WorldWideScience

Sample records for hammermill offset opaque

  1. Volume reduction of low-level radioactive waste with a hammermill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, W.D.

    1979-01-01

    A Jacobson Model J-3 Hammermill was recently installed at the University of Rochester to process low-level radioactive wastes from hospital and research laboratories. The hammermill will handle both glass and plastic vials of all types. The waste is poured into a hopper located on the top of the seven foot high assembly. The material is gravity fed into the hammermill which is driven by a 15-horsepower motor at 3600 rpm. The waste is pounded by the rotating hammers into a metal screen perforated with one inch holes. The gound-up product is discharged from the bottom of the unit into a 55-gallon shipping drum. A volume reduction of 4:1 has been acheived on an equal mixture of glass and plastic vials

  2. Multinationality and Opaqueness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom; Pantzalis, Christos; Park, Jung Chul

    2015-01-01

    We investigate whether and how multinationality affects the opaqueness of the firm. We use multiple alternative measurements of multinationality and opaqueness. Spanning nearly three decades for a large sample of US non-financial firms, we find a statistically and economically significant, positi...

  3. Opaque cloud detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskovensky, John K [Albuquerque, NM

    2009-01-20

    A method of detecting clouds in a digital image comprising, for an area of the digital image, determining a reflectance value in at least three discrete electromagnetic spectrum bands, computing a first ratio of one reflectance value minus another reflectance value and the same two values added together, computing a second ratio of one reflectance value and another reflectance value, choosing one of the reflectance values, and concluding that an opaque cloud exists in the area if the results of each of the two computing steps and the choosing step fall within three corresponding predetermined ranges.

  4. Radio opaque gloves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittaker, A.V.; Whittaker, R.E. Jr.; Goldstrom, R.A.; Shipko, F.J.

    1975-01-01

    Radiation shielding garments and accessories, such as radio-opaque gloves for surgeons, shielding against the harmful x-ray radiation in a fluoroscopic zone, are advantageously different from garments for shielding from other medical uses of x-rays. Such garments are provided with zones of differing opacity, whereby desired sensitivity and ''feel'' through the glove material is retained. One feature is the provision of an ''opacity gradient'' across the glove cross section with opacity being relatively low at the fingertip area (lesser shield-thickness), but relatively high at the less nonprehensile hand zones, such as the palm. Glove fabrication techniques for achieving such an opacity gradient are described. (U.S.)

  5. “Habits of employees”: smoking, spies, and shopfloor culture at Hammermill Paper Company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    As cigarette smoking expanded dramatically during the early twentieth century, it brought more and more workers into conflict with the policies and demands of the manufacturers who employed them. As this paper shows, addiction to nicotine ignited daily struggles over workers’ shopfloor rights and the ability of employers to set rules, establish discipline, and monitor behavior. A specific set of records from the archives of the Hammermill Paper Company, a paper manufacturer once based in Erie, Pennsylvania, provide a unique opportunity to explore the impact of cigarette consumption on labor relations during the era of mass production, as two nosy factory spies probed and documented worker actions and attitudes in the summer of 1915. As a result of their intelligence gathering, the spies discovered a factory-wide work culture rooted in the addictive pleasure of cigarette smoke. This discovery worried them. Worker-smokers needed to dampen their hunger for nicotine with frequent, and often clandestine, breaks from work, typically in defiance of “no-smoking” rules, employer designations for the uses of factory space, and bosses’ demands for continuous production. Highlighting the intersections of the histories of labor, smoking, and addiction, this paper argues that cigarettes were a key battleground in workers’ and managers’ intensifying struggles over who really controlled the industrial shopfloor during the early 1900s.

  6. Main: OPAQUE2ZM22Z [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available OPAQUE2ZM22Z S000017 17-May-2001 (last modified) uchi Opaque-2 (O2) target sequence...ene: maize 22-kD zein; transacting factor: 02; O2; opaque; 22-kD zein; seed; ACGT; opaque-2; maize (Zea mays) TCCACGTAGA ...

  7. Radio-opaque dental compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temin, S.C.

    1979-01-01

    Thorium oxide or tantalum oxide, or combinations thereof are used as the x-ray material for radio-opaque filler compositions having particular applicability in dental restorative compositions. The filler compositions contain from about 3% by weight to about 10% by weight, based on the total filler composition, of the x-ray absorbing materials and the remainder being conventional particulate glass or silica, quarts or ceramic filler material. The radio opaque filler compositions are insoluble and non-leachable in alkaline, acidic or neutral aqueous environments, are essentially non-toxic, are either essentially colorless or translucent, and are compatible with acrylic monomers and other polymerizable binder systems

  8. Neonatal opaque right lung: delayed fluid resorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swischuk, L.E.; Hayden, K.; Richardson, J.

    1981-01-01

    Eight newborn infants with opaque right lungs were examined. Clinically, the main problem associated with the opaque right lung is mild respiratory distress, and radiographyically, the findings consist of (a) a totally opaque right lung, (b) a semiopaque right lung, or (c) an opaque right upper lobe only. These findings are usually interpreted as representing pneumonia, empyema, or hydrochlothorax, but the fact that they clear within 24 to 48 hours indicates that none of these diseases is the cause. It is thought that neonatal opaque right lung results from the transient retention of normal fetal fluid in the right lung

  9. Selling Tourism Products through the Opaque Channels

    OpenAIRE

    Ogonowska, Malgorzata

    2012-01-01

    International audience; This paper analyses the properties of the advanced Opaque booking systems used by online travel agencies in conjunction with their traditional transparent booking system. In section 2 an updated literature review is presented. This review underlines the interest and the specificities of Opaque goods in the Tourism Industry. It also characterises properties of the Name-Your-Own-Price channel introduced by Priceline and the Opaque channel developed by Hotwire. Then, in s...

  10. 7 CFR 160.14 - Opaque rosin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) NAVAL STORES REGULATIONS AND... resulting when rosin undergoes internal modification indicated by a turbid, clouded, or opaque appearance...

  11. The impacts of hammer-mill screen size and grain particle size on the performance of broiler chickens offered diets based on two red sorghum varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selle, P H; Truong, H H; Khoddami, A; Moss, A F; Roberts, T H; Liu, S Y

    2016-12-12

    1. The two red grain sorghums were extensively characterised. Kafirin, polyphenolic compounds, free, conjugated and bound phenolic acids, phytate concentrations and starch pasting profiles were determined. 2. The experiment consisted of a 2 × 4 factorial array of dietary treatments comprising two red sorghum varieties (Tiger and Block I) ground through 4 hammer-mill screen sizes (2.0, 3.2, 4.8 6.0 mm) prior to incorporation into nutritionally equivalent diets. Eight steam-pelleted dietary treatments were each offered to 7 replicates (6 male Ross 308 birds per cage) from 7 to 28 d post-hatch. 3. Effects of dietary treatments on growth performance, relative gizzard and pancreas weights, nutrient utilisation, apparent starch and protein (N) digestibility coefficients and disappearance rates from 4 small intestinal segments were determined. 4. The 2.0-mm hammer-mill screen generated an average geometric mean particle size of 794 μm and the 6.0-mm screen a mean particle size of 1405 μm. However, hammer-mill screen size did not influence weight gain or FCR. The 6.0-mm screen size generated significantly higher starch and protein (N) digestibility coefficients in the distal jejunum and distal ileum than the 2.0-mm hammer-mill screen. 5. Tiger sorghum was superior to Block I sorghum, as significant advantages were observed for feed conversion ratios (3.25%), AME (0.37 MJ), ME:GE ratios (4.15%), AMEn (0.53 MJ), distal ileal starch digestibility coefficients (2.46%) and protein (N) digestibility coefficients in the distal jejunum (4.66%), proximal ileum (1.96%) and distal ileum (2.16%). The inferior Block I sorghum contained more kafirin (67.1 versus 51.3 g/kg), phytate (9.79 versus 8.40 g/kg), total phenolic compounds (4.68 versus 4.12 mg GAE/g), flavan-4-ols (7.98 versus 5.04 ABS/ml/g), total phenolic acids (554 versus 402 μg/g) and total ferulic acid (375 versus 281 μg/g) in comparison to Tiger sorghum.

  12. Opaque Watercolor (Tentative Course Outline). Art Education: 6673.05.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenaway, Jean E.

    This tentative course outline is for use in one of the Quinmester Program classes, Opaque Watercolor. Designed for students in grades 7-12, with no prerequisite, the course includes the introduction of a variety of techniques in a number of opaque media including tempera, gouache, and cassein. Matting and mounting techniques are also taught. A…

  13. Carbon offsetting: sustaining consumption?

    OpenAIRE

    Heather Lovell; Harriet Bulkeley; Diana Liverman

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we examine how theories of sustainable and ethical consumption help us to understand a new, rapidly expanding type of consumer product designed to mitigate climate change: carbon offsets. The voluntary carbon offset market grew by 200% between 2005 and 2006, and there are now over 150 retailers of voluntary carbon offsets worldwide. Our analysis concentrates on the production and consumption of carbon offsets, drawing on ideas from governmentality and political ecology about how...

  14. Opaque Selling: Static or Inter-Temporal Price Discrimination?

    OpenAIRE

    Courty, Pascal; Liu, Wenyu

    2013-01-01

    We study opaque selling in the hotel industry using data from Hotwire.com. An opaque room discloses only the star level and general location of the hotel at the time of booking. The exact identity of the hotel is disclosed after the booking is completed. Opaque rooms sell at a discount of 40 percent relative to regular rooms. The discount increases when hotels are more differentiated. This finding is consistent with static models of price discrimination. No support was found for predictions s...

  15. Offset drilling obligations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, K.D.; Kalmakoff, J.J.

    1998-01-01

    A review of the 'offset well' clause found in freehold and Crown natural gas and petroleum leases was presented. The objective was to provide lessors and lessees with a clear understanding of the rights and obligations associated with offset wells. It was noted that offset well obligations vary according to the form of lease used, the type of offsetting well, the regulatory regime and the geophysical characteristics of the producing formation. Some suggestions were made as to how current versions of the offset well clause can be amended to overcome some of the problems encountered in applying the clause to an offset horizontal well that has been drilled on adjoining lands. Failure to resolve the new issues presented by horizontal drilling technology in terms of documentation, which records respective rights and obligations on the basis of generally accepted principles, will result in large numbers of conflicts and unnecessary litigation. 144 refs., 1 fig

  16. Energy dependence of opaqueness for pp collisions at high energies

    CERN Document Server

    Chou, T T

    1978-01-01

    Opaqueness of pp collisions is evaluated at three CERN-ISR energies. Comparisons with predictions of the factorisable eikonal models and the scaling hypothesis are made. It appears that results are in favour of the factorisable models. (20 refs).

  17. Anodization process produces opaque, reflective coatings on aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Opaque, reflective coatings are produced on aluminum articles by an anodizing process wherein the anodizing bath contains an aqueous dispersion of finely divided insoluble inorganic compounds. These particles appear as uniformly distributed occlusions in the anodic deposit on the aluminum.

  18. Joint Opaque booking systems for online travel agencies

    OpenAIRE

    Ogonowska , Malgorzata; Torre , Dominique

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the properties of the advanced Opaque booking systems used by the online travel agencies in conjunction with their traditional transparent booking system. In section 2 we present an updated literature review. This review underlines the interest and the specicities of Opaque goods in the Tourism Industry. It also characterizes properties of the Name-Your-Own-Price (NYOP) channel introduced by Priceline and oering probabilistic goods to potential travelers. In the section 3 ...

  19. Low Offset AC Correlator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This patent describes a low offset AC correlator avoids DC offset and low frequency noise by frequency operating the correlation signal so that low...noise, low level AC amplification can be substituted for DC amplification. Subsequently, the high level AC signal is demodulated to a DC level. (Author)

  20. Sexual Biofilm Formation in Candida tropicalis Opaque Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Stephen K.; Hirakawa, Matthew P.; Bennett, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis are opportunistic fungal pathogens that can transition between white and opaque phenotypic states. White and opaque cells differ both morphologically and in their responses to environmental signals. In C. albicans, opaque cells respond to sexual pheromones by undergoing conjugation, while white cells are induced by pheromones to form sexual biofilms. Here, we show that sexual biofilm formation also occurs in C. tropicalis but, unlike C. albicans, biofilms are formed exclusively by opaque cells. C. tropicalis biofilm formation was dependent on the pheromone receptors Ste2 and Ste3, confirming the role of pheromone signaling in sexual biofilm development. Structural analysis of C. tropicalis sexual biofilms revealed stratified communities consisting of a basal layer of yeast cells and an upper layer of filamentous cells, together with an extracellular matrix. Transcriptional profiling showed that genes involved in pheromone signaling and conjugation were upregulated in sexual biofilms. Furthermore, FGR23, which encodes an agglutinin-like protein, was found to enhance both mating and sexual biofilm formation. Together, these studies reveal that C. tropicalis opaque cells form sexual biofilms with a complex architecture, and suggest a conserved role for sexual agglutinins in mediating mating, cell cohesion and biofilm formation. PMID:24612417

  1. Image-based overlay and alignment metrology through optically opaque media with sub-surface probe microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Es, Maarten H.; Mohtashami, Abbas; Piras, Daniele; Sadeghian, Hamed

    2018-03-01

    Nondestructive subsurface nanoimaging through optically opaque media is considered to be extremely challenging and is essential for several semiconductor metrology applications including overlay and alignment and buried void and defect characterization. The current key challenge in overlay and alignment is the measurement of targets that are covered by optically opaque layers. Moreover, with the device dimensions moving to the smaller nodes and the issue of the so-called loading effect causing offsets between between targets and product features, it is increasingly desirable to perform alignment and overlay on product features or so-called on-cell overlay, which requires higher lateral resolution than optical methods can provide. Our recently developed technique known as SubSurface Ultrasonic Resonance Force Microscopy (SSURFM) has shown the capability for high-resolution imaging of structures below a surface based on (visco-)elasticity of the constituent materials and as such is a promising technique to perform overlay and alignment with high resolution in upcoming production nodes. In this paper, we describe the developed SSURFM technique and the experimental results on imaging buried features through various layers and the ability to detect objects with resolution below 10 nm. In summary, the experimental results show that the SSURFM is a potential solution for on-cell overlay and alignment as well as detecting buried defects or voids and generally metrology through optically opaque layers.

  2. Policy development for biodiversity offsets: a review of offset frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenney, Bruce A; Kiesecker, Joseph M

    2010-01-01

    Biodiversity offsets seek to compensate for residual environmental impacts of planned developments after appropriate steps have been taken to avoid, minimize or restore impacts on site. Offsets are emerging as an increasingly employed mechanism for achieving net environmental benefits, with offset policies being advanced in a wide range of countries (i.e., United States, Australia, Brazil, Colombia, and South Africa). To support policy development for biodiversity offsets, we review a set of major offset policy frameworks-US wetlands mitigation, US conservation banking, EU Natura 2000, Australian offset policies in New South Wales, Victoria, and Western Australia, and Brazilian industrial and forest offsets. We compare how the frameworks define offset policy goals, approach the mitigation process, and address six key issues for implementing offsets: (1) equivalence of project impacts with offset gains; (2) location of the offset relative to the impact site; (3) "additionality" (a new contribution to conservation) and acceptable types of offsets; (4) timing of project impacts versus offset benefits; (5) offset duration and compliance; and (6) "currency" and mitigation replacement ratios. We find substantial policy commonalities that may serve as a sound basis for future development of biodiversity offsets policy. We also identify issues requiring further policy guidance, including how best to: (1) ensure conformance with the mitigation hierarchy; (2) identify the most environmentally preferable offsets within a landscape context; and (3) determine appropriate mitigation replacement ratios.

  3. Experimental Analysis and Model Validation of an Opaque Ventilated Facade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López, F. Peci; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Heiselberg, Per

    2012-01-01

    Natural ventilation is a convenient way of reducing energy consumption in buildings. In this study an experimental module of an opaque ventilated façade (OVF) was built and tested for assessing its potential of supplying free ventilation and air preheating for the building. A numerical model was ...

  4. Offset Compound Gear Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Mark A.; Handschuh, Robert F.; Lewicki, David G.

    2010-01-01

    The Offset Compound Gear Drive is an in-line, discrete, two-speed device utilizing a special offset compound gear that has both an internal tooth configuration on the input end and external tooth configuration on the output end, thus allowing it to mesh in series, simultaneously, with both a smaller external tooth input gear and a larger internal tooth output gear. This unique geometry and offset axis permits the compound gear to mesh with the smaller diameter input gear and the larger diameter output gear, both of which are on the same central, or primary, centerline. This configuration results in a compact in-line reduction gear set consisting of fewer gears and bearings than a conventional planetary gear train. Switching between the two output ratios is accomplished through a main control clutch and sprag. Power flow to the above is transmitted through concentric power paths. Low-speed operation is accomplished in two meshes. For the purpose of illustrating the low-speed output operation, the following example pitch diameters are given. A 5.0 pitch diameter (PD) input gear to 7.50 PD (internal tooth) intermediate gear (0.667 reduction mesh), and a 7.50 PD (external tooth) intermediate gear to a 10.00 PD output gear (0.750 reduction mesh). Note that it is not required that the intermediate gears on the offset axis be of the same diameter. For this example, the resultant low-speed ratio is 2:1 (output speed = 0.500; product of stage one 0.667 reduction and stage two 0.750 stage reduction). The design is not restricted to the example pitch diameters, or output ratio. From the output gear, power is transmitted through a hollow drive shaft, which, in turn, drives a sprag during which time the main clutch is disengaged.

  5. Deletion mutagenesis identifies a haploinsufficient role for gamma-zein in opaque-2 endosperm modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quality Protein Maize (QPM) is a hard kernel variant of the high-lysine mutant, opaque-2. Using gamma irradiation, we created opaque QPM variants to identify opaque-2 modifier genes and to investigate deletion mutagenesis combined with Illumina sequencing as a maize functional genomics tool. A K0326...

  6. 78 FR 37571 - Certain Opaque Polymers; Institution of Investigation Pursuant to United States Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Inv. No. 337-TA-883] Certain Opaque Polymers; Institution of... importation of certain opaque polymers by reason of infringement of certain claims of U.S. Patent No. 6,020... certain opaque polymers that infringe one or more of claims 1-5 of the '435 patent, claims 1 and 3-7 of...

  7. Spontaneous CFS rhinorrhoea: role of computerized opaque cisternography; Rhinorrhee cerebro-spinale spontanee: place de la cisternographie opaque computerisee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jouini, S.; Saidane, S.; Maamouri, M.; Shili, S.; Menif, E.; Ben Hajel, H.; El Khedim, A.; Ben Jaafar, M.; Belkahia, A. [Hopital La Rabtan Tunis (Tunisia)

    1995-12-31

    Spontaneous CSF rhinorrhoea, secondary to trauma in the great majority of cases, is very rare (3-4%). The authors report a case of spontaneous CSF rhinorrhoea secondary to an ethmoidal osteo-dural defect, diagnosed by digital cisternography and confirmed by the surgical operation. The value of digital opaque cisternography and its place in the diagnostic arsenal are discussed. (authors). 12 refs., 3 figs.

  8. Phase Transition to an Opaque Plasma in a Sonoluminescing Bubble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappus, Brian; Khalid, Shahzad; Chakravarty, Avik; Putterman, Seth

    2011-06-01

    Time-resolved spectrum measurements of a sonoluminescing Xe bubble reveal a transition from transparency to an opaque Planck blackbody. As the temperature is <10000K and the density is below liquid density, the photon scattering length is 10 000 times too large to explain its opacity. We resolve this issue with a model that reduces the ionization potential. According to this model, sonoluminescence originates in a new phase of matter with high ionization. Analysis of line emission from Xe* also yields evidence of phase segregation for this first-order transition inside a bubble.

  9. Does Opaqueness Make Equity Capital Expensive for Banks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlo Kauko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bank managers often claim that equity is expensive, which contradicts the Modigliani-Miller irrelevance theorem. An opaque bank must signal its solvency by paying high and stable dividends in order to keep depositors tranquil. This signalling may require costly liquidations if the return on assets has been poor, but not paying the dividend might trigger a run. A strongly capitalized bank should keep substantial amounts of risk-free yet non-productive currency because the number of shares is high, which is costly. The dividend is informative of the state of the bank; rational depositors react to it.

  10. Enhanced ion acceleration in transition from opaque to transparent plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, R.; Fiuza, F.; Glenzer, S.

    2018-04-01

    Using particle-in-cell simulations, we investigate ion acceleration in the interaction of high intensity lasers with plasmas which transition from opaque to transparent during the interaction process. We show that the highest ion energies are achieved when the laser traverses the target around the peak intensity and re-heats the electron population responsible for the plasma expansion, enhancing the corresponding sheath electric field. This process can lead to an increase of up to 2x in ion energy when compared with the standard Target Normal Sheath Acceleration in opaque targets under the same laser conditions. A theoretical model is developed to predict the optimal target areal density as a function of laser intensity and pulse duration. A systematic parametric scan for a wide range of target densities and thicknesses is performed in 1D, 2D and 3D and shown consistent with the theory and with recent experimental results. These results open the way for a better optimization of the ion energy in future laser–solid experiments.

  11. ‪Joint Opaque Selling Systems for Online Travel Agencies‪

    OpenAIRE

    Malgorzata Ogonowska; Dominique Torre

    2014-01-01

    ?This paper analyses the properties of sophisticated opaque booking systems, implemented by online travel agencies in conjunction, usually, with traditional transparent systems. We characterize the opaque products as opposed to traditional transparent products. We focus on the two particular distribution models: opaque posted price system developed by Hotwire.com, and the Name-Your-Own-Price system developed by Priceline.com. We propose an analytical model to compare the results of individual...

  12. Diffractive imaging of 3-bar targets using an opaque sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, H.J.

    1995-01-01

    In this discussion we present a description of imaging using an opaque obstruction with a circular cross section (such as a sphere) as the optical imaging element. Image formation is discussed in terms of the convolution product of the point spread function of the system and the optical intensity distribution of the object. It is shown how this convolution product can be efficiently accomplished in the frequency domain using digital technqiues. The emphasis of this report is placed on the numerical generation of the transfer function of the optical system. An analytical example of imaging using this technique with a standard 3-bar target as the object is presented. Experimental verification of the analytical results is also given. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  13. Efficient polymer solar cells on opaque substrates with a Laminated PEDOT : PSS top electrode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, D.; Wienk, M.M.; Janssen, R.A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Solution processed polymer:fullerene solar cells on opaque substrates have been fabricated in conventional and inverted device configurations. Opaque substrates, such as insulated steel and metal covered glass, require a transparent conducting top electrode. We demonstrate that a high conducting

  14. Identification and Characterization of Wor4, a New Transcriptional Regulator of White-Opaque Switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew B. Lohse

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The human fungal pathogen Candida albicans can switch between two cell types, “white” and “opaque,” each of which is heritable through many cell divisions. Switching between these two cell types is regulated by six transcriptional regulators that form a highly interconnected circuit with multiple feedback loops. Here, we identify a seventh regulator of white-opaque switching, which we have named Wor4. We show that ectopic expression of Wor4 is sufficient to drive switching from the white to the opaque cell type, and that deletion of Wor4 blocks switching from the white to the opaque cell type. A combination of ectopic expression and deletion experiments indicates that Wor4 is positioned upstream of Wor1, and that it is formally an activator of the opaque cell type. The combination of ectopic expression and deletion phenotypes for Wor4 is unique; none of the other six white-opaque regulators show this pattern. We determined the pattern of Wor4 binding across the genome by ChIP-seq and found it is highly correlated with that of Wor1 and Wor2, indicating that Wor4 is tightly integrated into the existing white-opaque regulatory circuit. We previously proposed that white-to-opaque switching relies on the activation of a complex circuit of feedback loops that remains excited through many cell divisions. The identification of a new, central regulator of white-opaque switching supports this idea by indicating that the white-opaque switching mechanism is considerably more complex than those controlling conventional, nonheritable patterns of gene expression.

  15. Governing the carbon offset market

    OpenAIRE

    Lovell, Heather C.

    2010-01-01

    Carbon offsets are produced and sold under the international climate change regime (the United Nations Kyoto Protocol) and also within an expanding voluntary offset market in which companies and individuals can voluntarily opt to compensate for their greenhouse gas emissions. The volume of carbon produced and consumed within compliance and voluntary markets has grown dramatically in the last 5 years, raising a number of governance challenges. This Focus Article gives an overview of the govern...

  16. White cells facilitate opposite- and same-sex mating of opaque cells in Candida albicans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Tao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Modes of sexual reproduction in eukaryotic organisms are extremely diverse. The human fungal pathogen Candida albicans undergoes a phenotypic switch from the white to the opaque phase in order to become mating-competent. In this study, we report that functionally- and morphologically-differentiated white and opaque cells show a coordinated behavior during mating. Although white cells are mating-incompetent, they can produce sexual pheromones when treated with pheromones of the opposite mating type or by physically interacting with opaque cells of the opposite mating type. In a co-culture system, pheromones released by white cells induce opaque cells to form mating projections, and facilitate both opposite- and same-sex mating of opaque cells. Deletion of genes encoding the pheromone precursor proteins and inactivation of the pheromone response signaling pathway (Ste2-MAPK-Cph1 impair the promoting role of white cells (MTLa in the sexual mating of opaque cells. White and opaque cells communicate via a paracrine pheromone signaling system, creating an environment conducive to sexual mating. This coordination between the two different cell types may be a trade-off strategy between sexual and asexual lifestyles in C. albicans.

  17. Offsets - An opportunity of Financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PRIN, Coralie

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear Research Reactors sometimes need to implement projects to upgrade, revamp or convert their reactor, acquire new fuel elements, etc. However, as their activities are mainly of noncommercial nature, they sometimes lack of financial resources to implement these projects by themselves. Several solutions exist: loans, governmental budget, subsidies from international organizations (IAEA). Offsets are another source of financing. They also are free of charge for the reactor. The objective of offsets is to Identify, implement and finance projects that: directly create or sustain a local economic activity of high-added value, would not have happened without the Obligor's intervention, and are of crucial importance given the country's political background (favor employment, technology transfers, training and education, research and development, etc.). Companies worldwide are willing to finance local projects to fulfill their Offset Obligation. Local organizations or institutions are willing to invest to increase their activities but lack of financial resources. Offset regulations are an opportunity on both sides and are free for the local organization. The monetary value of an Offset obligation is calculated as a percentage of the main contract price (or as a percentage of the imported part value). That percentage depends on the Country's legislation and on the nature of the main contract (defense or civilian). This value has to be compensated by an equivalent economic value (a Project's cost is different from its value). There is two ways of assessing a value: - Political aspects: The Project is of political importance for the country (development of an export capability, technology and/or know-how transfers) and the project in line with the country's political priorities (employment, research, international presence, etc.). - Economic benefits: the project directly sustains or creates additional activities, turnover, R and D, employment, etc. It benefits directly

  18. 78 FR 31575 - Certain Opaque Polymers, Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Docket No 2957] Certain Opaque Polymers, Notice of Receipt of... received a complaint entitled Certain Opaque Polymers, DN 2957; the Commission is soliciting comments on... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain opaque polymers. The complaint...

  19. 7 CFR 400.129 - Salary offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Salary offset. 400.129 Section 400.129 Agriculture... Years § 400.129 Salary offset. (a) Debt collection by salary offset is feasible if: the cost to the Government of collection by salary offset does not exceed the amount of the debt; there are no legal...

  20. A method to measure internal contact angle in opaque systems by magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Weiqin; Tian, Ye; Gao, Xuefeng; Jiang, Lei

    2013-07-23

    Internal contact angle is an important parameter for internal wettability characterization. However, due to the limitation of optical imaging, methods available for contact angle measurement are only suitable for transparent or open systems. For most of the practical situations that require contact angle measurement in opaque or enclosed systems, the traditional methods are not effective. Based upon the requirement, a method suitable for contact angle measurement in nontransparent systems is developed by employing MRI technology. In the Article, the method is demonstrated by measuring internal contact angles in opaque cylindrical tubes. It proves that the method also shows great feasibility in transparent situations and opaque capillary systems. By using the method, contact angle in opaque systems could be measured successfully, which is significant in understanding the wetting behaviors in nontransparent systems and calculating interfacial parameters in enclosed systems.

  1. The spammed code offset method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skoric, B.; Vreede, de N.

    2013-01-01

    Helper data schemes are a security primitive used for privacy-preserving biometric databases and Physical Unclonable Functions. One of the oldest known helper data schemes is the Code Offset Method (COM). We propose an extension of the COM: the helper data is accompanied by many instances of fake

  2. The spammed code offset method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skoric, B.; Vreede, de N.

    2014-01-01

    Helper data schemes are a security primitive used for privacy-preserving biometric databases and physical unclonable functions. One of the oldest known helper data schemes is the code offset method (COM). We propose an extension of the COM: the helper data are accompanied by many instances of fake

  3. Genetic analysis of vitreous endosperms derived from homozygotic plants for opaque-2 gene in maize (Zea mays L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prioli, A.J.; Barbosa, H.M.; Sant'Anna, R.

    1980-01-01

    From experiments in which opaque-2 maize seeds were treated with gamma rays and ethil methanesulfonate, and their respective untreated controls, seeds with hard, vitreous endosperms were obtained. Some of these were completely vitreous, with no evidence of opaque endosperm tissue. Others had very small and few (one to three) areas of opaque tissue. Plants derived from completely vitreous endosperm seeds were self pollinated and crossed to an opaque-2 inbred. The segregation of vitreous to opaque seeds indicated that the normal allele at the opaque-2 locus was responsible for the vitreousity of the endosperm. Lysine content of the vitreous endosperm was comparable to that of normal endosperms. Plants derived from vitreous seeds with few and tiny spots of opaque tissue produced, upon selfing or crossing to the opaque-2 inbred, only opaque-2 seeds. It is concluded that: (a) induced mutation may not be an effective tool to obtain vitreous opaque-2 endosperm with high lysine content; and, (b) there are unknown genetic systems which severely modify the expression of the opaque-2 gene. (Author) [pt

  4. The voluntary offset - approaches and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-06-01

    After having briefly presented the voluntary offset mechanism which aims at funding a project of reduction or capture of greenhouse gas emissions, this document describes the approach to be followed to adopt this voluntary offset, for individuals as well as for companies, communities or event organisations. It describes other important context issues (projects developed under the voluntary offset, actors of the voluntary offsetting market, market status, offset labels), and how to proceed in practice (definition of objectives and expectations, search for needed requirements, to ensure the meeting of requirements with respect to expectations). It addresses the case of voluntary offset in France (difficult implantation, possible solutions)

  5. Opaque models: Using drugs and dreams to explore the neurobiological basis of mental phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlitz, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    On the basis of four historical and ethnographic case studies of modeling in neuroscience laboratories, this chapter introduces a distinction between transparent and opaque models. A transparent model is a simplified representation of a real world phenomenon. If it is not patently clear, it is at least much better comprehended than its objects of representation. An opaque model, by contrast, looks at one only partially understood phenomenon to stand in for another partially understood phenomenon. Here, the model is often just as complex as its target. Examples of such opaque models discussed in this chapter are the use of hallucinogen intoxication in humans and animals as well as the dreaming brain as models of psychosis as well as the dreaming brain as a model of consciousness in general. Several functions of opaque models are discussed, ranging from the generation of funding to the formulation of new research questions. While science studies scholars have often emphasized the epistemic fertility of failures of representation, the opacity of hallucinogen intoxications and dreams seems to have diminished the potential to produce positive knowledge from the representational relationship between the supposed models and their targets. Bidirectional comparisons between inebriation, dreaming, and psychosis, however, proved to be generative on the level of basic science. Moreover, the opaque models discussed in this chapter implicated cosmologies that steered research endeavors into certain directions rather than others. © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. 34 CFR 31.11 - Offset process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offset process. 31.11 Section 31.11 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education SALARY OFFSET FOR FEDERAL EMPLOYEES WHO ARE INDEBTED TO THE UNITED STATES UNDER PROGRAMS ADMINISTERED BY THE SECRETARY OF EDUCATION § 31.11 Offset process. (a) The...

  7. 5 CFR 179.307 - Administrative offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrative offset. 179.307 Section 179.307 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS CLAIMS COLLECTION STANDARDS Administrative Offset § 179.307 Administrative offset. (a) If the debtor does not...

  8. Diversity of yeasts involved in the fermentation of tchoukoutou, an opaque sorghum beer from Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kayode, A.P.P.; Vieira-Dalode, G.; Linnemann, A.R.; Kotchoni, S.O.; Hounhouigan, A.J.D.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2011-01-01

    Opaque sorghum beers are traditional alcoholic beverages in several African countries. Known as tchoukoutou in Benin, the beer is often obtained from an uncontrolled fermentation. It is consumed in an actively fermenting state and has a sour taste. The present study characterized and identified the

  9. 4-META opaque resin--a new resin strongly adhesive to nickel-chromium alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, T; Nagata, K; Takeyama, M; Atsuta, M; Nakabayashi, N; Masuhara, E

    1981-09-01

    1) A new adhesive opaque resin containing a reactive monomer, 4-methacryloxy-ethyl trimellitate anhydride (4-META), was prepared, and its application to thermosetting acrylic resin veneer crowns was studied. 2) The 4-META opaque resin was applied to a variety of nickel-chromium dental alloy specimens which had undergone different treatment, and endurance tests were conducted to evaluate the durability of adhesion. 3) Stable adhesion against water penetration was achieved with metal surfaces first etched with HCl and then oxidized with HNO3. A bond strength of 250 kg/cm2 was maintained even after immersion in water at 37 degrees C for 30 wk or at 80 degrees C for ten wk. Furthermore, this value did not decrease even after the specimens were subjected to 500 thermal cycles. 4) The 4-META opaque resin studied can eliminate the necessity for retention devices on metal castings. 5) The smooth 4-META opaque resin should have no adverse effects on gingivae.

  10. Marker-assisted introgression of opaque2 allele for rapid conversion ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Firoz Hossain

    2018-03-15

    Mar 15, 2018 ... of total calorie to the human populations worldwide. ... A major portion (60–70%) of maize ... endosperm protein is, however, known to be poor in nutri- ... turns out to be the most sustainable and cost-effective solu- .... For MABB (figure 1), recurrent parents (as females) and ... indicating per cent opaqueness.

  11. An assessment of the quality of liquid effluents from opaque beer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    driniev

    2005-01-01

    Jan 1, 2005 ... The effluent treatment plants in both plants were not only inadequate but also ... Keywords: industrial effluents, opaque beer-brewery, pollution load, quality, quantity ... to hydraulic overloading and corrosion of the sewer pipe system ... The two breweries studied in this paper produce African traditional.

  12. Digital in-line holography assessment for general phase and opaque particle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coëtmellec, S.; Wichitwong, W.; Gréhan, G.; Lebrun, D.; Brunel, M.; Janssen, A.J.E.M.

    2014-01-01

    We propose using the circle polynomials to describe a particle’s transmission function in a digital holography setup. This allows both opaque and phase particles to be determined. By means of this description, we demonstrate that it is possible to estimate the digital in-line hologram produced by a

  13. 78 FR 71643 - Certain Opaque Polymers; Notice of Commission Decision Amending the Complaint and Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-883] Certain Opaque Polymers; Notice of Commission Decision Amending the Complaint and Notice of Investigation AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the U.S. International Trade Commission has...

  14. Characterising the disintegration properties of tablets in opaque media using texture analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Scheuerle, Rebekah L.; Gerrard, Stephen E.; Kendall, Richard A.; Tuleu, Catherine; Slater, Nigel K.H.; Mahbubani, Krishnaa T.

    2015-01-01

    Tablet disintegration characterisation is used in pharmaceutical research, development, and quality control. Standard methods used to characterise tablet disintegration are often dependent on visual observation in measurement of disintegration times. This presents a challenge for disintegration studies of tablets in opaque, physiologically relevant media that could be useful for tablet formulation optimisation. In this study is explored an application of texture analysis disintegration testin...

  15. A pilot study comparing opaque, weighted bottles with conventional, clear bottles for infant feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Alison K; Pollack Golen, Rebecca

    2015-02-01

    It is hypothesized that the visual and weight cues afforded by bottle-feeding may lead mothers to overfeed in response to the amount of liquid in the bottle. The aim of the present pilot study was to test this hypothesis by comparing mothers' sensitivity and responsiveness to infant cues and infants' intakes when mothers use opaque, weighted bottles (that remove visual and weight cues) compared to conventional, clear bottles to feed their infants. We also tested the hypothesis that mothers' pressuring feeding style would moderate the effect of bottle type. Formula-feeding dyads (N = 25) visited our laboratory on two separate days. Mothers fed their infants from a clear bottle one day and an opaque, weighted bottle on the other; bottle-order was counterbalanced across the two days. Infant intake was assessed by weighing each bottle before and after the feeding. Maternal sensitivity and responsiveness to infant cues was objectively assessed using the Nursing Child Assessment Feeding Scale. Mothers were significantly more responsive to infant cues when they used opaque compared to clear bottles (p = .04). There was also a trend for infants to consume significantly less formula when fed from opaque compared to clear bottles (p = .08). Mothers' pressuring feeding style moderated the effect of bottle type on maternal responsiveness to infant cues (p = .02) and infant intake (p = .03). Specifically, mothers who reported higher levels of pressuring feeding were significantly more responsive to their infants' cues (p = .02) and fed their infants significantly less formula when using opaque versus clear bottles (p = .01); no differences were seen for mothers who reported lower levels of pressuring feeding. This study highlights a simple, yet effective intervention for improving the bottle-feeding practices of mothers who have pressuring feeding styles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Utilization of curve offsets in additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haseltalab, Vahid; Yaman, Ulas; Dolen, Melik

    2018-05-01

    Curve offsets are utilized in different fields of engineering and science. Additive manufacturing, which lately becomes an explicit requirement in manufacturing industry, utilizes curve offsets widely. One of the necessities of offsetting is for scaling which is required if there is shrinkage after the fabrication or if the surface quality of the resulting part is unacceptable. Therefore, some post-processing is indispensable. But the major application of curve offsets in additive manufacturing processes is for generating head trajectories. In a point-wise AM process, a correct tool-path in each layer can reduce lots of costs and increase the surface quality of the fabricated parts. In this study, different curve offset generation algorithms are analyzed to show their capabilities and disadvantages through some test cases and improvements on their drawbacks are suggested.

  17. Proton moire fringes for diagnosing electromagnetic fields in opaque materials and plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackinnon, A.J.; Patel, P.K.; Price, D.W.; Hicks, D.; Romagnani, L.; Borghesi, M.

    2003-01-01

    High contrast proton moire fringes have been obtained in a laser-produced proton beam. Moire fringes with modulation of 20%-30% were observed in protons with energies in the range of 4-7 MeV. Monte Carlo simulations with simple test fields showed that shifts in the moire fringes can be used to give quantitative information on the strength of transient electromagnetic fields inside plasmas and materials that are opaque to conventional probing methods

  18. Diversity of yeasts involved in the fermentation of tchoukoutou, an opaque sorghum beer from Benin

    OpenAIRE

    Kayode, A.P.P.; Vieira-Dalode, G.; Linnemann, A.R.; Kotchoni, S.O.; Hounhouigan, A.J.D.; Boekel, van, M.A.J.S.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2011-01-01

    Opaque sorghum beers are traditional alcoholic beverages in several African countries. Known as tchoukoutou in Benin, the beer is often obtained from an uncontrolled fermentation. It is consumed in an actively fermenting state and has a sour taste. The present study characterized and identified the yeasts involved in the fermentation process of this type of beer using the phenotypical approach. Of 12 beers from 4 different locations, the mean values of the pH, titratable acidity, dry matter c...

  19. Activation of the Cph1-dependent MAP kinase signaling pathway induces white-opaque switching in Candida albicans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Ramírez-Zavala

    Full Text Available Depending on the environmental conditions, the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans can undergo different developmental programs, which are controlled by dedicated transcription factors and upstream signaling pathways. C. albicans strains that are homozygous at the mating type locus can switch from the normal yeast form (white to an elongated cell type (opaque, which is the mating-competent form of this fungus. Both white and opaque cells use the Ste11-Hst7-Cek1/Cek2 MAP kinase signaling pathway to react to the presence of mating pheromone. However, while opaque cells employ the transcription factor Cph1 to induce the mating response, white cells recruit a different downstream transcription factor, Tec1, to promote the formation of a biofilm that facilitates mating of opaque cells in the population. The switch from the white to the opaque cell form is itself induced by environmental signals that result in the upregulation of the transcription factor Wor1, the master regulator of white-opaque switching. To get insight into the upstream signaling pathways controlling the switch, we expressed all C. albicans protein kinases from a tetracycline-inducible promoter in a switching-competent strain. Screening of this library of strains showed that a hyperactive form of Ste11 lacking its N-terminal domain (Ste11(ΔN467 efficiently stimulated white cells to switch to the opaque phase, a behavior that did not occur in response to pheromone. Ste11(ΔN467-induced switching specifically required the downstream MAP kinase Cek1 and its target transcription factor Cph1, but not Cek2 and Tec1, and forced expression of Cph1 also promoted white-opaque switching in a Wor1-dependent manner. Therefore, depending on the activation mechanism, components of the pheromone-responsive MAP kinase pathway can be reconnected to stimulate an alternative developmental program, switching of white cells to the mating-competent opaque phase.

  20. Development of a compact x-ray particle image velocimetry for measuring opaque flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Joon; Kim, Guk Bae; Yim, Dae Hyun; Jung, Sung Yong

    2009-03-01

    A compact x-ray particle image velocimetry (PIV) system employing a medical x-ray tube as a light source was developed to measure quantitative velocity field information of opaque flows. The x-ray PIV system consists of a medical x-ray tube, an x-ray charge coupled device camera, a programmable shutter for a pulse-type x ray, and a synchronization device. Through performance tests, the feasibility of the developed x-ray PIV system as a flow measuring device was verified. To check the feasibility of the developed system, we tested a tube flow at two different mean velocities of 1 and 2 mm/s. The x-ray absorption of tracer particles must be quite different from that of working fluid to have a good contrast in x-ray images. All experiments were performed under atmospheric pressure condition. This system is unique and useful for investigating various opaque flows or flows inside opaque conduits.

  1. Development of a compact x-ray particle image velocimetry for measuring opaque flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Joon; Kim, Guk Bae; Yim, Dae Hyun; Jung, Sung Yong

    2009-01-01

    A compact x-ray particle image velocimetry (PIV) system employing a medical x-ray tube as a light source was developed to measure quantitative velocity field information of opaque flows. The x-ray PIV system consists of a medical x-ray tube, an x-ray charge coupled device camera, a programmable shutter for a pulse-type x ray, and a synchronization device. Through performance tests, the feasibility of the developed x-ray PIV system as a flow measuring device was verified. To check the feasibility of the developed system, we tested a tube flow at two different mean velocities of 1 and 2 mm/s. The x-ray absorption of tracer particles must be quite different from that of working fluid to have a good contrast in x-ray images. All experiments were performed under atmospheric pressure condition. This system is unique and useful for investigating various opaque flows or flows inside opaque conduits.

  2. Investigation of some ancient opaque glasses in the archaeological museums of Istanbul by x-ray radiography technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tugrul, B.; Sungur, F.; Atik, S.

    1986-01-01

    In this study, opaque glass samples of which interiors is invisible, investigated by the x-ray radiography technique. In the evaluation,some knowledge has been extracted about the glass base and mold technique. Furthermore,it was shown that ornamental attachments have been fixed on the glass artifacts by techniques different than what it appears to be. In addition to that, joining edges of restorated opaque glass samples can be investigated and quality of the restoration can be evaluated. Therefore, the opaque glass samples were investigated non-destructively a short period of time, much like transparent glass could be studied. (author)

  3. 41 CFR 105-56.019 - Offset amount.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Administration 56-SALARY OFFSET FOR INDEBTEDNESS OF FEDERAL EMPLOYEES TO THE UNITED STATES Centralized Salary... referred for offset under this subpart is $100. (b) The amount offset from a salary payment under this... resolved to the satisfaction of GSA. ...

  4. Great Apes and Biodiversity Offset Projects in Africa: The Case for National Offset Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormos, Rebecca; Kormos, Cyril F.; Humle, Tatyana; Lanjouw, Annette; Rainer, Helga; Victurine, Ray; Mittermeier, Russell A.; Diallo, Mamadou S.; Rylands, Anthony B.; Williamson, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    The development and private sectors are increasingly considering “biodiversity offsets” as a strategy to compensate for their negative impacts on biodiversity, including impacts on great apes and their habitats in Africa. In the absence of national offset policies in sub-Saharan Africa, offset design and implementation are guided by company internal standards, lending bank standards or international best practice principles. We examine four projects in Africa that are seeking to compensate for their negative impacts on great ape populations. Our assessment of these projects reveals that not all apply or implement best practices, and that there is little standardization in the methods used to measure losses and gains in species numbers. Even if they were to follow currently accepted best-practice principles, we find that these actions may still fail to contribute to conservation objectives over the long term. We advocate for an alternative approach in which biodiversity offset and compensation projects are designed and implemented as part of a National Offset Strategy that (1) takes into account the cumulative impacts of development in individual countries, (2) identifies priority offset sites, (3) promotes aggregated offsets, and (4) integrates biodiversity offset and compensation projects with national biodiversity conservation objectives. We also propose supplementary principles necessary for biodiversity offsets to contribute to great ape conservation in Africa. Caution should still be exercised, however, with regard to offsets until further field-based evidence of their effectiveness is available. PMID:25372894

  5. A pilot study comparing opaque, weighted bottles with conventional, clear bottles for infant feeding

    OpenAIRE

    Ventura, Alison K.; Golen, Rebecca Pollack

    2014-01-01

    Compared to breast-fed infants, bottle-fed infants consume greater volumes and gain more weight during infancy. It is hypothesized that the visual and weight cues afforded by bottle-feeding may lead mothers to overfeed in response to the amount of liquid in the bottle. The aim of the present pilot study was to test this hypothesis by comparing mothers’ sensitivity and responsiveness to infant cues and infants’ intakes when mothers use opaque, weighted bottles (that remove visual and weight cu...

  6. Anomalous complete opaqueness in a sparse array of gold nanoparticle chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Benfeng; Li Xiaowei; Vartiainen, Ismo; Lehmuskero, Anni; Turunen, Jari; Kuittinen, Markku; Vahimaa, Pasi; Kang Guoguo

    2011-01-01

    We report on an anomalous polarization-switching extinction effect in a sparse array of gold nanoparticle chains: under normal incidence of light, the array is almost transparent for one polarization; whereas it is fully opaque (with nearly zero transmittance) for the orthogonal polarization within a narrow band, even though the nanoparticles cover only a tiny fraction (say, 3.5%) of the transparent substrate surface. We reveal that the strong polarization-dependent short-range dipolar coupling and long-range radiative coupling of gold nanoparticles in this highly asymmetric array is responsible for this extraordinary effect.

  7. Characterising the disintegration properties of tablets in opaque media using texture analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuerle, Rebekah L; Gerrard, Stephen E; Kendall, Richard A; Tuleu, Catherine; Slater, Nigel K H; Mahbubani, Krishnaa T

    2015-01-01

    Tablet disintegration characterisation is used in pharmaceutical research, development, and quality control. Standard methods used to characterise tablet disintegration are often dependent on visual observation in measurement of disintegration times. This presents a challenge for disintegration studies of tablets in opaque, physiologically relevant media that could be useful for tablet formulation optimisation. This study has explored an application of texture analysis disintegration testing, a non-visual, quantitative means of determining tablet disintegration end point, by analysing the disintegration behaviour of two tablet formulations in opaque media. In this study, the disintegration behaviour of one tablet formulation manufactured in-house, and Sybedia Flashtab placebo tablets in water, bovine, and human milk were characterised. A novel method is presented to characterise the disintegration process and to quantify the disintegration end points of the tablets in various media using load data generated by a texture analyser probe. The disintegration times in the different media were found to be statistically different (Pdisintegration times from each other in human versus bovine milk (adjusted P value 0.1685). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Extraordinary light transmission through opaque thin metal film with subwavelength holes blocked by metal disks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Di; Hu, Jonathan; Chou, Stephen Y

    2011-10-10

    We observed that when subwavelength-sized holes in an optically opaque metal film are completely covered by opaque metal disks larger than the holes, the light transmission through the holes is not reduced, but rather enhanced. Particularly we report (i) the observation of light transmission through the holes blocked by the metal disks up to 70% larger than the unblocked holes; (ii) the observation of tuning the light transmission by varying the coupling strength between the blocking disks and the hole array, or by changing the size of the disks and holes; (iii) the observation and simulation that the metal disk blocker can improve light coupling from free space to a subwavelength hole; and (iv) the simulation that shows the light transmission through subwavelength holes can be enhanced, even though the gap between the disk and the metal film is partially connected with a metal. We believe these finding should have broad and significant impacts and applications to optical systems in many fields.

