Sample records for hams electronic resource

  1. Ham test

    Acid hemolysin test; Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria - Ham test; PNH - Ham test ... BJ. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, eds. Laboratory Tests and Diagnostic Procedures . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  2. Volatile compounds and odor traits of dry-cured ham (Prosciutto crudo) irradiated by electron beam and gamma rays

    Kong, Qiulian; Yan, Weiqiang; Yue, Ling; Chen, Zhijun; Wang, Haihong; Qi, Wenyuan; He, Xiaohua


    Prosciutto crudo samples were irradiated at 0, 3 and 6 kGy by gamma rays (GR) and electron beam (EB), respectively. The odor scores and volatile compounds were examined after 7 days storage at 4 °C. Volatile compounds from samples without and with irradiation at 6 kGy were analyzed by GC-MS. Fifty-nine compounds were identified, including terpenes, aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, alkanes, esters, aromatic hydrocarbons and acids. Both GR and EB irradiation resulted in formation of (Z)-7-Hexadecenal, cis-9-hexadecenal, tetradecane, E-9-tetradecen-1-ol formate, and losing of hexadecamethyl-heptasiloxane and decanoic acid-ethyl ester in hams. However, GR irradiation caused additional changes, such as formation of undecane and phthalic acid-2-cyclohexylethyl butyl ester, significantly higher level of 1-pentadecene, and losing of (E, E)-2,4-decadienal and octadecane. EB was shown to be better in maintaining ham's original odor than GR. Our results suggest that EB irradiation is a promising method for treatment of ready to eat hams as it exerts much less negative effect on the flavor of hams compared to GR irradiation.

  3. Selection of Electronic Resources.

    Weathers, Barbara


    Discusses the impact of electronic resources on collection development; selection of CD-ROMs, (platform, speed, video and sound, networking capability, installation and maintenance); selection of laser disks; and Internet evaluation (accuracy of content, authority, objectivity, currency, technical characteristics). Lists Web sites for evaluating…

  4. Electronic Resource Management Systems

    Mark Ellingsen


    Full Text Available Computer applications which deal with electronic resource management (ERM are quite a recent development. They have grown out of the need to manage the burgeoning number of electronic resources particularly electronic journals. Typically, in the early years of e-journal acquisition, library staff provided an easy means of accessing these journals by providing an alphabetical list on a web page. Some went as far as categorising the e-journals by subject and then grouping the journals either on a single web page or by using multiple pages. It didn't take long before it was recognised that it would be more efficient to dynamically generate the pages from a database rather than to continually edit the pages manually. Of course, once the descriptive metadata for an electronic journal was held within a database the next logical step was to provide administrative forms whereby that metadata could be manipulated. This in turn led to demands for incorporating more information and more functionality into the developing application.

  5. Electronic Resource Management and Design

    Abrams, Kimberly R.


    We have now reached a tipping point at which electronic resources comprise more than half of academic library budgets. Because of the increasing work associated with the ever-increasing number of e-resources, there is a trend to distribute work throughout the library even in the presence of an electronic resources department. In 2013, the author…

  6. Electronic Resource Management and Design

    Abrams, Kimberly R.


    We have now reached a tipping point at which electronic resources comprise more than half of academic library budgets. Because of the increasing work associated with the ever-increasing number of e-resources, there is a trend to distribute work throughout the library even in the presence of an electronic resources department. In 2013, the author…

  7. Free D-amino acids determination in ready-to-eat cooked ham irradiated with electron-beam by indirect chiral HPLC.

    Gil-Díaz, M; Santos-Delgado, M J; Rubio-Barroso, S; Polo-Díez, L M


    Potential racemization of L-amino acids (AA) in ready-to-eat (RTE) cooked ham after hygienization by electron-beam irradiation between 1 and 8kGy was studied. An indirect chiral method based on the derivatization reaction of AA with o-phthaldialdehyde and N-acetyl-L-cysteine followed by reversed-phase HPLC and fluorimetric detection was applied to detect ten enantiomeric pairs of free AA (Asp, Ser, Thr, Ala, Tyr, Val, Trp, Phe and Leu). Five of the D-AA were not found in any of the samples analyzed; the other five remaining D-AA (D-Asp, D-Ser, D-Ala, D-Val and D-Leu) were detected both in irradiated and non-irradiated cooked ham samples, their content being in the range 1.25-13.79μg/g. Although significant differences appeared for a few of the samples and doses, no positive correlation between the D-AA content and the irradiation doses was observed. Therefore, the electron-beam irradiation technique could be useful for sanitation of packed RTE cooked ham at doses allowed by WHO and EU, since it remains chemically safe to eat.

  8. Characterization of the Neurospora crassa cell fusion proteins, HAM-6, HAM-7, HAM-8, HAM-9, HAM-10, AMPH-1 and WHI-2.

    Ci Fu

    Full Text Available Intercellular communication of vegetative cells and their subsequent cell fusion is vital for different aspects of growth, fitness, and differentiation of filamentous fungi. Cell fusion between germinating spores is important for early colony establishment, while hyphal fusion in the mature colony facilitates the movement of resources and organelles throughout an established colony. Approximately 50 proteins have been shown to be important for somatic cell-cell communication and fusion in the model filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa. Genetic, biochemical, and microscopic techniques were used to characterize the functions of seven previously poorly characterized cell fusion proteins. HAM-6, HAM-7 and HAM-8 share functional characteristics and are proposed to function in the same signaling network. Our data suggest that these proteins may form a sensor complex at the cell wall/plasma membrane for the MAK-1 cell wall integrity mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathway. We also demonstrate that HAM-9, HAM-10, AMPH-1 and WHI-2 have more general functions and are required for normal growth and development. The activation status of the MAK-1 and MAK-2 MAPK pathways are altered in mutants lacking these proteins. We propose that these proteins may function to coordinate the activities of the two MAPK modules with other signaling pathways during cell fusion.

  9. Managing electronic resources a LITA guide

    Weir, Ryan O


    Informative, useful, current, Managing Electronic Resources: A LITA Guide shows how to successfully manage time, resources, and relationships with vendors and staff to ensure personal, professional, and institutional success.

  10. Ham radio for dummies

    Silver, H Ward


    An ideal first step for learning about ham radio Beyond operating wirelessly, today's ham radio operators can transmit data and pictures; use the Internet, laser, and microwave transmitters; and travel to places high and low to make contact. This hands-on beginner guide reflects the operational and technical changes to amateur radio over the past decade and provides you with updated licensing requirements and information, changes in digital communication (such as the Internet, social media, and GPS), and how to use e-mail via radio. Addresses the critical use of ham radio for replacing downe

  11. Electronic Resources Management Project Presentation 2012

    Ramli, Rindra M.


    This presentation describes the electronic resources management project undertaken by the KAUST library. The objectives of this project is to migrate information from MS Sharepoint to Millennium ERM module. One of the advantages of this migration is to consolidate all electronic resources into a single and centralized location. This would allow for better information sharing among library staff.

  12. Implementing CORAL: An Electronic Resource Management System

    Whitfield, Sharon


    A 2010 electronic resource management survey conducted by Maria Collins of North Carolina State University and Jill E. Grogg of University of Alabama Libraries found that the top six electronic resources management priorities included workflow management, communications management, license management, statistics management, administrative…

  13. Implementing CORAL: An Electronic Resource Management System

    Whitfield, Sharon


    A 2010 electronic resource management survey conducted by Maria Collins of North Carolina State University and Jill E. Grogg of University of Alabama Libraries found that the top six electronic resources management priorities included workflow management, communications management, license management, statistics management, administrative…

  14. HAM proteins promote organ indeterminacy


    HAIRY MERISTEM (HAM) proteins, members of the GRAS family of transcriptional regulators, are essential for maintenance of indeterminate growth in flowering plant shoots, loss-of-function ham mutants exhibiting a strikingly novel phenotype of shoot meristem arrest and differentiation. Specific cellular/molecular functions of HAM proteins underlying meristem maintenance are unknown. In this review, I highlight findings from recent analyses of Arabidopsis ham (Atham) loss-of-function phenotypes, including that HAM function limits the generation of clonally-derived meristem layers and that HAM function regulates CLAVATA3 expression. I consider how this new information both refines our understanding of the role of HAM proteins in regulating meristem structure and function, and may also suggest possible downstream HAM protein transcriptional targets. Finally, I note the significant phenotypic overlap between Atham phenotypes, and aintegumenta/anintegumenta-like6 double mutant phenotypes, suggesting meristem regulatory functions common to, and possible genetic interactions between, HAM and AINTEGUMENTA. PMID:22353859

  15. Resource Letter: TE-1: Teaching electronics

    Henry, Dennis C.


    This Resource Letter examines the evolution, roles, and content of courses in electronics in the undergraduate physics curriculum, and provides a guide to resources for faculty teaching such courses. It concludes with a brief section addressing problems of electromagnetic interference in electronic systems, and provides an introduction to the literature and practice of electromagnetic compatibility. I have included textbooks, reference books, articles, collections of laboratory experiments and projects, sources of equipment and parts, software packages, videos, and websites.

  16. Electronic Resources Management System: Recommendation Report 2017

    Ramli, Rindra M.


    This recommendation report provides an overview of the selection process for the new Electronic Resources Management System. The library has decided to move away from Innovative Interfaces Millennium ERM module. The library reviewed 3 system as potential replacements namely: Proquest 360 Resource Manager, Ex Libris Alma and Open Source CORAL ERMS. After comparing and trialling the systems, it was decided to go for Proquest 360 Resource Manager.

  17. Sensory and rapid instrumental methods as a combined tool for quality control of cooked ham

    Barbieri, Sara; Soglia, Francesca; Palagano, Rosa; Tesini, Federica; Bendini, Alessandra; Petracci, Massimiliano; Cavani, Claudio; Gallina Toschi, Tullia


    In this preliminary investigation, different commercial categories of Italian cooked pork hams have been characterized using an integrated approach based on both sensory and fast instrumental measurements. For these purposes, Italian products belonging to different categories (cooked ham, ?selected? cooked ham and ?high quality? cooked ham) were evaluated by sensory descriptive analysis and by the application of rapid tools such as image analysis by an ?electronic eye? and texture analyzer. T...

  18. Library Training to Promote Electronic Resource Usage

    Frandsen, Tove Faber; Tibyampansha, Dativa; Ibrahim, Glory


    Purpose: Increasing the usage of electronic resources is an issue of concern for many libraries all over the world. Several studies stress the importance of information literacy and instruction in order to increase the usage. Design/methodology/approach: The present article presents the results...

  19. Reviewing the Electronic Resources & Libraries Conference

    Tijerina, Bonnie


    The third Electronic Resources & Libraries (ER&L) conference gathered at Georgia Institute of Technology's Global Learning and Conference Center in Atlanta, Georgia, March 18-21, 2008. Over 360 attendees, from six countries and from 80% of the United States, represented their libraries and organizations resulting in a diverse and…

  20. Making sense of the electronic resource marketplace: trends in health-related electronic resources.

    Blansit, B D; Connor, E


    Changes in the practice of medicine and technological developments offer librarians unprecedented opportunities to select and organize electronic resources, use the Web to deliver content throughout the organization, and improve knowledge at the point of need. The confusing array of available products, access routes, and pricing plans makes it difficult to anticipate the needs of users, identify the top resources, budget effectively, make sound collection management decisions, and organize the resources effectively and seamlessly. The electronic resource marketplace requires much vigilance, considerable patience, and continuous evaluation. There are several strategies that librarians can employ to stay ahead of the electronic resource curve, including taking advantage of free trials from publishers; marketing free trials and involving users in evaluating new products; watching and testing products marketed to the clientele; agreeing to beta test new products and services; working with aggregators or republishers; joining vendor advisory boards; benchmarking institutional resources against five to eight competitors; and forming or joining a consortium for group negotiating and purchasing. This article provides a brief snapshot of leading biomedical resources; showcases several libraries that have excelled in identifying, acquiring, and organizing electronic resources; and discusses strategies and trends of potential interest to biomedical librarians, especially those working in hospital settings.

  1. Electronic resource management systems a workflow approach

    Anderson, Elsa K


    To get to the bottom of a successful approach to Electronic Resource Management (ERM), Anderson interviewed staff at 11 institutions about their ERM implementations. Among her conclusions, presented in this issue of Library Technology Reports, is that grasping the intricacies of your workflow-analyzing each step to reveal the gaps and problems-at the beginning is crucial to selecting and implementing an ERM. Whether the system will be used to fill a gap, aggregate critical data, or replace a tedious manual process, the best solution for your library depends on factors such as your current soft

  2. Hamming Compressed Sensing

    Zhou, Tianyi


    Compressed sensing (CS) and 1-bit CS cannot directly recover quantized signals and require time consuming recovery. In this paper, we introduce \\textit{Hamming compressed sensing} (HCS) that directly recovers a k-bit quantized signal of dimensional $n$ from its 1-bit measurements via invoking $n$ times of Kullback-Leibler divergence based nearest neighbor search. Compared with CS and 1-bit CS, HCS allows the signal to be dense, takes considerably less (linear) recovery time and requires substantially less measurements ($\\mathcal O(\\log n)$). Moreover, HCS recovery can accelerate the subsequent 1-bit CS dequantizer. We study a quantized recovery error bound of HCS for general signals and "HCS+dequantizer" recovery error bound for sparse signals. Extensive numerical simulations verify the appealing accuracy, robustness, efficiency and consistency of HCS.

  3. Radio Graceful Hamming Graphs

    Niedzialomski Amanda


    Full Text Available For k ∈ ℤ+ and G a simple, connected graph, a k-radio labeling f : V (G → ℤ+ of G requires all pairs of distinct vertices u and v to satisfy |f(u − f(v| ≥ k + 1 − d(u, v. We consider k-radio labelings of G when k = diam(G. In this setting, f is injective; if f is also surjective onto {1, 2, . . . , |V (G|}, then f is a consecutive radio labeling. Graphs that can be labeled with such a labeling are called radio graceful. In this paper, we give two results on the existence of radio graceful Hamming graphs. The main result shows that the Cartesian product of t copies of a complete graph is radio graceful for certain t. Graphs of this form provide infinitely many examples of radio graceful graphs of arbitrary diameter. We also show that these graphs are not radio graceful for large t.

  4. The children of Ham

    John W. Pulis


    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Bob Marley: Songs of Freedom. RITA MARLEY, ADRIAN BOOT & CHRIS SALEWICZ (eds.. London: Bloomsbury, 1995. 288 pp. (Paper £ 14.99 Marley and Me: The Real Story. DON TAYLOR (as told to Mike Henry. Kingston: Kingston Publishers, 1994. xxxv + 226 pp. (Paper US$ 16.95 Dread Talk: The Language of Rastafari. VELMA POLLARD. Kingston: Canoe Press, 1994. x + 84 pp. (Paper J$ 150.00 Rastafari: Roots and ldeology. BARRY CHEVANNES. Syracuse NY: Syracuse University Press, 1994; Kingston: The Press - University of the West Indies, 1995. xiv + 298 pp. (Cloth US$ 34.95, Paper US$ 17.95; J$ 500.00 Seeking a myth to justify the enslavement of Africans, explorers, scholars, and others turned to the Bible, that most sacred and preeminent of Western texts, conjured-up an old biblical curse, and set it to work one more time. As Europe entered the Modern Era, Africans were reinvented as the children of Ham and were targeted for a life of servitude in the New World. Five hundred years later, black folk in Jamaica seized upon an event in Africa, re-interpreted a passage in the Revelation of John, and set in motion a project that transformed enslavement and exile into a religious movement of global proportions.1

  5. Electronic Resource Management System. Vernetzung von Lizenzinformationen

    Michaela Selbach


    Full Text Available In den letzten zehn Jahren spielen elektronische Ressourcen im Bereich der Erwerbung eine zunehmend wichtige Rolle: Eindeutig lässt sich hier ein Wandel in den Bibliotheken (fort vom reinen Printbestand zu immer größeren E-Only-Beständen feststellen. Die stetig wachsende Menge an E-Ressourcen und deren Heterogenität stellt Bibliotheken vor die Herausforderung, die E-Ressourcen effizient zu verwalten. Nicht nur Bibliotheken, sondern auch verhandlungsführende Institutionen von Konsortial- und Allianzlizenzen benötigen ein geeignetes Instrument zur Verwaltung von Lizenzinformationen, welches den komplexen Anforderungen moderner E-Ressourcen gerecht wird. Die Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG unterstützt ein Projekt des Hochschulbibliothekszentrums des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen (hbz, der Universitätsbibliothek Freiburg, der Verbundzentrale des Gemeinsamen Bibliotheksverbundes (GBV und der Universitätsbibliothek Frankfurt, in dem ein bundesweit verfügbares Electronic Ressource Managementsystem (ERMS aufgebaut werden soll. Ein solches ERMS soll auf Basis einer zentralen Knowledge Base eine einheitliche Nutzung von Daten zur Lizenzverwaltung elektronischer Ressourcen auf lokaler, regionaler und nationaler Ebene ermöglichen. Statistische Auswertungen, Rechteverwaltung für alle angeschlossenen Bibliotheken, kooperative Datenpflege sowie ein über standardisierte Schnittstellen geführter Datenaustausch stehen bei der Erarbeitung der Anforderungen ebenso im Fokus wie die Entwicklung eines Daten- und Funktionsmodells. In the last few years the importance of electronic resources in library acquisitions has increased significantly. There has been a shift from mere print holdings to both e- and print combinations and even e-only subscriptions. This shift poses a double challenge for libraries: On the one hand they have to provide their e-resource collections to library users in an appealing way, on the other hand they have to manage these

  6. Utilization of electronic information resources by academic staff at ...

    Utilization of electronic information resources by academic staff at Makerere University. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search ... It examined the academic staff awareness of the resources available, the types ...

  7. Effectiveness Analysis of Electronic Resources at the Hacettepe University


    It is important to collect and analyze the usage data of electronic databases and periodicals in order to make policies regarding the composition, improvement and more extensive utilization of electronic resources of libraries. The aim of this study is to investigate how efficiently the full text accessible electronic resources of Hacettepe University Libraries are used. For this purpose the usage data obtained from COUNTER Software regarding the electronic databases to which Hacettepe Univer...

  8. The Study of Analytical Model of Library Electronic Resources Usage-A Case of Medical Electronic Resources

    Chung-Yen Yu; Jiann-Cherng Shieh


    With the advents of internet, the importance of electronic resources is growing. Due to the increasing expensiveness of electronic resources, university libraries normally received budgets from parent institutions annually. They necessarily applied effective and systematic methods for decision making in electronic resources purchase or re-subscription. However, there are some difficulties in practices: First of all, libraries are unable to receive user records; second, the COUNTER statistics ...

  9. The intractability of computing the Hamming distance

    Manthey, Bodo; Reischuk, Rüdiger


    Given a string x and a language L, the Hamming distance of x to L is the minimum Hamming distance of x to any string in L. The edit distance of a string to a language is analogously defined. First, we prove that there is a language in $AC^0$ such that both Hamming and edit distance to this language

  10. Intramuscular variation in fresh ham muscle color

    This experiment was conducted to characterize a defect involving pale muscle tissue in the superficial, ventral portion of ham muscles, resulting in two-toned appearance of cured ham products. Biceps femoris muscles (n = 200), representing 3 production systems, were obtained from the ham-boning lin...

  11. The Role of the Acquisitions Librarian in Electronic Resources Management

    Pomerantz, Sarah B.


    With the ongoing shift to electronic formats for library resources, acquisitions librarians, like the rest of the profession, must adapt to the rapidly changing landscape of electronic resources by keeping up with trends and mastering new skills related to digital publishing, technology, and licensing. The author sought to know what roles…

  12. Electronic resources preferred by pediatric hospitalists for clinical care.

    Beck, Jimmy B; Tieder, Joel S


    There is little research on pediatric hospitalists' use of evidence-based resources. The aim of this study was to determine the electronic resources that pediatric hospitalists prefer. Using a web-based survey, the authors determined hospitalists' preferred electronic resources, as well as their attitudes toward lifelong learning, practice, and experience characteristics. One hundred sixteen hospitalists completed the survey. The most preferred resource for general information, patient handouts, and treatment was UpToDate. Online search engines were ranked second for general information and patient handouts. Pediatric hospitalists tend to utilize less rigorous electronic resources such as UpToDate and Google. These results can set a platform for discussing the quality of resources that pediatric hospitalists use.

  13. Development of potentiometric equipment for the identification of altered dry-cured hams: A preliminary study.

    Girón, Joel; Gil-Sánchez, Luís; García-Breijo, Eduardo; Pagán, M Jesús; Barat, José M; Grau, Raúl


    Microbiological contamination in dry-cured ham can occur in the early stages of the process, a large number of microorganisms involved in spoilage can produce alterations in the product. These include non-common odours, which are detected at the end of the process by a procedure called "cala", consisting of a sharp instrument punctured in every ham; this is smelled by an expert taster, who classifies hams as good and altered hams. An electronic device would be suitable for this process given the large amount of hams. The present research aims to develop objective equipment based on the potentiometry technique that identifies altered hams. A probe was developed, containing silver, nickel and copper electrodes, and was employed to classify altered and unaltered hams prior to classification by a tester. The results shown lower Ag and higher Cu potential values for altered hams. The differences in potentiometric response reveal a classification model, although further studies are required to obtain a reliable classification model.

  14. Cataloging and Indexing of Electronic Information Resources


    digital library, but it facilitates the exchange of these objects among digital libraries . METS provides an XML DTD that can point to metadata in other...International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA). (2002). Digital Libraries : Metadata Resources. Retrieved May 3, 2002 from the

  15. Adoption and use of electronic information resources by medical ...

    ... were analysed with descriptive Statistics(Simple percentage and frequency count). ... for doing assignment, Google search, for personal development, and getting ... major problems encountered when using electronic Information Resources.

  16. Weak isometries of Hamming spaces

    Ryan Bruner


    Full Text Available Consider any permutation of the elements of a (finite metric space that preserves a specific distancep. When is such a permutation automatically an isometry of the metric space? In this note we studythis problem for the Hamming spaces H(n,q both from a linear algebraic and combinatorial pointof view. We obtain some sufficient conditions for the question to have an affirmative answer, as wellas pose some interesting open problems.

  17. Euler European Libraries and Electronic Resources in Mathematical Sciences

    The Euler Project. Karlsruhe

    The European Libraries and Electronic Resources (EULER) Project in Mathematical Sciences provides the EulerService site for searching out "mathematical resources such as books, pre-prints, web-pages, abstracts, proceedings, serials, technical reports preprints) and NetLab (for Internet resources), this outstanding engine is capable of simple, full, and refined searches. It also offers a browse option, which responds to entries in the author, keyword, and title fields. Further information about the Project is provided at the EULER homepage.

  18. Sensory and rapid instrumental methods as a combined tool for quality control of cooked ham.

    Barbieri, Sara; Soglia, Francesca; Palagano, Rosa; Tesini, Federica; Bendini, Alessandra; Petracci, Massimiliano; Cavani, Claudio; Gallina Toschi, Tullia


    In this preliminary investigation, different commercial categories of Italian cooked pork hams have been characterized using an integrated approach based on both sensory and fast instrumental measurements. For these purposes, Italian products belonging to different categories (cooked ham, "selected" cooked ham and "high quality" cooked ham) were evaluated by sensory descriptive analysis and by the application of rapid tools such as image analysis by an "electronic eye" and texture analyzer. The panel of trained assessors identified and evaluated 10 sensory descriptors able to define the quality of the products. Statistical analysis highlighted that sensory characteristics related to appearance and texture were the most significant in discriminating samples belonged to the highest (high quality cooked hams) and the lowest (cooked hams) quality of the product whereas the selected cooked hams, showed intermediate characteristics. In particular, high quality samples were characterized, above all, by the highest intensity of pink intensity, typical appearance and cohesiveness, and, at the same time, by the lowest intensity of juiciness; standard cooked ham samples showed the lowest intensity of all visual attributes and the highest value of juiciness, whereas the intermediate category (selected cooked ham) was not discriminated from the other. Also physical-rheological parameters measured by electronic eye and texture analyzer were effective in classifying samples. In particular, the PLS model built with data obtained from the electronic eye showed a satisfactory performance in terms of prediction of the pink intensity and presence of fat attributes evaluated during the sensory visual phase. This study can be considered a first application of this combined approach that could represent a suitable and fast method to verify if the meat product purchased by consumer match its description in terms of compliance with the claimed quality.

  19. Building an electronic resource collection a practical guide

    Lee, Stuart D


    This practical book guides information professionals step-by-step through building and managing an electronic resource collection. It outlines the range of electronic products currently available in abstracting and indexing, bibliographic, and other services and then describes how to effectively select, evaluate and purchase them.

  20. Evolution of chemical-physical parameters and rheological characteristics of Sarda and Maltese goat dry hams

    Rina Mazzette


    Full Text Available In Sardinia, goat farming is a very important resource. Sarda and Maltese breed are reared mainly for milk production and for suckling kids meat, while meat from adult goats is undervalued. The use of adult goat meat to obtain ripened ham will contribute to safeguard the Sardinian goat supply chain. The aim of the present study was to characterize Sarda and Maltese goat dry ham in order to evaluate the quality of autochthonous goat breed meat. Chemical-physical characteristics were determined dur-ing the production stages, while the rheological and colour parameters and the composition of the goat ham were determined at the end of ripening. The pH evolution during processing were similar to other cured meat products, e.g. sheep hams, even though the values were high, especially in the products from Sarda breed. The aw value regularly decreased during processing. Colour parameters (L*, a*, b* in the hams from Maltese goat breed were significantly (P<0.05 higher than in those from Sarda. The Sarda goat ham showed a significantly lower percentage of moisture (42% vs 52%, an higher protein content (44.35% vs 34.19%, while no differences were pointed out in the total fat content. Among the ham rheological properties, hardness parameters showed higher levels (13850.22±7589.92 vs 11073.99±6481.31, respectively in Sarda and Maltese hams in comparison to similar products from pork and sheep, while adhesiveness value was lower. The results show that the quality parameters of goat ripened hams are affected mainly by the charac-teristics of the goat meat, in relation on the breed and the breeding system, and, less, by the traditional technology.

  1. Why and How to Measure the Use of Electronic Resources

    Jean Bernon


    Full Text Available A complete overview of library activity implies a complete and reliable measurement of the use of both electronic resources and printed materials. This measurement is based on three sets of definitions: document types, use types and user types. There is a common model of definitions for printed materials, but a lot of questions and technical issues remain for electronic resources. In 2006 a French national working group studied these questions. It relied on the COUNTER standard, but found it insufficient and pointed out the need for local tools such as web markers and deep analysis of proxy logs. Within the French national consortium COUPERIN, a new working group is testing ERMS, SUSHI standards, Shibboleth authentication, along with COUNTER standards, to improve the counting of the electronic resources use. At this stage this counting is insufficient and its improvement will be a European challenge for the future.

  2. Access to electronic resources by visually impaired people

    Jenny Craven


    Full Text Available Research into access to electronic resources by visually impaired people undertaken by the Centre for Research in Library and Information Management has not only explored the accessibility of websites and levels of awareness in providing websites that adhere to design for all principles, but has sought to enhance understanding of information seeking behaviour of blind and visually impaired people when using digital resources.

  3. The Study of Analytical Model of Library Electronic Resources Usage-A Case of Medical Electronic Resources

    Chung-Yen Yu


    Full Text Available With the advents of internet, the importance of electronic resources is growing. Due to the increasing expensiveness of electronic resources, university libraries normally received budgets from parent institutions annually. They necessarily applied effective and systematic methods for decision making in electronic resources purchase or re-subscription. However, there are some difficulties in practices: First of all, libraries are unable to receive user records; second, the COUNTER statistics does not include details about users and their affiliation. As a result, one cannot conduct advanced user analysis based on the usage of users, institutions, and departments. To overcome the difficulties, this study presents a feasible model to analyze electronic resource usage effectively and flexibly. We set up a proxy server to collect actual usage raw data. By analyzing items in internet browsing records, associated with original library automatic system, this study aims at exploring how to use effective ways to analyze big data of website log data. We also propose the process of how original data to be transformed, cleared, integrated, and demonstrated. This study adopted a medical university library and its subscription of medical electronic resources as a case. Our data analysis includes (1 year of subscription,(2 title of journal, (3 affiliation, (4 subjects, and (5 specific journal requirements, etc. The findings of the study are contributed to obtain further understanding in policy making and user behavior analysis. The integrated data provides multiple applications in informatics research, information behavior, bibliomining, presenting diverse views and extended issues for further discussion.

  4. Practical guide to electronic resources in the humanities

    Dubnjakovic, Ana


    From full-text article databases to digitized collections of primary source materials, newly emerging electronic resources have radically impacted how research in the humanities is conducted and discovered. This book, covering high-quality, up-to-date electronic resources for the humanities, is an easy-to-use annotated guide for the librarian, student, and scholar alike. It covers online databases, indexes, archives, and many other critical tools in key humanities disciplines including philosophy, religion, languages and literature, and performing and visual arts. Succinct overviews of key eme

  5. Discipline, availability of electronic resources and the use of Finnish National Electronic Library - FinELib

    Sanna Torma


    Full Text Available This study elaborated relations between digital library use by university faculty, users' discipline and the availability of key resources in the Finnish National Electronic Library (FinELib, Finnish national digital library, by using nationwide representative survey data. The results show that the perceived availability of key electronic resources by researchers in FinELib was a stronger predictor of the frequency and purpose of use of its services than users' discipline. Regardless of discipline a good perceived provision of central resources led to a more frequent use of FinELib. The satisfaction with the services did not vary with the discipline, but with the perceived availability of resources.

  6. Providing Access to Electronic Information Resources in Further Education

    Banwell, Linda; Ray, Kathryn; Coulson, Graham; Urquhart, Christine; Lonsdale, Ray; Armstrong, Chris; Thomas, Rhian; Spink, Sin; Yeoman, Alison; Fenton, Roger; Rowley, Jennifer


    This article aims to provide a baseline for future studies on the provision and support for the use of digital or electronic information services (EIS) in further education. The analysis presented is based on a multi-level model of access, which encompasses access to and availability of information and communication technology (ICT) resources,…


    Olena Yu. Balalaieva


    Full Text Available The article investigates the current state of development of e-learning content in the Latin language. It is noted that the introduction of ICT in the educational space has expanded the possibility of studying Latin, opened access to digital libraries resources, made it possible to use scientific and educational potential and teaching Latin best practices of world's leading universities. A review of foreign and Ukrainian information resources and electronic editions for the study of Latin is given. Much attention was paid to the didactic potential of local and online multimedia courses of Latin, electronic textbooks, workbooks of interactive tests and exercises, various dictionaries and software translators, databases and digital libraries. Based on analysis of the world market of educational services and products the main trends in the development of information resources and electronic books are examined. It was found that multimedia courses with interactive exercises or workbooks with interactive tests, online dictionaries and translators are the most widely represented and demanded. The noticeable lagging of Ukrainian education and computer linguistics in quantitative and qualitative measures in this industry is established. The obvious drawback of existing Ukrainian resources and electronic editions for the study of Latin is their noninteractive nature. The prospects of e-learning content in Latin in Ukraine are outlined.

  8. Electronic Commerce Resource Centers. An Industry--University Partnership.

    Gulledge, Thomas R.; Sommer, Rainer; Tarimcilar, M. Murat


    Electronic Commerce Resource Centers focus on transferring emerging technologies to small businesses through university/industry partnerships. Successful implementation hinges on a strategic operating plan, creation of measurable value for customers, investment in customer-targeted training, and measurement of performance outputs. (SK)

  9. Student Satisfaction with Electronic Library Resources at Wayne State University

    Holley, Robert P.; Powell, Ronald R.


    This paper reports the results of a survey of student satisfaction with electronic library resources other than the online catalog at Wayne State University. Undertaken in Fall Term 2000 as a class project for a marketing course, a student team designed, administered, and analyzed a survey of a random sample of students. Almost 40% of the…

  10. Electronic Commerce Resource Centers. An Industry--University Partnership.

    Gulledge, Thomas R.; Sommer, Rainer; Tarimcilar, M. Murat


    Electronic Commerce Resource Centers focus on transferring emerging technologies to small businesses through university/industry partnerships. Successful implementation hinges on a strategic operating plan, creation of measurable value for customers, investment in customer-targeted training, and measurement of performance outputs. (SK)

  11. Technical Communicator: A New Model for the Electronic Resources Librarian?

    Hulseberg, Anna


    This article explores whether technical communicator is a useful model for electronic resources (ER) librarians. The fields of ER librarianship and technical communication (TC) originated and continue to develop in relation to evolving technologies. A review of the literature reveals four common themes for ER librarianship and TC. While the…

  12. Providing Access to Electronic Information Resources in Further Education

    Banwell, Linda; Ray, Kathryn; Coulson, Graham; Urquhart, Christine; Lonsdale, Ray; Armstrong, Chris; Thomas, Rhian; Spink, Sin; Yeoman, Alison; Fenton, Roger; Rowley, Jennifer


    This article aims to provide a baseline for future studies on the provision and support for the use of digital or electronic information services (EIS) in further education. The analysis presented is based on a multi-level model of access, which encompasses access to and availability of information and communication technology (ICT) resources,…

  13. Evaluating the appropriateness of electronic information resources for learning.

    Saparova, Dinara; Nolan, Nathanial S


    Current US medical students have begun to rely on electronic information repositories-such as UpToDate, AccessMedicine, and Wikipedia-for their pre-clerkship medical education. However, it is unclear whether these resources are appropriate for this level of learning due to factors involving information quality, level of evidence, and the requisite knowledgebase. This study evaluated appropriateness of electronic information resources from a novel perspective: amount of mental effort learners invest in interactions with these resources and effects of the experienced mental effort on learning. Eighteen first-year medical students read about three unstudied diseases in the above-mentioned resources (a total of fifty-four observations). Their eye movement characteristics (i.e., fixation duration, fixation count, visit duration, and task-evoked pupillary response) were recorded and used as psychophysiological indicators of the experienced mental effort. Post reading, students' learning was assessed with multiple-choice tests. Eye metrics and test results constituted quantitative data analyzed according to the repeated Latin square design. Students' perceptions of interacting with the information resources were also collected. Participants' feedback during semi-structured interviews constituted qualitative data and was reviewed, transcribed, and open coded for emergent themes. Compared to AccessMedicine and Wikipedia, UpToDate was associated with significantly higher values of eye metrics, suggesting learners experienced higher mental effort. No statistically significant difference between the amount of mental effort and learning outcomes was found. More so, descriptive statistical analysis of the knowledge test scores suggested similar levels of learning regardless of the information resource used. Judging by the learning outcomes, all three information resources were found appropriate for learning. UpToDate, however, when used alone, may be less appropriate for first


    Anatoliy V. Loban


    Full Text Available The mathematical structure of the modular architecture of an electronic educational resource (EER of new generation, which allows to decompose the process of studying the subjects of the course at a hierarchically ordered set of data (knowledge and procedures for manipulating them, to determine the roles of participants of process of training of and technology the development and use of EOR in the study procrate.

  15. Evaluating increased resource use in fibromyalgia using electronic health records

    Margolis JM


    Full Text Available Jay M Margolis,1 Elizabeth T Masters,2 Joseph C Cappelleri,3 David M Smith,1 Steven Faulkner4 1Truven Health Analytics, Life Sciences, Outcomes Research, Bethesda, MD, 2Pfizer Inc, Outcomes & Evidence, New York, NY, 3Pfizer Inc, Statistics, Groton, CT, 4Pfizer Inc, North American Medical Affairs, Medical Outcomes Specialists, St Louis, MO, USA Objective: The management of fibromyalgia (FM, a chronic musculoskeletal disease, remains challenging, and patients with FM are often characterized by high health care resource utilization. This study sought to explore potential drivers of all-cause health care resource utilization and other factors associated with high resource use, using a large electronic health records (EHR database to explore data from patients diagnosed with FM. Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of de-identified EHR data from the Humedica database. Adults (≥18 years with FM were identified based on ≥2 International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes for FM (729.1 ≥30 days apart between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2012 and were required to have evidence of ≥12 months continuous care pre- and post-index; first FM diagnosis was the index event; 12-month pre- and post-index reporting periods. Multivariable analysis evaluated relationships between variables and resource utilization. Results: Patients were predominantly female (81.4%, Caucasian (87.7%, with a mean (standard deviation age of 54.4 (14.8 years. The highest health care resource utilization was observed for the categories of “medication orders” and “physician office visits,” with 12-month post-index means of 21.2 (21.5 drug orders/patient and 15.1 (18.1 office visits/patient; the latter accounted for 73.3% of all health care visits. Opioids were the most common prescription medication, 44.3% of all patients. The chance of high resource use was significantly increased (P<0.001 26% among African-Americans vs Caucasians and for patients

  16. Online Electronic Resources and Slovenian Bibliography: a Case Study

    Daniela Škerget


    Full Text Available AbstractConsidering the fact that the number of publications available online only is growing, the question whether to include online electronic resources into the Slovenian bibliography, and if so, in which way, and what are the requirements for the inclusion, is raised. To answer these questions, the research on the growth of the Slovenian online scientific production in comparison with production in printed form was conducted in the case of original scientific articles. Results showed a rapid growth of the number of original scientific articles available online only, which indicates the necessity to form a separate Slovenian bibliography of online resources. The selection criteria for the Slovenian bibliography of online resources are also presented. This kind of bibliography would, along with the informational value, add to the historical value of intellectual production in a given time frame, enriched with a link to the resource preserved in another location (archive, repository, in case of unavailability of the resource on its original location.

  17. Journals, Data and Abstracts Make an Integrated Electronic Resource

    Boyce, P.


    Astronomy now has an integrated, Web-based information resource for research papers, data and bibliographic information. The major scholarly research journals, a comprehensive abstract service and the astronomical data centers are now linked together to provide an information resource which is not available to most other scientific disciplines. As of January, 1997, the Astrophysical Journal joins the ApJ Letters on the Web. Astronomy and Astrophysics Supplements now has a page image version. Elsevier's electronic journal New Astronomy has recently made its appearance. Over forty percent of the new peer-reviewed, astronomical literature is now available electronically. The main Astronomy and Astrophysics journal, the Astronomical Journal and others will be available by 1998, at which point ninety percent of the literature will be available electronically, a figure not approached by any other scientific discipline. With so many different sources, one of the challenges has been to integrate the on-line, peer-reviewed literature into a resource which serves the astronomical community in a unified and coherent manner. Following the lead of the AAS, the major publishers have chosen to rely upon the NASA-supported Astrophysics Data System (ADS) and the astronomical data centers to provide the means by which the various separate journals can interoperate. The data centers and the ADS have developed unique identification codes for journal articles. By adopting the existing standard "bibcodes" and integrating them into their WWW links, each of the major astronomical journals are able to link to the abstracts of most of the referenced articles. Since the ADS also serves as an on-line repository for page images of the past twenty years of the major astronomical journals, the full text of many of the referenced articles are available, too. The articles in the ADS have recently been linked through their references, both forward and backward in time. With the "bibcode" providing

  18. Analysis of Human Resources Management Strategy in China Electronic Commerce Enterprises

    Shao, Fang

    The paper discussed electronic-commerce's influence on enterprise human resources management, proposed and proved the human resources management strategy which electronic commerce enterprise should adopt from recruitment strategy to training strategy, keeping talent strategy and other ways.

  19. Resources

    ... resources Alzheimer's - resources Anorexia nervosa - resources Arthritis - resources Asthma and allergy - resources Autism - resources Blindness - resources BPH - resources Breastfeeding - resources Bulimia - resources Burns - resources Cancer - resources Cerebral ...

  20. Discipline, Availability of Electronic Resources and the Use of Finnish National Electronic Library-- FinELib

    Törmä, Sanna; Vakkari, Pertti


    This study elaborated relations between digital library use by university faculty, users' discipline and the availability of key resources in the Finnish National Electronic Library (FinELib), Finnish national digital library, by using nationwide representative survey data. The results show that the perceived availability of key electronic…

  1. End-of-life resource recovery from emerging electronic products

    Parajuly, Keshav; Habib, Komal; Cimpan, Ciprian


    of emerging electronic product, in order to understand the recovery fate of different materials and its linkage to product design. Ten different brands of RVC were dismantled and their material composition and design profiles were studied. Another 125 RVCs (349 kg) were used for an experimental trial......Integrating product design with appropriate end-of-life (EoL) processing is widely recognized to have huge potentials in improving resource recovery from electronic products. In this study, we investigate both the product characteristics and EoL processing of robotic vacuum cleaner (RVC), as a case...... at a conventional ‘shred-and-separate’ type preprocessing plant in Denmark. A detailed material flow analysis was performed throughout the recycling chain. The results show a mismatch between product design and EoL processing, and the lack of practical implementation of ‘Design for EoL’ thinking. In the best...

  2. Electronic Resources and Mission Creep: Reorganizing the Library for the Twenty-First Century

    Stachokas, George


    The position of electronic resources librarian was created to serve as a specialist in the negotiation of license agreements for electronic resources, but mission creep has added more functions to the routine work of electronic resources such as cataloging, gathering information for collection development, and technical support. As electronic…

  3. Effects of Electronic Information Resources Skills Training for Lecturers on Pedagogical Practices and Research Productivity

    Bhukuvhani, Crispen; Chiparausha, Blessing; Zuvalinyenga, Dorcas


    Lecturers use various electronic resources at different frequencies. The university library's information literacy skills workshops and seminars are the main sources of knowledge of accessing electronic resources. The use of electronic resources can be said to have positively affected lecturers' pedagogical practices and their work in general. The…

  4. Electronic Document Management: A Human Resource Management Case Study

    Thomas Groenewald


    Full Text Available This case study serve as exemplar regarding what can go wrong with the implementation of an electronic document management system. Knowledge agility and knowledge as capital, is outlined against the backdrop of the information society and knowledge economy. The importance of electronic document management and control is sketched thereafter. The literature review is concluded with the impact of human resource management on knowledge agility, which includes references to the learning organisation and complexity theory. The intervention methodology, comprising three phases, follows next. The results of the three phases are presented thereafter. Partial success has been achieved with improving the human efficacy of electronic document management, however the client opted to discontinue the system in use. Opsomming Die gevalle studie dien as voorbeeld van wat kan verkeerd loop met die implementering van ’n elektroniese dokumentbestuur sisteem. Teen die agtergrond van die inligtingsgemeenskap en kennishuishouding word kennissoepelheid en kennis as kapitaal bespreek. Die literatuurstudie word afgesluit met die inpak van menslikehulpbronbestuur op kennissoepelheid, wat ook die verwysings na die leerorganisasie en kompleksietydsteorie insluit. Die metodologie van die intervensie, wat uit drie fases bestaan, volg daarna. Die resultate van die drie fases word vervolgens aangebied. Slegs gedeelte welslae is behaal met die verbetering van die menslike doeltreffendheid ten opsigte van elektroniese dokumentbestuur. Die klient besluit egter om nie voort te gaan om die huidige sisteem te gebruik nie.

  5. Two Applications of the Hamming-Golay Code

    Liu, Andy


    In this paper, we give two unexpected applications of a Hamming code. The first one, also known as the "Hat Problem," is based on the fact that a small portion of the available code words are actually used in a Hamming code. The second one is a magic trick based on the fact that a Hamming code is perfect for single-error correction.

  6. Pre-freezing raw hams affects quality traits in cooked hams: potential influence of protein oxidation.

    Utrera, M; Armenteros, M; Ventanas, S; Solano, F; Estévez, M


    The influence of protein carbonylation and lipid oxidation on colour and texture changes in cooked hams from fresh and pre-frozen (frozen/thawed) raw material was studied. Samples from three muscles, biceps femoris (BF) quadriceps femoris (QF) and semimembranosus (SM) were analysed for the gain of specific protein carbonyls, α-aminoadipic and γ-glutamic semialdehydes, the gain of TBA-RS and their colour and texture properties by instrumental and sensory techniques. The formation of protein carbonyls occurred concomitantly with an intense loss of redness and increase of hardness. Both phenomena were found to be more intense in QF and SM muscles in cooked hams elaborated from frozen material. Lipid oxidation played a negligible role on the impaired quality traits observed in cooked hams as a result of pre-freezing. Plausible mechanisms by which protein carbonylation may be implicated in the loss of quality in cooked hams produced from pre-frozen material are discussed.

  7. Common Exercises in Whole Building HAM Modelling

    Rode, Carsten; Woloszyn, Monika


    Subtask 1 of the IEA ECBCS Annex 41 (IEA 2007) project had the purpose to advance development in modelling of integral Heat, Air and Moisture (HAM) transfer processes that take place in “whole buildings”. Such modelling considers all relevant elements of buildings: The indoor air, building envelo...

  8. Effects of irradiation and fumaric acid treatment on the inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella typhimurium inoculated on sliced ham

    Song, Hyeon-Jeong; Lee, Ji-Hye; Song, Kyung Bin


    To examine the effects of fumaric acid and electron beam irradiation on the inactivation of foodborne pathogens in ready-to-eat meat products, sliced ham was inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella typhimurium. The inoculated ham slices were treated with 0.5% fumaric acid or electron beam irradiation at 2 kGy. Fumaric acid treatment reduced the populations of L. monocytogenes and S. typhimurium by approximately 1 log CFU/g compared to control populations. In contrast, electron beam irradiation decreased the populations of S. typhimurium and L. monocytogenes by 3.78 and 2.42 log CFU/g, respectively. These results suggest that electron beam irradiation is a better and appropriate technique for improving the microbial safety of sliced ham.

  9. Effects of irradiation and fumaric acid treatment on the inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella typhimurium inoculated on sliced ham

    Song, Hyeon-Jeong; Lee, Ji-Hye [Department of Food Science and Technology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Kyung Bin, E-mail: [Department of Food Science and Technology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)


    To examine the effects of fumaric acid and electron beam irradiation on the inactivation of foodborne pathogens in ready-to-eat meat products, sliced ham was inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella typhimurium. The inoculated ham slices were treated with 0.5% fumaric acid or electron beam irradiation at 2 kGy. Fumaric acid treatment reduced the populations of L. monocytogenes and S. typhimurium by approximately 1 log CFU/g compared to control populations. In contrast, electron beam irradiation decreased the populations of S. typhimurium and L. monocytogenes by 3.78 and 2.42 log CFU/g, respectively. These results suggest that electron beam irradiation is a better and appropriate technique for improving the microbial safety of sliced ham. - Highlights: > We compare irradiation and fumaric acid treatment on the inactivation of pathogens. > We examine changes in the populations of L. monocytogenes and S. typhimurium. > Irradiation at 2 kGy is more effective in sliced ham than fumaric acid treatment. > Low-dose irradiation can improve the microbial safety of sliced ham during storage.

  10. Electronic Safety Resource Tools -- Supporting Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Commercialization

    Barilo, Nick F.


    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Hydrogen Safety Program conducted a planning session in Los Angeles, CA on April 1, 2014 to consider what electronic safety tools would benefit the next phase of hydrogen and fuel cell commercialization. A diverse, 20-person team led by an experienced facilitator considered the question as it applied to the eight most relevant user groups. The results and subsequent evaluation activities revealed several possible resource tools that could greatly benefit users. The tool identified as having the greatest potential for impact is a hydrogen safety portal, which can be the central location for integrating and disseminating safety information (including most of the tools identified in this report). Such a tool can provide credible and reliable information from a trustworthy source. Other impactful tools identified include a codes and standards wizard to guide users through a series of questions relating to application and specific features of the requirements; a scenario-based virtual reality training for first responders; peer networking tools to bring users from focused groups together to discuss and collaborate on hydrogen safety issues; and a focused tool for training inspectors. Table ES.1 provides results of the planning session, including proposed new tools and changes to existing tools.

  11. Hierarchical Parallel Evaluation of a Hamming Code

    Shmuel T. Klein


    Full Text Available The Hamming code is a well-known error correction code and can correct a single error in an input vector of size n bits by adding logn parity checks. A new parallel implementation of the code is presented, using a hierarchical structure of n processors in logn layers. All the processors perform similar simple tasks, and need only a few bytes of internal memory.

  12. Controlling user access to electronic resources without password

    Smith, Fred Hewitt


    Described herein are devices and techniques for remotely controlling user access to a restricted computer resource. The process includes pre-determining an association of the restricted computer resource and computer-resource-proximal environmental information. Indicia of user-proximal environmental information are received from a user requesting access to the restricted computer resource. Received indicia of user-proximal environmental information are compared to associated computer-resource-proximal environmental information. User access to the restricted computer resource is selectively granted responsive to a favorable comparison in which the user-proximal environmental information is sufficiently similar to the computer-resource proximal environmental information. In at least some embodiments, the process further includes comparing user-supplied biometric measure and comparing it with a predetermined association of at least one biometric measure of an authorized user. Access to the restricted computer resource is granted in response to a favorable comparison.

  13. The Internet School of Medicine: use of electronic resources by medical trainees and the reliability of those resources.

    Egle, Jonathan P; Smeenge, David M; Kassem, Kamal M; Mittal, Vijay K


    Electronic sources of medical information are plentiful, and numerous studies have demonstrated the use of the Internet by patients and the variable reliability of these sources. Studies have investigated neither the use of web-based resources by residents, nor the reliability of the information available on these websites. A web-based survey was distributed to surgical residents in Michigan and third- and fourth-year medical students at an American allopathic and osteopathic medical school and a Caribbean allopathic school regarding their preferred sources of medical information in various situations. A set of 254 queries simulating those faced by medical trainees on rounds, on a written examination, or during patient care was developed. The top 5 electronic resources cited by the trainees were evaluated for their ability to answer these questions accurately, using standard textbooks as the point of reference. The respondents reported a wide variety of overall preferred resources. Most of the 73 responding medical trainees favored textbooks or board review books for prolonged studying, but electronic resources are frequently used for quick studying, clinical decision-making questions, and medication queries. The most commonly used electronic resources were UpToDate, Google, Medscape, Wikipedia, and Epocrates. UpToDate and Epocrates had the highest percentage of correct answers (47%) and Wikipedia had the lowest (26%). Epocrates also had the highest percentage of wrong answers (30%), whereas Google had the lowest percentage (18%). All resources had a significant number of questions that they were unable to answer. Though hardcopy books have not been completely replaced by electronic resources, more than half of medical students and nearly half of residents prefer web-based sources of information. For quick questions and studying, both groups prefer Internet sources. However, the most commonly used electronic resources fail to answer clinical queries more than half

  14. Kernel based eigenvalue-decomposition methods for analysing ham

    Christiansen, Asger Nyman; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Møller, Flemming


    Every consumer wants fresh ham and the way we decide whether the meat is fresh or not is by looking at the color. The producers of ham wants a long shelf life, meaning they want the ham to look fresh for a long time. The Danish company Danisco is therefore trying to develop optimal storing...... conditions and finding useful additives to hinder the color to change rapidly. To be able to prove which methods of storing and additives work, Danisco wants to monitor the development of the color of meat in a slice of ham as a function of time, environment and ingredients. We have chosen to use multi...... spectral images to monitor the change in color. We therefore have to be able to segment the ham into the dierent categories of which the ham consists. These categories include fat, gristle and two dierent types of meat. This segmentation is difficult when using the traditional orthogonal transformation...

  15. Developing Humanities Collections in the Digital Age: Exploring Humanities Faculty Engagement with Electronic and Print Resources

    Kachaluba, Sarah Buck; Brady, Jessica Evans; Critten, Jessica


    This article is based on quantitative and qualitative research examining humanities scholars' understandings of the advantages and disadvantages of print versus electronic information resources. It explores how humanities' faculty members at Florida State University (FSU) use print and electronic resources, as well as how they perceive these…

  16. Developing Humanities Collections in the Digital Age: Exploring Humanities Faculty Engagement with Electronic and Print Resources

    Kachaluba, Sarah Buck; Brady, Jessica Evans; Critten, Jessica


    This article is based on quantitative and qualitative research examining humanities scholars' understandings of the advantages and disadvantages of print versus electronic information resources. It explores how humanities' faculty members at Florida State University (FSU) use print and electronic resources, as well as how they perceive these…

  17. Electronic resource management practical perspectives in a new technical services model

    Elguindi, Anne


    A significant shift is taking place in libraries, with the purchase of e-resources accounting for the bulk of materials spending. Electronic Resource Management makes the case that technical services workflows need to make a corresponding shift toward e-centric models and highlights the increasing variety of e-formats that are forcing new developments in the field.Six chapters cover key topics, including: technical services models, both past and emerging; staffing and workflow in electronic resource management; implementation and transformation of electronic resource management systems; the ro

  18. Strategic Planning for Electronic Resources Management: A Case Study at Gustavus Adolphus College

    Hulseberg, Anna; Monson, Sarah


    Electronic resources, the tools we use to manage them, and the needs and expectations of our users are constantly evolving; at the same time, the roles, responsibilities, and workflow of the library staff who manage e-resources are also in flux. Recognizing a need to be more intentional and proactive about how we manage e-resources, the…

  19. Strategic Planning for Electronic Resources Management: A Case Study at Gustavus Adolphus College

    Hulseberg, Anna; Monson, Sarah


    Electronic resources, the tools we use to manage them, and the needs and expectations of our users are constantly evolving; at the same time, the roles, responsibilities, and workflow of the library staff who manage e-resources are also in flux. Recognizing a need to be more intentional and proactive about how we manage e-resources, the…

  20. The Relevancy of Graduate Curriculum to Human Resource Professionals' Electronic Communication.

    Hoell, Robert C.; Henry, Gordon O.


    Electronic communications of human resource professionals and the content of 23 university human resource management courses were categorized using the Human Resource Certification Institute's body of knowledge. Differences between proportion of topics discussed and topics covered in curricula suggest some topics are over- or undertaught.…

  1. Hamming generalized corrector for reactivity calculation

    Suescun-Diaz, Daniel; Ibarguen-Gonzalez, Maria C.; Figueroa-Jimenez, Jorge H. [Pontificia Universidad Javeriana Cali, Cali (Colombia). Dept. de Ciencias Naturales y Matematicas


    This work presents the Hamming method generalized corrector for numerically resolving the differential equation of delayed neutron precursor concentration from the point kinetics equations for reactivity calculation, without using the nuclear power history or the Laplace transform. A study was carried out of several correctors with their respective modifiers with different time step calculations, to offer stability and greater precision. Better results are obtained for some correctors than with other existing methods. Reactivity can be calculated with precision of the order h{sup 5}, where h is the time step. (orig.)

  2. 2015 Utilization of Electronic Information Resources in Ramat ...

    intensely powerful and has permeated all segments and ... Web (WWW) and the internet to make information more accessible. On the other ... access points on the campus and computer literacy is till .... resources are often faster to consult than.

  3. Remote Electronic Resources and the OPAC: Illustrated by the Unisa Library Experience.

    Van der Merwe, Ina; Van Eeden, Welna; Hartzer, Sandra

    This paper describes the Unisa (University of South Africa) Library's experience with cataloging remote electronic resources, including electronic journals, electronic text files, online databases, digital images, Unisa campus Web sites, and mailing list discussions. The first section discusses the decision to add bibliographic references for…

  4. 9 CFR 319.310 - Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...


    ... with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar products. 319.310 Section 319.310 Animals and....310 Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar products. “Lima Beans with Ham in Sauce,” “Beans with Ham in Sauce,” “Beans with Bacon in Sauce,”...

  5. Simple methods to decrease sodium and nitrite contents in hams

    Talia Franco-Avila


    Full Text Available Introduction: Ham is a product highly consumed by society; however it contains some elements that make it a non-recommended food. Thus, it has been attempted to eliminate or reduce those components.Material and Methods: Content of sodium, nitrites, peroxides and total coliforms were compared after processes of Washing (W and Simple Cooking (SC in turkey and pork ham in a cross-sectional analytical experimental study. Furthermore, sensory acceptance of thesamples through an acceptance test of five points was evaluated. One-way ANOVA with post hoc Bonferroni were used to assess the mean difference between groups. The value of p≤0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results: Both processes reduced the amount of sodium in both types of ham in statistically significant way (p≤0.001. The major percentage of reduction was presented with SC: 73.4% for turkey ham and 63.5% for pork ham. Likewise, the higher percentage of nitrite reduction was 50.6% in pork ham with SC technique (p≤0.05. Peroxide index decreased with both techniques in both hams without statistical significance. Total coliforms count was kept constant in all samples. Higher sensory acceptance of W concerning SC in all sensory characteristics was observed.Conclusions: W and SC techniques reduce sodium, nitrite and peroxide index without affecting the sanitation of hams. Furthermore, W is accepted in all sensory categories. We recommend using W technique before consumption of the product.

  6. On the generalized Hamming weights of convolutional codes

    Rosenthal, J.; York, E.V.


    Motivated by applications in cryptology K. Wei introduced in 1991 the concept of a generalized Hamming weight for a linear block code. In this paper we define generalized Hamming weights for the class of convolutional codes and we derive several of their basic properties. By restricting to convoluti

  7. Factors affecting dry-cured ham consumer acceptability.

    Morales, R; Guerrero, L; Aguiar, A P S; Guàrdia, M D; Gou, P


    The objectives of the present study were (1) to compare the relative importance of price, processing time, texture and intramuscular fat in purchase intention of dry-cured ham through conjoint analysis, (2) to evaluate the effect of dry-cured ham appearance on consumer expectations, and (3) to describe the consumer sensory preferences of dry-cured ham using external preference mapping. Texture and processing time influenced the consumer preferences in conjoint analysis. Red colour intensity, colour uniformity, external fat and white film presence/absence influenced consumer expectations. The consumer disliked hams with bitter and metallic flavour and with excessive saltiness and piquantness. Differences between expected and experienced acceptability were found, which indicates that the visual preference of consumers does not allow them to select a dry-cured ham that satisfies their sensory preferences of flavour and texture.

  8. Controlling user access to electronic resources without password

    Smith, Fred Hewitt


    Described herein are devices and techniques for remotely controlling user access to a restricted computer resource. The process includes obtaining an image from a communication device of a user. An individual and a landmark are identified within the image. Determinations are made that the individual is the user and that the landmark is a predetermined landmark. Access to a restricted computing resource is granted based on the determining that the individual is the user and that the landmark is the predetermined landmark. Other embodiments are disclosed.

  9. 9 CFR 319.106 - “Country Ham,” “Country Style Ham,” “Dry Cured Ham,” “Country Pork Shoulder,” “Country Style Pork...


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false âCountry Ham,â âCountry Style Ham,â âDry Cured Ham,â âCountry Pork Shoulder,â âCountry Style Pork Shoulder,â and âDry Cured Pork Shoulder.â... Smoked § 319.106 “Country Ham,” “Country Style Ham,” “Dry Cured Ham,” “Country Pork Shoulder,”...

  10. An Evaluation of Electronic Product Design Education Using Hypermedia-Resourced Learning Environments

    Page, Tom; Thorsteinsson, Gisli


    The work outlined here provides a comprehensive report and formative observations of the development and implementation of hypermedia resources for learning and teaching used in conjunction with a managed learning environment (MLE). These resources are used to enhance teaching and learning of an electronics module in product design at final year…

  11. A Study on Developing Evaluation Criteria for Electronic Resources in Evaluation Indicators of Libraries

    Noh, Younghee


    This study aimed to improve the current state of electronic resource evaluation in libraries. While the use of Web DB, e-book, e-journal, and other e-resources such as CD-ROM, DVD, and micro materials is increasing in libraries, their use is not comprehensively factored into the general evaluation of libraries and may diminish the reliability of…

  12. Managing Selection for Electronic Resources: Kent State University Develops a New System to Automate Selection

    Downey, Kay


    Kent State University has developed a centralized system that manages the communication and work related to the review and selection of commercially available electronic resources. It is an automated system that tracks the review process, provides selectors with price and trial information, and compiles reviewers' feedback about the resource. It…


    Ilyas Masudin


    Full Text Available This article attempts to schedule flow shop production using Nawaz Enscore Ham (NEH to schedule jobs machining. The objective of this paper is to minimize total makespan which could reduce total production costs. This paper is based on the case study where NEH is applied in scheduling jobs in machines and then compared with the existing machine’s scheduling. The algorithm of NEH is also used to reduce idle time of machines so that the utility or performances of the machine are maintained. The results of NEH simulation indicate that by applying NEH algorithm to scheduling machines for 10 jobs and 5 machines can reduce 2.5 per cent or 118 minutes of completing time of jobs. It also decreases total idle time of machines about 582 minutes compared with the existing scheduling.


