Sample records for hamster electronic resource

  1. Hamster

    Muskens, G.J.D.M.; Haye, la M.J.J.


    The common hamster occurs locally in the central and Southern part of Limburg. Its habitat is limited to loess and loam soils, which it constructs underground burrows. Changes in Agricultural land use sparked a steady decline from the 1970s onwards, By the end of the 1990s, the common hamster had al

  2. Selection of Electronic Resources.

    Weathers, Barbara


    Discusses the impact of electronic resources on collection development; selection of CD-ROMs, (platform, speed, video and sound, networking capability, installation and maintenance); selection of laser disks; and Internet evaluation (accuracy of content, authority, objectivity, currency, technical characteristics). Lists Web sites for evaluating…

  3. Electronic Resource Management Systems

    Mark Ellingsen


    Full Text Available Computer applications which deal with electronic resource management (ERM are quite a recent development. They have grown out of the need to manage the burgeoning number of electronic resources particularly electronic journals. Typically, in the early years of e-journal acquisition, library staff provided an easy means of accessing these journals by providing an alphabetical list on a web page. Some went as far as categorising the e-journals by subject and then grouping the journals either on a single web page or by using multiple pages. It didn't take long before it was recognised that it would be more efficient to dynamically generate the pages from a database rather than to continually edit the pages manually. Of course, once the descriptive metadata for an electronic journal was held within a database the next logical step was to provide administrative forms whereby that metadata could be manipulated. This in turn led to demands for incorporating more information and more functionality into the developing application.

  4. Electronic Resource Management and Design

    Abrams, Kimberly R.


    We have now reached a tipping point at which electronic resources comprise more than half of academic library budgets. Because of the increasing work associated with the ever-increasing number of e-resources, there is a trend to distribute work throughout the library even in the presence of an electronic resources department. In 2013, the author…

  5. Electronic Resource Management and Design

    Abrams, Kimberly R.


    We have now reached a tipping point at which electronic resources comprise more than half of academic library budgets. Because of the increasing work associated with the ever-increasing number of e-resources, there is a trend to distribute work throughout the library even in the presence of an electronic resources department. In 2013, the author…

  6. The factor VIII Structure and Mutation Resource Site: HAMSTeRS version 4.

    Kemball-Cook, G; Tuddenham, E G; Wacey, A I


    Since 1996 the HAMSTeRS (Haemophilia A Mutation, Search, Test and Resource Site) WWW site has provided an online resource for access to data on the molecular pathology of haemophilia A, replacing previous text editions of the Haemophilia A Database published in Nucleic Acids Research . This report describes the continued development of the site (version 4), and in particular the expansion of factor VIII (FVIII) structure-related features. Access to the mutation database itself, both for searching the listings and for submission of new mutations, is via custom-designed forms: more powerful Boolean searches of the point mutations in the database are also available. During 1997 a total of 22 novel missense mutations were reported, increasing the total number of unique variants now described to 252 (238 in exonic sequences and 14 at intronic splice junctions). Currently, a total of 586 individual reports with associated phenotypic data are available for searching by any category including phenotype. The FVIII structure section now includes a download of a FVIII A domain homology model in Protein Data Bank format and a multiple alignment of the FVIII amino-acid sequencies from four species (human, murine, porcine and canine) in addition to the virtual reality simulations, secondary structural data and FVIII animation already available. Finally, to aid navigation across this site, a clickable roadmap of the main features provides easy access to the page desired. Our intention is that continued development and updating of the site shall provide workers in the fields of molecular and structural biology with a one-stop resource site to facilitate FVIII research and education. The HAMSTeRS URL is

  7. A light, transmission and scanning electron microscope study of snuff-treated hamster cheek pouch epithelium.

    Ashrafi, S H; Das, A; Worowongvasu, R; Mehdinejad, B; Waterhouse, J P


    The effects of smokeless tobacco (snuff) on hamster cheek mucosa were studied by light microscopy, transmission (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Two grams of commercially available smokeless tobacco were placed into the blind end of the right cheek pouch of each experimental animal, once a day and five days a week for 24 months. The control animals did not receive smokeless tobacco. After 24 months treatment with smokeless tobacco, hamster cheek mucosal epithelium lost its translucency and had become whitish in color. By light microscopy hyperorthokeratosis, prominent granular cell layers with increased keratohyalin granules and hyperplasia were seen. At the ultrastructural level, wider intercellular spaces filled with microvilli, numerous shorter desmosomes, many thin tonofilament bundles, increased number of mitochondria, membrane coating granules and keratohyalin granules were seen in snuff-treated epithelium. The changes in the surface of the epithelium as seen by SEM were the development of an irregular arrangement of the microridges and the disappearance of the normal honeycomb pattern. The microridges were irregular, widened and surrounded the irregular elongated pits. Some smooth areas without microridges and pits were also seen. The long-term histological, TEM and SEM changes induced by smokeless tobacco treatment of the epithelium are well correlated with each other and were similar to those reported in human leukoplakia without dyskeratosis. They imply changes of pathological response resulting from topically applied snuff.

  8. Managing electronic resources a LITA guide

    Weir, Ryan O


    Informative, useful, current, Managing Electronic Resources: A LITA Guide shows how to successfully manage time, resources, and relationships with vendors and staff to ensure personal, professional, and institutional success.

  9. Electronic Resources Management Project Presentation 2012

    Ramli, Rindra M.


    This presentation describes the electronic resources management project undertaken by the KAUST library. The objectives of this project is to migrate information from MS Sharepoint to Millennium ERM module. One of the advantages of this migration is to consolidate all electronic resources into a single and centralized location. This would allow for better information sharing among library staff.

  10. Implementing CORAL: An Electronic Resource Management System

    Whitfield, Sharon


    A 2010 electronic resource management survey conducted by Maria Collins of North Carolina State University and Jill E. Grogg of University of Alabama Libraries found that the top six electronic resources management priorities included workflow management, communications management, license management, statistics management, administrative…

  11. Implementing CORAL: An Electronic Resource Management System

    Whitfield, Sharon


    A 2010 electronic resource management survey conducted by Maria Collins of North Carolina State University and Jill E. Grogg of University of Alabama Libraries found that the top six electronic resources management priorities included workflow management, communications management, license management, statistics management, administrative…

  12. Resource Letter: TE-1: Teaching electronics

    Henry, Dennis C.


    This Resource Letter examines the evolution, roles, and content of courses in electronics in the undergraduate physics curriculum, and provides a guide to resources for faculty teaching such courses. It concludes with a brief section addressing problems of electromagnetic interference in electronic systems, and provides an introduction to the literature and practice of electromagnetic compatibility. I have included textbooks, reference books, articles, collections of laboratory experiments and projects, sources of equipment and parts, software packages, videos, and websites.

  13. Electronic Resources Management System: Recommendation Report 2017

    Ramli, Rindra M.


    This recommendation report provides an overview of the selection process for the new Electronic Resources Management System. The library has decided to move away from Innovative Interfaces Millennium ERM module. The library reviewed 3 system as potential replacements namely: Proquest 360 Resource Manager, Ex Libris Alma and Open Source CORAL ERMS. After comparing and trialling the systems, it was decided to go for Proquest 360 Resource Manager.

  14. Library Training to Promote Electronic Resource Usage

    Frandsen, Tove Faber; Tibyampansha, Dativa; Ibrahim, Glory


    Purpose: Increasing the usage of electronic resources is an issue of concern for many libraries all over the world. Several studies stress the importance of information literacy and instruction in order to increase the usage. Design/methodology/approach: The present article presents the results...

  15. Reviewing the Electronic Resources & Libraries Conference

    Tijerina, Bonnie


    The third Electronic Resources & Libraries (ER&L) conference gathered at Georgia Institute of Technology's Global Learning and Conference Center in Atlanta, Georgia, March 18-21, 2008. Over 360 attendees, from six countries and from 80% of the United States, represented their libraries and organizations resulting in a diverse and…

  16. Making sense of the electronic resource marketplace: trends in health-related electronic resources.

    Blansit, B D; Connor, E


    Changes in the practice of medicine and technological developments offer librarians unprecedented opportunities to select and organize electronic resources, use the Web to deliver content throughout the organization, and improve knowledge at the point of need. The confusing array of available products, access routes, and pricing plans makes it difficult to anticipate the needs of users, identify the top resources, budget effectively, make sound collection management decisions, and organize the resources effectively and seamlessly. The electronic resource marketplace requires much vigilance, considerable patience, and continuous evaluation. There are several strategies that librarians can employ to stay ahead of the electronic resource curve, including taking advantage of free trials from publishers; marketing free trials and involving users in evaluating new products; watching and testing products marketed to the clientele; agreeing to beta test new products and services; working with aggregators or republishers; joining vendor advisory boards; benchmarking institutional resources against five to eight competitors; and forming or joining a consortium for group negotiating and purchasing. This article provides a brief snapshot of leading biomedical resources; showcases several libraries that have excelled in identifying, acquiring, and organizing electronic resources; and discusses strategies and trends of potential interest to biomedical librarians, especially those working in hospital settings.

  17. Electronic resource management systems a workflow approach

    Anderson, Elsa K


    To get to the bottom of a successful approach to Electronic Resource Management (ERM), Anderson interviewed staff at 11 institutions about their ERM implementations. Among her conclusions, presented in this issue of Library Technology Reports, is that grasping the intricacies of your workflow-analyzing each step to reveal the gaps and problems-at the beginning is crucial to selecting and implementing an ERM. Whether the system will be used to fill a gap, aggregate critical data, or replace a tedious manual process, the best solution for your library depends on factors such as your current soft

  18. Electronic Resource Management System. Vernetzung von Lizenzinformationen

    Michaela Selbach


    Full Text Available In den letzten zehn Jahren spielen elektronische Ressourcen im Bereich der Erwerbung eine zunehmend wichtige Rolle: Eindeutig lässt sich hier ein Wandel in den Bibliotheken (fort vom reinen Printbestand zu immer größeren E-Only-Beständen feststellen. Die stetig wachsende Menge an E-Ressourcen und deren Heterogenität stellt Bibliotheken vor die Herausforderung, die E-Ressourcen effizient zu verwalten. Nicht nur Bibliotheken, sondern auch verhandlungsführende Institutionen von Konsortial- und Allianzlizenzen benötigen ein geeignetes Instrument zur Verwaltung von Lizenzinformationen, welches den komplexen Anforderungen moderner E-Ressourcen gerecht wird. Die Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG unterstützt ein Projekt des Hochschulbibliothekszentrums des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen (hbz, der Universitätsbibliothek Freiburg, der Verbundzentrale des Gemeinsamen Bibliotheksverbundes (GBV und der Universitätsbibliothek Frankfurt, in dem ein bundesweit verfügbares Electronic Ressource Managementsystem (ERMS aufgebaut werden soll. Ein solches ERMS soll auf Basis einer zentralen Knowledge Base eine einheitliche Nutzung von Daten zur Lizenzverwaltung elektronischer Ressourcen auf lokaler, regionaler und nationaler Ebene ermöglichen. Statistische Auswertungen, Rechteverwaltung für alle angeschlossenen Bibliotheken, kooperative Datenpflege sowie ein über standardisierte Schnittstellen geführter Datenaustausch stehen bei der Erarbeitung der Anforderungen ebenso im Fokus wie die Entwicklung eines Daten- und Funktionsmodells. In the last few years the importance of electronic resources in library acquisitions has increased significantly. There has been a shift from mere print holdings to both e- and print combinations and even e-only subscriptions. This shift poses a double challenge for libraries: On the one hand they have to provide their e-resource collections to library users in an appealing way, on the other hand they have to manage these

  19. Utilization of electronic information resources by academic staff at ...

    Utilization of electronic information resources by academic staff at Makerere University. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search ... It examined the academic staff awareness of the resources available, the types ...

  20. Effectiveness Analysis of Electronic Resources at the Hacettepe University


    It is important to collect and analyze the usage data of electronic databases and periodicals in order to make policies regarding the composition, improvement and more extensive utilization of electronic resources of libraries. The aim of this study is to investigate how efficiently the full text accessible electronic resources of Hacettepe University Libraries are used. For this purpose the usage data obtained from COUNTER Software regarding the electronic databases to which Hacettepe Univer...

  1. The Study of Analytical Model of Library Electronic Resources Usage-A Case of Medical Electronic Resources

    Chung-Yen Yu; Jiann-Cherng Shieh


    With the advents of internet, the importance of electronic resources is growing. Due to the increasing expensiveness of electronic resources, university libraries normally received budgets from parent institutions annually. They necessarily applied effective and systematic methods for decision making in electronic resources purchase or re-subscription. However, there are some difficulties in practices: First of all, libraries are unable to receive user records; second, the COUNTER statistics ...

  2. The Role of the Acquisitions Librarian in Electronic Resources Management

    Pomerantz, Sarah B.


    With the ongoing shift to electronic formats for library resources, acquisitions librarians, like the rest of the profession, must adapt to the rapidly changing landscape of electronic resources by keeping up with trends and mastering new skills related to digital publishing, technology, and licensing. The author sought to know what roles…

  3. Electronic resources preferred by pediatric hospitalists for clinical care.

    Beck, Jimmy B; Tieder, Joel S


    There is little research on pediatric hospitalists' use of evidence-based resources. The aim of this study was to determine the electronic resources that pediatric hospitalists prefer. Using a web-based survey, the authors determined hospitalists' preferred electronic resources, as well as their attitudes toward lifelong learning, practice, and experience characteristics. One hundred sixteen hospitalists completed the survey. The most preferred resource for general information, patient handouts, and treatment was UpToDate. Online search engines were ranked second for general information and patient handouts. Pediatric hospitalists tend to utilize less rigorous electronic resources such as UpToDate and Google. These results can set a platform for discussing the quality of resources that pediatric hospitalists use.

  4. Cataloging and Indexing of Electronic Information Resources


    digital library, but it facilitates the exchange of these objects among digital libraries . METS provides an XML DTD that can point to metadata in other...International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA). (2002). Digital Libraries : Metadata Resources. Retrieved May 3, 2002 from the

  5. Adoption and use of electronic information resources by medical ...

    ... were analysed with descriptive Statistics(Simple percentage and frequency count). ... for doing assignment, Google search, for personal development, and getting ... major problems encountered when using electronic Information Resources.

  6. Euler European Libraries and Electronic Resources in Mathematical Sciences

    The Euler Project. Karlsruhe

    The European Libraries and Electronic Resources (EULER) Project in Mathematical Sciences provides the EulerService site for searching out "mathematical resources such as books, pre-prints, web-pages, abstracts, proceedings, serials, technical reports preprints) and NetLab (for Internet resources), this outstanding engine is capable of simple, full, and refined searches. It also offers a browse option, which responds to entries in the author, keyword, and title fields. Further information about the Project is provided at the EULER homepage.

  7. Building an electronic resource collection a practical guide

    Lee, Stuart D


    This practical book guides information professionals step-by-step through building and managing an electronic resource collection. It outlines the range of electronic products currently available in abstracting and indexing, bibliographic, and other services and then describes how to effectively select, evaluate and purchase them.

  8. Why and How to Measure the Use of Electronic Resources

    Jean Bernon


    Full Text Available A complete overview of library activity implies a complete and reliable measurement of the use of both electronic resources and printed materials. This measurement is based on three sets of definitions: document types, use types and user types. There is a common model of definitions for printed materials, but a lot of questions and technical issues remain for electronic resources. In 2006 a French national working group studied these questions. It relied on the COUNTER standard, but found it insufficient and pointed out the need for local tools such as web markers and deep analysis of proxy logs. Within the French national consortium COUPERIN, a new working group is testing ERMS, SUSHI standards, Shibboleth authentication, along with COUNTER standards, to improve the counting of the electronic resources use. At this stage this counting is insufficient and its improvement will be a European challenge for the future.

  9. Access to electronic resources by visually impaired people

    Jenny Craven


    Full Text Available Research into access to electronic resources by visually impaired people undertaken by the Centre for Research in Library and Information Management has not only explored the accessibility of websites and levels of awareness in providing websites that adhere to design for all principles, but has sought to enhance understanding of information seeking behaviour of blind and visually impaired people when using digital resources.

  10. The Study of Analytical Model of Library Electronic Resources Usage-A Case of Medical Electronic Resources

    Chung-Yen Yu


    Full Text Available With the advents of internet, the importance of electronic resources is growing. Due to the increasing expensiveness of electronic resources, university libraries normally received budgets from parent institutions annually. They necessarily applied effective and systematic methods for decision making in electronic resources purchase or re-subscription. However, there are some difficulties in practices: First of all, libraries are unable to receive user records; second, the COUNTER statistics does not include details about users and their affiliation. As a result, one cannot conduct advanced user analysis based on the usage of users, institutions, and departments. To overcome the difficulties, this study presents a feasible model to analyze electronic resource usage effectively and flexibly. We set up a proxy server to collect actual usage raw data. By analyzing items in internet browsing records, associated with original library automatic system, this study aims at exploring how to use effective ways to analyze big data of website log data. We also propose the process of how original data to be transformed, cleared, integrated, and demonstrated. This study adopted a medical university library and its subscription of medical electronic resources as a case. Our data analysis includes (1 year of subscription,(2 title of journal, (3 affiliation, (4 subjects, and (5 specific journal requirements, etc. The findings of the study are contributed to obtain further understanding in policy making and user behavior analysis. The integrated data provides multiple applications in informatics research, information behavior, bibliomining, presenting diverse views and extended issues for further discussion.

  11. Practical guide to electronic resources in the humanities

    Dubnjakovic, Ana


    From full-text article databases to digitized collections of primary source materials, newly emerging electronic resources have radically impacted how research in the humanities is conducted and discovered. This book, covering high-quality, up-to-date electronic resources for the humanities, is an easy-to-use annotated guide for the librarian, student, and scholar alike. It covers online databases, indexes, archives, and many other critical tools in key humanities disciplines including philosophy, religion, languages and literature, and performing and visual arts. Succinct overviews of key eme

  12. Discipline, availability of electronic resources and the use of Finnish National Electronic Library - FinELib

    Sanna Torma


    Full Text Available This study elaborated relations between digital library use by university faculty, users' discipline and the availability of key resources in the Finnish National Electronic Library (FinELib, Finnish national digital library, by using nationwide representative survey data. The results show that the perceived availability of key electronic resources by researchers in FinELib was a stronger predictor of the frequency and purpose of use of its services than users' discipline. Regardless of discipline a good perceived provision of central resources led to a more frequent use of FinELib. The satisfaction with the services did not vary with the discipline, but with the perceived availability of resources.

  13. Providing Access to Electronic Information Resources in Further Education

    Banwell, Linda; Ray, Kathryn; Coulson, Graham; Urquhart, Christine; Lonsdale, Ray; Armstrong, Chris; Thomas, Rhian; Spink, Sin; Yeoman, Alison; Fenton, Roger; Rowley, Jennifer


    This article aims to provide a baseline for future studies on the provision and support for the use of digital or electronic information services (EIS) in further education. The analysis presented is based on a multi-level model of access, which encompasses access to and availability of information and communication technology (ICT) resources,…


    Olena Yu. Balalaieva


    Full Text Available The article investigates the current state of development of e-learning content in the Latin language. It is noted that the introduction of ICT in the educational space has expanded the possibility of studying Latin, opened access to digital libraries resources, made it possible to use scientific and educational potential and teaching Latin best practices of world's leading universities. A review of foreign and Ukrainian information resources and electronic editions for the study of Latin is given. Much attention was paid to the didactic potential of local and online multimedia courses of Latin, electronic textbooks, workbooks of interactive tests and exercises, various dictionaries and software translators, databases and digital libraries. Based on analysis of the world market of educational services and products the main trends in the development of information resources and electronic books are examined. It was found that multimedia courses with interactive exercises or workbooks with interactive tests, online dictionaries and translators are the most widely represented and demanded. The noticeable lagging of Ukrainian education and computer linguistics in quantitative and qualitative measures in this industry is established. The obvious drawback of existing Ukrainian resources and electronic editions for the study of Latin is their noninteractive nature. The prospects of e-learning content in Latin in Ukraine are outlined.

  15. Electronic Commerce Resource Centers. An Industry--University Partnership.

    Gulledge, Thomas R.; Sommer, Rainer; Tarimcilar, M. Murat


    Electronic Commerce Resource Centers focus on transferring emerging technologies to small businesses through university/industry partnerships. Successful implementation hinges on a strategic operating plan, creation of measurable value for customers, investment in customer-targeted training, and measurement of performance outputs. (SK)

  16. Student Satisfaction with Electronic Library Resources at Wayne State University

    Holley, Robert P.; Powell, Ronald R.


    This paper reports the results of a survey of student satisfaction with electronic library resources other than the online catalog at Wayne State University. Undertaken in Fall Term 2000 as a class project for a marketing course, a student team designed, administered, and analyzed a survey of a random sample of students. Almost 40% of the…

  17. Electronic Commerce Resource Centers. An Industry--University Partnership.

    Gulledge, Thomas R.; Sommer, Rainer; Tarimcilar, M. Murat


    Electronic Commerce Resource Centers focus on transferring emerging technologies to small businesses through university/industry partnerships. Successful implementation hinges on a strategic operating plan, creation of measurable value for customers, investment in customer-targeted training, and measurement of performance outputs. (SK)

  18. Technical Communicator: A New Model for the Electronic Resources Librarian?

    Hulseberg, Anna


    This article explores whether technical communicator is a useful model for electronic resources (ER) librarians. The fields of ER librarianship and technical communication (TC) originated and continue to develop in relation to evolving technologies. A review of the literature reveals four common themes for ER librarianship and TC. While the…

  19. Providing Access to Electronic Information Resources in Further Education

    Banwell, Linda; Ray, Kathryn; Coulson, Graham; Urquhart, Christine; Lonsdale, Ray; Armstrong, Chris; Thomas, Rhian; Spink, Sin; Yeoman, Alison; Fenton, Roger; Rowley, Jennifer


    This article aims to provide a baseline for future studies on the provision and support for the use of digital or electronic information services (EIS) in further education. The analysis presented is based on a multi-level model of access, which encompasses access to and availability of information and communication technology (ICT) resources,…

  20. Evaluating the appropriateness of electronic information resources for learning.

    Saparova, Dinara; Nolan, Nathanial S


    Current US medical students have begun to rely on electronic information repositories-such as UpToDate, AccessMedicine, and Wikipedia-for their pre-clerkship medical education. However, it is unclear whether these resources are appropriate for this level of learning due to factors involving information quality, level of evidence, and the requisite knowledgebase. This study evaluated appropriateness of electronic information resources from a novel perspective: amount of mental effort learners invest in interactions with these resources and effects of the experienced mental effort on learning. Eighteen first-year medical students read about three unstudied diseases in the above-mentioned resources (a total of fifty-four observations). Their eye movement characteristics (i.e., fixation duration, fixation count, visit duration, and task-evoked pupillary response) were recorded and used as psychophysiological indicators of the experienced mental effort. Post reading, students' learning was assessed with multiple-choice tests. Eye metrics and test results constituted quantitative data analyzed according to the repeated Latin square design. Students' perceptions of interacting with the information resources were also collected. Participants' feedback during semi-structured interviews constituted qualitative data and was reviewed, transcribed, and open coded for emergent themes. Compared to AccessMedicine and Wikipedia, UpToDate was associated with significantly higher values of eye metrics, suggesting learners experienced higher mental effort. No statistically significant difference between the amount of mental effort and learning outcomes was found. More so, descriptive statistical analysis of the knowledge test scores suggested similar levels of learning regardless of the information resource used. Judging by the learning outcomes, all three information resources were found appropriate for learning. UpToDate, however, when used alone, may be less appropriate for first


    Anatoliy V. Loban


    Full Text Available The mathematical structure of the modular architecture of an electronic educational resource (EER of new generation, which allows to decompose the process of studying the subjects of the course at a hierarchically ordered set of data (knowledge and procedures for manipulating them, to determine the roles of participants of process of training of and technology the development and use of EOR in the study procrate.

  2. Evaluating increased resource use in fibromyalgia using electronic health records

    Margolis JM


    Full Text Available Jay M Margolis,1 Elizabeth T Masters,2 Joseph C Cappelleri,3 David M Smith,1 Steven Faulkner4 1Truven Health Analytics, Life Sciences, Outcomes Research, Bethesda, MD, 2Pfizer Inc, Outcomes & Evidence, New York, NY, 3Pfizer Inc, Statistics, Groton, CT, 4Pfizer Inc, North American Medical Affairs, Medical Outcomes Specialists, St Louis, MO, USA Objective: The management of fibromyalgia (FM, a chronic musculoskeletal disease, remains challenging, and patients with FM are often characterized by high health care resource utilization. This study sought to explore potential drivers of all-cause health care resource utilization and other factors associated with high resource use, using a large electronic health records (EHR database to explore data from patients diagnosed with FM. Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of de-identified EHR data from the Humedica database. Adults (≥18 years with FM were identified based on ≥2 International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes for FM (729.1 ≥30 days apart between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2012 and were required to have evidence of ≥12 months continuous care pre- and post-index; first FM diagnosis was the index event; 12-month pre- and post-index reporting periods. Multivariable analysis evaluated relationships between variables and resource utilization. Results: Patients were predominantly female (81.4%, Caucasian (87.7%, with a mean (standard deviation age of 54.4 (14.8 years. The highest health care resource utilization was observed for the categories of “medication orders” and “physician office visits,” with 12-month post-index means of 21.2 (21.5 drug orders/patient and 15.1 (18.1 office visits/patient; the latter accounted for 73.3% of all health care visits. Opioids were the most common prescription medication, 44.3% of all patients. The chance of high resource use was significantly increased (P<0.001 26% among African-Americans vs Caucasians and for patients

  3. Online Electronic Resources and Slovenian Bibliography: a Case Study

    Daniela Škerget


    Full Text Available AbstractConsidering the fact that the number of publications available online only is growing, the question whether to include online electronic resources into the Slovenian bibliography, and if so, in which way, and what are the requirements for the inclusion, is raised. To answer these questions, the research on the growth of the Slovenian online scientific production in comparison with production in printed form was conducted in the case of original scientific articles. Results showed a rapid growth of the number of original scientific articles available online only, which indicates the necessity to form a separate Slovenian bibliography of online resources. The selection criteria for the Slovenian bibliography of online resources are also presented. This kind of bibliography would, along with the informational value, add to the historical value of intellectual production in a given time frame, enriched with a link to the resource preserved in another location (archive, repository, in case of unavailability of the resource on its original location.

  4. The Factor VIII Mutation Database on the World Wide Web: the haemophilia A mutation, search, test and resource site. HAMSTeRS update (version 3.0).

    Kemball-Cook, G; Tuddenham, E G


    The HAMSTeRS WWW site was set up in 1996 in order to facilitate easy access to, and aid understanding of, the causes of haemophilia A at the molecular level; previously, the first and second text editions of the database have been published in Nucleic Acids Research. This report describes the facilities originally available at the site and the recent additions which we have made to increase its usefulness to clinicians, the molecular genetics community and structural biologists interested in factor VIII. The database (version 3.0) has been completely updated with easy submission of point mutations, deletions and insertions via e-mail of custom-designed forms. The searching of point mutations in the database has been made simpler and more robust, with a concomitantly expanded real-time bioinformatic analysis of the database. A methods section devoted to mutation detection has been added, highlighting issues such as choice of technique and PCR primer sequences. Finally, a FVIII structure section gives access to 3D VRML (Virtual Reality Modelling Language) files for any user-definable residue in a FVIII A domain homology model based on the crystal structure of human caeruloplasmin, together with secondary structural data and a sound+video animation of the model. It is intended that the general availability of this model will assist both in interpretation of causative mutations and selection of candidate residues forin vitromutagenesis. The HAMSTeRS URL is

  5. Journals, Data and Abstracts Make an Integrated Electronic Resource

    Boyce, P.


    Astronomy now has an integrated, Web-based information resource for research papers, data and bibliographic information. The major scholarly research journals, a comprehensive abstract service and the astronomical data centers are now linked together to provide an information resource which is not available to most other scientific disciplines. As of January, 1997, the Astrophysical Journal joins the ApJ Letters on the Web. Astronomy and Astrophysics Supplements now has a page image version. Elsevier's electronic journal New Astronomy has recently made its appearance. Over forty percent of the new peer-reviewed, astronomical literature is now available electronically. The main Astronomy and Astrophysics journal, the Astronomical Journal and others will be available by 1998, at which point ninety percent of the literature will be available electronically, a figure not approached by any other scientific discipline. With so many different sources, one of the challenges has been to integrate the on-line, peer-reviewed literature into a resource which serves the astronomical community in a unified and coherent manner. Following the lead of the AAS, the major publishers have chosen to rely upon the NASA-supported Astrophysics Data System (ADS) and the astronomical data centers to provide the means by which the various separate journals can interoperate. The data centers and the ADS have developed unique identification codes for journal articles. By adopting the existing standard "bibcodes" and integrating them into their WWW links, each of the major astronomical journals are able to link to the abstracts of most of the referenced articles. Since the ADS also serves as an on-line repository for page images of the past twenty years of the major astronomical journals, the full text of many of the referenced articles are available, too. The articles in the ADS have recently been linked through their references, both forward and backward in time. With the "bibcode" providing

  6. Analysis of Human Resources Management Strategy in China Electronic Commerce Enterprises

    Shao, Fang

    The paper discussed electronic-commerce's influence on enterprise human resources management, proposed and proved the human resources management strategy which electronic commerce enterprise should adopt from recruitment strategy to training strategy, keeping talent strategy and other ways.

  7. Resources

    ... resources Alzheimer's - resources Anorexia nervosa - resources Arthritis - resources Asthma and allergy - resources Autism - resources Blindness - resources BPH - resources Breastfeeding - resources Bulimia - resources Burns - resources Cancer - resources Cerebral ...

  8. Discipline, Availability of Electronic Resources and the Use of Finnish National Electronic Library-- FinELib

    Törmä, Sanna; Vakkari, Pertti


    This study elaborated relations between digital library use by university faculty, users' discipline and the availability of key resources in the Finnish National Electronic Library (FinELib), Finnish national digital library, by using nationwide representative survey data. The results show that the perceived availability of key electronic…

  9. End-of-life resource recovery from emerging electronic products

    Parajuly, Keshav; Habib, Komal; Cimpan, Ciprian


    of emerging electronic product, in order to understand the recovery fate of different materials and its linkage to product design. Ten different brands of RVC were dismantled and their material composition and design profiles were studied. Another 125 RVCs (349 kg) were used for an experimental trial......Integrating product design with appropriate end-of-life (EoL) processing is widely recognized to have huge potentials in improving resource recovery from electronic products. In this study, we investigate both the product characteristics and EoL processing of robotic vacuum cleaner (RVC), as a case...... at a conventional ‘shred-and-separate’ type preprocessing plant in Denmark. A detailed material flow analysis was performed throughout the recycling chain. The results show a mismatch between product design and EoL processing, and the lack of practical implementation of ‘Design for EoL’ thinking. In the best...

  10. Electronic Resources and Mission Creep: Reorganizing the Library for the Twenty-First Century

    Stachokas, George


    The position of electronic resources librarian was created to serve as a specialist in the negotiation of license agreements for electronic resources, but mission creep has added more functions to the routine work of electronic resources such as cataloging, gathering information for collection development, and technical support. As electronic…

  11. Effects of Electronic Information Resources Skills Training for Lecturers on Pedagogical Practices and Research Productivity

    Bhukuvhani, Crispen; Chiparausha, Blessing; Zuvalinyenga, Dorcas


    Lecturers use various electronic resources at different frequencies. The university library's information literacy skills workshops and seminars are the main sources of knowledge of accessing electronic resources. The use of electronic resources can be said to have positively affected lecturers' pedagogical practices and their work in general. The…

  12. Beschermingsplan hamster 2005-2010

    Haye, la M.J.J.; Jansman, H.A.H.


    Alterra-Concept van het beschermingsplan hamster 2005-2010. De hamster is in het meest westelijke deel van het Europese verspreidingsgebied bedreigd. De kennis die in de afgelopen periode is opgedaan van de hamster en de maatregelen die in het veld zijn uitgevoerd vormen de basis voor dit tweede Bes

  13. Electronic Document Management: A Human Resource Management Case Study

    Thomas Groenewald


    Full Text Available This case study serve as exemplar regarding what can go wrong with the implementation of an electronic document management system. Knowledge agility and knowledge as capital, is outlined against the backdrop of the information society and knowledge economy. The importance of electronic document management and control is sketched thereafter. The literature review is concluded with the impact of human resource management on knowledge agility, which includes references to the learning organisation and complexity theory. The intervention methodology, comprising three phases, follows next. The results of the three phases are presented thereafter. Partial success has been achieved with improving the human efficacy of electronic document management, however the client opted to discontinue the system in use. Opsomming Die gevalle studie dien as voorbeeld van wat kan verkeerd loop met die implementering van ’n elektroniese dokumentbestuur sisteem. Teen die agtergrond van die inligtingsgemeenskap en kennishuishouding word kennissoepelheid en kennis as kapitaal bespreek. Die literatuurstudie word afgesluit met die inpak van menslikehulpbronbestuur op kennissoepelheid, wat ook die verwysings na die leerorganisasie en kompleksietydsteorie insluit. Die metodologie van die intervensie, wat uit drie fases bestaan, volg daarna. Die resultate van die drie fases word vervolgens aangebied. Slegs gedeelte welslae is behaal met die verbetering van die menslike doeltreffendheid ten opsigte van elektroniese dokumentbestuur. Die klient besluit egter om nie voort te gaan om die huidige sisteem te gebruik nie.

  14. Electronic Safety Resource Tools -- Supporting Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Commercialization

    Barilo, Nick F.


    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Hydrogen Safety Program conducted a planning session in Los Angeles, CA on April 1, 2014 to consider what electronic safety tools would benefit the next phase of hydrogen and fuel cell commercialization. A diverse, 20-person team led by an experienced facilitator considered the question as it applied to the eight most relevant user groups. The results and subsequent evaluation activities revealed several possible resource tools that could greatly benefit users. The tool identified as having the greatest potential for impact is a hydrogen safety portal, which can be the central location for integrating and disseminating safety information (including most of the tools identified in this report). Such a tool can provide credible and reliable information from a trustworthy source. Other impactful tools identified include a codes and standards wizard to guide users through a series of questions relating to application and specific features of the requirements; a scenario-based virtual reality training for first responders; peer networking tools to bring users from focused groups together to discuss and collaborate on hydrogen safety issues; and a focused tool for training inspectors. Table ES.1 provides results of the planning session, including proposed new tools and changes to existing tools.

  15. Controlling user access to electronic resources without password

    Smith, Fred Hewitt


    Described herein are devices and techniques for remotely controlling user access to a restricted computer resource. The process includes pre-determining an association of the restricted computer resource and computer-resource-proximal environmental information. Indicia of user-proximal environmental information are received from a user requesting access to the restricted computer resource. Received indicia of user-proximal environmental information are compared to associated computer-resource-proximal environmental information. User access to the restricted computer resource is selectively granted responsive to a favorable comparison in which the user-proximal environmental information is sufficiently similar to the computer-resource proximal environmental information. In at least some embodiments, the process further includes comparing user-supplied biometric measure and comparing it with a predetermined association of at least one biometric measure of an authorized user. Access to the restricted computer resource is granted in response to a favorable comparison.

  16. The Internet School of Medicine: use of electronic resources by medical trainees and the reliability of those resources.

    Egle, Jonathan P; Smeenge, David M; Kassem, Kamal M; Mittal, Vijay K


    Electronic sources of medical information are plentiful, and numerous studies have demonstrated the use of the Internet by patients and the variable reliability of these sources. Studies have investigated neither the use of web-based resources by residents, nor the reliability of the information available on these websites. A web-based survey was distributed to surgical residents in Michigan and third- and fourth-year medical students at an American allopathic and osteopathic medical school and a Caribbean allopathic school regarding their preferred sources of medical information in various situations. A set of 254 queries simulating those faced by medical trainees on rounds, on a written examination, or during patient care was developed. The top 5 electronic resources cited by the trainees were evaluated for their ability to answer these questions accurately, using standard textbooks as the point of reference. The respondents reported a wide variety of overall preferred resources. Most of the 73 responding medical trainees favored textbooks or board review books for prolonged studying, but electronic resources are frequently used for quick studying, clinical decision-making questions, and medication queries. The most commonly used electronic resources were UpToDate, Google, Medscape, Wikipedia, and Epocrates. UpToDate and Epocrates had the highest percentage of correct answers (47%) and Wikipedia had the lowest (26%). Epocrates also had the highest percentage of wrong answers (30%), whereas Google had the lowest percentage (18%). All resources had a significant number of questions that they were unable to answer. Though hardcopy books have not been completely replaced by electronic resources, more than half of medical students and nearly half of residents prefer web-based sources of information. For quick questions and studying, both groups prefer Internet sources. However, the most commonly used electronic resources fail to answer clinical queries more than half

  17. Developing Humanities Collections in the Digital Age: Exploring Humanities Faculty Engagement with Electronic and Print Resources

    Kachaluba, Sarah Buck; Brady, Jessica Evans; Critten, Jessica


    This article is based on quantitative and qualitative research examining humanities scholars' understandings of the advantages and disadvantages of print versus electronic information resources. It explores how humanities' faculty members at Florida State University (FSU) use print and electronic resources, as well as how they perceive these…

  18. Developing Humanities Collections in the Digital Age: Exploring Humanities Faculty Engagement with Electronic and Print Resources

    Kachaluba, Sarah Buck; Brady, Jessica Evans; Critten, Jessica


    This article is based on quantitative and qualitative research examining humanities scholars' understandings of the advantages and disadvantages of print versus electronic information resources. It explores how humanities' faculty members at Florida State University (FSU) use print and electronic resources, as well as how they perceive these…

  19. Electronic resource management practical perspectives in a new technical services model

    Elguindi, Anne


    A significant shift is taking place in libraries, with the purchase of e-resources accounting for the bulk of materials spending. Electronic Resource Management makes the case that technical services workflows need to make a corresponding shift toward e-centric models and highlights the increasing variety of e-formats that are forcing new developments in the field.Six chapters cover key topics, including: technical services models, both past and emerging; staffing and workflow in electronic resource management; implementation and transformation of electronic resource management systems; the ro

  20. Strategic Planning for Electronic Resources Management: A Case Study at Gustavus Adolphus College

    Hulseberg, Anna; Monson, Sarah


    Electronic resources, the tools we use to manage them, and the needs and expectations of our users are constantly evolving; at the same time, the roles, responsibilities, and workflow of the library staff who manage e-resources are also in flux. Recognizing a need to be more intentional and proactive about how we manage e-resources, the…

  1. Strategic Planning for Electronic Resources Management: A Case Study at Gustavus Adolphus College

    Hulseberg, Anna; Monson, Sarah


    Electronic resources, the tools we use to manage them, and the needs and expectations of our users are constantly evolving; at the same time, the roles, responsibilities, and workflow of the library staff who manage e-resources are also in flux. Recognizing a need to be more intentional and proactive about how we manage e-resources, the…

  2. The Relevancy of Graduate Curriculum to Human Resource Professionals' Electronic Communication.

    Hoell, Robert C.; Henry, Gordon O.


    Electronic communications of human resource professionals and the content of 23 university human resource management courses were categorized using the Human Resource Certification Institute's body of knowledge. Differences between proportion of topics discussed and topics covered in curricula suggest some topics are over- or undertaught.…

  3. Experimental paracoccidioidomycosis in hamster: transmission electron microscopy of inoculation site lesion Paracoccidioidomicose experimental em hamster: microscopía eletrônica de transmissão da lesão do local de inoculação

    K. I. R. Coelho


    Full Text Available Interaction between Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb and inflammatory cells in hamster testis was studied sequentially by transmission electron microscopy. In early lesions (six hours after inoculation, polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs were the major and mononuclear cells and eosinophils were the minor constituents of the inflammatory cells. PMNs were later replaced by mononuclear cells. Viable Pb cells were phagocytosed or surrounded by inflammatory cells. Preserved Pb cells usually had broad host-parasite interphases, whereas dying ones had narrow interphases. The outer layer of the fungus wall was sometimes broken by PMN in some focal points, broken pieces being peeled off and phagocytosed. Small Pb cells were uninuclear, and were often related to broad interphase. Large Pb cells were multinucleated with irregularly shaped wall, and sometimes had lomasome and/or myelin like structures. Different interaction patterns of Pb with inflammatory cells may be due to functionally different host cell flow to the inoculation site or due to the age of Pb cells or both.Estudou-se sequencialmente, à microscopia eletrônica de transmissão, a interação entre Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb e células inflamatórias em hamsters inoculados por via intratesticular. Seis horas após inoculações havia predominância de neutrófilos, estando presentes algumas células mononucleares e eosinófilos. Os neutrófilos foram progressivamente substituídos por células mononucleares. Fungos viáveis apresentavam-se fagocitados ou circunscritos por células inflamatórias, geralmente com ampla interface hospedeiro-parasita. Fungos mortos ou degenerados eram acompanhados de interfase estreita. A camada externa da parede do Pb era às vezes quebrada quando em contacto com neutrófilos, em vários pontos, sendo os fragmentos dessa parede descamados e fagocitados. Células fúngicas pequenas com um único núcleo se relacionavam com ampla interfase enquanto as c

  4. 2015 Utilization of Electronic Information Resources in Ramat ...

    intensely powerful and has permeated all segments and ... Web (WWW) and the internet to make information more accessible. On the other ... access points on the campus and computer literacy is till .... resources are often faster to consult than.

  5. Remote Electronic Resources and the OPAC: Illustrated by the Unisa Library Experience.

    Van der Merwe, Ina; Van Eeden, Welna; Hartzer, Sandra

    This paper describes the Unisa (University of South Africa) Library's experience with cataloging remote electronic resources, including electronic journals, electronic text files, online databases, digital images, Unisa campus Web sites, and mailing list discussions. The first section discusses the decision to add bibliographic references for…

  6. Controlling user access to electronic resources without password

    Smith, Fred Hewitt


    Described herein are devices and techniques for remotely controlling user access to a restricted computer resource. The process includes obtaining an image from a communication device of a user. An individual and a landmark are identified within the image. Determinations are made that the individual is the user and that the landmark is a predetermined landmark. Access to a restricted computing resource is granted based on the determining that the individual is the user and that the landmark is the predetermined landmark. Other embodiments are disclosed.

  7. Sequencing, annotation and analysis of the Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus transcriptome.

    Nicolas Tchitchek

    Full Text Available The Syrian hamster (golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus is gaining importance as a new experimental animal model for multiple pathogens, including emerging zoonotic diseases such as Ebola. Nevertheless there are currently no publicly available transcriptome reference sequences or genome for this species.A cDNA library derived from mRNA and snRNA isolated and pooled from the brains, lungs, spleens, kidneys, livers, and hearts of three adult female Syrian hamsters was sequenced. Sequence reads were assembled into 62,482 contigs and 111,796 reads remained unassembled (singletons. This combined contig/singleton dataset, designated as the Syrian hamster transcriptome, represents a total of 60,117,204 nucleotides. Our Mesocricetus auratus Syrian hamster transcriptome mapped to 11,648 mouse transcripts representing 9,562 distinct genes, and mapped to a similar number of transcripts and genes in the rat. We identified 214 quasi-complete transcripts based on mouse annotations. Canonical pathways involved in a broad spectrum of fundamental biological processes were significantly represented in the library. The Syrian hamster transcriptome was aligned to the current release of the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cell transcriptome and genome to improve the genomic annotation of this species. Finally, our Syrian hamster transcriptome was aligned against 14 other rodents, primate and laurasiatheria species to gain insights about the genetic relatedness and placement of this species.This Syrian hamster transcriptome dataset significantly improves our knowledge of the Syrian hamster's transcriptome, especially towards its future use in infectious disease research. Moreover, this library is an important resource for the wider scientific community to help improve genome annotation of the Syrian hamster and other closely related species. Furthermore, these data provide the basis for development of expression microarrays that can be used in functional genomics studies.

  8. An Evaluation of Electronic Product Design Education Using Hypermedia-Resourced Learning Environments

    Page, Tom; Thorsteinsson, Gisli


    The work outlined here provides a comprehensive report and formative observations of the development and implementation of hypermedia resources for learning and teaching used in conjunction with a managed learning environment (MLE). These resources are used to enhance teaching and learning of an electronics module in product design at final year…

  9. A Study on Developing Evaluation Criteria for Electronic Resources in Evaluation Indicators of Libraries

    Noh, Younghee


    This study aimed to improve the current state of electronic resource evaluation in libraries. While the use of Web DB, e-book, e-journal, and other e-resources such as CD-ROM, DVD, and micro materials is increasing in libraries, their use is not comprehensively factored into the general evaluation of libraries and may diminish the reliability of…

  10. Managing Selection for Electronic Resources: Kent State University Develops a New System to Automate Selection

    Downey, Kay


    Kent State University has developed a centralized system that manages the communication and work related to the review and selection of commercially available electronic resources. It is an automated system that tracks the review process, provides selectors with price and trial information, and compiles reviewers' feedback about the resource. It…

  11. Where Do Electronic Books Fit in the College Research Arsenal of Resources?

    Barbier, Patricia


    Student use of electronic books has become an accepted supplement to traditional resources. Student use and satisfaction was monitored through an online course discussion board. Increased use of electronic books indicate this service is an accepted supplement to the print book collection.

  12. Where Do Electronic Books Fit in the College Research Arsenal of Resources?

    Barbier, Patricia


    Student use of electronic books has become an accepted supplement to traditional resources. Student use and satisfaction was monitored through an online course discussion board. Increased use of electronic books indicate this service is an accepted supplement to the print book collection.

  13. MULER: Building an Electronic Resource Management (ERM Solution at York University

    Aaron August Lupton


    Full Text Available Many university libraries now utilize an Electronic Resource Management (ERM system to assist with operations related to electronic resources. An ERM is a relational database containing information such as suppliers, costs, holdings, and renewal dates for electronic resources, both at the database and title levels. While commercial ERM products are widely available, some institutions are custom building their own ERM in- house. This article describes how York University in Toronto, Canada, did just that by building a system called Managing University Library Electronic Resources (MULER. The article details the background and history of how electronic resources were managed pre-MULER; why a new ERM was needed; the planning process; the current and innovative functions of MULER, including integration of MULER data into York University Libraries search and discovery layer, Vufind; subject tagging in MULER; new functions to be added; and lessons learned from the project. Positive and negative implications of choosing an in-house project over paying for a commercial product are also discussed.

  14. Hematologic assessment in pet rats, mice, hamsters, and gerbils: blood sample collection and blood cell identification.

    Lindstrom, Nicole M; Moore, David M; Zimmerman, Kurt; Smith, Stephen A


    Hamsters, gerbils, rats, and mice are presented to veterinary clinics and hospitals for prophylactic care and treatment of clinical signs of disease. Physical examination, history, and husbandry practice information can be supplemented greatly by assessment of hematologic parameters. As a resource for veterinarians and their technicians, this article describes the methods for collection of blood, identification of blood cells, and interpretation of the hemogram in mice, rats, gerbils, and hamsters.

  15. The National Site Licensing of Electronic Resources: An Institutional Perspective

    Xiaohua Zhu


    Full Text Available While academic libraries in most countries are struggling to negotiate with publishers and vendors individually or collaboratively via consortia, a few countries have experimented with a different model, national site licensing (NSL. Because NSL often involves government and large-scale collaboration, it has the potential to solve many problems in the complex licensing world. However, not many nations have adopted it. This study uses historical research approach and the comparative case study research method to explore the seemingly low level of adoption. The cases include the Canadian National Site Licensing Project (CNSLP, the United Kingdom’s National Electronic Site Licensing Initiative (NESLI, and the United States, which has not adopted NSL. The theoretical framework guiding the research design and data collection is W. Richard Scott’s institutional theory, which utilizes three supporting pillars—regulative, normative, and cultural-cognitive—to analyze institutional processes. In this study, the regulative pillar and the normative pillar of NSL adoption— an institutional construction and change—are examined. Data were collected from monographs, research articles, government documents, and relevant websites. Based on the analysis of these cases, a preliminary model is proposed for the adoption of NSL. The factors that support a country’s adoption of NSL include the need for new institutions, a centralized educational policy-making system and funding system, supportive political trends, and the tradition of cooperation. The factors that may prevent a country from adopting NSL include decentralized educational policy and funding, diversity and the large number of institutions, the concern for the “Big Deal,” and the concern for monopoly.

  16. Analytical Study of Usage of Electronic Information Resources at Pharmacopoeial Libraries in India

    Sunil Tyagi


    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to know the rate and purpose of the use of e-resource by the scientists at pharmacopoeial libraries in India. Among other things, this study examined the preferences of the scientists toward printed books and journals, electronic information resources, and pattern of using e-resources. Non-probability sampling specially accidental and purposive technique was applied in the collection of primary data through administration of user questionnaire. The sample respondents chosen for the study consists of principle scientific officer, senior scientific officer, scientific officer, and scientific assistant of different division of the laboratories, namely, research and development, pharmaceutical chemistry, pharmacovigilance, pharmacology, pharmacogonosy, and microbiology. The findings of the study reveal the personal experiences and perceptions they have had on practice and research activity using e-resource. The major findings indicate that of the total anticipated participants, 78% indicated that they perceived the ability to use computer for electronic information resources. The data analysis shows that all the scientists belonging to the pharmacopoeial libraries used electronic information resources to address issues relating to drug indexes and compendia, monographs, drugs obtained through online databases, e-journals, and the Internet sources—especially polices by regulatory agencies, contacts, drug promotional literature, and standards.

  17. Connecting knowledge resources to the veterinary electronic health record: opportunities for learning at point of care.

    Alpi, Kristine M; Burnett, Heidi A; Bryant, Sheila J; Anderson, Katherine M


    Electronic health records (EHRs) provide clinical learning opportunities through quick and contextual linkage of patient signalment, symptom, and diagnosis data with knowledge resources covering tests, drugs, conditions, procedures, and client instructions. This paper introduces the EHR standards for linkage and the partners-practitioners, content publishers, and software developers-necessary to leverage this possibility in veterinary medicine. The efforts of the American Animal Hospital Association (AAHA) Electronic Health Records Task Force to partner with veterinary practice management systems to improve the use of controlled vocabulary is a first step in the development of standards for sharing knowledge at the point of care. The Veterinary Medical Libraries Section (VMLS) of the Medical Library Association's Task Force on Connecting the Veterinary Health Record to Information Resources compiled a list of resources of potential use at point of care. Resource details were drawn from product Web sites and organized by a metric used to evaluate medical point-of-care resources. Additional information was gathered from questions sent by e-mail and follow-up interviews with two practitioners, a hospital network, two software developers, and three publishers. Veterinarians with electronic records use a variety of information resources that are not linked to their software. Systems lack the infrastructure to use the Infobutton standard that has been gaining popularity in human EHRs. While some veterinary knowledge resources are digital, publisher sites and responses do not indicate a Web-based linkage of veterinary resources with EHRs. In order to facilitate lifelong learning and evidence-based practice, veterinarians and educators of future practitioners must demonstrate to veterinary practice software developers and publishers a clinically-based need to connect knowledge resources to veterinary EHRs.

  18. Improving access to information – defining core electronic resources for research and wellbeing

    Kristiina Hormia-Poutanen


    Full Text Available Research and innovation are listed as the key success factors for the future development of Finnish prosperity and the Finnish economy. The Finnish libraries have developed a scenario to support this vision. University, polytechnic and research institute libraries as well as public libraries have defined the core electronic resources necessary to improve access to information in Finland. The primary aim of this work has been to provide information and justification for central funding for electronic resources to support the national goals. The secondary aim is to help with the reallocation of existing central funds to better support access to information.

  19. Elektronik Bilgi Kaynaklarının Seçimi / Selection of Electronic Information Resources

    Pınar Al


    Full Text Available For many years, library users have used only from the printed media in order to get the information that they have needed. Today with the widespread use of the Web and the addition of electronic information resources to library collections, the use of information in the electronic environment as well as in printed media is started to be used. In time, such types of information resources as, electronic journals, electronic books, electronic encyclopedias, electronic dictionaries and electronic theses have been added to library collections. In this study, selection criteria that can be used for electronic information resources are discussed and suggestions are provided for libraries that try to select electronic information resources for their collections.

  20. Using Electronic Information Resources Centers by Faculty Members at University Education: Competencies, Needs and Challenges

    Abouelenein, Yousri


    This study aimed at investigating the factual situation of electronic information resources centers to faculty members at university education. Competencies that faculty members should possess regarding this issue were determined. Also their needs for (scientific research skills and teaching) were assessed. In addition, problems that hinder their…

  1. Localising versus standardising electronic human resource management: complexities and tensions between HRM and IT departments

    Tate, Mary; Furtmueller, E.; Wilderom, C.P.M.


    In this paper, we provide an analysis of the complexities involved during global e-HRM (Electronic Human Resource Management) implementation. We present findings from a case study on the challenge of global integration versus local responsiveness of e-HRM systems. We take a local site lens, analysin

  2. Use of Electronic Information Resources among Research Scholars in the Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan

    Amjad, Anam; Ahmed, Shamshad; Bin Naeem, Salman


    This study examined the use of electronic resources among academic scholars of The Islamia University of Bahawalpur (IUB), Punjab, Pakistan. A quantitative survey was found most convenient and useful for this study. The total population of the study was 169 research students in IUB. The response rate was 79% and 133 utilizable responses were coded…

  3. The Acquisition and Management of Electronic Resources: Can Use Justify Cost?

    Koehn, Shona L.; Hawamdeh, Suliman


    As library collections increasingly become digital, libraries are faced with many challenges regarding the acquisition and management of electronic resources. Some of these challenges include copyright and fair use, the first-sale doctrine, licensing versus ownership, digital preservation, long-term archiving, and, most important, the issue of…

  4. 电子资源的编目策略%Cataloging Strategies of Electronic Resources



    Compared with traditional paper resources, electronic resources have following characteristics which determine different cataloging strategies from paper resources. These characteristics are huge quantity, updating rapidly, coexistence of a variety of manifestations. The source data of electronic resources is usually provided by the database agent. The cataloging of electronic resources is based on the Chapter IX of Anglo-American Cataloging Rules, Library of Congress Rule Interpretations and rules of Cooperative Online Serials. There are two major cataloging methods for electronic resources abroad, they are single record approach and separate record approach. Peking University Library chooses the latter method and batches cataloging automatically using the source data.%电子资源吲传统纸质资源相比,具有数量大、更新快、多种载体表现并行等特点,且大部分出版机构能够提供数据源数据。这些特点决定了.电子资源应采取与纸质文献不同的编目策略。电子资源编日的主要依据是《英美编日条例》的第9章、美国《国会图书馆条例解释》及全美期刊合作编目计划的规定。对于电子资源的编目,国外有单一记录编目法和分散记录编目法。北京大学图书馆采用后者,同时利用数据源数据批舒自动编目。

  5. Power resource management and low-power remote wireless RF electronics

    Jannson, Tomasz; Forrester, Thomas; Degrood, Kevin; Lee, Kang; Gans, Eric; Walter, Kevin


    Battery power resource management becomes a critical issue in the case of self-powered remote wireless RF electronics, where the basic parameter is time of system operation before battery recharging or battery replacement. In such cases, very often related to physical protection against antitampering (AT), proper theoretical modeling of a battery driven power supply in the context of a given digital electronic system is of utmost importance. Such modeling should include various types of batteries (primary and secondary), various self-discharge processes in different temperatures, and even energy harvesting, the latter to supply power for long-term content, low-power electronic subsystems. In this paper we analyze simple modeling of resource power management, including variations of all of these parameters and energy harvesting.

  6. Identifying and evaluating electronic learning resources for use in adult-gerontology nurse practitioner education.

    Thompson, Hilaire J; Belza, Basia; Baker, Margaret; Christianson, Phyllis; Doorenbos, Ardith; Nguyen, Huong


    Enhancing existing curricula to meet newly published adult-gerontology advanced practice registered nurse (APRN) competencies in an efficient manner presents a challenge to nurse educators. Incorporating shared, published electronic learning resources (ELRs) in existing or new courses may be appropriate in order to assist students in achieving competencies. The purposes of this project were to (a) identify relevant available ELR for use in enhancing geriatric APRN education and (b) to evaluate the educational utility of identified ELRs based on established criteria. A multilevel search strategy was used. Two independent team members reviewed identified ELR against established criteria to ensure utility. Only resources meeting all criteria were retained. Resources were found for each of the competency areas and included formats such as podcasts, Web casts, case studies, and teaching videos. In many cases, resources were identified using supplemental strategies and not through traditional search or search of existing geriatric repositories. Resources identified have been useful to advanced practice educators in improving lecture and seminar content in a particular topic area and providing students and preceptors with additional self-learning resources. Addressing sustainability within geriatric APRN education is critical for sharing of best practices among educators and for sustainability of teaching and related resources. © 2014.

  7. Library Electronic Resource Sharing Among Liberal Arts Colleges: ACS Palladian Alliance Project

    Wenxian Zhang


    Full Text Available 無Effective electronic resource sharing is critical to library information services of the 1990s. Explosion of data and increased cost of information force libraries to work together, and technological advancements present the library service profession a platform for resource sharing. The Palladian Alliance Project of the Associated Colleges of the South is designed to provides ACS member institutions an effective means to enhance information access for their faculty and students, and achieve significant cost containment in the years to come.

  8. Availability, Level of Use and Constraints to Use of Electronic Resources by Law Lecturers in Public Universities in Nigeria

    Amusa, Oyintola Isiaka; Atinmo, Morayo


    (Purpose) This study surveyed the level of availability, use and constraints to use of electronic resources among law lecturers in Nigeria. (Methodology) Five hundred and fifty-two law lecturers were surveyed and four hundred and forty-two responded. (Results) Data analysis revealed that the level of availability of electronic resources for the…

  9. De novo assembly, annotation, and characterization of the whole brain transcriptome of male and female Syrian hamsters

    McCann, Katharine E.; Sinkiewicz, David M.; Norvelle, Alisa; Huhman, Kim L.


    Hamsters are an ideal animal model for a variety of biomedical research areas such as cancer, virology, circadian rhythms, and behavioural neuroscience. The use of hamsters has declined, however, most likely due to the dearth of genetic tools available for these animals. Our laboratory uses hamsters to study acute social stress, and we are beginning to investigate the genetic mechanisms subserving defeat-induced behavioural change. We have been limited, however, by the lack of genetic resources available for hamsters. In this study, we sequenced the brain transcriptome of male and female Syrian hamsters to generate the necessary resources to continue our research. We completed a de novo assembly and after assembly optimization, there were 113,329 transcripts representing 14,530 unique genes. This study is the first to characterize transcript expression in both female and male hamster brains and offers invaluable information to promote understanding of a host of important biomedical research questions for which hamsters are an excellent model. PMID:28071753

  10. Potential resource and toxicity impacts from metals in waste electronic devices.

    Woo, Seung H; Lee, Dae Sung; Lim, Seong-Rin


    As a result of the continuous release of new electronic devices, existing electronic devices are quickly made obsolete and rapidly become electronic waste (e-waste). Because e-waste contains a variety of metals, information about those metals with the potential for substantial environmental impact should be provided to manufacturers, recyclers, and disposers to proactively reduce this impact. This study assesses the resource and toxicity (i.e., cancer, noncancer, and ecotoxicity) potentials of various heavy metals commonly found in e-waste from laptop computers, liquid-crystal display (LCD) monitors, LCD TVs, plasma TVs, color cathode ray tube (CRT) TVs, and cell phones and then evaluates such potentials using life cycle impact-based methods. Resource potentials derive primarily from Cu, Sb, Ag, and Pb. Toxicity potentials derive primarily from Pb, Ni, and Hg for cancer toxicity; from Pb, Hg, Zn, and As for noncancer toxicity; and from Cu, Pb, Hg, and Zn for ecotoxicity. Therefore, managing these heavy metals should be a high priority in the design, recycling, and disposal stages of electronic devices.

  11. Model of e-learning with electronic educational resources of new generation

    A. V. Loban


    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: improving of scientific and methodical base of the theory of the е-learning of variability. Methods used: conceptual and logical modeling of the е-learning of variability process with electronic educational resource of new generation and system analysis of the interconnection of the studied subject area, methods, didactics approaches and information and communication technologies means. Results: the formalization complex model of the е-learning of variability with electronic educational resource of new generation is developed, conditionally decomposed into three basic components: the formalization model of the course in the form of the thesaurusclassifier (“Author of e-resource”, the model of learning as management (“Coordination. Consultation. Control”, the learning model with the thesaurus-classifier (“Student”. Model “Author of e-resource” allows the student to achieve completeness, high degree of didactic elaboration and structuring of the studied material in triples of variants: modules of education information, practical task and control tasks; the result of the student’s (author’s of e-resource activity is the thesaurus-classifier. Model of learning as management is based on the principle of personal orientation of learning in computer environment and determines the logic of interaction between the lecturer and the student when determining the triple of variants individually for each student; organization of a dialogue between the lecturer and the student for consulting purposes; personal control of the student’s success (report generation and iterative search for the concept of the class assignment in the thesaurus-classifier before acquiring the required level of training. Model “Student” makes it possible to concretize the learning tasks in relation to the personality of the student and to the training level achieved; the assumption of the lecturer about the level of training of a

  12. [Use of internet and electronic resources among Spanish intensivist physicians. First national survey].

    Gómez-Tello, V; Latour-Pérez, J; Añón Elizalde, J M; Palencia-Herrejón, E; Díaz-Alersi, R; De Lucas-García, N


    Estimate knowledge and use habits of different electronic resources in a sample of Spanish intensivists: Internet, E-mail, distribution lists, and use of portable electronic devices. Self-applied questionnaire. A 50-question questionnaire was distributed among Spanish intensivists through the hospital marketing delegates of a pharmaceutical company and of electronic forums. A total of 682 questionnaires were analyzed (participation: 74%). Ninety six percent of those surveyed used Internet individually: 67% admitted training gap. Internet was the second source of clinical consultations most used (61%), slightly behind consultation to colleagues (65%). The pages consulted most were bibliographic databases (65%) and electronic professional journals (63%), with limited use of Evidence Based Medicine pages (19%). Ninety percent of those surveyed used e-mail regularly in the practice of their profession, although 25% admitted that were not aware of its possibilities. The use of E-mail decreased significantly with increase in age. A total of 62% of the intensivists used distribution lists. Of the rest, 42% were not aware of its existence and 32% admitted they had insufficient training to handle them. Twenty percent of those surveyed had portable electronic devices and 64% considered it useful, basically due to its rapid consultation at bedside. Female gender was a negative predictive factor of its use (OR 0.35; 95% CI 0.2-0.63; p=0.0002). A large majority of the Spanish intensivists use Internet and E-mail. E-mail lists and use of portable devices are still underused resources. There are important gaps in training and infrequent use of essential pages. There are specific groups that require directed educational policies.

  13. Review of material recovery from used electric and electronic equipment-alternative options for resource conservation.