  9. Smooth silk fibroin nanofilm deposited by 1064-nm pulsed laser beam from an opaque target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozaki, R.; Nakayama, S.; Senna, M.

    2013-01-01

    In an attempt to prepare smooth nanostructured thin films of silk fibroin (SF) by near-infrared (NIR) pulsed laser deposition, an opaque target was prepared from an emulsified aqueous solution of SF. Upon irradiation of 1064-nm pulsed laser beam at its fluence 5 J/cm 2 , a thin film of SF was deposited on the Si(100) substrate with its root-mean-square surface roughness, 0.37 nm, smoother than those obtained from a compressed target of SF powders by approximately an order of magnitude. The attainment of an extra-smooth film from the opaque target was discussed in terms of multiple Mie scattering of the incident NIR beam, leading to an increase in the plasma density, intensified optical breakdown, ablation of better dispersed SF molecular units, and a film with more intensive intermolecular cross-linking. - Highlights: • Thin film of silk fibroin with its RMS surface roughness, R rms , 0.37 nm was obtained. • The use of a target from an emulsified solution of SF was the key issue. • Mechanism involved was elucidated in terms of enhanced Mie scattering

  10. Reflective small angle electron scattering to characterize nanostructures on opaque substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Lawrence H.; Wu, Wen-Li; Fu, Wei-En; Chien, Yunsan

    2017-09-01

    Feature sizes in integrated circuits (ICs) are often at the scale of 10 nm and are ever shrinking. ICs appearing in today's computers and hand held devices are perhaps the most prominent examples. These smaller feature sizes demand equivalent advances in fast and accurate dimensional metrology for both development and manufacturing. Techniques in use and continuing to be developed include X-ray based techniques, optical scattering, and of course the electron and scanning probe microscopy techniques. Each of these techniques has their advantages and limitations. Here, the use of small angle electron beam scattering measurements in a reflection mode (RSAES) to characterize the dimensions and the shape of nanostructures on flat and opaque substrates is demonstrated using both experimental and theoretical evidence. In RSAES, focused electrons are scattered at angles smaller than 1 ° with the assistance of electron optics typically used in transmission electron microscopy. A proof-of-concept experiment is combined with rigorous electron reflection simulations to demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of RSAES as a method of non-destructive measurement of shapes of features less than 10 nm in size on flat and opaque substrates.

  11. Visualization of latent fingerprints beneath opaque electrical tapes by optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kangkang; Zhang, Ning; Meng, Li; Li, Zhigang; Xu, Xiaojing

    2018-03-01

    Electrical tape is found as one type of important trace evidence in crime scene. For example, it is very frequently used to insulate wires in explosive devices in many criminal cases. The fingerprints of the suspects were often left on the adhesive side of the tapes, which can provide very useful clues for the investigation and make it possible for individual identification. The most commonly used method to detect and visualize those latent fingerprints is to peel off each layer of the tapes first and then adopt the chemical methods to develop the fingerprints on the tapes. However, the peeling-off and chemical development process would degrade and contaminate the fingerprints and thus adversely affect the accuracy of identification. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a novel forensic imaging modality based on lowcoherence interferometry, which has the advantages of non-destruction, micrometer-level high resolution and crosssectional imaging. In this study, a fiber-based spectral-domain OCT (SD-OCT) system with {6μm resolution was employed to obtain the image of fingerprint sandwiched between two opaque electrical tapes without any pre-processing procedure like peeling-off. Three-dimensional (3D) OCT reconstruction was performed and the subsurface image was produced to visualize the latent fingerprints. The results demonstrate that OCT is a promising tool for recovering the latent fingerprints hidden beneath opaque electrical tape non-destructively and rapidly.

  12. 12 CFR 1408.39 - Procedures for salary offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedures for salary offset. 1408.39 Section... STATES Offset Against Salary § 1408.39 Procedures for salary offset. (a) The Chairman, or designee of the... periods following the date of mailing or delivery of the Notice of Intent to Collect by Salary Offset. (c...

  13. 22 CFR 309.17 - Procedures for salary offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Procedures for salary offset. 309.17 Section 309.17 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS DEBT COLLECTION Salary Offset § 309.17 Procedures for salary offset. Unless otherwise provided by statute or contract, the following procedures apply to salary offset: (a...

  14. 41 CFR 105-56.018 - Salary offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Salary offset. 105-56... Administration 56-SALARY OFFSET FOR INDEBTEDNESS OF FEDERAL EMPLOYEES TO THE UNITED STATES Centralized Salary Offset (CSO) Procedures-GSA as Creditor Agency § 105-56.018 Salary offset. When a match occurs and all...

  15. 5 CFR 1639.27 - Procedures for salary offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedures for salary offset. 1639.27... Salary Offset § 1639.27 Procedures for salary offset. (a) The Board will coordinate salary deductions... pay and will implement the salary offset. (c) Deductions will begin within three official pay periods...

  16. 41 CFR 105-56.028 - Salary offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Salary offset. 105-56... Administration 56-SALARY OFFSET FOR INDEBTEDNESS OF FEDERAL EMPLOYEES TO THE UNITED STATES Centralized Salary Offset (CSO) Procedures-GSA as Paying Agency § 105-56.028 Salary offset. When a match occurs and all...

  17. 12 CFR 608.839 - Procedures for salary offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedures for salary offset. 608.839 Section... OWED THE UNITED STATES Offset Against Salary § 608.839 Procedures for salary offset. (a) The Chairman... Intent to Collect by Salary Offset. (c)(1) If the amount of the debt is equal to or is less than 15...

  18. 5 CFR 179.211 - Notice of salary offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice of salary offset. 179.211 Section... COLLECTION STANDARDS Salary Offset § 179.211 Notice of salary offset. (a) Upon receipt of proper... certification as the debtor, a written notice of salary offset. Such notice shall, at a minimum: (1) State that...

  19. 7 CFR 3.46 - Offset against tax refunds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Offset against tax refunds. 3.46 Section 3.46 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DEBT MANAGEMENT Administrative Offset § 3.46 Offset against tax refunds. USDA will take action to effect administrative offset against tax refunds due to debtors...

  20. A new insight into opaque envelopes in a passive solar house: Properties and roles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, Linshuang; Ye, Hong; Liu, Minghou

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new insight into the opaque envelopes of a passive solar house was gained. • Five parts of envelopes, i.e., roof, south/east/west/north walls, were discussed. • Each part of envelopes were analyzed separately rather than treated as a whole. • Ideal properties of materials for each envelope are diverse from one another. • Differences are related to the envelopes’ leading roles as a heater or a cooler. - Abstract: Passive solar houses are effective solutions for minimizing the operating energy of buildings. The building envelopes of passive solar houses exert a significant influence on the degree of indoor thermal comfort. The focus of this study was the construction of high-performance opaque envelopes, i.e., the roof and walls, for a passive solar house, and a new conception of the envelopes from the perspective of the relation between the properties and roles was provided. The discussion was conducted based on a comprehensive range of envelope materials that were distinguished by the thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity. For the first time, each part of the envelopes was analyzed separately rather than considered as an entire envelope. By analyzing each envelope individually, the optimum properties of each envelope were found to be distinct from each other. The distinctions are determined by the dominant role of each envelope, which is associated with the location and absorbed solar irradiation. For summer or hot climate applications, when the dominant role is a cooler, the envelope, e.g., the south wall, should consist of materials with high thermal conductivity and large heat capacity; if a heater is the dominant role, the envelope, e.g., the roof, should consist of materials with low thermal conductivity. For winter or cold climate applications, the envelopes with a leading role of a heater or a cooler require materials with high or low thermal conductivity, respectively. Under the guidance of the results, a discussion

  1. OPAQUE MINERAL CONTENT OF DUTLUCA VOLCANICS (BURHANİYE - BALIKESİR: THE EFFECT OF HYDROTHERMAL ALTERATION ON THESE MINERALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şükrü KOÇ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Dutluca volcanics, which are known as Hallaçlar Formation in regional scale in the study area (Kurshens- ky, 1976, are composed of hydrothermally altered andesite and basaltic andesite. In these rocks, sulfidic minerals such as pyrite, enargite and chalcosine, and oxide and hydroxide minerals such as magnetite, hematite and goethite were detected as opaque minerals. The presence of enargite in opaque mineral para- genesis, and the changes observed in structures and textures of opaque and silicate minerals indicate that examined volcanics have been altered by highly sulfidic hydrothermal solutions. During the hydrothermal alteration process, which indicates at least in two phases, a diffuse pyritization rich in H S in reducing conditions and enargite mineral, which is known as pathfinder minerals in such processes, formed in the first phase. Later on; the extensive martitization developed in oxidizing conditions.

  2. 20 CFR 627.708 - Offset process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Offset process. 627.708 Section 627.708 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR GENERAL PROVISIONS GOVERNING... process. (a) In accordance with section 164(d) of the Act, the primary sanction for misexpenditure of JTPA...

  3. Sample Adaptive Offset Optimization in HEVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available As the next generation of video coding standard, High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC adopted many useful tools to improve coding efficiency. Sample Adaptive Offset (SAO, is a technique to reduce sample distortion by providing offsets to pixels in in-loop filter. In SAO, pixels in LCU are classified into several categories, then categories and offsets are given based on Rate-Distortion Optimization (RDO of reconstructed pixels in a Largest Coding Unit (LCU. Pixels in a LCU are operated by the same SAO process, however, transform and inverse transform makes the distortion of pixels in Transform Unit (TU edge larger than the distortion inside TU even after deblocking filtering (DF and SAO. And the categories of SAO can also be refined, since it is not proper for many cases. This paper proposed a TU edge offset mode and a category refinement for SAO in HEVC. Experimental results shows that those two kinds of optimization gets -0.13 and -0.2 gain respectively compared with the SAO in HEVC. The proposed algorithm which using the two kinds of optimization gets -0.23 gain on BD-rate compared with the SAO in HEVC which is a 47 % increase with nearly no increase on coding time.

  4. Origin of opaque assemblages in C3V meteorites - Implications for nebular and planetary processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Joel D.; Wasserburg, G. J.; Hutcheon, I. D.; Beckett, J. R.; Stolper, E. M.

    1989-01-01

    The results of analyses of meteoritic opaque assemblages (OAs) are presented and used in conjunction with literature data on phase equilibria and diffusion to further develop the hypothesis of Blum et al. (1989) for the origin of OAs in Ca,Al-rich inclusions (CAIs). Based on the results of the analyses, it is suggested that OAs formed after the crystallization of host CAIs by exsolution, sulfidation, and oxidation of precursor alloys at low temperatures (about 770 K) and higher than solar gas sulfur and oxygen fugacities. This model contrasts with previous models that call upon the formation of CAI OAs by aggregation of previously formed phases in the solar nebula prior to the crystallization of CAIs.

  5. Photons coming from an opaque obstacle as a manifestation of heavy neutrino decays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynoso, Matías M.; Romero, Ismael; Sampayo, Oscar A.

    2018-05-01

    Within the framework of physics beyond the standard model, we study the possibility that mesons produced in the atmosphere by the cosmic-ray flux decay to heavy Majorana neutrinos and the latter, in turn, decay mostly to photons in the low-mass region. We study the photon flux produced by sterile Majorana neutrinos (N ) decaying after passing through a massive and opaque object such as a mountain. To model the production of N 's in the atmosphere and their decay to photons, we consider the interaction between the Majorana neutrinos and the standard matter as modeled by an effective theory. We then calculate the heavy neutrino flux originated by the decay of mesons in the atmosphere. The surviving photon flux, originated by N decays, is calculated using transport equations that include the effects of Majorana neutrino production and decay.

  6. The need for radio-opaque side markers on CT of the paranasal sinuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandi, R.; Luk, T.L.; Henson, J.

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To audit the presence of a radio-opaque 'side marker' routinely placed on the right side of the face of all patients undergoing computed tomography (CT) of the paranasal sinuses in our hospital and to audit awareness levels amongst ear, nose and throat (ENT) clinical and theatre staff regarding the 'marker'. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An audit of 100 CT studies of the paranasal sinuses was carried out with regard to the presence or absence of the marker. A further audit was conducted relating to the awareness amongst ENT clinical staff and theatre nurses regarding the marker. Re-audit of a second cohort of 100 sinus CT studies was carried out after implementing changes indicated by the first audit cycle. Awareness amongst staff concerned was similarly re-audited. RESULTS: In audit cycle I the side marker was positively identified in 85% of the CT examinations and were deemed absent in 15%. Of the clinical staff interviewed, only 30% were aware of the presence of the 'marker' and it's significance. In audit cycle II the 'side marker' was positively identified in 100% of the scans reviewed. Awareness of the presence of the 'marker' amongst clinical staff was found to be 90%. CONCLUSIONS: The routine placement of a radio-opaque side marker on the right zygoma of all patients undergoing CT of paranasal sinuses is a simple yet effective additional means of denoting the correct side whilst interpreting such images. This has important implications regarding surgery. The audit has shown an improvement in both the placement of the side marker as well as in awareness levels amongst staff involved to ensure best practice

  7. Errors resulting from assuming opaque Lambertian clouds in TOMS ozone retrieval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X.; Newchurch, M.J.; Loughman, R.; Bhartia, P.K.

    2004-01-01

    Accurate remote sensing retrieval of atmospheric constituents over cloudy areas is very challenging because of insufficient knowledge of cloud parameters. Cloud treatments are highly idealized in most retrieval algorithms. Using a radiative transfer model treating clouds as scattering media, we investigate the effects of assuming opaque Lambertian clouds and employing a Partial Cloud Model (PCM) on Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) ozone retrievals, especially for tropical high-reflectivity clouds. Assuming angularly independent cloud reflection is good because the Ozone Retrieval Errors (OREs) are within 1.5% of the total ozone (i.e., within TOMS retrieval precision) when Cloud Optical Depth (COD)≥20. Because of Intra-Cloud Ozone Absorption ENhancement (ICOAEN), assuming opaque clouds can introduce large OREs even for optically thick clouds. For a water cloud of COD 40 spanning 2-12 km with 20.8 Dobson Unit (DU) ozone homogeneously distributed in the cloud, the ORE is 17.8 DU in the nadir view. The ICOAEN effect depends greatly on solar zenith angle, view zenith angle, and intra-cloud ozone amount and distribution. The TOMS PCM is good because negative errors from the cloud fraction being underestimated partly cancel other positive errors. At COD≤5, the TOMS algorithm retrieves approximately the correct total ozone because of compensating errors. With increasing COD up to 20-40, the overall positive ORE increases and is finally dominated by the ICOAEN effect. The ICOAEN effect is typically 5-13 DU on average over the Atlantic and Africa and 1-7 DU over the Pacific for tropical high-altitude (cloud top pressure ≤300 hPa) and high-reflectivity (reflectivity ≥ 80%) clouds. Knowledge of TOMS ozone retrieval errors has important implications for remote sensing of ozone/trace gases from other satellite instruments

  8. List context effects in languages with opaque and transparent orthographies: A challenge for models of reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela eTraficante

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a review of data which show that reading is a flexible and dynamic process and that readers can exert strategic control over it. Two main hypotheses on the control of reading processes have been suggested: the route de-emphasis hypothesis and the time-criterion hypothesis. According to the former, the presence of irregular words in the list might lead to an attenuation of the non-lexical process, while the presence of non-words could trigger a de-emphasis of the lexical route. An alternative account is proposed by the time-criterion hypothesis whereby the reader sets a flexible deadline to initiate the response. According to the latter view, it is the average pronunciation difficulty of the items in the block that modulates the time-criterion for response. However, it is worth noting that the list composition has been shown to exert different effects in transparent compared to opaque orthographies, as the consistency of spelling-sound correspondences can influence the processing costs of the non-lexical pathway. In transparent orthographies, the non-lexical route is not resource demanding and can successfully contribute to the pronunciation of regular words, thus its de-emphasis could not be as useful/necessary as in opaque orthographies. The complex patterns of results from the literature on list context effects are a challenge for computational models of reading which face the problem of simulating strategic control over reading processes. Different proposals suggest a modification of parameter setting in the non-lexical route or the implementation of a new module aimed at focusing attention on the output of the more convenient pathway. Simulation data and an assessment of the models’ fit to the behavioral results are presented and discussed to shed light on the role of the cognitive system when reading aloud.

  9. A GPS Satellite Clock Offset Prediction Method Based on Fitting Clock Offset Rates Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Fuhong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It is proposed that a satellite atomic clock offset prediction method based on fitting and modeling clock offset rates data. This method builds quadratic model or linear model combined with periodic terms to fit the time series of clock offset rates, and computes the model coefficients of trend with the best estimation. The clock offset precisely estimated at the initial prediction epoch is directly adopted to calculate the model coefficient of constant. The clock offsets in the rapid ephemeris (IGR provided by IGS are used as modeling data sets to perform certain experiments for different types of GPS satellite clocks. The results show that the clock prediction accuracies of the proposed method for 3, 6, 12 and 24 h achieve 0.43, 0.58, 0.90 and 1.47 ns respectively, which outperform the traditional prediction method based on fitting original clock offsets by 69.3%, 61.8%, 50.5% and 37.2%. Compared with the IGU real-time clock products provided by IGS, the prediction accuracies of the new method have improved about 15.7%, 23.7%, 27.4% and 34.4% respectively.

  10. Cap and trade offsets regulation - consultation paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Due to increasing concerns about the environment, British Columbia has committed to reducing its 2007 greenhouse gas emissions levels by 33% in 2020 and 80% in 2050. To reach those objectives, emissions trading and offset regulations are being developed by the Climate Action Secretariat. The aim of this document is to present a first draft of the regulations to the various stakeholders, including First Nations and the general public, together with the proposed offset eligibility criteria and related process, and to get their feedback. This document is itself part of the 5-phase process of developing the regulations. Following the 45 days during which comments on the proposed regulation were sought, the climate action secretariat will complete legal drafting of the regulations, drawing on help from this stakeholder input, and the regulation will subsequently be implemented. An accompanying response form was attached to this consultation paper.

  11. Using Opaque Image Blur for Real-Time Depth-of-Field Rendering and Image-Based Motion Blur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Martin

    2013-01-01

    While depth of field is an important cinematographic means, its use in real-time computer graphics is still limited by the computational costs that are necessary to achieve a sufficient image quality. Specifically, color bleeding artifacts between objects at different depths are most effectively...... that the opaque image blur can also be used to add motion blur effects to images in real time....

  12. Update on markets for forestry offsets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neeff, T.; Eichler, L.; Deecke, I.; Fehse, J.

    2007-01-01

    This guide is an update of the book 'Guidebook to Markets and Commercialization of CDM forestry projects'. The document provides information on the development of CMD methodologies, projects registered and markets since the publication of the first version. In addition it introduces the emerging non-Kyoto markets, it presents a classification of the existing developments, it describes each market including the buyer's preferences and it discusses the use of standards and quality criteria and transaction costs. We focus on markets for offsets from developing countries, rather than domestic offsets in developed countries. Section 1 is an introduction to the topic and an overview of the most recent developments. Sections 2 and 3 look at recent experiences and market developments for CDM reforestation projects. These sections are meant to be an update of the above mentioned guidebook and thus refrain from an exhaustive description. Section 4 assesses non-Kyoto markets for carbon offsets from forestry projects. It includes a description of the various market schemes and types of buyers. The section attempts to provide the project developer with useful information for developing a project following buyer' requirements. Finally, section 5 puts the assessment of opportunities for forestry in the broader context of the larger carbon markets. The report then concludes with a comparison of advantages and disadvantages of the CDM and non-Kyoto schemes from the project developer's point of view

  13. The Effect of Allowing Pollution Offsets with Imperfect Enforcement

    OpenAIRE

    Hilary Sigman; Howard F. Chang

    2011-01-01

    Public policies for pollution control, including climate change policies, sometimes allow polluters in one sector subject to an emissions cap to offset excessive emissions in that sector with pollution abatement in another sector. The government may often find it more costly to verify offset claims than to verify compliance with emissions caps. Concerns about such difficulties in enforcement may lead regulators to restrict the use of offsets. In this paper, we demonstrate that allowing offset...

  14. 22 CFR 1007.8 - Procedures for salary offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Procedures for salary offset. 1007.8 Section 1007.8 Foreign Relations INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION SALARY OFFSET § 1007.8 Procedures for salary offset... final salary or leave payments in accordance with 31 U.S.C. 3716. ...

  15. 29 CFR 1650.110 - Implementation of salary offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Implementation of salary offset. 1650.110 Section 1650.110... Procedures for the Collection of Debts by Salary Offset § 1650.110 Implementation of salary offset. (a... proposed voluntary repayment agreement, deductions will begin in the next bi-weekly salary payment after a...

  16. 16 CFR 1027.8 - Procedures for salary offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedures for salary offset. 1027.8 Section 1027.8 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL SALARY OFFSET § 1027.8 Procedures for salary offset. (a) Deductions to liquidate an employee's debt will be by the method and in the...

  17. 10 CFR 16.15 - Procedures for internal salary offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedures for internal salary offset. 16.15 Section 16.15 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION SALARY OFFSET PROCEDURES FOR COLLECTING DEBTS OWED BY FEDERAL EMPLOYEES TO THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT § 16.15 Procedures for internal salary offset. (a) Deductions to...

  18. 17 CFR 141.8 - Procedures for salary offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedures for salary offset. 141.8 Section 141.8 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION SALARY OFFSET § 141.8 Procedures for salary offset. (a) Deductions to liquidate an employee's debt will be by...

  19. 10 CFR 1015.215 - Federal salary offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Federal salary offset. 1015.215 Section 1015.215 Energy... Administrative Collection of Claims § 1015.215 Federal salary offset. (a) DOE may authorize Treasury to offset a Federal salary to satisfy delinquent debt in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 5514, Installment Deduction for...

  20. 40 CFR 13.21 - Employee salary offset-general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employee salary offset-general. 13.21... STANDARDS Administrative Offset § 13.21 Employee salary offset—general. (a) Purpose. This section... collection by salary offset under 5 U.S.C. 5514 of debts owed EPA and debts owed to other Federal agencies by...

  1. 45 CFR 33.10 - Procedures for salary offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procedures for salary offset. 33.10 Section 33.10 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION SALARY OFFSET § 33.10 Procedures for salary offset. (a) Method and source of deductions. Unless the employee and the Secretary have...

  2. 38 CFR 1.992 - Procedures for salary offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedures for salary offset. 1.992 Section 1.992 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL PROVISIONS Salary Offset Provisions § 1.992 Procedures for salary offset. (a) Types of collection...

  3. 5 CFR 1215.8 - Procedures for salary offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedures for salary offset. 1215.8... MANAGEMENT Salary Offset § 1215.8 Procedures for salary offset. (a) Deductions to liquidate an employee's... payment due to a separated employee including but not limited to final salary payment or leave in...

  4. 45 CFR 607.8 - Procedures for salary offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procedures for salary offset. 607.8 Section 607.8 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION SALARY OFFSET § 607.8 Procedures for salary offset. (a) Deductions to liquidate an employee's debt will be by...

  5. 32 CFR 1697.8 - Procedures for salary offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedures for salary offset. 1697.8 Section 1697.8 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM SALARY OFFSET § 1697.8 Procedures for salary offset. (a) Deductions to liquidate an employee's debt will be by...

  6. 14 CFR 1261.603 - Procedures for salary offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedures for salary offset. 1261.603... salary offset. If NASA is both the paying and creditor agency, the following requirements must be met... of the debt through salary offset by deductions from the employee's current disposable pay, stating...

  7. 22 CFR 34.16 - Procedures for salary offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedures for salary offset. 34.16 Section 34.16 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CLAIMS AND STOLEN PROPERTY DEBT COLLECTION Salary Offset § 34.16 Procedures for salary offset. Unless otherwise provided by statute or contract, the following...

  8. 5 CFR 179.212 - Procedures for salary offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedures for salary offset. 179.212... COLLECTION STANDARDS Salary Offset § 179.212 Procedures for salary offset. (a) The Director or his or her designee shall coordinate salary deductions under this subpart. (b) OPM payroll office shall determine the...

  9. 45 CFR 708.10 - Procedures for salary offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procedures for salary offset. 708.10 Section 708... COLLECTION BY SALARY OFFSET FROM INDEBTED CURRENT AND FORMER EMPLOYEES § 708.10 Procedures for salary offset... to final salary payment, retired pay, or lump sum leave, etc. as of the date of separation to the...

  10. 47 CFR 1.1951 - Offset against tax refunds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Offset against tax refunds. 1.1951 Section 1... Claims Owed the United States Cooperation with the Internal Revenue Service § 1.1951 Offset against tax refunds. The Commission will take action to effect administrative offset against tax refunds due to...

  11. 13 CFR 120.1722 - SBA's offset rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false SBA's offset rights. 120.1722... of SBA Secondary Market Guarantee Program for First Lien Position 504 Loan Pools § 120.1722 SBA's offset rights. SBA shall have the right to offset any amount owed by Lender to SBA, including, without...

  12. 41 CFR 105-56.029 - Offset amount.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Administration 56-SALARY OFFSET FOR INDEBTEDNESS OF FEDERAL EMPLOYEES TO THE UNITED STATES Centralized Salary... salary offset under this subpart is $100. (b) The amount offset from a salary payment under this subpart... otherwise resolved to the satisfaction of the creditor agency. ...

  13. Alternative method for determining the constant offset in lidar signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimir A. Kovalev; Cyle Wold; Alexander Petkov; Wei Min Hao

    2009-01-01

    We present an alternative method for determining the total offset in lidar signal created by a daytime background-illumination component and electrical or digital offset. Unlike existing techniques, here the signal square-range-correction procedure is initially performed using the total signal recorded by lidar, without subtraction of the offset component. While...

  14. Radio-opaque ethylcellulose-ethanol is a safe and efficient sclerosing agent for venous malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dompmartin, Anne; Barrellier, Marie-Therese; Blaizot, Xavier; Chene, Yannick; Gaillard, Cathy; Theron, Jacques; Hammer, Frank; Labbe, Daniel; Leroyer, Robert; Chedru, Valerie; Ollivier, Catherine; Vikkula, Miikka; Boon, Laurence M.

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of gelified ethanol, a newly developed sclerosing agent for slow-flow vascular malformations. Seventy-nine sclerotherapy procedures were performed on 44 patients with 37 venous malformations, 2 glomuvenous malformations, 2 lymphatic malformations, 2 lymphatico-venous malformations, and 1 Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome. The median injected volume was 1.00 mL/site of injection. Effects of sclerotherapy on pain, functional and cosmetic disturbance were statistically evaluated with a final result score. Local and systemic complications were recorded. The mean Visual Analogue Scores were 5.20 ± 2.81 before and 1.52 ± 1.25 after treatment (p < 0.001). Functional and aesthetic improvement was achieved in 31/35 patients (89%) and in 33/41 (80%), respectively. Minor local side effects included necrosis with or without issue of ethylcellulose, palpable residue, and hematoma. No systemic side-effects occurred. Per mL used, radio-opaque gelified ethanol is at least as effective as absolute ethanol. No systemic complication was observed, as only a low dose of ethanol was injected. Indications for sclerotherapy can be widened to areas with higher risk for local side effects (hands and periocular region), as ethanol is trapped in the lesion. Careful injection procedure is though necessary, because only a limited amount of ethylcellulose can be used per puncture. (orig.)

  15. Measurement of thermal transmittance of opaque facade wall relationship with meteorological conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antunović Biljana S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of measurements of thermal transmittance or as otherwise called U-value [W/m2⋅K] of opaque facade wall of preschool institution built in 1977. The building has an incomplete technical documentation according to which considered wall was built of brick and masonry mortar. Thermal characteristics of the incorporated materials have not been specified. Considering that in the period of building construction JUS standards was used, a possible range of calculated U-vales was obtained (1,241-1,404 W/m2·K. Measurements were performed in accordance with ISO 9869 during three time periods with the resulting U-values (1,269±0,276 W/m2·K; 1,025±0,175 W/m2·K; 1,200±0,212 W/m2·K that do not differ from each other within experimental uncertainty. Furthermore, the correlation of the measured U-values and meteorological conditions that prevailed during the measurements was analyzed. In the second measurement period, the average values of the total cloud cover and low cloud cover were less, and the average duration of sunshine was longer than in the other two measurement periods.

  16. Research on Stress Neutral Layer Offset in the Straightening Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailian Gui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The stress neutral layer offset is analyzed by theoretical and numerical calculation methods. In traditional straightening theory, the stress neutral layer was consistent with the geometric central layer. However, there is a phenomenon that the stress neutral layer has some offset with the geometric neutral layer. This offset is a very important factor for improving the precision of the straightening force. The formula of the stress neutral layer offset is obtained by a theoretical method and the change law is given by numerical calculation method. The neutral layer offset theory provides the theoretical basis for establishing the model of straightening force precisely.

  17. Reagan Defense Forum: The Third Offset Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-07

    guided weapons as you do, and have a homefield advantage. How would you do that? And the LRRDPP really, really did a great job in looking at that...The second thing was the Defense Science Board summer study on autonomy . To a person, every single person on the summer study said, we can’t prove...it, but we believe we are at an inflection point at an artificial intelligence and autonomy . How might we use that as an advantage in an offset

  18. Efficient Fixed-Offset GPR Scattering Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meincke, Peter; Chen, Xianyao

    2004-01-01

    The electromagnetic scattering by buried three-dimensional penetrable objects, as involved in the analysis of ground penetrating radar systems, is calculated using the extended Born approximation. The involved scattering tensor is calculated using fast Fourier transforms (FFT's). We incorporate...... in the scattering calculation the correct radiation patterns of the ground penetrating radar antennas by using their plane-wave transmitting and receiving spectra. Finally, we derive an efficient FFT-based method to analyze a fixed-offset configuration in which the location of the transmitting antenna is different...

  19. Emissions trading with offset markets and free quota allocations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosendahl, Knut Einar; Strand, Jon

    2012-07-01

    We study interactions between a 'policy bloc's' emissions quota market and an offset market where emissions offsets can be purchased from a non-policy 'fringe' of countries (such as for the CDM under the Kyoto Protocol). Policy-bloc firms are assumed to benefit from free quota allocations that are updated according to either past emissions or past outputs. We show that both overall abatement, and the allocation of given abatement between the policy bloc and the fringe, tend to be inefficient. When the policy-bloc quota market and offset markets are fully integrated (and firms buy offsets directly from the fringe), and all quotas and offsets must be traded at a single price, it is optimal for the policy bloc to either not constrain the offset market whatsoever, or to ban offsets completely. The former (latter) case occurs when free allocation of quotas is not too generous (very generous), and the offset market can profitably deliver large (only a small) quota amounts. Governments of policy countries would however instead prefer to buy offsets directly from the fringe at a price below the policy-bloc quota price. The offset price will then be below the marginal damage cost of emissions, and the quota price in the policy bloc above marginal damage cost. This solution is also inefficient as the policy bloc (acting as a monopsonist) purchases too few offsets from the fringe.(Author)

  20. The performance of spatially offset Raman spectroscopy for liquid explosive detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffen, Paul W.; Maskall, Guy; Bonthron, Stuart; Bloomfield, Matthew; Tombling, Craig; Matousek, Pavel

    2016-10-01

    Aviation security requirements adopted in 2014 require liquids to be screened at most airports throughout Europe, North America and Australia. Cobalt's unique Spatially Offset Raman Spectroscopy (SORS™) technology has proven extremely effective at screening liquids, aerosols and gels (LAGS) with extremely low false alarm rates. SORS is compatible with a wide range of containers, including coloured, opaque or clear plastics, glass and paper, as well as duty-free bottles in STEBs (secure tamper-evident bags). Our award-winning Insight range has been specially developed for table-top screening at security checkpoints. Insight systems use our patented SORS technology for rapid and accurate chemical analysis of substances in unopened non-metallic containers. Insight100M™ and the latest member of the range - Insight200M™ - also screen metallic containers. Our unique systems screen liquids, aerosols and gels with the highest detection capability and lowest false alarm rates of any ECAC-approved scanner, with several hundred units already in use at airports including eight of the top ten European hubs. This paper presents an analysis of real performance data for these systems.

  1. BC Hydro shops for GHG offsets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    BC Hydro is reported to have offered to purchase one million tonnes of carbon dioxide reductions in Canada's Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Trading program (GERT). The program uses a baseline and credit system, where emitters purchase measurable quantities of site-specific GHG reductions. Since mid-1998, the program registered five bilateral trades and seven offers to sell. BC Hydro's recent offer is the first offer to buy. BC Hydro has made the offer to buy in expectation of the introduction of the start of the Kyoto Protocol reductions, and expects to be in the game for some time to come if it is to meet its obligations under the Kyoto Protocol. Preference will be given to projects located in Canada, but BC Hydro will consider reductions created anywhere in the world. The financial range of a single trade is between $50,000 and $1 million. (GHG offsets are currently trading in North America for between $.50 and $3.00 Cdn per metric tonne of carbon dioxide equivalent.) At present, offsets are selling at a heavily discounted price because of the uncertainty that investments made now will be credited against future regulations curbing emitters. Consequently, buying now while prices are low, may lead to sizable benefits later, depending on the actual regulations when they are promulgated. Trading now will also give BC Hydro greater credibility and assurance to have its voice heard when discussions about emissions trading and the implementation of emission trading rules reaches the serious stage

  2. Portable pulse X-ray micro and nanosecond range apparatus for studying fast-going processes in opaque media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goganov, D.A.; Komyak, N.I.; Pelix, E.A.

    Pulse X-radiography (X-ray flash duration in the order of 10 -6 -10 -9 sec) is the principal method for studying fast-going processes in opaque media by serial and parallel radiographic imaging. Description is given and main features are outlined of pulse X-ray apparatus IRA-4b, 5b, 6b producing X-radiation flashes from 0.3 μsec to 10-20 nsec in duration

  3. White-opaque Switching in Different Mating Type-like Locus Gene Types of Clinical Candida albicans Isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hou-Min; Shimizu-Imanishi, Yumi; Tanaka, Reiko; Li, Ruo-Yu; Yaguchi, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Candida albicans (C. albicans) can become a pathogen causing superficial as well as life-threatening systemic infections, especially in immunocompromised patients. Many phenotypic attributes contribute to its capacity to colonize human organs. In our study, 93 C. albicans isolates from patients of various candidiasis in a hospital of China were surveyed. We aimed to investigate the white-opaque (WO) switching competence, drug sensitivity, and virulence of mating type-like (MTL) a/α isolates. Methods: Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene and the MTL configuration were detected in all the isolates by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. White/opaque phenotype and doubling time of cell growth were determined. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of antifungal agent were measured using broth microdilution method. Results: Sixty-four isolates (69.6%) were classified to serotype A, 19 (20.6%) to serotype B, and 9 (9.8%) to serotype C. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis showed that these isolates were divided into four different subgroups of ITS genotypes. Most of our clinical isolates were MTLa/α type, while 6.8% remained MTLa or MTLα type. The frequency of opaque phenotype was 71.0% (66 isolates). Following the guidelines of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute M27-A3, all isolates were susceptible to caspofungin and a few (0.6–3.2%) of them showed resistance against amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazole, itraconazole, and voriconazole. Conclusions: From these analyses, there were comparatively more C. albicans strains classified into serotype B, and the frequency of opaque phase strains was significant in the clinical isolates from China. Genetic, phenotypic, or drug susceptibility patterns were not significantly different from previous studies. MTLa/α isolates could also undergo WO switching which facilitates their survival. PMID:27824006

  4. Radio opaque marking of pelvic structures : an adjunct to primary radiation therapy of carcinoma of the uterine cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nori, Dattatreyudu; Noumoff, Joel; Cassir, Jorge; Hilaris, B.S.; Lewis, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    A standardized method of clipping pelvic structures at the time of pretreatment laparotomy for cervical carcinoma is presented. The accurate localization of pelvic structures by clip markers greatly enhances the precision of computerized dosimetry in administering intracavitary radiation. The technical details of the marking procedures, its usefulness and some examples reviewing the advantage of clipping are elaborated. Radio-opaque marking with special reference to computerized dosimetry is also given. (author)

  5. Biodiversity offsets and the challenge of achieving no net loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Toby A; VON Hase, Amrei; Brownlie, Susie; Ekstrom, Jonathan M M; Pilgrim, John D; Savy, Conrad E; Stephens, R T Theo; Treweek, Jo; Ussher, Graham T; Ward, Gerri; Ten Kate, Kerry

    2013-12-01

    Businesses, governments, and financial institutions are increasingly adopting a policy of no net loss of biodiversity for development activities. The goal of no net loss is intended to help relieve tension between conservation and development by enabling economic gains to be achieved without concomitant biodiversity losses. biodiversity offsets represent a necessary component of a much broader mitigation strategy for achieving no net loss following prior application of avoidance, minimization, and remediation measures. However, doubts have been raised about the appropriate use of biodiversity offsets. We examined what no net loss means as a desirable conservation outcome and reviewed the conditions that determine whether, and under what circumstances, biodiversity offsets can help achieve such a goal. We propose a conceptual framework to substitute the often ad hoc approaches evident in many biodiversity offset initiatives. The relevance of biodiversity offsets to no net loss rests on 2 fundamental premises. First, offsets are rarely adequate for achieving no net loss of biodiversity alone. Second, some development effects may be too difficult or risky, or even impossible, to offset. To help to deliver no net loss through biodiversity offsets, biodiversity gains must be comparable to losses, be in addition to conservation gains that may have occurred in absence of the offset, and be lasting and protected from risk of failure. Adherence to these conditions requires consideration of the wider landscape context of development and offset activities, timing of offset delivery, measurement of biodiversity, accounting procedures and rule sets used to calculate biodiversity losses and gains and guide offset design, and approaches to managing risk. Adoption of this framework will strengthen the potential for offsets to provide an ecologically defensible mechanism that can help reconcile conservation and development. Balances de Biodiversidad y el Reto de No Obtener P

  6. How economic contexts shape calculations of yield in biodiversity offsetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, L; Sullivan, S

    2017-10-01

    We examined and analyzed methods used to create numerical equivalence between sites affected by development and proposed conservation offset sites. Application of biodiversity offsetting metrics in development impact and mitigation assessments is thought to standardize biodiversity conservation outcomes, sometimes termed yield by those conducting these calculations. The youth of biodiversity offsetting in application, however, means little is known about how biodiversity valuations and offset contracts between development and offset sites are agreed on in practice or about long-term conservation outcomes. We examined how sites were made commensurable and how biodiversity gains or yields were calculated and negotiated for a specific offset contract in a government-led pilot study of biodiversity offsets in England. Over 24 months, we conducted participant observations of various stages in the negotiation of offset contracts through repeated visits to 3 (anonymized) biodiversity offset contract sites. We conducted 50 semistructured interviews of stakeholders in regional and local government, the private sector, and civil society. We used a qualitative data analysis software program (DEDOOSE) to textually analyze interview transcriptions. We also compared successive iterations of biodiversity-offsetting calculation spreadsheets and planning documents. A particular focus was the different iterations of a specific biodiversity impact assessment in which the biodiversity offsetting metric developed by the U.K.'s Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs was used. We highlight 3 main findings. First, biodiversity offsetting metrics were amended in creative ways as users adapted inputs to metric calculations to balance and negotiate conflicting requirements. Second, the practice of making different habitats equivalent to each other through the application of biodiversity offsetting metrics resulted in commensuration outcomes that may not provide projected

  7. Domestic offset projects in the built environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oikonomou, V.; Spijker, E.; Van der Gaast, W. [Joint Implementation Network, Laan Corpus den Hoorn 300, 9728JT Groningen (Netherlands); Flamos, A.; Spyridaki, N.A. [Department of Industrial Management, University of Piraeus, Karaoli and Dimitriou 80 Str, 185 34 Piraeus (Greece)

    2012-08-15

    Emission reduction activities in the European Union (EU) in- and outside the European Trading System (ETS) thus far have largely taken place separately. One possibility to combine the two is through linking Non-ETS offset project-based crediting schemes in the form of Joint Implementation or domestic offset (DO) projects with the EU ETS. Linking would allow non-ETS offset project-based CO2 credits to be traded within the ETS market. This paper discusses the merits and drawbacks of the implementation of a DO scheme in the built environment in the Netherlands. The built environment can be characterised as a sector with a great diversity and significant energy savings potential. Emphasis is paid on the modalities for estimating energy savings under DO projects. The authors discuss if next to existing EU, national or regional policies in the Netherlands, DO could spur initiatives in sub-sectors or market areas that are difficult to reach with conventional policy instruments. Thus, despite the existing policy framework in this sector, there could be still space for DO to reach the untapped energy savings potential. DO can support activities and technologies that are not covered by other policy instruments, either because they are not part of the instruments focus or are above the minimum requirements of the incumbent policy targets. It is expected that some lessons from this study in the Netherlands can be taken into account also by other countries facing similar market circumstances, which have implemented several policy instruments and are considering DO schemes as an alternative for capturing part of the untapped energy saving potential in their end use sectors. Another possible advantage of DO is that it has the potential to reduce public spending on existing policy goals, when it is considered in conjunction with existing public financing instruments. In order to tap into this potential, there are a series of hurdles in place, like additionality and the current CO2

  8. Noise Prediction Module for Offset Stream Nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Brenda S.

    2011-01-01

    A Modern Design of Experiments (MDOE) analysis of data acquired for an offset stream technology was presented. The data acquisition and concept development were funded under a Supersonics NRA NNX07AC62A awarded to Dimitri Papamoschou at University of California, Irvine. The technology involved the introduction of airfoils in the fan stream of a bypass ratio (BPR) two nozzle system operated at transonic exhaust speeds. The vanes deflected the fan stream relative to the core stream and resulted in reduced sideline noise for polar angles in the peak jet noise direction. Noise prediction models were developed for a range of vane configurations. The models interface with an existing ANOPP module and can be used or future system level studies.

  9. Net present biodiversity value and the design of biodiversity offsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, Jacob McC; Stephens, R T Theo; Ferrier, Simon

    2013-02-01

    There is an urgent need to develop sound theory and practice for biodiversity offsets to provide a better basis for offset multipliers, to improve accounting for time delays in offset repayments, and to develop a common framework for evaluating in-kind and out-of-kind offsets. Here, we apply concepts and measures from systematic conservation planning and financial accounting to provide a basis for determining equity across type (of biodiversity), space, and time. We introduce net present biodiversity value (NPBV) as a theoretical and practical measure for defining the offset required to achieve no-net-loss. For evaluating equity in type and space we use measures of biodiversity value from systematic conservation planning. Time discount rates are used to address risk of non-repayment, and loss of utility. We illustrate these concepts and measures with two examples of biodiversity impact-offset transactions. Considerable further work is required to understand the characteristics of these approaches.

  10. Offset Implementations for Turkey’s International Defense Acquisitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    has been a source of confusion in the field of offsets and countertrade (Schmidt, 1989, p. 4) Compensatory trade agreements — or reciprocal trade...complementary policy instruments. Countertrade and offset terms have usually been overall terms to define and classify reciprocal trade agreements...motives and characteristics in nature. Author Grant T. Hammond classifies reciprocal trade as countertrade , offsets and barter — which involve all

  11. Success Factors in Offset Deals: A Case Study Based Examination

    OpenAIRE

    Heinz Kirchwehm

    2014-01-01

    The requests for offset obligations occurs primarily in the area of arms imports and covers the full range of industrial and commercial benefits that companies provide to foreign governments as inducements or conditions for the purchase of military goods and services. Increasingly, all major contracts ask for offset obligations. They are now key differentiators in major contracts and it is a fast growing market. For the suppliers, offsets are a key differentiator in earning new business and t...

  12. Mycobiota and co-occurrence of mycotoxins in South African maize-based opaque beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adekoya, Ifeoluwa; Obadina, Adewale; Adaku, Cynthia Chilaka; De Boevre, Marthe; Okoth, Sheila; De Saeger, Sarah; Njobeh, Patrick

    2018-04-02

    Beer, a beverage consumed throughout the world, is mainly derived from cereals. In this study, fungal and mycotoxin contamination, as well as the physicochemical properties of maize-based opaque beer (umqombothi) obtained from the Gauteng province of South Africa, was investigated. The mean water activity, pH and total titratable acidity of the analysed beer samples were 0.91, 3.76 and 1.20% lactic acid, respectively. The investigation revealed Aspergillus, Penicillium, Phoma and Saccharomyces as the predominant fungal genera with a mean fungal load of 3.66 × 10 5  CFU/mL. Among the mycotoxigenic fungal species recovered, Aspergillus flavus had the highest incidence of 26%. Previously unreported strains such as P. chrysogenum strain AD25, A. sydowii strain AD 22 and A. tritici strain AD 11 were found. Furthermore, mycotoxin quantitative analysis via liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrophotometry showed that deoxynivalenol was the dominant mycotoxin occurring in 84% of the samples. This was followed by enniatin B that occurred in 75% of samples ranging from 12 to 44 μg/L and fumonisin B 1 (FB 1 ) (incidence of 53% at a maximum level of 182 μg/L). Generally, there was low occurrence aflatoxins, whereas T-2, HT-2, nivalenol, zearalenone, 3- and 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol were not detected. All the samples analysed had safe levels of mycotoxins tested but were contaminated by at least two mycotoxins that could pose some additive or synergistic health effects among consumers. On average: a 60 kg adult consuming 1-6 L/day of the beer was exposed to FB 1  + FB 2 at an estimated 2.20-13.20 μg/kg body weight/day. These values were far above the maximum tolerable daily intake of 2 μg/kg bw/day established by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). The study demonstrates that consumption of umqombothi can significantly enhance dietary exposure to multiple mycotoxins among consumers, and therefore accentuates the need for

  13. Economic and ecological outcomes of flexible biodiversity offset systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Thomas J; Farr, Daniel R; Schneider, Richard R; Boutin, Stan

    2013-12-01

    The commonly expressed goal of biodiversity offsets is to achieve no net loss of specific biological features affected by development. However, strict equivalency requirements may complicate trading of offset credits, increase costs due to restricted offset placement options, and force offset activities to focus on features that may not represent regional conservation priorities. Using the oil sands industry of Alberta, Canada, as a case study, we evaluated the economic and ecological performance of alternative offset systems targeting either ecologically equivalent areas (vegetation types) or regional conservation priorities (caribou and the Dry Mixedwood natural subregion). Exchanging dissimilar biodiversity elements requires assessment via a generalized metric; we used an empirically derived index of biodiversity intactness to link offsets with losses incurred by development. We considered 2 offset activities: land protection, with costs estimated as the net present value of profits of petroleum and timber resources to be paid as compensation to resource tenure holders, and restoration of anthropogenic footprint, with costs estimated from existing restoration projects. We used the spatial optimization tool MARXAN to develop hypothetical offset networks that met either the equivalent-vegetation or conservation-priority targets. Networks that required offsetting equivalent vegetation cost 2-17 times more than priority-focused networks. This finding calls into question the prudence of equivalency-based systems, particularly in relatively undeveloped jurisdictions, where conservation focuses on limiting and directing future losses. Priority-focused offsets may offer benefits to industry and environmental stakeholders by allowing for lower-cost conservation of valued ecological features and may invite discussion on what land-use trade-offs are acceptable when trading biodiversity via offsets. Resultados Económicos y Ecológicos de Sistemas de Compensación de

  14. Attention-dependent sound offset-related brain potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, János

    2016-05-01

    When performing sensory tasks, knowing the potentially occurring goal-relevant and irrelevant stimulus events allows the establishment of selective attention sets, which result in enhanced sensory processing of goal-relevant events. In the auditory modality, such enhancements are reflected in the increased amplitude of the N1 ERP elicited by the onsets of task-relevant sounds. It has been recently suggested that ERPs to task-relevant sound offsets are similarly enhanced in a tone-focused state in comparison to a distracted one. The goal of the present study was to explore the influence of attention on ERPs elicited by sound offsets. ERPs elicited by tones in a duration-discrimination task were compared to ERPs elicited by the same tones in not-tone-focused attentional setting. Tone offsets elicited a consistent, attention-dependent biphasic (positive-negative--P1-N1) ERP waveform for tone durations ranging from 150 to 450 ms. The evidence, however, did not support the notion that the offset-related ERPs reflected an offset-specific attention set: The offset-related ERPs elicited in a duration-discrimination condition (in which offsets were task relevant) did not significantly differ from those elicited in a pitch-discrimination condition (in which the offsets were task irrelevant). Although an N2 reflecting the processing of offsets in task-related terms contributed to the observed waveform, this contribution was separable from the offset-related P1 and N1. The results demonstrate that when tones are attended, offset-related ERPs may substantially overlap endogenous ERP activity in the postoffset interval irrespective of tone duration, and attention differences may cause ERP differences in such postoffset intervals. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  15. Effect of metal opaquer on the final color of 3 ceramic crown types on 3 abutment configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Rabia; Yilmaz, Burak; Mortazavi, Aras; Ozcelik, Tuncer B; Johnston, William M

    2018-04-30

    The effect of a recently introduced metal opaquer when used to mask the color of a titanium abutment under ceramic crown systems is unknown. The purpose of this study was to compare the color coordinates of 3 ceramic crown types-characterized monolithic lithium disilicate (LDC) (IPS e.max; Ivoclar Vivadent AG), layered lithium disilicate (LDL) (IPS e.max; Ivoclar Vivadent AG), and layered zirconia (ZL) (H.C. Starck)-on 3 abutment configurations, nonopaqued titanium (Ti), resin opaqued titanium (Op), and zirconia (Zir). In addition, the color differences (CIEDE2000) were evaluated among the 3 crown types on 3 different abutment substrates. Ten Ti disks (10×1 mm) were fabricated with computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) to represent the Ti abutments. Five Ti specimens were opaqued (Op) (whiteMetal Opaquer wMO; Blue Sky Bio), and 5 were not opaqued (Ti). Ten zirconia disks were fabricated with CAD-CAM and sintered (10×1.2 mm). Five disks were used as backings to represent Zir abutments, and 5 disks were layered with 1 mm of porcelain (B1, IPS e.Max Ceram; Ivoclar Vivadent AG) to represent layered zirconia crowns (ZL). Ten lithium disilicate plates (14×14×1.2 mm) were sectioned from CAD blocks (B1 IPS e.Max CAD; Ivoclar Vivadent AG). Five plates were layered with the same porcelain (B1, 1 mm), and 5 plates were surface characterized and glazed. An LDL crown on a Zir abutment configuration was used as the control. The 3 simulated crown types (n=5) were optically connected to each of the 3 abutment types, and the color of the 9 groups was measured using a spectroradiometer. Measured data were reported in CIELab coordinates. CIELab data were used to calculate color differences between the control and the 8 experimental groups. Color data were summarized for each group, and analyzed by repeated-measures ANOVA. For pairwise comparisons, a Bonferroni correction of t tests was used, and for interpretive analysis of resulting color difference

  16. Workshop Papers: CERI's Alberta Offset Development Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    New and innovative policy approaches are necessary to help Canada achieve its target for greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions, since it is becoming clear that the voluntary action plans that are currently in place are not adequate to address climate change. The use of economic instruments to reduce greenhouse gas emissions was the focus of this conference. Topics included various forms of greenhouse gas emissions trading, taxation instruments, and hybrid instruments which make use of both emissions trading and emissions charges. The three forms of emission trading - carbon content trading, allowance trading, and credit trading - which have the potential to beneficially influence climate change were explored by several participants. Technical and policy related issues were explored in detail and the manner in which offsets fit into global, regional and local scenarios were reviewed. It was emphasized that clear and consistent policy signals and a flexible attitude from government is necessary to interest greenhouse gas emitters in taking action to reduce emissions without sacrificing the economy. Under a joint implementation framework recently agreed to at Kyoto, developed countries could earn credits for limiting emissions or enhancing carbon sinks in other countries by taking advantage of the low costs of emission reductions in developing countries. To date, this is the most fertile area for innovative action for effecting a global reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. refs., tabs., figs

  17. Estimating nocturnal opaque ice cloud optical depth from MODIS multispectral infrared radiances using a neural network method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnis, Patrick; Hong, Gang; Sun-Mack, Szedung; Smith, William L.; Chen, Yan; Miller, Steven D.