    Ilyas Masudin


    Full Text Available This article attempts to schedule flow shop production using Nawaz Enscore Ham (NEH to schedule jobs machining. The objective of this paper is to minimize total makespan which could reduce total production costs. This paper is based on the case study where NEH is applied in scheduling jobs in machines and then compared with the existing machine’s scheduling. The algorithm of NEH is also used to reduce idle time of machines so that the utility or performances of the machine are maintained.  The results of NEH simulation indicate that by applying NEH algorithm to scheduling machines for 10 jobs and 5 machines can reduce 2.5 per cent or 118 minutes of completing time of jobs. It also decreases total idle time of machines about 582 minutes compared with the existing scheduling.

  15. The competition numbers of ternary Hamming graphs

    Park, Boram


    The competition graph of a digraph D is a graph which has the same vertex set as D and has an edge between x and y if and only if there exists a vertex v in D such that (x,v) and (y,v) are arcs of D. For any graph G, G together with sufficiently many isolated vertices is the competition graph of some acyclic digraph. The competition number k(G) of a graph G is defined to be the smallest number of such isolated vertices. In general, it is hard to compute the competition number k(G) for a graph G and it has been one of important research problems in the study of competition graphs to characterize a graph by its competition number. In this paper, we give the exact values of the competition numbers of ternary Hamming graphs.

  16. HAM/TSP and major depression: the role of age

    Ney Boa-Sorte


    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the role of demographic variables in the relationship between the presence of HAM/TSP and current major depression.Methods: It is a cross-sectional study of 108 HTLV-1 infected patients (47 with TSP/HAM resident of Salvador, Brazil. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, Brazilian Version 5 was used to evaluate the presence of depression. Prevalence ratios were used to describe relationship between HAM/TSP and depression. The HAM/TSP classification was carried out according to the criteria proposed by Castro-Costa et al.Results: Prevalence of depression was 37.96%. No association was observed between presence of HAM/TSP and diagnosis of current major depression in the global analysis of patients (PR: 0.94; CI 95%: 0.57-1.55. In the stratified analysis, however, greater prevalence of depres- sion was observed amongst individuals with HAM/TSP in the 18-39 age group (PR: 2.59; CI 95%: 1.36-4.95.Conclusion: Our findings suggest that age is an effect modifier in the relationship between HAM/TSP and depression, and this aspect should be considered in future studies on the topic.

  17. Where Do Electronic Books Fit in the College Research Arsenal of Resources?

    Barbier, Patricia


    Student use of electronic books has become an accepted supplement to traditional resources. Student use and satisfaction was monitored through an online course discussion board. Increased use of electronic books indicate this service is an accepted supplement to the print book collection.

  18. Where Do Electronic Books Fit in the College Research Arsenal of Resources?

    Barbier, Patricia


    Student use of electronic books has become an accepted supplement to traditional resources. Student use and satisfaction was monitored through an online course discussion board. Increased use of electronic books indicate this service is an accepted supplement to the print book collection.


    R. Melillo


    Full Text Available Goat farming is a very important resource, expecially in marginal and unlikely exploitable Mediterranean areas. They are extensively reared, mainly for milk production and for suckling kids meat. The meat from adult goats instead is not profitable, because of its very low commercial value. The transformation of the Sarda goat (native breed meat in ripened products (ham would contribute to safeguard the Sardinian goat supply chain. In the present study, in order to characterize the Sarda breed goat dry ham, five batches (L1–L5, processed in a traditional plant, were analyzed. The chemical-physical characteristics were determined in the following stages: fresh ham (MP, after salting (S, after drying (E and at the end of ripening (P. The microbiological parameters were determined in MP and in P. The dynamics of pH during processing were similar to those of cured meat products (in P: 6.58±0.26. The aw value decreased during the processing up to 0.79±0.03. Regarding the microbiological parameters, in P the coagulase negative Staphylococci were the prevalent flora (4.38±1.08 Log10 cfu/g, followed by the Lactic acid bacteria (2.46±1.00. The Moulds and Yeasts were not constant and the presence of pathogens was not highlighted.

  20. Lymphocyte alveolitis in HAM/TSP patients: preliminary report

    K. Mattos


    Full Text Available HTLV-I associated myelopathy has been described as a systemic disease characterized by manifestations in several organs outside the nervous system. We report inflammatory pulmonary involvement in patients with diagnosis of HAM.

  1. Identification and origin of odorous sulfur compounds in cooked ham

    Thomas, Caroline; Mercier, Frederic; Tournayre, Pascal; Martin, Jean-Luc; Berdagué, Jean-Louis


    The aim of this work was to identify and gain further knowledge on the origin of sulfur compounds present in the volatile fraction of cooked ham, and on their role in the aroma of this product. To this end, we performed analyses by one- and two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, and olfactometry. Among the odorant sulfur compounds identified, three furans present in trace amounts proved to have very intense odours responsible for the "meaty, cooked ham" notes of th...


    Dr. Lilibeth A. Roxas


    Full Text Available The potential of Native Chicken to be processed into palatable ham was conducted making use of Queen Pineapple (QP crude extract as one of the curing ingredients. Primarily, the main goal is to develop a protocol in the manufacture of processed native chicken ham and determine the organoleptic quality of native chicken ham product. The age of the bird and maturity of the fruit were considered for the best organoleptic quality of chicken ham. In this study, the combine injection and dry cure (CIDC method of the conventional formula was adopted. The desired amount of QP crude extract was first determined for the pump pickle. Curing salt was used for the control while different volume of pineapple crude extract was used in two treatments. The protocols for processing native chicken were developed using slaughter native chicken, and QP crude extract as curing ingredient for ham making. Color, flavor, juiciness and tenderness were among the desirable characteristics considered in this study. The sensory evaluation by trained panelists on QP-cured ham samples demonstrated comparable results. All the cooked meat samples were apparently acceptable to the sensory panel. The mean scores for flavor, juiciness and tenderness of meat samples have slight differences; however, they are not statistically significant. Indeed, native chicken can be processed into palatable ham with queen pineapple (Formosa variety extract that served as curing ingredient, flavor enhancer and tenderizer. Native Chicken QP-Cured ham is a commendable value-added product for both native chicken and queen pineapple by-products (butterball size.

  3. MULER: Building an Electronic Resource Management (ERM Solution at York University

    Aaron August Lupton


    Full Text Available Many university libraries now utilize an Electronic Resource Management (ERM system to assist with operations related to electronic resources. An ERM is a relational database containing information such as suppliers, costs, holdings, and renewal dates for electronic resources, both at the database and title levels. While commercial ERM products are widely available, some institutions are custom building their own ERM in- house. This article describes how York University in Toronto, Canada, did just that by building a system called Managing University Library Electronic Resources (MULER. The article details the background and history of how electronic resources were managed pre-MULER; why a new ERM was needed; the planning process; the current and innovative functions of MULER, including integration of MULER data into York University Libraries search and discovery layer, Vufind; subject tagging in MULER; new functions to be added; and lessons learned from the project. Positive and negative implications of choosing an in-house project over paying for a commercial product are also discussed.

  4. Elaboration and acceptability of restructured hams added with jabuticaba skin

    Ana Paula de Carvalho ALVES

    Full Text Available Abstract Jabuticaba skin flour (JSF, rich in antioxidants and fibre, was used in order to develop four restructured hams in different combinations with meat: 0% control – without the addition of JSF, with the addition of 0.5% JSF, 1.0% JSF and 1.5% JSF, meeting, therefore, the growing demand for meat products with functional appeal. Physicochemical characterizations and sensory analysis were performed, evaluating the impact of information on possible health benefits and the effect on storage. Restructured hams with JSF had higher contents of phenolic compounds; greater weight loss; a darker shade; texture profile with smaller parameters of stiffness, cohesiveness, adhesiveness, flexibility and chewiness (except the restructured ham with 0.5% JSF. Phenolic compounds, pH values, colour and TBARs did not differ with storage time, but were statistically different among JSF concentrations. Panellists preferred the restructured ham without JSF, however, the analysis of variance for overall aspect did not show a significant difference between the restructured ham “control” and those added with 0.5% and 1.0% JSF, after informing the panellists that they would possibly bring health benefits. It is concluded that it is possible to prepare and store restructured hams with JSF, at concentrations of 0.5% and 1.0% with good acceptance.

  5. Getting started with electronic projects

    Pretty, Bill


    This book is aimed at hobbyists with basic knowledge of electronics circuits. Whether you are a novice electronics project builder, a ham radio enthusiast, or a BeagleBone tinkerer, you will love this book.

  6. The National Site Licensing of Electronic Resources: An Institutional Perspective

    Xiaohua Zhu


    Full Text Available While academic libraries in most countries are struggling to negotiate with publishers and vendors individually or collaboratively via consortia, a few countries have experimented with a different model, national site licensing (NSL. Because NSL often involves government and large-scale collaboration, it has the potential to solve many problems in the complex licensing world. However, not many nations have adopted it. This study uses historical research approach and the comparative case study research method to explore the seemingly low level of adoption. The cases include the Canadian National Site Licensing Project (CNSLP, the United Kingdom’s National Electronic Site Licensing Initiative (NESLI, and the United States, which has not adopted NSL. The theoretical framework guiding the research design and data collection is W. Richard Scott’s institutional theory, which utilizes three supporting pillars—regulative, normative, and cultural-cognitive—to analyze institutional processes. In this study, the regulative pillar and the normative pillar of NSL adoption— an institutional construction and change—are examined. Data were collected from monographs, research articles, government documents, and relevant websites. Based on the analysis of these cases, a preliminary model is proposed for the adoption of NSL. The factors that support a country’s adoption of NSL include the need for new institutions, a centralized educational policy-making system and funding system, supportive political trends, and the tradition of cooperation. The factors that may prevent a country from adopting NSL include decentralized educational policy and funding, diversity and the large number of institutions, the concern for the “Big Deal,” and the concern for monopoly.

  7. Analytical Study of Usage of Electronic Information Resources at Pharmacopoeial Libraries in India

    Sunil Tyagi


    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to know the rate and purpose of the use of e-resource by the scientists at pharmacopoeial libraries in India. Among other things, this study examined the preferences of the scientists toward printed books and journals, electronic information resources, and pattern of using e-resources. Non-probability sampling specially accidental and purposive technique was applied in the collection of primary data through administration of user questionnaire. The sample respondents chosen for the study consists of principle scientific officer, senior scientific officer, scientific officer, and scientific assistant of different division of the laboratories, namely, research and development, pharmaceutical chemistry, pharmacovigilance, pharmacology, pharmacogonosy, and microbiology. The findings of the study reveal the personal experiences and perceptions they have had on practice and research activity using e-resource. The major findings indicate that of the total anticipated participants, 78% indicated that they perceived the ability to use computer for electronic information resources. The data analysis shows that all the scientists belonging to the pharmacopoeial libraries used electronic information resources to address issues relating to drug indexes and compendia, monographs, drugs obtained through online databases, e-journals, and the Internet sources—especially polices by regulatory agencies, contacts, drug promotional literature, and standards.

  8. Connecting knowledge resources to the veterinary electronic health record: opportunities for learning at point of care.

    Alpi, Kristine M; Burnett, Heidi A; Bryant, Sheila J; Anderson, Katherine M


    Electronic health records (EHRs) provide clinical learning opportunities through quick and contextual linkage of patient signalment, symptom, and diagnosis data with knowledge resources covering tests, drugs, conditions, procedures, and client instructions. This paper introduces the EHR standards for linkage and the partners-practitioners, content publishers, and software developers-necessary to leverage this possibility in veterinary medicine. The efforts of the American Animal Hospital Association (AAHA) Electronic Health Records Task Force to partner with veterinary practice management systems to improve the use of controlled vocabulary is a first step in the development of standards for sharing knowledge at the point of care. The Veterinary Medical Libraries Section (VMLS) of the Medical Library Association's Task Force on Connecting the Veterinary Health Record to Information Resources compiled a list of resources of potential use at point of care. Resource details were drawn from product Web sites and organized by a metric used to evaluate medical point-of-care resources. Additional information was gathered from questions sent by e-mail and follow-up interviews with two practitioners, a hospital network, two software developers, and three publishers. Veterinarians with electronic records use a variety of information resources that are not linked to their software. Systems lack the infrastructure to use the Infobutton standard that has been gaining popularity in human EHRs. While some veterinary knowledge resources are digital, publisher sites and responses do not indicate a Web-based linkage of veterinary resources with EHRs. In order to facilitate lifelong learning and evidence-based practice, veterinarians and educators of future practitioners must demonstrate to veterinary practice software developers and publishers a clinically-based need to connect knowledge resources to veterinary EHRs.

  9. Improving access to information – defining core electronic resources for research and wellbeing

    Kristiina Hormia-Poutanen


    Full Text Available Research and innovation are listed as the key success factors for the future development of Finnish prosperity and the Finnish economy. The Finnish libraries have developed a scenario to support this vision. University, polytechnic and research institute libraries as well as public libraries have defined the core electronic resources necessary to improve access to information in Finland. The primary aim of this work has been to provide information and justification for central funding for electronic resources to support the national goals. The secondary aim is to help with the reallocation of existing central funds to better support access to information.

  10. Elektronik Bilgi Kaynaklarının Seçimi / Selection of Electronic Information Resources

    Pınar Al


    Full Text Available For many years, library users have used only from the printed media in order to get the information that they have needed. Today with the widespread use of the Web and the addition of electronic information resources to library collections, the use of information in the electronic environment as well as in printed media is started to be used. In time, such types of information resources as, electronic journals, electronic books, electronic encyclopedias, electronic dictionaries and electronic theses have been added to library collections. In this study, selection criteria that can be used for electronic information resources are discussed and suggestions are provided for libraries that try to select electronic information resources for their collections.

  11. HAM-D17 and HAM-D6 sensitivity to change in relation to desvenlafaxine dose and baseline depression severity in major depressive disorder

    Bech, P; Boyer, P; Germain, J-M;


    -blind, placebo-controlled, 8-week trials of fixed-dose desvenlafaxine (50, 100, 200 or 400 mg/d) for major depressive disorder. HAM-D (17) and HAM-D (6) effect sizes were assessed. RESULTS: HAM-D (17) effect sizes were negative (favoured placebo) for higher desvenlafaxine doses (200-400 mg/d) at week 1, but were......INTRODUCTION: This retrospective analysis compared sensitivity to change on the 17-item and 6-item Hamilton Rating Scales For Depression (HAM-D (17) and HAM-D (6), respectively) in relation to antidepressant dose and baseline depression severity. METHODS: Data were derived from 6 randomized, double...

  12. Changes of the Flavor in Jinhua Ham Before and After Cooking%金华火腿烹调前后风味的变化

    党亚丽; 张中建; 闫小伟; 吴学谦


    Combination of the electronic nose and sensory analysis, the effect of three traditional cooking methods, steaming(B), boiling(C) and stewed ham soup(S) on the volatiles and flavor profile in Jinhua ham was analyzed and e-valuated. Through the analysis of Jinhua ham steamed for lh(Bl), 2 h (B2) and 3h(B3), cooked for 1h(C1), 2h(C2) and 3h(C3) and boiled for 1h(S1)2h (S2) and 3h(S3), to study the changes of the flavor profile before and after cooking. Electronic nose test showed that the different cooking methods, cooking time on the volatile flavor compounds of Jinhua ham had a significant impact, steamed 1 h, boiled 1 h ham and cook for 2 h and ham soup flavor characteristics close to the original ham, steamed 2 h, 3 h, boiled the 2 h ham and cook for 1 h, 3 h ham soup flavor and flavor differences of the original ham, sensory evaluation also had similar results. Jinhua ham cooking pickled flavor, fragrant oils and fats, meaty, fragrance, acidity thicker, cooked ham, while the fragrant grease, meat, burnt smell, barbecue increased, the smell of boiled ham was meaty, oil incense and bacon flavor; the smell of boiled ham soup was meaty and burnt smell.%将电子鼻测定结果与感官分析相结合,分析金华火腿3种传统烹调方式:蒸1 h(B1)、2 h(B2)和3h(B3);煮1 h(C1)、2 h(C2)和3 h(C3)及煮1 h(S1)、2 h(S2)和3 h(S3)火腿汤的风味轮廓和风味物质的变化,研究烹调前、后火腿风味的变化情况.电子鼻测定结果表明:不同的加工方式、加工时间对金华火腿的挥发性风味有显著影响,蒸1h、煮1h的火腿和煮2h的火腿汤的风味特征与原火腿接近,而蒸2h和3h,煮2h的火腿和煮1h,3h的火腿汤的风味与原火腿风味差异较大,由感官评价也得出相似的结果.金华火腿烹调前腌制味、油脂香、肉香、清香、酸味更浓,烹调后油脂香、肉香、焦味、烤肉香的评分升高.蒸后火腿的主要气味是肉香、烤肉香和油脂香,煮后火腿的主要气

  13. Using Electronic Information Resources Centers by Faculty Members at University Education: Competencies, Needs and Challenges

    Abouelenein, Yousri


    This study aimed at investigating the factual situation of electronic information resources centers to faculty members at university education. Competencies that faculty members should possess regarding this issue were determined. Also their needs for (scientific research skills and teaching) were assessed. In addition, problems that hinder their…

  14. Localising versus standardising electronic human resource management: complexities and tensions between HRM and IT departments

    Tate, Mary; Furtmueller, E.; Wilderom, C.P.M.


    In this paper, we provide an analysis of the complexities involved during global e-HRM (Electronic Human Resource Management) implementation. We present findings from a case study on the challenge of global integration versus local responsiveness of e-HRM systems. We take a local site lens, analysin

  15. Use of Electronic Information Resources among Research Scholars in the Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan

    Amjad, Anam; Ahmed, Shamshad; Bin Naeem, Salman


    This study examined the use of electronic resources among academic scholars of The Islamia University of Bahawalpur (IUB), Punjab, Pakistan. A quantitative survey was found most convenient and useful for this study. The total population of the study was 169 research students in IUB. The response rate was 79% and 133 utilizable responses were coded…

  16. The Acquisition and Management of Electronic Resources: Can Use Justify Cost?

    Koehn, Shona L.; Hawamdeh, Suliman


    As library collections increasingly become digital, libraries are faced with many challenges regarding the acquisition and management of electronic resources. Some of these challenges include copyright and fair use, the first-sale doctrine, licensing versus ownership, digital preservation, long-term archiving, and, most important, the issue of…

  17. 电子资源的编目策略%Cataloging Strategies of Electronic Resources



    Compared with traditional paper resources, electronic resources have following characteristics which determine different cataloging strategies from paper resources. These characteristics are huge quantity, updating rapidly, coexistence of a variety of manifestations. The source data of electronic resources is usually provided by the database agent. The cataloging of electronic resources is based on the Chapter IX of Anglo-American Cataloging Rules, Library of Congress Rule Interpretations and rules of Cooperative Online Serials. There are two major cataloging methods for electronic resources abroad, they are single record approach and separate record approach. Peking University Library chooses the latter method and batches cataloging automatically using the source data.%电子资源吲传统纸质资源相比,具有数量大、更新快、多种载体表现并行等特点,且大部分出版机构能够提供数据源数据。这些特点决定了.电子资源应采取与纸质文献不同的编目策略。电子资源编日的主要依据是《英美编日条例》的第9章、美国《国会图书馆条例解释》及全美期刊合作编目计划的规定。对于电子资源的编目,国外有单一记录编目法和分散记录编目法。北京大学图书馆采用后者,同时利用数据源数据批舒自动编目。

  18. Power resource management and low-power remote wireless RF electronics

    Jannson, Tomasz; Forrester, Thomas; Degrood, Kevin; Lee, Kang; Gans, Eric; Walter, Kevin


    Battery power resource management becomes a critical issue in the case of self-powered remote wireless RF electronics, where the basic parameter is time of system operation before battery recharging or battery replacement. In such cases, very often related to physical protection against antitampering (AT), proper theoretical modeling of a battery driven power supply in the context of a given digital electronic system is of utmost importance. Such modeling should include various types of batteries (primary and secondary), various self-discharge processes in different temperatures, and even energy harvesting, the latter to supply power for long-term content, low-power electronic subsystems. In this paper we analyze simple modeling of resource power management, including variations of all of these parameters and energy harvesting.

  19. Ham Sandwich with Mayo: A Stronger Conclusion to the Classical Ham Sandwich Theorem

    Elton, John H


    The conclusion of the classical ham sandwich theorem of Banach and Steinhaus may be strengthened: there always exists a common bisecting hyperplane that touches each of the sets, that is, intersects the closure of each set. Hence, if the knife is smeared with mayonnaise, a cut can always be made so that it will not only simultaneously bisect each of the ingredients, but it will also spread mayonnaise on each. A discrete analog of this theorem says that n finite nonempty sets in n-dimensional Euclidean space can always be simultaneously bisected by a single hyperplane that contains at least one point in each set. More generally, for n compactly-supported positive finite Borel measures in Euclidean n-space, there is always a hyperplane that bisects each of the measures and intersects the support of each measure.

  20. Identifying and evaluating electronic learning resources for use in adult-gerontology nurse practitioner education.

    Thompson, Hilaire J; Belza, Basia; Baker, Margaret; Christianson, Phyllis; Doorenbos, Ardith; Nguyen, Huong


    Enhancing existing curricula to meet newly published adult-gerontology advanced practice registered nurse (APRN) competencies in an efficient manner presents a challenge to nurse educators. Incorporating shared, published electronic learning resources (ELRs) in existing or new courses may be appropriate in order to assist students in achieving competencies. The purposes of this project were to (a) identify relevant available ELR for use in enhancing geriatric APRN education and (b) to evaluate the educational utility of identified ELRs based on established criteria. A multilevel search strategy was used. Two independent team members reviewed identified ELR against established criteria to ensure utility. Only resources meeting all criteria were retained. Resources were found for each of the competency areas and included formats such as podcasts, Web casts, case studies, and teaching videos. In many cases, resources were identified using supplemental strategies and not through traditional search or search of existing geriatric repositories. Resources identified have been useful to advanced practice educators in improving lecture and seminar content in a particular topic area and providing students and preceptors with additional self-learning resources. Addressing sustainability within geriatric APRN education is critical for sharing of best practices among educators and for sustainability of teaching and related resources. © 2014.

  1. Salt distribution in dry-cured ham measured by computed tomography and image analysis

    Vestergaard, Christian Sylvest; Erbou, Søren G.; Thauland, T.


    Forty-seven hams were scanned four times by computed tomography (CT) while being manufactured into dry-cured hams. An image-processing algorithm measured CT values in the lean part of the hams and provided line profiles reflecting the magnitude and spatial location of salt gradients. At the end...... of manufacturing, seven entire hams were dissected and the salt content of the lean part determined. Likewise, in the remaining 40 hams, the lean meat of the slices corresponding to the CT images was dissected, analyzed chemically for NaCl and compared to the CT value. The salt content of entire dry-cured hams...... section were demonstrated. Line profiles illustrating the combined salt tribution and dehydration within a ham related to the physical characteristics of the ham as well as to the manufacturing process. These findings reveal that the effects of altered manufacturing practices can be followed non...

  2. Salt distribution in dry-cured ham measured by computed tomography and image analysis

    Vestergaard, Christian Sylvest; Erbou, Søren G.; Thauland, T.;


    Forty-seven hams were scanned four times by computed tomography (CT) while being manufactured into dry-cured hams. An image-processing algorithm measured CT values in the lean part of the hams and provided line profiles reflecting the magnitude and spatial location of salt gradients. At the end...... of manufacturing, seven entire hams were dissected and the salt content of the lean part determined. Likewise, in the remaining 40 hams, the lean meat of the slices corresponding to the CT images was dissected, analyzed chemically for NaCl and compared to the CT value. The salt content of entire dry-cured hams...... section were demonstrated. Line profiles illustrating the combined salt tribution and dehydration within a ham related to the physical characteristics of the ham as well as to the manufacturing process. These findings reveal that the effects of altered manufacturing practices can be followed non...

  3. Effect of cooking bag and netting packaging on the quality of pork ham during water cooking.

    Cheng, Qiaofen; Sun, Da-Wen


    As a preliminary test for combining water cooking with vacuum cooling in soup of pork ham, three package treatments were designed to study the effect of cooking bag and netting on the quality of water cooked ham, i.e. ham cooked with a cooking bag and without a cooking bag (single netting and double netting). For treatments without a cooking bag, the results indicated that there was no significant superiority of ham cooked with double netting compared with ham cooked with single netting on the processing efficiency and quality characteristics. Although the hams cooked with a bag performed better in some chemical retentions and pigment, the water contents were significantly lower than those hams cooked in single netting (P0.05). By considering the safety, convenience, cost, and the recovery effect on the quality changes of ham during vacuum cooling in soup, cooking with single netting is a better choice for future research.

  4. The Communication Complexity of the Hamming Distance Problem

    Huang, Wei; Shi, Yaoyun; Zhang, Shengyu; Zhu, Yufan


    We investigate the randomized and quantum communication complexity of the Hamming Distance problem, which is to determine if the Hamming distance between two n-bit strings is no less than a threshold d. We prove a quantum lower bound of \\Omega(d) qubits in the general interactive model with shared prior entanglement. We also construct a classical protocol of O(d \\log d) bits in the restricted Simultaneous Message Passing model, improving previous protocols of O(d^2) bits (A. C.-C. Yao, Procee...

  5. PM1 steganographic algorithm using ternary Hamming Code

    Kamil Kaczyński


    Full Text Available PM1 algorithm is a modification of well-known LSB steganographic algorithm. It has increased resistance to selected steganalytic attacks and increased embedding efficiency. Due to its uniqueness, PM1 algorithm allows us to use of larger alphabet of symbols, making it possible to further increase steganographic capacity. In this paper, we present the modified PM1 algorithm which utilizies so-called syndrome coding and ternary Hamming code. The modified algorithm has increased embedding efficiency, which means fewer changes introduced to carrier and increased capacity.[b]Keywords[/b]: steganography, linear codes, PM1, LSB, ternary Hamming code

  6. Muscle characteristics only partially explain color variations in fresh hams.

    Stufft, K; Elgin, J; Patterson, B; Matarneh, S K; Preisser, R; Shi, H; England, E M; Scheffler, T L; Mills, E W; Gerrard, D E


    Fresh hams display significant lean color variation that persists through further processing and contributes to a less desirable cured product. In an attempt to understand the underlying cause of this color disparity, we evaluated the differences in muscle characteristics and energy metabolites across semimembranosus (SM) muscles differing in color variation. The L* (lightness) and a* (redness) values were highest and lowest (Pmuscle while the ultimate pH was the lowest (Pmuscle may contribute to ham color variation but suggest other factors may mitigate or exacerbate these variances. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Titon Slamet Kurnia


    Tulisan ini membahas isu proses internalisasi standar HAM internasional dalam forum domestik melalui mekanisme pengujian konstitusionalitas undang-undang oleh MKRI. Tulisan ini berargumen bahwa MKRI seyogianya mempertimbangkan standar HAM internasional dalam menguji konstitusionalitas undangundang berdasarkan Bab XA UUD NRI 1945. Argumen itu didasarkan pada preskripsi bahwa standar HAM internasional berlaku/mengikat kepada negara dan mensyaratkannya untuk menyesuaikan undangundang beserta tindakan pejabatnya dengan kaidah HAM internasional tersebut

  8. Library Electronic Resource Sharing Among Liberal Arts Colleges: ACS Palladian Alliance Project

    Wenxian Zhang


    Full Text Available 無Effective electronic resource sharing is critical to library information services of the 1990s. Explosion of data and increased cost of information force libraries to work together, and technological advancements present the library service profession a platform for resource sharing. The Palladian Alliance Project of the Associated Colleges of the South is designed to provides ACS member institutions an effective means to enhance information access for their faculty and students, and achieve significant cost containment in the years to come.

  9. Availability, Level of Use and Constraints to Use of Electronic Resources by Law Lecturers in Public Universities in Nigeria

    Amusa, Oyintola Isiaka; Atinmo, Morayo


    (Purpose) This study surveyed the level of availability, use and constraints to use of electronic resources among law lecturers in Nigeria. (Methodology) Five hundred and fifty-two law lecturers were surveyed and four hundred and forty-two responded. (Results) Data analysis revealed that the level of availability of electronic resources for the…

  10. 9 CFR 319.762 - Ham spread, tongue spread, and similar products.


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ham spread, tongue spread, and similar products. 319.762 Section 319.762 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Salads and Meat Spreads § 319.762 Ham spread, tongue spread, and similar products. “Ham Spread,” “Tongue...

  11. Ham particle size influences saltiness perception in flans.

    Emorine, M; Septier, C; Thomas-Danguin, T; Salles, C


    One major issue of the food industry is reducing sodium content while maintaining food acceptability and liking. Despite extensive research in this field, little has been published on real complex food products. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the size of particles, a parameter easily adjusted in food processing, could influence the salty taste of low-salt food product. We thus evaluated the effect of ham particle sizes (4 levels, including a zero level) on salt perception and the consumer liking of flans varying in their overall salt concentrations (low- and high-salt content). Two consumer panels, composed of 107 and 77 subjects, rated, respectively, the saltiness of and liking for the developed flans (8 samples). The outcomes of this study indicated first, that the addition of ham to flans increased the salty taste perception and second, that a decrease in ham particle size (ground ham) increased the perceived saltiness. Moreover, low- and high-salt flans were equally liked, demonstrating that food manufacturers could reduce the salt contents (here, by over 15%) while maintaining consumer acceptability through the manipulation of the size of the salt-providing particles.

  12. On the Feng-Rao bound for generalized hamming weights

    Geil, Hans Olav; Thommesen, Christian


    The Feng-Rao bound gives good estimates of the minimum distance of a large class of codes. In this work we are concerned with the problem of how to extend the Feng-Rao bound so that it deals with all the generalized Hamming weights. The problem was solved by Heijnen and Pellikaan in [7] for a lar...

  13. Potential resource and toxicity impacts from metals in waste electronic devices.

    Woo, Seung H; Lee, Dae Sung; Lim, Seong-Rin


    As a result of the continuous release of new electronic devices, existing electronic devices are quickly made obsolete and rapidly become electronic waste (e-waste). Because e-waste contains a variety of metals, information about those metals with the potential for substantial environmental impact should be provided to manufacturers, recyclers, and disposers to proactively reduce this impact. This study assesses the resource and toxicity (i.e., cancer, noncancer, and ecotoxicity) potentials of various heavy metals commonly found in e-waste from laptop computers, liquid-crystal display (LCD) monitors, LCD TVs, plasma TVs, color cathode ray tube (CRT) TVs, and cell phones and then evaluates such potentials using life cycle impact-based methods. Resource potentials derive primarily from Cu, Sb, Ag, and Pb. Toxicity potentials derive primarily from Pb, Ni, and Hg for cancer toxicity; from Pb, Hg, Zn, and As for noncancer toxicity; and from Cu, Pb, Hg, and Zn for ecotoxicity. Therefore, managing these heavy metals should be a high priority in the design, recycling, and disposal stages of electronic devices.

  14. Model of e-learning with electronic educational resources of new generation

    A. V. Loban


    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: improving of scientific and methodical base of the theory of the е-learning of variability. Methods used: conceptual and logical modeling of the е-learning of variability process with electronic educational resource of new generation and system analysis of the interconnection of the studied subject area, methods, didactics approaches and information and communication technologies means. Results: the formalization complex model of the е-learning of variability with electronic educational resource of new generation is developed, conditionally decomposed into three basic components: the formalization model of the course in the form of the thesaurusclassifier (“Author of e-resource”, the model of learning as management (“Coordination. Consultation. Control”, the learning model with the thesaurus-classifier (“Student”. Model “Author of e-resource” allows the student to achieve completeness, high degree of didactic elaboration and structuring of the studied material in triples of variants: modules of education information, practical task and control tasks; the result of the student’s (author’s of e-resource activity is the thesaurus-classifier. Model of learning as management is based on the principle of personal orientation of learning in computer environment and determines the logic of interaction between the lecturer and the student when determining the triple of variants individually for each student; organization of a dialogue between the lecturer and the student for consulting purposes; personal control of the student’s success (report generation and iterative search for the concept of the class assignment in the thesaurus-classifier before acquiring the required level of training. Model “Student” makes it possible to concretize the learning tasks in relation to the personality of the student and to the training level achieved; the assumption of the lecturer about the level of training of a

  15. Phosphine fumigation and residues in dry-cured ham in commercial applications.

    Zhao, Y; Abbar, S; Phillips, T W; Schilling, M W


    Dry-cured hams often become infested with ham mites (Tyrophagus putrescentiae) during the aging process. Methyl bromide has been used to fumigate dry cured ham plants and is the only available fumigant that is effective at controlling ham mite infestations. However, methyl bromide will eventually be phased out of all industries. This research was designed to determine the efficacy of phosphine fumigation at controlling ham mites and red-legged beetles and any impact of phosphine fumigation on the sensory quality and safety of dry cured hams. Fumigation trials were conducted in simulated ham aging houses and commercial ham aging houses. Mite postembryonic mortality was 99.8% in the simulated aging houses and >99.9% in commercial aging houses three weeks post fumigation. Sensory tests with trained panelists indicated that there were no detectable differences (P > 0.05) between phosphine fumigated and control hams. In addition, residual phosphine concentration was below the legal limit of 0.01 ppm in ham slices that were taken from phosphine fumigated hams.

  16. Development of a ready to eat fish based product using seafood industry byproducts: FisHam

    Luís Raimundo


    Full Text Available Over the last years, there has been an increased demand from consumers for safe, nutritionally balanced and convenient food products. These trends are contributing towards an increasing demand for fishery products which affects fishery resources worldwide, compromising stocks of many fish species. The technological enhancement of the byproducts of fish industries or fish species of low commercial value, transforming these materials in products with high nutritional potential will simultaneously contribute towards fulfill present consumer trends and to a more sustainable marine resources management. The present work develops the product concept and prototype formulation of a ready to eat omega 3 enriched product using raw material trimmings of fish of low commercial value. The product developed, FisHam is a ham-like refrigerated product, which can be slice and added to sandwiches or diced and added to salads. Product concept was validated with a questionnaire, in which it was obtained a positive global acceptance by 86% of the inquired people. Sensory analysis of the product revealed its good acceptability, with an average global appreciation of “enjoyed moderately” and with 58% of the pannel stating the intention of buying the product. Fish oil addition had no impact on sensory acceptance. Regarding the physicochemical analysis, the selected formulation showed a content of protein of 7,08%, low lipid content of 3,74%, medium content of humidity of 61% and low caloric value of 164 calories per 100 grams. The color, textural attributes, humidity content and microbiological parameters were monitored during 10 days of refrigerated storage at 5ºC. On the microbiological level, the product showed the absence of enterobacteries and psychrotrophics in compliance with legal microbiological criteria set for ready to eat products. It can be concluded that this new product can be considered an alternative product to meat ham and other meat products in

  17. [Use of internet and electronic resources among Spanish intensivist physicians. First national survey].

    Gómez-Tello, V; Latour-Pérez, J; Añón Elizalde, J M; Palencia-Herrejón, E; Díaz-Alersi, R; De Lucas-García, N


    Estimate knowledge and use habits of different electronic resources in a sample of Spanish intensivists: Internet, E-mail, distribution lists, and use of portable electronic devices. Self-applied questionnaire. A 50-question questionnaire was distributed among Spanish intensivists through the hospital marketing delegates of a pharmaceutical company and of electronic forums. A total of 682 questionnaires were analyzed (participation: 74%). Ninety six percent of those surveyed used Internet individually: 67% admitted training gap. Internet was the second source of clinical consultations most used (61%), slightly behind consultation to colleagues (65%). The pages consulted most were bibliographic databases (65%) and electronic professional journals (63%), with limited use of Evidence Based Medicine pages (19%). Ninety percent of those surveyed used e-mail regularly in the practice of their profession, although 25% admitted that were not aware of its possibilities. The use of E-mail decreased significantly with increase in age. A total of 62% of the intensivists used distribution lists. Of the rest, 42% were not aware of its existence and 32% admitted they had insufficient training to handle them. Twenty percent of those surveyed had portable electronic devices and 64% considered it useful, basically due to its rapid consultation at bedside. Female gender was a negative predictive factor of its use (OR 0.35; 95% CI 0.2-0.63; p=0.0002). A large majority of the Spanish intensivists use Internet and E-mail. E-mail lists and use of portable devices are still underused resources. There are important gaps in training and infrequent use of essential pages. There are specific groups that require directed educational policies.

  18. Review of material recovery from used electric and electronic equipment-alternative options for resource conservation.

    Friege, Henning


    For waste from electric and electronic equipment, the WEEE Directive stipulates the separate collection of electric and electronic waste. As to new electric and electronic devices, the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive bans the use of certain chemicals dangerous for man and environment. From the implementation of the WEEE directive, many unsolved problems have been documented: poor collection success, emission of dangerous substances during collection and recycling, irretrievable loss of valuable metals among others. As to RoHS, data from the literature show a satisfying success. The problems identified in the process can be reduced to some basic dilemmas at the borders between waste management, product policy and chemical safety. The objectives of the WEEE Directive and the specific targets for use and recycling of appliances are not consistent. There is no focus on scarce resources. Extended producer responsibility is not sufficient to guarantee sustainable waste management. Waste management reaches its limits due to problems of implementation but also due to physical laws. A holistic approach is necessary looking at all branch points and sinks in the stream of used products and waste from electric and electronic equipment. This may be done with respect to the general rules for sustainable management of material streams covering the three dimensions of sustainable policy. The relationships between the players in the field of electric and electronic devices have to be taken into account. Most of the problems identified in the implementation process will not be solved by the current amendment of the WEEE Directive.

  19. Aufwand und Nutzen des Electronic Resource Management Systems RMS an der UB Kassel

    Tobias Pohlmann


    The university library of Kassel therefore uses SemperTool’s web-based electronic resource management system RMS. This paper presents the functionality of this system and makes an estimate of the expenditure of work necessary to enter all relevant information about licensed databases, e-book and e-journal packages with the corresponding individual resources. It also describes existing and projected tools for analysis and evaluation, which are decisive for the usefulness of such a system, and concludes with the satisfaction reached at the university library of Kassel. These experiences may help other libraries to decide whether or not to introduce RMS or a comparable system.


    Maria D. Tukalo


    Full Text Available This article contains material of some modern electronic educational resources that can be used via the Internet to support the modern chemistry classes in specialized school. It was drawn attention to the educational chemical experiments as means of knowledge; simulated key motivational characteristics to enhance students interest for learning subjects, their cognitive and practical activity in the formation of self-reliance and self-creative; commented forecasts for creating of conditions to enhance the creative potential of students in a modern learning environment.

  1. Cavity approach to sphere packing in Hamming space.

    Ramezanpour, A; Zecchina, R


    In this paper we study the hard sphere packing problem in the Hamming space by the cavity method. We show that both the replica symmetric and the replica symmetry breaking approximations give maximum rates of packing that are asymptotically the same as the lower bound of Gilbert and Varshamov. Consistently with known numerical results, the replica symmetric equations also suggest a crystalline solution, where for even diameters the spheres are more likely to be found in one of the subspaces (even or odd) of the Hamming space. These crystalline packings can be generated by a recursive algorithm which finds maximum packings in an ultrametric space. Finally, we design a message passing algorithm based on the cavity equations to find dense packings of hard spheres. Known maximum packings are reproduced efficiently in nontrivial ranges of dimensions and number of spheres. © 2012 American Physical Society

  2. Childhood-onset HAM/TSP with progressive cognitive impairment.

    Zorzi, Giovanna; Mancuso, Roberta; Nardocci, Nardo; Farina, Laura; Guerini, Franca Rosa; Ferrante, Pasquale


    HTLV-I associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is a chronic myelopathy, usually with adult-onset. Very few cases of childhood-onset have been described, most presenting with progressive paraparesis and sphincteric disturbances as in the adult form. Here we report a young male with childhood-onset of HAM/TSP and progressive cognitive and behavioral disturbances. A serological screening revealed HTLV-I infection, confirmed by Western Immunoblotting analysis. Molecular characterization of amplified HTLV-I proviral DNA has been performed both in the patient and his mother by LTR sequence analysis, and HLA genotype inheritance was evaluated. Our case indicates the possibility that cognitive dysfunctions may be one manifestation of HTLV-I infection in childhood.

  3. Concept Association and Hierarchical Hamming Clustering Model in Text Classification

    Su Gui-yang; Li Jian-hua; Ma Ying-hua; Li Sheng-hong; Yin Zhong-hang


    We propose two models in this paper. The concept of association model is put forward to obtain the co-occurrence relationships among keywords in the documents and the hierarchical Hamming clustering model is used to reduce the dimensionality of the category feature vector space which can solve the problem of the extremely high dimensionality of the documents' feature space. The results of experiment indicate that it can obtain the co-occurrence relations among keywords in the documents which promote the recall of classification system effectively. The hierarchical Hamming clustering model can reduce the dimensionality of the category feature vector efficiently, the size of the vector space is only about 10% of the primary dimensionality.

  4. Salt distribution in dry-cured ham measured by computed tomography and image analysis.

    Vestergaard, Christian; Erbou, Søren G; Thauland, Torunn; Adler-Nissen, Jens; Berg, Per


    Forty-seven hams were scanned four times by computed tomography (CT) while being manufactured into dry-cured hams. An image-processing algorithm measured CT values in the lean part of the hams and provided line profiles reflecting the magnitude and spatial location of salt gradients. At the end of manufacturing, seven entire hams were dissected and the salt content of the lean part determined. Likewise, in the remaining 40 hams, the lean meat of the slices corresponding to the CT images was dissected, analyzed chemically for NaCl and compared to the CT value. The salt content of entire dry-cured hams correlated well (r(2)=0.94) to the CT value of a 10 mm section located at the center of femur bone, perpendicular to the length axis of the hams. In the same position, significant correlations between the CT values before (r(2)=0.71) and after (r(2)=0.80) the ageing period and actual chemical analysis of the same section were demonstrated. Line profiles illustrating the combined salt distribution and dehydration within a ham related to the physical characteristics of the ham as well as to the manufacturing process. These findings reveal that the effects of altered manufacturing practices can be followed non-invasively, while hams are still in production. Computed tomography combined with appropriate image analysis offers advantages as a non-invasive tool in both research and product development.

  5. Prediction of lean and fat composition in swine carcasses from ham area measurements with image analysis.

    Jia, Jiancheng; Schinckel, Allan P; Forrest, John C; Chen, Way; Wagner, Jeffrey R


    Video images of ham cross-sections were recorded from 71 pork carcasses (ranging in weight from 72 to 119kg). Three sets of prediction equations were developed to estimate pork carcass lean and fat composition from video image analysis (VIA) of ham cross-sectional area measurements, 10th rib back fat depth (TENFAT) and hot carcass weight (HCKg). Carcass data of dissected lean and fat in the four primal cuts (ham, loin, Boston button and picnic shoulder) were used as dependent variables in establishing regression equations. The first set of equations combined VIA ham measurements and total ham weight (HTKg). Regression models containing the single variable HTKg times ham percentage lean area (Vol. 1) or HTKg times ham percentage fat area (Vol. 2) accounted for 88% and 68% of the variation in total carcass lean weight (CLKg) and total carcass fat weight (CFKg) from the right side of each carcass, respectively. The second set of equations combined VIA ham measurements and TENFAT (cm). Multiple regression models involving TENFAT, Vol. 1, and Vol. 2 accounted for 91% and 90% of the variation in CLKg and CFKg. The third set of equations used VIA ham measurements, TENFAT and HCKg. Carcass lean weight was best predicted by HCKg, TENFAT, and ham lean area (HLA) (R(2)=.92). Carcass fat weight was best predicted by HCKg, TENFAT, and Vol. 2 (R(2)=.91). Overall correlations showed a high association between Vol. 1 and CLKg (r=.94, PVol. 2 and CFKg (r=.83, P<.0001). Ham lean area was related to CLKg (r=.74, P<.0001) and ham fat area to CFKg (r=.81, P<.0001). The results of this study indicated video image analysis of ham cross-section slices combined with backfat depth at the 10th rib can be used for accurate estimation of total carcass lean or fat composition.

  6. Teachers' Link to Electronic Resources in the Library Media Center: A Local Study of Awareness, Knowledge, and Influence

    Williams, Teresa D.; Grimble, Bonnie J.; Irwin, Marilyn


    High school students often use online databases and the Internet in the school library media center (SLMC) to complete teachers' assignments. This case study used a survey to assess teachers' awareness of electronic resources, and to determine whether their directions influence student use of these resources in the SLMC. Participants were teachers…

  7. Impact of Knowledge Resources Linked to an Electronic Health Record on Frequency of Unnecessary Tests and Treatments

    Goodman, Kenneth; Grad, Roland; Pluye, Pierre; Nowacki, Amy; Hickner, John


    Introduction: Electronic knowledge resources have the potential to rapidly provide answers to clinicians' questions. We sought to determine clinicians' reasons for searching these resources, the rate of finding relevant information, and the perceived clinical impact of the information they retrieved. Methods: We asked general internists, family…

  8. Timing and hamming weight attacks on minimal cost encryption scheme

    YUAN Zheng; WANG Wei; ZHANG Hua; WEN Qiao-yan


    The timing and Hamming weight attacks on the data encryption standard (DES) cryptosystem for minimal cost encryption scheme is presented in this article. In the attack, timing information on encryption processing is used to select and collect effective plaintexts for attack. Then the collected plaintexts are utilized to infer the expanded key differences of the secret key, from which most bits of the expanded secret key are recovered. The remaining bits of the expanded secret key are deduced by the correlations between Hamming weight values of the input of the S-boxes in the first-round. Finally, from the linear relation of the encryption time and the secret key's Hamming weight, the entire 56 bits of the secret key are thoroughly recovered. Using the attack, the minimal cost encryption scheme can be broken with 223 known plaintexts and about 221 calculations at a success rate a>99%. The attack has lower computing complexity, and the method is more effective than other previous methods.

  9. Identification and origin of odorous sulfur compounds in cooked ham.

    Thomas, Caroline; Mercier, Frédéric; Tournayre, Pascal; Martin, Jean-Luc; Berdagué, Jean-Louis


    The aim of this work was to identify and gain further knowledge on the origin of sulfur compounds present in the volatile fraction of cooked ham, and on their role in the aroma of this product. To this end, we performed analyses by one- and two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, and olfactometry. Among the odorant sulfur compounds identified, three furans present in trace amounts proved to have very intense odours responsible for the "meaty, cooked ham" notes of this pork product. They were 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-methyl-3-(methyldithio)furan and bis(2-methyl-3-furyl) disulphide. Addition of thiamine or cysteine also enabled us to study the effect of these odour precursors on the formation of odorant furans during the cooking of ham. The results revealed a direct link between the thermal degradation of thiamine and the formation of these compounds. By contrast, addition of cysteine in the presence of fructose or xylose did not appreciably increase their production.

  10. Reducing Clinical Trial Monitoring Resource Allocation and Costs Through Remote Access to Electronic Medical Records

    Uren, Shannon C.; Kirkman, Mitchell B.; Dalton, Brad S.; Zalcberg, John R.


    Purpose: With electronic medical records (eMRs), the option now exists for clinical trial monitors to perform source data verification (SDV) remotely. We report on a feasibility study of remote access to eMRs for SDV and the potential advantages of such a process in terms of resource allocation and cost. Methods: The Clinical Trials Unit at the Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, in collaboration with Novartis Pharmaceuticals Australia, conducted a 6-month feasibility study of remote SDV. A Novartis monitor was granted dedicated software and restricted remote access to the eMR portal of the cancer center, thereby providing an avenue through which perform SDV. Results: Six monitoring visits were conducted during the study period, four of which were performed remotely. The ability to conduct two thirds of the monitoring visits remotely in this complex phase III study resulted in an overall cost saving to Novartis. Similarly, remote monitoring eased the strain on internal resources, particularly monitoring space and hospital computer terminal access, at the cancer center. Conclusion: Remote access to patient eMRs for SDV is feasible and is potentially an avenue through which resources can be more efficiently used. Although this feasibility study involved limited numbers, there is no limit to scaling these processes to any number of patients enrolled onto large clinical trials. PMID:23633977

  11. Load, and Modifies the Immune Response in a Patient with HAM/TSP

    Davi Tanajura Costa


    Full Text Available The human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 is the known causative agent of a chronic neurologic condition known as HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP. Although several therapies have been evaluated for HAM/TSP, none have been approved for use in humans. In this paper, we describe a 55-year-old female patient with HAM/TSP who was treated with interferon beta-1a. This patient, in comparison to 20 female patients with HAM/TSP who were not treated, showed improvement in urinary symptoms over four years of therapy, as well as a reduction in HTLV-1 proviral load and serum cytokine levels typically observed in HAM/TSP. This improved outcome merits further controlled studies on the use and efficacy of interferon beta-1a as a therapy for HAM/TSP.

  12. Electronic theses and dissertations: a review of this valuable resource for nurse scholars worldwide.

    Goodfellow, L M


    A worldwide repository of electronic theses and dissertations (ETDs) could provide worldwide access to the most up-to-date research generated by masters and doctoral students. Until that international repository is established, it is possible to access some of these valuable knowledge resources. ETDs provide a technologically advanced medium with endless multimedia capabilities that far exceed the print and bound copies of theses and dissertations housed traditionally in individual university libraries. CURRENT USE: A growing trend exists for universities worldwide to require graduate students to submit theses or dissertations as electronic documents. However, nurse scholars underutilize ETDs, as evidenced by perusing bibliographic citation lists in many of the research journals. ETDs can be searched for and retrieved through several digital resources such as the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses (, the Australasian Digital Theses Program ( and through individual university web sites and online catalogues. An international repository of ETDs benefits the community of nurse scholars in many ways. The ability to access recent graduate students' research electronically from anywhere in the world is advantageous. For scholars residing in developing countries, access to these ETDs may prove to be even more valuable. In some cases, ETDs are not available for worldwide access and can only be accessed through the university library from which the student graduated. Public access to university library ETD collections is not always permitted. Nurse scholars from both developing and developed countries could benefit from ETDs.

  13. A preliminary categorization of end-of-life electrical and electronic equipment as secondary metal resources.

    Oguchi, Masahiro; Murakami, Shinsuke; Sakanakura, Hirofumi; Kida, Akiko; Kameya, Takashi


    End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) has recently received attention as a secondary source of metals. This study examined characteristics of end-of-life EEE as secondary metal resources to consider efficient collection and metal recovery systems according to the specific metals and types of EEE. We constructed an analogy between natural resource development and metal recovery from end-of-life EEE and found that metal content and total annual amount of metal contained in each type of end-of-life EEE should be considered in secondary resource development, as well as the collectability of the end-of-life products. We then categorized 21 EEE types into five groups and discussed their potential as secondary metal resources. Refrigerators, washing machines, air conditioners, and CRT TVs were evaluated as the most important sources of common metals, and personal computers, mobile phones, and video games were evaluated as the most important sources of precious metals. Several types of small digital equipment were also identified as important sources of precious metals; however, mid-size information and communication technology (ICT) equipment (e.g., printers and fax machines) and audio/video equipment were shown to be more important as a source of a variety of less common metals. The physical collectability of each type of EEE was roughly characterized by unit size and number of end-of-life products generated annually. Current collection systems in Japan were examined and potentially appropriate collection methods were suggested for equipment types that currently have no specific collection systems in Japan, particularly for video games, notebook computers, and mid-size ICT and audio/video equipment.

  14. From Millennium ERM to Proquest 360 Resource Manager: Implementing a new Electronic Resources Management System ERMS in an International Graduate Research University in Saudi Arabia

    Ramli, Rindra M.


    An overview of the Recommendation Study and the subsequent Implementation of a new Electronic Resources Management system ERMS in an international graduate research university in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It covers the timeline, deliverables and challenges as well as lessons learnt by the Project Team.

  15. Proteolysis and Flavor Characteristics of Serrano Ham Processed under Different Ripening Temperature Conditions.

    del Olmo, Ana; Calzada, Javier; Gaya, Pilar; Nuñez, Manuel


    Physicochemical, proteolysis and sensory characteristics of Serrano hams processed under low, medium and high ripening temperature conditions (RTC), with respective average temperatures of 9.3, 14.3, and 19.1 °C, were determined throughout a 15-mo period. In addition, quantitative relationships among variables were calculated. Medium and high RTC hams showed lower moisture contents and lower levels of low- and high-ionic-strength soluble proteins than low RTC hams. At 15 mo, aldolase was the most abundant low-ionic-strength soluble protein and actin the most abundant high-ionic-strength soluble protein in all hams while creatine kinase was no longer detected and H-meromyosin was detected only in low and medium RTC hams. Levels of all the molecular-weight peptide fractions increased during ripening, with higher factors of increase for the fractions of lower molecular weight. Total free amino acids were at significantly higher concentrations in medium and high RTC hams than in low RTC hams from month 7 onwards. The correlations of flavor preference and flavor intensity with ripening time, thermal integral, total free amino acids and most individual free amino acids were highly significant, while raw-meat taste was negatively correlated with all those variables. From month 5 to month 9 of ripening, development of a high quality flavor evolved more rapidly in medium RTC hams, flavor intensity increased at a faster rate in high RTC hams and raw-meat taste declined more rapidly in medium and high RTC hams. Medium and high RTC may be applied to accelerate the ripening process of Serrano ham without impairing flavor preference. Medium and high ripening temperature conditions (RTC) may be applied to Serrano ham in order to enhance the phenomena associated with ripening, without loss of product quality. Moisture loss, degradation of proteins and formation of free amino acids were accelerated in medium and high RTC hams. From month 5 to month 9 of ripening, development of a

  16. Characterization of hams added with nut residual pastes from the mechanical extraction of oil

    Juan José Luna Guevara


    Full Text Available Nuts contain in their composition nutrients and bioactive compounds that when consumed in sufficient amounts may provide health benefits. In this study was evaluated the influence of the addition of residual pastes (10%, obtained from the extraction of oil from walnut (Juglans regia L., pecan (Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh. K. Koch, variety Western Shley, and peanut (Arachis hypogaea, on the modification of some textural, proximate, physicochemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics of cooked hams. Hams were stored at 4 ° C for 21 days. Hams containing pastes significantly increased (P ≤ 0.05 the protein, fat, and total fiber content. Hams added with paste presented a less rigid structures (P ≤ 0.05. The color parameters (L*, a*, and b* of hams decrease slightly during the storage time, except for the ham added with walnut paste, which was darker. The nut pastes contributed significantly (P ≤ 0.05 to decrease the shelf life of hams. However, the yeast and mold counts in ham were less than 10 CFU/g at 21 days of storage. aw and pH decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.05 and syneresis increased during storage. Hams added with residual pastes were well sensory accepted regarding color, aroma, taste, appearance, and overall acceptability.

  17. Characterization of hemorrhages in the ham topsides and tenderloins of slaughter pigs

    Dich-Jørgensen, Kristine; Larsen, Helle Daugaard; Leifsson, Páll S.


    The aim of the study was to characterize the different types of muscle hemorrhages in the ham and tenderloin of CO2-stunned slaughter pigs. The distinct types of hemorrhages were characterized according to their distribution and size. The hemorrhages in the ham were multiple, pinpoint hemorrhages...... predominantly distributed in the caudal part of the muscle. The hemorrhages in the tenderloin were single and circular, located either at the tip or the head. Histologically, three distinct types of hemorrhages were observed. Type 1, which was peracute (ham and the tenderloin....... Type 2, which was acute (> 4 h old), and restricted to the ham. Type 3 contained bone marrow and cartilage, was peracute (

  18. Electronic tracking of human resource skills and knowledge, just in time training, manageable due diligence

    Kolodziej, M.A. [Quick Test International Inc., (Canada). Canadian Technology Human Resource Board; Baker, O. [KeySpan Energy Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)


    KeySpan Energy Canada is in the process of obtaining recognition of various occupational profiles including pipeline operators, inspectors, and field and plant operators from various certifying organizations. The process of allowing individuals to obtain certification is recognized by Canadian Technology Human Resources Board as a step towards national standards for technologists and technicians. Proven competency is a must for workers in todays oil industry in response to increasingly stringent government safety regulations, environmental concerns and high public scrutiny. Quick Test international Inc. has developed a management tool in collaboration with end users at KeySpan Energy Canada. It is an electronic, Internet based competency tool for tracking personal competencies and maintaining continued competency. Response to the tool has been favourable. 2 refs., 4 figs.


    Stepanova, M I; Aleksandrova, I E; Sazanyuk, Z I; Voronova, B Z; Lashneva, L P; Shumkova, T V; Berezina, N O


    We studied the effect of academic studies with the use a notebook computer and interactive whiteboard on the functional state of an organism of schoolchildren. Using a complex of hygienic and physiological methods of the study we established that regulation of the computer activity of students must take into account not only duration but its intensity either. Design features of a notebook computer were shown both to impede keeping the optimal working posture in primary school children and increase the risk offormation of disorders of vision and musculoskeletal system. There were established the activating influence of the interactive whiteboard on performance activities and favorable dynamics of indices of the functional state of the organism of students under keeping optimal density of the academic study and the duration of its use. There are determined safety regulations of the work of schoolchildren with electronic resources in the educational process.

  20. Medical Image Resource Center--making electronic teaching files from PACS.

    Lim, C C Tchoyoson; Yang, Guo Liang; Nowinski, Wieslaw L; Hui, Francis


    A picture archive and communications system (PACS) is a rich source of images and data suitable for creating electronic teaching files (ETF). However, the potential for PACS to support nonclinical applications has not been fully realized: at present there is no mechanism for PACS to identify and store teaching files; neither is there a standardized method for sharing such teaching images. The Medical Image Resource Center (MIRC) is a new central image repository that defines standards for data exchange among different centers. We developed an ETF server that retrieves digital imaging and communication in medicine (DICOM) images from PACS, and enables users to create teaching files that conform to the new MIRC schema. We test-populated our ETF server with illustrative images from the clinical case load of the National Neuroscience Institute, Singapore. Together, PACS and MIRC have the potential to benefit radiology teaching and research.

  1. Electronic Human Resource Management (e-HRM of Hotel Business in Phuket

    Kitimaporn Choochote


    Full Text Available This research aims to study the pattern of the electronic human resources management (e-HRM of the hotel business in Phuket. The study is conducted with the implementation of field data and in-depth interview of hotels’ HR managers. In consequence, the study reveals that the hotel business has applied the use of the e-HRM varying in job recruitment (15 percent, employee engagement (55 percent, organizational file structure (10 percent, idea and creativity exchanges (38 percent and assessment system (6 percent. However, considered as 100 percent, the hotel business has not prepared to apply the use of the e-HRM in salary system, learning and training program, welfare allocation and career development.

  2. Using mobile electronic devices to deliver educational resources in developing countries.

    Mazal, Jonathan Robert; Ludwig, Rebecca


    Developing countries have far fewer trained radiography professionals than developed countries, which exacerbates the limited access to imaging services. The lack of trained radiographers reflects, in part, limited availability of radiographer-specific educational resources. Historically, organizations that provided such resources in the developing world faced challenges related to the limited stock of current materials as well as expenses associated with shipping and delivery. Four mobile electronic devices (MEDs) were loaded with educational content (e-books, PDFs, and digital applications) spanning major radiography topics. The MEDs were distributed to 4 imaging departments in Ghana, India, Nepal, and Nigeria based on evidence of need for radiography-specific resources, as revealed by survey responses. A cost comparison of postal delivery vs digital delivery of educational content was performed. The effectiveness of delivering additional content via Wi-Fi transmission also was evaluated. Feedback was solicited on users' experience with the MEDs as a delivery tool for educational content. An initial average per e-book expense of $30.05, which included the cost of the device, was calculated for the MED delivery method compared with $15.56 for postal delivery of printed materials. The cost of the MED delivery method was reduced to an average of $10.05 for subsequent e-book deliveries. Additional content was successfully delivered via Wi-Fi transmission to all recipients during the 3-month follow-up period. Overall user feedback on the experience was positive, and ideas for enhancing the MED-based method were identified. Using MEDs to deliver radiography-specific educational content appears to be more cost effective than postal delivery of printed materials on a long-term basis. MEDs are more efficient for providing updates to educational materials. Customization of content to department needs, and using projector devices could enhance the usefulness of MEDs for

  3. Plastics disassembly versus bulk recycling: engineering design for end-of-life electronics resource recovery.

    Rios, Pedro; Stuart, Julie Ann; Grant, Ed


    Annual plastic flows through the business and consumer electronics manufacturing supply chain include nearly 3 billion lb of high-value engineering plastics derived from petroleum. The recovery of resource value from this stream presents critical challenges in areas of materials identification and recycling process design that demand new green engineering technologies applied together with life cycle assessment and ecological supply chain analysis to create viable plastics-to-plastics supply cycles. The sustainable recovery of potentially high-value engineering plastics streams requires that recyclers either avoid mixing plastic parts or purify later by separating smaller plastic pieces created in volume reduction (shredding) steps. Identification and separation constitute significant barriers in the plastics-to-plastics recycling value proposition. In the present work, we develop a model that accepts randomly arriving electronic products to study scenarios by which a recycler might identify and separate high-value engineering plastics as well as metals. Using discrete eventsimulation,we compare current mixed plastics recovery with spectrochemical plastic resin identification and subsequent sorting. Our results show that limited disassembly with whole-part identification can produce substantial yields in separated streams of recovered engineering thermoplastics. We find that disassembly with identification does not constitute a bottleneck, but rather, with relatively few workers, can be configured to pull the process and thus decrease maximum staging space requirements.