    Friege, Henning


    For waste from electric and electronic equipment, the WEEE Directive stipulates the separate collection of electric and electronic waste. As to new electric and electronic devices, the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive bans the use of certain chemicals dangerous for man and environment. From the implementation of the WEEE directive, many unsolved problems have been documented: poor collection success, emission of dangerous substances during collection and recycling, irretrievable loss of valuable metals among others. As to RoHS, data from the literature show a satisfying success. The problems identified in the process can be reduced to some basic dilemmas at the borders between waste management, product policy and chemical safety. The objectives of the WEEE Directive and the specific targets for use and recycling of appliances are not consistent. There is no focus on scarce resources. Extended producer responsibility is not sufficient to guarantee sustainable waste management. Waste management reaches its limits due to problems of implementation but also due to physical laws. A holistic approach is necessary looking at all branch points and sinks in the stream of used products and waste from electric and electronic equipment. This may be done with respect to the general rules for sustainable management of material streams covering the three dimensions of sustainable policy. The relationships between the players in the field of electric and electronic devices have to be taken into account. Most of the problems identified in the implementation process will not be solved by the current amendment of the WEEE Directive.

  14. Aufwand und Nutzen des Electronic Resource Management Systems RMS an der UB Kassel

    Tobias Pohlmann


    The university library of Kassel therefore uses SemperTool’s web-based electronic resource management system RMS. This paper presents the functionality of this system and makes an estimate of the expenditure of work necessary to enter all relevant information about licensed databases, e-book and e-journal packages with the corresponding individual resources. It also describes existing and projected tools for analysis and evaluation, which are decisive for the usefulness of such a system, and concludes with the satisfaction reached at the university library of Kassel. These experiences may help other libraries to decide whether or not to introduce RMS or a comparable system.


    Maria D. Tukalo


    Full Text Available This article contains material of some modern electronic educational resources that can be used via the Internet to support the modern chemistry classes in specialized school. It was drawn attention to the educational chemical experiments as means of knowledge; simulated key motivational characteristics to enhance students interest for learning subjects, their cognitive and practical activity in the formation of self-reliance and self-creative; commented forecasts for creating of conditions to enhance the creative potential of students in a modern learning environment.

  16. Teachers' Link to Electronic Resources in the Library Media Center: A Local Study of Awareness, Knowledge, and Influence

    Williams, Teresa D.; Grimble, Bonnie J.; Irwin, Marilyn


    High school students often use online databases and the Internet in the school library media center (SLMC) to complete teachers' assignments. This case study used a survey to assess teachers' awareness of electronic resources, and to determine whether their directions influence student use of these resources in the SLMC. Participants were teachers…

  17. Impact of Knowledge Resources Linked to an Electronic Health Record on Frequency of Unnecessary Tests and Treatments

    Goodman, Kenneth; Grad, Roland; Pluye, Pierre; Nowacki, Amy; Hickner, John


    Introduction: Electronic knowledge resources have the potential to rapidly provide answers to clinicians' questions. We sought to determine clinicians' reasons for searching these resources, the rate of finding relevant information, and the perceived clinical impact of the information they retrieved. Methods: We asked general internists, family…

  18. Reducing Clinical Trial Monitoring Resource Allocation and Costs Through Remote Access to Electronic Medical Records

    Uren, Shannon C.; Kirkman, Mitchell B.; Dalton, Brad S.; Zalcberg, John R.


    Purpose: With electronic medical records (eMRs), the option now exists for clinical trial monitors to perform source data verification (SDV) remotely. We report on a feasibility study of remote access to eMRs for SDV and the potential advantages of such a process in terms of resource allocation and cost. Methods: The Clinical Trials Unit at the Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, in collaboration with Novartis Pharmaceuticals Australia, conducted a 6-month feasibility study of remote SDV. A Novartis monitor was granted dedicated software and restricted remote access to the eMR portal of the cancer center, thereby providing an avenue through which perform SDV. Results: Six monitoring visits were conducted during the study period, four of which were performed remotely. The ability to conduct two thirds of the monitoring visits remotely in this complex phase III study resulted in an overall cost saving to Novartis. Similarly, remote monitoring eased the strain on internal resources, particularly monitoring space and hospital computer terminal access, at the cancer center. Conclusion: Remote access to patient eMRs for SDV is feasible and is potentially an avenue through which resources can be more efficiently used. Although this feasibility study involved limited numbers, there is no limit to scaling these processes to any number of patients enrolled onto large clinical trials. PMID:23633977

  19. Electronic theses and dissertations: a review of this valuable resource for nurse scholars worldwide.

    Goodfellow, L M


    A worldwide repository of electronic theses and dissertations (ETDs) could provide worldwide access to the most up-to-date research generated by masters and doctoral students. Until that international repository is established, it is possible to access some of these valuable knowledge resources. ETDs provide a technologically advanced medium with endless multimedia capabilities that far exceed the print and bound copies of theses and dissertations housed traditionally in individual university libraries. CURRENT USE: A growing trend exists for universities worldwide to require graduate students to submit theses or dissertations as electronic documents. However, nurse scholars underutilize ETDs, as evidenced by perusing bibliographic citation lists in many of the research journals. ETDs can be searched for and retrieved through several digital resources such as the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses (, the Australasian Digital Theses Program ( and through individual university web sites and online catalogues. An international repository of ETDs benefits the community of nurse scholars in many ways. The ability to access recent graduate students' research electronically from anywhere in the world is advantageous. For scholars residing in developing countries, access to these ETDs may prove to be even more valuable. In some cases, ETDs are not available for worldwide access and can only be accessed through the university library from which the student graduated. Public access to university library ETD collections is not always permitted. Nurse scholars from both developing and developed countries could benefit from ETDs.

  20. Genomic landscapes of Chinese hamster ovary cell lines as revealed by the Cricetulus griseus draft genome

    Lewis, Nathan E; Liu, Xin; Li, Yuxiang;


    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, first isolated in 1957, are the preferred production host for many therapeutic proteins. Although genetic heterogeneity among CHO cell lines has been well documented, a systematic, nucleotide-resolution characterization of their genotypic differences has been...... stymied by the lack of a unifying genomic resource for CHO cells. Here we report a 2.4-Gb draft genome sequence of a female Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus, harboring 24,044 genes. We also resequenced and analyzed the genomes of six CHO cell lines from the CHO-K1, DG44 and CHO-S lineages....... This analysis identified hamster genes missing in different CHO cell lines, and detected >3.7 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 551,240 indels and 7,063 copy number variations. Many mutations are located in genes with functions relevant to bioprocessing, such as apoptosis. The details...

  1. Genomic landscapes of Chinese hamster ovary cell lines as revealed by the Cricetulus griseus draft genome

    Lewis, Nathan E; Liu, Xin; Li, Yuxiang;


    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, first isolated in 1957, are the preferred production host for many therapeutic proteins. Although genetic heterogeneity among CHO cell lines has been well documented, a systematic, nucleotide-resolution characterization of their genotypic differences has been st...... of this genetic diversity highlight the value of the hamster genome as the reference upon which CHO cells can be studied and engineered for protein production....... stymied by the lack of a unifying genomic resource for CHO cells. Here we report a 2.4-Gb draft genome sequence of a female Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus, harboring 24,044 genes. We also resequenced and analyzed the genomes of six CHO cell lines from the CHO-K1, DG44 and CHO-S lineages...

  2. A preliminary categorization of end-of-life electrical and electronic equipment as secondary metal resources.

    Oguchi, Masahiro; Murakami, Shinsuke; Sakanakura, Hirofumi; Kida, Akiko; Kameya, Takashi


    End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) has recently received attention as a secondary source of metals. This study examined characteristics of end-of-life EEE as secondary metal resources to consider efficient collection and metal recovery systems according to the specific metals and types of EEE. We constructed an analogy between natural resource development and metal recovery from end-of-life EEE and found that metal content and total annual amount of metal contained in each type of end-of-life EEE should be considered in secondary resource development, as well as the collectability of the end-of-life products. We then categorized 21 EEE types into five groups and discussed their potential as secondary metal resources. Refrigerators, washing machines, air conditioners, and CRT TVs were evaluated as the most important sources of common metals, and personal computers, mobile phones, and video games were evaluated as the most important sources of precious metals. Several types of small digital equipment were also identified as important sources of precious metals; however, mid-size information and communication technology (ICT) equipment (e.g., printers and fax machines) and audio/video equipment were shown to be more important as a source of a variety of less common metals. The physical collectability of each type of EEE was roughly characterized by unit size and number of end-of-life products generated annually. Current collection systems in Japan were examined and potentially appropriate collection methods were suggested for equipment types that currently have no specific collection systems in Japan, particularly for video games, notebook computers, and mid-size ICT and audio/video equipment.

  3. From Millennium ERM to Proquest 360 Resource Manager: Implementing a new Electronic Resources Management System ERMS in an International Graduate Research University in Saudi Arabia

    Ramli, Rindra M.


    An overview of the Recommendation Study and the subsequent Implementation of a new Electronic Resources Management system ERMS in an international graduate research university in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It covers the timeline, deliverables and challenges as well as lessons learnt by the Project Team.

  4. Induction of lyme arthritis in LSH hamsters

    Schmitz, J.L.; Schell, R.F.; Hejka, A.; England, D.M.; Konick, L.


    In studies of experimental Lyme disease, a major obstacle has been the unavailability of a suitable animal model. We found that irradiated LSH/Ss Lak hamsters developed arthritis after injection of Borrelia burgdorferi in the hind paws. When nonirradiated hamsters were injected in the hind paws with B. burgdorferi, acute transient synovitis was present. A diffuse neutrophilic infiltrate involved the synovia and periarticular structures. The inflammation was associated with edema, hyperemia, and granulation tissue. Numerous spirochetes were seen in the synovial and subsynovial tissues. The histopathologic changes were enhanced in irradiated hamsters. The onset and duration of the induced swelling were dependent on the dose of radiation and the inoculum of spirochetes. Inoculation of irradiated hamsters with Formalin-killed spirochetes or medium in which B. burgdorferi had grown for 7 days failed to induce swelling. This animal model should prove useful for studies of the immune response to B. burgdorferi and the pathogenesis of Lyme arthritis.

  5. Metabolism of radiohafnium in marmosets and hamsters

    Taylor, D.M.; Seidel, A.; Doerfel, H.


    The whole body retention of /sup 181/Hf was studied in marmosets (Callithrex jacchus) and found to be closely similar to that in rats and Chinese hamsters. Limited tissue distribution studies suggest a higher uptake in liver and much lower deposition in skin and muscle in the marmoset as compared to the rat or Chinese hamster. Studies in Chinese hamsters showed that treatment with the chelating agent diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid resulted in only a small reduction in the whole body retention of /sup 181/Hf. The absorption of orally administered /sup 181/Hf, in various chemical forms, was found to be between 0.04 and 0.13% of the ingested dose and was unaffected by age between 5 and 21 months but was increased by fasting. The measured absorption of /sup 181/Hf in Chinese hamsters and in rats was similar to that of plutonium suggesting that radiohafnium could be used as a surrogate for plutonium for selected studies in human volunteers.

  6. Polymyopathy in a Syrian golden hamster

    Wijnands, M.V.W.; Woutersen, R.A.


    A Syrian golden hamster suffered from general swelling of skeletal muscles. At microscopical observation the muscle tissue exhibited degeneration and necrosis, as well as regenerative features. The inflammatory response was very slight. The histopathological lesions were diagnosed as polymyopathy.

  7. Polymyopathy in a Syrian golden hamster

    Wijnands, M.V.W.; Woutersen, R.A.


    A Syrian golden hamster suffered from general swelling of skeletal muscles. At microscopical observation the muscle tissue exhibited degeneration and necrosis, as well as regenerative features. The inflammatory response was very slight. The histopathological lesions were diagnosed as polymyopathy.

  8. Proteomic Analysis of Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells

    Baycin-Hizal, Deniz; Tabb, David L.; Chaerkady, Raghothama;


    To complement the recent genomic sequencing of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, proteomic analysis was performed on CHO cells including the cellular proteome, secretome, and glycoproteome using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) of multiple fractions obtained from gel electrophoresis, multidimens......To complement the recent genomic sequencing of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, proteomic analysis was performed on CHO cells including the cellular proteome, secretome, and glycoproteome using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) of multiple fractions obtained from gel electrophoresis...

  9. The Influence of Red Wine on Lipid of Golden Hamsters Plasma

    GUO Jin-ying; LI Hua; WANG Hua; YUAN Chun-long; XIE Ren-ming


    This experiment was conducted on 50 male golden hamsters, which were divided into five groups. Each group contained 10 hamsters: red wine group, alcohol-free red wine group, alcohol group, hyperlipidemia group, and control group. During the four-week regime, all the hamsters were fed with a high cholesterol diet, except the control group. After completion of the trial, the plasma lipid levels and lipid peroxidation contents were determined in the golden hamsters, and the morphological variation in liver cells was investigated with electron microscopy. The results showed that concentrations of TC and TG in red wine, alcohol-free red wine, and alcohol groups had decreased dramatically. Compared with the hyperlipidemia group, the levels of LDL-C had significantly decreased in other groups, but not the HDL-C. Consumption of red wine,alcohol-free red wine, and alcohol, had no significant effects on Apo A1 and Apo B. Red wine, alcohol-free red wine, and alcohol significantly decreased the contents of MDA in hamsters. The experiment demonstrated that red wine could ameliorate the incidence of atherosclerosis (AS) via reducing serum TC, TG, LDL-C, and the compounds in red wine had synergic effects.

  10. Electronic tracking of human resource skills and knowledge, just in time training, manageable due diligence

    Kolodziej, M.A. [Quick Test International Inc., (Canada). Canadian Technology Human Resource Board; Baker, O. [KeySpan Energy Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)


    KeySpan Energy Canada is in the process of obtaining recognition of various occupational profiles including pipeline operators, inspectors, and field and plant operators from various certifying organizations. The process of allowing individuals to obtain certification is recognized by Canadian Technology Human Resources Board as a step towards national standards for technologists and technicians. Proven competency is a must for workers in todays oil industry in response to increasingly stringent government safety regulations, environmental concerns and high public scrutiny. Quick Test international Inc. has developed a management tool in collaboration with end users at KeySpan Energy Canada. It is an electronic, Internet based competency tool for tracking personal competencies and maintaining continued competency. Response to the tool has been favourable. 2 refs., 4 figs.


    Stepanova, M I; Aleksandrova, I E; Sazanyuk, Z I; Voronova, B Z; Lashneva, L P; Shumkova, T V; Berezina, N O


    We studied the effect of academic studies with the use a notebook computer and interactive whiteboard on the functional state of an organism of schoolchildren. Using a complex of hygienic and physiological methods of the study we established that regulation of the computer activity of students must take into account not only duration but its intensity either. Design features of a notebook computer were shown both to impede keeping the optimal working posture in primary school children and increase the risk offormation of disorders of vision and musculoskeletal system. There were established the activating influence of the interactive whiteboard on performance activities and favorable dynamics of indices of the functional state of the organism of students under keeping optimal density of the academic study and the duration of its use. There are determined safety regulations of the work of schoolchildren with electronic resources in the educational process.

  12. Medical Image Resource Center--making electronic teaching files from PACS.

    Lim, C C Tchoyoson; Yang, Guo Liang; Nowinski, Wieslaw L; Hui, Francis


    A picture archive and communications system (PACS) is a rich source of images and data suitable for creating electronic teaching files (ETF). However, the potential for PACS to support nonclinical applications has not been fully realized: at present there is no mechanism for PACS to identify and store teaching files; neither is there a standardized method for sharing such teaching images. The Medical Image Resource Center (MIRC) is a new central image repository that defines standards for data exchange among different centers. We developed an ETF server that retrieves digital imaging and communication in medicine (DICOM) images from PACS, and enables users to create teaching files that conform to the new MIRC schema. We test-populated our ETF server with illustrative images from the clinical case load of the National Neuroscience Institute, Singapore. Together, PACS and MIRC have the potential to benefit radiology teaching and research.

  13. Electronic Human Resource Management (e-HRM of Hotel Business in Phuket

    Kitimaporn Choochote


    Full Text Available This research aims to study the pattern of the electronic human resources management (e-HRM of the hotel business in Phuket. The study is conducted with the implementation of field data and in-depth interview of hotels’ HR managers. In consequence, the study reveals that the hotel business has applied the use of the e-HRM varying in job recruitment (15 percent, employee engagement (55 percent, organizational file structure (10 percent, idea and creativity exchanges (38 percent and assessment system (6 percent. However, considered as 100 percent, the hotel business has not prepared to apply the use of the e-HRM in salary system, learning and training program, welfare allocation and career development.

  14. Using mobile electronic devices to deliver educational resources in developing countries.

    Mazal, Jonathan Robert; Ludwig, Rebecca


    Developing countries have far fewer trained radiography professionals than developed countries, which exacerbates the limited access to imaging services. The lack of trained radiographers reflects, in part, limited availability of radiographer-specific educational resources. Historically, organizations that provided such resources in the developing world faced challenges related to the limited stock of current materials as well as expenses associated with shipping and delivery. Four mobile electronic devices (MEDs) were loaded with educational content (e-books, PDFs, and digital applications) spanning major radiography topics. The MEDs were distributed to 4 imaging departments in Ghana, India, Nepal, and Nigeria based on evidence of need for radiography-specific resources, as revealed by survey responses. A cost comparison of postal delivery vs digital delivery of educational content was performed. The effectiveness of delivering additional content via Wi-Fi transmission also was evaluated. Feedback was solicited on users' experience with the MEDs as a delivery tool for educational content. An initial average per e-book expense of $30.05, which included the cost of the device, was calculated for the MED delivery method compared with $15.56 for postal delivery of printed materials. The cost of the MED delivery method was reduced to an average of $10.05 for subsequent e-book deliveries. Additional content was successfully delivered via Wi-Fi transmission to all recipients during the 3-month follow-up period. Overall user feedback on the experience was positive, and ideas for enhancing the MED-based method were identified. Using MEDs to deliver radiography-specific educational content appears to be more cost effective than postal delivery of printed materials on a long-term basis. MEDs are more efficient for providing updates to educational materials. Customization of content to department needs, and using projector devices could enhance the usefulness of MEDs for

  15. Plastics disassembly versus bulk recycling: engineering design for end-of-life electronics resource recovery.

    Rios, Pedro; Stuart, Julie Ann; Grant, Ed


    Annual plastic flows through the business and consumer electronics manufacturing supply chain include nearly 3 billion lb of high-value engineering plastics derived from petroleum. The recovery of resource value from this stream presents critical challenges in areas of materials identification and recycling process design that demand new green engineering technologies applied together with life cycle assessment and ecological supply chain analysis to create viable plastics-to-plastics supply cycles. The sustainable recovery of potentially high-value engineering plastics streams requires that recyclers either avoid mixing plastic parts or purify later by separating smaller plastic pieces created in volume reduction (shredding) steps. Identification and separation constitute significant barriers in the plastics-to-plastics recycling value proposition. In the present work, we develop a model that accepts randomly arriving electronic products to study scenarios by which a recycler might identify and separate high-value engineering plastics as well as metals. Using discrete eventsimulation,we compare current mixed plastics recovery with spectrochemical plastic resin identification and subsequent sorting. Our results show that limited disassembly with whole-part identification can produce substantial yields in separated streams of recovered engineering thermoplastics. We find that disassembly with identification does not constitute a bottleneck, but rather, with relatively few workers, can be configured to pull the process and thus decrease maximum staging space requirements.

  16. SAGES: a suite of freely-available software tools for electronic disease surveillance in resource-limited settings.

    Sheri L Lewis

    Full Text Available Public health surveillance is undergoing a revolution driven by advances in the field of information technology. Many countries have experienced vast improvements in the collection, ingestion, analysis, visualization, and dissemination of public health data. Resource-limited countries have lagged behind due to challenges in information technology infrastructure, public health resources, and the costs of proprietary software. The Suite for Automated Global Electronic bioSurveillance (SAGES is a collection of modular, flexible, freely-available software tools for electronic disease surveillance in resource-limited settings. One or more SAGES tools may be used in concert with existing surveillance applications or the SAGES tools may be used en masse for an end-to-end biosurveillance capability. This flexibility allows for the development of an inexpensive, customized, and sustainable disease surveillance system. The ability to rapidly assess anomalous disease activity may lead to more efficient use of limited resources and better compliance with World Health Organization International Health Regulations.

  17. Methods for modeling chinese hamster ovary (cho) cell metabolism


    Embodiments of the present invention generally relate to the computational analysis and characterization biological networks at the cellular level in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells. Based on computational methods utilizing a hamster reference genome, the invention provides methods for identify......Embodiments of the present invention generally relate to the computational analysis and characterization biological networks at the cellular level in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells. Based on computational methods utilizing a hamster reference genome, the invention provides methods...

  18. Histopathology of Lyme arthritis in LSH hamsters

    Hejka, A.; Schmitz, J.L.; England, D.M.; Callister, S.M.; Schell, R.F.


    The authors studied the histopathologic evolution of arthritis in nonirradiated and irradiated hamsters infected with Borrelia burgdorferi. Nonirradiated hamsters injected in the hind paws with B. burgdorferi developed an acute inflammatory reaction involving the synovium, periarticular soft tissues, and dermis. This acute inflammatory reaction was short-lived and was replaced by a mild chronic synovitis as the number of detectable spirochetes in the synovium, periarticular soft tissues, and perineurovascular areas diminished. Exposing hamsters to radiation before inoculation with B. burgdorferi exacerbated and prolonged the acute inflammatory phase. Spirochetes also persisted longer in the periarticular soft tissues. A major histopathologic finding was destructive and erosive bone changes of the hind paws, which resulted in deformation of the joints. These studies should be helpful in defining the immune mechanism participating in the onset, progression, and resolution of Lyme arthritis.

  19. Ivermectin treatment of demodicosis in 56 hamsters.

    Tani, K; Iwanaga, T; Sonoda, K; Hayashiya, S; Hayashiya, M; Taura, Y


    Fifty-six hamsters with demodicosis were treated with daily oral administration of ivermectin (0.3 mg/kg). Thirty-three cases (58.9%) were cured and 6 cases (10.7%) had improved clinically but needed to continue treatment. Of 5 cases (8.9%) who relapsed within 3 months and were retreated with ivermectin, 4 were cured and 1 needed further treatment. Five cases (8.9%) had improved clinically but died within 3 months. Seven cases (12.5%) had not improved and died within 3 months. Overall 49 (87.5%) hamsters had improved clinically. No significant differences in prognosis of demodicosis were detected according to sex, breed, age and clinical features, but the prognosis of demodicosis in hamsters with concurrent disease was poor.

  20. Contribution to the normal fecal flora of the hamster: Proteus mirabilis in normal feces of hamster

    Genesio Pacheco


    Full Text Available Proteus mirabilis must be considered a normal inhabitant of the intestine of hamsters. It is also found in the vaginal secretion of females of this animal, when in oestrus.1 Os hamsters são parasitados pelos Proteus. 2 As amostras isoladas foram identificadas ao Pr. mirabilis de Hauser. 3 O Proteus isolado não revelou ação patogênica sôbre camundongos mas se mostrou patogênico para cobaias. 4 O germen era presente na secreção vaginal de hamsters, na época do cio.

  1. Impact of Electronic Resources and Usage in Academic Libraries in Ghana: Evidence from Koforidua Polytechnic & All Nations University College, Ghana

    Akussah, Maxwell; Asante, Edward; Adu-Sarkodee, Rosemary


    The study investigates the relationship between impact of electronic resources and its usage in academic libraries in Ghana: evidence from Koforidua Polytechnic & All Nations University College, Ghana. The study was a quantitative approach using questionnaire to gather data and information. A valid response rate of 58.5% was assumed. SPSS…

  2. Utilization of Electronic Information Resources by Undergraduate Students of University of Ibadan: A Case Study of Social Sciences and Education

    Owolabi, Sola; Idowu, Oluwafemi A.; Okocha, Foluke; Ogundare, Atinuke Omotayo


    The study evaluated utilization of electronic information resources by undergraduates in the Faculties of Education and the Social Sciences in University of Ibadan. The study adopted a descriptive survey design with a study population of 1872 undergraduates in the Faculties of Education and the Social Sciences in University of Ibadan, from which a…

  3. Genomic landscapes of Chinese hamster ovary cell lines as revealed by the Cricetulus griseus draft genome.

    Lewis, Nathan E; Liu, Xin; Li, Yuxiang; Nagarajan, Harish; Yerganian, George; O'Brien, Edward; Bordbar, Aarash; Roth, Anne M; Rosenbloom, Jeffrey; Bian, Chao; Xie, Min; Chen, Wenbin; Li, Ning; Baycin-Hizal, Deniz; Latif, Haythem; Forster, Jochen; Betenbaugh, Michael J; Famili, Iman; Xu, Xun; Wang, Jun; Palsson, Bernhard O


    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, first isolated in 1957, are the preferred production host for many therapeutic proteins. Although genetic heterogeneity among CHO cell lines has been well documented, a systematic, nucleotide-resolution characterization of their genotypic differences has been stymied by the lack of a unifying genomic resource for CHO cells. Here we report a 2.4-Gb draft genome sequence of a female Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus, harboring 24,044 genes. We also resequenced and analyzed the genomes of six CHO cell lines from the CHO-K1, DG44 and CHO-S lineages. This analysis identified hamster genes missing in different CHO cell lines, and detected >3.7 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 551,240 indels and 7,063 copy number variations. Many mutations are located in genes with functions relevant to bioprocessing, such as apoptosis. The details of this genetic diversity highlight the value of the hamster genome as the reference upon which CHO cells can be studied and engineered for protein production.

  4. Effective cryopreservation of golden Syrian hamster embryos by open pulled straw vitrification.

    Fan, Z; Meng, Q; Bunch, T D; White, K L; Wang, Z


    Golden Syrian hamster embryos are difficult to cryopreserve due to their high sensitivity to cryoprotectants and in vitro handling. The objective of this study is to develop a robust open pulled straw (OPS) vitrification technique for cryopreserving hamster embryos at various developmental stages. We first systematically tested the concentrations of cryoprotectants and the exposure times of two-cell embryos to various vitrification solutions. We identified pretreatment of two-cell embryos with 10% (v/v) ethylene glycol (EG) + 10% (v/v) dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) for 30 s followed by exposure in the vitrification solution, EDFS30 (containing 15% EG + 15% DMSO), for 30 s before plunging into liquid nitrogen (two-step exposure method) as the optimal OPS vitrification protocol. We then investigated the resourcefulness of this protocol for vitrifying hamster embryos at different developmental stages. The results showed that high blastocyst rates from embryos vitrified at two-cell, four-cell, eight-cell, or morula stage (62%, 78%, 80%, or 72%, respectively), but not those verified at pronuclear (0%) or blastocyst stage (24%; P  0.05) from the 40% birth rate of the unvitrified controls. In conclusion, we have developed an effective two-step OPS vitrification protocol for hamster embryos.

  5. Human resource requirements for quality-assured electronic data capture of the tuberculosis case register

    Hoa Nguyen B


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tuberculosis case register is the data source for the reports submitted by basic management units to the national tuberculosis program. Our objective was to measure the data entry time required to complete and double-enter one record, and to estimate the time for the correction of errors in the captured information from tuberculosis case registers in Cambodia and Viet Nam. This should assist in quantifying the additional requirements in human resources for national programs moving towards electronic recording and reporting. Methods Data from a representative sample of tuberculosis case registers from Cambodia and Viet Nam were double-entered and discordances resolved by rechecking the original case register. Computer-generated data entry time recorded the time elapsed between opening of a new record and saving it to disk. Results The dataset comprised 22,732 double-entered records of 11,366 patients (37.1% from Cambodia and 62.9% from Viet Nam. The mean data entry times per record were 97.5 (95% CI: 96.2-98.8 and 66.2 (95% CI: 59.5-73.0 seconds with medians of 90 and 31 s respectively in Cambodia and in Viet Nam. The percentage of records with an error was 6.0% and 39.0% respectively in Cambodia and Viet Nam. Data entry time was inversely associated with error frequency. We estimate that approximately 118-person-hours were required to produce 1,000 validated records. Conclusions This study quantifies differences between two countries for data entry time for the tuberculosis case register and frequencies of data entry errors and suggests that higher data entry speed is partially offset by requiring revisiting more records for corrections.

  6. Inhalation of baby talc powder by hamsters

    Wehner, A.P.; Zwicker, G.M.; Cannon, W.C.; Watson, C.R.


    Groups of 50 male and 50 female Syrian golden hamsters are being exposed to baby talc powder aerosol 3 min/day, 30 min/day, and 150 min/day, respectively, for 30 exposure days, and for 30 min/day and 150 min/day, respectively, for 300 exposure days. Mean total aerosol concentration is approximately 28, mean respirable fraction of the aerosol is approximately 8 Two groups of 25 male and 25 female control hamsters are receiving sham exposures 150 min/day for 30 and 300 exposure days, respectively. After the 30- and 300-day exposures the hamsters are being maintained for life span observations. At death, lung, trachea, larynx, liver, kidneys, adrenals, heart, stomach, ovaries and uterus, or testicles, and tissues showing gross lesions, are collected for histopathologic examination. Evaluative criteria are histopathologic findings, life span and body weights. Experimental data and results are incomplete at this time. Final results will be available by spring 1975. Preliminary pathologic evaluation indicates that systemic amyloidosis is the major cause of death in the exposed as well as in the control animals. Kidneys, adrenal glands, and liver are most frequently involved. Inhalation of baby talc powder has caused no obvious pulmonary lesions and no decreased life span in the exposed hamsters evaluated to date as compared with their controls.

  7. Ahne hamster lõikuskuul/ Tambet Kaugema

    Kaugema, Tambet


    Eesti Nuku- ja Noorsoteatri jõululavastusest "Ahne hamster ja värvilised jäälilled", autor Miloš Macourek, tõlkija Leo Metsar, lavastaja ja muusikaline kujundaja Virko Annus, mängib Tarmo Männard. Esietendus 21. novembril Köismäe tornis

  8. Ahne hamster lõikuskuul/ Tambet Kaugema

    Kaugema, Tambet


    Eesti Nuku- ja Noorsoteatri jõululavastusest "Ahne hamster ja värvilised jäälilled", autor Miloš Macourek, tõlkija Leo Metsar, lavastaja ja muusikaline kujundaja Virko Annus, mängib Tarmo Männard. Esietendus 21. novembril Köismäe tornis

  9. Use and Cost of Electronic Resources in Central Library of Ferdowsi University Based on E-metrics

    Mohammad Reza Davarpanah


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the usage of electronic journals in Ferdowsi University, Iran based on e-metrics. The paper also aimed to emphasize the analysis of cost-benefit and the correlation between the journal impact factors and the usage data. In this study experiences of Ferdowsi University library on licensing and usage of electronic resources was evaluated by providing a cost-benefit analysis based on the cost and usage statistics of electronic resources. Vendor-provided data were also compared with local usage data. The usage data were collected by tracking web-based access locally, and by collecting vender-provided usage data. The data sources were one-year of vendor-supplied e-resource usage data such as Ebsco, Elsevier, Proquest, Emerald, Oxford and Springer and local usage data collected from the Ferdowsi university web server. The study found that actual usage values differ for vendor-provided data and local usage data. Elsevier has got the highest usage degree in searches, sessions and downloads. Statistics also showed that a small number of journals satisfy significant amount of use while the majority of journals were used less frequent and some were never used at all. The users preferred the PDF rather than HTML format. The data in subject profile suggested that the provided e-resources were best suited to certain subjects. There was no correlation between IF and electronic journal use. Monitoring the usage of e-resources gained increasing importance for acquisition policy and budget decisions. The article provided information about local metrics for the six surveyed vendors/publishers, e.g. usage trends, requests per package, cost per use as related to the scientific specialty of the university.

  10. Mitochondrial Respiration Is Impaired during Late-Stage Hamster Prion Infection.

    Faris, Robert; Moore, Roger A; Ward, Anne; Sturdevant, Dan E; Priola, Suzette A


    Mitochondria are crucial to proper neuronal function and overall brain health. Mitochondrial dysfunction within the brain has been observed in many neurodegenerative diseases, including prion disease. Several markers of decreased mitochondrial activity during prion infection have been reported, yet the bioenergetic respiratory status of mitochondria from prion-infected animals is unknown. Here we show that clinically ill transgenic mice overexpressing hamster prion protein (Tg7) infected with the hamster prion strain 263K suffer from a severe deficit in mitochondrial oxygen consumption in response to the respiratory complex II substrate succinate. Characterization of the mitochondrial proteome of purified brain mitochondria from infected and uninfected Tg7 mice showed significant differences in the relative abundance of key mitochondrial electron transport proteins in 263K-infected animals relative to that in controls. Our results suggest that at clinical stages of prion infection, dysregulation of respiratory chain proteins may lead to impairment of mitochondrial respiration in the brain.IMPORTANCE Mitochondrial dysfunction is present in most major neurodegenerative diseases, and some studies have suggested that mitochondrial processes may be altered during prion disease. Here we show that hamster prion-infected transgenic mice overexpressing the hamster prion protein (Tg7 mice) suffer from mitochondrial respiratory deficits. Tg7 mice infected with the 263K hamster prion strain have little or no signs of mitochondrial dysfunction at the disease midpoint but suffer from a severe deficit in mitochondrial respiration at the clinical phase of disease. A proteomic analysis of the isolated brain mitochondria from clinically affected animals showed that several proteins involved in electron transport, mitochondrial dynamics, and mitochondrial protein synthesis were dysregulated. These results suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction, possibly exacerbated by prion protein

  11. Somatostatin Agonist Pasireotide Promotes a Physiological State Resembling Short-Day Acclimation in the Photoperiodic Male Siberian Hamster (Phodopus sungorus).

    Dumbell, R A; Scherbarth, F; Diedrich, V; Schmid, H A; Steinlechner, S; Barrett, P


    The timing of growth in seasonal mammals is inextricably linked to food availability. This is exemplified in the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus), which uses the annual cycle of photoperiod to optimally programme energy expenditure in anticipation of seasonal fluctuations in food resources. During the autumn, energy expenditure is progressively minimised by physiological adaptations, including a 30% reduction in body mass, comprising a reduction in both fat and lean tissues. However, the mechanistic basis of this adaptation is still unexplained. We hypothesised that growth hormone (GH) was a likely candidate to underpin these reversible changes in body mass. Administration of pasireotide, a long-acting somatostatin receptor agonist developed for the treatment of acromegaly, to male hamsters under a long-day (LD) photoperiod produced a body weight loss. This comprised a reduction in lean and fat mass, including kidneys, testes and brown adipose tissue, typically found in short-day (SD) housed hamsters. Furthermore, when administered to hamsters switched from SD to LD, pasireotide retarded the body weight increase compared to vehicle-treated hamsters. Pasireotide did not alter photoperiod-mediated changes in hypothalamic energy balance gene expression but altered the expression of Srif mRNA expression in the periventricular nucleus and Ghrh mRNA expression in the arcuate nucleus consistent with a reduction in GH feedback and concurrent with reduced serum insulin-like growth factor-1. Conversely, GH treatment of SD hamsters increased body mass, which included increased mass of liver and kidneys. Together, these data indicate a role for the GH axis in the determination of seasonal body mass of the Siberian hamster.

  12. Use and User Perception of Electronic Information Resources: A Case Study of Siva Institute of Frontier Technology, India

    Velmurugan Chandran


    Full Text Available The present study aims to explore the use and user perception of electronic resources in Siva Institute of Frontier Technology, India. A total number of 123 users were taken into account for the study through a questionnaire-based survey method. A well-structured questionnaire was designed and distributed to the selected 200 students and staff members. 123 copies of the questionnaires were returned dully filled in and the overall response rate was 61.50 percent. The questionnaire contained both open- and close-ended questions. The collected data were classified, analyzed, and tabulated by using simple statistical methods. This study covers the impact of electronic resources on students and faculty in their academic pursuit.

  13. How Human Resource Professionals Use Electronic Channels to Communicate CSR : A case study focused on Solvay's French industrial sites

    Fournet, Clara; Pauly, Marissa


    Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has become a large concern for many companies with the rise of globalization. Oftentimes, companies are encouraged to communicate CSR externally, but not internally. This research focuses upon the internal communication of CSR, specifically how Human Resource (HR) professionals use electronic channels to communicate to employees. The scope of this research is focused solely upon HR professionals within Solvay’s French industrial sites, which produce chemi...

  14. Challenges in the implementation of an electronic surveillance system in a resource-limited setting: Alerta, in Peru

    Soto Giselle


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious disease surveillance is a primary public health function in resource-limited settings. In 2003, an electronic disease surveillance system (Alerta was established in the Peruvian Navy with support from the U.S. Naval Medical Research Center Detachment (NMRCD. Many challenges arose during the implementation process, and a variety of solutions were applied. The purpose of this paper is to identify and discuss these issues. Methods This is a retrospective description of the Alerta implementation. After a thoughtful evaluation according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC guidelines, the main challenges to implementation were identified and solutions were devised in the context of a resource-limited setting, Peru. Results After four years of operation, we have identified a number of challenges in implementing and operating this electronic disease surveillance system. These can be divided into the following categories: (1 issues with personnel and stakeholders; (2 issues with resources in a developing setting; (3 issues with processes involved in the collection of data and operation of the system; and (4 issues with organization at the central hub. Some of the challenges are unique to resource-limited settings, but many are applicable for any surveillance system. For each of these challenges, we developed feasible solutions that are discussed. Conclusion There are many challenges to overcome when implementing an electronic disease surveillance system, not only related to technology issues. A comprehensive approach is required for success, including: technical support, personnel management, effective training, and cultural sensitivity in order to assure the effective deployment of an electronic disease surveillance system.

  15. Tracking the Flow of Resources in Electronic Waste - The Case of End-of-Life Computer Hard Disk Drives.

    Habib, Komal; Parajuly, Keshav; Wenzel, Henrik


    Recovery of resources, in particular, metals, from waste flows is widely seen as a prioritized option to reduce their potential supply constraints in the future. The current waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) treatment system is more focused on bulk metals, where the recycling rate of specialty metals, such as rare earths, is negligible compared to their increasing use in modern products, such as electronics. This study investigates the challenges in recovering these resources in the existing WEEE treatment system. It is illustrated by following the material flows of resources in a conventional WEEE treatment plant in Denmark. Computer hard disk drives (HDDs) containing neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) magnets were selected as the case product for this experiment. The resulting output fractions were tracked until their final treatment in order to estimate the recovery potential of rare earth elements (REEs) and other resources contained in HDDs. The results further show that out of the 244 kg of HDDs treated, 212 kg comprising mainly of aluminum and steel can be finally recovered from the metallurgic process. The results further demonstrate the complete loss of REEs in the existing shredding-based WEEE treatment processes. Dismantling and separate processing of NdFeB magnets from their end-use products can be a more preferred option over shredding. However, it remains a technological and logistic challenge for the existing system.

  16. The impact of electronic healthcare associated infection surveillance software on infection prevention resources: A systematic review of the literature.

    Russo, Philip L; Shaban, Ramon Z; MacBeth, Deborough; Carter, Abigail; Mitchell, Brett G


    Surveillance of healthcare-associated infections is fundamental for infection prevention. The methods and practices for surveillance have evolved as technology becomes more advanced. The availability of electronic surveillance software (ESS) has increased, and yet adoption of ESS is slow. It is argued that ESS deliver savings through automation, particularly in terms of human resourcing and infection prevention (IP) staff time. This paper describes the findings of a systematic review on the impact of ESS on IP resources. A systematic search was conducted of electronic databases Medline and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature published between 1st January 2006 and 31(st) December 2016 with analysis using Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. 2832 articles were reviewed of which 16 studies met the inclusion criteria. IP resources were identified as time undertaken on surveillance. A reduction in IP staff time to undertake surveillance was demonstrated in 13 studies. The reduction proportion ranged from 12.5% - 98.4% (mean 73.9%). The remaining three did not allow for any estimation of the effect in terms of IP staff time. None of the studies demonstrated an increase in IP staff time. The results of this review demonstrate that adopting ESS yield considerable dividends in IP staff time relating to data collection and case ascertainment whilst maintaining high levels of sensitivity and specificity. This has the potential to enable reinvestment into other components of IP to maximise efficient use of scare IP resources. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.


    А. М. Гавриленко


    Object of research is the help information resource "The chronicle of the Odessa national university of I. I. Mechnikov: dates, facts, events". The main objective of our article – to state the main methodological bases of creation of information resource. One of advantages of information resource is possibility of continuous updating and replenishment by new information. Main objective of creation of this information resource is systematization of material on stories of the Odessa national university of I. I. Mechnikov from the date of his basis to the present, ensuring interactive access to information on the main dates, the most significant events in life of university. The base of research are sources on the history of university, chronology of historical development, formation of infrastructure, cadres and scientific researches. In information resource the main stages of development, functioning and transformation of the Odessa University are analyzed, information on its divisions is collected. For creation of this information resource in Scientific library the method of work was developed, the main selection criteria of data are allocated. This information resource have practical value for all who is interested in history of university, historians, scientists-researchers of history of science and the city of Odessa.

  18. Age-associated metabolic and morphologic changes in mitochondria of individual mouse and hamster oocytes.

    Fatma Simsek-Duran

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In human oocytes, as in other mammalian ova, there is a significant variation in the pregnancy potential, with approximately 20% of oocyte-sperm meetings resulting in pregnancies. This frequency of successful fertilization decreases as the oocytes age. This low proportion of fruitful couplings appears to be influenced by changes in mitochondrial structure and function. In this study, we have examined mitochondrial biogenesis in both hamster (Mesocricetus auratus and mouse (Mus musculus ova as models for understanding the effects of aging on mitochondrial structure and energy production within the mammalian oocyte. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Individual metaphase II oocytes from a total of 25 young and old mice and hamsters were collected from ovarian follicles after hormone stimulation and prepared for biochemical or structural analysis. Adenosine triphosphate levels and mitochondrial DNA number were determined within individual oocytes from young and old animals. In aged hamsters, oocyte adenosine triphosphate levels and mitochondrial DNA molecules were reduced 35.4% and 51.8%, respectively. Reductions of 38.4% and 44% in adenosine triphosphate and mitochondrial genomes, respectively, were also seen in aged mouse oocytes. Transmission electron microscopic (TEM analysis showed that aged rodent oocytes had significant alterations in mitochondrial and cytoplasmic lamellae structure. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In both mice and hamsters, decreased adenosine triphosphate in aged oocytes is correlated with a similar decrease in mtDNA molecules and number of mitochondria. Mitochondria in mice and hamsters undergo significant morphological change with aging including mitochondrial vacuolization, cristae alterations, and changes in cytoplasmic lamellae.

  19. Effect of Access to an Electronic Medical Resource on Performance Characteristics of a Certification Examination: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Lipner, Rebecca S; Brossman, Bradley G; Samonte, Kelli M; Durning, Steven J


    Electronic resources are increasingly used in medical practice. Their use during high-stakes certification examinations has been advocated by many experts, but whether doing so would affect the capacity to differentiate between high and low abilities is unknown. To determine the effect of electronic resources on examination performance characteristics. Randomized controlled trial. Medical certification program. 825 physicians initially certified by the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) who passed the Internal Medicine Certification examination or sat for the Internal Medicine Maintenance of Certification (IM-MOC) examination in 2012 to 2015. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 conditions: closed book using typical or additional time, or open book (that is, UpToDate [Wolters Kluwer]) using typical or additional time. All participants took the same modified version of the IM-MOC examination. Primary outcomes included item difficulty (how easy or difficult the question was), item discrimination (how well the question differentiated between high and low abilities), and average question response time. Secondary outcomes included examination dimensionality (that is, the number of factors measured) and test-taking strategy. Item response theory was used to calculate question characteristics. Analysis of variance compared differences among conditions. Closed-book conditions took significantly less time than open-book conditions (mean, 79.2 seconds [95% CI, 78.5 to 79.9 seconds] vs. 110.3 seconds [CI, 109.2 to 111.4 seconds] per question). Mean discrimination was statistically significantly higher for open-book conditions (0.34 [CI, 0.32 to 0.35] vs. 0.39 [CI, 0.37 to 0.41] per question). A strong single dimension showed that the examination measured the same factor with or without the resource. Only 1 electronic resource was evaluated. Inclusion of an electronic resource with time constraints did not adversely affect test performance and did not change

  20. Understanding intention to use electronic information resources: A theoretical extension of the technology acceptance model (TAM).

    Tao, Donghua


    This study extended the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) by examining the roles of two aspects of e-resource characteristics, namely, information quality and system quality, in predicting public health students' intention to use e-resources for completing research paper assignments. Both focus groups and a questionnaire were used to collect data. Descriptive analysis, data screening, and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) techniques were used for data analysis. The study found that perceived usefulness played a major role in determining students' intention to use e-resources. Perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use fully mediated the impact that information quality and system quality had on behavior intention. The research model enriches the existing technology acceptance literature by extending TAM. Representing two aspects of e-resource characteristics provides greater explanatory information for diagnosing problems of system design, development, and implementation.

  1. Building and Managing Electronic Resources in Digital Era in India with Special Reference to IUCAA and NIV, Pune: A Comparative Case Study

    Sahu, H. K.; Singh, S. N.


    This paper discusses and presents a comparative case study of two libraries in Pune, India, Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics and Information Centre and Library of National Institute of Virology (Indian Council of Medical Research). It compares how both libraries have managed their e-resource collections, including acquisitions, subscriptions, and consortia arrangements, while also developing a collection of their own resources, including pre-prints and publications, video lectures, and other materials in an institutional repository. This study illustrates how difficult it is to manage electronic resources in a developing country like India, even though electronic resources are used more than print resources. Electronic resource management can be daunting, but with a systematic approach, various problems can be solved, and use of the materials will be enhanced.

  2. Print and Electronic Resources: Usage Statistics at Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library

    Kapoor, Kanta


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to quantify the use of electronic journals in comparison with the print collections in the Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library. Design/methodology/approach: A detailed analysis was made of the use of lending services, the Xerox facility and usage of electronic journals such as Science Direct,…

  3. Print and Electronic Resources: Usage Statistics at Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library

    Kapoor, Kanta


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to quantify the use of electronic journals in comparison with the print collections in the Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library. Design/methodology/approach: A detailed analysis was made of the use of lending services, the Xerox facility and usage of electronic journals such as Science Direct,…

  4. Armenian hamster female protein (serum amyloid P component). Comparison with the sex-regulated homolog in Syrian hamster.

    Dowton, S B; Waggoner, D J


    Complementary DNA clones for Armenian hamster female protein (FP) were isolated and the complete nucleotide sequence and derived amino acid sequence were determined and compared with relevant data for the closely related Syrian hamster. Although biosynthesis of preSAP is directed by a 1.0-kb mRNA in both genera and the molecular mass of the primary translation product of FP is identical, the FP gene structure and regulation of expression of FP are different in Syrian and Armenian hamsters. Whereas the direction of alteration in FP mRNA levels is divergent in Syrian hamsters during an acute phase reaction, hepatic FP mRNA levels increase in both male and female Armenian hamsters during inflammation. Regulation of expression of Armenian and Syrian hamster FP genes occurs at a pretranslational level.

  5. Molecular and immunological characterization of the first allergenic lipocalin in hamster: the major allergen from Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus).

    Torres, José Alberto; de Las Heras, Manuel; Maroto, Aroa Sanz; Vivanco, Fernando; Sastre, Joaquín; Pastor-Vargas, Carlos


    The most frequent pet allergy is to cat and dog, but in recent years, it has become increasingly popular to have other pets, and the risk of exposure to new allergens is more prevalent. The list of new pets includes hamsters, and one of the most popular hamsters is the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus). The aim of this study was the characterization and cloning of the major allergen from this hamster. The study of its allergenicity and cross-reactivity could improve the specific diagnosis and treatment for hamster-allergic patients. Thirteen Siberian hamster-allergic patients were recruited at the outpatient clinic. Protein extracts were prepared from the hair, urine, and salivary glands of four hamster species (European, golden, Siberian, and Roborovski). IgE-binding proteins were detected by immunoblotting and identified by mass spectrometry. The recombinant protein was produced in Escherichia coli and then purified by metal chelate affinity chromatography. The allergenic properties of the recombinant protein were tested by ELISA and immunoblotting, and biological activity was tested according to capacity for basophil activation. Three IgE-binding proteins were identified in extracts obtained from Siberian hamster hair, urine, and salivary glands. All proteins corresponded to the same protein, which was identified as a lipocalin. This lipocalin had no cross-reactivity with common and golden hamsters. The recombinant allergen was cloned and purified, showing similar IgE reactivity in vitro to Siberian hamster protein extracts. Also, the recombinant allergen was capable of producing biological activation in vivo. The major Siberian hamster allergen was cloned, and allergenic properties were characterized, providing a new tool for specific diagnosis of allergy to Siberian hamster.

  6. Intention to use and actual use of electronic information resources: further exploring Technology Acceptance Model (TAM).

    Tao, Donghua


    Following up a previous study that examined public health students' intention to use e-resources for completing research paper assignments, the present study proposed two models to investigate whether or not public health students actually used the e-resources they intended to use and whether or not the determinants of intention to use predict actual use of e-resources. Focus groups and pre- and post-questionnaires were used to collect data. Descriptive analysis, data screening, and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) techniques were used for data analysis. The study found that the determinants of intention-to-use significantly predict actual use behavior. Direct impact of perceived usefulness and indirect impact of perceived ease of use to both behavior intention and actual behavior indicated the importance of ease of use at the early stage of technology acceptance. Non-significant intention-behavior relationship prompted thoughts on the measurement of actual behavior and multidimensional characteristics of the intention construct.

  7. MendelWeb: An Electronic Science/Math/History Resource for the WWW.

    Blumberg, Roger B.

    This paper describes a hypermedia resource, called MendelWeb that integrates elementary biology, discrete mathematics, and the history of science. MendelWeb is constructed from Gregor Menders 1865 paper, "Experiments in Plant Hybridization". An English translation of Mendel's paper, which is considered to mark the birth of classical and…

  8. QR Codes as Finding Aides: Linking Electronic and Print Library Resources

    Kane, Danielle; Schneidewind, Jeff


    As part of a focused, methodical, and evaluative approach to emerging technologies, QR codes are one of many new technologies being used by the UC Irvine Libraries. QR codes provide simple connections between print and virtual resources. In summer 2010, a small task force began to investigate how QR codes could be used to provide information and…

  9. Electronic resources at the University of Sharjah medical library: an investigation of students' information-seeking behavior.

    Boumarafi, Behdja


    Electronic information is becoming prevalent worldwide, and its use is growing exponentially as more and more users are recognizing the potential that it offers in terms of access and delivery. However, with the introduction of new tools for e-information searching and retrieval, users have to readjust their information-seeking behavior to cope with the corresponding changes. The University of Sharjah library is steadily increasing its investment in e-resources to offer ubiquitous access to the growing body of literature in areas that interest the community it serves. This study reports the findings of a survey conducted to investigate the information-seeking behavior of medical students at the medical library. Results showed evidence of use of e-resources, but they did not explicitly establish that some of the major problems mentioned by participants did hinder the information searches of the respondents. An extensive literature review sets the background for the study.

  10. Morphological and electrophysiological characterization of the adult Siberian hamster optic nerve.

    James, Emma L; Peacock, Veronique A H; Ebling, Francis J P; Brown, Angus M


    Electrophysiological recordings and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the compound action potential (CAP) and morphology, respectively, of the optic nerve in the Siberian hamster. The CAP was polyphasic in nature, comprising four separate but overlapping peaks, thereby implying that four sub-populations of axons defined by conduction velocity are present in the nerve. The histological analysis of nerves from four animals revealed a cross-sectional area of 128,171 μm(2) containing 78,109 axons. All of the axons were myelinated, and measurements of axon surface area revealed values ranging from 0.09 to 9.92 μm(2), although 68.3% were 2.5 μm(2)) were selectively distributed throughout the nerve. We conclude that the CAP recorded from hamster optic nerve displays four distinct peaks; however, morphological analysis failed to reveal a similar distribution of axon sizes.

  11. 图书馆电子信息资源利用效果评价研究%Study on Utilization Effect Evaluation of Library Electronic Information Resources

    晋晓强; 贺培风; 何忠印


    This paper discusses utilization effect of electronic information resources combining with the characteristics of electronic information resources, makes evaluation system of library electronic information resource utilization effect from three aspects : the library, the users and the data providers, hoping for providing valuable reference for the efficient use of library electronic resources.%本文结合电子信息资源的特性对电子信息资源的利用进行初步探讨,从图书馆、用户和数据服务商三个角度构建图书馆电子信息资源利用效果的评价体系,希望能为图书馆电子信息资源的高效利用提供参考。

  12. Thermostability of sperm nuclei assessed by microinjection into hamster oocytes

    Nuclei isolated from spermatozoa of various species (golden hamster, mouse, human, rooster, and the fish tilapia) were heated at 60 degrees-125 degrees C for 20-120 min and then microinjected into hamster oocytes to determine whether they could decondense and develop into pronucl...

  13. An Exploratory study on the use of LibAnswers to Resolve, Track and Monitor Electronic Resources Issues: The KAUST Library experience

    Ramli, Rindra M.


    An Exploratory study on KAUST library use of LibAnswers in resolving electronic resources questions received in LibAnswers. It describes the findings of the questions received in LibAnswers. The author made suggestions based on the findings to improve the reference services in responding to e-resources questions.

  14. Eavesdropping on Electronic Guidebooks: Observing Learning Resources in Shared Listening Environments.

    Woodruff, Allison; Aoki, Paul M.; Grinter, Rebecca E.; Hurst, Amy; Szymanski, Margaret H.; Thornton, James D.

    This paper describes an electronic guidebook, "Sotto Voce," that enables visitors to share audio information by eavesdropping on each others guidebook activity. The first section discusses the design and implementation of the guidebook device, key aspects of its user interface, the design goals for the audio environment, the eavesdropping…

  15. Electronic Resources in a Next-Generation Catalog: The Case of WorldCat Local

    Shadle, Steve


    In April 2007, the University of Washington Libraries debuted WorldCat Local (WCL), a localized version of the WorldCat database that interoperates with a library's integrated library system and fulfillment services to provide a single-search interface for a library's physical and electronic content. This brief will describe how WCL incorporates a…

  16. Equalizing Access to Electronic Networked Resources: A Model for Rural Libraries in the United States.

    Senkevitch, Judith J.; Wolfram, Dietmar


    Provides an overview of the current state of networking technology in rural libraries and describes a model for educating rural librarians in accessing electronic networks. Topics discussed include information needs in rural libraries; telecommunications technology access in rural areas; and examples of services to enhance information access.…

  17. Characteristics of 263K scrapie agent in multiple hamster species.

    Meade-White, Kimberly D; Barbian, Kent D; Race, Brent; Favara, Cynthia; Gardner, Don; Taubner, Lara; Porcella, Stephen; Race, Richard


    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) diseases are known to cross species barriers, but the pathologic and biochemical changes that occur during transmission are not well understood. To better understand these changes, we infected 6 hamster species with 263K hamster scrapie strain and, after each of 3 successive passages in the new species, analyzed abnormal proteinase K (PK)-resistant prion protein (PrPres) glycoform ratios, PrPres PK sensitivity, incubation periods, and lesion profiles. Unique 263K molecular and biochemical profiles evolved in each of the infected hamster species. Characteristics of 263K in the new hamster species seemed to correlate best with host factors rather than agent strain. Furthermore, 2 polymorphic regions of the prion protein amino acid sequence correlated with profile differences in these TSE-infected hamster species.

  18. Preference and Use of Electronic Information and Resources by Blind/Visually Impaired in NCR Libraries in India

    Shailendra Kumar


    Full Text Available This paper aims to determine the preference and use of electronic information and resources by blind/visually impaired users in the leading National Capital Region (NCR libraries of India. Survey methodology has been used as the basic research tool for data collection with the help of questionnaires. The 125 in total users surveyed in all the five libraries were selected randomly on the basis of willingness of the users with experience of working in digital environments to participate in the survey. The survey results were tabulated and analyzed with descriptive statistics methods using Excel software and 'Stata version 11'. The findings reveal that ICT have a positive impact in the lives of people with disabilities as it helps them to work independently and increases the level of confidence among them. The Internet is the most preferred medium of access to information among the majority of blind/visually impaired users. The 'Complexity of content available on the net' is found as the major challenge faced during Internet use by blind users of NCR libraries. 'Audio books on CDs/DVDs and DAISY books' are the most preferred electronic resources among the majority of blind/visually impaired users. This study will help the library professionals and organizations/institutions serving people with disabilities to develop effective library services for blind/visually impaired users in the digital environment on the basis of findings on information usage behavior in the study.

  19. Circadian rhythms of photorefractory siberian hamsters remain responsive to melatonin.

    Butler, Matthew P; Paul, Matthew J; Turner, Kevin W; Park, Jin Ho; Driscoll, Joseph R; Kriegsfeld, Lance J; Zucker, Irving


    Short day lengths increase the duration of nocturnal melatonin (Mel) secretion, which induces the winter phenotype in Siberian hamsters. After several months of continued exposure to short days, hamsters spontaneously revert to the spring-summer phenotype. This transition has been attributed to the development of refractoriness of Mel-binding tissues, including the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), to long-duration Mel signals. The SCN of Siberian hamsters is required for the seasonal response to winter-like Mel signals, and becomes refractory to previously effective long-duration Mel signals restricted to this area. Acute Mel treatment phase shifts circadian locomotor rhythms of photosensitive Siberian hamsters, presumably by affecting circadian oscillators in the SCN. We tested whether seasonal refractoriness of the SCN to long-duration Mel signals also renders the circadian system of Siberian hamsters unresponsive to Mel. Males manifesting free-running circadian rhythms in constant dim red light were injected with Mel or vehicle for 5 days on a 23.5-h T-cycle beginning at circadian time 10. Mel injections caused significantly larger phase advances in activity onset than did the saline vehicle, but the magnitude of phase shifts to Mel did not differ between photorefractory and photosensitive hamsters. Similarly, when entrained to a 16-h light/8-h dark photocycle, photorefractory and photosensitive hamsters did not differ in their response to Mel injected 4 h before the onset of the dark phase. Activity onset in Mel-injected hamsters was masked by light but was revealed to be significantly earlier than in vehicle-injected hamsters upon transfer to constant dim red light. The acute effects of melatonin on circadian behavioral rhythms are preserved in photorefractory hamsters.

  20. Confocal laser scanning microscopic analysis of ectopic sublingual gland-like tissue inside the hamster submandibular gland.

    Moriguchi, Keiichi; Utsumi, Michiya; Ohno, Norikazu


    Based on its histochemical properties, the secretory portion of the hamster submandibular gland has been classified as seromucous cells. The presence of endogenous peroxidase (PO) reaction was shown in the nuclear envelope, cisternae of endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus. The 3,3'-diaminobenzidene, tetrahydrochloride (DAB) method revealed bipartite secretory granules containing a PO-positive dense core surrounded by a less dense halo in these cells. In the present investigation, serous and mucous-like cells were found in resin-embedded semi-thin sections of the DAB-reacted hamster submandibular gland. These sections were already on glass slides for routine light microscopic observations, therefore electron microscopic analysis could be unrealizable. We then used reflectance-mode confocal laser scanning microscopy to visualize additional sites of PO activity as detected in these sections. Using this approach, we found mucous cells with PO activity-negative secretory granules and seromucous cells with PO activity-positive spot-like secretory granules of the regular sublingual gland most frequently adjacent to the serous cells with typical electron-dense secretory granules. These cells clearly differ from the seromucous cells with bipartite secretory granules and the granular duct cells with typical electron-dense secretory granules of the hamster submandibular gland. Additionally, secretory endpieces of the ectopic sublingual gland-like tissue empty into the duct of the hamster submandibular gland lobule. Thus, our findings suggest that a mass of sublingual gland tissue extends into the hamster submandibular gland during its development, and PO may be synthesized and secreted into the same duct.

  1. Collaboration in electronic resource provision in university libraries: SHEDL, a Scottish case study

    Kidd, T


    This case study examines the growth of collaboration among Scottish higher education institutions. Following a summary of the work of the Scottish Confederation of University and Research Libraries (SCURL), more detailed information is provided on collaboration in the fields of acquisition, licensing, selection, and purchasing. Some of the UK background is outlined, relating to NESLi2 in particular, in order to illuminate the options within Scotland. The origins of negotiations on electronic ...

  2. Internet and electronic resources for inflammatory bowel disease: a primer for providers and patients.

    Fortinsky, Kyle J; Fournier, Marc R; Benchimol, Eric I


    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are increasingly turning to the Internet to research their condition and engage in discourse on their experiences. This has resulted in new dynamics in the relationship between providers and their patients, with misinformation and advertising potentially presenting barriers to the cooperative patient-provider partnership. This article addresses important issues of online IBD-related health information and social media activity, such as quality, reliability, objectivity, and privacy. We reviewed the medical literature on the quality of online information provided to IBD patients, and summarized the most commonly accessed Websites related to IBD. We also assessed the activity on popular social media sites (such as Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube), and evaluated currently available applications for use by IBD patients and providers on mobile phones and tablets. Through our review of the literature and currently available resources, we developed a list of recommended online resources to strengthen patient participation in their care by providing reliable, comprehensive educational material.

  3. Recognition of competitors by male golden hamsters.

    Petrulis, Aras; Weidner, Molly; Johnston, Robert E


    Golden hamsters, like many animals, form dominant/subordinate relationships after aggressive encounters. We examined whether behavioral responses by males that won or lost fights would differ toward familiar and unfamiliar male stimulus animals. In Experiment 1, male winners or losers of fights explored an arena containing a confined stimulus animal that was either familiar or novel and had either won or lost a fight. Compared to dominant males, losers spent less time in proximity to stimulus males and investigated them less. Losers also displayed higher levels of stretch-attend postures (indicative of risk assessment) than winners, and they showed more escape and locomotion in response to familiar winners than to unfamiliar winners, indicating recognition of the male that they had lost to. In Experiment 2, losers scent marked less to the odors of a familiar winner than to those of an unfamiliar winner. Thus, male hamsters appear to use familiarity with a former opponent's odors to adaptively regulate their responses to variations in social threat.