    2016-05-01

    Retrieval of ice cloud properties using IR measurements has a distinct advantage over the visible and near-IR techniques by providing consistent monitoring regardless of solar illumination conditions. Historically, the IR bands at 3.7, 6.7, 11.0, and 12.0 µm have been used to infer ice cloud parameters by various methods, but the reliable retrieval of ice cloud optical depth τ is limited to nonopaque cirrus with τ < 8. The Ice Cloud Optical Depth from Infrared using a Neural network (ICODIN) method is developed in this paper by training Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) radiances at 3.7, 6.7, 11.0, and 12.0 µm against CloudSat-estimated τ during the nighttime using 2 months of matched global data from 2007. An independent data set comprising observations from the same 2 months of 2008 was used to validate the ICODIN. One 4-channel and three 3-channel versions of the ICODIN were tested. The training and validation results show that IR channels can be used to estimate ice cloud τ up to 150 with correlations above 78% and 69% for all clouds and only opaque ice clouds, respectively. However, τ for the deepest clouds is still underestimated in many instances. The corresponding RMS differences relative to CloudSat are ~100 and ~72%. If the opaque clouds are properly identified with the IR methods, the RMS differences in the retrieved optical depths are ~62%. The 3.7 µm channel appears to be most sensitive to optical depth changes but is constrained by poor precision at low temperatures. A method for estimating total optical depth is explored for estimation of cloud water path in the future. Factors affecting the uncertainties and potential improvements are discussed. With improved techniques for discriminating between opaque and semitransparent ice clouds, the method can ultimately improve cloud property monitoring over the entire diurnal cycle.

  18. The infrared stage Linkam FTIR 600 for microthermometric studies in dark and opaque minerals associated to uranium mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Tatiana Aparecida Fernandes de; Rios, Francisco Javier; Fuzikawa, Kazuo; Oliveira, Lucilia A. Ramos de; Oliveira, Elizabeth Kerpe; Neves, Jose Marques Correia; Prates, Sonia Pinto

    2009-01-01

    Fluid composition studies, throughout fluid inclusions (FI), contribute to improve the understanding of mineral deposits. FI correspond to small portions of fluids trapped in minerals by many processes that preserve relevant information related to fluid composition which forms ore deposits. Microscopy and microthermometry techniques applied to fluid inclusions studies of opaque and/or dark minerals use infrared light (IR). A specific stage heating/cooling that allows working in the near infrared (NIR). Thus, the infrared stage model FTIR600 Linkam coupled the IR OLYMPUS BX51, with the automatic controllers LNP 94/2 and TMS 94, and software Linksys 32 - Linkam installed in computer was implemented and tested. An infrared QUICAM fast 1394 QIMAGING TM camera with the program QCAPTURE SUITE was acquisition for images capture and adapted the new system. This infrared stage Linkam FTIR600 reach temperatures between -196 deg C to +600 deg C, with the differential of working in the NIR; it is all automated, obtaining computerized data, graphics in real time of analysis and storage the data. It also controls the speed of the experiment (up to 130 deg C/min); it runs consecutively heating and cooling with a small N 2 (l) consuming; besides greater results repeatability, obtaining accurate and precise temperatures. Actually the Linkam stage FTIR600 is operating in the Metallogenesis and Fluid Inclusions Laboratory (LIFM) at CDTN/CNEN. Uranium ore and/or others mineralization studies which shows dark or opaque mineral have been developed. The uranium mineralization in the Lagoa Real Uraniferous Province, Bahia, Brazil, shows several rock-forming minerals together with the dark and opaque minerals (garnet, magnetite, pyroxene) emphasized in the present work. (author)

  19. 22 CFR 213.21 - Employee salary offset-general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employee salary offset-general. 213.21 Section... § 213.21 Employee salary offset—general. (a) Purpose. This section establishes USAID's policies and... account of an employee. (b) Scope. The provisions of this section apply to collection by salary offset...

  20. 45 CFR 1179.8 - Procedures for salary offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procedures for salary offset. 1179.8 Section 1179... AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES SALARY OFFSET § 1179.8 Procedures for salary... to final salary payment or leave in accordance with 31 U.S.C. 3716. ...

  1. 6 CFR 13.44 - Right to administrative offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Right to administrative offset. 13.44 Section 13.44 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 13.44 Right to administrative offset. The amount of any penalty or assessment that has become...

  2. 38 CFR 3.658 - Offsets; dependency and indemnity compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offsets; dependency and... AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Adjustments and Resumptions § 3.658 Offsets; dependency and indemnity compensation. (a) When an award of dependency and...

  3. Carbon offset potentials and design: Anticipating future public policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trexler, M.C.; Kosloff, L.H.; Gowen, M.

    1994-01-01

    Carbon offsets offer CO 2 emitters the opportunity to compensate for some proportion of their CO 2 emissions through the pursuit of emissions reduction or carbon sequestration projects beyond their own operational boundaries. The flexibility to pursue carbon offsets ''off-site'' can dramatically reduce the costs of achieving a given net emissions reduction. The future role of carbon offsets, however, continues to be a topic of considerable debate. Several processes are currently under way nationally and internationally that will help shape this role. This paper discusses how alternative policy outcomes could encourage or restrict the viability of carbon offsets as a component of corporate climate change mitigation portfolios and proposes criteria by which projects should be evaluated prior to the finalization of national or international policy frameworks. Based on these outcomes, the potential for offsets could be very large or very modest. It is vital that policy development in the offset arena account for the still voluntary nature of mitigation efforts and that the objective of climate change mitigation not be forgotten in the push for offset rules and regulations. At the same time, carbon offsets are far from a panacea for climate change mitigation and should be evaluated in the context of a larger global mitigation portfolio

  4. BPM Offset Determination by Sinusoidal Quadrupole K-modulation

    CERN Document Server

    Baer, T; Wenninger, J

    2011-01-01

    To ensure an adequate orbit steering that maximizes the machine aperture, a good knowledge of the BPM measurement offsets is crucial. During this MD, a sinusoidal k-modulation of individually powered quadrupoles was performed to determine the offsets of the nearby BPMs. An accuracy of 10µm for the determination of the absolute beam position is reached.

  5. Measuring coseismic displacements with point-like targets offset tracking

    KAUST Repository

    Hu, Xie; Wang, Teng; Liao, Mingsheng

    2014-01-01

    Offset tracking is an important complement to measure large ground displacements in both azimuth and range dimensions where synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometry is unfeasible. Subpixel offsets can be obtained by searching for the cross-correlation peak calculated from the match patches uniformly distributed on two SAR images. However, it has its limitations, including redundant computation and incorrect estimations on decorrelated patches. In this letter, we propose a simple strategy that performs offset tracking on detected point-like targets (PT). We first detect image patches within bright PT by using a sinc-like template from a single SAR image and then perform offset tracking on them to obtain the pixel shifts. Compared with the standard method, the application on the 2010 M 7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake shows that the proposed PT offset tracking can significantly increase the cross-correlation and thus result in both efficiency and reliability improvements. © 2013 IEEE.

  6. Quadrupole to BPM offset determination in Indus-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jena, Saroj; Ghodke, A.D.; Singh, G.

    2009-01-01

    A feasibility of finding the quadrupole to BPM offset using beam based alignment (BBA) technique in Indus-2 has been studied. The measurements of the offsets between BPM and quadrupoles could be performed by using quadratic fitting for the minima of the orbit response w. r. t. changes in the quadrupole strengths. These offsets will be integrated to the orbit data during closed orbit correction. There are 72 quadrupoles and 56 BPMs in Indus-2. However the assessment of Quad-BPM offsets is not feasible in some cases due to non-availability of BPM adjacent to quadrupole and also in some cases because of a large phase advance between quadrupole and nearby BPM. Here single corrector method is used to obtain these offsets and assumed the current of each quadrupole can be varied independently. A graphical user interface (GUI) is developed in MATLAB for the use of BBA in Indus-2. (author)

  7. 15 CFR 19.10 - How will Commerce entities use administrative offset (offset of non-tax Federal payments) to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How will Commerce entities use administrative offset (offset of non-tax Federal payments) to collect a Commerce debt? 19.10 Section 19.10 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce COMMERCE DEBT COLLECTION Procedures To...

  8. Achieving biodiversity benefits with offsets: Research gaps, challenges, and needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelcich, Stefan; Vargas, Camila; Carreras, Maria Jose; Castilla, Juan Carlos; Donlan, C Josh

    2017-03-01

    Biodiversity offsets are becoming increasingly common across a portfolio of settings: national policy, voluntary programs, international lending, and corporate business structures. Given the diversity of ecological, political, and socio-economic systems where offsets may be applied, place-based information is likely to be most useful in designing and implementing offset programs, along with guiding principles that assure best practice. We reviewed the research on biodiversity offsets to explore gaps and needs. While the peer-reviewed literature on offsets is growing rapidly, it is heavily dominated by ecological theory, wetland ecosystems, and U.S.-based research. Given that majority of offset policies and programs are occurring in middle- and low-income countries, the research gaps we identified present a number of risks. They also present an opportunity to create regionally based learning platforms focused on pilot projects and institutional capacity building. Scientific research should diversify, both topically and geographically, in order to support the successful design, implementation, and monitoring of biodiversity offset programs.

  9. An intercomparison of the thermal offset for different pyranometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, G.; Cancillo, M. L.; Serrano, A.

    2016-07-01

    An unprecedented intensive intercomparison campaign focused on the experimental measurement of the thermal offset of pyranometers has been conducted at Badajoz (Spain) with the participation of three main manufacturers. The purpose of this study is to compare the thermal offset of six commercially available pyranometers, being some of them widely used and others recently commercialized. In this campaign, the capping methodology has been used to experimentally measure the daytime thermal offset of the pyranometers. Thus, a short but intense campaign has been conducted in two selected summer days under clear-sky conditions, covering a large range of solar zenith angle, irradiance, and temperature. Along the campaign, a total of 305 capping events have been performed, 61 for each pyranometer. The daytime thermal offset obtained for different pyranometers ranges between 0 and -16.8 W/m2 depending on the environmental conditions, being sometimes notably higher than values estimated indoors by manufacturers. The thermal offset absolute value of all instruments shows a diurnal cycle, increasing from sunrise to central hours of the day and decreasing from midafternoon to sunset. The analysis demonstrates that thermal offset is notably higher and more variable during daytime than during nighttime, requiring specific daytime measurements. Main results emphasize the key role played by wind speed in modulating the thermal offset.

  10. DFT-based offset-QAM OFDM for optical communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jian

    2014-01-13

    We experimentally demonstrate and numerically investigate a discrete-Fourier-transform (DFT) based offset quadrature-amplitude-modulation (offset-QAM) orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) system. We investigate the scheme using a set of square-root-raised-cosine functions and a set of super-Gaussian functions as signal spectra. It is shown that offset-QAM OFDM exhibits negligible penalty for all investigated spectra, in contrast to rectangular-function based Nyquist FDM (N-FDM) and sinc-function based conventional OFDM (C-OFDM). The required guard interval (GI) length for dispersion compensation in offset-QAM OFDM is analyzed and shown to scale with twice the subcarrier spacing rather than the full OFDM bandwidth. Experimental results show that 38-Gb/s offset-16QAM OFDM supports 600-km fiber transmission with negligible penalty in the absence of GI while a GI length of eight is required in C-OFDM. Further numerical simulations show that by avoiding the GI, 112-Gb/s polarization multiplexed offset-4QAM OFDM can achieve 23% increase in net data rate over C-OFDM under the same transmission reach. We also discuss the design of the pulse-shaping filter in the DFT-based implementation and show that when compared to N-FDM, the required memory length of the filter for pulse shaping can be reduced from 60 to 2 in offset-QAM OFDM regardless of the fiber length.

  11. Temperature Induced Voltage Offset Drifts in Silicon Carbide Pressure Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okojie, Robert S.; Lukco, Dorothy; Nguyen, Vu; Savrun, Ender

    2012-01-01

    We report the reduction of transient drifts in the zero pressure offset voltage in silicon carbide (SiC) pressure sensors when operating at 600 C. The previously observed maximum drift of +/- 10 mV of the reference offset voltage at 600 C was reduced to within +/- 5 mV. The offset voltage drifts and bridge resistance changes over time at test temperature are explained in terms of the microstructure and phase changes occurring within the contact metallization, as analyzed by Auger electron spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The results have helped to identify the upper temperature reliable operational limit of this particular metallization scheme to be 605 C.

  12. Public Budget Database - Budget Authority and offsetting receipts 1976-Current

    Data.gov (United States)

    Executive Office of the President — This file contains historical budget authority and offsetting receipts for 1976 through the current budget year, as well as four years of projections. It can be used...

  13. Public Budget Database - Outlays and offsetting receipts 1962-Current

    Data.gov (United States)

    Executive Office of the President — This file contains historical outlays and offsetting receipts for 1962 through the current budget year, as well as four years of projections. It can be used to...

  14. Defense Trade: Data Collection and Coordination on Offsets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    ... on the U.S. economy and national security. Defense offsets are the full range of industrial and commercial benefits that firms provide to foreign governments as inducements or conditions for the purchase of military goods and services...

  15. Offset Trace-Based Video Quality Evaluation Network Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeling, P.; Reisslein, M.; Fitzek, Frank

    2006-01-01

    Video traces contain information about encoded video frames, such as frame sizes and qualities, and provide a convenient method to conduct multimedia networking research. Although wiedely used in networking research, these traces do not allow to determine the video qaulityin an accurate manner...... after networking transport that includes losses and delays. In this work, we provide (i) an overview of frame dependencies that have to be taken into consideration when working with video traces, (ii) an algorithmic approach to combine traditional video traces and offset distortion traces to determine...... the video quality or distortion after lossy network transport, (iii) offset distortion and quality characteristics and (iv) the offset distortion trace format and tools to create offset distortion traces....

  16. Simple UHV offset manipulator with independent theta and phi rotations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamison, K.D.; Dunning, F.B.

    1984-01-01

    A simple UHV offset manipulator is described that not only allows a target crystal to be moved to any point on a circle centered on the manipulator axis but also provides indepedent theta and phi rotations at each position

  17. EPID detection of radio-opaque markers for the evaluation of prostate position during megavoltage irradiation: a clinical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigneault, E.; Pouliot, J.; Laverdiere, J.; Roy, J.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To assess daily prostatic apex motion relative to pelvic bone structures during megavoltage irradiation. Materials and Methods: Radio-opaque markers were implanted under ultrasound guidance near the prostatic apex of ten patients with localized prostatic carcinoma. Patients were subsequently treated with four field box technique at a beam energy of 23 MV. During treatment, on-line images were obtained with an Electronic Portal Imaging Device (EPID) for each field and fraction. The marker was easily identified, even on unprocessed images and the distance between the marker and a bony landmark was measured. Timelapse movie for the complete treatment of each patient were also reviewed. After the completion of treatment, a transrectal ultrasound examination was performed to verify the position of the marker relative to the apex. Results: Over 1000 digital portal images were acquired. Antero-posterior and lateral views of each fraction were analysed. The quality of portal images obtained with megavoltage irradiation was good. Even without image histogram equalization it was possible to evaluate pelvic bone structures. Moreover, the radio-opaque marker was easily visible on every on-line portal image. Qualitatively, the review of timelapse movies showed important interfraction motions of the marker while bone structures remained stable. Quantitatively, the position of the marker were measured for each fraction. Marker displacements of up to 1,4 cm were measured between two consecutive days of treatment. Important marker motions were predominately in the antero-posterior and cephalo-caudal directions. Position of the markers relative to the prostatic apex were verified with ultrasound at the end of the treatments and were found to remain globaly at their original position. Intratreatment images were reviewed in two cases and no change in marker positions was observed. Our results, obtained during the treatment courses, indicate similar or larger prostate motions

  18. The Determinants Of United States Government Policy And Practice Towards Offsets In International Trade

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Milligan, Joseph

    2003-01-01

    .... Offsets are increasing as a percentage of defense exports. Because US industry leads worldwide defense exports, US offsets policy and the potential impact of offsets on US national security are highly significant...

  19. Common-image gathers in the offset domain from reverse-time migration

    KAUST Repository

    Zhan, Ge; Zhang, Minyu

    2014-01-01

    Kirchhoff migration is flexible to output common-image gathers (CIGs) in the offset domain by imaging data with different offsets separately. These CIGs supply important information for velocity model updates and amplitude-variation-with-offset (AVO

  20. Offsets in International Weapons Acquisitions: The Turkish Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-03-01

    Countertrade : In addition to the types of offsets defined above, various types of commercial countertrade arrangements may be required. A contract may...Offsets, Industrial Participation and Countertrade ,” A Compendium of Developments in the Military and Civil Sectors 1995-2000, Presidential Commission...www.ssm.gov.tr/english/projekriterlering.htm ) Internet accessed 14 January 2002b. Schaffer, Lindsey. Winning The Countertrade War, (New York, John Wiley

  1. Impacts of GNSS position offsets on global frame stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Jake; Ray, Jim

    2014-05-01

    Positional offsets appear in Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) time series for a variety of reasons. Antenna or radome changes are the most common cause for these discontinuities. Many others are from earthquakes, receiver changes, and different anthropogenic modifications at or near the stations. Some jumps appear for unknown or undocumented reasons. The accurate determination of station velocities, and therefore geophysical parameters and terrestrial reference frames, requires that positional offsets be correctly found and compensated. Williams (2003) found that undetected offsets introduce a random walk error component in individual station time series. The topic of detecting positional offsets has received considerable attention in recent years (e.g., Detection of Offsets in GPS Experiment; DOGEx), and most research groups using GNSS have adopted a combination of manual and automated methods for finding them. The removal of a positional offset is usually handled by estimating the average station position on both sides of the discontinuity, assuming a constant, continuous velocity. This is sufficient in the absence of time-correlated errors. However, GNSS time series contain systematic and power-law errors (white to random walk noise). In this paper, we aim to evaluate the impact to both individual station results and the overall stability of the global reference frame from adding increasing numbers of positional discontinuities. We use the International GNSS Service (IGS) weekly SINEX files, and iteratively insert positional offset parameters at the midpoint of each data segment. Each iteration includes a restacking of the modified SINEX files using the CATREF software from Institut National de l'Information Géographique et Forestière (IGN) to estimate: regularized station positions, secular velocities, Earth orientation parameters, Helmert frame alignment parameters, and the empirical shifts across all positional discontinuities. A comparison of the

  2. Characteristics and structure of turbulent 3D offset jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agelin-Chaab, M.; Tachie, M.F.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We investigated three-dimensional turbulent offset jets using particle image velocimetry. → We examined the effects of offset height and Reynolds number on the structure of 3D offset jets. → Effects of Reynolds number and offset height on the decay and growth rates exist close to the exit. → This study provides additional insight and comprehensive data for validating numerical models. - Abstract: Three-dimensional turbulent offset jets were investigated using a particle image velocimetry technique. The measurements were performed at three different exit Reynolds numbers and for four offset heights. The results in the early region of flow development clearly show significant effects of Reynolds number and offset height on the decay of maximum mean velocity and growth of the shear layer. On the contrary, the decay and spread rates were found to be nearly independent of offset height at larger downstream distances. The decay rates of 1.18 ± 0.03 as well as the spread rates of 0.055 ± 0.001 and 0.250 ± 0.005 obtained, respectively, in the wall-normal and lateral directions fall in the range of values reported in previous studies. The locations of the maximum mean velocities increased nearly linearly with streamwise distance in the self-similar region. Analysis from two-point velocity correlations revealed substantially larger structures in the outer layer and self-similar region than in the inner layer and developing region. It was also observed that the hairpin vortices in the inner regions of the wall jets are inclined at angles of 11.2 o ± 0.6 o , which are in good agreement with reported values in boundary layer studies.

  3. Carbon offsets, reversal risk and US climate policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yihsu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One controversial issue in the larger cap-and-trade debate is the proper use and certification of carbon offsets related to changes in land management. Advocates of an expanded offset supply claim that inclusion of such activities would expand the scope of the program and lower overall compliance costs, while opponents claim that it would weaken the environmental integrity of the program by crediting activities that yield either nonexistent or merely temporary carbon sequestration benefits. Our study starts from the premise that offsets are neither perfect mitigation instruments nor useless "hot air." Results We show that offsets provide a useful cost containment function, even when there is some threat of reversal, by injecting additional "when-flexibility" into the system. This allows market participants to shift their reduction requirements to periods of lower cost, thereby facilitating attainment of the least-cost time path without jeopardizing the cumulative environmental integrity of the system. By accounting for market conditions in conjunction with reversal risk, we develop a simple offset valuation methodology, taking into account the two most important factors that typically lead offsets to be overvalued or undervalued. Conclusion The result of this paper is a quantitative "model rule" that could be included in future legislation or used as a basis for active management by a future "carbon fed" or other regulatory authority with jurisdiction over the US carbon market to actively manage allowance prices.

  4. Directivity patterns and pulse profiles of ultrasound emitted by laser action on interface between transparent and opaque solids: Analytical theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikitin, Sergey M.; Tournat, Vincent; Chigarev, Nikolay; Castagnede, Bernard; Gusev, Vitalyi; Bulou, Alain; Zerr, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The analytical theory for the directivity patterns of ultrasounds emitted from laser-irradiated interface between two isotropic solids is developed. It is valid for arbitrary combinations of transparent and opaque materials. The directivity patterns are derived both in two-dimensional and in three-dimensional geometries, by accounting for the specific features of the sound generation by the photo-induced mechanical stresses distributed in the volume, essential in the laser ultrasonics. In particular, the theory accounts for the contribution to the emitted propagating acoustic fields from the converted by the interface evanescent photo-generated compression-dilatation waves. The precise analytical solutions for the profiles of longitudinal and shear acoustic pulses emitted in different directions are proposed. The developed theory can be applied for dimensional scaling, optimization, and interpretation of the high-pressure laser ultrasonics experiments in diamond anvil cell

  5. Blinded comparison of faecal loading on plain radiography versus radio-opaque marker transit studies in the assessment of constipation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowlam, S.; Vinayagam, R.; Khan, U.; Marsden, S.; Minty, I.; Moncur, P.; Bain, I.; Yiannakou, Y.J.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To compare faecal loading on plain radiography versus radio-opaque marker transit studies in the assessment of constipation. Methods: The study group was a convenience sample of patients attending the Durham Constipation Clinic. All patients underwent transit studies according to an established protocol, and severity of constipation was assessed contemporaneously using a validated questionnaire (PAC-SYM). Transit studies were performed using radio-opaque markers that were ingested over 3 consecutive days, with a radiograph taken on the fourth day. Digital images of the radiograph were digitally altered to remove all traces of the transit markers without affecting the underlying pattern of faecal loading. Four observers assessed faecal loading independently; two clinicians (C1 and C2) and two radiologists (R1 and R2). C1 and R1 used a previously described formal scoring method of assessing faecal loading, whereas C2 and R2 assessed the images as if they were in a clinic or reporting session, grading the faecal loading as mild, moderate, or severe. Results: One hundred patients were recruited out of 186 presenting in a 2-year period. All patients completed assessments. The correlation between observers was only fair to moderate (r ranging from 0.34-0.51). There were some surprisingly marked disagreements in 10-18% of assessments. The correlation between faecal loading and transit was weak for all observers (r ranging from 0.261-0.311). Symptom severity did not correlate with faecal loading. Conclusion: These results suggest that there is considerable inter-observer variation in the radiological assessment of faecal loading, irrespective of the training or method used by the observer, and that there is very poor correlation with colonic transit. The diagnosis of constipation, and the assessment of severity, is best performed clinically

  6. Evaluation of Microflow Digital Imaging Particle Analysis for Sub-Visible Particles Formulated with an Opaque Vaccine Adjuvant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant E Frahm

    Full Text Available Microflow digital imaging (MDI has become a widely accepted method for assessing sub-visible particles in pharmaceutical formulations however, to date; no data have been presented on the utility of this methodology when formulations include opaque vaccine adjuvants. This study evaluates the ability of MDI to assess sub-visible particles under these conditions. A Fluid Imaging Technologies Inc. FlowCAM® instrument was used to assess a number of sub-visible particle types in solution with increasing concentrations of AddaVax™, a nanoscale squalene-based adjuvant. With the objective (10X used and the limitations of the sensor resolution, the instrument was incapable of distinguishing between sub-visible particles and AddaVax™ droplets at particle sizes less than 5 μm. The instrument was capable of imaging all particle types assessed (polystyrene beads, borosilicate glass, cellulose, polyethylene protein aggregate mimics, and lysozyme protein aggregates at sizes greater than 5 μm in concentrations of AddaVax™ up to 50% (vol:vol. Reduced edge gradients and a decrease in measured particle sizes were noted as adjuvant concentrations increased. No significant changes in particle counts were observed for polystyrene particle standards and lysozyme protein aggregates, however significant reductions in particle counts were observed for borosilicate (80% of original and cellulose (92% of original particles. This reduction in particle counts may be due to the opaque adjuvant masking translucent particles present in borosilicate and cellulose samples. Although the results suggest that the utility of MDI for assessing sub-visible particles in high concentrations of adjuvant may be highly dependent on particle morphology, we believe that further investigation of this methodology to assess sub-visible particles in challenging formulations is warranted.

  7. Blinded comparison of faecal loading on plain radiography versus radio-opaque marker transit studies in the assessment of constipation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowlam, S. [Sunderland Royal Hospital, Sunderland (United Kingdom); Vinayagam, R.; Khan, U.; Marsden, S.; Minty, I.; Moncur, P.; Bain, I. [University Hospital of North Durham, Durham (United Kingdom); Yiannakou, Y.J. [University Hospital of North Durham, Durham (United Kingdom)], E-mail: yan.yiannakou@cddft.nhs.uk

    2008-12-15

    Aim: To compare faecal loading on plain radiography versus radio-opaque marker transit studies in the assessment of constipation. Methods: The study group was a convenience sample of patients attending the Durham Constipation Clinic. All patients underwent transit studies according to an established protocol, and severity of constipation was assessed contemporaneously using a validated questionnaire (PAC-SYM). Transit studies were performed using radio-opaque markers that were ingested over 3 consecutive days, with a radiograph taken on the fourth day. Digital images of the radiograph were digitally altered to remove all traces of the transit markers without affecting the underlying pattern of faecal loading. Four observers assessed faecal loading independently; two clinicians (C1 and C2) and two radiologists (R1 and R2). C1 and R1 used a previously described formal scoring method of assessing faecal loading, whereas C2 and R2 assessed the images as if they were in a clinic or reporting session, grading the faecal loading as mild, moderate, or severe. Results: One hundred patients were recruited out of 186 presenting in a 2-year period. All patients completed assessments. The correlation between observers was only fair to moderate (r ranging from 0.34-0.51). There were some surprisingly marked disagreements in 10-18% of assessments. The correlation between faecal loading and transit was weak for all observers (r ranging from 0.261-0.311). Symptom severity did not correlate with faecal loading. Conclusion: These results suggest that there is considerable inter-observer variation in the radiological assessment of faecal loading, irrespective of the training or method used by the observer, and that there is very poor correlation with colonic transit. The diagnosis of constipation, and the assessment of severity, is best performed clinically.

  8. Formation of Offset and Dual Active Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrows, Scott; Comerford, Julia M.; Greene, Jenny E.

    2018-06-01

    Galaxy mergers are effective mechanisms for triggering accretion onto supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and thereby powering active galactic nuclei (AGN). In the merger scenario, when the SMBH from only one galaxy is accreting we observe a spatially offset AGN, and when the SMBHs from both galaxies are accreting we observe a dual AGN. Understanding the merger conditions that lead to the formation of offset AGN versus dual AGN is fundamental to informing models of hierarchical SMBH growth and the physics leading to the accretion of matter onto SMBHs. However, while the role of galaxy mergers for AGN triggering has been well-studied, the efficiency with which these events trigger offset AGN versus dual AGN is currently unclear. One reason for this gap in knowledge can be attributed to the observational difficulties in distinguishing between offset and dual AGN since doing so requires high spatial resolution, especially in the small separation regime where merger-driven AGN triggering is most likely to occur. To overcome this hurdle, we have utilized the spatial resolution of the Chandra X-ray Observatory to develop a unique sample of AGN hosted by late-stage galaxy mergers. Moreover, we have recently acquired Hubble Space Telescope imaging for a subset of these systems to examine the role that their merger morphologies play in SMBH growth and the formation of offset and dual AGN. We find that offset AGN are predominately found in minor mergers, whereas dual AGN are usually hosted by major mergers and galaxies with large morphological asymmetries. Furthermore, in both offset and dual AGN, the rate of SMBH growth increases toward more major mergers and larger morphological asymmetries. These results are in agreement with numerical simulations predicting that merger morphology is a relevant parameter governing SMBH merger-driven growth, and these results are the first to observationally confirm these trends at small pair separations.

  9. Common-image gathers in the offset domain from reverse-time migration

    KAUST Repository

    Zhan, Ge

    2014-04-01

    Kirchhoff migration is flexible to output common-image gathers (CIGs) in the offset domain by imaging data with different offsets separately. These CIGs supply important information for velocity model updates and amplitude-variation-with-offset (AVO) analysis. Reverse-time migration (RTM) offers more insights into complex geology than Kirchhoff migration by accurately describing wave propagation using the two-way wave equation. But, it has difficulty to produce offset domain CIGs like Kirchhoff migration. In this paper, we develop a method for obtaining offset domain CIGs from RTM. The method first computes the RTM operator of an offset gather, followed by a dot product of the operator and the offset data to form a common-offset RTM image. The offset domain CIGs are then achieved after separately migrating data with different offsets. We generate offset domain CIGs on both the Marmousi synthetic data and 2D Gulf of Mexico real data using this approach. © 2014.

  10. Offset-electrode profile acquisition strategy for electrical resistivity tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Austin R.; Plattner, Alain

    2018-04-01

    We present an electrode layout strategy that allows electrical resistivity profiles to image the third dimension close to the profile plane. This "offset-electrode profile" approach involves laterally displacing electrodes away from the profile line in an alternating fashion and then inverting the resulting data using three-dimensional electrical resistivity tomography software. In our synthetic and field surveys, the offset-electrode method succeeds in revealing three-dimensional structures in the vicinity of the profile plane, which we could not achieve using three-dimensional inversions of linear profiles. We confirm and explain the limits of linear electrode profiles through a discussion of the three-dimensional sensitivity patterns: For a homogeneous starting model together with a linear electrode layout, all sensitivities remain symmetric with respect to the profile plane through each inversion step. This limitation can be overcome with offset-electrode layouts by breaking the symmetry pattern among the sensitivities. Thanks to freely available powerful three-dimensional resistivity tomography software and cheap modern computing power, the requirement for full three-dimensional calculations does not create a significant burden and renders the offset-electrode approach a cost-effective method. By offsetting the electrodes in an alternating pattern, as opposed to laying the profile out in a U-shape, we minimize shortening the profile length.

  11. Offsets : An innovative approach to reducing greenhouse gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steward, B.

    1998-01-01

    One of the most innovative ways to address climate change is the use of offsets, which refers to actions taken outside of a company's operations, domestically and internationally, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This paper is devoted to a discussion of Suncor Energy's action plan for greenhouse gases which include offsets, and to an explanation of the reasons why offsets are fundamental to successful greenhouse gas management. Suncor Energy Inc., has developed a plan with seven elements to meet their target of stabilizing their greenhouse gas emissions at 1990 levels by year 2000. The seven elements include: (1) energy efficiency and process improvements at their oil sands facility, (2) the development of alternative and renewable sources of energy, such as ethanol blended gasolines and the use of wind turbines to generate electricity, (3) promoting environmental and economic research to develop more advanced oil and gas technology to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, (4) implementing a constructive public policy input in support of sustainable development, (5) educating employees, customers and communities on global climate change, (6) measuring and reporting the company's environmental progress, and (7) pursuing domestic and international offset opportunities such as transfer of technology to developing countries, cogeneration of energy using natural gas, energy efficiency, renewable energy sources, emission reduction purchases and forest conservation. Of these proposed measures, offsets are the critical element which could spell the difference between success and failure in managing greenhouse gas emissions and the difference between economic hardship and economic opportunity

  12. Impact of brewing process operations on phytate, phenolic compounds and in vitro solubility of iron and zinc in opaque sorghum beer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kayodé, A.P.P.; Hounhouigan, J.D.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2007-01-01

    Opaque sorghum beer is a significant component of the diet of millions of poor people in rural Africa. This study reports the effect of traditional brewing operations on its level of micronutrients, especially iron and zinc. The example of a West African sorghum beer, tchoukoutou, in Northern Benin

  13. Tracing Supermassive Black Hole Growth with Offset and Dual AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comerford, Julia

    The growth of supermassive black holes is tied to the evolution of their host galaxies, but we are still missing a fundamental understanding of how and when supermassive black holes build up their mass. Black hole mass growth can be traced when the black holes are powered as active galactic nuclei (AGN), and AGN activity can be triggered by the stochastic accretion of gas or by gas inflows driven by galaxy mergers. Galaxy merger simulations make a series of predictions about the AGN that are triggered by mergers: (1) major mergers preferentially trigger higher-luminosity AGN, (2) minor mergers more often trigger AGN activity in one supermassive black hole while major mergers more often trigger AGN activity in both black holes in a merger, and (3) black hole mass growth peaks when the black holes approach the center (theory have been limited by the difficulty in defining a clean observational sample of AGN in galaxy mergers and the observational challenge of spatially resolving two AGN with small (dual AGN as a new observational tool that can be used to address how and when supermassive black hole mass growth occurs. A merger of two galaxies brings two supermassive black holes together, and the two black holes exist at kpc-scale separations for 100 Myr before ultimately merging. While the black holes are at kpc-scale separations, they are known as dual AGN when both of them are fueled as AGN and offset AGN when only one is fueled as an AGN. Since offset and dual AGN only occur in galaxy mergers, by their very definition, they provide a clean observational sample of black hole mass growth in galaxy mergers. The small, kpc-scale separations of offset and dual AGN also enable an observational test of black hole fueling near the centers of merger-remnant galaxies. The full potential of offset and dual AGN for such studies of black hole mass growth has not yet been realized, due to the small number of such systems known. To date, only 13 confirmed offset and dual AGN are

  14. Localisation of beam offset jitter sources at ATF2

    CERN Document Server

    Pfingstner, J; Patecki, M; Schulte, D; Tomás, R

    2014-01-01

    For the commissioning and operation of modern particle accelerators, automated error detection and diagnostics methods are becoming increasingly important. In this paper, we present two such methods, which are capable of localising sources of beam offset jitter with a combination of correlation studies and so called degree of freedom plots. The methods were applied to the ATF2 beam line at KEK, where one of the major goals is the reduction of the beam offset jitter. Results of this localisation are shown in this paper. A big advantage of the presented method is its high robustness especially to varying optics parameters. Therefore, we believe that the developed beam offset jitter localisation methods can be easily applied to other accelerators.

  15. 12 CFR 313.49 - Coordinating salary offset with other agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coordinating salary offset with other agencies... PRACTICE PROCEDURES FOR CORPORATE DEBT COLLECTION Salary Offset § 313.49 Coordinating salary offset with... employee has consented to the salary offset in writing or has signed a statement acknowledging receipt of...

  16. 22 CFR 213.22 - Salary offset when USAID is the creditor agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salary offset when USAID is the creditor agency... Administrative Offset § 213.22 Salary offset when USAID is the creditor agency. (a) Due process requirements... through salary offset, USAID will first provide the employee with the opportunity to pay in full the...

  17. 45 CFR 33.8 - Voluntary repayment agreement in lieu of salary offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Voluntary repayment agreement in lieu of salary... SALARY OFFSET § 33.8 Voluntary repayment agreement in lieu of salary offset. (a)(1) In response to the... notice of intent to offset. An employee who wishes to repay the debt without salary offset shall also...

  18. 7 CFR 3.80 - Written agreement to repay debts as alternative to salary offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... salary offset. 3.80 Section 3.80 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DEBT MANAGEMENT Federal Salary Offset § 3.80 Written agreement to repay debts as alternative to salary offset. (a) Notification by employee. The employee may propose, in response to a Notice of Intent to Offset Salary, a...

  19. 7 CFR 3.81 - Procedures for salary offset: when deductions may begin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedures for salary offset: when deductions may... Salary Offset § 3.81 Procedures for salary offset: when deductions may begin. (a) Deductions to liquidate... Offset Salary to collect from the employee's current pay. (b) If the employee filed a petition for a...

  20. 40 CFR 13.22 - Salary offset when EPA is the creditor agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Salary offset when EPA is the creditor... COLLECTION STANDARDS Administrative Offset § 13.22 Salary offset when EPA is the creditor agency. (a... through salary offset, EPA will first provide the employee with the opportunity to pay in full the amount...

  1. 22 CFR 213.23 - Salary offset when USAID is not the creditor agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salary offset when USAID is not the creditor... Administrative Offset § 213.23 Salary offset when USAID is not the creditor agency. (a) USAID will use salary... installment, if a date other than the next established pay period. (b) Requests for salary offset must be sent...

  2. 5 CFR 179.213 - Coordinating salary offset with other agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coordinating salary offset with other... REGULATIONS CLAIMS COLLECTION STANDARDS Salary Offset § 179.213 Coordinating salary offset with other agencies... intent of this regulation. (2) The designated salary offset coordinator will be responsible for: (i...

  3. Spatially Offset Active Galactic Nuclei. II. Triggering in Galaxy Mergers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrows, R. Scott; Comerford, Julia M. [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Greene, Jenny E. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Pooley, David, E-mail: Robert.Barrows@Colorado.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Trinity University, San Antonio, TX 78212 (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Galaxy mergers are likely to play a role in triggering active galactic nuclei (AGNs), but the conditions under which this process occurs are poorly understood. In Paper I, we constructed a sample of spatially offset X-ray AGNs that represent galaxy mergers hosting a single AGN. In this paper, we use our offset AGN sample to constrain the parameters that affect AGN observability in galaxy mergers. We also construct dual-AGN samples with similar selection properties for comparison. We find that the offset AGN fraction shows no evidence for a dependence on AGN luminosity, while the dual-AGN fractions show stronger evidence for a positive dependence, suggesting that the merger events forming dual AGNs are more efficient at instigating accretion onto supermassive black holes than those forming offset AGNs. We also find that the offset and dual-AGN fractions both have a negative dependence on nuclear separation and are similar in value at small physical scales. This dependence may become stronger when restricted to high AGN luminosities, although a larger sample is needed for confirmation. These results indicate that the probability of AGN triggering increases at later merger stages. This study is the first to systematically probe down to nuclear separations of <1 kpc (∼0.8 kpc) and is consistent with predictions from simulations that AGN observability peaks in this regime. We also find that the offset AGNs are not preferentially obscured compared to the parent AGN sample, suggesting that our selection may be targeting galaxy mergers with relatively dust-free nuclear regions.

  4. Pulsar Pair Cascades in Magnetic Fields with Offset Polar Caps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Alice K.; Muslimov, Alex G.

    2012-01-01

    Neutron star magnetic fields may have polar caps (PC) that are offset from the dipole axis, through field-line sweepback near the light cylinder or non-symmetric currents within the star. The effects of such offsets on electron-positron pair cascades are investigated, using simple models of dipole magnetic fields with small distortions that shift the PCs by different amounts or directions. Using a Monte Carlo pair cascade simulation, we explore the changes in the pair spectrum, multiplicity and energy flux across the PC, as well as the trends in pair flux and pair energy flux with spin-down luminosity, L(sub sd). We also give an estimate of the distribution of heating flux from returning positrons on the PC for different offsets. We find that even modest offsets can produce significant increases in pair multiplicity, especially for pulsars that are near or beyond the pair death lines for centered PCs, primarily because of higher accelerating fields. Pair spectra cover several decades in energy, with the spectral range of millisecond pulsars (MSPs) two orders of magnitude higher than for normal pulsars, and PC offsets allow significant extension of all spectra to lower pair energies. We find that the total PC pair luminosity L(sub pair) is proportional to L(sub sd), with L(sub pair) approximates 10(exp -3) L(sub sd) for normal pulsars and L(sub pair) approximates 10(exp -2) L(sub sd) for MSPs. Remarkably, the total PC heating luminosity for even large offsets increases by less than a factor of two, even though the PC area increases by much larger factors, because most of the heating occurs near the magnetic axis.

  5. Spatially Offset Active Galactic Nuclei. II. Triggering in Galaxy Mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrows, R. Scott; Comerford, Julia M.; Greene, Jenny E.; Pooley, David

    2017-04-01

    Galaxy mergers are likely to play a role in triggering active galactic nuclei (AGNs), but the conditions under which this process occurs are poorly understood. In Paper I, we constructed a sample of spatially offset X-ray AGNs that represent galaxy mergers hosting a single AGN. In this paper, we use our offset AGN sample to constrain the parameters that affect AGN observability in galaxy mergers. We also construct dual-AGN samples with similar selection properties for comparison. We find that the offset AGN fraction shows no evidence for a dependence on AGN luminosity, while the dual-AGN fractions show stronger evidence for a positive dependence, suggesting that the merger events forming dual AGNs are more efficient at instigating accretion onto supermassive black holes than those forming offset AGNs. We also find that the offset and dual-AGN fractions both have a negative dependence on nuclear separation and are similar in value at small physical scales. This dependence may become stronger when restricted to high AGN luminosities, although a larger sample is needed for confirmation. These results indicate that the probability of AGN triggering increases at later merger stages. This study is the first to systematically probe down to nuclear separations of <1 kpc (˜0.8 kpc) and is consistent with predictions from simulations that AGN observability peaks in this regime. We also find that the offset AGNs are not preferentially obscured compared to the parent AGN sample, suggesting that our selection may be targeting galaxy mergers with relatively dust-free nuclear regions.

  6. Development of a falling ball rheometer with applications to opaque systems: measurements of the rheology of suspensions of rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, R.L.; Mondy, L.A.; Stoker, G.G.; Milliken, W.J.; Graham, A.L.

    1989-01-01

    With falling ball rheometry, we have measured the apparent relative viscosity of suspensions of large, neutrally buoyant, rigid rods in a viscous Newtonian fluid, while approximately maintaining the rods in a randomly oriented configuration. A new technique for measuring the time of flight of a ball between two positions is used. This computerized technique, based upon an eddy current detector, enables us to determine the position of a metallic (nonmagnetic) ball falling through an opaque suspension, with high accuracy (less than 1.5% error). The rods for the suspensions had a nominal aspect ratio of 10 and experiments were carried out at a single volume fraction, 0.05. Two populations of rods were used to having nominal diameters of 1.5875 mm and 3.175 mm. To within the errors of these experiments, suspensions from both populations had the same relative viscosity, with the overall average being 1.457. This viscosity was significantly different from that of a similar suspension (volume fraction=0.05) of rods of nominal aspect ratio 20 and it agreed well with theoretical results for the viscosity of a dilute suspension of randomly oriented rods

  7. 20 CFR 404.525 - Suspension of offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension of offset. 404.525 Section 404.525 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950....521, the overpaid individual notifies us that he or she is exercising a right described in § 404.522(a...

  8. Imagining Another Context during Encoding Offsets Context-Dependent Forgetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masicampo, E. J.; Sahakyan, Lili

    2014-01-01

    We tested whether imagining another context during encoding would offset context-dependent forgetting. All participants studied a list of words in Context A. Participants who remained in Context A during the test recalled more than participants who were tested in another context (Context B), demonstrating the standard context-dependent forgetting…

  9. Forest Carbon Offsets Revisited: Shedding Light on Darkwoods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooten, van G.C.; Bogle, T.; Vries, de F.P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the viability of carbon offset credits created through forest conservation and preservation. A detailed forest management model based on a case study of a forest estate in southeastern British Columbia, owned by The Nature Conservancy of Canada (NCC) is used to demonstrate

  10. 76 FR 24406 - Collection by Offset From Indebted Government Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... alternative dispute resolution methods if they are not inconsistent with agency-specific laws and regulations... by offset and allows the debtor additional opportunities to dispute the debt, enter into a repayment... is proposing to revise the definition of FCCS to include a reference to 31 CFR parts 900 through 904...

  11. Subsurface offset behaviour in velocity analysis with extended reflectivity images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, W.A.

    2012-01-01

    Migration velocity analysis with the wave equation can be accomplished by focusing of extended migration images, obtained by introducing a subsurface offset or shift. A reflector in the wrong velocity model will show up as a curve in the extended image. In the correct model, it should collapse to a

  12. 75 FR 62348 - Reimbursement Offsets for Medical Care or Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 17 RIN 2900-AN55 Reimbursement Offsets for Medical Care... Veterans Affairs (VA) proposes to amend its regulations concerning the reimbursement of medical care and... situations where third-party payers are required to reimburse VA for costs related to care provided by VA to...

  13. Performance and Vibration Analyses of Lift-Offset Helicopters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-In Go

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A validation study on the performance and vibration analyses of the XH-59A compound helicopter is conducted to establish techniques for the comprehensive analysis of lift-offset compound helicopters. This study considers the XH-59A lift-offset compound helicopter using a rigid coaxial rotor system as a verification model. CAMRAD II (Comprehensive Analytical Method of Rotorcraft Aerodynamics and Dynamics II, a comprehensive analysis code, is used as a tool for the performance, vibration, and loads analyses. A general free wake model, which is a more sophisticated wake model than other wake models, is used to obtain good results for the comprehensive analysis. Performance analyses of the XH-59A helicopter with and without auxiliary propulsion are conducted in various flight conditions. In addition, vibration analyses of the XH-59A compound helicopter configuration are conducted in the forward flight condition. The present comprehensive analysis results are in good agreement with the flight test and previous analyses. Therefore, techniques for the comprehensive analysis of lift-offset compound helicopters are appropriately established. Furthermore, the rotor lifts are calculated for the XH-59A lift-offset compound helicopter in the forward flight condition to investigate the airloads characteristics of the ABC™ (Advancing Blade Concept rotor.