  4. SAGES: a suite of freely-available software tools for electronic disease surveillance in resource-limited settings.

    Sheri L Lewis

    Full Text Available Public health surveillance is undergoing a revolution driven by advances in the field of information technology. Many countries have experienced vast improvements in the collection, ingestion, analysis, visualization, and dissemination of public health data. Resource-limited countries have lagged behind due to challenges in information technology infrastructure, public health resources, and the costs of proprietary software. The Suite for Automated Global Electronic bioSurveillance (SAGES is a collection of modular, flexible, freely-available software tools for electronic disease surveillance in resource-limited settings. One or more SAGES tools may be used in concert with existing surveillance applications or the SAGES tools may be used en masse for an end-to-end biosurveillance capability. This flexibility allows for the development of an inexpensive, customized, and sustainable disease surveillance system. The ability to rapidly assess anomalous disease activity may lead to more efficient use of limited resources and better compliance with World Health Organization International Health Regulations.

  5. Sensory characteristics of Iberian ham: Influence of salt content and processing conditions.

    Andrés, A I; Cava, R; Ventanas, J; Thovar, V; Ruiz, J


    Sensory characteristics of Semimembranosus and Biceps femoris muscles from 24 dry-cured Iberian hams were assessed. Hams were salted with different amounts of salt (6% and 3% w/w) and then ripened at different temperature conditions (traditional processing vs. modified processing). Hams manufactured using modified processing showed higher scores for dryness (P<0.05), hardness (P<0.05) and rancid flavour (P<0.001) in the Semimembranosus muscle than those processed in a traditional way. The Biceps femoris muscle of hams salted with 6% of salt was drier (P<0.05), harder (P<0.05) and more fibrous (P<0.01) than in hams salted with 3% salt. Salty taste was more intense in the Semimembranosus and Biceps femoris from hams with a higher level of salt (P<0.01 and P<0.001, respectively). A more intense rancidity in hams ripened in modified processing could affect the overall aroma. A decrease in salt content produces less salty hams, but the changes in texture traits should be also considered.

  6. Identification and control of moulds responsible for black spot spoilage in dry-cured ham.

    Alía, Alberto; Andrade, María J; Rodríguez, Alicia; Reyes-Prieto, Mariana; Bernáldez, Victoria; Córdoba, Juan J


    The aims of this work were to identify moulds responsible for black spot spoilage in the drying and cellar stages of dry-cured ham processing and evaluate the effectiveness of preventive actions for controlling this alteration. Four mould strains isolated from spoiled hams were identified by morphological characteristics and the ITS and β-tubulin sequencing. Two of them were Cladosporium oxysporum, one was C. cladosporioides and the remaining one was C. herbarum. These spoiling strains reproduced the black spots on dry-cured ham-based media and ham slices. Additionally, the effect of water activity (aw) conditions reached throughout dry-cured ham ripening and the activity of the protective culture Penicillium chrysogenum CECT 20922 against the spoiling moulds were evaluated. In the dry-cured ham model system the growth of the Cladosporium strains was minimised when the aw approaches 0.84 or in P. chrysogenum CECT 20922 inoculated dry-cured ham slices. Therefore such combination could be used to avoid the black spot formation in dry-cured ham.

  7. 9 CFR 319.760 - Deviled ham, deviled tongue, and similar products.


    ... similar products. 319.760 Section 319.760 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Salads and Meat Spreads § 319.760 Deviled ham, deviled tongue, and similar products. (a) “Deviled Ham” is a semiplastic cured meat food product made from finely comminuted ham and containing condiments...

  8. A validation analysis of two self-reported HAM-D6 versions

    Bech, P; Wilson, P; Wessel, T


    the unidimensionality of this administration form in patients with mild-to-moderate depression. METHOD: The item response theory analysis of Mokken was used to test the unidimensionality of both the Interactive Voice Recording System (IVRS) version of the HAM-D(6) and a paper-and-pencil self-reported version (S-HAM-D(6...

  9. A validation analysis of two self-reported HAM-D6 versions

    Bech, P; Wilson, P; Wessel, T


    OBJECTIVE: The six items of the clinician-administrated Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D(6)) cover the core items of depressive states reflecting the antidepressive effect of medication. In this study, the two self-reported versions of the HAM-D(6) have been psychometrically validated to ensure t...

  10. A Z_m Ham Sandwich Theorem for Complex Measures

    Simon, Steven


    A "ham sandwich" theorem is derived for n complex measures on C^n. For each integer m >= 2, a complex hyperplane H and m corresponding "1/m" sectors are found, satisfying the condition that the "rotational average" of the measures of these sectors is zero. The result can be seen as a kind of rotational equipartition of each measure by a regular "m-fan". The proof of the theorem is topological, based on a Z_m version of the Borsuk-Ulam theorem for punctured (2n - 1)-spheres in C^n. Any finite real measure on R^{2n} can be seen as a type of complex measure on C^n, so the theorem can be applied to n finite measures on R^{2n}. In the case that m = 3, this shows the existence of a regular 3-fan which trisects each of the n measures. Similarly, any pair of finite real measures on R^{2n} can be naturally identified with a complex measure on C^n, so the theorem applies to 2n finite measures on R^{2n}. This yields a rotational condition on pairs of finite measures, and the original ham sandwich theorem for R^{2n} is r...

  11. On the Feng-Rao bound for generalized Hamming weights

    Geil, Olav; Thommesen, Christian


    The Feng-Rao bound gives good estimates of the minimum distance of a large class of codes. In this work we are concerned with the problem of how to extend the Feng-Rao bound so that it deals with all the generalized Hamming weights. The problem was solved by Heijnen and Pellikaan in [7] for a large...... family of codes that includes the duals of one-point geometric Goppa codes and the q-ary Reed-Muller codes, but not the Feng-Rao improved such ones. We show that Heijnen and Pellikaan’s results holds for the more general class of codes for which the traditional Feng-Rao bound can be applied. We also...... establish the connection to the Shibuya-Sakaniwa bound for generalized Hamming weights ([15], [16], [17], [18], [19] and [20]). More precisely we show that the Shibuya-Sakaniwa bound is a consequence of the extended Feng-Rao bound. In particular the extended Feng-Rao bound gives always at least as good...

  12. Nutritional composition of dry-cured ham and its role in a healthy diet.

    Jiménez-Colmenero, F; Ventanas, J; Toldrá, F


    Dry-cured ham is a traditional product with a strong presence in markets in the Mediterranean area. It is very popular with European consumers and is of enormous economic importance for the meat industry in the Mediterranean area. Although the great palatability of ham largely outweighs other considerations, aspects relating to health and wellbeing are increasingly important factors in consumer decisions. The potential role of ham in a context of healthy nutrition has not been clearly elucidated, especially considering that origins and production methods of dry-cured hams can induce differences in composition. The object of this review was on the one hand to provide an analysis of the components of dry-cured ham and their role in a healthy diet, and on the other hand to suggest possible strategies for improving its nutritional composition.

  13. Evolution of volatile aldehydes in Iberian ham matured under different processing conditions.

    Martín, L; Timón, M L; Petrón, M J; Ventanas, J; Antequera, T


    To evaluate the influence of the Iberian ham processing conditions in the evolution of volatile aldehydes, 35 hams were processed in two plants following different conditions of relative humidity and temperature. For this, free fatty acids, peroxide values and volatile aldehydes were quantified in the hams. The highest increases in free fatty acids were noted during the drying stage in both processing plants. The drying period also revealed the greatest increase in peroxide values, where the highest values were in those hams processed at higher temperatures. The temperature during post-salting and drying had a marked influence on the formation of volatile aldehydes, being responsible for the differences in volatile compounds of matured hams.

  14. An iterative HAM approach for nonlinear boundary value problems in a semi-infinite domain

    Zhao, Yinlong; Lin, Zhiliang; Liao, Shijun


    In this paper, we propose an iterative approach to increase the computation efficiency of the homotopy analysis method (HAM), a analytic technique for highly nonlinear problems. By means of the Schmidt-Gram process (Arfken et al., 1985) [15], we approximate the right-hand side terms of high-order linear sub-equations by a finite set of orthonormal bases. Based on this truncation technique, we introduce the Mth-order iterative HAM by using each Mth-order approximation as a new initial guess. It is found that the iterative HAM is much more efficient than the standard HAM without truncation, as illustrated by three nonlinear differential equations defined in an infinite domain as examples. This work might greatly improve the computational efficiency of the HAM and also the Mathematica package BVPh for nonlinear BVPs.

  15. Contribution of a selected fungal population to the volatile compounds on dry-cured ham.

    Martín, Alberto; Córdoba, Juan J; Aranda, Emilio; Córdoba, M Guía; Asensio, Miguel A


    Dry-cured ham is obtained after several months of ripening. Different fungi strive on the surface, including toxigenic molds. Proteolysis and lipolysis by the endogenous and microbial enzymes seem to play a decisive role in the generation of flavor precursors in dry-cured meat products. In addition, fungi show a positive impact on the volatile compounds of ripened pork loins. However, the contribution of the fungal population to flavor formation in dry-cured ham remains unclear. One selected strain each of Penicillium chrysogenum and Debaryomyces hansenii was inoculated as starter cultures on dry-cured ham. Volatile compounds extracted by solid phase micro-extraction technique were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. A trained panel evaluated flavor and texture of fully ripened hams. The wild fungal population on non-inoculated control hams correlates with higher levels of short chain aliphatic carboxylic acids and their esters, branched carbonyls, branched alcohols, and some sulfur compounds, particularly at the outer muscle. Conversely, P. chrysogenum and D. hansenii seem to be responsible for higher levels of long chain aliphatic and branched hydrocarbons, furanones, long chain carboxylic acids and their esters. The very limited impact of P. chrysogenum on pyrazines in inoculated hams can be due to the activity of the yeast. Lower levels for some of the more volatile linear carbonyls at the ham surface suggest an anti-oxidant effect by micro-organisms. The differences in volatile compounds did not show a neat impact on flavor in the sensorial analysis. Nonetheless, inoculated hams got a better overall acceptability, which has to be attributed to their improved texture. The lower toughness of inoculated hams is a direct consequence of an early settling of a highly proteolytic mold. Thus, the use of selected fungi as starter cultures may be useful to obtain high-quality and safe dry-cured ham.

  16. Effects of marketing group on the quality of fresh and cured hams sourced from a commercial processing facility

    The objective was: 1) to characterize the effect of marketing 30 group on fresh and cured ham quality, and 2) to determine which fresh ham traits correlated to cured ham quality traits. Pigs raised in 8 barns representing two seasons (hot and cold) and two production focuses (lean and quality) were ...

  17. Effects of marketing group on the quality of fresh and cured hams sourced from a commercial processing facility.

    Arkfeld, E K; Wilson, K B; Overholt, M F; Harsh, B N; Lowell, J E; Hogan, E K; Klehm, B J; Bohrer, B M; Kroscher, K A; Peterson, B C; Stites, C R; Mohrhauser, D A; King, D A; Wheeler, T L; Dilger, A C; Shackelford, S D; Boler, D D


    The objective was: 1) to characterize the effect of marketing group on fresh and cured ham quality, and 2) to determine which fresh ham traits correlated to cured ham quality traits. Pigs raised in 8 barns representing 2 seasons (hot and cold) and 2 production focuses (lean and quality) were used. Three groups were marketed from each barn. A total of 7,684 carcasses were used for data collection at the abattoir. Every tenth carcass was noted as a select carcass for in-depth ham quality analyses. Leg primal weight and instrumental color were measured on 100% of the population. On the select 10% of the population, hams were fabricated into sub-primal pieces, and 3-piece hams were manufactured to evaluate cured ham quality and processing yield. Data were analyzed as a split-plot design in the MIXED procedure of SAS with production focus as the whole-plot factor, and marketing group as the split-plot factor. Pearson correlation coefficients between fresh and cured ham traits were computed. There were no differences ( ≥ 0.15) in instrumental color or ultimate pH ( ≥ 0.14) among fresh ham muscles from any marketing group. The only exception was the semimembranosus of marketing group 2 was lighter than marketing group 1 ( = 0.03) and the dark portion of the semitendinosus muscle from group 1 was lighter than from group 3 ( = 0.01). There were no differences ( ≥ 0.33) in ultimate pH of fresh ham muscles between production focuses, but several muscles from quality focus pigs were lighter in color than ham muscles from lean focus pigs. The lack of differences in fresh ham quality lead to few differences in cured ham quality. Cured hams from the quality focus pigs had greater lipid content ( marketing group 1 and 2 were 1.52 units lighter than hams from marketing group 3 ( 0.01). Overall, marketing group did not impact ham quality. Fresh ham quality was not strongly related to cured ham quality. Some correlations were present between fresh and cured ham traits, but

  18. Impact of Electronic Resources and Usage in Academic Libraries in Ghana: Evidence from Koforidua Polytechnic & All Nations University College, Ghana

    Akussah, Maxwell; Asante, Edward; Adu-Sarkodee, Rosemary


    The study investigates the relationship between impact of electronic resources and its usage in academic libraries in Ghana: evidence from Koforidua Polytechnic & All Nations University College, Ghana. The study was a quantitative approach using questionnaire to gather data and information. A valid response rate of 58.5% was assumed. SPSS…

  19. Utilization of Electronic Information Resources by Undergraduate Students of University of Ibadan: A Case Study of Social Sciences and Education

    Owolabi, Sola; Idowu, Oluwafemi A.; Okocha, Foluke; Ogundare, Atinuke Omotayo


    The study evaluated utilization of electronic information resources by undergraduates in the Faculties of Education and the Social Sciences in University of Ibadan. The study adopted a descriptive survey design with a study population of 1872 undergraduates in the Faculties of Education and the Social Sciences in University of Ibadan, from which a…

  20. The use of thermography on the slaughter-line for the assessment of pork and raw ham quality

    M. Morgante


    Full Text Available The left and right hams of forty heavy pig carcasses were thermographed to evaluate whether surface temperature differences were related to meat and ham quality. Thermal imaging analysis showed no differences in average surface temperature among classes of pH or of L* colour co-ordinate nor among classes of ham defects such as veining and red skin. However, hams with a lower fat cover displayed a significantly warmer average temperature surface. Infrared thermography seems to be a practical and non-invasive method to detect hams with a fat cover below the minimum requested to be submitted to the dry-curing process.

  1. Kernel based eigenvalue-decomposition methods for analysing ham

    Christiansen, Asger Nyman; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Møller, Flemming


    conditions and finding useful additives to hinder the color to change rapidly. To be able to prove which methods of storing and additives work, Danisco wants to monitor the development of the color of meat in a slice of ham as a function of time, environment and ingredients. We have chosen to use multi...... methods, such as PCA, MAF or MNF. We therefore investigated the applicability of kernel based versions of these transformation. This meant implementing the kernel based methods and developing new theory, since kernel based MAF and MNF is not described in the literature yet. The traditional methods only...... have two factors that are useful for segmentation and none of them can be used to segment the two types of meat. The kernel based methods have a lot of useful factors and they are able to capture the subtle differences in the images. This is illustrated in Figure 1. You can see a comparison of the most...

  2. Aerosol processing in stratiform clouds in ECHAM6-HAM

    Neubauer, David; Lohmann, Ulrike; Hoose, Corinna


    Aerosol processing in stratiform clouds by uptake into cloud particles, collision-coalescence, chemical processing inside the cloud particles and release back into the atmosphere has important effects on aerosol concentration, size distribution, chemical composition and mixing state. Aerosol particles can act as cloud condensation nuclei. Cloud droplets can take up further aerosol particles by collisions. Atmospheric gases may also be transferred into the cloud droplets and undergo chemical reactions, e.g. the production of atmospheric sulphate. Aerosol particles are also processed in ice crystals. They may be taken up by homogeneous freezing of cloud droplets below -38° C or by heterogeneous freezing above -38° C. This includes immersion freezing of already immersed aerosol particles in the droplets and contact freezing of particles colliding with a droplet. Many clouds do not form precipitation and also much of the precipitation evaporates before it reaches the ground. The water soluble part of the aerosol particles concentrates in the hydrometeors and together with the insoluble part forms a single, mixed, larger particle, which is released. We have implemented aerosol processing into the current version of the general circulation model ECHAM6 (Stevens et al., 2013) coupled to the aerosol module HAM (Stier et al., 2005). ECHAM6-HAM solves prognostic equations for the cloud droplet number and ice crystal number concentrations. In the standard version of HAM, seven modes are used to describe the total aerosol. The modes are divided into soluble/mixed and insoluble modes and the number concentrations and masses of different chemical components (sulphate, black carbon, organic carbon, sea salt and mineral dust) are prognostic variables. We extended this by an explicit representation of aerosol particles in cloud droplets and ice crystals in stratiform clouds similar to Hoose et al. (2008a,b). Aerosol particles in cloud droplets are represented by 5 tracers for the

  3. Equivariant Equipartitions: Ham Sandwich Theorems for Finite Subgroups of Spheres

    Simon, Steven


    Equivariant "Ham Sandwich" Theorems are obtained for the finite subgroups of the unit spheres S^{d-1}, d=1,2,4. Given any F-valued mass distributions on F^n and any non-zero finite subgroup G of the unit sphere S^{d-1} in F= R, C, or H, it is shown that there exists a collection of fundamental G-regions partitioning F^n which "G-Equipartition" each of the n measures, as realized by the simultaneous vanishing of the "G-averages" of the regions' measures. Equipartition results for real measures follow, among them that any n signed mass distributions on R^{(p-1)n} can be equipartitioned by a single regular p-fan for any prime number p.

  4. C. elegans HAM-1 functions in the nucleus to regulate asymmetric neuroblast division.

    Leung, Amy; Hua, Khang; Ramachandran, Pavitra; Hingwing, Kyla; Wu, Maria; Koh, Pei Luan; Hawkins, Nancy


    All 302 neurons in the C. elegans hermaphrodite arise through asymmetric division of neuroblasts. During embryogenesis, the C. elegans ham-1 gene is required for several asymmetric neuroblast divisions in lineages that generate both neural and apoptotic cells. By antibody staining, endogenous HAM-1 is found exclusively at the cell cortex in many cells during embryogenesis and is asymmetrically localized in dividing cells. Here we show that in transgenic embryos expressing a functional GFP::HAM-1 fusion protein, GFP expression is also detected in the nucleus, in addition to the cell cortex. Consistent with the nuclear localization is the presence of a putative DNA binding winged-helix domain within the N-terminus of HAM-1. Through a deletion analysis we determined that the C-terminus of the protein is required for nuclear localization and we identified two nuclear localization sequences (NLSs). A subcellular fractionation experiment from wild type embryos, followed by Western blotting, revealed that endogenous HAM-1 is primarily found in the nucleus. Our analysis also showed that the N-terminus is necessary for cortical localization. While ham-1 function is essential for asymmetric division in the lineage that generates the PLM mechanosensory neuron, we showed that cortical localization may not required. Thus, our results suggest that there is a nuclear function for HAM-1 in regulating asymmetric neuroblast division and that the requirement for cortical localization may be lineage dependent.

  5. The aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM

    P. Stier


    Full Text Available The aerosol-climate modelling system ECHAM5-HAM is introduced. It is based on a flexible microphysical approach and, as the number of externally imposed parameters is minimised, allows the application in a wide range of climate regimes. ECHAM5-HAM predicts the evolution of an ensemble of microphysically interacting internally- and externally-mixed aerosol populations as well as their size-distribution and composition. The size-distribution is represented by a superposition of log-normal modes. In the current setup, the major global aerosol compounds sulfate (SU, black carbon (BC, particulate organic matter (POM, sea salt (SS, and mineral dust (DU are included. The simulated global annual mean aerosol burdens (lifetimes for the year 2000 are for SU: 0.80 Tg(S (3.9 days, for BC: 0.11 Tg (5.4 days, for POM: 0.99 Tg (5.4 days, for SS: 10.5 Tg (0.8 days, and for DU: 8.28 Tg (4.6 days. An extensive evaluation with in-situ and remote sensing measurements underscores that the model results are generally in good agreement with observations of the global aerosol system. The simulated global annual mean aerosol optical depth (AOD is with 0.14 in excellent agreement with an estimate derived from AERONET measurements (0.14 and a composite derived from MODIS-MISR satellite retrievals (0.16. Regionally, the deviations are not negligible. However, the main patterns of AOD attributable to anthropogenic activity are reproduced.

  6. Human resource requirements for quality-assured electronic data capture of the tuberculosis case register

    Hoa Nguyen B


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tuberculosis case register is the data source for the reports submitted by basic management units to the national tuberculosis program. Our objective was to measure the data entry time required to complete and double-enter one record, and to estimate the time for the correction of errors in the captured information from tuberculosis case registers in Cambodia and Viet Nam. This should assist in quantifying the additional requirements in human resources for national programs moving towards electronic recording and reporting. Methods Data from a representative sample of tuberculosis case registers from Cambodia and Viet Nam were double-entered and discordances resolved by rechecking the original case register. Computer-generated data entry time recorded the time elapsed between opening of a new record and saving it to disk. Results The dataset comprised 22,732 double-entered records of 11,366 patients (37.1% from Cambodia and 62.9% from Viet Nam. The mean data entry times per record were 97.5 (95% CI: 96.2-98.8 and 66.2 (95% CI: 59.5-73.0 seconds with medians of 90 and 31 s respectively in Cambodia and in Viet Nam. The percentage of records with an error was 6.0% and 39.0% respectively in Cambodia and Viet Nam. Data entry time was inversely associated with error frequency. We estimate that approximately 118-person-hours were required to produce 1,000 validated records. Conclusions This study quantifies differences between two countries for data entry time for the tuberculosis case register and frequencies of data entry errors and suggests that higher data entry speed is partially offset by requiring revisiting more records for corrections.

  7. Effect of added thiamine on the key odorant compounds and aroma of cooked ham.

    Thomas, Caroline; Mercier, Frédéric; Tournayre, Pascal; Martin, Jean-Luc; Berdagué, Jean-Louis


    This study shows that thiamine plays a major role in the formation of three key odorants of cooked ham: 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-methyl-3-methyldithiofuran, and bis(2-methyl-3-furyl)disulphide. Analyses revealed that under identical cooking conditions, the productions of these three aroma compounds increase in a closely intercorrelated way when the dose of thiamine increases. Using a specific 2-methyl-3-furanthiol extraction-quantification method, it was possible to relate the amounts of thiamine added in model cooked hams to the amounts of 2-methyl-3-furanthiol produced in the cooking process. Sensory analyses highlighted the role of thiamine as a precursor of cooked ham aroma.

  8. Lower bounds on the periodic Hamming correlations of frequency hopping sequences with low hit zone


    In this paper, several periodic Hamming correlation lower bounds for frequency hopping sequences with low hit zone, with respect to the size p of the frequency slot set, the sequence length L, the family size M, low hit zone LH ( or no hit zone NH ), the maximum periodic Hamming autocorrelation sidelobe Ha and the maximum periodic Hamming crosscorrelation Hc, are established. It is shown that the new bounds include the known Lempel-Greenberger bounds, T.S. Seay bounds and Peng-Fan bounds for the conventional frequency hopping sequences as special cases.

  9. Use and Cost of Electronic Resources in Central Library of Ferdowsi University Based on E-metrics

    Mohammad Reza Davarpanah


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the usage of electronic journals in Ferdowsi University, Iran based on e-metrics. The paper also aimed to emphasize the analysis of cost-benefit and the correlation between the journal impact factors and the usage data. In this study experiences of Ferdowsi University library on licensing and usage of electronic resources was evaluated by providing a cost-benefit analysis based on the cost and usage statistics of electronic resources. Vendor-provided data were also compared with local usage data. The usage data were collected by tracking web-based access locally, and by collecting vender-provided usage data. The data sources were one-year of vendor-supplied e-resource usage data such as Ebsco, Elsevier, Proquest, Emerald, Oxford and Springer and local usage data collected from the Ferdowsi university web server. The study found that actual usage values differ for vendor-provided data and local usage data. Elsevier has got the highest usage degree in searches, sessions and downloads. Statistics also showed that a small number of journals satisfy significant amount of use while the majority of journals were used less frequent and some were never used at all. The users preferred the PDF rather than HTML format. The data in subject profile suggested that the provided e-resources were best suited to certain subjects. There was no correlation between IF and electronic journal use. Monitoring the usage of e-resources gained increasing importance for acquisition policy and budget decisions. The article provided information about local metrics for the six surveyed vendors/publishers, e.g. usage trends, requests per package, cost per use as related to the scientific specialty of the university.

  10. Hamming Weight Counters and Comparators based on Embedded DSP Blocks for Implementation in FPGA



    Full Text Available This paper is dedicated to the design, implementation and evaluation of fast FPGA-based circuits that compute Hamming weights for binary vectors and compare the results with fixed thresholds and variable bounds. It is shown that digital signal processing (DSP slices that are widely available in contemporary FPGAs may be used efficiently and they frequently provide the fastest and least resource consuming solutions. A thorough analysis and comparison of these with the best known alternatives both in hardware and in software is presented. The results are supported by numerous experiments in recent prototyping boards. A fully synthesizable hardware description language (VHDL specification for one of the proposed core components is given that is ready to be synthesized, implemented, tested and compared in any FPGA that contains embedded DSP48E1 slices (or alternatively DSP48A1 slices from previous generations. Finally, the results of comparisons are provided that include discussions of designs in an ARM processor combined with reconfigurable logic for very long vectors.

  11. Use and User Perception of Electronic Information Resources: A Case Study of Siva Institute of Frontier Technology, India

    Velmurugan Chandran


    Full Text Available The present study aims to explore the use and user perception of electronic resources in Siva Institute of Frontier Technology, India. A total number of 123 users were taken into account for the study through a questionnaire-based survey method. A well-structured questionnaire was designed and distributed to the selected 200 students and staff members. 123 copies of the questionnaires were returned dully filled in and the overall response rate was 61.50 percent. The questionnaire contained both open- and close-ended questions. The collected data were classified, analyzed, and tabulated by using simple statistical methods. This study covers the impact of electronic resources on students and faculty in their academic pursuit.

  12. Salt and intramuscular fat modulate dynamic perception of flavour and texture in dry-cured hams.

    Lorido, Laura; Estévez, Mario; Ventanas, Jesús; Ventanas, Sonia


    The present study aimed to evaluate the influence of salt and intramuscular fat (IMF) content on the sensory characteristics of two different types of dry-cured hams (Iberian and Serrano) using the time-intensity (TI) method. All studied TI parameters of flavour attributes (overall flavour, saltiness, cured and rancid flavours) were significantly (p < 0.05) affected by variations in the salt and/or IMF content. However, regarding texture attributes only the maximum intensity (Imax) of hardness was significantly (p < 0.05) affected by the salt content of hams. Compared to Iberian dry-cured hams, the dynamic perception of the flavour and texture of Serrano dry-cured hams was less influenced by variations in salt and/or IMF content. The dynamic sensory techniques may be helpful to guarantee the quality of dry-cured products subjected to strategies of salt and fat reduction.

  13. Data Encryption and Decryption Algorithm Using Hamming Code and Arithmetic Operations

    Kurapati Sundar Teja


    Full Text Available This paper explains the implementation of data encryption and decryption algorithm using hamming code and arithmetic operations with the help of Verilog HDL. As the days are passing the old algorithms are not remained so strong cryptanalyst are familiar with them. Hamming code is one of forward error correcting code which has got many applications. In this paper hamming code algorithm was discussed and the implementation of it was done with arithmetic operations. For high security some arithmetic operations are added with hamming code process. A 3-bit data will be encrypted as 14-bit and using decryption process again we will receives 3-bit original data. The implemented design was tested on Spartan3A FPGA kit.

  14. Analysis of the Relationship between Hamming Distance and the Electromagnetic Information Leakage

    Sun Haimeng


    Full Text Available Electromagnetic information leak as a potential data security risk is more and more serious. Discussing the relationship between compromising emanations and Hamming distance is directed to preventing or reducing the electromagnetic information leakage. The paper presents the model of electromagnetic information leak, then the hierarchical protection strategy based on the model is proposed, that is anti-radiation, anti-intercept and anti-reconstruction. Analyzing the causes of electromagnetic information leak through the touch screen case, the paper describes the electromagnetic radiation intensity is correlated to the transition's Hamming distance. The paper presents the anti-intercept method, which is reducing the Hamming distance of the sensitive data or keep Hamming distance constant in order to reducing or preventing the electromagnetic information leakage. The anti-intercept method is available showed as the touch screen case.    

  15. Sensory profiling of Dalmatian dry-cured ham under different temperature conditions

    Zlatko Janječić


    Full Text Available To investigate the influence of the Dalmatian ham processing conditions on weight loss and sensory characteristics, 20 hams were processed following different temperature conditions during salting and ripening. For that purpose, hams were evaluated using quantitative descriptive analysis. The weight loss was higher and all sensory traits except presence of tyrosine and phenylalanine crystals were higher rated for hams processed at higher temperatures. The most significant (P<0.0001 influence of temperature was established on subcutaneous fat color, muscle color and presence of tyrosine and phenylalanine, whereas no influence was established on appearance, marbling, flavor and melting. This concludes that there is overall significant effect of higher temperature on sensory characteristics most likely due to the more intense proteolysis and lipolysis.

  16. How Human Resource Professionals Use Electronic Channels to Communicate CSR : A case study focused on Solvay's French industrial sites

    Fournet, Clara; Pauly, Marissa


    Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has become a large concern for many companies with the rise of globalization. Oftentimes, companies are encouraged to communicate CSR externally, but not internally. This research focuses upon the internal communication of CSR, specifically how Human Resource (HR) professionals use electronic channels to communicate to employees. The scope of this research is focused solely upon HR professionals within Solvay’s French industrial sites, which produce chemi...

  17. Challenges in the implementation of an electronic surveillance system in a resource-limited setting: Alerta, in Peru

    Soto Giselle


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious disease surveillance is a primary public health function in resource-limited settings. In 2003, an electronic disease surveillance system (Alerta was established in the Peruvian Navy with support from the U.S. Naval Medical Research Center Detachment (NMRCD. Many challenges arose during the implementation process, and a variety of solutions were applied. The purpose of this paper is to identify and discuss these issues. Methods This is a retrospective description of the Alerta implementation. After a thoughtful evaluation according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC guidelines, the main challenges to implementation were identified and solutions were devised in the context of a resource-limited setting, Peru. Results After four years of operation, we have identified a number of challenges in implementing and operating this electronic disease surveillance system. These can be divided into the following categories: (1 issues with personnel and stakeholders; (2 issues with resources in a developing setting; (3 issues with processes involved in the collection of data and operation of the system; and (4 issues with organization at the central hub. Some of the challenges are unique to resource-limited settings, but many are applicable for any surveillance system. For each of these challenges, we developed feasible solutions that are discussed. Conclusion There are many challenges to overcome when implementing an electronic disease surveillance system, not only related to technology issues. A comprehensive approach is required for success, including: technical support, personnel management, effective training, and cultural sensitivity in order to assure the effective deployment of an electronic disease surveillance system.

  18. Inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes on hams shortly after vacuum packaging by spray application of lauric arginate.

    Taormina, P J; Dorsa, W J


    This study measured and compared the short-term efficacy levels of lauric arginate (LAE) as a postlethality treatment against Listeria monocytogenes present on varied surfaces of large-diameter hams. Preliminary in vitro work demonstrated a 5-log inactivation of L. monocytogenes in 5,000- and 9,090-ppm LAE solutions within 180 min at 4.4 and 23 degrees C. Six different whole-muscle ham types were inoculated with L. monocytogenes at ca. 7-log CFU per ham and spray treated with between 15 and 29 ml of a 9,090-ppm LAE solution, or an equal volume of water (control), prior to vacuum packaging. After 48 h at 4.4 degrees C, populations were recovered from ham and interior packaging surfaces by using a surface rinse method with Dey-Engley neutralizing broth followed by plating on modified Oxford medium. Logarithmic reductions of L. monocytogenes exceeding 2 log CFU/cm(2) of ham surfaces were achieved by LAE treatment on all ham types. Hams with 1,129 cm(2) of surface area that had been processed by drenching in liquid smoke had 3.84 and 2.67 CFU/cm(2) 48 h following treatment with 18 ml of water or LAE, respectively, but increasing treatment volumes to 22 ml significantly reduced (P < 0.05) L. monocytogenes levels to 0.65 log CFU/cm(2). This study demonstrated the efficacy of LAE against L. monocytogenes on several ham types, thereby validating it as a postlethality treatment for inactivation of the pathogen.

  19. Subcutaneous and intermuscular fat characterisation of dry-cured Iberian hams.

    Timón, M L; Ventanas, J; Carrapiso, A I; Jurado, A; García, C


    The fatty acid composition of the triacylglycerols and free fatty acids of subcutaneous (internal and superficial layers) and intermuscular fat and the contribution of these fatty acids to the formation of volatile compounds were determined in dry-cured Iberian ham. The profile of the fatty acids and volatile compounds showed that lipolytic and oxidative processes occur more intensively in subcutaneous than intermuscular fat, however, few differences were found compared to those found in ham lean.

  20. Jubler over hans død- før hyldede de ham

    Bjerg, Magnus; Sabih, Joshua A.


    Den vestlige verdens ledere står i kø for at juble over Muammar Gaddafis død torsdag, selvom de for få år siden modtog ham med åbne arme......Den vestlige verdens ledere står i kø for at juble over Muammar Gaddafis død torsdag, selvom de for få år siden modtog ham med åbne arme...

  1. Tracking the Flow of Resources in Electronic Waste - The Case of End-of-Life Computer Hard Disk Drives.

    Habib, Komal; Parajuly, Keshav; Wenzel, Henrik


    Recovery of resources, in particular, metals, from waste flows is widely seen as a prioritized option to reduce their potential supply constraints in the future. The current waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) treatment system is more focused on bulk metals, where the recycling rate of specialty metals, such as rare earths, is negligible compared to their increasing use in modern products, such as electronics. This study investigates the challenges in recovering these resources in the existing WEEE treatment system. It is illustrated by following the material flows of resources in a conventional WEEE treatment plant in Denmark. Computer hard disk drives (HDDs) containing neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) magnets were selected as the case product for this experiment. The resulting output fractions were tracked until their final treatment in order to estimate the recovery potential of rare earth elements (REEs) and other resources contained in HDDs. The results further show that out of the 244 kg of HDDs treated, 212 kg comprising mainly of aluminum and steel can be finally recovered from the metallurgic process. The results further demonstrate the complete loss of REEs in the existing shredding-based WEEE treatment processes. Dismantling and separate processing of NdFeB magnets from their end-use products can be a more preferred option over shredding. However, it remains a technological and logistic challenge for the existing system.

  2. The impact of electronic healthcare associated infection surveillance software on infection prevention resources: A systematic review of the literature.

    Russo, Philip L; Shaban, Ramon Z; MacBeth, Deborough; Carter, Abigail; Mitchell, Brett G


    Surveillance of healthcare-associated infections is fundamental for infection prevention. The methods and practices for surveillance have evolved as technology becomes more advanced. The availability of electronic surveillance software (ESS) has increased, and yet adoption of ESS is slow. It is argued that ESS deliver savings through automation, particularly in terms of human resourcing and infection prevention (IP) staff time. This paper describes the findings of a systematic review on the impact of ESS on IP resources. A systematic search was conducted of electronic databases Medline and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature published between 1st January 2006 and 31(st) December 2016 with analysis using Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. 2832 articles were reviewed of which 16 studies met the inclusion criteria. IP resources were identified as time undertaken on surveillance. A reduction in IP staff time to undertake surveillance was demonstrated in 13 studies. The reduction proportion ranged from 12.5% - 98.4% (mean 73.9%). The remaining three did not allow for any estimation of the effect in terms of IP staff time. None of the studies demonstrated an increase in IP staff time. The results of this review demonstrate that adopting ESS yield considerable dividends in IP staff time relating to data collection and case ascertainment whilst maintaining high levels of sensitivity and specificity. This has the potential to enable reinvestment into other components of IP to maximise efficient use of scare IP resources. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.


    А. М. Гавриленко


    Object of research is the help information resource "The chronicle of the Odessa national university of I. I. Mechnikov: dates, facts, events". The main objective of our article – to state the main methodological bases of creation of information resource. One of advantages of information resource is possibility of continuous updating and replenishment by new information. Main objective of creation of this information resource is systematization of material on stories of the Odessa national university of I. I. Mechnikov from the date of his basis to the present, ensuring interactive access to information on the main dates, the most significant events in life of university. The base of research are sources on the history of university, chronology of historical development, formation of infrastructure, cadres and scientific researches. In information resource the main stages of development, functioning and transformation of the Odessa University are analyzed, information on its divisions is collected. For creation of this information resource in Scientific library the method of work was developed, the main selection criteria of data are allocated. This information resource have practical value for all who is interested in history of university, historians, scientists-researchers of history of science and the city of Odessa.

  4. Consumer satisfaction with dry-cured ham in five European countries.

    Resano, H; Pérez-Cueto, F J A; Sanjuán, A I; de Barcellos, M D; Grunert, K G; Verbeke, W


    The objective is to investigate consumer satisfaction with dry-cured ham in five European countries. A logistic regression model has been fitted using data collected through a cross-sectional web-based survey carried out in Belgium, Germany, Denmark, Poland and Greece during January 2008 (n=2437 of which 2156 were dry-cured ham consumers). Satisfaction was evaluated as overall satisfaction, as well as specific satisfaction with healthfulness, price, convenience and taste. The findings show that the main determinant of overall satisfaction is taste satisfaction, hence, producers are recommended to focus on matching sensory acceptability of dry-cured ham. No significant between-country differences were found, reflecting the wide availability of this product in all countries. Consumer characteristics influenced their level of satisfaction. Men, older (age > 52 years) and frequent consumers of dry-cured ham consumption were more likely to be satisfied with dry-cured ham. Consumers trust the butcher's advice and they preferred purchasing dry-cured ham at a butcher shop rather than in a supermarket.

  5. Effect of Transport Distance and Season on Some Defects of Fresh Hams Destined for DPO Production

    Arduini, Agnese; Redaelli, Veronica; Luzi, Fabio; Dall’Olio, Stefania; Pace, Vincenzo; Nanni Costa, Leonardo


    Simple Summary Transport to the slaughterhouse is a stressful event for pigs. Travel duration and conditions can negatively affect animal welfare and carcass quality. Some defects in fresh hams are strictly connected to pre-slaughter transportation. Journeys with short (170 km) distances may increase damage in fresh hams and decrease Denomination Protected of Origin (DPO) Parma dry-cured ham production. Abstract Pre-slaughter handling is related to defects in fresh hams that result in exclusion from the DPO Parma chain, including hematomas, lacerations, microhaemorrhages and veining. To determine the effects of transport conditions on hams, we collected data on defects in 901,990 trimmed fresh hams from heavy pigs provided by 3,650 batches from slaughterhouse during 2012 and 2013. For all batches, transport distance (1–276 km) season and year of delivery were considered. A decrease of all defect occurrences was observed for increasing distance up to 170 km (P transported 38–170 km during the summer. PMID:26480322

  6. Effect of Access to an Electronic Medical Resource on Performance Characteristics of a Certification Examination: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Lipner, Rebecca S; Brossman, Bradley G; Samonte, Kelli M; Durning, Steven J


    Electronic resources are increasingly used in medical practice. Their use during high-stakes certification examinations has been advocated by many experts, but whether doing so would affect the capacity to differentiate between high and low abilities is unknown. To determine the effect of electronic resources on examination performance characteristics. Randomized controlled trial. Medical certification program. 825 physicians initially certified by the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) who passed the Internal Medicine Certification examination or sat for the Internal Medicine Maintenance of Certification (IM-MOC) examination in 2012 to 2015. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 conditions: closed book using typical or additional time, or open book (that is, UpToDate [Wolters Kluwer]) using typical or additional time. All participants took the same modified version of the IM-MOC examination. Primary outcomes included item difficulty (how easy or difficult the question was), item discrimination (how well the question differentiated between high and low abilities), and average question response time. Secondary outcomes included examination dimensionality (that is, the number of factors measured) and test-taking strategy. Item response theory was used to calculate question characteristics. Analysis of variance compared differences among conditions. Closed-book conditions took significantly less time than open-book conditions (mean, 79.2 seconds [95% CI, 78.5 to 79.9 seconds] vs. 110.3 seconds [CI, 109.2 to 111.4 seconds] per question). Mean discrimination was statistically significantly higher for open-book conditions (0.34 [CI, 0.32 to 0.35] vs. 0.39 [CI, 0.37 to 0.41] per question). A strong single dimension showed that the examination measured the same factor with or without the resource. Only 1 electronic resource was evaluated. Inclusion of an electronic resource with time constraints did not adversely affect test performance and did not change

  7. Understanding intention to use electronic information resources: A theoretical extension of the technology acceptance model (TAM).

    Tao, Donghua


    This study extended the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) by examining the roles of two aspects of e-resource characteristics, namely, information quality and system quality, in predicting public health students' intention to use e-resources for completing research paper assignments. Both focus groups and a questionnaire were used to collect data. Descriptive analysis, data screening, and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) techniques were used for data analysis. The study found that perceived usefulness played a major role in determining students' intention to use e-resources. Perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use fully mediated the impact that information quality and system quality had on behavior intention. The research model enriches the existing technology acceptance literature by extending TAM. Representing two aspects of e-resource characteristics provides greater explanatory information for diagnosing problems of system design, development, and implementation.

  8. Building and Managing Electronic Resources in Digital Era in India with Special Reference to IUCAA and NIV, Pune: A Comparative Case Study

    Sahu, H. K.; Singh, S. N.


    This paper discusses and presents a comparative case study of two libraries in Pune, India, Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics and Information Centre and Library of National Institute of Virology (Indian Council of Medical Research). It compares how both libraries have managed their e-resource collections, including acquisitions, subscriptions, and consortia arrangements, while also developing a collection of their own resources, including pre-prints and publications, video lectures, and other materials in an institutional repository. This study illustrates how difficult it is to manage electronic resources in a developing country like India, even though electronic resources are used more than print resources. Electronic resource management can be daunting, but with a systematic approach, various problems can be solved, and use of the materials will be enhanced.

  9. Print and Electronic Resources: Usage Statistics at Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library

    Kapoor, Kanta


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to quantify the use of electronic journals in comparison with the print collections in the Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library. Design/methodology/approach: A detailed analysis was made of the use of lending services, the Xerox facility and usage of electronic journals such as Science Direct,…

  10. Print and Electronic Resources: Usage Statistics at Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library

    Kapoor, Kanta


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to quantify the use of electronic journals in comparison with the print collections in the Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library. Design/methodology/approach: A detailed analysis was made of the use of lending services, the Xerox facility and usage of electronic journals such as Science Direct,…

  11. Intention to use and actual use of electronic information resources: further exploring Technology Acceptance Model (TAM).

    Tao, Donghua


    Following up a previous study that examined public health students' intention to use e-resources for completing research paper assignments, the present study proposed two models to investigate whether or not public health students actually used the e-resources they intended to use and whether or not the determinants of intention to use predict actual use of e-resources. Focus groups and pre- and post-questionnaires were used to collect data. Descriptive analysis, data screening, and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) techniques were used for data analysis. The study found that the determinants of intention-to-use significantly predict actual use behavior. Direct impact of perceived usefulness and indirect impact of perceived ease of use to both behavior intention and actual behavior indicated the importance of ease of use at the early stage of technology acceptance. Non-significant intention-behavior relationship prompted thoughts on the measurement of actual behavior and multidimensional characteristics of the intention construct.

  12. The motor evoked potential in aids and HAM/TSP State of the evidence El potencial evocado motor en SIDA y HAM/PET

    Fidias E. Leon-Sarmiento


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We aimed to better understand the involvement of the corticospinal tract, assessed by non-invasive transcranial stimulation, in order to determine the actual involvement of the motor system in patients with HAM/TSP and AIDS. METHOD: An exhaustive MEDLINE search for the period of 1985 to 2008 for all articles cross-referenced for "HTLV-I, HTLV-II, HTLV-III and HIV, HIV1, HIV2, evoked potential, motor evoked potential, high voltage electrical stimulation, transcranial magnetic stimulation, magnetic stimulation, corticomotor physiology, motor pathways, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, AIDS, SIDA, tropical spastic paraparesis, HTLV-I-associated myelopathy, HAM, TSP, and HAM/TSP" were selected and analysed. RESULTS: Eighteen papers published in English, Spanish, Portuguese, French and Japanese were identified. Only the central motor conduction time has been analyzed in seropositive patients to human retroviruses. The investigations done on HAM/TSP support the involvement of the pyramidal tract mainly at lower levels, following a centripetal pattern; in AIDS, such an involvement seems to be more prominent at brain levels following a centrifugal pattern. CONCLUSION: The central motor conduction time abnormalities and involvement differences of the corticospinal tract of patients with AIDS and HAM/TSP dissected here would allow to re-orient early neurorehabilitation measures in these retroviruses-associated neurodegenerative disorders. Besides this, more sophisticated and sensitive non-invasive corticospinal stimulation measures that detect early changes in thalamocortical-basal ganglia circuitry will be needed in both clinically established as well as asymptomatic patients at times when the fastest corticospinal fibers remain uninvolved.OBJETIVO: Investigar el compromiso del tracto piramidal, evaluado por estimulación trascranial no invasiva, en pacientes afectados por SIDA y HAM/TSP. MÉTODO: Se realizó una búsqueda en la base de

  13. Ectopic expression of the HAM59 gene causes homeotic transformations of reproductive organs in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Shulga, O A; Neskorodov, Ya B; Shchennikova, A V; Gaponenko, A K; Skryabin, K G


    The function of the HAM59 MADS-box gene in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) was studied to clarify homeotic C activity in the Asteraceae plant family. For the first time, transgenic sunflower plants with a modified pattern of HAM59 expression were obtained. It was shown that the HAM59 MADS-box transcription factor did mediate C activity in sunflower. In particular, it participated in termination of the floral meristem, repression of the cadastral function of A-activity, and together with other C-type sunflower protein HAM45-in the specification of the identity of stamens and pistils.

  14. MendelWeb: An Electronic Science/Math/History Resource for the WWW.

    Blumberg, Roger B.

    This paper describes a hypermedia resource, called MendelWeb that integrates elementary biology, discrete mathematics, and the history of science. MendelWeb is constructed from Gregor Menders 1865 paper, "Experiments in Plant Hybridization". An English translation of Mendel's paper, which is considered to mark the birth of classical and…

  15. QR Codes as Finding Aides: Linking Electronic and Print Library Resources

    Kane, Danielle; Schneidewind, Jeff


    As part of a focused, methodical, and evaluative approach to emerging technologies, QR codes are one of many new technologies being used by the UC Irvine Libraries. QR codes provide simple connections between print and virtual resources. In summer 2010, a small task force began to investigate how QR codes could be used to provide information and…

  16. Electronic resources at the University of Sharjah medical library: an investigation of students' information-seeking behavior.

    Boumarafi, Behdja


    Electronic information is becoming prevalent worldwide, and its use is growing exponentially as more and more users are recognizing the potential that it offers in terms of access and delivery. However, with the introduction of new tools for e-information searching and retrieval, users have to readjust their information-seeking behavior to cope with the corresponding changes. The University of Sharjah library is steadily increasing its investment in e-resources to offer ubiquitous access to the growing body of literature in areas that interest the community it serves. This study reports the findings of a survey conducted to investigate the information-seeking behavior of medical students at the medical library. Results showed evidence of use of e-resources, but they did not explicitly establish that some of the major problems mentioned by participants did hinder the information searches of the respondents. An extensive literature review sets the background for the study.

  17. Analysis of volatile compounds from Iberian hams: a review

    Narváez-Rivas, M.


    Full Text Available This article provides information on the study of the volatile compounds in raw and dry-cured Iberian hams. Different volatile compounds are identified and studies carried out by different authors are presented. This article reviews the analytical methods that have been used to determine the different volatiles of these samples. Furthermore, all volatile compounds identified (a total of 411 volatiles have been collected in several tables according to different series of compounds: hydrocarbons, aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, esters and ethers, lactones, terpenes and chloride compounds, nitrogenous compounds, sulfur compounds and carboxylic acids. This review can be useful in subsequent research due to the complexity of the study.

    En este artículo se proporciona información sobre el estudio de los compuestos volátiles del jamón ibérico tanto fresco como curado. Se presentan los diferentes compuestos volátiles identificados por distintos autores. Además, se evalúan los métodos analíticos que han sido utilizados para determinar dichos compuestos volátiles en este tipo de muestras. Todos los compuestos identificados y descritos en esta revisión (un total de 411 compuestos volátiles han sido agrupados en diversas tablas de acuerdo a las diferentes familias a que pertenecen: hidrocarburos, aldehídos, cetonas, alcoholes, ésteres y éteres, lactonas, terpenos, compuestos halogenados, compuestos nitrogenados, compuestos de azufre y ácidos carboxílicos. Debido a la complejidad de este estudio, la presente revisión puede ser muy útil en investigaciones posteriores.

  18. 图书馆电子信息资源利用效果评价研究%Study on Utilization Effect Evaluation of Library Electronic Information Resources

    晋晓强; 贺培风; 何忠印


    This paper discusses utilization effect of electronic information resources combining with the characteristics of electronic information resources, makes evaluation system of library electronic information resource utilization effect from three aspects : the library, the users and the data providers, hoping for providing valuable reference for the efficient use of library electronic resources.%本文结合电子信息资源的特性对电子信息资源的利用进行初步探讨,从图书馆、用户和数据服务商三个角度构建图书馆电子信息资源利用效果的评价体系,希望能为图书馆电子信息资源的高效利用提供参考。

  19. The Graph, Geometry and Symmetries of the Genetic Code with Hamming Metric

    Reijer Lenstra


    Full Text Available The similarity patterns of the genetic code result from similar codons encoding similar messages. We develop a new mathematical model to analyze these patterns. The physicochemical characteristics of amino acids objectively quantify their differences and similarities; the Hamming metric does the same for the 64 codons of the codon set. (Hamming distances equal the number of different codon positions: AAA and AAC are at 1-distance; codons are maximally at 3-distance. The CodonPolytope, a 9-dimensional geometric object, is spanned by 64 vertices that represent the codons and the Euclidian distances between these vertices correspond one-to-one with intercodon Hamming distances. The CodonGraph represents the vertices and edges of the polytope; each edge equals a Hamming 1-distance. The mirror reflection symmetry group of the polytope is isomorphic to the largest permutation symmetry group of the codon set that preserves Hamming distances. These groups contain 82,944 symmetries. Many polytope symmetries coincide with the degeneracy and similarity patterns of the genetic code. These code symmetries are strongly related with the face structure of the polytope with smaller faces displaying stronger code symmetries. Splitting the polytope stepwise into smaller faces models an early evolution of the code that generates this hierarchy of code symmetries. The canonical code represents a class of 41,472 codes with equivalent symmetries; a single class among an astronomical number of symmetry classes comprising all possible codes.

  20. SIFT-MS analysis of Iberian hams from pigs reared under different conditions.

    Carrapiso, Ana I; Noseda, Bert; García, Carmen; Reina, Raquel; Sánchez Del Pulgar, José; Devlieghere, Frank


    The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of a Selected Ion Flow Tube-Mass Spectrometry (SIFT-MS) equipment to tentatively quantify relevant volatile compounds of dry-cured Iberian ham, and to differentiate Iberian hams from pigs reared at four different conditions yielding different commercial grades. The SIFT-MS analysis allowed the rapid quantification of 39 Iberian ham volatile compounds, 16 of them being significantly affected by the rearing conditions of pigs. The full spectra SIFT-MS data allowed the correct classification of 79.2% of hams according to diet, which is a smaller percentage than that obtained using intramuscular fatty acid data (95.8%) obtained by using a gas chromatograph-flame ionization detector after lipid extraction and transesterification. Therefore, the SIFT-MS analysis would be a rapid tool to tentatively quantify some relevant volatile compounds, and also would provide a rapid but rough classification of Iberian ham according to the rearing conditions of pigs.

  1. Non-destructive determination of fat content in green hams using ultrasound and X-rays.

    de Prados, M; Fulladosa, E; Gou, P; Muñoz, I; Garcia-Perez, J V; Benedito, J


    This work addresses the use of ultrasound (US) and medical dual energy X-ray absorptiometry methods to predict the fat content in green pork hams. Ultrasonic velocity (υ) and X-ray absorption were measured in 78 green hams. An increase in the fat content involved an increase in υ and a decrease in the X-ray attenuation measured at 2°C. Models developed to predict the fat content from the ultrasonic velocity or X-ray parameters provided errors of 2.97% and 4.65%, respectively. The combination of both US and X-ray technologies did not improve prediction accuracy. These models allowed green hams to be classified into three levels of fatness, with 88.5% and 65.4% of the hams correctly classified when using models based on ultrasonic and X-ray parameters, respectively. Therefore, US and X-rays emerge as useful quality control technologies with which to estimate the fat content in green pork hams.

  2. An Exploratory study on the use of LibAnswers to Resolve, Track and Monitor Electronic Resources Issues: The KAUST Library experience

    Ramli, Rindra M.


    An Exploratory study on KAUST library use of LibAnswers in resolving electronic resources questions received in LibAnswers. It describes the findings of the questions received in LibAnswers. The author made suggestions based on the findings to improve the reference services in responding to e-resources questions.

  3. Eavesdropping on Electronic Guidebooks: Observing Learning Resources in Shared Listening Environments.

    Woodruff, Allison; Aoki, Paul M.; Grinter, Rebecca E.; Hurst, Amy; Szymanski, Margaret H.; Thornton, James D.

    This paper describes an electronic guidebook, "Sotto Voce," that enables visitors to share audio information by eavesdropping on each others guidebook activity. The first section discusses the design and implementation of the guidebook device, key aspects of its user interface, the design goals for the audio environment, the eavesdropping…

  4. Electronic Resources in a Next-Generation Catalog: The Case of WorldCat Local

    Shadle, Steve


    In April 2007, the University of Washington Libraries debuted WorldCat Local (WCL), a localized version of the WorldCat database that interoperates with a library's integrated library system and fulfillment services to provide a single-search interface for a library's physical and electronic content. This brief will describe how WCL incorporates a…

  5. Equalizing Access to Electronic Networked Resources: A Model for Rural Libraries in the United States.

    Senkevitch, Judith J.; Wolfram, Dietmar


    Provides an overview of the current state of networking technology in rural libraries and describes a model for educating rural librarians in accessing electronic networks. Topics discussed include information needs in rural libraries; telecommunications technology access in rural areas; and examples of services to enhance information access.…

  6. Preference and Use of Electronic Information and Resources by Blind/Visually Impaired in NCR Libraries in India

    Shailendra Kumar


    Full Text Available This paper aims to determine the preference and use of electronic information and resources by blind/visually impaired users in the leading National Capital Region (NCR libraries of India. Survey methodology has been used as the basic research tool for data collection with the help of questionnaires. The 125 in total users surveyed in all the five libraries were selected randomly on the basis of willingness of the users with experience of working in digital environments to participate in the survey. The survey results were tabulated and analyzed with descriptive statistics methods using Excel software and 'Stata version 11'. The findings reveal that ICT have a positive impact in the lives of people with disabilities as it helps them to work independently and increases the level of confidence among them. The Internet is the most preferred medium of access to information among the majority of blind/visually impaired users. The 'Complexity of content available on the net' is found as the major challenge faced during Internet use by blind users of NCR libraries. 'Audio books on CDs/DVDs and DAISY books' are the most preferred electronic resources among the majority of blind/visually impaired users. This study will help the library professionals and organizations/institutions serving people with disabilities to develop effective library services for blind/visually impaired users in the digital environment on the basis of findings on information usage behavior in the study.

  7. Influence of sensory characteristics on the acceptability of dry-cured ham.

    Ruiz, J; García, C; Muriel, E; Andrés, A I; Ventanas, J


    The influence of different sensory attributes on the acceptability of dry-cured Iberian ham was studied. Partial least squares regression analysis showed that juiciness and several flavour traits were the major attributes positively influencing acceptability of dry-cured Iberian ham, whereas yellowness of the fat, dryness and fibrousness showed a negative influence. Using stepwise multivariate regression, juiciness and flavour intensity were the two traits that better explained the acceptability of dry-cured ham, the linear model obtained showing a regression coefficient of 0.526. The regression coefficient of acceptability with juiciness and flavour intensity was higher using a piecewise linear regression model (R(2)=0.759) showing, therefore, a discontinuous relationship between these variables. However, results on product acceptability have been obtained using trained panellists and it might be possible that the use of a consumer panel would change these conclusions.

  8. Linear hydrocarbons content of intramuscular lipids of dry-cured Iberian ham.

    Petrón, M J; Antequera, T; Muriel, E; Tejeda, J F; Ventanas, J


    This study has been carried out to determine the linear hydrocarbons content (n-alkane and n-alkene) in intramuscular lipids (biceps femoris muscle) of dry-cured Iberian ham considering "feeding system" (Montanera: fed on acorns and pasture and concentrate feed) and "genotype" (hams from Iberian pure pigs and hams from Iberian crossbreed with Duroc in a 50%). The linear hydrocarbons from n-C(14) to n-C(32) range were present in the four studied groups. n-Alkenes fraction (60-76 mg/kg of intramuscular fat) was higher than n-alkanes fraction (34-38 mg/kg). The most abundant n-alkane and n-alkene were the shortest chain ones. Feeding and genotype did not influence linear hydrocarbons content (neither n-alkanes nor n-alkenes).

  9. Study of the branched hydrocarbon fraction of intramuscular lipids from Iberian dry-cured ham.

    Petrón, M J; Tejeda, J F; Muriel, E; Ventanas, J; Antequera, T


    Branched hydrocarbons from the unsaponifiable lipid fraction of intramuscular fat from Iberian dry-cured hams were analyzed. Thirty-four hams were distributed into four groups according to the feed system of the pigs (extensive system "Montanera" and intensive system "Pienso") and genotype (Iberian and Iberian×Duroc). A total of 35 different hydrocarbons were identified in this study. Some differences were found in the levels of branched, cyclical and unsaturated hydrocarbons as a function of the diet of the pigs (3-hexyl-1,1-dimethyl cyclopentane, p<0.05; 3-octadecene, p<0.01; neophytadiene, p<0.001; 1-ethylundecyl benzene, p<0.01; cyclohexadecane, p<0.001; cyclotriacontane, p<0.05). However, the genotype had a limited effect in the level of branched hydrocarbons found. The study of branched hydrocarbons in intramuscular fat from dry-cured Iberian ham allows differentiation between the pigs management systems.

  10. Laser-light backscattering response to water content and proteolysis in dry-cured ham

    Fulladosa, E.; Rubio-Celorio, M.; Skytte, Jacob Lercke


    Laser backscattering imaging (LBI) is a low-cost technology proposed to determine non-invasively composition and microstructural characteristics of agro food and dairy products. The aim of this work was to define the effect of different acquisition conditions (wavelength, object distance and angle...... of laser incidence) and to analyse the laser-light backscattering changes caused by additional hot air drying and proteolysis of dry-cured ham slices. The feasibility of the technology to determine water content and proteolysis (which is related to textural characteristics) of commercial sliced dry......-cured ham was also evaluated. Results showed that a red laser (635 nm) is more convenient than a green laser (532 nm) to analyse dry-cured ham but no preferable angle or object distance to evaluate dryness or proteolysis was found. Nevertheless, light scattering parameters were modified depending...

