total reaction time, pre-motor time and motor time measured during eccentric isokinetic contractions were recorded on three different occasions. Inter-session reliability was examined through typical percentage error (CVTE), percentage change in the mean (CM) and intraclass correlations (ICC). For both biceps femoris and semitendinosus, total reaction time, pre-motor time and motor time measures demonstrated moderate inter-session reliability (CVTE0.7). The results also indicated that, although not statistically significant, women reported consistently longer hamstrings total reaction time (23.5ms), pre-motor time (12.7ms) and motor time (7.5ms) values than men. Therefore, an observed change larger than 5%, 9% and 8% for total reaction time, pre-motor time and motor time respectively from baseline scores after performing a training program would indicate that a real change was likely. Furthermore, while not statistically significant, sex differences were noted in the hamstrings reaction time profile which may play a role in the greater incidence of ACL injuries in women. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Predicting sport and occupational lower extremity injury risk through movement quality screening: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Jackie L; Booysen, Nadine; de la Motte, Sarah; Dennett, Liz; Lewis, Cara L; Wilson, Dave; McKay, Carly; Warner, Martin; Padua, Darin; Emery, Carolyn A; Stokes, Maria

    2017-04-01

    Identification of risk factors for lower extremity (LE) injury in sport and military/first-responder occupations is required to inform injury prevention strategies. To determine if poor movement quality is associated with LE injury in sport and military/first-responder occupations. 5 electronic databases were systematically searched. Studies selected included original data; analytic design; movement quality outcome (qualitative rating of functional compensation, asymmetry, impairment or efficiency of movement control); LE injury sustained with sport or military/first-responder occupation. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed. 2 independent authors assessed the quality (Downs and Black (DB) criteria) and level of evidence (Oxford Centre of Evidence-Based Medicine model). Of 4361 potential studies, 17 were included. The majority were low-quality cohort studies (level 4 evidence). Median DB score was 11/33 (range 3-15). Heterogeneity in methodology and injury definition precluded meta-analyses. The Functional Movement Screen was the most common outcome investigated (15/17 studies). 4 studies considered inter-relationships between risk factors, 7 reported diagnostic accuracy and none tested an intervention programme targeting individuals identified as high risk. There is inconsistent evidence that poor movement quality is associated with increased risk of LE injury in sport and military/first-responder occupations. Future research should focus on high-quality cohort studies to identify the most relevant movement quality outcomes for predicting injury risk followed by developing and evaluating preparticipation screening and LE injury prevention programmes through high-quality randomised controlled trials targeting individuals at greater risk of injury based on screening tests with validated test properties. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted

  4. Increased Risk of Hemorrhagic and Ischemic Strokes in Patients With Splenic Injury and Splenectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiun-Nong; Lin, Cheng-Li; Lin, Ming-Chia; Lai, Chung-Hsu; Lin, Hsi-Hsun; Yang, Chih-Hui; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The spleen is a crucial organ in humans. Little is known about the association between stroke and splenic injury or splenectomy. The aim of this study was to determine the risk of stroke in patients with splenic injury and splenectomy. A nationwide cohort study was conducted by analyzing the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. For comparison, control patients were selected and matched with splenic injury patients in a ratio of 4:1 according to age, sex, and the year of hospitalization. We analyzed the risks of stroke using a Cox proportional-hazards regression analysis. A total of 11,273 splenic injury patients, including 5294 splenectomized and 5979 nonsplenectomized patients, and 45,092 control patients were included in this study. The incidence rates of stroke were 8.05, 6.53, and 4.25 per 1000 person-years in splenic injury patients with splenectomy, those without splenectomy, and the control cohort, respectively. Compared with the control cohort, splenic injury patients with splenectomy exhibited a 2.05-fold increased risk of stroke (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.8–2.34), whereas those without splenectomy exhibited a 1.74-fold increased risk (95% CI 1.51–2). Splenectomy entailed an additional 1.21-fold increased risk of stroke compared with nonsplenectomy in patients with splenic injury. This study revealed that splenic injury and splenectomy were significantly associated with an increased risk of hemorrhagic and ischemic strokes. The results of this study may alert physicians and patients to the complications of splenic injury and splenectomy. PMID:26334909