    R. M. Santos


    Full Text Available The Hamster, rodent originating from the Middle East, is a species studied along with other laboratory animals as experimental models in scientific papers and currently is also created as a pet, by virtue of being docile, easy to handle and require little space for survival. The suppurative processes in domestic animals are relatively frequent. Due to infectious diseases or purulent course of aggressiveness of the environment in which they live. The habit of storing food in the cheeks with sharp edges can injure the skin and often cause abscesses in this species. However, other lesions may lead to suppuration, diseases such as testicular tumor or no tumor or not produced by damage in the skin, leading to tumescence (VITAL et al., 2007. This article reports a case of a hamster treated at the Veterinary Hospital of FAFRAM with clinical history of discomfort, anorexia and frequent licking of the scrotum. On clinical examination it was found by aspiration of purulent secretions and the presence of large numbers of polymorphonuclear cells on cytology, diagnosed with testicular abscess. The animal was taken to the operating room where was performed conventional bilateral orchiectomy and total excision of the abscess by opening the tunica vaginalis and ligation of the spermatic cord. Postoperative care included antibiotic therapy with enrofloxacin and use of an anti-inflammatory meloxicam. After ten days the stitches were removed, the wound was healing satisfactorily and the animal was in good health.O Hamster, roedor originário do Oriente Médio, é uma espécie estudada juntamente com outros animais de laboratório como modelo experimental em trabalhos científicos e, atualmente, também é criado como animal de companhia, em virtude de ser dócil, de fácil manuseio e necessitar de pequeno espaço para sobrevivência. Os processos supurativos nos animais domésticos são relativamente frequentes. Em decorrência de doenças infectocontagiosas de

  5. Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression in Hamster and Human Pancreatic Neoplasia

    Pamela L. Crowell


    Full Text Available Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 has been implicated in the development of gastrointestinal malignancies. The aim of the present study was to determine COX-2 expression/activity throughout stages of experimental and human pancreatic neoplasia. COX-2 immunohistochemistry was performed in pancreata of hamsters subjected to the carcinogen N-nitrosobis-(2-oxopropylamine (BOP and in human pancreatic tumors. COX-2 activity was determined by prostaglandin E2 assay in tumor versus matched normal pancreatic tissues. The activity of the COX inhibitor sulindac was tested in the PC-1 hamster pancreatic cancer model. COX-2 expression was elevated in all pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias (PanINs and adenocarcinomas. In BOP-treated hamsters, there were significant progressive elevations in COX-2 expression throughout pancreatic tumorigenesis. In human samples, peak COX-2 expression occurred in PanIN2 lesions and remained moderately elevated in PanIN3 and adenocarcinoma tissues. COX-2 activity was significantly elevated in hamster and human pancreatic cancers compared to pair-matched normal pancreas. Furthermore, hamster pancreatic tumor engraftment/formation in the PC-1 hamster pancreatic cancer model was reduced 4.9-fold by oral administration of sulindac. Increased COX-2 expression is an early event in pancreatic carcinogeneses. The BOP-induced hamster carcinogenesis model is a representative model used to study the role of COX-2 in well-differentiated pancreatic tumorigenesis. COX inhibitors may have a role in preventing tumor engraftment/formation.

  6. Photoperiodic regulation of compensatory testicular hypertrophy in hamsters.

    Paul, Matthew J; Park, Jin Ho; Horton, Teresa H; Alvarez, Maria I; Burke, Morgan K; Place, Ned J; Zucker, Irving


    In mammals, removal of one testis results in compensatory testicular hypertrophy (CTH) of the remaining gonad. Although CTH is ubiquitous among juveniles of many species, laboratory rats, laboratory mice, and humans unilaterally castrated in adulthood fail to display CTH. We documented CTH in pre- and postpubertally hemi-castrated Syrian and Siberian hamsters and tested whether day length affects CTH in juvenile and adult Siberian hamsters. Robust CTH was evident in long-day hemi-castrates of both species and was preceded by increased serum FSH concentrations in juvenile Siberian hamsters. In sharp contrast, CTH was undetectable in short-day hemi-castrated Siberian hamsters for several months and only made its appearance with the development of neuroendocrine refractoriness to short day lengths; serum FSH concentrations of juveniles also did not increase above sham-castrate values until the onset of refractoriness. Long-day hemi-castrated Siberian hamsters with hypertrophied testes underwent complete gonadal regression after transfer to short days, albeit at a reduced rate for the first 3 weeks of treatment. Blood testosterone concentrations of adult hamsters did not differ between long-day hemicastrates and sham-castrates 9-12 weeks after surgery. We conclude that CTH is suppressed by short day lengths in Siberian hamsters at all ages and stages of reproductive development; in short day lengths, but not long day lengths, the remaining testis produces sufficient negative feedback inhibition to restrain FSH hypersecretion and prevent CTH.

  7. Granulometric composition study of mineral resources using opto-electronic devices and Elsieve software system

    Kaminski Stanislaw


    Full Text Available The use of mechanical sieves has a great impact on measurement results because occurrence of anisometric particles causes undercounting the average size. Such errors can be avoided by using opto-electronic measuring devices that enable measurement of particles from 10 μm up to a few dozen millimetres in size. The results of measurement of each particle size fraction are summed up proportionally to its weight with the use of Elsieve software system and for every type of material particle-size distribution can be obtained. The software allows further statistical interpretation of the results. Beam of infrared radiation identifies size of particles and counts them precisely. Every particle is represented by an electronic impulse proportional to its size. Measurement of particles in aqueous suspension that replaces the hydrometer method can be carried out by using the IPS L analyser (range from 0.2 to 600 μm. The IPS UA analyser (range from 0.5 to 2000 μm is designed for measurement in the air. An ultrasonic adapter enables performing measurements of moist and aggregated particles from 0.5 to 1000 μm. The construction and software system allow to determine second dimension of the particle, its shape coefficient and specific surface area. The AWK 3D analyser (range from 0.2 to 31.5 mm is devoted to measurement of various powdery materials with subsequent determination of particle shape. The AWK B analyser (range from 1 to 130 mm measures materials of thick granulation and shape of the grains. The presented method of measurement repeatedly accelerates and facilitates study of granulometric composition.

  8. 试论图书馆电子资源与纸本资源的协调发展%The coordinated development of library electronic resources and paper resources



      纸本资源和电子资源属于公共图书馆文献资源中两个非常重要的资源类型,纸本资源和电子资源的协调发展在图书馆的可持续发展过程中起着非常重要的作用。本文对如何实现图书馆电子资源和纸本资源之间的协调发展进行了探讨,希望能够为图书馆文献资源的管理提供一些参考。%  The paper and electronic resources are two very important types of literature resources of public libraries, the coordinated development of the paper and electronic resources play a very important role in the sustainable development process of the library. This article discusses how to realize the coordinated development of library electronic resources and paper resources, hope to provide some reference for library literature resource management.

  9. Torpor shortens the period of Siberian hamster circadian rhythms.

    Thomas, E M; Jewett, M E; Zucker, I


    We investigated the influence of ambient and body temperature (Ta and Tb) on circadian rhythms of gonadectomized male Siberian hamsters. Animals that entered torpor (Tb circadian periods (tau s) than did nontorpid hamsters at a Ta of 13 degrees C (24.17 +/- 0.05 vs. 24.33 +/- 0.04 h). The tau s of homeothermic hamsters were not affected by Ta change. Short-term decreases in Tb, rather than changes in Ta, appear to affect tau. Access to activity wheels inhibited expression of torpor in short daylengths and was associated with significant increases in body mass. Running wheel activity can mask or block specific short-day responses.

  10. Bioavailability and disposition of solanine in rats and hamsters

    Groen K; Pereboom-de Fauw DPKH; Besamusca P; Beekhof PK; Speijers GJA; Derks HJGM


    The toxicokinetics of [3H]-alpha-solanine after oral (po) and intravenous (iv) administration in rats and hamsters were studied, in order to decide which is the most appropriate model in risk assessment studies. The iv dose was 54 mug/kg; the oral dose was 170 mug/kg. After iv administration, the toxicokinetics of total radioactivity in blood were comparable in rats and hamsters. However, the clearance of total radioactivity from plasma was more effective in rats than in hamsters The half-liv...

  11. On the Development of Electronic Resources and Paper Resources%关于电子资源与纸本资源协调发展的思考和建议



    In recent years, a large number of electronic resources was introduced to the libraries, which has become an im- portant component of library resource system. However, there are also a lot of hot debates about the following issues, such as how to build a traditional paper resources, how to deal with the relationship between paper resources and electronic resources, how to build a library resources development system, etc. These problems also confused many librarians who are building resources in the library. With the combination with the opinions from some experts, research scholars, the paper proposed some guiding principles to deal with the relationship between electronic resources and paper resources. Taking all the aspects into consideration, such as the concepts of the library, the funding of the resources, the policies and structure of the library, cooperative development, the paper also proposes some measures for the development of electronic resources and paper resources.%在复合图书馆环境下,如何协调发展电子资源与纸本资源是图书馆界专家、学者研究和探讨的热点问题,也是许多图书馆工作者在文献资源建设实践中十分困惑的问题。文章结合有关专家、学者的研究成果及图书馆的相关案例,概述了电子资源与纸本资源协调发展应遵循的指导性原则,并从馆藏理念、经费投入、馆藏政策、馆藏结构、合作发展、服务利用等几个方面提出了协调发展电子资源与纸本资源的若干举措。

  12. Green Supply Chain Collaboration for Fashionable Consumer Electronics Products under Third-Party Power Intervention—A Resource Dependence Perspective

    Jiuh-Biing Sheu


    Full Text Available Under third-party power intervention (TPPI, which increases uncertainty in task environments, complex channel power interplays and restructuring are indispensable among green supply chain members as they move toward sustainable collaborative relationships for increased viability and competitive advantage. From the resource dependence perspective, this work presents a novel conceptual model to investigate the influence of political and social power on channel power restructuring and induced green supply chain collaboration in brander-retailer bidirectional green supply chains of fashionable consumer electronics products (FCEPs. An FCEP refers to the consumer electronics product (e.g., personal computers, mobile phones, computer notebooks, and game consoles with the features of a well-known brand associated, a short product lifecycle, timely and fashionable design fit for market trends, and quick responsiveness to the variations of market demands. The proposed model is tested empirically using questionnaire data obtained from retailers in the FCEP brander-retailer distribution channels. Analytical results reveal that as an extension of political and social power, TPPI positively affects the reciprocal interdependence of dyadic members and reduces power asymmetry, thereby enhancing the collaborative relationship of dyadic members and leading to improved green supply chain performance. Therein, reciprocal interdependence underlying collaborative relationship is the key to reducing the external environmental uncertainties in the TPPI context.

  13. Comprehensive Transcriptome Analyses of the Fructose-Fed Syrian Golden Hamster Liver Provides Novel Insights into Lipid Metabolism.

    Li, Ziyang; Xiong, Chaoliang; Mo, Suo; Tian, Haiying; Yu, Mengqian; Mao, Tingting; Chen, Qian; Luo, Haitao; Li, Quanzhen; Lu, Jianxin; Zhao, Yi; Li, Wei


    Dyslipidemia has been widely proven to contribute to cardiovascular diseases and other metabolic disorders, especially in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. The overproduction of VLDL is a significant characteristic of dyslipidemia, indicating the dysfunction of hepatic lipid metabolism, from triglyceride synthesis to transport. The fructose-fed Syrian golden hamster is an established animal model for the study of VLDL assembly with insulin resistance, however, it remains unknown how VLDL production is regulated at the transcriptional level due to the absence of a complete hamster genome. Here, we performed deep sequencing and constructed an mRNA-miRNA-lncRNA interaction network of Syrian golden hamster liver in order to reveal the global transcription profile and find potential RNA molecular regulation of VLDL production. We identified 4,450 novel multi-exon hamster lncRNAs and 755 miRNAs expressed in liver. Additionally, 146 differentially expressed coding genes, 27 differentially expressed lncRNA genes, as well as 16 differentially expressed miRNAs were identified. We then constructed an mRNA-miRNA-lncRNA interaction network that may potentially regulate VLDL production, and interestingly found several microRNA-centered regulatory networks. In order to verify our interpretation, miR-486 was selected for further experiments. Overexpression or down-regulation of miR-486 in fructose-fed hamsters resulted in altered hepatic expression of proteins involved in VLDL production, and in modulated levels of circulating VLDL. Our findings implicated that miR-486 is a potential regulator of circulating VLDL levels. These results provide new insights and a valuable resource for further study of the molecular mechanisms of VLDL secretion.

  14. A study of the carcinogenicity of glycidol in Syrian hamsters.

    Lijinsky, W; Kovatch, R M


    The industrial chemical glycidol is a directly acting mutagen and a broadly acting carcinogen in rats. It was administered to Syrian golden hamsters (20 male and 20 female) by gavage of 12 mg twice a week for 60 weeks. The total dose per animal was 1.45 g or 20 mmol. Survival was not different from control hamsters treated with corn oil/ethyl acetate. Of the treated males, 9 had tumors and 13 of the treated females had tumors, some of which were adrenal cortex tumors seen in controls. More tumors were seen in the glycidol-treated hamsters than in controls, but the spleen was the only notable target organ and the number of animals with spleen hemangiosarcomas was small. Glycidol appeared to be less carcinogenic in hamsters than in rats or mice.

  15. Mitotic spindle proteomics in Chinese hamster ovary cells

    Bonner, Mary Kate; Poole, Daniel S; Xu, Tao; Sarkeshik, Ali; Yates, 3rd, John R; Skop, Ahna R


    .... Here, we report a proteomic study of the mitotic spindle from Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells. Four different isolations of metaphase spindles were subjected to Multi-dimensional Protein Identification Technology...

  16. Neuropeptide Y induces torpor-like hypothermia in Siberian hamsters.

    Paul, Matthew J; Freeman, David A; Park, Jin Ho; Dark, John


    Intracerebroventricular (ICV) injections of neuropeptide Y (NPY) are known to decrease body temperature (Tb) of laboratory rats by 1-3 degrees C. Several NPY pathways in the brain terminate in hypothalamic structures involved in energy balance and thermoregulation. Laboratory rats are homeothermic, maintaining Tb within a narrow range. We examined the effect of ICV injected NPY on Tb in the heterothermic Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus), a species that naturally undergoes daily torpor in which Tb decreases by as much as 15-20 degrees C. Minimum effective dose was determined in preliminary testing then various doses of NPY were tested in cold-acclimated Siberian hamsters while food was withheld. NPY markedly reduced Tb in the heterothermic Siberian hamster. In addition, the reduction in Tb in 63% of the observations was sufficient to reach the criterion for daily torpor (Tb Siberian hamster. NPY treatment may be activating hypothalamic systems that normally integrate endogenous torpor-producing signals and initiate torpor.

  17. Electronic medical record data to identify variables associated with a fibromyalgia diagnosis: importance of health care resource utilization

    Masters ET


    Full Text Available Elizabeth T Masters,1 Jack Mardekian,1 Birol Emir,1 Andrew Clair,1 Max Kuhn,2 Stuart L Silverman,31Pfizer, Inc., New York, NY, 2Pfizer, Inc., Groton, CT, 3Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USABackground: Diagnosis of fibromyalgia (FM is often challenging. Identifying factors associated with an FM diagnosis may guide health care providers in implementing appropriate diagnostic and management strategies.Methods: This retrospective study used the de-identified Humedica electronic medical record (EMR database to identify variables associated with an FM diagnosis. Cases (n=4,296 were subjects ≥18 years old with ≥2 International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9 codes for FM (729.1 ≥30 days apart during 2012, associated with an integrated delivery network, with ≥1 encounter with a health care provider in 2011 and 2012. Controls without FM (no-FM; n=583,665 did not have the ICD-9 codes for FM. Demographic, clinical, and health care resource utilization variables were extracted from structured EMR data. Univariate analysis identified variables showing significant differences between the cohorts based on odds ratios (ORs.Results: Consistent with FM epidemiology, FM subjects were predominantly female (78.7% vs 64.5%; P<0.0001 and slightly older (mean age 53.3 vs 52.7 years; P=0.0318. Relative to the no-FM cohort, the FM cohort was characterized by a higher prevalence of nearly all evaluated comorbidities; the ORs suggested a higher likelihood of an FM diagnosis (P<0.0001, especially for musculoskeletal and neuropathic pain conditions (OR 3.1 for each condition. Variables potentially associated with an FM diagnosis included higher levels of use of specific health care resources including emergency-room visits, outpatient visits, hospitalizations, and medications. Units used per subject for emergency-room visits, outpatient visits, hospitalizations, and medications were also significantly higher in the FM cohort (P<0

  18. Radiation-induced emission from golden hamster embryo cells

    Miyazaki, Tetsuo; Nagasaka, Shigeru; Maeda, Isao; Matsumoto, Takuro; Koyama, Shinji; Kodama, Seiji; Watanabe, Masami


    Emission from high-energy-electron-irradiated golden hamster embryo (GHE) cells has been studied over the temperature range 12-300 K both by a one-shot-single-photon-counting method and by photocurrent measurements with an oscilloscope. Emission from the irradiated phosphate buffered saline (PBS) also has been studied. The emission spectra from PBS at 12 and 77 K show a maximum around 330 and 380 nm, respectively, which are the same spectra as those from irradiated pure H 2O. The emission from irradiated GHE consists of the new band at 480 nm in addition to the emission from H 2O. The 480 nm emission is observed at the temperature range of 12-300 K, though the emission at 300 K is much lower than that at low temperature. The 480 nm emission is ascribed to the transition from excited organic substances in GHE cells. The intensity of 480 nm emission at 300 K increases linearly with increasing irradiation-dose in the range of 11-600 Gy.

  19. Genitourinary changes in hamsters infected and reinfected with Trypanosoma cruzi

    Cabrine-Santos Marlene; Santos Vitorino Modesto dos; Lima Marcus Aurelho; Abreu Marta Elena Araújo de; Lages-Silva Eliane; Ramírez Luís Eduardo


    Authors describe genitourinary changes in male hamsters infected and reinfected with Trypanosoma cruzi. Changes in genital organs have been described in human and in experimental chagasic infection. Genital dysfunctions in chronic chagasic patients affect ejaculation, libido and sexual potency, and testis biopsies may show arrested maturation of germ cells, oligozoospermia and azoospermia. Sixty-five male hamsters were inoculated and reinoculated with 2x10³ trypomastigotes of T. cruzi VIC str...

  20. Survey on User Satisfaction of Electronic Resources in University Libraries%高校图书馆电子资源用户满意度调查

    陈姚竹; 马东


    通过分析影响用户对图书馆电子资源利用的因素,以美国顾客满意度指数模型为基础,提出关于各个因素的测量指标,对高校图书馆电子资源用户满意度进行测量。%Through analyzing the influencing factors on utilizing library electronic resources, based on the model of American customer satisfaction index, the paper puts forward corresponding measurement indexes, and then measures the user satisfaction on electronic resources of university library

  1. Regulation of tonic gonadotropin release in prepubertal female hamsters

    Smith, S.G.; Matt, K.S.; Prestowitz, W.F.; Stetson, M.H.


    Basal serum gonadotropin levels were monitored weekly in female hamsters from birth to 10 weeks of age. Hamsters raised on three different photoperiods presented uniform pre- and postpubertal patterns of serum LH and FSH, suggesting that gonadotropin release in the young hamster occurs independently of ambient photoperiod. In all groups, serum LH levels increased gradually in animals up to 4 weeks of age, after which levels plateaued at 50--100 ng/ml. Serum FSH was markedly elevated in 2- and 3-week-old hamsters (800--1200 ng/ml), but remained at 200--400 ng/ml in all other groups. We next examined the change in the responsiveness of the pituitary to exogenous gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) challenge. Female hamsters 2 days of age failed to respond to any dose (0.025--1000 ng) of GnRH, while 10-day old females responded in typical dose-dependent fashion. GnRH-stimulated LH release first occurred in 6-day-old hamsters and was maximal by day 9, whereas FSH release first occurred on day 8 and was maximal by day 9. The prepubertal pattern of gonadotropin release can, in part, be explained on the basis of the development of pituitary GnRH sensitivity, which occurs independently of photoperiod.

  2. Differential effects of glucocorticoids on energy homeostasis in Syrian hamsters.

    Solomon, Matia B; Sakai, Randall R; Woods, Stephen C; Foster, Michelle T


    Syrian hamsters, like many humans, increase food intake and body adiposity in response to stress. We hypothesized that glucocorticoids (cortisol and corticosterone) mediate these stress-induced effects on energy homeostasis. Because Syrian hamsters are dual secretors of cortisol and corticosterone, differential effects of each glucocorticoid on energy homeostasis were investigated. First, adrenal intact hamsters were injected with varying physiological concentrations of cortisol, corticosterone, or vehicle to emulate our previously published defeat regimens (i.e., 1 injection/day for 5 days). Neither food intake nor body weight was altered following glucocorticoid injections. Therefore, we investigated the effect of sustained glucocorticoid exposure on energy homeostasis. This was accomplished by implanting hamsters with supraphysiological steady-state pellets of cortisol, corticosterone, or cholesterol as a control. Cortisol, but not corticosterone, significantly decreased food intake, body mass, and lean and fat tissue compared with controls. Despite decreases in body mass and adiposity, cortisol significantly increased circulating free fatty acids, triglyceride, cholesterol, and hepatic triglyceride concentrations. Although corticosterone did not induce alterations in any of the aforementioned metabolic end points, Syrian hamsters were responsive to the effects of corticosterone since glucocorticoids both induced thymic involution and decreased adrenal mass. These findings indicate that cortisol is the more potent glucocorticoid in energy homeostasis in Syrian hamsters. However, the data suggest that cortisol alone does not mediate stress-induced increases in food intake or body mass in this species.

  3. [Induction of protective antiamebic immunity in hamsters with heterologous antigens].

    Jiménez Cardoso, J M; Jiménez, E; de Jesús Bernal, M; Kumate, J


    Two hundred and twenty-five Syrian golden hamsters were used. Twenty five of them served as the control group. All other hamsters were intradermal immunized, once a week for four weeks, with a mixture of amebic proteins, mixed with complete Freund adjuvant, obtained from 5 x 10(5) homogenized dead amebic trophozoites from five different strains. Each group of hamsters (five groups of 40 animals each) were immunized with one of the following strains: E. histolytica HM-531, HJ-1, HM1-IMSS, E. chattoni PM-4 and PM-5. All hamsters, including those from the control group, were later inoculated with 0.2 mL equivalent to 1 x 10(5) live trophozoites from the different strains grown in axenic TYI-S-33 medium. Inoculation was performed by direct injection into the liver. The hamsters were sacrificed eight days later and their livers examined. All non-immunized animals showed extensive gross hepatic nodular abscesses. The liver of immunized hamsters showed mild to moderate lesions: the histopathological striking feature was non-specific granulomata. It is concluded that the immunized animals inoculated with homologous stock showed protective immunity to amebic infections. In other cases, immunity was seen though they were inoculated with a heterologous stock.

  4. Development of an electronic medical record based alert for risk of HIV treatment failure in a low-resource setting.

    Nancy Puttkammer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The adoption of electronic medical record systems in resource-limited settings can help clinicians monitor patients' adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART and identify patients at risk of future ART failure, allowing resources to be targeted to those most at risk. METHODS: Among adult patients enrolled on ART from 2005-2013 at two large, public-sector hospitals in Haiti, ART failure was assessed after 6-12 months on treatment, based on the World Health Organization's immunologic and clinical criteria. We identified models for predicting ART failure based on ART adherence measures and other patient characteristics. We assessed performance of candidate models using area under the receiver operating curve, and validated results using a randomly-split data sample. The selected prediction model was used to generate a risk score, and its ability to differentiate ART failure risk over a 42-month follow-up period was tested using stratified Kaplan Meier survival curves. RESULTS: Among 923 patients with CD4 results available during the period 6-12 months after ART initiation, 196 (21.2% met ART failure criteria. The pharmacy-based proportion of days covered (PDC measure performed best among five possible ART adherence measures at predicting ART failure. Average PDC during the first 6 months on ART was 79.0% among cases of ART failure and 88.6% among cases of non-failure (p<0.01. When additional information including sex, baseline CD4, and duration of enrollment in HIV care prior to ART initiation were added to PDC, the risk score differentiated between those who did and did not meet failure criteria over 42 months following ART initiation. CONCLUSIONS: Pharmacy data are most useful for new ART adherence alerts within iSanté. Such alerts offer potential to help clinicians identify patients at high risk of ART failure so that they can be targeted with adherence support interventions, before ART failure occurs.

  5. The BRIGHTEN Program: Implementation and Evaluation of a Program to Bridge Resources of an Interdisciplinary Geriatric Health Team via Electronic Networking

    Emery, Erin E.; Lapidos, Stan; Eisenstein, Amy R.; Ivan, Iulia I.; Golden, Robyn L.


    Purpose: To demonstrate the feasibility of the BRIGHTEN Program (Bridging Resources of an Interdisciplinary Geriatric Health Team via Electronic Networking), an interdisciplinary team intervention for assessing and treating older adults for depression in outpatient primary and specialty medical clinics. The BRIGHTEN team collaborates "virtually"…

  6. The module of methodical support in system of electronic educational resources as the innovative element of the modern maintenance of formation

    Ольга Николаевна Крылова


    Full Text Available The article introduces some results of research, which were devoted to evaluation of tearches' mobility to introduce innovations in the contents of education. The author considers innovative potential of modules of the methodical support for system of electronic educational resources.

  7. Charting a Course through CORAL: Texas A&M University Libraries' Experience Implementing an Open-Source Electronic Resources Management System

    Hartnett, Eric; Beh, Eugenia; Resnick, Taryn; Ugaz, Ana; Tabacaru, Simona


    In 2010, after two previous unsuccessful attempts at electronic resources management system (ERMS) implementation, Texas A&M University (TAMU) Libraries set out once again to find an ERMS that would fit its needs. After surveying the field, TAMU Libraries selected the University of Notre Dame Hesburgh Libraries-developed, open-source ERMS,…

  8. The BRIGHTEN Program: Implementation and Evaluation of a Program to Bridge Resources of an Interdisciplinary Geriatric Health Team via Electronic Networking

    Emery, Erin E.; Lapidos, Stan; Eisenstein, Amy R.; Ivan, Iulia I.; Golden, Robyn L.


    Purpose: To demonstrate the feasibility of the BRIGHTEN Program (Bridging Resources of an Interdisciplinary Geriatric Health Team via Electronic Networking), an interdisciplinary team intervention for assessing and treating older adults for depression in outpatient primary and specialty medical clinics. The BRIGHTEN team collaborates "virtually"…

  9. Electronic Information Resources (EIR Adoption in Private University Libraries: The Moderating Effect of Productivity and Relative Advantage on Perceived Usefulness

    Izuagbe, Roland


    Full Text Available The study tested a hybrid model with constructs drawn from the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM and Diffusion of Innovation (DOI theory in order to examine the moderating effect of productivity and relative advantage (RA on perceived usefulness (PU vis-à-vis electronic information resources (EIR adoption in private university libraries in Ogun and Osun States of Nigeria. The descriptive research design was adopted in the study. The population consisted of 61 (55.0% librarians and 50 (45.0% library officers (totaling 116—100% in Babcock University, Bells University, Covenant University, Bowen University, Oduduwa University, and Redeemer's University. Purposive sampling procedure was adopted after which total enumeration was used since the total population is small. The questionnaire was used for data collection. Of the 116 copies of the questionnaire administered, 111 (95.7% were found usable. The instrument was structured based on a 4-point Likert agreement scale of Strongly Agree, Agree, Disagree, and Strongly Disagree. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics like tables of frequency counts and percentage. The findings revealed that productivity and relative advantage are significant moderators of perceived usefulness of EIR adoption in private university libraries in Ogun and Osun States, Nigeria.

  10. Social thermoregulation and torpor in the Siberian hamster.

    Jefimow, Małgorzata; Głabska, Marta; Wojciechowski, Michał S


    Social thermoregulation and huddling bring about energy benefits to animals sharing a nest because of the smaller surface-to-volume ratio of a huddle and the higher local temperature in the nest. We tested whether living in groups and huddling affect daily torpor, metabolic rate and seasonal changes in the body mass of a small heterothermic rodent, the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus), housed under semi-natural conditions both singly and in groups of four litter-mates. We predicted that in hamsters housed in groups: (1) synchronized torpor bouts would be longer and deeper than non-synchronized ones but shallower than in solitary hamsters, (2) seasonal variations in metabolic rate would be lower than in solitary hamsters, and (3) the winter decrease in body mass would be smaller in grouped than in singly housed hamsters. We found that group housing led to a smaller decrease in body mass in winter, and affected the length and depth of daily torpor. In group-living hamsters more than 50% of all torpor episodes were synchronized and torpid animals were often found in huddles formed of all cage-mates. The longest and deepest torpor bouts in groups were recorded when all animals in a group entered torpor simultaneously. Although the minimum body temperature during torpor was higher, torpor duration was slightly longer than in solitary hamsters. We did not record significant differences in the body mass-adjusted rate of oxygen consumption between solitary and grouped animals, either in the cold or at the lower critical temperature. We conclude that social thermoregulation enables maintenance of a larger body mass, and thus a larger body fat content, which can ensure better body condition at the beginning of the reproductive season.

  11. Proteomic Analysis of Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells

    Baycin-Hizal, Deniz; Tabb, David L.; Chaerkady, Raghothama; Chen, Lily; Lewis, Nathan E.; Nagarajan, Harish; Sarkaria, Vishaldeep; Kumar, Amit; Wolozny, Daniel; Colao, Joe; Jacobson, Elena; Tian, Yuan; O'Meally, Robert N.; Krag, Sharon S.; Cole, Robert N.; Palsson, Bernhard O.; Zhang, Hui; Betenbaugh, Michael


    In order to complement the recent genomic sequencing of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, proteomic analysis was performed on CHO including the cellular proteome, secretome, and glycoproteome using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) of multiple fractions obtained from gel electrophoresis, multi-dimensional liquid chromatography, and solid phase extraction of glycopeptides (SPEG). From the 120 different mass spectrometry analyses generating 682,097 MS/MS spectra, 93,548 unique peptide sequences were identified with at most a 0.02 false discovery rate (FDR). A total of 6164 grouped proteins were identified from both glycoproteome and proteome analysis, representing an 8-fold increase in the number of proteins currently identified in the CHO proteome. Furthermore, this is the first proteomic study done using CHO genome exclusively which provides for more accurate identification of proteins. From this analysis, the CHO codon frequency was determined and found to be distinct from humans, which will facilitate expression of human proteins in CHO cells. Analysis of the combined proteomic and mRNA data sets indicated the enrichment of a number of pathways including protein processing and apoptosis but depletion of proteins involved in steroid hormone and glycosphingolipid metabolism. 504 of the detected proteins included N-acetylation modifications and 1292 different proteins were observed to be N-glycosylated. This first large-scale proteomic analysis will enhance the knowledge base about CHO capabilities for recombinant expression and provide information useful in cell engineering efforts aimed at modifying CHO cellular functions. PMID:22971049

  12. Curcumin prevents bile canalicular alterations in the liver of hamsters infected with Opisthorchis viverrini.

    Jattujan, Prapaporn; Pinlaor, Somchai; Charoensuk, Lakhanawan; Arunyanart, Channarong; Welbat, Jariya Umka; Chaijaroonkhanarak, Wunnee


    Opisthorchis viverrini infection causes inflammation and liver injury leading to periductal fibrosis. Little is known about the pathological alterations in bile canaliculi in opisthorchiasis. This study aimed to investigate bile canalicular alterations in O. viverrini-infected hamsters and to examine the chemopreventive effects of curcumin on such changes. Hamsters were infected with O. viverrini and one group of animals was fed with 1% dietary curcumin supplement. Animals were examined during the acute infection phase, days 21 and 30 post-infection (PI) and chronic infection phase (day 90 PI). Scanning electron microscopy revealed that in the infected group fed with a normal diet, bile canaliculi became slightly tortuous by 30 day PI and more tortuous at day 90 PI. Transmission electron microscopy showed a reduction in microvilli density of canaliculi starting at day 30 PI, with a marked loss of microvilli at day 90 PI. These ultrastructral changes were slightly seen at day 21 PI, which was similar to that found in infected animals fed with 1% curcumin-supplemented diet. Notably, curcumin treatment prevented the reduction of microvilli density, reduced the dilation of bile canaliculi, and decreased the tortuosity of the bile canaliculi relative to non-infected animals on a normal diet at days 30 and 90 PI. These results suggest that curcumin reduces alteration of bile canaliculi and may be a promising agent to prevent the onset of bile duct abnormalities induced by O. viverrini infection.

  13. Characterization of the DNA of the hamster papovavirus: I. Genom length and molecular cloning.

    Vogel, F; Zimmermann, W; Krause, H; Scherneck, S


    The complete genome of the hamster papovavirus (HaPV) which was isolated from virions found in multiple skin tumors of the Syrian hamsters was measured by electron microscopy and cloned in Escherichia coli using the certified plasmid vector pBR322. The cloned viral DNA were characterized by digestion of the recombinant DNA with various restriction enzymes followed by comparison of their electrophoretic mobilities in agarose gels with that of similarly digested uncloned DNA and by electron microscopy to determine the genome size of cloned HaPV DNA. The restriction enzyme analysis of the cloned HaPV DNA showed the same cleavage pattern as the corresponding fragments from the uncloned DNA. No major insertions or deletions could be detected by heteroduplex analysis between cloned HaPV DNA and the starting material. The estimated genome size of 5.52 kb for HaPV DNA is approx. 300 bases larger than those determined for other known papovaviruses as SV40 or polyoma.

  14. Hamster and Murine Models of Severe Destructive Lyme Arthritis

    Erik Munson


    Full Text Available Arthritis is a frequent complication of infection in humans with Borrelia burgdorferi. Weeks to months following the onset of Lyme borreliosis, a histopathological reaction characteristic of synovitis including bone, joint, muscle, or tendon pain may occur. A subpopulation of patients may progress to a chronic, debilitating arthritis months to years after infection which has been classified as severe destructive Lyme arthritis. This arthritis involves focal bone erosion and destruction of articular cartilage. Hamsters and mice are animal models that have been utilized to study articular manifestations of Lyme borreliosis. Infection of immunocompetent LSH hamsters or C3H mice results in a transient synovitis. However, severe destructive Lyme arthritis can be induced by infecting irradiated hamsters or mice and immunocompetent Borrelia-vaccinated hamsters, mice, and interferon-gamma- (IFN-γ- deficient mice with viable B. burgdorferi. The hamster model of severe destructive Lyme arthritis facilitates easy assessment of Lyme borreliosis vaccine preparations for deleterious effects while murine models of severe destructive Lyme arthritis allow for investigation of mechanisms of immunopathology.

  15. Social context modulates food hoarding in Syrian hamsters

    Bibiana Montoya


    Full Text Available The effect of the presence of a con-specific in the temporal organization of food hoarding was studied in two varieties of Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus: golden and long-haired. Four male hamsters of each variety were used. Their foraging behavior was observed during four individual and four shared trials in which animals were not competing for the same food source or territory. During individual trials, long-haired hamsters consumed food items directly from the food source, transporting and hoarding only remaining pieces. During shared trials, the long-haired variety hoarded food items before consumption, and increased the duration of hoarding trips, food handling in the storage, and cache size. Golden hamsters maintained the same temporal organization of hoarding behavior (i.e., hoarding food items before consumption throughout both individual and shared trials. However, the golden variety increased handling time at the food source and decreased the duration of hoarding trips, the latency of hoarding and storing size throughout the shared trials. In Syrian hamsters, the presence of a con-specific may signal high probability of food source depletion suggesting that social pressures over food availability might facilitate hoarding behavior. Further studies are required to evaluate cost-benefit balance of food hoarding and the role of cache pilferage in this species.

  16. Interval timer control of puberty in photoinhibited Siberian hamsters.

    Park, Jin Ho; Kauffman, Alexander S; Paul, Matthew J; Butler, Matthew P; Beery, Annaliese K; Costantini, Ruth M; Zucker, Irving


    Puberty, which is markedly delayed in male Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) born into short day lengths, is controlled by an interval timer regulated by the duration of nocturnal melatonin secretion. Properties of the interval timer were assessed by perturbing normal patterns of melatonin secretion in males gestated and maintained thereafter in 1 of 2 short day lengths, 10 h light/day (10 L) or 12L. Melatonin secretion of short-day hamsters was suppressed by constant light treatment or modified by daily injection of propranolol to mimic nocturnal melatonin durations typical of long-day hamsters. Constant light treatment during weeks 3 to 5 induced early incomplete gonadal growth in 12L but not 10 L hamsters but did not affect late onset of gonadal development indicative of puberty in either photoperiod. Propranolol treatment during postnatal weeks 3 to 5 induced transient growth of the testes and ultimately delayed the timing of puberty by 3 weeks. Similar treatments between weeks 5 and 7 or on alternate weeks for 24 weeks did not affect the interval timer. The first 2 weeks after weaning may constitute a critical period during which the interval timer is highly responsive to photoperiod. Alternatively, the hamsters' photoperiodic history rather than age or developmental stage may be the critical variable. The interpolation of long-day melatonin signals at the time of weaning does not appear to reset the interval timer to its zero position but may reduce timer responsiveness to long-day melatonin signals several weeks later.

  17. Pineal melatonin synthesis in Syrian hamsters: A summary

    Rollag, M. D.


    During the past decade there has been ample documentation of the proposition that the pineal gland mediates photoperiodic influences upon reproductive behavior of hamsters. It is commonly hypothesized that the pineal gland expresses its activity by transformation of photoperiodic information into an hormonal output, that hormone being melatonin. If this hypothesis is correct, there must be some essential diffrence in melatonin's output when hamsters are exposed to different photoperiodic environments. The experiments summarized in this communication analyze pineal melatonin contents in Syrian hamsters maintained in a variety of photoperiodic conditions during different physiological states. The results demonstrate that adult hamsters have a daily surge in pineal melatonin content throughout their lifetime when exposed to simulated annual photoperiodic cycles. There is some fluctuation in the amount of pineal melatonin produced during different physiological states and photoperiodic environments, but these fluctuations seem small when compared to those normally found for other regulatory hormones. When hamsters are exposed to different photoperiodic regimens, the daily melatonin surge maintains a relatively constant phase relationship with respect to the onset of daily activity. There is a concomitant change in its phase relationship with respect to light-dark transitions.

  18. Masculine sexual activity affects slow wave sleep in Golden hamsters.

    Jiménez-Anguiano, A; Arteaga-Silva, M; Velázquez-Moctezuma, J


    The sleep pattern is modified by events occurring during wakefulness. In rats, it has been shown that male sexual behavior has a direct influence on sleeping patterns, increasing slow wave sleep (SWS) duration. On the other hand, the sexual behavior pattern of the male Golden hamster differs from the copulatory pattern of male rats. Male hamsters copulate faster and they do not display the motor inhibition observed in rats after each ejaculation. Moreover, close to exhaustion, hamsters display a behavioral pattern known as Long Intromission, which has been linked to an sexual inhibitory process. The present study was performed to determine the effects of male sexual activity on the sleep pattern in hamsters. Subjects were allowed to copulate for 30 and 60 min. In addition, the effect of locomotor activity was also assessed. The results show that male sexual behavior induced a significant increase of SWS II, with a reduction of wakefulness. No effect was observed on REM sleep. Locomotor activity produced only a slight effect on sleep. The results are discussed in terms of the similarities between the effects observed after sexual behavior on sleep in rats and hamsters, despite the substantial differences in the behavioral pattern.

  19. Circadian regulation of cortisol release in behaviorally split golden hamsters.

    Lilley, Travis R; Wotus, Cheryl; Taylor, Daniel; Lee, Jennifer M; de la Iglesia, Horacio O


    The master circadian clock located within the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is necessary for the circadian rhythm of glucocorticoid (GC) release. The pathways by which the SCN sustains rhythmic GC release remain unclear. We studied the circadian regulation of cortisol release in the behaviorally split golden hamster, in which the single bout of circadian locomotor activity splits into two bouts approximately 12 h apart after exposing the animals to constant light conditions. We show that unsplit control hamsters present a single peak of cortisol release that is concomitant with a single peak of ACTH release. In contrast, split hamsters show two peaks of cortisol release that are approximately 12 h appart and are appropriately phased to each locomotor activity bout but surprisingly do not rely on rhythmic release of ACTH. Our results are consistent with a model in which the circadian pacemaker within the SCN regulates the circadian release of GC via input to the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and via a second regulatory pathway, which likely involves sympathetic innervation of the adrenal and can operate even in the absence of ACTH circadian rhythmic release. Furthermore, we show that although the overall 24-h cortisol output in split hamsters is lower than in unsplit controls, split hamsters release constant low levels of ACTH. This result suggests that the timing, rather than the absolute amount, of cortisol release is more critical for the induction of negative feedback effects that regulate the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis.

  20. 9 CFR 3.36 - Primary enclosures used to transport live guinea pigs and hamsters.


    ... live guinea pigs and hamsters. 3.36 Section 3.36 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH..., Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Guinea Pigs and Hamsters Transportation Standards § 3.36 Primary enclosures used to transport live guinea pigs and hamsters. No person subject to the Animal...

  1. Retention of Teflon particles in hamster lungs: a stereological study.

    Geiser, M; Gerber, P; Maye, I; Im Hof, V; Gehr, P


    The significance of aerosols in medicine is increased when the distribution of inhaled aerosols in the different respiratory tract compartments and their interaction with lung structures are known. The aim of this study was to investigate the retention of the hydrophobic Teflon spheres used in human beings so as to analyze their regional distribution and to study their interaction with lung structures at the deposition site. Six intubated and anesthetized Syrian Golden hamsters inhaled aerosols of Teflon particles with an aerodynamic diameter of 5.5 microns by continuous negative-pressure ventilation adjusted to slow breathing. Lungs were fixed by intravascular perfusion within 21 minutes after inhalation was started, and tissue samples were taken and processed for light and electron microscopy. The stereological (fractionator) analysis revealed that particle retention was the greatest in alveoli (72.4%), less in intrapulmonary conducting airways (22.9%), and the least in extrapulmonary mainstem bronchi (0.3%) and trachea (4.4%). Particles were found submerged in the aqueous lining layer and in close vicinity to epithelial cells. In intrapulmonary conducting airways, 21.5% of Teflon particles had been phagocytized by macrophages. This study with highly hydrophobic Teflon particles clearly demonstrates that for spheres of this size, surface tension and line tension forces rather than the particles' surface free energy are decisive for the displacement of particles into the aqueous phase by surfactant. It was this displacement that enabled subsequent interaction with macrophages. Refined knowledge of particle retention may help us to better understand the biological response to inhaled particles.

  2. A Syrian golden hamster model recapitulating ebola hemorrhagic fever.

    Ebihara, Hideki; Zivcec, Marko; Gardner, Donald; Falzarano, Darryl; LaCasse, Rachel; Rosenke, Rebecca; Long, Dan; Haddock, Elaine; Fischer, Elizabeth; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Feldmann, Heinz


    Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) is a severe viral infection for which no effective treatment or vaccine is currently available. While the nonhuman primate (NHP) model is used for final evaluation of experimental vaccines and therapeutic efficacy, rodent models have been widely used in ebolavirus research because of their convenience. However, the validity of rodent models has been questioned given their low predictive value for efficacy testing of vaccines and therapeutics, a result of the inconsistent manifestation of coagulopathy seen in EHF. Here, we describe a lethal Syrian hamster model of EHF using mouse-adapted Ebola virus. Infected hamsters displayed most clinical hallmarks of EHF, including severe coagulopathy and uncontrolled host immune responses. Thus, the hamster seems to be superior to the existing rodent models, offering a better tool for understanding the critical processes in pathogenesis and providing a new model for evaluating prophylactic and postexposure interventions prior to testing in NHPs.

  3. Absence of clonidine-induced food intake in hamsters.

    Katz, N L; Brne, T; Bolin, J; Schlemmer, R F


    Previous studies support an interaction between noradrenergic and opiate systems in the control of food intake. For example, in both rats and rabbits, food intake stimulated by the noradrenergic agent clonidine is reduced by opiate antagonists. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether or not clonidine stimulated the food intake of non-food-deprived hamsters, a species which appears to lack an opiate-sensitive feeding system. Hamsters fed a chow diet did not increase their food intake when injected with clonidine in doses ranging from 0.05 to 0.25 mg/kg. Furthermore, the animals did not increase their intake of sunflower seeds, a preferred diet for hamsters.

  4. Voluntary exercise at the expense of reproductive success in Djungarian hamsters ( Phodopus sungorus)

    Petri, Ines; Scherbarth, Frank; Steinlechner, Stephan


    Energy demands of gestation and lactation represent a severe challenge for small mammals. Therefore, additional energetic burdens may compromise successful breeding. In small rodents, food restriction, cold exposure (also in combination) and wheel running to obtain food have been shown to diminish reproductive outcome. Although exhibited responses such as lower incidence of pregnancy, extended lactation periods and maternal infanticide were species dependent, their common function is to adjust energetic costs to the metabolic state reflecting the trade-off between maternal investment and self-maintenance. In the present study, we sought to examine whether voluntary exercise affects reproduction in Djungarian hamsters ( Phodopus sungorus), which are known for their high motivation to run in a wheel. Voluntary exercise resulted in two different effects on reproduction; in addition to increased infanticide and cannibalism, which was evident across all experiments, the results of one experiment provided evidence that free access to a running wheel may prevent successful pregnancy. It seems likely that the impact of voluntary wheel running on reproduction was associated with a reduction of internal energy resources evoked by extensive exercise. Since the hamsters were neither food-restricted nor forced to run in the present study, an energetic deficit as reason for infanticide in exercising dams would emphasise the particularly high motivation to run in a wheel.

  5. Microvascular pressure distribution in the hamster testis.

    Sweeney, T E; Rozum, J S; Desjardins, C; Gore, R W


    Convective transport is a critical element in the regulation of steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis in the testis. Steroid hormones are distributed to their target cells within seminiferous tubules via interstitial fluid. The movement of interstitial fluid and lymph, which transports protein hormones and many of the substrates required for spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis, is driven by capillary filtration. Despite the importance of convective transport in testicular function, however, the mechanisms regulating transvascular exchange in the testis are unknown. As a first step in understanding this process, we measured directly the microvascular hydrostatic pressure distribution in the hamster testis (pentobarbital sodium, 70 mg/kg ip). Using a servo-null transducer, intravascular pressure was measured in all vessel types accessible beneath the surface of the testis of 19 animals. Systemic arterial pressure averaged 89 +/- 2 (SE) mmHg. The most significant observations were that mean capillary pressure was extremely low (10.1 +/- 0.8 mmHg) and remarkably constant (range 8.2-13.3 mmHg), despite a 45 mmHg range in systemic mean arterial pressure among the animals observed. The maintenance of a low hydrostatic pressure in testicular capillaries may serve to sustain fluid filtration at a rate that prevents washout of essential solutes while preserving convective transport. Unfortunately, the anatomical and functional characteristics that determine this unique microvascular environment may also expose the testis to significant pathological risks. For example, the large pre- to postcapillary resistance ratio observed suggests that testicular capillaries must be highly susceptible to increases in venous pressure.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Homeostatic regulation of sleep in arrhythmic Siberian hamsters.

    Larkin, Jennie E; Yokogawa, Tohei; Heller, H Craig; Franken, Paul; Ruby, Norman F


    Sleep is regulated by independent yet interacting circadian and homeostatic processes. The present study used a novel approach to study sleep homeostasis in the absence of circadian influences by exposing Siberian hamsters to a simple phase delay of the photocycle to make them arrhythmic. Because these hamsters lacked any circadian organization, their sleep homeostasis could be studied in the absence of circadian interactions. Control animals retained circadian rhythmicity after the phase shift and re-entrained to the phase-shifted photocycle. These animals displayed robust daily sleep-wake rhythms with consolidated sleep during the light phase beginning about 1 h after light onset. This marked sleep-wake pattern was circadian in that it persisted in constant darkness. The distribution of sleep in the arrhythmic hamsters over 24 h was similar to that in the light phase of rhythmic animals. Therefore, daily sleep amounts were higher in arrhythmic animals compared with rhythmic ones. During 2- and 6-h sleep deprivations (SD), it was more difficult to keep arrhythmic hamsters awake than it was for rhythmic hamsters. Because the arrhythmic animals obtained more non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS) during the SD, they showed a diminished compensatory response in NREMS EEG slow-wave activity during recovery sleep. When amounts of sleep during the SD were taken into account, there were no differences in sleep homeostasis between experimental and control hamsters. Thus loss of circadian control did not alter the homeostatic response to SD. This supports the view that circadian and homeostatic influences on sleep regulation are independent processes.

  7. Susceptibility of hamsters to Clostridium difficile isolates of differing toxinotype.

    Anthony M Buckley

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile is the most commonly associated cause of antibiotic associated disease (AAD, which caused ∼21,000 cases of AAD in 2011 in the U.K. alone. The golden Syrian hamster model of CDI is an acute model displaying many of the clinical features of C. difficile disease. Using this model we characterised three clinical strains of C. difficile, all differing in toxinotype; CD1342 (PaLoc negative, M68 (toxinotype VIII & BI-7 (toxinotype III. The naturally occurring non-toxic strain colonised all hamsters within 1-day post challenge (d.p.c. with high-levels of spores being shed in the faeces of animals that appeared well throughout the entire experiment. However, some changes including increased neutrophil influx and unclotted red blood cells were observed at early time points despite the fact that the known C. difficile toxins (TcdA, TcdB and CDT are absent from the genome. In contrast, hamsters challenged with strain M68 resulted in a 45% mortality rate, with those that survived challenge remaining highly colonised. It is currently unclear why some hamsters survive infection, as bacterial & toxin levels and histology scores were similar to those culled at a similar time-point. Hamsters challenged with strain BI-7 resulted in a rapid fatal infection in 100% of the hamsters approximately 26 hr post challenge. Severe caecal pathology, including transmural neutrophil infiltrates and extensive submucosal damage correlated with high levels of toxin measured in gut filtrates ex vivo. These data describes the infection kinetics and disease outcomes of 3 clinical C. difficile isolates differing in toxin carriage and provides additional insights to the role of each toxin in disease progression.

  8. A Study on the Model for Resources Matching of Electronic Bartering%电子易货资源匹配模型研究

    吴剑云; 张嵩


    By exchanging idle goods and services, electronic bartering can help enterprises solve dull sale problems, shortage of funds, overstocks and other problems without sufficient cash. Relying on the Internet and the e-commerce platform, electronic bartering removes the traditional bartering limitations, greatly expands the trading object and range, improves the transaction efficiency, and provides additional channels for economic development. How to promote more successful barters among multiple barterers? A key factor is the matching of barter resources. Focusing on the automatic matching of resources in the electronic barter, this paper proposes a network model to help maximize resources matching and provide recommendation information for barter participants, thereby raising the transaction rate and making the barter market prosperous.According to the type and quantity of barter resources, barter market can be divided into two types. In the first type, the supply and demand of the barter market is related to the same type of resources and each barterer owns only one type of resource. In the second type, the supply and demand of the barter market is linked to many types of resources and each barterer owns multiple resources to be exchanged. The first case has been resolved in the relevant document by using the graph theory to solve digraph circuits. This paper is interested in studying the second type of barter. Suppose the barter market has m barterers and n resources. Each barterer owns diverse types of barter resources, and is interested in other types of resources. The barterer a will provide other barterers his own resources only if he gets the resources he needs from the barterer b. Note that each of the bartered resource is regarded as having equal value to any other resources. The main objective is to maximize the number of resources that are bartered.Next, this paper proposes a math model of automatic resources matching by systematically analyzing resource

  9. Efficient gene targeting in golden Syrian hamsters by the CRISPR/Cas9 system.

    Zhiqiang Fan

    Full Text Available The golden Syrian hamster is the model of choice or the only rodent model for studying many human diseases. However, the lack of gene targeting tools in hamsters severely limits their use in biomedical research. Here, we report the first successful application of the CRISPR/Cas9 system to efficiently conduct gene targeting in hamsters. We designed five synthetic single-guide RNAs (sgRNAs--three for targeting the coding sequences for different functional domains of the hamster STAT2 protein, one for KCNQ1, and one for PPP1R12C--and demonstrated that the CRISPR/Cas9 system is highly efficient in introducing site-specific mutations in hamster somatic cells. We then developed unique pronuclear (PN and cytoplasmic injection protocols in hamsters and produced STAT2 knockout (KO hamsters by injecting the sgRNA/Cas9, either in the form of plasmid or mRNA, targeting exon 4 of hamster STAT2. Among the produced hamsters, 14.3% and 88.9% harbored germline-transmitted STAT2 mutations from plasmid and mRNA injection, respectively. Notably, 10.4% of the animals produced from mRNA injection were biallelically targeted. This is the first success in conducting site-specific gene targeting in hamsters and can serve as the foundation for developing other genetically engineered hamster models for human disease.

  10. Cloning of a hamster anti-mouse CD79B antibody sequences and identification of a new hamster immunoglobulin lambda constant IGLC gene region.

    Haggart, Ryan; Perera, Jason; Huang, Haochu


    Anti-CD79 antibodies have been effective at targeting B cell lymphoma cells and depleting B cells in animal models. In order to engineer recombinant antibodies with additional effector functions in mice, we cloned and sequenced the full-length cDNAs of the heavy and light chain of a hamster anti-mouse CD79B antibody. Although hamster antibodies represent a unique source of monoclonal antibodies against mouse, rat, and human antigens, sequence information of hamster immunoglobulins (IG) is sparse. Here, we report a new hamster (Cricetulus migratorius) IG lambda constant (IGLC) gene region that is most homologous to mouse IGLC2 and IGLC3.

  11. The Use and Maintenance of University Library Electronic Resources%浅议大学图书馆电子资源的利用与维护

    马鹏飞; 熊豫玲


    随着科学技术的飞速发展,高新信息技术的广泛应用,大学图书馆的工作内容和方法也面临新的挑战,为了使用户更好的利用大学图书馆的电子资源,提高电子资源利用率,实现大学图书馆数字化,本文主要从电子资源的利用和维护方面进行探讨。%With the rapid development of science and technology,the extensive application of high-tech information technology, University of content and methods of library work is also facing new challenges in order to make better use of university library users to electronic resources,improve the utilization of electronic resources to achieve the University Library digital,paper, from the use of electronic resources and maintenance were discussed.

  12. Melatonin production accompanies arousal from daily torpor in Siberian hamsters.

    Larkin, Jennie E; Yellon, Steven M; Zucker, Irving


    Arousal from deep hibernation is accompanied by a transient rise of melatonin (Mel) in circulation; there are no comparable analyses of Mel concentrations in species that undergo much shallower, shorter duration episodes of daily torpor. Serum Mel concentrations were determined during arousal from both natural daily torpor and torpor induced by 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) treatment (2,500 mg/kg, intraperitoneal [IP]); blood samples were drawn from the retro-orbital sinus of anesthetized Siberian hamsters. For animals kept in darkness during torpor, Mel concentrations were highest during early arousal when thermogenesis is maximal, and they decreased as body temperature increased during arousal and returned to baseline once euthermia was reestablished. In hamsters kept in the light during the torpor bout, Mel concentrations were elevated above basal values during arousal, but the response was significantly blunted in comparison with values recorded in darkness. Increased Mel concentrations were detected in hamsters only during arousal from torpor (either natural or 2-DG induced) and were not simply a result of the drug treatment; hamsters that remained euthermic or manifested mild hypothermia after drug treatment maintained basal Mel concentrations. We propose that increased Mel production may reflect enhanced sympathetic activation associated with intense thermogenesis during arousal from torpor rather than an adjustment of the circadian rhythm of Mel secretion.

  13. Development of Taenia pisiformis in golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus

    Maravilla Pablo


    Full Text Available Abstract The life cycle of Taenia pisiformis includes canines as definitive hosts and rabbits as intermediate hosts. Golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus is a rodent that has been successfully used as experimental model of Taenia solium taeniosis. In the present study we describe the course of T. pisiformis infection in experimentally infected golden hamsters. Ten females, treated with methyl-prednisolone acetate were infected with three T. pisiformis cysticerci each one excised from one rabbit. Proglottids released in faeces and adults recovered during necropsy showed that all animals were infected. Eggs obtained from the hamsters' tapeworms, were assessed for viability using trypan blue or propidium iodide stains. Afterwards, some rabbits were inoculated with eggs, necropsy was performed after seven weeks and viable cysticerci were obtained. Our results demonstrate that the experimental model of adult Taenia pisiformis in golden hamster can replace the use of canines in order to study this parasite and to provide eggs and adult tapeworms to be used in different types of experiments.

  14. Enhanced longevity in tau mutant Syrian hamsters, Mesocricetus auratus

    Oklejewicz, Malgorzata; Daan, Serge


    The single-gene mutation tau in the Syrian hamster shortens the circadian period by about 20% in the homozygous mutant and simultaneously increases the mass-specific metabolic rate by about 20%. Both effects might be expected to lead to a change in longevity. To test such expectations, the life span

  15. Development of Taenia pisiformis in golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus).

    Toral-Bastida, Elizabeth; Garza-Rodriguez, Adriana; Jimenez-Gonzalez, Diego E; Garcia-Cortes, Ramon; Avila-Ramirez, Guillermina; Maravilla, Pablo; Flisser, Ana


    The life cycle of Taenia pisiformis includes canines as definitive hosts and rabbits as intermediate hosts. Golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) is a rodent that has been successfully used as experimental model of Taenia solium taeniosis. In the present study we describe the course of T. pisiformis infection in experimentally infected golden hamsters. Ten females, treated with methyl-prednisolone acetate were infected with three T. pisiformis cysticerci each one excised from one rabbit. Proglottids released in faeces and adults recovered during necropsy showed that all animals were infected. Eggs obtained from the hamsters' tapeworms, were assessed for viability using trypan blue or propidium iodide stains. Afterwards, some rabbits were inoculated with eggs, necropsy was performed after seven weeks and viable cysticerci were obtained. Our results demonstrate that the experimental model of adult Taenia pisiformis in golden hamster can replace the use of canines in order to study this parasite and to provide eggs and adult tapeworms to be used in different types of experiments.

  16. Bioavailability and disposition of solanine in rats and hamsters

    Groen K; Pereboom-de Fauw DPKH; Besamusca P; Beekhof PK; Speijers GJA; Derks HJGM


    The toxicokinetics of [3H]-alpha-solanine after oral (po) and intravenous (iv) administration in rats and hamsters were studied, in order to decide which is the most appropriate model in risk assessment studies. The iv dose was 54 mug/kg; the oral dose was 170 mug/kg. After iv administration, the

  17. Barriers to electronic access and delivery of educational information in resource constrained public schools: a case of Greater Tubatse Municipality

    Pholotho, T


    Full Text Available Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are capable of expanding access to quality education, educational resources and provide teachers with new skills. Nevertheless, a majority of rural public schools have limited ICTs, mainly due...

  18. Electronic Grey Literature in Accelerator Science and Its Allied Subjects : Selected Web Resources for Scientists and Engineers

    Rajendiran, P


    Grey literature Web resources in the field of accelerator science and its allied subjects are collected for the scientists and engineers of RRCAT (Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology). For definition purposes the different types of grey literature are described. The Web resources collected and compiled in this article (with an overview and link for each) specifically focus on technical reports, preprints or e-prints, which meet the main information needs of RRCAT users.

  19. A Consensus Genome-scale Reconstruction of Chinese Hamster Ovary Cell Metabolism

    Hefzi, Hooman; Ang, Kok Siong; Hanscho, Michael


    in CHO and associated them with >1,700 genes in the Cricetulus griseus genome. The genome-scale metabolic model based on this reconstruction, iCHO1766, and cell-line-specific models for CHO-K1, CHO-S, and CHO-DG44 cells provide the biochemical basis of growth and recombinant protein production......Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells dominate biotherapeutic protein production and are widely used in mammalian cell line engineering research. To elucidate metabolic bottlenecks in protein production and to guide cell engineering and bioprocess optimization, we reconstructed the metabolic pathways...... simulations show that the metabolic resources in CHO are more than three times more efficiently utilized for growth or recombinant protein synthesis following targeted efforts to engineer the CHO secretory pathway. This model will further accelerate CHO cell engineering and help optimize bioprocesses....

  20. Seasonal aspects of sleep in the Djungarian hamster

    Deboer Tom


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes in photoperiod and ambient temperature trigger seasonal adaptations in the physiology and behaviour of many species, including the Djungarian hamster. Exposure of the hamsters to a short photoperiod and low ambient temperature leads to a reduction of the polyphasic distribution of sleep and waking over the light and dark period. In contrast, a long photoperiod enhances the daily sleep-wake amplitude leading to a decline of slow-wave activity in NREM sleep within the light period. It is unknown whether these changes can be attributed specifically to photoperiod and/or ambient temperature, or whether endogenous components are contributing factors. The influence of endogenous factors was investigated by recording sleep in Djungarian hamsters invariably maintained at a low ambient temperature and fully adapted to a short photoperiod. The second recording was performed when they had returned to summer physiology, despite the maintenance of the 'winter' conditions. Results Clear winter-summer differences were seen in sleep distribution, while total sleep time was unchanged. A significantly higher light-dark cycle modulation in NREM sleep, REM sleep and waking was observed in hamsters in the summer physiological state compared to those in the winter state. Moreover, only in summer, REM sleep episodes were longer and waking bouts were shorter during the light period compared to the dark period. EEG power in the slow-wave range (0.75–4.0 Hz in both NREM sleep and REM sleep was higher in animals in the summer physiological state than in those in the 'winter' state. In winter SWA in NREM sleep was evenly distributed over the 24 h, while in summer it decreased during the light period and increased during the dark period. Conclusion Endogenous changes in the organism underlie the differences in sleep-wake redistribution we have observed previously in hamsters recorded in a short and long photoperiod.

  1. 电子资源许可使用的发展与创新%The Development and Innovation of the Use of the Electronic Resource License



      电子资源许可使用在我国发展时间较短,在其建立过程中还存在许可定价、购买模式、馆际互借以及电子资源的长期保存许可方式等难题。电子资源许可使用的发展与创新,需要根据用户需求制定发展战略,建立图书馆的读者监督管理制度和数字化资源服务制度,规范文献编目制度等,以提高电子信息资源与图书馆信息资源的使用效果和广泛的使用需求%  It's been a short time since the use of electronic resource licenses has developed in China; in addition, many problems ap-pear in the establishment process in terms of license pricing, purchase pattern, inter-library loan and long-term preservation ways of electronic resources. In order to develop and innovate the use of the license, libraries should develop strategies in accordance with the users' needs, establish a reader supervision system and a digital resource service system, and normalize the document cataloging sys-tem to enhance the utilization effect and meet the extensive demand for electronic and library information resources.

  2. Modeling Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus Infection in Golden Syrian Hamsters: Importance of STAT2 in Preventing Disease and Effective Treatment with Favipiravir.

    Gowen, Brian B; Westover, Jonna B; Miao, Jinxin; Van Wettere, Arnaud J; Rigas, Johanna D; Hickerson, Brady T; Jung, Kie-Hoon; Li, Rong; Conrad, Bettina L; Nielson, Skot; Furuta, Yousuke; Wang, Zhongde


    engineered to be deficient in a protein that helps protect humans and animals against viral infections. These hamsters were found to be susceptible to SFTSV and share disease features associated with the disease in humans. Importantly, we also show that SFTSV infection in hamsters can be effectively treated with a broad-spectrum antiviral drug approved for use in Japan. Our findings suggest that the new SFTS model will be an excellent resource to better understand SFTSV infection and disease as well as a valuable tool for evaluating promising antiviral drugs. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  3. The absorption of fat by intestine of golden hamster in vitro.



    Everted sacs of intestine from golden hamsters were incubated at 37 degrees C for at least 1 hour in vitro with emulsified lipid after removal of both pancreatic lipase and bile salts. The fine structure of intestinal epithelium is well preserved under these conditions. Absorption of fat by the intestinal mucosa in vitro closely resembles lipid absorption in vivo, as observed by both light and electron microscopy. The physiological significance of these observations is discussed. Tubular elements of the agranular endoplasmic reticulum are often strikingly abundant in the apical cytoplasm of intestinal absorptive cells. These have a role in the intracellular transport of fat since they frequently contain droplets of lipid derived from the incubation medium. The rate of fat accumulation in the epithelium appears to be proportional to the concentration in the medium.