  14. Positron annihilation imaging device using multiple offset rings of detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, C.J.

    1981-01-01

    This patent application relates to a positron annihilation imaging device comprising two or more coaxial circular arrays of detectors (2,2'), with the detectors in one array angularly offset with respect to the detectors in the adjacent array to detect more than one tomographic image simultaneously through different cross-sections of a patient. (author)

  15. Model Predictive Control for Offset-Free Reference Tracking

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Belda, Květoslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 1 (2016), s. 8-13 ISSN 1805-3386 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : offset-free reference tracking * predictive control * ARX model * state-space model * multi-input multi-output system * robotic system * mechatronic system Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/AS/belda-0458355.pdf

  16. Light mirror reflection combined with heating/cooling curves as a method of studying phase transitions in transparent and opaque petroleum products: Apparatus and theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shishkin, Yu.L.

    2007-01-01

    A portable low weight low cost apparatus 'Phasafot' and method for determining pour and cloud points of petroleum products, as well as precipitation and melting temperatures of paraffins in both transparent (diesel fuels), semi-transparent (lube oils) and opaque (crude oils) samples are described. The method consists in illuminating the surface of a sample with an oblique light beam and registering the intensity of specularly reflected light while heating/cooling the sample in the temperature range of its structural transitions. The mirror reflection of a light beam from an ideally smooth liquid surface falls in intensity when the surface becomes rough (dim) due to crystal formation. Simultaneous recording of the temperature ramp curve and the mirror reflection curve enables the determination of the beginning and end of crystallization of paraffins in both transparent and opaque petroleum products. Besides, their rheological properties can be accurately determined by rocking or tilting the instrument while monitoring the sample movement via its mirror reflection

  17. A well organized opaqueness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouriou, A.; Poizat, F.; Salles, B.

    2008-01-01

    The author criticizes the role and operation of the ADEME (the French agency of the environment and energy management) in the French policy on wind energy tariffs. He describes the arrangement of mandatory purchase of wind energy by EDF, reports and comments a controversy between the ADEME and the French Commission of energy regulation (CRE) on the first 1500 MW. He briefly describes the launching of the ToTEM programme, evokes the influence and demands of the wind energy lobby, describes the content of the Olin decree. In fact, the author tends to think that the ADEME is acting in favour of wind energy project promoters

  18. Secret Societies, Opaque Routes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garsten, Christina; Sörbom, Adrienne

    This paper departs from an interest in the involvement of business leaders in the sphere of politics, in the broad sense. At a general level, we are seeing a proliferation of usages of non-market corporate strategies, such as testimony, lobbying, interlocking of positions and other means...... as political. What is the role of business in the WEF, and how do business corporations advance their interests through the WEF? Inspired by Stephen Barley's (2010) work on how corporations have systematically built an institutional field to exert greater influence on the US Federal government, we aim...... with participants and organizers. Theoretically we will employ an organizational perspective, using the concept of "partial organization" as introduced by Göran Ahrne and Nils Brunsson (2011). The results show that corporations find a strategically positioned amplifier for their non-market interests in the WEF...

  19. Opaque Nuclear Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    Relationship, 0000271219, 1961. https://www.cia.gov/ library / readingroom/docs/DOC_0000271219.pdf. . Trends in South Africa’s Nuclear Security Policies ...official policy or position of the Department of Defense or the U.S. Government. IRB number ____N/A____. 12a. DISTRIBUTION / AVAILABILITY STATEMENT...how Israel and South Africa shaped those strategies. This research may contribute to better understanding possible policies of potential nuclear

  20. Real-Time Amplitude and Phase Imaging of Optically Opaque Objects by Combining Full-Field Off-Axis Terahertz Digital Holography with Angular Spectrum Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagiwa, Masatomo; Ogawa, Takayuki; Minamikawa, Takeo; Abdelsalam, Dahi Ghareab; Okabe, Kyosuke; Tsurumachi, Noriaki; Mizutani, Yasuhiro; Iwata, Testuo; Yamamoto, Hirotsugu; Yasui, Takeshi

    2018-06-01

    Terahertz digital holography (THz-DH) has the potential to be used for non-destructive inspection of visibly opaque soft materials due to its good immunity to optical scattering and absorption. Although previous research on full-field off-axis THz-DH has usually been performed using Fresnel diffraction reconstruction, its minimum reconstruction distance occasionally prevents a sample from being placed near a THz imager to increase the signal-to-noise ratio in the hologram. In this article, we apply the angular spectrum method (ASM) for wavefront reconstruction in full-filed off-axis THz-DH because ASM is more accurate at short reconstruction distances. We demonstrate real-time phase imaging of a visibly opaque plastic sample with a phase resolution power of λ/49 at a frame rate of 3.5 Hz in addition to real-time amplitude imaging. We also perform digital focusing of the amplitude image for the same object with a depth selectivity of 447 μm. Furthermore, 3D imaging of visibly opaque silicon objects was achieved with a depth precision of 1.7 μm. The demonstrated results indicate the high potential of the proposed method for in-line or in-process non-destructive inspection of soft materials.

  1. Real-Time Amplitude and Phase Imaging of Optically Opaque Objects by Combining Full-Field Off-Axis Terahertz Digital Holography with Angular Spectrum Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagiwa, Masatomo; Ogawa, Takayuki; Minamikawa, Takeo; Abdelsalam, Dahi Ghareab; Okabe, Kyosuke; Tsurumachi, Noriaki; Mizutani, Yasuhiro; Iwata, Testuo; Yamamoto, Hirotsugu; Yasui, Takeshi

    2018-04-01

    Terahertz digital holography (THz-DH) has the potential to be used for non-destructive inspection of visibly opaque soft materials due to its good immunity to optical scattering and absorption. Although previous research on full-field off-axis THz-DH has usually been performed using Fresnel diffraction reconstruction, its minimum reconstruction distance occasionally prevents a sample from being placed near a THz imager to increase the signal-to-noise ratio in the hologram. In this article, we apply the angular spectrum method (ASM) for wavefront reconstruction in full-filed off-axis THz-DH because ASM is more accurate at short reconstruction distances. We demonstrate real-time phase imaging of a visibly opaque plastic sample with a phase resolution power of λ/49 at a frame rate of 3.5 Hz in addition to real-time amplitude imaging. We also perform digital focusing of the amplitude image for the same object with a depth selectivity of 447 μm. Furthermore, 3D imaging of visibly opaque silicon objects was achieved with a depth precision of 1.7 μm. The demonstrated results indicate the high potential of the proposed method for in-line or in-process non-destructive inspection of soft materials.

  2. Life cycle assessment of offset printed matter with EDIP97

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Hansen, Morten Søes; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2009-01-01

    warming, acidification and nutrient enrichment. Ecotoxicity and human toxicity, which are related to emissions of chemicals etc., are only included to a limited degree or not at all. In this paper we include the impacts from chemicals emitted during the life cycle of sheet fed offset printed matter....... This is done by making use of some of the newest knowledge about emissions from the production at the printing industry combined with knowledge about the composition of the printing materials used. In cases with available data also upstream emissions from the production of printing materials are included....... The results show that inclusion of the chemical emission-related impacts makes the EDIP97 impact profile of sheet fed offset products much more varied, as well for the normalised profiles as for the profiles weighted by distance to political environmental targets. Especially the ecotoxicity impact potential...

  3. REAL TIME QUALITY CONTROL OF THE HEATSET OFFSET PRINTING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Răzvan-George RĂCHERU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Offset lithography is one of the most common ways of creating printed materials. Compared to other printing methods, offset printing is best suited for economically producing large volumes of high quality prints in a manner that requires little maintenance. Because of the high speed and the high volume of the printing press, we have to rely on automation for press control and not just to the printer’s eye. When printing an image that has more than one color, it is necessary to print each color separately and ensure each color overlaps the others precisely. If this is not done, the finished image will look fuzzy, blurred or "out of register". To help line the colors up correctly, a system of registration is necessary. Therefore, the use of an automated real time quality control system will result in a more consistent color for the customer and less waste for the printer.

  4. Axial offset anomalies and local pH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarin, F.; Montes, M.; Izquierdo, J.; Garcia-Sanchez, J.

    2001-01-01

    Small radial and axial offset anomalies (AOA) in some Spanish PWR-type NPP's, in addition to the knowledge of the existence of similar anomalies in U.S. PWR's, led us in 1993 to study this problem. Important parameters were correlated for a database of plant operating data consisting of six cycles of five different PWR plants (all of them of the Westinghouse 3-loop, 12 ft., 17 x 17 fuel design). One of these cycles (the oldest one) followed the standard constant pH 308 = 7.0, and the remaining ones followed a modified elevated pH control strategy (the pH at EOC is typically 7.4). Only for the oldest cycle that used the standard pH control was the in-core and ex-core axial offset values found to be in good agreement with the predictions, and an anomalous soluble boron curve behavior not observed. (author)

  5. Force-deflection analysis of offset indentations on pressurised pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyde, T.H.; Luo, R.; Becker, A.A.

    2007-01-01

    The indenter force vs. deflection characteristics of pressurised pipes with long offset indentations under plane strain conditions have been investigated using finite element (FE) and analytical methods with four experimental tests performed on aluminium rings. Two different materials and five different geometries were used to investigate their effects on the elastic-plastic behaviour. A comparison of the experimental, FE and the analytical results indicates that the analytical formulation developed in this paper, for predicting the force-deflection curves for pressurised pipes with offset indenters, is reasonably accurate. Also, all of the analyses presented in this paper indicate that by using a representative flow stress, which is defined as the average of the yield and ultimate tensile stresses, the analytical method can accurately predict the force-deflection curves

  6. Offset Free Tracking Predictive Control Based on Dynamic PLS Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Xin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops an offset free tracking model predictive control based on a dynamic partial least square (PLS framework. First, state space model is used as the inner model of PLS to describe the dynamic system, where subspace identification method is used to identify the inner model. Based on the obtained model, multiple independent model predictive control (MPC controllers are designed. Due to the decoupling character of PLS, these controllers are running separately, which is suitable for distributed control framework. In addition, the increment of inner model output is considered in the cost function of MPC, which involves integral action in the controller. Hence, the offset free tracking performance is guaranteed. The results of an industry background simulation demonstrate the effectiveness of proposed method.

  7. Optimization based tuning approach for offset free MPC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Daniel Haugård; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2012-01-01

    We present an optimization based tuning procedure with certain robustness properties for an offset free Model Predictive Controller (MPC). The MPC is designed for multivariate processes that can be represented by an ARX model. The advantage of ARX model representations is that standard system...... identifiation techniques using convex optimization can be used for identification of such models from input-output data. The stochastic model of the ARX model identified from input-output data is modified with an ARMA model designed as part of the MPC-design procedure to ensure offset-free control. The ARMAX...... model description resulting from the extension can be realized as a state space model in innovation form. The MPC is designed and implemented based on this state space model in innovation form. Expressions for the closed-loop dynamics of the unconstrained system is used to derive the sensitivity...

  8. Automatic WEMVA by Focusing Subsurface Offset Virtual Sources

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Bingbing

    2017-05-26

    Macro velocity building is important for subsequent prestack depth migration and full waveform inversion. Wave equation migration velocity analysis (WEMVA) utilizes band-limited waveform to invert the velocity in an automatic manner. Normally, inversion would be implemented by focusing the subsurface offset common image gathers(SOCIGs). We re-examine it with a different perspective and propose to view the SOCIGs and the background wavefield together as subsurface offset virtual sources(SOVS). A linear system connecting the perturbation of the position of those SOVS and velocity is derived and solved subsequently using a conjugate gradient method. Both synthetic and real dataset examples verify the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  9. Coherence between geophysical excitations and celestial pole offsets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ron, Cyril; Vondrák, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 3 (2011), s. 243-247 ISSN 1214-9705. [Czech-Polish Workshop on Recent Geodynamics of the Sudeten and Adjacent Areas. Třešť, 04.11.2010-06.11. 2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/0908 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : geophysical excitations * celestial pole offsets * coherence Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 0.530, year: 2011

  10. Improved stove programs need robust methods to estimate carbon offsets

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Michael; Edwards, Rufus; Masera, Omar

    2010-01-01

    Current standard methods result in significant discrepancies in carbon offset accounting compared to approaches based on representative community based subsamples, which provide more realistic assessments at reasonable cost. Perhaps more critically, neither of the currently approved methods incorporates uncertainties inherent in estimates of emission factors or non-renewable fuel usage (fNRB). Since emission factors and fNRB contribute 25% and 47%, respectively, to the overall uncertainty in ...

  11. Improved SAR Image Coregistration Using Pixel-Offset Series

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Teng

    2014-03-14

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image coregistration is a key procedure before interferometric SAR (InSAR) time-series analysis can be started. However, many geophysical data sets suffer from severe decorrelation problems due to a variety of reasons, making precise coregistration a nontrivial task. Here, we present a new strategy that uses a pixel-offset series of detected subimage patches dominated by point-like targets (PTs) to improve SAR image coregistrations. First, all potentially coherent image pairs are coregistered in a conventional way. In this step, we propose a coregistration quality index for each image to rank its relative “significance” within the data set and to select a reference image for the SAR data set. Then, a pixel-offset series of detected PTs is made from amplitude maps to improve the geometrical mapping functions. Finally, all images are resampled depending on the pixel offsets calculated from the updated geometrical mapping functions. We used images from a rural region near the North Anatolian Fault in eastern Turkey to test the proposed method, and clear coregistration improvements were found based on amplitude stability. This enhanced the fact that the coregistration strategy should therefore lead to improved InSAR time-series analysis results.

  12. Improved SAR Image Coregistration Using Pixel-Offset Series

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Teng; Jonsson, Sigurjon; Hanssen, Ramon F.

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image coregistration is a key procedure before interferometric SAR (InSAR) time-series analysis can be started. However, many geophysical data sets suffer from severe decorrelation problems due to a variety of reasons, making precise coregistration a nontrivial task. Here, we present a new strategy that uses a pixel-offset series of detected subimage patches dominated by point-like targets (PTs) to improve SAR image coregistrations. First, all potentially coherent image pairs are coregistered in a conventional way. In this step, we propose a coregistration quality index for each image to rank its relative “significance” within the data set and to select a reference image for the SAR data set. Then, a pixel-offset series of detected PTs is made from amplitude maps to improve the geometrical mapping functions. Finally, all images are resampled depending on the pixel offsets calculated from the updated geometrical mapping functions. We used images from a rural region near the North Anatolian Fault in eastern Turkey to test the proposed method, and clear coregistration improvements were found based on amplitude stability. This enhanced the fact that the coregistration strategy should therefore lead to improved InSAR time-series analysis results.

  13. Guidance document to the BC emission offsets regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-11-01

    British Columbia's (BC) emission offset regulations were established under the Greenhouse Gas Reduction Targets Act passed in 2007. Targets for greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions included a 6 percent reduction by 2012; an 18 percent reduction by 2016; a 33 percent reduction by 2020; and an 80 percent reduction by 2050. Carbon neutral agreements began in 2008, and covered emissions produced from government business travel and by provincial government ministries and agencies. This report presented a list of key recommendations developed by the Pacific Carbon Trust for use in future carbon offset projects. Recommendations included the use of correct emission factors when quantifying projected emission reductions from an offset project; the use of a robust data management system; and the use of evidence in supporting additionality arguments. The document outlined planning procedures for project baseline selection processes, protocol selections, and the identification of sources sinks and reservoirs. Issues related to quantification and measurements, emissions factors, and accuracy and uncertainty were also addressed. Validation, verification, and contracting options were also presented. 6 tabs., 3 figs.

  14. Multi-offset GPR methods for hyporheic zone investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosten, T.R.; Bradford, J.H.; McNamara, J.P.; Gooseff, M.N.; Zarnetske, J.P.; Bowden, W.B.; Johnston, M.E.

    2009-01-01

    Porosity of stream sediments has a direct effect on hyporheic exchange patterns and rates. Improved estimates of porosity heterogeneity will yield enhanced simulation of hyporheic exchange processes. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) velocity measurements are strongly controlled by water content thus accurate measures of GPR velocity in saturated sediments provides estimates of porosity beneath stream channels using petrophysical relationships. Imaging the substream system using surface based reflection measurements is particularly challenging due to large velocity gradients that occur at the transition from open water to saturated sediments. The continuous multi-offset method improves the quality of subsurface images through stacking and provides measurements of vertical and lateral velocity distributions. We applied the continuous multi-offset method to stream sites on the North Slope, Alaska and the Sawtooth Mountains near Boise, Idaho, USA. From the continuous multi-offset data, we measure velocity using reflection tomography then estimate water content and porosity using the Topp equation. These values provide detailed measurements for improved stream channel hydraulic and thermal modelling. ?? 2009 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.

  15. Temperature and Voltage Offsets in High-ZT Thermoelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, George S.

    2017-10-01

    Thermodynamic temperature can take on different meanings. Kinetic temperature is an expectation value and a function of the kinetic energy distribution. Statistical temperature is a parameter of the distribution. Kinetic temperature and statistical temperature, identical in Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics, can differ in other statistics such as those of Fermi-Dirac or Bose-Einstein when a field is present. Thermal equilibrium corresponds to zero statistical temperature gradient, not zero kinetic temperature gradient. Since heat carriers in thermoelectrics are fermions, the difference between these two temperatures may explain voltage and temperature offsets observed during meticulous Seebeck measurements in which the temperature-voltage curve does not go through the origin. In conventional semiconductors, temperature offsets produced by fermionic electrical carriers are not observable because they are shorted by heat phonons in the lattice. In high-ZT materials, however, these offsets have been detected but attributed to faulty laboratory procedures. Additional supporting evidence for spontaneous voltages and temperature gradients includes data collected in epistatic experiments and in the plasma Q-machine. Device fabrication guidelines for testing the hypothesis are suggested including using unipolar junctions stacked in a superlattice, alternating n/n + and p/p + junctions, selecting appropriate dimensions, doping, and loading.

  16. Shielding analysis of the IEM cell offset adapter plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simons, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    The adapter plate for the Interim Examination and Maintenance (IEM) cell ten foot ceiling valve was modified so that the penetration through the valve is offset to the north side of the steel plate. The modifications required that the shielding effectiveness be evaluated for several operating conditions. The highest gamma ray dose rate (51 mrem/hr) occurs when a Core Component Container (CCC) with six high burn-up driver fuel assemblies is transferred into or out of Solid Waste Cask (SWC). The neutron dose rate at the same source location is 2.5 mrem/hr. The total dose rate during the transfer is less than the 200 mrem/hr limit. If the ten foot ceiling valve is closed, the dose rate with twelve DFA in the cell will be less than 0.1 mrem/hr. However, with the ceiling valve open the dose rate will be as high as 12 mrem/hr. The latter condition will require controlled access to the area around the offset adapter plate when the ceiling valve is open. It was found that gaps in the shield block around the SWC floor valve will allow contact dose rates as high as 350 mrem/hr during the transfer of a fully loaded CCC. Although this situation does not pertain to the offset adapter plate, it will require controlled access around the SWC valve during the transfer of a fully loaded CCC

  17. Band offsets in ITO/Ga2O3 heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Patrick H.; Ren, F.; Hays, David C.; Gila, B. P.; Pearton, S. J.; Jang, Soohwan; Kuramata, Akito

    2017-11-01

    The valence band offsets in rf-sputtered Indium Tin Oxide (ITO)/single crystal β-Ga2O3 (ITO/Ga2O3) heterostructures were measured with X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy using the Kraut method. The bandgaps of the component materials in the heterostructure were determined by Reflection Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy as 4.6 eV for Ga2O3 and 3.5 eV for ITO. The valence band offset was determined to be -0.78 ± 0.30 eV, while the conduction band offset was determined to be -0.32 ± 0.13 eV. The ITO/Ga2O3 system has a nested gap (type I) alignment. The use of a thin layer of ITO between a metal and the Ga2O3 is an attractive approach for reducing contact resistance on Ga2O3-based power electronic devices and solar-blind photodetectors.

  18. Temperature and Voltage Offsets in High- ZT Thermoelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, George S.

    2018-06-01

    Thermodynamic temperature can take on different meanings. Kinetic temperature is an expectation value and a function of the kinetic energy distribution. Statistical temperature is a parameter of the distribution. Kinetic temperature and statistical temperature, identical in Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics, can differ in other statistics such as those of Fermi-Dirac or Bose-Einstein when a field is present. Thermal equilibrium corresponds to zero statistical temperature gradient, not zero kinetic temperature gradient. Since heat carriers in thermoelectrics are fermions, the difference between these two temperatures may explain voltage and temperature offsets observed during meticulous Seebeck measurements in which the temperature-voltage curve does not go through the origin. In conventional semiconductors, temperature offsets produced by fermionic electrical carriers are not observable because they are shorted by heat phonons in the lattice. In high- ZT materials, however, these offsets have been detected but attributed to faulty laboratory procedures. Additional supporting evidence for spontaneous voltages and temperature gradients includes data collected in epistatic experiments and in the plasma Q-machine. Device fabrication guidelines for testing the hypothesis are suggested including using unipolar junctions stacked in a superlattice, alternating n/ n + and p/ p + junctions, selecting appropriate dimensions, doping, and loading.

  19. Simulation on Vehicle Vibration Offset of NX70 Flatcar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Yanhui

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The current rolling stock gauge for standard gauge railway is a static gauge to check the vehicle frame. The contradiction of large construction gauge and small rolling stock gauge has always existed. It is important to set down the clearance requirements in respect of physical size for the safe passage of rail vehicles. Reasonably determining the maximum vibration offset can improve the efficiency of clearance. As an example, analyze the complex vibration of NX70 flat car by simulation test on the running track. Comprehensive considering the track model, loading plan, line conditions and running speed, then SIMPACK is used to present the vehicle system dynamics simulation model. After researching simulation result, respectively determine the maximum vehicle vibration offset for railroads of Class I, Class II and Class III on the height of the center of gravity 2000 mm and 2400 mm. According to the clearance between the structure gauge and the position of maximum vibration offset, analyze the safety of vehicle operation since the center of gravity is higher than before.

  20. Tax-Optimal Step-Up and Imperfect Loss Offset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Diller

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the field of mergers and acquisitions, German and international tax law allow for several opportunities to step up a firm's assets, i.e., to revaluate the assets at fair market values. When a step-up is performed the taxpayer recognizes a taxable gain, but also obtains tax benefits in the form of higher future depreciation allowances associated with stepping up the tax base of the assets. This tax-planning problem is well known in taxation literature and can also be applied to firm valuation in the presence of taxation. However, the known models usually assume a perfect loss offset. If this assumption is abandoned, the depreciation allowances may lose value as they become tax effective at a later point in time, or even never if there are not enough cash flows to be offset against. This aspect is especiallyrelevant if future cash flows are assumed to be uncertain. This paper shows that a step-up may be disadvantageous or a firm overvalued if these aspects are not integrated into the basic calculus. Compared to the standard approach, assets should be stepped up only in a few cases and - under specific conditions - at a later point in time. Firm values may be considerably lower under imperfect loss offset.

  1. Black-body anomaly: analysis of temperature offsets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szopa, M.; Hofmann, R.; Schwarz, M.; Giacosa, F.

    2008-01-01

    Based on the postulate that photon propagation is governed by a dynamically broken SU(2) gauge symmetry (scale ∝10 -4 eV) we make predictions for temperature offsets due to a low-temperature (a few times the present CMB temperature) spectral anomaly at low frequencies. Temperature offsets are extracted from least-square fits of the anomalous black-body spectra to their conventional counterparts. We discuss statistical errors, compare our results with those obtained from calibration data of the FIRAS instrument, and point out that our predicted offsets are screened by experimental errors given the frequency range used by FIRAS to perform their spectral fits. We also make contact with the WMAP observation by blueshifting their frequency bands. Although our results hint towards a strong dynamical component in the CMB dipole and an explanation of low-l suppression, it is important in view of its particle-physics implications that the above postulate be verified/falsified by an independent low-temperature black-body precision experiment. (orig.)

  2. Estimates of Future Supply of International Greenhouse Gas Offsets: A Critical Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, Peter; Lazarus, Michael (Stockholm Environment Inst. (United States)), e-mail: mlaz@sei-us.org; Kelly, Alexia (World Resources Inst., (United States))

    2010-07-01

    This report reviews estimates of the projected availability (i.e., supply) of international offsets, evaluates the various methods used and outlines factors that should be incorporated into future analyses of international offset supply and quality. U.S. policymakers have relied on offsets from developing countries as a primary form of cost containment in proposed cap-and-trade legislation. These legislative proposals allow for emitters to use up to 1.5 billion tons CO{sub 2}e of offsets from developing countries to meet their annual compliance obligations. In this paper, we review estimates of the projected availability (i.e., supply) of international offsets, and evaluate the various methods used. We find that: (1) Estimates of supply of international offsets to global markets vary widely, with estimates differing by billions of tons CO{sub 2}e annually in 2020; (2) Despite the variation, existing studies suggest that by 2020 gross international offset supply will likely exceed U.S. demand for international offsets under current Congressional cap-and-trade designs; (3) Competition with governments and entities with emission reduction obligations (e.g. the EU), as well as with policies and measures undertaken by developing countries as part of their own mitigation contributions, could reduce the net offset supply available to U.S. entities; and (4) Several important offset program design and market factors that are central to future offset markets and credit issuance (e.g., sources of offset supply, program stringency and crediting methods, establishment of international governance and market structures) have yet to be systematically considered in offset supply assessments. This paper outlines factors that should be incorporated into future analyses of international offset supply and quality. 7 Such analyses could prove particularly germane as policy makers continue to deliberate on the role of international offsets, including whether and how to recognize credits

  3. 25 CFR 513.30 - When may the Commission use salary offset to collect debts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When may the Commission use salary offset to collect... GENERAL PROVISIONS DEBT COLLECTION Salary Offset § 513.30 When may the Commission use salary offset to... salary offset under the authority of: 5 U.S.C. 5514; 31 U.S.C. 3716; 5 CFR part 550, subpart K; 31 CFR...

  4. 38 CFR 1.990 - Written agreement to repay debt as alternative to salary offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... repay debt as alternative to salary offset. 1.990 Section 1.990 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL PROVISIONS Salary Offset Provisions § 1.990 Written agreement to repay debt as alternative to salary offset. (a) Notification by employee. The employee may propose, in...

  5. 41 CFR 105-56.027 - Centralized salary offset computer match.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Centralized salary... Services Administration 56-SALARY OFFSET FOR INDEBTEDNESS OF FEDERAL EMPLOYEES TO THE UNITED STATES Centralized Salary Offset (CSO) Procedures-GSA as Paying Agency § 105-56.027 Centralized salary offset...

  6. 22 CFR 309.18 - Voluntary repayment agreements as an alternative to salary offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... to salary offset. 309.18 Section 309.18 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS DEBT COLLECTION Salary Offset § 309.18 Voluntary repayment agreements as an alternative to salary offset. (a) In response to a notice of intent, an employee may propose a written agreement to repay the debt as an alternative to salary...

  7. 36 CFR 1201.32 - What are NARA's procedures for salary offset?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for salary offset? 1201.32 Section 1201.32 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION GENERAL RULES COLLECTION OF CLAIMS Salary Offset § 1201.32 What are NARA's procedures for salary offset? (a) NARA will coordinate salary deductions under this subpart as appropriate...

  8. 40 CFR 13.23 - Salary offset when EPA is not the creditor agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Salary offset when EPA is not the... CLAIMS COLLECTION STANDARDS Administrative Offset § 13.23 Salary offset when EPA is not the creditor... period. (4) Unless the employee has consented in writing to the salary deductions or signed a statement...

  9. 24 CFR 17.134 - Procedures for salary offset: when deductions may begin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedures for salary offset: when deductions may begin. 17.134 Section 17.134 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department... Government Salary Offset Provisions § 17.134 Procedures for salary offset: when deductions may begin. (a...

  10. 5 CFR 1639.28 - Coordinating salary offset with other agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coordinating salary offset with other... CLAIMS COLLECTION Salary Offset § 1639.28 Coordinating salary offset with other agencies. (a... employee is in the process of separating and has not received a final salary check or other final payment(s...

  11. 20 CFR 361.11 - Procedures for salary offset: When deductions may begin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedures for salary offset: When deductions... § 361.11 Procedures for salary offset: When deductions may begin. (a) Deductions to liquidate an... a debt is completed, offset shall be made from subsequent payments of any nature (e.g., final salary...

  12. 24 CFR 17.133 - Written agreement to repay debt as alternative to salary offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... alternative to salary offset. 17.133 Section 17.133 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary... the Government Salary Offset Provisions § 17.133 Written agreement to repay debt as alternative to salary offset. (a) Notification by employee. The employee may propose, in response to a Notice of Intent...

  13. 5 CFR 179.209 - Voluntary repayment agreement as alternative to salary offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... alternative to salary offset. 179.209 Section 179.209 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS CLAIMS COLLECTION STANDARDS Salary Offset § 179.209 Voluntary repayment agreement as alternative to salary offset. (a)(1) In response to a notice of intent, an employee may propose...

  14. 12 CFR 1408.41 - Requesting current paying agency to offset salary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... salary. 1408.41 Section 1408.41 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION COLLECTION OF CLAIMS OWED THE UNITED STATES Offset Against Salary § 1408.41 Requesting current paying agency to offset salary. (a) To request a paying agency to impose a salary offset against amounts owed to the debtor, the...

  15. 7 CFR 3.83 - Procedures for salary offset: methods of collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedures for salary offset: methods of collection. 3.83 Section 3.83 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DEBT MANAGEMENT Federal Salary Offset § 3.83 Procedures for salary offset: methods of collection. (a) General. A debt will be collected...

  16. 45 CFR 2506.33 - How will the Corporation coordinate salary offsets with other agencies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How will the Corporation coordinate salary offsets... (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE COLLECTION OF DEBTS Salary Offset § 2506.33 How will the Corporation coordinate salary offsets with other agencies? (a) Responsibilities of the...

  17. 24 CFR 17.137 - Procedures for salary offset: imposition of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedures for salary offset: imposition of interest. 17.137 Section 17.137 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary... the Government Salary Offset Provisions § 17.137 Procedures for salary offset: imposition of interest...

  18. 7 CFR 3.82 - Procedures for salary offset: types of collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedures for salary offset: types of collection. 3.82 Section 3.82 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DEBT MANAGEMENT Federal Salary Offset § 3.82 Procedures for salary offset: types of collection. A debt will be collected in a lump-sum...

  19. 41 CFR 105-56.017 - Centralized salary offset computer match.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Centralized salary... Services Administration 56-SALARY OFFSET FOR INDEBTEDNESS OF FEDERAL EMPLOYEES TO THE UNITED STATES Centralized Salary Offset (CSO) Procedures-GSA as Creditor Agency § 105-56.017 Centralized salary offset...

  20. 24 CFR 17.136 - Procedures for salary offset: methods of collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedures for salary offset: methods of collection. 17.136 Section 17.136 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary... the Government Salary Offset Provisions § 17.136 Procedures for salary offset: methods of collection...

  1. 24 CFR 17.135 - Procedures for salary offset: types of collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedures for salary offset: types of collection. 17.135 Section 17.135 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary... the Government Salary Offset Provisions § 17.135 Procedures for salary offset: types of collection. A...

  2. 12 CFR 1704.29 - Coordinating salary offset with other agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coordinating salary offset with other agencies... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT OFHEO ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS DEBT COLLECTION Salary Offset § 1704.29 Coordinating salary offset with other agencies. (a) Responsibility of OFHEO as the creditor agency. (1) OFHEO...

  3. 38 CFR 1.991 - Procedures for salary offset: when deductions may begin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedures for salary offset: when deductions may begin. 1.991 Section 1.991 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL PROVISIONS Salary Offset Provisions § 1.991 Procedures for salary offset...

  4. 20 CFR 361.10 - Written agreement to repay debt as alternative to salary offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... alternative to salary offset. 361.10 Section 361.10 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD INTERNAL... EMPLOYEES § 361.10 Written agreement to repay debt as alternative to salary offset. (a) Notification by... debt as an alternative to salary offset. Any employee who wishes to do this must submit a proposed...

  5. 12 CFR 608.841 - Requesting current paying agency to offset salary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... salary. 608.841 Section 608.841 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS COLLECTION OF CLAIMS OWED THE UNITED STATES Offset Against Salary § 608.841 Requesting current paying agency to offset salary. (a) To request a paying agency to impose a salary offset against amounts owed to...

  6. 36 CFR 1201.33 - How will NARA coordinate salary offsets with other agencies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... salary offsets with other agencies? 1201.33 Section 1201.33 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION GENERAL RULES COLLECTION OF CLAIMS Salary Offset § 1201.33 How will NARA coordinate salary offsets with other agencies? (a) Responsibilities of NARA as the creditor agency...

  7. 12 CFR 313.46 - Notice of salary offset where FDIC is the paying agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice of salary offset where FDIC is the... AND RULES OF PRACTICE PROCEDURES FOR CORPORATE DEBT COLLECTION Salary Offset § 313.46 Notice of salary... shall send the employee a written notice of salary offset. Such notice shall advise the employee: (1...

  8. 12 CFR 1704.27 - Notice of salary offset where OFHEO is the paying agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice of salary offset where OFHEO is the..., DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT OFHEO ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS DEBT COLLECTION Salary Offset § 1704.27 Notice of salary offset where OFHEO is the paying agency. (a) Notice. Upon issuance of a proper...

  9. Exploring residential energy consumers' willingness to accept and pay to offset their CO2-emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yingkui; Solgaard, Hans Stubbe

    2015-01-01

    to pay for carbon offset. Finally, the ordered logit model is used in modelling willing to pay for carbon offset. Findings The results show that there is significant support from residential energy consumer to offset their CO2 emission from electricity consumption. The WTP is motivated by consumers...

  10. 7 CFR 400.141 - Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Tax Refund Offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Tax Refund Offset. 400...-Regulations for the 1986 and Succeeding Crop Years § 400.141 Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Tax Refund Offset... debt owing to any Federal agency by offset against a taxpayer's Federal income tax refund. This section...

  11. Digital Colour Printing on the Way to Offset Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Tribute

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Digital production colour printing is now more than ten years old. The first implementations of this technology from Indigo and Xeikon started the market but they suffered problems with reliability,quality and overall running costs. They produced a very good-looking printed image but it was notcomparable to offset. Quality problems were that tints often were streaky or banded, flat tints did notreproduce well, and the overall image had a somewhat harsh reflective look.Ongoing developments of digital colour printing mainly from Xerox and Canon developed the marketand improved the economics of the process. Certain elements of the quality also improved. Indigoand Xeikon also showed significant quality improvements and better economics. The improvedquality came closer to the look of offset, but in most cases was still obviously printed digitally.New developments are happening in what is termed "Digital Colour Lite." This is a range of new slower presses coming from Japan which run at around 30 pages/minute and cost well under 50.000 Euro. A few of these are getting almost offset quality through the use of new chemical toners that significantly improve printing quality.At the same time as the quality of digital colour printing has improved, so have the cost economics of running the presses. Potential buyers of presses will have to understand the different business models for running these presses. These are the "click" models from most suppliers, or the pay by usage model as offered by Heidelberg with the NexPress.

  12. Digital Offset Calibration of an OPAMP Towards Improving Static Parameters of 90 nm CMOS DAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Arbet

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an on-chip self-calibrated 8-bit R-2R digital-to-analog converter (DAC based on digitally compensated input offset of the operational amplifier (OPAMP is presented. To improve the overall DAC performance, a digital offset cancellation method was used to compensate deviations in the input offset voltage of the OPAMP caused by process variations. The whole DAC as well as offset compensation circuitry were designed in a standard 90 nm CMOS process. The achieved results show that after the self-calibration process, the improvement of 48% in the value of DAC offset error is achieved.

  13. Evolution of bias field and offset piezoelectric coefficient in bulk lead zirconate titanate with fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yong; Baturin, Ivan S.; Aulbach, Emil; Lupascu, Doru C.; Kholkin, Andrei L.; Shur, Vladimir Ya.; Roedel, Juergen

    2005-01-01

    Hysteresis loops of the piezoelectric coefficient, d 33 =f(E 3 ), are measured on virgin and fatigued lead zirconate titanate ceramics. Four parameters are directly extracted from the measurements: internal bias field E b , offset piezoelectric coefficient d offset , coercive field E c , and remnant piezoelectric coefficient d r . The reduction in d r displays the decreasing switchable polarization with fatigue cycling. E b and d offset are found to be linearly related. After thermal annealing, both offsets disappear, while the increase in E c and the reduction in d r withstand annealing. The microscopic entities responsible for the offsets are less stable than those for reduced switching

  14. Offsets and conservation of the species of the EU habitats and birds directives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnery, Baptiste; Couvet, Denis; Kerbiriou, Christian

    2013-12-01

    Biodiversity offsets are intended to achieve no net loss of biodiversity due to economic and human development. A variety of biodiversity components are addressed by offset policies. It is required that loss of protected species due to development be offset under the EU Habitats and Birds Directives in Europe. We call this type of offset a species-equality offset because the offset pertains to the same species affected by the development project. Whether species equality can be achieved by offset design is unknown. We addressed this gap by reviewing derogation files (i.e., specific files that describe mitigation measures to ensure no net loss under the EU Habitats and Birds Directives) from 85 development projects in France (2009-2010). We collected information on type of effect (reversible vs. irreversible) and characteristics of affected and offset sites (i.e., types of species, total area). We analyzed how the type of effect and the affected-site characteristics influenced the occurrence of offset measures. The proportion of species targeted by offset measures (i.e., offset species) increased with the irreversibility of the effect of development and the conservation status of the species affected by development (i.e., affected species). Not all effects on endangered species (International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List) were offset; on average, 82% of affected species would be offset. Twenty-six percent of species of least concern were offset species. Thirty-five percent of development projects considered all affected species in their offset measures. Species richness was much lower in offset sites than in developed sites even after offset proposals. For developed areas where species richness was relatively high before development, species richness at offset sites was 5-10 times lower. The species-equality principle appears to have been applied only partially in offset policies, as in the EU directives. We suggest the application of this principle

  15. Luminosity Optimization With Offset, Crossing Angle, and Distortion

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Juhao

    2005-01-01

    In a linear collider, sources of beam jitter due to kicker noise, quadrupole vibration and long-range transverse wakefields will lead to beam offsets and tilts at the Intersection Point (IP). In addition, sources of emittance dilution such as short-range transverse wakefields or dispersive errors will lead to internal beam distortions. When the IP disruption parameter is large, these beam imperfections will be amplified by a single bunch kink instability which will lead to luminosity loss. In this paper, we study the luminosity loss and then the optimization required to cancel the luminosity loss first analytically and then with simulation.

  16. Positron annihilation imaging device using multiple offset rings of detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, C.J.

    1982-01-01

    A means is provided for recording more than one tomographic image simultaneously through different cross-sections of a patient, using positron emission tomography. Separate rings of detectors are used to construct every odd-numbered slice, and coincident events that occur between adjacent rings of detectors provide a center or even-numbered slice. Detector rings are offset with respect to one another by half the angular separation of the detectors, allowing an image to be reconstructed from the central slice without the necessity of physically rotating the detector array while accumulating data

  17. Beam-based calibration system of BPM offset on BEPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Chunliang

    2004-01-01

    The ever-increasing demand for better performance from circular accelerators requires improved methods to calibrate beam position monitors (BPM). A beam based calibration system has been established to locate the centers of the BPM with respect to the magnetic center of quadrupole magnets. Additional windings are applied to the quadrupole magnets to make the quadrupole magnetic strength individually adjustable and the number of the power supply of all 32 additional windings is only one. Software system has been finished to automatically measure the offsets of BPMs. The effect of the beam-based calibration system shows that the calibration of BPM has been more quickly and accurately

  18. Using Audio-Derived Affective Offset to Enhance TV Recommendation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shepstone, Sven Ewan; Tan, Zheng-Hua; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2014-01-01

    . First a user's mood profile is determined using 12-class audio-based emotion classifications . An initial TV content item is then displayed to the user based on the extracted mood profile. The user has the option to either accept the recommendation, or to critique the item once or several times......, by navigating the emotion space to request an alternative match. The final match is then compared to the initial match, in terms of the difference in the items' affective parameterization . This offset is then utilized in future recommendation sessions. The system was evaluated by eliciting three different...

  19. Handbook of Carbon Offset Programs. Trading Systems, Funds, Protocols and Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kollmuss, Anja; Lazarus, Michael; Lee, Carrie; Polycarp, Clifford (SEI-US (United States)); LeFranc, Maurice (US EPA (United States))

    2010-03-15

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) offsets have long been promoted as an important element of a comprehensive climate policy approach. Offset programs can reduce the overall cost of achieving a given emission goal by enabling emission reductions to occur where costs are lower. Offsets have the potential to deliver sustainability co-benefits, through technology development and transfer. They can also develop human and institutional capacity for reducing emissions in sectors and locations not included in a cap and trade or a mandatory government policy. However, offsets can pose a risk to the environmental integrity of climate actions, especially if issues surrounding additionality, permanence, leakage, quantification and verification are not adequately addressed. The challenge is to design offset programs and policies that can maximize their potential benefits while minimizing their potential risks. This handbook provides a systematic and comprehensive review of existing offset programs. It looks are what offsets are, how offset mechanisms function, and the successes and pitfalls they have encountered. Coverage includes offset programs across the full swath of applications including mandatory and voluntary systems, government regulated and private markets, carbon offset funds, and accounting and reporting protocols such as the WBCSD/WRI GHG Protocol and ISO 14064. Learning from the successes and failures of these programs will be essential to crafting effective climate policy. A reference for regulators, policy makers, business leaders and NGOs concerned with the design and operation of GHG offset programs world-wide

  20. A Computer Simulation of the System-Wide Effects of Parallel-Offset Route Maneuvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauderdale, Todd A.; Santiago, Confesor; Pankok, Carl

    2010-01-01

    Most aircraft managed by air-traffic controllers in the National Airspace System are capable of flying parallel-offset routes. This paper presents the results of two related studies on the effects of increased use of offset routes as a conflict resolution maneuver. The first study analyzes offset routes in the context of all standard resolution types which air-traffic controllers currently use. This study shows that by utilizing parallel-offset route maneuvers, significant system-wide savings in delay due to conflict resolution of up to 30% are possible. It also shows that most offset resolutions replace horizontal-vectoring resolutions. The second study builds on the results of the first and directly compares offset resolutions and standard horizontal-vectoring maneuvers to determine that in-trail conflicts are often more efficiently resolved by offset maneuvers.

  1. Gross photosynthesis explains the ‘artificial bias’ of methane fluxes by static chamber (opaque versus transparent) at the hummocks in a boreal peatland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luan, Junwei; Wu, Jianghua

    2014-01-01

    The closed chamber technique has been widely employed to detect methane emissions, despite little being known about whether the absence or presence of light will impact the flux estimation. Here, we employed a laser greenhouse gas analyzer with an opaque—transparent chamber pair to measure the methane emission rate in a boreal peatland complex. Microtopography (i.e., hummocks and hollows) in natural and drained peatlands, and plant communities (i.e., grasses and shrubs) in a pasture converted from natural peatlands, were considered to cover the local heterogeneity. Our results indicated that opaque chambers (0.58–0.78 g CH 4 m −2 during the growing season) measured a significantly higher (∼2–3 times) methane emission at the hummocks than transparent chambers (∼0.24 g CH 4 m −2 ); however, a similar phenomenon was not found at the hollows or at other measurement plots. Gross photosynthesis explained 44%–47% of the temporal variation of the ‘artificial bias’ (the difference in methane flux obtained by the opaque versus transparent chambers) at the hummocks. Additionally, both water table depth and surface soil moisture significantly explained spatial variations of methane emissions. Our study suggests that microtopography has a significant influence on the artificial bias in methane emission estimation and the artificial properties of a chamber (transparency/opacity) method can be vitally important in some cases (i.e., hummocks), and negligible in others (i.e., hollows). The observed connection between the photosynthesis process and the ‘artificial bias’ of closed chambers (opaque versus transparent) can be used to improve methane flux modeling. Separate parameterization schemes are needed for methane transportation under the presence or absence of light. (paper)

  2. 36 CFR 1011.10 - How will the Presidio Trust use administrative offset (offset of non-tax federal payments) to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How will the Presidio Trust... Trust Debts § 1011.10 How will the Presidio Trust use administrative offset (offset of non-tax federal...) If not already transferred to the FMS under § 1011.9 of this part, the Presidio Trust will refer any...

  3. Near-field reflection backscattering apertureless optical microscopy: Application to spectroscopy experiments on opaque samples, comparison between lock-in and digital photon counting detection techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diziain, S.; Bijeon, J.-L.; Adam, P.-M.; Lamy de la Chapelle, M.; Thomas, B.; Deturche, R.; Royer, P.

    2007-01-01

    An apertureless scanning near-field optical microscope (ASNOM) in reflection backscattering configuration is designed to conduct spectroscopic experiments on opaque samples constituted of latex beads. The ASNOM proposed takes advantage of the depth-discrimination properties of confocal microscopes to efficiently extract the near-field optical signal. Given their importance in a spectroscopic experiment, we systematically compare the lock-in and synchronous photon counting detection methods. Some results of Rayleigh's scattering in the near field of the test samples are used to illustrate the possibilities of this technique for reflection backscattering spectroscopy

  4. Near-field reflection backscattering apertureless optical microscopy: Application to spectroscopy experiments on opaque samples, comparison between lock-in and digital photon counting detection techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diziain, S. [Institut Charles Delaunay, CNRS FRE 2848, Laboratoire de Nanotechnologie et d' Instrumentation Optique, Universite de technologie de Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes cedex (France); Bijeon, J.-L. [Institut Charles Delaunay, CNRS FRE 2848, Laboratoire de Nanotechnologie et d' Instrumentation Optique, Universite de technologie de Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes cedex (France)]. E-mail: bijeon@utt.fr; Adam, P.-M. [Institut Charles Delaunay, CNRS FRE 2848, Laboratoire de Nanotechnologie et d' Instrumentation Optique, Universite de technologie de Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes cedex (France); Lamy de la Chapelle, M. [Institut Charles Delaunay, CNRS FRE 2848, Laboratoire de Nanotechnologie et d' Instrumentation Optique, Universite de technologie de Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes cedex (France); Thomas, B. [Institut Charles Delaunay, CNRS FRE 2848, Laboratoire de Nanotechnologie et d' Instrumentation Optique, Universite de technologie de Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes cedex (France); Deturche, R. [Institut Charles Delaunay, CNRS FRE 2848, Laboratoire de Nanotechnologie et d' Instrumentation Optique, Universite de technologie de Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes cedex (France); Royer, P. [Institut Charles Delaunay, CNRS FRE 2848, Laboratoire de Nanotechnologie et d' Instrumentation Optique, Universite de technologie de Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes cedex (France)

    2007-01-15

    An apertureless scanning near-field optical microscope (ASNOM) in reflection backscattering configuration is designed to conduct spectroscopic experiments on opaque samples constituted of latex beads. The ASNOM proposed takes advantage of the depth-discrimination properties of confocal microscopes to efficiently extract the near-field optical signal. Given their importance in a spectroscopic experiment, we systematically compare the lock-in and synchronous photon counting detection methods. Some results of Rayleigh's scattering in the near field of the test samples are used to illustrate the possibilities of this technique for reflection backscattering spectroscopy.