  11. Technological suitability of transglutaminase preparations in the production of cooked ham

    Jan Pyrcz


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine effect of replacing the phosphates by the preparations containing transglutaminase enzyme on the quality of cooked ham. Accepted factors of technological variability, preparation raw material (in whole or in muscle trimmings below, the curing brine injection level (30 or 40% and two types of enzyme transglutaminase preparations slightly differentiate sensory desirability, but also physical and chemical properties of cooked hams. In spite of the transglutaminase preparations used in the experiment the reduction of cooking loss was not significantly affect and the improving the tastiness, their technological usefulness in cooked ham production is satisfactory. The beneficial effect of the impact of transglutaminase preparations can be particularly seen in the case of products derived from trimmings. Thanks to these preparations raw meat with less technological suitability or cooking can be used to produce high quality products.

  12. Degradation of LIM domain-binding protein three during processing of Spanish dry-cured ham.

    Gallego, Marta; Mora, Leticia; Fraser, Paul D; Aristoy, María-Concepción; Toldrá, Fidel


    Extensive proteolysis takes place during the processing of dry-cured ham due to the action of muscle peptidases. The aim of this work was to study the degradation of LIM domain binding protein 3 (LDB3), which is located at the Z-lines of the sarcomere, at different times during the Spanish dry-cured ham processing (2, 3.5, 5, 6.5, and 9 months). A total of 107 peptides have been identified by mass spectrometry, most of them generated from the first region of the protein sequence (position 1-90) providing evidence for the complexity and variability of proteolytic reactions throughout the whole process of dry-curing. Methionine oxidation has been observed in several peptides by the end of the process. The potential of some of the identified peptides to be used as biomarkers of dry-cured ham processing has also been considered.

  13. Growth inhibition of lactic acid bacteria in ham by nisin: a model approach.

    Kalschne, Daneysa L; Geitenes, Simone; Veit, Marilei R; Sarmento, Cleonice M P; Colla, Eliane


    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been described as spoilage organisms in vacuum-packed cooked ham. A Fractional Factorial Design was performed to investigate the relative merits of sodium chloride, sodium lactate, sodium tripolyphosphate, sodium erythorbate, nisin and pediocin, in limiting the Lactobacillus sakei growth in broth culture. This allowed rejection of sodium chloride, sodium lactate and sodium erythorbate (no significant effects on growth), and a Central Composite Rotatable Design broth culture study was performed comparing the effects of nisin and pediocin. From this study, nisin was identified as a more important variable for inclusion into a cooked ham model (significant effects on growth parameters: logarithmic increase in the population, exponential microbial growth rate and lag phase extension). The validation of this outcome in a model formulation of vacuum-packed sliced cooked ham (0.001%, 0.007% and 0.013% of nisin) stored for 60days, confirmed the inhibitory effect of nisin on total LAB growth.

  14. Implications of HAM/TSP functional incapacity in the quality of life

    Marcia Shublaq


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify the functional status and quality of life of HAM/TSP patients. METHOD: We evaluated prospectively 30 HAM/TSP patients (20 females seen in the Neuroinfection Clinic of the HUGG. The functional capacity was analyzed by the functional independence measure (FIM, the expanded disability status (EDSS scale and the Osame's motor disability score (OMDS. The quality of life was assed by the Short-Form Health Survey 36 (SF-36TM. RESULTS: All patients need assistance device. The FIM, OMDS and EDSS scores classified 70%, 67% and 67% of the patients as dependent, respectively. The lowest scores of the SF-36 survey were found in the domains related to the physical health (D1, D2, role-emotional functioning (D7 and social functioning (D6. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that the HAM/TSP physical impairment has an impact in the emotional and social issues, considering the limitation in the daily activities.

  15. Detrusor Arreflexia as an End Stage of Neurogenic Bladder in HAM/TSP?

    Matheus Tannus


    Full Text Available The HTLV-1 virus is a known agent involved in the development of HAM/TSP. Past studies have typically observed patients with autonomic dysfunction consisting of detrusor overactivity and detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia, with the occasional observation of underactive detrusor or detrusor arreflexia. However, studies have not yet evaluated the progression of neurogenic bladder over time. In this paper, we describe a HAM/TSP patient with the initial development of overactive detrusor, and subsequent development of detrusor arreflexia. Given a paucity of studies characterizing the effects of HTLV-1 on the autonomic nervous system, particularly aspects controlling continence, this patient's clinical course may represent one type of end point for patients with HAM/TSP and neurogenic bladder. Further cohort or case-series studies, with particular emphasis on the progression of neurogenic bladder, are needed to evaluate the significance of this described case in relation to typical disease progression patterns.

  16. Collaboration in electronic resource provision in university libraries: SHEDL, a Scottish case study

    Kidd, T


    This case study examines the growth of collaboration among Scottish higher education institutions. Following a summary of the work of the Scottish Confederation of University and Research Libraries (SCURL), more detailed information is provided on collaboration in the fields of acquisition, licensing, selection, and purchasing. Some of the UK background is outlined, relating to NESLi2 in particular, in order to illuminate the options within Scotland. The origins of negotiations on electronic ...

  17. Internet and electronic resources for inflammatory bowel disease: a primer for providers and patients.

    Fortinsky, Kyle J; Fournier, Marc R; Benchimol, Eric I


    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are increasingly turning to the Internet to research their condition and engage in discourse on their experiences. This has resulted in new dynamics in the relationship between providers and their patients, with misinformation and advertising potentially presenting barriers to the cooperative patient-provider partnership. This article addresses important issues of online IBD-related health information and social media activity, such as quality, reliability, objectivity, and privacy. We reviewed the medical literature on the quality of online information provided to IBD patients, and summarized the most commonly accessed Websites related to IBD. We also assessed the activity on popular social media sites (such as Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube), and evaluated currently available applications for use by IBD patients and providers on mobile phones and tablets. Through our review of the literature and currently available resources, we developed a list of recommended online resources to strengthen patient participation in their care by providing reliable, comprehensive educational material.

  18. Iberian ham typification by direct infusion electrospray and photospray ionization mass spectrometry fingerprinting.

    González-Dominguez, R; García-Barrera, T; Gómez-Ariza, J-L


    Iberian ham is a product of high commercial value whose quality mainly depends on breeding and feeding of pigs in an authorized way. Simple, fast, simple, reliable and high-throughput analytical methods are necessary to assure the quality of ham and for fraud prevention. Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) is proposed as an advantageous alternative over other analytical techniques commonly used in this industry for product authentication. The analytical approach is based on direct infusion electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI(+)-MS) of dichloromethane/methanol (60:40) extracts of ham intramuscular fat. Similarly, atmospheric pressure photoionization ionization mass spectrometry (APPI(+)-MS) was used with a flow injection analysis system for sample introduction with methanol/water (50%) as the mobile phase and toluene as the dopant. All experiments were performed on an API QSTAR® XL Hybrid system using both ESI and APPI sources. The ESI(+)-MS mass spectra present several clusters of peaks attributed to ammonium adducts [M + NH(4) (+) ] of lipid compounds (mono-, di- and triacylglycerols - MGs, DGs, TGs, and free fatty acids - FFAs), that can be identified by MS/MS spectra. On the other hand, the APPI(+)-MS spectra present [M + H(+) ] ions and reflect a higher fragmentation of the sample. Five different types of Iberian ham samples were successfully classified using partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) of data from these samples. The application of direct infusion tandem mass spectrometry to dichloromethane/methanol extracts from intramuscular fat ham allows the simple, fast and reliable fingerprinting typification of different Iberian ham samples from pigs with different diets. With the proposed method, sample handling is minimal and chromatographic separation is not necessary, which represents an evident advantage over other analytical procedures usually used for this purpose. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Evaluation of antilisterial action of cilantro oil on vacuum packed ham.

    Gill, A O; Delaquis, P; Russo, P; Holley, R A


    Cilantro oil is an essential oil preparation extracted from the plant Coriandrum sativium. A series of experiments were conducted to evaluate the ability of cilantro oil to control the growth of Listeria monocytogenes on vacuum-packed ham. The in vitro minimal inhibitory concentration for five strains of L. monocytogenes was found to vary from 0.074% to 0.018% depending on strain. Cilantro oil treatments were then tested on ham disks inoculated with a cocktail of the five L. monocytogenes strains. The treatments studied were 0.1%, 0.5%, and 6% cilantro oil diluted in sterile canola oil or incorporated into a gelatin gel in which lecithin was used to enhance incorporation of the cilantro oil. Gelatin gel treatments were also conducted with 1.4% monolaurin with or without 6% cilantro oil to determine if an interaction between the antimicrobials could increase inhibition of L. monocytogenes. Treated ham was then vacuum-packed and stored at 10 degrees C for up to 4 weeks. The only cilantro oil treatment which inhibited growth of L. monocytogenes on the ham samples was 6% cilantro oil gel. Samples receiving this treatment had populations of L. monocytogenes 1.3 log CFU/ml lower than controls at week 1 of storage, though there was no difference between treatments from week 2 onward. It appears that immobilization of the antimicrobial in a gel enhanced the effect of treatments. Cilantro oil does not appear to be a suitable agent for the control of L. monocytogenes on ham. The possible reasons for reduced effectiveness of cilantro oil against L. monocytogenes on ham are discussed.

  20. Lipid and protein oxidation and sensory properties of vacuum-packaged dry-cured ham subjected to high hydrostatic pressure.

    Fuentes, Verónica; Ventanas, Jesús; Morcuende, David; Estévez, Mario; Ventanas, Sonia


    The effect of HHP treatment (600 MPa) on the oxidative stability of lipids and proteins of vacuum-packaged Iberian dry-cured ham and the impact on the sensory characteristics of the product was investigated. In order to assess how different commercial presentations are affected by HHP treatment, three different presentations of vacuum-packaged Iberian dry-cured ham were considered, namely, (i) intact format (IF) corresponding to non-sliced vacuum-packaged dry-cured ham, (ii) conventional-sliced format (CSF) corresponding to dry-cured ham slices placed stretched out in the package and (iii) alternative-sliced format (ASF) corresponding to dry-cured ham slices piled up horizontally. The oxidation of dry-cured ham lipids and proteins was enhanced by HHP-treatment with the presentation being highly influential on these oxidative reactions. Pre-slicing dry-cured ham results in a more susceptible product to oxidative reactions during pressurisation and subsequent refrigerated storage. Possible mechanisms, by which HHP-induced oxidative reactions would affect particular sensory traits in vacuum-packaged Iberian dry-cured ham such as colour, texture and flavour attributes, are discussed.

  1. Sampling methods to detect and estimate populations of Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) (Sarcoptiformes: Acaridae) infesting dry-cured hams

    Spatial and temporal dynamics of pest populations is an important aspect of effective pest management. However, absolute sampling of some pest populations such as the ham mite, Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) (Sarcoptiformes: Acaridae), a serious pest of dry-cured ham, can be difficult. Sampling ...

  2. Exploring consumer satisfaction with dry-cured ham in five European countries

    Resano, Helena; Perez-Cueto, Federico J. A.; Sanjuán, Ana


    This papers' objective is to investigate consumer satisfaction with dry-cured ham in five European countries. A logistic regression model has been fitted using data collected through a crosssectional web-based survey carried out in Belgium, Germany, Denmark, Poland and Greece during January 2008 (n...... are recommended to focus on matching sensory acceptability of dry-cured ham. No significant between-country differences were found, reflecting the wide availability of this product in all countries. Consumer characteristics influenced their level of satisfaction. Men, older (age >52 years) and frequent consumers...

  3. Degradation of LIM domain-binding protein three during processing of Spanish dry-cured ham


    Extensive proteolysis takes place during the processing of dry-cured ham due to the action of muscle peptidases. The aim of this work was to study the degradation of LIM domain binding protein 3 (LDB3), which is located at the Z-lines of the sarcomere, at different times during the Spanish dry-cured ham processing (2, 3.5, 5, 6.5, and 9 months). A total of 107 peptides have been identified by mass spectrometry, most of them generated from the first region of the protein sequence (position 1-9...

  4. Influence of the convective surface transfer coefficients on the Heat, Air, and Moisture (HAM) building performance

    Steskens, Paul Wilhelmus Maria Hermanus; Janssen, Hans; Rode, Carsten


    HAM conditions. The paper focuses on the influence of the interior surface heat and moisture transfer coefficients, and investigates its effect on the hygrothermal performance. The parameter study showed that the magnitude of the convective surface transfer coefficients have a relatively large......Current models to predict heat, air and moisture (HAM) conditions in buildings assume constant boundary conditions for the temperature and relative humidity of the neighbouring air and for the surface heat and moisture transfer coefficients. These assumptions may introduce errors in the predicted...... influence on the predicted hygrothermal conditions at the surface of a building component and on the heat and vapour exchange with the indoor environment....

  5. Volatile compounds of dry-cured Iberian ham as affected by the length of the curing process.

    Ruiz, J; Ventanas, J; Cava, R; Andrés, A; García, C


    Volatile compounds from 10 dry-cured Iberian hams ripened for two different processing times, a prolonged traditional one (600 days) and a shortened process (420 days), were analysed by purge and trap coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Eighty-three compounds were identified which agreed with the major classes found in other ham types. The amount of methyl branched alkanes was much higher than in other dry-cured ham types, probably due to the feeding regime. The percentages of 2- and 3-methylbutanal were higher (p<0.0001 and p<0.0003, respectively) in the longer aged hams, whereas the amounts of some compounds from lipid oxidation decreased from 420 to 600 days aging. In agreement with these observations, 600-day hams had higher scores for those odour and flavour traits usually considered to be positive attributes and lower scores for rancidity. A positive and significant correlation between 2-methyl butanal and cured flavour was found.

  6. Neuropsychological assessment in HTLV-1 infection: a comparative study among TSP/HAM, asymptomatic carriers, and healthy controls.

    Silva, M T T; Mattos, P; Alfano, A; Araújo, A Q-C


    Human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-I) can cause tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-1 associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM) and adult T cell leukaemia/lymphoma. More recently other diseases such as isolated peripheral polyneuropathy, myopathy, artropathy, and uveitis have been associated with this retrovirus. Only a few uncontrolled studies, without necessary exclusion criteria, have described mild cognitive deficits among TSP/HAM patients. To further clarify this the authors evaluated, through neuropsychological testing patients with TSP/HAM and asymptomatic infected carriers, comparing both groups with healthy controls. To verify the presence of cognitive deficits among TSP/HAM patients and asymptomatic HTLV-1 infected carriers. In addition, the authors aimed to investigate if these deficits correlated with the degree of motor impairment in TSP/HAM patients. From a cohort of 501 HTLV-1 infected people the authors selected, according to predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria, 40 asymptomatic HTLV-1 carriers and 37 TSP/HAM patients. Neuropsychological testing was blindly performed in both groups and their scores were compared with those obtained from controls. Both the HTLV-1 carrier group and the group of patients with TSP/HAM exhibited a lower performance in neuropsychological tests when compared with controls. Asymptomatic infected carriers and TSP/HAM patients did not differ in their cognitive results. Also, there was no relation between the degree of motor disability and cognitive deficits in the TSP/HAM group. Psychomotor slowing and deficits in the some domains characterised the neuropsychological impairment in HTLV-1 infection: verbal and visual memory, attention and visuomotor abilities. TSP/HAM as well as asymptomatic infection can be associated with mild cognitive deficits. This finding, if confirmed by further studies, will permit the inclusion of cognitive impairment among the neurological manifestations of HTLV-1.

  7. Granulometric composition study of mineral resources using opto-electronic devices and Elsieve software system

    Kaminski Stanislaw


    Full Text Available The use of mechanical sieves has a great impact on measurement results because occurrence of anisometric particles causes undercounting the average size. Such errors can be avoided by using opto-electronic measuring devices that enable measurement of particles from 10 μm up to a few dozen millimetres in size. The results of measurement of each particle size fraction are summed up proportionally to its weight with the use of Elsieve software system and for every type of material particle-size distribution can be obtained. The software allows further statistical interpretation of the results. Beam of infrared radiation identifies size of particles and counts them precisely. Every particle is represented by an electronic impulse proportional to its size. Measurement of particles in aqueous suspension that replaces the hydrometer method can be carried out by using the IPS L analyser (range from 0.2 to 600 μm. The IPS UA analyser (range from 0.5 to 2000 μm is designed for measurement in the air. An ultrasonic adapter enables performing measurements of moist and aggregated particles from 0.5 to 1000 μm. The construction and software system allow to determine second dimension of the particle, its shape coefficient and specific surface area. The AWK 3D analyser (range from 0.2 to 31.5 mm is devoted to measurement of various powdery materials with subsequent determination of particle shape. The AWK B analyser (range from 1 to 130 mm measures materials of thick granulation and shape of the grains. The presented method of measurement repeatedly accelerates and facilitates study of granulometric composition.

  8. 试论图书馆电子资源与纸本资源的协调发展%The coordinated development of library electronic resources and paper resources



      纸本资源和电子资源属于公共图书馆文献资源中两个非常重要的资源类型,纸本资源和电子资源的协调发展在图书馆的可持续发展过程中起着非常重要的作用。本文对如何实现图书馆电子资源和纸本资源之间的协调发展进行了探讨,希望能够为图书馆文献资源的管理提供一些参考。%  The paper and electronic resources are two very important types of literature resources of public libraries, the coordinated development of the paper and electronic resources play a very important role in the sustainable development process of the library. This article discusses how to realize the coordinated development of library electronic resources and paper resources, hope to provide some reference for library literature resource management.

  9. A study of chemical profiles and appearance of white crystals in Istrian dry-cured ham: effect of desalting

    Helga Medić


    Full Text Available In order to find out the effect on physical-chemical profile of Istrian dry-cured ham with particular regard to the appearance of white crystals in the muscles, raw salted legs were desalted by soaking the legs in cold water for 24 hours. The 20 raw hams taken from 10 slaughtered hogs (Swedish Landrace breed and processed in the traditional Istrian manner were used. After salting and pressing, the raw hams were divided into two groups: 1 the 10 left legs of each hog were desalted (D; 2 the 10 right legs were not desalted (N. Following this, both groups of legs were subjected to continuous processing. Samples for chemical analysis and counting of white spots were taken from the 20 legs (10 N and 10 D from 10 hogs, each weighing 12 to 15 kg. Chemical analysis of muscle tissue showed a highly significant difference (P<0.0001 in the salt quantity in the N (6.85% and D (5.31% dry-cured hams, as expected. Desalting affected the level of calcium which was higher (P=0.0124 in the D hams (0.27 g than in the N hams (0.22 g. Desalting did not affect the free amino acid content, with the exception of methionine which was lower (P=0.0041 in D (0.14 g than in N hams (0.17 g. Desalting affected the level of two free fatty acids as follows: heptadecanoic acid was higher (P=0.0203 in N (0.18% than in D hams (0.24% and DPA was higher (P=0.0373 in N (0.49% than in D hams (0.39%. By counting the white precipitates, it was established that the regularity of appearance of the precipitate was noted on both the D and N hams, such that where there was no precipitate on the right N ham, nor was their any on the left D ham of the same hog. However, desalting only lead to a slight decrease in the appearance of precipitates (average of 0.7 points, but it is certain that desalting reduces the salt content in the legs, which affects some physical- chemical changes in the ham tissues during processing.

  10. On the Development of Electronic Resources and Paper Resources%关于电子资源与纸本资源协调发展的思考和建议



    In recent years, a large number of electronic resources was introduced to the libraries, which has become an im- portant component of library resource system. However, there are also a lot of hot debates about the following issues, such as how to build a traditional paper resources, how to deal with the relationship between paper resources and electronic resources, how to build a library resources development system, etc. These problems also confused many librarians who are building resources in the library. With the combination with the opinions from some experts, research scholars, the paper proposed some guiding principles to deal with the relationship between electronic resources and paper resources. Taking all the aspects into consideration, such as the concepts of the library, the funding of the resources, the policies and structure of the library, cooperative development, the paper also proposes some measures for the development of electronic resources and paper resources.%在复合图书馆环境下,如何协调发展电子资源与纸本资源是图书馆界专家、学者研究和探讨的热点问题,也是许多图书馆工作者在文献资源建设实践中十分困惑的问题。文章结合有关专家、学者的研究成果及图书馆的相关案例,概述了电子资源与纸本资源协调发展应遵循的指导性原则,并从馆藏理念、经费投入、馆藏政策、馆藏结构、合作发展、服务利用等几个方面提出了协调发展电子资源与纸本资源的若干举措。

  11. HAM-Tools – a whole building simulation tool in Annex 41

    Kalagasidis, Angela Sasic; Rode, Carsten; Woloszyn, Monika


    HAM-Tools is a building simulation software. The main task of this tool is to simulate transfer processes related to building physics, i.e. heat, air and moisture transport in buildings and building components in operating conditions. The scope of the ECBCS Annex 41 “Whole Building Heat, Air and ...

  12. VLSI Implementation of Encryption and Decryption System Using Hamming Code Algorithm

    Fazal Noorbasha


    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an optimized VLSI implementation of encryption and decryption system using hamming code algorithm. In the present field of communication has got many applications, and in every field the data is encoded at the transmitter and transfer on a communication channel and receive at the receiver after data is decoded. During the broadcast of data it might get degraded because of some noise on the channel. So it is crucial for the receiver to have some function which can recognize and correct the error in the received data. Hamming code is one of such forward error correcting code which has got many applications. In this paper the algorithm for hamming code is discussed and then implementation of it in verilog is done to get the results. Hamming code is an upgrading over parity check method. Here a code is implemented in verilog in which 4-bit of information data is transmitted with 3-redundancy bits. In order to do that the proposed method uses a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA. It is known that FPGA provides quick implementation and fast hardware verification. It gives facilities of reconfiguring the design construct unlimited number of times. The HDL code is written in verilog, Gate Level Circuit and Layout is implemented in CMOS technology.

  13. Cognitive event-related potentials and brain magnetic resonance imaging in HTLV-1 associated myelopathy (HAM).

    Fukushima, T; Ikeda, T; Uyama, E; Uchino, M; Okabe, H; Ando, M


    Auditory and visual cognitive event-related potentials (ERPs) were investigated in 14 patients with HTLV-1 associated myelopathy (HAM) and in 36 normal controls. In the HAM patients, the latencies of P300 and N200 by the auditory tone method were significantly delayed, and N100 by the auditory click method was significantly delayed in latency. No abnormal ERP components were observed with visual methods. While these auditory abnormal ERPs were present in the HAM patients, there was no evidence of visual abnormal ERPs. Abnormal lesions on the white matter were evident at magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 6 (75%) of 8 patients. There was no correlation between MRI lesions and the abnormalities of ERPs, but there was a significant correlation between bifrontal index on MRI and P300 amplitudes at Cz and Pz sites by auditory tone method. In one patient, atrophy of bilateral parietal lobes was seen on MRI and P300 latencies delayed using various methods. Therefore, the possibility that electrophysiological cognitive impairment in patients with HAM is related to brain atrophy rather than to white matter lesions requires attention.

  14. Effects of Processing Temperature on Color Properties of Dry-Cured Hams Made without Nitrite

    Giovanni Parolari


    Full Text Available Dry cured hams were investigated for their ability to develop red color even at low temperature (3–4 °C and in the absence of added nitrites; results were compared with those obtained from nitrite-free hams made at conventional warm maturing temperatures. Colorimetric parameters (L*, a*, b*, and hue and concentration of the main pigments Zn protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP and heme were measured at three stages of preparation (six, nine, and 12 months, showing that red color was successfully formed at low temperatures, though at a slower rate and less intensively than under warm conditions. Major differences in the pattern of color development were found with the two processing temperatures. While the typical features of an enzyme-dependent mechanism, with a progressive drop in enzyme activity paralleling the synthesis of Zn protoporphyrin IX, were observed at warm temperatures, the same did not occur in cold-made hams, where the enzyme activity was almost unchanged throughout the process. These results, along with data from a descriptive sensory analysis, are supportive of a non-enzymatic mechanism leading to ZnPP (hence the red color under cold conditions, with an estimated three-month delay compared with nitrite-free hams manufactured in a warm maturing regimen.

  15. Analytical Solution of Nonlinear Problems in Classical Dynamics by Means of Lagrange-Ham

    Kimiaeifar, Amin; Mahdavi, S. H; Rabbani, A.


    In this work, a powerful analytical method, called Homotopy Analysis Methods (HAM) is coupled with Lagrange method to obtain the exact solution for nonlinear problems in classic dynamics. In this work, the governing equations are obtained by using Lagrange method, and then the nonlinear governing...

  16. Survival of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus during thermal processing of frankfurters, summer sausage, and ham.

    Campbell, Jonathan A; Dickson, James S; Cordray, Joseph C; Olson, Dennis G; Mendonca, Aubrey F; Prusa, Kenneth J


    Infections from antibiotic-resistant bacteria are a major concern for human health professionals around the world. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is just one of the resistant organisms of concern. MRSA prevalence has also been recently reported in retail meat products at rates higher than originally thought. Although the risk of contracting an infection from handling contaminated meat products is thought to be low, very little is known about this organism from a food safety perspective. The objective of this study was to determine the survival of MRSA during thermal processing of frankfurters, summer sausage, and boneless ham. Frankfurters, summer sausage, and boneless ham were manufactured using formulations and processing procedures developed at the Iowa State University meat laboratory. Thermal processing resulted in a significant log reduction (psausage, and frankfurters when compared to uncooked, positive controls for each of the three processed meat products. All products were thermally processed to an internal temperature of 70°C and promptly cooled to 7.2°C. Boneless ham showed the highest log reduction (7.28 logs) from cooking, followed by summer sausage (6.75 logs) and frankfurters (5.53 logs). The results of this study indicate that thermal processing of ham, summer sausage, and frankfurters to 70°C is sufficient to reduce the risk of MRSA as a potential food safety hazard.

  17. A new phenylethanoid glycoside from Rabdosia lophanthoides (Buch.-Ham.ex D.Don)Hara.

    Wei Sheng Feng; Xin Yu Zang; Xiao Ke Zheng; Yan Zhi Wang


    A new phenylethanoid glycoside,3-hydroxy-4-methoxy-β-phenylethoxy-P-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-3)-2-O-acetyl-O-β-D-glucopyranoside,named Iophanthoside A,was isolated from Rabdosia lophanthoides(Buch.-Ham.ex D.Don)Hara.Its structurewas determined by spectroscopic evidences.

  18. Influence of tumbling, tumbling time, trim and sodium tripolyphosphate on quality and yield of cured hams

    Krause, R.J.; Ockerman, H.W.; Krol, B.; Moerman, P.C.; et al.


    Forty‐four boneless, cured hams were assigned to treatment groups to study the effect of tumbling, tumbling time (18 hr intermittent, 9.5 hr intermittent, 3 hr continuous), tumbling temperature (5°C and 15°C), sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) pickle level (0 and 3.3%), and trim (lean, regular, and fat)

  19. Formation of heterocyclic amines in salami and ham pizza toppings during baking of frozen pizza.

    Gibis, Monika; Weiss, Jochen


    Heterocyclic amines (HAs) are formed as Maillard reaction products in the crust of meat products during heating processes. Two typical pizza toppings--salami and cooked ham--were analyzed for the presence of HAs after baking frozen pizzas at top and bottom temperatures of 250 and 230 °C, respectively. After baking pizza slices for 12 min, MeIQx (2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline; 0.2 ng/g), 4,8-DiMeIQx (2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline; 0.5 ng/g), PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine; 0.2 ng/g), norharman (4.5 ng/g), and harman (2.5 ng/g) were found in the ham toppings, whereas only the comutagenic norharman (107.4 ng/g) and harman (11.4 ng/g) were found in the salami toppings. The content of MeIQx and 4,8-DiMeIQx in ham increased from 0.3 to 1.8 ng/g and 0.8 to 1.6 ng/g, respectively, when the recommended baking time was increased from 15 min (manufacturer's specification) to 18 min at 230 °C. MeIQx was formed in salami when the heating time was extended to 18 min. Moreover, higher concentrations of PhIP in salami or ham slices were found when baking temperatures were 250 °C rather than 230 °C (baking time of 12 min). However, sensory tests showed that panelists preferred longer-baked pizzas due to an increased crispiness. Thus, results show that a substantial formation of HAs may occur in pizza toppings such as ham and salami, with ham being particularly susceptible when compared to salami. Formation of HAs increases with increasing baking time and temperature. The occurrence of the cupping of ham or salami slices during baking may also increase the formation of HAs.

  20. Green Supply Chain Collaboration for Fashionable Consumer Electronics Products under Third-Party Power Intervention—A Resource Dependence Perspective

    Jiuh-Biing Sheu


    Full Text Available Under third-party power intervention (TPPI, which increases uncertainty in task environments, complex channel power interplays and restructuring are indispensable among green supply chain members as they move toward sustainable collaborative relationships for increased viability and competitive advantage. From the resource dependence perspective, this work presents a novel conceptual model to investigate the influence of political and social power on channel power restructuring and induced green supply chain collaboration in brander-retailer bidirectional green supply chains of fashionable consumer electronics products (FCEPs. An FCEP refers to the consumer electronics product (e.g., personal computers, mobile phones, computer notebooks, and game consoles with the features of a well-known brand associated, a short product lifecycle, timely and fashionable design fit for market trends, and quick responsiveness to the variations of market demands. The proposed model is tested empirically using questionnaire data obtained from retailers in the FCEP brander-retailer distribution channels. Analytical results reveal that as an extension of political and social power, TPPI positively affects the reciprocal interdependence of dyadic members and reduces power asymmetry, thereby enhancing the collaborative relationship of dyadic members and leading to improved green supply chain performance. Therein, reciprocal interdependence underlying collaborative relationship is the key to reducing the external environmental uncertainties in the TPPI context.

  1. Accelerated processing of dry-cured ham. Part I. Viability of the use of brine thawing/salting operation.

    Barat, José M; Grau, Raúl; Ibáñez, J B; Pagán, María J; Flores, Mónica; Toldrá, Fidel; Fito, Pedro


    In a previous study, the brine thawing/salting operation using frozen hams as raw material was proposed in order to obtain accelerated processing of dry-cured hams. The time needed to reach the same NaCl concentration on a dry weight basis and the same NaCl concentration in the ham liquid phase for the deeper areas at the end of the post-salting stage were determined. The aim of this work was to study the influence of the brine thawing/salting operation on the whole dry-cured ham manufacturing process, using the traditional thawing and salting methods as control. The obtained results indicate that although a strong reduction in the thawing, salting and post-salting stages is obtained by using brine thawing/salting, the time needed in the dry-curing and maturing phases increases compared to those traditionally processed, probably due to the absence of pile salting and thus the reduction in the thickness of the ham piece as a consequence of the ham pressing. From the composition and microbiological point of view, no significant differences were observed among the hams processed by the different treatments.

  2. Electronic medical record data to identify variables associated with a fibromyalgia diagnosis: importance of health care resource utilization

    Masters ET


    Full Text Available Elizabeth T Masters,1 Jack Mardekian,1 Birol Emir,1 Andrew Clair,1 Max Kuhn,2 Stuart L Silverman,31Pfizer, Inc., New York, NY, 2Pfizer, Inc., Groton, CT, 3Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USABackground: Diagnosis of fibromyalgia (FM is often challenging. Identifying factors associated with an FM diagnosis may guide health care providers in implementing appropriate diagnostic and management strategies.Methods: This retrospective study used the de-identified Humedica electronic medical record (EMR database to identify variables associated with an FM diagnosis. Cases (n=4,296 were subjects ≥18 years old with ≥2 International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9 codes for FM (729.1 ≥30 days apart during 2012, associated with an integrated delivery network, with ≥1 encounter with a health care provider in 2011 and 2012. Controls without FM (no-FM; n=583,665 did not have the ICD-9 codes for FM. Demographic, clinical, and health care resource utilization variables were extracted from structured EMR data. Univariate analysis identified variables showing significant differences between the cohorts based on odds ratios (ORs.Results: Consistent with FM epidemiology, FM subjects were predominantly female (78.7% vs 64.5%; P<0.0001 and slightly older (mean age 53.3 vs 52.7 years; P=0.0318. Relative to the no-FM cohort, the FM cohort was characterized by a higher prevalence of nearly all evaluated comorbidities; the ORs suggested a higher likelihood of an FM diagnosis (P<0.0001, especially for musculoskeletal and neuropathic pain conditions (OR 3.1 for each condition. Variables potentially associated with an FM diagnosis included higher levels of use of specific health care resources including emergency-room visits, outpatient visits, hospitalizations, and medications. Units used per subject for emergency-room visits, outpatient visits, hospitalizations, and medications were also significantly higher in the FM cohort (P<0

  3. Altered expression of CXCR3 and CCR6 and their ligands in HTLV-1 carriers and HAM/TSP patients.

    Rafatpanah, Houshang; Felegari, Mehdi; Azarpazhooh, Mahmoud Reza; Vakili, Rosita; Rajaei, Taraneh; Hampson, Ian; Hassanshahi, Golmahossein; Valizadeh, Narges; Gerayli, Sina; Hamid, Farajifard; Zamanian, Shadi; MollaHosseini, Farzad; Rezaee, Seyed Abdolrahim


    Recruitment of leukocytes by chemokines and chemokine receptors to CNS plays a crucial role in the induction of inflammatory response in HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). In the present study, chemokine and chemokine receptors involved in trafficking of lymphocytes to the CNS were measured in HAM/TSP patients, HTLV-1 asymptomatic carriers (ACs), and healthy controls. The PVL, CCR6, and CXCR3 mRNA expression, and CXCL9 and CXCL10 protein levels were measured in all subjects. The PVL of HAM/TSP patients was higher than that of ACs (P = 0.02). CCR6 expression was higher in HAM/TSP patients and in ACs compared to the healthy controls (P = 0.005 and P = 0.04, respectively). A significant difference was observed in CCR6 expression when a combination of HAM/TSP patients and ACs were compared to the healthy individuals (P = 0.005). Furthermore, there was a significantly lower CXCR3 expression between HAM/TSP and control groups (P = 0.001), and between the ACs and healthy controls (P = 0.001). However, the increased CXCR3 expression in ACs compared to HAM/TSP patients was not significant. Furthermore, the CXCL10 protein levels in HAM/TSP patients was higher than in controls (P = 0.012), and CXCL9 protein levels was also higher in the HAM/TSP and ACs groups than in the controls (P = 0.001 and P = 0.004, respectively). In conclusion, it seems that decreased expression of CXCR3 and higher expression of CCR6 were associated with HTLV-1 infection, what indicate that these alterations may favor virus dissemination but not disease manifestation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Survey on User Satisfaction of Electronic Resources in University Libraries%高校图书馆电子资源用户满意度调查

    陈姚竹; 马东


    通过分析影响用户对图书馆电子资源利用的因素,以美国顾客满意度指数模型为基础,提出关于各个因素的测量指标,对高校图书馆电子资源用户满意度进行测量。%Through analyzing the influencing factors on utilizing library electronic resources, based on the model of American customer satisfaction index, the paper puts forward corresponding measurement indexes, and then measures the user satisfaction on electronic resources of university library

  5. Effect of use of citrus bagasse as functional product-extender on physicochemical and textural properties of cooked ham


    The substitution effect of carrageenan, soy protein and potato starch by orange bagasse on physico-chemical characteristics of cooked ham was evaluated. A 33 factorial design was used, with substitution levels of 0, 50 and 100%. The results indicate that the substitution of potato starch for orange bagasse results in increase in the ham yield, but to replace the carrageenan and/or soy protein by orange bagasse, cause decrease in yield below that non-substituted ham. Moreover, if even yields i...

  6. Development of an electronic medical record based alert for risk of HIV treatment failure in a low-resource setting.

    Nancy Puttkammer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The adoption of electronic medical record systems in resource-limited settings can help clinicians monitor patients' adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART and identify patients at risk of future ART failure, allowing resources to be targeted to those most at risk. METHODS: Among adult patients enrolled on ART from 2005-2013 at two large, public-sector hospitals in Haiti, ART failure was assessed after 6-12 months on treatment, based on the World Health Organization's immunologic and clinical criteria. We identified models for predicting ART failure based on ART adherence measures and other patient characteristics. We assessed performance of candidate models using area under the receiver operating curve, and validated results using a randomly-split data sample. The selected prediction model was used to generate a risk score, and its ability to differentiate ART failure risk over a 42-month follow-up period was tested using stratified Kaplan Meier survival curves. RESULTS: Among 923 patients with CD4 results available during the period 6-12 months after ART initiation, 196 (21.2% met ART failure criteria. The pharmacy-based proportion of days covered (PDC measure performed best among five possible ART adherence measures at predicting ART failure. Average PDC during the first 6 months on ART was 79.0% among cases of ART failure and 88.6% among cases of non-failure (p<0.01. When additional information including sex, baseline CD4, and duration of enrollment in HIV care prior to ART initiation were added to PDC, the risk score differentiated between those who did and did not meet failure criteria over 42 months following ART initiation. CONCLUSIONS: Pharmacy data are most useful for new ART adherence alerts within iSanté. Such alerts offer potential to help clinicians identify patients at high risk of ART failure so that they can be targeted with adherence support interventions, before ART failure occurs.

  7. Two Babinski signs in seropositive (HAM and seronegative tropical spastic paraparesis Dos signos de Babinski en pacientes con paraparesia espástica tropical seropositiva (HAM y seronegativa

    Fidias E. Leon-Sarmiento


    Full Text Available Tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP may or may not be associated to HTLV-I antibodies and is usually characterized by clinical and pathological spinal cord abnormalities at thoracic levels. We present here five Brazilian patients who had typical chronic idiopatic spastic paraparesis; two of them were HTLV-I seropositive (HAM and three HTLV-I seronegative (TSP - associated-myelopathy. Three out of these five patients also displayed clinical supraspinal involvement, indeed, platysma muscle hypotrophy or atrophy (the Babinski plus sign. These findings support the view that clinical involvement in HAM and TSP is wider than the spinal cord abnormalities usually considered. Possible non-infectious co-factors (e.g., mycotoxins may be involved in disease pathogenesis in a multistep process of viruses, toxins and environment which may account for serological differences found in this group of patients.La paraparesia espástica tropical (PET, puede o no estar asociada con anticuerpos contra el HTLV-I y se caracteriza, usualmente, por alteraciones clínicas y patológicas a nivel de region dorso-lumbar de la medula espinal. Presentamos cinco pacientes brasileros, quienes tuvieron hallazgos típicos de paraparesia espástica crónica idiopática; dos de ellos tuvieron (HAM y tres no tuvieron (TSP anticuerpos, en el suero, contra el HTLV-I. En tres pacientes se encontró hipotrofia o atrofia del músculo platisma (signo de Babinski plus, demostrando que el compromiso clínico en pacientes con HAM y TSP se extiende más allá de la médula espinal torácica. Cofactores (por ejemplo, micotoxinas podrían estar involucrados en la patogénesis de esta enfermedad, en una interacción compleja de virus, toxinas y medio ambiente, lo cual explicaría las diferencias serológicas encontradas en este grupo de pacientes.

  8. Contributing to interpret sensory attributes qualifying Iberian hams from the volatile profile

    García-González, Diego L.


    Full Text Available The study involved the sensory assessment of 8 Iberian hams from the main producer zones and the analysis of their volatile composition by SPME-GC. The latter analysis was carried out independently on 4 well defined locations of the ham (subcutaneous fat, and biceps femoris, semitendinosus, and semimembranosus muscles in order to know their possible partial contribution to the whole ham aroma. The relation between volatile compounds and sensory attributes was established by the procedure of statistical sensory wheel (SSW, generating 4 different plots, each one of them referring to one of the ham locations. The volatile compounds explain similar information of the sensory attributes independently of the part of the ham from which they are produced although the volatiles quantified in semitendinosus muscle and subcutaneous fat seem to contribute slightly more than the other parts to the sensory profile determined by the panellists.Volatiles compounds with significance in the ham aroma were 3-methylbutanol, hexanal, octanol, nonanol, 2- heptanol, among many others, although their contribution to the aroma varies depending on the location.El estudio se ha llevado a cabo con 8 jamones ibéricos de las principales zonas productoras mediante panel sensorial y análisis de la fracción volátil con SPME-GC. Los últimos análisis fueron llevados a cabo en cuatro localizaciones independientes del jamón (grasa subcutánea, y los músculos bíceps femoris, semitendinosus y semimembranosus para conocer sus posibles contribuciones parciales al aroma completo del jamón. La relación entre compuestos volátiles y atributos sensoriales ha sido establecida mediante el procedimiento estadístico de la rueda sensorial (SSW, generando una representación gráfica por cada localización. Los compuestos volátiles explican los mismos atributos sensoriales independientemente de la parte del jamón en que se generen aunque los volátiles cuantificados en el m

  9. The BRIGHTEN Program: Implementation and Evaluation of a Program to Bridge Resources of an Interdisciplinary Geriatric Health Team via Electronic Networking

    Emery, Erin E.; Lapidos, Stan; Eisenstein, Amy R.; Ivan, Iulia I.; Golden, Robyn L.


    Purpose: To demonstrate the feasibility of the BRIGHTEN Program (Bridging Resources of an Interdisciplinary Geriatric Health Team via Electronic Networking), an interdisciplinary team intervention for assessing and treating older adults for depression in outpatient primary and specialty medical clinics. The BRIGHTEN team collaborates "virtually"…

  10. The module of methodical support in system of electronic educational resources as the innovative element of the modern maintenance of formation

    Ольга Николаевна Крылова


    Full Text Available The article introduces some results of research, which were devoted to evaluation of tearches' mobility to introduce innovations in the contents of education. The author considers innovative potential of modules of the methodical support for system of electronic educational resources.

  11. Charting a Course through CORAL: Texas A&M University Libraries' Experience Implementing an Open-Source Electronic Resources Management System

    Hartnett, Eric; Beh, Eugenia; Resnick, Taryn; Ugaz, Ana; Tabacaru, Simona


    In 2010, after two previous unsuccessful attempts at electronic resources management system (ERMS) implementation, Texas A&M University (TAMU) Libraries set out once again to find an ERMS that would fit its needs. After surveying the field, TAMU Libraries selected the University of Notre Dame Hesburgh Libraries-developed, open-source ERMS,…

  12. The BRIGHTEN Program: Implementation and Evaluation of a Program to Bridge Resources of an Interdisciplinary Geriatric Health Team via Electronic Networking

    Emery, Erin E.; Lapidos, Stan; Eisenstein, Amy R.; Ivan, Iulia I.; Golden, Robyn L.


    Purpose: To demonstrate the feasibility of the BRIGHTEN Program (Bridging Resources of an Interdisciplinary Geriatric Health Team via Electronic Networking), an interdisciplinary team intervention for assessing and treating older adults for depression in outpatient primary and specialty medical clinics. The BRIGHTEN team collaborates "virtually"…

  13. Electronic Information Resources (EIR Adoption in Private University Libraries: The Moderating Effect of Productivity and Relative Advantage on Perceived Usefulness

    Izuagbe, Roland


    Full Text Available The study tested a hybrid model with constructs drawn from the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM and Diffusion of Innovation (DOI theory in order to examine the moderating effect of productivity and relative advantage (RA on perceived usefulness (PU vis-à-vis electronic information resources (EIR adoption in private university libraries in Ogun and Osun States of Nigeria. The descriptive research design was adopted in the study. The population consisted of 61 (55.0% librarians and 50 (45.0% library officers (totaling 116—100% in Babcock University, Bells University, Covenant University, Bowen University, Oduduwa University, and Redeemer's University. Purposive sampling procedure was adopted after which total enumeration was used since the total population is small. The questionnaire was used for data collection. Of the 116 copies of the questionnaire administered, 111 (95.7% were found usable. The instrument was structured based on a 4-point Likert agreement scale of Strongly Agree, Agree, Disagree, and Strongly Disagree. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics like tables of frequency counts and percentage. The findings revealed that productivity and relative advantage are significant moderators of perceived usefulness of EIR adoption in private university libraries in Ogun and Osun States, Nigeria.

  14. Dry cured ham quality as related to lipid quality of raw material and lipid changes during processing: a review.

    Gilles, Gandemer


    Lipids play a key role in sensory traits of dry cured hams. Both the quantity and the composition of lipids in raw material affect dry-cured hams quality. The lipid characteristics strongly depend on rearing systems developed in different area in Europe. During processing, lipids undergo lipolysis and oxidation. Phospholipids are the main substrates of both lipolysis and oxidation. Lipolysis forms free fatty acids rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids all along the process. Lipids are also subj...

  15. HAM56 and CD68 antigen presenting cells surrounding a sarcoidal granulomatous tattoo

    Ana Maria Abreu Velez


    Full Text Available Context : Tattoos are produced by introducing colorants of various compositions into the skin, either accidentally or for cosmetic purposes. Case Report: A 62-year-old male presented with a cosmetic tattoo and requested a total excision of the lesion. Dermatopathologic analysis of the excised tissue with hematoxylin and eosin examination, as well as immunohistochemistry was performed. H&E staining demonstrated classic histologic features of a tattoo. Utilizing immunohistochemistry, dermal histiocytic antigen presenting cells stained with HAM56 and CD68 antibodies; the staining was present surrounding the tattoo pigment. Conclusions : We identified two macrophage markers (HAM56 and CD68 surrounding dermal tattoo pigment. A minimal dermal inflammatory immune was noted to the tattoo pigment. Moreover, the immune response and/or tolerance to tattoos is not well characterized. We suggest that tattoo materials and techniques could be utilized in therapeutic delivery for diseases such recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa, potentially preventing immune rejection of gene therapy agents.

  16. Characterization of the most odor-active compounds of Iberian ham headspace.

    Carrapiso, Ana I; Ventanas, Jesús; García, Carmen


    Gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) based on detection frequency (DF) was used to characterize the most odor-active compounds from the headspace of Iberian ham. Twenty-eight odorants were identified by GC-O on two capillary columns, including aldehydes (11), sulfur-containing compounds (7), ketones (5), nitrogen-containing compounds (2), esters (2), and an alcohol. Among them, the highest odor potencies (DF values) were found for 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-heptanone, 3-methylbutanal, methanethiol, hexanal, hydrogen sulfide, 1-penten-3-one, 2-methylpropanal, ethyl 2-methylbutyrate, and (E)-2-hexenal. Nine of the 28 most odor-active compounds were identified for the first time as aroma components of dry-cured ham, including hydrogen sulfide, 1-penten-3-one, (Z)-3-hexenal, 1-octen-3-one, and the meaty-smelling compounds 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-furfurylthiol, 3-mercapto-2-pentanone, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, and 2-propionyl-1-pyrroline.

  17. Effects of salt and temperature on proteolysis during ripening of Iberian ham.

    Martín, L; Córdoba, J J; Antequera, T; Timón, M L; Ventanas, J


    Fifty-five hams from Iberian pigs were processed using two different dry-curing techniques, traditional and modern. Salt content, non-protein nitrogen and its fractions (peptide, amino acid and volatile basic nitrogen) from Biceps femoris muscles were quantified. The existence of an overlapping effect of both temperature and salt content on the general non-protein nitrogen production was observed. The most intense proteolytic breakdown took place when higher temperatures were reached during the drying stage. The difference in salt concentration seems to contribute to generating different quantities in the non-protein nitrogen fractions. The inclusion at the end of the cellar stage of a stuffing period would permit increasing the accumulation of free amino acid in high salted hams.

  18. Free amino acids and other non-volatile compounds formed during processing of Iberian ham.

    Martín, L; Antequera, T; Ventanas, J; Benítez-Donoso, R; Córdoba, J J


    Fifty-five legs from Iberian pigs were traditionally processed into dry cured hams. Free amino acids and other non-volatile compounds in the water-soluble fraction from the biceps femoris muscle were analyzed by HPLC. At the drying stage and in the last months in the cellar the largest increases in these water-soluble compounds took place. There was a clear influence on free amino acid formation of salt content and on the formation of peptides of the temperature at each processing stage. As the amount of non-volatile compounds in the water-soluble fraction increases with processing time, their determination could provide a maturation index for Iberian ham.

  19. A Ham Sandwich Analogue for Quaternionic Measures and Finite Subgroups of S^3

    Simon, Steven


    A "ham sandwich" theorem is established for n quaternionic Borel measures on quaternionic space H^n. For each finite subgroup G of S^3, it is shown that there is a quaternionic hyperplane H and a corresponding tiling of H^n into |G| fundamental regions which are rotationally symmetric about H with respect to G, and satisfy the condition that for each of the n measures, the "G average" of the measures of these regions is zero. If each quaternionic measure is a 4-tuple of finite Borel measures on R^{4n}, the original ham sandwich theorem on R^{4n} is recovered when G = Z_2. The theorem applies to [n/4] finite Borel measures on R^n, and when G is the quaternion group Q_8, this gives a decomposition of R^n into 2 rings of 4 cubical "wedges" each, such that the measure any two opposite wedges is equal for each finite measure.

  20. Quantum Algorithm for K-Nearest Neighbors Classification Based on the Metric of Hamming Distance

    Ruan, Yue; Xue, Xiling; Liu, Heng; Tan, Jianing; Li, Xi


    K-nearest neighbors (KNN) algorithm is a common algorithm used for classification, and also a sub-routine in various complicated machine learning tasks. In this paper, we presented a quantum algorithm (QKNN) for implementing this algorithm based on the metric of Hamming distance. We put forward a quantum circuit for computing Hamming distance between testing sample and each feature vector in the training set. Taking advantage of this method, we realized a good analog for classical KNN algorithm by setting a distance threshold value t to select k - n e a r e s t neighbors. As a result, QKNN achieves O(n 3) performance which is only relevant to the dimension of feature vectors and high classification accuracy, outperforms Llyod's algorithm (Lloyd et al. 2013) and Wiebe's algorithm (Wiebe et al. 2014).

  1. Two Babinski signs in seropositive (HAM) and seronegative tropical spastic paraparesis.

    Leon-Sarmiento, Fidias E; Calderon, Andres; Hernandez, Hernan G


    Tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP) may or may not be associated to HTLV-I antibodies and is usually characterized by clinical and pathological spinal cord abnormalities at thoracic levels. We present here five Brazilian patients who had typical chronic idiopathic spastic paraparesis; two of them were HTLV-I seropositive (HAM) and three HTLV-I seronegative (TSP) -associated-myelopathy. Three out of these five patients also displayed clinical supraspinal involvement, indeed, platysma muscle hypotrophy or atrophy (the Babinski plus sign). These findings support the view that clinical involvement in HAM and TSP is wider than the spinal cord abnormalities usually considered. Possible non-infectious co-factors (e.g., mycotoxins) may be involved in disease pathogenesis in a multistep process of viruses, toxins and environment which may account for serological differences found in this group of patients.

  2. Aroma-active compounds in jinhua ham produced with different fermentation periods.

    Liu, Xiao-Sheng; Liu, Jian-Bin; Yang, Zheng-Mao; Song, Huan-Lu; Liu, Ye; Zou, Ting-Ting


    The aroma-active compounds in Jinhua ham processed and stored for 9, 12, 15 and 18 months were extracted by dynamic headspace sampling (DHS) and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) and analyzed by gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry (GC-O-MS). In GC-O-MS, volatile compounds were identified based on their mass spectrum, linear retention index (LRI), odor properties, or reference compound comparisons. The results showed that a total number of 81 aroma-active compounds were identified by GC-O-MS. Among them, acids (such as acetic acid, butanoic acid and 3-methylbutanoic acid), saturated aldehydes (such as hexanal, heptanal, octanal and 3-methylbutanal), benzene derivatives (such as benzeneacetic acid), ester and lactone (such as γ-nonalactone and γ-decalactone) were identified as critical compounds in Jinhua ham aroma. The results also indicated that the type and content of the odorants increased significantly with the duration of the fermentation period.

  3. Aroma-Active Compounds in Jinhua Ham Produced With Different Fermentation Periods

    Xiao-Sheng Liu


    Full Text Available The aroma-active compounds in Jinhua ham processed and stored for 9, 12, 15 and 18 months were extracted by dynamic headspace sampling (DHS and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE and analyzed by gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry (GC-O-MS. In GC-O-MS, volatile compounds were identified based on their mass spectrum, linear retention index (LRI, odor properties, or reference compound comparisons. The results showed that a total number of 81 aroma-active compounds were identified by GC-O-MS. Among them, acids (such as acetic acid, butanoic acid and 3-methylbutanoic acid, saturated aldehydes (such as hexanal, heptanal, octanal and 3-methylbutanal, benzene derivatives (such as benzeneacetic acid, ester and lactone (such as γ-nonalactone and γ-decalactone were identified as critical compounds in Jinhua ham aroma. The results also indicated that the type and content of the odorants increased significantly with the duration of the fermentation period.

  4. High-pressure processing and antimicrobial biodegradable packaging to control Listeria monocytogenes during storage of cooked ham.

    Marcos, Begonya; Aymerich, Teresa; Monfort, Josep M; Garriga, Margarita


    The efficiency of combining high-pressure processing (HPP) and active packaging technologies to control Listeria monocytogenes growth during the shelf life of artificially inoculated cooked ham was assessed. Three lots of cooked ham were prepared: control, packaging with alginate films, and packaging with antimicrobial alginate films containing enterocins. After packaging, half of the samples were pressurized. Sliced cooked ham stored at 6 degrees C experienced a quick growth of L. monocytogenes. Both antimicrobial packaging and pressurization delayed the growth of the pathogen. However, at 6 degrees C the combination of antimicrobial packaging and HPP was necessary to achieve a reduction of inoculated levels without recovery during 60 days of storage. Further storage at 6 degrees C of pressurized antimicrobial packed cooked ham resulted in L. monocytogenes levels below the detection limit (day 90). On the other hand, storage at 1 degrees C controlled the growth of the pathogen until day 39 in non-pressurized ham, while antimicrobial packaging and storage at 1 degrees C exerted a bacteriostatic effect for 60 days. All HPP lots stored at 1 degrees C led to counts <100CFU/g at day 60. Similar results were observed when combining both technologies. After a cold chain break no growth of L. monocytogenes was observed in pressurized ham packed with antimicrobial films, showing the efficiency of combining both technologies.

  5. Effects of phosphine and methyl bromide fumigation on the volatile flavor profile and sensory quality of dry cured ham.

    Sekhon, R K; Schilling, M W; Phillips, T W; Aikins, M J; Hasan, M M; Corzo, A; Mikel, W B


    In separate experiments, randomized complete block designs with three replications were utilized to evaluate the effects of phosphine (PH(3)) (0, 200 and 1000ppm for 48h) and methyl bromide (MB) (0, 4, 8, 16, and 32mg/L for 48h) fumigation concentration on the volatile flavor compound concentrations in dry cured ham. Minimal differences existed (P>0.05) in the presence and concentration of aroma active compounds in both PH(3) and MB fumigated hams but sulfur and oxidation compounds were more prevalent (Pfumigated treatments when compared to the control. As phosphine fumigation concentration increased, the residual concentration of phosphine also increased in the hams (Pphosphine allowed in stored food products (0.01ppm) in the United States. A triangle test (n=56) indicated that consumers could not discriminate (P>0.75) between the control hams and those that were fumigated with PH(3). Minimal aroma/flavor differences existed among MB, PH3 and control hams, and dry cured ham that was fumigated with PH(3) was safe for consumption based on residual phosphine concentrations in the meat tissue.

  6. Effect of use of citrus bagasse as functional product-extender on physicochemical and textural properties of cooked ham

    José Antonio Aguilar-Rico


    Full Text Available The substitution effect of carrageenan, soy protein and potato starch by orange bagasse on physico-chemical characteristics of cooked ham was evaluated. A 33 factorial design was used, with substitution levels of 0, 50 and 100%. The results indicate that the substitution of potato starch for orange bagasse results in increase in the ham yield, but to replace the carrageenan and/or soy protein by orange bagasse, cause decrease in yield below that non-substituted ham. Moreover, if even yields increase with substitution of potato starch by orange bagasse, however, the textural characteristics of the product obtained showed deficiency in comparison with thenon-substituted ham. Apparently orange bagasse substitution does not alter the matrix stability formation in ham, so there was no significant difference in expressible moisture. Substitution of carrageenan, soy protein and potato starch by orange bagasse in ham has highest influence on pH and color parameters, this due probably to compounds presents in the fruit (citric acid and carotenoids. Orange bagasse has high potential as a novel source of dietary fiber in food industry.

  7. Use of antimicrobial biodegradable packaging to control Listeria monocytogenes during storage of cooked ham.

    Marcos, Begonya; Aymerich, Teresa; Monfort, Josep M; Garriga, Margarita


    The antimicrobial effect against L. monocytogenes of biodegradable films (alginate, zein and polyvinyl alcohol) containing enterocins was investigated. Survival of the pathogen was studied by means of challenge tests performed at 6 degrees C during 8 and 29 days, for air-packed and vacuum-packed sliced cooked ham, respectively. Air packaging was tested with two concentrations of enterocins (200 and 2000 AU/cm2). Control air-packed cooked ham showed an increase of L. monocytogenes from 10(4) to 10(7) CFU/g after 8 days. By contrast, packaging with antimicrobial films effectively slowed down the pathogen's growth, leading to final counts lower than in control lots. Air-packaging with alginate films containing 2000 AU/cm2 of enterocins effectively controlled L. monocytogenes for 8 days. An increase of only 1 log unit was observed in zein and polyvinyl alcohol lots at the same enterocin concentration. Vacuum packaging with films containing enterocins (2000 AU/cm2) also delayed the growth of the pathogen. No increase from inoculated levels was observed during 15 days in antimicrobial alginate films. After 29 days of storage, the lowest counts were obtained in samples packed with zein and alginate films containing enterocins, as well as with zein control films. The most effective treatment for controlling L. monocytogenes during 6 degrees C storage was vacuum-packaging of sliced cooked ham with alginate films containing 2000 AU/cm2 of enterocins. From the results obtained it can concluded that antimicrobial packaging can improve the safety of sliced cooked ham by delaying and reducing the growth of L. monocytogenes.

  8. Topological Characterization of Hamming and Dragonfly Networks and its Implications on Routing

    Camarero Coterillo, Cristobal; Vallejo Gutiérrez, Enrique; Beivide Palacio, Julio Ramón


    Current HPC and datacenter networks rely on large-radix routers. Hamming graphs (Cartesian products of complete graphs) and dragonflies (two-level direct networks with nodes organized in groups) are some direct topologies proposed for such networks. The original definition of the dragonfly topology is very loose, with several degrees of freedom such as the inter- and intra-group topology, the specific global connectivity and the number of parallel links between groups (or trunking level). ...

  9. Analysis of the Relationship between Hamming Distance and the Electromagnetic Information Leakage

    Sun Haimeng; Liu Jinming; Zhang Jiemin; Mao Jian


    Electromagnetic information leak as a potential data security risk is more and more serious. Discussing the relationship between compromising emanations and Hamming distance is directed to preventing or reducing the electromagnetic information leakage. The paper presents the model of electromagnetic information leak, then the hierarchical protection strategy based on the model is proposed, that is anti-radiation, anti-intercept and anti-reconstruction. Analyzing the causes of electromagnetic ...

  10. Implementasi Filter Finite Impulse Response (FIR Window Hamming dan Blackman menggunakan DSK TMS320C6713



    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Filter didefinisikan sebagai proses atau rangkaian yang melewatkan pita frekuensi tertentu yang diinginkan dan meredam pita frekuensi lainnya. Salah satu metode perancangan filter digital Finite Impulse Response (FIR adalah metode windowing. Dalam penelitian ini digunakan jenis window Hamming dan Blackman. Simulasi dilakukan dengan menggunakan software Matlab dengan memasukan frekuensi passband, frekuensi stopband, ripple passband, dan stopband attenuation. Dengan frekuensi sampling sebesar 15000 Hz, frekuensi passband sebesar 3000 Hz, frekuensi stopband sebesar 5000 Hz. Setelah simulasi dilakukan implementasi filter dengan parameter yang sama menggunakan DSK TMS 320C6713 dengan bantuan software CCS. Simulasi dan implementasi dilakukan pada semua band frekuensi. Hasil pengujian terhadap implementasi filter adalah respon magnitude, frekuensi cut-off, bandwidth, dan faktor kualitas dengan hasil simulasi tidak menunjukkan perbedaan yang signifikan. Kata kunci: filter digital, windowing, Hamming, Blackman, frekuensi cut-off . ABSTRACT Filter is defined as a process or series that skip certain desired frequency band and other frequency bands drown. One method of designing a digital filter Finite Impulse Response (FIR is a windowing method. This study used the type of window Hamming and Blackman. Simulations performed using Matlab software by inserting a frequency passband, stopband frequency, passband ripple, and stopband attenuation. With a sampling frequency of 15,000 Hz, a frequency of 3000 Hz passband, stopband frequency of 5000 Hz. After the simulation is completed, implementation of the filter with the same parameters using TMS 320C6713 DSK with the help of software CCS. Simulation and implmentasi performed on all frequency bands. The test results of the implementation of the filter is the Magnitude response, the cut-off frequency, bandwidth, and quality factor with simulation results showed no significant difference. Keywords: digital

  11. Influence of cooking process on protein fractions in cooked ham and mortadella

    Vonghia, G; Liuzzi, V.; M. Faccia; G. Alviti; G. Cacace; A. Di Luccia


    The mortadella is a pork meat sausage (in natural or artificial bowel) accurately triturated and mixed with little backfat cubes, salt, sodium nitrate and nitrite, spices and peppercorns, and then cooked in oven for many hours. The cooked ham is obtained from an anatomically completed piece of meat; the working process provides the addiction of salt and spices, the brine, the bones removal, the churning and the pressing, so the cured meat is first packed in a mould provided for this purpose, ...