  4. Clinician‐selected Electronic Information Resources do not Guarantee Accuracy in Answering Primary Care Physicians’ Information Needs. A review of: McKibbon, K. Ann, and Douglas B. Fridsma. “Effectiveness of Clinician‐selected Electronic Information Resources for Answering Primary Care Physicians’ Information Needs.” Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 13.6 (2006: 653‐9.

    Martha Ingrid Preddie


    Full Text Available Objective – To determine if electronic information resources selected by primary care physicians improve their ability to answer simulated clinical questions.Design – An observational study utilizing hour‐long interviews and think‐aloud protocols.Setting – The offices and clinics of primary care physicians in Canada and the United States.Subjects – Twenty‐five primary care physicians of whom 4 were women, 17 were from Canada, 22 were family physicians,and 24 were board certified.Methods – Participants provided responses to 23 multiple‐choice questions. Each physician then chose two questions and looked for the answers utilizing information resources of their own choice. The search processes, chosen resources and search times were noted. These were analyzed along with data on the accuracy of the answers and certainties related to the answer to each clinical question prior to the search.Main results – Twenty‐three physicians sought answers to 46 simulated clinical questions. Utilizing only electronic information resources, physicians spent a mean of 13.0 (SD 5.5 minutes searching for answers to the questions, an average of 7.3(SD 4.0 minutes for the first question and 5.8 (SD 2.2 minutes to answer the second question. On average, 1.8 resources were utilized per question. Resources that summarized information, such as the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, UpToDate and Clinical Evidence, were favored 39.2% of the time, MEDLINE (Ovid and PubMed 35.7%, and Internet resources including Google 22.6%. Almost 50% of the search and retrieval strategies were keyword‐based, while MeSH, subheadings and limiting were used less frequently. On average, before searching physicians answered 10 of 23 (43.5% questions accurately. For questions that were searched using clinician‐selected electronic resources, 18 (39.1% of the 46 answers were accurate before searching, while 19 (42.1% were accurate after searching. The difference of



    Objective: To investigate the roles of telomerase activity (TA) in relation to hamster buccal pouch tumor progression. Methods: male hamster were treated three times weekly with 0.5% of 7, 12-dimethyl- benzanthracene (DMBA) over a 15 weeks experimental period. Hamsters were sacrificed at 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 weeks after treatment. Telomerase activity of hamster buccal pouch tissue were measured along with the analyses of the formation of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch tumors. Results: DMBA-induced squamous cell carcinomas were found at the 6th week after dosing. Telomerase activity elevation began at the 3rd week and was increasing to a plateau at the 12th week. Conclusion: Our results show that telomerase activity in the target tissue may be detected at the early stage of the DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch tumor formation and suggests that telomerase activity may be used as a biomarker for an early clinical detection of buccal pouch cancer.

  6. Heat and cold acclimation in helium-cold hypothermia in the hamster.

    Musacchia, X. J.


    A study was made of the effects of acclimation of hamsters to high (34-35 C) and low (4-5 C) temperatures for periods up to 6 weeks on the induction of hypothermia in hamsters. Hypothermia was achieved by exposing hamsters to a helox mixture of 80% helium and 20% oxygen at 0 C. Hypothermic induction was most rapid (2-3 hr) in heat-acclimated hamsters and slowest (6-12 hr) in cold-acclimated hamsters. The induction period was intermediate (5-8 hr) in room temperature nonacclimated animals (controls). Survival time in hypothermia was relatable to previous temperature acclimations. The hypothesis that thermogenesis in cold-acclimated hamsters would accentuate resistance to induction of hypothermia was substantiated.

  7. Conceived on the City Electronic Waste Resource Mana oement Model%城市电子废弃物资源化管理模式构想

    熊贵琍; 余涛


    Investigated e- waste collection system the investigation, the whereabouts and electronic waste disposal in Httizhou city, the paper analyzed the Huizhou city e- waste collection and disposal of a series of problems, combined with the actual, conceived urban electronic waste resources management mode.%通过对惠州市电子废弃物收集体系组成、去向以及电子废弃物处置方式的调查,分析惠州市电子废弃物收集和处置存在的一系列问题,结合实际提出了城市电子废弃物资源化管理模式的初步构想。

  8. Cystolithiasis in a Syrian hamster: a different outcome

    D. Petrini


    Full Text Available A 14-month-old intact male Syrian hamster was admitted for lethargy and hematuria. A total body radiographic image and abdominal ultrasonography showed the presence of a vesical calculus. During cystotomy, a sterile urine sample was obtained and sent to the diagnostic laboratory along with the urolith for analysis. Urine culture was found negative for bacterial growth, and the urolith was identified as a calcium-oxalate stone. Diet supplementation with palmitoylethanolamide, glucosamine and hesperidin was adopted the day after discharge. One year follow up revealed no presence of vesical calculi. Although this is the report of a single clinical case, this outcome differs from the results reported in the literature characterized by recurrences after few months. Considering the positive outcome and the beneficial properties of palmitoylethanolamide, glucosamine, and hesperidin, these nutritional elements in Syrian hamsters, are recommended to reduce recurrence after surgical treatment of urolithiasis.

  9. Efficient and Rapid Development of Transgenic Hamster Models of TSEs Using a Radical New Technology


    by TOSK Inc. to introduce the human, sheep, and other prion genes into golden Syrian hamsters and to use the new transgenic animals both to measure...Transgenic Hamster Models of TSEs Using a Radical New Technology PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Robert G. Rohwer, Ph.D. Irena Alexeeva, Ph.D...From - To) 1 SEP 2003 - 31 AUG 2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Efficient and Rapid Development of Transgenic Hamster Models of

  10. Photoperiodic influences on ultradian rhythms of male Siberian hamsters.

    Prendergast, Brian J; Zucker, Irving


    Seasonal changes in mammalian physiology and behavior are proximately controlled by the annual variation in day length. Long summer and short winter day lengths markedly alter the amplitude of endogenous circadian rhythms and may affect ultradian oscillations, but the threshold photoperiods for inducing these changes are not known. We assessed the effects of short and intermediate day lengths and changes in reproductive physiology on circadian and ultradian rhythms of locomotor activity in Siberian hamsters. Males were maintained in a long photoperiod from birth (15 h light/day; 15 L) and transferred in adulthood to 1 of 7 experimental photoperiods ranging from 14 L to 9 L. Decreases in circadian rhythm (CR) robustness, mesor and amplitude were evident in photoperiods ≤14 L, as were delays in the timing of CR acrophase and expansion of nocturnal activity duration. Nocturnal ultradian rhythms (URs) were comparably prevalent in all day lengths, but 15 L markedly inhibited the expression of light-phase URs. The period (τ'), amplitude and complexity of URs increased in day lengths ≤13 L. Among hamsters that failed to undergo gonadal regression in short day lengths (nonresponders), τ' of the dark-phase UR was longer than in photoresponsive hamsters; in 13 L the incidence and amplitude of light-phase URs were greater in hamsters that did not undergo testicular regression. Day lengths as long as 14 L were sufficient to trigger changes in the waveform of CRs without affecting UR waveform. The transition from a long- to a short-day ultradian phenotype occurred for most UR components at day lengths of 12 L-13 L, thereby establishing different thresholds for CR and UR responses to day length. At the UR-threshold photoperiod of 13 L, differences in gonadal status were largely without effect on most UR parameters.

  11. Circadian arrhythmia dysregulates emotional behaviors in aged Siberian hamsters.

    Prendergast, Brian J; Onishi, Kenneth G; Patel, Priyesh N; Stevenson, Tyler J


    Emotional behaviors are influenced by the circadian timing system. Circadian disruptions are associated with depressive-like symptoms in clinical and preclinical populations. Circadian rhythm robustness declines markedly with aging and may contribute to susceptibility to emotional dysregulation in aged individuals. The present experiments used a model of chronic circadian arrhythmia generated noninvasively, via a series of circadian-disruptive light treatments, to investigate interactions between circadian desynchrony and aging on depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors, and on limbic neuroinflammatory gene expression that has been linked with emotionality. We also examined whether a social manipulation (group housing) would attenuate effects of arrhythmia on emotionality. In aged (14-18 months of age) male Siberian hamsters, circadian arrhythmia increased behavioral despair and decreased social motivation, but decreased exploratory anxiety. These effects were not evident in younger (5-9 months of age) hamsters. Social housing (3-5 hamsters/cage) abolished the effects of circadian arrhythmia on emotionality. Circadian arrhythmia alone was without effect on hippocampal or cortical interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (Ido) mRNA expression in aged hamsters, but social housing decreased hippocampal IL-1β and Ido mRNAs. The data demonstrate that circadian disruption can negatively impact affective state, and that this effect is pronounced in older individuals. Although clear associations between circadian arrhythmia and constitutive limbic proinflammatory activity were not evident, the present data suggest that social housing markedly inhibits constitutive hippocampal IL-1β and Ido activity, which may contribute to the ameliorating effects of social housing on a number of emotional behaviors.

  12. Photoperiodic influences on ultradian rhythms of male Siberian hamsters.

    Brian J Prendergast

    Full Text Available Seasonal changes in mammalian physiology and behavior are proximately controlled by the annual variation in day length. Long summer and short winter day lengths markedly alter the amplitude of endogenous circadian rhythms and may affect ultradian oscillations, but the threshold photoperiods for inducing these changes are not known. We assessed the effects of short and intermediate day lengths and changes in reproductive physiology on circadian and ultradian rhythms of locomotor activity in Siberian hamsters. Males were maintained in a long photoperiod from birth (15 h light/day; 15 L and transferred in adulthood to 1 of 7 experimental photoperiods ranging from 14 L to 9 L. Decreases in circadian rhythm (CR robustness, mesor and amplitude were evident in photoperiods ≤14 L, as were delays in the timing of CR acrophase and expansion of nocturnal activity duration. Nocturnal ultradian rhythms (URs were comparably prevalent in all day lengths, but 15 L markedly inhibited the expression of light-phase URs. The period (τ', amplitude and complexity of URs increased in day lengths ≤13 L. Among hamsters that failed to undergo gonadal regression in short day lengths (nonresponders, τ' of the dark-phase UR was longer than in photoresponsive hamsters; in 13 L the incidence and amplitude of light-phase URs were greater in hamsters that did not undergo testicular regression. Day lengths as long as 14 L were sufficient to trigger changes in the waveform of CRs without affecting UR waveform. The transition from a long- to a short-day ultradian phenotype occurred for most UR components at day lengths of 12 L-13 L, thereby establishing different thresholds for CR and UR responses to day length. At the UR-threshold photoperiod of 13 L, differences in gonadal status were largely without effect on most UR parameters.

  13. Circadian Regulation of Cortisol Release in Behaviorally Split Golden Hamsters


    The master circadian clock located within the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is necessary for the circadian rhythm of glucocorticoid (GC) release. The pathways by which the SCN sustains rhythmic GC release remain unclear. We studied the circadian regulation of cortisol release in the behaviorally split golden hamster, in which the single bout of circadian locomotor activity splits into two bouts approximately12 h apart after exposing the animals to constant light conditions. We sh...

  14. Accessibility and Use of Web-Based Electronic Resources by Physicians in a Psychiatric Institution in Nigeria

    Oduwole, Adebambo Adewale; Oyewumi, Olatundun


    Purpose: This study aims to examine the accessibility and use of web-based electronic databases on the Health InterNetwork Access to Research Initiative (HINARI) portal by physicians in the Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Aro--a psychiatry health institution in Nigeria. Design/methodology/approach: Collection of data was through the use of a three-part…

  15. Female-biased anorexia and anxiety in the Syrian hamster.

    Shannonhouse, John L; Fong, Li An; Clossen, Bryan L; Hairgrove, Ross E; York, Daniel C; Walker, Benjamin B; Hercules, Gregory W; Mertesdorf, Lauren M; Patel, Margi; Morgan, Caurnel


    Anorexia and anxiety cause significant mortality and disability with female biases and frequent comorbidity after puberty, but the scarcity of suitable animal models impedes understanding of their biological underpinnings. It is reported here that in adult or weanling Syrian hamsters, relative to social housing (SH), social separation (SS) induced anorexia characterized as hypophagia, weight loss, reduced adiposity, and hypermetabolism. Following anorexia, SS increased reluctance to feed, and thigmotaxis, in anxiogenic environments. Importantly, anorexia and anxiety were induced post-puberty with female biases. SS also reduced hypothalamic corticotrophin-releasing factor mRNA and serum corticosteroid levels assessed by RT-PCR and RIA, respectively. Consistent with the view that sex differences in adrenal suppression contributed to female biases in anorexia and anxiety by disinhibiting neuroimmune activity, SS elevated hypothalamic interleukin-6 and toll-like receptor 4 mRNA levels. Although corticosteroids were highest during SH, they were within the physiological range and associated with juvenile-like growth of white adipose, bone, and skeletal muscle. These results suggest that hamsters exhibit plasticity in bioenergetic and emotional phenotypes across puberty without an increase in stress responsiveness. Thus, social separation of hamsters provides a model of sex differences in anorexia and anxiety during adulthood and their pathogeneses during adolescence.

  16. Experience-independent development of the hamster circadian visual system.

    August Kampf-Lassin

    Full Text Available Experience-dependent functional plasticity is a hallmark of the primary visual system, but it is not known if analogous mechanisms govern development of the circadian visual system. Here we investigated molecular, anatomical, and behavioral consequences of complete monocular light deprivation during extended intervals of postnatal development in Syrian hamsters. Hamsters were raised in constant darkness and opaque contact lenses were applied shortly after eye opening and prior to the introduction of a light-dark cycle. In adulthood, previously-occluded eyes were challenged with visual stimuli. Whereas image-formation and motion-detection were markedly impaired by monocular occlusion, neither entrainment to a light-dark cycle, nor phase-resetting responses to shifts in the light-dark cycle were affected by prior monocular deprivation. Cholera toxin-b subunit fluorescent tract-tracing revealed that in monocularly-deprived hamsters the density of fibers projecting from the retina to the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN was comparable regardless of whether such fibers originated from occluded or exposed eyes. In addition, long-term monocular deprivation did not attenuate light-induced c-Fos expression in the SCN. Thus, in contrast to the thalamocortical projections of the primary visual system, retinohypothalamic projections terminating in the SCN develop into normal adult patterns and mediate circadian responses to light largely independent of light experience during development. The data identify a categorical difference in the requirement for light input during postnatal development between circadian and non-circadian visual systems.

  17. Effect of diethylstilbestrol on polyamine metabolism in hamster epididymis

    Chun-HongQiu; MasatoOhe; ShigeruMatsuzaki


    Aim: To investigate the effect of diethylstilbestrol (DES), one of the most potent endocrine disruptors, on the metabolism of polyamines in hamster epididymis. Methods: Male golden hamsters of 7-week-old were kept under a light and dark cycle of 14 h and 10 h for 1 week to stimulate maximally the gonadal function. DES was injected subcutaneously at doses of 0.01mg·kg-1·day-1,0.1mg·kg-1·day-1 and 1mg·kg-1·day-1 for one week. Results:DES treatment caused a significant decrease in the weight of epididymis. The activity of epididymal ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) increased 1 day after DES treatment, kept at a high level for 4 days and then decreased to nearly normal level at day 7. The activity of spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT) also increased transiently after DES treatment. The contents of putrescine, spermidine, spermine and N1-acetylspermidine were increased 1 day 4 days after DES treatment and restored to normal at day 7. All these changes showed a marked difference between the caput and the cauda. Conclusion: The polyamine biosynthesis in the hamster epididymis can be affected by DES,a xenoestrogen. DES may probably affect polyamine metabolism in the epididymis by regulating the rate-limiting enzymes involved in the polyamine biosynthesis.

  18. Learned magnetic compass orientation by the Siberian hamster, Phodopus sungorus

    Deutschlander, Mark E.; Freake, Michael J.; Borland, Christopher; Phillips, John B.; Madden, R C.; Anderson, Larry E.; Wilson, B W.


    Magnetic orientation has been demonstrated in Siberian hamsters, Phodopus sungorus. The behavior, using a nest building assay, shows a directional preference in nest position and appears in this animal to be a learned behavior. Hamsters were housed prior to testing in rectangular cages aligned along perpendicular axes. When subsequently tested in a radially-symmetrical arena, the hamsters positioned their nests in a bimodal distribution that coincided with the magnetic direction of the long-axis of the holding cages. In addition, results are presented that illustrate some of the factors that can influence behavioral responses to the magnetic field. In particular for P. sungorus, holding conditions prior to testing and the presence of non-magnetic cues may influence the strength and expression of magnetic orientation. Failure to consider these and other factors may help to explain why previous attempts to demonstrate magnetic orientation in a number of rodent species have failed or, when positive results have been obtained, have been difficult to replicate in other laboratories.

  19. Experimental Models in Syrian Golden Hamster Replicate Human Acute Pancreatitis.

    Wang, Yunan; Kayoumu, Abudurexiti; Lu, Guotao; Xu, Pengfei; Qiu, Xu; Chen, Liye; Qi, Rong; Huang, Shouxiong; Li, Weiqin; Wang, Yuhui; Liu, George


    The hamster has been shown to share a variety of metabolic similarities with humans. To replicate human acute pancreatitis with hamsters, we comparatively studied the efficacy of common methods, such as the peritoneal injections of caerulein, L-arginine, the retrograde infusion of sodium taurocholate, and another novel model with concomitant administration of ethanol and fatty acid. The severity of pancreatitis was evaluated by serum amylase activity, pathological scores, myeloperoxidase activity, and the expression of inflammation factors in pancreas. The results support that the severity of pathological injury is consistent with the pancreatitis induced in mice and rat using the same methods. Specifically, caerulein induced mild edematous pancreatitis accompanied by minimal lung injury, while L-arginine induced extremely severe pancreatic injury including necrosis and neutrophil infiltration. Infusion of Na-taurocholate into the pancreatic duct induced necrotizing pancreatitis in the head of pancreas and lighter inflammation in the distal region. The severity of acute pancreatitis induced by combination of ethanol and fatty acids was between the extent of caerulein and L-arginine induction, with obvious inflammatory cells infiltration. In view of the advantages in lipid metabolism features, hamster models are ideally suited for the studies of pancreatitis associated with altered metabolism in humans.

  20. Teratogenicity and embryotoxicity of nickel carbonyl in Syrian hamsters

    Sunderman, F.W. Jr.; Shen, S.K.; Reid, M.C.; Allpass, P.R.


    Nickel carbonyl was administered to groups of pregnant hamsters by inhalation on days 4, 5, 6, 7, or 8 of gestation. The dams were killed on day 15 of gestation, and the fetuses were examined for malformations. Exposure to Ni(CO)/sub 4/ on days 4 or 5 of gestation resulted in malformation in 5.5% and 5.8% of the progeny, respectively. Progeny included 9 fetuses with cystic lungs, 7 fetuses with exencephaly, 1 fetus with exencephaly plus fused rib and 1 fetus with anophthalmia plus cleft palate. Hemorrhages into serious cavities were found. In progeny of dams exposed to Ni(CO)/sub 4/ on days 6 or 7 of gestation, there was 1 fetus with fused ribs and there were 2 fetuses with hydronephrosis. In another experiment, pregnant hamsters were exposed to inhalation of Ni(CO)/sub 4/ on day 5 of gestation; these dams were permitted to deliver their litters and to nurse their pups. There was no significant difference in the average number of live pups in the Ni(CO)/sub 4/-exposed litters compared to control litters. Neonatal mortality was increased in Ni(CO)/sub 4/-exposed litters. This study demonstrates that Ni(CO)/sub 4/ is teratogenic and embryotoxic in Syrian hamsters.

  1. Developmental Changes in the ECG of a Hamster Model of Muscular Dystrophy and Heart Failure.

    Hampton, Thomas G; Kale, Ajit; McCue, Scott; Bhagavan, Hemmi N; Vandongen, Case


    Aberrant autonomic signaling is being increasingly recognized as an important symptom in neuromuscular disorders. The δ-sarcoglycan-deficient BIO TO-2 hamster is recognized as a good model for studying mechanistic pathways and sequelae in muscular dystrophy and heart failure, including autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction. Recent studies using the TO-2 hamster model have provided promising preclinical results demonstrating the efficacy of gene therapy to treat skeletal muscle weakness and heart failure. Methods to accelerate preclinical testing of gene therapy and new drugs for neuromuscular diseases are urgently needed. The purpose of this investigation was to demonstrate a rapid non-invasive screen for characterizing the ANS imbalance in dystrophic TO-2 hamsters. Electrocardiograms were recorded non-invasively in conscious ∼9-month old TO-2 hamsters (n = 10) and non-myopathic F1B control hamsters (n = 10). Heart rate was higher in TO-2 hamsters than controls (453 ± 12 bpm vs. 311 ± 25 bpm, P imbalance with increased sympathetic tone and decreased parasympathetic tone in dystrophic TO-2 hamsters. Similar observations in newborn hamsters indicate autonomic nervous dysfunction may occur quite early in life in neuromuscular diseases. Our findings of autonomic abnormalities in newborn hamsters with a mutation in the δ-sarcoglycan gene suggest approaches to correct modulation of the heart rate as prevention or therapy for muscular dystrophies.

  2. Serum amyloid-P component of the Armenian hamster: gene structure and comparison with structure and expression of the SAP gene from Syrian hamster.

    Rudnick, C M; Dowton, S B


    Serum amyloid P (SAP), a phylogenetically conserved pentraxin, is an integral component of all amyloid deposits. Regulation of expression of SAP gene expression is quite different in two related hamster species. In Syrian hamsters, the resting serum levels of SAP are determined by gender, and the direction of alteration following inflammation is divergent. In Armenian hamsters, SAP is not a prominent acute-phase reactant and there is no gender dimorphism of expression. The structure and expression of the SAP gene of the Armenian hamsters was investigated by isolation of genomic clones, nucleotide sequence analysis, and RNA studies. The gene structure of Armenian hamster SAP is similar to the genes of all other pentraxins studied. While the upstream regions of the SAP genes of Syrian and Armenian hamsters are quite similar, important differences in potential enhancer sites have been recognized by comparing the corresponding sequences of SAP genes from both species. Little alteration in hepatic levels of transcripts encoding SAP or CRP, the other pentraxin, were noted following administration of lipopolysaccharide to Armenian hamsters. This relative lack of response occurred despite a marked acute phase reaction documented for serum amyloid A mRNA levels.

  3. Share and share alike: encouraging the reuse of academic resources through the Scottish electronic Staff Development Library

    Lorna M. Campbell


    Full Text Available The Scottish electronic Staff Development Library (http://www.sesdl.scotcit.acuk is an ongoing collaborative project involving the Universities of Edinburgh, Paisley and Strathclyde which has been funded by SHEFC as part of their current ScotCIT Programme ( This project is being developed in response to the increasing demand for flexible, high-quality staff development materials.

  4. Experimental chronic entrapment of the sciatic nerve in adult hamsters: an ultrastructural and morphometric study

    Prinz R.A.D.


    Full Text Available Entrapment neuropathy is a group of clinical disorders involving compression of a peripheral nerve and interference with nerve function mostly through traction injury. We have investigated the chronic compression of peripheral nerves as an experimental procedure for detecting changes in ultrastructural nerve morphology. Adult hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus, N = 30 were anesthetized with a 25% pentobarbital solution and received a cuff around the right sciatic nerve. Left sciatic nerves were not operated (control group. Animals survived for varying times (up to 15 weeks, after which they were sacrificed and both sciatic nerves were immediately fixed with a paraformaldehyde solution. Experimental nerves were divided into segments based upon their distance from the site of compression (proximal, entrapment and distal. Semithin and ultrathin sections were obtained and examined by light and electron microscopy. Ultrastructural changes were qualitatively described and data from semithin sections were morphometrically analyzed both in control and in compressed nerves. We observed endoneurial edema along with both perineurial and endoneurial thickening and also the existence of whorled cell-sparse structures (Renaut bodies in the subperineurial space of compressed sciatic nerves. Morphometric analyses of myelinated axons at the compression sites displayed a remarkable increase in the number of small axons (up to 60% in comparison with the control axonal number. The distal segment of compressed nerves presented a distinct decrease in axon number (up to 40% comparatively to the control group. The present experimental model of nerve entrapment in adult hamsters was shown to promote consistent histopathologic alterations analogous to those found in chronic compressive neuropathies.

  5. Developmental Changes in the ECG of a Hamster Model of Muscular Dystrophy and Heart Failure

    Thomas Gerard Hampton


    Full Text Available Aberrant autonomic signaling is being increasingly recognized as an important symptom in neuromuscular disorders. The delta-sarcoglycan-deficient BIO TO-2 hamster is recognized as a good model for studying mechanistic pathways and sequelae in muscular dystrophy and heart failure, including autonomic nervous system dysfunction. Recent studies using the TO-2 hamster model have provided promising preclinical results demonstrating the efficacy of gene therapy to treat skeletal muscle weakness and heart failure. Methods to accelerate preclinical testing of gene therapy and new drugs for neuromuscular diseases are urgently needed. The purpose of this investigation was to demonstrate a rapid non-invasive screen for characterizing the autonomic nervous system imbalance in dystrophic TO-2 hamsters. Electrocardiograms were recorded non-invasively in conscious ~9-month old TO-2 hamsters (n=10 and non-myopathic F1B control hamsters (n=10. Heart rate was higher in TO-2 hamsters than controls (453 ± 12 bpm vs. 311 ± 25 bpm, P<0.01. Time domain heart rate variability, an index of parasympathetic tone, was lower in TO-2 hamsters (12.2 ± 3.7 bpm vs. 38.2 ± 6.8, P<0.05, as was the coefficient of variance of the RR interval (2.8 ± 0.9 % vs. 16.2 ± 3.4 %, P<0.05 compared to control hamsters. Power spectral analysis demonstrated reduced high frequency and low frequency contributions, indicating autonomic imbalance with increased sympathetic tone and decreased parasympathetic tone in dystrophic TO-2 hamsters. Similar observations in newborn hamsters indicate autonomic nervous dysfunction may occur quite early in life in neuromuscular diseases. Our findings of autonomic abnormalities in newborn hamsters with a mutation in the delta-sarcoglycan gene suggest approaches to correct modulation of the heart rate as prevention or therapy for muscular dystrophies.

  6. The presence of opioidergic pinealocytes in the pineal gland of the European hamster (Cricetus cricetus): an immunocytochemical study

    Coto-Montes, A.; Masson-Pévet, M.; Pévet, P.;


    Neurobiologi, pineal gland, leu-enkephalin, Met-enkephalin, synaptic contacts, paracrine regulation, European hamster, cricetus cricetus (rodents)......Neurobiologi, pineal gland, leu-enkephalin, Met-enkephalin, synaptic contacts, paracrine regulation, European hamster, cricetus cricetus (rodents)...

  7. 重庆高校图书馆电子文献资源建设现状及对策%The Present Situation and Countermeasure of Electronic Literature Resources Construction about Chongqing University Library

    刘子辉; 彭渝; 陈强; 吴晓英


    In the information society, Electronic document resources are very important for library development and the school's teaching and research. The university library should pay more at ention to the construction of electronic document resources. Through the survey of the electronic document resources in Chongqing, We have mastered the distribution of electronic document resources, analyzed the existing problems in resource construction, and proposed the related countermeasure. We hope to provide reference for the electronic document resources construction.%在信息社会,电子文献资源对高校图书馆建设、学校的教学与科研都起到非常重要的作用,各高校图书馆应该更加重视电子文献资源的建设。通过对重庆高校图书馆电子文献资源建设情况进行调查,掌握了本地区电子文献资源的分布情况,分析了资源建设中存在的问题,并提出了相关对策,希望为本地区高校图书馆电子文献资源建设提供参考。

  8. CpG oligodeoxynucleotides with crude parasite antigens reduce worm recovery in Opisthorchis viverrini infected hamsters.

    Kaewraemruaen, Chamraj; Sermswan, Rasana W; Wongratanacheewin, Surasakdi


    Opisthorchis viverrini, a human liver fluke, is still an endemic parasitic infection in Thailand and nearly all countries in Southeast Asia. O. viverrini induces a chronic stage of infection in hamsters. During the first 2 weeks of infection, Th1 inducing cytokine, IL-12, increased but was down regulated in chronic infection. In this study it was found that unmethylated-CpG ODN (oligodeoxynucleotides) 1826 increased hamster mononuclear cell proliferation and stimulated IFN-γ production in vitro. The IFN-γ levels in hamster sera were significantly increased in hamsters injected with CpG ODN 1826 alone or plus crude somatic antigens (CSAg). Further investigation using the flow cytometer found that CD4(+)T cells and IFN-γ(+) CD4(+)T cells (Th1-like cells) in the hamster blood were significantly increased. The role of these cells in the protective responses in hamsters was evaluated by challenging with 25 metacercaria and observation for 3 months. The number of worms recovered was significantly reduced in the hamsters injected with CpG ODN 1826 with CSAg, but not in CpG ODN 1826 alone groups when compared to PBS control. The percent of reduction in hamsters against this parasite were 32.95% and 21.49% in the CpG ODN 1826 with CSAg and CpG ODN 1826 alone. This study indicates that CpG ODN 1826 plus parasite antigens elicit a Th1-like response that leads to the enhancement of worm reduction.

  9. Use of vancomycin hydrochloride for treatment of Clostridium difficile enteritis in Syrian hamsters.

    Boss, S M; Gries, C L; Kirchner, B K; Smith, G D; Francis, P C


    As part of an 18-month carcinogenicity study, 680 Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) received daily gavage doses of fenazaquin, an experimental miticide. Mortality associated with severe enteritis was noticed beginning when the hamsters were 4 months old and ranged from one to five deaths per month until the hamsters were about 10 months old, when 41 deaths occurred in a 1-month period. Ante- and postmortem findings were consistent with those reported for antibiotic-induced enteritis in hamsters. Clostridium difficile was isolated from 12 of the 13 samples of cecal contents analyzed. Toxin assays of C. difficile isolates collected from 11 affected animals were positive for both cyto- and enterotoxins. Daily oral administration of vancomycin hydrochloride at a dose of 20 mg/kg was initiated when the hamsters were about 10 months old. Deaths due to C. difficile enteritis were significantly decreased within 2 weeks, and treatment was continued for 3 months. A trial withdrawal period for a subset of 64 hamsters (approximately 16% of the total population) was initiated to evaluate survival after discontinuation of the antibiotic treatment. Clostridium difficile enteritis recurred within 2 weeks and caused 19 deaths during the next month; therefore, these hamsters were returned to daily vancomycin treatment for the remainder of the study. With the exception of severe gaseous distention of the ceca, which caused death in 17 (< 4% of the total population) of the affected hamsters, vancomycin treatment did not cause any major adverse effects.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. The Chemistry of Cold: Mechanisms of Torpor Regulation in the Siberian Hamster.

    Cubuk, Ceyda; Bank, Jonathan H H; Herwig, Annika


    Siberian hamsters use spontaneous daily torpor, a state of hypometabolism and hypothermia, to save energy during winter. Multiple neuroendocrine signals set the scene for spontaneous torpor to occur, and several brain areas have been identified as potential sites for torpor regulation. Here, we summarize the known mechanisms of a fascinating physiological state in the Siberian hamster.

  11. Diet affects resting, but not basal metabolic rate of normothermic Siberian hamsters acclimated to winter.

    Gutowski, Jakub P; Wojciechowski, Michał S; Jefimow, Małgorzata


    We examined the effect of different dietary supplements on seasonal changes in body mass (m(b)), metabolic rate (MR) and nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) capacity in normothermic Siberian hamsters housed under semi-natural conditions. Once a week standard hamster food was supplemented with either sunflower and flax seeds, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA), or mealworms, rich in saturated and monounsaturated FA. We found that neither of these dietary supplements affected the hamsters' normal winter decrease in m(b) and fat content nor their basal MR or NST capacity. NST capacity of summer-acclimated hamsters was lower than that of winter-acclimated ones. The composition of total body fat reflected the fat composition of the dietary supplements. Resting MR below the lower critical temperature of the hamsters, and their total serum cholesterol concentration were lower in hamsters fed a diet supplemented with mealworms than in hamsters fed a diet supplemented with seeds. These results indicate that in mealworm-fed hamsters energy expenditure in the cold is lower than in animals eating a seed-supplemented diet, and that the degree of FA unsaturation of diet affects energetics of heterotherms, not only during torpor, but also during normothermy.

  12. Effects of Social Conflict on POMC-Derived Peptides and Glucocorticoids in Male Golden Hamsters


    to laboratory rats, which usually require footshock or labor - treatment had no effect on fighting behavior in hamsters. intensive paradigms such as...control hamster was hormone, vasopressin, or oxytocin . Assay sensitivity was 6 pg/ml. returned to its home cage. Twenty-three (I I experimental wnd 12

  13. On the systematic position of the Western Hamster, Cricetus cricetus canescens Nehring (Mammalia: Rodentia)

    Husson, A.M.


    The systematic position of the western hamster, Cricetus cricetus canescens, has been a subject of discussion and criticism ever since NEHRING (1899, pp. 1—2) described the hamster occurring in Belgium west of the Meuse as a separate variety. The present paper is a new effort to throw more light on

  14. A Comparison of Hamster Anesthetics and Their Effect on Mosquito Blood Feeding

    Hamsters or mice are often anesthetized when they are used as the hosts for insect feeding experiments. An experiment was done to determine if there was a difference in mosquito blood feeding success when fed on hamsters anesthetized using two commonly used protocols. The number of blood-fed females...

  15. Ventromedial hypothalamic mediation of photoperiodic gonadal responses in male Syrian hamsters.

    Bae, H H; Mangels, R A; Cho, B S; Dark, J; Yellon, S M; Zucker, I


    Short day lengths induce testicular regression in seasonally breeding Syrian hamsters. To test whether the ventromedial hypothalamus is necessary to maintain reproductive quiescence once testicular regression has been achieved, photoregressed male hamsters were subjected to lesions of the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMHx), pinealectomy (Pinx), or sham operation (Sham). VMHx hamsters underwent accelerated gonadal recrudescence compared to Pinx and Sham hamsters. Recovery of prolactin concentrations (PRL) to values characteristic of long-day hamsters was hastened in the VMHx animals compared to Sham hamsters. Concentrations of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) increased prematurely in both the VMHx and Pinx animals, beginning a few weeks after surgery. By the time the gonads had undergone recrudescence and the hamsters were refractory to melatonin, PRL and FSH concentrations had returned to baseline long-day values in all groups; there was no evidence of hypersecretion of either hormone in any of the animals with lesions. Melatonin concentrations of VMHx hamsters did not differ from those of sham-operated animals, but because only a single determination was made, it remains possible that VMH damage altered the duration of nightly melatonin secretion. An intact VMH appears to be essential for the continued maintenance of reproductive suppression induced by exposure to short day lengths; these and earlier findings suggest that the VMH-dorsomedial hypothalamic complex mediates regression of the reproductive apparatus during decreasing day lengths of late summer and early autumn and also is necessary to sustain regression during the winter months.

  16. Alteration of the redox state with reactive oxygen species for 5-fluorouracil-induced oral mucositis in hamsters.

    Fumihiko Yoshino

    Full Text Available Oral mucositis is often induced in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy treatment. It has been reported that oral mucositis can reduce quality of life, as well as increasing the incidence of mortality. The participation of reactive oxygen species (ROS in the pathogenesis of oral mucositis is well known, but no report has actually demonstrated the presence of ROS. Thus, the purpose of this study was thus to demonstrate the involvement of ROS and the alteration of the redox state in oral mucositis using an in vivo L-band electron spin resonance (ESR technique. An oral mucositis animal model induced by treatment of 5-fluorouracil with 10% acetic acid in hamster cheek pouch was used. Lipid peroxidation was measured as the level of malondialdehyde determined by the thiobarbituric acid reaction. The rate constants of the signal decay of nitroxyl compounds using in vivo L-band ESR were calculated from the signal decay curves. Firstly, we established the oral mucositis animal model induced by treatment of 5-fluorouracil with acetic acid in hamster cheek pouch. An increased level of lipid peroxidation in oral mucositis was found by measuring malondialdehyde using isolated hamster cheek pouch ulcer. In addition, as a result of in vivo L-band ESR measurements using our model animals, the decay rate constants of carbamoyl-PROXYL, which is a reagent for detecting the redox balance in tissue, were decreased. These results suggest that a redox imbalance might occur by excessive generation of ROS at an early stage of oral mucositis and the consumption of large quantities of antioxidants including glutathione in the locality of oral mucositis. These findings support the presence of ROS involved in the pathogenesis of oral mucositis with anti-cancer therapy, and is useful for the development of novel therapies drugs for oral mucositis.

  17. Selection and Evaluation of Electronic Resources Elektronik Kaynakların Seçimi ve Değerlendirilmesi

    Doğan Atılgan


    Full Text Available Publication boom and issues related to controlling and accession of printed sources have created some problems after World War II. Consequently, publishing industry has encountered the problem of finding possible solution for emerged situation. Industry of electronic publishing has started to improve with the rapid increase of the price of printed sources as well as the problem of publication boom. The first effects of electronic publishing were appeared on the academic and scholarly publications then electronic publishing became a crucial part of all types of publications. As a result of these developments, collection developments and service policies of information centers were also significantly changed. In this article, after a general introduction about selection and evaluation processes of electronic publications, the subscribed databases by a state and a privately owned university in Turkey and their usage were examined. İkinci dünya savaşından sonra görülen yayın patlaması, basılı kaynakların denetim ve erişiminde sorunlar yaşanmasına neden olmuştur. Bu da yayıncılık sektöründe yeni arayışlara yol açmıştır. 1980’li yıllardan sonra basılı yayın fiyatlarındaki hızlı artış da bu etmenlere eklenince elektronik yayıncılık sektörü gelişmeye başlamıştır. Öncelikle bilimsel ve akademik yayınlarla başlayan elektronik yayın günümüzde tüm yayın türlerini kapsamaktadır. Yayıncılıktaki bu gelişim bilgi merkezlerinin derme geliştirme ve hizmet politikalarını da önemli ölçüde değiştirmiştir. Bu çalışmada elektronik yayınların seçim, değerlendirme ve sağlama konularında genel bir girişten sonra bir devlet üniversitesinin bir de özel üniversitenin abone olduğu veritabanları ve bu veri tabanlarının kullanımının değerlendirilmesi yapılmaktadır.

  18. Phylogenetic conservation of immunoglobulin heavy chains: direct comparison of hamster and mouse Cmu genes.

    McGuire, K L; Duncan, W R; Tucker, P W


    We have analyzed the JH-Cmu locus of the Syrian hamster by DNA cloning and sequencing. The single Cmu gene is highly homologous to that of the mouse. The hamster equivalents of the JH and switch (S) recombination regions are arranged as in the mouse, but surprisingly are not highly conserved. Also unlike its close murine relative, the Smu regions among inbred hamster strains are not polymorphic. The complete nucleotide sequence of hamster and mouse Cmu genes have been compared to partial Cmu sequences of other species. Conservation within a portion of the 3' untranslated region may signify functional requirements for 3' end processing. Mutational frequencies within exons and introns of hamster and mouse do not support the theory that the rate of DNA transitions to transversions decreases with evolutionary distance.

  19. SNC 80, a delta-opioid agonist, elicits phase advances in hamster circadian activity rhythms.

    Byku, M; Gannon, R L


    Non-photic stimuli administered to hamsters during the subjective day can cause phase advances in circadian wheel running activity. It is believed that afferent projections from the intergeniculate leaflet of the thalamus to circadian pacemaker cells within the suprachiasmatic nucleus mediate the phase shifting effects of some non-photic stimuli. In hamsters, many of the intergeniculate leaflet afferents contain enkephalin, yet the role of opioids in producing non-photic phase shifts in hamsters has not been reported. In the present study, we show that SNC 80, an agonist for the delta opioid receptor subtype, will phase advance hamster wheel running activity rhythms when administered late in the subjective day. These results indicate that opioids may be involved in modulating the circadian pacemaker in hamsters.

  20. Melatonin attenuates photic disruption of circadian rhythms in Siberian hamsters.

    Ruby, N F; Kang, T; Heller, H C


    Body temperature (Tb) was recorded via a biotelemetry system from 28 adult male Siberian hamsters maintained in a light-dark (LD) cycle of 16 h light/day for several months. After Tb was recorded for 3 wk, the LD cycle was phase delayed by extending the light phase by 5 h for 1 day; animals remained on a 16:8 LD cycle for the remainder of the experiment. Hamsters were injected daily with melatonin or vehicle solution for several weeks, beginning either 2 mo after (experiment 1) or on the day of (experiment 2) the phase shift; injections occurred within 30 min of dark onset. In experiment 1, 75% of animals free ran with circadian periods >24 h, beginning on the day of the phase shift, and never reentrained to the LD cycle; no hamsters unambiguously entrained to daily injections. In contrast, 78% of animals in experiment 2 entrained to melatonin injections, and 71% of those animals subsequently reentrained to the photocycle when the injection regimen ended. No vehicle-treated animals entrained to the injection schedule. Melatonin had no effect on daily mean Tb and Tb rhythm amplitude in either experiment; however, melatonin doubled the duration of a hyperthermic response that occurred after each injection. Thus melatonin can prevent loss of entrainment induced by a phase shift of the LD cycle but cannot restore entrainment to free-running animals. Failure to reentrain in the presence of two appropriately coordinated entraining agents also suggests that a phase shift of the photocycle can diminish the sensitivity of the circadian system to both photic and nonphotic input.

  1. Pyrazine derivatives in cigarette smoke inhibit hamster oviductal functioning

    Arey Janet


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our past studies have shown that cigarette smoke inhibits oviductal functioning in vivo and in vitro. The goals in this study were to identify pyrazine derivatives in cigarette smoke solutions that inhibit ciliary beat frequency, oocyte pickup rate, and infundibular smooth muscle contraction in the hamster oviduct and to determine their lowest observable adverse effect levels (LOAELs using in vitro bioassays. Methods MS smoke solutions were fractionated using solid phase extraction cartridges and the fractions were both tested on the hamster oviduct in vitro and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to identify individual pyrazine derivatives. Commercial pyrazine standards were purchased, assayed for purity, and tested in dose-response studies on hamster oviducts. The LOAEL and efficacy were determined for each compound in the in vitro bioassays. Statistical significance was determined using the Student's t-Test where p Results The LOAELs for the most inhibitory pyrazine derivatives in the ciliary beat frequency, oocyte pickup rate, and infundibular smooth muscle contraction assays were as follows: for pyrazine (1 picomolar, 10 picomolar, and 1 nanomolar; for 2-methylpyrazine (1 picomolar, 10 picomolar, and 10 picomolar; and for 2-ethylpyrazine (1 picomolar, 10 picomolar, and 1 picomolar. Six of the seven pyrazine derivatives tested (pyrazine, 2-methylpyrazine, 2-ethylpyrazine, 2-methoxy-3-methylpyrazine, 2,5-dimethylpyrazine, and 2,3,5-trimethylpyrazine were inhibitory in picomolar or nanomolar doses in all three bioassays, while the seventh derivative, 2,6-dimethylpyrazine, had LOAELs in the nanomolar to micromolar range. Conclusion This work shows that very low doses of pyrazines significantly inhibit proper oviductal functioning, raising questions regarding the safety of these compounds in cigarettes and other consumer products.

  2. The hamster cheek pouch model for field cancerization studies.

    Monti-Hughes, Andrea; Aromando, Romina F; Pérez, Miguel A; Schwint, Amanda E; Itoiz, Maria E


    External carcinogens, such as tobacco and alcohol, induce molecular changes in large areas of oral mucosa, which increase the risk of malignant transformation. This condition, known as 'field cancerization', can be detected in biopsy specimens using histochemical techniques, even before histological alterations are identified. The efficacy of these histochemical techniques as biomarkers of early cancerization must be demonstrated in appropriate models. The hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model, universally employed in biological studies and in studies for the prevention and treatment of oral cancer, is also an excellent model of field cancerization. The carcinogen is applied in solution to the surface of the mucosa and induces alterations that recapitulate the stages of cancerization in human oral mucosa. We have demonstrated that the following can be used for the early detection of cancerized tissue: silver staining of nucleolar organizer regions; the Feulgen reaction to stain DNA followed by ploidy analysis; immunohistochemical analysis of fibroblast growth factor-2, immunohistochemical labeling of proliferating cells to demonstrate an increase of epithelial cell proliferation in the absence of inflammation; and changes in markers of angiogenesis (i.e. those indicating vascular endothelial growth factor activity, endothelial cell proliferation and vascular density). The hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer was also proposed and validated by our group for boron neutron capture therapy studies for the treatment of oral cancer. Clinical trials of this novel treatment modality have been performed and are underway for certain tumor types and localizations. Having demonstrated the efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy to control tumors in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model, we adapted the model for the long-term study of field cancerized tissue. We demonstrated the inhibitory effect of boron neutron capture therapy on tumor development in field

  3. Aquaporin-11 control of testicular fertility markers in Syrian hamsters.

    Shannonhouse, John L; Urbanski, Henryk F; Woo, Shih-Lung; Fong, Li An; Goddard, Scott D; Lucas, William F; Jones, Edward R; Wu, Chaodong; Morgan, Caurnel


    The present study sought novel changes to the hamster testicular transcriptome during modulation of fertility by well-characterized photoperiodic stimuli. Transition from long days (LD, 14 h light/day) to short days (SD, 10h light/day) triggered testicular regression (61% reduction of testis weight, relative to LD) in SD-sensitive (SD-S) hamsters within 16 weeks. After 22 weeks of SD exposure, a third cohort of hamsters became SD-refractory (SD-R), and exhibited testicular recrudescence (137% testis weight gain, relative to SD-S). Partial interrogation of the testicular transcriptome by annealing-control-primer-modified differential display PCR provided several candidates for regulation of testicular functions. Multiple linear regression modeling indicated the best correlation for aquaporin 11 (Aqp11) with changes in testis weight. Correlations were also strongest for Aqp11 with expression levels of reference cDNAs that control spermatogenesis (Hspa2 and Tnp2), steroidogenesis (Cox2, 3βHsd, and Srebp2), sperm motility (Catsper1, Pgk2, and Tnp2), inflammation (Cox2), and apoptosis (Bax and Bcl2). Moreover, siRNA-mediated knockdown of testicular Aqp11 mRNA and protein reduced Hspa2 and Tnp2 mRNA levels, and it increased 3βHsd mRNA levels. It also reduced mRNA levels for Sept12, which is a testis-specific inducer of spermatogenesis. These results suggest a central role for testicular Aqp11 signaling in the coordinate regulation of crucial components of fertility. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Photoperiodic regulation of FGF21 production in the Siberian hamster.

    Samms, Ricardo J; Fowler, Maxine J; Cooper, Scott; Emmerson, Paul; Coskun, Tamer; Adams, Andrew C; Kharitonenkov, Alexei; Tsintzas, Kostas; Ebling, Francis J P


    This article is part of a Special Issue "Energy Balance". FGF21 is an endocrine member of the fibroblast growth factor superfamily that has been shown to play an important role in the physiological response to nutrient deprivation. Food restriction enhances hepatic FGF21 production, which serves to engage an integrated response to energy deficit. Specifically, elevated FGF21 levels lead to reduced gluconeogenesis and increased hepatic ketogenesis. However, circulating FGF21 concentrations also paradoxically rise in states of metabolic dysfunction such as obesity. Furthermore, multiple peripheral tissues also produce FGF21 in addition to the liver, raising questions as to its endocrine and paracrine roles in the control of energy metabolism. The objectives of this study were to measure plasma FGF21 concentrations in the Siberian hamster, a rodent which undergoes a seasonal cycle of fattening and body weight gain in the long days (LD) of summer, followed by reduction of appetite and fat catabolism in the short days (SD) of winter. Groups of adult male hamsters were raised in long days, and then exposed to SD for up to 12 weeks. Chronic exposure of LD animals to SD led to a significant increase in circulating FGF21 concentrations. This elevation of circulating FGF21 was preceded by an increase in liver FGF21 protein production evident as early as 4 weeks of exposure to SD. FGF21 protein abundance was also increased significantly in interscapular brown adipose tissue, with a positive correlation between plasma levels of FGF21 and BAT protein abundance throughout the experimental period. Epididymal white adipose tissue and skeletal muscle (gastrocnemius) also produced FGF21, but levels did not change in response to a change in photoperiod. In summary, a natural programmed state of fat catabolism was associated with increased FGF21 production in the liver and BAT, consistent with the view that FGF21 has a role in adapting hamsters to the hypophagic winter state.

  5. Utility of the electronic information resource UpToDate for clinical decision-making at bedside rounds.

    Phua, J; See, K C; Khalizah, H J; Low, S P; Lim, T K


    Clinical questions often arise at daily hospital bedside rounds. Yet, little information exists on how the search for answers may be facilitated. The aim of this prospective study was, therefore, to evaluate the overall utility, including the feasibility and usefulness of incorporating searches of UpToDate, a popular online information resource, into rounds. Doctors searched UpToDate for any unresolved clinical questions during rounds for patients in general medicine and respiratory wards, and in the medical intensive care unit of a tertiary teaching hospital. The nature of the questions and the results of the searches were recorded. Searches were deemed feasible if they were completed during the rounds and useful if they provided a satisfactory answer. A total of 157 UpToDate searches were performed during the study period. Questions were raised by all ranks of clinicians from junior doctors to consultants. The searches were feasible and performed immediately during rounds 44% of the time. Each search took a median of three minutes (first quartile: two minutes, third quartile: five minutes). UpToDate provided a useful and satisfactory answer 75% of the time, a partial answer 17% of the time and no answer 9% of the time. It led to a change in investigations, diagnosis or management 37% of the time, confirmed what was originally known or planned 38% of the time and had no effect 25% of the time. Incorporating UpToDate searches into daily bedside rounds was feasible and useful in clinical decision-making.

  6. Hamster exhibits major differences in organ-specific metabolism of the esophageal carcinogen N-nitrosodiethylamine.

    Visoni, Sílvia; Lang, Matti; Ribeiro Pinto, Luis Felipe


    Nitrosamines are carcinogens that require metabolic activation by CYP enzymes in order to exert their carcinogenic effect. Species differences exist in their esophageal carcinogenic potency, with the rat being the most sensitive and the Syrian hamster a resistant species. In the latter, the liver is the main target organ. This difference does not apply to directly acting N-nitroso compounds, suggesting that tissue-specific metabolic activation is involved in hamster esophageal resistance to nitrosamines. We have previously shown that Cytochrome P450 2A3 (CYP2A3) is responsible for N-nitrosodiethylamine activation in the rat esophagus. In order to find a mechanistic explanation for the resistance of hamster esophagus for nitrosamines, we have compared the metabolism of NDEA between esophagus and liver of the hamster. Hamster esophagus is capable of activating NDEA (K(m)=1.02+/-0.44microM and V(max)=1.96+/-0.26nmol acetaldehyde/min/mg microsomal protein). However, the hamster liver showed a 40-fold higher catalytic efficiency (V(max)/K(m)) towards NDEA metabolism compared with its esophagus. Hamster esophagus expresses CYP2A8, CYP2A9 and CYP2A16, but not CYP2E1. An antibody against human CYP2A6 was able to inhibit NDEA metabolism in hamster esophageal, but not liver microsomes. Our results suggest that in the hamster esophagus, but not in the liver, most of the NDEA is metabolized by CYP2A enzymes, but with a rather poor efficiency when compared to the liver. This is in accordance with previous results showing that for the hamster, the main target organ of NDEA is the liver.

  7. Apoptosis patterns in experimental Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps strobilae from golden hamsters.

    Presas, Ana María Fernández; Robert, Lilia; Jiménez, José Agustín; Willms, Kaethe


    Apoptosis or programmed cell death (PCD) patterns of two taeniid species, Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps, were explored in adult tapeworms grown in golden hamsters. Animals were fed either ten viable T. solium cysticerci from naturally infected pigs or from T. crassiceps WFU strain maintained in Balb/c mice. Adult strobilae were recovered from the intestine at different times after infection and either frozen at -70 degrees C or fixed in paraformaldehyde-glutaraldehyde. Frozen sections were processed using the DNA fragmentation fluorescent TUNEL reagents and examined in an epifluorescent microscope. Fixed tissues were processed for light and electron microscopy. Typical apoptotic cells were found in the central core of scolex and strobilar tissues, mainly in the germinal tissue and subtegumentary areas. By the TUNEL technique, cells exhibited the characteristic fluorescent images of condensed nuclear chromatin. By light microscopy of thick sections stained with toluidine blue, we found a number of small rounded cells which had lost their cytoplasmic bridges and had shrunken nuclei with aggregated chromatin, cells which were found interspersed with normal syncytial cells. Similar cell morphology was confirmed by electron microscopy. Stunted viable worms, recovered with longer mature specimens, had very short strobilae and exhibited a large number of apoptotic cells in the germinal neck tissues. The results are consistent with the syncytial nature of these parasites, and strongly suggest that cell proliferation and PCD in these adult cestodes are continuous processes of the germinal tissue and tegumentary cytons.

  8. Dynamic Analyses of PrP and PrPsc in Brain Tissues of Golden Hamsters Infected With Scraple Strain 263K Revealed Various PrP Forms



    Objective To expatiate dynamic changes in hamsters infected with scrapie strain 263K, to observe the presence and aggravation of various forms of PrP and PrPSc during incubation period, and to probe primarily the relationship between the onset of clinic manifestations and the presence of different PrPSc forms. Methods Hamster-adapted scrapie strain 263K was intracerebrally inoculated into hamsters. Different forms of PrP and PrPSc were monitored dynamically by Western blot and immuno-histochemical assays. The presence of scrapie-associated fibril (SAF) was assayedby electron microscopy analysis (EM) and immuno-golden EM. Results PrPSc was initiallydetected in the brain tissues of the animals in 20 days post-inoculation by immunohistochemistry and 40 days with Western blot. Quantitative evaluations revealed that the amounts of PrP and PrPSc inbrain tissues increased along with the incubation. Several high and low molecular masses of PrP wereseen in the brains of the long-life span infected animals. Deglycosylation assays identified that the truncated PrP in the infected brains showed similar glycosylation patterns as the full-length PrP. The presence of short fragments was seemed to relate with the onset of clinical conditions. Conclusion These results indicate that infectious agents exist and accumulate in central nerve system prior to the onset of the illness. Various molecular patterns of PrPSc may indwell in brain tissues during the infection.

  9. Conditionally lethal mutations in chinese hamster cells. Characterization of a cell line with a possible defect in the Krebs cycle.

    DeFrancesco, L; Werntz, D; Scheffler, I E


    A variant Chinese hamster cell line has been isolated from a mutagenized population that has a markedly reduced ability to oxidize a variety of substrates via the Krebs cycle. The production of 14CO2 from 14C-labeled compounds was measured using pyruvate, acetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, palmitate and glutamate, and in all cases it was neglibible in the mutant. In contrast to this, significant amounts of 14CO2 were produced from 14C-aspartate and 14C-succinate which suggest that some reactions of the Krebs cycle can take place and this conclusion is supported by tracer experiments with labeled compounds. The rate of respiration measured with a Clark oxygen electrode in the mutant was compared to several normal Chinese hamster cell lines and was found to be only 8%. Mitochondria appear to be present in normal numbers and with only minor differences in morphology. The measurement of difference spectra between oxidized and reduced states permits us to conclude that the cytochromes are all present and functional. These results lead us to believe that there may be a defect in the Krebs cycle between alpha-ketoglutarate and succinate. Alternatively a defect in a structural component of the mitochondria or in the electron-transport chain itself may be causing pleiotropic effects in the Krebs cycle and respiration.

  10. Sex differences in Siberian hamster ultradian locomotor rhythms.

    Prendergast, Brian J; Stevenson, Tyler J; Zucker, Irving


    Sex differences in ultradian activity rhythms (URs) and circadian rhythms (CRs) were assessed in Siberian hamsters kept in long day (LD) or short day (SD) photoperiods for 40 weeks. For both sexes URs of locomotor activity were more prevalent, greater in amplitude and more robust in SDs. The UR period was longer in females than males in both day lengths. The reproductive system underwent regression and body mass declined during the initial 10 weeks of SD treatment, and in both sexes these traits spontaneously reverted to the LD phenotype at or before 40 weeks in SD, reflecting the development of neuroendocrine refractoriness to SD patterns of melatonin secretion. Hamsters of both sexes, however, continued to display SD-like URs at the 40 weeks time point. CRs were less prevalent and the waveform less robust and lower in amplitude in SDs than LDs; the SD circadian waveform also did not revert to the long-day phenotype after 40 weeks of SD treatment. Short day lengths enhanced ultradian and diminished circadian rhythms in both sexes. Day length controls several UR characteristics via gonadal steroid and melatonin-independent mechanisms. Sex differences in ultradian timing may contribute to sex diphenisms in rhythms of sleep, food intake and exercise.

  11. Constant darkness restores entrainment to phase-delayed Siberian hamsters.

    Ruby, Norman F; Joshi, Nirav; Heller, H Craig


    Over 90% of Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) fail to reentrain to a 5-h phase delay of a 16:8-h photocycle. Because constant darkness (DD) restores rhythms disrupted by constant light, we tested whether DD could also restore entrainment. DD began 0, 5, or 14 days after a 5-h phase delay, and the light-dark cycle was reinstated 14 days later. All hamsters exposed to DD on day 0 reentrained, whereas 42% reentrained irrespective of whether DD began 5 or 14 days later. For these latter two groups, tau (tau) and alpha (alpha) in DD predicted reentrainment; animals that reentrained had a mean tau and alpha of 24.1 and 8.9 h, respectively, whereas those that failed to reentrain maintained a mean tau and alpha of 25.0 and of 7.1 h, respectively. Restoration of entrainment by DD is somewhat paradoxical because it suggests that reentrainment to the photocycle was prevented by continued exposure to that same photocycle. The dichotomy of circadian responses to DD suggests "entrainment" phenotypes that are similar to those of photoperiodic responders and nonresponders.

  12. [Immune response induced by phosphofructokinase from E. histolytica in hamsters].

    Jiménez Cardoso, J M; Jiménez, E; Kumate, J


    The enzymatic activity of inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) dependent phosphofructokinase became manifest in the supernatant obtained by centrifugation in a homogenate of E. histolytica strain HMI-IMSS at 700,000 g. Partial purification of the enzyme was achieved by column chromatography with Ultrogel AcA-34. Ten protein elution spikes were obtained: five showed enzymatic activity. Elution spikes I and II attained the highest values of specific enzymatic activity 6.45 and 6.98 U/mg of protein, respectively. Next were spikes X and III with similar values 2.55 and 2.63 U/mg of protein, and spike IV presented the lowest value of 0.86 U/mg of protein. The five spikes were used to immunize hamsters which were challenged intrahepatically, four weeks later, with 3 x 10(5) trophozoites of E. histolytica. A control group of animals not immunized underwent intrahepatic challenge with the same number of amebae. The proteins with enzymatic activity contained in elution spikes I and II conferred immunologic protection in 100% of the animals, while elution spikes X and III were protective in 50 to 63%, and spike IV gave the lowest value of 37%. It can be assumed that there is an antienzyme antibody responsible for the absence of hepatic abscesses in the immunized hamsters.

  13. Role of cathepsins in blastocyst hatching in the golden hamster.

    Sireesha, G V; Mason, R W; Hassanein, M; Tonack, S; Navarrete Santos, A; Fischer, B; Seshagiri, P B


    The mammalian embryo is encased in a glycoproteinaceous coat, the zona pellucida (ZP) during preimplantation development. Prior to implantation, the blastocyst must undergo 'hatching' or ZP escape. In hamsters, there is a thinning of the ZP followed by a focal lysis and a complete dissolution of the ZP during blastocyst hatching. Earlier studies from our laboratory have indicated a role for cysteine proteases in the hatching phenomenon. In this study, we tested the effect of specific inhibitors of the three classes of cysteine protease on blastocyst hatching. Cystatin, an endogenous cathepsin inhibitor, blocked blastocyst hatching. Similarly, Fmoc-Tyr-Ala-diazomethane, a synthetic cathepsin inhibitor, blocked hatching. Both showed dose-dependent and temporal inhibition of hatching. However, Z-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethylketone, a synthetic caspase inhibitor, and calpastatin, an endogenous calpain inhibitor, had no effect on hatching. The cathepsins were localized to blastocyst cells. Exogenous addition of cathepsins L, P or B to cultured 8-cell embryos caused a complete ZP dissolution. The expression of mRNA and protein of cathepsins L and P was observed in peri-hatching blastocysts. Cathepsins L and P were detected in trophectodermal projections and in the ZP of peri-hatching blastocysts. These data provide the first evidence that blastocyst-derived cathepsins are functionally involved as zonalytic factors in the hatching of blastocysts in the golden hamster.

  14. C-reactive protein (CRP) of the Syrian hamster.

    Dowton, S B; Holden, S N


    Complementary and genomic clones encoding the mRNA and gene for a protein in the Syrian hamster that is highly homologous to C-reactive protein (CRP) have been isolated and studied. Coding sequence of the genomic clone is identical with that of the cDNA clone and predicts a mature protein of 206 amino acids and a 19 amino acid signal peptide. The single intron is 217 base pairs long and contains a short repetitive (GT)n motif. RNA blot analysis demonstrates that mRNA for hamster CRP is approximately 2.0 kb long, and unlike the closely related pentraxin female protein (FP), expression of this mRNA is not affected by the gender of the animal and accumulates equally in males and females during inflammation. In vivo administration of interleukin 1, interleukin 6, and tumor necrosis factor induces accumulation of hepatic CRP mRNA, and the acute-phase alterations in CRP mRNA levels arise as a result of enhanced gene transcription.

  15. 图书馆纸质资源与电子资源投入比例研究%The research of ratio between traditional and electronics resources in library

    王以婧; 李明


    With the popularization of electronic product development,library is no longer the paper-based resources into a single information carrier the pattern,but has formed a paper resource and electronic resources coexist in the new situation.Because the library types of our country,the proportion of input between paper-based resources and other kinds of resources exist difference.This paper will discuss the relationship between the traditional and electronics resources,and also points out the existing problems and the countermeasures.%随着电子产品的普及发展,图书馆已不再以纸质资源为唯一的信息载体,而是形成了纸质资源和电子资源并存的新局面。由于国内图书馆类型的不同,纸质资源与电子资源的配比也会存在差异。通过讨论二者的关系,指出存在的问题及应对之策。

  16. Pineal-independent regulation of photo-nonresponsiveness in the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus).