  5. Motorcycle helmet use and the risk of head, neck, and fatal injury: Revisiting the Hurt Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Thomas M; Troszak, Lara; Ouellet, James V; Erhardt, Taryn; Smith, Gordon S; Tsai, Bor-Wen

    2016-06-01

    Most studies find strong evidence that motorcycle helmets protect against injury, but a small number of controversial studies have reported a positive association between helmet use and neck injury. The most commonly cited paper is that of Goldstein (1986). Goldstein obtained and reanalyzed data from the Hurt Study, a prospective, on-scene investigation of 900 motorcycle collisions in the city of Los Angeles. The Goldstein results have been adopted by the anti-helmet community to justify resistance to compulsory motorcycle helmet use on the grounds that helmets may cause neck injuries due to their mass. In the current study, we replicated Goldstein's models to understand how he obtained his unexpected results, and we then applied modern statistical methods to estimate the association of motorcycle helmet use with head injury, fatal injury, and neck injury among collision-involved motorcyclists. We found Goldstein's analysis to be critically flawed due to improper data imputation, modeling of extremely sparse data, and misinterpretation of model coefficients. Our new analysis showed that motorcycle helmets were associated with markedly lower risk of head injury (RR 0.40, 95% CI 0.31-0.52) and fatal injury (RR 0.44, 95% CI 0.26-0.74) and with moderately lower but statistically significant risk of neck injury (RR 0.63, 95% CI 0.40-0.99), after controlling for multiple potential confounders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Education-to-job mismatch and the risk of work injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premji, Stephanie; Smith, Peter M

    2013-04-01

    To examine the association between education-to-job mismatch and work injury. Cross-sectional data from the 2003 and 2005 Canadian Community Health Surveys (n=63,462) were used to examine the relationship between having an educational level that is incongruent with occupational skills requirements and the risk of sustaining a work injury requiring medical attention or a work-related repetitive movement injury (RMI). The effect on injury of the interaction of overeducation with recent immigrant status was also examined. Models were stratified by sex and adjusted for possible confounders. Occupational physical demands were conceptualised as a potential mediating variable. After adjustment for covariates, over-education was associated with work injury and RMI for both sexes. Adjustment for occupational demands attenuated the impact on work injury but did not eliminate the effect on RMI among men. The interaction of over-education and recent immigrant status resulted among men in a fourfold increase in the odds of work injury compared with non-recent immigrants who were not over-educated. After adjustment for occupational demands, over-educated recent immigrant men still had more than a twofold increase in the odds of injury. The risk of sustaining a work injury is higher among those whose education exceeds that of job requirements. These findings highlight the need to address barriers to suitable employment, particularly among recent immigrants.

  7. Paralympic athletes' perceptions of their experiences of sports-related injuries, risk factors and preventive possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagher, Kristina; Forsberg, Anna; Jacobsson, Jenny; Timpka, Toomas; Dahlström, Örjan; Lexell, Jan

    2016-11-01

    Our knowledge of sports-related injuries in para-sport is limited and there are no data on how Paralympic athletes themselves perceive an injury. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore Paralympic athletes' perceptions of their experiences of sports-related injuries, risk factors and preventive possibilities. Eighteen Swedish Paralympic athletes with vision impairment, intellectual impairment, spinal cord injury, cerebral palsy, myelomeningocele, dysplasia and neuromuscular disorder, representing 10 different para-sports, were interviewed. The qualitative phenomenographic method was used to interpret the data. The analysis revealed nine categories of perceptions of experiences. The athletes perceived that their impairments were involved in the cause and consequential chains associated with a sports-related injury. Other categories that denoted and described these injuries were: sport overuse, risk behaviour, functional limitations, psychological stressors, the normalised pain, health hazards, individual possibilities to prevent sports-related injuries and unequal prerequisites. This qualitative study revealed that Paralympic athletes' perceptions of their experiences of sports-related injuries are complex and multifactorial, and in several ways differ from able-bodied athletes. This needs to be considered in the sports health and safety work within the Paralympic Movement as well as in the design of future injury surveillance systems and preventive programmes.