  12. Determination of volatile compounds and quality parameters of traditional Istrian dry-cured ham.

    Marušić, Nives; Vidaček, Sanja; Janči, Tibor; Petrak, Tomislav; Medić, Helga


    The aim of this work was to determine the characteristics of Istrian dry-cured ham by instrumental methods and sensory analysis. The aroma-active compounds of Istrian dry-cured ham from 2010 and 2012 were investigated by using headspace-solid phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Samples of biceps femoris were also evaluated by measuring physical and chemical characteristics. 92 volatile aroma compounds of Istrian dry-cured ham were found. Volatile compounds belonged to several chemical groups: aldehydes (51.4; 51.3%), terpenes (16.5; 16.4%), alcohols (15.5; 13.2%), ketones (8.6; 7.4%), alkanes (3.8; 5.7%), esters (1.3; 1.6%), aromatic hydrocarbons (0.8; 3.9%) and acids (0.6; 0.9%). Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that fat content, tenderness and melting texture were positively correlated. Terpenes were strongly correlated with flavour of added spices. Sweet taste and the presence of esters were positively correlated as well as negative odour, raw meat flavour and water content.

  13. Characterization of commercial cooked hams according to physicochemical, sensory, and textural parameters using chemometrics

    Francine Gomes Basso Los


    Full Text Available Cooked ham is considered a high-value product due to the quality of its raw material. Although its consumption is still low in Brazil, it is increasing due to the rising purchasing power of sectors of the population. This study aimed to assess the microbiological, physicochemical, rheological, and sensory quality of cooked hams (n=11 marketed in Brazil. All samples showed microbiological results within the standards established by Brazilian legislation. Eight of the eleven samples studied met all the legal requirements; two samples violated the standards due to the addition of starch; one sample had lower protein content than the minimum required, and another one had sodium content higher than that stated on the label. The use of Hierarchical Cluster Analysis allowed the agglomeration of the samples into three groups with distinct quality traits and with significant differences in moisture content, chromaticity, syneresis, and heating and freezing loss. Principal Component Analysis showed that the samples which correlated to higher sensory acceptance regarding flavor and overall acceptability were those with higher moisture, protein, fat, and luminosity values. This study confirmed the efficacy of multivariate statistical techniques in assessing the quality of commercial cooked hams and in indicating the physicochemical parameters associated with the perception of product quality.

  14. HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP): still an obscure disease.

    Pillat, Micheli Mainardi; Bauer, Moisés Evandro; de Oliveira, Augusto Cesar Penalva; Ulrich, Henning; Casseb, Jorge


    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the ethiologic agent of the neurological disorder HTLV-1- associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Although the majority of HTLV-1-infected individuals remain asymptomatic during their lifetime, approximately one percent of this population develops a myelopathy consisting of a chronic inflammation of the white and gray matter of the spinal cord. Glucocorticoids are widely used for treatment because of their anti-inflammatory properties, improving symptoms mainly in those patients with only a few years from onset of the disease, when inflammation is more prominent. Interferon-alpha and vitamin C are other therapies presenting some benefits in clinical practice, probably due to their anti-viral and immunomodulatory activities observed ex vivo. Furthermore, inhibitors of histone deacetylase, which increase virus expression but result in a substantial decline in the proviral load, have also been proposed. This review is intended to bridge the gap between clinical and basic science by presenting recent findings on HAM/TSP disease, mechanisms of drug action, and benefits of these therapies in HAM/TSP patients.

  15. Simultaneous determination of chloramphenicol, florfenicol and florfenicol amine in ham sausage with a hybrid chemiluminescent immunoassay.

    Tao, Xiaoqi; Jiang, Haiyang; Yu, Xuezhi; Zhu, Jinghui; Wang, Xia; Wang, Zhanhui; Niu, Lanlan; Wu, Xiaoping; Shen, Jianzhong


    A novel chemiluminescent immunoassay utilising two types of primary antibodies (murine monoclonal antibody and rabbit polyclonal antibody) and two types of horseradish peroxidase-labelled secondary antibodies was established for simultaneously detecting multiple amphenicol residues in ham sausage. After combining the extract procedure of the target amphenicol into one simplified method, this hybrid chemiluminescent immunoassay could screen chloramphenicol (CAP), florfenicol (FF) and its metabolite florfenicol amine (FFA) at the same time by adding the corresponding secondary antibody. Ham sausage samples were analysed by using this hybrid immunoassay, with LODs of CAP being 0.01 μg kg⁻¹, of FF being 2.8 μg kg⁻¹ and of FFA being 3.0 μg kg⁻¹. The applicability of the proposed method has been validated by determining CAP, FF and FFA in ham sausage samples with satisfactory results. Good recoveries and high correlation with traditional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and LC-MS/MS results illustrated that the developed hybrid chemiluminescent immunoassay could screen high-throughput ultra-trace amphenicol residues effectively at one time.

  16. Simultaneous analysis of consumer variables, acceptability and sensory characteristics of dry-cured ham.

    Sugimoto, Masahiro; Obiya, Shinichi; Kaneko, Miku; Enomoto, Ayame; Honma, Mayu; Wakayama, Masataka; Tomita, Masaru


    We conducted a consumer acceptability analysis of dry-cured ham based on sensory evaluation. Consumer acceptability data are rendered heterogeneous by the diverse backgrounds and assessment abilities of the participants, requiring versatile analytical methods for their interpretation. Totally, 9 sensory attributes of 12 kinds of dry-cured ham samples collected from Japan (n=9), Italy (n=1), Spain (n=1), and Germany (n=1) were tasted by 117 Japanese consumers who showed acceptable evaluation abilities during blind sampling. Common techniques, such as hierarchical clustering, principal component analysis, and external preference mapping, were simultaneously utilized to analyze each characteristics scored in modified hedonic scale. These analyses revealed the relationships between the features and preferences of the assessors. For example, consumers aged 20-30 with smoking and drinking habits preferred sweetness and saltiness, and gave high ratings to Spanish Jómon serrano and Italian prosciutto. Our approach could assist ham marketers to identify potential purchasers and the preferred characteristics of their products.


    Peter Mell


    Full Text Available Previous work introduced the idea of grouping alert s at a Hamming distance of 1 to achieve lossless al ert aggregation; such aggregated meta-alerts were shown to increase alert interpretability. However, a mea n of 84023 daily Snort alerts were reduced to a still formidable 14099 meta-alerts. In this work, we add ress this limitation by investigating several approaches that all contribute towards reducing the burden on the analyst and providing timely analysis. We explore m inimizing the number of both alerts and data elemen ts by aggregating at Hamming distances greater than 1. We show how increasing bin sizes can improve aggregation rates. And we provide a new aggregation algorithm that operates up to an order of magnitud e faster at Hamming distance 1. Lastly, we demonstrat e the broad applicability of this approach through empirical analysis of Windows security alerts, Snor t alerts, netflow records, and DNS logs. The result is a reduction in the cognitive load on analysts by mini mizing the overall number of alerts and the number of data elements that need to be reviewed in order for an analyst to evaluate the set of original alerts.

  18. Furosine as an index of heat treatment intensity in meat products: Its application to cooked ham.

    Pompei, C; Spagnolello, A


    Furosine, a product of acid hydrolysis of Amadori compounds, has been proposed as an index of the heat treament intensity in various food products. In this paper we suggest furosine as an index of heat treatment in pork-meat products as well. Furosine is not detectable in fresh raw pork muscle and in injected tumbled pork muscle, the latter being used for the production of cooked ham. Activation energy of furosine formation in raw muscle and tumbled muscle, in the temperature range of 70 °-90 °C, was 79.2 kJ/mole and 81.7 kJ/mole, respectively. Furosine concentration was assessed in cooked hams whose time-temperature profiles, with reference to the cooking and cooling processes, were well known, thus enabling the verification of the feasibility of its use in the evaluation of heat damage. The good correlation between the values found during this investigation and the values foreseen by kinetic calculation confirms that furosine can be used as an index of heat treatment intensity in the production of cooked ham.

  19. Work-related allergies to storage mites in Parma (Italy) ham workers

    Tafuro, Federica; Ridolo, Erminia; Goldoni, Matteo; Montagni, Marcello; Mutti, Antonio; Corradi, Massimo


    Objectives To investigate the role of storage mites in the development of allergic diseases among ham production workers, and to search for early alterations in lung function tests and early inflammation markers in exhaled air. Respiratory allergies due to storage mites have been reported in people with various occupations but, although such mites are unavoidable when curing ham, there are no published data concerning ham production workers. Setting Secondary care. Design Experimental cross-sectional study. Participants 220 participants (110 ham production workers and 110 controls) were recruited. Primary and secondary outcome measures Workers answered a medical questionnaire, and underwent spirometry and fraction of exhaled nitric oxide at 50 mL/s (FeNO50) measurements. Those with allergic symptoms also underwent skin prick tests to determine their sensitisation to airborne allergens. A methacholine test was performed in symptomatic participants when spirometry was normal to assess airways hyper-responsiveness. Results Symptomatic storage mite sensitisation was observed in 16 workers (14.5%) (rhinoconjunctivitis in 15 (63%) and asthma in (4%)) and 2 controls (1.8%; p=0.001). Higher FeNO50 values in exposed symptomatic workers compared with healthy control participants (34.65±7.49 vs 13.29±4.29 ppb; p<0.001) suggested bronchial and nasal involvement, although their lung function parameters were normal. Regardless of exposure, a FeNO50 value of 22.5 ppb seems to be 100% sensitive and 99.4% specific in distinguishing allergic and non-allergic participants. Multivariate analysis of FeNO50 values in the symptomatic participants showed that they were positively influenced by IgE-mediated allergy (p=0.001) and reported symptom severity (p=0.041), and negatively by smoking status (p=0.049). Conclusions Ham processing workers, as well as workers involved in any meat processing work that includes curing, should be informed about the occupational risk of

  20. Effect of temperature on the growth kinetics of Salmonella Enteritidis in cooked ham

    Szczawińska Małgorzata Ewa


    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine a growth rate of Salmonella Enteritidis in cooked ham stored under different temperatures and to compare usefulness of the mathematical models for describing the microbiological data. The samples of cooked pork ham were inoculated with the mixture of three Salmonella Enteritidis strains and stored at 5°C, 10°C, 15°C for 21 d, and at 20°C and 25°C for 5 d. The number of salmonellae was determined at 10 periods of storage at each temperature. From each sample a series of decimal dilutions were prepared and plated onto Brilliant Green Agar. The plates were incubated at 37°C for 24-48 h under aerobic conditions. The colonies grown on culture media were counted, bacterial counts were multiplied by the appropriate dilutions, and number of bacteria (colony-forming units was calculated. The bacterial counts were transformed into logarithms and analysed using IBM SPSS Statistics 20. The experiment was performed in five replicates. The obtained growth curves of bacteria were fitted to primary growth models, namely Gompertz, logistic, and Baranyi models. The goodness-of-fit test was evaluated by calculating mean square error and Akaike’s criterion. Growth kinetics values from the modified Gompertz and logistic equations were calculated. It was found that in samples of ham stored at 5°C and 10°C for 21 d, the number of bacteria remained almost at the same level during storage. In samples stored at 15°C, 20°C, and 25°C growth of salmonellae was observed. It was found that logistic model gave in most cases the best fit to obtained microbiological data describing the behaviour of S. Enteritidis in cooked ham. The growth kinetics values calculated in this study from logistic equations can be used to predict potential S. Enteritidis growth in cooked ham stored at 15°C, 20°C, and 25°C.

  1. Introduction of the HAM-Nat examination--applicants and students admitted to the Medical Faculty in 2012-2014.

    Werwick, Katrin; Winkler-Stuck, Kirstin; Hampe, Wolfgang; Albrecht, Peggy; Robra, Bernt-Peter


    Hintergrund/Zielsetzung: Die Medizinische Fakultät Magdeburg hat zum Wintersemester 2012/13 einen Wissenstest zur Auswahl ihrer Studienbewerber eingeführt. Das Hamburger Auswahlverfahren für medizinische Studiengänge - Naturwissenschaftsteil (HAM-Nat) umfasst einen Multiple Choice-Test mit Fragen zu medizinisch relevanten Aspekten der Fächer Biologie, Physik, Chemie und Mathematik, der speziell für die Auswahl von Medizinbewerbern entwickelt wurde. Es wird untersucht, wie der HAM-Nat die Studierendenauswahl beeinflusst, aus welchen Gründen sich Studierende im Rahmen des Bewerbungsverfahrens für die Teilnahme am Test entscheiden und welche Erwartungen sie an das Studium haben.Methodik: Die Auswahlverfahren der Hochschule 2011 (ohne HAM-Nat) und 2012-2014 (mit HAM-Nat) werden verglichen. Aufbauend auf den Ergebnissen explorativer Interviews wurden erstmalig Studienanfänger des Wintersemesters 2013/2014 zur Wahl von Studienfach und Studienort sowie zu ihren Erwartungen an das Studium schriftlich befragt. Ergebnisse: Das um den HAM-Nat-Test erweiterte Auswahlverfahren wurde problemlos eingeführt. Der HAM-Nat hatte einen großen Einfluss auf die Auswahlentscheidung. Rund 65% der Zugelassenen hätten bei ausschließlicher Berücksichtigung der Abiturnote keinen Studienplatz erhalten. Männliche Bewerber zeigten im Durchschnitt bessere HAM-Nat-Ergebnisse als weibliche. Den Fragebogen beantworteten 147 von 191 Studienanfängern(77%). Für Studienbewerber aus Sachsen-Anhalt sind Hauptgründe für die Wahl der Landeshauptstadt die regionale Nähe, das vorhandene soziale Umfeld, die guten Studienbedingungen und der Wohlfühlcharakter am Studienort. Für die Mehrzahl der Bewerber, insbesondere für Bewerber aus anderen Bundesländern, standen dagegen die relativ guten Zulassungschancen in Magdeburg im Vordergrund. Schlussfolgerung: Die Medizinische Fakultät Magdeburg sieht im HAM-Nat ein geeignetes Instrument, um Bewerber mit hervorragenden naturwissenschaftlichen

  2. Effect of starter cultures and packaging methods on amino acid profile and eating quality characteristics of pork ham.

    Gogoi, Protiva; Borpuzari, R N; Borpuzari, T; Hazarika, R A; Bora, J R


    Wet cured pork hams were inoculated with a mixed starter cultures comprising of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Micrococcus varians M483 at the dose level of 106 cfu/g and the un inoculated hams served as controls. The amino acid profile of hams of the treated and the control groups stored at 4oC under MAP and VP and evaluated on 60th day of storage revealed that treated hams liberated higher concentration of free amino acids except for proline and methionine which were found in higher concentration (P < 0.01) in the MAP control samples. The MAP control samples liberated glutamic acid (85.65 ± 1.40 ppm), cystine (21.56 ± 1.14 ppm) and tyrosine (16.63 ± 1.94 ppm) whereas, the treated samples did not release these amino acids. The VP control samples too liberated cystine (6.98 ± 1.36 ppm) and arginine (42.70 ± 2.78 ppm) but the treated ham of the VP did not liberate these amino acids. The VP hams had higher concentration (P < 0.01) of free proline, glycine, alanine, valine, methionine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, lysine and histidine than the MAP samples. Colour analysis of ham using CIE Lab colour system revealed that the treated samples had significantly higher concentrations of L*, a* and b* components. The L* and a* values were higher in the MAP than under VP systems while the b* values were higher in the VP samples than the MAP samples. Neither the bacterial cultures nor the packaging system influenced the textural property of ham. Starter cultures inoculated hams were rated superior (P < 0.05) in terms of their sensory properties. Hams packaged under MAP were rated superior (P < 0.05) than those packaged under VP in terms of appearance, colour, taste, tenderness, flavour, juiciness and overall acceptability.

  3. A Study on the Model for Resources Matching of Electronic Bartering%电子易货资源匹配模型研究

    吴剑云; 张嵩


    By exchanging idle goods and services, electronic bartering can help enterprises solve dull sale problems, shortage of funds, overstocks and other problems without sufficient cash. Relying on the Internet and the e-commerce platform, electronic bartering removes the traditional bartering limitations, greatly expands the trading object and range, improves the transaction efficiency, and provides additional channels for economic development. How to promote more successful barters among multiple barterers? A key factor is the matching of barter resources. Focusing on the automatic matching of resources in the electronic barter, this paper proposes a network model to help maximize resources matching and provide recommendation information for barter participants, thereby raising the transaction rate and making the barter market prosperous.According to the type and quantity of barter resources, barter market can be divided into two types. In the first type, the supply and demand of the barter market is related to the same type of resources and each barterer owns only one type of resource. In the second type, the supply and demand of the barter market is linked to many types of resources and each barterer owns multiple resources to be exchanged. The first case has been resolved in the relevant document by using the graph theory to solve digraph circuits. This paper is interested in studying the second type of barter. Suppose the barter market has m barterers and n resources. Each barterer owns diverse types of barter resources, and is interested in other types of resources. The barterer a will provide other barterers his own resources only if he gets the resources he needs from the barterer b. Note that each of the bartered resource is regarded as having equal value to any other resources. The main objective is to maximize the number of resources that are bartered.Next, this paper proposes a math model of automatic resources matching by systematically analyzing resource

  4. Standardisation of Western blotting to detect HTLV-1 antibodies synthesised in the central nervous system of HAM/TSP patients

    Luiz Claudio Pereira Ribeiro


    Full Text Available Intrathecal synthesis of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 antibodies (Abs represents conclusive evidence of a specific immune response in the central nervous system of HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP patients. Western blotting (WB for HTLV Abs in serum is a confirmatory test for HTLV-1 infection. The aim of this study was to standardise the Western blot to demonstrate the intrathecal pattern of Abs against HTLV-1 proteins in HAM/TSP patients. Paired cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and serum samples were selected from 20 patients with definite HAM/TSP, 19 HTLV-1 seronegative patients and two HTLV-1 patients without definite HAM/TSP. The presence of reactive bands of greater intensity in the CSF compared to serum (or bands in only the CSF indicated the intrathecal synthesis of anti-HTLV-1 Abs. All definite HAM/TSP patients presented with an intrathecal synthesis of anti-HTLV-1 Abs; these Abs were not detected in the control patients. The most frequent intrathecal targets of anti-HTLV-1 Abs were GD21, rgp46-I and p24 and, to a lesser extent, p19, p26, p28, p32, p36, p53 gp21 and gp46. The intrathecal immune response against env (GD21 and rgp46-I and gag (p24 proteins represents the most important humoral pattern in HAM/TSP. This response may be used as a diagnostic marker, considering the frequent association of intrathecal anti-HTLV-1 Ab synthesis with HAM/TSP and the pathogenesis of this neurological disease.

  5. Analysis of the pressure response of high angle multiple (HAM) fractures intersecting a welbore; Kokeisha multi fracture (HAM) kosei ni okeru atsuryoku oto kaiseki ni tsuite

    Ujo, S.; Osato, K. [Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Arihara, N. [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan); Schroeder, R.


    This paper reports pressure response analysis on wells piercing a high angle multi (HAM) fracture model. In this model which is defined on a three-dimensional space, a plurality of slanted fractures intersect with wells at high angles (however, intersection of fractures with each other is not considered). With respect to the pressure response analysis method using this model, the paper presents a basic differential equation on pressure drawdown and boundary conditions in the wells taking flows in the fractures pseudo-linear, as well as external boundary conditions in calculation regions (a reservoir spreads to an infinite distance, and its top and bottom are closed by non-water permeating beds). The paper also indicates that results of calculating a single vertical fracture model and a slanted fracture model by using a numerical computation program (MULFRAC) based on the above equations agree well respectively with the existing calculation results (calculations performed by Erlougher and Cinco et al). 5 refs., 6 figs.

  6. The Use and Maintenance of University Library Electronic Resources%浅议大学图书馆电子资源的利用与维护

    马鹏飞; 熊豫玲


    随着科学技术的飞速发展,高新信息技术的广泛应用,大学图书馆的工作内容和方法也面临新的挑战,为了使用户更好的利用大学图书馆的电子资源,提高电子资源利用率,实现大学图书馆数字化,本文主要从电子资源的利用和维护方面进行探讨。%With the rapid development of science and technology,the extensive application of high-tech information technology, University of content and methods of library work is also facing new challenges in order to make better use of university library users to electronic resources,improve the utilization of electronic resources to achieve the University Library digital,paper, from the use of electronic resources and maintenance were discussed.

  7. Genetic and environmental effects on a meat spotting defect in seasoned dry-cured ham

    Giulio Pagnacco


    Full Text Available Purpose of this investigation was to determine the nature of a visible spotting defect on the slice of dry-cured ham and assess environmental and genetic causes of this frequent problem. A group of 233 pigs from commercial cross-breeding lines, progeny of ten boars and forty seven sows, was raised in a single herd to obtain the “Italian Heavy Pig”, typically slaughtered at 160 ± 10 kg live weight and older than 9 months of age. A quality evaluation of their right dry-cured hams, seasoned according to the Parma P.D.O. protocol, was undertaken. Each ham was cross-sectioned to obtain a slice of Semimembranosus, Semitendinosus and Biceps Femoris muscles. The focused phenotype was the presence/absence of brownish spots in these muscles, which represent a remarkable meat defect with strong impact on the final sale price. Environmental and management factors were considered in order to evaluate variability related to the phenotype. Animals were raised on two different flooring types (concrete and slatted floor and a Vitamin C diet was also supplemented in the last 45 days before slaughtering to half of the animals. While the pre-planned environmental effects did not show any significant contribution to the total variability of the phenotype, the genetic analysis showed a near to zero value for heritability with a consistent 0.32 repeatability. The proportion of the total phenotypic variance was explained by an important dominance genetic component (0.26 indicating that the technological seasoning process may play a secondary role on the expression of this phenotype.

  8. Analysis of microbiological contamination in mixed pressed ham and cooked sausage in Korea.

    Park, Myoung-Su; Wang, Jun; Park, Joong-Hyun; Forghani, Fereidoun; Moon, Jin-San; Oh, Deog-Hwan


    The objective of this study was to investigate the microbial contamination levels (aerobic bacteria plate count [APC], coliforms, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes) in mixed pressed ham and cooked sausage. A total of 180 samples were collected from factories with and without hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) systems at four steps: after chopping (AC), after mixing (AM), cooling after the first heating process, and cooling after the second heating process. For ham, APCs and coliform and E. coli counts increased when ingredients were added to the meat at the AC step. Final product APC was 1.63 to 1.85 log CFU/g, and coliforms and E. coli were not detected. S. aureus and L. monocytogenes were found in nine (15.0%) and six (10.0%) samples, respectively, but only at the AC and AM steps and not in the final product. Sausage results were similar to those for ham. The final product APC was 1.52 to 3.85 log CFU/g, and coliforms and E. coli were not detected. S. aureus and L. monocytogenes were found in 29 (24.2%) and 25 (20.8%) samples at the AC and AM steps, respectively, but not in the final product. These results indicate that the temperature and time of the first and second heating are of extreme importance to ensure the microbiological safety of the final product regardless of whether a HACCP system is in place. Microorganism contamination must be monitored regularly and regulations regarding sanitization during processing should be improved. Education regarding employee personal hygiene, environmental hygiene, prevention of cross-contamination, ingredient control, and step-by-step process control is needed to reduce the risk of food poisoning.

  9. Bioactivity of Diterpens from the Ethyl Acetate Extract of Kingiodendron pinnatum Rox. Hams

    Javarappa, Komal Kumar; Prasad, Attemode Girijanna Devi; Mahadesh Prasad, AJ; Mane, Chetana


    Background: Kingiodendron pinnatum Rox. Hams. is an endangered medicinal plant used in gonorrhoe, catarrhal conditions of genito-urinary and respiratory tracts. The scientific and pharmacological formulation of K. pinnatum has not been established so far though it is being traditionally used by tribes of the region. Objective: P hytochemical screening and identification of the bioactive compounds from the ethyl acetate extract of Kingiodendron pinnatum Rox. Hams. Materials and Methods: Chromatographic separation was carried out by thin layer chromatography and column chromatography. Bio-autography of the column fractioned extract and TLC chromatogram were evaluated in vitro for antibacterial activity. The PTLC, HP TLC were used for crude extract and HPLC, LCMS, FTIR, 1HNMR and 13CNMR were employed for the isolated compound in the ethyl acetate extract of K. pinnatum. Results: Evaluation of solvent system for chromatographic separation revealed that ethyl acetate: petroleum ether in the ratio of 7:2.5 ml was the most appropriate one for the separation of diterpene compounds. The antibacterial bio-autography screening of TLC separated compound showed positive activity with Staphylococcus aureus and negative activity with Escherichia coli. Spectroscopic analysis of the isolated compound from the ethyl acetate extract of K. pinnatum revealed the presence of diterpene compound. Conclusion: It is evident from the present study that the ethyl acetate extract of K. pinnatum is rich in diterpene compounds and having potential antibacterial activity. SUMMARY Novel extraction method for phytochemicls from Kingidendron pinnatum at RTAntibacterial property of diterpens extracted from Kingiodendron pinnatum Rox. Hams aganist S. aureus Abbreviations Used: TLC: Thin Layer Chromatography, PTLC: Preparatory Thin Layer Chromatography, HPTLC: High perormence Thin Layer chromatography, HPLC: High Performance Liquid Chromatography, LC-MS: Liquid chromatography Mass Spectra, FTIR

  10. Barriers to electronic access and delivery of educational information in resource constrained public schools: a case of Greater Tubatse Municipality

    Pholotho, T


    Full Text Available Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are capable of expanding access to quality education, educational resources and provide teachers with new skills. Nevertheless, a majority of rural public schools have limited ICTs, mainly due...


    Nadir -


    Full Text Available Violence in household such as physical, psychological, sexualand economical violence is a form of criminal action happens inhousehold in which the doer and victim are from the samehousehold. The way of penal policy through the government insolution of violence in household is formed in norm codificationof positive law (positive wettelijk, by carrying out UU number 23of 2004 about abolition of violence in a household. Thisregulation is a form of government attention to human rights(HAM, and gender, non discrimination and the protection ofviolence victims in a household.

  12. Relevance of nitrate and nitrite in dry-cured ham and their effects on aroma development

    Flores, Mónica


    Full Text Available Potassium and sodium salts of nitrite (E 249 and E 250 and nitrate (E 251 and E 252 are authorised for use under certain levels in several foodstuffs such as non-heat-treated, cured and dried meat products, other cured meat products, canned meat products and bacon. The key point in the use of nitrate and nitrite as preservatives is to find a balance between ensuring the microbiological safety of the ham and keeping as low as possible the level of nitrosamines in the final product. Nitrites and nitrates are authorised as additives for dry-cured ham in the Directive 2006/52/EC of 5 July 2006 that modifies previous Council Directive 95/2/EC on food additives other than colours and sweeteners. The effect of nitrate and its reduction to nitrite in controlling the lipid oxidation process during the ham ripening is very important for the development of the characteristic cured flavour. The main benefits and drawbacks of the use of nitrites and nitrates in dry-cured ham and how these levels may affect its flavour are discussed in this manuscript.Las sales sódica y potásica del nitrito (E249 y E250 y del nitrato (E251 y E252 están autorizados para su uso en los productos cárnicos, secos, curados y no tratados por el calor, otros productos cárnicos curados, productos cárnicos enlatados y bacon. El punto esencial en el uso de nitrato y nitrito como conservantes consiste en encontrar un balance entre el aseguramiento de la seguridad microbiológica del jamón y mantener el nivel de nitrosaminas tan bajo como sea posible. Los nitratos y nitritos están autorizados como aditivos en el jamón curado según la Directiva Europea 2006/52/EC de 5 de Julio de 2006 que modificaba la previa Directiva Europea 95/2/EC de aditivos alimentarios distintos a los colorantes y edulcorantes. El efecto del nitrato y su reducción a nitrito para controlar la oxidación de los lípidos durante la maduración del jamón es muy importante para el desarrollo del caracter

  13. Processamento do presunto "cook-in" de cordeiros Processing of cook-in ham of lambs

    Eliane Mattos Monteiro


    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo desenvolver tecnologia para produto curado (presunto "cook-in", com pernis de cordeiros cruza Texel x Corriedale em associação com tratamentos tecnológicos (massagem em "tumbler" e processo "cook-in". O estudo foi desenvolvido pela EMBRAPA/CPPSUL e Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, RS, Brasil. Após as análises da composição química, a carne foi injetada manualmente com 20 % de salmoura composta por água + gelo 79%, cloreto de sódio 7,52%, condimento para presunto 4,70%, fosfatos 1,97%, sais de cura 1,88%, sacarose 3,38% e glutamato monossódico 0,19 %. Os presuntos foram avaliados quanto à composição química (umidade, proteína, gordura, cinzas, pigmentos totais e pH, parâmetros sensoriais (cor, aroma, sabor, textura e aceitabilidade e rendimento. Uma das principais características dos presuntos obtidos com pernil de cordeiros cruza Texel x Corriedale foi o baixo conteúdo de gordura associado ao bom rendimento e à excelente aceitabilidade.The aim of this study was to develop technology for the curing lambs (cook-in hams which were manufactured from the legs of crossbred Texel x Corriedale lambs in association with technologic treatment (massaging in tumbler and cook-in process. The experiment was conducted at the EMBRAPA-CPPSUL/ UFSM, RS, Brazil. After the evaluation of the chemical composition, the meat was injected with it manually - 20 % of brine containing water 79%, salt 7.52%, curing salts 1.88%, sucrose 3.38%, ham condiments 4.70%, phosphate 1.97% and sodium glutamate 0.19%. The ham quality was evaluated by analysis of its chemical composition (moisture, protein, ash, fat, pH, sensory properties (color, aroma, texture, acceptability and yield. The main characteristics of lamb hams were low fat contents associated with excellent acceptability and good yield.

  14. Hiromeri: a specialty ham of Cyprus--historical evidence, culinary and cultural perspectives.

    Patapiou, Nasa; Lazarou, Chrystalleni


    Hiromeri is a specialty ham of Cyprus, made of smoked pork leg that is matured in wine. Until now there has been no systematic effort to present historical evidence that will support the Cypriot authenticity of this product. In this article, the historical evidence from sixteenth to twentieth centuries, referring to the production and trade of hiromeri in Cyprus, is presented. The evidence is drawn from archival testimony, travelers' descriptions, old history books, and essays on agricultural production. Moreover, a description of the hiromeri production process as well as past and current culinary uses and customs associated with its production and consumption are presented.

  15. Bovine Blood Constituents as Fat Replacers in Ham Pâté

    Fabiana Ribeiro Viana; Carolina Schaper Bizzotto; Disney Ribeiro Dias; Oliveira,Afonso L.; Marialice Pinto Coelho Silvestre


    Some tests were carried out in this work with the aim of evaluating a partial replacement of fat in the raw batter of ham pâté by using bovine blood constituents, such as globin (GL), plasma (PL) or 1:1 globin and plasma (GP). Plasma was separated from red cells by blood centrifugation, and globin was extracted by the carboxymethylcellulose method. The salt-soluble protein content (SSP) and the binding properties including water holding capacity (WHC) and raw batter stability (RBS) were estim...

  16. Electronic Grey Literature in Accelerator Science and Its Allied Subjects : Selected Web Resources for Scientists and Engineers

    Rajendiran, P


    Grey literature Web resources in the field of accelerator science and its allied subjects are collected for the scientists and engineers of RRCAT (Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology). For definition purposes the different types of grey literature are described. The Web resources collected and compiled in this article (with an overview and link for each) specifically focus on technical reports, preprints or e-prints, which meet the main information needs of RRCAT users.

  17. 电子资源许可使用的发展与创新%The Development and Innovation of the Use of the Electronic Resource License



      电子资源许可使用在我国发展时间较短,在其建立过程中还存在许可定价、购买模式、馆际互借以及电子资源的长期保存许可方式等难题。电子资源许可使用的发展与创新,需要根据用户需求制定发展战略,建立图书馆的读者监督管理制度和数字化资源服务制度,规范文献编目制度等,以提高电子信息资源与图书馆信息资源的使用效果和广泛的使用需求%  It's been a short time since the use of electronic resource licenses has developed in China; in addition, many problems ap-pear in the establishment process in terms of license pricing, purchase pattern, inter-library loan and long-term preservation ways of electronic resources. In order to develop and innovate the use of the license, libraries should develop strategies in accordance with the users' needs, establish a reader supervision system and a digital resource service system, and normalize the document cataloging sys-tem to enhance the utilization effect and meet the extensive demand for electronic and library information resources.

  18. Comparison of dry medium culture plates for mesophilic aerobic bacteria in milk, ice cream, ham, and codfish fillet products.

    Park, Junghyun; Kim, Myunghee


    This study was performed to compare the performance of Sanita-Kun dry medium culture plate with those of traditional culture medium and Petrifilm dry medium culture plate for the enumeration of the mesophilic aerobic bacteria in milk, ice cream, ham, and codfish fillet. Mesophilic aerobic bacteria were comparatively evaluated in milk, ice cream, ham, and codfish fillet using Sanita-Kun aerobic count (SAC), Petrifilm aerobic count (PAC), and traditional plate count agar (PCA) media. According to the results, all methods showed high correlations of 0.989~1.000 and no significant differences were observed for enumerating the mesophilic aerobic bacteria in the tested food products. SAC method was easier to perform and count colonies efficiently as compared to the PCA and PAC methods. Therefore, we concluded that the SAC method offers an acceptable alternative to the PCA and PAC methods for counting the mesophilic aerobic bacteria in milk, ice cream, ham, and codfish fillet products.

  19. Classification of dry-cured hams according to the maturation time using near infrared spectra and artificial neural networks.

    Prevolnik, M; Andronikov, D; Žlender, B; Font-i-Furnols, M; Novič, M; Škorjanc, D; Čandek-Potokar, M


    An attempt to classify dry-cured hams according to the maturation time on the basis of near infrared (NIR) spectra was studied. The study comprised 128 samples of biceps femoris (BF) muscle from dry-cured hams matured for 10 (n=32), 12 (n=32), 14 (n=32) or 16 months (n=32). Samples were minced and scanned in the wavelength range from 400 to 2500 nm using spectrometer NIR System model 6500 (Silver Spring, MD, USA). Spectral data were used for i) splitting of samples into the training and test set using 2D Kohonen artificial neural networks (ANN) and for ii) construction of classification models using counter-propagation ANN (CP-ANN). Different models were tested, and the one selected was based on the lowest percentage of misclassified test samples (external validation). Overall correctness of the classification was 79.7%, which demonstrates practical relevance of using NIR spectroscopy and ANN for dry-cured ham processing control.

  20. Inclusion complexation of flavour compounds by dispersed high-amylose maize starch (HAMS) in an aqueous model system.

    Yeo, Lihe; Thompson, Donald B; Peterson, Devin G


    This study investigated how hydrophobicity, solubility and the concentration of flavour compounds related to inclusion complexation by dispersed native high amylose maize starch (HAMS). The effect of native lipid on flavour retention and the effect of time (one day to one month) on flavour retention and precipitated starch yield was also examined. Flavour-starch complexation was dependent on the flavour compound hydrophobicity, the flavour concentration in a dose-dependent manner and also influenced by time (increased during storage). Flavour composition also influenced starch complexation; no flavour complexes were reported with limonene by itself but were observed when added in binary flavour mixtures with menthone or thymol. Furthermore, no difference in flavour retention was observed for native and lipid-free starch dispersions. In summary, flavour inclusion complexes with HAMS exhibited cooperativity-type binding behaviour; with a critical ligand concentration needed for a stable physical association between flavour compounds and HAMS.

  1. Elimination of Listeria monocytogenes from vacuum-packed dry-cured ham by E-beam radiation.

    Hoz, L; Cambero, M I; Cabeza, M C; Herrero, A M; Ordónez, J A


    The inactivation kinetics for Listeria monocytogenes Scott A (CIP 103575, serotype 4b) and Listeria innocua (NTC 11288) after E-beam radiation were studied in vacuum-packed ready-to-eat dry-cured ham to optimize the sanitation treatment of this product. A treatment of 1.12 kGy was calculated to reach the food safety objective according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture criterion. No irradiation treatment is necessary to meet the European Union microbiological criterion for this bacterium. No changes (at doses Dry-cured hams treated with 1 and 2 kGy had negligible sensory modifications (appearance, odor, and flavor). However, the application of 3 and 4 kGy resulted in an increase in the intensity of off-odors and off-flavors. Despite these effects, all irradiated vacuum-packed dry-cured hams treated at < or =4 kGy were deemed acceptable for trading.

  2. Processing technology of three delicacy ham sausage%三鲜火腿肠的加工技术

    王雪梅; 王森; 幸胜平; 周永昌


    Ham sausage is a convenient food and eaten frequently by people. Developing safe, delicious and nutritious ham sausage is the need of production and the market. Adding mushrooms, carrots and shrimp meat in the ham sausage can reach the purpose of rich flavor and balanced nutrition.%火腿肠是人们经常食用的方便食品,开发安全、可口、营养均衡的火腿肠是生产的需要.更是市场的需要。三鲜火腿肠是在火腿肠中添加了香菇、胡萝卜和虾仁,达到了口味丰富,营养均衡的目的。

  3. Accumulation and evolution of tocopherols in dry-cured hams from Iberian pigs as affected by their feeding and rearing system

    Rey, A I; Lopez-Bote, C J; Daza, A


    The influence of feeding and rearing systems on the accumulation and evolution of α- and γ-tocopherols in relation to storage time in dry-cured ham slices and pieces was investigated. The accumulation of γ-tocopherol in Musculus Biceps femoris or fat of cured hams was lower in groups fed acorns i...

  4. Evaluation of HTLV-1 activity in HAM/TSP patients using proviral load and Tax mRNA expression after In Vitro lymphocyte activation

    Atefeh Yari


    Conclusion: Although proviral load had been addressed as a valuable index for monitoring HTLV-1 infected subjects, the results of this study demonstrated that Tax expression in activated PBMCs along with proviral load assessment in HAM/TSP patients are a more reliable factor for determining the prognosis and monitoring healthy carriers and HAM/TSP patients.

  5. Hardware Realization of Fast Multi-Scalar Elliptic Curve Point Multiplication by Reducing the Hamming Weights Over GF(p

    Nagaraja Shylashree


    Full Text Available We present a new hardware realization of fast elliptic curve Multi-Scalar Point Multiplication (MSPM using the sum of products expansion of the scalars. In Elliptic curve point Multiplication latency depends on the number of one’s (Hamming Weight in the binary representation of the scalar multiplier. By reducing the effective number of one’s in the multiplier, the multiplication speed is automatically increased. Therefore we describe a new method of effectively reducing the Hamming weight of the scalar multipliers thereby reduces the number of Point Adders when multi scalar multiplication is needed. The increase in speed achieved outweighs the hardware cost and complexity.

  6. Evaluation of T Regulatory Lymphocytes Transcription Factors in HTLV-1-Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TSP) Patients.

    Ghezeldasht, Sanaz Ahmadi; Sadeghian, Hamed; Azarpazhooh, Mahmoud Reza; Shamsian, Seyyed Ali Akbar; Rafatpanah, Houshang; Mahmoodi, Mahmood; Rezaee, Seyyed Abdolrahim


    HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is an aggressive neurological disease. The CD4(+)CD25(+) T cell population plays pivotal roles in the maintenance of immunological tolerance and prevention of such autoimmune diseases. In the current study, proviral load (PVL), factor forkhead box p3 (Foxp3), and glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor-related protein (GITR) gene expression and regulatory T cells (Tregs) counts of 21 HAM/TSP patients and 16 HTLV-1 healthy carriers (ACs) were measured using real-time PCR, TaqMan method, and flow cytometry. The demographic, history of disease, and severity of myelopathy were assessed by a checklist and the Osame motor disability score (OMDS). The mean OMDS for HAM/TSP was 4.82 ± 2.37 which had no significant correlation with Treg count or the expression of Foxp3, GITR, and PVL. The CD4(+)CD25(+) cell counts had no significant differences between HAM/TSP and ACs. Findings revealed a higher PVL in HAM/TSPs (313.36 copies/10(4)) compared to ACs (144.93 copies/10(4), p = 0.035). The Foxp3 and GITR mRNA levels were lower in HAM/TSP patients (11.78 and 13.80, respectively) than those in healthy carriers (18.44 and 21.00, p = 0.041 and 0.03, respectively). There was a significant correlation between Treg frequency and Foxp3 gene expression (R = 0.67, p = 0.006) and GITR and Foxp3 (R = 0.84, p = 0.042) in HAM/TSP patients. Furthermore, the transcription factors have strong correlations with CD4(+)CD25(+) T cell frequencies. These findings suggest that HTLV-1 infection can modify the expression of main functional transcription factors, FOXP3 and GITR, which may lead to immune response deterioration of Tregs and consequently HAM/TSP manifestation.

  7. Ultrasonic assessment of the melting behaviour in fat from Iberian dry-cured hams.

    Niñoles, L; Mulet, A; Ventanas, S; Benedito, J


    The feasibility of using ultrasounds to characterize the melting properties of fat from Iberian dry-cured hams was evaluated. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and ultrasonic measurements were used to characterize the fat melting. The ultrasonic velocity in fat decreased with the increase in temperature, showing four different sections (0-4 degrees C, 4-10 degrees C, 10-20 degrees C and 20-24 degrees C). Ultrasonic velocity was related (R(2)=0.99) to the percentage of melted fat (%MEF) showing an increase of 5.4 ms(-1) for 1% increase of melted fat (%MEF above 60%). The thermal history did not affect the ultrasonic measurements from 10 to 25 degrees C and, consequently, this range was the most suitable for classifying Iberian dry-cured products with different genetics and feeding backgrounds. Ultrasonic measurements could be a reliable technique to estimate the %MEF and subsequently the related sensory attributes in Iberian dry-cured ham at 10-25 degrees C, which is the common temperature range for the consumption of Iberian dry-cured products.

  8. Aerosol activation and cloud processing in the global aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM

    G. J. Roelofs


    Full Text Available A parameterization for cloud processing is presented that calculates activation of aerosol particles to cloud drops, cloud drop size, and pH-dependent aqueous phase sulfur chemistry. The parameterization is implemented in the global aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM. The cloud processing parameterization uses updraft speed, temperature, and aerosol size and chemical parameters simulated by ECHAM5-HAM to estimate the maximum supersaturation at the cloud base, and subsequently the cloud drop number concentration (CDNC due to activation. In-cloud sulfate production occurs through oxidation of dissolved SO2 by ozone and hydrogen peroxide. The model simulates realistic distributions for annually averaged CDNC although it is underestimated especially in remote marine regions. On average, CDNC is dominated by cloud droplets growing on particles from the accumulation mode, with smaller contributions from the Aitken and coarse modes. The simulations indicate that in-cloud sulfate production is a potentially important source of accumulation mode sized cloud condensation nuclei, due to chemical growth of activated Aitken particles and to enhanced coalescence of processed particles. The strength of this source depends on the distribution of produced sulfate over the activated modes. This distribution is affected by uncertainties in many parameters that play a direct role in particle activation, such as the updraft velocity, the aerosol chemical composition and the organic solubility, and the simulated CDNC is found to be relatively sensitive to these uncertainties.

  9. Efficient algorithms for the reverse shortest path problem on trees under the hamming distance

    Tayyebi Javad


    Full Text Available Given a network G(V,A,c and a collection of origin-destination pairs with prescribed values, the reverse shortest path problem is to modify the arc length vector c as little as possible under some bound constraints such that the shortest distance between each origin-destination pair is upper bounded by the corresponding prescribed value. It is known that the reverse shortest path problem is NP-hard even on trees when the arc length modifications are measured by the weighted sum-type Hamming distance. In this paper, we consider two special cases of this problem which are polynomially solvable. The first is the case with uniform lengths. It is shown that this case transforms to a minimum cost flow problem on an auxiliary network. An efficient algorithm is also proposed for solving this case under the unit sum-type Hamming distance. The second case considered is the problem without bound constraints. It is shown that this case is reduced to a minimum cut problem on a tree-like network. Therefore, both cases studied can be solved in strongly polynomial time.

  10. Aerosol activation and cloud processing in the global aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM

    G. J. Roelofs


    Full Text Available A parameterization for cloud processing is presented that calculates activation of aerosol particles to cloud drops, cloud drop size, and pH-dependent aqueous phase sulfur chemistry. The parameterization is implemented in the global aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM. The cloud processing parameterization uses updraft speed, temperature, and aerosol size and chemical parameters simulated by ECHAM5-HAM to estimate the maximum supersaturation at the cloud base, and subsequently the cloud drop number concentration (CDNC due to activation. In-cloud sulfate production occurs through oxidation of dissolved SO2 by ozone and hydrogen peroxide. The model simulates realistic distributions for annually averaged CDNC although it is underestimated especially in remote marine regions. On average, CDNC is dominated by particles from the accumulation mode, with smaller contributions from the Aitken and coarse modes. The simulations indicate that in-cloud sulfate production is a potentially important source of accumulation mode sized cloud condensation nuclei, due to chemical growth of activated Aitken particles and to enhanced coalescence of processed particles. The strength of this source depends on the distribution of produced sulfate over the activated modes. This distribution is affected by uncertainties in many parameters that play a direct role in particle activation, such as the updraft velocity, the aerosol chemical composition and the organic solubility, and the simulated CDNC is found to be relatively sensitive to these uncertainties.

  11. New analytical method for solving Burgers' and nonlinear heat transfer equations and comparison with HAM

    Rashidi, M. M.; Erfani, E.


    In this study, we present a numerical comparison between the differential transform method (DTM) and the homotopy analysis method (HAM) for solving Burgers' and nonlinear heat transfer problems. The first differential equation is the Burgers' equation serves as a useful model for many interesting problems in applied mathematics. The second one is the modeling equation of a straight fin with a temperature dependent thermal conductivity. In order to show the effectiveness of the DTM, the results obtained from the DTM is compared with available solutions obtained using the HAM [M.M. Rashidi, G. Domairry, S. Dinarvand, Commun. Nonlinear Sci. Numer. Simul. 14 (2009) 708-717; G. Domairry, M. Fazeli, Commun. Nonlinear Sci. Numer. Simul. 14 (2009) 489-499] and whit exact solutions. The method can easily be applied to many linear and nonlinear problems. It illustrates the validity and the great potential of the differential transform method in solving nonlinear partial differential equations. The obtained results reveal that the technique introduced here is very effective and convenient for solving nonlinear partial differential equations and nonlinear ordinary differential equations that we are found to be in good agreement with the exact solutions.

  12. The global aerosol-climate model ECHAM-HAM, version 2: sensitivity to improvements in process representations

    K. Zhang


    Full Text Available This paper introduces and evaluates the second version of the global aerosol-climate model ECHAM-HAM. Major changes have been brought into the model, including new parameterizations for aerosol nucleation and water uptake, an explicit treatment of secondary organic aerosols, modified emission calculations for sea salt and mineral dust, the coupling of aerosol microphysics to a two-moment stratiform cloud microphysics scheme, and alternative wet scavenging parameterizations. These revisions extend the model's capability to represent details of the aerosol lifecycle and its interaction with climate. Nudged simulations of the year 2000 are carried out to compare the aerosol properties and global distribution in HAM1 and HAM2, and to evaluate them against various observations. Sensitivity experiments are performed to help identify the impact of each individual update in model formulation.

    Results indicate that from HAM1 to HAM2 there is a marked weakening of aerosol water uptake in the lower troposphere, reducing the total aerosol water burden from 75 Tg to 51 Tg. The main reason is the newly introduced κ-Köhler-theory-based water uptake scheme uses a lower value for the maximum relative humidity cutoff. Particulate organic matter loading in HAM2 is considerably higher in the upper troposphere, because the explicit treatment of secondary organic aerosols allows highly volatile oxidation products of the precursors to be vertically transported to regions of very low temperature and to form aerosols there. Sulfate, black carbon, particulate organic matter and mineral dust in HAM2 have longer lifetimes than in HAM1 because of weaker in-cloud scavenging, which is in turn related to lower autoconversion efficiency in the newly introduced two-moment cloud microphysics scheme. Modification in the sea salt emission scheme causes a significant increase in the ratio (from 1.6 to 7.7 between accumulation mode and coarse mode emission fluxes of

  13. Clinician‐selected Electronic Information Resources do not Guarantee Accuracy in Answering Primary Care Physicians’ Information Needs. A review of: McKibbon, K. Ann, and Douglas B. Fridsma. “Effectiveness of Clinician‐selected Electronic Information Resources for Answering Primary Care Physicians’ Information Needs.” Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 13.6 (2006: 653‐9.

    Martha Ingrid Preddie


    Full Text Available Objective – To determine if electronic information resources selected by primary care physicians improve their ability to answer simulated clinical questions.Design – An observational study utilizing hour‐long interviews and think‐aloud protocols.Setting – The offices and clinics of primary care physicians in Canada and the United States.Subjects – Twenty‐five primary care physicians of whom 4 were women, 17 were from Canada, 22 were family physicians,and 24 were board certified.Methods – Participants provided responses to 23 multiple‐choice questions. Each physician then chose two questions and looked for the answers utilizing information resources of their own choice. The search processes, chosen resources and search times were noted. These were analyzed along with data on the accuracy of the answers and certainties related to the answer to each clinical question prior to the search.Main results – Twenty‐three physicians sought answers to 46 simulated clinical questions. Utilizing only electronic information resources, physicians spent a mean of 13.0 (SD 5.5 minutes searching for answers to the questions, an average of 7.3(SD 4.0 minutes for the first question and 5.8 (SD 2.2 minutes to answer the second question. On average, 1.8 resources were utilized per question. Resources that summarized information, such as the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, UpToDate and Clinical Evidence, were favored 39.2% of the time, MEDLINE (Ovid and PubMed 35.7%, and Internet resources including Google 22.6%. Almost 50% of the search and retrieval strategies were keyword‐based, while MeSH, subheadings and limiting were used less frequently. On average, before searching physicians answered 10 of 23 (43.5% questions accurately. For questions that were searched using clinician‐selected electronic resources, 18 (39.1% of the 46 answers were accurate before searching, while 19 (42.1% were accurate after searching. The difference of

  14. Conceived on the City Electronic Waste Resource Mana oement Model%城市电子废弃物资源化管理模式构想

    熊贵琍; 余涛


    Investigated e- waste collection system the investigation, the whereabouts and electronic waste disposal in Httizhou city, the paper analyzed the Huizhou city e- waste collection and disposal of a series of problems, combined with the actual, conceived urban electronic waste resources management mode.%通过对惠州市电子废弃物收集体系组成、去向以及电子废弃物处置方式的调查,分析惠州市电子废弃物收集和处置存在的一系列问题,结合实际提出了城市电子废弃物资源化管理模式的初步构想。

  15. The effect of salt reduction on sensory quality and microbial growth in hotdog sausages, bacon, ham and salami.

    Aaslyng, Margit Dall; Vestergaard, Christian; Koch, Anette Granly


    Sodium chloride (NaCl) is a multi-functional ingredient used to inhibit microbial growth and to ensure good texture and taste in processed meat. This study showed how moderately (22-25%) and greatly (43-50%) reduction of NaCl affected yield, sensory quality and microbial growth in hotdog sausages, bacon, cooked cured ham and salami. In greatly reduced products, the yield was reduced by 8% in sausages and 6% in ham, whereas the yield in bacon and salami remained unaffected. The microbial growth was generally not affected by reducing the content of NaCl to 2.0% in sausages, 2.3% in bacon, 1.7% in ham and 6.3% in salami (aqueous phase). Salt taste, juiciness and texture were the sensory parameters most affected by the NaCl reduction. In sausages and ham, reduction from 2.2% to 1.7% and from 2.3% to 1.3% (w/w), respectively, did not alter the sensory properties. In contrast, the sensory properties of bacon and salami were significantly affected already after a moderately reduction.

  16. Is designation of origin an important cue driving consumer loyalty behaviour? Evidence from scanner data on dry-cured ham

    Chrysochou, Polymeros; Giraud, Georges


    designation of origin influences their actual purchase behaviour and, moreover, behavioural loyalty towards them. For measuring loyalty we applied the Dirichlet model on scanner supermarket data on dry-cured ham, a common local French food product. Results show that designation of origin...... is not that an important driver of loyalty comparing to price and brand name....

  17. Predictive Model for Growth of Staphylococcus aureus on Raw Pork, Ham, and Sausage.

    Mansur, Ahmad Rois; Park, Joong-Hyun; Oh, Deog-Hwan


    Recent Staphylococcus aureus outbreaks linked to meat and poultry products underscore the importance of understanding the growth kinetics of S. aureus in these products at different temperatures. Raw pork, ham, and sausage (each 10 ± 0.3 g) were inoculated with a three-strain cocktail of S. aureus, resulting in an initial level of ca. 3 log CFU/g. Samples were stored isothermally at 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40°C, and S. aureus was enumerated at appropriate time intervals. The square root model was developed using experimental data collected from S. aureus grown on all samples (where data from raw pork, ham, and sausage were combined) so as to describe the growth rate of S. aureus as a function of temperature. The model was then compared with models for S. aureus growth on each individual sample in the experiments (raw pork, ham, or sausage) and the S. aureus ComBase models, as well as models for the growth of different types of pathogens (S. aureus, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Clostridium perfringens, Salmonella serovars, and Salmonella Typhimurium) on various types of meat and poultry products. The results show that the S. aureus model developed here based on the pooled data from all three pork products seems suitable for the prediction of S. aureus growth on different pork products under isothermal conditions from 10 to 25°C, as well as for S. aureus growth on different meat and poultry products at higher temperatures between 20 and 35°C. Regardless of some high deviations observed at temperatures between 25 and 40°C, the developed model still seems suitable to predict the growth of other pathogens on different types of meat and poultry products over the temperature ranges used here, especially for E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium. The developed model, therefore, may be useful for estimating the effects of storage temperature on the behavior of pathogens in different meat and poultry products and for microbial risk assessments evaluating meat

  18. Accessibility and Use of Web-Based Electronic Resources by Physicians in a Psychiatric Institution in Nigeria

    Oduwole, Adebambo Adewale; Oyewumi, Olatundun


    Purpose: This study aims to examine the accessibility and use of web-based electronic databases on the Health InterNetwork Access to Research Initiative (HINARI) portal by physicians in the Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Aro--a psychiatry health institution in Nigeria. Design/methodology/approach: Collection of data was through the use of a three-part…

  19. 宣威火腿白点的分析%Analysis of White Particles in Xuanwei Ham

    王兴红; 江东福; 马萍; 彭谦


    Xuanwei Ham is a famous ham in China with some white particle spots often appeared in ham, mostly in ham muscle.However, examined by microbiological methods and observed by light microscope, there are neither microbes nor parasites in the white particle spots. Proteins in particles would decompose significantly, and two main proteins with molecular weights of respectively 51000 and 13200 were detected by gradient SDS-PAGE in particles. The content of tyrosine in white particles was eight times higher than that in normal ham muscle, which indicated that the particles might be decomposed protein, tyrosine and some other component. All the contents of inorganic elements analyzed are less than those in ham muscle, and the schondroitin sulfate occurred in white particle implie that pathological disease might occur in muscle at the particle position during live stage of pig. Inoculating yeast on ham during salting can prevent the formation of particles effectively.%宣威火腿是中国三大著名火腿之一,常常有白点在火腿中出现,影响产品外观.通过微生物学方法和显微镜观察,发现这些白点既不是微生物,也不是寄生虫.白点中的蛋白质降解程度很高,经梯度SDS-PAGE凝胶分析,发现白点含有两种主要蛋白质,其分子量为51000和13200.在白点中的酪氨酸含量是正常火腿肌肉的8倍.表明白点可能是蛋白质降解产物、酪氨酸结晶和一些其它成分.所有无机成分的含量经分析都少于火腿肌肉.在白点中还有硫酸软骨素出现,表明在猪的活体阶段在自点部位的蛋白质发生了某种病理性变化.在火腿腌制阶段火腿上接种酵母能有效的减少火腿白点的形成.

  20. Evaluation of HTLV-1 HBZ and proviral load, together with host IFN λ3, in pathogenesis of HAM/TSP.

    Mozhgani, Sayed-Hamidreza; Jaberi, Najmeh; Rezaee, Seyed Abdolrahim; Bustani, Reza; Jazayeri, Seyed Mohammad; Akbarin, Mohammad Mehdi; Milani, Saeideh; Tarokhian, Hanieh; Norouzi, Mehdi


    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1) is associated with two progressive diseases: HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL). Although HTLV-1 proviral load (PVL) has been introduced as a risk factor for these diseases' progression, it is not sufficient on its own to yield an accurate estimation of the outcome of the infection. In the present study, PVL and HTLV-1 basic leucine zipper factor (HBZ) expression level as viral factors, and IFN λ3 as a host factor, were evaluated in HAM/TSP patients and HTLV-1 asymptomatic carriers (ACs). During 2014-2015, 12 HAM/TSP patients and 18 ACs who had been referred to the HTLV-1 Clinic, Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences (MUMS), Mashhad, Iran, were enrolled in this study. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated and the DNA and mRNA were extracted for quantification of HBZ, IFN λ3 expression, and PVL using real-time PCR (TaqMan method). Although the PVL was higher in the HAM/TSP group, with a 94% confidence interval, there were no considerable differences in terms of HBZ mRNA and PVL between ACs and HAM patients. IFN λ3 expression in the HAM/TSP group was significantly higher than in the ACs (P = 0.02). To the best of our knowledge, no study has evaluated the expression level of IFN λ3 in HTLV-1 positive patients. The immune response against HTLV-1 viral antigens and virulent factors will therefore further refine our knowledge of interactions between the virus and host in the pathogenesis of HTLV-1-related disorders. The virus PVL and the host IFN λ3 can be used as pathogenic factors of HTLV-1 infected patients at risk of HAM/TSP manifestation. J. Med. Virol. 89:1102-1107, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Antioxidant supplementation in pig nutrition: effects on shelf life of longissimus dorsi muscle and consumers’ preferences for smoked cured ham.

    Federica Maghin


    Full Text Available The effects of dietary supplementation with antioxidant mixture in medium-heavy swine on oxidative status, nutritional and sensory characteristics of longissimus dorsi (LD muscle and smoked cured ham were evaluated. Seventy-four pigs (PIC x Max Grow, were assigned to two experimental groups: control (CT and treated supplemented with antioxidant mixture (AOX for 45 days before slaughter. The total antiradicalic activity of blood (KRL test and carcass dressing percentage was positively affected (P<0.05 by AOX supplementation. Chemical composition of LD was not affected by dietary treatment. Oxidative stability and colour indices were significantly affected (P<0.05 by dietary treatment and storage time (0, 6, 12, 15 days under modified atmosphere packs - MAP. Sensory analysis revealed that at 12 and 15 days of storage a loss of colour beside presence of off odors was higher (P<0.05 in CT than AOX group. The seasoning losses of smoked cured ham tended to be lower (P=0.06 in AOX group than CT. Physical and chemical composition was not affected by dietary treatment. Sensory analysis revealed a difference between CT and AOX (P<0.05 in salty and sweet taste. Furthermore, the consumer test revealed that smoked cured ham from AOX were preferred (P<0.05 than CT. Dietary supplementation with antioxidant mixture improves total antioxidant status, carcass dressing percentage and smoked cured ham seasoning losses. The oxidative, colour stability and sensory parameters of LD muscle was improved in AOX groups during refrigerated storage in MAP. Antioxidant mixture positively affect the consumer preference of smoked cured ham, without affecting other quality parameters.