    Prendergast, B J; Freeman, D A


    The pineal hormone melatonin influences circadian rhythms and also mediates reproductive responses to photoperiod. The authors tested whether pinealectomy influences circadian oscillators responsible for induction of nonresponsiveness to short day lengths by preventing normal short-day patterns of circadian entrainment. Adult male Siberian hamsters were pinealectomized or sham operated, maintained in either 18 h light per day (18L) or 15L for 10 weeks, and then tested for responsiveness to 10L. Because pinealectomized hamsters do not show gonadal regression in short day lengths, responsiveness was assessed by measuring phase angle of entrainment and the length of the nightly activity period following transfer to 10L. The incidence of nonresponsiveness was significantly higher in 18L hamsters than in 15L hamsters but was unaffected by pineal status. Fully 88% of 18L hamsters failed to entrain to 10L in the normal short-day manner; the duration of nightly activity remained compressed, and the phase angle of entrainment was large and negative relative to lights off. The 15L hamsters entrained normally to 10L. Exposure to constant light after 10L treatment was equally effective in inducing arrhythmicity in pinealectomized and intact hamsters. Changes in the period of morning and evening circadian oscillators subsequent to 18L treatment did not predict circadian responsiveness to short photoperiod. Long-day induction of photo-nonresponsiveness, which prevents winter responses to short day lengths, occurs independently of pineal melatonin feedback on the circadian system.

  17. Daidzin suppresses ethanol consumption by Syrian golden hamsters without blocking acetaldehyde metabolism.

    Keung, W M; Lazo, O; Kunze, L; Vallee, B L


    Daidzin is a potent, selective, and reversible inhibitor of human mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) that suppresses free-choice ethanol intake by Syrian golden hamsters. Other ALDH inhibitors, such as disulfiram (Antabuse) and calcium citrate carbimide (Temposil), have also been shown to suppress ethanol intake of laboratory animals and are thought to act by inhibiting the metabolism of acetaldehyde produced from ingested ethanol. To determine whether or not daidzin inhibits acetaldehyde metabolism in vivo, plasma acetaldehyde in daidzin-treated hamsters was measured after the administration of a test dose of ethanol. Daidzin treatment (150 mg/kg per day i.p. for 6 days) significantly suppresses (> 70%) hamster ethanol intake but does not affect overall acetaldehyde metabolism. In contrast, after administration of the same ethanol dose, plasma acetaldehyde concentration in disulfiram-treated hamsters reaches 0.9 mM, 70 times higher than that of the control. In vitro, daidzin suppresses hamster liver mitochondria-catalyzed acetaldehyde oxidation very potently with an IC50 value of 0.4 microM, which is substantially lower than the daidzin concentration (70 microM) found in the liver mitochondria of daidzin-treated hamsters. These results indicate that (i) the action of daidzin differs from that proposed for the classic, broad-acting ALDH inhibitors (e.g., disulfiram), and (ii) the daidzin-sensitive mitochondrial ALDH is not the one and only enzyme that is essential for acetaldehyde metabolism in golden hamsters.

  18. Hamster Weight Patterns Predict the Intensity and Course of Schistosoma haematobium Infection.

    Le, Thien-Linh P; Boyett, Deborah M; Hurley-Novatny, Amelia; Hsieh, Michael H


    Although Syrian golden hamsters are widely used as hosts for experimental infection by Schistosoma haematobium , surprisingly little is known about the course of infection and associated intensity (as defined by measures of parasite burden). As such, we sought to define inexpensive, simple, noninvasive, and accurate methods for assessing and predicting the severity of disease in S. haematobium -infected hamsters in order to prevent premature hamster sacrifice and unexpected morbidity and mortality. Through monitoring the weight and behavior of infected hamsters, we determined that the weight-loss patterns of infected hamsters are highly correlated with commonly used measures of the severity of infection (i.e., numbers of eggs passed in the stool, worm burdens, and total egg yields). In contrast, we found no significant correlation between hamster weight-loss patterns and egg yields from liver and intestinal tissues. Our findings suggest that a more complex relationship exists among worm burden, fecundity, and egg passage in the feces than previously appreciated. Regardless, our data may be useful for workers seeking to optimize harvests of S. haematobium eggs and worms from infected hamsters for downstream applications.

  19. Changes of spontaneous parthenogenetic activation and development potential of golden hamster oocytes during the aging process.

    Jiang, Han; Wang, Ce; Guan, Jiyu; Wang, Lingyan; Li, Ziyi


    The golden hamster is an excellent animal experimental model for oocyte research. The hamster oocytes are very useful in clinical examination of human spermatozoan activity. Non-fertile oocytes can lead to time-dependent processes of aging, which will affect the results of human spermatozoa examination. As a consequence there is a need to investigate the aging and anti-aging processes of golden hamster oocytes. In order to study the aging processes and parthenogenetic activation of golden hamster oocytes, in vivo oocytes, oocytes cultured with or without cumulus cells, and oocytes treated with Trichostatin A (TSA) or caffeine were collected and investigated. We found that: (1) spontaneous parthenogenetic activation, developmental potential (cleavage rate), and zona pellucida (ZP) hardening undergo age-dependent changes in in vivo, in vitro, and after TSA or caffeine treatment; (2) in vivo, oocytes became spontaneously parthenogenetic 25 h post-hCG treatment; (3) in vitro, cumulus cells did not significantly increase the parthenogenetic activation rate of cultured hamster oocytes; and (4) TSA or caffeine could delay spontaneous oocyte parthenogenetic activation and the aging processes by at least 5h, but also accelerated the hardening of the ZP. These results define the conditions for the aging and anti-aging processes in golden hamster oocytes. TSA and caffeine play roles in controlling spontaneous activation, which could facilitate the storage and use of golden hamster oocytes for studying processes relevant to human reproduction.

  20. Development of chronic and acute golden Syrian hamster infection models with Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo.

    Zuerner, R L; Alt, D P; Palmer, M V


    The golden Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) is frequently used as a model to study virulence for several Leptospira species. Onset of an acute lethal infection following inoculation with several pathogenic Leptospira species has been widely adopted for pathogenesis studies. An important exception is the outcome following inoculation of hamsters with live L. borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo, the primary cause of bovine leptospirosis and a cause of human infections. Typically, inoculation of hamsters with L. borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo fails to induce clinical signs of infection. In this study, the authors defined LD(50) and ID(50) for 2 strains of L. borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo: JB197 and 203. Both strains infected hamsters with ID(50) values of approximately 1.5 × 10(2) bacteria yet differed in tissue invasion and interaction with leukocytes, resulting in widely divergent clinical outcomes. Hamsters infected with strain 203 established renal colonization within 4 days postinfection and remained asymptomatic with chronic renal infections similar to cattle infected with serovar Hardjo. In contrast, hamsters infected with strain JB197 developed a rapidly debilitating disease typical of acute leptospirosis common in accidental hosts (eg, humans) with an LD(50) of 3.6 × 10(4) bacteria. Evidence that strain JB197 resides in both extracellular and intracellular environments during hamster infection was obtained. Development of models that result in chronic and acute forms of leptospirosis provides a platform to study L. borgpetersenii pathogenesis and to test vaccines for the prevention of leptospirosis.

  1. Application study of intracytoplasmic sperm injection for golden hamster and cattle production.

    Horiuchi, Toshitaka


    This paper describes several technical improvements and our results in hamster intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), hamster round spermatid injection (ROSI) and bovine ICSI. The hamster is the mammalian species in which ICSI was first tried to produce fertilized oocytes. However, until recently, no live offspring following ICSI have ever been obtained. We reported the birth of live offspring following hamster ICSI. Improved points to success were 1) performing hamster ICSI in a dark room with a small incandescent lamp and manipulating both oocytes and fertilized eggs under microscope with a red light source and 2) injecting sperm heads without acrosomes. Under controlled illumination, the majority of the oocytes injected with acrosomeless sperm heads were fertilized normally, cleaved, and developed into morulae. Nine live offspring (19%) were born by transfer of hamster ICSI-derived embryos. Furthermore, we reported the birth of live offspring following hamster ROSI. About 70% of oocytes injected with round spermatids broken before injection were fertilized normally and about half of them developed to morulae and blastocysts. Three (5%) live young were born by transfer of hamster ROSI-derived embryos. On the other hand, in cattle, the main improvements were 1) injection of spermatozoa immobilized by scoring their tail just before injection into oocytes, and 2) additional ethanol activation 4 h after ICSI. About 70% of oocytes injected were activated 4 h after ICSI, and about 30% of them developed to blastocysts. Twenty-four live calves (39%) were born by non-surgical transfer of ICSI-derived embryos. Those results shows that, at present, live offspring are able to be obtained following hamster ICSI, ROSI and bovine ICSI, but further improvement is required due to higher production efficiency of offspring.

  2. Bioavailability and disposition of 3H-solanine in rat and hamster.

    Groen, K; Pereboom-de Fauw, D P; Besamusca, P; Beekhof, P K; Speijers, G J; Derks, H J


    1. The toxicokinetics of [3H]-alpha-solanine after oral (p.o.) and intravenous (i.v.) administration in rat and hamster were studied, in order to decide which is the most appropriate model in risk assessment studies. The i.v. dose was 54 micrograms/kg; the oral dose was 170 micrograms/kg. 2. After i.v. administration, the toxicokinetics of total radioactivity in blood were comparable in rat and hamster. However, the clearance of total radioactivity from plasma was more effective in rat than in hamster. The half-lives of distribution and of the terminal phase of unchanged alpha-solanine were not different between rat and hamster, whereas the systemic and metabolic clearance were, respectively, about 1.6 and 2.7 times higher in rat than in hamster. The clearance of unchanged alpha-solanine is more effective than of total radioactivity. 3. After p.o. administration in rat and hamster, the mean bioavailability of total radioactivity is about 29 and 57%, respectively. The bioavailability of unchanged alpha-solanine is only 1.6 and 3.2%, respectively, when compared with i.v. administration. 4. T1/2el of alpha-solanine after p.o. administration was in rats a factor of four and in hamsters a factor of two shorter than after i.v. administration. A strong retention of radioactivity was seen in the hamsters after p.o. administration; only 40% of the dose was excreted within 7 days versus 90% in rat. 5. Based on these and toxicological data from literature, it was decided that the hamster is a more appropriate model in (sub)-chronic toxicity studies with alpha-solanine than the rat.

  3. There is a Relationship between Resource Expenditures and Reference Transactions in Academic Libraries. A Review of: Dubnjakovic, A. (2012. Electronic resource expenditure and the decline in reference transaction statistics in academic libraries. Journal of Academic Librarianship, 38(2, 94-100. doi:10.1016/j.acalib.2012.01.001

    Annie M. Hughes


    Full Text Available Objective – To provide an analysis of the impact of expenditures on electronic resourcesand gate counts on the increase or decrease in reference transactions.Design – Analysis of results of existing survey data from the National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES 2006 Academic Library Survey(ALS.Setting – Academic libraries in the United States.Subjects – 3925 academic library respondents.Methods – The author chose to use survey data collected from the 2006 ALS conducted bythe NCES. The survey included data on various topics related to academic libraries, but in the case of this study, the author chose to analyze three of the 193 variables included. The three variables: electronic books expenditure, computer hardware and software, and expenditures on bibliographic utilities, were combined into one variable called electronic resource expenditure. Gate counts were also considered as a variable. Electronic resource expenditure was also split as a variable into three groups: low, medium, and high. Multiple regression analysis and general linear modeling, along with tests of reliability, were employed. Main Results – The author determined that low, medium, and high spenders with regard to electronic resources exhibited differences in gate counts, and gate counts have an effect on reference transactions in any given week. Gate counts tend to not have much of an effect on reference transactions for the higher spenders, and higher spenders tend to have a higher number of reference transactions overall. Low spenders have lower gate counts and also a lower amount of reference transactions.Conclusion – The findings from this study show that academic libraries spending more on electronic resources also tend to have an increase with regard to reference transactions. The author also concludes that library spaces are no longer the determining factor with regard to number of reference transactions. Spending more on electronic resources is

  4. Lifelong persistent infection of hamster brain by human adenovirus type 6.



    Full Text Available To establish an experimental persistent infection of the brain with human adenoviruses, adenovirus type 6 (ad 6 was inoculated intracerebrally into young adult hamsters. Hamsters appeared languid for a few days after inoculation, but recovered rapidly. By cocultivation of tissue fragments with HeLa cells, ad 6 was always recovered from the brains of hamsters throughout their lives, as long as 29 months, indicating the establishment of a lifelong persistent infection. Except for the first few days after inoculation, however, attempts to recover virus by inoculation of tissue extracts onto HeLa cells or by cultivation of tissue fragments alone were unsuccessful.

  5. A Consensus Genome-scale Reconstruction of Chinese Hamster Ovary Cell Metabolism

    Hefzi, Hooman


    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells dominate biotherapeutic protein production and are widely used in mammalian cell line engineering research. To elucidate metabolic bottlenecks in protein production and to guide cell engineering and bioprocess optimization, we reconstructed the metabolic pathways in CHO and associated them with >1,700 genes in the Cricetulus griseus genome. The genome-scale metabolic model based on this reconstruction, iCHO1766, and cell-line-specific models for CHO-K1, CHO-S, and CHO-DG44 cells provide the biochemical basis of growth and recombinant protein production. The models accurately predict growth phenotypes and known auxotrophies in CHO cells. With the models, we quantify the protein synthesis capacity of CHO cells and demonstrate that common bioprocess treatments, such as histone deacetylase inhibitors, inefficiently increase product yield. However, our simulations show that the metabolic resources in CHO are more than three times more efficiently utilized for growth or recombinant protein synthesis following targeted efforts to engineer the CHO secretory pathway. This model will further accelerate CHO cell engineering and help optimize bioprocesses.

  6. Label-free vascular imaging in a spontaneous hamster cheek pouch carcinogen model for pre-cancer detection (Conference Presentation)

    Hu, Fangyao; Morhard, Robert; Liu, Heather; Murphy, Helen; Farsiu, Sina; Ramanujam, Nimmi


    Inducing angiogenesis is one hallmark of cancer. Tumor induced neovasculature is often characterized as leaky, tortuous and chaotic, unlike a highly organized normal vasculature. Additionally, in the course of carcinogenesis, angiogenesis precedes a visible lesion. Tumor cannot grow beyond 1-2 mm in diameter without inducing angiogenesis. Therefore, capturing the event of angiogenesis may aid early detection of pre-cancer -important for better treatment prognoses in regions that lack the resources to manage invasive cancer. In this study, we imaged the neovascularization in vivo in a spontaneous hamster cheek pouch carcinogen model using a, non-invasive, label-free, high resolution, reflected-light spectral darkfield microscope. Hamsters' cheek pouches were painted with 7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) to induce pre-cancerous to cancerous changes, or mineral oil as control. High resolution spectral darkfield images were obtained over the course of pre-cancer development and in control cheek pouches. The vasculature was segmented with a multi-scale Gabor filter with an 85% accuracy compared with manually traced masks. Highly tortuous vasculature was observed only in the DMBA treated cheek pouches as early as 6 weeks of treatment. In addition, the highly tortuous vessels could be identified before a visible lesion occurred later during the treatment. The vessel patterns as determined by the tortuosity index were significantly different from that of the control cheek pouch. This preliminary study suggests that high-resolution darkfield microscopy is promising tool for pre-cancer and early cancer detection in low resource settings.

  7. Estudios inmunologicos en hamsters (Cricetus auratus infectados con Schistosoma mansoni

    Eduardo Monge


    Full Text Available Los resultados de este trabajo muestran que el hamster (Cricetus auratus puede ser utilizado como un modelo experimental para estudios inmunológicos en la infección por Schistosoma mansoni. Los datos obtenidos, relativos a inmunidad concomitante, producción de anticuerpo letal e inmunosupresión se asemejan a los conseguidos en otros modelos experimentales ya establecidos. Estas observaciones indican que el hámster, además de ser un hospedero satisfactorio para el mantenimiento del parásito en el laboratorio, puede ser considerado como un modelo experimental alterno cuyo crecimiento y mantenimiento son relativamente simples y además es un animal de fácil manejo.

  8. An NSF rotator's perspective: view from inside the hamster wheel

    White, Gary


    Duncan McBride served as my unofficial mentor during my time at NSF as a ``rotator'' (or, in NSF-speak, an IPA, short for an Intergovernmental Personnel Act assignee), from fall 2012 through summer of 2013. A rotator's main job is to help keep the wheels of the grant submission process turning, shepherding individual proposal jackets through the submission cycle. While most proposals are eventually ``Declined'' it is the few that are funded that evoke the most vivid memories of my time there. I hope to relay a little bit about what that was like on a daily basis, to give one hamster's take on the machinations of the NSF machine, and testify to Duncan McBride's critical role in establishing physics as the leader in disciplinary based educational research (DBER). It was a heady experience in many ways, despite the sheer girth of proposal jackets to be processed and the uncertain footing upon which federal employees tread these days.

  9. Mitotic spindle proteomics in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    Mary Kate Bonner

    Full Text Available Mitosis is a fundamental process in the development of all organisms. The mitotic spindle guides the cell through mitosis as it mediates the segregation of chromosomes, the orientation of the cleavage furrow, and the progression of cell division. Birth defects and tissue-specific cancers often result from abnormalities in mitotic events. Here, we report a proteomic study of the mitotic spindle from Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO cells. Four different isolations of metaphase spindles were subjected to Multi-dimensional Protein Identification Technology (MudPIT analysis and tandem mass spectrometry. We identified 1155 proteins and used Gene Ontology (GO analysis to categorize proteins into cellular component groups. We then compared our data to the previously published CHO midbody proteome and identified proteins that are unique to the CHO spindle. Our data represent the first mitotic spindle proteome in CHO cells, which augments the list of mitotic spindle components from mammalian cells.

  10. Arsenite exposure compromises early embryonic development in the Golden hamster.

    Unis, Dave; Osborne, Cassandra; Diawara, Moussa M


    The toxicity of arsenite to 8-cell stage hamster embryos was evaluated. Females were superovulated and mated; embryos were collected and grown for 72 h in culture medium containing vehicle control, 25, 50, 250, 500, or 750 nM arsenite. Morphological observations were taken at 0 and 24h increments. A TUNEL assay was used for determining DNA damage. Survival was expressed by the ability to undergo zona escape. The control group had 78% survival and no evidence of deformities. Embryos in the 25, 50 and 250 nM groups had survival rates of 63%, 55% and 27%, respectively. Arsenite exposure caused total embryo lethality, major deformities, complete failure to undergo zona lysis, and significantly higher number of cells with fragmented DNA in embryos at the 500 and 750 nM concentrations. The study underscores the sensitivity of preimplantation stage embryos to the presence of even relatively small amounts of arsenic in luminal fluid.

  11. Kisspeptin and the seasonal control of reproduction in hamsters

    Simonneaux, Valérie; Ansel, Laura; Revel, Florent G


    Reproduction is a complex and energy demanding function. When internal and external conditions might impair reproductive success (negative energy balance, stress, harsh season) reproductive activity has to be repressed. Recent evidence suggests that these inhibitory mechanisms operate on Kiss1......-expressing neurons, which were recently shown to be implicated in the regulation of GnRH release. Hamsters are seasonal rodents which are sexually active in long photoperiod and quiescent in short photoperiod. The photoperiodic information is transmitted to the reproductive system by melatonin, a pineal...... hormone whose secretion is adjusted to night length. The photoperiodic variation in circulating melatonin has been shown to synchronize reproductive activity with seasons, but the mechanisms involved in this effect of melatonin were so far unknown. Recently we have observed that Kiss1 mRNA level...

  12. If Information Wants To Be Free...Then Who's Going To Pay for It? [and] A Question of Access: SPARC, BioOne, and Society-Driven Electronic Publishing [and] Who Is Going To Mine Digital Library Resources? And How?

    Kaser, Richard T.; Johnson, Richard K.; Rudner, Lawrence


    Discusses Fair Use and the public perception; models for funding information services; publishers illusion that information is/should be free; Internet's role in making information freely available; scholarly communication systems: Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition (SPARC) and BioOne (an electronic aggregation of bioscience…

  13. If Information Wants To Be Free...Then Who's Going To Pay for It? [and] A Question of Access: SPARC, BioOne, and Society-Driven Electronic Publishing [and] Who Is Going To Mine Digital Library Resources? And How?

    Kaser, Richard T.; Johnson, Richard K.; Rudner, Lawrence


    Discusses Fair Use and the public perception; models for funding information services; publishers illusion that information is/should be free; Internet's role in making information freely available; scholarly communication systems: Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition (SPARC) and BioOne (an electronic aggregation of bioscience…

  14. Impact of two interventions on timeliness and data quality of an electronic disease surveillance system in a resource limited setting (Peru: a prospective evaluation

    Quispe Jose A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A timely detection of outbreaks through surveillance is needed in order to prevent future pandemics. However, current surveillance systems may not be prepared to accomplish this goal, especially in resource limited settings. As data quality and timeliness are attributes that improve outbreak detection capacity, we assessed the effect of two interventions on such attributes in Alerta, an electronic disease surveillance system in the Peruvian Navy. Methods 40 Alerta reporting units (18 clinics and 22 ships were included in a 12-week prospective evaluation project. After a short refresher course on the notification process, units were randomly assigned to either a phone, visit or control group. Phone group sites were called three hours before the biweekly reporting deadline if they had not sent their report. Visit group sites received supervision visits on weeks 4 & 8, but no phone calls. The control group sites were not contacted by phone or visited. Timeliness and data quality were assessed by calculating the percentage of reports sent on time and percentage of errors per total number of reports, respectively. Results Timeliness improved in the phone group from 64.6% to 84% in clinics (+19.4 [95% CI, +10.3 to +28.6]; p Conclusion Regular phone reminders significantly improved timeliness of reports in clinics and ships, whereas supervision visits led to improved data quality only among clinics. Further investigations are needed to establish the cost-effectiveness and optimal use of each of these strategies.

  15. Metadata for Electronic Information Resources


    among digital libraries . METS provides an XML DTD that can point to metadata in other schemes by declaring the scheme that is being used. For International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA). (2002). Digital Libraries : Metadata

  16. Photoperiod Regulates vgf-Derived Peptide Processing in Siberian Hamsters.

    Noli, Barbara; Brancia, Carla; Pilleri, Roberta; D'Amato, Filomena; Messana, Irene; Manconi, Barbara; Ebling, Francis J P; Ferri, Gian-Luca; Cocco, Cristina


    VGF mRNA is induced in specific hypothalamic areas of the Siberian hamster upon exposure to short photoperiods, which is associated with a seasonal decrease in appetite and weight loss. Processing of VGF generates multiple bioactive peptides, so the objective of this study was to determine the profile of the VGF-derived peptides in the brain, pituitary and plasma from Siberian hamsters, and to establish whether differential processing might occur in the short day lean state versus long day fat. Antisera against short sequences at the C- or N- termini of proVGF, as well as against NERP-1, TPGH and TLQP peptides, were used for analyses of tissues, and both immunohistochemistry and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) coupled with high-performance liquid (HPLC) or gel chromatography were carried out. VGF peptide immunoreactivity was found within cortex cholinergic perikarya, in multiple hypothalamic nuclei, including those containing vasopressin, and in pituitary gonadotrophs. ELISA revealed that exposure to short day photoperiod led to a down-regulation of VGF immunoreactivity in the cortex, and a less pronounced decrease in the hypothalamus and pituitary, while the plasma VGF levels were not affected by the photoperiod. HPLC and gel chromatography both confirmed the presence of multiple VGF-derived peptides in these tissues, while gel chromatography showed the presence of the VGF precursor in all tissues tested except for the cortex. These observations are consistent with the view that VGF-derived peptides have pleiotropic actions related to changing photoperiod, possibly by regulating cholinergic systems in the cortex, vasopressin hypothalamic pathways, and the reproductive axis.

  17. Photoperiod Regulates vgf-Derived Peptide Processing in Siberian Hamsters.

    Barbara Noli

    Full Text Available VGF mRNA is induced in specific hypothalamic areas of the Siberian hamster upon exposure to short photoperiods, which is associated with a seasonal decrease in appetite and weight loss. Processing of VGF generates multiple bioactive peptides, so the objective of this study was to determine the profile of the VGF-derived peptides in the brain, pituitary and plasma from Siberian hamsters, and to establish whether differential processing might occur in the short day lean state versus long day fat. Antisera against short sequences at the C- or N- termini of proVGF, as well as against NERP-1, TPGH and TLQP peptides, were used for analyses of tissues, and both immunohistochemistry and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA coupled with high-performance liquid (HPLC or gel chromatography were carried out. VGF peptide immunoreactivity was found within cortex cholinergic perikarya, in multiple hypothalamic nuclei, including those containing vasopressin, and in pituitary gonadotrophs. ELISA revealed that exposure to short day photoperiod led to a down-regulation of VGF immunoreactivity in the cortex, and a less pronounced decrease in the hypothalamus and pituitary, while the plasma VGF levels were not affected by the photoperiod. HPLC and gel chromatography both confirmed the presence of multiple VGF-derived peptides in these tissues, while gel chromatography showed the presence of the VGF precursor in all tissues tested except for the cortex. These observations are consistent with the view that VGF-derived peptides have pleiotropic actions related to changing photoperiod, possibly by regulating cholinergic systems in the cortex, vasopressin hypothalamic pathways, and the reproductive axis.

  18. Ductuli efferentes of the male Golden Syrian hamster reproductive tract.

    Ford, J; Carnes, K; Hess, R A


    Efferent ductules are responsible for the transportation of spermatozoa from the testis to the epididymis and their epithelium is responsible for the reabsorption of over 90% of the luminal fluid. The purpose of this research was to characterize the gross morphology and histology of efferent ductules in the male Golden Syrian hamster. The efferent ductules emerge from rete testis with a unique polarity at the apex or cephalic pole of the testis. The number of efferent ductules varied from 3 to 10 with an average of 6.0 and blind ending ducts were observed in approximately 56% of the males. The ductules merged into a single common duct prior to entering the caput epididymidis. The proximal efferent ductule lumen was wider than the distal (conus and common ducts), consistent with reabsorption of most of the luminal fluid, as was morphology of the ductal epithelium. Non-ciliated cells in the proximal region had prominent endocytic apparatuses, showing both coated pits and apical tubules in the apical cytoplasm. Large basolateral, intercellular spaces were also present in the epithelium of the proximal region. Distal non-ciliated cells had an abundance of large endosomes and lysosomal granules. Localisation of sodium/hydrogen exchanger-3 (NHE3; SLC9A3) and aquaporins 1 and 9 (AQP1, AQP9) along the microvillus border was also consistent with ion transport and fluid reabsorption by this epithelium. In comparison, the caput epididymidis epithelium expressed only AQP9 immunostaining. Another unusual feature of the hamster efferent ductules was the presence of glycogen aggregates in the basal cytoplasm of small groups of epithelial cells, but only in the proximal ducts near the rete testis. Androgen (AR), estrogen (ESR1 and ESR2) and vitamin D receptors (VDR) were also abundant in epithelial nuclei of proximal and distal efferent ductules. In comparison, caput epididymidis showed very little immunostaining for ESR1.

  19. Potassium initiates vasodilatation induced by a single skeletal muscle contraction in hamster cremaster muscle

    Marika L. Armstrong; Ashok K. Dua; Coral L. Murrant


    ... + ). To test the hypothesis that K + was in part responsible for the rapid dilatation produced by muscle contraction we stimulated four to five skeletal muscle fibres in the anaesthetized hamster cremaster preparation in situ...

  20. 基于ASP.NET的电子资源整合系统设计与实现%Design and Realization of an Integrated Electronic Resource System Based on ASP.NET

    冀宪武; 陈晓冬; 何燕; 杨方; 曹宇宾; 潘大丰


    电子信息资源的整合是数字图书馆建设中的一个非常重要的环节,论述了数字资源整合的必要性,结合农业图书馆的实际,开展了电子资源整合服务平台的设计与实现。%The integration of electronic information resources is a very important part in digital library construction.In this paper,the necessity for integration of digital resources was discussed,combined with the actuality of the agricultural library,the design and implementation about services platform of electronic resource integration were carried out.

  1. Effect of calcium, given before or after a fluoride insult, on hamster secretory amelogenesis in vitro.

    Bronckers, Antonius L J J; Bervoets, Theodorus J M; Wöltgens, Joseph H M; Lyaruu, Donacian M


    We tested the hypothesis that high-calcium medium given prior to or immediately after exposure to fluoride (F) reduces the negative effects of F on secretory amelogenesis. Hamster molar tooth germs were grown in organ culture in media with different calcium levels. Deposition of enamel matrix and matrix mineralization were monitored by incorporation of [3H]proline and uptake of 45Ca and acid-soluble 32PO4. Ameloblast structure and the occurrence of a fluorotic enamel matrix were examined by light and electron microscopy. A preculture of explants in high-calcium medium partially prevented the formation of fluorotic (non-mineralizing) enamel matrix, increased matrix secretion but could not prevent F-induced hypermineralization of the pre-exposure enamel. High-calcium medium, applied after F insult, accelerated the recovery of fluorotic matrix, improved ameloblast structure, enhanced amelogenin secretion, and increased enamel thickness. The data indicate that it might be the balance between the amount of mineral deposition and that of matrix secretion which is critical for the mineralization of newly secreted enamel. Exposure to F disturbs this balance by enhancing mineralization of the pre-exposure enamel, probably generating an excess of protons. High calcium may protect against F exposure by enhancing amelogenin secretion into the enamel space, thereby increasing the local buffering capacity at the mineralization front.

  2. Pygidiopsis cambodiensis n. sp. (Digenea: Heterophyidae) from experimental hamsters infected with metacercariae in mullets from Cambodia.

    Sohn, Woon-Mok; Kim, Deok-Gyu; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Cho, Jaeeun; Chai, Jong-Yil


    Pygidiopsis cambodiensis n. sp. is described based on adult flukes recovered from Syrian golden hamsters experimentally infected with metacercariae from mullets (Liza macrolepis) purchased at a local fish market in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. The specimens were examined by light and scanning electron microscopy. Among the 13 species so far assigned to Pygidiopsis, the new species belongs to the summa-type (including Pygidiopsis pelecani, Pygidiopsis phalacrocoracis, Pygidiopsis piclaumoreli, Pygidiopsis plana, and Pygidiopsis summa) which lack circumoral spines and have vitelline follicles extending posteriorly from the level of the ovary some distance into the post-testicular space and the uterus not exceeding the acetabulum anteriorly. The new species differs from the other five species of the summa-type particularly in the morphology of the ventrogenital complex, including the genital sac, gonotyl, and gonotyl spines (= rodlets). The genital sac is well developed, sucker-like, slightly larger than the ventral sucker, muscular, and equipped with two gonotyls on the ventral side of the sac. Gonotyls are protruding pad-like, and the number of rodlets on the left gonotyl is four to five and that on the right gonotyl is 10-11 in two rows. This is the fifth Pygidiopsis species reported in Asia, following P. summa (Japan, Korea, and Vietnam), P. phalacrocorasis (Japan), P. pelecani (China), and Pygidiopsis marivillai (Philippines).

  3. A quantitative ultrastructural analysis of changes in hamster cheek-pouch epithelium treated with vitamin A.

    Hill, M W; Harris, R R; Carron, C P


    The ultrastructural changes induced by the topical application of retinol acetate on hamster cheek pouch epithelium were evaluated using stereological analysis. Electron micrographs were prepared of the basal and superficial regions of the nucleated cell layer of the epithelium obtained from 3 treated and 3 control animals and examined at two levels of magnification. A total of 528 micrographs were analyzed using a coherent double lattice test system. Although the mean thickness of the nucleated cell layer did not change significantly after 10 days of treatment with retinol acetate the formation of keratinized squames was completely inhibited. This was paralleled by significant changes in the volume density of a number of organelles in both the basal and superficial strata. Rough endoplasmic reticulum increased significantly whereas filaments, which maintained a constant diameter of approximately 9 nm, keratohyalin granules and membrane-coating granules decreased in both strata. Desmosomes also showed a significant decrease in numerical area density in the treated tissues. In contrast, no changes were observed in the volume density of the Golgi apparatus, free ribosomes or mitochondria in the treated epithelium. It is concluded that this treatment provides an epithelium lacking all features of keratinization and may be a useful model for examining metabolic activities specifically associated with keratinization.

  4. Heat-resistant variants of the Chinese hamster ovary cell: alteration of cellular structure and expression of vimentin.

    Lee, Y J; Hou, Z Z; Curetty, L; Armour, E P; al-Saadi, A; Bernstein, J; Corry, P M


    Three heat-resistant mutant cell lines (78-1, 78-2, 78-3) were previously selected from Chinese hamster ovary cells. In this study, we investigated whether the differences in intrinsic thermal sensitivity result from alteration of stress protein levels or cellular structural changes. Although there was no significant difference in the levels of stress proteins, i.e., constitutive HSP70 in wild type and three heat-resistant mutant strains, there were marked differences in the amounts of vimentin among the cell lines. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and Western blot showed a 2.3-2.9-fold increase in the level of vimentin in the mutant cells under normal growth conditions. Northern blot also revealed higher amounts of vimentin mRNA in the mutant cells. Electron microscopy and immunofluorescence suggest that increased amounts of the vimentin-containing intermediate filaments are correlated with the heat-resistant phenotypes.

  5. In vitro cytotoxicity and transforming potential of industrial carbon dust (fibers and particles) in syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells.

    Darne, C; Terzetti, F; Coulais, C; Fournier, J; Guichard, Y; Gaté, L; Binet, S


    Carbon fibers have many applications, mainly in high-tech industries such as the aviation industry. Eleven carbon samples (fibers and particles) coming from an aeronautic group were tested for their cytotoxicity and carcinogenic potential using in vitro short-term assays in Syrian hamster embryo cells. These samples were taken during each important step of the process, i.e. from the initial heating of polyacrylonitrile fibers to pure carbon fibers. They were compared to an asbestos fiber, an amorphous silica, and two commercial graphite powders. Their physical-chemical characteristics and their capacity to release reactive oxygen species (ROS) were determined. This study showed that none of the carbon samples was able to generate ROS as measured by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance analysis, and in our biological assays, they demonstrated no morphological transformation potential and low cytotoxicity compared to positive control (chrysotile asbestos).

  6. Response of Gut Microbiota to Fasting and Hibernation in Syrian Hamsters

    Sonoyama, Kei; Fujiwara, Reiko; Takemura, Naoki; Ogasawara, Toru; Watanabe, Jun; Ito, Hiroyuki; Morita, Tatsuya


    Although hibernating mammals wake occasionally to eat during torpor, this period represents a state of fasting. Fasting is known to alter the gut microbiota in nonhibernating mammals; therefore, hibernation may also affect the gut microbiota. However, there are few reports of gut microbiota in hibernating mammals. The present study aimed to compare the gut microbiota in hibernating torpid Syrian hamsters with that in active counterparts by using culture-independent analyses. Hamsters were all...

  7. Experimental infection of hamsters with avian paramyxovirus serotypes 1 to 9

    Samuel Arthur S


    Full Text Available Abstract Avian paramyxoviruses (APMVs are frequently isolated from domestic and wild birds throughout the world and are separated into nine serotypes (APMV-1 to -9. Only in the case of APMV-1, the infection of non-avian species has been investigated. The APMVs presently are being considered as human vaccine vectors. In this study, we evaluated the replication and pathogenicity of all nine APMV serotypes in hamsters. The hamsters were inoculated intranasally with each virus and monitored for clinical disease, pathology, histopathology, virus replication, and seroconversion. On the basis of one or more of these criteria, each of the APMV serotypes was found to replicate in hamsters. The APMVs produced mild or inapparent clinical signs in hamsters except for APMV-9, which produced moderate disease. Gross lesions were observed over the pulmonary surface of hamsters infected with APMV-2 & -3, which showed petechial and ecchymotic hemorrhages, respectively. Replication of all of the APMVs except APMV-5 was confirmed in the nasal turbinates and lungs, indicating a tropism for the respiratory tract. Histologically, the infection resulted in lung lesions consistent with bronchointerstitial pneumonia of varying severity and nasal turbinates with blunting or loss of cilia of the epithelium lining the nasal septa. The majority of APMV-infected hamsters exhibited transient histological lesions that self resolved by 14 days post infection (dpi. All of the hamsters infected with the APMVs produced serotype-specific HI or neutralizing antibodies, confirming virus replication. Taken together, these results demonstrate that all nine known APMV serotypes are capable of replicating in hamsters with minimal disease and pathology.

  8. Effects of Porcine Pancreatic Enzymes on the Pancreas of Hamsters. Part 2: Carcinogenesis Studies


    Context Our previous study suggested that porcine pancreatic extract in hamsters with peripheral insulin resistance, normalizes insulin output, islet size and pancreatic DNA synthetic rate. It also inhibited the growth of human pancreatic cancer cells in nude mice. Objective To examine the potential value of the porcine pancreatic extract in controlling pancreatic carcinogenesis in this model, the present experiment was performed. Design Hamsters were fed a high fat diet and four wee...

  9. Leptin mediates seasonal variation in some but not all symptoms of sickness in Siberian hamsters.

    Carlton, Elizabeth D; Demas, Gregory E


    Many seasonally breeding species, including Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus), exhibit seasonal variation in sickness responses. One hypothesis regarding the mechanism of this variation is that sickness intensity tracks an animal's energetic state, such that sickness is attenuated in the season that an animal has the lowest fat stores. Energetic state may be signaled via leptin, an adipose hormone that provides a signal of fat stores. Siberian hamsters respond to extended housing in short, winter-like days by reducing fat stores and leptin levels, relative to those housed in long, summer-like days. Sickness responses are also attenuated in short-day hamsters as compared to long-day hamsters. We hypothesized that leptin provides a physiological signal by which seasonally breeding animals modulate sickness responses, such that animals with higher leptin levels show increased sickness intensity. To test this, we provided short-day hamsters with a long-day-like leptin signal and assessed their responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a sickness-inducing antigen. We compared these responses to short-day vehicle-, long-day vehicle-, and long-day leptin-treated hamsters. Unexpectedly, LPS induced a hypothermic response (rather than fever) in all groups. Short-day vehicle-treated hamsters exhibited the greatest LPS-induced hypothermia, and leptin treatment attenuated this response, making hypothermia more long-day-like. Contrary to our hypothesis, short-day leptin-treated hamsters showed the least pronounced LPS-induced anorexia among all groups. These results suggest that leptin may mediate some but not all aspects of seasonal sickness variation in this species. Future studies should be targeted at determining roles of other energetic hormones in regulating seasonal sickness response variation.

  10. Effects of pharmacological manipulation of GABAergic neurotransmission in a new mutant hamster model of paroxysmal dystonia.

    Fredow, G; Löscher, W


    Attacks of sustained dystonic postures of limbs and trunk can be initiated by handling or mild environmental stimuli (e.g. new cage) in an inbred line of Syrian hamsters. The severity of the dystonic syndrome in these mutant hamsters (gene symbol dtsz) is age-dependent, with a peak at about 30-40 days of age. A scoring system for grading type and severity of the dystonic attacks can be used to study the activity of drugs against dystonic movements with individual pre- and post-drug vehicle trials as control. In the present experiments, the effects of drugs which alter GABAergic functions in the brain were studied in dystonic hamsters. Anticonvulsants, i.e. valproate, diazepam and phenobarbital, which augment GABAergic neurotransmission, decreased the severity of dystonic attacks in the mutant hamsters, while administration of subconvulsive doses of pentylenetetrazol or the inverse benzodiazepine receptor agonist FG 7142 increased the severity of the syndrome. Anticonvulsants, i.e. phenytoin and carbamazepine, which are not thought to act via effects on GABAergic neurotransmission, exerted no antidystonic effects, but even worsened the attack in several animals. In contrast, the GABA-elevating drug, aminooxyacetic acid, produced a marked antidystonic effect in the hamsters. Similarly, the GABAB receptor agonist, baclofen, significant decreased the severity of the dystonic attack. The data indicate that dystonic movements in dtsz mutant hamsters can be attenuated by drugs which facilitate GABAergic functions, but worsened by drugs which impair GABAergic neurotransmission. These data thus seem to suggest that the dystonic syndrome in dtsz mutant hamsters is under GABAergic influence. The data show furthermore that dystonic hamsters are a suitable model to detect antidystonic effects of drugs.

  11. Use of hamster as a model to study diet-induced atherosclerosis

    Lichtenstein Alice H


    Full Text Available Abstract Golden-Syrian hamsters have been used as an animal model to assess diet-induced atherosclerosis since the early 1980s. Advantages appeared to include a low rate of endogenous cholesterol synthesis, receptor-mediated uptake of LDL cholesterol, cholesteryl ester transfer protein activity, hepatic apoB-100 and intestinal apoB-48 secretion, and uptake of the majority of LDL cholesterol via the LDL receptor pathway. Early work suggested hamsters fed high cholesterol and saturated fat diets responded similarly to humans in terms of lipoprotein metabolism and aortic lesion morphology. Recent work has not consistently replicated these findings. Reviewed was the literature related to controlled hamster feeding studies that assessed the effect of strain, background diet (non-purified, semi-purified and dietary perturbation (cholesterol and/or fat on plasma lipoprotein profiles and atherosclerotic lesion formation. F1B hamsters fed a non-purified cholesterol/fat-supplemented diet had more atherogenic lipoprotein profiles (nHDL-C > HDL-C than other hamster strains or hamsters fed cholesterol/fat-supplemented semi-purified diets. However, fat type; saturated (SFA, monounsaturated or n-6 polyunsaturated (PUFA had less of an effect on plasma lipoprotein concentrations. Cholesterol- and fish oil-supplemented semi-purified diets yielded highly variable results when compared to SFA or n-6 PUFA, which were antithetical to responses observed in humans. Dietary cholesterol and fat resulted in inconsistent effects on aortic lipid accumulation. No hamster strain was reported to consistently develop lesions regardless of background diet, dietary cholesterol or dietary fat type amount. In conclusion, at this time the Golden-Syrian hamster does not appear to be a useful model to determine the mechanism(s of diet-induced development of atherosclerotic lesions.

  12. Serum amyloid P (female protein) of the Syrian hamster. Gene structure and expression.

    Rudnick, C M; Dowton, S B


    The structure and expression of the gene encoding serum amyloid P (SAP) component of the Syrian hamster have been studied by isolation of cosmid clones, nucleotide sequence analyses, and quantitation of nuclear run-on transcripts, nuclear RNA, mRNA, and protein levels. Hamster SAP, originally identified as female protein (FP), is a unique pentraxin because pretranslational expression of this gene is modulated by mediators of inflammation and sex steroids. SAP(FP) levels are high in sera from female hamsters and low in males. The response to inflammation is divergent; SAP(FP) levels decrease in females and increase in males during an acute phase response. The SAP(FP) gene encodes a 211 amino acid residue mature polypeptide as well as a 22-residue signal peptide. The intron/exon organization is similar to that of other pentraxins, but additional transcripts are generated from alternate polyadenylation sites in the 3' region. Circulating levels of SAP(FP) and the corresponding hepatic transcript levels are augmented by estrogen, while testosterone, dexamethasone, and progesterone cause a decrease in these levels. In addition the cytokines interleukin-1, -6, and tumor necrosis factor mediate a decrease in hepatic SAP(FP) transcript levels in female hamsters but did not cause a significant elevation of SAP(FP) mRNA in livers of male hamsters. The differences in expression of the SAP(FP) gene between male and female hamsters and between unstimulated male hamsters and male hamsters stimulated with an injection of lipopolysaccharide are due, at least in part, to alterations in transcription.

  13. Individual differences in circadian waveform of Siberian hamsters under multiple lighting conditions.

    Evans, Jennifer A; Elliott, Jeffrey A; Gorman, Michael R


    Because the circadian clock in the mammalian brain derives from a network of interacting cellular oscillators, characterizing the nature and bases of circadian coupling is fundamental to understanding how the pacemaker operates. Various phenomena involving plasticity in circadian waveform have been theorized to reflect changes in oscillator coupling; however, it remains unclear whether these different behavioral paradigms reference a unitary underlying process. To test whether disparate coupling assays index a common mechanism, we examined whether there is covariation among behavioral responses to various lighting conditions that produce changes in circadian waveform. Siberian hamsters, Phodopus sungorus, were transferred from long to short photoperiods to distinguish short photoperiod responders (SP-R) from nonresponders (SP-NR). Short photoperiod chronotyped hamsters were subsequently transferred, along with unselected controls, to 24-h light:dark:light: dark cycles (LDLD) with dim nighttime illumination, a procedure that induces bifurcated entrainment. Under LDLD, SP-R hamsters were more likely to bifurcate their rhythms than were SP-NR hamsters or unselected controls. After transfer from LDLD to constant dim light, SP-R hamsters were also more likely to become arrhythmic compared to SP-NR hamsters and unselected controls. In contrast, short photoperiod chronotype did not influence more transient changes in circadian waveform. The present data reveal a clear relationship in the plasticity of circadian waveform across 3 distinct lighting conditions, suggesting a common mechanism wherein individual differences reflect variation in circadian coupling.

  14. Daidzin inhibits mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase and suppresses ethanol intake of Syrian golden hamsters.

    Keung, W M; Klyosov, A A; Vallee, B L


    Daidzin is the major active principle in extracts of radix puerariae, a traditional Chinese medication that suppresses the ethanol intake of Syrian golden hamsters. It is the first isoflavone recognized to have this effect. Daidzin is also a potent and selective inhibitor of human mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH-2). To establish a link between these two activities, we have tested a series of synthetic structural analogs of daidzin. The results demonstrate a direct correlation between ALDH-2 inhibition and ethanol intake suppression and raise the possibility that daidzin may, in fact, suppress ethanol intake of golden hamsters by inhibiting ALDH-2. Hamster liver contains not only mitochondrial ALDH-2 but also high concentrations of a cytosolic form, ALDH-1, which is a very efficient catalyst of acetaldehyde oxidation. Further, the cytosolic isozyme is completely resistant to daidzin inhibition. This unusual property of the hamster ALDH-1 isozyme accounts for the fact we previously observed that daidzin can suppress ethanol intake of this species without blocking acetaldehyde metabolism. Thus, the mechanism by which daidzin suppresses ethanol intake in golden hamsters clearly differs from that proposed for the classic ALDH inhibitor disulfiram. We postulate that a physiological pathway catalyzed by ALDH-2, so far undefined, controls ethanol intake of golden hamsters and mediates the antidipsotropic effect of daidzin.

  15. Beneficial effects of noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) juice on livers of high-fat dietary hamsters.

    Lin, Yi-Ling; Chang, Yuan-Yen; Yang, Deng-Jye; Tzang, Bor-Show; Chen, Yi-Chen


    Polyphenols in noni juice (NJ) are mainly composed of phenolic acids, mainly gentisic, p-hydroxybenoic, and chlorogenic acids. To investigate the beneficial effects of NJ on the liver, hamsters were fed with two diets, normal-fat and high-fat diets. Furthermore, high-fat dietary hamsters were received distilled water, and 3, 6, and 9 mL NJ/kg BW, respectively. After a 6-week feeding period, the increased (p<0.05) sizes of liver and visceral fat in high-fat dietary hamsters compared to the control hamsters were ameliorated (p<0.05) by NJ supplementation. NJ also decreased (p<0.05) serum/liver lipids but enhanced (p<0.05) daily faecal lipid/bile acid outputs in the high-fat dietary hamsters. High-fat dietary hamsters supplemented with NJ had higher (p<0.05) liver antioxidant capacities but lowered (p<0.05) liver iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, and IL-1β expressions, gelatinolytic levels of MMP9, and serum ALT values compared to those without NJ. Hence, NJ protects liver against a high-fat dietary habit via regulations of antioxidative and anti-inflammatory responses.

  16. Genomic organization and expression of immunoglobulin genes in the Chinese hamster (Cricetulus griseus).

    Qin, T; Zhu, H; Wang, D; Hao, H; Du, W


    In science, the hamsters are widely used as a model for studying the human diseases because they display many features like humans. The utility of the Chinese hamster as a biology model can be further enhanced by further characterization of the genes encoding components of the immune system. Here, we report the genomic organization and expression of the Chinese hamster immunoglobulin heavy and light chain genes. The Chinese hamster IgH locus contains 268 VH segments (132 potentially functional genes, 12 ORFs and 124 pseudogenes), 4 DH segments, 6 JH segments, four constant region genes (μ, γ, ε and α) and one reverse δ remnant fragment. The Igκ locus contains only a single Cκ gene, 4 Jκ segments and 48 Vκ segments (15 potentially functional genes and 33 pseudogenes), whereas the Igλ locus contains 4 Cλ genes, but only Cλ 3 and Cλ 4 each preceded by a Jλ gene segment. A total of 49 Vλ segments (39 potentially functional genes, 3 ORFs and 7 pseudogenes) were identified. Analysis of junctions of the recombined V(D)J transcripts reveals complex diversity in both expressed H and κ sequences, but the microhomology-directed VJ recombination obviously results in very limited diversity in the Chinese hamster λ gene despite more potential germline-encoded combinatorial diversity. This is the first study to make a comprehensive analysis of the Ig genes in the Chinese hamster, which provides insights into the Ig genes in placental mammals.

  17. A survey on intestinal parasites of golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) in the northeast of Iran.

    Borji, Hassan; Khoshnegah, Javad; Razmi, Gholamreza; Amini, Hossein; Shariatzadeh, Mahnaz


    The aims of this study were to provide baseline knowledge about gastrointestinal parasites in golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) that inhabit the Mashhad area, and to analyze possible independent variable from October 2011-August 2012. To determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in golden hamster, faecal samples were tested specifically for nematode eggs, protozoan oocysts and sporocysts utilizing a combined sedimentation-flotation technique. In addition, all fecal samples were examined to detect oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. using modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining. Of 100 golden hamsters, 52 % were females and 48 % males. Of all examined fecal samples of golden hamsters, 44 % (95 % CI: 34.3-53.7 %) were found to harbor at least one parasite species. The following parasites were detected (with their respective prevalence): undetermined Trichurata (42 %, 95 % CI: 29.5-48.5 %), Syphacia spp. (4.3 %, 95 % CI: 1-7.3 %). Cryptosporidium and protozoan oocysts were not found in these animals. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between age, sex, litter, breeding place, breeding style and anthelminthic treatment with individual helminth infection in faecal examination. This is the first record of the gastrointestinal parasites of golden hamster in Iran. Considering that hamster and other rodents are pets in many homes, the likelihood of cross-infections, particularly involving children and mainly due to unhygienic habits, should be determined.

  18. Cutaneous myxosarcoma in a Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratusMixossarcoma cutâneo em um Hamster Sírio

    Renée Laufer Amorim


    Full Text Available The pathological findings in a 2-years-old Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus with a cutaneous myxosarcoma are described. Grossly, there was a large cutaneous mass in the right cervical region. Microscopical evaluation revealed a myxosarcoma characterized by pleomorphic, fusiform cells loosely arranged, randomly distributed, and presenting a moderate amount of basophilic amorphous stroma. There were hemorrhagic areas within the tumor. The basophilic amorphous stroma was positive to Alcian blue confirming the presence of a mucopolysaccharide matrix. Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells expressed vimentin, and were negative for cytokeratin or glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP.São descritos os achados anatomopatológicos de um caso de mixossarcoma cutâneo em um Hamster Sírio de 2 anos de idade. Macroscopicamente, foi evidenciada um grande massa cutânea na região cervical lateral direita. A microscopia revelou a presença de um caso de mixossarcoma caracterizado por células fusiformes pleomórficas, frouxamente arranjadas, distribuídas aleatoriamente e, apresentando quantidade moderada de substância basofílica amorfa no estroma e áreas hemorrágicas. O estroma basofílico amorfo foi positivo na coloração Alcian blue, confirmando a presença de matriz mucopolissacarídea. Na imunoistoquímica, as células neoplásicas expressaram vimentina e foram negativas para a marcação de citoqueratina e proteína ácida fibrilar (GFAP.

  19. Library resources on the Internet

    Buchanan, Nancy L.


    Library resources are prevalent on the Internet. Library catalogs, electronic books, electronic periodicals, periodical indexes, reference sources, and U.S. Government documents are available by telnet, Gopher, World Wide Web, and FTP. Comparatively few copyrighted library resources are available freely on the Internet. Internet implementations of library resources can add useful features, such as full-text searching. There are discussion lists, Gophers, and World Wide Web pages to help users keep up with new resources and changes to existing ones. The future will bring more library resources, more types of library resources, and more integrated implementations of such resources to the Internet.

  20. [Influence of the sex of the final host on experimental Dipetalonema vitae filariosis in golden hamsters Cricetus auratus (author's transl)].

    Reynouard, F; Barrabes, A; Combescot, C


    The authors have studied the influence of the sex of the host on experimental Dipetalonema viteae parasitosis in golden hamsters Cricetus auratus. The parasited hamsters are sacrificed fifteen days after testing for microfilarial count, and then the extent of the infestation is measured by counting the number of male worms and female worms. The average level of microfilarial count is significantly higher in male hamsters than in female hamsters. The same applies to the extent of parasitism: the average number of adult worms is higher when parasitosis occurs in males. However, the sex of the hamster has no influence on the proportion of male and female worms present and the degree of microfilarial count, observed in male hamsters seems to result only from the presence in the same of a greater number of worms.

  1. Distinctive Profiles of Infection and Pathology in Hamsters Infected with Clostridium difficile Strains 630 and B1 ▿

    Goulding, David; Thompson, Harold; Emerson, Jenny; Fairweather, Neil F.; Dougan, Gordon; Douce, Gill R.


    Currently, the Golden Syrian hamster is widely considered an important model of Clostridium difficile disease, as oral infection of this animal pretreated with antibiotics reproduces many of the symptoms observed in humans. Two C. difficile strains, B1 and 630, showed significant differences in the progression and severity of disease in this model. B1-infected hamsters exhibited more severe pathology and a shorter time to death than hamsters infected with 630. Histological changes in the gut ...

  2. Characterization of Syrian hamster adapted prions derived from L-type and C-type bovine spongiform encephalopathies


    Atypical forms of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) may be caused by different prions from classical BSE (C-BSE). In this study, we examined the susceptibility of mice overexpressing mouse and hamster chimeric prion protein (PrP) to L-type atypical BSE (L-BSE). None of the transgenic mice showed susceptibility to L-BSE, except mice overexpressing hamster PrP. We also examined the transmission properties of L-BSE in hamsters. The incubation period of hamsters intracerebrally inoculated wi...

  3. 基于 EZproxy 日志的电子资源异常访问行为研究%Research on Abnormal Access to Electronic Resources Based on EZproxy Logs

    雷东升; 郭振英


    The off - campus access to electronic resources in the library benefits readers a lot .Meanwhile ,some abnormal access behavior arises .The paper analyzed the electronic resources access log with EZproxyog proxy server ,designed and devel-oped the EZproxy log analysis system so as to pretreat ,upload ,count and analyze the access log to electronic resources .To dis-cover the abnormal access behavior of readers on the basis of the characteristics of their access and to classify the abnormal behav -ior , the paper could avoid that IP is temporarily blocked by the supporters of database of electronic resources in the library so that can maintain the readers' rights and improve the efficiency of resource access .%校外访问图书馆电子资源在方便读者的同时也出现一些异常访问行为,利用 EZproxy 代理服务器日志信息分析异常访问行为特征,设计并开发 EZproxy 日志分析系统,完成对电子资源访问日志的预处理、上传、统计和分析,从访问特征发掘读者的异常访问行为,对异常行为情况分类处理,基本避免了异常访问行为导致图书馆电子资源被数据库商临时封掉 IP 的现象出现,维护图书馆读者的合法权利,提高资源访问效率。

  4. Photoperiod-gonadotropin mismatches induced by treatment with acyline or FSH in Siberian hamsters: impacts on ovarian structure and function.

    Zysling, D A; Park, S-U; McMillan, E L; Place, N J


    Many seasonal breeders time their reproductive efforts to specific times of the year to ensure adequate resources for the production and care of young. For long-day (LD) breeders, females born before the summer solstice (LDs) reach sexual maturity quickly and often breed that same year, whereas females born after the summer solstice (short days (SDs)) may delay reproductive development to the following spring when environmental conditions are favorable for reproduction. In Siberian hamsters, development in SD is associated with structural and functional differences in the ovary compared with females held in LD, including a greater number of primordial follicles and an abundance of hypertrophied granulosa cells (HGCs), which are immunoreactive for anti-Müllerian hormone. The goal of this study was to determine whether SD-induced gonadotropin suppression is responsible for these phenotypic differences. Gonadotropin levels were suppressed in LD hamsters using the GNRH antagonist acyline. Conversely, to determine whether the SD ovarian phenotype is completely reversed by gonadotropin stimulation, recombinant human FSH (rhFSH) was administered. Our treatments were successful in mimicking FSH concentrations of the opposite photoperiod, but they did not produce a comparable change in the ovarian phenotype. Most notable was the lack of HGCs in the ovaries of acyline-treated LD females. Similarly, HGCs were maintained in the ovaries of SD females treated with rhFSH. Our data suggest that gonadotropins alone do not account for the SD ovarian phenotype. Future studies will determine whether SD-induced changes in other factors underlie these phenotypic changes.

  5. LipL21 mRNA expression in lungs of hamsters infected with pathogenic Leptospira

    Chintana Chirathaworn; Namo Suksomyos; Somchai Utivamek; Somboon Keelawat; Duangjai Suwancharoen; Duangporn Phulsuksombati; Yong Poovorawan


    Objective:Pulmonary haemorrhage is an increasing cause of death in leptospirosis patients.However,molecu-lar mechanism underlying pathologies in this organ is not clearly understood.It has been shown that sodium transport was disturbed following Leptospira infection.LipL21 is the second abundant outer membrane protein found only in pathogenic Leptospira.Its expression in vivo has been shown which suggests that this protein may be involved in survival in hosts or pathogenesis.However,the expression of this protein in host organs and its role in lung pathology has not been demonstrated.In this study we demonstrated the expression of LipL21 in lungs of hamsters infected with pathogenic Leptospira.Methods:Lung tissues were collected from Golden Syri-an hamsters injected with Leptospira interrogans serovar Pyrogenes at days 3,5 and 7 post-infection.Four ham-sters were used for each time point.Lungs from non-infected hamsters were collected as a control group.Li-pL21 mRNA expression in lung tissues was investigated by reverse transcription and nested PCR.Results:Li-pL21 mRNA expression was detected in all lung tissues from hamsters infected with pathogenic Leptospira.No PCR product was detected when tissues from non-infected hamsters were investigated.Conclusion:Our data demonstrated that LipL21 is expressed in lungs of hamsters infected with pathogenic Leptospira.Additional ex-periments such as quantitation and localization of LipL21 expression in lungs will provide further information whether this protein is involved in pathogenesis.


    Bayu Rosadi


    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate the viability of mice and hamster embryos developed in Kalium Simplex Optimized Medium amino acid (KSOMaa and Hamster Embryo Culture Medium-6 (HECM-6 medium. Female DDY mice were superovulated by injection i.p. of 5 IU Pregnant Mare Serum Gonadotropine (PMSG and 5 IU Human Chorionic Gonadotropine (hCG in 48 h interval, hamster (Phodopus campbelli injected by 2.5 IU PMSG and 2.5 IU hCG 48 h later. Then females were mated with fertile males. Eight-cell embryos were recovered at day 3 after natural mating. The mice embryos were cultured in KSOMaa+5% NBCS (New Born Calf Serum (T1 and HECM-6+5% NBCS (T2, the hamster embryos were cultured in KSOMaa+5% NBCS (T3 and HECM-6 + 5% NBCS (T4 for further development at 37oC in a humidified atmosphere of 5% CO2 in air for 48 h. The examinations were replicated five times. The T1 embryos developed to compact morulla and early blastocyst 100% (140/140, 92.1% (129/140 to blastocyst and expanded blastocyst, and 22.9% (32/140 became hatching/hatched. The T3 reached 100% (60/60 to compact morulla and early blastocyst, 85.0% (51/60 blastocyst, and 48.3% (29/60 expanded blastocyst, no embryo observed hatching/hatced. The T2 embryos had more expanded blastocyst than T3 (P<0.05, hatching/hatched rate higher than T1 and T3 but lower than T4 (P<0.05. Shortly, KSOMaa enable to support 8-cell stage mice and hamster embryo, but the hamster embryo developed lower at expanded blastocyst stage. HECM-6 is more appropriate than KSOMaa to support 8-cell mice embryos development and suitable to develop 8-cell stage hamster embryos.

  7. Identification, expression, and physiological functions of Siberian hamster gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone.

    Ubuka, Takayoshi; Inoue, Kazuhiko; Fukuda, Yujiro; Mizuno, Takanobu; Ukena, Kazuyoshi; Kriegsfeld, Lance J; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi


    Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) is a hypothalamic neuropeptide that inhibits gonadotropin secretion in birds and mammals. To further understand its physiological roles in mammalian reproduction, we identified its precursor cDNA and endogenous mature peptides in the Siberian hamster brain. The Siberian hamster GnIH precursor cDNA encoded two RFamide-related peptide (RFRP) sequences. SPAPANKVPHSAANLPLRF-NH(2) (Siberian hamster RFRP-1) and TLSRVPSLPQRF-NH(2) (Siberian hamster RFRP-3) were confirmed as mature endogenous peptides by mass spectrometry from brain samples purified by immunoaffinity chromatography. GnIH mRNA expression was higher in long days (LD) compared with short days (SD). GnIH mRNA was also highly expressed in SD plus pinealectomized animals, whereas expression was suppressed by melatonin, a nocturnal pineal hormone, administration. GnIH-immunoreactive (-ir) neurons were localized to the dorsomedial region of the hypothalamus, and GnIH-ir fibers projected to hypothalamic and limbic structures. The density of GnIH-ir perikarya and fibers were higher in LD and SD plus pinealectomized hamsters than in LD plus melatonin or SD animals. The percentage of GnRH neurons receiving close appositions from GnIH-ir fiber terminals was also higher in LD than SD, and GnIH receptor was expressed in GnRH-ir neurons. Finally, central administration of hamster RFRP-1 or RFRP-3 inhibited LH release 5 and 30 min after administration in LD. In sharp contrast, both peptides stimulated LH release 30 min after administration in SD. These results suggest that GnIH peptides fine tune LH levels via its receptor expressed in GnRH-ir neurons in an opposing fashion across the seasons in Siberian hamsters.

  8. Transmission of chronic wasting disease identifies a prion strain causing cachexia and heart infection in hamsters.

    Richard A Bessen

    Full Text Available Chronic wasting disease (CWD is an emerging prion disease of free-ranging and captive cervids in North America. In this study we established a rodent model for CWD in Syrian golden hamsters that resemble key features of the disease in cervids including cachexia and infection of cardiac muscle. Following one to three serial passages of CWD from white-tailed deer into transgenic mice expressing the hamster prion protein gene, CWD was subsequently passaged into Syrian golden hamsters. In one passage line there were preclinical changes in locomotor activity and a loss of body mass prior to onset of subtle neurological symptoms around 340 days. The clinical symptoms included a prominent wasting disease, similar to cachexia, with a prolonged duration. Other features of CWD in hamsters that were similar to cervid CWD included the brain distribution of the disease-specific isoform of the prion protein, PrP(Sc, prion infection of the central and peripheral neuroendocrine system, and PrP(Sc deposition in cardiac muscle. There was also prominent PrP(Sc deposition in the nasal mucosa on the edge of the olfactory sensory epithelium with the lumen of the nasal airway that could have implications for CWD shedding into nasal secretions and disease transmission. Since the mechanism of wasting disease in prion diseases is unknown this hamster CWD model could provide a means to investigate the physiological basis of cachexia, which we propose is due to a prion-induced endocrinopathy. This prion disease phenotype has not been described in hamsters and we designate it as the 'wasting' or WST strain of hamster CWD.