  5. Offsetting the impacts of mining to achieve no net loss of native vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonter, L J; Barrett, D J; Soares-Filho, B S

    2014-08-01

    Offsets are a novel conservation tool, yet using them to achieve no net loss of biodiversity is challenging. This is especially true when using conservation offsets (i.e., protected areas) because achieving no net loss requires avoiding equivalent loss. Our objective was to determine if offsetting the impacts of mining achieves no net loss of native vegetation in Brazil's largest iron mining region. We used a land-use change model to simulate deforestation by mining to 2020; developed a model to allocate conservation offsets to the landscape under 3 scenarios (baseline, no new offsets; current practice, like-for-like [by vegetation type] conservation offsetting near the impact site; and threat scenario, like-for-like conservation offsetting of highly threatened vegetation); and simulated nonmining deforestation to 2020 for each scenario to quantify avoided deforestation achieved with offsets. Mines cleared 3570 ha of native vegetation by 2020. Under a 1:4 offset ratio, mining companies would be required to conserve >14,200 ha of native vegetation, doubling the current extent of protected areas in the region. Allocating offsets under current practice avoided deforestation equivalent to 3% of that caused by mining, whereas allocating under the threat scenario avoided 9%. Current practice failed to achieve no net loss because offsets did not conserve threatened vegetation. Explicit allocation of offsets to threatened vegetation also failed because the most threatened vegetation was widely dispersed across the landscape, making conservation logistically difficult. To achieve no net loss with conservation offsets requires information on regional deforestation trajectories and the distribution of threatened vegetation. However, in some regions achieving no net loss through conservation may be impossible. In these cases, other offsetting activities, such as revegetation, will be required. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  6. Willingness to Pay of Air Passengers for Carbon-Offset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-Chang Jou

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An important source of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG emissions is the air transport sector, which accounts for approximately 2% of global GHG emissions. Therefore, reducing GHG emissions from aircrafts has become a major challenge for transportation authorities worldwide. In recent years, much research has focused on tax ideas related to the CO2 emissions produced by air transport, such as the voluntary carbon offset (VCO. This study investigates the willingness of economy class air passengers to pay to compensate for the CO2 emissions produced during their journeys from Taiwan to Hong Kong. Together with the Spike model, a framework known as the contingent valuation (CV method offers a way to investigate how much the air passenger would be willing to pay to offset a journey’s airplane-generated CO2 emissions. The Spike model was applied to address the problem of zero willingness to pay (WTP. The results obtained in this study are consistent with the results found in previous studies and therefore can provide valuable insights into pricing strategies for airlines.

  7. Redefining RECs-Part 1: Untangling attributes and offsets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillenwater, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Renewable energy and greenhouse gas emissions markets are currently in a state of confusion regarding the treatment of Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs). Should consumers buy RECs or emission offsets? After examining this question, the author concludes that RECs are not equivalent to emission offset credits, and as currently defined, the retiring of a REC may have no impact on emissions from electric power generation. Consumers who purchase RECs in voluntary green power markets are providing financial assistance to renewable generators in the form of a production subsidy. Generators that sell RECs are not transferring emission reductions, since they are unlikely to have ownership or the ability to quantify reductions using a commonly accepted standard. More importantly, RECs currently sold in voluntary markets do not pass credible additionality tests and can, at best, be expected to have a market demand effect, which will be less than the supply of RECs on the market. REC definitions that use the term 'environmental attributes' or 'environmental benefits' are almost universally ambiguous, providing the mistaken impression that consumers are purchasing a good instead of subsidizing a public good

  8. Neoclassical offset toroidal velocity and auxiliary ion heating in tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzaro, E., E-mail: lazzaro@ifp.cnr.it [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma CNR (Italy)

    2016-05-15

    In conditions of ideal axisymmetry, for a magnetized plasma in a generic bounded domain, necessarily toroidal, the uniform absorption of external energy (e.g., RF or any isotropic auxiliary heating) cannot give rise to net forces or torques. Experimental evidence on contemporary tokamaks shows that the near central absorption of RF heating power (ICH and ECH) and current drive in presence of MHD activity drives a bulk plasma rotation in the co-I{sub p} direction, opposite to the initial one. Also the appearance of classical or neoclassical tearing modes provides a nonlinear magnetic braking that tends to clamp the rotation profile at the q-rational surfaces. The physical origin of the torque associated with P{sub RF} absorption could be due the effects of asymmetry in the equilibrium configuration or in power deposition, but here we point out also an effect of the response of the so-called neoclassical offset velocity to the power dependent heat flow increment. The neoclassical toroidal viscosity due to internal magnetic kink or tearing modes tends to relax the plasma rotation to this asymptotic speed, which in absence of auxiliary heating is of the order of the ion diamagnetic velocity. It can be shown by kinetic and fluid calculations, that the absorption of auxiliary power by ions modifies this offset proportionally to the injected power thereby forcing the plasma rotation in a direction opposite to the initial, to large values. The problem is discussed in the frame of the theoretical models of neoclassical toroidal viscosity.

  9. Offset coil designs for superconducting magnets, a logical development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, T.

    1986-03-01

    Dipoles and quadrupoles for any new, large proton ring must be stronger, smaller and have better field shape (systematic error) than those used in the Doubler. The present two-shell designs are rigid in that the coils are too thin but cannot be relatively fatter without destroying the field quality. An examination of the coil shapes for dipoles and quadrupoles which produce perfect fields from a uniform current density shows clearly that our persistent use of a circular form for the inner surface of the coils is a poor approximation. When this is corrected by ''offsets'' there is a striking improvement both in the strength of fields and in the field quality. The same analysis makes clear that the efficient use of superconductor and the overall magnet size is determined by the perfect coil shapes. Any reasonable magnet will not differ significantly from the ideal for these parameters. This will be particularly helpful in setting design goals for very large quadrupoles. The offset two-shell dipole design preserves the mechanical features of the highly successful, resilient doubler magnets while greatly extending the performance

  10. Irrigation offsets wheat yield reductions from warming temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tack, Jesse; Barkley, Andrew; Hendricks, Nathan

    2017-11-01

    Temperature increases due to climate change are expected to cause substantial reductions in global wheat yields. However, uncertainty remains regarding the potential role for irrigation as an adaptation strategy to offset heat impacts. Here we utilize over 7000 observations spanning eleven Kansas field-trial locations, 180 varieties, and 29 years to show that irrigation significantly reduces the negative impact of warming temperatures on winter wheat yields. Dryland wheat yields are estimated to decrease about eight percent for every one-degree Celsius increase in temperature, yet irrigation completely offsets this negative impact in our sample. As in previous studies, we find that important interactions exist between heat stress and precipitation for dryland production. Here, uniquely, we observe both dryland and irrigated trials side-by-side at the same locations and find that precipitation does not provide the same reduction in heat stress as irrigation. This is likely to be because the timing, intensity, and volume of water applications influence wheat yields, so the ability to irrigate—rather than relying on rainfall alone—has a stronger influence on heat stress. We find evidence of extensive differences of water-deficit stress impacts across varieties. This provides some evidence of the potential for adapting to hotter and drier climate conditions using optimal variety selection. Overall, our results highlight the critical role of water management for future global food security. Water scarcity not only reduces crop yields through water-deficit stress, but also amplifies the negative effects of warming temperatures.

  11. Non-Newtonian ink transfer in gravure-offset printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghadiri, Fatemeh; Ahmed, Dewan Hasan; Sung, Hyung Jin; Shirani, Ebrahim

    2011-01-01

    The inks used in gravure-offset printing are non-Newtonian fluids with higher viscosities and lower surface tensions than Newtonian fluids. This paper examines the transfer of a non-Newtonian ink between a flat plate and a groove when the plate is moved upward with a constant velocity while the groove is held fixed. Numerical simulations were carried out with the Carreau model to explore the behavior of this non-Newtonian ink in gravure-offset printing. The volume of fluid (VOF) method was implemented to capture the interface during the ink transfer process. The effects of varying the contact angle of the ink on the flat plate and groove walls and geometrical parameters such as the groove angle and the groove depth on the breakup time of the liquid filament that forms between the plate and the groove and the ink transfer ratio were determined. Our results indicate that increasing the groove contact angle and decreasing the flat plate contact angle enhance the ink transfer ratio and the breakup time. However, increasing the groove depth and the groove angle decreases the transfer ratio and the breakup time. By optimizing these parameters, it is possible to achieve an ink transfer from the groove to the flat plate of approximately 92%. Moreover, the initial width and the vertical velocity of the neck of the ink filament have significant influences on the ink transfer ratio and the breakup time.

  12. From coseismic offsets to fault-block mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, George A.; Parsons, Tom

    2017-09-01

    In the Basin and Range extensional province of the western United States, coseismic offsets, under the influence of gravity, display predominantly subsidence of the basin side (fault hanging wall), with comparatively little or no uplift of the mountainside (fault footwall). A few decades later, geodetic measurements [GPS and interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR)] show broad (˜100 km) aseismic uplift symmetrically spanning the fault zone. Finally, after millions of years and hundreds of fault offsets, the mountain blocks display large uplift and tilting over a breadth of only about 10 km. These sparse but robust observations pose a problem in that the coesismic uplifts of the footwall are small and inadequate to raise the mountain blocks. To address this paradox we develop finite-element models subjected to extensional and gravitational forces to study time-varying deformation associated with normal faulting. Stretching the model under gravity demonstrates that asymmetric slip via collapse of the hanging wall is a natural consequence of coseismic deformation. Focused flow in the upper mantle imposed by deformation of the lower crust localizes uplift, which is predicted to take place within one to two decades after each large earthquake. Thus, the best-preserved topographic signature of earthquakes is expected to occur early in the postseismic period.

  13. "3D_Fault_Offsets," a Matlab Code to Automatically Measure Lateral and Vertical Fault Offsets in Topographic Data: Application to San Andreas, Owens Valley, and Hope Faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, N.; Gaudemer, Y.; Manighetti, I.; Serreau, L.; Vincendeau, A.; Dominguez, S.; Mattéo, L.; Malavieille, J.

    2018-01-01

    Measuring fault offsets preserved at the ground surface is of primary importance to recover earthquake and long-term slip distributions and understand fault mechanics. The recent explosion of high-resolution topographic data, such as Lidar and photogrammetric digital elevation models, offers an unprecedented opportunity to measure dense collections of fault offsets. We have developed a new Matlab code, 3D_Fault_Offsets, to automate these measurements. In topographic data, 3D_Fault_Offsets mathematically identifies and represents nine of the most prominent geometric characteristics of common sublinear markers along faults (especially strike slip) in 3-D, such as the streambed (minimum elevation), top, free face and base of channel banks or scarps (minimum Laplacian, maximum gradient, and maximum Laplacian), and ridges (maximum elevation). By calculating best fit lines through the nine point clouds on either side of the fault, the code computes the lateral and vertical offsets between the piercing points of these lines onto the fault plane, providing nine lateral and nine vertical offset measures per marker. Through a Monte Carlo approach, the code calculates the total uncertainty on each offset. It then provides tools to statistically analyze the dense collection of measures and to reconstruct the prefaulted marker geometry in the horizontal and vertical planes. We applied 3D_Fault_Offsets to remeasure previously published offsets across 88 markers on the San Andreas, Owens Valley, and Hope faults. We obtained 5,454 lateral and vertical offset measures. These automatic measures compare well to prior ones, field and remote, while their rich record provides new insights on the preservation of fault displacements in the morphology.

  14. Effects of Carrier Frequency Offset, Timing Offset, and Channel Spread Factor on the Performance of Hexagonal Multicarrier Modulation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kui Xu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hexagonal multicarrier modulation (HMM system is the technique of choice to overcome the impact of time-frequency dispersive transmission channel. This paper examines the effects of insufficient synchronization (carrier frequency offset, timing offset on the amplitude and phase of the demodulated symbol by using a projection receiver in hexagonal multicarrier modulation systems. Furthermore, effects of CFO, TO, and channel spread factor on the performance of signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR in hexagonal multicarrier modulation systems are further discussed. The exact SINR expression versus insufficient synchronization and channel spread factor is derived. Theoretical analysis shows that similar degradation on symbol amplitude and phase caused by insufficient synchronization is incurred as in traditional cyclic prefix orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (CP-OFDM transmission. Our theoretical analysis is confirmed by numerical simulations in a doubly dispersive (DD channel with exponential delay power profile and U-shape Doppler power spectrum, showing that HMM systems outperform traditional CP-OFDM systems with respect to SINR against ISI/ICI caused by insufficient synchronization and doubly dispersive channel.

  15. Japanese citizens’ preferences regarding voluntary carbon offsets: an experimental social survey of Yokohama and Kitakyushu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Hidenori; Kato, Takaaki

    2013-01-01

    This study uses an experimental social survey in two large Japanese cities to explore citizens’ attitudes toward international voluntary carbon offsetting that encourages low carbon development in developing countries. In particular, the study focuses on whether the offsetting is a contribution to meet national target of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction under the Kyoto Protocol or reduction beyond the national target, using Kyoto credits generated from climate change mitigation projects in developing countries. The study finds that around 40% of the survey respondents chose real carbon offsetting over a gift certificate as compensation for their participation in the survey, around half of whom chose carbon offsetting contribution to the world. However, most of the current Japanese carbon offsetting providers utilise only the carbon offsetting contribution to the Japanese government. Thus, Japanese citizens have significant untapped potential for undertaking more carbon offsetting to meet targets other than national targets. However, the results also show that there is a general lack of understanding regarding the mechanism of carbon offsetting. Carbon offsetting providers in Japan and other countries that may have national self-imposed targets and allowing the usage of international carbon offsetting should therefore be considered, so as to provide individuals with the options of either contributing to their government to help it meet its national target or contributing to the world to help reduce GHG emissions beyond the national targets.

  16. Multi-analysis and modeling of asymmetry offset for Hall effect structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paun, Maria-Alexandra, E-mail: maria_paun2003@yahoo.com

    2017-03-15

    The topological (asymmetry) offset voltage of CMOS cross-like Hall cells is analyzed in this paper. In order to attain the stated objective, different approaches have been considered. Both circuit and three-dimensional models have been developed. Variation of the misalignment offset with the biasing current has been studied through physical and circuit models. The latter is a non-homogenous finite elements model, which relies on using parameterized resistances and current-controlled current sources, of CMOS Hall cells. The displacement offset for various asymmetries and the offset variation with the temperature were investigated through the circuit model developed. Various experimental results for the single and magnetic equivalent offset have also been provided. - Highlights: • In this paper both physical and circuit models have been proposed for the evaluation of Hall cells offset. • Variation of the misalignment offset with the biasing current has been studied. • The displacement offset for various asymmetries and the offset variation with the temperature were investigated. • Various experimental results for single and magnetic equivalent offset were provided. • The obtained simulation results are in accordance with the experimental data.

  17. Methodology to include a correction for offset in the calibration of a Diode-based 2D verification device; Metodologia para incluir una correccion por offset en la calibracion de un dispositivo de verificacion 2D basado en diodos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez Ros, J. C.; Pamos Urena, M.; Jerez Sainz, M.; Lobato Munoz, M.; Jodar Lopez, C. A.; Ruiz Lopez, M. a.; Carrasco Rodriguez, J. L.

    2013-07-01

    We propose a methodology to correct doses of device verification 2D MapChek2 planes by offset. This methodology provides an array of correction by Offset applied to the calibration per dose due to the Offset of the diode Central as well as the correction of the Offset of each diode on each acquisition. (Author)

  18. Hydrodynamic cavitation to improve bulk fluid to surface mass transfer in a nonimmersed ultraviolet system for minimal processing of opaque and transparent fluid foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milly, P J; Toledo, R T; Chen, J; Kazem, B

    2007-11-01

    Ultraviolet (UV)-induced chemical reactions and inactivation of microorganisms in transparent and opaque fluids are strongly dependent upon the homogenous exposure of the target species to the UV irradiation. Current UV technologies used in water disinfection and food preservation applications have limited efficacy due to suspended particles shading target species. An Ultraviolet-Shockwave Power Reactor (UV-SPR) consisting of an inner rotating rotor and a stationary quartz housing and 2 end plates was used to induce 'controlled cavitation.' Eight UV low-pressure mercury lamps spaced uniformly were installed lengthwise around the quartz housing periphery. A KI to I(3) (-)chemical dosimeter for UV was used to quantify photons received by fluid in the annular space of the SPR. UV dose (J/m(2)) increased from 97 J/m(2) at 0 rpm to over 700 J/m(2) for SPR speeds above 2400 rpm. Inactivation of E. coli 25922 in apple juice and skim milk in the UV-SPR at exit temperatures below 45 degrees C was greater than 4.5 and 3 logs, respectively. The UV-SPR system proved successful in increasing the mass transfer of transparent and opaque fluid to the UV irradiated surface.

  19. Characterization of opaque2 modifier QTLs and candidate genes in recombinant inbred lines derived from the K0326Y quality protein maize inbred

    KAUST Repository

    Holding, David R.

    2010-11-13

    Quality protein maize (QPM) is a high lysine-containing corn that is based on genetic modification of the opaque2 (o2) mutant. In QPM, modifier genes convert the starchy endosperm of o2 to the vitreous phenotype of wild type maize. There are multiple, unlinked o2 modifier loci (Opm) in QPM and their nature and mode of action are unknown. We previously identified seven Opm QTLs and characterized 16 genes that are differentially up-regulated at a significant level in K0326Y QPM, compared to the starchy endosperm mutant W64Ao2. In order to further characterize these Opm QTLs and the genes up-regulated in K0326Y QPM, we created a population of 314 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from a cross between K0326Y QPM and W64Ao2. The RILs were characterized for three traits associated with endosperm texture: vitreousness, density and hardness. Genetic linkage analysis of the RIL population confirmed three of the previously identified QTLs associated with o2 endosperm modification in K0326Y QPM. Many of the genes up-regulated in K0326Y QPM showed substantially higher levels of expression in vitreous compared with opaque RILs. These included genes associated with the upstream regulation of the ethylene response pathway, and a gene encoding a regulatory subunit of pyrophosphate-dependent fructose-6-phosphate 1-phosphotransferase, an adaptive enzyme of the glycolytic pathway. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  20. Adjusting shape-memory properties of amorphous polyether urethanes and radio-opaque composites thereof by variation of physical parameters during programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, J; Kratz, K; Lendlein, A

    2010-01-01

    Various composites have been prepared to improve the mechanical properties of shape-memory polymers (SMPs) or to incorporate new functionalities (e.g. magneto-sensitivity) in polymer matrices. In this paper, we systematically investigated the influence of the programming temperature T prog and the applied strain ε m as parameters of the shape-memory creation procedure (SMCP) on the shape-memory properties of an amorphous polyether urethane and radio-opaque composites thereof. Recovery under stress-free conditions was quantified by the shape recovery rate R r and the switching temperature T sw , while the maximum recovery stress σ max was determined at the characteristic temperature T σ,max under constant strain conditions. Excellent shape-memory properties were achieved in all experiments with R r values in between 80 and 98%. σ max could be tailored from 0.4 to 3.7 MPa. T sw and T σ,max could be systematically adjusted from 33 to 71 °C by variation of T prog for each investigated sample. The investigated radio-opaque shape-memory composites will form the material basis for mechanically active scaffolds, which could serve as an intelligent substitute for the extracellular matrix to study the influence of mechanical stimulation of tissue development

  1. Improved perfusion quantification in FAIR imaging by offset correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidaros, Karam; Andersen, Irene Klærke; Gesmar, Henrik

    2001-01-01

    Perfusion quantification using pulsed arterial spin labeling has been shown to be sensitive to the RF pulse slice profiles. Therefore, in Flow-sensitive Alternating-Inversion Recovery (FAIR) imaging the slice selective (ss) inversion slab is usually three to four times thicker than the imaging...... slice. However, this reduces perfusion sensitivity due to the increased transit delay of the incoming blood with unperturbed spins. In the present article, the dependence of the magnetization on the RF pulse slice profiles is inspected both theoretically and experimentally. A perfusion quantification...... model is presented that allows the use of thinner ss inversion slabs by taking into account the offset of RF slice profiles between ss and nonselective inversion slabs. This model was tested in both phantom and human studies. Magn Reson Med 46:193-197, 2001...

  2. Frequency offset estimation in OFDM systems using Bayesian filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yihua

    2011-10-01

    Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is sensitive to carrier frequency offset (CFO) that causes inter-carrier interference (ICI). In this paper, we present two schemes for the CFO estimation, which are based on rejection sampling (RS) and a form of particle filtering (PF) called kernel smoothing technique, respectively. The first scheme is offline estimation, where the observations contained in the OFDM training symbol are treated in the batch mode. The second scheme is online estimation, where the observations in the OFDM training symbol are treated in the sequential manner. Simulations are provided to illustrate the performances of the schemes. Performance comparisons of the two schemes and with other Bayesian methods are provided. Simulation results show that the two schemes are effective when estimating the CFO and can effectively combat the effect of ICI in OFDM systems.

  3. Phase ambiguity resolution for offset QPSK modulation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tien M. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A demodulator for Offset Quaternary Phase Shift Keyed (OQPSK) signals modulated with two words resolves eight possible combinations of phase ambiguity which may produce data error by first processing received I(sub R) and Q(sub R) data in an integrated carrier loop/symbol synchronizer using a digital Costas loop with matched filters for correcting four of eight possible phase lock errors, and then the remaining four using a phase ambiguity resolver which detects the words to not only reverse the received I(sub R) and Q(sub R) data channels, but to also invert (complement) the I(sub R) and/or Q(sub R) data, or to at least complement the I(sub R) and Q(sub R) data for systems using nontransparent codes that do not have rotation direction ambiguity.

  4. Space and the Third Offset Symposium - Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahney, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-01-05

    The Third Offset Workshop explored the nature of the challenges and opportunities facing the United States as it is increasingly forced to integrate space into defense strategy as well as deterrence and strategic stability frameworks. Participants broadly agreed that Washington’s deep ties to allies and partners, as well as its history of leveraging an innovative U.S private sector, will be enduring competitive advantages against potential rivals into the foreseeable future. Yet panelists also highlighted key challenges from Russia and China’s rapid integration of space capabilities into conventional and nuclear warfighting, the pronounced growth in Chinese and Russian counterspace capabilities, and tensions in the U.S.-Russia relationship.

  5. Application of electron beam curing in web-offset printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, A.M.; Newcomb, W.T.

    1984-01-01

    Four years ago, the first commercial installation of an electron beam processor, coupled with a high speed web offset printing press was described. This line has been in operation since and its success demonstrates the advantages and feasibility of such an application. Just recently, another company has announced that it is using electron beam curing in its printing lines. Judging from the amount of inquiries and opportunities being actively pursued one can state that the use of electron beam systems in printing applications has come of age. This paper describes the advantages of this process, the characteristics of the equipment that are important for industrial use in a multishift environment, and addresses its economics through analysis of some major cost elements

  6. Phase Offsets and the Energy Budgets of Hot Jupiters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Joel C.; Kashner, Zane; Jovmir, Diana; Cowan, Nicolas B.

    2017-12-01

    Thermal phase curves of short-period planets on circular orbits provide joint constraints on the fraction of incoming energy that is reflected (Bond albedo) and the fraction of absorbed energy radiated by the night hemisphere (heat recirculation efficiency). Many empirical studies of hot Jupiters have implicitly assumed that the dayside is the hottest hemisphere and the nightside is the coldest hemisphere. For a given eclipse depth and phase amplitude, an orbital lag between a planet’s peak brightness and its eclipse—a phase offset—implies that planet’s nightside emits greater flux. To quantify how phase offsets impact the energy budgets of short-period planets, we compile all infrared observations of the nine planets with multi-band eclipse depths and phase curves. Accounting for phase offsets shifts planets to lower Bond albedo and greater day-night heat transport, usually by ≲1σ. For WASP-12b, the published phase variations have been analyzed in two different ways, and the inferred energy budget depends sensitively on which analysis one adopts. Our fiducial scenario supports a Bond albedo of {0.27}-0.13+0.12, significantly higher than the published optical geometric albedo, and a recirculation efficiency of {0.03}-0.02+0.07, following the trend of larger day-night temperature contrast with greater stellar irradiation. If instead we adopt the alternative analysis, then WASP-12b has a Bond albedo consistent with zero and a much higher recirculation efficiency. To definitively determine the energy budget of WASP-12b, new observational analyses will be necessary.

  7. What Issues Does the Czech Republic Face Concerning Offsets in the Context of Military Purchases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    of CZK 19.650 billion; approximately USD 0.9 billion)1. Countertrade is an immense, pervasive business practice, involving huge numbers of people...overwhelmed with various terms: direct and indirect offsets, countertrade , bilateral government trade, compensatory arrangements, clearing arrangements...34Coproduction, Barter, and Countertrade : Offsets in the International Arms Market," (Orbis, 1985), 29. 8 1. The Meaning of Offsets, Definitions and

  8. Echoic Memory: Investigation of Its Temporal Resolution by Auditory Offset Cortical Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Nishihara, Makoto; Inui, Koji; Morita, Tomoyo; Kodaira, Minori; Mochizuki, Hideki; Otsuru, Naofumi; Motomura, Eishi; Ushida, Takahiro; Kakigi, Ryusuke

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies showed that the amplitude and latency of the auditory offset cortical response depended on the history of the sound, which implicated the involvement of echoic memory in shaping a response. When a brief sound was repeated, the latency of the offset response depended precisely on the frequency of the repeat, indicating that the brain recognized the timing of the offset by using information on the repeat frequency stored in memory. In the present study, we investigated the temp...

  9. Demonstrating biodiversity offset policy outcomes using the classic "trading in a pit market" classroom game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bull, Joseph William; Strange, Niels

    2017-01-01

    , and subsequently, the provision of full ecological compensation measures elsewhere by the associated developer, e. g., habitat restoration. The objective is no net loss of biodiversity overall. Here, we develop an offset experiment in the style of a classic economic game (‘trading in a pit market’), which can...... the experiment, with and without a hypothetical biodiversity offset policy in place, revealed some key principles around offsetting which have been noted in real world policy outcomes....

  10. A SURVEY OF AUTOMATION TECHNIQUES COMING FORTH IN SHEET-FED OFFSET PRINTING ORGANIZATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. Ramesh Kumar*, Mr. Bijender & Mr. Sandeep Boora

    2017-01-01

    Sheet-Fed offset is one of the premier processes in India as well as abroad. To cope up with customers large quantity demands automation has become mandatory. From prepress to post press a wide range of automation techniques exist and coming forth for sheet fed offset presses. Objective of this paper is to throw light on various sheet-fed offset automation techniques existing today and their futuristic implications. The data related to automation was collected with the help of survey conducte...

  11. Accounting for Uncertainty and Time Lags in Equivalency Calculations for Offsetting in Aquatic Resources Management Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Michael J.

    2017-10-01

    Biodiversity offset programs attempt to minimize unavoidable environmental impacts of anthropogenic activities by requiring offsetting measures in sufficient quantity to counterbalance losses due to the activity. Multipliers, or offsetting ratios, have been used to increase the amount of offsets to account for uncertainty but those ratios have generally been derived from theoretical or ad-hoc considerations. I analyzed uncertainty in the offsetting process in the context of offsetting for impacts to freshwater fisheries productivity. For aquatic habitats I demonstrate that an empirical risk-based approach for evaluating prediction uncertainty is feasible, and if data are available appropriate adjustments to offset requirements can be estimated. For two data-rich examples I estimate multipliers in the range of 1.5:1 - 2.5:1 are sufficient to account for the uncertainty in the prediction of gains and losses. For aquatic habitats adjustments for time delays in the delivery of offset benefits can also be calculated and are likely smaller than those for prediction uncertainty. However, the success of a biodiversity offsetting program will also depend on the management of the other components of risk not addressed by these adjustments.

  12. Correlation between centre offsets and gas velocity dispersion of galaxy clusters in cosmological simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming-Hua; Zhu, Weishan; Zhao, Dong

    2018-05-01

    The gas is the dominant component of baryonic matter in most galaxy groups and clusters. The spatial offsets of gas centre from the halo centre could be an indicator of the dynamical state of cluster. Knowledge of such offsets is important for estimate the uncertainties when using clusters as cosmological probes. In this paper, we study the centre offsets roff between the gas and that of all the matter within halo systems in ΛCDM cosmological hydrodynamic simulations. We focus on two kinds of centre offsets: one is the three-dimensional PB offsets between the gravitational potential minimum of the entire halo and the barycentre of the ICM, and the other is the two-dimensional PX offsets between the potential minimum of the halo and the iterative centroid of the projected synthetic X-ray emission of the halo. Haloes at higher redshifts tend to have larger values of rescaled offsets roff/r200 and larger gas velocity dispersion σ v^gas/σ _{200}. For both types of offsets, we find that the correlation between the rescaled centre offsets roff/r200 and the rescaled 3D gas velocity dispersion, σ _v^gas/σ _{200} can be approximately described by a quadratic function as r_{off}/r_{200} ∝ (σ v^gas/σ _{200} - k_2)2. A Bayesian analysis with MCMC method is employed to estimate the model parameters. Dependence of the correlation relation on redshifts and the gas mass fraction are also investigated.

  13. Possible Correlations between the Emission Properties of SGRBs and Their Offsets from the Host Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Shuai; Jin, Zhi-Ping; Li, Xiang; Fan, Yi-Zhong; Wei, Da-Ming [Key Laboratory of Dark Matter and Space Astronomy, Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, 210008 (China); Zhang, Fu-Wen, E-mail: jin@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: yzfan@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: dmwei@pmo.ac.cn [College of Science, Guilin University of Technology, Guilin 541004 (China)

    2017-07-20

    Short gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs) are widely believed to be from mergers of binary compact objects involving at least one neutron star and hence have a broad range of spatial offsets from their host galaxies. In this work, we search for possible correlations between the emission properties of 18 SGRBs and their offsets from the host galaxies. The SGRBs with and without extended emission do not show significant differences between their offset distributions, in agreement with some previous works. There are, however, possible correlations between the optical and X-ray afterglow emission and the offsets. The underlying physical origins are examined.

  14. Accounting for Uncertainty and Time Lags in Equivalency Calculations for Offsetting in Aquatic Resources Management Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Michael J

    2017-10-01

    Biodiversity offset programs attempt to minimize unavoidable environmental impacts of anthropogenic activities by requiring offsetting measures in sufficient quantity to counterbalance losses due to the activity. Multipliers, or offsetting ratios, have been used to increase the amount of offsets to account for uncertainty but those ratios have generally been derived from theoretical or ad-hoc considerations. I analyzed uncertainty in the offsetting process in the context of offsetting for impacts to freshwater fisheries productivity. For aquatic habitats I demonstrate that an empirical risk-based approach for evaluating prediction uncertainty is feasible, and if data are available appropriate adjustments to offset requirements can be estimated. For two data-rich examples I estimate multipliers in the range of 1.5:1 - 2.5:1 are sufficient to account for the uncertainty in the prediction of gains and losses. For aquatic habitats adjustments for time delays in the delivery of offset benefits can also be calculated and are likely smaller than those for prediction uncertainty. However, the success of a biodiversity offsetting program will also depend on the management of the other components of risk not addressed by these adjustments.

  15. Attention capture by contour onsets and offsets: no special role for onsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, D G; Humphreys, G W

    1995-07-01

    In five experiments, we investigated the power of targets defined by the onset or offset of one of an object's parts (contour onsets and offsets) either to guide or to capture visual attention. In Experiment 1, search for a single contour onset target was compared with search for a single contour offset target against a static background of distractors; no difference was found between the efficiency with which each could be detected. In Experiment 2, onsets and offsets were compared for automatic attention capture, when both occurred simultaneously. Unlike in previous studies, the effects of overall luminance change, new-object creation, and number of onset and offset items were controlled. It was found that contour onset and offset items captured attention equally well. However, display size effects on both target types were also apparent. Such effects may have been due to competition for selection between multiple onset and offset stimuli. In Experiments 3 and 4, single onset and offset stimuli were presented simultaneously and pitted directly against one another among a background of static distractors. In Experiment 3, we examined "guided search," for a target that was formed either from an onset or from an offset among static items. In Experiment 4, the onsets and offsets were uncorrelated with the target location. Similar results occurred in both experiments: target onsets and offsets were detected more efficiently than static stimuli which needed serial search; there remained effects of display size on performance; but there was still no advantage for onsets. In Experiment 5, we examined automatic attention capture by single onset and offset stimuli presented individually among static distractors. Again, there was no advantage for onset over offset targets and a display size effect was also present. These results suggest that, both in isolation and in competition, onsets that do not form new objects neither guide nor gain automatic attention more efficiently

  16. The Binary Offset Effect in CCDs: an Anomalous Readout Artifact Affecting Most Astronomical CCDs in Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Kyle Robert; Aldering, Gregory; Copin, Yannick; Dixon, Samantha; Domagalski, Rachel; Gangler, Emmanuel; Pecontal, Emmanuel; Perlmutter, Saul; Nearby Supernova Factory Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    We discovered an anomalous behavior of CCD readout electronics that affects their use in many astronomical applications, which we call the “binary offset effect”. Due to feedback in the readout electronics, an offset is introduced in the values read out for each pixel that depends on the binary encoding of the previously read-out pixel values. One consequence of this effect is that a pathological local background offset can be introduced in images that only appears where science data are present on the CCD. The amplitude of this introduced offset does not scale monotonically with the amplitude of the objects in the image, and can be up to 4.5 ADU per pixel for certain instruments. Additionally, this background offset will be shifted by several pixels from the science data, potentially distorting the shape of objects in the image. We tested 22 instruments for signs of the binary offset effect and found evidence of it in 16 of them, including LRIS and DEIMOS on the Keck telescopes, WFC3-UVIS and STIS on HST, MegaCam on CFHT, SNIFS on the UH88 telescope, GMOS on the Gemini telescopes, HSC on Subaru, and FORS on VLT. A large amount of archival data is therefore affected by the binary offset effect, and conventional methods of reducing CCD images do not measure or remove the introduced offsets. As a demonstration of how to correct for the binary offset effect, we have developed a model that can accurately predict and remove the introduced offsets for the SNIFS instrument on the UH88 telescope. Accounting for the binary offset effect is essential for precision low-count astronomical observations with CCDs.

  17. A performance study of radio-opaque personal protective fabrics for the reduction of transmittance of gamma-rays and neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corcoran, E.C.; William Forest; Robert Horton; Kelly, D.G.; Kristine Mattson; Curtis McDonald; Nielsen, K.S.; Kristin Topping; Weir, R.D.; Andre Yonkeu

    2012-01-01

    Commercial radio-opaque combat (CRC) fabrics, for incorporation into personal protective equipment used by first responders and armed forces, are marketed as having the ability to provide a level of protection against specific types of radiation. For a CRC material, a standard combat uniform and a multi-layered chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear (CBRN) protective material, the present work examines chemical composition and radiation protection against gamma-rays and neutron fluxes. Significant reduction in gamma-ray transmittance occurs only for the CRC fabric (46-514 keV) with gamma-ray attenuation coefficients of 3.10 to 2 g -1 . Reduction in neutron transmittance, for all three fabrics, could not be assessed with certainty as the measured transmittance was obscured by large statistical uncertainties. (author)

  18. An integral geometry lemma and its applications: The nonlocality of the Pavlov equation and a tomographic problem with opaque parabolic objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinevich, P. G.; Santini, P. M.

    2016-10-01

    Written in the evolutionary form, the multidimensional integrable dispersionless equations, exactly like the soliton equations in 2+1 dimensions, become nonlocal. In particular, the Pavlov equation is brought to the form v t = v x v y - ∂ x -1 ∂ y [ v y + v x 2], where the formal integral ∂ x -1 becomes the asymmetric integral - int_x^∞ {dx'} . We show that this result could be guessed using an apparently new integral geometry lemma. It states that the integral of a sufficiently general smooth function f( X, Y) over a parabola in the plane ( X, Y) can be expressed in terms of the integrals of f( X, Y) over straight lines not intersecting the parabola. We expect that this result can have applications in two-dimensional linear tomography problems with an opaque parabolic obstacle.

  19. Spatial Offsets in Flare-CME Current Sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymond, John C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Giordano, Silvio [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese (Italy); Ciaravella, Angela, E-mail: jraymond@cfa.harvard.edu [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, P.za Parlamento 1, I-90134 Palermo (Italy)

    2017-07-10

    Magnetic reconnection plays an integral part in nearly all models of solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The reconnection heats and accelerates the plasma, produces energetic electrons and ions, and changes the magnetic topology to form magnetic flux ropes and to allow CMEs to escape. Structures that appear between flare loops and CME cores in optical, UV, EUV, and X-ray observations have been identified as current sheets and have been interpreted in terms of the nature of the reconnection process and the energetics of the events. Many of these studies have used UV spectral observations of high temperature emission features in the [Fe xviii] and Si xii lines. In this paper, we discuss several surprising cases in which the [Fe xviii] and Si xii emission peaks are spatially offset from each other. We discuss interpretations based on asymmetric reconnection, on a thin reconnection region within a broader streamer-like structure, and on projection effects. Some events seem to be easily interpreted as the projection of a sheet that is extended along the line of sight that is viewed an angle, but a physical interpretation in terms of asymmetric reconnection is also plausible. Other events favor an interpretation as a thin current sheet embedded in a streamer-like structure.

  20. Bird community conservation and carbon offsets in western North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Richard; Martin, Tara G; Arcese, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Conservation initiatives to protect and restore valued species and communities in human-dominated landscapes face huge challenges linked to the cost of acquiring habitat. We ask how the sale of forest carbon offsets could reduce land acquisition costs, and how the alternate goals of maximizing α or β-diversity in focal communities could affect the prioritization land parcels over a range of conservation targets. Maximizing total carbon storage and carbon sequestration potential reduced land acquisition costs by up to 48%. Maximizing β rather than α-diversity within forest and savannah bird communities reduced acquisition costs by up to 15%, and when these solutions included potential carbon credit revenues, acquisition cost reductions up to 32% were achieved. However, the total cost of conservation networks increased exponentially as area targets increased in all scenarios. Our results indicate that carbon credit sales have the potential to enhance conservation outcomes in human-dominated landscapes by reducing the net acquisition costs of land conservation in old and maturing forests essential for the persistence of old forest plant and animal communities. Maximizing β versus α-diversity may further reduce costs by reducing the total area required to meet conservation targets and enhancing landscape heterogeneity. Although the potential value of carbon credit sales declined as a fraction of total acquisition costs, even conservative scenarios using a carbon credit value of $12.5/T suggest reductions in acquisition cost of up to $235 M, indicating that carbon credit sales could substantially reduce the costs of conservation.

  1. MSK and offset QPSK modulation with bandlimiting filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, V. K.

    1981-01-01

    It is considered by some that minimum shift keying (MSK) is spectrally more efficient than quaternary phase-shift keying/offset quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK/OQPSK). An analytical method is presented here for determining the detection efficiencies of MSK and QPSK/OQPSK when the constant-envelope signal is passed through a set of filters and when the resulting signal is corrupted by Gaussian noise. The detection efficiency of MSK is compared with that of QPSK/OQPSK when a four-pole Butterworth filter is used as a transmit filter and for two different receive filter functions. When the two-sided 3-dB bandwidth of the transmit filter is between approximately 1.00/T and 1.50/T, it is shown that the detection efficiency of MSK is not substantially different from that of QPSK/OQPSK. For more severe bandlimiting of the signal, the performance of MSK is shown to be inferior to that of QPSK/OQPSK. It is, therefore, concluded that MSK does not have significantly better detection efficiency when the effect of bandlimiting filters is taken into account.

  2. Offsetting deficit conceptualisations: methodological considerations for higher education research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Coleman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper contributes to the current introspection in the academic development community that critiques the persistent conceptualisations of students as deficient. Deficit discourses are also implicated in many of the student support, curriculum and pedagogic initiatives employed across the higher education sector. The argument developed here, unlike most of the existing debates which focus on pedagogic or institutional initiatives, explores how the research interests and methodological choices of academic developers and researchers could incorporate sensitivity against deficit conceptions and foster more contextualised accounts of students and their learning. This article uses an ethnographic study into the assignment practices of vocational higher education students to show how certain methodological and theoretical choices engender anti-deficit conceptualisations. The study’s analytic framework uses the concepts of literacy practices and knowledge recontextualisation to place analytic attention on both the students’ assignment practices and the influence of curriculum decision making on such practices. The significance of this dual focus is its ability to capture the complexity of students’ meaning-making during assignment production, without remaining silent about the structuring influence of the curriculum. I argue in this paper that the focus on both students and curriculum is able to offer contextualised accounts of students’ interpretations and enacted experiences of their assessment and curriculum environment. Exploring the multidimensional nature of student learning experiences in ways that accommodate the influence of various contextual realities brings researchers and their research agendas closer to offsetting deficit conceptualisation.

  3. Offset linear scaling for H-mode confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Yukitoshi; Tamai, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Norio; Mori, Masahiro; Matsuda, Toshiaki; Maeda, Hikosuke; Takizuka, Tomonori; Itoh, Sanae; Itoh, Kimitaka.

    1992-01-01

    An offset linear scaling for the H-mode confinement time is examined based on single parameter scans on the JFT-2M experiment. Regression study is done for various devices with open divertor configuration such as JET, DIII-D, JFT-2M. The scaling law of the thermal energy is given in the MKSA unit as W th =0.0046R 1.9 I P 1.1 B T 0.91 √A+2.9x10 -8 I P 1.0 R 0.87 P√AP, where R is the major radius, I P is the plasma current, B T is the toroidal magnetic field, A is the average mass number of plasma and neutral beam particles, and P is the heating power. This fitting has a similar root mean square error (RMSE) compared to the power law scaling. The result is also compared with the H-mode in other configurations. The W th of closed divertor H-mode on ASDEX shows a little better values than that of open divertor H-mode. (author)

  4. Offsetting China's CO2 Emissions by Soil Carbon Sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lal, R.

    2004-01-01

    Fossil fuel emissions of carbon (C) in China in 2000 was about 1 Pg/yr, which may surpass that of the U.S. (1.84 Pg C) by 2020. Terrestrial C pool of China comprises about 35 to 60 Pg in the forest and 120 to 186 Pg in soils. Soil degradation is a major issue affecting 145 Mha by different degradative processes, of which 126 Mha are prone to accelerated soil erosion. Similar to world soils, agricultural soils of China have also lost 30 to 50% or more of the antecedent soil organic carbon (SOC) pool. Some of the depleted SOC pool can be re-sequestered through restoration of degraded soils, and adoption of recommended management practices. The latter include conversion of upland crops to multiple cropping and rice paddies, adoption of integrated nutrient management (INM) strategies, incorporation of cover crops in the rotations cycle and adoption of conservation-effective systems including conservation tillage. A crude estimated potential of soil C sequestration in China is 119 to 226 Tg C/y of SOC and 7 to 138 Tg C/y for soil inorganic carbon (SIC) up to 50 years. The total potential of soil C sequestration is about 12 Pg, and this potential can offset about 25% of the annual fossil fuel emissions in China

  5. Offset project report : Cleanit Greenit aerobic composting project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-02-15

    The Cleanit Greenit site is owned and operated by Cleanit Greenit Composting System Inc. and is a composting facility located in Edmonton, Alberta. The facility has an annual processing capacity of 20,000 tonnes of organic waste and was the first in Canada to compost a large variety of industrial by-products containing hydrocarbons, through controlled blending with other wastes and monitoring of moisture, temperature and pH. The composting process turns organic waste material from industrial, commercial and domestic sources into finished projects, thus removing these materials from conditions where treatment and disposal is often difficult, expensive and environmentally harmful. This protocol document covered the diversion of organic residues from landfill for biological decomposition to a condition sufficiently stable for nuisance-free storage and for safe use in land application. A wide variety of organic residues were considered, including agricultural and agri-food residues; the organic portion of municipal solid waste; food wastes; and forestry and landscaping wastes. The document presented information on the Cleanit Greenit project and discussed the calculation of greenhouse gas emission reductions. An appendix that contained the Cleanit Greenit aerobic composting offset project plan was also provided. tabs., figs.

  6. Design rules for vertical interconnections by reverse offset printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusaka, Yasuyuki; Kanazawa, Shusuke; Ushijima, Hirobumi

    2018-03-01

    Formation of vertical interconnections by reverse offset printing was investigated, particularly focusing on the transfer step, in which an ink pattern is transferred from a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) sheet for the step coverage of contact holes. We systematically examined the coverage of contact holes made of a tapered photoresist layer by varying the hole size, the hole depth, PDMS elasticity, PDMS thickness, printing speed, and printing indentation depth. Successful ink filling was achieved when the PDMS was softer, and the optimal PDMS thickness varied depending on the size of the contact holes. This behaviour is related to the bell-type uplift deformation of incompressible PDMS, which can be described by contact mechanics numerical simulations. Based on direct observation of PDMS/resist-hole contact behaviour, the step coverage of contact holes typically involves two steps of contact area growth: (i) the PDMS first touches the bottom of the holes and then (ii) the contact area gradually and radially widens toward the tapered sidewall. From an engineering perspective, it is pointed out that mechanical synchronisation mismatch in the roll-to-sheet type printing invokes the cracking of ink layers at the edges of contact holes. According to the above design rule, ink filling into a contact hole with thickness of 2.5 µm and radius of 10 µm was achieved. Contact chain patterns with 1386 points of vertical interconnections with the square hole size of up to 10 µm successfully demonstrated the validity of the technique presented herein.

  7. Enhanced marine sulphur emissions offset global warming and impact rainfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandey, B S; Wang, C

    2015-08-21

    Artificial fertilisation of the ocean has been proposed as a possible geoengineering method for removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The associated increase in marine primary productivity may lead to an increase in emissions of dimethyl sulphide (DMS), the primary source of sulphate aerosol over remote ocean regions, potentially causing direct and cloud-related indirect aerosol effects on climate. This pathway from ocean fertilisation to aerosol induced cooling of the climate may provide a basis for solar radiation management (SRM) geoengineering. In this study, we investigate the transient climate impacts of two emissions scenarios: an RCP4.5 (Representative Concentration Pathway 4.5) control; and an idealised scenario, based on RCP4.5, in which DMS emissions are substantially enhanced over ocean areas. We use mini-ensembles of a coupled atmosphere-ocean configuration of CESM1(CAM5) (Community Earth System Model version 1, with the Community Atmosphere Model version 5). We find that the cooling effect associated with enhanced DMS emissions beneficially offsets greenhouse gas induced warming across most of the world. However, the rainfall response may adversely affect water resources, potentially impacting human livelihoods. These results demonstrate that changes in marine phytoplankton activity may lead to a mixture of positive and negative impacts on the climate.

  8. 20 CFR 361.13 - Procedures for salary offset: Methods of collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedures for salary offset: Methods of collection. 361.13 Section 361.13 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION... § 361.13 Procedures for salary offset: Methods of collection. (a) General. A debt will be collected by...

  9. 20 CFR 361.12 - Procedures for salary offset: Types of collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedures for salary offset: Types of collection. 361.12 Section 361.12 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION... § 361.12 Procedures for salary offset: Types of collection. A debt will be collected in a lump sum or in...

  10. 7 CFR 400.136 - Procedures for salary offset; when deductions may begin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedures for salary offset; when deductions may... Management-Regulations for the 1986 and Succeeding Crop Years § 400.136 Procedures for salary offset; when... amount outlined in the Notice of Intent to collect from the employee's salary, as provided for in § 400...

  11. 7 CFR 400.138 - Procedures for salary offset; methods of collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedures for salary offset; methods of collection. 400.138 Section 400.138 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL... Management-Regulations for the 1986 and Succeeding Crop Years § 400.138 Procedures for salary offset; methods...

  12. 45 CFR 2506.32 - What are the Corporation's procedures for salary offset?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the Corporation's procedures for salary...) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE COLLECTION OF DEBTS Salary Offset § 2506.32 What are the Corporation's procedures for salary offset? (a) The Corporation will coordinate salary deductions under this...

  13. 7 CFR 400.137 - Procedures for salary offset; types of collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedures for salary offset; types of collection. 400.137 Section 400.137 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP...-Regulations for the 1986 and Succeeding Crop Years § 400.137 Procedures for salary offset; types of collection...

  14. An Examination of Tailored Training Offsets on Core Mortarman Skills Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Training, Mortar, Mortar Gunner’s Exam , Tests SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF 19. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 20...training offsets in 11C OSUT, and ( c ) provide guidance and tools for developing effective training offsets to enhance Soldiers’ core skills proficiencies...Two-Week Mortar Training Including Gunner’s Exam ............................... 13 Knowledge and Application Tests

  15. Determination of the aging offset voltage of AMR sensors based on accelerated degradation test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zambrano Constantini, A.C.; Kerkhoff, Hans G.

    Usually Anisotropic Magnetoresistance angle sensors are configured with two Wheatstone bridges, but an undesirable offset voltage included in the sensor output affects its accuracy. The total offset voltage combines a voltage due to resistance mismatches during manufacturing and a voltage from

  16. Managing dependencies in forest offset projects: toward a more complete evaluation of reversal risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    David M Cooley; Chrsitopher S Galik; Thomas P Holmes; Carolyn Kousky; Roger M Cooke

    2011-01-01

    Although forest carbon offsets can play an important role in the implementation of comprehensive climate policy, they also face an inherent risk of reversal. If such risks are positively correlated across projects, it can affect the integrity of larger project portfolios and potentially the entire offsets program. Here, we discuss three types of risks that could affect...