  8. Relationship between floor type and risk of ACL injury in team handball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, O E; Myklebust, G; Engebretsen, L; Holme, I; Bahr, R

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the ACL injury rate between two different floor types - wooden floors (parquet, generally having lower friction) and artificial floors (generally having higher friction). ACL injuries have been recorded prospectively from the three top divisions for men and women in Norwegian team handball during seven seasons (1989-2000). A total of 174 ACL injuries have been recorded, and of these 53 occurred in regular league games. The floor types for all regular games from the same seasons have been determined retrospectively based on match schedules. The matches were divided into two groups: those played on wooden floors and those played on artificial floors. A total of nine injuries occurred among men (incidence: 0.24+/-0.09 injuries per 1000 player hours) and 44 among women (0.77+/-0.04 injuries 1000 h(-1); OR vs. men: 3.21 (1.56-6.58); P=0.001). Among men, four injuries occurred on wooden floors (0.32+/-0.13 injuries 1000 h(-1)) and five injuries occurred on artificial floors (0.20+/-0.12 injuries 1000 h(-1); OR vs. wooden floors: 0.63 (0.17-2.37); ns). Among women, eight injuries occurred on wooden floors (0.41+/-0.09 injuries 1000 h(-1); OR vs. men: 1.29 (0.39-4.28); ns) and 36 on artificial floors (0.96+/-0.04 injuries 1000 h(-1); OR vs. wooden floors: 2.35 (1.09-5.07); P=0.03; OR vs. men: 4.77 (1.87-12.18); P=0.001). These results indicate that the risk of ACL injury for women is higher on artificial floors than on wooden floors.

  9. Clinically Relevant Injury Patterns After an Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Provide Insight Into Injury Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Jason W.; Kiapour, Ata M.; Quatman, Carmen E.; Wordeman, Samuel C.; Goel, Vijay K.; Hewett, Timothy E.; Demetropoulos, Constantine K.

    2014-01-01

    Background The functional disability and high costs of treating anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries have generated a great deal of interest in understanding the mechanism of noncontact ACL injuries. Secondary bone bruises have been reported in over 80% of partial and complete ACL ruptures. Purpose The objectives of this study were (1) to quantify ACL strain under a range of physiologically relevant loading conditions and (2) to evaluate soft tissue and bony injury patterns associated with applied loading conditions thought to be responsible for many noncontact ACL injuries. Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Methods Seventeen cadaveric legs (age, 45 ± 7 years; 9 female and 8 male) were tested utilizing a custom-designed drop stand to simulate landing. Specimens were randomly assigned between 2 loading groups that evaluated ACL strain under either knee abduction or internal tibial rotation moments. In each group, combinations of anterior tibial shear force, and knee abduction and internal tibial rotation moments under axial impact loading were applied sequentially until failure. Specimens were tested at 25° of flexion under simulated 1200-N quadriceps and 800-N hamstring loads. A differential variable reluctance transducer was used to calculate ACL strain across the anteromedial bundle. A general linear model was used to compare peak ACL strain at failure. Correlations between simulated knee injury patterns and loading conditions were evaluated by the χ2 test for independence. Results Anterior cruciate ligament failure was generated in 15 of 17 specimens (88%). A clinically relevant distribution of failure patterns was observed including medial collateral ligament tears and damage to the menisci, cartilage, and subchondral bone. Only abduction significantly contributed to calculated peak ACL strain at failure (P = .002). While ACL disruption patterns were independent of the loading mechanism, tibial plateau injury patterns (locations) were

  10. Dose - response relationship between noise exposure and the risk of occupational injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Ha Yoon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many workers worldwide experience fatality and disability caused by occupational injuries. This study examined the relationship between noise exposure and occupational injuries at factories in Korea. A total of 1790 factories located in northern Gyeonggi Province, Korea was evaluated. The time-weighted average levels of dust and noise exposure were taken from Workplace Exposure Assessment data. Apart occupational injuries, sports events, traffic accidents, and other accidents occurring outside workplaces were excluded. The incidences of occupational injury in each factory were calculated by data from the Korea Workers′ Compensation and Welfare Services. Workplaces were classified according to the incidence of any occupational injuries (incident or nonincident workplaces, respectively. Workplace dust exposure was classified as 90 dB. Workplaces with high noise exposure were significantly associated with being incident workplaces, whereas workplaces with high dust exposure were not. The odds ratios (95% confidence intervals derived from a logistic regression model were 1.68 (1.27-2.24 and 3.42 (2.26-5.17 at 80-89 dB and ≥90 dB versus <80 dB. These associations remained significant when in a separate analysis according to high or low dust exposure level. Noise exposure increases the risk of occupational injury in the workplace. Furthermore, the risk of occupational injury increases with noise exposure level in a dose-response relationship. Therefore, strategies for reducing noise exposure level are required to decrease the risk of occupational injury.