  2. Hydrolysis and loss of extractability of proteins during ripening of iberian ham.

    Córdoba, J J; Antequera, T; Ventanas, J; López-Bote, C; García, C; Asensio, M A


    To elucidate the extent of the hydrolysis and loss of extractability of protein during the traditional ripening of Iberian ham, the evolution during processing of non-protein nitrogen (NPN) and protein fractions soluble in 0·03 m pH 7·1 phosphate and 1·1 KI + 0·1 m phosphate pH 7·4 buffers and 6 m urea was followed from Semimembranosus and Biceps femoris muscles. The NPN steadily increased during processing, showing maximum intensity at salting and drying. Electrophoretic study of the proteins extracted, and microscopical examination of the pellet obtained after consecutive extractions with the above buffers, revealed that hydrolysis and insolubilization are more intense in myofibrillar than in sarcoplasmic proteins. Protein aggregation involves mainly the myofibrillar fraction, and occurs during the first stage of processing.

  3. Changes in intramuscular lipids during ripening of Iberian dry-cured ham.

    Martín, L; Córdoba, J J; Ventanas, J; Antequera, T


    Thirty-one thighs were obtained from Iberian pigs fattened with acorns and were processed during 22 months in the traditional dry-curing process. Lipolysis affecting intramuscular fat during the processing of Iberian dry-cured ham has been analyzed by studying the changes of glycerides, phospholipids and free fatty acids in lipids from Biceps femoris muscle. Little change affected the fatty acid composition of glycerides during processing. A double-phased increase in the acidity values and a decrease in the quantity of fatty acids of phospholipids during the processing were observed. There seems to be a relationship between the extension of the lipolysis taking place during the maturing and the processing conditions and raw material used.


    S. Leones Sherwin Vimalraj


    Full Text Available In SDR, it is advantageous if the data is transmitted using the best among the various modulation techniques with respect to SNR. The receiver has the ability to automatically identify the modulation technique and demodulate it. This process involves a novel method where a pilot sequence helps in identifying the type of modulation at the receiver. Ten modulation techniques are used in this study and their performance is studied. Further, error detection and correction is done to the received data using hamming encoder. This study also discusses about the error handling capability and detection of the position in which the error occurs. This work can be implemented in remote locations and in emergency situations where a particular modulation technique is used based on the available QoS.

  5. Quality traits of fallow deer (Dama dama dry-cured hams

    E. Piasentier


    Full Text Available Meat processing by drying, after salting or fermentation and before a long ripening period, is an ancient and widespread process, used to preserve meat from spoilage. Among the wide variety of dry meat products made in Europe, the most famous ones are made from pork (Italian and Spanish dry-cured hams, fermented sausages, but other interesting products are obtained from meat of different species: i.e., the “bresaola”, from bovine, horse, goat, etc. (Paleari et al., 2002. Deer meat and meat products are interesting in this picture, since they include the high degree of consumers’ appreciation for dried products and considering the growing interest for food obtained by natural husbandry and technology...

  6. Ovarian steroid sulphate functions as priming pheromone in male Barilius bendelisis (Ham.)

    J P Bhatt; M S Sajwan


    The study reveals that pre-ovulatory females of the fish Barilius bendelisis (Ham.) release sex steroids and their conjugates into the water and that a steroid sulphate of these compounds functions as a potent sex pheromone which stimulates milt production in conspecific males prior to spawning. Since males exposed to the purified sub-fraction III of the steroid sulphate fraction have increased milt volume and more spermatozoa with greater motility, the function of this priming pheromone appears to be to enhance male spawning success. High turbulence and faster water currents render the hillstream ecosystem extremely challenging for chemical communication. Therefore, ovulatory female fish secrete highly water soluble steroid sulphates for rapid pheromonal action in males. Inhibited milt volume in olfactory tract lesioned (OTL) males exposed to the steroid sulphate fraction and 17,20-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one supports the concept that the pheromonally induced priming effect in male fish is mediated through olfactory pathways.

  7. LGBT DI INDONESIA : Perspektif Hukum Islam, HAM, Psikologi dan Pendekatan Maṣlaḥah

    Rustam DKA Harahap


    Full Text Available This study aims to discuss LGBT phenomenon in Indonesia in Islamic law, human rights (HAM, and psychological prespectives. In general, this controversy can be classified into three perspectives, First, religious classification that represented by religious prominent figures and religious organizations particularly Islam, the second, both activists and human rights activists, and the third, psychologist profession. According to the psychological perspective, LGBT is a disease that has a possibility to be cured. According to Islamic law and human rights, LBGT groups must be protected in the form of health insurance by helping and treating them from the disease to be normal. But, the LGBT community activities that contradict with religious norms and interfere the other human rights, then according to the Islamic law and human rights perspectives, such activities should be banned, even they can be subjected to sanctions.

  8. Fast Exact Search in Hamming Space With Multi-Index Hashing.

    Norouzi, Mohammad; Punjani, Ali; Fleet, David J


    There is growing interest in representing image data and feature descriptors using compact binary codes for fast near neighbor search. Although binary codes are motivated by their use as direct indices (addresses) into a hash table, codes longer than 32 bits are not being used as such, as it was thought to be ineffective. We introduce a rigorous way to build multiple hash tables on binary code substrings that enables exact k-nearest neighbor search in Hamming space. The approach is storage efficient and straight-forward to implement. Theoretical analysis shows that the algorithm exhibits sub-linear run-time behavior for uniformly distributed codes. Empirical results show dramatic speedups over a linear scan baseline for datasets of up to one billion codes of 64, 128, or 256 bits.

  9. A fast approximate nearest neighbor search algorithm in the Hamming space.

    Esmaeili, Mani Malek; Ward, Rabab Kreidieh; Fatourechi, Mehrdad


    A fast approximate nearest neighbor search algorithm for the (binary) Hamming space is proposed. The proposed Error Weighted Hashing (EWH) algorithm is up to 20 times faster than the popular locality sensitive hashing (LSH) algorithm and works well even for large nearest neighbor distances where LSH fails. EWH significantly reduces the number of candidate nearest neighbors by weighing them based on the difference between their hash vectors. EWH can be used for multimedia retrieval and copy detection systems that are based on binary fingerprinting. On a fingerprint database with more than 1,000 videos, for a specific detection accuracy, we demonstrate that EWH is more than 10 times faster than LSH. For the same retrieval time, we show that EWH has a significantly better detection accuracy with a 15 times lower error rate.

  10. Essential oil of Myrica esculenta Buch. Ham.: composition, antimicrobial and topical anti-inflammatory activities.

    Agnihotri, Supriya; Wakode, Sharad; Ali, M


    Hydrodistilled oil obtained from the stem bark of Myrica esculenta Buch. Ham. ex D. Don (yield 0.3%) was analysed by capillary GC and GC-MS. The volatile oil consisted mainly of n-hexadecanol (25.2%), eudesmol acetate (21.9%), palmitic acid (11.6%), cis-β-caryophyllene (8.7%), n-pentadecanol (7.7%) and n-octadecanol (7.6%). The oil was found to be a potential antimicrobial agent against Bacillus pumilus, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The essential oil exhibited significant topical anti-inflammatory activity compared to standard drug in Swiss albino mice ear.

  11. Intracellular Signaling Mechanisms Pharmacological Action of Jasminum amplexicaule Buch.-Ham. (Oleaceae) on Gastrointestinal Secretion.

    Gao, Zhenhua; Yin, Junqiang; Xie, Xiaolin; Long, Hanwu; Qi, Xiang; Lin, Changhu; Wu, Liangcai


    Jasminum amplexicaule Buch-Ham. (Oleaceae) has been commonly used in the traditional medicine in dysentery, diarrhoea and bellyache in China. In the present work, the methanol extract of Jasminum amplexicaule (JME) was examined for pharmacology on human colonic epithelial cell line T84 by the short-circuit current technique. The results showed that pretreatment of T84 cells with JME produced a concentration-dependent (0-1000 μg/mL. EC50 = 0.055 mg/ mL) inhibition effect on adrenalin (Adr.)-induced Cl- secretion. The maximal response was observed at 200 μg/mL. It has been demonstrated that JME has a direct effect on the enterocyte. Our results also demonstrated that the JME exerted inhibitory effect on gastrointestinal Cl(-)secretion that effected by acting on basolateral β-adrenoreceptors. These results suggested that the Chinese traditional medicine of JME can be used for the treatment of acute diarrhea and bellyache.

  12. Design of Hamming code based on MATLAB%汉明码的Matlab设计

    郝潇; 王晓峰


    Communication technology is becoming increasingly tight with people’s lives. Simulation of communications technology and research make the complex communication process getting simple and visual. The Hamming code encoding and decoding communication pnnciple is analyzed and simulated using Matlab language , it not only simplifies the leaming process, improves the teaching effect, but also stimulates their interest in leaming.%通信技术与人们的生活越来越紧密,对通信技术的仿真和研究使复杂的通信过程变得简单直观化.文中对编码通信中汉明码的编译码原理进行了分析,并用Matlab语言仿真,不但简化了学生的学习过程,提高了教学效果,而且激发了其学习兴趣.

  13. Effects of illumination and packaging on non-heme iron and color attributes of sliced ham.

    Li, H; Li, C B; Xu, X L; Zhou, G H


    This study was designed to investigate effects of illumination and packaging on color of cooked cured sliced ham during refrigeration, and the possibility of decomposition of nitrosylheme under light and oxygen exposure. Three illumination levels and three packaging films with different oxygen transmission rates (OTRs) were used in two separate experiments during 35 days storage, and pH value, a* value, nitrosylheme, residual nitrite and non-heme iron were evaluated. Packaging OTRs had significant effects (P0.05) nitrosylheme concentration during storage. For both groups, storage time had a significant effect (Pheme iron in the packaging group were observed. Therefore, illumination level and packaging OTR had limited effects on overall pigment stability, but more discoloration and loss of redness occurred on the surface of products.

  14. New planetary boundary layer parametrization in ECHAM5-HAM: Dynamical refinement of the vertical resolution

    Siegenthaler-Le Drian, C.; Spichtinger, P.; Lohmann, U.


    Marine stratocumulus-capped boundary layers exhibit a strong net cooling impact on the Earth-Atmosphere system. Moreover, they are highly persistent over subtropical oceans. Therefore climate models need to represent them well in order to make reliable projections of future climate. One of the reasons for the absence of stratocumuli in the general circulation model ECHAM5-HAM (Roeckner et al., 2003; Stier et al., 2005) is due to the limited vertical resolution. In the current model version, no vertical sub-grid scale variability of clouds is taken into account, such that clouds occupy the full vertical layer. Around the inversion on top of the planetary boundary layer (PBL), conserved variables often have a steep gradient, which in a GCM may produce large discretization errors (Bretherton and Park, 2009). This inversion has a large diurnal cycle and varies with location around the globe, which is difficult to represent in a classical, coarse Eulerian approach. Furthermore, Lenderink and Holtslag (2000) and Lock (2001) showed that an inconsistent numerical representation between the entrainment parametrization and the other schemes, particularly with the vertical advection can lead to the occurrence of 'numerical entrainment'. The problem can be resolved by introducing a dynamical inversion as introduced by Grenier and Bretherton (2001) and Lock (2001). As these features can be seen in our version of ECHAM5-HAM, our implementation is aimed to reduce the numerical entrainment and to better represent stratocumuli in ECHAM5-HAM. To better resolve stratocumulus clouds, their inversion and the interaction between the turbulent diffusion and the vertical advection, the vertical grid is dynamically refined. The new grid is based on the reconstruction of the profiles of variables experiencing a sharp gradient (temperature, mixing ratio) applying the method presented in Grenier and Bretherton (2001). In typical stratocumulus regions, an additional grid level is thus

  15. Hamming Distance Method with Subjective and Objective Weights for Personnel Selection

    R. Md Saad


    Full Text Available Multicriteria decision making (MCDM is one of the methods that popularly has been used in solving personnel selection problem. Alternatives, criteria, and weights are some of the fundamental aspects in MCDM that need to be defined clearly in order to achieve a good result. Apart from these aspects, fuzzy data has to take into consideration that it may arise from unobtainable and incomplete information. In this paper, we propose a new approach for personnel selection problem. The proposed approach is based on Hamming distance method with subjective and objective weights (HDMSOW’s. In case of vagueness situation, fuzzy set theory is then incorporated onto the HDMSOW’s. To determine the objective weight for each attribute, the fuzzy Shannon’s entropy is considered. While for the subjective weight, it is aggregated into a comparable scale. A numerical example is presented to illustrate the HDMSOW’s.

  16. An Analytical Solution by HAM for Nonlinear Simulation of Deepwater SCR Installation

    Yi Wang


    Full Text Available Steel catenary riser (SCR is a cost-effective riser system that is widely used in deepwater offshore oilfields development. During SCR J-lay installation, the movement of pull-head must be carefully controlled to ensure riser safety. Since the SCR installation path calculation through numerical simulation software is usually time-consuming, this paper has established a mechanical model for SCR installation by making use of homotopy analysis method (HAM to simplify its analytical solution, and dimensional analysis was considered in making initial guess solution. Based on this analytical solution, a program within the framework of MATLAB was developed to predict the two-dimensional riser behavior during installation, and a sensitivity analysis for different values of the control variables was carried out. Engineers may efficiently optimize the installation path by the application of this technique.


    Heribertus Jaka Triyana


    Full Text Available The AICHR seems to fail to contribute positively in enforcing protection, fulfillment, and implementation of human rights at national level since its terms of references and structural composition differs from the commonly-recognised regional institutions. Legal gaps, legal vacuum, legal overlapping and conflicts of authorities with national authorities are indicators that hinder its future works. Kemampuan AICHR dalam menjamin perlindungan, pemenuhan dan pemajuan hak asasi manusia di level nasional diragukan karena kewenangan AICHR yang limitatif dan tidak mengikuti pakem seperti yang dimiliki oleh komisi HAM di Eropa dan Afrika. Ketimpangan hukum, kekosongan hukum, tumpang-tindih aturan, dan konflik kewenangan dengan otoritas nasional menjadi faktor penghambat pelaksanaan kewenangan AICHR.

  18. The competition numbers of Hamming graphs with diameter at most three

    Park, Boram


    The competition graph of a digraph D is a graph which has the same vertex set as D and has an edge between x and y if and only if there exists a vertex v in D such that (x,v) and (y,v) are arcs of D. For any graph G, G together with sufficiently many isolated vertices is the competition graph of some acyclic digraph. The competition number k(G) of a graph G is defined to be the smallest number of such isolated vertices. In general, it is hard to compute the competition number k(G) for a graph G and it has been one of important research problems in the study of competition graphs. In this paper, we compute the competition numbers of Hamming graphs with diameter at most three.

  19. Quantification and viability assays of Toxoplasma gondii in commercial "Serrano" ham samples using magnetic capture real-time qPCR and bioassay techniques.

    Gomez-Samblas, M; Vílchez, S; Racero, J C; Fuentes, M V; Osuna, A


    "Serrano" ham is a typical pork product from the Mediterranean area, highly valued for its flavour. To make Serrano ham, pork undergoes a salting and a subsequent fermentation process known as curing. Certain pigs used for meat production are an important source of Toxoplasma gondii infection in humans. We have developed a method for quantifying and assaying the viability of the T. gondii present in commercial Serrano ham samples. A magnetic capture method for the isolation of T. gondii DNA and a qRT-PCR were used to estimate the T. gondii burden in 475 commercial samples of "Serrano" ham in two presentation formats: ham pieces and sliced ham. The infectivity capacity of T. gondii in positive samples was assayed in mice. The global prevalence of T. gondii was 8.84%, ranging from 32.35% in one of the companies to 0% prevalence in three other companies. The infectivity assays revealed that only 4.84% of the positive samples were infective. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report focussing on the prevalence of T. gondii in commercial "Serrano" ham. The method described here could be useful for producers to guarantee the safety of their products.

  20. Mycobiota and toxigenic Penicillium species on two Spanish dry-cured ham manufacturing plants.

    Alapont, C; López-Mendoza, M C; Gil, J V; Martínez-Culebras, P V


    The present study reports the natural mycobiota occurring in dry-cured hams, and in particular on the incidence of mycotoxin-producing fungi. A total of 338 fungal colonies were isolated from three stages of production, these being the post-salting, ripening and aging stages in two manufacturing plants. The results show that fungi were more frequently isolated from the aging stage and that the predominant filamentous fungal genus isolated was Penicillium. Seventy-four of the 338 fungal strains were selected for identification at the species level by using morphological criteria and internal transcribed spacers sequencing. Of the 74 fungal strains, 59 were Penicillium strains. Sixteen Penicillium species were identified, with P. commune (24 strains) and P. chrysogenum (13 strains) being the most abundant. The potential ability to produce cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) and ochratoxin A (OTA) was studied by isolating the culture followed by HPLC analysis of these mycotoxins in the culture extracts. The results indicated that 25 (33.7%) of the 74 fungal strains produced CPA. Worth noting is the high percentage of CPA-producing strains of P. commune (66.6%) of which some strains were highly toxigenic. P. polonicum strains were also highly toxigenic. With respect to OTA-producing fungi, a low percentage of fungal strains (9.5%) were able to produce OTA at moderate levels. OTA-producing fungi belonged to different Penicillium species including P. chrysogenum, P. commune, P. polonicum and P. verrucosum. These results indicate that there is a possible risk factor posed by CPA and OTA contamination of dry-cured hams.

  1. Implementation of a new aerosol HAM model within the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF modeling system

    R. Mashayekhi


    Full Text Available A new coupled system of aerosol HAM model and the Weather, Research and Forecasting (WRF model is presented in this paper. Unlike the current aerosol schemes used in WRF model, the HAM is using a "pseudomodal" approach for the representation of the particle size distribution. The aerosol components considered are sulfate, black carbon, particulate organic matter, sea salt and mineral dust. The preliminary model results are presented for two different 6-day simulation periods from 22 to 28 February 2006 as a winter period and 6 to 12 May 2006 as a mild period. The mean shortwave radiation and thermal forcing were calculated from the model simulations with and without aerosols feedback for two simulation periods. A negative radiative forcing and cooling of the atmosphere were found mainly over the regions of high emission of mineral dust. The absorption of shortwave radiation by black carbon caused warming effects in some regions with positive radiative forcing. The simulated daily mean sulfate mass concentration showed a rather good agreement with the measurements in the European EMEP network. The diurnal variation of the simulated hourly PM10 mass concentration at Tehran was also qualitatively close to the observations in both simulation periods. The model captured diurnal cycle and the magnitude of the observed PM10 concentration during most of the simulation periods. The differences between the observed and simulated PM10 concentration resulted mostly from limitation of the model in simulating the clouds and precipitation, transport errors and uncertainties in the particulate emission rates. The inclusion of aerosols feedback in shortwave radiation scheme improved the simulated daily mean shortwave radiation fluxes in Tehran for both simulation periods.

  2. Share and share alike: encouraging the reuse of academic resources through the Scottish electronic Staff Development Library

    Lorna M. Campbell


    Full Text Available The Scottish electronic Staff Development Library (http://www.sesdl.scotcit.acuk is an ongoing collaborative project involving the Universities of Edinburgh, Paisley and Strathclyde which has been funded by SHEFC as part of their current ScotCIT Programme ( This project is being developed in response to the increasing demand for flexible, high-quality staff development materials.

  3. Extensive feeding versus oleic acid and tocopherol enriched mixed diets for the production of Iberian dry-cured hams: Effect on chemical composition, oxidative status and sensory traits.

    Ventanas, S; Ventanas, J; Tovar, J; García, C; Estévez, M


    The present study aimed to analyse the chemical composition and oxidative status of Iberian dry-cured hams from pigs fed different finishing diets: extensive feeding on acorns and pasture in a "Montanera" traditional system (MON), fed in confinement with a mixed diet containing high-oleic sunflower oil (115g/kg of diet) and supplemented with 250mg/kg α-tocopherol (HOVE), and fed in confinement control mixed diet (CON) without added tocopherol and oleic acid fat. Muscles from MON dry-cured hams contained significantly (p<0.05) higher amounts of intramuscular fat (IMF) than those from HOVE and CON hams. The feeding background affected the tocopherol levels in dry-cured hams as those from MON and HOVE pigs had significantly higher levels of α-tocopherol than those from CON pigs whereas the extensive feeding provided muscles from MON pigs with significantly higher levels of γ-tocopherol than the experimental diets did to CON and HOVE pigs. The HOVE diet significantly increased the levels of oleic acid in Iberian dry-cured hams with these levels being similar to the oleic acid levels found in MON hams and significantly higher than those in CON hams. Compared to dry-cured hams from CON pigs, those from MON and HOVE pigs exhibited a higher oxidative stability as a likely result of a most favourable fatty acid composition and the presence of higher tocopherol levels. The principal component analysis (PCA) successfully discriminated between dry-cured hams from pigs fed different finishing diets.

  4. Effects of dietary high-oleic acid sunflower oil, copper and vitamin E levels on the fatty acid composition and the quality of dry cured Parma ham.

    Bosi, P; Cacciavillani, J A; Casini, L; Lo Fiego, D P; Marchetti, M; Mattuzzi, S


    The effects of seven isoenergetic dietary treatments: (1) no sunflower oil, 35 mg/kg Cu, without α-tocopheryl-acetate added; (2) to (7) 6% high oleic acid sunflower oil (HOSO), 35 or 175 mg/kg Cu crossed with a 0, 100 or 200 mg/kg α-tocopherol addition, were tested on quality characteristics of dry cured Parma hams from a total 84 Large White gilts. No statistically significant effect was detected on parameters of early evaluation of seasoning loss of hams. The seasoning loss and intramuscular fat content of seasoned hams averaged 28.1 and 3.3%, respectively, with no effect of the diet composition. The CIE L*a*b* colour values taken on the surface of the lean from Parma ham were not affected by dietary oil inclusion, nor by copper levels and by α-tocopherol addition in the feed mixture, except for the 'a' value that increased in HOSO groups (Poil group, the Parma hams in the HOSO groups showed a higher oleic acid content in the covering fat, but not different in neutral and polar fractions from semimenbranosus muscle. The oil inclusion reduced the saturated fatty acid content in subcutaneous fat and neutral lipids fraction from muscle to 30-34% No effect of α-tocopherol and copper levels were observed on fatty acids profiles. From the subjects fed the HOSO diet softer Parma hams were produced than those fed the control diet (χ(2)<0.05), while α-tocopherol and Cu levels did not influence the sensorial evaluation of hams. The inclusion of an oleic acid rich source in heavy pig diet brought about an improved nutritional value, but also the possible need of a prolonged ageing time to achieve an ideal firmness of Parma ham. Dietary α-tocopherol supplementation improved the red colour slightly and the lipid stability in Parma ham, while the supplementation of Cu in the diet had no influence on the tested parameters.

  5. Reliabilität des Hamburger Auswahlverfahrens für Medizinische Studiengänge, Naturwissenschaftsteil (HAM-Nat [Reliability of a science admission test (HAM-Nat at Hamburg medical school

    Hissbach, Johanna


    Full Text Available [english] Objective: The University Hospital in Hamburg (UKE started to develop a test of knowledge in natural sciences for admission to medical school in 2005 (Hamburger Auswahlverfahren für Medizinische Studiengänge, Naturwissenschaftsteil, HAM-Nat. This study is a step towards establishing the HAM-Nat. We are investigating Methods: 316 first-year students participated in the study in 2007. They completed different versions of the HAM-Nat test which consisted of items that had already been used (HN2006 and new items (HN2007. Four weeks later half of the participants were tested on the HN2007 version of the HAM-Nat again, while the other half completed the test of scientific reasoning. Within this four week interval students were offered a five day chemistry course.Results: Parallel forms reliability for four different test versions ranged from r=.53 to r=.67. The retest reliabilities of the HN2007 halves were r=.54 and r=.61. Correlations of the two HAM-Nat versions with the test of scientific reasoning were r=.34 und r=.21. The crash course in chemistry had no effect on HAM-Nat scores.Conclusions: The results suggest that further versions of the test of natural sciences will not easily conform to the standards of internal consistency, parallel-forms reliability and retest reliability. Much care has to be taken in order to assemble items which could be used interchangeably for the construction of new test versions. The test of scientific reasoning and the HAM-Nat are tapping different constructs. Participation in a chemistry course did not improve students’ achievement, probably because the content of the course was not coordinated with the test and many students lacked of motivation to do well in the second test.[german] Ziele: Die Universität Hamburg hat im Jahr 2005 begonnen, einen Naturwissenschaftstest zur Auswahl von Studienbewerbern zu entwickeln (Hamburger Auswahlverfahren für Medizinische Studiengänge, Naturwissenschaftsteil

  6. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid from extruded linseed influences the fatty acid composition and sensory characteristics of dry-cured ham from heavy pigs.

    Musella, M; Cannata, S; Rossi, R; Mourot, J; Baldini, P; Corino, C


    Twenty-four barrows (78.1 +/- 1.7 kg of initial BW) were fed a control diet (2.5% sunflower oil) or an experimental diet containing 5% whole extruded linseed. Both diets were supplemented with 170 mg of vitamin E/kg of feed. At slaughter (160 +/- 9.2 kg of BW), 6 hams were collected per group and delivered to Stazione Sperimentale per l'Industria delle Conserve Alimentari of Parma for seasoning. There was no effect (P > 0.05) of diet on the physicochemical characteristics of dry-cured ham. The linseed diet increased (P characteristics of dry-cured ham.

  7. 重庆高校图书馆电子文献资源建设现状及对策%The Present Situation and Countermeasure of Electronic Literature Resources Construction about Chongqing University Library

    刘子辉; 彭渝; 陈强; 吴晓英


    In the information society, Electronic document resources are very important for library development and the school's teaching and research. The university library should pay more at ention to the construction of electronic document resources. Through the survey of the electronic document resources in Chongqing, We have mastered the distribution of electronic document resources, analyzed the existing problems in resource construction, and proposed the related countermeasure. We hope to provide reference for the electronic document resources construction.%在信息社会,电子文献资源对高校图书馆建设、学校的教学与科研都起到非常重要的作用,各高校图书馆应该更加重视电子文献资源的建设。通过对重庆高校图书馆电子文献资源建设情况进行调查,掌握了本地区电子文献资源的分布情况,分析了资源建设中存在的问题,并提出了相关对策,希望为本地区高校图书馆电子文献资源建设提供参考。

  8. Introduction of the HAM-Nat examination – applicants and students admitted to the Medical Faculty in 2012-2014

    Werwick, Katrin


    Full Text Available Background/aim: In the 2012/13 winter semester, the Magdeburg Medical Faculty introduced a test of knowledge for the selection of applicants. The Hamburg Assessment Test for Medicine - Natural Sciences (HAM-Nat comprises a multiple-choice test with questions on the aspects of biology, physics, chemistry and mathematics relevant to medicine, which was specifically developed for the selection of medicine applicants. The aim is to study how the HAM-Nat influences student selection, the reasons why students decide to take the test as part of their application procedure and what expectations they have of their course of study.Methods: The selection procedures applied at the university in 2011 (without HAM-Nat and in 2012-2014 (with HAM-Nat are compared. On the basis of the results of exploratory interviews, university entrants in winter semester 2013/2014 participated in a written survey on why they chose their subject and place of study and their expectations of their course of study. Results: No problems were encountered in introducing the extended selection procedure that included the HAM-Nat Test. The HAM-Nat had a great influence on the selection decision. About 65% of the students admitted would not have obtained a place if the decision had been based exclusively on their Abitur grade [grade obtained in the German school-leaving examination]. On average, male applicants obtained better HAM-Nat results than female ones. The questionnaire was answered by 147 out of 191 university entrants (77%. In the case of applicants from Saxony-Anhalt, the principle reasons for choosing the regional capital are its proximity, the social environment offered, good conditions for studying and the feel-good factor at the university. For the majority of applicants, however, particularly applicants from other federal states, the relatively good chances of admission in Magdeburg were the main reason. Conclusion: The Magdeburg Medical Faculty regards the HAM-Nat as a

  9. Método acelerado de processamento de presunto cru Accelerated method of dry-cured ham processing

    Walter Bergamin Filho


    Full Text Available Nos métodos tradicionais de elaboração de presunto cru usa-se o pernil suíno inteiro, diferentemente da metodologia proposta neste trabalho, que combinou desossa, adição de transglutaminase, massageamento e moldagem das peças previamente à secagem e maturação, objetivando reduzir o tempo de processamento do produto. Avaliaram-se os efeitos de dois teores de NaCl adicionados (T1 - 3,5% e T2 - 5%, sobre características físico-químicas e microbiológicas dos presuntos crus ao longo do processo, além da avaliação sensorial dos produtos finais. Os presuntos crus obtidos atenderam aos padrões físico-químicos e microbiológicos determinados na legislação brasileira e não foram encontradas diferenças significativas (p The traditional methodologies of dry-cured ham production use the entire ham, differently from the one proposed in this study that combined boning, addition of transglutaminase, and tumbling and moulding before the drying and ageing stages. The effects of two levels of added NaCl (T1 - 3.5% and T2 - 5% on the physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of dry-cured hams during the process and the sensory analyses of the final products were evaluated. The dry-cured hams met the physicochemical and microbiological standards of the Brazilian legislation, and no significant differences (p < 0.05 were found between the two treatments in the parameters evaluated during the process and in the final products, except for the weight loss, which was higher in T1 (39.74 ± 4.02% than in T2 (37.22 ± 2.96%. The shape and thickness of the dry-cured hams prepared in this research were adequate to slicing, and they had excellent appearance, typical aroma, and flavor similar to traditional dry-cured hams usually found in the Brazilian market receiving about 80% of acceptance by consumers.

  10. Selection and Evaluation of Electronic Resources Elektronik Kaynakların Seçimi ve Değerlendirilmesi

    Doğan Atılgan


    Full Text Available Publication boom and issues related to controlling and accession of printed sources have created some problems after World War II. Consequently, publishing industry has encountered the problem of finding possible solution for emerged situation. Industry of electronic publishing has started to improve with the rapid increase of the price of printed sources as well as the problem of publication boom. The first effects of electronic publishing were appeared on the academic and scholarly publications then electronic publishing became a crucial part of all types of publications. As a result of these developments, collection developments and service policies of information centers were also significantly changed. In this article, after a general introduction about selection and evaluation processes of electronic publications, the subscribed databases by a state and a privately owned university in Turkey and their usage were examined. İkinci dünya savaşından sonra görülen yayın patlaması, basılı kaynakların denetim ve erişiminde sorunlar yaşanmasına neden olmuştur. Bu da yayıncılık sektöründe yeni arayışlara yol açmıştır. 1980’li yıllardan sonra basılı yayın fiyatlarındaki hızlı artış da bu etmenlere eklenince elektronik yayıncılık sektörü gelişmeye başlamıştır. Öncelikle bilimsel ve akademik yayınlarla başlayan elektronik yayın günümüzde tüm yayın türlerini kapsamaktadır. Yayıncılıktaki bu gelişim bilgi merkezlerinin derme geliştirme ve hizmet politikalarını da önemli ölçüde değiştirmiştir. Bu çalışmada elektronik yayınların seçim, değerlendirme ve sağlama konularında genel bir girişten sonra bir devlet üniversitesinin bir de özel üniversitenin abone olduğu veritabanları ve bu veri tabanlarının kullanımının değerlendirilmesi yapılmaktadır.

  11. Immunogenetics and the Pathological Mechanisms of Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1- (HTLV-1-Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TSP

    Mineki Saito


    Full Text Available Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1 is a replication-competent human retrovirus associated with two distinct types of disease only in a minority of infected individuals: the malignancy known as adult T-cell leukemia (ATL and a chronic inflammatory central nervous system disease HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP. Although the factors that cause these different manifestations of HTLV-1 infection are not fully understood, accumulating evidence suggests that complex virus-host interactions play an important role in determining the risk of HAM/TSP. This review focuses on the role of the immune response in controlling or limiting viral persistence in HAM/TSP patients, and the reason why some HTLV-1-infected people develop HAM/TSP whereas the majority remains asymptomatic carriers of the virus.

  12. Utility of the electronic information resource UpToDate for clinical decision-making at bedside rounds.

    Phua, J; See, K C; Khalizah, H J; Low, S P; Lim, T K


    Clinical questions often arise at daily hospital bedside rounds. Yet, little information exists on how the search for answers may be facilitated. The aim of this prospective study was, therefore, to evaluate the overall utility, including the feasibility and usefulness of incorporating searches of UpToDate, a popular online information resource, into rounds. Doctors searched UpToDate for any unresolved clinical questions during rounds for patients in general medicine and respiratory wards, and in the medical intensive care unit of a tertiary teaching hospital. The nature of the questions and the results of the searches were recorded. Searches were deemed feasible if they were completed during the rounds and useful if they provided a satisfactory answer. A total of 157 UpToDate searches were performed during the study period. Questions were raised by all ranks of clinicians from junior doctors to consultants. The searches were feasible and performed immediately during rounds 44% of the time. Each search took a median of three minutes (first quartile: two minutes, third quartile: five minutes). UpToDate provided a useful and satisfactory answer 75% of the time, a partial answer 17% of the time and no answer 9% of the time. It led to a change in investigations, diagnosis or management 37% of the time, confirmed what was originally known or planned 38% of the time and had no effect 25% of the time. Incorporating UpToDate searches into daily bedside rounds was feasible and useful in clinical decision-making.

  13. Explicit entrainment parameterization in the general circulation model ECHAM5-HAM

    Siegenthaler-Le Drian, Colombe; Spichtinger, Peter; Lohmann, Ulrike


    The complex interactions affecting cloud lifetime and liquid water path (LWP) are not well captured in state-of-the-art general circulation models (GCM). A recent climate model intercomparison showed an overestimation of the positive correlation of LWP with aerosol optical depth by a factor of two as compared to MODIS data for almost all participating models (Quaas et al., 2009). As the authors suggest, a proper interaction of the boundary layer dynamics, particularly the inclusion of cloud top entrainment may lead to an improvement. ECHAM5 was one of the participating model. In this model, the turbulent fluxes in the planetary boundary layer are simulated using a turbulent kinetic energy - mixing length scheme. It has been showed that its performance diminishes when the resolution decreases, the different fluxes being not represented satisfactory with 31 vertical levels, particularly at the cloud top (Lenderink et al., 2000). We thus replace the turbulent fluxes by the explicit entrainment closure by Turton and Nicholls (1987) at the top of the stratocumulus capped boundary layers. The turbulent fluxes are weighted with the cloud cover to apply the entrainment closure only above clouds. In addition, we use an explicit term for the radiative cooling contribution in the buoyancy production term. We use the new version of the Hamburg general circulation model ECHAM5-HAM (Roeckner et al., 2003; Stier et al., 2005). The cloud scheme that is used for this study includes the double-moment cloud microphysics scheme for cloud droplets and ice crystals (Lohmann et al., 2007). The principal effect of the explicit entrainment is to dry and warm the planetary boundary layer. The averaged profiles are more stable and the inversion is reduced. The stratocumulus deck is reduced in all typical stratocumulus regions. In a single column version of the model, the diurnal cycle simulated in cloud cover or equivalentely in cloud water is much more representative of observed subtropical

  14. Psychometric properties of responses by clinicians and older adults to a 6-item Hebrew version of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D6)

    Bachner, Yaacov G; O'Rourke, Norm; Goldfracht, Margalit


    The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) is commonly used as a screening instrument, as a continuous measure of change in depressive symptoms over time, and as a means to compare the relative efficacy of treatments. Among several abridged versions, the 6-item HAM-D6 is used most widely in lar...... degree because of its good psychometric properties. The current study compares both self-report and clinician-rated versions of the Hebrew version of this scale....

  15. Cytoplasmic Localization of HTLV-1 HBZ Protein: A Biomarker of HTLV-1-Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TSP)

    Baratella, Marco; Forlani, Greta; Raval, Goutham U.; Tedeschi, Alessandra; Gout, Olivier; Gessain, Antoine; Accolla, Roberto S.


    HTLV-1 is the causative agent of a severe form of adult T cell leukemia/Lymphoma (ATL), and of a chronic progressive neuromyelopathy designated HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Two important HTLV-1-encoded proteins, Tax-1 and HBZ, play crucial roles in the generation and maintenance of the oncogenic process. Less information is instead available on the molecular and cellular mechanisms leading to HAM/TSP. More importantly, no single specific biomarker has been described that unambiguously define the status of HAM/TSP. Here we report for the first time the finding that HBZ, described until now as an exclusive nuclear protein both in chronically infected and in ATL cells, is instead exclusively localized in the cytoplasm of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from patients suffering of HAM/TSP. Interestingly, at the single cell level, HBZ and Tax-1 proteins are never found co-expressed in the same cell, suggesting the existence of mechanisms of expression uncoupling of these two important HTLV-1 viral products in HAM/TSP patients. Cells expressing cytoplasmic HBZ were almost exclusively found in the CD4+ T cell compartment that was not, at least in a representative HAM/TSP patient, expressing the CD25 marker. Less than 1 percent CD8+ T cells were fond positive for HBZ, while B cells and NK cells were found negative for HBZ in HAM/TSP patients. Our results identify the cytoplasmic localization of HBZ in HAM/TSP patient as a possible biomarker of this rather neglected tropical disease, and raise important hypotheses on the role of HBZ in the pathogenesis of the neuromyelopathy associated to HTLV-1 infection. PMID:28095504

  16. Effect of mayonnaise pH and storage temperature on the behavior of Listeria monocytogenes in ham salad and potato salad.

    Hwang, Cheng-An


    This study examined and modeled the behavior of Listeria monocytogenes in ham salad and potato salad as affected by the pH of mayonnaise and storage temperature. An eight-strain cocktail of L. monocytogenes was inoculated on the surface of diced cooked ham or potato. The inoculated ham or potato was then mixed with regular mayonnaise (pH 3.8) or mayonnaise that was adjusted with NaOH to pH 4.2 or 4.6. The cell counts of L. monocytogenes in the salads during storage at 4, 8, or 12 degrees C were enumerated and used to model the behavior of L. monocytogenes in ham salad or potato salad. At each of the storage temperatures, L. monocytogenes was able to grow in ham salad, whereas L. monocytogenes was inactivated in potato salad. The growth rate (log CFU per hour) in ham salad or the inactivation rate (log CFU per hour) in potato salad increased as the storage temperature increased. The duration before growth in ham salad or inactivation in potato salad increased as storage temperature decreased. The mayonnaise pH showed no consistent effect on the growth rate or inactivation rate and duration before growth or inactivation occurred. Mathematical equations that described the growth rate or inactivation rate of L. monocytogenes in both salads as a function of mayonnaise pH and storage temperature were generated and shown to be satisfactory in describing the growth rate or inactivation rate of L. monocytogenes in the ham salad or potato salad.

  17. Color, sensory and textural attributes of beef frankfurter, beef ham and meat-free sausage containing tomato pomace.

    Savadkoohi, Sobhan; Hoogenkamp, Henk; Shamsi, Kambiz; Farahnaky, Asgar


    The present investigation focuses on the textural properties, sensory attributes and color changes of beef frankfurter, beef ham and meat-free sausage produced by different levels of bleached tomato pomace. The texture and color profile were performed using an instrumental texture analyzer and colorimeter. The findings indicated that tomato pomace-added sausages had higher water holding capacity (WHC) compared to that of commercial samples. The frankfurters containing 5 and 7% (w/w) tomato pomace had the highest redness (a*), chroma (C*) and color differences (ΔE) values, while the meat-free sausages containing 7% (w/w) tomato pomace had significant (p0.05) color differences between beef ham samples (with and without tomato pomace). A significant progression in the textural hardness and chewiness of systems containing tomato pomace was observed as well as higher sensory scores by panelists. According to sensorial evaluations, bleached tomato pomace improved the consumer acceptability and preference.

  18. The application of natural antioxidants via brine injection protects Iberian cooked hams against lipid and protein oxidation.

    Armenteros, Mónica; Morcuende, David; Ventanas, Jesús; Estévez, Mario


    In response to the increasing consumers' mistrust in synthetic additives, the meat industry is focused on searching sources of natural antioxidants. Two different sources of natural antioxidants i) a mixture of garlic, cinnamon, cloves and rosemary essential oils and ii) a Rosa canina L. extract, were compared with a commercial antioxidant additive (Artinox®) for their ability to control protein and lipid oxidation in cooked hams after a settling period of 30 days and at the end of a chilled storage (150 days). The mixture of essential oils was the most effective against lipid oxidation while R. canina L. extracts were the most effective in controlling protein carbonylation at day 150. Accordingly, the use of these antioxidants via brine injection is a successful strategy to enhance the oxidative stability of cooked hams without modifying their physicochemical properties.

  19. Survey of naturally and conventionally cured commercial frankfurters, ham, and bacon for physio-chemical characteristics that affect bacterial growth.

    Sullivan, Gary A; Jackson-Davis, Armitra L; Schrader, Kohl D; Xi, Yuan; Kulchaiyawat, Charlwit; Sebranek, Joseph G; Dickson, James S


    Natural and organic food regulations preclude the use of sodium nitrite/nitrate and other antimicrobials for processed meat products. Consequently, processors have begun to use natural nitrate/nitrite sources, such as celery juice/powder, sea salt, and turbinado sugar, to manufacture natural and organic products with cured meat characteristics but without sodium nitrite. The objective of this study was to compare physio-chemical characteristics that affect Clostridium perfringens and Listeria monocytogenes growth in naturally cured and traditionally cured commercial frankfurters, hams, and bacon. Correlations of specific product characteristics to pathogen growth varied between products and pathogens, though water activity, salt concentration, and product composition (moisture, protein and fat) were common intrinsic factors correlated to pathogen growth across products. Other frequently correlated traits were related to curing reactions such as % cured pigment. Residual nitrite and nitrate were significantly correlated to C. perfringens growth but only for the ham products.

  20. Estimating the direct and indirect effects of secondary organic aerosols using ECHAM5-HAM

    D. O'Donnell


    Full Text Available Secondary organic aerosol (SOA has been introduced into the global climate-aerosol model ECHAM5/HAM. The SOA module handles aerosols originating from both biogenic and anthropogenic sources. The model simulates the emission of precursor gases, their chemical conversion into condensable gases, the partitioning of semi-volatile condenable species into the gas and aerosol phases. As ECHAM5/HAM is a size-resolved model, a new method that permits the calculation of partitioning of semi-volatile species between different size classes is introduced. We compare results of modelled organic aerosol concentrations against measurements from extensive measurement networks in Europe and the United States, running the model with and without SOA. We also compare modelled aerosol optical depth against measurements from the AERONET network of grond stations. We find that SOA improves agreement between model and measurements in both organic aerosol mass and aerosol optical depth, but does not fully correct the low bias that is present in the model for both of these quantities. Although many models now include SOA, any overall estimate of the direct and indirect effects of these aerosols is still lacking. This paper makes a first step in that direction. The model is applied to estimate the direct and indirect effects of SOA under simulated year 2000 conditions. The modelled SOA spatial distribution indicates that SOA is likely to be an important source of free and upper tropospheric aerosol. We find a negative shortwave (SW forcing from the direct effect, amounting to −0.31 Wm−2 on the global annual mean. In contrast, the model indicates a positive indirect effect of SOA of +0.23 Wm−2, arising from the enlargement of particles due to condensation of SOA, together with an enhanced coagulation sink of small particles. In the longwave, model results are a direct effect of +0.02 Wm−2 and an indirect effect of −0.03 Wm−2

  1. Genetic variation of loin and ham quality in Finnish Landrace and Large White pigs



    Full Text Available Selection potential for meat quality of economically important loin (longissimus and ham muscles (adductor, semimembranosus, biceps femoris has been assessed. Ultimate pH (pHu, meat colour (lightness, redness and yellowness, drip loss and two visually scored colour traits were recorded from 483 Finnish Landrace and 494 Finnish Large White station test pigs in a half-sib design. A univariate restricted maximum likelihood procedure was used to estimate variance components. The statistical model contained age at beginning of test, sex and time lapse from slaughter to dissection as fixed effects and slaughter batch, common environment of littermates and additive genetic effect of the animal as random effects. The average pHu values in adductor and semispinalis were between 5.6 and 6.1. The pHu were on average 5.4 and 5.5 in longissimus and semimembranosus respectively, with the latter two being lower than optimum values of 5.6 to 5.9. Lightness for semimembranosus turned to be clearly lighter (62 than for other muscles. Lightness for longissimus (56 was slightly lighter than optimum (from 48 to 54. The heritability varied from zero to 0.45 for pHu, from 0.02 to 0.34 for lightness, from 0.17 to 0.56 for redness, from zero to 0.28 for yellowness and from 0.05 to 0.16 for drip loss. Heritability for redness values was considerably higher than heritability for other meat quality traits. The heritability of quality traits spoke for possibilities for genetic improvement of meat quality. Genetic correlations between quality traits (pHu and lightness and average daily gain varied strongly among breeds and muscles. Genetic correlations between meat-% and pHu were in most cases high and unfavourable (rg from –0.36 to –0.68 except in longissimus, where it was 0.11. Genetic correlations between meat-% and lightness were unfavourable in Finnish Large White (from 0.47 to 0.92 but in Finnish Landrace estimates varied among muscles (from –0.40 to 0.47. Due to

  2. Long-term follow-up of HTLV-1 proviral load in asymptomatic carriers and in incident cases of HAM/TSP: what is its relevance as a prognostic marker for neurologic disease?

    Martins, Marina Lobato; Guimarães, Jacqueline Cronemberger; Ribas, João Gabriel; Romanelli, Luiz Cláudio Ferreira; de Freitas Carneiro-Proietti, Anna Bárbara


    HTLV-1 proviral load (pvl) is an important risk marker for HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), but its value as prognostic marker is not well defined. Long-term prospective cohort studies are necessary to clarify this question. Here, we analyzed HTLV-1 pvl in the peripheral blood of 82 asymptomatic carriers (AC; 351 samples), 12 HAM/TSP patients (HAM; 46 samples), and six incident cases of HAM/TSP (iHAM), with serial samples collected before (n = 10) and after (n = 20) the disease onset. The mean interval of follow-up was 10 years in the AC group and 8 years in HAM and iHAM groups. pvl was not significantly different between the first and last measurements in the three groups, but there was a trend to decrease over time. Coefficient of variation of pvl was significantly lower in the AC group than in HAM (p = 0.015) and iHAM (p = 0.022) patients. AC and HAM individuals showed a significant and strong positive correlation between the first and last measurements of pvl, but not iHAM subjects. All individuals who developed HAM/TSP during the follow-up had high pvl level (>1 %) before the onset of disease, but a typical increase in pvl was not observed in that period. The data suggest that there is a trend to reach an equilibrium plateau of pvl over time, characteristic of each individual. A significant rate of AC keeps high pvl levels for a long time without developing clinical symptoms associated to HTLV-1 infection. Thus, serial quantification of pvl in the peripheral blood does not seem to be a good prognostic marker for HAM/TSP.

  3. The genetic background affects composition, oxidative stability and quality traits of Iberian dry-cured hams: purebred Iberian versus reciprocal Iberian × Duroc crossbred pigs.

    Fuentes, Verónica; Ventanas, Sonia; Ventanas, Jesús; Estévez, Mario


    This study examined the physico-chemical characteristics, oxidative stability and sensory properties of Iberian cry-cured hams as affected by the genetic background of the pigs: purebred Iberian (PBI) pigs vs reciprocal cross-bred Iberian × Duroc pigs (IB × D pigs: Iberian dams × Duroc sires; D × IB pigs: Duroc dams × Iberian sires). Samples from PBI pigs contained significantly higher amounts of IMF, monounsaturated fatty acids, heme pigments and iron than those from crossbred pigs. The extent of lipid and protein oxidation was significantly larger in dry-cured hams of crossbred pigs than in those from PBI pigs. Dry-cured hams from PBI pigs were defined by positive sensory properties (i.e. redness, brightness and juiciness) while hams from crossbred pigs were ascribed to negative ones (i.e. hardness, bitterness and sourness). Hams from PBI pigs displayed a superior quality than those from crossbred pigs. The position of the dam or the sire in reciprocal Iberian × Duroc crosses had no effect on the quality of Iberian hams.

  4. Anti-HTLV antibody profiling reveals an antibody signature for HTLV-I-Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TSP

    Mahieux Renaud


    Full Text Available Abstract Background HTLV-I is the causal agent of adult T cell leukemia (ATLL and HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP. Biomarkers are needed to diagnose and/or predict patients who are at risk for HAM/TSP or ATLL. Therefore, we investigated using luciferase immunoprecipitation technology (LIPS antibody responses to seven HTLV-I proteins in non-infected controls, asymptomatic HTLV-I-carriers, ATLL and HAM/TSP sera samples. Antibody profiles were correlated with viral load and examined in longitudinal samples. Results Anti-GAG antibody titers detected by LIPS differentiated HTLV-infected subjects from uninfected controls with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity, but did not differ between HTLV-I infected subgroups. However, anti-Env antibody titers were over 4-fold higher in HAM/TSP compared to both asymptomatic HTLV-I (P P P R = 0.76, but not in HAM/TSP. Conclusion These studies indicate that anti-HTLV-I antibody responses detected by LIPS are useful for diagnosis and suggest that elevated anti-Env antibodies are a common feature found in HAM/TSP patients.

  5. T cell receptor signaling pathway is overexpressed in CD4 + T cells from HAM/TSP individuals

    Mariana Tomazini Pinto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 is a human retrovirus related to the chronic neuroinflammatory disease HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP. CD4+ T cells activation appears to play a key role on HTLV-1 infection. Here we investigated the expression of genes associated to T cell activation CD3e molecule, epsilon (CD3?, lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase (LCK, vav 1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor (VAV1, and zeta-chain (TCR associated protein kinase 70 kDa (ZAP70 on T lymphocytes of HTLV-1-infected individuals and compared to healthy uninfected individuals (CT. We observed that CD3?, LCK, ZAP70, and VAV1 gene expression were increased in CD4+ T cells from HAM/TSP group compared to HTLV-1 asymptomatic patients (HAC. Moreover, ZAP70 and VAV1 were also upregulated in HAM/TSP compared to CT group. We detected a positive correlation among all these genes. We also observed that CD3?, LCK, and VAV1 genes had a positive correlation with the proviral load (PVL and Tax expression. These results suggest that PVL and Tax protein could drive CD3?, LCK, and VAV1 gene expression in CD4+ T cells, and these genes function on a synchronized way on the CD4+ T cell activation. The elucidation of the mechanisms underlying T cell receptor signaling pathway is of considerable interest and might lead to new insights into the mechanism of HAM/TSP.

  6. Protected indications of origin as differentiation cue of food products: the Spanish dry-cured ham case


    The "country/region of origin" is a traditionally strategy used by food companies in order to differentiate their production from each other. In Spain, there are more than 140 EU recognised- Designations of Origin comprising several categories of food and drinks. From these, there are only six quality labels on Spanish dry-cured ham. In spite of this lower number of Designations, they suppose almost the 15% of the global economic value. From both a quantitative and a qualitative perspective -...

  7. Analytical treatment of system of KdV equations by Homotopy Perturbation Method (HPM and Homotopy Analysis Method (HAM

    Hafiz Abdul Wahab


    Full Text Available In this article the Homotopy Perturbation Method (HPM and Homotopy Analysis Method (HAM are applied to obtain analytic approximate solution to three system of nonlinear wave equations, namely two component evolutionary system of a homogeneous KdV Equations of order three (system-I as well as (system-II and the generalized coupled Hirota Satsuma KdV (System-III.

  8. 胡萝卜火腿肠生产工艺%Processing technology of carrot ham sausage

    宋昌喜; 董玲娟


    The processing technology of carrot ham sausage was introduced in this paper, and this new product could satisfy people with carrot nutrition and enrich the meat market.%介绍了胡萝l、火腿肠的加工工艺,产品满足人们对胡萝卜的营养需要,丰富了肉制品市场的种类。

  9. Processing-Dependent and Clonal Contamination Patterns of Listeria monocytogenes in the Cured Ham Food Chain Revealed by Genetic Analysis.

    Morganti, Marina; Scaltriti, Erika; Cozzolino, Paolo; Bolzoni, Luca; Casadei, Gabriele; Pierantoni, Marco; Foni, Emanuela; Pongolini, Stefano


    The quantitative and qualitative patterns of environmental contamination by Listeria monocytogenes were investigated in the production chain of dry-cured Parma ham. Standard arrays of surfaces were sampled in processing facilities during a single visit per plant in the three compartments of the food chain, i.e., ham production (19 plants) and postproduction, which was divided into deboning (43 plants) and slicing (25 plants) steps. The numbers of sampled surfaces were 384 in ham production, with 25 positive for L. monocytogenes, and 1,084 in postproduction, with 83 positives. Statistical analysis of the prevalence of contaminated surfaces showed that in ham production, contamination was higher at the beginning of processing and declined significantly toward the end, while in postproduction, prevalence rose toward the end of processing. Prevalence was higher in the deboning facilities than in slicing facilities and was dependent on the type of surface (floor/drainage > clothing > equipment). The qualitative pattern of contamination was investigated through an analysis of the survey isolates and a set of isolates derived from routine monitoring, including longitudinal isolations. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and whole-genome single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis revealed a remarkable clonality of L. monocytogenes within plants, with the detection of 16 plant-specific clones out of 17 establishments with multiple isolates. Repeated detections of clonal isolates >6 months apart were also observed. Six was the maximum number of between-isolate differences in core SNPs observed within these clones. Based on the same six-SNP threshold, three clusters of clonal isolates, shared by six establishments, were also identified. The spread of L. monocytogenes within and between plants, as indicated by its clonal behavior, is a matter of concern for the hygienic management of establishments.

  10. Modified atmosphere packaging and vacuum packaging for long period chilled storage of dry-cured Iberian ham.

    Parra, V; Viguera, J; Sánchez, J; Peinado, J; Espárrago, F; Gutierrez, J I; Andrés, A I


    Dry-cured Iberian ham slices were stored under vacuum and under four different modified atmospheres (60/40=60%N(2)+40%CO(2); 70/30=70%N(2)+30%CO(2); 80/20=80%N(2)+20%CO(2); argon=70%argon+30%CO(2)) at 4+/-1 degrees C during 120 days. Gas composition, moisture content, pH, colour, pigment content, and lipid stability were measured, as well as sensory and microbial analysis were carried out throughout storage. A loss of intensity of red colour (a(*)-values) was observed during storage in ham slices (P0.05). Slices of ham packed in 40%CO(2) (60/40) and 30%CO(2) (70/30) showed lower a(*)-values than the rest of the batches after 60 days (P0.05). TBARs values showed an upward trend during the storage of packaged slices (P0.05) throughout storage under refrigeration and packed either in vacuum or in modified atmospheres. No safety problems were detected in relation to the microbial quality in any case.

  11. 高纤维豆肠加工工艺研究%Technology Research of Vegetarian Ham With Soybean Fibes

    张慧霞; 张慜; 李瑞杰


    采用大豆蛋白、复配胶、淀粉、大豆油等基本原料同时添加豆渣,代替猪肉、鸡肉等动物肉,进行素豆肠的试验研究.同时将食品工业废弃物豆渣处理后添加到素豆肠中,提高其膳食纤维的含量,对制作的豆肠进行感官评定和质构测定并与传统的香肠进行比较,调整配方使其达到传统香肠的质构.%In this study, the animal meat such as the pork, chicken in sausage was replace by the compound glue, starch, soya bean oil and bean dregs to prepare the vegetarian ham. At the same time, the industrial offal bean dregs were added vegetarian ham to improvethe fibrous content. Compared with that of the traditional sausage, the sensory evaluation and TPA instm-mental measurement of the vegetarian ham have same qualityge.

  12. Floral Morphogenesis of Anemone rivularis Buch.-Ham. ex DC. var.flore-minore Maxim. (Ranunculaceae) with Special Emphasis on Androecium Developmental Sequence

    Hong-Li CHANG; Yi REN; An-Min LU


    The floral morphogenesis and androecium developmental sequence of Anemone rivularis Buch.-Ham. ex DC. var. flore-minore Maxim. were observed under a scanning electron microscope (SEM)and by means of histological methods in order to expand our knowledge of the morphogenesis and development of the floral organs of the Ranunculaceae. The initiation of the floral elements is a centripetal spiral and the direction of the spiral is clockwise or anti-clockwise. However, the development of the androecium is highly unusual: in a longitudinal series of four stamens, the second stamen develops first from the inner to outer, then the third one, the fourth one and the first one in turn. The microsporogenesis and anther maturation follows the same developmental sequence. The tepals are different from the bracts and the stamens in both shape and size in the early developmental stage, but there is no difference between the stamens and carpels in the early developmental stage. Therefore, we established a spatio-temporal process of the floral morphogenesis of4. rivularis var.flore-minore and offer another meaning of the floral diversity patterns attributed to the level of the genus.

  13. Characterization of the spoilage lactic acid bacteria in "sliced vacuum-packed cooked ham".

    Kalschne, Daneysa Lahis; Womer, Rute; Mattana, Ademir; Sarmento, Cleonice Mendes Pereira; Colla, Luciane Maria; Colla, Eliane


    The lactic acid bacteria are involved with food fermentation and in such cases with food spoilage. Considering the need to reduce the lactic acid bacteria growth in meat products, the aim of this work was to enumerated and investigated the lactic acid bacteria present on sliced vacuum-packed cooked ham stored at 4 °C and 8 °C for 45 days by phenotypic and molecular techniques. The quantification showed that the lactic acid bacteria were present from the first day with mean count of 1.98 log cfu/g for the four batches analyzed. The lactic acid bacteria grew rapidly on the samples, and plate counts around 7.59 log cfu/g and 8.25 log cfu/g were detected after 45 days of storage at 4 °C and 8 °C, respectively; storage temperatures studied showed significant influence on the microorganism in study growth. The predominant lactic acid bacteria associated with the spoilage samples at one day of storage includes Lactobacillus sp., the phenotypic overlap Leuconostoc / Weissella sp. and Enterococcus sp. At 45 days of storage at 4 and 8 °C the mainly specie was Lactobacillus curvatus , following by Lactobacillus sakei and Leuconostoc mesentereoides ; the Enterococcus sp. was not present in the samples.

  14. Hierarchical Adaptive Means (HAM) clustering for hardware-efficient, unsupervised and real-time spike sorting.

    Paraskevopoulou, Sivylla E; Wu, Di; Eftekhar, Amir; Constandinou, Timothy G


    This work presents a novel unsupervised algorithm for real-time adaptive clustering of neural spike data (spike sorting). The proposed Hierarchical Adaptive Means (HAM) clustering method combines centroid-based clustering with hierarchical cluster connectivity to classify incoming spikes using groups of clusters. It is described how the proposed method can adaptively track the incoming spike data without requiring any past history, iteration or training and autonomously determines the number of spike classes. Its performance (classification accuracy) has been tested using multiple datasets (both simulated and recorded) achieving a near-identical accuracy compared to k-means (using 10-iterations and provided with the number of spike classes). Also, its robustness in applying to different feature extraction methods has been demonstrated by achieving classification accuracies above 80% across multiple datasets. Last but crucially, its low complexity, that has been quantified through both memory and computation requirements makes this method hugely attractive for future hardware implementation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Physiological Effects of Iron Deficiency on Pyrus pashia Buch-Ham

    AN Hua-ming; FAN Wei-guo


    Pyrus pashia Buch-Ham, a wild specie was used to investigate the physiological effects of irondeficiency in culture solution. The result showed that Chla, Chlb, total chlorophyll content and photosynthesisrate(Ph) decreased sharply, and the decrease of Pn was prior to that of Chl content under the iron deficiency.The iron deficiency symptoms were visible when the iron concentration in culture medium was less than 25μmol L-1. Peroxidase(POD) and catalase(CAT) activity in iron-deficient leaves declined significantly, andPOD was more sensitive than CAT to Fe deficiency. However, the positive correlation between CAT activityand Chl content was more significant than that between POD activity and Chi content. The content of nutrientelements in Fe-deficient leaves, which changed irregularly, were higher than that in normal leaves. There werea most significant positive correlation between active Fe and Chi content, and between active Fe and Pn respec-tively. Therefore, active Fe could be useful physiological predicting index for diagnosis.