  17. Using forest carbon credits to offset emissions in the downstream business

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hein, Lars

    2017-01-01

    A forthcoming report by Concawe, entitled Using Forest Carbon Credits to Offset Emissions in the Downstream Business, investigated whether, and how, forest carbon credits can be used to offset emissions from the European refining and road transport sectors. Forest carbon plays a major role in the

  18. Regional impacts of a program for private forest carbon offset sales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darius M. Adams; Ralph Alig; Greg Latta; Eric M. White

    2011-01-01

    Policymakers are examining wide range of alternatives for climate change mitigation, including carbon offset sales programs, to enhance sequestration in the forest sector. Under an offset sales program, on-the-ground forestry could change as result of both afforestation and modifications in the management of existing forests. These effects could vary markedly by region...

  19. 41 CFR 105-56.008 - Pre-offset paper hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pre-offset paper hearing. 105-56.008 Section 105-56.008 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... General Services Administration Employees § 105-56.008 Pre-offset paper hearing. If a hearing is to be...

  20. 7 CFR 1951.106 - Offset of payments to entities related to debtors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) General. Collections of delinquent debts through administrative offset will be in accordance with 7 CFR... delinquent debts through administrative offset may be taken against a debtor's pro rata share of payments due..., or after receiving a loan, established an entity, or has reorganized, transferred ownership of, or...

  1. Improved SAR Amplitude Image Offset Measurements for Deriving Three-Dimensional Coseismic Displacements

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Teng; Jonsson, Sigurjon

    2015-01-01

    Offsets of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images have played an important role in deriving complete three-dimensional (3-D) surface displacement fields in geoscientific applications. However, offset maps often suffer from multiple outliers and patch-like artifacts, because the standard offset-measurement method is a regular moving-window operation that does not consider the scattering characteristics of the ground. Here, we show that by focusing the offset measurements on predetected strong reflectors, the reliability and accuracy of SAR offsets can be significantly improved. Application to the 2011 Van (Turkey) earthquake reveals a clear deformation signal from an otherwise decorrelated interferogram, making derivation of the 3-D coseismic displacement field possible. Our proposed method can improve mapping of coseismic deformation and other ground displacements, such as glacier flow and landslide movement when strong reflectors exist.

  2. Tuning SISO offset-free Model Predictive Control based on ARX models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2012-01-01

    , the proposed controller is simple to tune as it has only one free tuning parameter. These two features are advantageous in predictive process control as they simplify industrial commissioning of MPC. Disturbance rejection and offset-free control is important in industrial process control. To achieve offset......In this paper, we present a tuning methodology for a simple offset-free SISO Model Predictive Controller (MPC) based on autoregressive models with exogenous inputs (ARX models). ARX models simplify system identification as they can be identified from data using convex optimization. Furthermore......-free control in face of unknown disturbances or model-plant mismatch, integrators must be introduced in either the estimator or the regulator. Traditionally, offset-free control is achieved using Brownian disturbance models in the estimator. In this paper we achieve offset-free control by extending the noise...

  3. Improved SAR Amplitude Image Offset Measurements for Deriving Three-Dimensional Coseismic Displacements

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Teng

    2015-02-03

    Offsets of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images have played an important role in deriving complete three-dimensional (3-D) surface displacement fields in geoscientific applications. However, offset maps often suffer from multiple outliers and patch-like artifacts, because the standard offset-measurement method is a regular moving-window operation that does not consider the scattering characteristics of the ground. Here, we show that by focusing the offset measurements on predetected strong reflectors, the reliability and accuracy of SAR offsets can be significantly improved. Application to the 2011 Van (Turkey) earthquake reveals a clear deformation signal from an otherwise decorrelated interferogram, making derivation of the 3-D coseismic displacement field possible. Our proposed method can improve mapping of coseismic deformation and other ground displacements, such as glacier flow and landslide movement when strong reflectors exist.

  4. Possible correlations between gamma-ray burst and its host galaxy offset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei-Fei; Zou, Yuan-Chuan; Liu, Yu; Liao, Bin; Moharana, Reetanjali

    2018-06-01

    We collected the information of 304 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) from the literature, and analyzed the correlations among the host galaxy offsets (the distance from the site of the GRB to the center of its host galaxy), T90,i (the duration T90 in rest-frame), TR45,i (the duration TR45 in rest-frame), Eγ,iso (the isotropic equivalent energy), Lγ,iso (=Eγ,iso /T90,i, the isotropic equivalent luminosity) and Lpk (peak luminosity). We found that T90,i, TR45,i, Eγ,iso, Lpk have negative correlation with offset, which is consistent with origin of short GRBs (SGRBs) and long GRBs (LGRBs). On separate analysis, we found similar results for log ⁡Eγ,iso - log ⁡ (offset) and log ⁡Lpk - log ⁡ (offset) relations in case of SGRBs only, while no obvious relation for LGRBs. There is no correlations between offset and Lγ,iso. We also put the special GRB 170817A and GRB 060218A on the plots. The two GRBs both have low luminosity and small offset. In the log ⁡ (offset) - log ⁡T90,i plot, we found GRB 170817A locates in between the two regions of SGRBs and LGRBs and it is the outlier in the offset -Eγ,iso, offset -Lγ,iso and offset -Lpk plots. Together with GRB 060218A being an outlier in all plots, it indicates the speciality of GRBs 170817A and 060218A, and might imply more subgroups of the GRB samples.

  5. Relationship between acoustic voice onset and offset and selected instances of oscillatory onset and offset in young healthy males and females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rita; Forrest, Karen; Hedges, Drew

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between (1) onset of the acoustic signal and pre-phonatory phases associated with oscillatory onset and (2) offset of the acoustic signal with the post-phonatory events associated with oscillatory offset across vocally healthy adults. Subjects and Methods High-speed videoendoscopy was captured simultaneously with the acoustic signal during repeated production of /hi.hi.hi/ at typical pitch and loudness from 56 vocally healthy adults (age 20–42 years; 21 male, 35 female). The relationship between the acoustic sound pressure signal and oscillatory onset /offset events from the glottal area waveforms (GAW), were statistically investigated using a multivariate linear regression analysis. Results The onset of the acoustic signal (X1a) is a significant predictor of the onset of first oscillations (X1g) and onset of sustained oscillations (X2g). X1a as well as gender are significant predictors of the first instance of medial contact (X1.5g). The offset of the acoustic signal (X2a) is a significant predictor of the first instance of oscillatory offset (X3g), first instance of incomplete glottal closure (X3.5g), and cessation of vocal fold motion (X4g). Conclusions The acoustic signal onset is closely related to the first medial contact of the vocal folds but the latency between these events is longer for females compared to males. The offset of the acoustic signal occurs immediately after incomplete glottal adduction. The emerging normative group latencies between the onset/offset of the acoustic and the GAW from this study appear promising for future investigations. PMID:27769696

  6. Transpressive mantle uplift at large offset oceanic transform faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, M.; Briais, A.; Brunelli, D.; Ligi, M.; Sichel, S. E.; Campos, T.

    2017-12-01

    Large-offset transform faults deform due to changes in plate motions and local processes. At the St. Paul transform, in the Equatorial Atlantic, a large body of ultramafic rocks composed of variably serpentinized and mylonitized peridotites is presently being tectonically uplifted. We recently discovered that the origin of the regional mantle uplift is linked to long-standing compressive stresses along the transform fault (1). A positive flower structure, mainly made of mylonitized mantle rocks, can be recognized on the 200 km large push-up ridge. Compressive earthquakes mechanisms reveal seismically active thrust faults on the southern flank of the ridge . The regional transpressive stress field affects a large portion of the ridge segment south of the transform, as revealed by the presence of faults and dykes striking obliquely to the direction of the central ridge axis. A smaller thrust, affecting recent sediments, was mapped south of this segment, suggesting a regional active compressive stress field. The transpressive stress field is interpreted to derive from the propagation of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) segment into the transform domain as a response to the enhanced melt supply at the ridge axis. The propagation forced the migration and segmentation of the transform fault southward and the formation of restraining step-overs. The process started after a counterclockwise change in plate motion at 11 Ma initially resulting in extensive stress of the transform domain. A flexural transverse ridge formed in response. Shortly after plate reorganization, the MAR segment started to propagate southwards due to the interaction of the ridge and the Sierra Leone thermal anomaly. 1- Maia et al., 2016. Extreme mantle uplift and exhumation along a transpressive transform fault Nat. Geo. doi:10.1038/ngeo2759

  7. The beam based alignment technique for the measurements of beam position monitors offsets and beam offsets from quadrupoles in the Pohang Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.H.; Huang, J.Y.; Ko, I.S.

    1999-01-01

    The beam based alignment (BBA) technique is applied to the 2-GeV storage ring of the Pohang Light Source to measure the offsets of beam position monitors. This measurement is particularly necessary for beam position monitors (BPMs) plugged into a long (∼10 m) aluminum chamber, since the mechanical deformation of the vacuum chamber is experienced after repeated heating for the outgassing process, and the BPM positions are changed accordingly. A part of the excitation current of each quadrupole magnet is shunted through an electronic shunt circuit. Then, the closed orbit receives a perturbation due to the current reduction. Using two quadrupole magnets, we can measure the offset of each BPM. Also, the BBA technique is applied to measure the beam offsets from the center of quadrupole magnets, and gives information to the survey team about which quadrupole magnets should be aligned mostly. In this process, we introduce the merit function to reduce various errors such as BPM characteristic changes and the lattice imperfection. By minimizing the merit function, we can get the beam offset as the maximized expectation value. This paper presents the BBA technique used and experimental results taken from the 2-GeV Pohang Light Source (PLS) storage ring. When the BPM offset is measured, it is observed that a 3% of the shunt current is suitable. (author)

  8. In-Flight Calibration Methods for Temperature-Dependent Offsets in the MMS Fluxgate Magnetometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromund, K. R.; Plaschke, F.; Strangeway, R. J.; Anderson, B. J.; Huang, B. G.; Magnes, W.; Fischer, D.; Nakamura, R.; Leinweber, H. K.; Russell, C. T.; hide

    2016-01-01

    During the first dayside season of the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission, the in-flight calibration process for the Fluxgate magnetometers (FGM) implemented an algorithm that selected a constant offset (zero-level) for each sensor on each orbit. This method was generally able to reduce the amplitude of residual spin tone to less than 0.2 nT within the region of interest. However, there are times when the offsets do show significant short-term variations. These variations are most prominent in the nighttime season (phase 1X), when eclipses are accompanied by offset changes as large as 1 nT. Eclipses are followed by a recovery period as long as 12 hours where the offsets continue to change as temperatures stabilize. Understanding and compensating for these changes will become critical during Phase 2 of the mission in 2017, when the nightside will become the focus of MMS science. Although there is no direct correlation between offset and temperature, the offsets are seen for the period of any given week to be well-characterized as function of instrument temperature. Using this property, a new calibration method has been developed that has proven effective in compensating for temperature-dependent offsets during phase 1X of the MMS mission and also promises to further refine calibration quality during the dayside season.

  9. In-Flight Calibration Methods for Temperature-Dependendent Offsets in the MMS Fluxgate Magnetometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromund, K. R.; Plaschke, F.; Strangeway, R. J.; Anderson, B. J.; Huang, B. G.; Magnes, W.; Fischer, D.; Nakamura, R.; Leinweber, H. K.; Russell, C. T.; Baumjohann, W.; Chutter, M.; Torbert, R. B.; Le, G.; Slavin, J. A.; Kepko, L.

    2016-12-01

    During the first dayside season of the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission, the in-flight calibration process for the Fluxgate magnetometers (FGM) implemented an algorithm that selected a constant offset (zero-level) for each sensor on each orbit. This method was generally able to reduce the amplitude of residual spin tone to less than 0.2 nT within the region of interest. However, there are times when the offsets do show significant short-term variations. These variations are most prominent in the nighttime season (phase 1X), when eclipses are accompanied by offset changes as large as 1 nT. Eclipses are followed by a recovery period as long as 12 hours where the offsets continue to change as temperatures stabilize. Understanding and compensating for these changes will become critical during Phase 2 of the mission in 2017, when the nightside will become the focus of MMS science. Although there is no direct correlation between offset and temperature, the offsets are seen — for the period of any given week — to be well-characterized as function of instrument temperature. Using this property, a new calibration method has been developed that has proven effective in compensating for temperature-dependent offsets during phase 1X of the MMS mission and also promises to further refine calibration quality during the dayside season.

  10. A Framework for Implementing and Valuing Biodiversity Offsets in Colombia: A Landscape Scale Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Saenz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity offsets provide a mechanism for maintaining or enhancing environmental values in situations where development is sought, despite negative environmental impacts. They seek to ensure that unavoidable deleterious environmental impacts of development are balanced by environmental gains. When onsite impacts warrant the use of offsets there is often little attention paid to make sure that the location of offset sites provides the greatest conservation benefit, ensuring they are consistent with landscape level conservation goals. In most offset frameworks it is difficult for developers to proactively know the offset requirements they will need to implement. Here we propose a framework to address these needs. We propose a series of rules for selecting offset sites that meet the conservation needs of potentially impacted biological targets. We then discuss an accounting approach that seeks to support offset ratio determinations based on a structured and transparent approach. To demonstrate the approach, we present a framework developed in partnership with the Colombian Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development to reform existing mitigation regulatory processes.

  11. A Review of Offset Programs: Trading Systems, Funds, Protocols, Standards and Retailers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kollmuss, Anja; Lazarus, Michael; Lee, Carrie; Polycarp, Clifford

    2008-11-15

    Carbon or greenhouse gas (GHG) offsets have long been promoted as an important element of a comprehensive climate policy approach. Offset programs can reduce the overall cost of achieving a given emission goal by enabling emission reductions to occur where costs are lower. Furthermore, offsets have the potential to deliver sustainability co-benefits, spurred through technology development and transfer, and to develop human and institutional capacity for reducing emissions in sectors and locations not included in a cap and trade or a mandatory government policy. However, offsets can pose a risk to the environmental integrity of climate actions, especially if issues surrounding additionality, permanence, leakage, quantification and verification are not adequately addressed. The challenge for policymakers is clear: to design offset programs and policies that can maximize their potential benefits while minimizing their potential risks. The goal of this review is to provide an up-to-date analysis and synthesis of the most influential offset programs and activities, to reflect on lessons learned, and thus to inform participants and designers of current and future offset programs. Our intention is to periodically update this review to stay abreast of ongoing developments, and to develop a website portal to make this information more accessible. This version targets programs that meet one or more of the following criteria: - a significant volume of credit transactions occurring or anticipated; - an established set of rules or protocols - path-breaking, novel or otherwise notable initiatives or important lessons learned

  12. An Analysis of Second-Tier Arms Producing Countries' Offset Policies: Technology Transfer and Defense Industrial Base Establishment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Confer, Brian S

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to determine if offsets are an effective means of second-tier countries acquiring technology and if offsets enhance their ability to establish and maintain an industrial...

  13. The offset-midpoint traveltime pyramid of P-waves in homogeneous orthorhombic media

    KAUST Repository

    Hao, Qi; Stovas, Alexey; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2016-01-01

    The offset-midpoint traveltime pyramid describes the diffraction traveltime of a point diffractor in homogeneous media. We have developed an analytic approximation for the P-wave offset-midpoint traveltime pyramid for homogeneous orthorhombic media. In this approximation, a perturbation method and the Shanks transform were implemented to derive the analytic expressions for the horizontal slowness components of P-waves in orthorhombic media. Numerical examples were shown to analyze the proposed traveltime pyramid formula and determined its accuracy and the application in calculating migration isochrones and reflection traveltime. The proposed offset-midpoint traveltime formula is useful for Kirchhoff prestack time migration and migration velocity analysis for orthorhombic media.

  14. The offset-midpoint traveltime pyramid of P-waves in homogeneous orthorhombic media

    KAUST Repository

    Hao, Qi

    2016-07-18

    The offset-midpoint traveltime pyramid describes the diffraction traveltime of a point diffractor in homogeneous media. We have developed an analytic approximation for the P-wave offset-midpoint traveltime pyramid for homogeneous orthorhombic media. In this approximation, a perturbation method and the Shanks transform were implemented to derive the analytic expressions for the horizontal slowness components of P-waves in orthorhombic media. Numerical examples were shown to analyze the proposed traveltime pyramid formula and determined its accuracy and the application in calculating migration isochrones and reflection traveltime. The proposed offset-midpoint traveltime formula is useful for Kirchhoff prestack time migration and migration velocity analysis for orthorhombic media.

  15. AN EXTREME ANALOGUE OF ϵ AURIGAE: AN M-GIANT ECLIPSED EVERY 69 YEARS BY A LARGE OPAQUE DISK SURROUNDING A SMALL HOT SOURCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, Joseph E.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Lund, Michael B.; Conroy, Kyle E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, 6301 Stevenson Center, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Siverd, Robert J. [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, 6740 Cortona Drive, Suite 102, Santa Barbara, CA 93117 (United States); Pepper, Joshua [Department of Physics, Lehigh University, 16 Memorial Drive East, Bethlehem, PA 18015 (United States); Tang, Sumin [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kafka, Stella [American Association of Variable Star Observers, 49 Bay State Road, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Gaudi, B. Scott; Stevens, Daniel J.; Kochanek, Christopher S. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Beatty, Thomas G. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Shappee, Benjamin J. [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)

    2016-05-01

    We present TYC 2505-672-1 as a newly discovered and remarkable eclipsing system comprising an M-type red giant that undergoes a ∼3.45 year long, near-total eclipse (depth of ∼4.5 mag) with a very long period of ∼69.1 years. TYC 2505-672-1 is now the longest-period eclipsing binary system yet discovered, more than twice as long as that of the currently longest-period system, ϵ Aurigae. We show from analysis of the light curve including both our own data and historical data spanning more than 120 years and from modeling of the spectral energy distribution, both before and during eclipse, that the red giant primary is orbited by a moderately hot source ( T {sub eff} ≈ 8000 K) that is itself surrounded by an extended, opaque circumstellar disk. From the measured ratio of luminosities, the radius of the hot companion must be in the range of 0.1–0.5 R {sub ⊙} (depending on the assumed radius of the red giant primary), which is an order of magnitude smaller than that for a main sequence A star and 1–2 orders of magnitude larger than that for a white dwarf. The companion is therefore most likely a “stripped red giant” subdwarf-B type star destined to become a He white dwarf. It is, however, somewhat cooler than most sdB stars, implying a very low mass for this “pre-He-WD” star. The opaque disk surrounding this hot source may be a remnant of the stripping of its former hydrogen envelope. However, it is puzzling how this object became stripped, given that it is at present so distant (orbital semimajor axis of ∼24 au) from the current red giant primary star. Extrapolating from our calculated ephemeris, the next eclipse should begin in early UT 2080 April and end in mid UT 2083 September (eclipse center UT 2081 December 24). In the meantime, radial velocity observations would establish the masses of the components, and high-cadence UV observations could potentially reveal oscillations of the hot companion that would further constrain its evolutionary

  16. 76 FR 5070 - Offset of Tax Refund Payments To Collect Delinquent State Unemployment Compensation Debts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... Payments To Collect Delinquent State Unemployment Compensation Debts AGENCY: Financial Management Service... (referred to as ``tax refund offset'') to collect delinquent State unemployment compensation debts. The Department of the Treasury (Treasury) will incorporate the procedures necessary to collect State unemployment...

  17. An offset cancellation technique in a switched-capacitor comparator for SAR ADCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong Xingyuan; Zhu Zhangming; Yang Yintang

    2012-01-01

    An offset cancellation technique for a SAR (successive approximation register) ADC switched-capacitor comparator is described. The comparator is designed with a pre-amplifying and regenerative latching structure and realized in 0.18 μm CMOS. With the first stage preamplifier offset cancellation and low offset regenerative latching approach, the equivalent offset of the comparator is reduced to < 0.55 mV. By using the pre-amplifying and regenerative latching comparison mode the comparator exhibits low power dissipation. Under a 1.8 V power supply, with a 200 kS/s ADC sampling rate and 3 MHz clock frequency, a 13-bit comparison resolution is reached and less than 0.09 mW power dissipation is consumed. The superiority of this comparator is discussed and proved by the post-simulation and application to a 10 bit 200 kS/s touch screen SAR A/D converter. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  18. Pair Cascades and Deathlines in Magnetic Fields with Offset Polar Caps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Alice K.; Muslimov, Alex G.

    2012-01-01

    We present results of electron-positron pair cascade simulations in a dipole magnetic field whose polar cap is offset from the dipole axis. In such a field geometry, the polar cap is displaced a small fraction of the neutron star radius from the star symmetry axis and the field line radius of curvature is modified. Using the modified parallel electric field near the offset polar cap, we simulate pair cascades to determine the pair deathlines and pair multiplicities as a function of the offset. We find that the pair multiplicity can change dr;unatically with a modest offset, with a significant increase on one side of the polar cap. Lower pair deathlines allow a larger fraction of the pulsar population, that include old and millisecond pulsars, to produce cascades with high multiplicity. The results have some important implications for pulsar particle production, high-energy emission and cosmic-ray contribution.

  19. Dynamics analysis of microsphere in a dual-beam fiber-optic trap with transverse offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinlin; Xiao, Guangzong; Luo, Hui; Xiong, Wei; Yang, Kaiyong

    2016-04-04

    A comprehensive dynamics analysis of microsphere has been presented in a dual-beam fiber-optic trap with transverse offset. As the offset distance between two counterpropagating beams increases, the motion type of the microsphere starts with capture, then spiral motion, then orbital rotation, and ends with escape. We analyze the transformation process and mechanism of the four motion types based on ray optics approximation. Dynamic simulations show that the existence of critical offset distances at which different motion types transform. The result is an important step toward explaining physical phenomena in a dual-beam fiber-optic trap with transverse offset, and is generally applicable to achieving controllable motions of microspheres in integrated systems, such as microfluidic systems and lab-on-a-chip systems.

  20. Lente intra-ocular opaca em diplopia intratável: relato de caso Opaque intraocular lens in intractable diplopia: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Teixeira Krieger

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Diplopia intratável tem sido descrita em várias situações. Métodos convencionais como prismas e correção cirúrgica do estrabismo falham em neutralizá-la. O objetivo do trabalho é documentar o caso de uma paciente com estrabismo de longa data, cuja diplopia deteriorou-se ao longo dos anos, e não foi possível resolução com cirurgia, prisma, e oclusão com óculos e lente de contato com pupila opaca. A paciente foi então submetida à facoemulsificação com implante de lente intra-ocular opaca que atingiu o objetivo desejado.Intractable diplopia has been described in many situations but poor results are the rule with standard treatment modalities. The authors report a case of a woman with long-standing strabismus and diplopia who failed to improve following surgery, prism, and occlusive spectacles or contact lenses. Then, she was submitted to phacoemulsification and opaque intraocular lens implantation, which successfully neutralized diplopia.

  1. Numerical Modelling for the Thermal Performance Assessment of a Semi-Opaque Façade with a Multilayer of Nano-Structured and Phase Change Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Balocco

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our present study was to assess and compare the thermo-physical and energy behaviour of different integrated building façades, using a multi-physics simulation approach. Advanced integrated façades composed of opaque modules, one of them with a phase change materials (PCM layer, the others with multilayer panels, combined with transparent ones, consisting of nano-structured materials and new-generation photovoltaic systems, were investigated. A multi-physics approach was used for the design optimization of the studied components and evaluation of their thermo-physical and heat transfer performance. In particular, computational fluid dynamics (CFD multi-physics transient simulations were performed to assess air temperature and velocity fields inside the ventilated cavities. Analysis of heat and mass exchange through all the components was assessed during heating and cooling mode of a reference building. The typical Mediterranean climate was considered. Results comparison allowed the dynamic heat transfer evaluation of the multilayer façades as a function of variable climatic conditions, and their flexibility and adaptability exploitation, when different energy strategies are pursued. The multi-physics modelling approach used, proved to be a strong tool for the energy design optimization and energy sustainability evaluation of different advance materials and building components.

  2. Combining landscape-level conservation planning and biodiversity offset programs: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Jared G

    2011-01-01

    Habitat loss is a major factor in the endangerment and extinction of species around the world. One promising strategy to balance continued habitat loss and biodiversity conservation is that of biodiversity offsets. However, a major concern with offset programs is their consistency with landscape-level conservation goals. While merging offset policies and landscape-level conservation planning is thought to provide advantages over a traditional disconnected approach, few such landscape-level conservation-offset plans have been designed and implemented, so the effectiveness of such a strategy remains uncertain. In this study, we quantitatively assess the conservation impact of combining landscape-level conservation planning and biodiversity offset programs by comparing regions of San Diego County, USA with the combined approach to regions with only an offset program. This comparison is generally very difficult due to a variety of complicating factors. We overcome these complications and quantify the benefits to rare and threatened species of implementing a combined approach by assessing the amount of each species' predicted distribution, and the number of documented locations, conserved in comparison to the same metric for areas with an offset policy alone. We found that adoption of the combined approach has increased conservation for many rare species, often 5-10 times more than in the comparison area, and that conservation has been focused in the areas most important for these species. The level of conservation achieved reduces uncertainty that these species will persist in the region into the future. This San Diego County example demonstrates the potential benefits of combining landscape-level conservation planning and biodiversity offset programs.

  3. Mono-Exponential Fitting in T2-Relaxometry: Relevance of Offset and First Echo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Milford

    Full Text Available T2 relaxometry has become an important tool in quantitative MRI. Little focus has been put on the effect of the refocusing flip angle upon the offset parameter, which was introduced to account for a signal floor due to noise or to long T2 components. The aim of this study was to show that B1 imperfections contribute significantly to the offset. We further introduce a simple method to reduce the systematic error in T2 by discarding the first echo and using the offset fitting approach.Signal curves of T2 relaxometry were simulated based on extended phase graph theory and evaluated for 4 different methods (inclusion and exclusion of the first echo, while fitting with and without the offset. We further performed T2 relaxometry in a phantom at 9.4T magnetic resonance imaging scanner and used the same methods for post-processing as in the extended phase graph simulated data. Single spin echo sequences were used to determine the correct T2 time.The simulation data showed that the systematic error in T2 and the offset depends on the refocusing pulse, the echo spacing and the echo train length. The systematic error could be reduced by discarding the first echo. Further reduction of the systematic T2 error was reached by using the offset as fitting parameter. The phantom experiments confirmed these findings.The fitted offset parameter in T2 relaxometry is influenced by imperfect refocusing pulses. Using the offset as a fitting parameter and discarding the first echo is a fast and easy method to minimize the error in T2, particularly for low to intermediate echo train length.

  4. On determining fluxgate magnetometer spin axis offsets from mirror mode observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaschke, Ferdinand; Narita, Yasuhito

    2016-09-01

    In-flight calibration of fluxgate magnetometers that are mounted on spacecraft involves finding their outputs in vanishing ambient fields, the so-called magnetometer offsets. If the spacecraft is spin-stabilized, then the spin plane components of these offsets can be relatively easily determined, as they modify the spin tone content in the de-spun magnetic field data. The spin axis offset, however, is more difficult to determine. Therefore, usually Alfvénic fluctuations in the solar wind are used. We propose a novel method to determine the spin axis offset: the mirror mode method. The method is based on the assumption that mirror mode fluctuations are nearly compressible such that the maximum variance direction is aligned to the mean magnetic field. Mirror mode fluctuations are typically found in the Earth's magnetosheath region. We introduce the method and provide a first estimate of its accuracy based on magnetosheath observations by the THEMIS-C spacecraft. We find that 20 h of magnetosheath measurements may already be sufficient to obtain high-accuracy spin axis offsets with uncertainties on the order of a few tenths of a nanotesla, if offset stability can be assumed.

  5. On determining fluxgate magnetometer spin axis offsets from mirror mode observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Plaschke

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In-flight calibration of fluxgate magnetometers that are mounted on spacecraft involves finding their outputs in vanishing ambient fields, the so-called magnetometer offsets. If the spacecraft is spin-stabilized, then the spin plane components of these offsets can be relatively easily determined, as they modify the spin tone content in the de-spun magnetic field data. The spin axis offset, however, is more difficult to determine. Therefore, usually Alfvénic fluctuations in the solar wind are used. We propose a novel method to determine the spin axis offset: the mirror mode method. The method is based on the assumption that mirror mode fluctuations are nearly compressible such that the maximum variance direction is aligned to the mean magnetic field. Mirror mode fluctuations are typically found in the Earth's magnetosheath region. We introduce the method and provide a first estimate of its accuracy based on magnetosheath observations by the THEMIS-C spacecraft. We find that 20 h of magnetosheath measurements may already be sufficient to obtain high-accuracy spin axis offsets with uncertainties on the order of a few tenths of a nanotesla, if offset stability can be assumed.

  6. Coupling between core and cladding modes in a helical core fiber with large core offset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napiorkowski, Maciej; Urbanczyk, Waclaw

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed the effect of resonant coupling between core and cladding modes in a helical core fiber with large core offset using the fully vectorial method based on the transformation optics formalism. Our study revealed that the resonant couplings to lower order cladding modes predicted by perturbative methods and observed experimentally in fibers with small core offsets are in fact prohibited for larger core offsets. This effect is related to the lack of phase matching caused by elongation of the optical path of the fundamental modes in the helical core. Moreover, strong couplings to the cladding modes of the azimuthal modal number much higher than predicted by perturbative methods may be observed for large core offsets, as the core offset introduces higher order angular harmonics in the field distribution of the fundamental modes. Finally, in contrast to previous studies, we demonstrate the existence of spectrally broad polarization sensitive couplings to the cladding modes suggesting that helical core fibers with large core offsets may be used as broadband circular polarizers. (paper)

  7. Channel estimation in DFT-based offset-QAM OFDM systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jian

    2014-10-20

    Offset quadrature amplitude modulation (offset-QAM) orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) exhibits enhanced net data rates compared to conventional OFDM, and reduced complexity compared to Nyquist FDM (N-FDM). However, channel estimation in discrete-Fourier-transform (DFT) based offset-QAM OFDM is different from that in conventional OFDM and requires particular study. In this paper, we derive a closed-form expression for the demultiplexed signal in DFT-based offset-QAM systems and show that although the residual crosstalk is orthogonal to the decoded signal, its existence degrades the channel estimation performance when the conventional least-square method is applied. We propose and investigate four channel estimation algorithms for offset-QAM OFDM that vary in terms of performance, complexity, and tolerance to system parameters. It is theoretically and experimentally shown that simple channel estimation can be realized in offset-QAM OFDM with the achieved performance close to the theoretical limit. This, together with the existing advantages over conventional OFDM and N-FDM, makes this technology very promising for optical communication systems.

  8. Consultations on the design of a greenhouse gas offset system for Canada 2003 : Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-10-01

    A series of one-day consultation sessions were held from June 16 to 26, 2003 in 6 cities throughout Canada, hosted by the federal government's interdepartmental Working Group on Offsets (WGO). The consultations were held in an effort to: (1) disseminate information to the provinces, territories and stakeholders concerning options and process for the development of an offset system for greenhouse gases, (2) promote the exchange of ideas and discussion on the feasibility of an offset system, (3) gather initial feedback on design considerations, elements and options, and (4) provide advice to provinces and territories on ways to provide further input on the offset system design. The 295 people who attended the sessions represented industries considered to be potential buyers of offset credits, industries considered to be potential sellers of such credits, and other sectors such as consultants, traders, insurance and finance. In addition, academia and other stakeholders were present. This document provides a summary of the main messages that emerged from the discussions. The comments reflected the following notions: support for the concept was expressed; principles should be as open as possible; surplus eligibility criteria should be less restrictive; administrative issues should consider a third party for active government involvement; design issues; forestry issues; agriculture issues; landfill gas issues; regional issues; and, next steps. These comments will be considered during the development phase of a greenhouse gas offset system in Canada. tabs

  9. Band Offsets at the Interface between Crystalline and Amorphous Silicon from First Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarolimek, K.; Hazrati, E.; de Groot, R. A.; de Wijs, G. A.

    2017-07-01

    The band offsets between crystalline and hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a -Si ∶H ) are key parameters governing the charge transport in modern silicon heterojunction solar cells. They are an important input for macroscopic simulators that are used to further optimize the solar cell. Past experimental studies, using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and capacitance-voltage measurements, have yielded conflicting results on the band offset. Here, we present a computational study on the band offsets. It is based on atomistic models and density-functional theory (DFT). The amorphous part of the interface is obtained by relatively long DFT first-principles molecular-dynamics runs at an elevated temperature on 30 statistically independent samples. In order to obtain a realistic conduction-band position the electronic structure of the interface is calculated with a hybrid functional. We find a slight asymmetry in the band offsets, where the offset in the valence band (0.29 eV) is larger than in the conduction band (0.17 eV). Our results are in agreement with the latest XPS measurements that report a valence-band offset of 0.3 eV [M. Liebhaber et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 031601 (2015), 10.1063/1.4906195].

  10. Optimum energy levels and offsets for organic donor/acceptor binary photovoltaic materials and solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, S.-S.

    2005-01-01

    Optimum frontier orbital energy levels and offsets of an organic donor/acceptor binary type photovoltaic material have been analyzed using classic Marcus electron transfer theory in order to achieve the most efficient photo induced charge separation. This study reveals that, an exciton quenching parameter (EQP) yields one optimum donor/acceptor frontier orbital energy offset that equals the sum of the exciton binding energy and the charge separation reorganization energy, where the photo generated excitons are converted into charges most efficiently. A recombination quenching parameter (RQP) yields a second optimum donor/acceptor energy offset where the ratio of charge separation rate constant over charge recombination rate constant becomes largest. It is desirable that the maximum RQP is coincidence or close to the maximum EQP. A third energy offset is also identified where charge recombination becomes most severe. It is desirable that the most severe charge recombination offset is far away from maximum EQP offset. These findings are very critical for evaluating and fine tuning frontier orbital energy levels of a donor/acceptor pair in order to realize high efficiency organic photovoltaic materials

  11. Policy development for environmental licensing and biodiversity offsets in Latin America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Villarroya

    Full Text Available Attempts to meet biodiversity goals through application of the mitigation hierarchy have gained wide traction globally with increased development of public policy, lending standards, and corporate practices. With interest in biodiversity offsets increasing in Latin America, we seek to strengthen the basis for policy development through a review of major environmental licensing policy frameworks in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru and Venezuela. Here we focused our review on an examination of national level policies to evaluate to which degree current provisions promote positive environmental outcomes. All the surveyed countries have national-level Environmental Impact Assessment laws or regulations that cover the habitats present in their territories. Although most countries enable the use of offsets only Brazil, Colombia, Mexico and Peru explicitly require their implementation. Our review has shown that while advancing quite detailed offset policies, most countries do not seem to have strong requirements regarding impact avoidance. Despite this deficiency most countries have a strong foundation from which to develop policy for biodiversity offsets, but several issues require further guidance, including how best to: (1 ensure conformance with the mitigation hierarchy; (2 identify the most environmentally preferable offsets within a landscape context; (3 determine appropriate mitigation replacement ratios; and (4 ensure appropriate time and effort is given to monitor offset performance.

  12. Policy development for environmental licensing and biodiversity offsets in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarroya, Ana; Barros, Ana Cristina; Kiesecker, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Attempts to meet biodiversity goals through application of the mitigation hierarchy have gained wide traction globally with increased development of public policy, lending standards, and corporate practices. With interest in biodiversity offsets increasing in Latin America, we seek to strengthen the basis for policy development through a review of major environmental licensing policy frameworks in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru and Venezuela. Here we focused our review on an examination of national level policies to evaluate to which degree current provisions promote positive environmental outcomes. All the surveyed countries have national-level Environmental Impact Assessment laws or regulations that cover the habitats present in their territories. Although most countries enable the use of offsets only Brazil, Colombia, Mexico and Peru explicitly require their implementation. Our review has shown that while advancing quite detailed offset policies, most countries do not seem to have strong requirements regarding impact avoidance. Despite this deficiency most countries have a strong foundation from which to develop policy for biodiversity offsets, but several issues require further guidance, including how best to: (1) ensure conformance with the mitigation hierarchy; (2) identify the most environmentally preferable offsets within a landscape context; (3) determine appropriate mitigation replacement ratios; and (4) ensure appropriate time and effort is given to monitor offset performance.

  13. THE NATURE OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI WITH VELOCITY OFFSET EMISSION LINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Müller-Sánchez, F.; Comerford, J. [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Stern, D. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Harrison, F. A. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2016-10-10

    We obtained Keck/OSIRIS near-IR adaptive optics-assisted integral-field spectroscopy to probe the morphology and kinematics of the ionized gas in four velocity-offset active galactic nuclei (AGNs) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. These objects possess optical emission lines that are offset in velocity from systemic as measured from stellar absorption features. At a resolution of ∼0.″18, OSIRIS allows us to distinguish which velocity offset emission lines are produced by the motion of an AGN in a dual supermassive black hole system, and which are produced by outflows or other kinematic structures. In three galaxies, J1018+2941, J1055+1520, and J1346+5228, the spectral offset of the emission lines is caused by AGN-driven outflows. In the remaining galaxy, J1117+6140, a counterrotating nuclear disk is observed that contains the peak of Pa α emission 0.″2 from the center of the galaxy. The most plausible explanation for the origin of this spatially and kinematically offset peak is that it is a region of enhanced Pa α emission located at the intersection zone between the nuclear disk and the bar of the galaxy. In all four objects, the peak of ionized gas emission is not spatially coincident with the center of the galaxy as traced by the peak of the near-IR continuum emission. The peaks of ionized gas emission are spatially offset from the galaxy centers by 0.″1–0.″4 (0.1–0.7 kpc). We find that the velocity offset originates at the location of this peak of emission, and the value of the offset can be directly measured in the velocity maps. The emission-line ratios of these four velocity-offset AGNs can be reproduced only with a mixture of shocks and AGN photoionization. Shocks provide a natural explanation for the origin of the spatially and spectrally offset peaks of ionized gas emission in these galaxies.

  14. The Sweet and the Bitter: Intertwined Positive and Negative Social Impacts of a Biodiversity Offset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Bidaud

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Major developments, such as mines, will often have unavoidable environmental impacts. In such cases, investors, governments, or even a company's own standards increasingly require implementation of biodiversity offsets (investment in conservation with a measurable outcome with the aim of achieving 'no net loss' or even a 'net gain' of biodiversity. Where conservation is achieved by changing the behaviour of people directly using natural resources, the offset might be expected to have social impacts but such impacts have received very little attention. Using the case study of Ambatovy, a major nickel mine in the eastern rainforests of Madagascar and a company at the vanguard of developing biodiversity offsets, we explore local perceptions of the magnitude and distribution of impacts of the biodiversity offset project on local wellbeing. We used both qualitative (key informant interviews and focus group discussions and quantitative (household survey methods. We found that the biodiversity offsets, which comprise both conservation restrictions and development activities, influenced wellbeing in a mixture of positive and negative ways. However, overall, respondents felt that they had suffered a net cost from the biodiversity offset. It is a matter of concern that benefits from development activities do not compensate for the costs of the conservation restrictions, that those who bear the costs are not the same people as those who benefit, and that there is a mismatch in timing between the immediate restrictions and the associated development activities which take some time to deliver benefits. These issues matter both from the perspective of environmental justice, and for the long-term sustainability of the biodiversity benefits the offset is supposed to deliver.

  15. Determination of the Thermal Offset of the Eppley Precision Spectral Pyranometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeffelin, Martial; Kato, Seiji; Smith, Amie M.; Rutledge, C. Ken; Charlock, Thomas P.; Mahan, J. Robert

    2001-01-01

    Eppley's precision spectral pyranometer (PSP) is used in networks around the world to measure downwelling diffuse and global solar irradiance at the surface of the Earth. In recent years several studies have shown significant discrepancy between irradiances measured by pyranometers and those computed by atmospheric radiative transfer models. Pyranometer measurements have been questioned because observed diffuse irradiances sometimes are below theoretical minimum values for a pure molecular atmosphere, and at night the instruments often produce nonzero signals ranging between + 5 and - 10 W/sq m. We install thermistor sondes in the body of a PSP as well as on its inner dome to monitor the temperature gradients within the instrument, and we operate a pyrgeometer (PIR) instrument side by side with the PSP. We derive a relationship between the PSP output and thermal radiative exchange by the dome and the detector and a relationship between the PSP output and the PIR thermopile output (net-IR). We determine the true PSP offset by quickly capping the instrument at set time intervals. For a ventilated and shaded PSP, the thermal offset can reach - 15 W/sq m under clear skies, whereas it remains close to zero for low overcast clouds. We estimate the PSP thermal offset by two methods: (1) using the PSP temperatures and (2) using the PIR net-IR signal. The offset computed from the PSP temperatures yields a reliable estimate of the true offset (+/- 1 W/sq m). The offset computed from net-IR is consistent with the true offset at night and under overcast skies but predicts only part of the true range under clear skies.

  16. Validation of meter-scale surface faulting offset measurements from high-resolution topographic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, Barrett; Haddad, D.E.; Rockwell, T.K.; Arrowsmith, R.; Madugo, C.; Zielke, O.; Scharer, Katherine M.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of active fault zones have flourished with the availability of high-resolution topographic data, particularly where airborne light detection and ranging (lidar) and structure from motion (SfM) data sets provide a means to remotely analyze submeter-scale fault geomorphology. To determine surface offset at a point along a strike-slip earthquake rupture, geomorphic features (e.g., stream channels) are measured days to centuries after the event. Analysis of these and cumulatively offset features produces offset distributions for successive earthquakes that are used to understand earthquake rupture behavior. As researchers expand studies to more varied terrain types, climates, and vegetation regimes, there is an increasing need to standardize and uniformly validate measurements of tectonically displaced geomorphic features. A recently compiled catalog of nearly 5000 earthquake offsets across a range of measurement and reporting styles provides insight into quality rating and uncertainty trends from which we formulate best-practice and reporting recommendations for remote studies. In addition, a series of public and beginner-level studies validate the remote methodology for a number of tools and emphasize considerations to enhance measurement accuracy and precision for beginners and professionals. Our investigation revealed that (1) standardizing remote measurement methods and reporting quality rating schemes is essential for the utility and repeatability of fault-offset measurements; (2) measurement discrepancies often involve misinterpretation of the offset geomorphic feature and are a function of the investigator’s experience; (3) comparison of measurements made by a single investigator in different climatic regions reveals systematic differences in measurement uncertainties attributable to variation in feature preservation; (4) measuring more components of a displaced geomorphic landform produces more consistently repeatable estimates of offset; and (5

  17. How sensitive is the deltoid moment arm to humeral offset changes with reverse total shoulder arthroplasty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, David R; Kinney, Allison L; Wright, Thomas W; Banks, Scott A

    2016-06-01

    Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty commonly treats cuff-deficient or osteoarthritic shoulders not amenable to rotator cuff repair. This study investigates deltoid moment arm sensitivity to variations in the joint center and humeral offset of 3 representative reverse total shoulder arthroplasty subjects. We hypothesized that a superior joint implant placement may exist, indicated by muscle moment arms, compared with the current actual surgical implant configuration. Moment arms for the anterior, lateral, and posterior aspects of the deltoid muscle were determined for 1521 perturbations of the humeral offset location away from the surgical placement in a subject-specific musculoskeletal model with motion defined by subject-specific in vivo abduction kinematics. The humeral offset was varied from its surgical position ±4 mm in the anterior/posterior direction, ±12 mm in the medial/lateral direction, and -10 to 14 mm in the superior/inferior direction. The anterior deltoid moment arm varied in humeral offset and center of rotation up to 20 mm, primarily in the medial/lateral and superior/inferior directions. The lateral deltoid moment arm varied in humeral offset up to 20 mm, primarily in the medial/lateral and anterior/posterior directions. The posterior deltoid moment arm varied up to 15 mm, primarily in early abduction, and was most sensitive to humeral offset changes in the superior/inferior direction. High variations in muscle moment arms were found for all 3 deltoid components, presenting an opportunity to dramatically change the deltoid moment arms through surgical placement of the reverse shoulder components and by varying the overall offset of the humerus. Basic Science Study; Computer Modeling. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Validation of meter-scale surface faulting offset measurements from high-resolution topographic data

    KAUST Repository

    Salisbury, J. Barrett

    2015-10-24

    Studies of active fault zones have flourished with the availability of high-resolution topographic data, particularly where airborne light detection and ranging (lidar) and structure from motion (SfM) data sets provide a means to remotely analyze submeter- scale fault geomorphology. To determine surface offset at a point along a strike-slip earthquake rupture, geomorphic features (e.g., stream channels) are measured days to centuries after the event. Analysis of these and cumulatively offset features produces offset distributions for successive earthquakes that are used to understand earthquake rupture behavior. As researchers expand studies to more varied terrain types, climates, and vegetation regimes, there is an increasing need to standardize and uniformly validate measurements of tectonically displaced geomorphic features. A recently compiled catalog of nearly 5000 earthquake offsets across a range of measurement and reporting styles provides insight into quality rating and uncertainty trends from which we formulate best-practice and reporting recommendations for remote studies. In addition, a series of public and beginner-level studies validate the remote methodology for a number of tools and emphasize considerations to enhance measurement accuracy and precision for beginners and professionals. Our investigation revealed that (1) standardizing remote measurement methods and reporting quality rating schemes is essential for the utility and repeatability of fault-offset measurements; (2) measurement discrepancies often involve misinterpretation of the offset geomorphic feature and are a function of the investigator\\'s experience; (3) comparison of measurements made by a single investigator in different climatic regions reveals systematic differences in measurement uncertainties attributable to variation in feature preservation; (4) measuring more components of a displaced geomorphic landform produces more consistently repeatable estimates of offset; and (5

  19. Kinematics of reflections in subsurface offset and angle-domain image gathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dafni, Raanan; Symes, William W.

    2018-05-01

    Seismic migration in the angle-domain generates multiple images of the earth's interior in which reflection takes place at different scattering-angles. Mechanically, the angle-dependent reflection is restricted to happen instantaneously and at a fixed point in space: Incident wave hits a discontinuity in the subsurface media and instantly generates a scattered wave at the same common point of interaction. Alternatively, the angle-domain image may be associated with space-shift (regarded as subsurface offset) extended migration that artificially splits the reflection geometry. Meaning that, incident and scattered waves interact at some offset distance. The geometric differences between the two approaches amount to a contradictory angle-domain behaviour, and unlike kinematic description. We present a phase space depiction of migration methods extended by the peculiar subsurface offset split and stress its profound dissimilarity. In spite of being in radical contradiction with the general physics, the subsurface offset reveals a link to some valuable angle-domain quantities, via post-migration transformations. The angle quantities are indicated by the direction normal to the subsurface offset extended image. They specifically define the local dip and scattering angles if the velocity at the split reflection coordinates is the same for incident and scattered wave pairs. Otherwise, the reflector normal is not a bisector of the opening angle, but of the corresponding slowness vectors. This evidence, together with the distinguished geometry configuration, fundamentally differentiates the angle-domain decomposition based on the subsurface offset split from the conventional decomposition at a common reflection point. An asymptotic simulation of angle-domain moveout curves in layered media exposes the notion of split versus common reflection point geometry. Traveltime inversion methods that involve the subsurface offset extended migration must accommodate the split geometry

  20. Identification and characterization of finger millet OPAQUE2 transcription factor gene under different nitrogen inputs for understanding their role during accumulation of prolamin seed storage protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, Vikram Singh; Kumar, Lallan; Gupta, Supriya; Jaiswal, J P; Pandey, Dinesh; Kumar, Anil

    2018-03-01

    In this study, we report the isolation and characterization of the mRNA encoding OPAQUE2 (O2) like TF of finger millet (FM) ( Eleusine coracana) ( EcO2 ). Full-length EcO2 mRNA was isolated using conserved primers designed by aligning O2 mRNAs of different cereals followed by 3' and 5' RACE (Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends). The assembled full-length EcO2 mRNA was found to contain an ORF of 1248-nt coding the 416 amino acids O2 protein. Domain analysis revealed the presence of the BLZ and bZIP-C domains which is a characteristic feature of O2 proteins. Phylogenetic analysis of EcO2 protein with other bZIP proteins identified using finger millet transcriptome data and O2 proteins of other cereals showed that EcO2 shared high sequence similarity with barley BLZ1 protein. Transcripts of EcO2 were detected in root, stem, leaves, and seed development stages. Furthermore, to investigate nitrogen responsiveness and the role of EcO2 in regulating seed storage protein gene expression, the expression profiles of EcO2 along with an α-prolamin gene were studied during the seed development stages of two FM genotypes (GE-3885 and GE-1437) differing in grain protein content (13.8 and 6.2%, respectively) grown under increasing nitrogen inputs. Compared to GE-1437, the EcO2 was relatively highly expressed during the S2 stage of seed development which further increased as nitrogen input was increased. The Ecα - prolamin gene was strongly induced in the high protein genotype (GE-3885) at all nitrogen inputs. These results indicate the presence of nitrogen responsiveness regulatory elements which might play an important role in accumulating protein in FM genotypes through modulating EcO2 expression by sensing plant nitrogen status.