  11. Dose - response relationship between noise exposure and the risk of occupational injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jin-Ha; Hong, Jeong-Suk; Roh, Jaehoon; Kim, Chi-Nyon; Won, Jong-Uk

    2015-01-01

    Many workers worldwide experience fatality and disability caused by occupational injuries. This study examined the relationship between noise exposure and occupational injuries at factories in Korea. A total of 1790 factories located in northern Gyeonggi Province, Korea was evaluated. The time-weighted average levels of dust and noise exposure were taken from Workplace Exposure Assessment data. Apart occupational injuries, sports events, traffic accidents, and other accidents occurring outside workplaces were excluded. The incidences of occupational injury in each factory were calculated by data from the Korea Workers' Compensation and Welfare Services. Workplaces were classified according to the incidence of any occupational injuries (incident or nonincident workplaces, respectively). Workplace dust exposure was classified as noise exposure as 90 dB. Workplaces with high noise exposure were significantly associated with being incident workplaces, whereas workplaces with high dust exposure were not. The odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) derived from a logistic regression model were 1.68 (1.27-2.24) and 3.42 (2.26-5.17) at 80-89 dB and ≥ 90 dB versus exposure level. Noise exposure increases the risk of occupational injury in the workplace. Furthermore, the risk of occupational injury increases with noise exposure level in a dose-response relationship. Therefore, strategies for reducing noise exposure level are required to decrease the risk of occupational injury.

  12. Imaging chronic traumatic brain injury as a risk factor for neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Deborah M; Geary, Elizabeth K; Moynihan, Michael; Alexander, Aristides; Pennington, Michelle; Glang, Patrick; Schulze, Evan T; Dretsch, Michael; Pacifico, Anthony; Davis, Matthew L; Stevens, Alan B; Huang, Jason H

    2014-06-01

    Population-based studies have supported the hypothesis that a positive history of traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with an increased incidence of neurological disease and psychiatric comorbidities, including chronic traumatic encephalopathy, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. These epidemiologic studies, however, do not offer a clear definition of that risk, and leave unanswered the bounding criteria for greater lifetime risk of neurodegeneration. Key factors that likely mediate the degree of risk of neurodegeneration include genetic factors, significant premorbid and comorbid medical history (e.g. depression, multiple head injuries and repetitive subconcussive impact to the brain, occupational risk, age at injury, and severity of brain injury). However, given the often-described concerns in self-report accuracy as it relates to history of multiple TBIs, low frequency of patient presentation to a physician in the case of mild brain injuries, and challenges with creating clear distinctions between injury severities, disentangling the true risk for neurodegeneration based solely on population-based studies will likely remain elusive. Given this reality, multiple modalities and approaches must be combined to characterize who are at risk so that appropriate interventions to alter progression of neurodegeneration can be evaluated. This article presents data from a study that highlights uses of neuroimaging and areas of needed research in the link between TBI and neurodegenerative disease. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Neck Muscular Strength, Training, Performance and Sport Injury Risk: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrysomallis, Con

    2016-08-01

    The neck musculature has an essential role in positioning and stabilising the head and may influence sport performance and injury risk. The objectives of this review are to (1) compare the neck strength of different athletes; (2) report on the outcomes of training programmes; (3) explore the association between neck strength and head stabilisation; (4) examine the relationship between neck strength and sport injury risk; and (5) identify areas for future research. There was a difference in strength between different player positions in football codes, gender and age. Detected differences were partly attributed to variation in neck muscle mass. Neck strength training programmes were generally shown to be effective for untrained and trained participants using dynamic or isometric actions and various types of resistance devices. There was a wide range of reported increases in neck strength; the smallest gains were usually for programmes that utilised lower intensity or frequency. There was limited evidence that greater isometric strength or dynamic training was associated with better head stabilisation during low-level force application, while there is direct evidence of an association between neck isometric training or strength and injury risk. A retrospective analysis of professional rugby union players revealed that isometric training reduced match-related cervical spine injuries and a prospective study found that greater overall isometric neck strength reduced concussion risk in high school athletes. Recommendations for future research include substantiating the link between neck strength and sport injury risk and assessing the effectiveness of neck plyometric and perturbation training on stabilisation and injury risk.