  9. Propranolol induced chromosomal aberrations in Chinese hamster ovary cell line

    Mozhgan Sedigh-Ardekani


    Full Text Available Propranolol (PL, a non-selective beta-blocker, is a cardiovascular drug widely used to treat hypertension. The present study was concerned with assessing the cytogenetic effects of this drug on Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cell line. MTT assay was then carried out to determine the cytotoxicity index (IC50 of the drug. The IC50 value of PL was 0.43±0.02 mM. To investigate the clastogenic effects of the drug, chromatid and chromosome breaks and polyploidy in metaphases were analyzed. CHO cells were exposed to different concentrations of the drug (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 mM for 24 hours. Considering that PL has liver metabolism, experiments were carried out in the presence and absence of the metabolic activation system (S9 mix. Mitomycin-C and sodium arsenite were used as positive controls. It was observed that in cells treated with different PL concentrations as 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 mM, the frequency of chromatid and chromosome breaks as well as polyploidy increased when compared with untreated CHO cells. The addition of S9 mix significantly decreased the chromatid breaks, chromosome breaks and polyploidy compared to the treatment of PL alone. It is concluded that, PL causes chromatid and chromosome aberrations in CHO cell line and the metabolic activation system (S9 mix, playing an important role in drug cytotoxicity reduction.

  10. Teratogenic effects of mescaline, epinephrine, and norepinephrine in the hamster.

    Hirsch, K S; Fritz, H I


    Mescaline was administered orally at doses of 16 and 32 mg/kg on the seventh through tenth days of gestation to pregnant cream-strain hamsters. This treatment resulted in a dose-dependent effect on reproductive success and skeletal ossification. The effect of mescaline on reproductive success included an increased number of resorptions resulting in a decreased litter size. The 32 mg/kg dose of mescaline caused 48.8% resorptions, while 16 mg/kg and control animals had 12.0% and 6.4% resorptions, respectively. Litter size was decreased from 12.0 pups in controls to 10.3 (16 mg/kg) and 6.5 (32 mg/kg) pups per litter in treated groups. No gross abnormalities were observed at necropsy; there was, however, a dose-dependent increased delay in the ossification of the skull, sternum, and metatarsals. Both epinephrine and norepinephrine caused a decrease in reproductive success when administered at 500 micrograms/kg. Epinephrine appeared to cause a trend toward preimplantation wastage as indicated by an increased corpora lutea to implantation site ratio (from 1.3-1.9). Norepinephrine, however, caused an increased number of resorptions (29.1% in controls). Both norepinephrine and epinephrine produced similar delays in ossification.

  11. Obesity induction in hamster that mimics the human clinical condition.

    Jordania da Silva, Vivian; Dias, Sílvia Regina Costa; Maioli, Tatiani Uceli; Serafim, Luciana Ribeiro; Furtado, Luis Fernando Viana; Quintão Silva, Maria da Gloria; Faria, Ana Maria Caetano de; Rabelo, Élida Mara Leite


    Although obesity is well established in hamsters, studies using diets with high levels of simple carbohydrate associated with lipids are necessary to assess the impact of this type of food in the body. In this study a high sugar and butter diet (HSB) and high temperature were employed towards this end. Obesity was successfully induced at a temperature of 30.3°C to 30.9°C after 38 days feeding the animals an HSB diet. It was shown that although diet is important for the induction of obesity, temperature is also essential because at a temperature slightly below the one required, obesity was not induced, even when the animals were fed for a longer period (150 days).The obese clinical condition was accompanied by biochemical and hematological changes, as increased cholesterol and triglyceride levels and increased leukocyte numbers, similar to alterations observed in obese humans. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that increasing the intake of simple carbohydrates associated with lipids provided evidence of inflammation in obese animals.

  12. Red Yeast Rice Increases Excretion of Bile Acids in Hamsters



    Objectives To investigate the hypocholesterolemic activity of red yeast rice (RYR) and its underlying mechanism. Methods Three groups of hamsters were fed either the control diet or one of the two experimental diets containing by weight 0.1% RYR (0.1RYR) or 0.3% RYR (0.3RYR). Blood (0.5 mL) was collected from the retro-orbital sinus into a heparinized capillary tube at the end of week 0,3, and 6.Plasma lipoproteins were measured using enzymatic kits, while fecal neutral and acidic sterols were quantified using a gas-liquid chromatography. Results Plasma total cholesterol was reduced by 12% in 0.1RYR group and by 18% in 0.3RYR group compared with the control value. Similarly, plasma triacylglycerol was decreased by ll% in 0.1RYR group and by 24% in 0.3RYR group. Western blotting analysis demonstrated that RYR had no effect on sterol regulatory element binding protein 2, liver X receptor, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutary-CoA reductase, LDL receptor, and cholesterol-7α-hydroxylase. HPLC analysis confirmed that RYR contained 0.88% monacolin K.It was recently found that RYR supplementation increased excretion of fecal acidic sterols by 3-4 folds compared with the control value. Conclusion Hypocholesterolemic activity of RYR is mediated at least partially by enhancement of acidic sterol excretion.

  13. [Cytotoxicity studies on T-3262 in cultured Chinese hamster cells].

    Yoneda, T; Nakamura, S; Nojima, Y; Nishio, Y


    T-3262 is an antibacterial drug which belongs to the group of pyridonecarboxylic acids. In this study, we investigated cytotoxicity of T-3262 for inhibition of cell growth and effects on viability of, and morphological changes in cultured Chinese hamster cells (V79 cells). The following results were obtained. 1. The 50% inhibition dose of T-3262 for cell growth (ID50, cultured for 48 hours) was 12 micrograms/ml, showing that the inhibitory effect of T-3262 on the cell growth was stronger than that of enoxacin (ENX: ID50 44 micrograms/ml), norfloxacin (NFLX: ID50 105 micrograms/ml) or ofloxacin (OFLX: ID50 145 micrograms/ml). 2. The number of cells increased and dead cells were scarcely seen at the highest concentration tested in culture medium (40 micrograms/ml of T-3262 for 48 hours). At this concentration, degeneration of cytoplasm (atrophy and round shape) and decrease of mitotic cells were observed. These morphological changes were similar to those of the cells treated 400 micrograms/ml of NFLX or OFLX for 48 hours. 3. After the removal of T-3262 from culture medium, the cells began to grow actively and recovered from the morphological changes. The similar phenomenon was observed with ENX treated cells but not with fluorouracil or mitomycin C treated cells.

  14. Oropouche virus experimental infection in the golden hamster (Mesocrisetus auratus).

    Rodrigues, Alcir Humberto; Santos, Rodrigo Ivo; Arisi, Gabriel Maisonnave; Bernardes, Emerson Soares; Silva, Maria Lúcia; Rossi, Marcos Antônio; Lopes, Maria Beatriz Sampaio; Arruda, Eurico


    Oropouche virus (OROV), of the family Bunyaviridae, is the second most frequent arbovirus causing febrile disease in Brazil. In spite of this, little is known about pathogenesis of OROV infection. This report describes an experimental model of OROV in golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus). Following subcutaneous inoculation of OROV, over 50% of the animals developed disease characterized by lethargy, ruffled fur, shivering, paralysis, and approximately one third died. Animals were sacrificed on days 1, 3, 5, 8 and 11 post-inoculation to collect tissue samples from brain, heart, liver, lung, spleen, muscle and blood for virus titration, histology and OROV immunohistochemistry. OROV was detected in high titers in blood, liver and brain, but not in the other organs. Histopathology revealed meningoencephalitis and hepatitis, with abundant OROV antigen detected in liver and brain. Diffuse galectin-3 immunostaining in brain and liver supports microglial and Kupfer cells activation. This is the first description of an experimental model for OROV infection and should be helpful to study pathogenesis and possibly to test antiviral interventions such as drugs and vaccine candidates.

  15. Analysis on the Thinking Modes of Medical Users Utilizing Library Electronic Resources%医药学用户使用图书馆电子资源的思维模式分析

    陈东滨; 应峻; 辛继宾; 徐一新


    The paper studies the thinking modes of medical users utilizing electronic resources in college and university libraries. Combining with the questionnaires,in - depth analysis of utilization desire,utilization decision,impact factors of utilization behaviors are compiled,in order to provide references for college and university libraries formulating electronic resources marketing strategies.%研究高校图书馆医药学用户在使用电子资源过程中的思维模式,结合问卷调查结果深入分析思维模式中使用意愿、使用决策、使用行为的影响因素,为高校图书馆制定电子资源营销策略提供依据。

  16. HAMSTER: visualizing microarray experiments as a set of minimum spanning trees

    Harada Hajime


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Visualization tools allow researchers to obtain a global view of the interrelationships between the probes or experiments of a gene expression (e.g. microarray data set. Some existing methods include hierarchical clustering and k-means. In recent years, others have proposed applying minimum spanning trees (MST for microarray clustering. Although MST-based clustering is formally equivalent to the dendrograms produced by hierarchical clustering under certain conditions; visually they can be quite different. Methods HAMSTER (Helpful Abstraction using Minimum Spanning Trees for Expression Relations is an open source system for generating a set of MSTs from the experiments of a microarray data set. While previous works have generated a single MST from a data set for data clustering, we recursively merge experiments and repeat this process to obtain a set of MSTs for data visualization. Depending on the parameters chosen, each tree is analogous to a snapshot of one step of the hierarchical clustering process. We scored and ranked these trees using one of three proposed schemes. HAMSTER is implemented in C++ and makes use of Graphviz for laying out each MST. Results We report on the running time of HAMSTER and demonstrate using data sets from the NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO that the images created by HAMSTER offer insights that differ from the dendrograms of hierarchical clustering. In addition to the C++ program which is available as open source, we also provided a web-based version (HAMSTER+ which allows users to apply our system through a web browser without any computer programming knowledge. Conclusion Researchers may find it helpful to include HAMSTER in their microarray analysis workflow as it can offer insights that differ from hierarchical clustering. We believe that HAMSTER would be useful for certain types of gradient data sets (e.g time-series data and data that indicate relationships between cells/tissues. Both

  17. Comparison of pulmonary and pleural responses of rats and hamsters to inhaled refractory ceramic fibers.

    Gelzleichter, T R; Bermudez, E; Mangum, J B; Wong, B A; Janszen, D B; Moss, O R; Everitt, J I


    The present study was designed to determine whether pleural fiber burdens or subchronic pleural fibroproliferative and inflammatory changes can help explain the marked interspecies differences in pleural fibrosis and mesothelioma that are observed following long-term inhalation of RCF-1 ceramic fibers by rats and hamsters. Fischer 344 rats and Syrian golden hamsters were exposed to RCF-1 for 4 h per day, 5 days per week, for 12 consecutive weeks. Lung and pleural fiber burdens were characterized during and after exposure. For all time points, approximately 67% of fibers associated with lung tissues from both rats and hamsters were longer than 5 microns in length. In comparison, fibers longer than 5 microns recovered from the pleural compartment, following a 12-week exposure and 12 weeks of recovery, accounted for 13% (hamsters) and 4% (rats) of the distribution. In the 12 weeks after the cessation of exposure, the number of fibers longer than 5 microns in length remained constant in the hamster at approximately 150 fibers per cm2 pleura. This was 2 to 3 times the corresponding fiber surface density in the rat. Significant pulmonary and pleural inflammation was detected at all time points and for both species. DNA synthesis by pleural mesothelial cells was quantified by bromodeoxyuridine uptake following 3 days of labeling. Labeling indices were higher in hamsters than in rats, both for RCF-1-exposed and filtered air-control animals and was highest for the parietal surface of the pleura. Significantly greater collagen deposition was measured in the visceral pleura of hamsters 12 weeks post-exposure but was not significantly elevated in rats. These findings demonstrate that subchronic inhalation exposure to RCF-1 induces pleural inflammation, mesothelial-cell turnover, pleural fibrosis, and an accumulation of fibers with a length greater than 5 microns in the hamster. The accumulation of long fibers in the pleural space may contribute to the pathology observed in the

  18. The sz mutant hamster: a genetic model of epilepsy or of paroxysmal dystonia?

    Löscher, W; Fisher, J E; Schmidt, D; Fredow, G; Hönack, D; Iturrian, W B


    Attacks of sustained dystonic postures of limbs and trunk can be initiated by mild environmental stimuli in an inbred line of Syrian hamsters. The trait is determined by an autosomal simple recessive genetic mutation, originally designated by the gene symbol sz, because the abnormal movements were thought to represent epileptic seizures. The attacks, which can be reproducibly initiated by placing the sz mutant hamsters in a new environment, begin with rapid twitches of the vibrissae, flattened ears, and flattened posture of the trunk while walking, followed by facial contortions, rearing, and sustained posturing of trunk and limbs, often resulting in falling over to the side or backwards. In the final stage, the hamsters became immobile, which can last for hours. An increased tone of limbs and trunk muscles can be palpated during the attack. Electromyographical recordings in awake, unrestrained mutant hamsters showed that the onset of the attack coincided with continuous tonic muscle activity and phasic bursts, which were present even when the animals did not move. During the attack, the animals continue to react to external stimuli. Bilateral electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings before and during motor disturbances in sz mutant hamsters showed no abnormalities. The severity of the dystonic syndrome in hamsters is age dependent with a peak at about 30-40 days of age. A score system for grading type and severity of dystonic attack was developed for use in drug activity studies. The severity of the attack was reduced or attacks were completely prevented by diazepam (1-2.5 mg/kg i.p.) and valproic acid (100-400 mg/kg i.p.) in a dose-dependent fashion. The latency to dystonic movements was significantly increased by diazepam but markedly reduced by subconvulsive doses of pentylenetetrazol (40 mg/kg s.c.). Diazepam antagonized the latency-reducing action of pentylenetetrazol in the hamsters. The pathophysiology and pharmacological sensitivity of the dystonic attacks

  19. Review of Researches on the Usage Standard Management of Electronic Resources in China from 2000 to 2010%2000—20l0年我国电子资源使用的规范管理研微

    宛玲; 杜坤


    In recent years, electronic resources play an increasingly important role in research, teaching and other works. Through the statistical analysis of the domestic research on the usage standard management of electronic resources from 2000 to 2010, we find that the issue of the usage standard management of electronic resources is increasingly concerned by the public and researchers. But there are still some problems, such as lack of systematic discussion and empirical research, scattered research topics, most research results on guidance proposals, and so on. Our researches about usage standard management of electronic resources should strengthen researches on the user, related technologies, licensing alliance, strengthen the communication between libraries and database providers, and strengthen the analysis and absorption of foreign experience.%目前,电子资源在科研、教学等工作中扮演着越来越重要的角色。通过对2000-2010年我国电子资源使用规范管理研究文献的统计分析发现,虽然公众及科研人员对电子资源使用的规范的关注程度越来越高,但是仍存在缺乏系统性的论述和实证性的研究、研究主题过于分散、研究成果多为指导性建议等问题。我国电子资源使用规范管理研究应加强对用户、相关技术、许可联盟的研究,加强对图书馆与数据库商交流的研究,加强对国外经验的分析与吸收。

  20. 高校图书馆电子资源购买过程中的委托-代理关系探究%Principal-agent Relationship During the Electronic Resources Purchase Process of University Libraries

    桂君; 吴冬曼


    The prineipal-agent relationship is throughout the whole process of the electronic resources purchase for university libraries. Based on the asymmetric informatiun theory the issues of information asymmetries in the purchase process of electronic resources for university libraries are analyzed. The major prineipal-agent relationships between the university libraries, the group organizers and the database providers ate studied. The operational characteristics and existing problems in the purchase process of electronic resources for university libraries are also discussed. Taking this opportunity to attention the principal-agent relationships existed in the electronic resources purchase of university libraries, the authors hope to solve some problems caused by the market information asymmetry.%委托-代理关系贯穿了高校图书馆电子资源的购买全过程,,基于信息不对称理论,分析高校图书馆电子资源购买中的信息不对称现象,并以高校图书馆、集团组织者、数据库提供者为主体,研究高校图书馆电子资源采购过程中存在的几种主要委托-代理关系、业务特点和存在的问题、通过对委托-代理关系的研究和分析,合理把握电子资源采购的规律,可以部分解决高校电子资源购买中由市场信息不平衡所带来的问题。

  1. Dim nocturnal illumination alters coupling of circadian pacemakers in Siberian hamsters, Phodopus sungorus.

    Gorman, M R; Elliott, J A


    The circadian pacemaker of mammals comprises multiple oscillators that may adopt different phase relationships to determine properties of the coupled system. The effect of nocturnal illumination comparable to dim moonlight was assessed in male Siberian hamsters exposed to two re-entrainment paradigms believed to require changes in the phase relationship of underlying component oscillators. In experiment 1, hamsters were exposed to a 24-h light-dark-light-dark cycle previously shown to split circadian rhythms into two components such that activity is divided between the two daily dark periods. Hamsters exposed to dim illumination (rhythms compared to hamsters exposed to completely dark scotophases. In experiment 2, hamsters were transferred to winter photoperiods (10 h light, 14 h dark) from two different longer daylengths (14 h or 18 h light daily) in the presence or absence of dim nighttime lighting. Dim nocturnal illumination markedly accelerated adoption of the winter phenotype as reflected in the expansion of activity duration, gonadal regression and weight loss. The two experiments demonstrate substantial efficacy of light intensities generally viewed as below the threshold of circadian systems. Light may act on oscillator coupling through rod-dependent mechanisms.

  2. Protective Effects of Aspirin from Cardiac Hypertrophy and Oxidative Stress in Cardiomyopathic Hamsters

    Rong Wu


    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the capacity of chronic ASA therapy to prevent cardiac alterations and increased oxidative stress in cardiomyopathic hamsters. Methods and Results. Male Syrian cardiomyopathic and age-matched inbred control hamsters received ASA orally from the age of 60 days. Animals were sacrificed at the age of 150, 250, and 350 days to evaluate the time course of cardiac hypertrophy and cardiovascular tissue superoxide anion (O2- production. At the age of 150 days, the ventricular weight over body weight ratio, resting heart rate, and cardiovascular O2- production were much higher in cardiomyopathic hamsters than those in control. At the age of 250 days, in addition to the continual deterioration of these parameters with age, the blood pressure started to fall and the signs of heart failure appeared. In these cardiomyopathic hamsters, chronic ASA treatment (a completely prevented elevated O2- production and the NAD(PH oxidase activity, (b significantly slowed down the development of the cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. Conclusions. Chronic ASA treatment significantly prevents the deterioration of cardiac function and structure as well as the increased oxidative stress in the cardiomyopathic hamster. Our findings suggest that ASA presents a therapeutic potential to prevent cardiac dysfunction.

  3. Protective effects of aspirin from cardiac hypertrophy and oxidative stress in cardiomyopathic hamsters.

    Wu, Rong; Yin, David; Sadekova, Nataliya; Deschepper, Christian F; de Champlain, Jacques; Girouard, Helene


    To evaluate the capacity of chronic ASA therapy to prevent cardiac alterations and increased oxidative stress in cardiomyopathic hamsters. Male Syrian cardiomyopathic and age-matched inbred control hamsters received ASA orally from the age of 60 days. Animals were sacrificed at the age of 150, 250, and 350 days to evaluate the time course of cardiac hypertrophy and cardiovascular tissue superoxide anion (O(2)(-)) production. At the age of 150 days, the ventricular weight over body weight ratio, resting heart rate, and cardiovascular O(2)(-) production were much higher in cardiomyopathic hamsters than those in control. At the age of 250 days, in addition to the continual deterioration of these parameters with age, the blood pressure started to fall and the signs of heart failure appeared. In these cardiomyopathic hamsters, chronic ASA treatment (a) completely prevented elevated O(2)(-) production and the NAD(P)H oxidase activity, (b) significantly slowed down the development of the cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. Chronic ASA treatment significantly prevents the deterioration of cardiac function and structure as well as the increased oxidative stress in the cardiomyopathic hamster. Our findings suggest that ASA presents a therapeutic potential to prevent cardiac dysfunction.

  4. Propagation of Asian isolates of canine distemper virus (CDV in hamster cell lines

    Yamaguchi Ryoji


    Full Text Available Abstract Backgrounds The aim of this study was to confirm the propagation of various canine distemper viruses (CDV in hamster cell lines of HmLu and BHK, since only a little is known about the possibility of propagation of CDV in rodent cells irrespective of their epidemiological importance. Methods The growth of CDV in hamster cell lines was monitored by titration using Vero.dogSLAMtag (Vero-DST cells that had been proven to be susceptible to almost all field isolates of CDV, with the preparations of cell-free and cell-associated virus from the cultures infected with recent Asian isolates of CDV (13 strains and by observing the development of cytopathic effect (CPE in infected cultures of hamster cell lines. Results Eleven of 13 strains grew in HmLu cells, and 12 of 13 strains grew in BHK cells with apparent CPE of cell fusion in the late stage of infection. Two strains and a strain of Asia 1 group could not grow in HmLu cells and BHK cells, respectively. Conclusion The present study demonstrates at the first time that hamster cell lines can propagate the majority of Asian field isolates of CDV. The usage of two hamster cell lines suggested to be useful to characterize the field isolates biologically.

  5. Comparison of Pavlovian serial conditional discrimination in rats and hamsters in the same experimental situation

    J.L.O. Bueno


    Full Text Available The present study compares behavioral changes between two distinct rodent groups, hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus and Wistar rats, when submitted in the same homogeneous experimental situations to a serial conditional discrimination procedure which involves water deprivation and the processing of temporal variables. Both hamsters and rats acquired serial positive conditional discrimination as indicated by higher frequencies of magazine-oriented behavior during the tone followed by reinforcement (T+ and preceded by the feature stimulus light (L and during the empty interval, than during the tone alone not followed by reinforcement (T-. Rats' frequencies of magazine-oriented behavior were high during T+ and T-, initially during training, and decreased during T- as the training progressed. However, the hamsters' frequencies of magazine-oriented behavior started very low and increased only during T+ as the training progressed. Comparison of the frequencies of magazine-oriented behavior during the empty interval in relation to the frequencies during the preceding L period showed that rats' frequencies remained very high and hamsters' frequencies increased during training. These results suggest that rats and hamsters have different behavioral strategies for the acquisition of a conditional discrimination. The results of the comparisons made in these experiments support the view of the importance of an ecological psychology approach to the understanding of complex learning in animals.

  6. Inflammation, complement, ischemia and amoebic survival in acute experimental amoebic liver abscesses in hamsters.

    Olivos-García, A; Nequiz-Avendaño, M; Tello, E; Martínez, R D; González-Canto, A; López-Vancell, R; García de León, M C; Montfort, I; Pérez-Tamayo, R


    We have examined the role of inflammatory cells, ischemia and serum complement on the development of acute experimental amoebic liver abscess in hamsters (AEALAH). In hamsters made leukopenic by whole body radiation (800 rad) and daily intraperitoneal glycogen injections, the absence of inflammatory cells and liver tissue damage surrounding the parasites resulted in their rapid (24 h) disappearance from the liver, which showed no lesions. Focal liver ischemia, always present in control AEALAH with inflammation and tissue destruction, was reproduced in radiated hamsters by injection of amoebae mixed with Superdex microspheres, but again in the absence of inflammation, amoebae caused no liver damage and disappeared in 24 h. In hamsters made hypocomplementemic by injection of purified cobra venom factor (CVF), amoebae caused AEALA indistinguishable from controls, but in leukopenic + hypocomplementemic hamsters, amoebae were unable to produce lesions and disappeared from the liver in 48 h. We conclude that inflammation and tissue damage are required for the survival of amoebae in AEALAH and for the progression of the experimental disease.

  7. Hematologic, serologic, and histologic profile of aged Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus).

    McKeon, Gabriel P; Nagamine, Claude M; Ruby, Norman F; Luong, Richard H


    Biologic samples from 18 (12 female, 6 male) Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) representing an aged colony (17 to 27 mo) were examined. Values for CBC and serum biochemical parameters were determined, and macroscopic and microscopic pathologic evaluations were performed. Blood urea nitrogen levels were significantly higher in male (54.2 ± 14 mg/dL) compared with female (35.3 ± 22 mg/dL) hamsters and correlated histologically with a higher incidence of chronic glomerulonephropathy in males (5 of 6 males; 0 of 12 females). All 18 hamsters had histologic evidence of follicular mite infestation. Half (6 of 12) of the female hamsters showed cystic rete ovarii. Other histologic findings included thymic or thyroid branchial cysts (3 of 18), focal enteritis (2 of 18), and single cases of hepatic hemangiosarcoma, renal adenoma, subcutaneous mast cell tumor, cutaneous sebaceous adenoma, cutaneous trichofolliculoma, squamous papilloma of the nonglandular stomach, epididymal cholesteatoma, pyometra, and pituitary craniopharyngeal cyst. This study is the first published report of hematologic and serum chemical values for any population of Siberian hamsters and the first published report showing a potential male predisposition for chronic progressive glomerulonephropathy and a potential female predisposition for cystic rete ovarii.

  8. Dynamics of zonula occludens-2 expression during preimplantation embryonic development in the hamster.

    Wang, Hehai; Luan, Liming; Ding, Tianbing; Brown, Naoko; Reese, Jeff; Paria, B C


    The objective was to study the expression of zonula occludens-2, a tight junction protein, during preimplantation hamster embryonic development, to predict its possible localization, source, and roles in trophectoderm differentiation and blastocyst formation in this species. Comparison of zonula occludens-2 expression pattern between the hamster and mouse preimplantation embryos from the zygote up to the blastocyst stage was also an objective of this study. Zonula occludens-2 localization was noted in nuclei of blastomeres in all stages of hamster and mouse embryonic development. Compared to mice, where zonula occludens-2 was first localized in the interblastomere membrane at the morula stage, hamster embryos had membranous zonula occludens-2 localization from the 2-cell stage onwards. Based on combined results of immunolocalization study in parthenogenic embryos and ovarian and epididymal sections, and quantitative PCR done in oocytes and all developmental stages of preimplantation embryos, perhaps there was a carry-over of zonula occludens-2 proteins or mRNA from the dam to the embryo. Based on these findings, we inferred that maternally derived zonula occludens-2 was involved in nuclear functions, as well as differentiation of blastomeres and blastocoel formation during preimplantation embryonic development in the hamster.

  9. Validation of assays to monitor immune responses in the Syrian golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus).

    Zivcec, Marko; Safronetz, David; Haddock, Elaine; Feldmann, Heinz; Ebihara, Hideki


    The Syrian golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) is a valuable but under-utilized animal model for studies of human viral pathogens such as bunyaviruses, arenaviruses, flaviviruses, henipaviruses, and SARS-coronavirus. A lack of suitable reagents and specific assays for monitoring host responses has limited the use of this animal model to clinical observations, pathology and humoral immune responses. The objective of this study was to establish and validate assays to monitor host immune responses in the hamster including important pro-inflammatory, anti-inflammatory and innate immune responses, as well as markers of apoptosis, cell proliferation, cell junction integrity and coagulation. Commercially available mouse and rat ELISA and luminex panels were screened for potential cross-reactivity, but were found to be of limited value for studying host responses in hamsters. Subsequently, quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assays for the detection of 51 immune-related and four internal reference genes were developed. To validate the immune-related assays, hamsters were infected with vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), Indiana species, or treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and host immune responses were monitored in selected organs. Ribosomal protein L18 was identified as the most stable internal reference gene. In conclusion, these new assays will greatly improve the use of the hamster as an important small animal model in infectious disease research.

  10. Expression patterns of Doppel gene in golden hamster: quantification using real-time RT-PCR.

    Li, Y R; Li, Q; Yang, J M; Zhou, X M; Yin, X M; Zhao, D M


    Doppel (prion-like protein, Dpl) may act as a useful molecular marker in tumor diagnosis and in tumor grade definition, as over-expression of Dpl protein has been found in tumors with different histologic origin. Accordingly, the quantitative analysis of the expression of Dpl in different tissues is essential for understanding its role in tumor progression and cancer diagnostic. Herein we report Dpl mRNA quantification in golden hamster by calibrated highly sensitive externally standardized real-time RT-PCR with LightCycler instrument. Total RNA was isolated from nine different organs of golden hamster in different stages of development: from neonatal to adult golden hamster. Highest level of Dpl mRNA was detected in the testis, and lower levels of Dpl mRNA were detected in the following tissues: spleen, heart, bone marrow, skeletal muscles and neocortex (only in neonatal hamster). The expression of Dpl was not detected in kidney, liver and lung. This is the first study to report the expression of Dpl in bone marrow of murine and the difference of expression levels of Dpl in testis between adult and neonatal hamsters.

  11. Improvement of oxidative stress and immunity by melatonin: an age dependent study in golden hamster.

    Vishwas, Dipanshu Kumar; Mukherjee, Arun; Haldar, Chandana; Dash, Debabrata; Nayak, Manasa K


    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been proposed to play an important role in balancing the pro- and antioxidant homeostasis during aging. Melatonin has been suggested as an effective free radical scavenger that might have a role during the process of aging. We observed, that melatonin administration (25 μg/100 g body weight for 30 days) significantly augments the activity of anti-oxidative enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the plasma, spleen and bone marrow (BM) of young (6 weeks), adult (30 weeks) and old aged (2.5 years) male golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus. A sharp decline in generation of ROS was observed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and splenocytes upon melatonin administration in different age group of hamsters. Reduction in the level of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and total nitrite and nitrate concentration as metabolites and indicators of nitric oxide (NO) in plasma, spleen and BM were observed along with night time (22:00 h) melatonin concentration in different age group of hamsters after administration of melatonin and compared to the control group (treated with 0.9% saline). General immune parameters like proliferation of splenocytes, PBMC and colony forming ability of GM-CFU were observed following melatonin treatment in different age group, although it was low only in aged hamsters compared to the young and adult. Our data indicates that the age related increase of oxidative load and simultaneously augments the general immunity in aged hamsters.

  12. Relationship between circadian period and body size in the tau-mutant golden hamster.

    Refinetti, Roberto


    The tau mutation in the golden (Syrian) hamster is a single gene mutation that drastically affects the speed of the circadian clock, in such a way that homozygous mutants have an endogenous circadian period of 20 h (compared with 24 h for wild-type hamsters). While studying the circadian system of tau-mutant hamsters during the past 25 years, several authors have noted an apparent relationship between circadian period and body size in these animals. This study, based on 181 hamsters from 24 litters, confirmed previous observations that a shorter circadian period is associated with smaller body size, documented a sex difference in this association, and evaluated several mechanisms that might explain the phenomenon (such as different organ sizes, body composition, and metabolic rate). The obtained evidence suggests that the reduced body size of short-period hamsters is likely a pleiotropic effect of the tau allele (an allele of the casein kinase 1 epsilon gene) rather than a consequence of the shortened circadian period.

  13. Pravastatin activates PPARα/PPARγ expression in the liver and gallbladder epithelium of hamsters

    Seok Ho Dong; Jin Lee; Dong Hee Koh; Min Ho Choi; Hyun Joo Jang; Sea Hyub Kae


    BACKGROUND: Our earlier study with cultured gallbladder epithelial cells demonstrated that statins (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors) activate the expression of PPARα and PPARγ, consequently blocking the production of pro-inflmmatory cytokines. The present study used hamsters to investigate the effects of pavastatin on PPARα/PPARγ expression in the liver and gallbladder epithelium, and to determine whether pravastatin suppresses cholesterol crystal formation in the gallbladder. METHODS: A total of 40 Golden Syrian male hamsters (4 weeks old) were randomly assigned to four groups (basal diet control;basal diet+pavastatin; high cholesterol diet; high cholesterol diet+pravastatin). All hamsters were 11 weeks old at the end of the experiment. The liver, gallbladder and bile were harvested. Immunohistochemical staining and Western blotting for PPARα and PPARγ were performed in the liver and gallbladder. A drop of fresh bile was examined for cholesterol crystals under a microscope. RESULTS: In the gallbladder and liver of the hamsters, pravastatin activated the PPARα and PPARγ expression of gallbladder epithelial cells and hepatocytes, and particularly the response of PPARγ was much stronger than that of PPARα. Pravastatin suppressed the formation of cholesterol gallstones or crystals in the gallbladder. CONCLUSION: Pravastatinisaneffectivemedicationtoactivate PPARs (especially PPARγ) in the liver and the gallbladder epithelium of hamsters, and contributes to the prevention of gallstoneformation.

  14. Printed Resources and Electronic Resources Integrated Services in Small and Medium-sized Libraries%中小型图书馆印本资源与电子资源一体化服务实践



    Through analyzing the integrated service system of library resources, this paper sums up three methods for the integration of printed resources and digital resources including the digital resources catalog, digital resources navigate and open link system, and suggests that the libraries should give priority to books and periodicals integrated retrieval in the integrated service, and carry out the system construction within their capabilities by adopting the methods of making second development, introducing new system, and conducting independent development, etc.%通过对图书馆馆藏一体化服务系统的分析,归纳总结出印本资源与电子资源整合的3种主要模式———电子资源编目、电子资源导航与开放链接,并建议图书馆在进行一体化服务时,优先考虑图书和期刊的整合检索,在系统建设上量力而行,采取二次开发、引进新系统、自主开发等方式。

  15. 基于使用数据的馆藏电子资源评价方法与系统分析%Methods and Systems of Library Electronic Resources Evaluation Analysis Based on Usage Data



    The origin and methods of library electronic resources evaluation were summarized;the statistical standards of library users' us-age data were reviewed. Then four library electronic resources evaluation systems based on library users' usage data which are ScholarlyS-tats,Journal Use Reports,360 Counter and Ustat were compared and contrasted. The related work which librarians need to do and the con-sidering factors about the selection of electronic resources evaluation system was also analyzed.%总结了图书馆馆藏电子资源评价的缘起与方法,梳理了图书馆用户使用数据的统计规范。以此为基础对比了四个基于使用数据的馆藏电子资源评价系统---ScholarlyStats,Journal Use Reports,360 Counter,UStat,分析了图书馆选择电子资源评价系统的考虑因素和需要预先做好的相关工作。

  16. Gene discovery in the hamster: a comparative genomics approach for gene annotation by sequencing of hamster testis cDNAs

    Khan Shafiq A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complete genome annotation will likely be achieved through a combination of computer-based analysis of available genome sequences combined with direct experimental characterization of expressed regions of individual genomes. We have utilized a comparative genomics approach involving the sequencing of randomly selected hamster testis cDNAs to begin to identify genes not previously annotated on the human, mouse, rat and Fugu (pufferfish genomes. Results 735 distinct sequences were analyzed for their relatedness to known sequences in public databases. Eight of these sequences were derived from previously unidentified genes and expression of these genes in testis was confirmed by Northern blotting. The genomic locations of each sequence were mapped in human, mouse, rat and pufferfish, where applicable, and the structure of their cognate genes was derived using computer-based predictions, genomic comparisons and analysis of uncharacterized cDNA sequences from human and macaque. Conclusion The use of a comparative genomics approach resulted in the identification of eight cDNAs that correspond to previously uncharacterized genes in the human genome. The proteins encoded by these genes included a new member of the kinesin superfamily, a SET/MYND-domain protein, and six proteins for which no specific function could be predicted. Each gene was expressed primarily in testis, suggesting that they may play roles in the development and/or function of testicular cells.

  17. Cryopreservation of hamster oocytes: effects of vitrification or freezing on human sperm penetration of zona-free hamster oocytes.

    Critser, J K; Arneson, B W; Aaker, D V; Ball, G D


    Three experiments were conducted for evaluation of the efficacy of conventional freezing or vitrification of hamster oocytes for use in a human sperm penetration assay (hSPA). In experiment 1, oocytes were cryopreserved and evaluated for survival on the basis of morphologic criteria. Survival of vitrified oocytes and that of frozen oocytes were not different, whereas all cryopreserved groups had lower survival than noncryopreserved controls. In experiment 2, oocytes were conventionally frozen or vitrified and evaluated in an hSPA. Vitrified oocytes had a lower frequency of sperm penetration than frozen oocytes, and all cryopreserved groups had lower penetration rates than untreated controls. In experiment 3, oocytes were exposed to the cryoprotectant used to vitrify (VS1) or freeze (DMSO) but not cooled prior to evaluation in an hSPA. Exposure to DMSO but not VS1 reduced hSPA values. It is concluded from these experiments that while all cryopreserved oocytes do not survive, at current stages of development conventionally frozen oocytes perform better than vitrified oocytes in the hSPA and losses associated with conventional freezing procedures may be related to cryoprotectant exposure, whereas vitrification losses are more probably due to events associated with rapid cooling and/or warming of the oocytes.

  18. Acquired hookworm immunity in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) elicited by living Necator americanus third-stage infective larvae.

    Xue, Jian; Zhan, Bin; Guo, Jian; He, Na; Qiang, Hui-qing; Hotez, Peter; Xiao, Shu-hua


    The aim of the study is to demonstrate and understand the acquired immunity in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) elicited by primary Necator americanus infective third-stage larvae (L3) infection. Hamsters infected with 150 L3 for 1, 2, 3, 6 and 10 weeks, were challenged with the same number of L3 and sacrificed 25 days post challenge. The primarily infected hamsters exhibited 99-100% protection against subsequent L3 challenge compared to un-infected naive hamsters. The acquired immunity was developed as early as 1 week post L3 infection and lasted up to 10 weeks. Similar protective immunity was obtained in hamsters infected with N. americanus L3 and then treated orally with a single of 100mg/kg albendazole, followed by challenge with N. americanus L3 4 and 8 weeks post-treatment. The infected hamsters exhibited a rise in IgG antibodies against L3 and juvenile adult worm antigens. Histological examination showed that challenging L3 were trapped in the skin of primarily infected hamsters and surrounded or infiltrated by different inflammatory cells. The trapped L3 were damaged and dead followed by the formation of granulomas encasing dead worms. The results demonstrate that hamsters primarily infected with N. americanus L3 develop acquired immunity against re-infection.

  19. Vasopressin immunoreactivity and release in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of wild-type and tau mutant Syrian hamsters

    Van der Zee, EA; Oklejewicz, M; Jansen, K; Daan, S; Gerkema, MP


    Despite the prominent role of the Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) in studies of circadian rhythms, there are no data available on the temporal dynamics of the neuropeptide vasopressin (AVP), a major output system of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). We studied the hamster SCN-AVP system in vi

  20. The death of sertoli cells and the capacity to phagocytize elongated spermatids during testicular regression due to short photoperiod in Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus).

    Seco-Rovira, Vicente; Beltrán-Frutos, Esther; Ferrer, Concepción; Sáez, Francisco José; Madrid, Juan Francisco; Pastor, Luis Miguel


    In the Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus), an animal that displays testicular regression due to short photoperiod, germ cells are removed by apoptosis during this process and the apoptotic remains are phagocytized by Sertoli cells. The aim of this work was to investigate morphologically whether the testicular regression process due to short photoperiod leads to the apoptosis of Sertoli cells, and whether, during testicular regression, the elongated spermatids are eliminated through phagocytosis by Sertoli cells. To this end, we studied testis sections during testicular regression in Syrian hamster subjected to short photoperiod by means of several morphological techniques using conventional light microscopy (hematoxylin and eosin [H&E], semi-thin section vimentin, immunohistochemistry, SBA lectin, and TUNEL staining), fluorescence microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). H&E and semi-thin sections identified Sertoli cells with a degenerated morphology. Greater portion of Sertoli cells that were positive for TUNEL staining were observed especially during the mild regression (MR) and strong regression (SR) phases. In addition, TEM identified the characteristic apoptotic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm of Sertoli cells. Moreover, during testicular regression and using light microscopy, some elongated spermatids were seen in basal position next to the Sertoli cell nucleus. This Sertoli phagocytic activity was higher in MR and SR phases. TEM confirmed this to be the result of the phagocytic activity of Sertoli cells. In conclusion, during testicular regression in Syrian hamster due to short photoperiod, when germ cells are known to be lost through apoptosis, there is morphological evidences that Sertoli cells are also lost through apoptosis, while some elongated spermatids are phagocytized and eliminated by the Sertoli cells.

  1. In vivo sup 31 P-MR spectroscopic studies of hamster liver after irradiation

    Chen Xian; Yokota, Hajime; Kimizu, Kiyoshi; Ohtsuru, Takeshi; Higashi, Kohtaro; Takarada, Akira; Tonami, Hisao; Okimura, Tetsuro; Yamamoto, Itaru (Kanazawa Medical Univ., Uchinada, Ishikawa (Japan))


    Acute radiation effects on liver tissue were examined experimentally by using phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy (P-31 MRS). Thirty hamsters received a single electron irradiation of 40 Gy to the left hepatic lobe; and each 5 were examined on Day 1, Day 2, Day 3, Week 1, Week 4, and Week 8 after irradiation. Five other animals not exposed to irradiation were selected as the control group. The peak intensities of phosphodiester (PDE) and {gamma}-ATP in all the irradiated groups were lower than those in the control group. Phosphomonoester (PME) tended to be lower in the Day 1, Day 2, and Day 3 groups than the control group. {alpha}-ATP was the lowest in the Week 8 group. There was no significant difference between the irradiated and control groups regarding peak intensities of PME and PDE. Intracellular pH values for the Day 1, Day 2, and Day 3 groups tended to be decreased, and to be increased in the Week 1 and Week 4 groups. However, the Week 8 group showed a tendency for a decreased pH. A decrease in intracellular pH reflected metabolic acidosis with increasing lactic acid caused by enhanced anaerobic glycolytic activity. Histological examination showed congestion with focal loss of hepatocyte that surrounded the sublobular vein, as found in the Day 3 and Week 1 groups. Fatty degeneration and spotty necrosis of liver cells were noted in the Week 8 group. These findings were similar to those in the clinical setting, as shown in patients with acute radiation hepatitis. The results obtained from P-31 MRS indicated the metabolic changes in the liver after irradiation, suggesting a correlation with histological findings. P-31 MRS may have considerable potential for the evaluation of acute hepatic injury after irradiation. (N.K.).

  2. Analysis on Current Situation and Countermeasure of Domestic Electronic Commerce Logistics in the Internet Age——Based on Resource Dependence Theory

    Zhang Jiapeng


    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the status of electric business logistics in the current Internet era in China, and combines the SWOT analysis with AHP to do the empirical analysis, then puts forward the countermeasure that the electric business logistics resource should be shared based on the resource dependence theory. Through the empirical analysis, it is found that the disadvantages and opportunities of the logistics status are important in the Internet era.The resource sharing strategy based on the resource dependence theory is more scientific. The rational use of Internet technology in electric business logistics industry can achieve “sharing”. It is of great significance for its balanced development, intelligent development and optimization and development.

  3. Zika virus infection of adult and fetal STAT2 knock-out hamsters.

    Siddharthan, Venkatraman; Van Wettere, Arnaud J; Li, Rong; Miao, Jinxin; Wang, Zhongde; Morrey, John D; Julander, Justin G


    Zika virus (ZIKV) infection was investigated in adult and fetal STAT2 knock-out (KO) hamsters. Subcutaneous injection of ZIKV of adults resulted in morbidity, mortality, and infection of the uterus, placenta, brain, spinal cord, and testicles, thus providing an opportunity to evaluate congenital ZIKV infection in a second rodent species besides mice. ZIKV-infected cells with morphologies of Sertoli cells and spermatogonia were observed in the testes, which may have implications for sexual transmission and male sterility. Neonates exposed as fetuses to ZIKV at 8 days post-coitus were not smaller than controls. Nevertheless, infectious virus and ZIKV RNA was detected in some, but not all, placentas and fetal brains of KO hamsters. STAT2 KO hamsters may be useful for addressing sexual transmission, pathogenesis, routes of fetal infection, and neurological disease outcomes, and may also be used in antiviral or vaccine studies to identify intervention strategies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Feeding schedule controls circadian timing of daily torpor in SCN-ablated Siberian hamsters.

    Paul, Matthew J; Kauffman, Alexander S; Zucker, Irving


    Timing of daily torpor was assessed in suprachiasmatic nucleus-ablated (SCNx) and sham-ablated Siberian hamsters fed restricted amounts of food each day either in the light or dark phase of a 14:10 light-dark cycle. Eighty-five percent of sham-ablated and 45% of SCNx hamsters displayed a preferred hour for torpor onset. In each group, time of torpor onset was not random but occurred at a mean hour that differed significantly from chance. Time of food presentation almost completely accounted for the timing of torpor onset in SCNx animals and significantly affected timing of this behavior in intact hamsters. These results suggest that the circadian pacemaker in the SCN controls the time of torpor onset indirectly by affecting timing of food intake, rather than by, or in addition to, direct neural and humoral outputs to relevant target tissues.

  5. Blood Vessel Normalization in the Hamster Oral Cancer Model for Experimental Cancer Therapy Studies

    Ana J. Molinari; Romina F. Aromando; Maria E. Itoiz; Marcela A. Garabalino; Andrea Monti Hughes; Elisa M. Heber; Emiliano C. C. Pozzi; David W. Nigg; Veronica A. Trivillin; Amanda E. Schwint


    Normalization of tumor blood vessels improves drug and oxygen delivery to cancer cells. The aim of this study was to develop a technique to normalize blood vessels in the hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer. Materials and Methods: Tumor-bearing hamsters were treated with thalidomide and were compared with controls. Results: Twenty eight hours after treatment with thalidomide, the blood vessels of premalignant tissue observable in vivo became narrower and less tortuous than those of controls; Evans Blue Dye extravasation in tumor was significantly reduced (indicating a reduction in aberrant tumor vascular hyperpermeability that compromises blood flow), and tumor blood vessel morphology in histological sections, labeled for Factor VIII, revealed a significant reduction in compressive forces. These findings indicated blood vessel normalization with a window of 48 h. Conclusion: The technique developed herein has rendered the hamster oral cancer model amenable to research, with the potential benefit of vascular normalization in head and neck cancer therapy.

  6. Stimulatory effect of RFRP-3 on the gonadotrophic axis in the male Syrian hamster

    Ancel, Caroline; Bentsen, Agnete H; Sébert, Marie-Emilie;


    on the gonadotrophic axis in the Syrian hamster. We show that acute central injection of RFRP-3 induces c-Fos expression in GnRH neurons and increases LH, FSH, and testosterone secretion. Moreover, chronic central administration of RFRP-3 restores testicular activity and Kiss1 levels in the arcuate nucleus of hamsters...... despite persisting photoinhibitory conditions. By contrast RFRP-3 does not have a hypophysiotrophic effect. Overall, these findings demonstrate that, in the male Syrian hamster, RFRP-3 exerts a stimulatory effect on the reproductive axis, most likely via hypothalamic targets. This places RFRP-3...... in a decisive position between the melatonergic message and Kiss1 seasonal regulation. Additionally, our data suggest for the first time that the function of this peptide depends on the species and the physiological status of the animal model....

  7. Neuropeptides and anticipatory changes in behaviour and physiology: seasonal body weight regulation in the Siberian hamster.

    Mercer, Julian G; Tups, Alexander


    The Siberian hamster, Phodopus sungorus, is a powerful model of physiological body weight regulation. This seasonal model offers the potential to distinguish between the compensatory neuroendocrine systems that defend body weight against imposed negative energy balance, and those that are involved in the programming of the level of body weight that will be defended-a seasonally appropriate body weight. Of the known, studied, components of the hypothalamic energy balance system, the anorexogenic peptide, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), is the only candidate where gene expression changes in a manner consistent with a role in initiating or sustaining photoperiod-induced differences in body weight trajectory. Siberian hamsters effect a reversible biannual switch in leptin sensitivity in which only short day (SD)-acclimated hamsters that have undergone a reduction in body weight, adiposity and plasma leptin are sensitive to peripheral exogenous leptin. The suppressor of cytokine signalling protein, SOCS3, appears to be the molecular correlate of this seasonal sensitivity.

  8. A hamster model for Marburg virus infection accurately recapitulates Marburg hemorrhagic fever

    Marzi, Andrea; Banadyga, Logan; Haddock, Elaine; Thomas, Tina; Shen, Kui; Horne, Eva J.; Scott, Dana P.; Feldmann, Heinz; Ebihara, Hideki


    Marburg virus (MARV), a close relative of Ebola virus, is the causative agent of a severe human disease known as Marburg hemorrhagic fever (MHF). No licensed vaccine or therapeutic exists to treat MHF, and MARV is therefore classified as a Tier 1 select agent and a category A bioterrorism agent. In order to develop countermeasures against this severe disease, animal models that accurately recapitulate human disease are required. Here we describe the development of a novel, uniformly lethal Syrian golden hamster model of MHF using a hamster-adapted MARV variant Angola. Remarkably, this model displayed almost all of the clinical features of MHF seen in humans and non-human primates, including coagulation abnormalities, hemorrhagic manifestations, petechial rash, and a severely dysregulated immune response. This MHF hamster model represents a powerful tool for further dissecting MARV pathogenesis and accelerating the development of effective medical countermeasures against human MHF. PMID:27976688

  9. Adapting to alcohol: Dwarf hamster (Phodopus campbelli) ethanol consumption, sensitivity, and hoard fermentation.

    Lupfer, Gwen; Murphy, Eric S; Merculieff, Zoe; Radcliffe, Kori; Duddleston, Khrystyne N


    Ethanol consumption and sensitivity in many species are influenced by the frequency with which ethanol is encountered in their niches. In Experiment 1, dwarf hamsters (Phodopus campbelli) with ad libitum access to food and water consumed high amounts of unsweetened alcohol solutions. Their consumption of 15%, but not 30%, ethanol was reduced when they were fed a high-fat diet; a high carbohydrate diet did not affect ethanol consumption. In Experiment 2, intraperitoneal injections of ethanol caused significant dose-related motor impairment. Much larger doses administered orally, however, had no effect. In Experiment 3, ryegrass seeds, a common food source for wild dwarf hamsters, supported ethanol fermentation. Results of these experiments suggest that dwarf hamsters may have adapted to consume foods in which ethanol production naturally occurs.

  10. Age-related changes of the ultrastrucure in the parathyroid gland of the golden hamster.

    Utsumi, Michiya; Moriguchi, Keiichi; Kato, Akiko; Maeda, Hatsuhiko; Ohno, Norikazu


    We qualitatively and quantitatively investigated the parathyroid glands of golden hamsters aged 6, 12, 18, 24 and 30 months. Percent area of rER in the parathyroid gland in golden hamsters at 24 months of age was significantly higher when compared to 6 and 12 months of age, and the percent area at 30 months of age was significantly higher when compared to 12 months of age, but there were no significant differences between 24 and 30 months of age. Percent area of the Golgi apparatus at 24 and 30 months of age was significantly higher when compared to 6, 12 and 18 months of age. Ultrastructurally, we believe that in the parathyroid gland of the golden hamster, synthesis and release of parathyroid hormone increase gradually from 6 to 24months of age and are maintained from 24 to 30 months of age.

  11. Regulation of serum amyloid A gene expression in Syrian hamsters by cytokines.

    Dowton, S B; Peters, C N; Jestus, J J


    Amyloid A (AA) protein is derived from serum amyloid A (SAA) and deposited as beta-pleated sheet fibrils in reactive amyloidosis, a disease that occurs spontaneously in golden Syrian hamsters. The precursor SAA is an acute-phase reactant in many species including hamsters, and in this report we have defined the in vivo kinetic and dosage responses for SAA mRNA accumulation in hamsters following administration of various cytokines. Elevations in levels of hepatic SAA mRNA were documented when the doses of interleukin-1, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor were increased. The increase in dosages applied ranged from 2 1/2-fold for interleukin-6 to 10-fold for interleukin-1. SAA transcript levels were highest 8 h following administration of interleukin-6 or tumor necrosis factor, whereas maximal amounts of SAA-specific mRNA were found 24 h after administration of interleukin-1.

  12. Expression and sequence analyses of serum amyloid A in the Syrian hamster.

    Webb, C F; Tucker, P W; Dowton, S B


    Reactive amyloidosis occurs during chronic inflammation and involves deposition of amyloid A (AA) fibrils in many organs. Amyloid A is derived by proteolysis from serum amyloid A component (SAA), a major acute-phase reactant in many species. Since spontaneous amyloidosis occurs commonly in Syrian hamsters, we have studied the structure and expression of SAA genes during inflammation in these animals. Two cDNA clones and one genomic clone were sequenced, suggesting that Syrian hamster SAA is encoded by at least two genes. Hepatic mRNA analyses showed that SAA was inducible in many hamster organs during acute inflammation. These studies also demonstrated that SAA mRNA for one isotype is maximally expressed at a site of local tissue damage.

  13. The Hamster Model for Identification of Specific Antigens of Taenia solium Tapeworms

    Alicia Ochoa-Sánchez


    Full Text Available Humans acquire taeniasis by ingesting pork meat infected with Taenia solium cysticerci, which are the only definitive hosts of the adult stage (tapeworm and responsible for transmitting the human and porcine cysticercosis. Hence, detection of human tapeworm carriers is a key element in the development of viable strategies to control the disease. This paper presents the identification of specific antigens using sera from hamsters infected with T. solium tapeworms analyzed by western blot assay with crude extracts (CEs and excretion-secretion antigens (E/S Ag obtained from T. solium cysticerci and tapeworms and extracts from other helminthes as controls. The hamster sera infected with T. solium tapeworms recognized specific bands of 72, 48, 36, and 24 kDa, in percentages of 81, 81, 90, and 88%, respectively, using the T. solium tapeworms E/S Ag. The antigens recognized by these hamster sera could be candidates to improve diagnosis of human T. solium taeniasis.

  14. Reversal of acetaminophen toxicity in isolated hamster hepatocytes by dithiothreitol

    Tee, L.B.; Boobis, A.R.; Huggett, A.C.; Davies, D.S.


    The toxicity of acetaminophen in freshly isolated hamster hepatocytes was investigated. Cells exposed to 2.5 mM acetaminophen for 90 min, followed by washing to completely remove unbound acetaminophen, and resuspension in fresh buffer, showed a dramatic decrease in viability over the ensuing 4.5 hr by which time only 4% of the cells could still exclude trypan blue. During the initial 90-min incubation, there was a substantial depletion of glutathione, to 19% of control values, covalent binding of (/sup 14/C)acetaminophen to cellular proteins, and evidence of morphological changes consistent with some disturbance of the plasma membrane. During subsequent incubation of these cells, covalent binding did not change nor did lipid peroxidation, despite the decrease in viability that occurred. Subsequent incubation of cells exposed to acetaminophen for 90 min in buffer containing 1.5 mM dithiothreitol (DTT), a disulfide-reducing agent, largely prevented the decrease in cell viability and reversed the morphological changes that occurred during the first 90-min incubation. However, there was no change in lipid peroxidation, glutathione content, or covalent binding. It is concluded that acetaminophen interacted with some critical target in the cell, and that this left unchecked, led eventually to the death of the cell. DTT prevented and reversed this effect. The toxicity of acetaminophen, and its reversal by DTT, appear independent of either covalent binding of acetaminophen or lipid peroxidation. In addition, the effect of DTT was independent of the concentration of glutathione, most probably acting by directly reducing oxidized SH-groups in critical enzymes, possibly membrane-bound ATP-dependent Ca2+ translocases.

  15. Transcriptome dynamics of transgene amplification in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    Vishwanathan, Nandita; Le, Huong; Jacob, Nitya M; Tsao, Yung-Shyeng; Ng, Sze-Wai; Loo, Bernard; Liu, Zhong; Kantardjieff, Anne; Hu, Wei-Shou


    Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) system is used to amplify the product gene to multiple copies in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells for generating cell lines which produce the recombinant protein at high levels. The physiological changes accompanying the transformation of the non-protein secreting host cells to a high producing cell line is not well characterized. We performed transcriptome analysis on CHO cells undergoing the selection and amplification processes. A host CHO cell line was transfected with a vector containing genes encoding the mouse DHFR (mDHFR) and a recombinant human IgG (hIgG). Clones were isolated following selection and subcloned following amplification. Control cells were transfected with a control plasmid which did not have the hIgG genes. Although methotrexate (MTX) amplification increased the transcript level of the mDHFR gene significantly, its effect on both hIgG heavy and light chain genes was more modest. The subclones appeared to retain the transcriptome signatures of their parental clones, however, their productivity varied among those derived from the same clone. The transcript levels of hIgG transgenes of all subclones fall in a narrower range than the product titer, alluding to the role of many functional attributes, other than transgene transcript, on productivity. We cross examined functional class enrichment during selection and amplification as well as between high and low producers and discerned common features among them. We hypothesize that the role of amplification is not merely increasing transcript levels, but also enriching survivors which have developed the cellular machinery for secreting proteins, leading to an increased frequency of isolating high-producing clones. We put forward the possibility of assembling a hyper-productivity gene set through comparative transcriptome analysis of a wide range of samples.

  16. Pubertal growth of the medial amygdala delayed by short photoperiods in the Siberian hamster, Phodopus sungorus.

    Cooke, Bradley M; Jordan, Cynthia L; Breedlove, S Marc


    We investigated whether puberty influences the morphology of the medial nucleus of the amygdala (MeA) by comparing Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) that had been raised from birth in either long day (LD; 16:8 h light:dark) or short day (SD; 8:16) photoperiods. Hamsters were sacrificed at 42-49 days of age, at which point all LD hamsters were reproductively mature, as evidenced by adult-like testes weights (mean: 657 mg). In contrast, the testes weights of the SD hamsters were low (mean: 31 mg), indicating that the SD photoperiod had delayed puberty. The regional volume and mean soma size of the four MeA subnuclei was estimated bilaterally by stereological procedures. In the posterior dorsal and ventral MeA subnuclei, regional volume was 22-25% larger, and mean soma size 18% larger, in LD males than SD males. Unbiased cell counts in the posterior dorsal MeA showed that LD and SD hamsters have equivalent neuron numbers. In the anterior MeA subnuclei, regional volumes and soma sizes from LD and SD hamsters were equivalent. Additionally, the regional volume of the posteroventral subnucleus was larger in the right hemisphere than the left, but this laterality did not respond to photoperiod manipulation. These results suggest that the extant neurons within the posterior MeA, a steroid-sensitive nucleus implicated in socio-sexual behavior, grow in response to the elevated levels of circulating androgen accompanying puberty, and that photoperiodic regulation of puberty affects morphological maturation of this nucleus.

  17. Cholecystokinin-33 acutely attenuates food foraging, hoarding and intake in Siberian hamsters.

    Teubner, Brett J W; Bartness, Timothy J


    Neurochemicals that stimulate food foraging and hoarding in Siberian hamsters are becoming more apparent, but we do not know if cessation of these behaviors is due to waning of excitatory stimuli and/or the advent of inhibitory factors. Cholecystokinin (CCK) may be such an inhibitory factor as it is the prototypic gastrointestinal satiety peptide and is physiologically important in decreasing food intake in several species including Siberian hamsters. Systemic injection of CCK-33 in laboratory rats decreases food intake, doing so to a greater extent than CCK-8. We found minimal effects of CCK-8 on food foraging and hoarding previously in Siberian hamsters, but have not tested CCK-33. Therefore, we asked: Does CCK-33 decrease normal levels or food deprivation-induced increases in food foraging, hoarding and intake? Hamsters were housed in a wheel running-based foraging system with simulated burrows to test the effects of peripheral injections of CCK-33 (13.2, 26.4, or 52.8 microg/kg body mass), with or without a preceding 56 h food deprivation. The highest dose of CCK-33 caused large baseline reductions in all three behaviors for the 1st hour post-injection compared with saline; in addition, the intermediate CCK-33 dose was sufficient to curtail food intake and foraging during the 1st hour. In food-deprived hamsters, we used a 52.8 microg/kg body mass dose of CCK-33 which decreased food intake, hoarding, and foraging almost completely compared with saline controls for 1h. Therefore, CCK-33 appears to be a potent inhibitor of food intake, hoarding, and foraging in Siberian hamsters.

  18. Cross-species transcriptomic approach reveals genes in hamster implantation sites.

    Lei, Wei; Herington, Jennifer; Galindo, Cristi L; Ding, Tianbing; Brown, Naoko; Reese, Jeff; Paria, Bibhash C


    The mouse model has greatly contributed to understanding molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of progesterone (P4) plus estrogen (E)-dependent blastocyst implantation process. However, little is known about contributory molecular mechanisms of the P4-only-dependent blastocyst implantation process that occurs in species such as hamsters, guineapigs, rabbits, pigs, rhesus monkeys, and perhaps humans. We used the hamster as a model of P4-only-dependent blastocyst implantation and carried out cross-species microarray (CSM) analyses to reveal differentially expressed genes at the blastocyst implantation site (BIS), in order to advance the understanding of molecular mechanisms of implantation. Upregulation of 112 genes and downregulation of 77 genes at the BIS were identified using a mouse microarray platform, while use of the human microarray revealed 62 up- and 38 down-regulated genes at the BIS. Excitingly, a sizable number of genes (30 up- and 11 down-regulated genes) were identified as a shared pool by both CSMs. Real-time RT-PCR and in situ hybridization validated the expression patterns of several up- and down-regulated genes identified by both CSMs at the hamster and mouse BIS to demonstrate the merit of CSM findings across species, in addition to revealing genes specific to hamsters. Functional annotation analysis found that genes involved in the spliceosome, proteasome, and ubiquination pathways are enriched at the hamster BIS, while genes associated with tight junction, SAPK/JNK signaling, and PPARα/RXRα signalings are repressed at the BIS. Overall, this study provides a pool of genes and evidence of their participation in up- and down-regulated cellular functions/pathways at the hamster BIS.

  19. Cryopreservation and In Vitro culture of Preimplantation Embryos in Djungarian Hamster (Phodopus sungorus).

    Brusentsev, E Yu; Abramova, T O; Rozhkova, I N; Igonina, T N; Naprimerov, V A; Feoktistova, N Yu; Amstislavsky, S Ya


    Although embryo cryobanking was applied to Syrian golden and to Campbell's hamsters, no attempt has been made at freezing embryos in Djungarian hamsters. Four-cell stage embryos were flushed from the reproductive ducts of pregnant females before noon of the third-day post coitum and frozen in 0.25-ml straws according to standard procedures of slow cooling. A mixture of permeating (ethylene glycol) and non-permeating (sucrose) cryoprotectants was used. The thawing was performed by incubating at RT for 40 s followed by 40 s in a water bath at 30.0°C. Most (66.7%) of the non-frozen four-cell embryos developed up to the morula stage in rat one-cell embryo culture medium (R1ECM). The use of hamster embryo culture medium (HECM) yielded fewer morulas (18.2%) during the same 24-h period of culture. The rate of embryo's surviving the freezing-thawing procedures, as estimated by light microscopy, was 60.7-68.8%. After 24-h culturing in R1ECM, 64.7% of frozen-thawed four-cell embryos developed and all of them reached the morula stage. Supplementation of R1ECM with GM-CSF (2 ng/ml) improved the rate of Djungarian hamster frozen-thawed embryo development: 100% of the four-cell stage embryos developed, 50% of them achieved the morula stage, and 50% developed even further and reached the blastocyst stage within 24 h of culturing. This study reports the world's first successful transfer of frozen-thawed Djungarian hamster embryos yielding term pups. Taken together, the results of this study demonstrate the possibility of applying some key reproductive technologies, that is, embryo freezing/cryopreservation and in vitro culture, to Djungarian hamsters.