  1. A daytime climatological distribution of high opaque ice cloud classes over the Indian summer monsoon region observed from 25-year AVHRR data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Devasthale

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A daytime climatological spatio-temporal distribution of high opaque ice cloud (HOIC classes over the Indian subcontinent (0–40° N, 60° E–100° E is presented using 25-year data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers (AVHRRs for the summer monsoon months. The HOICs are important for regional radiative balance, precipitation and troposphere-stratosphere exchange. In this study, HOICs are sub-divided into three classes based on their cloud top brightness temperatures (BT. Class I represents very deep convection (BT<220 K. Class II represents deep convection (220 K<=BT<233 K and Class III background convection (233 K<=BT<253 K. Apart from presenting finest spatial resolution (0.1×0.1 degrees and long-term climatology of such cloud classes from AVHRRs to date, this study for the first time illustrates on (1 how these three cloud classes are climatologically distributed during monsoon months, and (2 how their distribution changes during active and break monsoon conditions. It is also investigated that how many deep convective clouds reach the tropopause layer during individual monsoon months. It is seen that Class I and Class II clouds dominate the Indian subcontinent during monsoon. The movement of monsoon over continent is very well reflected in these cloud classes. During monsoon breaks strong suppression of convective activity is observed over the Arabian Sea and the western coast of India. On the other hand, the presence of such convective activity is crucial for active monsoon conditions and all-India rainfall. It is found that a significant fraction of HOICs (3–5% reach the tropopause layer over the Bay of Bengal during June and over the north and northeast India during July and August. Many cases are observed when clouds penetrate the tropopause layer and reach the lower stratosphere. Such cases mostly occur during June compared to the other months.

  2. Comparison of Shear Shredder with Hammermill for Size Reduction of Navy Solid Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-03-01

    IVY CASE) IS. $1,249,650 $1,002,420 11" MAJOR EQUIPMENT ,EPL-..EMENT COST $ $737,660 $499,100 144 115 KAXINL’ PRACTICAL PROJECT LIfE YEARS 20 20 116...DC DEFFUELSUPPCEN DFSC-OWE, Alexandria VA DLSIE Army Logistics Mgt Center, Fort Lee . VA DOE Whid’Ocean Tech Div. Tobacco. ’AD ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECHION...UNIVERSITY W.B. Ledbetter . College Station. TX UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA Energy Engineer, Davis CA; Prof E.A. Pearson. Berkeley, CA; CE Dept (Mitchell

  3. Carbon Offsets in California: What Role for Earth Scientists in the Policy Process? (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullenward, D.; Strong, A. L.

    2013-12-01

    This talk addresses the policy structure in California for developing and approving carbon offset protocols, which rely on findings from the environmental and earth sciences communities. In addition to providing an overview of the legal requirements of carbon offsets, we describe a series of case studies of how scientists can engage with policymakers. Based on those experiences, we suggest ways for the earth sciences community to become more involved in climate policy development. California's climate law, known as AB 32, requires that major sectors of the state's economy reduce their emissions to 1990 levels by 2020. As part of AB 32, the California Air Resources Board created a cap-and-trade market to ensure compliance with the statutory target. Under this system, regulated companies have to acquire tradable emissions permits (called 'compliance instruments') for the greenhouse gas emissions they release. The State allocates a certain number of allowances to regulated entities through a mixture of auctions and free transfers, with the total number equal to the overall emissions target; these allowances, along with approved offsets credits, are the compliance instruments that regulated entities are required to obtain by law. One of the key policy design issues in California's cap-and-trade market concerns the use of carbon offsets. Under AB 32, the Air Resources Board can issue offset credits to project developers who reduce emissions outside of the capped sectors (electricity, industry, and transportation)--or even outside of California--pursuant to approved offset protocols. Project developers then sell the credits to regulated companies in California. Essentially, offsets allow regulated entities in California to earn credit for emissions reductions that take place outside the scope of AB 32. Many regulated entities and economists are in favor of offsets because they view them as a source of low-cost compliance instruments. On the other hand, critics argue that

  4. SU-E-J-259: Quantification of Rotational Localization Offset in Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Y; Nguyen, N; Lee, S; Liu, F

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To verify the necessity of 6D localization detection and correction in radiation therapy. Methods: An anthropomorphic head and neck phantom was used to test the BrainLab ExacTrac x-ray imaging system. After initial positioning, both ExacTrac and the on-board kV CBCT were used to detect the offset at the same position, using both manual and automatic registration algorithms. Then 6D offset including rotational errors up to 5 degree were introduced. Both ExacTrac and CBCT were used to correct the offsets and the residual errors were evaluated. Finally, 6D offset detected by ExacTrac for a C-Spine patient was reported. Results: The differences in 3D offset detected by ExacTrac and CBCT were 1.5 ± 1.2(Lateral), 2.7 ± 2.7(Vertical), and 4.0 ± 6.3(longitudinal) mm with manual registration while the corresponding differences decreased to 0.6 ± 0.3, 1.0 ± 0.3, and 0.3 ± 0.3 when automatic registration were used. CBCT corrected the translational offset to within 0.5 mm but the rotational errors remained and detected by the ExacTrac system (Yaw=2.1, Roll=1.1, Pitch=1.4 degree). When similar offset was introduced and corrected using ExacTrac, the residual error detected by both CBCT and ExacTrac were within 0.5 mm / 0.5 degree. The average offset from the 112 ExacTrac x-ray corrections for the C-Spine patient was 0.6 ± 1.6 (lateral), 5.4 ± 8(vertical), 1.6±1.1(longitudinal) mm, and 0.7 ± 0.6 (pitch), 0.7 ± 0.4(roll), 1.2 ± 0.7 (yaw) degree. Larger rotational errors, with a maximum of 2.7 degree (corresponds to about 1.5 to 4.5 mm offset for a POI 10 to 30 cm away from the isocenter), were observed when couch rotational were involved. Conclusion: Rotational errors are common in patient localization, especially when couch rotation is involved. Both appropriate imaging system and 6D robotic couch are necessary to detect and correct the rotational localization errors

  5. Accounting for no net loss: A critical assessment of biodiversity offsetting metrics and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreras Gamarra, Maria Jose; Lassoie, James Philip; Milder, Jeffrey

    2018-08-15

    Biodiversity offset strategies are based on the explicit calculation of both losses and gains necessary to establish ecological equivalence between impact and offset areas. Given the importance of quantifying biodiversity values, various accounting methods and metrics are continuously being developed and tested for this purpose. Considering the wide array of alternatives, selecting an appropriate one for a specific project can be not only challenging, but also crucial; accounting methods can strongly influence the biodiversity outcomes of an offsetting strategy, and if not well-suited to the context and values being offset, a no net loss outcome might not be delivered. To date there has been no systematic review or comparative classification of the available biodiversity accounting alternatives that aim at facilitating metric selection, and no tools that guide decision-makers throughout such a complex process. We fill this gap by developing a set of analyses to support (i) identifying the spectrum of available alternatives, (ii) understanding the characteristics of each and, ultimately (iii) making the most sensible and sound decision about which one to implement. The metric menu, scoring matrix, and decision tree developed can be used by biodiversity offsetting practitioners to help select an existing metric, and thus achieve successful outcomes that advance the goal of no net loss of biodiversity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Fluxgate magnetometer offset vector determination by the 3D mirror mode method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaschke, F.; Goetz, C.; Volwerk, M.; Richter, I.; Frühauff, D.; Narita, Y.; Glassmeier, K.-H.; Dougherty, M. K.

    2017-07-01

    Fluxgate magnetometers on-board spacecraft need to be regularly calibrated in flight. In low fields, the most important calibration parameters are the three offset vector components, which represent the magnetometer measurements in vanishing ambient magnetic fields. In case of three-axis stabilized spacecraft, a few methods exist to determine offsets: (I) by analysis of Alfvénic fluctuations present in the pristine interplanetary magnetic field, (II) by rolling the spacecraft around at least two axes, (III) by cross-calibration against measurements from electron drift instruments or absolute magnetometers, and (IV) by taking measurements in regions of well-known magnetic fields, e.g. cometary diamagnetic cavities. In this paper, we introduce a fifth option, the 3-dimensional (3D) mirror mode method, by which 3D offset vectors can be determined using magnetic field measurements of highly compressional waves, e.g. mirror modes in the Earth's magnetosheath. We test the method by applying it to magnetic field data measured by the following: the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms-C spacecraft in the terrestrial magnetosheath, the Cassini spacecraft in the Jovian magnetosheath and the Rosetta spacecraft in the vicinity of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. The tests reveal that the achievable offset accuracies depend on the ambient magnetic field strength (lower strength meaning higher accuracy), on the length of the underlying data interval (more data meaning higher accuracy) and on the stability of the offset that is to be determined.

  7. Using Vision System Technologies for Offset Approaches in Low Visibility Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Lynda J.; Bailey, Randall E.; Ellis, Kyle K.

    2015-01-01

    Flight deck-based vision systems, such as Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) and Enhanced Flight Vision Systems (EFVS), have the potential to provide additional margins of safety for aircrew performance and enable the implementation of operational improvements for low visibility surface, arrival, and departure operations in the terminal environment with equivalent efficiency to visual operations. Twelve air transport-rated crews participated in a motion-base simulation experiment to evaluate the use of SVS/EFVS in Next Generation Air Transportation System low visibility approach and landing operations at Chicago O'Hare airport. Three monochromatic, collimated head-up display (HUD) concepts (conventional HUD, SVS HUD, and EFVS HUD) and three instrument approach types (straight-in, 3-degree offset, 15-degree offset) were experimentally varied to test the efficacy of the SVS/EFVS HUD concepts for offset approach operations. The findings suggest making offset approaches in low visibility conditions with an EFVS HUD or SVS HUD appear feasible. Regardless of offset approach angle or HUD concept being flown, all approaches had comparable ILS tracking during the instrument segment and were within the lateral confines of the runway with acceptable sink rates during the visual segment of the approach. Keywords: Enhanced Flight Vision Systems; Synthetic Vision Systems; Head-up Display; NextGen

  8. Analysis of the production and transaction costs of forest carbon offset projects in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galik, Christopher S; Cooley, David M; Baker, Justin S

    2012-12-15

    Forest carbon offset project implementation costs, comprised of both production and transaction costs, could present an important barrier to private landowner participation in carbon offset markets. These costs likewise represent a largely undocumented component of forest carbon offset potential. Using a custom spreadsheet model and accounting tool, this study examines the implementation costs of different forest offset project types operating in different forest types under different accounting and sampling methodologies. Sensitivity results are summarized concisely through response surface regression analysis to illustrate the relative effect of project-specific variables on total implementation costs. Results suggest that transaction costs may represent a relatively small percentage of total project implementation costs - generally less than 25% of the total. Results also show that carbon accounting methods, specifically the method used to establish project baseline, may be among the most important factors in driving implementation costs on a per-ton-of-carbon-sequestered basis, dramatically increasing variability in both transaction and production costs. This suggests that accounting could be a large driver in the financial viability of forest offset projects, with transaction costs likely being of largest concern to those projects at the margin. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Echoic memory: investigation of its temporal resolution by auditory offset cortical responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishihara, Makoto; Inui, Koji; Morita, Tomoyo; Kodaira, Minori; Mochizuki, Hideki; Otsuru, Naofumi; Motomura, Eishi; Ushida, Takahiro; Kakigi, Ryusuke

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies showed that the amplitude and latency of the auditory offset cortical response depended on the history of the sound, which implicated the involvement of echoic memory in shaping a response. When a brief sound was repeated, the latency of the offset response depended precisely on the frequency of the repeat, indicating that the brain recognized the timing of the offset by using information on the repeat frequency stored in memory. In the present study, we investigated the temporal resolution of sensory storage by measuring auditory offset responses with magnetoencephalography (MEG). The offset of a train of clicks for 1 s elicited a clear magnetic response at approximately 60 ms (Off-P50m). The latency of Off-P50m depended on the inter-stimulus interval (ISI) of the click train, which was the longest at 40 ms (25 Hz) and became shorter with shorter ISIs (2.5∼20 ms). The correlation coefficient r2 for the peak latency and ISI was as high as 0.99, which suggested that sensory storage for the stimulation frequency accurately determined the Off-P50m latency. Statistical analysis revealed that the latency of all pairs, except for that between 200 and 400 Hz, was significantly different, indicating the very high temporal resolution of sensory storage at approximately 5 ms.

  10. Blind Estimation of the Phase and Carrier Frequency Offsets for LDPC-Coded Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houcke Sebastien

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We consider in this paper the problem of phase offset and Carrier Frequency Offset (CFO estimation for Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC coded systems. We propose new blind estimation techniques based on the calculation and minimization of functions of the Log-Likelihood Ratios (LLR of the syndrome elements obtained according to the parity check matrix of the error-correcting code. In the first part of this paper, we consider phase offset estimation for a Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK modulation and propose a novel estimation technique. Simulation results show that the proposed method is very effective and outperforms many existing algorithms. Then, we modify the estimation criterion so that it can work for higher-order modulations. One interesting feature of the proposed algorithm when applied to high-order modulations is that the phase offset of the channel can be blindly estimated without any ambiguity. In the second part of the paper, we consider the problem of CFO estimation and propose estimation techniques that are based on the same concept as the ones presented for the phase offset estimation. The Mean Squared Error (MSE and Bit Error Rate (BER curves show the efficiency of the proposed estimation techniques.

  11. Offset-Free Model Predictive Control of Open Water Channel Based on Moving Horizon Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekin Aydin, Boran; Rutten, Martine

    2016-04-01

    Model predictive control (MPC) is a powerful control option which is increasingly used by operational water managers for managing water systems. The explicit consideration of constraints and multi-objective management are important features of MPC. However, due to the water loss in open water systems by seepage, leakage and evaporation a mismatch between the model and the real system will be created. These mismatch affects the performance of MPC and creates an offset from the reference set point of the water level. We present model predictive control based on moving horizon estimation (MHE-MPC) to achieve offset free control of water level for open water canals. MHE-MPC uses the past predictions of the model and the past measurements of the system to estimate unknown disturbances and the offset in the controlled water level is systematically removed. We numerically tested MHE-MPC on an accurate hydro-dynamic model of the laboratory canal UPC-PAC located in Barcelona. In addition, we also used well known disturbance modeling offset free control scheme for the same test case. Simulation experiments on a single canal reach show that MHE-MPC outperforms disturbance modeling offset free control scheme.

  12. The potential for biodiversity offsetting to fund effective invasive species control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, David A; Warburton, Bruce

    2015-02-01

    Compensating for biodiversity losses in 1 location by conserving or restoring biodiversity elsewhere (i.e., biodiversity offsetting) is being used increasingly to compensate for biodiversity losses resulting from development. We considered whether a form of biodiversity offsetting, enhancement offsetting (i.e., enhancing the quality of degraded natural habitats through intensive ecological management), can realistically secure additional funding to control biological invaders at a scale and duration that results in enhanced biodiversity outcomes. We suggest that biodiversity offsetting has the potential to enhance biodiversity values through funding of invasive species control, but it needs to meet 7 key conditions: be technically possible to reduce invasive species to levels that enhance native biodiversity; be affordable; be sufficiently large to compensate for the impact; be adaptable to accommodate new strategic and tactical developments while not compromising biodiversity outcomes; acknowledge uncertainties associated with managing pests; be based on an explicit risk assessment that identifies the cost of not achieving target outcomes; and include financial mechanisms to provide for in-perpetuity funding. The challenge then for conservation practitioners, advocates, and policy makers is to develop frameworks that allow for durable and effective partnerships with developers to realize the full potential of enhancement offsets, which will require a shift away from traditional preservation-focused approaches to biodiversity management. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  13. The Synthesis of NiO/TiO2 Heterostructures and Their Valence Band Offset Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. H. Ibupoto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a heterojunction based on p-type NiO/n-type TiO2 nanostructures has been prepared on the fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO glass substrate by hydrothermal method. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-Ray diffraction techniques were used for the morphological and crystalline arrays characterization. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was employed to determine the valence-band offset (VBO of the NiO/TiO2 heterojunction prepared on FTO glass substrate. The core levels of Ni 2p and Ti 2p were utilized to align the valence-band offset of p-type NiO/n-type TiO2 heterojunction. The valence band offset was found to be ∼0.41 eV and the conduction band was calculated about ∼0.91 eV. The ratio of conduction band offset and the valence-band offset was found to be 2.21.

  14. Echoic memory: investigation of its temporal resolution by auditory offset cortical responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Nishihara

    Full Text Available Previous studies showed that the amplitude and latency of the auditory offset cortical response depended on the history of the sound, which implicated the involvement of echoic memory in shaping a response. When a brief sound was repeated, the latency of the offset response depended precisely on the frequency of the repeat, indicating that the brain recognized the timing of the offset by using information on the repeat frequency stored in memory. In the present study, we investigated the temporal resolution of sensory storage by measuring auditory offset responses with magnetoencephalography (MEG. The offset of a train of clicks for 1 s elicited a clear magnetic response at approximately 60 ms (Off-P50m. The latency of Off-P50m depended on the inter-stimulus interval (ISI of the click train, which was the longest at 40 ms (25 Hz and became shorter with shorter ISIs (2.5∼20 ms. The correlation coefficient r2 for the peak latency and ISI was as high as 0.99, which suggested that sensory storage for the stimulation frequency accurately determined the Off-P50m latency. Statistical analysis revealed that the latency of all pairs, except for that between 200 and 400 Hz, was significantly different, indicating the very high temporal resolution of sensory storage at approximately 5 ms.

  15. The effect of offset cues on saccade programming and covert attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Daniel T; Casteau, Soazig

    2018-02-01

    Salient peripheral events trigger fast, "exogenous" covert orienting. The influential premotor theory of attention argues that covert orienting of attention depends upon planned but unexecuted eye-movements. One problem with this theory is that salient peripheral events, such as offsets, appear to summon attention when used to measure covert attention (e.g., the Posner cueing task) but appear not to elicit oculomotor preparation in tasks that require overt orienting (e.g., the remote distractor paradigm). Here, we examined the effects of peripheral offsets on covert attention and saccade preparation. Experiment 1 suggested that transient offsets summoned attention in a manual detection task without triggering motor preparation planning in a saccadic localisation task, although there were a high proportion of saccadic capture errors on "no-target" trials, where a cue was presented but no target appeared. In Experiment 2, "no-target" trials were removed. Here, transient offsets produced both attentional facilitation and faster saccadic responses on valid cue trials. A third experiment showed that the permanent disappearance of an object also elicited attentional facilitation and faster saccadic reaction times. These experiments demonstrate that offsets trigger both saccade programming and covert attentional orienting, consistent with the idea that exogenous, covert orienting is tightly coupled with oculomotor activation. The finding that no-go trials attenuates oculomotor priming effects offers a way to reconcile the current findings with previous claims of a dissociation between covert attention and oculomotor control in paradigms that utilise a high proportion of catch trials.

  16. A Binary Offset Effect in CCD Readout and Its Impact on Astronomical Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, K.; Aldering, G.; Copin, Y.; Dixon, S.; Domagalski, R. S.; Gangler, E.; Pecontal, E.; Perlmutter, S.

    2018-06-01

    We have discovered an anomalous behavior of CCD readout electronics that affects their use in many astronomical applications. An offset in the digitization of the CCD output voltage that depends on the binary encoding of one pixel is added to pixels that are read out one, two, and/or three pixels later. One result of this effect is the introduction of a differential offset in the background when comparing regions with and without flux from science targets. Conventional data reduction methods do not correct for this offset. We find this effect in 16 of 22 instruments investigated, covering a variety of telescopes and many different front-end electronics systems. The affected instruments include LRIS and DEIMOS on the Keck telescopes, WFC3 UVIS and STIS on HST, MegaCam on CFHT, SNIFS on the UH88 telescope, GMOS on the Gemini telescopes, HSC on Subaru, and FORS on VLT. The amplitude of the introduced offset is up to 4.5 ADU per pixel, and it is not directly proportional to the measured ADU level. We have developed a model that can be used to detect this “binary offset effect” in data, and correct for it. Understanding how data are affected and applying a correction for the effect is essential for precise astronomical measurements.

  17. A novel analog/digital reconfigurable automatic gain control with a novel DC offset cancellation circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He Xiaofeng; Ye Tianchun [Institute of Microelectronics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100029 (China); Mo Taishan; Ma Chengyan, E-mail: hexiaofeng@casic.ac.cn [Hangzhou Zhongke Microelectronics Co, Ltd, Hangzhou 310053 (China)

    2011-02-15

    An analog/digital reconfigurable automatic gain control (AGC) circuit with a novel DC offset cancellation circuit for a direct-conversion receiver is presented. The AGC is analog/digital reconfigurable in order to be compatible with different baseband chips. What's more, a novel DC offset cancellation (DCOC) circuit with an HPCF (high pass cutoff frequency) less than 10 kHz is proposed. The AGC is fabricated by a 0.18 {mu}m CMOS process. Under analog control mode, the AGC achieves a 70 dB dynamic range with a 3 dB-bandwidth larger than 60 MHz. Under digital control mode, through a 5-bit digital control word, the AGC shows a 64 dB gain control range by 2 dB each step with a gain error of less than 0.3 dB. The DC offset cancellation circuits can suppress the output DC offset voltage to be less than 1.5 mV, while the offset voltage of 40 mV is introduced into the input. The overall power consumption is less than 3.5 mA, and the die area is 800 x 300 {mu}m{sup 2}. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  18. Barriers to the development of forest carbon offsetting: Insights from British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson St-Laurent, Guillaume; Hagerman, Shannon; Hoberg, George

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, the provision of economic incentives through carbon financing and carbon offsetting has been central to efforts at forest carbon mitigation. However, notwithstanding their potentially important roles in climate policy, forest carbon offsets face numerous barriers which have limited widespread implementation worldwide. This paper uses the case study of the Canadian province of British Columbia to explore the barriers associated with achieving widespread implementation of forest carbon offsets in the next several decades. Drawing on interviews with experts from government, non-governmental organizations, the private sector and First Nations, six main barriers are identified and discussed: (1) deficiencies of carbon markets, (2) limited economic benefits, (3) uncertain climate effectiveness, (4) negative public opinion, (5) limited and uncertain property rights, and (6) governance issues. While respondents from different sectors agreed on various points, divergence was also observed, notably on the trade-off between generating environmentally sound offsets and promoting cost-effective ways to achieve mitigation. We discuss these differences in the context of the goals and objectives of different actors, and offer insights for understanding the uptake (or not) of carbon offset policies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Joint channel/frequency offset estimation and correction for coherent optical FBMC/OQAM system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Daobin; Yuan, Lihua; Lei, Jingli; wu, Gang; Li, Suoping; Ding, Runqi; Wang, Dongye

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we focus on analysis of the preamble-based joint estimation for channel and laser-frequency offset (LFO) in coherent optical filter bank multicarrier systems with offset quadrature amplitude modulation (CO-FBMC/OQAM). In order to reduce the noise impact on the estimation accuracy, we proposed an estimation method based on inter-frame averaging. This method averages the cross-correlation function of real-valued pilots within multiple FBMC frames. The laser-frequency offset is estimated according to the phase of this average. After correcting LFO, the final channel response is also acquired by averaging channel estimation results within multiple frames. The principle of the proposed method is analyzed theoretically, and the preamble structure is thoroughly designed and optimized to suppress the impact of inherent imaginary interference (IMI). The effectiveness of our method is demonstrated numerically using different fiber and LFO values. The obtained results show that the proposed method can improve transmission performance significantly.

  20. The azimuth-dependent offset-midpoint traveltime pyramid in 3D HTI media

    KAUST Repository

    Hao, Qi

    2013-09-22

    Analytical representation of offset-midpoint traveltime equation is very important for pre-stack Kirchhoff migration and velocity inversion in anisotropic media. For VTI media, the offset-midpoint traveltime resembles the shape of Cheop\\'s pyramid. In this study, we extend the offset-midpoint traveltime pyramid to the case of 3D HTI media. We employ the stationary phase method to derive the analytical representation of traveltime equation, and then use Shanks transformation to improve the accuracy of horizontal and vertical slownesses. The traveltime pyramid is derived in both the depth- and time-domain. Numerical examples indicate that the azimuthal characteristics of both the traveltime pyramid and the migration isochrones are very obvious in HTI media due to the effect of anisotropy.

  1. An improved in situ measurement of offset phase shift towards quantitative damping-measurement with AFM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minary-Jolandan, Majid; Yu Minfeng

    2008-01-01

    An improved approach is introduced in damping measurement with atomic force microscope (AFM) for the in situ measurement of the offset phase shift needed for determining the intrinsic mechanical damping in nanoscale materials. The offset phase shift is defined and measured at a point of zero contact force according to the deflection part of the AFM force plot. It is shown that such defined offset phase shift is independent of the type of sample material, varied from hard to relatively soft materials in this study. This improved approach allows the self-calibrated and quantitative damping measurement with AFM. The ability of dynamic mechanical analysis for the measurement of damping in isolated one-dimensional nanostructures, e.g. individual multiwalled carbon nanotubes, was demonstrated

  2. Correction of elevation offsets in multiple co-located lidar datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David M.; Dalyander, P. Soupy; Long, Joseph W.; Plant, Nathaniel G.

    2017-04-07

    IntroductionTopographic elevation data collected with airborne light detection and ranging (lidar) can be used to analyze short- and long-term changes to beach and dune systems. Analysis of multiple lidar datasets at Dauphin Island, Alabama, revealed systematic, island-wide elevation differences on the order of 10s of centimeters (cm) that were not attributable to real-world change and, therefore, were likely to represent systematic sampling offsets. These offsets vary between the datasets, but appear spatially consistent within a given survey. This report describes a method that was developed to identify and correct offsets between lidar datasets collected over the same site at different times so that true elevation changes over time, associated with sediment accumulation or erosion, can be analyzed.

  3. Collision Resolution Scheme with Offset for Improved Performance of Heterogeneous WLAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Raksha; Vyavahare, Prakash D.; Tokekar, Sanjiv

    2016-03-01

    CSMA/CA based DCF of 802.11 MAC layer employs best effort delivery model, in which all stations compete for channel access with same priority. Heterogeneous conditions result in unfairness among stations and degradation in throughput, therefore, providing different priorities to different applications for required quality of service in heterogeneous networks is challenging task. This paper proposes a collision resolution scheme with a novel concept of introducing offset, which is suitable for heterogeneous networks. Selection of random value by a station for its contention with offset results in reduced probability of collision. Expression for the optimum value of the offset is also derived. Results show that proposed scheme, when applied to heterogeneous networks, has improved throughput and fairness than conventional scheme. Results show that proposed scheme also exhibits higher throughput and fairness with reduced delay in homogeneous networks.

  4. A high speed low power low offset dynamic comparator used in SHA-less pipelined ADC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubin, Liu; Zhangming, Zhu; Yintang, Yang; Lianxi, Liu

    2014-05-01

    A novel fully differential high speed high resolution low offset CMOS dynamic comparator has been implemented in the SMIC 0.18 μm process used for a sample-and-hold amplifier (SHA)-less pipelined analog-to-digital converters (ADC). Based on the analysis and optimization between delay time and offset, an enhanced reset architecture with transmission gate was introduced to speed up the comparison and reset procedure. Four inputs with two cross coupled differential pairs, reconstituted bias circuit for tail current transistor and common centroid layouts make the comparator more robust against mismatch and process variations. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed design achieves 1 mV sensitivity at 2.2 GHz sampling rate with a power consumption of 510 μW, while the mean offset voltage is equal to 10.244 mV.

  5. 31 CFR 5.20 - How do other Federal agencies use the offset process to collect debts from payments issued by a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... a debtor by the Treasury entity, including salary payments issued to Treasury entity employees. This... (including salary offset); certification. A Treasury entity will initiate a requested offset only upon... satisfaction of the creditor agency. (c) Where a creditor agency makes requests for offset. Requests for offset...

  6. Dosimetric effects of rotational offsets in stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yun; Catalano, Suzanne; Kelsey, Chris R.; Yoo, David S.; Yin, Fang-Fang; Cai, Jing

    2014-01-01

    To quantitatively evaluate dosimetric effects of rotational offsets in stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for lung cancer. Overall, 11 lung SBRT patients (8 female and 3 male; mean age: 75.0 years) with medially located tumors were included. Treatment plans with simulated rotational offsets of 1°, 3°, and 5° in roll, yaw, and pitch were generated and compared with the original plans. Both clockwise and counterclockwise rotations were investigated. The following dosimetric metrics were quantitatively evaluated: planning target volume coverage (PTV V 100% ), max PTV dose (PTV D max ), percentage prescription dose to 0.35 cc of cord (cord D 0.35 cc ), percentage prescription dose to 0.35 cc and 5 cc of esophagus (esophagus D 0.35 cc and D 5 cc ), and volume of the lungs receiving at least 20 Gy (lung V 20 ). Statistical significance was tested using Wilcoxon signed rank test at the significance level of 0.05. Overall, small differences were found in all dosimetric matrices at all rotational offsets: 95.6% of differences were 100% , PTV D max , cord D 0.35 cc , esophagus D 0.35 cc , esophagus D 5 cc , and lung V 20 was − 8.36%, − 6.06%, 11.96%, 8.66%, 6.02%, and − 0.69%, respectively. No significant correlation was found between any dosimetric change and tumor-to-cord/esophagus distances (R 2 range: 0 to 0.44). Larger dosimetric changes and intersubject variations were observed at larger rotational offsets. Small dosimetric differences were found owing to rotational offsets up to 5° in lung SBRT for medially located tumors. Larger intersubject variations were observed at larger rotational offsets

  7. Point Climat no. 11 'Japan's Bilateral Offset Crediting Mechanism: A Bilateral Solution to a Global Issue?'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, Hanh; Delbosc, Anais

    2012-01-01

    Among the publications of CDC Climat Research, 'Climate Briefs' presents, in a few pages, hot topics in climate change policy. This issue addresses the following points: In order to achieve its long-term emission reduction target following the Fukushima incident, Japan would rely more heavily on international offsetting activities. Concurrent to vigorous proposals to reform the CDM, Japan is also promoting an offset crediting scheme through bilateral agreements with developing countries as a post-2012 market mechanism. Despite potential benefits, issues relating to the accounting rules, environmental integrity and implications to carbon markets warrant further consideration prior to international recognition

  8. The Purchase of Voluntary Carbon Offsets by Australian Consumers: Exploring the Attitude-Behaviour Gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamsen, Jannie Mia; Sloan, Sarah

    This research examines the level of environmental awareness among Australian consumers and identifies the factors that affect attitudes and behaviour towards purchasing carbon offset products. Data was obtained from 83 consumers through an online survey to measure knowledge and purchase behaviour...... of carbon offsets, intention for future purchases and attitudes towards the environment. The results demonstrate that an attitude-behaviour gap exists among Australian consumers; while consumers possess strong positive attitudes towards the environment and climate change, this does not translate into actual...

  9. Software for Quantitative Estimation of Coefficients of Ink Transfer on the Printed Substrate in Offset Printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varepo, L. G.; Trapeznikova, O. V.; Panichkin, A. V.; Roev, B. A.; Kulikov, G. B.

    2018-04-01

    In the framework of standardizing the process of offset printing, one of the most important tasks is the correct selection of the printing system components, taking into account the features of their interaction and behavior in the printing process. The program allows to calculate the transfer of ink on the printed material between the contacting cylindrical surfaces of the sheet-fed offset printing apparatus with the boundaries deformation. A distinctive feature of this software product is the modeling of the liquid flow having free boundaries and causing deformation of solid boundaries when flowing between the walls of two cylinders.

  10. Determination of Vertical Datum Offset between the Regional and the Global Height Datum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Jiancheng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The unification of the global height datum is a key problem to be solved for geodesy after the unification of global geodetic coordination system and three-dimension spatial datum, and the basis of global spatial information sharing and exchange. In this paper, the theoretical and practical problems of vertical datum offset between the regional height datum and the global height datum are studied. Based on the classical theory of the height system in physical geodesy, the definition of the height datum vertical offset is given, and the rigorous formulas for calculating the vertical offset are derived. The formulas can be used to deduce the three methods of the height datum vertical offset determination. On that basis, the influences of different reference system and reference ellipsoid parameters on the calculation of the vertical offset are analyzed. The results show that the reference system and the ellipsoid parameter conversion are very necessary. At the same time, the height anomaly differences method needs to consider the degree zero correction caused by the inconsistency between gravity potential of the global height datum and the one computed by the model. Based on potential difference approach and the height anomaly difference method, the vertical offset between the China 1985 national height datum and the global height datum corresponding to the normal gravity potential U0 of GRS80, WGS-84 and CGCS2000 reference ellipsoidal from the 152 GPS/leveling points near the origin of Qingdao height origin and the EGM2008, EIGEN-6C4 and SGG-UGM-1 model. The regional datum is 23.1 cm lower than the global datum based on EIGEN-6C4 and WGS-84. When the Gauss-Listing geoid (mean sea surface is selected as the global height datum, the China 1985 national height datum is 21.0 cm higher than the global height datum. The results also show that there are still large differences among the accuracies of the current gravity field models on these GPS

  11. Energy and Beam-Offset dependence of the Luminosity weighted depolarization for CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Esberg, Jakob; Uggerhoj, Ulrik; Dalena, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    We report on simulations of e+e- depolarization due to beam-beam effects. These effects are studied for CLIC at 3 TeV, using GUINEA PIG++. We find a strong energy dependence of the luminosity weighted depolarization. In the luminosity peak at CLIC the total luminosity weighted depolarization remains below the one per-mil level. The effect of a vertical offset on the energy dependent depolarization is investigated. The depolarization in the luminosity peak remains below per-cent level even for 5sy offsets.

  12. Conservation Planning for Offsetting the Impacts of Development: A Case Study of Biodiversity and Renewable Energy in the Mojave Desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreitler, Jason; Schloss, Carrie A; Soong, Oliver; Hannah, Lee; Davis, Frank W

    2015-01-01

    Balancing society's competing needs of development and conservation requires careful consideration of tradeoffs. Renewable energy development and biodiversity conservation are often considered beneficial environmental goals. The direct footprint and disturbance of renewable energy, however, can displace species' habitat and negatively impact populations and natural communities if sited without ecological consideration. Offsets have emerged as a potentially useful tool to mitigate residual impacts after trying to avoid, minimize, or restore affected sites. Yet the problem of efficiently designing a set of offset sites becomes increasingly complex where many species or many sites are involved. Spatial conservation prioritization tools are designed to handle this problem, but have seen little application to offset siting and analysis. To address this need we designed an offset siting support tool for the Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan (DRECP) of California, and present a case study of hypothetical impacts from solar development in the Western Mojave subsection. We compare two offset scenarios designed to mitigate a hypothetical 15,331 ha derived from proposed utility-scale solar energy development (USSED) projects. The first scenario prioritizes offsets based precisely on impacted features, while the second scenario offsets impacts to maximize biodiversity conservation gains in the region. The two methods only agree on 28% of their prioritized sites and differ in meeting species-specific offset goals. Differences between the two scenarios highlight the importance of clearly specifying choices and priorities for offset siting and mitigation in general. Similarly, the effects of background climate and land use change may lessen the durability or effectiveness of offsets if not considered. Our offset siting support tool was designed specifically for the DRECP area, but with minor code modification could work well in other offset analyses, and could provide

  13. How much carbon offsetting and where? Implications of efficiency, effectiveness, and ethicality considerations for public opinion formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Brilé; Bernauer, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental policy design choice in government-led climate change mitigation is: what role should flexibility mechanisms like carbon offsetting play in reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Since public opinion affects the policy choices of government, we investigate how arguments regarding carbon offsetting's economic efficiency, effectiveness, and ethicality, which have been key points in the public debate, impact the public's preferences. We fielded an online framing experiment in the United States (N=995) to empirically identify how arguments for and against carbon offsetting influence public preferences for the inclusion of offsetting in national GHG mitigation policy. We find that the public's support for international offsetting increases and support for reductions at their source (i.e. within firms' own operations) diminishes when considerations of economic efficiency gains are at the forefront. Support for offsetting declines when individuals are confronted with arguments concerning its effectiveness and ethicality, which suggests that future policies will require clear standards of additionality in order to address these concerns. Moreover, we find that how carbon offsetting is framed matters even amongst climate skeptics and support could potentially be enhanced via improved communication on efficiency gains. - Highlights: •We use a framing survey experiment to study public opinion on carbon offsetting. •Efficiency gains increase public support for international carbon offsetting. •Concerns about effectiveness/additionality and ethicality reduce support. •More information on efficiency gains and strengthening additionality could help increase support.

  14. Willingness to pay for carbon offset certification and co-benefits among (high-)flying young adults in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKerron, George J.; Mourato, Susana; Egerton, Catrin; Gaskell, Christopher; Parpia, Aimie

    2009-01-01

    Voluntary carbon offsets represent a growing share of the carbon market as a whole, and have the potential to contribute to meeting greenhouse gas emissions targets and reducing anthropogenic climate change. Certain offset project types may also deliver co-benefits including safeguarding or promoting biodiversity, supporting human development and poverty reduction, and enabling market and technology development in low-carbon sectors. These co-benefits might encourage consumers to participate in the voluntary offset market, depending on their effects both on consumers' willingness to pay (WTP) for offsets and on implementation costs. However, the offset market is not yet sufficiently developed to give a clear indication of consumer WTP for offsets with varying attributes. This exploratory stated preference study therefore uses a choice experiment to estimate WTP for certified and uncertified offsets, with or without these specific co-benefits, in an aviation context. It is, to the best of our knowledge, the first to do so. Our results suggest that uptake of voluntary offsets may be encouraged by investing in projects with co-benefits and by emphasising those co-benefits to consumers. They also suggest that certification regimes will add value to offsets, helping compensate for increased costs, provided that consumers are made fully aware of them. (author)

  15. 75 FR 32343 - Debt Collection and Administrative Offset for Monies Due the Federal Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... administrative collection of nontax debt with Treasury's Financial Management Service. This centralization allows... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Minerals Management Service 30 CFR Part 218 [Docket No. MMS-2009-MRM-0005] RIN 1010-AD36 Debt Collection and Administrative Offset for Monies Due the Federal Government...

  16. 75 FR 71171 - Social Security Disability Program Demonstration Project: Benefit Offset National Demonstration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-22

    ... project. Stage 2 Offset and Enhanced Benefits Counseling Treatment Group--We will assign approximately 3... treatment of earnings and the enhanced benefits counseling, depending on their treatment group. Alternate... Treatment Group be eligible for counseling services? A beneficiary assigned to this Stage 2 treatment group...

  17. Forest biomass and tree planting for fossil fuel offsets in the Colorado Front Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mike A. Battaglia; Kellen Nelson; Dan Kashian; Michael G. Ryan

    2010-01-01

    This study estimates the amount of carbon available for removal in fuel reduction and reforestation treatments in montane forests of the Colorado Front Range based on site productivity, pre-treatment basal area, and planting density. Thinning dense stands will yield the greatest offsets for biomass fuel. However, this will also yield the greatest carbon losses, if the...

  18. Efficient Calculation of Born Scattering for Fixed-Offset Ground-Penetrating Radar Surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meincke, Peter

    2007-01-01

    A formulation is presented for efficient calculation of linear electromagnetic scattering by buried penetrable objects, as involved in the analysis of fixed-offset ground-penetrating radar (GPR) systems. The actual radiation patterns of the GPR antennas are incorporated in the scattering...

  19. 20 CFR 408.945 - When will we suspend tax refund offset?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When will we suspend tax refund offset? 408.945 Section 408.945 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN..., you notify us that you are exercising a right described in § 408.942(a) of this subpart and submit...

  20. Can Parents' Involvement in Children's Education Offset the Effects of Early Insensitivity on Academic Functioning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, Jennifer D.; Pomerantz, Eva M.; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2014-01-01

    Data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 1,312) were analyzed to examine whether the adverse effects of early insensitive parenting on children's academic functioning can be offset by parents' later involvement in children's education. Observations of mothers' early…

  1. Measurement repeatability of tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove offset distance in red fox (Vulpes vulpes) cadavers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miles, J.E.; Jensen, B.R.; Kirpensteijn, J.; Svalastoga, E.L.; Eriksen, T.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE: To describe CT image reconstruction criteria for measurement of the tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove (TT-TG) offset distance, evaluate intra- and inter-reconstruction repeatability, and identify key sources of error in the measurement technique, as determined in vulpine hind

  2. Cancellation of birefringence in DBR laser through principal axis offset by a rotation of 90°

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaini, M. K. A.; Lai, M. H.; Islam, M. R.; Lim, K. S.; Ahmad, H.

    2018-04-01

    The cancellation of birefringence in the distributed Bragg reflector based on 90° rotation offset method is demonstrated. It is found that the birefringence, which causes the peak bifurcation has been eliminated and a single peak is produced at each resonance in the output spectrum. This modification is an economic solution for eliminating the birefringence of the optical fibre devices.

  3. Five Approaches to Deal With Problem of DC Offset in Phase-Locked Loop Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golestan, Saeed; Guerrero, Josep M.; Gharehpetian, Gevork B.

    2016-01-01

    the -frame DSC operator, the complex coefficient filter, and a cross-feedback network for blocking the dc offset before the PLL input. Design aspects of these methods are presented, some methods to enhance their performances are proposed, and their advantages and disadvantages are evaluated....

  4. Design of the Dual Offset Active Caster Wheel for Holonomic Omni-Directional Mobile Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woojin Chung

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available It is shown how a holonomic and omni-directional mobile robot is designed towards indoor public services. Dual offset steerable wheels with orthogonal velocity components are proposed. The proposed wheel provides precise positioning and reliable navigation performance as well as durability. A fabricated prototype is introduced, then, an experiment is carried out.

  5. A spatially offset Raman spectroscopy method for non-destructive detection of gelatin-encapsulated powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-destructive subsurface detection of encapsulated, coated, or seal-packaged foods and pharmaceuticals can help prevent distribution and consumption of counterfeit or hazardous products. This study used a Spatially Offset Raman Spectroscopy (SORS) method to detect and identify urea, ibuprofen, and...

  6. A Spatially Offset Raman Spectroscopy Method for Non-Destructive Detection of Gelatin-Encapsulated Powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuanglin Chao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Non-destructive subsurface detection of encapsulated, coated, or seal-packaged foods and pharmaceuticals can help prevent distribution and consumption of counterfeit or hazardous products. This study used a Spatially Offset Raman Spectroscopy (SORS method to detect and identify urea, ibuprofen, and acetaminophen powders contained within one or more (up to eight layers of gelatin capsules to demonstrate subsurface chemical detection and identification. A 785-nm point-scan Raman spectroscopy system was used to acquire spatially offset Raman spectra for an offset range of 0 to 10 mm from the surfaces of 24 encapsulated samples, using a step size of 0.1 mm to obtain 101 spectral measurements per sample. As the offset distance was increased, the spectral contribution from the subsurface powder gradually outweighed that of the surface capsule layers, allowing for detection of the encapsulated powders. Containing mixed contributions from the powder and capsule, the SORS spectra for each sample were resolved into pure component spectra using self-modeling mixture analysis (SMA and the corresponding components were identified using spectral information divergence values. As demonstrated here for detecting chemicals contained inside thick capsule layers, this SORS measurement technique coupled with SMA has the potential to be a reliable non-destructive method for subsurface inspection and authentication of foods, health supplements, and pharmaceutical products that are prepared or packaged with semi-transparent materials.

  7. Crowdfunding in Extension: Leveraging Relationships to Offset Declines in Traditional Funding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Paul; Swadley, Emy; Esplin, Kaleb

    2017-01-01

    Crowdfunding is a new tool available for Extension professionals and their clients to use to creatively offset the abatement of traditional funding sources. A fund-raising campaign can be set up in minutes, as demonstrated by the work of the 4-H members profiled in this article. Whether there is a need for new equipment or added help for a special…

  8. Novel IQ imbalance and offset compensation techniques for quadrature mixing radio transceivers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Witt, JJ

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the advantages that quadrature mixing offers to radio front-ends, its practical use has been limited due to its sensitivity towards gain and phase mismatches between its in-phase and quadrature channels. DC offsets are also a problem when a...

  9. Noise-based frequency offset modulation in wideband frequency-selective fading channels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijerink, Arjan; Cotton, S.L.; Bentum, Marinus Jan; Scanlon, W.G.

    2009-01-01

    A frequency offset modulation scheme using wideband noise carriers is considered. The main advantage of such a scheme is that it enables fast receiver synchronization without channel adaptation, while providing robustness to multipath fading and in-band interference. This is important for low-power

  10. Analysis of in-band interference in noise-based frequency offset modulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilal, Ibrahim; Meijerink, Arjan; Bentum, Marinus Jan

    2014-01-01

    A noise-based frequency offset modulation (N-FOM) system is considered, employing a wideband noise carrier, transmit reference modulation and a self-correlation receiver. The performance of such a system in the presence of in-band interference is studied by modeling the interference as a Gaussian

  11. Analyzing the efficacy of subtropical urban forests in offsetting carbon emissions from cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco Escobedo; Sebastian Varela; Min Zhao; John E. Wagner; Wayne Zipperer

    2010-01-01

    Urban forest management and policies have been promoted as a tool to mitigate carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. This study used existing CO2 reduction measures from subtropical Miami-Dade and Gainesville, USA and modeled carbon storage and sequestration by trees to analyze policies that use urban forests to offset carbon emissions. Field data were analyzed, modeled, and...

  12. Carrier Frequency Offset Estimation and I/Q Imbalance Compensation for OFDM Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Omair Ahmad

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Two types of radio-frequency front-end imperfections, that is, carrier frequency offset and the inphase/quadrature (I/Q imbalance are considered for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM communication systems. A preamble-assisted carrier frequency estimator is proposed along with an I/Q imbalance compensation scheme. The new frequency estimator reveals the relationship between the inphase and the quadrature components of the received preamble and extracts the frequency offset from the phase shift caused by the frequency offset and the cross-talk interference due to the I/Q imbalance. The proposed frequency estimation algorithm is fast, efficient, and robust to I/Q imbalance. An I/Q imbalance estimation/compensation algorithm is also presented by solving a least-square problem formulated using the same preamble as employed for the frequency offset estimation. The computational complexity of the I/Q estimation scheme is further reduced by using part of the short symbols with a little sacrifice in the estimation accuracy. Computer simulation and comparison with some of the existing algorithms are conducted, showing the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  13. Adaptive Disturbance Estimation for Offset-Free SISO Model Predictive Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2011-01-01

    Offset free tracking in Model Predictive Control requires estimation of unmeasured disturbances or the inclusion of an integrator. An algorithm for estimation of an unknown disturbance based on adaptive estimation with time varying forgetting is introduced and benchmarked against the classical...

  14. Climate change : observations on the potential role of carbon offsets in climate change legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-05

    Currently, carbon offsets are generated, bought, and sold in two types of markets. In markets such as the United States, which does not have binding limits on emissions, the market is referred to as a voluntary market. Conversely, in the European Uni...

  15. Significant Improvements in Pyranometer Nighttime Offsets Using High-Flow DC Ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutchenreiter, Mark; Michalski, J.J.; Long, C.N.; Habte, Aron

    2017-05-22

    Accurate solar radiation measurements using pyranometers are required to understand radiative impacts on the Earth's energy budget, solar energy production, and to validate radiative transfer models. Ventilators of pyranometers, which are used to keep the domes clean and dry, also affect instrument thermal offset accuracy. This poster presents a high-level overview of the ventilators for single-black-detector pyranometers and black-and-white pyranometers. For single-black-detector pyranometers with ventilators, high-flow-rate (50-CFM and higher), 12-V DC fans lower the offsets, lower the scatter, and improve the predictability of nighttime offsets compared to lower-flow-rate (35-CFM), 120-V AC fans operated in the same type of environmental setup. Black-and-white pyranometers, which are used to measure diffuse horizontal irradiance, sometimes show minor improvement with DC fan ventilation, but their offsets are always small, usually no more than 1 W/m2, whether AC- or DC-ventilated.

  16. Crystal timing offset calibration method for time of flight PET scanners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jinghan; Song, Xiyun

    2016-03-01

    In time-of-flight (TOF) positron emission tomography (PET), precise calibration of the timing offset of each crystal of a PET scanner is essential. Conventionally this calibration requires a specially designed tool just for this purpose. In this study a method that uses a planar source to measure the crystal timing offsets (CTO) is developed. The method uses list mode acquisitions of a planar source placed at multiple orientations inside the PET scanner field-of-view (FOV). The placement of the planar source in each acquisition is automatically figured out from the measured data, so that a fixture for exactly placing the source is not required. The expected coincidence time difference for each detected list mode event can be found from the planar source placement and the detector geometry. A deviation of the measured time difference from the expected one is due to CTO of the two crystals. The least squared solution of the CTO is found iteratively using the list mode events. The effectiveness of the crystal timing calibration method is evidenced using phantom images generated by placing back each list mode event into the image space with the timing offset applied to each event. The zigzagged outlines of the phantoms in the images become smooth after the crystal timing calibration is applied. In conclusion, a crystal timing calibration method is developed. The method uses multiple list mode acquisitions of a planar source to find the least squared solution of crystal timing offsets.