  14. Increased injury risk among first-day skiers, snowboarders, and skiboarders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langran, Mike; Selvaraj, Sivasubramaniam

    2004-01-01

    Inexperience predisposes skiers, snowboarders, and skiboarders to a higher risk of injury. Individuals on their very 1st day's experience of skiing, snowboarding, or skiboarding are at greater risk of injury. Case control study. All individuals injured at the three largest ski areas in Scotland during the three winter seasons 1999-2000 through 2001-2002 were included. First-day participants were identified. Individual demographic details and snow sports-related parameters were recorded. Control data were collected from uninjured individuals. Factors associated with injury were explored in univariate and multivariate analyses. First-day participants were overrepresented in the injured population by a factor of 2.2. Participant age younger than 17 years or older than 26 years, snowboarding, taking professional instruction, and the use of rented or borrowed gear were all independently associated with increased injury risk among 1st-day participants. First-day participants are at increased risk of injury. Several independent risk factors for injury have been identified. First-day participants should be targeted in any future educational programs with emphasis on gear selection, use of protective gear, and the risks of exceeding the limits of their ability.

  15. Tranexamic acid in life-threatening military injury and the associated risk for infectious complications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, C. J.; Li, P.; Stewart, L.; Weintrob, A. C.; Carson, M. L.; Murray, C. K.; Tribble, D. R.; Ross, J. D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Tranexamic acid (TXA) has been shown to reduce mortality from severe hemorrhage. Although recent data suggest that TXA has anti-inflammatory properties, few analyses have investigated the impact of TXA on infectious complications in trauma patients. We examined the association between TXA administration and infection risk among injured military personnel. Methods Patients administered TXA were matched by injury severity score to patients who did not receive TXA. Conditional logistic regression was used to examine risk factors associated with infections within 30 days. A Cox proportional analysis evaluated risk factors in a time-to-first infection model. Results A total of 335 TXA recipients were matched to 626 patients not administered TXA. A greater proportion of TXA recipients had an infection compared to the comparative group (P risk; however, upon multivariable analysis, TXA administration was not significant (OR: 1.3; CI: 0.8–1.9). Blast injuries, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and receipt of ≥10 units of blood within 24 hours post-injury were independently associated with infection risk. The Cox proportional model confirmed association with ICU admission and blood transfusions. Moreover, traumatic amputations were also significantly associated with a reduced time-to-first infection. Conclusion In life-threatening military injuries matched for injury severity, TXA recipients did not have a higher risk for infections nor was time to developed infections shorter than in non-recipients. Extent of blood loss, blast injuries, extremity amputations, and intensive care stay were associated with infections. PMID:26791625

  16. Discharges during U.S. Army basic training: injury rates and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapik, J J; Canham-Chervak, M; Hauret, K; Hoedebecke, E; Laurin, M J; Cuthie, J

    2001-07-01

    This study examined injury rates and risk factors for discharge in a cohort of 756 men and 474 women in U.S. Army basic combat training (BCT) at Fort Jackson, South Carolina. Investigators systematically screened trainee medical records for injuries and collected medical recommendations to temporarily remove a trainee from BCT to allow recovery from an injury. The BCT unit provided Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) scores and trainee demographic data. Discharges were identified by reviewing discharge packets and were confirmed through rosters from the BCT units. There were 102 men and 108 women discharged. Person-time injury incidence rates (for time-loss injuries) among discharged and nondischarged men were 1.87 and 0.45 cases/100 person-days, respectively (p APFT events, and lower educational level. Women with more body mass or a higher body mass index also had a marginally higher risk of discharge.