  20. Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of hamster CENP-A cDNA

    Figueroa, Javier; Pendón, Carlos; Valdivia, Manuel M


    Background The centromere is a specialized locus that mediates chromosome movement during mitosis and meiosis. This chromosomal domain comprises a uniquely packaged form of heterochromatin that acts as a nucleus for the assembly of the kinetochore a trilaminar proteinaceous structure on the surface of each chromatid at the primary constriction. Kinetochores mediate interactions with the spindle fibers of the mitotic apparatus. Centromere protein A (CENP-A) is a histone H3-like protein specifically located to the inner plate of kinetochore at active centromeres. CENP-A works as a component of specialized nucleosomes at centromeres bound to arrays of repeat satellite DNA. Results We have cloned the hamster homologue of human and mouse CENP-A. The cDNA isolated was found to contain an open reading frame encoding a polypeptide consisting of 129 amino acid residues with a C-terminal histone fold domain highly homologous to those of CENP-A and H3 sequences previously released. However, significant sequence divergence was found at the N-terminal region of hamster CENP-A that is five and eleven residues shorter than those of mouse and human respectively. Further, a human serine 7 residue, a target site for Aurora B kinase phosphorylation involved in the mechanism of cytokinesis, was not found in the hamster protein. A human autoepitope at the N-terminal region of CENP-A described in autoinmune diseases is not conserved in the hamster protein. Conclusions We have cloned the hamster cDNA for the centromeric protein CENP-A. Significant differences on protein sequence were found at the N-terminal tail of hamster CENP-A in comparison with that of human and mouse. Our results show a high degree of evolutionary divergence of kinetochore CENP-A proteins in mammals. This is related to the high diverse nucleotide repeat sequences found at the centromere DNA among species and support a current centromere model for kinetochore function and structural plasticity. PMID:12019018

  1. Fiber resources

    P. J. Ince


    In economics, primary inputs or factors of production define the term ‘resources.’ Resources include land resources (plants, animals, and minerals), labor, capital, and entrepreneurship. Almost all pulp and paper fiber resources are plant materials obtained from trees or agricultural crops. These resources encompass plant materials harvested directly from the land (...

  2. The identification and sequence analysis of a new Reg3gamma and Reg2 in the Syrian golden hamster.

    Castellarin, Mauro L; Petropavlovskaia, Maria; Lipsett, Mark A; Rosenberg, Lawrence


    The regenerating (Reg) genes are associated with tissue repair and have been directly implicated in pancreatic beta-cell regeneration. A hamster Reg3, Islet neogenesis associated protein (INGAP), has been shown to possess anti-diabetic properties in rodent models. Although several Reg3 proteins have been identified in other species, INGAP is the only Reg3 found in hamsters. To identify new Reg3 genes in the hamster pancreas we employed homology reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using degenerate Reg3 primers, followed by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). We report here the discovery of a new hamster Reg3 gene of 765 nucleotides (nt) that encodes a 174-amino acid (aa) protein. This protein sequence was identified as a novel hamster Reg3gamma with 78% and 75% identity to the rat Reg3gamma and mouse Reg3gamma protein, respectively. We also fully sequenced the previously reported partial sequence of the hamster Reg1 gene coding region using RACE to yield a 756-nt transcript that encodes a deduced 173 aa protein. This protein was identified as hamster Reg2, rather than Reg1 as was initially reported, with an 81% identity to mouse Reg2. The spatial gene expression patterns of the hamster Reg genes, analyzed by RT-PCR, were similarly distributed with low level expression being found globally throughout the body. Mice and hamsters are the only species known to carry either of the functional INGAP or Reg2 genes. It remains to be determined whether these genes bestow mice and hamsters with special regenerative abilities in the pancreas.

  3. Model-based analysis of N-glycosylation in Chinese hamster ovary cells

    Krambeck, Frederick J.; Bennun, Sandra V; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam


    in glycan structure. In this study we utilize an updated version of this model to provide a comprehensive analysis of N-glycosylation in ten Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines that include a wild type parent and nine mutants of CHO, through interpretation of previously published mass spectrometry data......The Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell is the gold standard for manufacturing of glycosylated recombinant proteins for production of biotherapeutics. The similarity of its glycosylation patterns to the human versions enable the products of this cell line favorable pharmacokinetic properties and lower...

  4. Elk3 from hamster-a ternary complex factor with strong transcriptional repressor activity

    Hjortoe, G.M.; Weilguny, D.; Willumsen, Berthe Marie


    the transcription of genes that are activated during entry into G1. We have isolated the Cricetulus griseus Elk3 gene from the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line and investigated the transcriptional potential of this factor. Transient transfections revealed that, in addition to its regulation of the c......-fos promoter, Elk3 from CHO cells seems to inhibit other promoters controlling expression of proteins involved in G1/S phase progression; Cyclin D1 and DHFR. As has been described for the Elk3 homologs Net (Mouse) and Sap-2 (Human), the results of the present study further indicate that hamster Elk3...


    H. Khazan


    Full Text Available Hook worm (Necator americanus is one of the major pathogenic parasites in the north of Iran. Neonatal hamsters 1-3 days old showed a high degree of susceptibility to Necator americanus infection and the parasite reached to sexually mature stages in six weeks following skin exposure. This method could be used for production of egg, larvae and adult worms. In this study neonatal hamsters were infected each with 70 third – stage larvae percutaneously and 50% of larvae were developed to sexual maturity.

  6. Existence of an Endogenous Glutamate and Aspartate Transporter in Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells

    Xunhe JI; Yuhua JIN; Yaoyue CHEN; Chongyong LI; Lihe GUO


    Chinese hamster ovary cells show endogenous high-affinity Na+-dependent glutamate transport activity. This transport activity is kinetically similar to a glutamate transporter family strategically expressed in the central nervous system and is pharmacologically unlike glutamate transporter-1 or excitatory amino acid carrier 1. The cDNA of a glutamate/aspartate transporter (GLAST)-like transporter was obtained and analyzed. The deduced amino acid sequence showed high similarity to human, mouse, and rat GLAST. We concluded that a GLAST-like glutamate transporter exists in Chinese hamster ovary cells that might confer the endogenous high-affinity Na+-dependent glutamate transport activity evident in these cells.

  7. On the development and the utilization of library holding in electronic resources Taking the Library of Shandong University of Science and Technology%试论电子资源的馆藏发展与利用——以山东科技大学图书馆为例

    陈明华; 马圣芹


    通过分析电子资源馆藏发展的意义及模式,对电子资源发展的目标及有效管理进行了探讨,并提出一些提高电子资源利用率的措施。%This paper analyses the mode and the importance of library holding development in electronic resources. It also ex- plores the aim and the affective management in electronic resource development and put forwards some measures to improve the utilization ratio of electronic resources.

  8. Role of FGF1, FGF2 and FGF7 in the development of the pancreas from control and streptozotocin-treated hamsters.

    Inchovska, M; Ogneva, V; Martinova, Y


    Although progress has been made with respect to the growth and transcription factors implicated in pancreatic development, many questions remain unsolved. It has been established that during embryonic life, both endocrine and acinar cells are derived from pancreatic epithelial precursor cells. Growth factors control the proliferation of precursor cells and their ability to differentiate into mature cells, both in pre-natal and in early post-natal life. Pancreatic development during the early post-natal period is an area of great interest for many scientists. In this study we have examined the structure characteristics, functional and proliferative activity of control and diabetic hamster pancreatic ductal, exocrine and beta cells, following treatment with FGFs 1, 2 and 7 in vitro. Light and electron microscopic studies indicated active synthetic processes in these cells under the influence of the investigated FGFs. In our experimental model of diabetes, the labelling index of the cells was significantly higher than in corresponding control groups of hamsters. We established that FGF2 at a concentration of 10 ng/l was responsible for the most prominent effect on ductal cells and beta cells in the diabetic groups. FGF1 at a concentration of 10 ng/l displayed the highest stimulatory effect on exocrine cells in the diabetic groups at post-natal day 10. Taken together these data strongly suggest that FGF1 and FGF2 induce proliferation of pancreatic epithelial cells during the early post-natal period whereas FGF7 is not strictly specific for pancreatic cell proliferation.

  9. Assignment of genes encoding metallothioneins I and II to Chinese hamster chromosomes 3. Evidence for the role of chromosome rearrangement in gene amplification

    Stallings, R.L.; Munk, A.C.; Longmire, J.L.; Hildebrand, C.E.; Crawford, B.D.


    Cadmium resistant (Cd/sup r/) variants with coordinately amplified metallothionein I and II (MTI and MTII) genes have been derived from both Chinese hamster ovary and near-euploid Chinese hamster cell lines. Cytogenetic analyses of Cd/sup r/ variants consistently revealed breakage and rearrangement involving chromosome 3p. In situ hybridization with Chinese hamster MT-encoding cDNA probe localized amplified MT gene sequences near the translocation breakpoint involving chromosome 3p. These observations suggested that both functionally related, isometallothionein loci are linked on Chinese hamster chromosome 3. Southern blot analyses of DNAs isolated from a panel of Chinese hamster x mouse somatic cell hybrids which segregate hamster chromosomes confirmed that both MTI and MTII are located on chromosome 3. The authors speculate that rearrangement of chromosome 3p could be causally involved with the amplification of MT genes in Cd/sup r/ hamster cell lines. 34 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  10. Electronic Library: A TERI Experiment.

    Kar, Debal C.; Deb, Subrata; Kumar, Satish


    Discusses the development of Electronic Library at TERI (The Energy and Resources Institute, New Delhi). Highlights include: hardware and software used; the digital library/Virtual Electronic Library; directory of Internet journals; virtual reference resources; electronic collection/Physical Electronic Library; downloaded online full-length…

  11. Innovative Resources for Education and Public Information: Electronic Services, Data and Information from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope and Other NASA Missions.

    Christian, Carol A.

    The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), which supports the operation of the Hubble Space Telescope, is actively investigating and supporting innovative and experimental methods for improving science and math education content. The educational resources on the World Wide Web are derived from the latest data, scientific results, and advances…

  12. Animal Models of Leptospirosis: Of Mice and Hamsters

    Gomes-Solecki, Maria; Santecchia, Ignacio; Werts, Catherine


    Pathogenic Leptospira sp. are spirochetal bacteria responsible for leptospirosis, an emerging worldwide zoonosis. These spirochetes are very successful pathogens that infect a wide range of hosts such as fish, reptiles, birds, marsupials, and mammals. Transmission occurs when chronically infected animals excrete live bacteria in their urine, contaminating the environment. Leptospira sp. enter their hosts through damaged skin and mucosa. Chronically infected rats and mice are asymptomatic and are considered as important reservoirs of the disease. Infected humans may develop either a flu-like, usually mild illness with or without chronic asymptotic renal colonization, or a severe acute disease with kidney, liver, and heart failure, potentially leading to death. Leptospirosis is an economic burden on society due to health-care costs related to elevated morbidity of humans and loss of animals of agricultural interest. There are no effective vaccines against leptospirosis. Leptospira sp. are difficult to genetically manipulate which delays the pace of research progress. In this review, we discuss in an historical perspective how animal models have contributed to further our knowledge of leptospirosis. Hamsters, guinea pigs, and gerbils have been instrumental to study the pathophysiology of acute lethal leptospirosis and the Leptospira sp. genes involved in virulence. Chronic renal colonization has been mostly studied using experimentally infected rats. A special emphasis will be placed on mouse models, long thought to be irrelevant since they survive lethal infection. However, mice have recently been shown to be good models of sublethal infection leading to chronic colonization. Furthermore, congenic and transgenic mice have proven essential to study how innate immune cells interact with the pathogen and to understand the role of the toll-like receptor 4, which is important to control Leptospira sp. load and disease. The use of inbred and transgenic mouse models opens

  13. Serotonergic modulation of astrocytic activity in the hamster suprachiasmatic nucleus.

    Glass, J D; Chen, L


    The present study was undertaken to explore the effects of central serotonin receptor activation on the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of Syrian hamsters. Immunoblot and immunohistochemical procedures were used to examine the effects of systemic application of the serotonin-1A and serotonin-7 receptor agonist, (+/-)-2-dipropyl-amino-8-hydroxyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene hydrobromide (8-OH-DPAT; 3.75 mg/kg) on the contents and distribution of glial fibrillary acidic protein in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Administration of 8-OH-DPAT at midday caused a significant reduction in immunoreactive glial fibrillary acidic protein content within 1 h of injection, compared to vehicle controls. This effect was not evident 3 h after drug injection. Treatment with 8-OH-DPAT during the late dark phase had little effect on glial fibrillary acidic protein content. The 8-OH-DPAT-induced reduction in glial fibrillary acidic protein content seen at midday was blocked partially by pretreatment with the serotonin-2 and serotonin-7 receptor antagonist, ritanserin, and more substantially by pretreatment with the serotonin-1A receptor antagonist, NAN-190. Treatment with 8-OH-DPAT also caused a significant redistribution of immunoreactive glial fibrillary acidic protein, such that the dense mesh-like appearance seen in vehicle controls was significantly reduced. The 8-OH-DPAT treatment also significantly decreased expression of polysialic acid, a cell-surface molecule associated with neural plasticity. Immunoblot assessments of glial fibrillary acidic protein contents 2 h before and 1 h after lights off revealed a significant time-of-day difference in glial fibrillary acidic protein expression, with lowest levels occurring at the latter time-point, associated with maximal endogenous serotonin release in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Collectively, these results indicate that acute plastic changes in glial fibrillary acidic protein

  14. After infection with Leishmania infantum, Golden Hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) become more attractive to female sand flies (Lutzomyia longipalpis).

    Nevatte, T M; Ward, R D; Sedda, L; Hamilton, J G C


    In Brazil, human and canine visceral leishmaniasis is caused by infection with Leishmania infantum, a Protist parasite transmitted by blood-feeding female Lutzomyia longipalpis sand flies. The objective of this study was to determine if the odour of hamsters, infected with Le. infantum, was more attractive than the odour of the same hamsters, before they were infected. The attractiveness of odour collected from individual hamsters (n = 13), before they were infected, was compared in a longitudinal study, with the attractiveness of the odour of the same hamster in a Y-tube olfactometer bioassay, at a late stage of infection. The odour of six of the golden hamsters was significantly more attractive to 50% of the female sand flies at the end of infection compared to before infection and the odour of four of the golden hamsters was significantly more attractive to 75% of the female sand flies at the end of infection. These results strongly indicate that hamsters infected with Le. infantum become significantly more attractive to a greater proportion of female sand flies as the infection progresses.

  15. Thermal acclimation and nutritional history affect the oxidation of different classes of exogenous nutrients in Siberian hamsters, Phodopus sungorus.

    McCue, Marshall D; Voigt, Christian C; Jefimow, Małgorzata; Wojciechowski, Michał S


    During acclimatization to winter, changes in morphology and physiology combined with changes in diet may affect how animals use the nutrients they ingest. To study (a) how thermal acclimation and (b) nutritional history affect the rates at which Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) oxidize different classes of dietary nutrients, we conducted two trials in which we fed hamsters one of three (13) C-labeled compounds, that is, glucose, leucine, or palmitic acid. We predicted that under acute cold stress (3 hr at 2°C) hamsters previously acclimated to cold temperatures (10°C) for 3 weeks would have higher resting metabolic rate (RMR) and would oxidize a greater proportion of dietary fatty acids than animals acclimated to 21°C. We also investigated how chronic nutritional stress affects how hamsters use dietary nutrients. To examine this, hamsters were fed four different diets (control, low protein, low lipid, and low-glycemic index) for 2 weeks. During cold challenges, hamsters previously acclimated to cold exhibited higher thermal conductance and RMR, and also oxidized more exogenous palmitic acid during the postprandial phase than animals acclimated to 21°C. In the nutritional stress trial, hamsters fed the low protein diet oxidized more exogenous glucose, but not more exogenous palmitic acid than the control group. The use of (13) C-labeled metabolic tracers combined with breath testing demonstrated that both thermal and nutritional history results in significant changes in the extent to which animals oxidize dietary nutrients during the postprandial period.

  16. Effects of sex and scotorefractory state on obesity induced by photostimulation and serum leptin in Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus).

    Cudney, Sarah E; Place, Ned J


    The rising prevalence of obesity is associated with an increasing incidence of heart disease, diabetes and other health risks. In addition, severe cases of obesity are associated with an even greater risk of morbidity and mortality. Therefore, animal models of morbid obesity are required to better elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Our investigations in the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus) suggest that pronounced obesity can be reliably induced in this species without relying on genetic manipulation or overly fatty and palatable foods. In a prior study on reproductive aging in female Siberian hamsters, we incidentally observed marked obesity in a group of hamsters that were exposed to a particular photoperiodic regime. In short day (SD) lengths, Siberian hamsters inhibit their reproductive physiology and reduce food intake and body mass. However, hamsters become refractory to SD after 15-20weeks and revert to the long day (LD) phenotype. In the previous study, refractory animals appeared to be particularly sensitive to photostimulation (transfer to LD), in terms of increasing body mass. To test the hypothesis that refractoriness to SD predisposes hamsters to severe obesity, we photostimulated females and males in different states of SD responsiveness (inhibited or refractory). We determined that photostimulation during the SD-refractory state is particularly effective in inducing pronounced obesity and high serum leptin concentration in female hamsters. We propose that this experimental framework is a useful model to investigate the factors and signals that create a predisposition to excessive food intake and body mass, without having to rely on genetic or dietary manipulations.

  17. Severe respiratory syndrome induced by allergic mono-sensitization to European hamster (Cricetus cricetus) in a older woman.

    Liccardi, G; Senna, G; Piccolo, A; Salzillo, A; Foglia, M; De Napoli, I; D'Amato, G


    Although the increase in the rate of hamster ownership, no report of allergic sensitization to common hamster (Cricetus cricetus)-derived allergens as a consequence of domestic exposure has been published in Italy. A 64-year-old woman was referred to our Allergy Centre for the recent onset of conjunctival and severe respiratory symptoms (rhinitis, cough, wheezing and dyspnea). About three months ago she had purchased a common hamster as home pet. Another hamster had lived at patient's home for about four months nine years ago. The results of SPT revealed allergic sensitization to Cricetus cricetus dander only (wheal 6x7 mm, positive control 7x7 mm). Total IgE were 59.3 kU/L. Specific IgE only to Cricetus cricetus epithelia (2.10 kUA/L), were also detected. Spirometry revealed a moderate degree of bronchial obstruction. Some important considerations can be drawn from our report: a) few months of hamster ownership are probably sufficient to induce an allergic sensitization and clinical symptoms, b) older age of sensitization in comparison to other studies, c) rapid remission of clinical symptoms after the removal of hamster d) skin prick tests and/or evaluation of specific IgE for hamster allergens should be performed in all potentially susceptible individuals.

  18. An implementation case study. Implementation of the Indian Health Service's Resource and Patient Management System Electronic Health Record in the ambulatory care setting at the Phoenix Indian Medical Center.

    Dunnigan, Anthony; John, Karen; Scott, Andrea; Von Bibra, Lynda; Walling, Jeffrey


    The Phoenix Indian Medical Center (PIMC) has successfully implemented the Resource and Patient Management System Electronic Health Record (RPMS-EHR) in its Ambulatory Care departments. One-hundred and twenty-six providers use the system for essentially all elements of documentation, ordering, and coding. Implementation of one function at a time, in one clinical area at a time, allowed for focused training and support. Strong departmental leadership and the development of 'super-users' were key elements. Detailed assessments of each clinic prior to implementation were vital, resulting in optimal workstation utilization and a greater understanding of each clinic's unique flow. Each phase saw an increasing reluctance to revert to old paper processes. The success of this implementation has placed pressure on the remainder of the hospital to implement the RPMS-EHR, and has given the informatics team an increased awareness of what resources are required to achieve this result.

  19. 大學圖書館電子資源之需求分析與行銷策略之研究 A Study of Demands Analysis and Marketing Strategy of Electronic Resources in University Library

    Huang-Yu Liu


    Full Text Available 電子資源的出現,使得知識載體有了新的突破,提高了使用者的便利性與即時性。對於圖書館而言,如何使電子資源的使用效益達到最高,必須思考一套有效的行銷策略。電子資源行銷概念應以讀者為導向,尊重讀者的資訊需求,並利用各種宣傳技巧,行銷電子資源,使圖書館能提供更完善的服務。本研究之目的旨在探討讀者的使用需求及電子資源的推廣策略,以獲致最有效益的行銷方式。研究對象以開南大學日間部四學院(商學院、運輸觀光學院、資訊學院、人文社會學院)學生為樣本,佐以缺口分析模型為分析架構,藉以找出個案中讀者/學生對於電子資源使用的真實需求,並進而歸納出提供服務的大學圖書館在其推廣或行銷服務上可有的因應策略。The emergence of electronic resources has made new breakthrough in knowledge carriers because of their ease of use, instant availability, and the characteristic of no time and space constraints. For public libraries to achieve maximum efficiency in its electronic resources, it is necessary to seek the most effective marketing strategies. Therefore, the marketing concept of the electronic resources should be reader oriented, such as respecting and understanding library user’s information needs. Libraries also need to utilize various media and techniques to market the electronic resources, so that more comprehensive services and experiences can be provided to readers. The purpose of this study is to investigate library user’s needs and promotion strategies of electronic resources in order to identify the most effective ways of marketing. This study focuses on the students of the four colleges (College of Business, College of Tourism, College of Information, and College of Humanities and Social Science in Kainan University as subjects in the survey questionnaire. It uses the Gap Analysis

  20. Dissociation of ultradian and circadian phenotypes in female and male Siberian hamsters.

    Prendergast, Brian J; Cisse, Yasmine M; Cable, Erin J; Zucker, Irving


    Three experiments addressed whether pronounced alterations in the circadian system yielded concomitant changes in ultradian timing. Female Siberian hamsters were housed in a 16L:8D photoperiod after being subjected to a disruptive phase-shifting protocol that produced 3 distinct permanent circadian phenotypes: some hamsters entrained their circadian rhythms (CRs) with predominantly nocturnal locomotor activity (ENTR), others displayed free-running CRs (FR), and a third cohort was circadian arrhythmic (ARR). The period of the ultradian locomotor rhythm (UR) did not differ among the 3 circadian phenotypes; neuroendocrine generation of URs remains viable in the absence of coherent circadian organization and appears to be mediated by substrates functionally and anatomically distinct from those that generate CRs. Pronounced light-dark differences in several UR characteristics in ENTR hamsters were completely absent in circadian arrhythmic hamsters. The disruptive phase-shifting protocol may compromise direct visual input to ultradian oscillators but more likely indirectly affects URs by interrupting visual afference to the circadian system. Additional experiments documented that deuterium oxide and constant light, each of which substantially lengthened the period of free-running CRs, failed to change the period of concurrently monitored URs. The resistance of URs to deuteration contrasts with the slowing of virtually all other biological timing processes, including CRs. Considered together, the present results point to the existence of separable control mechanisms for generation of circadian and ultradian rhythms.

  1. Response of gut microbiota to fasting and hibernation in Syrian hamsters.

    Sonoyama, Kei; Fujiwara, Reiko; Takemura, Naoki; Ogasawara, Toru; Watanabe, Jun; Ito, Hiroyuki; Morita, Tatsuya


    Although hibernating mammals wake occasionally to eat during torpor, this period represents a state of fasting. Fasting is known to alter the gut microbiota in nonhibernating mammals; therefore, hibernation may also affect the gut microbiota. However, there are few reports of gut microbiota in hibernating mammals. The present study aimed to compare the gut microbiota in hibernating torpid Syrian hamsters with that in active counterparts by using culture-independent analyses. Hamsters were allocated to either torpid, fed active, or fasted active groups. Hibernation was successfully induced by maintaining darkness at 4 degrees C. Flow cytometry analysis of cecal bacteria showed that 96-h fasting reduced the total gut bacteria. This period of fasting also reduced the concentrations of short chain fatty acids in the cecal contents. In contrast, total bacterial numbers and concentrations of short chain fatty acids were unaffected by hibernation. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments indicated that fasting and hibernation modulated the cecal microbiota. Analysis of 16S rRNA clone library and species-specific real-time quantitative PCR showed that the class Clostridia predominated in both active and torpid hamsters and that populations of Akkermansia muciniphila, a mucin degrader, were increased by fasting but not by hibernation. From these results, we conclude that the gut microbiota responds differently to fasting and hibernation in Syrian hamsters.

  2. Characterization of Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells Producing Coagulation Factor VIII Using Multi-omics Tools

    Kaas, Christian Schrøder

    The first public draft of a genome from Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells was published in 2011, an entire decade after the first draft of the human genome. This publication of a relevant CHO reference genome, in combination with the fact that the cost for DNA sequencing has dropped more than 10,...

  3. Simulated natural day lengths synchronize seasonal rhythms of asynchronously born male Siberian hamsters.

    Butler, Matthew P; Turner, Kevin W; Park, Jin Ho; Butler, James P; Trumbull, Justin J; Dunn, Sean P; Villa, Philip; Zucker, Irving


    Photoperiodism research has relied on static day lengths and abrupt transitions between long and short days to characterize the signals that drive seasonal rhythms. To identify ecologically relevant critical day lengths and to test the extent to which naturally changing day lengths synchronize important developmental events, we monitored nine cohorts of male Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) born every 2 wk from 4 wk before to 12 wk after the summer solstice in a simulated natural photoperiod (SNP). SNP hamsters born from 4 wk before to 2 wk after the solstice underwent rapid somatic and gonadal growth; among those born 4-6 wk after the solstice, some delayed puberty by many weeks, whereas others manifested early puberty. Hamsters born eight or more weeks after the solstice failed to undergo early testicular development. The transition to delayed development occurred at long day lengths, which induce early puberty when presented as static photoperiods. The first animals to delay puberty may do so predominantly on the basis of postnatal decreases in day length, whereas in later cohorts, a comparison of postnatal day length to gestational day length may contribute to arrested development. Despite differences in timing of birth and timing of puberty, autumn gonadal regression and spring gonadal and somatic growth occurred at similar calendar dates in all cohorts. Incrementally changing photoperiods exert a strong organizing effect on seasonal rhythms by providing hamsters with a richer source of environmental timing cues than are available in simple static day lengths.

  4. Timing of puberty and synchronization of seasonal rhythms by simulated natural photoperiods in female Siberian hamsters.

    Butler, Matthew P; Trumbull, Justin J; Turner, Kevin W; Zucker, Irving


    The timing of puberty is a critical life history trait of short-lived species; spring-born individuals mature rapidly and breed in the season of birth, whereas young born in mid- to late summer delay puberty until the next spring. The cues that govern the transition from rapid to delayed maturation in natural populations remain unknown. To identify ecologically relevant photoperiod cues that control timing of puberty, we monitored nine cohorts of female Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) born every 2 wk from 4 wk before to 12 wk after the summer solstice in a simulated natural photoperiod (SNP). Hamsters born by the summer solstice underwent rapid somatic growth and achieved puberty that summer; among females born 2-4 wk after the solstice, some delayed puberty by many weeks, whereas others manifested early puberty. Hamsters born 6 or more weeks after the solstice generally delayed puberty until the following spring. The transition from accelerated to delayed pubertal development in the SNP occurred at day lengths that induce early puberty when presented as static photoperiods. Despite differences in timing of birth and timing of puberty, fall and subsequent spring seasonal events occurred at similar calendar dates in all cohorts. We found no evidence that prenatal photoperiod history influenced postnatal development of female hamsters. Considered together with a parallel study on males, the present findings point to sex differences in responsiveness to natural photoperiod variations. In both sexes, incrementally changing photoperiods exert a strong organizing effect on seasonal rhythms.

  5. Complete loss of MHC genetic diversity in the Common Hamster (Cricetus cricetus ) population in The Netherlands

    Smulders, M.J.M.; Snoek, L.B.; Booy, G.; Vosman, B.


    The Common Hamster (Cricetus cricetus L.) has suffered from changes in agricultural practices. In some Western European countries the populations have become so small and scattered that they are threatened with extinction. We studied the genetic diversity of mitochondrial and major histoincompatibil

  6. Central amygdalar nucleus treated with orexin neuropeptides evoke differing feeding and grooming responses in the hamster.

    Alò, Raffaella; Avolio, Ennio; Mele, Maria; Di Vito, Anna; Canonaco, Marcello


    Interaction of the orexinergic (ORXergic) neuronal system with the excitatory (glutamate, l-Glu) or the inhibitory (GABA) neurosignaling complexes evokes major homeostatic physiological events. In this study, effects of the two ORXergic neuropeptides (ORX-A/B) on their receptor (ORX-2R) expression changes were correlated to feeding and grooming actions of the hibernating hamster (Mesocricetus auratus). Infusion of the central amygdala nucleus (CeA) with ORX-A caused hamsters to consume notable quantities of food, while ORX-B accounted for a moderate increase. Interestingly the latter neuropeptide was responsible for greater frequencies of grooming with respect to both controls and the hamsters treated with ORX-A. These distinct behavioral changes turned out to be even greater in the presence of l-Glu agonist (NMDA) while the α1 GABAA receptor agonist (zolpidem, Zol) greatly reduced ORX-A-dependent feeding bouts. Moreover, ORX-A+NMDA mainly promoted greater ORX-2R expression levels with respect to ORX-A-treated hamsters while ORX-B+Zol was instead largely responsible for a down-regulatory trend. Overall, these features point to CeA ORX-2R sites as key sensory limbic elements capable of regulating eating and grooming responses, which may provide useful insights regarding the type of molecular mechanism(s) operating during feeding bouts.

  7. Cytokinetics and histogenesis of cultured hamster tracheal epithelium. Effects of vitamin A and cigarette smoke condensate.

    Rutten, A.A.J.J.L.


    The studies reported in this thesis primarily deal with the influence of vitamin A (all-trans retinol) and cigarette smoke condensate on cellular proliferation, and differentiation and intercellular communication in tracheal epithelium. The experiments were carried out with Syrian Golden hamster tra

  8. The hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) as an experimental model of toxocariasis: histopathological, immunohistochemical, and immunoelectron microscopic findings.

    da Silva, Ana Maria Gonçalves; Chieffi, Pedro Paulo; da Silva, Wellington Luiz Ferreira; Kanashiro, Edite Hatsumi Yamashiro; Rubinsky-Elefant, Guita; Cunha-Neto, Edécio; Mairena, Eliane Conti; De Brito, Thales


    Toxocariasis is a globally distributed parasitic infection caused by the larval stage of Toxocara spp. The typical natural hosts of the parasite are dogs and cats, but humans can be infected by the larval stage of the parasite after ingesting embryonated eggs in soil or from contaminated hands or fomites. The migrating larvae are not adapted to complete their life cycle within accidental or paratenic hosts like humans and laboratory animals, respectively, but they are capable of invading viscera or other tissues where they may survive and induce disease. In order to characterize hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) as a model for Toxocara canis infection, histopathological and immunohistochemistry procedures were used to detect pathological lesions and the distribution of toxocaral antigens in the liver, lungs, and kidneys of experimentally infected animals. We also attempted to characterize the immunological parameters of the inflammatory response and correlate them with the histopathological findings. In the kidney, a correlation between glomerular changes and antigen deposits was evaluated using immunoelectron microscopy. The hamster is an adequate model of experimental toxocariasis for short-term investigations and has a good immunological and pathological response to the infection. Lung and liver manifestations of toxocariasis in hamsters approximated those in humans and other experimental animal models. A mixed Th2 immunological response to T. canis infection was predominant. The hamster model displayed a progressive rise of anti-toxocaral antibodies with the formation of immune complexes. Circulating antigens, immunoglobulin, and complement deposits were detected in the kidney without the development of a definite immune complex nephropathy.

  9. Chronic inhalation toxicity and carcinogenicity studies on β-chloroprene in rats and hamsters

    Trochimowicz, H.J.; Löser, E.; Feron, V.J.; Clary, J.J.; Valentine, R.


    Three groups of 100 Wistar rats and Syrian golden hamsters of each sex were exposed by inhalation to 0, 10, or 50 ppm (v/v) β-chloroprene for 6 h/day, 5 days a week for up to 24 and 18 too, respectively. To maintain the chemical integrity of this highly reactive material in the exposure chambers, β-

  10. Genomic landscapes of Chinese hamster ovary cell lines as revealed by the Cricetulus griseus draft genome

    Lewis, Nathan E; Liu, Xin; Li, Yuxiang


    . This analysis identified hamster genes missing in different CHO cell lines, and detected >3.7 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 551,240 indels and 7,063 copy number variations. Many mutations are located in genes with functions relevant to bioprocessing, such as apoptosis. The details...

  11. Cardiovascular protection of deep-seawater drinking water in high-fat/cholesterol fed hamsters.

    Hsu, Chin-Lin; Chang, Yuan-Yen; Chiu, Chih-Hsien; Yang, Kuo-Tai; Wang, Yu; Fu, Shih-Guei; Chen, Yi-Chen


    Cardiovascular protection of deep-seawater (DSW) drinking water was assessed using high-fat/cholesterol-fed hamsters in this study. All hamsters were fed a high-fat/cholesterol diet (12% fat/0.2% cholesterol), and drinking solutions were normal distiled water (NDW, hardness: 2.48ppm), DSW300 (hardness: 324.5ppm), DSW900 (hardness: 858.5ppm), and DSW1500 (hardness: 1569.0ppm), respectively. After a 6-week feeding period, body weight, heart rates, and blood pressures of hamsters were not influenced by DSW drinking waters. Serum total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol (TAG), atherogenic index, and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were decreased (pdrinking-water groups, as compared to those in the NDW group. Additionally, increased (pdrinking-water groups. Hepatic low-density-lipoprotein receptor (LDL receptor) and cholesterol-7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) gene expressions were upregulated (pdrinking waters. These results demonstrate that DSW drinking water benefits the attenuation of high-fat/cholesterol-diet-induced cardiovascular disorders in hamsters.

  12. Anabolic-androgenic steroid exposure during adolescence and aggressive behavior in golden hamsters.

    Melloni, R H; Connor, D F; Hang, P T; Harrison, R J; Ferris, C F


    Anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) abuse by adolescents represents a significant health care risk due to the potential for long-term negative physical and psychological sequelae, including increased aggressive behavior. The current experiments examined the effects of AAS use in young male adolescent hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) and their consequences on aggressive behavior. It was hypothesized that AAS administration during adolescence predisposes hamsters to heightened levels of aggressive behavior (i.e., offensive aggression). To test this hypothesis adolescent male hamsters were administered high doses of synthetic AAS to mimic a 'heavy use' self-administration regimen used by athletes. Immediately following the exposure to AAS hamsters were tested for aggressive behavior using a resident-intruder model. Animals treated with high doses of AAS during their adolescent development showed heightened measures of offensive aggression i.e., decreased latency to bite and increased total number of attacks and bites) during the test period, while measures of total activity (total contact time) between the animals remained unchanged. AAS-treated males did not differ in body weight from controls, suggesting that the increased aggression was not due to increased body mass. The results of this study show that exposure to AAS during adolescence facilitates aggressive response patterns, but does not alter body weight.

  13. Reduced aging defects in estrogen receptive brainstem nuclei in the female hamster

    Gerrits, Peter O.; Kortekaas, Rudie; Veening, Jan G.; de Weerd, Henk; van der Want, Johannes J. L.


    The nucleus pararetroambiguus (NPRA) and the commissural nucleus of the solitary tract (NTScom) show estrogen nuclear receptor-alpha immunoreactivity (nuclear ER-alpha-IR). Both cell groups are involved in estrous cycle related adaptations. We examined in normally cycling aged hamsters the occurrenc

  14. Appropriateness of the hamster as a model to study diet-induced atherosclerosis

    Golden-Syrian hamsters have been used as an animal model to assess diet-induced atherosclerosis since the early 1980s. Advantages appeared to include a low rate of endogenous cholesterol synthesis, receptor-mediated uptake of LDL cholesterol, cholesteryl ester transfer protein activity, hepatic apo...

  15. Cross-immunity to Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium in the hamster.

    Smith, M A; Clegg, J A; Webbe, G


    Hamsters (WO strain) with a primary infection of Schistosoma mansoni or S. haematobium rapidly developed immunity to homologous challenge judged by the lung recovery assay. Immunity was detected at 4-5 weeks and reached a plateau 6 weeks after infection. Using this information, hamsters with an 8-week primary infection with S. mansoni or S. haematobium were tested for resistance to homologous reinfection and resistance to a challenge with the other species of schistosome. Primary infection with S. mansoni or S. haematobium conferred a high level of immunity to reinfection with either species of schistosome judged by the perfusion assay, involving recovery of adult worms 6-10 weeks following challenge. Estimation of the level of immunity with the lung recovery assay, 5 days after challenge, indicated that immunity due to a primary infection with S. mansoni acted at or before migration of the challenge through the lungs but immunity stimulated by a primary S. haematobium infection was only partially effective at the lung stage and substantial destruction of challenging organisms occurred at a later stage of development. Antibodies in immune sera of hamsters with a primary S. mansoni or or S. haematobium infection were shown to bind to common antigens on the surface of young schistosomula of either species by u.v. microscopy using as detecting agent a fluorescein-labelled rabbit antiserum directed against hamster globulins.

  16. Benefit of multiple trait selection to increase reproductive traits; experimental evidence from Golden hamsters.

    Satoh, M.; Nishida, A.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Lende, van der T.


    Fifteen generations of selection were conducted to study responses for litter size at birth (LSB), weight at weaning of standardized litter (LWW), and individual body weight at 8 wk of age (BW8) using golden hamsters as an experimental model for pigs. The experiment involved three lines: selection

  17. Topical Olive Leaf Extract Improves Healing of Oral Mucositis in Golden Hamsters.

    Showraki, Najmeh; Mardani, Maryam; Emamghoreishi, Masoumeh; Andishe-Tadbir, Azadeh; Aram, Alireza; Mehriar, Peiman; Omidi, Mahmoud; Sepehrimanesh, Masood; Koohi-Hosseinabadi, Omid; Tanideh, Nader


    Oral mucositis (OM) is a common side effect of anti-cancer drugs and needs significant attention for its prevention. This study aimed to evaluate the healing effects of olive leaf extract on 5-fluorouracil-induced OM in golden hamster. OM was induced in 63 male golden hamsters by the combination of 5-fluorouracil injections (days 0, 5 and 10) and the abrasion of the cheek pouch (days 3 and 4). On day 12, hamsters were received topical olive leaf extract ointment, base of ointment, or no treatment (control) for 5 days. Histopathology evaluations, blood examinations, and tissue malondialdehyde level measurement were performed 1, 3 and 5 days after treatments. Histopathology score and tissue malondialdehyde level were significantly lower in olive leaf extract treated group in comparison with control and base groups (p= 0.000). Significant decreases in white blood cell, hemoglobin, hematocrit , and mean corpuscular volume and an increase in mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration were observed in olive leaf extract treated group in comparison with control and base groups (p< 0.05). Our findings demonstrated that daily application of olive leaf extract ointment had healing effect on 5-fluorouracil induced OM in hamsters. Moreover, the beneficial effect of olive leaf extract on OM might be due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

  18. Differential cytokine gene expression according to outcome in a hamster model of leptospirosis.

    Frédérique Vernel-Pauillac

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Parameters predicting the evolution of leptospirosis would be useful for clinicians, as well as to better understand severe leptospirosis, but are scarce and rarely validated. Because severe leptospirosis includes septic shock, similarities with predictors evidenced for sepsis and septic shock were studied in a hamster model. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using an LD50 model of leptospirosis in hamsters, we first determined that 3 days post-infection was a time-point that allowed studying the regulation of immune gene expression and represented the onset of the clinical signs of the disease. In the absence of tools to assess serum concentrations of immune effectors in hamsters, we determined mRNA levels of various immune genes, especially cytokines, together with leptospiraemia at this particular time-point. We found differential expression of both pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators, with significantly higher expression levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 1alpha, cyclo-oxygenase 2 and interleukin 10 genes in nonsurvivors compared to survivors. Higher leptospiraemia was also observed in nonsurvivors. Lastly, we demonstrated the relevance of these results by comparing their respective expression levels using a LD100 model or an isogenic high-passage nonvirulent variant. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Up-regulated gene expression of both pro- and anti-inflammatory immune effectors in hamsters with fatal outcome in an LD50 model of leptospirosis, together with a higher Leptospira burden, suggest that these gene expression levels could be predictors of adverse outcome in leptospirosis.

  19. Sleep deprivation and daily torpor impair object recognition in Djungarian hamsters

    Palchykova, S; Crestani, F; Meerlo, P; Tobler, Irene


    Sleep has been shown to play a facilitating role in memory consolidation, whereas sleep deprivation leads to performance impairment both in humans and rodents. The effects of 4-h sleep deprivation on recognition memory were investigated in the Djungarian hamster (Phodopus sungorus). Because sleep

  20. Secretion and regulatory mechanism of leptin during pregnancy in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus)


    The aim of this study is to investigate the secretion pattern and regulatory mechanism of leptin during pregnancy in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus). 100 pregnant golden hamsters were separated into 16 groups and the serum was sampled daily throughout gestation for the leptin assay. Results indicated that a gestational leptin profile existed during pregnancy in the golden hamster. To investigate if endocrine conditions during pregnancy contribute to this gestational leptin profile, serums collected during different reproductive stages were added to the adipocyte culture medium. Results showed that sera collected from all reproductive stages have significant stimulating effect on the secretion of leptin as compared with the control (P 0.05). However, sera from mid and late pregnancy significantly stimulate leptin secretion as compared with the cycling sera (P < 0.01). Serum collected on day 15 of pregnancy have the strongest stimulating effect on leptin secretion compared with sera collected on day 8 (P < 0.0001) and day 12 (P < 0.001) of the pregnancy. But after the extraction of steroid hormones, sera collected during different reproductive stages have the same effect on leptin secretion in vitro. Further study showed that dexamethason, progesterone and insulin stimulated while estradiol suppressed leptin secretion in vitro. Our results suggested that steroid hormones (or other steroid factors) have significant regulating effect on the leptin secretion during pregnancy and they may be the most important contributors of the gestational leptin profile in the golden hamster.

  1. Aortic ER stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus in APA hamsters.

    Kurokawa, Masaki; Hideshima, Makoto; Ishii, Yoshiyuki; Kyuwa, Shigeru; Yoshikawa, Yasuhiro


    Atherosclerosis is thought to be associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) dysfunction and the accumulation of unfolded proteins. In this study, we examined the relationship between atherosclerosis and ER stress and the effect of sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA), a kind of chemical chaperone, on atherosclerosis in streptozotocin-induced diabetic APA hamsters. Male, 8-week-old, APA hamsters were injected with streptozotocin (30 mg/kg body weight) to induce diabetes mellitus, and ER stress was evaluated immunohistochemically or by semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis using ER stress markers such as calreticulin and GPR78. Control hamsters were injected with citrate buffer and were similarly analyzed. In the aorta of control animals, a weak ER stress was detected, and 4-PBA treatment decreased the calreticulin- and GRP78-positive areas and also reduced the mRNA levels of calreticulin and GRP78. On the other hand, strong ER stress was detected at the lesser curvature of the aortic arch of streptozotocin-induced diabetic APA hamsters. However, 4-PBA treatment failed to lessen the ER stress in the aorta and had no effect on improvement of the atherosclerotic lesions. These results may provide an explanation for the complex etiology of atherosclerosis accompanied by diabetes mellitus and various other clinical phenotypes of atherosclerosis.

  2. Laguna Negra Virus Infection Causes Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome in Turkish Hamsters (Mesocricetus brandti).

    Hardcastle, K; Scott, D; Safronetz, D; Brining, D L; Ebihara, H; Feldmann, H; LaCasse, R A


    Laguna Negra virus (LNV) is a New World hantavirus associated with severe and often fatal cardiopulmonary disease in humans, known as hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). Five hamster species were evaluated for clinical and serologic responses following inoculation with 4 hantaviruses. Of the 5 hamster species, only Turkish hamsters infected with LNV demonstrated signs consistent with HPS and a fatality rate of 43%. Clinical manifestations in infected animals that succumbed to disease included severe and rapid onset of dyspnea, weight loss, leukopenia, and reduced thrombocyte numbers as compared to uninfected controls. Histopathologic examination revealed lung lesions that resemble the hallmarks of HPS in humans, including interstitial pneumonia and pulmonary edema, as well as generalized infection of endothelial cells and macrophages in major organ tissues. Histologic lesions corresponded to the presence of viral antigen in affected tissues. To date, there have been no small animal models available to study LNV infection and pathogenesis. The Turkish hamster model of LNV infection may be important in the study of LNV-induced HPS pathogenesis and development of disease treatment and prevention strategies.

  3. The adaptive immune response does not influence hantavirus disease or persistence in the Syrian hamster.

    Prescott, Joseph; Safronetz, David; Haddock, Elaine; Robertson, Shelly; Scott, Dana; Feldmann, Heinz


    Pathogenic New World hantaviruses cause severe disease in humans characterized by a vascular leak syndrome, leading to pulmonary oedema and respiratory distress with case fatality rates approaching 40%. Hantaviruses infect microvascular endothelial cells without conspicuous cytopathic effects, indicating that destruction of the endothelium is not a mechanism of disease. In humans, high levels of inflammatory cytokines are present in the lungs of patients that succumb to infection. This, along with other observations, suggests that disease has an immunopathogenic component. Currently the only animal model available to study hantavirus disease is the Syrian hamster, where infection with Andes virus (ANDV), the primary agent of disease in South America, results in disease that closely mimics that seen in humans. Conversely, inoculation of hamsters with a passaged Sin Nombre virus (SNV), the virus responsible for most cases of disease in North America, results in persistent infection with high levels of viral replication. We found that ANDV elicited a stronger innate immune response, whereas SNV elicited a more robust adaptive response in the lung. Additionally, ANDV infection resulted in significant changes in the blood lymphocyte populations. To determine whether the adaptive immune response influences infection outcome, we depleted hamsters of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells before infection with hantaviruses. Depletion resulted in inhibition of virus-specific antibody responses, although the pathogenesis and replication of these viruses were unaltered. These data show that neither hantavirus replication, nor pathogenesis caused by these viruses, is influenced by the adaptive immune response in the Syrian hamster.

  4. Sleep deprivation and daily torpor impair object recognition in Djungarian hamsters

    Palchykova, S; Crestani, F; Meerlo, P; Tobler, Irene


    Sleep has been shown to play a facilitating role in memory consolidation, whereas sleep deprivation leads to performance impairment both in humans and rodents. The effects of 4-h sleep deprivation on recognition memory were investigated in the Djungarian hamster (Phodopus sungorus). Because sleep du

  5. Thermotelemetric study on the hibernation of a common hamster, Cricetus cricetus (Linnaeus, 1758), under natural circumstances

    Gubbels, R.E.M.B.; Gelder, van J.J.; Lenders, A.


    By means of radio-thermotelemetry a study was made of the thermoregulatory patterns during hibernation of a common hamster, Cricetus cricetus (L., 1758) under natural conditions. In the euthermic state, body temperature (Tb) fluctuated between 36.4 and 38.6°C with Tb higher than 37.0°C probably indi

  6. Microvascular changes in estrogen-alpha sensitive brainstem structures of aging female hamsters

    Gerrits, Peter O.; de Weerd, Henk; van der Want, Johannes J. L.; Kortekaas, Rudie; Luiten, Paul G. M.; Veening, Jan G.


    Structural neuronal plasticity is present in the nucleus para-retroambiguus (NPRA) and the commissural nucleus of the solitary tract/A2 group (NTScom/A2) in female hamsters. Both brainstem nuclei play a role in estrous cycle related autonomic adaptations. We investigated how aging affects the capill

  7. Temporal Analysis of Andes Virus and Sin Nombre Virus Infections of Syrian Hamsters


    organs on days 12 and 14 after challenge (Table 2). We hypothesize that fol- lowing inoculum input, virus gained access to the blood and hamsters. (D...Sout. Medicina (Buenos Aires) 64:43–46. (In Spanish.) 31. ProMED-mail. 2006. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome-Canada ex Bolivia.

  8. Effect of dietary elaidic versus vaccenic acid on blood and liver lipids in the hamster

    G.W. Meijer (G.); A. van Tol (Arie); Th.J.C. van Berkel (Theo); J.T.M. Weststrate


    textabstractMale hamsters (30 per group) were fed five different semi-purified diets ad libitum. The diets, containing 30% of energy (en%) as fat, differed in their dietary fat composition (specified fatty acids exchanged at 10 en%) and were fed for 4 weeks. The five fatty acids compared in mixed tr

  9. New Sensitive Serum Melatonin Radioimmunoassay Employing the Kennaway G280 Antibody: Syrian Hamster Morning Adrenergic Response,


    concentrations of melatonin and N-acetylserotonin in aged of melatonin in anorexia nervosa . Acta Endocrinol. (Copenh.) male hamsters. Horm. Res. 17:228-234. 120...melatonin. J. Immu- gland, brain and serum of rats and chickens. Neuroendocri- nol. Methods 74:293-298. nology 23:1-13. TORTOSA, F., M. PUIG-DOMINGO, M

  10. Ribavirin Protects Syrian Hamsters against Lethal Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome — After Intranasal Exposure to Andes Virus

    Ogg, Monica; Jonsson, Colleen B.; Camp, Jeremy V.; Hooper, Jay W.


    Andes virus, ANDV, harbored by wild rodents, causes the highly lethal hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) upon transmission to humans resulting in death in 30% to 50% of the cases. As there is no treatment for this disease, we systematically tested the efficacy of ribavirin in vitro and in an animal model. In vitro assays confirmed antiviral activity and determined that the most effective doses were 40 µg/mL and above. We tested three different concentrations of ribavirin for their capability to prevent HPS in the ANDV hamster model following an intranasal challenge. While the highest level of ribavirin (200 mg/kg) was toxic to the hamster, both the middle (100 mg/kg) and the lowest concentration (50 mg/kg) prevented HPS in hamsters without toxicity. Specifically, 8 of 8 hamsters survived intranasal challenge for both of those groups whereas 7 of 8 PBS control-treated animals developed lethal HPS. Further, we report that administration of ribavirin at 50 mg/kg/day starting on days 6, 8, 10, or 12 post-infection resulted in significant protection against HPS in all groups. Administration of ribavirin at 14 days post-infection also provided a significant level of protection against lethal HPS. These data provide in vivo evidence supporting the potential use of ribavirin as a post-exposure treatment to prevent HPS after exposure by the respiratory route. PMID:24217424

  11. Ribavirin Protects Syrian Hamsters against Lethal Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome — After Intranasal Exposure to Andes Virus

    Jay W. Hooper


    Full Text Available Andes virus, ANDV, harbored by wild rodents, causes the highly lethal hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS upon transmission to humans resulting in death in 30% to 50% of the cases. As there is no treatment for this disease, we systematically tested the efficacy of ribavirin in vitro and in an animal model. In vitro assays confirmed antiviral activity and determined that the most effective doses were 40 µg/mL and above. We tested three different concentrations of ribavirin for their capability to prevent HPS in the ANDV hamster model following an intranasal challenge. While the highest level of ribavirin (200 mg/kg was toxic to the hamster, both the middle (100 mg/kg and the lowest concentration (50 mg/kg prevented HPS in hamsters without toxicity. Specifically, 8 of 8 hamsters survived intranasal challenge for both of those groups whereas 7 of 8 PBS control-treated animals developed lethal HPS. Further, we report that administration of ribavirin at 50 mg/kg/day starting on days 6, 8, 10, or 12 post-infection resulted in significant protection against HPS in all groups. Administration of ribavirin at 14 days post-infection also provided a significant level of protection against lethal HPS. These data provide in vivo evidence supporting the potential use of ribavirin as a post-exposure treatment to prevent HPS after exposure by the respiratory route.

  12. Nuciferine prevents hepatic steatosis and injury induced by a high-fat diet in hamsters.

    Fuchuan Guo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nuciferine is a major active aporphine alkaloid from the leaves of N. nucifera Gaertn that possesses anti-hyperlipidemia, anti-hypotensive, anti-arrhythmic, and insulin secretagogue activities. However, it is currently unknown whether nuciferine can benefit hepatic lipid metabolism. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the current study, male golden hamsters were randomly divided into four groups fed a normal diet, a high-fat diet (HFD, or a HFD supplemented with nuciferine (10 and 15 mg/kg·BW/day. After 8 weeks of intervention, HFD-induced increases in liver and visceral adipose tissue weight, dyslipidemia, liver steatosis, and mild necroinflammation in hamsters were analyzed. Nuciferine supplementation protected against HFD-induced changes, alleviated necroinflammation, and reversed serum markers of metabolic syndrome in hamsters fed a HFD. RT-PCR and western blot analyses revealed that hamsters fed a HFD had up-regulated levels of genes related to lipogenesis, increased free fatty acid infiltration, and down-regulated genes involved in lipolysis and very low density lipoprotein secretion. In addition, gene expression of cytochrome P4502E1 and tumor necrosis factor-α were also increased in the HFD group. Nuciferine supplementation clearly suppressed HFD-induced alterations in the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Nuciferine supplementation ameliorated HFD-induced dyslipidemia as well as liver steatosis and injury. The beneficial effects of nuciferine were associated with altered expression of hepatic genes involved in lipid metabolism.

  13. Temporal organisation of hibernation in wild-type and tau mutant Syrian hamsters

    Oklejewicz, M; Daan, S; Strijkstra, AM; Heldmaier, G.


    The temporal pattern of hibernation was studied in three genotypes of Syrian hamsters with different circadian periodicity to assess a potential circadian control of alternating torpor and euthermy. We recorded the pattern of hibernation by measuring activity in continuous dim light and constant env

  14. Vascular Anatomy of the Hamster Retractor Muscle with Regard to Its Microvascular Transfer.

    de With, M.C.J.; Vries, A.M.; Kroese, A.B.A.; van der Heijden, E.P.A.; Bleys, R.L.A.W.; Segal, S.S.; Kon, M.


    BACKGROUND: The hamster retractor muscle (RET) is used as an in vivo model in studies of skeletal muscle ischemia-reperfusion injury. The RET is unique in that the muscle can be isolated while preserving the primary vascular supply so that its contractile function can be measured simultaneously with

  15. Is the Medial Amygdala Part of the Neural Circuit Modulating Conditioned Defeat in Syrian Hamsters?

    Markham, Chris M.; Huhman, Kim L.


    Conditioned defeat is a model wherein hamsters that have previously experienced a single social defeat subsequently exhibit heightened levels of avoidance and submission in response to a smaller, non-aggressive intruder. While we have previously demonstrated the critical involvement of the basolateral and central nuclei of the amygdala in the…

  16. Effects of flavonol-rich diet on select cardiovascular parameters in a Gold Syrian Hamster model

    We investigated the effects of a flavonoid-rich diet supplemented with cranberry on blood pressure and cholesterol ester levels in hypercholesterolemic Golden Syrian hamsters. Animals were fed one of four diets: high fat high cholesterol (HFHC) diet, HFHC with 2% cranberry concentrate powder (HFHC+...

  17. Persistence of experimental Rocio virus infection in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus

    Daniele Freitas Henriques


    Full Text Available Rocio virus (ROCV is an encephalitic flavivirus endemic to Brazil. Experimental flavivirus infections have previously demonstrated a persistent infection and, in this study, we investigated the persistence of ROCV infection in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus. The hamsters were infected intraperitoneally with 9.8 LD50/0.02 mL of ROCV and later anaesthetised and sacrificed at various time points over a 120-day period to collect of blood, urine and organ samples. The viral titres were quantified by real-time-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. The specimens were used to infect Vero cells and ROCV antigens in the cells were detected by immunefluorescence assay. The levels of antibodies were determined by the haemagglutination inhibition technique. A histopathological examination was performed on the tissues by staining with haematoxylin-eosin and detecting viral antigens by immunohistochemistry (IHC. ROCV induced a strong immune response and was pathogenic in hamsters through neuroinvasion. ROCV was recovered from Vero cells exposed to samples from the viscera, brain, blood, serum and urine and was detected by qRT-PCR in the brain, liver and blood for three months after infection. ROCV induced histopathological changes and the expression of viral antigens, which were detected by IHC in the liver, kidney, lung and brain up to four months after infection. These findings show that ROCV is pathogenic to golden hamsters and has the capacity to cause persistent infection in animals after intraperitoneal infection.

  18. Toward genome-scale models of the Chinese hamster ovary cells: incentives, status and perspectives

    Kaas, Christian Schrøder; Fan, Yuzhou; Weilguny, Dietmar;


    Bioprocessing of the important Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines used for the production of biopharmaceuticals stands at the brink of several redefining events. In 2011, the field entered the genomics era, which has accelerated omics-based phenotyping of the cell lines. In this review we...

  19. Development of Hamster Models for Acute and Chronic Infections with Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo

    The Golden Syrian hamster is frequently used as a small animal model to study acute leptospirosis. However, use of this small animal model to study Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo infections has not been well documented. Cattle are the normal maintenance hosts of L. borgpetersenii serovar...

  20. Histiocytic Sarcoma and Bilateral Facial Vein Thrombosis in a Siberian Hamster (Phodopus sungorus).

    Coble, Dondrae J; Shoemaker, Margaret; Harrington, Bonnie; Dardenne, Adrienne D; Bolon, Brad


    A 21-mo-old, male Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus) presented with left-sided facial swelling, proptosis of the left eye, and blepharospasm of the right eye. The hamster had been used only for breeding. Because of the poor prognosis, the hamster was euthanized without additional diagnostic assays or treatments. Routine gross pathologic evaluation demonstrated exophthalmos and presumptive hyphema of the left eye, bilateral facial edema, freely movable nodules within the mesentery, white foci within the liver, and a large mass effacing the cranial pole of the right kidney. On histologic evaluation, the mesenteric nodules and liver foci expressed histiocytic marker CD163 and thus were diagnosed as sites of histiocytic sarcoma, whereas the kidney mass was a well-differentiated renal cell carcinoma. The facial swelling resulted from bilateral, chronic, severe, branching thrombi in many facial veins. Additional age-related histopathologic findings were observed in other organs, including diffuse glomerulopathy, nesidioblastosis (pancreatic islet neoformation), and multiple foci of severe cartilage degeneration in the axial skeleton. To our knowledge, this report provides the first description of histiocytic sarcoma in a Siberian hamster.

  1. Development of Chronic and Acute Golden Syrian Hamster Infection Models with Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo

    The golden Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) is frequently used as a model to study virulence for several species of Leptospira. Onset of an acute, lethal infection following infection with several pathogenic Leptospira species has been widely adopted for vaccine testing. An important exceptio...

  2. Golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) as an experimental model for Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis infection.

    Gomes-Silva, Adriano; Valverde, Joanna Gardel; Ribeiro-Romão, Raquel Peralva; Plácido-Pereira, Rosa Maria; Da-Cruz, Alda Maria


    The lack of an adequate model for Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis infection is a limiting factor for studying American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL). The golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) is a promising model because besides being highly susceptible to dermotropic Leishmania infection, the lesions are very similar to cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in humans. However, different Leishmania isolates or species and/or protocols have resulted in different outcomes, whereas no study has evaluated the reproducibility of L. braziliensis infection in this model. The natural history of L. braziliensis infection in 34 hamsters was evaluated by using a single parasite isolate in 8 independent experiments under similar experimental conditions. Clinical, histological and immunological analyses were performed. The hamsters presented skin ulcers similar to those observed in ATL. The intra-experiment lesion increment tended to show an intermediary variance. Histological analysis of infected skins showed granulomatous reaction, scarce amastigotes, and Schaumann's bodies. Blood lymphocytes proliferated in response to leishmanial antigens. The severity of the infection was positively correlated to spleen weight, and the titres of anti-Leishmania IgG antibodies. Our findings indicate that the hamster is an appropriate model for immunopathogenesis studies of CL caused by L. braziliensis, supporting its use in clinical, vaccine and chemotherapy experimental protocols.

  3. Development of a Hamster Model for Chikungunya Virus Infection and Pathogenesis.

    Angela M Bosco-Lauth

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus is transmitted by mosquitoes and causes severe, debilitating infectious arthritis in humans. The need for an animal model to study the disease process and evaluate potential treatments is imminent as the virus continues its spread into novel geographic locations. Golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus are often used as outbred laboratory animal models for arboviral diseases. Here we demonstrate that hamsters inoculated with chikungunya virus developed viremia and histopathologic lesions in their limbs and joints similar to those seen in human patients. The virus disseminated rapidly and was found in every major organ, including brain, within a few days of infection. Hamsters did not manifest overt clinical signs, and the virus was generally cleared within 4 days, followed by a strong neutralizing antibody response. These results indicate that hamsters are highly susceptible to chikungunya virus infection and develop myositis and tenosynovitis similar to human patients followed by a complete recovery. This animal model may be useful for testing antiviral drugs and vaccines.

  4. Topical Olive Leaf Extract Improves Healing of Oral Mucositis in Golden Hamsters

    Najmeh Showraki


    Full Text Available Statement of the Problem: Oral mucositis (OM is a common side effect of anti-cancer drugs and needs significant attention for its prevention. Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the healing effects of olive leaf extract on 5-fluorouracil-induced OM in golden hamster. Materials and Method: OM was induced in 63 male golden hamsters by the combination of 5-fluorouracil injections (days 0, 5 and 10 and the abrasion of the cheek pouch (days 3 and 4. On day 12, hamsters were received topical olive leaf extract ointment, base of ointment, or no treatment (control for 5 days. Histopathology evaluations, blood examinations, and tissue malondialdehyde level measurement were performed 1, 3 and 5 days after treatments. Results: Histopathology score and tissue malondialdehyde level were significantly lower in olive leaf extract treated group in comparison with control and base groups (p= 0.000. Significant decreases in white blood cell, hemoglobin, hematocrit , and mean corpuscular volume and an increase in mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration were observed in olive leaf extract treated group in comparison with control and base groups (p< 0.05. Conclusion: Our findings demonstrated that daily application of olive leaf extract ointment had healing effect on 5-fluorouracil induced OM in hamsters. Moreover, the beneficial effect of olive leaf extract on OM might be due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Keywords ● 5- fluorouracil ● Anti-inflammatory ● Antioxidant ● Olive Leaf ● Oral Mucositis

  5. Intranasal vaccination with leishmanial antigens protects golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus against Leishmania (Viannia Braziliensis infection.

    Luzinei da Silva-Couto


    Full Text Available Previous results have shown that oral and intranasal administration of particulate Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis antigens (LaAg partially protects mice against L. amazonensis infection. However, vaccination studies on species of the subgenus Viannia, the main causative agent of cutaneous and mucosal leishmaniasis in the Americas, have been hampered by the lack of easy-to-handle bio-models that accurately mimic the human disease. Recently, we demonstrated that the golden hamster is an appropriate model for studying the immunopathogenesis of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. (Viannia braziliensis. Using the golden hamster model, our current study investigated whether the protective effect of intranasal immunisation with LaAg can be extended to L. braziliensis infection.Golden hamsters vaccinated with either two intranasal (IN doses of LaAg (10 µg or two intramuscular doses of LaAg (20 µg were challenged 2 weeks post-vaccination with L. braziliensis. The results showed that IN immunisation with LaAg significantly reduced lesion growth and parasitic load as well as serum IgG and IgG2 levels. At the experimental endpoint on day 114 post-infection, IN-immunised hamsters that were considered protected expressed IFN-γ and IL10 mRNA levels that returned to uninfected skin levels. In contrast to the nasal route, intramuscular (IM immunisation failed to provide protection.These results demonstrate for the first time that the nasal route of immunisation can induce cross protection against L. braziliensis infection.