  16. Dry-cured ham tissue characterization by fast field cycling NMR relaxometry and quantitative magnetization transfer.

    Bajd, Franci; Gradišek, Anton; Apih, Tomaž; Serša, Igor


    Fast field cycling (FFC) and quantitative magnetization transfer (qMT) NMR methods are two powerful tools in NMR analysis of biological tissues. The qMT method is well established in biomedical NMR applications, while the FFC method is often used in investigations of molecular dynamics on which longitudinal NMR relaxation times of the investigated material critically depend. Despite their proven analytical potential, these two methods were rarely used in NMR studies of food, especially when combined together. In our study, we demonstrate the feasibility of a combined FFC/qMT-NMR approach for the fast and nondestructive characterization of dry-curing ham tissues differing by protein content. The characterization is based on quantifying the pure quadrupolar peak area (area under the quadrupolar contribution of dispersion curve obtained by FFC-NMR) and the restricted magnetization pool size (obtained by qMT-NMR). Both quantities correlate well with concentration of partially immobilized, nitrogen-containing and proton magnetization exchanging muscle proteins. Therefore, these two quantities could serve as potential markers for dry-curing process monitoring. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Global anthropogenic aerosol effects on convective clouds in ECHAM5-HAM

    U. Lohmann


    Full Text Available Aerosols affect the climate system by changing cloud characteristics in many ways. They act as cloud condensation and ice nuclei and may have an influence on the hydrological cycle. Here we investigate aerosol effects on convective clouds by extending the double-moment cloud microphysics scheme developed for stratiform clouds, which is coupled to the HAM double-moment aerosol scheme, to convective clouds in the ECHAM5 general circulation model. This enables us to investigate whether more, and smaller cloud droplets suppress the warm rain formation in the lower parts of convective clouds and thus release more latent heat upon freezing, which would then result in more vigorous convection and more precipitation. In ECHAM5, including aerosol effects in large-scale and convective clouds (simulation ECHAM5-conv reduces the sensitivity of the liquid water path increase with increasing aerosol optical depth in better agreement with observations and large-eddy simulation studies. In simulation ECHAM5-conv with increases in greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions since pre-industrial times, the geographical distribution of the changes in precipitation better matches the observed increase in precipitation than neglecting microphysics in convective clouds. In this simulation the convective precipitation increases the most suggesting that the convection has indeed become more vigorous.

  18. Influence of cooking process on protein fractions in cooked ham and mortadella

    G. Vonghia


    Full Text Available The mortadella is a pork meat sausage (in natural or artificial bowel accurately triturated and mixed with little backfat cubes, salt, sodium nitrate and nitrite, spices and peppercorns, and then cooked in oven for many hours. The cooked ham is obtained from an anatomically completed piece of meat; the working process provides the addiction of salt and spices, the brine, the bones removal, the churning and the pressing, so the cured meat is first packed in a mould provided for this purpose, then cooked and after cooled and packed. The meat cooking is the last step in the cooked sausage production technology, and let us obtain a stable and eatable product. The effect of the heat and the lenght of processing are the main responsibles for modifications in water- and salt-soluble protein fractions. Indeed myofibrils denature themselves after cooking and consequently their solubility decreases; particularly the denaturation begins over 30°C in the myosin chain, instead the actin solubility begins to decrease over 60°C, being the actin more stable than myosin (Barbieri et al., 1997...

  19. 图书馆纸质资源与电子资源投入比例研究%The research of ratio between traditional and electronics resources in library

    王以婧; 李明


    With the popularization of electronic product development,library is no longer the paper-based resources into a single information carrier the pattern,but has formed a paper resource and electronic resources coexist in the new situation.Because the library types of our country,the proportion of input between paper-based resources and other kinds of resources exist difference.This paper will discuss the relationship between the traditional and electronics resources,and also points out the existing problems and the countermeasures.%随着电子产品的普及发展,图书馆已不再以纸质资源为唯一的信息载体,而是形成了纸质资源和电子资源并存的新局面。由于国内图书馆类型的不同,纸质资源与电子资源的配比也会存在差异。通过讨论二者的关系,指出存在的问题及应对之策。

  20. Dry cured ham quality as related to lipid quality of raw material and lipid changes during processing: a review.

    Gilles, Gandemer


    Full Text Available Lipids play a key role in sensory traits of dry cured hams. Both the quantity and the composition of lipids in raw material affect dry-cured hams quality. The lipid characteristics strongly depend on rearing systems developed in different area in Europe. During processing, lipids undergo lipolysis and oxidation. Phospholipids are the main substrates of both lipolysis and oxidation. Lipolysis forms free fatty acids rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids all along the process. Lipids are also subjected to oxidation which forms many volatile compounds. These volatiles affect in the aroma of dry-cured hams and are associated with aroma notes such as rancid, aged meat or dry-cured. According to the genotype and the rearing conditions of pigs and the parameters of processing, dry-cured hams have specific sensory profiles. This paper reviews the present knowledge on lipids and dry-cured ham quality.Los lípidos desempeñan un papel fundamental en las características sensoriales de los jamones curados. Tanto la cantidad como la composición de los lípidos de las materias primas afectan a la calidad de los jamones. Las características de los lípidos dependen en gran medida de los sistemas de crianza desarrollados en las diferentes zonas de Europa. Durante el proceso, los lípidos sufren reacciones como la lipolisis y la oxidación. La lipolisis genera ácidos grasos libres a lo largo de todo el proceso, siendo los más abundantes los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados. Los lípidos también están sujetos a la oxidación, la cual genera muchos compuestos volátiles. Estos volátiles afectan al aroma de los jamones curados asociándose a notas tales como la rancidez, carne vieja o curado. De acuerdo con el genotipo y las condiciones de crianza de los cerdos y los parámetros del proceso, los jamones curados tienen un perfil sensorial específico. En este artículo se examinan los conocimientos actuales sobre los lípidos y la calidad del jamón curado.

  1. There is a Relationship between Resource Expenditures and Reference Transactions in Academic Libraries. A Review of: Dubnjakovic, A. (2012. Electronic resource expenditure and the decline in reference transaction statistics in academic libraries. Journal of Academic Librarianship, 38(2, 94-100. doi:10.1016/j.acalib.2012.01.001

    Annie M. Hughes


    Full Text Available Objective – To provide an analysis of the impact of expenditures on electronic resourcesand gate counts on the increase or decrease in reference transactions.Design – Analysis of results of existing survey data from the National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES 2006 Academic Library Survey(ALS.Setting – Academic libraries in the United States.Subjects – 3925 academic library respondents.Methods – The author chose to use survey data collected from the 2006 ALS conducted bythe NCES. The survey included data on various topics related to academic libraries, but in the case of this study, the author chose to analyze three of the 193 variables included. The three variables: electronic books expenditure, computer hardware and software, and expenditures on bibliographic utilities, were combined into one variable called electronic resource expenditure. Gate counts were also considered as a variable. Electronic resource expenditure was also split as a variable into three groups: low, medium, and high. Multiple regression analysis and general linear modeling, along with tests of reliability, were employed. Main Results – The author determined that low, medium, and high spenders with regard to electronic resources exhibited differences in gate counts, and gate counts have an effect on reference transactions in any given week. Gate counts tend to not have much of an effect on reference transactions for the higher spenders, and higher spenders tend to have a higher number of reference transactions overall. Low spenders have lower gate counts and also a lower amount of reference transactions.Conclusion – The findings from this study show that academic libraries spending more on electronic resources also tend to have an increase with regard to reference transactions. The author also concludes that library spaces are no longer the determining factor with regard to number of reference transactions. Spending more on electronic resources is

  2. Influence of Humic Acid Complexation with Metal Ions on Extracellular Electron Transfer Activity.

    Zhou, Shungui; Chen, Shanshan; Yuan, Yong; Lu, Qin


    Humic acids (HAs) can act as electron shuttles and mediate biogeochemical cycles, thereby influencing the transformation of nutrients and environmental pollutants. HAs commonly complex with metals in the environment, but few studies have focused on how these metals affect the roles of HAs in extracellular electron transfer (EET). In this study, HA-metal (HA-M) complexes (HA-Fe, HA-Cu, and HA-Al) were prepared and characterized. The electron shuttle capacities of HA-M complexes were experimentally evaluated through microbial Fe(III) reduction, biocurrent generation, and microbial azoreduction. The results show that the electron shuttle capacities of HAs were enhanced after complexation with Fe but were weakened when using Cu or Al. Density functional theory calculations were performed to explore the structural geometry of the HA-M complexes and revealed the best binding sites of the HAs to metals and the varied charge transfer rate constants (k). The EET activity of the HA-M complexes were in the order HA-Fe > HA-Cu > HA-Al. These findings have important implications for biogeochemical redox processes given the ubiquitous nature of both HAs and various metals in the environment.

  3. A polymorphism in the stearoyl-CoA desaturase gene promoter influences monounsaturated fatty acid content of Duroc × Iberian hams

    Eliana Henriquez-Rodriguez


    Full Text Available Data on 74 dry-cured hams from Duroc × Iberian pigs were used to examine whether the tag polymorphism AY487830:g.2228T>C in the promoter region of the stearoyl-CoA desaturase [SCD] gene affect fat desaturation and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA as previously described in purebred Duroc hams. Samples were taken from sliced trays of dry-cured hams marketed as Jamón Ibérico de cebo, which were randomly purchased from the same supplier in different stores of the same supermarket chain. Genomic DNA was isolated from each sample to genotype for SCD and gender. Also, a sample of two slices was used to determine fat content and fatty acid (FA composition by gas chromatography. The effect of the genotype (TT and CT and gender (barrows and gilts was estimated under a Bayesian setting. Results showed that the SCD polymorphism was associated to fat composition but not to fat content, with TT hams showing increased C18:1n-7, C18:1n-9, C20:1n-9 and MUFA (probability between 0.92-0.98 and decreased C18:2n-6, C20:4n-6 and polyunsaturated FA (PUFA (probability between 0.91-0.99 as compared to the CT. As a result, the TT hams had more MUFA (0.95% and a higher MUFA/PUFA ratio (0.43 than the CT. Barrows had more saturated FA (SFA and less PUFA than gilts. No differences in MUFA content were found between genders. The SCD polymorphism had a greater impact on MUFA than using hams from barrows instead of gilts. It is concluded that the SCD polymorphism is a good tool to increase MUFA and MUFA/PUFA ratio in Duroc crossbred dry-cured hams.

  4. If Information Wants To Be Free...Then Who's Going To Pay for It? [and] A Question of Access: SPARC, BioOne, and Society-Driven Electronic Publishing [and] Who Is Going To Mine Digital Library Resources? And How?

    Kaser, Richard T.; Johnson, Richard K.; Rudner, Lawrence


    Discusses Fair Use and the public perception; models for funding information services; publishers illusion that information is/should be free; Internet's role in making information freely available; scholarly communication systems: Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition (SPARC) and BioOne (an electronic aggregation of bioscience…

  5. If Information Wants To Be Free...Then Who's Going To Pay for It? [and] A Question of Access: SPARC, BioOne, and Society-Driven Electronic Publishing [and] Who Is Going To Mine Digital Library Resources? And How?

    Kaser, Richard T.; Johnson, Richard K.; Rudner, Lawrence


    Discusses Fair Use and the public perception; models for funding information services; publishers illusion that information is/should be free; Internet's role in making information freely available; scholarly communication systems: Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition (SPARC) and BioOne (an electronic aggregation of bioscience…

  6. Impact of two interventions on timeliness and data quality of an electronic disease surveillance system in a resource limited setting (Peru: a prospective evaluation

    Quispe Jose A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A timely detection of outbreaks through surveillance is needed in order to prevent future pandemics. However, current surveillance systems may not be prepared to accomplish this goal, especially in resource limited settings. As data quality and timeliness are attributes that improve outbreak detection capacity, we assessed the effect of two interventions on such attributes in Alerta, an electronic disease surveillance system in the Peruvian Navy. Methods 40 Alerta reporting units (18 clinics and 22 ships were included in a 12-week prospective evaluation project. After a short refresher course on the notification process, units were randomly assigned to either a phone, visit or control group. Phone group sites were called three hours before the biweekly reporting deadline if they had not sent their report. Visit group sites received supervision visits on weeks 4 & 8, but no phone calls. The control group sites were not contacted by phone or visited. Timeliness and data quality were assessed by calculating the percentage of reports sent on time and percentage of errors per total number of reports, respectively. Results Timeliness improved in the phone group from 64.6% to 84% in clinics (+19.4 [95% CI, +10.3 to +28.6]; p Conclusion Regular phone reminders significantly improved timeliness of reports in clinics and ships, whereas supervision visits led to improved data quality only among clinics. Further investigations are needed to establish the cost-effectiveness and optimal use of each of these strategies.

  7. Metadata for Electronic Information Resources


    among digital libraries . METS provides an XML DTD that can point to metadata in other schemes by declaring the scheme that is being used. For International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA). (2002). Digital Libraries : Metadata

  8. 基于ASP.NET的电子资源整合系统设计与实现%Design and Realization of an Integrated Electronic Resource System Based on ASP.NET

    冀宪武; 陈晓冬; 何燕; 杨方; 曹宇宾; 潘大丰


    电子信息资源的整合是数字图书馆建设中的一个非常重要的环节,论述了数字资源整合的必要性,结合农业图书馆的实际,开展了电子资源整合服务平台的设计与实现。%The integration of electronic information resources is a very important part in digital library construction.In this paper,the necessity for integration of digital resources was discussed,combined with the actuality of the agricultural library,the design and implementation about services platform of electronic resource integration were carried out.

  9. Texture and Quality Parameters of Slovenian Dry-Cured Ham Kraški pršut According to Mass and Salt Levels

    Darko Andronikov


    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of fresh ham mass and the amount of salt added during processing on the technological, sensorial and physicochemical qualities of Slovenian dry-cured ham (Kraški pršut produced under Protected Geographical Indication. A total of 84 fresh ham samples (pH=5.6–5.9 measured 24 h post mortem originating from pigs (Landrace × Large white were divided into subgroups according to mass (light, 9.5–10.5 kg vs. heavy, 11.5–13.0 kg and salt addition during production (normal vs. low salt. These formed four subgroups for the analyses: light and normally salted, light and low salt, heavy and normally salted, and heavy and low salt. After the salting period, the NaCl concentration in the normally salted muscles was 3.8 to 4.0 %, and in the less salted muscles 2.8 to 3.0 %. During the processing of the dry-cured ham (at the beginning, after salting, and after resting, the semimembranosus (SM and biceps femoris (BF muscles were analysed for water activity (aw, pH, salt content, moisture, total minerals, non-protein nitrogen, and total nitrogen. One year after the processing, the instrumental (stress relaxation and texture profile and sensory qualities were also analysed. After the salting and resting periods, the pH of the samples was significantly decreased in comparison with the fresh ham, although after ageing period this increased again, to reach nearly the initial values (pH=5.59–5.74. At the same time, the aw of both muscles in all experimental groups dropped below 0.90. The total mass losses varied between the groups (34.75–36.63 %, with the samples of heavy and low salt ham showing the greatest mass loss. The light and low salt SM muscles showed slightly higher proteolysis indices (non-protein nitrogen/total nitrogen ratio after one year, which indicated a trend towards more rapid proteolysis as compared to the normally salted hams. Generally, the softer texture of the BF muscle

  10. Effect of the inoculation of a starter culture and vacuum packaging during the resting stage on sensory traits of dry-cured ham.

    Sánchez-Molinero, F; Arnau, J


    The effects of the inoculation of a mixed starter culture and vacuum packaging (during resting stage) on odour, appearance, texture and flavour of dry-cured ham were studied. After salting, half of the 36 processed hams were inoculated with a commercial starter culture containing lactic-acid bacteria, Gram-positive catalase-positive cocci and yeasts. Nine hams per group (inoculated and non-inoculated) remained vacuum-packaged during resting. External odour during the process, as well as appearance of the cut surface, texture and flavour on semimembranosus and biceps femoris of the final product were assessed. Vacuum packaging during resting caused an increase in white film and feedstuff flavour, as well as a decrease in aged flavour, hardness, fibrousness and overall liking. The use of the starter culture brought about an increase in feedstuff flavour, a decrease in sweetness, aged flavour, nutty flavour and overall liking and, only in vacuum-packaged hams, the development of a floral flavour, but had no significant effect on texture descriptors. The starter culture studied is considered inappropriate for the production of traditional Spanish dry-cured ham regardless of the type of resting used.

  11. Effect of IGF-II (insulin-like growth factor-II) genotype on the quality of dry-cured hams and shoulders.

    Reina, Raquel; López-Buesa, Pascual; Sánchez del Pulgar, José; Ventanas, Jesús; García, Carmen


    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the paternal allele (homozygous AA and heterozygous AG) of the IGF-II gene on the fat content, fatty acid composition and sensory characteristics of dry-cured hams and shoulders. The effects were more evident in the subcutaneous fat thickness than in the intramuscular fat (IMF) content, and in the dry-cured hams rather than the dry-cured shoulders. Subcutaneous fat thickness was significantly higher in AG dry-cured hams and shoulders; however, IMF content was only significantly higher in AG dry-cured hams. These effects produce changes in fatty acid composition and sensory characteristics when comparing both batches of each product, but the behavior differed with the type of product. Sensory characteristics were similar in both batches of dry-cured hams in spite of the differences in IMF content. Nevertheless, AG dry-cured shoulders showed higher scores in most of the attributes evaluated, despite the IMF content being similar between batches.

  12. Aerosol size-dependent below-cloud scavenging by rain and snow in the ECHAM5-HAM

    R. Posselt


    Full Text Available Wet deposition processes are highly efficient in the removal of aerosols from the atmosphere, and thus strongly influence global aerosol concentrations, and clouds, and their respective radiative forcings. In this study, physically detailed size-dependent below-cloud scavenging parameterizations for rain and snow are implemented in the ECHAM5-HAM global aerosol-climate model. Previously, below-cloud scavenging by rain in the ECHAM5-HAM was simply a function of the aerosol mode, and then scaled by the rainfall rate. The below-cloud scavenging by snow was a function of the snowfall rate alone. The global mean aerosol optical depth, and sea salt burden are sensitive to the below-cloud scavenging coefficients, with reductions near to 15% when the more vigorous size-dependent below-cloud scavenging by rain and snow is implemented. The inclusion of a prognostic rain scheme significantly reduces the fractional importance of below-cloud scavenging since there is higher evaporation in the lower troposphere, increasing the global mean sea salt burden by almost 15%. Thermophoretic effects are shown to produce increases in the global and annual mean number removal of Aitken size particles of near to 10%, but very small increases (near 1% in the global mean below-cloud mass scavenging of carbonaceous and sulfate aerosols. Changes in the assumptions about the below-cloud scavenging by rain of particles with radius smaller than 10 nm do not cause any significant changes to the global and annual mean aerosol mass or number burdens, despite a change in the below-cloud number removal rate for nucleation mode particles by near to five-fold. Annual and zonal mean nucleation mode number concentrations are enhanced by up to 30% in the lower troposphere with the more vigourous size-dependent below-cloud scavenging. Closer agreement with different observations is found when the more physically detailed below-cloud scavenging parameterization is employed in the ECHAM5

  13. Library resources on the Internet

    Buchanan, Nancy L.


    Library resources are prevalent on the Internet. Library catalogs, electronic books, electronic periodicals, periodical indexes, reference sources, and U.S. Government documents are available by telnet, Gopher, World Wide Web, and FTP. Comparatively few copyrighted library resources are available freely on the Internet. Internet implementations of library resources can add useful features, such as full-text searching. There are discussion lists, Gophers, and World Wide Web pages to help users keep up with new resources and changes to existing ones. The future will bring more library resources, more types of library resources, and more integrated implementations of such resources to the Internet.

  14. 即食火夹乳饼产品的开发%Development of Instant Goat Cake Added with Ham

    陶亮; 苏科巧; 杨丽婷; 黄艾祥


    Goat cake was a famous traditional local dish in Yunnan , but it was easy to browning , difficult to save and inconvenient to carry, which was hard to meet the demands of the consumers. Base on traditional production, the optimal technology and formula and quality of instant goat cake added with ham food was researched. The results showed that the optimal formula of goat cake added with ham product was:goat cakes 100 g, ham 80 g, sugar 2%, monosodium glutamate 0.15%, carrageenan 0.3%, sodium bisulfite 0.1%. The optimal technology was: selected raw materials, segmentation, sliced up, desalination of ham and color-protection of goat cake, filtered out the water, baking, shaping, vacuum packing, sterilization and cooling, inspection, finished product. The product obtained under the above optimal conditions had good evaluation of sensory organ, physical and chemical indexes conform to requirements, such as salt, nitrite, sulfur dioxide residue, it was convenient to carry around, ready to enjoy when opened and had unique flavor.%火夹乳饼是云南一种传统名菜,但存在易褐变、难保存、携带不便的弊端,难以满足消费者的需求。在传统制作基础上,研究一种即食火夹乳饼产品最佳工艺配方及产品质量。结果表明,即食火夹乳饼的配方是:乳饼100 g、火腿80 g、糖2%、味精0.15%、卡拉胶0.3%、亚硫酸氢钠0.1%;工艺是:原料选择→分割→切片→火腿脱盐、乳饼护色→沥水→烘制→整形→真空包装→杀菌及冷却→检验→成品。该产品感官良好,食盐、亚硝酸盐、二氧化硫残留等理化指标符合相关标准要求,携带方便、开袋即食、风味独特。

  15. Effect of the inoculation of a starter culture and vacuum packaging (during resting stage) on the appearance and some microbiological and physicochemical parameters of dry-cured ham.

    Sánchez-Molinero, F; Arnau, J


    The effect of the inoculation of a starter culture and vacuum packaging (during the resting stage) on dry-cured ham appearance, microbiological and physicochemical parameters was studied. Half of the 36 processed hams were inoculated, after salting, with a commercial starter culture containing lactic-acid bacteria, Gram-positive catalase-positive cocci and yeasts. 18 hams per group (inoculated and non-inoculated) remained vacuum packaged during resting. Microbiological analyses were carried out on the lean surface during processing, on subcutaneous fat tissue at the drying stage and on lean tissue in the finished product. Appearance was evaluated during processing. Physicochemical analyses (NaCl, H(2)O, proteolysis index, a(w)) were done on Semimembranosus and Biceps femoris in the final product. Inoculation caused a reduction of mould growth and oil drip. Vacuum packaging induced increased proteolysis and increases in all microbial counts and a reduction of oil drip, mould growth and weight loss during processing.

  16. Reporting the sensory properties of dry-cured ham using a new language: Time intensity (TI) and temporal dominance of sensations (TDS).

    Lorido, Laura; Hort, Joanne; Estévez, Mario; Ventanas, Sonia


    The present study aimed to evaluate the influence of salt content (normal and reduced) and feeding system (montanera and concentrate) on the dynamic sensory characteristics of dry-cured hams using time-intensity (TI) and Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS) techniques. Differences in the temporal sensory information given by the two different techniques were found. Significant differences in the temporal perception of flavour and texture were detected between normal and reduced salt content dry-cured hams which are a Spanish pricy meat product very appreciated by consumers due to its particular sensory characteristics. The effect of the feeding system was mainly observed on flavour attributes such as saltiness and cured flavour and texture attributes such as juiciness. The application of TDS technique to study temporal sensory attributes of dry-cured ham is reported for the first time in the present article.

  17. 一种火腿肠弹性评价方法的建立%Establishment of evaluation method of springiness about ham sausage



    主要对火腿肠弹性指标的仪器评价方法进行了研究,并将仪器测试的结果与感官评价结果进行相关性分析。结果表明,火腿肠弹性的感官评定值与TPA测定值存在极显著相关性,可以用TPA仪器测试代替对火腿肠弹性的感官检验。%The instrumental evaluation method of springiness about ham sausage was studied,the correlative analysis between sensory and instrumental measurement indicated that the correlation between sensory evaluation value and TPA parameters of ham sausage was very significant,thus the instrumental method-TPA could be used to instead of sensory to test ham sausage springiness.

  18. The effects of potato and rice starch as substitutes for phosphate in and degree of comminution on the technological, instrumental and sensory characteristics of restructured ham.

    Resconi, Virginia C; Keenan, Derek F; García, Elisa; Allen, Paul; Kerry, Joe P; Hamill, Ruth M


    The effects of sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP), two sources of starch (potato starch: PS and rice starch: RS) and comminution degree (CD) on the technological, instrumental and sensory characteristics of reformed hams were studied using response surface methodology. Both starches reduced cook loss and decreased ham flavour intensity, but RS had stronger effects on instrumental measures of texture, while PS was associated with improved juiciness when low/no added STPP was included. Coarsely ground meat, processed 100% with the kidney plate was associated with slightly increased cook loss, reduced texture profile analysis parameters and a more intense ham flavour compared to the other treatment (80% ground with a kidney plate plus 20% with a 9mm plate). STPP was the sole factor affecting overall liking. If starch is included in the formulation, the standard level of STPP (0.3%) can be reduced by half with no increase in cook losses, but some decline in sensory quality cannot be avoided.

  19. Use of multiparametric magnetic resonance microscopy for discrimination among different processing protocols and anatomical positions of Slovenian dry-cured hams.

    Bajd, Franci; Škrlep, Martin; Čandek-Potokar, Marjeta; Vidmar, Jernej; Serša, Igor


    A novel multiparametric magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) approach was applied to the Slovenian Kraški pršut dry-cured ham samples in order to evaluate its potential for discrimination among biceps femoris and semimembranosus muscle from two hams, differing in processing (salting duration) and thus in water and salt content. The approach is based on apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) mapping as well as on longitudinal (T1) and transversal (T2) nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation time mapping. Three-dimensional maps were acquired and analyzed by one dimensional (1D) ADC, T1, and T2 distributions as well as by paired two-dimensional ADC-T1, ADC-T2 and T1-T2 distributions. The discriminating potential of the applied MRM approach was confirmed by differences among both 1D and 2D distributions of different ham samples. In addition, distribution peak positions highly correlated with the conventionally determined moisture content.

  20. Development of Graves' ophthalmopathy and uveitis after radioiodine therapy for Graves' disease in a patient with HTLA-I associated myelopathy (HAM)

    Ozawa, Yasunori; Migita, Masayoshi; Watanabe, Tomoji; Okuda, Itsuko; Takeshita, Akira; Takagi, Akio; Shishiba, Yoshimasa (Toranomon Hospital, Tokyo (Japan))


    HTLV-I carriers or patients with HTLV-I associated myelopathy (HAM) are prone to immune-mediated inflammatory disorders. We present a 44-year-old female with HAM who developed Graves' disease. She developed severe Graves' ophthalmopathy shortly after [sup 131]I therapy, concurrently with a remarkable increase in TSH-receptor antibody titer. Ophthalmopathy was aggravated in spite of prednisolone therapy and euthyroidism being maintained by thyroxine replacement. Uveitis also developed after [sup 131]I therapy and iridocyclitis finally required trabeculotomy. This case suggests that HAM patients may have a higher risk of immune-mediated Graves' ophthalmopathy after [sup 131]I therapy.(author).

  1. Fewer study participants needed to demonstrate superior antidepressant efficacy when using the Hamilton melancholia subscale (HAM-D6) as outcome measure

    Østergaard, Søren Dinesen; Bech, Per; Miskowiak, Kamilla Woznica


    Background In the development of new antidepressant treatments, the failed study has unfortunately become a prevalent problem. The number of failed studies could probably be reduced significantly by applying more informative outcome measures. Previous studies have indicated that the 6-item...... participants per group would be required to detect a statistically significant difference between EPO and placebo when using the HAM-D6 as outcome measure, whereas the required group size for HAM-D17 would be 146 participants. Limitations The EPO RCT was not originally designed to investigate the research...... questions addressed in this study.  Conclusions Both for ethical and financial reasons it is of interest to minimize the number of participants in clinical trials. Therefore, we suggest employing the HAM-D6 as outcome measure in clinical trials of depression....

  2. Ship Emission Influence on Clouds: A Sensitivity Assessment of ECHAM5-HAM

    Peters, Karsten; Quaas, Johannes; Stier, Philip


    Clouds are of importance in the climate system because of their interaction with the hydrological cycle and the radiant energy flow. Anthropogenic activities come in hand with emissions of aerosols and aerosol precursor gases, making the quantification of their impact on cloud properties, e.g. cloud droplet number concentration, cloud lifetime or even cloud top height, a topic of ongoing research. Aerosol influence on cloud micro- and macrophysical properties are referred to as aerosol indirect effects and are subject to the largest uncertainties of all radiative forcing components of the Earth System when it comes to assessing human induced climate change. Seagoing ships are the least regulated sources of anthropogenic emissions, burning low-quality residual fuels containing high amounts of sulfur or even heavy metals. Combustion of such fuels produces, aside from gaseous species, large amounts of particulate matter (PM) consisting of elemental (black) and organic carbon, sulfate, ash and particles forming from sulfuric acid. The emitted particles can serve as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) leading to aerosol indirect effects. In this study, we investigate the sensitivity of aerosol indirect effects as calculated by the ECHAM5-HAM aerosol-climate model with respect to ship emissions. The model is run for seven years (including a two year spinup, five years averaging for results) with a spatial resolution of 2.8° x 2.8° and prescribed sea surface properties (AMIP). We use parametrizations of aerosol cloud interactions to investigate aerosol indirect effects. Aerosol emissions from ships are provided by the recently compiled QUANTIFY emission inventory. The sensitivity runs performed use the emission of black carbon (BC) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) increased by a factor of 10(100), enabling a focus on the aerosol-cloud interactions when the marine boundary layer composition is significantly disturbed. Furthermore, experiments using increased BC(SO2) and unchanged SO

  3. 基于 EZproxy 日志的电子资源异常访问行为研究%Research on Abnormal Access to Electronic Resources Based on EZproxy Logs

    雷东升; 郭振英


    The off - campus access to electronic resources in the library benefits readers a lot .Meanwhile ,some abnormal access behavior arises .The paper analyzed the electronic resources access log with EZproxyog proxy server ,designed and devel-oped the EZproxy log analysis system so as to pretreat ,upload ,count and analyze the access log to electronic resources .To dis-cover the abnormal access behavior of readers on the basis of the characteristics of their access and to classify the abnormal behav -ior , the paper could avoid that IP is temporarily blocked by the supporters of database of electronic resources in the library so that can maintain the readers' rights and improve the efficiency of resource access .%校外访问图书馆电子资源在方便读者的同时也出现一些异常访问行为,利用 EZproxy 代理服务器日志信息分析异常访问行为特征,设计并开发 EZproxy 日志分析系统,完成对电子资源访问日志的预处理、上传、统计和分析,从访问特征发掘读者的异常访问行为,对异常行为情况分类处理,基本避免了异常访问行为导致图书馆电子资源被数据库商临时封掉 IP 的现象出现,维护图书馆读者的合法权利,提高资源访问效率。

  4. Rice osa-miR171c Mediates Phase Change from Vegetative to Reproductive Development and Shoot Apical Meristem Maintenance by Repressing Four OsHAM Transcription Factors.

    Tian Fan

    Full Text Available Phase change from vegetative to reproductive development is one of the critical developmental steps in plants, and it is regulated by both environmental and endogenous factors. The maintenance of shoot apical meristem (SAM identity, miRNAs and flowering integrators are involved in this phase change process. Here, we report that the miRNA osa-miR171c targets four GRAS (GAI-RGA-SCR plant-specific transcription factors (OsHAM1, OsHAM2, OsHAM3, and OsHAM4 to control the floral transition and maintenance of SAM indeterminacy in rice (Oryza sativa. We characterized a rice T-DNA insertion delayed heading (dh mutant, where the expression of OsMIR171c gene is up-regulated. This mutant showed pleiotropic phenotypic defects, including especially prolonged vegetative phase, delayed heading date, and bigger shoot apex. Parallel expression analysis showed that osa-miR171c controlled the expression change of four OsHAMs in the shoot apex during floral transition, and responded to light. In the dh mutant, the expression of the juvenile-adult phase change negative regulator osa-miR156 was up-regulated, expression of the flowering integrators Hd3a and RFT1 was inhibited, and expression of FON4 negative regulators involved in the maintenance of SAM indeterminacy was also inhibited. From these data, we propose that the inhibition of osa-miR171c-mediated OsHAM transcription factors regulates the phase transition from vegetative to reproductive development by maintaining SAM indeterminacy and inhibiting flowering integrators.

  5. Effect of the Inclusion of Chestnut in the Finishing Diet on Volatile Compounds of Dry-Cured Ham from Celta Pig Breed

    Jos M. Lorenzo; Javier Carballo; Daniel Franco


    The effect of the inclusion of chestnut in pigs ifnishing diet on volatile compounds of dry-cured Celta ham was studied. Twelve hams of each type (from three different pigs ifnishing diets:concentrate (CO), mixed (MI) and chestnut (CH)) were used. Volatiles were extracted using a purge-and-trap method and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Thirty-nine volatile compounds were identified in dry-cured Celta ham samples. Most abundant volatiles in ham samples were aldehydes, which represented respectively, 53% (CO), 51% (MI) and 46% (CH) of the total volatile composition. With the exception of 2-butenal, 2-methyl, all aldehydes were affected by feeding system. On the other hand, hydrocarbons n-alkanes were the second major group in the volatile proifle of dry-cured Celta hams and represented 28.9, 35.7 and 32.4%of the total volatile composition for CO, MI and CH groups, respectively. Ham samples from chestnut group showed a higher content of alcohols and this result could be related with the inclusion of chestnut in the ifnishing diet of pigs. Principal component analysis showed a good separation among groups. The discriminant analysis selected eight variables (butanoic acid, hexanal, octanal, nonenal (E), decenal (E), tetradecane, decane trimethyl and pyridine 2-methyl) and calculated two discriminating functions to predict if chestnut has been included in the ifnishing diet. Thus, it was possible to discriminate between groups fed with ifnishing diets containing chestnuts in their composition (mixed and chestnut group).

  6. The impact of salt replacers and flavor enhancer on the processing characteristics and consumer acceptance of restructured cooked hams.

    Pietrasik, Z; Gaudette, N J


    Two salt replacers (Ocean's Flavor - OF45, OF60) and one flavor enhancer [Fonterra™ 'Savoury Powder' (SP)] were evaluated for their ability to effectively reduce sodium, while maintaining the functional and sensory properties of restructured hams. Product functionality and safety were assessed using instrumental measures (yield, purge, pH, expressible moisture, proximate composition, sodium content, color, texture) and microbiological assessment. Sensory attributes were evaluated using consumer sensory panelists. All alternative formulations resulted in products with sodium contents below the Health Check(TM) Program guidelines, without detrimental effect on water binding and texture in treatments when NaCl was substituted with sea salt replacers (OF45, OF60). Sodium reduction had no effect on the shelf life of the cooked ham with up to 60 days of refrigerated storage. Consumer hedonics for flavor and aftertaste were lower for OF45 and OF60 compared to control, suggesting that these salt replacers may not be appropriate for inclusion in these products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Ultrasonic and sensory characterization of dry-cured ham fat from Iberian pigs with different genetics and feeding backgrounds.

    Niñoles, L; Sanjuan, N; Ventanas, S; Benedito, J


    The textural and ultrasonic properties of the subcutaneous fat from five batches of dry-cured hams from animals with different genetics (Iberian, Iberian×Duroc) and type of feeding ("montanera", concentrate feeds with different oleic acid content) were studied and related to the sensory traits (oiliness and brightness) of their biceps femoris muscle. The different genetics and feeding backgrounds found in the batches brought about differences in their ultrasonic velocities (average velocity from 4 to 20°C ranged from 1608 to 1650m/s) and textural parameters (maximum force at 8°C ranged from 11 to 21N). On average, batches with lower textural parameters had lower velocities and higher sensory scores. Ultrasonic measurements were used to carry out a discriminant analysis which allowed 78.3% of the samples to be correctly classified in the batches considered. Therefore, ultrasonic and sensory techniques could be useful in the characterization and differentiation of dry-cured hams from Iberian pigs.

  8. Australian Modernists in London: William Dobell’s The Dead Landlord and Patrick White’s The Ham Funeral

    Denise Varney


    Full Text Available When Patrick White was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1973, it was primarily for his novels. Less well recognised is the significance of White’s dramatic literature and his involvement in the theatre. This article offers a new analysis of White’s first notable breakthrough into theatre and drama, The Ham Funeral, which he wrote in postwar London and which was produced in Adelaide in 1961. This article argues that a modernist idiom of 20th-century Australian drama can be found in this play that laid the groundwork for a poetics of language, image and theatricality. The play’s aesthetic modernism is found primarily in the blend of expressionist and surrealist elements, the poetic language, the alienated creative subject and the representation of sexuality and the unconscious. White’s thematics also become political, concerned with power, masculinity and gendered assumptions about rationality and emotion, poetry and the body. Having lived in London during the interwar years, White was also part of the networks that included Australian-born artists, and he was exposed to influences from visual arts as well as theatre. Of these, the artist William Dobell was central to the genesis of The Ham Funeral, as was the Polish-born modernist artist S. Ostoja-Kotkowski, who was critical to the design of the brooding expressionist set that set the standard for subsequent stage realisations of the play.

  9. Black carbon concentration and deposition estimations in Finland by the regional aerosol–climate model REMO-HAM

    A. I. Hienola


    Full Text Available The prediction skill of the regional aerosol–climate model REMO-HAM was assessed against the black carbon (BC concentration measurements from five locations in Finland, with focus on Hyytiälä station for the year 2005. We examined to what extent the model is able to reproduce the measurements using several statistical tools: median comparison, overlap coefficient (OVL; the common area under two probability distributions curves and Z score (a measure of standard deviation, shape and spread of the distributions. The results of the statistics showed that the model is biased low. The local and regional emissions of BC have a significant contribution, and the model tendency to flatten the observed BC is most likely dominated by the lack of domestic burning of biofuel in the emission inventories. A further examination of the precipitation data from both measurements and model showed that there is no correlation between REMO's excessive precipitation and BC underestimation. This suggests that the excessive wet removal is not the main cause of the low black carbon concentration output. In addition, a comparison of wind directions in relation with high black carbon concentrations shows that REMO-HAM is able to predict the BC source directions relatively well. Cumulative black carbon deposition fluxes over Finland were estimated, including the deposition on snow.

  10. Technology-induced selection towards the spoilage microbiota of artisan-type cooked ham packed under modified atmosphere.

    Vasilopoulos, Charalampos; De Maere, Hannelore; De Mey, Eveline; Paelinck, Hubert; De Vuyst, Luc; Leroy, Frédéric


    The microbiota associated with a highly-perishable Belgian artisan-type cooked ham was analyzed through plating and (GTG)(5)-fingerprinting of isolates throughout its processing chain. The raw tumbled meat was characterized by the presence of a versatile microbiota around 4.8 log(cfu g(-1)), consisting of lactic acid bacteria, staphylococci, Brochothrix thermosphacta, Gram-negative bacteria, and yeasts. Pasteurisation of the ham logs reduced bacterial counts below 2 log(cfu g(-1)) and subsequent manipulations selected for leuconostocs and carnobacteria. Also, B. thermosphacta and several Enterobacteriaceae were found at this stage. During storage in an intermediate high-care area for 2 days, a selection towards certain Enterobacteriaceae (Hafnia alvei, Enterobacter spp., and Pantoea agglomerans) and lactic acid bacteria (mainly vagococci and Streptococcus parauberis) was observed. B. thermosphacta, Leuconostoc carnosum and carnobacteria were also detected, but only after allowing bacterial outgrowth by incubating the meat logs at 7 degrees C for four weeks. After a mild post-pasteurisation process and subsequent handling, incubation of the meat logs at 7 degrees C for four weeks led to outgrowth of Enterobacteriaceae (mainly Enterobacter spp. and Serratia spp.). B. thermosphacta, and lactic acid bacteria (Enterococcus faecalis, Leuc. carnosum, and Carnobacterium maltaromaticum) were also found. After slicing and packaging under modified atmosphere, the microbiota of the refrigerated end-product consisted of leuconostocs, carnobacteria, and B. thermosphacta.

  11. Analysis on the Thinking Modes of Medical Users Utilizing Library Electronic Resources%医药学用户使用图书馆电子资源的思维模式分析

    陈东滨; 应峻; 辛继宾; 徐一新


    The paper studies the thinking modes of medical users utilizing electronic resources in college and university libraries. Combining with the questionnaires,in - depth analysis of utilization desire,utilization decision,impact factors of utilization behaviors are compiled,in order to provide references for college and university libraries formulating electronic resources marketing strategies.%研究高校图书馆医药学用户在使用电子资源过程中的思维模式,结合问卷调查结果深入分析思维模式中使用意愿、使用决策、使用行为的影响因素,为高校图书馆制定电子资源营销策略提供依据。

  12. Review of Researches on the Usage Standard Management of Electronic Resources in China from 2000 to 2010%2000—20l0年我国电子资源使用的规范管理研微

    宛玲; 杜坤


    In recent years, electronic resources play an increasingly important role in research, teaching and other works. Through the statistical analysis of the domestic research on the usage standard management of electronic resources from 2000 to 2010, we find that the issue of the usage standard management of electronic resources is increasingly concerned by the public and researchers. But there are still some problems, such as lack of systematic discussion and empirical research, scattered research topics, most research results on guidance proposals, and so on. Our researches about usage standard management of electronic resources should strengthen researches on the user, related technologies, licensing alliance, strengthen the communication between libraries and database providers, and strengthen the analysis and absorption of foreign experience.%目前,电子资源在科研、教学等工作中扮演着越来越重要的角色。通过对2000-2010年我国电子资源使用规范管理研究文献的统计分析发现,虽然公众及科研人员对电子资源使用的规范的关注程度越来越高,但是仍存在缺乏系统性的论述和实证性的研究、研究主题过于分散、研究成果多为指导性建议等问题。我国电子资源使用规范管理研究应加强对用户、相关技术、许可联盟的研究,加强对图书馆与数据库商交流的研究,加强对国外经验的分析与吸收。

  13. 高校图书馆电子资源购买过程中的委托-代理关系探究%Principal-agent Relationship During the Electronic Resources Purchase Process of University Libraries

    桂君; 吴冬曼


    The prineipal-agent relationship is throughout the whole process of the electronic resources purchase for university libraries. Based on the asymmetric informatiun theory the issues of information asymmetries in the purchase process of electronic resources for university libraries are analyzed. The major prineipal-agent relationships between the university libraries, the group organizers and the database providers ate studied. The operational characteristics and existing problems in the purchase process of electronic resources for university libraries are also discussed. Taking this opportunity to attention the principal-agent relationships existed in the electronic resources purchase of university libraries, the authors hope to solve some problems caused by the market information asymmetry.%委托-代理关系贯穿了高校图书馆电子资源的购买全过程,,基于信息不对称理论,分析高校图书馆电子资源购买中的信息不对称现象,并以高校图书馆、集团组织者、数据库提供者为主体,研究高校图书馆电子资源采购过程中存在的几种主要委托-代理关系、业务特点和存在的问题、通过对委托-代理关系的研究和分析,合理把握电子资源采购的规律,可以部分解决高校电子资源购买中由市场信息不平衡所带来的问题。

  14. Printed Resources and Electronic Resources Integrated Services in Small and Medium-sized Libraries%中小型图书馆印本资源与电子资源一体化服务实践



    Through analyzing the integrated service system of library resources, this paper sums up three methods for the integration of printed resources and digital resources including the digital resources catalog, digital resources navigate and open link system, and suggests that the libraries should give priority to books and periodicals integrated retrieval in the integrated service, and carry out the system construction within their capabilities by adopting the methods of making second development, introducing new system, and conducting independent development, etc.%通过对图书馆馆藏一体化服务系统的分析,归纳总结出印本资源与电子资源整合的3种主要模式———电子资源编目、电子资源导航与开放链接,并建议图书馆在进行一体化服务时,优先考虑图书和期刊的整合检索,在系统建设上量力而行,采取二次开发、引进新系统、自主开发等方式。

  15. 基于使用数据的馆藏电子资源评价方法与系统分析%Methods and Systems of Library Electronic Resources Evaluation Analysis Based on Usage Data



    The origin and methods of library electronic resources evaluation were summarized;the statistical standards of library users' us-age data were reviewed. Then four library electronic resources evaluation systems based on library users' usage data which are ScholarlyS-tats,Journal Use Reports,360 Counter and Ustat were compared and contrasted. The related work which librarians need to do and the con-sidering factors about the selection of electronic resources evaluation system was also analyzed.%总结了图书馆馆藏电子资源评价的缘起与方法,梳理了图书馆用户使用数据的统计规范。以此为基础对比了四个基于使用数据的馆藏电子资源评价系统---ScholarlyStats,Journal Use Reports,360 Counter,UStat,分析了图书馆选择电子资源评价系统的考虑因素和需要预先做好的相关工作。

  16. Effect of the partial replacement of sodium chloride by other salts on the formation of volatile compounds during ripening of dry-cured ham.

    Armenteros, Mónica; Toldrá, Fidel; Aristoy, M-Concepción; Ventanas, Jesús; Estévez, Mario


    The effect of the partial NaCl replacement by other salts (potassium, calcium, and magnesium chloride) on the formation of volatile compounds through the processing of dry-cured ham was studied using solid-phase microextraction (SPME). Three salt formulations were considered, namely, I (100% NaCl), II (50% NaCl and 50% KCl), and III (55% NaCl, 25% KCl, 15% CaCl(2), and 5% MgCl(2)). There was an intense formation of volatile compounds throughout the processing of dry-cured hams, particularly during the "hot-cellar" stage. The differences between treatments were found to be more remarkable at the end of the curing process. Hams from formulations I and II had significantly higher amounts of lipid-derived volatiles such as hexanal than hams from formulation III, whereas the latter had significantly higher amounts of Strecker aldehydes and alcohols. Plausible mechanisms by which salt replacement may affect the generation of volatile compounds include the influence of such replacement on lipid oxidation and proteolysis phenomena. The potential influence of the volatiles profile on the aroma of the products is also addressed in the present paper.

  17. Modeling the survival of Salmonella on slice cooked ham as a function of apple skin polyphenols, acetic acid, oregano essential oil and carvacrol

    Response surface methodology was applied to investigate the combined effect of apple skin polyphenols (ASP), acetic acid (AA), oregano essential oil (O) and carvacrol (C) on the inactivation of Salmonella on sliced cooked ham. A full factorial experimental design was employed with control variables ...

  18. The time has come to stop rotations for the identification of structures in the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D17)

    Bech, Per; Csillag, Claudio; Hellström, Lone;


    Objective: To use principal component analysis (PCA) to test the hypothesis that the items of the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D17) have been selected to reflect depression disability, whereas some of the items are specific for sub-typing depression into typical vs. atypical depression. Method:...

  19. Low intramuscular fat (but high in PUFA) content in cooked cured pork ham decreased Maillard reaction volatiles and pleasing aroma attributes.

    Benet, Iu; Guàrdia, Maria Dolors; Ibañez, Carles; Solà, Josep; Arnau, Jacint; Roura, Eugeni


    The influence of intramuscular fat content (high - HI versus low - LI) and fatty acid composition on pork cooked cured ham flavour was analysed by gas chromatography-olfactometry using nasal impact frequency (GC-O/NIF) and quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA). Potential relationships were studied by principal component analysis (PCA). Sixteen and fourteen odourants were identified by GC-O/NIF in LI and HI cooked hams, respectively. The two ham types differed in lipid oxidation odourants: polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) derivatives hexanal, 1-octen-3-one and (E,E)-2,4-decadienal were higher in LI ham; while monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) derivative decanal was higher in HI. HI samples resulted in higher values for odour-active aroma compounds from Maillard reaction, which are related to roast flavour and a higher overall flavour liking. In summary, our results suggest that Maillard derived odour-active aroma compounds were partially inhibited in LI samples (high in PUFA), resulting in lower positive sensory ratings.

  20. Application of a simple method using minute particles of amorphous calcium phosphate for recovery of norovirus from cabbage, lettuce, and ham.

    Shinohara, Michiyo; Uchida, Kazue; Shimada, Shin-ichi; Tomioka, Kyoko; Suzuki, Noriko; Minegishi, Toshitaka; Kawahashi, Sachie; Yoshikawa, Yuko; Ohashi, Norio


    In this study, the amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) method developed previously for calicivirus concentration from water was applied for norovirus detection from food. The viral recovery from cabbage, lettuce, or ham (10g of each) was firstly examined in seeding experiments with feline caliciviruses (FCVs). The viruses were concentrated by viral adsorption to ACP particles (0.3g) in the eluent solution (40ml) from foods, collection of the particles by centrifugation, followed by dissolution of the particles with 3.3M citric acid (3ml). In ham, FCV recovery was improved by addition of ascorbic acids into the eluent solution before ACP-particle adsorption. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed that FCV recoveries were 32-33%, 50-55%, and 37-46% from cabbage, lettuce, and ham, respectively, when seeded with 10(3)-10(4) viruses, and detection limits were estimated ∼10(3) genomic copies in all 3 foods. Subsequently, the ACP-concentration method was evaluated for norovirus (NoV) detection from these 3 foods. The recoveries and detection limit of NoVs determined by qRT-PCR were 12-41% and 10(3) (genomic copies) from cabbage, 30-57% and 10(3) from lettuce, and 20-26% and 10(4) from ham, when seeded with 10(3)-10(5) viruses. This simple method may be suitable for NoV detection from these foods.

  1. Early Onset of HTLV-1 Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma (ATL): Systematic Search and Review.

    Oliveira, Pedro D; Kachimarek, Amanda C; Bittencourt, Achiléa L


    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is endemic in some regions and its vertical transmission occurs mainly through breastfeeding. About 10% of carriers develop associated diseases including HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) and infectious dermatitis associated with HTLV-1 (IDH). We searched for available case reports of early-onset HAM/TSP and ATL to evaluate demographic and disease aspects in infantile-juvenile patients. In the reviewed literature, 27 HAM/TSP and 31 ATL cases were found. In almost all of them, the most likely route of transmission was through breastfeeding. ATL is rarely reported, notwithstanding it may be underestimated because T-cell lymphomas are not investigated for HTLV-1 infection in this age group. IDH was frequently associated with HAM/TSP. The investigation of HTLV-1 infection in pregnant women is an important matter of public health and should be mandatory in endemic countries. © The Author [2017]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  2. The Hamburg selection procedure for dental students - introduction of the HAM-Nat as subject-specific test for study aptitude.

    Kothe, Christian; Hissbach, Johanna; Hampe, Wolfgang


    Einleitung: In der vorliegenden Untersuchung wird der Frage nachgegangen, ob die Auswahl der Studierenden in der Zahnmedizin alleine durch die Abiturdurchschnittsnote erfolgen sollte oder ob sie durch den Einsatz eines fachspezifischen Studierfähigkeitstest verbessert werden kann. Methoden: Der Naturwissenschaftstest HAM-Nat wurde in den Jahren 2006 und 2007 in der Erstsemesterwoche an den Studienanfängerinnen und -anfängern* erprobt sowie 2009 und 2010 im Auswahlverfahren eingesetzt. Die Stichprobengrößen der Regressionsmodelle variieren in allen Jahrgängen zwischen 32 und 55 Teilnehmern. Ergebnisse: Der HAM-Nat erklärte zusätzlich zur Abiturdurchschnittsnote bis zu 12 % der Leistungsvarianz in den vorklinischen Prüfungsleistungen. Die in anderen Studien gefundene prognostische Güte der Abiturdurchschnittsnote konnte für einige, aber nicht für alle Einzelprüfungen bestätigt werden. Schlussfolgerung: Der HAM-Nat erwies sich als zuverlässiges Auswahlinstrument in der Zahnmedizin. Durch den Einsatz des HAM-Nat wird die Vorhersage des vorklinischen, akademischen Studienerfolgs in der Zahnmedizin deutlich verbessert.

  3. High hydrostatic pressure and biopreservation of dry-cured ham to meet the Food Safety Objectives for Listeria monocytogenes.

    Hereu, Anna; Bover-Cid, Sara; Garriga, Margarita; Aymerich, Teresa


    This work aimed to evaluate the effect of nisin application (biopreservation) combined with high hydrostatic pressure processing (HHP) on the behavior of Listeria monocytogenes CTC1034 intentionally inoculated (at ca. 10(7)cells/g) onto the surface of ready-to-eat (RTE) sliced dry-cured ham. Two types of dry-cured ham, which had different water activities and fat contents were studied (a(w) of 0.92 and 14.25% fat and a(w) of 0.88 and 33.26% fat). Three batches were prepared for each type of product: (C) control, without nisin; (N) nisin directly applied (200 AU/cm(2)) and (F) nisin applied through active packaging, polyvinyl alcohol films with 200 AU/cm(2). Half of the samples were pressurized at 600 MPa for 5min. Counts of L. monocytogenes were periodically monitored throughout 60 days of storage at 8°C. The physico-chemical characteristics of the products enabled the survival of L. monocytogenes, but it was significantly reduced by the presence of nisin. The effect of biopreservation was greater when applied directly to the surface and in the product with lower water activity in comparison with the active packaging and the high water activity products, respectively. The immediate inactivation of L. monocytogenes by HHP ranged from 1.82 to 3.85 Log units, depending on the type of dry-cured ham. The lower the water activity, the less was the inactivation induced by HHP, both immediately and during storage. The reduction of L. monocytogenes immediately after HHP and during storage was more evident in batches with nisin applied directly to the surface of the product. The pathogen was not detected in some samples from day 5 of storage in the product with higher water activity. The effect of nisin applied through active packaging was lower than the direct application. The results of the present study indicated that HHP, as post-processing listericidal treatment, is more effective (both immediately and long term) than the use of nisin as an antimicrobial measure

  4. Direct and social genetic effects on body weight at 270 days and carcass and ham quality traits in heavy pigs.

    Rostellato, R; Sartori, C; Bonfatti, V; Chiarot, G; Carnier, P


    The aims of this study were to estimate covariance components for BW at 270 d (BW270) and carcass and ham quality traits in heavy pigs using models accounting for social effects and to compare the ability of such models to fit the data relative to models ignoring social interactions. Phenotypic records were from 9,871 pigs sired by 293 purebred boars mated to 456 crossbred sows. Piglets were born and reared at the same farm and randomly assigned at 60 d of age to groups (6.1 pigs per group on average) housed in finishing pens, each having an area of 6 m(2). The average additive genetic relationship among group mates was 0.11. Pigs were slaughtered at 277 ± 3 d of age and 169.7 ± 13.9 kg BW in groups of nearly 70 animals each. Four univariate animal models were compared: a basic model (M1) including only direct additive genetic effects, a model (M2) with nonheritable social group (pen) effects in addition to effects in M1, a model (M3) accounting for litter effects in addition to M2, and a model (M4) accounting for social genetic effects in addition to effects in M3. Restricted maximum likelihood estimates of covariance components were obtained for BW270; carcass backfat depth; carcass lean meat content (CLM); iodine number (IOD); and linoleic acid content (LIA) of raw ham subcutaneous fat; subcutaneous fat depth in the proximity of semimembranosus muscle (SFD1) and quadriceps femoris muscle (SFD2); and linear scores for ham round shape (RS), subcutaneous fat (SF), and marbling. Likelihood ratio tests indicated that, for all traits, M2 fit the data better than M1 and that M3 was superior to M2 except for SFD1 and SFD2. Model M4 was significantly better than M3 for BW270 (P manufacturing. Such effects should be exploited and taken into account in design of breeding programs for heavy pigs.

  5. Scientific basis for use of Pyrus pashia Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don. fruit in gastrointestinal, respiratory and cardiovascular ailments.

    Khalid Hussain Janbaz

    Full Text Available Pyrus pashia Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don. has been used conventionally by many communities in the Himalayan region for the management of gastrointestinal, respiratory, and vascular complications. Set against this background, this study was carried out to justify the scientific basis to validate folkloric uses of fruits of Pyrus pashia Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don. (Pp.Cr in traditional systems of medicine.The crude ethanol extract of fruits of Pyrus pashia Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don. (Pp.Cr was tested in vitro on isolated rabbit jejunum, tracheal, and aorta preparations. The responses of tissues were recorded using isotonic transducers coupled with a PowerLab data acquisition system.The Pp.Cr on application (0.01-5.0 mg/ml to isolated rabbit jejunum preparation exhibited relaxation through decrease in magnitude and frequency of spontaneous contractions. The Pp.Cr also exerted a relaxant (0.01-5.0 mg/ml effect on K+ (80 mM induced contractions in isolated rabbit jejunum preparations and caused shifting of the Ca2+ curves (1.0-3.0 mg/ml toward right in a manner similar to that of verapamil (3 μM, possibly suggesting presence of Ca2+ channel blocking activity. Subsequently, Pp.Cr in a concentration-dependent fashion (0.01-10.0 mg/ml caused relaxation of CCh (1 μM and K+ (80 mM induced contractions in isolated rabbit tracheal preparations in a manner comparable to that of dicyclomine, suggesting that the observed relaxant effect is likely to be mediated through antimuscarinic and/or Ca2+ channel blocking activities. Moreover, when evaluated against isolated rabbit aortic preparations, the Pp.Cr in concentrations up to 10 mg/ml exhibited a contractile response that was found to be abolished subsequent to pretreatment of isolated tissue preparation with cyproheptadine (1 μM, phentolamine (1 μM, and losartan (1 μM, suggesting that Pp.Cr may have some α-adrenergic, muscarinic, serotonergic, and angiotensin II activities.The aqueous ethanolic extract of Pyrus pashia

  6. Analysis on Current Situation and Countermeasure of Domestic Electronic Commerce Logistics in the Internet Age——Based on Resource Dependence Theory

    Zhang Jiapeng


    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the status of electric business logistics in the current Internet era in China, and combines the SWOT analysis with AHP to do the empirical analysis, then puts forward the countermeasure that the electric business logistics resource should be shared based on the resource dependence theory. Through the empirical analysis, it is found that the disadvantages and opportunities of the logistics status are important in the Internet era.The resource sharing strategy based on the resource dependence theory is more scientific. The rational use of Internet technology in electric business logistics industry can achieve “sharing”. It is of great significance for its balanced development, intelligent development and optimization and development.

  7. Characterization of traditional Istrian dry-cured ham by means of physical and chemical analyses and volatile compounds.

    Marušić, Nives; Petrović, Marinko; Vidaček, Sanja; Petrak, Tomislav; Medić, Helga


    The aroma-active compounds of Istrian dry-cured ham were investigated by using headspace-solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Samples of biceps femoris were also evaluated by measuring physical and chemical characteristics: moisture, protein, fat, ash and NaCl content, a(w) value; colour: L*, a*, b* and oxidation of fat: TBARS test. About 50 volatile compounds were identified and quantified which belonged to several classes of chemical: 5 alcohols, 8 aldehydes, 7 alkanes, 1 ketone, 2 esters, 9 monoterpenes and 15 sesquiterpenes. Except volatile compounds derived from lipolysis and proteolysis the most abundant constituents were terpenes (62.97; 41.43%) that originate from spices added in the salting phase of the production process.

  8. Protected indications of origin as differentiation cue of food products: the Spanish dry-cured ham case

    Vanesa Barrales Molina


    Full Text Available The "country/region of origin" is a traditionally strategy used by food companies in order to differentiate their production from each other. In Spain, there are more than 140 EU recognised- Designations of Origin comprising several categories of food and drinks. From these, there are only six quality labels on Spanish dry-cured ham. In spite of this lower number of Designations, they suppose almost the 15% of the global economic value. From both a quantitative and a qualitative perspective -based on a SWOT analysis, this paper traits to analyse the role of origin as a marketing differentiation tool. In addition, interesting recommendations are offered in order to enhance the consumer's knowledge of Designations' main characteristics.

  9. An HAM Analysis of Stagnation-Point Flow of a Nanofluid over a Porous Stretching Sheet with Heat Generation

    A. Malvandi


    Full Text Available Steady two-dimensional stagnation point flow and heat transfer of a nanofluid over a porous stretching sheet investigated analytically using the Homotopy Analysis Method (HAM. The employed model for nanofluid includes two-component four-equation non-homogeneous equilibrium model that incorporates the effects of Brownian diffusion and thermophoresis simultaneously. The basic partial boundary layer equations have been reduced to a two-point boundary value problem via similarity variables. The effects of thermophoresis number ( , Brownian motion number ( , suction/injection parameter ( , source/sink parameter ( , permeability parameter ( , stretching parameter and Lewis number ( on the temperature and nanoparticle concentration profiles are studied in detail. Moreover, special attention is paid on the variations of reduced Nusselt and Sherwood number on the affects of physical parameters. The obtained results indicate that for , reduced Sherwood number remains constant however, corresponds to negative Sherwood number, i.e. concentration rate is reversed.

  10. Evaluation of the sectional aerosol microphysics module SALSA implementation in ECHAM5-HAM aerosol-climate model

    T. Bergman


    Full Text Available We present the implementation and evaluation of a sectional aerosol microphysics module SALSA within the aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM. This aerosol microphysics module has been designed to be flexible and computationally efficient so that it can be implemented in regional or global scale models. The computational efficiency has been achieved by minimising the number of variables needed to describe the size and composition distribution. The aerosol size distribution is described using 10 size classes with parallel sections which can have different chemical compositions. Thus in total, the module tracks 20 size sections which cover diameters ranging from 3 nm to 10 μm and are divided into three subranges, each with an optimised selection of processes and compounds.