  17. A Critical Review of the Incidence and Risk Factors for Finger Injuries in Rock Climbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gareth; Johnson, Mark I

    Rock climbing is a popular sporting activity and indoor sport climbing has been accepted for inclusion in the 2020 Olympic Games. The aim of this article is to critically review research on the incidence and risk factors associated with injuries during rock climbing. A semisystematic approach in reviewing literature on incidence and prevalence was applied. Articles were identified after searches of the following electronic databases: Discover, Academic Search Complete (EBSCO), PubMed, Embase, SPORTDiscus, and ScienceDirect. Despite methodological shortcomings of the studies contained within the review, the frequency of climbing-related injuries is high and can be challenging to diagnose. The fingers are the most common site of injury with previous injury a significant risk factor for reinjury. The annular pulleys of the fingers are the most commonly injured structure and evidence suggests epiphyseal fractures in adolescent sport climbers is increasing. A diagnostic and therapeutic algorithm for climbing-related finger injuries is proposed.

  18. New Tendencies in Risk Factors for Soft Tissue Injuries: Genetic Biomakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricard Pruna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The prevention, diagnosis and treatment of injuries are key factors in the daily practice of Sports Medicine. Prevention programs are the main objective, in order to minimize the effect of risk factors and avoid a high incidence of injury and decrease injury severity. The multifactorial origin of injuries complicates the identification of risk factors both, extrinsic and intrinsic. In recent years it has begun to emerge the importance of the genetic component (as an intrinsic factor of each individual as a possible cause of injury predisposition. We have reviewed genetic studies related to connective tissue repair and regeneration This information could be very useful in order to individualize the preventive strategies and to optimize the therapeutic and rehabilitation process.

  19. Influence of sociodemographic factors on the risk of unintentional childhood home injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Bjarne; Nielsen, Jeppe W

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: While social differences in childhood injuries are recognized, less is known about how social and demographic differences relate to injury mechanism. The purpose of the study was to reveal how sociodemographic factors affect the incidence of unintentional home injuries in Danish...... children for specific injury mechanisms and involved products. METHODS: Information on injuries in 173 504 children treated at emergency departments was recorded for the period 1998-2003. The information was linked to data including parents' education and income and family type, and the results were...... compared with those for a random sample of the population. RESULTS: A total of 50 561 injuries were analysed. The risk was 1.5 (1.5-1.6) for children with mothers having only primary education compared to tertiary education, and 1.5 (1.4-1.6) for children in families with the lowest vs. the highest income...

  20. Hamstring transfer for quadriceps paralysis in post polio residual paralysis

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    Jagadish J Patwa

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: H to Q transfer in the presence of quadriceps paralysis with good power in hamstring is a better alternative than supracondylar osteotomy because it is a dynamic correction and it produces some degree of recurvatum with increasing stability of knee in extension while walking. While inserting hamstring over patella the periosteum is not cut in an I-shaped fashion to create a flap which gives additional strength to new insertion and also patella act as a fulcrum during the extension of knee by producing the bowstring effect.

  1. A comparison of acute effects between Kinesio tape and electrical muscle elongation in hamstring extensibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espejo-Antúnez, L; López-Miñarro, P A; Garrido-Ardila, E M; Castillo-Lozano, R; Domínguez-Vera, P; Maya-Martín, J; Albornoz-Cabello, M

    2015-01-01

    To improve hamstring extensibility some methods have been analyzed and compared for determining their acute and chronic effectiveness. To compare the immediate effect of electrical muscle elongation (EME) versus Kinesio tape (KT) in hamstring muscle extensibility. One hundred and twenty adult amateur athletes with hamstring shortness (straight leg raise test angle Kinesio tape are effective techniques in the short-term in amateur athletes with decreased hamstring extensibility. The higher increase of hamstring extensibility, with a better clinical effect was achieved with the application of electrical muscle elongation. However, no significant differences were found when comparing the effectiveness of both techniques.

  2. Potential Risk Factors for the Development of Self-Injurious Behavior among Infants at Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimian, Adele F.; Botteron, Kelly N.; Dager, Stephen R.; Elison, Jed T.; Estes, Annette M.; Pruett, John R., Jr.; Schultz, Robert T.; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Piven, Joseph; Wolff, Jason J.