  6. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oral oleylphosphocholine in a hamster model of visceral leishmaniasis

    Fortin, A.; Dorlo, T.P.C.; Matheeussen, A.; Hendrickx, S.; Cos, P.; Maes, L.


    INTRODUCTION Oleylphosphocholine (OlPC) is in the same chemical class as miltefosine (MIL) and was shown to be of superior efficacy and safety at equivalent doses (Fortin et al. 2012; 2014). In the current study, the pharmacokinetic (PK) properties of OlPC were evaluated in hamsters following single

  7. An immunosuppressed Syrian golden hamster model for SARS-CoV infection.

    Schaecher, Scott R; Stabenow, Jennifer; Oberle, Christina; Schriewer, Jill; Buller, R Mark; Sagartz, John E; Pekosz, Andrew


    Several small animal models have been developed for the study of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) replication and pathogenesis. Syrian golden hamsters are among the best small animal models, though little clinical illness and no mortality are observed after virus infection. Cyclophosphamide was used to immunosuppress hamsters leading to a prolonged disease course and higher mortality after SARS-CoV infection. In addition, there was a significant weight loss, expanded tissue tropism, and increased viral pathology in the lung, heart, kidney, and nasal turbinate tissues. Infection with recombinant SARS-CoV viruses bearing disruptions in the gene 7 coding region showed no significant change in replication kinetics, tissue tropism, morbidity, or mortality suggesting that the ORF7a (7a) and ORF7b (7b) proteins are not required for virus replication in immunosuppressed hamsters. This modified hamster model may provide a useful tool for SARS-CoV pathogenesis studies, evaluation of antiviral therapy, and analysis of additional SARS-CoV mutants.

  8. Pineal melatonin is a circadian time-giver for leptin rhythm in Syrian hamsters

    Ibtissam eChakir


    Full Text Available Nocturnal secretion of melatonin from the pineal gland may affect central and peripheral timing, in addition to its well-known involvement in the control of seasonal physiology. The Syrian hamster is a photoperiodic species, which displays gonadal atrophy and increased adiposity when adapted to short (winter-like photoperiods. Here we investigated whether pineal melatonin secreted at night can impact daily rhythmicity of metabolic hormones and glucose in that seasonal species. For that purpose, daily variations of plasma leptin, cortisol, insulin and glucose were analyzed in pinealectomized hamsters, as compared to sham-operated controls kept under very long (16h light/08h dark or short photoperiods (08h light/16h dark. Daily rhythms of leptin under both long and short photoperiods were blunted by pinealectomy. Furthermore, the phase of cortisol rhythm under a short photoperiod was advanced by 5.6 h after pinealectomy. Neither plasma insulin, nor blood glucose displays robust daily rhythmicity, even in sham-operated hamsters. Pinealectomy, however, totally reversed the decreased levels of insulin under short days and the photoperiodic variations in mean levels of blood glucose (i.e., reduction and increase in long and short days, respectively. Together, these findings in Syrian hamsters show that circulating melatonin at night drives the daily rhythmicity of plasma leptin, participates in the phase control of cortisol rhythm and modulates glucose homeostasis according to photoperiod-dependent metabolic state.

  9. Persistence of experimental Rocio virus infection in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus).

    Henriques, Daniele Freitas; Quaresma, Juarez Antonio Simões; Fuzii, Helen Thais; Nunes, Márcio Roberto Teixeira; Silva, Eliana Vieira Pinto da; Carvalho, Valéria Lima; Martins, Lívia Carício; Casseb, Samir Mansour Moraes; Chiang, Jannifer Oliveira; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa


    Rocio virus (ROCV) is an encephalitic flavivirus endemic to Brazil. Experimental flavivirus infections have previously demonstrated a persistent infection and, in this study, we investigated the persistence of ROCV infection in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). The hamsters were infected intraperitoneally with 9.8 LD50/0.02 mL of ROCV and later anaesthetised and sacrificed at various time points over a 120-day period to collect of blood, urine and organ samples. The viral titres were quantified by real-time-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The specimens were used to infect Vero cells and ROCV antigens in the cells were detected by immunefluorescence assay. The levels of antibodies were determined by the haemagglutination inhibition technique. A histopathological examination was performed on the tissues by staining with haematoxylin-eosin and detecting viral antigens by immunohistochemistry (IHC). ROCV induced a strong immune response and was pathogenic in hamsters through neuroinvasion. ROCV was recovered from Vero cells exposed to samples from the viscera, brain, blood, serum and urine and was detected by qRT-PCR in the brain, liver and blood for three months after infection. ROCV induced histopathological changes and the expression of viral antigens, which were detected by IHC in the liver, kidney, lung and brain up to four months after infection. These findings show that ROCV is pathogenic to golden hamsters and has the capacity to cause persistent infection in animals after intraperitoneal infection.

  10. Analysis in Blood of Golden Hamster by Naa for Clinical Practice

    Aguiar, R.; Zamboni, C. B.; Genezini, F. A.


    In the present study Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique has been used to determine, simultaneously, some element concentrations of clinical relevance in whole blood samples of Golden Hamster. The normal range for Br, Cl, K and Na concentrations were determined. The knowledge of these values permits clinical investigation of animal model using whole blood as well as to check the similarities with human blood.

  11. Metabolic rate changes proportionally to circadian frequency in tau mutant Syrian hamsters

    Oklejewicz, M; Hut, RA; Daan, S; Loudon, ASI; Stirland, AJ; Loudon, Andrew S.I.; Stirland, Anne J.


    The tau mutation in Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) is phenotypically expressed in a period of the circadian rhythm of about 20 h in homozygotes (SS) and about 22 h in heterozygotes (S+). The authors investigate whether this well-defined model for variation in circadian period exhibits associ

  12. Albino and pink-eyed dilution mutants in the Russian dwarf hamster Phodopus campbelli.

    Robinson, R


    The coat color mutant genes albino (c) and pink eyed dilution (p) are described in the dwarf hamster species Phodopus campbelli. Both genes are inherited as redessive to normal. Tests for linkage between the two genes gave negative results. The apparent absence of linkage is contrasted with linkage between homologous alleles c and p in other species of rodents.

  13. Contractile and morphological properties of hamster retractor muscle following 16 h of cold preservation

    de With, Miriam C. J.; van der Heijden, E. P. A. Brigitte; van Oosterhout, Matthijs F.; Kon, M.; Kroese, Alfons B. A.


    Introduction: Cold hypoxia is a common factor in cold tissue preservation and mammalian hibernation. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of cold preservation on the function of the retractor (RET) muscle of the hamster in the non-hibernating state and compare these with previously

  14. [An initial investigation on the in vitro culture system of primordial germ cells in golden hamsters].

    Li, Hong; Zhang, Hao; Liang, Ying; Zhan, Li; Wu, Desheng


    To establish the in vitro culture system of primordial germ cells (PGCs) of golden hamsters, PGCs of hamster were isolated from genital ridge of embryos at 10. 5th dpc (day post coitum), obtained by enzyme-mechanical method, and cultured on feeder cells. Then the PGCs were identified by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity staining. In order to induce the PGCs to differentiate in vitro, we removed the differential inhibition factors in the conditioned medium and observed the formation of embryoids and differentiated cells from three layers. The result showed that the pluripotent primordial germ cells could be successfully obtained from the golden hamsters at 10. 5th dpc by the enzyme-mechanical method and that PGCs were identified by both their strong positive reaction in ALP activity staining test and their differentiation into three-layer derived cells in vitro. The result suggests that the establishment of in vitro PGCs culture system of golden hamsters will provide new cell source for biomedical engineering.

  15. Augmenting Chinese hamster genome assembly by identifying regions of high confidence.

    Vishwanathan, Nandita; Bandyopadhyay, Arpan A; Fu, Hsu-Yuan; Sharma, Mohit; Johnson, Kathryn C; Mudge, Joann; Ramaraj, Thiruvarangan; Onsongo, Getiria; Silverstein, Kevin A T; Jacob, Nitya M; Le, Huong; Karypis, George; Hu, Wei-Shou


    Chinese hamster Ovary (CHO) cell lines are the dominant industrial workhorses for therapeutic recombinant protein production. The availability of genome sequence of Chinese hamster and CHO cells will spur further genome and RNA sequencing of producing cell lines. However, the mammalian genomes assembled using shot-gun sequencing data still contain regions of uncertain quality due to assembly errors. Identifying high confidence regions in the assembled genome will facilitate its use for cell engineering and genome engineering. We assembled two independent drafts of Chinese hamster genome by de novo assembly from shotgun sequencing reads and by re-scaffolding and gap-filling the draft genome from NCBI for improved scaffold lengths and gap fractions. We then used the two independent assemblies to identify high confidence regions using two different approaches. First, the two independent assemblies were compared at the sequence level to identify their consensus regions as "high confidence regions" which accounts for at least 78 % of the assembled genome. Further, a genome wide comparison of the Chinese hamster scaffolds with mouse chromosomes revealed scaffolds with large blocks of collinearity, which were also compiled as high-quality scaffolds. Genome scale collinearity was complemented with EST based synteny which also revealed conserved gene order compared to mouse. As cell line sequencing becomes more commonly practiced, the approaches reported here are useful for assessing the quality of assembly and potentially facilitate the engineering of cell lines.

  16. Temporal organization of feeding in Syrian hamsters with a genetically altered circadian period

    Oklejewicz, M; Overkamp, GJF; Stirland, JA; Daan, S


    The variation in spontaneous meal patterning was studied in three genotypes (tau +/+, tau +/- and tau -/-) of the Syrian hamster with an altered circadian period. Feeding activity was monitored continuously in 13 individuals from each genotype in constant dim light conditions. All three genotypes

  17. Melatonin and schistosomal antigens ameliorate the anti-oxidative and biochemical response to Schistosoma mansoni infection in hamster

    Nahla S.El-SHENAWY; Maha F.M.SOLIMAN; Shimaa E.Abel-RAHMAN


    The present study was designed to investigate the potential protective effect of melatonin as an antioxidant separately or in combination with antigens (cercarial; CAP or soluble worm; SWAP) against Schistosoma mansoni infection in hamsters. Each hamster was sensitized with an initial immunization of 0.6 ml of the extracted antigen (30 μg protein/mL). After four days, a second injection of 0.4 mL was given (20 μg protein/mL). Then, each hamster was exposed to 260±20 S.mansoni cercariae followed with melatonin treatment (3.5 mg/kg) for thirty days from the 1st day of post infection. Levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) products, catalase (CAT) activity, hepatic glutathione (GSH) and biochemical changes in the liver and kidneys functions were investigated. The results revealed a high significant increasing of LPO and decreasing of CAT and GSH in liver of infected hamsters. Biochemical observations showed severe damage in the liver enzyme activities and increasing cholesterol level in infected animals. Melatonin co-treatment with antigen to the infected-hamster attenuated the increase of LPO and restored the activity of CAT and levels of hepatic GSH. Also, the biochemical damages in the liver and kidneys functions were reduced. The present study suggests that melatonin may be useful in combating free radical-induced damage due to infection toxicity. The immunization with previous antigens resulted in a remarkable improvement on the liver enzyme activities, which were increased after infection. Thus, vaccination of hamsters with antigens (both CAP and SWAP) and melatonin treatment has more potent effect on the enhancement of antioxidant and biochemical of S.mansoni infected-hamster than each treatment separately. Immunization of the hamster with SWAP followed by melatonin was the best way among the other regime treatments to improve the biochemical and antioxidant parameters of the infected-hamsters[Current Zoology 55(2):165-172,2009].

  18. Survival of Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells Following Ultrahigh Dose Rate Electron and Bremsstrahlung Radiation


    47Patricia K. Holahan , Ph.D. Martin L. Meltz, Ph.D. University qf Texas Health Science Center 7703 Floyd Curl Drive San Antonio, TX 78284 DTIC A~riI 1q9...AUTHOR(S) Holahan , Patricia K.; and Meltz, Martin L. 13a. TYPE OF REPORT l3b TME COVERED 114. DATE OF REPORT ’Year. :7’-󈧕 5 C . Final O.- 88/9/28 To89/2

  19. 电子商务系统内的人力资源管理模式解析%The analytic model of human resource management in electronic commerce system



      企业人力资源管理工作在现代电子商务环境下呈现出多方面的电子化新特征,且较之于传统的人力资源管理工作有非常多显著的优势可言,基本上已经成为了企业获取更大成功的基本导向。电子商务系统内的人力资源管理新模式E-HR就是在这样一种背景下应运而生的,E-HR管理模式不仅已经成为了众多企业发展的趋势,而且在实际应用的过程当中也已经给企业带来了非常多的利益。本文正是在此背景之下对电子商务系统内的人力资源管理模式E-HR进行解析,希望能够对其有更深入的理解并更好的应用到实践当中去。%The enterprise human resources management in modern electronic commerce environment presents many new characteristics of the electron,and compared with the traditional human resource management has many significant advantages,basically has become a basic guide for more successful enterprises.E-HR is a new mode of human resource management system emerge as the times require electronic commerce is in such a background,the E-HR management model not only has become the trend of development of many enterprises, but also in the process of practical application also has to the enterprise has brought a lot of benefits. This paper is analyzed under this background to the electronic commerce system within the human resources management mode of E-HR,the application wishes to have a deeper understanding and better on it into practice.

  20. Clinical laboratory, virologic, and pathologic changes in hamsters experimentally infected with Pirital virus (Arenaviridae): a rodent model of Lassa fever.

    Sbrana, Elena; Mateo, Rosa I; Xiao, Shu-Yuan; Popov, Vsevolod L; Newman, Patrick C; Tesh, Robert B


    The clinical laboratory, virologic, and pathologic changes occurring in hamsters after infection with Pirital virus (Arenaviridae) are described. Pirital virus infection in the hamsters was characterized by high titered viremia, leukocytosis, coagulopathy, pulmonary hemorrhage and edema, hepatocellular and splenic necrosis, and marked elevation of serum transaminase levels. All of the animals died within 9 days. The clinical and histopathological findings in the Pirital virus-infected hamsters were very similar to those reported in severe human cases of Lassa fever, suggesting that this new animal model could serve as a low-cost and relatively safe alternative for studying the pathogenesis and therapy of Lassa fever.

  1. Characterization of Disease Course after Intramuscular or Intranasal Exposure to Sin Nombre Virus in Immunosuppressed Syrian Hamsters


    A., Fair, J. N. et al. (2010). 511 Comprehensive panel of real-time TaqMan polymerase chain reaction assays for detection and 512 absolute...hamsters. In surviving hamsters, day 28 (end of study) lung 128 tissue was evaluated for SNV genome by RT- PCR . Hamsters treated with Dex and CyP had 129...time PCR . Approximately 250 mg of organ tissue was homogenized 300 in 1.0 ml TRIzol reagent using gentleMACS M tubes and a gentleMACS dissociator on

  2. Positive Perceptions of Access to Online Library Resources Correlates with Quality and Quantity of Scholarly Publications among Finnish Academics. A Review of: Vakkari, Pertti. “Perceived Influence of the Use of Electronic Information Resources on Scholarly Work and Publication Productivity.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 59.4 (Feb. 15, 2008: 602-12.

    Scott Marsalis


    Full Text Available Objective – To investigate the relationship between academics’ use of library electronic resources and their opinions regarding how these resources have impacted their work, and to investigate the association between this perceived influence and publication productivity during the previous two years.Design – Two specific questions added to an annual online user-survey questionnaire; additional data mined from surveySetting – Twenty-two Finnish Universities served by FinELib, the Finnish Electronic Library.Subjects – Seven hundred and sixty seven academic staff and full-time doctoral students.Methods – A questionnaire was posted in April 2007 on FinELib’s homepage and advertised on each university library’s mainpage, and focused on respondents’ experience in the previous two years. Participants selected answers either from a list of category choices, or, when measuring perceptions, by rating agreement with statements along a four-point scale. Controlled variables measured were the respondents’ academic position, their discipline, membership in a research group, whether their literature use was discipline-specific or interdisciplinary, and their perception of the availability online of the relevant core literature. The independent variable measured was the scholars’ perception of the impact of the use of electronic library resources on their work. The dependent variable measured was the scholars’ self-reported publications in the two years preceding the survey.Main Results – Participants reported a positive impact on the efficiency of their work, most strongly in areas of ease of access, with lesser impacts in the range of materials available to them and the ease with which they can keep up-to-date in their field. To a lesser extent, the scholars perceived a positive impact on the quality of their work. Upon analysis, the study found that access to online library resources improved scholars’ work by the interconnected

  3. Possible relationship between intestinal barrier function and formation of pigment gallstones in hamsters

    Ying Fan; Shuo-Dong Wu; Lei Sun; Bei-Bei Fu; Yang Su


    BACKGROUND: The presence of bacteria in bile is an important factor in the formation of pigment gallstones. The bile of healthy people is sterile and bacteria in the biliary system come from endogenous infection from the gut. Yet, the route of bacterial translocation into the bile duct is still unclear. Theoretically, two routes exist:one is through the intestinal barrier and the other is by direct relfux from the sphincter of Oddi. This study was undertaken to explore the relationship between the effectiveness of intestinal barrier and the formation of pigment gallstones in hamsters. METHODS: Thirty-two hamsters were divided into an experimental and a control group, with 16 hamsters in each group. A low protein and high cellulose diet was given for 6 weeks to induce the formation of pigment gallstones in the experimental group (PS) and a normal diet was given to the control group (CON). Morphological changes, changes in the levels of serum endotoxin and diamine oxidase, and changes in the numbers of B lymphocytes, plasma cells and secretory immunoglobin A (sIgA) in the intestinal mucosa were assessed after 6 weeks. RESULTS:Four hamsters died during lithogenesis and body weight decreased in the PS group. Pigment gallstones were found in 11 hamsters at the end of the experiment, giving a lithogenesis rate of 91.67%. The serum endotoxin level before and after gallstone formation in the PS group was 0.2960±0.1734 U/ml and 8.2964±4.6268 U/ml, respectively (P CONCLUSIONS:A low protein and high cellulose diet can markedly reduce intestinal barrier function and facilitate the formation of pigment gallstones. The decrease of intestinal barrier function may take part in the formation of pigment gallstones.

  4. Hypothalamic gene expression rapidly changes in response to photoperiod in juvenile Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus).

    Herwig, A; Petri, I; Barrett, P


    Siberian hamsters are seasonal mammals that survive a winter climate by making adaptations in physiology and behaviour. This includes gonadal atrophy, reduced food intake and body weight. The underlying central mechanisms responsible for the physiological adaptations are not fully established but involve reducing hypothalamic tri-iodthyronine (T3) levels. Juvenile Siberian hamsters born or raised in short days (SD) respond in a similar manner, although with an inhibition of gonadal development and growth instead of reversing an established long day (LD) phenotype. Using juvenile male hamsters, the present study aimed to investigate whether the central mechanisms are similar before the establishment of the mature LD phenotype. By in situ hybridisation, we examined the response of genes involved in thyroid hormone (Dio2 and Dio3, which determine hypothalamic T3 levels) and glucose/glutamate metabolism in the ependymal layer, histamine H3 receptor and VGF as representatives of the highly responsive dorsomedial posterior arcuate nucleus (dmpARC), and somatostatin, a hypothalamic neuropeptide involved in regulating the growth axis. Differential gene expression of type 2 and type 3 deiodinase in the ependymal layer, histamine H3 receptor in the dmpARC and somatostatin in the ARC was established by the eighth day in SD. These changes are followed by alterations in glucose metabolism related genes in the ependymal layer by day 16 and increased secretogranin expression in the dmpARC by day 32. In conclusion, our data demonstrate similar but rapid and highly responsive changes in gene expression in the brain of juvenile Siberian hamsters in response to a switch from LD to SD. The data also provide a temporal definition of gene expression changes relative to physiological adaptations of body weight and testicular development and highlight the likely importance of thyroid hormone availability as an early event in the adaptation of physiology to a winter climate in juvenile

  5. Comparison of pleural responses of rats and hamsters to subchronic inhalation of refractory ceramic fibers.

    Everitt, J I; Gelzleichter, T R; Bermudez, E; Mangum, J B; Wong, B A; Janszen, D B; Moss, O R


    In the present subchronic study, we compared pleural inflammation, visceral pleural collagen deposition, and visceral and parietal pleural mesothelial cell proliferation in rats and hamsters identically exposed to a kaolin-based refractory ceramic fiber, (RCF)-1 by nose-only inhalation exposure, and correlated the results to translocation of fibers to the pleural cavity. Fischer 344 rats and Syrian golden hamsters were exposed to 650 fibers/cc of RCF-1, for 4 hr/day, 5 days/week for 12 weeks. Following 4 and 12 weeks of exposure, and after a 12-week recovery period, pleural lavage fluid was analyzed for cytologic and biochemical evidence of inflammation. Visceral and parietal pleural mesothelial cell proliferation was assessed by immunocytochemical detection of bromodeoxyuridine incorporation. Pleural collagen was quantitated using morphometric analysis of lung sections stained with Sirius Red. Fiber-exposed rats and hamsters had qualitatively similar pleural inflammation at each time point. Mesothelial cell proliferation was more pronounced in hamsters than in rats at each time point and at each site. In both species, the mesothelial cell labeling index was highest in the parietal pleural mesothelial cells lining the surface of the diaphragm at each time point. Hamsters but not rats had significantly elevated collagen in the visceral pleura at the 12-week postexposure time point. Fibers were found in the pleural cavities of both species at each time point. These fibers were generally short and thin. These results suggest that mesothelial cell proliferation and fibroproliferative changes in the pleura of rodents following short-term inhalation exposure are associated with fiber translocation to the pleura and may be predictive of chronic pleural disease outcomes following long-term exposure.

  6. Ultrastructural changes in embryoic neuroepithelial cells caused by passive smoking in golden hamsters at different periods of pregnancy: A randomized controlled trial

    Dong Wang; Xiangmin Yu; Heng Cai


    BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoke exposure is recognized as a health risk for pregnant women and it is increasingly evident that tobacco smoke affects the development of brain. Recently, associations between maternal smoking during pregnancy and subsequent mental health problems in offspring have been reported.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of passive smoking on the morphology of nerve tissues and the ultrastructure of neuroepithelial cells during embryogenesis in golden hamster at different pregnant period.DESIGN: A randomized control study.SETTING: Department of Histology and embryology, Qingdao University.MATERIALS: Adult golden hamsters, including 40 males and 40 females that had not delivered, weighing(105 ± 5) g, were provided by Shenyang Changsheng Biotechnology, Co.,Ltd. At 20: 00 - 21 : 00, one male and one female were matched in each cage, and their mating was observed. The vaginal swabs were examined the next day and the day of positive sperm was taken as embryonic day 1 (E1).METHODS: The experiment was completed in the Department of Histology and Embryology of Qingdao model establishment: A total of 40 healthy pregnant golden hamsters were randomly divided into control group (n =20) and experimental group (n =20). The hamsters in the experimental group were exposed to tobacco smoke from embryonic day 4 to 7, 3 times per day, continuously 1 hour per time, 1 cigarette per golden hamster, for 4 consecutive days in the self-made chamber. The animals in the control group were with transmission electron microscope: According to different gestational ages, the experimental group and the control group were all divided 4 subgroups (Groups A, B, C and D) respectively, and 5 hamsters in each subgroup. The pregnant golden hamsters were anaesthetized with 1 g/L pentobarbital sodium at 12 : 00 and 18 : 00 at E8, 8 : 00 at E9 and 8: 00 at E10, and all the pregnant uteruses were divulsed under the stereomicroscope. The development of the neural plate, neural groove and

  7. Lactation resources for clinicians.

    Turner-Maffei, Cynthia


    Breastfeeding is widely acknowledged as the optimal infant feeding choice. However, many clinicians working in maternal and child health do not receive adequate university preparation to support breastfeeding. Knowledge and skill are most often gained through on-the-job and personal experience. Myriad resources exist to support clinicians in delivering the best quality care to breastfeeding clients. Among the available resources are policies and protocols of professional organizations, governmental, and health advocacy groups. Breastfeeding-focused academic and continuing education programs are identified. Electronic and other resources for breastfeeding information are available for both professional and consumer audiences.

  8. Renewable energy resources

    Ellabban, Omar S.; Abu-Rub, Haitham A.; Blaabjerg, Frede


    Electric energy security is essential, yet the high cost and limited sources of fossil fuels, in addition to the need to reduce greenhouse gasses emission, have made renewable resources attractive in world energy-based economies. The potential for renewable energy resources is enormous because...... they can, in principle, exponentially exceed the world's energy demand; therefore, these types of resources will have a significant share in the future global energy portfolio, much of which is now concentrating on advancing their pool of renewable energy resources. Accordingly, this paper presents how...... renewable energy resources are currently being used, scientific developments to improve their use, their future prospects, and their deployment. Additionally, the paper represents the impact of power electronics and smart grid technologies that can enable the proportionate share of renewable energy...

  9. Merge of terminological resources

    Henriksen, Lina; Braasch, Anna


    In our globalized world, the amount of cross-national communication increases rapidly, which also calls for easy access to multi-lingual high quality terminological resources. Sharing of terminology resources is currently becoming common practice, and efficient strategies for integration...... – or merging – of terminology resources are strongly needed. This paper discusses prerequisites for successful merging with the focus on identification of candidate duplicates of a subject domain found in the resources to be merged, and it describes automatic merging strategies to be applied to such duplicates...... in electronic terminology resources. Further, some perspectives of manual, supplementary assessment methods supporting the automatic procedures are sketched. Our considerations are primarily based on experience gained in the IATE and EuroTermBank projects, as merging was a much discussed issue in both projects....

  10. Construction and identification of DNA libraries enriched for microsatellite repeat sequences of Chinese hamster%中国地鼠基因组微卫星富集文库的构建与分析

    宋国华; 耿佳宁; 贾若愚; 岳文斌; 刘田福; 胡松年


    目的 筛选中国地鼠微卫星位点,为中国地鼠种质资源的分类、进化等遗传研究奠定基础.方法中国地鼠基因组DNA经超声打碎,用2%琼脂糖凝胶电泳回收500~1000 bp的DNA片段,与SNX连接头连接,连接产物与生物素标记的14种微卫星探针变性及退火,再通过链亲和素偶联磁珠亲和捕捉,经吸附、洗涤及洗脱,然后以洗脱产物为模板,通过PCR扩增,与pGEM-T载体连接,转化大肠杆菌DH10B,构建中国地鼠微卫星DNA富集文库.结果 测序结果发现,微卫星DNA序列的阳性克隆占70.3%.结论 中国地鼠微卫星文库的建立和微卫星的筛选将为下一步进行中国地鼠遗传连锁图谱的构建、分子进化和系统发育研究提供大量的微卫星标记.%Objective To screen the microsatellite loci of Chinese hamster DNA to serve the genetic studies of germplasm resources, classification and evolution of Chinese hamsters. Methods Genomic DNAs from Chinese hamster was fragmented by ultrasonication. The fragments in size from 500 bp to 1000 bp were recovered by 2% agarose gel electro-phoresis and ligated to SNX linkers with T4 DNA ligase, then denatured and hybridized to 14 biotinylated oligonucleotides. The biotinylated hybrids were retained on magnetic beads according to the strong afinity between biotin and streptavidin. The products was amplified by PCR and cloned into pGEM-T plasmid vector, and then transformed into Escherichia coli DH10B to construct DNA libraries enriched for microsatellite repeat sequences of Chinese hamster. Results The results of sequencing showed that sequences contained microsatellites indicating a high degree of microsatellite enrichment. Conclusions The new polymorphic microsatellite markers identified and characterized in this study may serve the Chinese hamster genetic linkage mapping, molecular evolution and phylogenetic studies.

  11. Monosodium glutamate-induced arcuate nucleus damage affects both natural torpor and 2DG-induced torpor-like hypothermia in Siberian hamsters.

    Pelz, Kimberly M; Routman, David; Driscoll, Joseph R; Kriegsfeld, Lance J; Dark, John


    Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) have the ability to express daily torpor and decrease their body temperature to approximately 15 degrees C, providing a significant savings in energy expenditure. Daily torpor in hamsters is cued by winterlike photoperiods and occurs coincident with the annual nadirs in body fat reserves and chronic leptin concentrations. To better understand the neural mechanisms underlying torpor, Siberian hamster pups were postnatally treated with saline or MSG to ablate arcuate nucleus neurons that likely possess leptin receptors. Body temperature was studied telemetrically in cold-acclimated (10 degrees C) male and female hamsters moved to a winterlike photoperiod (10:14-h light-dark cycle) (experiments 1 and 2) or that remained in a summerlike photoperiod (14:10-h light-dark cycle) (experiment 3). In experiment 1, even though other photoperiodic responses persisted, MSG-induced arcuate nucleus ablations prevented the photoperiod-dependent torpor observed in saline-treated Siberian hamsters. MSG-treated hamsters tended to possess greater fat reserves. To determine whether reductions in body fat would increase frequency of photoperiod-induced torpor after MSG treatment, hamsters underwent 2 wk of food restriction (70% of ad libitum) in experiment 2. Although food restriction did increase the frequency of torpor in both MSG- and saline-treated hamsters, it failed to normalize the proportion of MSG-treated hamsters undergoing photoperiod-dependent torpor. In experiment 3, postnatal MSG treatments reduced the proportion of hamsters entering 2DG-induced torpor-like hypothermia by approximately 50% compared with saline-treated hamsters (38 vs. 72%). In those MSG-treated hamsters that did become hypothermic, their minimum temperature during hypothermia was significantly greater than comparable saline-treated hamsters. We conclude that 1) arcuate nucleus mechanisms mediate photoperiod-induced torpor, 2) food-restriction-induced torpor may also be

  12. The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in the Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus): absence of vasopressin expression in standard and wild-derived hamsters and galanin regulation by seasonal changes in circulating sex steroids.

    Bolborea, M; Ansel, L; Weinert, D; Steinlechner, S; Pévet, P; Klosen, P


    The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is a nucleus of the forebrain highly sensitive to sex steroids and containing vasopressin neurons implicated in several social- and reproduction-related behaviours such as scent-marking, aggression, pair bonding and parental behaviour. Sexually dimorphic vasopressin expression in BNST neurons has been reported in almost all rodents, with the notable exception of the Syrian hamster. In this species, vasopressin expression is completely absent in the BNST. Because almost all Syrian hamsters used in research are derived from a very small breeding stock captured in 1930, we compared commercially available Syrian hamsters with a recently captured, wild-derived breeding stock. We checked for vasopressin expression using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Vasopressin expression in BNST neurons was completely absent in both breeding stocks, confirming the absence of BNST vasopressin expression in Mesocricetus auratus and ruling out a breeding artefact. Because vasopressin expression in BNST neurons appears to be strictly dependent on circulating sex steroids, the absence of vasopressin expression in Syrian hamster BNST neurons might be due to an insensitivity of these neurons to sex steroids. BNST vasopressin neurons also express galanin. Although galanin expression in the BNST is not sexually dimorphic in the Syrian hamster, it appears to be regulated by sex steroids. In the Djungarian hamster, photoperiodically driven seasonal variations of circulating sex steroids result in a seasonal rhythm of galanin expression in BNST neurons. We analysed the sex steroid dependence of galanin expression in the Syrian hamster. Castration and short photoperiod-induced sexual quiescence both resulted in downregulation of galanin mRNA in cell bodies (BNST) and immunoreactivity in the fibres (lateral septum). Testosterone supplementation of short photoperiod-adapted animals was able to restore galanin expression. Thus Syrian

  13. Co-infection of the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus) with a novel Helicobacter sp. and Campylobacter sp.

    Nagamine, Claude M; Shen, Zeli; Luong, Richard H; McKeon, Gabriel P; Ruby, Norman F; Fox, James G


    We report the isolation of a novel helicobacter isolated from the caecum of the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus). Sequence analysis showed 97% sequence similarity to Helicobacter ganmani. In addition, we report the co-infection of these Siberian hamsters with a Campylobacter sp. and a second Helicobacter sp. with 99% sequence similarity to Helicobacter sp. flexispira taxon 8 (Helicobacter bilis), a species isolated previously from patients with bacteraemia. Gross necropsy and histopathology did not reveal any overt pathological lesions of the liver and gastrointestinal tract that could be attributed to the Helicobacter or Campylobacter spp. infections. This is the first helicobacter to be identified in the Siberian hamster and the first report of co-infection of Helicobacter spp. and Campylobacter sp. in asymptomatic Siberian hamsters.

  14. The Syrian Golden Hamster Estrous Cycle: Unique Characteristics, Visual Guide to Staging, and Comparison with the Rat.

    Chanut, Franck J A; Williams, Ann M


    The Syrian hamster, Mesocricetus auratus, is a suitable rodent species for standard regulatory toxicity studies. However, little is published about the female Syrian hamster reproductive system. It has unique anatomic features that differ from the other rodent species. In the hamster, the upper cervix is composed of 2 canals and the vagina shows 2 lateral pouches where keratin debris accumulates. These pouches must be distinguished from the vagina in order to stage the estrous cycle properly. The microscopic changes occurring during all the estrous cycle stages show some differences with the other rodents, the lower cervix and upper vagina presenting the more dramatic changes. The aim of this work was to produce a practical guide to staging the cycle and to highlight some of the differences between the rat and hamster reproductive system.

  15. Transcriptome sequencing and development of an expression microarray platform for liver infection in adenovirus type 5-infected Syrian golden hamsters.

    Ying, Baoling; Toth, Karoly; Spencer, Jacqueline F; Aurora, Rajeev; Wold, William S M


    The Syrian golden hamster is an attractive animal for research on infectious diseases and other diseases. We report here the sequencing, assembly, and annotation of the Syrian hamster transcriptome. We include transcripts from ten pooled tissues from a naïve hamster and one stimulated with lipopolysaccharide. Our data set identified 42,707 non-redundant transcripts, representing 34,191 unique genes. Based on the transcriptome data, we generated a custom microarray and used this new platform to investigate the transcriptional response in the Syrian hamster liver following intravenous adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) infection. We found that Ad5 infection caused a massive change in regulation of liver transcripts, with robust up-regulation of genes involved in the antiviral response, indicating that the innate immune response functions in the host defense against Ad5 infection of the liver. The data and novel platforms developed in this study will facilitate further development of this important animal model.

  16. Induction of morphological and electrophysiological changes in hamster cornea after in vitro interaction with trophozoites of Acanthamoeba spp.

    Omaña-Molina, Maritza; Navarro-García, Fernando; González-Robles, Arturo; Serrano-Luna, José de Jesús; Campos-Rodríguez, Rafael; Martínez-Palomo, Adolfo; Tsutsumi, Víctor; Shibayama, Mineko


    Acanthamoeba castellani and Acanthamoeba polyphaga are free-living amebae that cause keratitis and granulomatous encephalitis in humans. We have analyzed the early morphological and electrophysiological changes occurring during the in vitro interaction of cultured amebae with intact or physically damaged corneas obtained from hamsters. Both species of Acanthamoeba produced similar cytopathic changes, as seen by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. After adhesion to the epithelial surface, trophozoites formed clumps and migrated toward the cell borders, causing the separation of adjacent cells at 1 h of coculture. At later stages (2 to 4 h), some amebae were found under desquamating epithelial cells whereas others were seen associated with damaged cells or forming amebostome-like structures to ingest detached epithelial cells. Control corneas incubated in culture medium conditioned with amebae showed a cytoplasmic vacuolization and blurring of the epithelial-stromal junction. The early stages of corneal epithelial damage caused by amebae were also analyzed by measuring the transepithelial resistance changes in corneas mounted in Ussing chambers. Both species of Acanthamoeba caused a rapid decrease in electrical resistance. The present observations demonstrate that under in vitro conditions, Acanthamoeba trophozoites rapidly cause significant damage to the corneal epithelium. Furthermore, in our experimental model, previous physical damage to the corneas was not a prerequisite for the development of amebic corneal ulcerations.

  17. In vivo programmed cell death of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites in a hamster model of amoebic liver abscess.

    Villalba-Magdaleno, José D'Artagnan; Pérez-Ishiwara, Guillermo; Serrano-Luna, Jesús; Tsutsumi, Víctor; Shibayama, Mineko


    Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites can induce host cell apoptosis, which correlates with the virulence of the parasite. This phenomenon has been seen during the resolution of an inflammatory response and the survival of the parasites. Other studies have shown that E. histolytica trophozoites undergo programmed cell death (PCD) in vitro, but how this process occurs within the mammalian host cell remains unclear. Here, we studied the PCD of E. histolytica trophozoites as part of an in vivo event related to the inflammatory reaction and the host-parasite interaction. Morphological study of amoebic liver abscesses showed only a few E. histolytica trophozoites with peroxidase-positive nuclei identified by terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase enzyme-mediated dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL). To better understand PCD following the interaction between amoebae and inflammatory cells, we designed a novel in vivo model using a dialysis bag containing E. histolytica trophozoites, which was surgically placed inside the peritoneal cavity of a hamster and left to interact with the host's exudate components. Amoebae collected from bags were then examined by TUNEL assay, fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and transmission electron microscopy. Nuclear condensation and DNA fragmentation of E. histolytica trophozoites were observed after exposure to peritoneal exudates, which were mainly composed of neutrophils and macrophages. Our results suggest that production of nitric oxide by inflammatory cells could be involved in PCD of trophozoites. In this modified in vivo system, PCD appears to play a prominent role in the host-parasite interaction and parasite cell death.

  18. Evaluating the use of a simulated electronic health record and online drug reference in a case study to enhance nursing students' understanding of pharmacologic concepts and resources.

    Vana, Kimberly D; Silva, Graciela E


    Nursing students should learn to navigate the complexities of the healthcare arena, such as integrating use of electronic health records (EHRs) and online drug references into patient care. Using a simulated EHR in a nursing pharmacology course allowed students to interact with these technologies while learning and applying pharmacologic concepts to a case study. The authors discuss how they created and facilitated such a case study, as well as students' outcomes.

  19. 浅谈高职院校图书馆电子资源的管理和服务%On the Management and Service of the Electronic Resources of Higher Vocational College Library



    Under the background of rapid development of social economy, the computer technology, computer network technology, communication technology, database technology and other information technology, China has entered the information age ahead of time. In higher vocational colleges, the library electronic resources have become an important way for teachers and students to get teaching knowledge and scientific research information, providing reliable, timely and accurate books resources information service for teachers and students. In order to ensure the effective utilization of library electronic resources in higher vocational colleges, scientific and reasonable management is necessary, so as to promote the construction of digital libraries in higher vocational colleges, to achieve better and faster development.%在社会经济的快速发展背景下,我国计算机技术、计算机网络技术、通讯技术以及数据库技术等信息技术的产生,使我国提前进入信息化时代。在高职院校中,图书馆电子资源已经成为老师和学生获取教学知识、科研信息等方面的重要途径,为学校老师和学生提供了可靠、及时、准确的图书资源信息化服务。为了确保高职院校图书馆电子资源的有效利用,需要对其进行科学合理的管理,促进高职院校图书馆数字化建设,使其更好更快地发展。

  20. Power Electronics

    Iov, Florin; Ciobotaru, Mihai; Blaabjerg, Frede


    is to change the electrical power production sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. The other is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss the most...... emerging renewable energy sources, wind energy, which by means of power electronics are changing from being a minor energy source to be acting as an important power source in the energy system. Power electronics is the enabling technology and the presentation will cover the development in wind turbine...... technology from kW to MW, discuss which power electronic solutions are most feasible and used today....

  1. Electronic collection management

    Mcginnis, Suzan D


    Build and manage your collection of digital resources with these successful strategies! This comprehensive volume is a practical guide to the art and science of acquiring and organizing electronic resources. The collections discussed here range in size from small college libraries to large research libraries, but all are facing similar problems: shrinking budgets, increasing demands, and rapidly shifting formats. Electronic Collection Management offers new ideas for coping with these issues. Bringing together diverse aspects of collection development, Electronic Collection

  2. Effects of trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid on body fat and serum lipids in young and adult hamsters.

    Navarro, V; Miranda, J; Churruca, I; Fernández-Quintela, A; Rodríguez, V M; Portillo, M P


    The aim of the present work was to determine whether t-10, c-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) feeding was able to reduce body fat accumulation and improve the serum lipid profile in adult hamsters fed an atherogenic diet, in order to compare these effects with those observed in young growing hamsters. Young and adult hamsters were fed semi-purified atherogenic diets supplemented with 0.5 % linoleic acid or 0.5% t-10, c-12 CLA for 6 weeks. Body weight and food intake were measured every two days. Adipose tissue from different anatomical locations, liver and gastrocnemious muscle were dissected and weighed. Cholesterol, triacylglycerols, non-esterified fatty acids and proteins were determined spectrophotometrically and water content by gravimetry. In young hamsters, no significant differences were found in food intake, final body weight and gastrocnemious muscle weight. White adipose tissue weights were reduced, liver weight was increased and cholesterol and triacyl-glycerols in both serum and liver were reduced. In adult hamsters, CLA feeding decreased food intake and adipose tissue weights. No changes were observed in other parameters. The present study demonstrates that age has an influence in hamster responsiveness to t-10, c-12 CLA because, although when this isomer is added to an atherogenic diet it reduces body fat accumulation in both young and adults hamsters, the lessening of the effects on serum lipids brought about by atherogenic feeding is only observed in young animals. Moreover, it is clear that liver is a target for CLA in young but not in adult hamsters.

  3. Hypothalamic ventricular ependymal thyroid hormone deiodinases are an important element of circannual timing in the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus).

    Herwig, Annika; de Vries, Emmely M; Bolborea, Matei; Wilson, Dana; Mercer, Julian G; Ebling, Francis J P; Morgan, Peter J; Barrett, Perry


    Exposure to short days (SD) induces profound changes in the physiology and behaviour of Siberian hamsters, including gonadal regression and up to 30% loss in body weight. In a continuous SD environment after approximately 20 weeks, Siberian hamsters spontaneously revert to a long day (LD) phenotype, a phenomenon referred to as the photorefractory response. Previously we have identified a number of genes that are regulated by short photoperiod in the neuropil and ventricular ependymal (VE) cells of the hypothalamus, although their importance and contribution to photoperiod induced physiology is unclear. In this refractory model we hypothesised that the return to LD physiology involves reversal of SD expression levels of key hypothalamic genes to their LD values and thereby implicate genes required for LD physiology. Male Siberian hamsters were kept in either LD or SD for up to 39 weeks during which time SD hamster body weight decreased before increasing, after more than 20 weeks, back to LD values. Brain tissue was collected between 14 and 39 weeks for in situ hybridization to determine hypothalamic gene expression. In VE cells lining the third ventricle, expression of nestin, vimentin, Crbp1 and Gpr50 were down-regulated at 18 weeks in SD photoperiod, but expression was not restored to the LD level in photorefractory hamsters. Dio2, Mct8 and Tsh-r expression were altered by SD photoperiod and were fully restored, or even exceeded values found in LD hamsters in the refractory state. In hypothalamic nuclei, expression of Srif and Mc3r mRNAs was altered at 18 weeks in SD, but were similar to LD expression values in photorefractory hamsters. We conclude that in refractory hamsters not all VE cell functions are required to establish LD physiology. However, thyroid hormone signalling from ependymal cells and reversal of neuronal gene expression appear to be essential for the SD refractory response.

  4. Hypothalamic ventricular ependymal thyroid hormone deiodinases are an important element of circannual timing in the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus.

    Annika Herwig

    Full Text Available Exposure to short days (SD induces profound changes in the physiology and behaviour of Siberian hamsters, including gonadal regression and up to 30% loss in body weight. In a continuous SD environment after approximately 20 weeks, Siberian hamsters spontaneously revert to a long day (LD phenotype, a phenomenon referred to as the photorefractory response. Previously we have identified a number of genes that are regulated by short photoperiod in the neuropil and ventricular ependymal (VE cells of the hypothalamus, although their importance and contribution to photoperiod induced physiology is unclear. In this refractory model we hypothesised that the return to LD physiology involves reversal of SD expression levels of key hypothalamic genes to their LD values and thereby implicate genes required for LD physiology. Male Siberian hamsters were kept in either LD or SD for up to 39 weeks during which time SD hamster body weight decreased before increasing, after more than 20 weeks, back to LD values. Brain tissue was collected between 14 and 39 weeks for in situ hybridization to determine hypothalamic gene expression. In VE cells lining the third ventricle, expression of nestin, vimentin, Crbp1 and Gpr50 were down-regulated at 18 weeks in SD photoperiod, but expression was not restored to the LD level in photorefractory hamsters. Dio2, Mct8 and Tsh-r expression were altered by SD photoperiod and were fully restored, or even exceeded values found in LD hamsters in the refractory state. In hypothalamic nuclei, expression of Srif and Mc3r mRNAs was altered at 18 weeks in SD, but were similar to LD expression values in photorefractory hamsters. We conclude that in refractory hamsters not all VE cell functions are required to establish LD physiology. However, thyroid hormone signalling from ependymal cells and reversal of neuronal gene expression appear to be essential for the SD refractory response.

  5. Melatonin and 6-methoxy-2-benzoxazolinone (6-MBOA) alter the response of the male Syrian hamster to natural photoperiod

    Vaughan, M. K.; Little, J. C.; Powell, D. C.; Puig-Domingo, M.; Reiter, R. J.


    Adult male hamsters bearing either a blank beeswax, 6-methoxy-2-benzoxazolinone (6-MBOA), or melatonin pellet were exposed to 8 weeks (Oct. 6 Dec. 6) of natural autumn decreasing photoperiod (beeswax pellet. When one compares the various effects of 6-MBOA and melatonin (2 mg/month) on the reproductive system of the male hamster, 6-MBOA is not as effective as melatonin in altering reproductive responses to short photoperiod and cool temperatures at the dose administered.

  6. Characterization of the host response to pichinde virus infection in the Syrian golden hamster by species-specific kinome analysis.

    Falcinelli, Shane; Gowen, Brian B; Trost, Brett; Napper, Scott; Kusalik, Anthony; Johnson, Reed F; Safronetz, David; Prescott, Joseph; Wahl-Jensen, Victoria; Jahrling, Peter B; Kindrachuk, Jason


    The Syrian golden hamster has been increasingly used to study viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) pathogenesis and countermeasure efficacy. As VHFs are a global health concern, well-characterized animal models are essential for both the development of therapeutics and vaccines as well as for increasing our understanding of the molecular events that underlie viral pathogenesis. However, the paucity of reagents or platforms that are available for studying hamsters at a molecular level limits the ability to extract biological information from this important animal model. As such, there is a need to develop platforms/technologies for characterizing host responses of hamsters at a molecular level. To this end, we developed hamster-specific kinome peptide arrays to characterize the molecular host response of the Syrian golden hamster. After validating the functionality of the arrays using immune agonists of defined signaling mechanisms (lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α), we characterized the host response in a hamster model of VHF based on Pichinde virus (PICV(1)) infection by performing temporal kinome analysis of lung tissue. Our analysis revealed key roles for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin (IL) responses, nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) signaling, and Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling in the response to PICV infection. These findings were validated through phosphorylation-specific Western blot analysis. Overall, we have demonstrated that hamster-specific kinome arrays are a robust tool for characterizing the species-specific molecular host response in a VHF model. Further, our results provide key insights into the hamster host response to PICV infection and will inform future studies with high-consequence VHF pathogens.

  7. Depletion of Alveolar Macrophages Does Not Prevent Hantavirus Disease Pathogenesis in Golden Syrian Hamsters.

    Hammerbeck, Christopher D; Brocato, Rebecca L; Bell, Todd M; Schellhase, Christopher W; Mraz, Steven R; Queen, Laurie A; Hooper, Jay W


    Andes virus (ANDV) is associated with a lethal vascular leak syndrome in humans termed hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). The mechanism for the massive vascular leakage associated with HPS is poorly understood; however, dysregulation of components of the immune response is often suggested as a possible cause. Alveolar macrophages are found in the alveoli of the lung and represent the first line of defense to many airborne pathogens. To determine whether alveolar macrophages play a role in HPS pathogenesis, alveolar macrophages were depleted in an adult rodent model of HPS that closely resembles human HPS. Syrian hamsters were treated, intratracheally, with clodronate-encapsulated liposomes or control liposomes and were then challenged with ANDV. Treatment with clodronate-encapsulated liposomes resulted in significant reduction in alveolar macrophages, but depletion did not prevent pathogenesis or prolong disease. Depletion also did not significantly reduce the amount of virus in the lung of ANDV-infected hamsters but altered neutrophil recruitment, MIP-1α and MIP-2 chemokine expression, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels in hamster bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid early after intranasal challenge. These data demonstrate that alveolar macrophages may play a limited protective role early after exposure to aerosolized ANDV but do not directly contribute to hantavirus disease pathogenesis in the hamster model of HPS. Hantaviruses continue to cause disease worldwide for which there are no FDA-licensed vaccines, effective postexposure prophylactics, or therapeutics. Much of this can be attributed to a poor understanding of the mechanism of hantavirus disease pathogenesis. Hantavirus disease has long been considered an immune-mediated disease; however, by directly manipulating the Syrian hamster model, we continue to eliminate individual immune cell types. As the most numerous immune cells present in the respiratory tract, alveolar macrophages are

  8. Diet-induced metabolic hamster model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Bhathena J


    Full Text Available Jasmine Bhathena, Arun Kulamarva, Christopher Martoni, Aleksandra Malgorzata Urbanska, Meenakshi Malhotra, Arghya Paul, Satya PrakashBiomedical Technology and Cell Therapy Research Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Artificial Cells and Organs Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Québec, CanadaBackground: Obesity, hypercholesterolemia, elevated triglycerides, and type 2 diabetes are major risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Hamsters, unlike rats or mice, respond well to diet-induced obesity, increase body mass and adiposity on group housing, and increase food intake due to social confrontation-induced stress. They have a cardiovascular and hepatic system similar to that of humans, and can thus be a useful model for human pathophysiology.Methods: Experiments were planned to develop a diet-induced Bio F1B Golden Syrian hamster model of dyslipidemia and associated nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in the metabolic syndrome. Hamsters were fed a normal control diet, a high-fat/high-cholesterol diet, a high-fat/high-cholesterol/methionine-deficient/choline-devoid diet, and a high-fat/high-cholesterol/choline-deficient diet. Serum total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, atherogenic index, and body weight were quantified biweekly. Fat deposition in the liver was observed and assessed following lipid staining with hematoxylin and eosin and with oil red O.Results: In this study, we established a diet-induced Bio F1B Golden Syrian hamster model for studying dyslipidemia and associated nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in the metabolic syndrome. Hyperlipidemia and elevated serum glucose concentrations were induced using this diet. Atherogenic index was elevated, increasing the risk for a cardiovascular event. Histological analysis of liver specimens at the end of four weeks showed increased fat deposition in the liver of animals fed

  9. Establishment of a Stable PrPSc Panel from Brain Tissues of Experimental Hamsters with Scrapie Strain 263K



    Objective To establish a stable PrPSc panel from brain tissues of experimental hamsters infected with scrapie agent 263K for evaluating diagnostic techniques of human and animals' prion diseases. Methods Thirty brain tissue samples from hamsters intracerebrally infected with scrapie strain 263K and another 30 samples from normal hamsters were selected to prepare 10%, 1%, and 0.5% brain homogenates, which were aliquoted into stocks. PrPSc in each brain homogenate was determined by proteinase K digestions followed by Western blot assay and partially by immunohistochemistry. Stability and glycoforms of PrPSc were repeatedly detected by PrPSc-specific Western blots in half a year and 3 years later. Results PrPSc signals were observed in all 10% brain homogenates of infected hamsters. Twenty out of 30 stocks and 19 out of 30 stocks were PrPSc positive in 1% and 0.5% brain homogenatesof infected hamsters, respectively. Twenty-seven out of 30 stocks presented three positive bands in 10% brain homogenates, whereas none of 1% and 0.5% homogenates contained 3 bands. The detection of PrPSc-specific signals stored in half a year and 3 years later demonstrated that the ratio of PrPSc positive samples and glycoforms was almost unchanged. All normal hamsters' brain homogenates were PrPSc negative. Conclusion A PrPSc panel of prion disease can be established, which displays reliably stable PrPSc-specific signals and glycoforms.

  10. Prolactin (PRL) induction of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) expression and prostaglandin (PG) production in hamster Leydig cells.

    Matzkin, María Eugenia; Ambao, Verónica; Carino, Mónica Herminia; Rossi, Soledad Paola; González, Lorena; Turyn, Daniel; Campo, Stella; Calandra, Ricardo Saúl; Frungieri, Mónica Beatriz


    Serum prolactin (PRL) variations play a crucial role in the photoperiodic-induced testicular regression-recrudescence transition in hamsters. We have previously shown that cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins (PGs), is expressed mostly in Leydig cells of reproductively active hamsters with considerable circulating and pituitary levels of PRL. In this study, we describe a stimulatory effect of PRL on COX2/PGs in hamster Leydig cells, which is mediated by IL-1β and prevented by P38-MAPK and JAK2 inhibitors. Furthermore, by preparative isoelectric focusing (IEF), we isolated PRL charge analogues from pituitaries of active [isoelectric points (pI): 5.16, 4.61, and 4.34] and regressed (pI: 5.44) hamsters. More acidic PRL charge analogues strongly induced COX2 expression, while less acidic ones had no effect. Our studies suggest that PRL induces COX2/PGs in hamster Leydig cells through IL-1β and activation of P38-MAPK and JAK2. PRL microheterogeneity detected in active/inactive hamsters may be responsible for the photoperiodic variations of COX2 expression in Leydig cells.

  11. Differential regulation of kiss1 expression by melatonin and gonadal hormones in male and female Syrian hamsters

    Ansel, L; Bolborea, M; Bentsen, A H;


    In seasonal breeders, reproduction is synchronized to seasons by day length via the pineal hormone melatonin. Recently, we have demonstrated that Kiss1, a key activator of the reproductive function, is down-regulated in sexually inactive hamsters maintained in inhibitory short days (SDs). In rode......In seasonal breeders, reproduction is synchronized to seasons by day length via the pineal hormone melatonin. Recently, we have demonstrated that Kiss1, a key activator of the reproductive function, is down-regulated in sexually inactive hamsters maintained in inhibitory short days (SDs...... differentially regulate Kiss1 expression in the ARC and the AVPV. Kiss1 expression was examined by in situ hybridization in both male and female hamsters kept in various experimental conditions, and we observed that 1) SD exposure markedly reduced Kiss1 expression in the ARC and AVPV of male and female hamsters...... as compared to LD animals, 2) sex steroid treatment in SD-adapted male and female hamsters increased the number of Kiss1 neurons in the AVPV but decreased it in the ARC, 3) melatonin administration to LD-adapted hamsters decreased Kiss1 mRNA level in both the AVPV and the ARC in intact animals, whereas...

  12. 基于高校图书馆电子资源的采访调查与分析——以海南大学图书馆为例%Survey and Analysis Based on the Electronic Resource of University Libraries Taking Hainan University library as an Example



    随着信息化时代的到来,高校图书馆的馆藏资源建设模式已经发生了变化,形成了纸质资源与电子资源并存的局面,电子资源以其方便快捷深受读者喜爱,电子资源的采购比例越来越重,如何协调电子资源的采购比例,是图书馆界丞待解决的问题.文章通过对海南大学2006-2010年间的电子资源经费使用情况进行统计、对比和分析,对此问题进行了初步的探讨.%With the arrival of information age, college library collection resources construction mode has changed, and the paper-based resources and electroic resources coexist.With the convenience of electronic resources, the acquisition proportion of electronic resources grows.How to coordinate the acquisition of electronic resource proportion is a problem faced by the libraries.Through the funds statistics, contrast and analysis of electronic resources in hainan university 2006-2010 this article provides a preliminary discussion.

  13. Prevention of Simian Virus 40 Tumors by Hamster Fetal Tissue: Influence of Parity Status of Donor Females on Immunogenicity of Fetal Tissue and on Immune Cell Cytotoxicity

    Girardi, Anthony J.; Reppucci, Phyllis; Dierlam, Peggy; Rutala, William; Coggin, Joseph H.


    Fetal tissue from primiparous hamsters prevented simian virus 40 (SV40) tumorigenesis in male hamsters, whereas fetal tissue from multiparous hamsters did not. The parity status of normal (uninoculated) hamsters also influenced the cytotoxicity of their lymphoid cells against tumor cells. Lymph node cells from nonpregnant primiparous and multiparous animals were cytotoxic in microcytotoxicity tests against SV40, polyoma, and adenovirus 7 tumor cells, but were not active against control BHK cells. Lymph node cells from virgin female donors were inactive. Peritoneal exudate cells from these donors reacted in similar fashion against SV40 tumor cells in vitro and in adoptive transfer tests in vivo. However, the cytotoxicity of peritoneal exudate cells from multiparous hamsters was greatly reduced during pregnancy, a time when noncytotoxic humoral antibody reactive with surface antigen of SV40 tumor cells is present. This humoral antibody is not detected during first pregnancy, and peritoneal exudate cells obtained from pregnant primiparous hamsters demonstrated a high degree of cytotoxicity. PMID:4346032


    Andrei A. Fedoseev


    Full Text Available The article analyzes effective electronic tutorials creation and application based on the theory of pedagogy. Herewith the issues of necessary electronic tutorial functional, ways of the educational process organization with the use of information and communication technologies and the logistics of electronic educational resources are touched upon. 

  15. Peripheral kisspeptin reverses short photoperiod-induced gonadal regression in Syrian hamsters by promoting GNRH release

    Ansel, L; Bentsen, A H; Ancel, C;


    stimulators of GNRH neurons. Both central and peripheral acute injections of Kp have been reported to activate the gonadotropic axis in mammals. The aim of this study was to determine if and how peripheral administration of Kp54 could restore gonadal function in photo-inhibited hamsters. Testicular activity...... of hamsters kept in SD was reactivated by two daily i.p. injections of Kp54 but not by chronic subcutaneous delivery of the same peptide via mini-pumps. Acute i.p. injection of Kp54-induced FOS (c-Fos) expression in a large number of GNRH neurons and pituitary gonadotrophs together with a strong increase...... in circulating testosterone. The activation of pituitary cells by Kp was inhibited by preadministration of the GNRH receptor antagonist acyline. Altogether, our results demonstrate that peripheral Kp54 activates the gonadotropic axis by stimulating GNRH release and indicate that an appropriate protocol of long...

  16. Prevention of Clostridium difficile infection in hamsters using a non-toxigenic strain

    Carlos Augusto de Oliveira Júnior


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to evaluate five non-toxigenic strains of Clostridium difficile (NTCD in vitro and to select one strain to prevent C. difficile (CDI infection in hamsters ( Mesocricetus auratus . The NTCD strains were evaluated for spore production in vitro, antimicrobial susceptibility and presence of antimicrobial resistance genes. Approximately 107 spores of the selected strain (Z31 were administered by esophageal gavage in hamsters pretreated with 30mg kg-1 of clindamycin. The challenge with a toxigenic strain of C. difficile was conducted at 36 and 72h, and the animals were observed for 28 days. The NTCD strain of C. difficile (Z31 was able to prevent CDI in all animals that received it.

  17. Superoxide Mediates the Toxicity of Paraquat for Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells

    Bagley, Ann C.; Krall, Judith; Lynch, Robert E.


    The roles of superoxide and H2O2 in the cytotoxicity of paraquat were assessed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Neither catalase nor superoxide dismutase inhibited the loss of ability to form colonies when added to the medium. When introduced into the cells, superoxide dismutase but not catalase inhibited the toxicity of paraquat. That superoxide dismutase acted by its known catalytic action is shown by the loss of inhibition when the enzyme was inactivated by H2O2 before being introduced into the cells. The lack of inhibition by catalase, by dimethyl sulfoxide, and by desferoxamine suggests that the toxicity is not mediated by a reaction between H2O2 and superoxide to engender the hydroxyl radical. Exposure of Chinese hamster ovary cells to paraquat may be a suitable means to determine the effects of superoxide anion in cultured cells and the ways in which cells can resist this toxic action.

  18. Identification and localization of label-retaining cells in hamster epithelia

    Bickenbach, J.R.; Mackenzie, I.C.


    A subpopulation of basal epithelial cells which retains tritiated thymidine label for extended periods was previously demonstrated in skin and oral mucosae of mice. The present study examined the presence of similar cells in hamsters. Five-day-old hamsters were labeled with tritiated thymidine and the rate at which label was diluted from the basal cells observed. A small percentage of basal cells was found to retain label for up to 69 days. The location of such label-retaining cells (LRCs) in the palatal epithelium and in tongue papillae was examined. Thirty and 69 days after labeling, approximately 80% of LRCs in palate were located in the proximal halves of papillae and 80% of LRCs in tongue were positioned basally with approximately 30% of such LRCs occupying positions previously suggested to be stem cell locations. The finding that slowly cycling keratinocytes are related to patterns of tissue architecture is compatible with a function of these cells as epithelial stem cells.

  19. Procarbazine effects on spermatogenesis in golden hamster: a flow cytometric evaluation.

    Weissenberg, R; Golan, R; Shochat, L; Lewin, L M


    The response of hamster testis to the administration of 450mg/kg procarbazine (PCB) over a period of 4 weeks was evaluated. Flow cytometry was used to investigate changes in cell populations in testicular single cell suspensions and to correlate these changes with those observed in histological sections. PCB caused significant decrease in testicular and epididymal weight and a drastic reduction in haploid cells and spermatogenic arrest, demonstrating variation among the test animals. The results obtained confirm previous observations concerning detrimental effects of PCB upon spermatogenesis in species such as the rat and mouse, though its effect on hamster testis is milder and does not include the germinal stem cells. The histological evaluation of the testis showed a good correlation with flow cytometric evaluation, emphasizing the usefulness of this method in providing quantitative and rapid results.

  20. Precision-cut hamster liver slices as an ex vivo model to study amoebic liver abscess.

    Carranza-Rosales, Pilar; Santiago-Mauricio, María Guadalupe; Guzmán-Delgado, Nancy Elena; Vargas-Villarreal, Javier; Lozano-Garza, Gerardo; Ventura-Juárez, Javier; Balderas-Rentería, Isaías; Morán-Martínez, Javier; Gandolfi, A Jay


    Entamoeba histolytica is the etiological agent of amoebiasis, the second cause of global morbidity and mortality due to parasitic diseases in humans. In approximately 1% of the cases, amoebas penetrate the intestinal mucosa and spread to other organs, producing extra-intestinal lesions, among which amoebic liver abscess (ALA) is the most common. To study ALA, in vivo and in vitro models are used. However, animal models may pose ethical issues, and are time-consuming and costly; and cell cultures represent isolated cellular lineages. The present study reports the infection of precision-cut hamster liver slices with Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites. The infection time-course, including tissue damage, parallels findings previously reported in the animal model. At the same time amoebic virulence factors were detected in the infected slices. This new model to study ALA is simple and reproducible, and employs less than 1/3 of the hamsters required for in vivo analyses.