    The implementation of SALSA into ECHAM5-HAM includes the main aerosol processes in the atmosphere: emissions, removal, radiative effects, liquid and gas phase sulphate chemistry, and the aerosol microphysics. The aerosol compounds treated in the module are sulphate, organic carbon, sea salt, black carbon, and mineral dust. In its default configuration, ECHAM5-HAM treats aerosol size distribution using the modal method. In this implementation, the aerosol processes were converted to be used in a sectional model framework.

    The ability of the module to describe the global aerosol properties was evaluated by comparing against (1 measured continental and marine size distributions, (2 observed variability of continental number concentrations, (3 measured sulphate, organic carbon, black carbon and sea-salt mass concentrations, (4 observations of aerosol optical depth (AOD and other aerosol optical properties from satellites and AERONET network, (5 global aerosol budgets and concentrations from previous model studies, and (6 model results using M7, which is the default aerosol microphysics module in ECHAM5-HAM.

    The evaluation shows that the global aerosol

  11. Evaluation of Key Dependent S-Box Based Data Security Algorithm using Hamming Distance and Balanced Output

    Balajee Maram K.


    Full Text Available Data security is a major issue because of rapid evolution of data communication over unsecured internetwork. Here the proposed system is concerned with the problem of randomly generated S-box. The generation of S-box depends on Pseudo-Random-Number-Generators and shared-secret-key. The process of Pseudo-Random-Number-Generator depends on large prime numbers. All Pseudo-Random-Numbers are scrambled according to shared-secret-key. After scrambling, the S-box is generated. In this research, large prime numbers are the inputs to the Pseudo-Random-Number-Generator. The proposed S-box will reduce the complexity of S-box generation. Based on S-box parameters, it experimentally investigates the quality and robustness of the proposed algorithm which was tested. It yields better results with the S-box parameters like Hamming Distance, Balanced Output and Avalanche Effect and can be embedded to popular cryptography algorithms

  12. Fiber resources

    P. J. Ince


    In economics, primary inputs or factors of production define the term ‘resources.’ Resources include land resources (plants, animals, and minerals), labor, capital, and entrepreneurship. Almost all pulp and paper fiber resources are plant materials obtained from trees or agricultural crops. These resources encompass plant materials harvested directly from the land (...

  13. HTLV-1 integration into transcriptionally active genomic regions is associated with proviral expression and with HAM/TSP.

    Kiran N Meekings


    Full Text Available Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 causes leukaemia or chronic inflammatory disease in approximately 5% of infected hosts. The level of proviral expression of HTLV-1 differs significantly among infected people, even at the same proviral load (proportion of infected mononuclear cells in the circulation. A high level of expression of the HTLV-1 provirus is associated with a high proviral load and a high risk of the inflammatory disease of the central nervous system known as HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP. But the factors that control the rate of HTLV-1 proviral expression remain unknown. Here we show that proviral integration sites of HTLV-1 in vivo are not randomly distributed within the human genome but are associated with transcriptionally active regions. Comparison of proviral integration sites between individuals with high and low levels of proviral expression, and between provirus-expressing and provirus non-expressing cells from within an individual, demonstrated that frequent integration into transcription units was associated with an increased rate of proviral expression. An increased frequency of integration sites in transcription units in individuals with high proviral expression was also associated with the inflammatory disease HAM/TSP. By comparing the distribution of integration sites in human lymphocytes infected in short-term cell culture with those from persistent infection in vivo, we infer the action of two selective forces that shape the distribution of integration sites in vivo: positive selection for cells containing proviral integration sites in transcriptionally active regions of the genome, and negative selection against cells with proviral integration sites within transcription units.

  14. Modeling the Effect of Storage Temperatures on the Growth of Listeria monocytogenes on Ready-to-Eat Ham and Sausage.

    Luo, Ke; Hong, Sung-Sam; Oh, Deog-Hwan


    The aim of this study was to model the growth kinetics of Listeria monocytogenes on ready-to-eat ham and sausage at different temperatures (4 to 35°C). The observed data fitted well with four primary models (Baranyi, modified Gompertz, logistic, and Huang) with high coefficients of determination (R(2) > 0.98) at all measured temperatures. After the mean square error (0.009 to 0.051), bias factors (0.99 to1.06), and accuracy factors (1.01 to 1.09) were obtained in all models, the square root and the natural logarithm model were employed to describe the relation between temperature and specific growth rate (SGR) and lag time (LT) derived from the primary models. These models were validated against the independent data observed from additional experiments using the acceptable prediction zone method and the proportion of the standard error of prediction. All secondary models based on each of the four primary models were acceptable to describe the growth of the pathogen in the two samples. The validation results indicate that the optimal primary model for estimating the SGR was the Baranyi model, and the optimal primary model for estimating LT was the logistic model in ready-to-eat (RTE) ham. The Baranyi model was also the optimal model to estimate the SGR and LT in RTE sausage. These results could be used to standardize predictive models, which are commonly used to identify critical control points in hazard analysis and critical control point systems or for the quantitative microbial risk assessment to improve the food safety of RTE meat products.

  15. Influences of in-cloud aerosol scavenging parameterizations on aerosol concentrations and wet deposition in ECHAM5-HAM

    B. Croft


    Full Text Available A diagnostic nucleation scavenging scheme, which determines stratiform cloud scavenging ratios for both aerosol mass and number distributions, based on cloud droplet, and ice crystal number concentrations, is introduced into the ECHAM5-HAM global climate model. This is coupled with a size-dependent in-cloud impaction scavenging parameterization for both cloud droplet-aerosol, and ice crystal-aerosol collisions. Sensitivity studies are presented, which compare aerosol concentrations, and deposition between a variety of in-cloud scavenging approaches, including prescribed fractions, several diagnostic schemes, and a prognostic aerosol cloud processing treatment that passes aerosol in-droplet and in-ice crystal concentrations between model time steps. For one sensitivity study, assuming 100% of the in-cloud aerosol is scavenged into the cloud droplets and ice crystals, the annual global mean accumulation mode number burden is decreased by 65%, relative to a simulation with prognostic aerosol cloud processing. Diagnosing separate nucleation scavenging ratios for aerosol number and mass distributions, as opposed to equating the aerosol mass scavenging to the number scavenging ratios, reduces the annual global mean sulfate burden by near to 10%. The annual global mean sea salt burden is 30% lower for the diagnostic approach, which does not carry aerosol in-droplet and in-crystal concentrations between model time-steps as compared to the prognostic scheme. Implementation of in-cloud impaction scavenging reduced the annual, global mean black carbon burden by 30% for the prognostic aerosol cloud processing scheme. Better agreement with observations of black carbon profiles from aircraft (changes near to one order of magnitude for mixed phase clouds, 210Pb surface layer concentrations and wet deposition, and the geographic distribution of aerosol optical depth are found for the new diagnostic scavenging as compared to prescribed ratio

  16. Reduzierbarkeit der Abbrecherquote im Humanmedizinstudium durch das Hamburger Auswahlverfahren für Medizinische Studiengänge - Naturwissenschaftsteil (HAM-Nat [Possible reduction of the medical school dropout number by the Hamburg Assessment test for Medicine - part Natural sciences (HAM-Nat

    Harendza, Sigrid


    Full Text Available [english] Aims: Since 2005 German medical faculties are allowed to select 60% of their freshmen. Nevertheless, many faculties stick to a selection based merely on the grade point average assigned by the secondary school (Abiturnote which is the best known predictor of success in German medical schools. Methods: In order to improve selection with respect to medical school dropout numbers we developed the HAM-Nat (Hamburg Admission test for Medicine - part Natural sciences, a test consisting of 52 multiple-choice questions from the topics of chemistry, physics, biology and mathematics, and assessed its difficulty with pupils of 6 different schools. Then the HAM-Nat was administered to 333 first-year students just before the start of their courses in October 2006. After the first academic year the power of the HAM-Nat to predict individual study success was compared to that of the grade point average. Study success was measured by the number of passed exams. Outcomes: The HAM-Nat was found to correlate better with study success than the grade point average. A projection based on data from older student cohorts shows that student selection with the HAM-Nat can reduce the number of students dropping out compared with a selection based on the grade point average alone. Other parameters like chosen natural science subjects at school or an industrial training in medicine or other areas do not predict academic success. Conclusions: The HAM-Nat is a valuable tool to predict student success at medical school. Based on this study Hamburg’s medical faculty has decided to introduce the HAM-Nat to select its entrants in 2008. [german] Zielsetzung: Seit das Hochschulrahmengesetz 2005 den Hochschulen ermöglicht, 60% der Medizinstudienanfänger selbst auszuwählen, sind die Medizinischen Fakultäten auf der Suche nach dem optimalen Auswahlverfahren. Viele tun sich schwer, ein Auswahlkriterium zu definieren. Noch schwieriger ist es, einen Test für die Auswahl

  17. On the development and the utilization of library holding in electronic resources Taking the Library of Shandong University of Science and Technology%试论电子资源的馆藏发展与利用——以山东科技大学图书馆为例

    陈明华; 马圣芹


    通过分析电子资源馆藏发展的意义及模式,对电子资源发展的目标及有效管理进行了探讨,并提出一些提高电子资源利用率的措施。%This paper analyses the mode and the importance of library holding development in electronic resources. It also ex- plores the aim and the affective management in electronic resource development and put forwards some measures to improve the utilization ratio of electronic resources.

  18. The Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D) and the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Scale (MADRS). A psychometric re-analysis of the European Genome-Based Therapeutic Drugs for Depression Study using Rasch analysis

    Bech, Per; Allerup, Peter; Larsen, Erik Roj


    The objective of this re-analysis of the European Genome-Based Therapeutic Drugs for Depression Study (GENDEP) was to psychometrically test the unidimensionality of the full Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS10) and the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D17) versus their respective...... 2030 had to be supplemented with the Friedman two-way analysis of variance by ranks. The HAM-D6 but not the MADRS5 was accepted. It was therefore concluded that the HAM-D6 is a psychometrically valid outcome scale to measure change in clinical trials of antidepressants....

  19. Eignung von HAM-Nat und TMS-Modul "Medizinisch-naturwissenschaftliches Grundverständnis" für die Studienbewerberauswahl in der Medizin [Suitability of the HAM-Nat test and TMS module "basic medical-scientific understanding" for medical school selection

    Hissbach, Johanna


    Full Text Available [english] Aims: Tests with natural-scientific content are predictive of the success in the first semesters of medical studies. Some universities in the German speaking countries use the ‘Test for medical studies’ (TMS for student selection. One of its test modules, namely “medical and scientific comprehension”, measures the ability for deductive reasoning. In contrast, the Hamburg Assessment Test for Medicine, Natural Sciences (HAM-Nat evaluates knowledge in natural sciences. In this study the predictive power of the HAM-Nat test will be compared to that of the NatDenk test, which is similar to the TMS module “medical and scientific comprehension” in content and structure. Methods: 162 medical school beginners volunteered to complete either the HAM-Nat (N=77 or the NatDenk test (N=85 in 2007. Until spring 2011, 84.2% of these successfully completed the first part of the medical state examination in Hamburg. Via different logistic regression models we tested the predictive power of high school grade point average (GPA or “Abiturnote” and the test results (HAM-Nat and NatDenk with regard to the study success criterion “first part of the medical state examination passed successfully up to the end of the 7 semester” (Success7Sem. The Odds Ratios (OR for study success are reported.Results: For both test groups a significant correlation existed between test results and study success (HAM-Nat: OR=2.07; NatDenk: OR=2.58. If both admission criteria are estimated in one model, the main effects (GPA: OR=2.45; test: OR=2.32 and their interaction effect (OR=1.80 are significant in the HAM-Nat test group, whereas in the NatDenk test group only the test result (OR=2.21 significantly contributes to the variance explained. Conclusions: On their own both HAM-Nat and NatDenk have predictive power for study success, but only the HAM-Nat explains additional variance if combined with GPA. The selection according to HAM-Nat and GPA has under the

  20. Electronic Library: A TERI Experiment.

    Kar, Debal C.; Deb, Subrata; Kumar, Satish


    Discusses the development of Electronic Library at TERI (The Energy and Resources Institute, New Delhi). Highlights include: hardware and software used; the digital library/Virtual Electronic Library; directory of Internet journals; virtual reference resources; electronic collection/Physical Electronic Library; downloaded online full-length…

  1. Innovative Resources for Education and Public Information: Electronic Services, Data and Information from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope and Other NASA Missions.

    Christian, Carol A.

    The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), which supports the operation of the Hubble Space Telescope, is actively investigating and supporting innovative and experimental methods for improving science and math education content. The educational resources on the World Wide Web are derived from the latest data, scientific results, and advances…

  2. An implementation case study. Implementation of the Indian Health Service's Resource and Patient Management System Electronic Health Record in the ambulatory care setting at the Phoenix Indian Medical Center.

    Dunnigan, Anthony; John, Karen; Scott, Andrea; Von Bibra, Lynda; Walling, Jeffrey


    The Phoenix Indian Medical Center (PIMC) has successfully implemented the Resource and Patient Management System Electronic Health Record (RPMS-EHR) in its Ambulatory Care departments. One-hundred and twenty-six providers use the system for essentially all elements of documentation, ordering, and coding. Implementation of one function at a time, in one clinical area at a time, allowed for focused training and support. Strong departmental leadership and the development of 'super-users' were key elements. Detailed assessments of each clinic prior to implementation were vital, resulting in optimal workstation utilization and a greater understanding of each clinic's unique flow. Each phase saw an increasing reluctance to revert to old paper processes. The success of this implementation has placed pressure on the remainder of the hospital to implement the RPMS-EHR, and has given the informatics team an increased awareness of what resources are required to achieve this result.

  3. 大學圖書館電子資源之需求分析與行銷策略之研究 A Study of Demands Analysis and Marketing Strategy of Electronic Resources in University Library

    Huang-Yu Liu


    Full Text Available 電子資源的出現,使得知識載體有了新的突破,提高了使用者的便利性與即時性。對於圖書館而言,如何使電子資源的使用效益達到最高,必須思考一套有效的行銷策略。電子資源行銷概念應以讀者為導向,尊重讀者的資訊需求,並利用各種宣傳技巧,行銷電子資源,使圖書館能提供更完善的服務。本研究之目的旨在探討讀者的使用需求及電子資源的推廣策略,以獲致最有效益的行銷方式。研究對象以開南大學日間部四學院(商學院、運輸觀光學院、資訊學院、人文社會學院)學生為樣本,佐以缺口分析模型為分析架構,藉以找出個案中讀者/學生對於電子資源使用的真實需求,並進而歸納出提供服務的大學圖書館在其推廣或行銷服務上可有的因應策略。The emergence of electronic resources has made new breakthrough in knowledge carriers because of their ease of use, instant availability, and the characteristic of no time and space constraints. For public libraries to achieve maximum efficiency in its electronic resources, it is necessary to seek the most effective marketing strategies. Therefore, the marketing concept of the electronic resources should be reader oriented, such as respecting and understanding library user’s information needs. Libraries also need to utilize various media and techniques to market the electronic resources, so that more comprehensive services and experiences can be provided to readers. The purpose of this study is to investigate library user’s needs and promotion strategies of electronic resources in order to identify the most effective ways of marketing. This study focuses on the students of the four colleges (College of Business, College of Tourism, College of Information, and College of Humanities and Social Science in Kainan University as subjects in the survey questionnaire. It uses the Gap Analysis


    Luz Amparo Montoya Pérez


    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la calidad del jamón de cerdo cocido usando alginato de sodio y carragenina durante la elaboración y almacenado a 8 0C durante 35 días. Fueron realizados dos tratamientos con alginato de sodio usando 0,3% y 0,5% y un tratamiento con carragenina 0,5%, después de la elaboración el jamón de cerdo cocido fue empacado al vacío a 8 0C durante 35 días. Los resultados indican que la mayor pérdida de agua fue observada a partir del día 21 del periodo de almacenamiento, sin presentar diferencias significativas entre tratamientos (P>0,05. La menor pérdida de agua correspondió al tratamiento con alginato de sodio al 0,5% y la mayor pérdida fue para el tratamiento con carragenina al 0,5% (PThe aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of cooked pork ham using sodium alginate and carrageenan during processing and storage at 8°C for 35 days. Two treatments were conducted using sodium alginate 0.3% and 0.5% and carrageenan treatment 0.5%, after preparation the pork cooked ham was vacuum packed at 8 °C for 35 days. The results indicate that the major water losses were presented from the 21 day of the storage period, without significant differences between treatments (P> 0.05. The lowest water loss corresponded to treatment with sodium alginate at 0.5% and the loss was greater for treatment with 0.5% carrageenan (P <0.05. The initial mesophilic count was of 1.03 log CFU / g, by the end of the storage period were obtained values of 5.74 log CFU / g showing no significant differences among treatments. The initial pH values of 6.64 were declining throughout the storage period, reaching values of 6.35. For flavor attribute highest and lowest scores corresponded to ham prepared with carrageenan 0.5% and alginate 0.3% respectively. The appearance attribute shows the highest scores for carrageenan 0.5%, while smaller values correspond to ham formulated with 0.3% alginate. For cutting force, the minor values

  5. Role of IL-21 in HTLV-1 infections with emphasis on HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP).

    Rajaei, Taraneh; Farajifard, Hamid; Rafatpanah, Houshang; Bustani, Reza; Valizadeh, Narges; Rajaei, Bahareh; Rezaee, Seyed Abdolrahim


    Interleukin-21 (IL-21) enhances the survival and cytotoxic properties of cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) and exhibits essential roles in controlling chronic viral infections. HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is a chronic progressive inflammatory disease of the nervous system. The main determinant of disease progression is efficiency of the CTL response to Human T lymphotropic virus types I (HTLV-1). In this study, the expression of host IL-21 and HTLV-I Tax and proviral load (PVL) was evaluated to understand the role and mechanism of IL-21 in HTLV-1 infections and the subsequent development of HAM/TSP. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 20 HAM/TSP patients, 20 asymptomatic HTLV-1 carriers (ACs) and 20 healthy controls (HCs) to evaluate the expression of IL-21 and Tax and PVL in non-activated and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-ionomycin-activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The mean mRNA expression of IL-21 in the non-activated and activated PBMCs was higher (by 5-13 times) in the HAM/TSP patients than in ACs and HCs (p < 0.05); however, there was no significant difference between ACs and HCs. In contrast to the IL-21 mRNA expression, the serum level of the IL-21 protein was significantly lower in the HAM/TSP patients than in ACs and HCs (p < 0.05). Furthermore, higher expression of Tax and PVL was observed in the HAM/TSP subjects than ACs (p < 0.05). In addition, Tax gene expression was positively correlated with PVL (R = 0.595, p = 0.000) and IL-21 gene expression (R = 0.395, p = 0.021) in the HTLV-1-infected subjects. In conclusion, the increase in IL-21 mRNA expression may reflect the attempt of infected T cells to induce an appropriate antiviral response, and the decrease in IL-21 protein expression may reflect the inhibition of IL-21 mRNA translation by viral factors in favour of virus evasion and dissemination.

  6. 电子商务系统内的人力资源管理模式解析%The analytic model of human resource management in electronic commerce system



      企业人力资源管理工作在现代电子商务环境下呈现出多方面的电子化新特征,且较之于传统的人力资源管理工作有非常多显著的优势可言,基本上已经成为了企业获取更大成功的基本导向。电子商务系统内的人力资源管理新模式E-HR就是在这样一种背景下应运而生的,E-HR管理模式不仅已经成为了众多企业发展的趋势,而且在实际应用的过程当中也已经给企业带来了非常多的利益。本文正是在此背景之下对电子商务系统内的人力资源管理模式E-HR进行解析,希望能够对其有更深入的理解并更好的应用到实践当中去。%The enterprise human resources management in modern electronic commerce environment presents many new characteristics of the electron,and compared with the traditional human resource management has many significant advantages,basically has become a basic guide for more successful enterprises.E-HR is a new mode of human resource management system emerge as the times require electronic commerce is in such a background,the E-HR management model not only has become the trend of development of many enterprises, but also in the process of practical application also has to the enterprise has brought a lot of benefits. This paper is analyzed under this background to the electronic commerce system within the human resources management mode of E-HR,the application wishes to have a deeper understanding and better on it into practice.

  7. Positive Perceptions of Access to Online Library Resources Correlates with Quality and Quantity of Scholarly Publications among Finnish Academics. A Review of: Vakkari, Pertti. “Perceived Influence of the Use of Electronic Information Resources on Scholarly Work and Publication Productivity.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 59.4 (Feb. 15, 2008: 602-12.

    Scott Marsalis


    Full Text Available Objective – To investigate the relationship between academics’ use of library electronic resources and their opinions regarding how these resources have impacted their work, and to investigate the association between this perceived influence and publication productivity during the previous two years.Design – Two specific questions added to an annual online user-survey questionnaire; additional data mined from surveySetting – Twenty-two Finnish Universities served by FinELib, the Finnish Electronic Library.Subjects – Seven hundred and sixty seven academic staff and full-time doctoral students.Methods – A questionnaire was posted in April 2007 on FinELib’s homepage and advertised on each university library’s mainpage, and focused on respondents’ experience in the previous two years. Participants selected answers either from a list of category choices, or, when measuring perceptions, by rating agreement with statements along a four-point scale. Controlled variables measured were the respondents’ academic position, their discipline, membership in a research group, whether their literature use was discipline-specific or interdisciplinary, and their perception of the availability online of the relevant core literature. The independent variable measured was the scholars’ perception of the impact of the use of electronic library resources on their work. The dependent variable measured was the scholars’ self-reported publications in the two years preceding the survey.Main Results – Participants reported a positive impact on the efficiency of their work, most strongly in areas of ease of access, with lesser impacts in the range of materials available to them and the ease with which they can keep up-to-date in their field. To a lesser extent, the scholars perceived a positive impact on the quality of their work. Upon analysis, the study found that access to online library resources improved scholars’ work by the interconnected

  8. 配偶试验法在火腿肠感官评定中的应用%Application of spouse test method in sensory evaluation of ham sausage

    魏永义; 王艳芳


    The spouse test method was applied to do the sensory evaluation of ham sausage. The re⁃sults showed that ham sausages were significantly different. This method could analyze the differences of ham sausage. And it was suitable for sensory evaluation of ham sausage.%应用配偶试验法对火腿肠进行了感官评定,结果表明,火腿肠之间有显著差异,配偶试验法能评价出火腿肠之间的差异,适合于火腿肠的感官差异分析评价。

  9. Effects of Two Application Methods of Plantaricin BM-1 on Control of Listeria monocytogenes and Background Spoilage Bacteria in Sliced Vacuum-Packaged Cooked Ham Stored at 4°C.

    Zhou, Huimin; Xie, Yuanhong; Liu, Hui; Jin, Junhua; Duan, Huixia; Zhang, Hongxing


    Two application methods were used to investigate the effect of plantaricin BM-1 on the control of Listeria monocytogenes and background spoilage bacteria in sliced vacuum-packaged cooked ham without the addition of any chemical preservatives, including sodium nitrite, during 35 days of storage at 4°C. Regardless of the application method, plantaricin BM-1 treatment (320, 640, or 1,280 arbitrary units [AU]/g of sliced cooked ham) significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the survival of L. monocytogenes (inoculated at 4 log CFU/g of sliced ham) compared with its survival in the control during the first 21 days of storage at 4°C. The inhibitory effect of plantaricin applied to the surface of the ham was significantly better than the same concentration of plantaricin incorporated into the cooked ham (P < 0.0001) during storage. Even 320 AU/g plantaricin applied to the surface exhibited greater inhibition of L. monocytogenes than 1,280 AU/g plantaricin incorporated into the cooked ham on days 1, 14, and 28. A level of 1,280 AU/g plantaricin applied to the surface of the ham reduced L. monocytogenes counts to below the detection limit from the 1st to the 21st day of storage at 4°C. Afterwards, L. monocytogenes was able to regrow, and the viable counts of L. monocytogenes at the end of storage reached 2.76 log CFU/g (6.11 log CFU/g lower than in the control). In the control ham, the counts of background spoilage bacteria increased gradually and surpassed the microbiological spoilage limitation level on the 21st day of storage. However, plantaricin BM-1 treatment significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the survival of background spoilage bacteria in ham compared with their survival in the control from day 21 to 35 of storage at 4°C. A level of 1,280 AU/g plantaricin incorporated into cooked ham was the most effective, reducing the count of background spoilage bacteria count from an initial 2.0 log CFU/g to 1.5 log CFU/g on day 7. This was then maintained for another 14 days and

  10. A tentative characterization of volatile compounds from Iberian Dry-Cured Ham according to different anatomical locations. A detailed study

    Narváez-Rivas, Mónica


    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to carry out a characterization of the volatile fraction of 23 Iberian dry-cured hams by GC-iontrap- MS. Two different locations –subcutaneous fat and musclefrom the slices taken parallel to the femur from each ham were analyzed. The analyses were done by Gas Chromatography- Mass Spectrometry with a polar capillary column and after a previous extraction using the Purge and Trap method. A total of 109 volatile compounds were identified, twenty-eight of which for the first time in Iberian dry-cured ham (isopropanol, 4-methyl-5-decanol, 2-butyl-1-octanol, 2-etoxy-ethanol, 2-ethyl-phenol, 2-hexen-1-ol, 3,5-octadien-2-ol, 2-decen- 1-ol, 5-ethylcyclopent-1-enecarboxaldehyde, 2,4-heptadienal, 6-nonenal, cyclopentanone, 3-ethenyl-cyclohexanone, 2-methyl-cyclopentanone, 6-octen-2-one, 5-methyl-2-(1-methylethyl- cyclopentanone, 3,5-octadien-2-one, 2-hydroxymethyl- 2,3,3-trimethyl-oxirane, 2-ethyl-hexyl 2-propenoate, 1-methoxypentane, 2,3-dihydrofurane, 2-D-2-pentadecyl-1,3-dioxolane, hexyl octyl eter, eucalyptol, di-(3-methyl-buthyl eter, piperidine, isopropylamine and 2-ethenyl-pyridine.

    El objetivo de este trabajo fue llevar a cabo una caracterización de la fracción volátil de 23 jamones curados de cerdo ibérico mediante GC-ion-trap-MS. Se analizaron dos zonas diferentes de las lonchas tomadas paralelas al fémur de cada jamón, Grasa subcutánea y magro. El análisis se realizó mediante cromatografía gaseosa en columna capilar de alta polaridad con detección de espectrometría de masas y extracción previa de la fracción volátil mediante purga y trampa. Un total de 109 compuestos volátiles fueron identificados, veintiocho de ellos descritos por primera vez en Jamón ibérico curado (isopropanol, 4-methyl-5-decanol, 2-butyl-1-octanol, 2-etoxy-ethanol, 2-ethyl-phenol, 2-hexen-1-ol, 3,5-octadien-2- ol, 2-decen-1-ol, 5-ethylcyclopent-1-enecarboxaldehyde, 2,4-heptadienal, 6-nonenal, cyclopentanone, 3-ethenyl

  11. Application of quantitative descriptive analysis( QDA )method in sensory evaluation of ham sausage%QDA在火腿肠感官评定中的应用

    魏永义; 王琼波; 张莉


    In this paper, quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) sory quality and establish spider web - shaped graphs by QDA data showed that this method could distinguish the sensory characteristics method was adopted to of three ham sausages. of three hanl sausages evaluate sen- The results , and it wassuitable for evaluating the sensory quality of ham sausage.%采用定量描述法(QDA)对三种火腿肠进行了感官评定,并建立了三种火腿肠的QDA数据的蜘蛛网图,结果表明,此方法能区别三种火腿肠的感官特性,适用于火腿肠感官品质的评价。

  12. HAMS (Hypoxia, Monitoring, and Mitigation System) II Quarterly Progress Report (Technical and Financial)


    three optional task: 1. Initial Prototypes 2. Design and Development Evolution 3. Production Ready HW/SW (Option) 4. Preliminary Human Testing of...Concept Definition Initial enclosure concepts were designed and 3D printed to facilitate size and layout of the electronic components. Refinement and...Milestones FY 2017 CY 2016 CY 2017 O N D J F M A M J J A S 2. Design and Development Evolution 3. (Option) Production Ready HW

  13. Influences of in-cloud aerosol scavenging parameterizations on aerosol concentrations and wet deposition in ECHAM5-HAM

    B. Croft


    Full Text Available A diagnostic cloud nucleation scavenging scheme, which determines stratiform cloud scavenging ratios for both aerosol mass and number distributions, based on cloud droplet, and ice crystal number concentrations, is introduced into the ECHAM5-HAM global climate model. This scheme is coupled with a size-dependent in-cloud impaction scavenging parameterization for both cloud droplet-aerosol, and ice crystal-aerosol collisions. The aerosol mass scavenged in stratiform clouds is found to be primarily (>90% scavenged by cloud nucleation processes for all aerosol species, except for dust (50%. The aerosol number scavenged is primarily (>90% attributed to impaction. 99% of this impaction scavenging occurs in clouds with temperatures less than 273 K. Sensitivity studies are presented, which compare aerosol concentrations, burdens, and deposition for a variety of in-cloud scavenging approaches: prescribed fractions, a more computationally expensive prognostic aerosol cloud processing treatment, and the new diagnostic scheme, also with modified assumptions about in-cloud impaction and nucleation scavenging. Our results show that while uncertainties in the representation of in-cloud scavenging processes can lead to differences in the range of 20–30% for the predicted annual, global mean aerosol mass burdens, and near to 50% for accumulation mode aerosol number burden, the differences in predicted aerosol mass concentrations can be up to one order of magnitude, particularly for regions of the middle troposphere with temperatures below 273 K where mixed and ice phase clouds exist. Different parameterizations for impaction scavenging changed the predicted global, annual mean number removal attributed to ice clouds by seven-fold, and the global, annual dust mass removal attributed to impaction by two orders of magnitude. Closer agreement with observations of black carbon profiles from aircraft (increases near to one order of magnitude for mixed phase clouds

  14. Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19115 on ham steak by tea bioactive compounds incorporated into chitosan-coated plastic films

    Vodnar Dan C


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The consumer demands for better quality and safety of food products have given rise to the development and implementation of edible films. The use of antimicrobial films can be a promising tool for controlling L. monocytogenes on ready to eat products. The aim of this study was to develop effective antimicrobial films incorporating bioactive compounds from green and black teas into chitosan, for controlling L. monocytogenes ATCC 19115 on vacuum-packaged ham steak. The effectiveness of these antimicrobial films was evaluated at room temperature (20°C for 10 days and at refrigerated temperature (4°C for 8 weeks. Results The HPLC results clearly show that relative concentrations of catechins and caffeine in green tea ranked EGCG>EGC>CAF>ECG>EC>C while in black tea extracts ranked CAF>EGCG>ECG>EGC>EC>C. The chitosan-coated plastic films incorporating green tea and black tea extracts shows specific markers identified by FTIR. Incorporating natural extracts into chitosan showed that the growth of L monocytogenes ATCC 19115 was inhibited. The efficacy of antimicrobial effect of tea extracts incorporated into chitosan-coated plastic film was dose dependent. However, chitosan-coated films without addition of tea extracts did not inhibit the growth of L. monocytogenes ATCC 19115. Chitosan-coated plastic films incorporating 4% Green tea extract was the most effective antimicrobial, reducing the initial counts from 3.2 to 2.65 log CFU/cm2 during room temperature storage and from 3.2 to 1–1.5 log CFU/cm2 during refrigerated storage. Conclusions Incorporation of tea extracts into the chitosan-coated films considerably enhanced their effectiveness against L. monocytogenes ATCC 19115. 4% Green tea incorporated into chitosan-coated plastic film had a better antilisterial effect than 2% green tea or 2% and 4% black tea. Data from this study would provide new formulation options for developing antimicrobial packaging films using tea

  15. Evaluation of the sectional aerosol microphysics module SALSA implementation in ECHAM5-HAM aerosol-climate model

    T. Bergman


    Full Text Available We present the implementation and evaluation of a sectional aerosol microphysics model SALSA within the aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM. This aerosol microphysics module has been designed to be flexible and computationally efficient so that it can be implemented in regional or global scale models. The computational efficiency has been achieved by keeping the number of variables needed to describe the size and composition distribution to the minimum. The aerosol size distribution is described using 20 size sections with 10 size sections in size space which cover diameters ranging from 3 nm to 10 μm divided to three subranges each having distinct optimised process and compound selection.

    The ability of the module to describe the global aerosol properties was evaluated by comparison against (1 measured continental and marine size distributions, (2 observed variability of continental modal number concentrations, (3 measured sulphate, organic carbon, black carbon and sea salt mass concentrations, (4 observations of AOD and other aerosol optical properties from satellites and AERONET network, (5 global aerosol budgets and concentrations from previous model studies, and (6 model results using M7 which is the default aerosol microphysics module in ECHAM5-HAM.

    The evaluation shows that the global aerosol properties can be reproduced reasonably well using the coarse resolution of 10 size sections in size space. The simulated global aerosol budgets are within the range of previous studies. Surface concentrations of sea salt, sulphate and carbonaceous species have an annual mean within a factor of five of the observations, while the simulated sea salt concentrations reproduce the observations less accurately and show high variability. Regionally, AOD is in relatively good agreement with the observations (within a factor of two. At mid-latitudes the observed AOD is captured well, while at high-latitudes as well as in some polluted and

  16. Lactation resources for clinicians.

    Turner-Maffei, Cynthia


    Breastfeeding is widely acknowledged as the optimal infant feeding choice. However, many clinicians working in maternal and child health do not receive adequate university preparation to support breastfeeding. Knowledge and skill are most often gained through on-the-job and personal experience. Myriad resources exist to support clinicians in delivering the best quality care to breastfeeding clients. Among the available resources are policies and protocols of professional organizations, governmental, and health advocacy groups. Breastfeeding-focused academic and continuing education programs are identified. Electronic and other resources for breastfeeding information are available for both professional and consumer audiences.

  17. Renewable energy resources

    Ellabban, Omar S.; Abu-Rub, Haitham A.; Blaabjerg, Frede


    Electric energy security is essential, yet the high cost and limited sources of fossil fuels, in addition to the need to reduce greenhouse gasses emission, have made renewable resources attractive in world energy-based economies. The potential for renewable energy resources is enormous because...... they can, in principle, exponentially exceed the world's energy demand; therefore, these types of resources will have a significant share in the future global energy portfolio, much of which is now concentrating on advancing their pool of renewable energy resources. Accordingly, this paper presents how...... renewable energy resources are currently being used, scientific developments to improve their use, their future prospects, and their deployment. Additionally, the paper represents the impact of power electronics and smart grid technologies that can enable the proportionate share of renewable energy...

  18. Merge of terminological resources

    Henriksen, Lina; Braasch, Anna


    In our globalized world, the amount of cross-national communication increases rapidly, which also calls for easy access to multi-lingual high quality terminological resources. Sharing of terminology resources is currently becoming common practice, and efficient strategies for integration...... – or merging – of terminology resources are strongly needed. This paper discusses prerequisites for successful merging with the focus on identification of candidate duplicates of a subject domain found in the resources to be merged, and it describes automatic merging strategies to be applied to such duplicates...... in electronic terminology resources. Further, some perspectives of manual, supplementary assessment methods supporting the automatic procedures are sketched. Our considerations are primarily based on experience gained in the IATE and EuroTermBank projects, as merging was a much discussed issue in both projects....

  19. Effect of the inclusion of dry pasta by-products at different levels in the diet of typical Italian finishing heavy pigs: Performance, carcass characteristics, and ham quality.

    Prandini, A; Sigolo, S; Moschini, M; Giuberti, G; Morlacchini, M


    The effect of pasta inclusion in finishing pig diets was evaluated on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and ham quality. Pigs (144) were assigned to 4 diets with different pasta levels: 0 (control, corn-based diet), 30, 60, or 80%. Pigs fed pasta had greater (linear, PPasta increased (quadratic, PPasta decreased (linear, Ppasta. Pasta could be considered as an ingredient in the diet for typical Italian finishing heavy pigs.

  20. Modeling and optimization of sensory changes and shelf-life in vacuum-packaged cooked ham treated by E-beam irradiation

    Benedito, J., E-mail: jjbenedi@tal.upv.e [Grupo de Analisis y Simulacion de Procesos Agroalimentarios, Departamento Tecnologia de Alimentos, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Cami de Vera S/n, E46022 Valencia (Spain); Cambero, M.I. [Departamento de Nutricion, Bromatologia y Tecnologia de los Alimentos, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E28040 Madrid (Spain); Ortuno, C. [Grupo de Analisis y Simulacion de Procesos Agroalimentarios, Departamento Tecnologia de Alimentos, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Cami de Vera S/n, E46022 Valencia (Spain); Cabeza, M.C.; Ordonez, J.A.; Hoz, L. de la [Departamento de Nutricion, Bromatologia y Tecnologia de los Alimentos, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E28040 Madrid (Spain)


    The E-beam irradiation of vacuum-packaged RTE cooked ham was carried out to establish the dose required to achieve the food safety objective (FSO) and to minimize changes in selected sensory attributes. Cooked ham was irradiated with doses ranging 1-4 kGy. After the treatment, the microbial inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes, the shelf-life of the product and some sensory attributes (appearance, odor, and flavor) were determined. The inactivation of L. monocytogenes was satisfactorily described by a first-order kinetics equation (R2=0.99). The influence of the irradiation dose on appearance, odor, and flavor was modeled through Gompertz (R2=0.99, for appearance) and Activation/Inactivation (R2=0.99, for odor and flavor) equations. A model was also developed to determine the shelf-life of irradiated cooked ham depending on the irradiation dose (R2>0.91). The dose that maximized the scores of the sensory attributes was 0.96 kGy resulting in an acceptable sensory quality for 80 days. It is possible to apply up to 2 kGy to ensure microbial safety, while provoking no significant changes in the above mentioned sensory attributes.

  1. Oxidative and lipolytic changes during ripening of Iberian hams as affected by feeding regime: extensive feeding and alpha-tocopheryl acetate supplementation.

    Cava, R; Ruiz, J; Ventanas, J; Antequera, T


    The effect of pig feeding in an extensive system based on acorn and pasture or in confinement with a control diet containing 5 mg α-tocopheryl acetate kg(-1) of feed and a 100 mg α-tocopheryl acetate kg(-1) enriched diet on evolution of lipid changes throughout ripening of dry-cured hams was investigated. Feeding regime significantly affected TBA-RS, peroxide value and hexanal content of Biceps femoris and Semimembranosus muscles. Muscles from pigs fed supplemented diet with α-tocopherol or fed extensively on acorn and grass showed significant lower (p<0.05) TBA-RS and peroxide value than ham muscles from pigs fed the basal diet at 210 days of processing. Both feedings reduced significantly (p<0.05) hexanal content at day 210 and day 700. Muscle slices from pigs fed on acorn showed significant higher scores (p<0.05) in aroma and flavour intensity, cured flavour and numerically lower rancid scores than those from control diet hams. ©

  2. Effect of intramuscular fat content and serving temperature on temporal sensory perception of sliced and vacuum packaged dry-cured ham.

    Fuentes, Verónica; Ventanas, Jesús; Morcuende, David; Ventanas, Sonia


    The present study aimed to evaluate the influence of three serving temperatures (7 °C, 16 °C and 20 °C) and two different ham sections varying in the intramuscular fat (IMF) content on the sensory characteristics of sliced and vacuum-packaged Iberian dry-cured hams using the time-intensity (TI) method. Preceding the TI study, appearance and odour of dry-cured hams were evaluated using a descriptive profile. Fluidity and brightness of the external fat, brightness of lean and all odour attributes increased as serving temperature increased whereas the hardness of external fat decreased with temperature. Oral temperature would have disguised the effect of serving temperature over time as a consequence of a possible balance between both temperatures during samples' consumption. TI revealed that the effect of serving temperature on flavour and texture perception was more noticeable along the first seconds of chewing. Odour intensities increased with the IMF content and temporal perception of hardness, saltiness and rancid flavour were also significantly influenced by the IMF content.

  3. Effect of potassium lactate and a potassium lactate-sodium diacetate blend on Listeria monocytogenes growth in modified atmosphere packaged sliced ham.

    Mellefont, L A; Ross, T


    Two commercially available organic acid salts, potassium lactate (PURASAL HiPure P) and a potassium lactate-sodium diacetate blend (PURASAL Opti. Form PD 4), were assessed as potential inhibitors of Listeria monocytogenes growth in modified atmosphere packaged (MAP) sliced ham in challenge studies. The influence of the initial inoculation level of L. monocytogenes (10(1) or 10(3) CFU g(-1)) and storage temperature (4 or 8 degrees C) was also examined. The addition of either organic acid salt to MAP sliced ham strongly inhibited the growth of L. monocytogenes during the normal shelf life of the product under ideal refrigeration conditions (4 degrees C) and even under abusive temperature conditions (i.e., 8 degrees C). During the challenge studies and in the absence of either organic acid salt, L. monocytogenes numbers increased by 1000-fold after 20 days at 8 degrees C and 10-fold after 42 days at 4 degrees C. Both organic acid salt treatments were found to be listeriostatic rather than listericidal. The addition of either organic acid salt to the MAP ham also reduced the growth of indigenous microflora, i.e., aerobic microflora and lactic acid bacteria. The influence of these compounds on the risk of listeriosis in relation to product shelf life is discussed.

  4. Modeling and optimization of sensory changes and shelf-life in vacuum-packaged cooked ham treated by E-beam irradiation

    Benedito, J.; Cambero, M. I.; Ortuño, C.; Cabeza, M. C.; Ordoñez, J. A.; de la Hoz, L.


    The E-beam irradiation of vacuum-packaged RTE cooked ham was carried out to establish the dose required to achieve the food safety objective (FSO) and to minimize changes in selected sensory attributes. Cooked ham was irradiated with doses ranging 1-4 kGy. After the treatment, the microbial inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes, the shelf-life of the product and some sensory attributes (appearance, odor, and flavor) were determined. The inactivation of L. monocytogenes was satisfactorily described by a first-order kinetics equation ( R2=0.99). The influence of the irradiation dose on appearance, odor, and flavor was modeled through Gompertz ( R2=0.99, for appearance) and Activation/Inactivation ( R2=0.99, for odor and flavor) equations. A model was also developed to determine the shelf-life of irradiated cooked ham depending on the irradiation dose ( R2>0.91). The dose that maximized the scores of the sensory attributes was 0.96 kGy resulting in an acceptable sensory quality for 80 days. It is possible to apply up to 2 kGy to ensure microbial safety, while provoking no significant changes in the above mentioned sensory attributes.

  5. Gradual Reduction in Sodium Content in Cooked Ham, with Corresponding Change in Sensorial Properties Measured by Sensory Evaluation and a Multimodal Machine Vision System.

    Greiff, Kirsti; Mathiassen, John Reidar; Misimi, Ekrem; Hersleth, Margrethe; Aursand, Ida G


    The European diet today generally contains too much sodium (Na(+)). A partial substitution of NaCl by KCl has shown to be a promising method for reducing sodium content. The aim of this work was to investigate the sensorial changes of cooked ham with reduced sodium content. Traditional sensorial evaluation and objective multimodal machine vision were used. The salt content in the hams was decreased from 3.4% to 1.4%, and 25% of the Na(+) was replaced by K(+). The salt reduction had highest influence on the sensory attributes salty taste, after taste, tenderness, hardness and color hue. The multimodal machine vision system showed changes in lightness, as a function of reduced salt content. Compared to the reference ham (3.4% salt), a replacement of Na(+)-ions by K(+)-ions of 25% gave no significant changes in WHC, moisture, pH, expressed moisture, the sensory profile attributes or the surface lightness and shininess. A further reduction of salt down to 1.7-1.4% salt, led to a decrease in WHC and an increase in expressible moisture.

  6. 大豆素火腿加工的凝胶工艺研究%Gelling technology of soybean vegetarian ham

    邓源喜; 马龙; 李妍; 许晖; 徐世晶


    凝胶过程是决定素火腿品质的关键工序.采用单因素试验、正交试验,研究了素火腿加工的凝胶工艺,并对关键参数进行了优化.结果表明,选择浓度为0.25mol/L的CaSO4及浓度为2.0mol/L的卤水作为凝固剂,凝固温度为85℃,大豆蛋白含量为14%,此时形成的蛋白凝胶硬度为351g,加工的素火腿有很好的咀嚼性和粘弹性.%Gelling was considered as the key processing stage in the production of vegetarian ham.A new gelling technology of vegetarian ham was studied and optimized by single factor and orthogonal tests.The results showed that when 0.25mol/L CaSO4 and 2.0mol/L Lushui were used as coagulants, the coagulation temperature was 85℃ and the soybean protein content was 14%, the firmness of the protein gel was 351g, and the vegetarian ham was chewy and viscoelastic.

  7. Gradual Reduction in Sodium Content in Cooked Ham, with Corresponding Change in Sensorial Properties Measured by Sensory Evaluation and a Multimodal Machine Vision System

    Greiff, Kirsti; Mathiassen, John Reidar; Misimi, Ekrem; Hersleth, Margrethe; Aursand, Ida G.


    The European diet today generally contains too much sodium (Na+). A partial substitution of NaCl by KCl has shown to be a promising method for reducing sodium content. The aim of this work was to investigate the sensorial changes of cooked ham with reduced sodium content. Traditional sensorial evaluation and objective multimodal machine vision were used. The salt content in the hams was decreased from 3.4% to 1.4%, and 25% of the Na+ was replaced by K+. The salt reduction had highest influence on the sensory attributes salty taste, after taste, tenderness, hardness and color hue. The multimodal machine vision system showed changes in lightness, as a function of reduced salt content. Compared to the reference ham (3.4% salt), a replacement of Na+-ions by K+-ions of 25% gave no significant changes in WHC, moisture, pH, expressed moisture, the sensory profile attributes or the surface lightness and shininess. A further reduction of salt down to 1.7–1.4% salt, led to a decrease in WHC and an increase in expressible moisture. PMID:26422367

  8. Downregulation of histone methyltransferase EHMT2 in CD4(+) T-cells may protect HTLV-1-infected individuals against HAM/TSP development.

    Colaço, Camila Schoueri; de Matos, Adriano Reis; Estrêla, Martha Silva; Rocha-Júnior, Maurício Cristiano; Otaguiri, Kátia Kaori; Rodrigues, Evandra Strazza; Takayanagui, Osvaldo Massaiti; Covas, Dimas Tadeu; Kashima, Simone; Pittella Silva, Fabio; Haddad, Rodrigo


    Approximately 5% of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-infected individuals will develop one of the HTLV-1-related diseases, such as HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) or adult T-cell leukemia. However, the mechanisms responsible for the appearance of symptoms have not been fully clarified. It is believed that viral factors, host genetic and epigenetic mechanisms are implicated in this process. Studies have shown the involvement of histone methyltransferases in retrovirus infection, but no study observed their expression in HTLV-1-infected patients. Among them, euchromatic histone-lysine N-methyltransferase (EHMT)-1 and EHMT-2 were related to retroviral latency in HIV-1 infection. We investigated whether histone methyltransferases EHMT1 and EHMT2 exert any influence on HAM/TSP development by assessing their expression levels in CD4(+) T-cells from HTLV-1-infected patients. CD4(+) T-cells were immunomagnetically isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of HTLV-1-infected or non-infected individuals and the expression levels of EHMT1 and EHMT2 were determined by RT-qPCR. We observed that EHMT2 was negatively regulated in HTLV-1 asymptomatic carriers compared to non-infected individuals. No difference was observed for EHMT1. These results suggest that EHMT2 downregulation in CD4(+) T-cells may be linked to a protection mechanism against the development of HAM/TSP.

  9. Evaluating the use of a simulated electronic health record and online drug reference in a case study to enhance nursing students' understanding of pharmacologic concepts and resources.

    Vana, Kimberly D; Silva, Graciela E


    Nursing students should learn to navigate the complexities of the healthcare arena, such as integrating use of electronic health records (EHRs) and online drug references into patient care. Using a simulated EHR in a nursing pharmacology course allowed students to interact with these technologies while learning and applying pharmacologic concepts to a case study. The authors discuss how they created and facilitated such a case study, as well as students' outcomes.


    suardi suardi


    Full Text Available The principle of sustainable development in environmental management is a principle that was born out of responses to the serious environmental damages and give bad effects for human survival, the more damaged of the environment, the higher the threat to humanity itself. Therefore, development is a process of fulfilling human needs that supported on the carrying capacity of the optimal environment. Thus, the higher carrying capacity of environment makes the better stability for human life, conversely the higher human needs in life should be supported by the data support of good environment, so that it can function as a life supporting system. In the implementation, the principle of sustainable development has experienced the complex problems in implementing the balance of human life needs and also the environment, as a result, the environmental damage becomes severe and seemed not able to overcome, people assume that natural resources is the material that should be exploited for fulfilling the human needs. Therefore, environmental management geared to optimize natural resources as a supplier of material needs. By paying attention to that concept, then, environment is seen as a mere object, in turn, the environment can not be saved. Where as the concept of sustainable development requires a balance between human needs and environmental capacity. Hence, the future generations also have the right to enjoy a good and healthy environment as part of their human rights in the future. If the present generation does not pay attention those things, then, the present generation can be said violating the human rights of future generations. Keywords: Problematic of Applying the Principle of Sustainable Development, Human Rights.

  11. 浅谈高职院校图书馆电子资源的管理和服务%On the Management and Service of the Electronic Resources of Higher Vocational College Library



    Under the background of rapid development of social economy, the computer technology, computer network technology, communication technology, database technology and other information technology, China has entered the information age ahead of time. In higher vocational colleges, the library electronic resources have become an important way for teachers and students to get teaching knowledge and scientific research information, providing reliable, timely and accurate books resources information service for teachers and students. In order to ensure the effective utilization of library electronic resources in higher vocational colleges, scientific and reasonable management is necessary, so as to promote the construction of digital libraries in higher vocational colleges, to achieve better and faster development.%在社会经济的快速发展背景下,我国计算机技术、计算机网络技术、通讯技术以及数据库技术等信息技术的产生,使我国提前进入信息化时代。在高职院校中,图书馆电子资源已经成为老师和学生获取教学知识、科研信息等方面的重要途径,为学校老师和学生提供了可靠、及时、准确的图书资源信息化服务。为了确保高职院校图书馆电子资源的有效利用,需要对其进行科学合理的管理,促进高职院校图书馆数字化建设,使其更好更快地发展。

  12. Power Electronics

    Iov, Florin; Ciobotaru, Mihai; Blaabjerg, Frede


    is to change the electrical power production sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. The other is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss the most...... emerging renewable energy sources, wind energy, which by means of power electronics are changing from being a minor energy source to be acting as an important power source in the energy system. Power electronics is the enabling technology and the presentation will cover the development in wind turbine...... technology from kW to MW, discuss which power electronic solutions are most feasible and used today....

  13. Electronic collection management

    Mcginnis, Suzan D


    Build and manage your collection of digital resources with these successful strategies! This comprehensive volume is a practical guide to the art and science of acquiring and organizing electronic resources. The collections discussed here range in size from small college libraries to large research libraries, but all are facing similar problems: shrinking budgets, increasing demands, and rapidly shifting formats. Electronic Collection Management offers new ideas for coping with these issues. Bringing together diverse aspects of collection development, Electronic Collection




    Full Text Available Antipathogenic efficacy of methanolic leaf extract of Cinnamomum tamala (Buch.-Ham. and Aegle marmelos(L. through inhibiting the growth of Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC 3160, Salmonella typhi (MTCC 3216 andProteus mirabilis (MTCC 7837 the causative pathogens of food poisoning, boils, abscesses, wound infection,pneumonia, toxic shock syndrome, typhoid fever, urethitis, cystitis, pylonephritis and prostatitis has beeninvestigated. All the strains were affected by methanolic leaf extract of C. tamala and A. marmelos in agar diffusionmethod and broth dilution method. The MIC values in agar diffusion method were 2.5 mg/mL against S. aureusfor extract of both plants and 5 mg/mL, 1.25 mg/mL, against P. mirabilis for the extract of C. tamala and A.marmelos respectively. The MIC values in broth dilution method were 2.5 mg/mL against S.aureus for both plantsextract, 4 mg/mL, 1 mg/mL against P.mirabilis and 9 mg/mL, 10 mg/mL against S. typhi for C. tamala and A.marmelos respectively. The nutritional value, phytochemical contents and inorganic substance content of C.tamala is higher than A. marmelos.

  15. Anti-diarrhoea and analgesic activities of the methanol extract and its fractions of Jasminum amplexicaule Buch.-Ham. (Oleaceae).

    Jia, Qiang; Su, Weiwei; Peng, Wei; Li, Peibo; Wang, Yonggang


    Jasminum amplexicaule Buch.-Ham. (Oleaceae) has been commonly used in the traditional medicine in dysentery, diarrhoea and bellyache in China. In the present work, the methanol extract of Jasminum amplexicaule and different fractions of this extract were studied for anti-diarrhoea and analgesic activities. The anti-diarrhoea activities were investigated using castor oil-induced, magnesium sulphate-induced diarrhoea models, antienteropooling assay and gastrointestinal motility models in mice. The analgesic activities were studied using hot-plate, writhing and formalin models in mice. At the doses of 100, 200 and 400mg/kg, the methanol extract (ME) showed significant and dose-dependent anti-diarrhoea and analgesic activity in these models. The chloroform fraction (CHF), ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) and the residual methanol fraction (RMF) exhibited similar activity using a dose of 200mg/kg in these models. The pharmacological activities of the n-butanol fraction (BUF) were lesser than the ME extract and other fractions. These results may support the fact that this plant is traditionally used to cure diarrhoea and pain.

  16. Representation of the West African Monsoon System in the aerosol-climate model ECHAM6-HAM2

    Stanelle, Tanja; Lohmann, Ulrike; Bey, Isabelle


    The West African Monsoon (WAM) is a major component of the global monsoon system. The temperature contrast between the Saharan land surface in the North and the sea surface temperature in the South dominates the WAM formation. The West African region receives most of its precipitation during the monsoon season between end of June and September. Therefore the existence of the monsoon is of major social and economic importance. We discuss the ability of the climate model ECHAM6 as well as the coupled aerosol climate model ECHAM6-HAM2 to simulate the major features of the WAM system. The north-south temperature gradient is reproduced by both model versions but all model versions fail in reproducing the precipitation amount south of 10° N. A special focus is on the representation of the nocturnal low level jet (NLLJ) and the corresponding enhancement of low level clouds (LLC) at the Guinea Coast, which are a crucial factor for the regional energy budget. Most global climate models have difficulties to represent these features. The pure climate model ECHAM6 is able to simulate the existence of the NLLJ and LLC, but the model does not represent the pronounced diurnal cycle. Overall, the representation of LLC is worse in the coupled model. We discuss the model behaviors on the basis of outputted temperature and humidity tendencies and try to identify potential processes responsible for the model deficiencies.

  17. Molecular characterization of Myxobolus cuttacki (Myxozoa, Myxosporea, Bivalvulida infecting gill lamellae of minor carp Labeo bata (Ham.

    Sandya Chinna Rajesh


    Full Text Available As new pathogenic strains are emerging and threatening aquaculture development, myxosporeans (Myxozoa are receiving much attention in recent years. Myxosporean taxonomy is traditionally based on morphology of the myxospore stage. Molecular data on Indian myxosporeans are rare. In this report, the 18S rRNA gene sequence of Myxobolus cuttacki infecting gill lamellae of minor carp Labeo bata (Ham. and its phylogenetic relationship with other myxobolids are described for the first time. The plasmodia of M. cuttacki were 0.5-0.9 mm in size and whitish with a round to oval shape. The mean mature spore size was 16.10×7.05 μm. The 18S rRNA nucleotide sequence with 1703 bp of M. cuttacki (accession number KF465682 clustered phylogenetically with other Myxobolus spp. infecting cyprinid gills with 78-90% homogeneity. The gill lamellae infecting M. catmrigalae (KC933944 and M. orissae (KF448527 of Indian major carp Cirrhinus mrigala from India, exhibited 86% and 81% homogeneity with M. cuttacki, respectively. The infection rate was low to moderate on the gills which can have a negative impact on respiratory and physiological functions and subsequently on fish production.

  18. Molecular characterization of Myxobolus cuttacki (Myxozoa, Myxosporea, Bivalvulida) infecting gill lamellae of minor carp Labeo bata (Ham.).

    Rajesh, Sandya Chinna; Banerjee, Sayani; Patra, Avijit; Dash, Gadadhar; Abraham, Thangapalam Jawahar


    As new pathogenic strains are emerging and threatening aquaculture development, myxosporeans (Myxozoa) are receiving much attention in recent years. Myxosporean taxonomy is traditionally based on morphology of the myxospore stage. Molecular data on Indian myxosporeans are rare. In this report, the 18S rRNA gene sequence of Myxobolus cuttacki infecting gill lamellae of minor carp Labeo bata (Ham.) and its phylogenetic relationship with other myxobolids are described for the first time. The plasmodia of M. cuttacki were 0.5-0.9 mm in size and whitish with a round to oval shape. The mean mature spore size was 16.10×7.05 μm. The 18S rRNA nucleotide sequence with 1703 bp of M. cuttacki (accession number KF465682) clustered phylogenetically with other Myxobolus spp. infecting cyprinid gills with 78-90% homogeneity. The gill lamellae infecting M. catmrigalae (KC933944) and M. orissae (KF448527) of Indian major carp Cirrhinus mrigala from India, exhibited 86% and 81% homogeneity with M. cuttacki, respectively. The infection rate was low to moderate on the gills which can have a negative impact on respiratory and physiological functions and subsequently on fish production.

  19. BVOC-aerosol-climate interactions in the global aerosol-climate model ECHAM5.5-HAM2

    R. Makkonen


    Full Text Available The biosphere emits volatile organic compounds (BVOCs which, after oxidation in the atmosphere, can partition on the existing aerosol population or even form new particles. The large quantities emitted provide means for a large potential impact on both aerosol direct and indirect effects. Biogenic responses to atmospheric temperature change can establish feedbacks even in rather short timescales. However, due to the complexity of organic aerosol partitioning, even the sign of these feedbacks is of large uncertainty. We use the global aerosol-climate model ECHAM5.5-HAM2 to explore the effect of BVOC emissions on new particle formation, clouds and climate. Two BVOC emission models, MEGAN2 and LPJ-GUESS, are used. MEGAN2 shows a 25% increase while LPJ-GUESS shows a slight decrease in global BVOC emission between years 2000 and 2100. The change of shortwave cloud forcing from year 1750 to 2000 ranges from −1.4 to −1.8 W m−2 with 5 different nucleation mechanisms. We show that the change in shortwave cloud forcing from the year 2000 to 2100 ranges from 1.0 to 1.5 W m−2. Although increasing future BVOC emissions provide 3–5% additional CCN, the effect on the cloud albedo change is modest. Due to simulated decreases in future cloud cover, the increased CCN concentrations from BVOCs can not provide significant additional cooling in the future.

  20. Prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Enterococcus spp. isolated from retail cheese, ready-to-eat salads, ham, and raw meat.

    Pesavento, G; Calonico, C; Ducci, B; Magnanini, A; Lo Nostro, A


    Food specimens were analyzed in order to research Enterococcus spp.: 636 samples of raw meat (227 beef, 238 poultry, and 171 pork), 278 samples of cheese (110 fresh soft cheese and 168 mozzarella cheese), 214 samples of ready-to-eat salads, and 187 samples of ham. 312 strains of Enterococcus spp samples were isolated, then identified and submitted to susceptibility tests against 11 antimicrobial agents. The predominant species were Enterococcus faecalis in raw meat and Enterococcus faecium in retail products. Low percentages of microorganisms were resistant to vancomycin (3.53%), teicoplanin (2.24%), linezolid (0.32%), and amoxicillin in combination with clavulanic acid (0.32%). A high percentage of resistance was noted in E. faecalis at high level gentamicin (21.9%) and tetracycline (60.6%). In general, strains of E. faecalis were more resistant than E. faecium. Enterococci should be considered not only potential pathogens, but also a reservoir of genes encoding antibiotic resistance which can be transferred to other microorganisms. Continuous monitoring of their incidence and emerging resistance is important in order to identify foods which potentially represent a real risk to the population, and to ensure effective treatment of human enterococcal infections.