    2017-01-01

    Prevalence of self-injurious behavior (SIB) is as high as 50% among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Identification of risk factors for the development of SIB is critical to early intervention and prevention. However, there is little empirical research utilizing a prospective design to identify early risk factors for SIB. The purpose…

  3. Risk Factors for Motorcycle-related Severe Injuries in a Medium-sized City in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Lili

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Motorcycle vehicles are frequent in China, especially in the small and medium sized cities. Road traffic collisions involving motorcycles often result in severe injuries. We aimed to identify risk factors for severe injuries in inpatients sustaining motorcycle collisions. Methods: Patients with road traffic injuries involving motorcycles who presented to the neurosurgery and orthopedic departments of three major comprehensive hospitals in Shantou city were reviewed from October 2012 to June 2013. Data from 349 patients was investigated. Crash and injury characteristics were documented by interviewing patients, their family members, and their doctors. Binary logistic regression was used to determine risk factors for severe injuries. Results: There were 253 males (72.49% and 96 females (27.51%, with a male to female ratio of 2.64:1. The mean age was 38.21 ± 17.32 years. One-hundred and fifty patients were in the severe injury group with a mean injury severity score (ISS of 15.34 ± 9.13. The simple and multiple logistic model showed that males, lack of safeguards, morning and night hours, non-urban areas, collision of a motorcycle with a cycle, ambulance transportation to hospital, admission to a neurosurgery department, lack of traffic control, unobstructed traffic, and poor visibility were all the risk factors. Conclusions: This research highlights some problems: less helmet wearing in motorcyclists and cyclists, rural injuries being more serious than urban ones, and head injuries being the main diagnosis in severe injuries. The result of this research is predictable. If the safety equipment is required to be used, such as helmets, and the traffic environment is improved, such as traffic flow, medical resources to injuries and deaths is seasonable, then traffic safety will be improved and accidents will be reduced.

  4. Perceptions of football players regarding injury risk factors and prevention strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Zech

    Full Text Available Current approaches regarding injury prevention focus on the transfer of evidence into daily practice. One promising approach is to influence attitudes and beliefs of players. The objective of this study was to record player's perceptions on injury prevention. A survey was performed among players of one German high-level football (soccer club. 139 professional and youth players between age 13 and 35 years completed a standardized questionnaire (response rate = 98%. It included categories with (1 history of lower extremity injuries, (2 perceptions regarding risk factors and (3 regularly used prevention strategies. The majority of players (84.2% had a previous injury. 47.5% of respondents believe that contact with other players is a risk factor, followed by fatigue (38.1% and environmental factors (25.9%. The relevance of previous injuries as a risk factor is differently perceived between injured (25% and uninjured players (0.0%. Nearly all players (91.5% perform stretching to prevent injuries, followed by neuromuscular warm up exercises (54.0%. Taping is used by 40.2% of previously injured players and 13.6% of players without a history of injuries. In conclusion, the perception of risk factors and performed preventive strategies are inconsistent with scientific evidence. Future transfer strategies should incorporate the players beliefs and attitudes.

  5. Epidemiology of syndesmosis injuries in intercollegiate football: incidence and risk factors from National Collegiate Athletic Association injury surveillance system data from 2004-2005 to 2008-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Kenneth J; George, Elizabeth; Harris, Alex H S; Dragoo, Jason L

    2013-07-01

    To describe the incidence and risk factors for high ankle sprains (ie, syndesmosis injuries) among National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) football players. Descriptive epidemiologic study. Data were examined from the NCAA's Injury Surveillance System (ISS) for 5 football seasons (from 2004-2005 to 2008-2009). All NCAA men's football programs participating in the ISS. No additional risk factors were introduced as a result of this analysis. For partial and complete syndesmosis injuries, outcome measures included incidence, time lost from participation, and requirement for surgical repair. The overall incidence of high ankle sprains in NCAA football players was 0.24 per 1000 athlete exposures, accounting for 24.6% of all ankle sprains. Athletes were nearly 14 times more likely to sustain the injury during games compared with practice; complete syndesmosis injuries resulted in significantly greater time lost compared with partial injuries (31.3 vs 15.8 days). Less than 3% of syndesmosis injuries required surgical intervention. There was a significantly higher injury incidence on artificial surfaces compared with natural grass. The majority of injuries (75.2%) occurred during contact with another player. Our data suggest a significantly higher incidence of syndesmosis injuries during games, during running plays, and to runnin