  17. Pyranometer offsets triggered by ambient meteorology: insights from laboratory and field experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Sandro M.; Pietsch, Helga; Baumgartner, Dietmar J.; Weihs, Philipp; Rieder, Harald E.

    2017-03-01

    This study investigates the effects of ambient meteorology on the accuracy of radiation (R) measurements performed with pyranometers contained in various heating and ventilation systems (HV-systems). It focuses particularly on instrument offsets observed following precipitation events. To quantify pyranometer responses to precipitation, a series of controlled laboratory experiments as well as two targeted field campaigns were performed in 2016. The results indicate that precipitation (as simulated by spray tests or observed under ambient conditions) significantly affects the thermal environment of the instruments and thus their stability. Statistical analyses of laboratory experiments showed that precipitation triggers zero offsets of -4 W m-2 or more, independent of the HV-system. Similar offsets were observed in field experiments under ambient environmental conditions, indicating a clear exceedance of BSRN (Baseline Surface Radiation Network) targets following precipitation events. All pyranometers required substantial time to return to their initial signal states after the simulated precipitation events. Therefore, for BSRN-class measurements, the recommendation would be to flag the radiation measurements during a natural precipitation event and 90 min after it in nighttime conditions. Further daytime experiments show pyranometer offsets of 50 W m-2 or more in comparison to the reference system. As they show a substantially faster recovery, the recommendation would be to flag the radiation measurements within a natural precipitation event and 10 min after it in daytime conditions.

  18. 31 CFR 285.1 - Collection of past-due support by administrative offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Collection of past-due support by administrative offset. 285.1 Section 285.1 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... include current basic pay, special pay, incentive pay, retainer pay, overtime, or in the case of an...

  19. Adaptively loaded SP-offset-QAM OFDM for IM/DD communication systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jian; Chan, Chun-Kit

    2017-09-04

    In this paper, we propose adaptively loaded set-partitioned offset quadrature amplitude modulation (SP-offset-QAM) orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) for low-cost intensity-modulation direct-detection (IM/DD) communication systems. We compare this scheme with multi-band carrier-less amplitude phase modulation (CAP) and conventional OFDM, and demonstrate >40 Gbit/s transmission over 50-km single-mode fiber. It is shown that the use of SP-QAM formats, together with the adaptive loading algorithm specifically designed to this group of formats, results in significant performance improvement for all these three schemes. SP-offset-QAM OFDM exhibits greatly reduced complexity compared to SP-QAM based multi-band CAP, via parallelized implementation and minimized memory length for spectral shaping. On the other hand, this scheme shows better performance than SP-QAM based conventional OFDM at both back-to-back and after transmission. We also characterize the proposed scheme in terms of enhanced tolerance to fiber intra-channel nonlinearity and the potential to increase the communication security. The studies show that adaptive SP-offset-QAM OFDM is a promising IM/DD solution for medium- and long-reach optical access networks and data center connections.

  20. Fully integrated low-noise readout circuit with automatic offset cancellation loop for capacitive microsensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Haryong; Park, Yunjong; Kim, Hyungseup; Cho, Dong-Il Dan; Ko, Hyoungho

    2015-10-14

    Capacitive sensing schemes are widely used for various microsensors; however, such microsensors suffer from severe parasitic capacitance problems. This paper presents a fully integrated low-noise readout circuit with automatic offset cancellation loop (AOCL) for capacitive microsensors. The output offsets of the capacitive sensing chain due to the parasitic capacitances and process variations are automatically removed using AOCL. The AOCL generates electrically equivalent offset capacitance and enables charge-domain fine calibration using a 10-bit R-2R digital-to-analog converter, charge-transfer switches, and a charge-storing capacitor. The AOCL cancels the unwanted offset by binary-search algorithm based on 10-bit successive approximation register (SAR) logic. The chip is implemented using 0.18 μm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process with an active area of 1.76 mm². The power consumption is 220 μW with 3.3 V supply. The input parasitic capacitances within the range of -250 fF to 250 fF can be cancelled out automatically, and the required calibration time is lower than 10 ms.

  1. Fully Integrated Low-Noise Readout Circuit with Automatic Offset Cancellation Loop for Capacitive Microsensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryong Song

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Capacitive sensing schemes are widely used for various microsensors; however, such microsensors suffer from severe parasitic capacitance problems. This paper presents a fully integrated low-noise readout circuit with automatic offset cancellation loop (AOCL for capacitive microsensors. The output offsets of the capacitive sensing chain due to the parasitic capacitances and process variations are automatically removed using AOCL. The AOCL generates electrically equivalent offset capacitance and enables charge-domain fine calibration using a 10-bit R-2R digital-to-analog converter, charge-transfer switches, and a charge-storing capacitor. The AOCL cancels the unwanted offset by binary-search algorithm based on 10-bit successive approximation register (SAR logic. The chip is implemented using 0.18 μm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS process with an active area of 1.76 mm2. The power consumption is 220 μW with 3.3 V supply. The input parasitic capacitances within the range of −250 fF to 250 fF can be cancelled out automatically, and the required calibration time is lower than 10 ms.

  2. Assembly and offset assignment scheme for self-similar traffic in optical burst switched networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Muwonge, KB

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available at the Label Edge Router (LER) to buffer traffic in the electronic domain. Burst assembly and offset assignment schemes are implemented in a complementary manner to improve QoS of an OBS network. The authors show that OBS network performance is directly related...

  3. Total dose induced increase in input offset voltage in JFET input operational amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pease, R.L.; Krieg, J.; Gehlhausen, M.; Black, J.

    1999-01-01

    Four different types of commercial JFET input operational amplifiers were irradiated with ionizing radiation under a variety of test conditions. All experienced significant increases in input offset voltage (Vos). Microprobe measurement of the electrical characteristics of the de-coupled input JFETs demonstrates that the increase in Vos is a result of the mismatch of the degraded JFETs. (authors)

  4. 77 FR 28336 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Maryland; Offset Lithographic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... Technology Transfer and Advancement Act of 1995 (15 U.S.C. 272 note) because application of those... Technology (RACT) for sources covered by EPA's Control Techniques Guidelines (CTG) for offset lithographic..., unless the comment includes information claimed to be Confidential Business Information (CBI) or other...

  5. THE ODD OFFSET BETWEEN THE GALACTIC DISK AND ITS BAR IN NGC 3906

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swardt, Bonita de [South African Astronomical Observatory, Observatory, 7935 Cape Town (South Africa); Sheth, Kartik; Kim, Taehyun; Muñoz-Mateos, Juan-Carlos [National Radio Astronomy Observatory/NAASC, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Stephen Pardy; Elena D’ Onghia; Eric Wilcots [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Hinz, Joannah [MMTO, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Regan, Michael W. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, Albert [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France); Buta, Ronald J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Box 870324, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Cisternas, Mauricio; Erroz-Ferrer, Santiago [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Comerón, Sébastien [Division of Astronomy, Department of Physical Sciences, University of Oulu, Oulu, FI-90014 (Finland); Gadotti, Dimitri A. [European Southern Observatory, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19 (Chile); Paz, Armando Gil de [Departamento de Astrofísica, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid E-28040 (Spain); Jarrett, Thomas H. [Astronomy Department, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Elmegreen, Bruce G. [IBM Research Division, T.J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Hts., NY 10598 (United States); Ho, Luis C. [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); and others

    2015-07-20

    We use mid-infrared 3.6 and 4.5 μm imaging of NGC 3906 from the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S{sup 4}G) to understand the nature of an unusual offset between its stellar bar and the photometric center of an otherwise regular, circular outer stellar disk. We measure an offset of ∼910 pc between the center of the stellar bar and photometric center of the stellar disk; the bar center coincides with the kinematic center of the disk determined from previous HI observations. Although the undisturbed shape of the disk suggests that NGC 3906 has not undergone a significant merger event in its recent history, the most plausible explanation for the observed offset is an interaction. Given the relatively isolated nature of NGC 3906 this interaction could be with dark matter substructure in the galaxy's halo or from a recent interaction with a fast moving neighbor that remains to be identified. Simulations aimed at reproducing the observed offset between the stellar bar/kinematic center of the system and the photometric center of the disk are necessary to confirm this hypothesis and constrain the interaction history of the galaxy.

  6. 76 FR 11402 - Recovery of Delinquent Debts-Treasury Offset Program Enhancements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ...-1213 or TTY 1-800-325- 0778, or visit our Internet site, Social Security Online, at http://www... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION 20 CFR Parts 404, 408, 416, and 422 [Docket No. SSA-2010-0010] RIN 0960-AH19 Recovery of Delinquent Debts--Treasury Offset Program Enhancements AGENCY: Social Security...

  7. Hospitalization Cost Offset of a Hostility Intervention for Coronary Heart Disease Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Karina W.; Gidron, Yori; Mostofsky, Elizabeth; Trudeau, Kimberlee J.

    2007-01-01

    The authors evaluated hospitalization cost offset of hostility management group therapy for patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) from a previously published randomized controlled trial (Y. Gidron, K. Davidson, & I. Bata, 1999). Twenty-six male patients with myocardial infarction or unstable angina were randomized to either 2 months of…

  8. WASTE REDUCTION EVALUATION OF SOY-BASED INK AT A SHEET-FED OFFSET PRINTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Waste Reduction Innovative Technology Evaluation (WRITE) project quantifies and compares wastes generated from the use of soy-based and petroleum-based inks in sheet-fed offset printing. Data were collected in a full-scale print run on a Miller TP104 Plus 6-color press in Ju...

  9. Stakeholders of Voluntary Forest Carbon Offset Projects in China: An Empirical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derong Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is one of the defining challenges facing the planet. Voluntary forest carbon offset project which has the potential to boost forest carbon storage and mitigate global warming has aroused the global concern. The objective of this paper is to model the game situation and analyze the game behaviors of stakeholders of voluntary forest carbon offset projects in China. A stakeholder model and a Power-Benefit Matrix are constructed to analyze the roles, behaviors, and conflicts of stakeholders including farmers, planting entities, communities, government, and China Green Carbon Foundation. The empirical analysis results show that although the stakeholders have diverse interests and different goals, a win-win solution is still possible through their joint participation and compromise in the voluntary forest carbon offset project. A wide governance structure laying emphasis on benefit balance, equality, and information exchanges and being regulated by all stakeholders has been constructed. It facilitates the agreement among the stakeholders with conflicting or different interests. The joint participation of stakeholders in voluntary forest carbon offset projects might change the government-dominated afforestation/reforestation into a market, where all participators including government are encouraged to cooperate with each other to improve the condition of fund shortage and low efficiency.

  10. Flux-gate magnetometer spin axis offset calibration using the electron drift instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plaschke, Ferdinand; Nakamura, Rumi; Baumjohann, Wolfgang; Steller, Manfred; Magnes, Werner; Leinweber, Hannes K; Chutter, Mark; Vaith, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Spin-stabilization of spacecraft immensely supports the in-flight calibration of on-board flux-gate magnetometers (FGMs). From 12 calibration parameters in total, 8 can be easily obtained by spectral analysis. From the remaining 4, the spin axis offset is known to be particularly variable. It is usually determined by analysis of Alfvénic fluctuations that are embedded in the solar wind. In the absence of solar wind observations, the spin axis offset may be obtained by comparison of FGM and electron drift instrument (EDI) measurements. The aim of our study is to develop methods that are readily usable for routine FGM spin axis offset calibration with EDI. This paper represents a major step forward in this direction. We improve an existing method to determine FGM spin axis offsets from EDI time-of-flight measurements by providing it with a comprehensive error analysis. In addition, we introduce a new, complementary method that uses EDI beam direction data instead of time-of-flight data. Using Cluster data, we show that both methods yield similarly accurate results, which are comparable yet more stable than those from a commonly used solar wind-based method. (paper)

  11. How costly are carbon offsets? A meta-analysis of carbon forest sinks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooten, van G.C.; Eagle, A.J.; Manley, J.; Smolak, T.

    2004-01-01

    Carbon terrestrial sinks are seen as a low-cost alternative to fuel switching and reduced fossil fuel use for lowering atmospheric CO2. As a result of agreements reached at Bonn and Marrakech, carbon offsets have taken on much greater importance in meeting Kyoto targets for the first commitment

  12. New phasor estimator in the presence of harmonics, DC offset and interharmonics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vianello, R.; Prates, M.O.; Duque, C.A.; Cerqueira, A.S.; Silveira, P.M.; Ribeiro, P.F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes the use of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) to estimate the magnitude and phase of fundamental component of sinusoidal signals in the presence of harmonics, sub-harmonics and DC offset. The proposed methodology uses a preprocessing that is able to generate a signal that

  13. Improving method of real-time offset tuning for arterial signal coordination using probe trajectory data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the environment of intelligent transportation systems, traffic condition data would have higher resolution in time and space, which is especially valuable for managing the interrupted traffic at signalized intersections. There exist a lot of algorithms for offset tuning, but few of them take the advantage of modern traffic detection methods such as probe vehicle data. This study proposes a method using probe trajectory data to optimize and adjust offsets in real time. The critical point, representing the changing vehicle dynamics, is first defined as the basis of this approach. Using the critical points related to different states of traffic conditions, such as free flow, queue formation, and dissipation, various traffic status parameters can be estimated, including actual travel speed, queue dissipation rate, and standing queue length. The offset can then be adjusted on a cycle-by-cycle basis. The performance of this approach is evaluated using a simulation network. The results show that the trajectory-based approach can reduce travel time of the coordinated traffic flow when compared with using well-defined offline offset.

  14. Sensitivity and offset calibration for the beam position monitors at the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Y.; Barr, D.; Decker, G.; Evans, K. Jr.; Kahana, E.

    1995-01-01

    The beam position monitors (BPMs) play a critically important role in commissioning and operation of accelerators. Accurate determination of the offsets relative to the magnetic axis and sensitivities of individual BPMs is thus needed. We will describe in this paper the schemes for calibrating all of the 360 BPMs for sensitivity and offset in the 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring and the results. For the sensitivity calibration, a 2-dimensional map of the BPM response in the aluminum vacuum chamber is obtained theoretically, which is combined with the measured nonlinear response of the BPM electronics. A set of 2-dimensional polynomial coefficients is then obtained to approximate the result analytically. The offset calibration of the BPMs is done relative to the magnetic axis of the quadrupoles using the beam. This avoids the problem arising from various mechanical sources as well as the offset in the processing electronics. The measurement results for the resolution and long-term drift of the BPM electronics shows 0.06-μm/√Hz resolution and 2-μm/hr drift over a period of 1.5 hrs

  15. 76 FR 37030 - Financial Derivatives Transactions To Offset Interest Rate Risk; Investment and Deposit Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ..., with certain exceptions, are financial derivatives such as futures, options, interest rate swaps and... to evaluate any hedge transaction using derivatives must include the ability to capture all options... NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 703 Financial Derivatives Transactions To Offset...

  16. Dosimetric effects of rotational offsets in stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yun; Catalano, Suzanne; Kelsey, Chris R.; Yoo, David S.; Yin, Fang-Fang; Cai, Jing, E-mail: jing.cai@duke.edu

    2014-04-01

    To quantitatively evaluate dosimetric effects of rotational offsets in stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for lung cancer. Overall, 11 lung SBRT patients (8 female and 3 male; mean age: 75.0 years) with medially located tumors were included. Treatment plans with simulated rotational offsets of 1°, 3°, and 5° in roll, yaw, and pitch were generated and compared with the original plans. Both clockwise and counterclockwise rotations were investigated. The following dosimetric metrics were quantitatively evaluated: planning target volume coverage (PTV V{sub 100%}), max PTV dose (PTV D{sub max}), percentage prescription dose to 0.35 cc of cord (cord D{sub 0.35} {sub cc}), percentage prescription dose to 0.35 cc and 5 cc of esophagus (esophagus D{sub 0.35} {sub cc} and D{sub 5} {sub cc}), and volume of the lungs receiving at least 20 Gy (lung V{sub 20}). Statistical significance was tested using Wilcoxon signed rank test at the significance level of 0.05. Overall, small differences were found in all dosimetric matrices at all rotational offsets: 95.6% of differences were < 1% or < 1 Gy. Of all rotational offsets, largest change in PTV V{sub 100%}, PTV D{sub max}, cord D{sub 0.35} {sub cc}, esophagus D{sub 0.35} {sub cc}, esophagus D{sub 5} {sub cc}, and lung V{sub 20} was − 8.36%, − 6.06%, 11.96%, 8.66%, 6.02%, and − 0.69%, respectively. No significant correlation was found between any dosimetric change and tumor-to-cord/esophagus distances (R{sup 2} range: 0 to 0.44). Larger dosimetric changes and intersubject variations were observed at larger rotational offsets. Small dosimetric differences were found owing to rotational offsets up to 5° in lung SBRT for medially located tumors. Larger intersubject variations were observed at larger rotational offsets.

  17. The sensitivity of patient specific IMRT QC to systematic MLC leaf bank offset errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangel, Alejandra; Palte, Gesa; Dunscombe, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Patient specific IMRT QC is performed routinely in many clinics as a safeguard against errors and inaccuracies which may be introduced during the complex planning, data transfer, and delivery phases of this type of treatment. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the feasibility of detecting systematic errors in MLC leaf bank position with patient specific checks. Methods: 9 head and neck (H and N) and 14 prostate IMRT beams were delivered using MLC files containing systematic offsets (±1 mm in two banks, ±0.5 mm in two banks, and 1 mm in one bank of leaves). The beams were measured using both MAPCHECK (Sun Nuclear Corp., Melbourne, FL) and the aS1000 electronic portal imaging device (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA). Comparisons with calculated fields, without offsets, were made using commonly adopted criteria including absolute dose (AD) difference, relative dose difference, distance to agreement (DTA), and the gamma index. Results: The criteria most sensitive to systematic leaf bank offsets were the 3% AD, 3 mm DTA for MAPCHECK and the gamma index with 2% AD and 2 mm DTA for the EPID. The criterion based on the relative dose measurements was the least sensitive to MLC offsets. More highly modulated fields, i.e., H and N, showed greater changes in the percentage of passing points due to systematic MLC inaccuracy than prostate fields. Conclusions: None of the techniques or criteria tested is sufficiently sensitive, with the population of IMRT fields, to detect a systematic MLC offset at a clinically significant level on an individual field. Patient specific QC cannot, therefore, substitute for routine QC of the MLC itself.

  18. The sensitivity of patient specific IMRT QC to systematic MLC leaf bank offset errors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangel, Alejandra; Palte, Gesa; Dunscombe, Peter [Department of Medical Physics, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, 1331-29 Street NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 4N2, Canada and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive North West, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada); Department of Medical Physics, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, 1331-29 Street NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 4N2 (Canada); Department of Medical Physics, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, 1331-29 Street NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 4N2 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada) and Department of Oncology, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, 1331-29 Street NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 4N2 (Canada)

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: Patient specific IMRT QC is performed routinely in many clinics as a safeguard against errors and inaccuracies which may be introduced during the complex planning, data transfer, and delivery phases of this type of treatment. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the feasibility of detecting systematic errors in MLC leaf bank position with patient specific checks. Methods: 9 head and neck (H and N) and 14 prostate IMRT beams were delivered using MLC files containing systematic offsets ({+-}1 mm in two banks, {+-}0.5 mm in two banks, and 1 mm in one bank of leaves). The beams were measured using both MAPCHECK (Sun Nuclear Corp., Melbourne, FL) and the aS1000 electronic portal imaging device (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA). Comparisons with calculated fields, without offsets, were made using commonly adopted criteria including absolute dose (AD) difference, relative dose difference, distance to agreement (DTA), and the gamma index. Results: The criteria most sensitive to systematic leaf bank offsets were the 3% AD, 3 mm DTA for MAPCHECK and the gamma index with 2% AD and 2 mm DTA for the EPID. The criterion based on the relative dose measurements was the least sensitive to MLC offsets. More highly modulated fields, i.e., H and N, showed greater changes in the percentage of passing points due to systematic MLC inaccuracy than prostate fields. Conclusions: None of the techniques or criteria tested is sufficiently sensitive, with the population of IMRT fields, to detect a systematic MLC offset at a clinically significant level on an individual field. Patient specific QC cannot, therefore, substitute for routine QC of the MLC itself.

  19. The effect of offset on fracture permeability of rocks from the Southern Andes Volcanic Zone, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Flores, P.; Wang, G.; Mitchell, T. M.; Meredith, P. G.; Nara, Y.; Sarkar, V.; Cembrano, J.

    2017-11-01

    The Southern Andes Volcanic Zone (SVZ) represents one of the largest undeveloped geothermal provinces in the world. Development of the geothermal potential requires a detailed understanding of fluid transport properties of its main lithologies. The permeability of SVZ rocks is altered by the presence of fracture damage zones produced by the Liquiñe-Ofqui Fault System (LOFS) and the Andean Transverse Faults (ATF). We have therefore measured the permeability of four representative lithologies from the volcanic basement in this area: crystalline tuff, andesitic dike, altered andesite and granodiorite. For comparative purposes, we have also measured the permeability of samples of Seljadalur basalt, an Icelandic rock with widely studied and reported hydraulic properties. Specifically, we present the results of a systematic study of the effect of fractures and fracture offsets on permeability as a function of increasing effective pressure. Baseline measurements on intact samples of SVZ rocks show that the granodiorite has a permeability (10-18 m2), two orders of magnitude higher than that of the volcanic rocks (10-20 m2). The presence of throughgoing mated macro-fractures increases permeability by between four and six orders of magnitude, with the highest permeability recorded for the crystalline tuff. Increasing fracture offset to produce unmated fractures results in large increases in permeability up to some characteristic value of offset, beyond which permeability changes only marginally. The increase in permeability with offset appears to depend on fracture roughness and aperture, and these are different for each lithology. Overall, fractured SVZ rocks with finite offsets record permeability values consistent with those commonly found in geothermal reservoirs (>10-16 m2), which potentially allow convective/advective flow to develop. Hence, our results demonstrate that the fracture damage zones developed within the SVZ produce permeable regions, especially within the

  20. 15 CFR 19.12 - How will Commerce entities offset a Federal employee's salary to collect a Commerce debt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the Financial Management Service for collection by administrative offset, including salary offset... documentary evidence alone. All travel expenses incurred by the Federal employee in connection with an in... be resolved by review of documentary evidence alone (for example, when an issue of credibility or...

  1. Family forest landowners' interest in forest carbon offset programs: Focus group findings from the Lake States, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristell A. Miller; Stephanie A. Snyder; Mike A. Kilgore; Mae A. Davenport

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, focus groups were organized with individuals owning 20+ acres in the Lake States region of the United States (Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin) to discuss various issues related to forest carbon offsetting. Focus group participants consisted of landowners who had responded to an earlier mail-back survey (2010) on forest carbon offsets. Two focus groups were...

  2. Analytical solution for the inverse kinematics of a redundant 7DoF manipulator with link offsets

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Singh, GK

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This work addresses the inverse kinematics problem for the 7 Degrees of Freedom Barrett Whole Arm Manipulator with link offsets. The presence of link offsets gives rise to the possibility of the in-elbow & out-elbow poses for a given end...

  3. Investigation of LO-leakage cancellation and DC-offset influence on flicker-noise in X-band mixers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michaelsen, Rasmus; Johansen, Tom; Tamborg, Kjeld

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an investigation on the influences in 1/f noise of LO-leakage and DC-offset cancellation for X-band mixers. Conditions for LO-leakage cancellation and zero DC-offset is derived. Measurements on a double balanced diode mixer shows an improvement in noise figure from 14.3dB to ...

  4. Factors influencing current interests and motivations of local governments to supply carbon offset credits from urban forestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    N. Poudyal; J. Siry; M. Bowker

    2009-01-01

    This study conducted a nationwide survey of municipal governments in the United States to assess their motivations, willingness, and technical as well as managerial capacities of cities to store carbon and sell carbon offsets. The analysis reveals that cities are fairly interested in selling carbon offsets and their interest in carbon trading is driven by the degree of...

  5. How much compensation is enough? A framework for incorporating uncertainty and time discounting when calculating offset ratios for impacted habitats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moilanen, A.; Teeffelen, van A.J.A.; Ben-Haim, Y.; Ferrier, S.

    2009-01-01

    Biodiversity offset areas may compensate for ecological damage caused by human activity elsewhere. One way of determining the offset ratio, or the compensation area needed, is to divide the present conservation value of the development site by the predicted future conservation value of a

  6. Offsetting efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, M.

    1995-01-01

    Whichever way the local distribution company (LDC) tries to convert residential customers to gas or expand their use of it, the process itself has become essential for the natural gas industry. The amount of gas used by each residential customer has been decreasing for 25 years -- since the energy crisis of the early 1970s. It's a direct result of better-insulated homes and more-efficient gas appliances, and that trend is continuing. So, LDCs have a choice of either finding new users and uses for gas, or recognizing that their throughput per customer is going to continue declining. The paper discusses strategies that several gas utilities are using to increase the number of gas appliances in the customer's homes. These and other strategies keep the gas industry optimistic about the future of the residential market: A.G.A. has projected that by 2010 demand will expand, from 1994's 5.1 quadrillion Btu (quads) to 5.7 quads, even with continued improvements in appliance efficiency. That estimate, however, will depend on the industry-s utilities and whether they keep converting, proselytizing, persuading and influencing customers to use more natural gas

  7. Offsetting or Enhancing Behavior: An Empirical Analysis of Motorcycle Helmet Safety Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonathan M

    2015-10-01

    This study uses state-level panel data from a 33-year period to test the hypotheses of offsetting and enhancing behavior with regards to motorcycle helmet legislation. Results presented in this article find no evidence of offsetting behavior and are consistent with the presence of enhancing behavior. State motorcycle helmet laws are estimated to reduce motorcycle crashes by 18.4% to 31.9%. In the absence of any behavioral adaptations among motorcyclists mandatory helmet laws are not expected to have any significant impact on motorcycle crash rates. The estimated motorcycle crash reductions do not appear to be driven by omitted variable bias or nonclassical measurement error in reported crashes. Overall, the results strongly suggest that mandatory helmet laws yield significant changes in motorcycle mobility in the form of reduced risk taking and/or decreased utilization. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  8. The Singu basalts (Myanmar): new constraints for the amount of recent offset on the Sagaing fault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertrand, G.; Rangin, C.

    1998-01-01

    The recent Singu basaltic flows (Mandalay district, Myanmar) are offset by the dextral Sagaing fault. 40 K- 40 Ar ages of five of the youngest flows forming the southern border of this plateau range from 0.25 to 0.31 My. The right lateral offset of the volcanic field, observed on satellite images, is 6.5 km north and 2.7 km south of the border of the plateau. Considering an initial regular elliptical shape of the plateau, we propose, for the Sagaing fault, a velocity of between 10±1 and 23±3 mn.y -1 . This fault would then accommodate, al most, only two thirds of the India-Sundaland relative motion, the remaining part being distributed along other faults in Myanmar. (authors)

  9. Carbon offsets as an economic alternative to large-scale logging: a case study in Guyana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborne, T. [Energy and Resources Group, University of California Berkeley, 310 Barrows Hall, Berkeley CA 94720 (United States); Kiker, C. [Food and Resource Economics Department, University of Florida, PO Box 110240, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2005-03-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the economic viability of carbon-offset projects that avoid logging in Guyana's forests. The results of this case study illustrate the cost effectiveness of alternative land-use options that reduce deforestation and associated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This analysis demonstrates that using Guyana's rainforests for climate change mitigation can generate equivalent revenue to that of conventional large-scale logging without detrimental environmental impacts. At a 12% discount rate, the break-even price for carbon is estimated to be about US$ 0.20/tC. This estimate falls toward the low range of carbon prices for existing carbon offset projects that avoid deforestation.

  10. Continuous fine pattern formation by screen-offset printing using a silicone blanket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Ken-ichi; Kusaka, Yasuyuki; Ushijima, Hirobumi; Nagase, Kazuro; Ikedo, Hiroaki; Mitsui, Ryosuke; Takahashi, Seiya; Nakajima, Shin-ichiro; Iwata, Shiro

    2014-09-01

    Screen-offset printing combines screen-printing on a silicone blanket with transference of the print from the blanket to a substrate. The blanket absorbs organic solvents in the ink, and therefore, the ink does not disperse through the material. This prevents blurring and allows fine patterns with widths of a few tens of micrometres to be produced. However, continuous printing deteriorates the pattern’s shape, which may be a result of decay in the absorption abilities of the blanket. Thus, we have developed a new technique for refreshing the blanket by substituting high-boiling-point solvents present on the blanket surface with low-boiling-point solvents. We analyse the efficacy of this technique, and demonstrate continuous fine pattern formation for 100 screen-offset printing processes.

  11. Continuous fine pattern formation by screen-offset printing using a silicone blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Ken-ichi; Kusaka, Yasuyuki; Ushijima, Hirobumi; Nagase, Kazuro; Ikedo, Hiroaki; Mitsui, Ryosuke; Takahashi, Seiya; Nakajima, Shin-ichiro; Iwata, Shiro

    2014-01-01

    Screen-offset printing combines screen-printing on a silicone blanket with transference of the print from the blanket to a substrate. The blanket absorbs organic solvents in the ink, and therefore, the ink does not disperse through the material. This prevents blurring and allows fine patterns with widths of a few tens of micrometres to be produced. However, continuous printing deteriorates the pattern’s shape, which may be a result of decay in the absorption abilities of the blanket. Thus, we have developed a new technique for refreshing the blanket by substituting high-boiling-point solvents present on the blanket surface with low-boiling-point solvents. We analyse the efficacy of this technique, and demonstrate continuous fine pattern formation for 100 screen-offset printing processes. (paper)

  12. PIXE studies on elemental characterization of offset printing ink tagged with rare-earth taggants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, D.; Saxena, A.; Choudhury, R.K.; Maind, S.D.

    2007-01-01

    Proton Induced X-ray Emission Technique (PIXE) has been used for elemental characterization of offset printing ink tagged with rare-earth taggants, with a proton beam of energy 4 MeV at Folded Tandem Ion Accelerator (FOTIA) at BARC, Trombay, Mumbai, India. The offset printing ink was tagged with rare-earth (La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu and Gd) thenoyltrifluoroacetonate chelates at about 1000 ppm level for each element separately. Small aliquots (approximately 20 mg) of tagged inks were coated on paper supports and then analyzed. Well-resolved rare-earth L X-rays were detected using a high resolution Si(Li) detector. Satisfactory results to identify and quantify the taggants were achieved. (author)

  13. Tuning of methods for offset free MPC based on ARX model representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we investigate model predictive control (MPC) based on ARX models. ARX models can be identified from data using convex optimization technologies and is linear in the system parameters. Compared to other model parameterizations this feature is an advantage in embedded applications...... for robust and automatic system identification. Standard MPC is not able to reject a sustained, unmeasured, non zero mean disturbance and will therefore not provide offset free tracking. Offset free tracking can be guaranteed for this type of disturbances if Δ variables are used or if the state space...... is extended with a disturbance model state. The relation between the base case and the two extended methods are illustrated which provides good understanding and a platform for discussing tuning for good closed loop performance....

  14. Conduction band offset at the InN/GaN heterojunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Kejia; Lian Chuanxin; Su Ning; Jena, Debdeep; Timler, John

    2007-01-01

    The conduction-band offset between GaN and InN is experimentally determined. InN/n-type GaN isotype heterojunctions grown by molecular beam epitaxy are observed to exhibit Schottky-junction like behavior based on rectifying vertical current flow. From capacitance-voltage measurements on the heterojunction, the Schottky barrier height is found to be ∼0.94 eV. The photocurrent spectroscopy measurement by backside illumination reveals an energy barrier height of 0.95 eV across the heterojunction, consistent with the capacitance measurement. By combining electrical transport, capacitance-voltage, and photocurrent spectroscopy measurement results, the conduction band offset between InN and GaN is estimated to be ΔE C =1.68±0.1 eV

  15. Refractive index sensor based on lateral-offset of coreless silica interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharin, Nur Faizzah; Azmi, Asrul Izam; Abdullah, Ahmad Sharmi; Mohd Noor, Muhammad Yusof

    2018-02-01

    A compact, cost-effective and high sensitivity fiber interferometer refractive index (RI) sensor based on symmetrical offset coreless silica fiber (CSF) configuration is proposed, optimized and demonstrated. The sensor is formed by splicing a section of CSF between two CSF sections in an offset manner. Thus, two distinct optical paths are created with large index difference, the first path through the connecting CSF sections and the second path is outside the CSF through the surrounding media. RI sensing is established from direct interaction of light with surrounding media, hence high sensitivity can be achieved with a relatively compact sensor length. In the experimental work, a 1.5 mm sensor demonstrates RI sensitivity of 750 nm/RIU for RI range between 1.33 and 1.345. With the main attributes of high sensitivity and compact size, the proposed sensor can be further developed for related applications including blood diagnosis, water quality control and food industries.

  16. Offsetting the difficulties of the molecular model of atomic collisions in the intermediate velocity range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Errea, L.F.; Mendez, L.; Riera, A.

    1991-01-01

    To offset the defective behavior of the molecular method of atomic collisions at intermediate energies, we propose a method to approximate the probability flux towards continuum and discrete states not included in the molecular basis. We check the degree of accuracy and limitations of the method for a model case where transition probabilities can be calculated exactly. An application to the benchmark case of He + +H + collisions is also presented, and yields complementary information on the properties of this approach

  17. Offsets in Weapon System Sales: A Case Study of the Korean Fighter Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    technology transfer and countertrade (82:3-4). Detailed definitions of these terms will be inserted in the text where appropriate. In addition, Appendix A...more countries realize their leverage in competitive world markets, countertrade and offset requirements have become part and parcel of international...business" (81:74). The number of countries that require some form of countertrade has risen from about fifteen in the early 1970’s (52:72), to twenty

  18. A Model for the Evaluation of Offsets in International Arms Transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    in offset proposals, a mini-study was prompted in political socialization to locate a suitable scale. No existing scale was found. A model for... political socialization to devise such a scale or model. The actual development of the resultant model will be described in Chapter 3. The background...unstable behavior. The more important are the long term influences of political socialization . As to the long-term dispositions, we know that individuals

  19. Pyranometer offsets triggered by ambient meteorology: insights from laboratory and field experiments

    OpenAIRE

    S. M. Oswald; H. Pietsch; D. J. Baumgartner; P. Weihs; H. E. Rieder

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates effects of ambient meteorology on the accuracy of radiation measurements performed with pyranometers contained in various heating/ventilation systems (HV-systems). It focuses particularly on instrument offsets observed following precipitation events. To quantify pyranometer responses to precipitation, a series of controlled laboratory experiments as well as two targeted field campaigns were performed in 2016. The results indicate that precipitation (as simulated by spr...

  20. Magneto-optical polarization rotation in a ladder-type atomic system for tunable offset locking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parniak, Michał, E-mail: michal.parniak@fuw.edu.pl; Leszczyński, Adam; Wasilewski, Wojciech [Institute of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland)

    2016-04-18

    We demonstrate an easily tunable locking scheme for stabilizing frequency-sum of two lasers on a two-photon ladder transition based on polarization rotation in warm rubidium vapors induced by magnetic field and circularly polarized drive field. Unprecedented tunability of the two-photon offset frequency is due to strong splitting and shifting of magnetic states in external field. In our experimental setup, we achieve two-photon detuning of up to 700 MHz.

  1. Attribution of precipitation changes on ground-air temperature offset: Granger causality analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čermák, Vladimír; Bodri, L.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 107, č. 1 (2018), s. 145-152 ISSN 1437-3254 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP210/11/0183; GA MŠk(CZ) LG13040 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : geothermics * climate change * ground-air temperature offset * soil temperature * temperature monitoring Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 2.283, year: 2016

  2. Instructions and format of a camera-ready paper for direct photo-offset reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpha, X X; Beta, Y

    1983-03-01

    These instructions are presented to assist you in preparing a typescript (Chomsky, 1977) which is suitable for direct photo-offset reproduction. Your manuscript (Rome and Rome, 1971) should be prepared on special paper (Freed et at., 1975) provided by the publisher. It will be photographically reproduced, whereby a reduction to 75% of its original size will be applied. Copyright © 1983. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. The Thermal Phase Curve Offset on Tidally and Nontidally Locked Exoplanets: A Shallow Water Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penn, James; Vallis, Geoffrey K, E-mail: jp492@exeter.ac.uk, E-mail: g.vallis@exeter.ac.uk [University of Exeter, Exeter, Devon (United Kingdom)

    2017-06-20

    Using a shallow water model with time-dependent forcing, we show that the peak of an exoplanet thermal phase curve is, in general, offset from the secondary eclipse when the planet is rotating. That is, the planetary hot spot is offset from the point of maximal heating (the substellar point) and may lead or lag the forcing; the extent and sign of the offset are functions of both the rotation rate and orbital period of the planet. We also find that the system reaches a steady state in the reference frame of the moving forcing. The model is an extension of the well-studied Matsuno–Gill model into a full spherical geometry and with a planetary-scale translating forcing representing the insolation received on an exoplanet from a host star. The speed of the gravity waves in the model is shown to be a key metric in evaluating the phase curve offset. If the velocity of the substellar point (relative to the planet’s surface) exceeds that of the gravity waves, then the hot spot will lag the substellar point, as might be expected by consideration of forced gravity wave dynamics. However, when the substellar point is moving slower than the internal wave speed of the system, the hottest point may lead the passage of the forcing. We provide an interpretation of this result by consideration of the Rossby and Kelvin wave dynamics, as well as, in the very slowly rotating case, a one-dimensional model that yields an analytic solution. Finally, we consider the inverse problem of constraining planetary rotation rate from an observed phase curve.

  4. Xenon oscillation control in large PWR using a characteristic ellipse trajectory drawn by three axial offsets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoichiro, Shimazu

    2007-01-01

    We have proposed a very simple xenon oscillation control procedure based on a characteristic trajectory. The trajectory is drawn by three offsets of power distributions, namely, AOp, AOi and AOx. They are defined as the offset of axial power distribution, the offset of the power distribution under which the current iodine distribution is obtained as the equilibrium and that for xenon distribution, respectively. When these offsets are plotted on X-Y plane for (AOp-AOx, AOi-AOx) the trajectory shows a quite characteristic ellipse (or an elliptic spiral). It shows characteristics such that the center of the ellipse is at the origin, the gradient of the major axis is constant, direction of the trajectory progress is always anti-clock wise, plot goes around the ellipse during a cycle of the xenon oscillation and so on. This characteristic does not change even if the control rods are moved. When the plot is at the origin of the X-Y plane, no xenon oscillation exists. Using the characteristics of the ellipse the xenon oscillation can be eliminated by guiding the plot to the origin with control rod operation. This concept can be applied not only to the axial xenon oscillation but also to the radial xenon oscillation control. Conventionally, the trajectory is drawn based on the xenon dynamics using reactor parameters such as core averaged macroscopic fission cross section, xenon micro absorption cross section, fission yields of iodine and xenon, and so on together with the neutron flux signals. The accuracy is expected to be better. (authors)

  5. The Climate-Energy package: Usage and impact of offsets in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galharret, S.

    2009-09-01

    This paper aims at clarifying the current European dispositions on the quantity of allowable carbon emission 'offsets' over the 2008-2012 and 2012-2020 periods, as well as the implications on the level of the European reduction effort with respect to a unilateral path of de-carbonation of economy by 2020. The author makes a distinction between sectors submitted or not to the Emission Trading Scheme (ETS)

  6. A pneumatic Bionic Voice prosthesis-Pre-clinical trials of controlling the voice onset and offset.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Ahmadi

    Full Text Available Despite emergent progress in many fields of bionics, a functional Bionic Voice prosthesis for laryngectomy patients (larynx amputees has not yet been achieved, leading to a lifetime of vocal disability for these patients. This study introduces a novel framework of Pneumatic Bionic Voice Prostheses as an electronic adaptation of the Pneumatic Artificial Larynx (PAL device. The PAL is a non-invasive mechanical voice source, driven exclusively by respiration with an exceptionally high voice quality, comparable to the existing gold standard of Tracheoesophageal (TE voice prosthesis. Following PAL design closely as the reference, Pneumatic Bionic Voice Prostheses seem to have a strong potential to substitute the existing gold standard by generating a similar voice quality while remaining non-invasive and non-surgical. This paper designs the first Pneumatic Bionic Voice prosthesis and evaluates its onset and offset control against the PAL device through pre-clinical trials on one laryngectomy patient. The evaluation on a database of more than five hours of continuous/isolated speech recordings shows a close match between the onset/offset control of the Pneumatic Bionic Voice and the PAL with an accuracy of 98.45 ±0.54%. When implemented in real-time, the Pneumatic Bionic Voice prosthesis controller has an average onset/offset delay of 10 milliseconds compared to the PAL. Hence it addresses a major disadvantage of previous electronic voice prostheses, including myoelectric Bionic Voice, in meeting the short time-frames of controlling the onset/offset of the voice in continuous speech.

  7. A pneumatic Bionic Voice prosthesis-Pre-clinical trials of controlling the voice onset and offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Farzaneh; Noorian, Farzad; Novakovic, Daniel; van Schaik, André

    2018-01-01

    Despite emergent progress in many fields of bionics, a functional Bionic Voice prosthesis for laryngectomy patients (larynx amputees) has not yet been achieved, leading to a lifetime of vocal disability for these patients. This study introduces a novel framework of Pneumatic Bionic Voice Prostheses as an electronic adaptation of the Pneumatic Artificial Larynx (PAL) device. The PAL is a non-invasive mechanical voice source, driven exclusively by respiration with an exceptionally high voice quality, comparable to the existing gold standard of Tracheoesophageal (TE) voice prosthesis. Following PAL design closely as the reference, Pneumatic Bionic Voice Prostheses seem to have a strong potential to substitute the existing gold standard by generating a similar voice quality while remaining non-invasive and non-surgical. This paper designs the first Pneumatic Bionic Voice prosthesis and evaluates its onset and offset control against the PAL device through pre-clinical trials on one laryngectomy patient. The evaluation on a database of more than five hours of continuous/isolated speech recordings shows a close match between the onset/offset control of the Pneumatic Bionic Voice and the PAL with an accuracy of 98.45 ±0.54%. When implemented in real-time, the Pneumatic Bionic Voice prosthesis controller has an average onset/offset delay of 10 milliseconds compared to the PAL. Hence it addresses a major disadvantage of previous electronic voice prostheses, including myoelectric Bionic Voice, in meeting the short time-frames of controlling the onset/offset of the voice in continuous speech.

  8. A pneumatic Bionic Voice prosthesis—Pre-clinical trials of controlling the voice onset and offset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorian, Farzad; Novakovic, Daniel; van Schaik, André

    2018-01-01

    Despite emergent progress in many fields of bionics, a functional Bionic Voice prosthesis for laryngectomy patients (larynx amputees) has not yet been achieved, leading to a lifetime of vocal disability for these patients. This study introduces a novel framework of Pneumatic Bionic Voice Prostheses as an electronic adaptation of the Pneumatic Artificial Larynx (PAL) device. The PAL is a non-invasive mechanical voice source, driven exclusively by respiration with an exceptionally high voice quality, comparable to the existing gold standard of Tracheoesophageal (TE) voice prosthesis. Following PAL design closely as the reference, Pneumatic Bionic Voice Prostheses seem to have a strong potential to substitute the existing gold standard by generating a similar voice quality while remaining non-invasive and non-surgical. This paper designs the first Pneumatic Bionic Voice prosthesis and evaluates its onset and offset control against the PAL device through pre-clinical trials on one laryngectomy patient. The evaluation on a database of more than five hours of continuous/isolated speech recordings shows a close match between the onset/offset control of the Pneumatic Bionic Voice and the PAL with an accuracy of 98.45 ±0.54%. When implemented in real-time, the Pneumatic Bionic Voice prosthesis controller has an average onset/offset delay of 10 milliseconds compared to the PAL. Hence it addresses a major disadvantage of previous electronic voice prostheses, including myoelectric Bionic Voice, in meeting the short time-frames of controlling the onset/offset of the voice in continuous speech. PMID:29466455

  9. The Rare Earth Collision: A Hit and Run on the Third Offset Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-29

    2016) 62 Ibid. 63 Filip Karinja, “Sinosteel MECC Selected by Northern Minerals as EPC Contractor for Browns Range Pilot Plant,” http://finfeed.com...juniors/ntu/sinosteel-mecc-selected-northern-minerals-epc- contractor - browns-range-pilot-plant/20161123/ (accessed November 25, 2016). 64 Andrew Topf...the_fallacies_of_the_third_offset_strategy_109668. ht ml (accessed October 2, 2016). Dr. Andrew Davies, formally of the Australian Department of Defense, is the current Director

  10. The role of offsets in a post-Kyoto climate agreement: The power sector in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partridge, Ian; Gamkhar, Shama

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers how an offset scheme specific to the electricity generation sector could incentivize emissions cuts while avoiding the problems encountered by the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). It proposes an approach to project evaluation based on measures of additionality, economic viability and contribution to sustainable development specific to this sector and re-evaluates 460 registered CDM projects in China that generate electricity using wind, natural gas or small hydro. It concludes that many small hydro schemes would be viable without the CDM subsidy. Although these projects have zero emissions from operations, offsets issued to projects that are viable without subsidy permit increased emissions in developed countries and lead to a net increase in global emissions. To provide some indication of the sustainable development benefits that CDM projects bring to their host countries, the paper includes estimates of the projects' benefit to public health due to the reduced use of coal for generation. The paper provides insights into the economics of projects and their value to host countries that are missed by the official CDM methodologies. It contributes to the debate over the design of sector-specific offset schemes that may be part of a new global agreement on combating climate change.

  11. Twice the negativity bias and half the positivity offset: Evaluative responses to emotional information in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollan, Jackie K; Hoxha, Denada; Hunnicutt-Ferguson, Kallio; Norris, Catherine J; Rosebrock, Laina; Sankin, Lindsey; Cacioppo, John

    2016-09-01

    Humans have the dual capacity to assign a slightly pleasant valence to neutral stimuli (the positivity offset) to encourage approach behaviors, as well as to assign a higher negative valence to unpleasant images relative to the positive valence to equally arousing and extreme pleasant images (the negativity bias) to facilitate defensive strategies. We conducted an experimental psychopathology study to examine the extent to which the negativity bias and the positivity offset differ in participants with and without major depression.. Forty-one depressed and thirty-six healthy participants were evaluated using a structured clinical interview for DSM-IV Axis I disorders, questionnaires, and a computerized task designed to measure implicit affective responses to unpleasant, neutral, and pleasant stimuli. The negativity bias was significantly higher and the positivity offset was significantly lower in depressed relative to healthy participants.. Entry criteria enrolling medication-free participants with minimal DSM-IV comorbidity may limit generalizability of the findings. This study advances our understanding of the positive and negative valence systems in depression, highlighting the irregularities in the positive valence system.. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Asymmetric band offsets in silicon heterojunction solar cells: Impact on device performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seif, Johannes Peter, E-mail: johannes.seif@alumni.epfl.ch; Ballif, Christophe; De Wolf, Stefaan [Photovoltaics and Thin-Film Electronics Laboratory, Institute of Microengineering (IMT), Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Rue de la Maladière 71b, CH-2002 Neuchâtel (Switzerland); Menda, Deneb; Özdemir, Orhan [Department of Physics, Yıldız Technical University, Davutpasa Campus, TR-34210 Esenler, Istanbul (Turkey); Descoeudres, Antoine; Barraud, Loris [CSEM, PV-Center, Jaquet-Droz 1, CH-2002 Neuchâtel (Switzerland)

    2016-08-07

    Amorphous/crystalline silicon interfaces feature considerably larger valence than conduction band offsets. In this article, we analyze the impact of such band offset asymmetry on the performance of silicon heterojunction solar cells. To this end, we use silicon suboxides as passivation layers—inserted between substrate and (front or rear) contacts—since such layers enable intentionally exacerbated band-offset asymmetry. Investigating all topologically possible passivation layer permutations and focussing on light and dark current-voltage characteristics, we confirm that to avoid fill factor losses, wider-bandgap silicon oxide films (of at least several nanometer thin) should be avoided in hole-collecting contacts. As a consequence, device implementation of such films as window layers—without degraded carrier collection—demands electron collection at the front and hole collection at the rear. Furthermore, at elevated operating temperatures, once possible carrier transport barriers are overcome by thermionic (field) emission, the device performance is mainly dictated by the passivation of its surfaces. In this context, compared to the standard amorphous silicon layers, the wide-bandgap oxide layers applied here passivate remarkably better at these temperatures, which may represent an additional benefit under practical operation conditions.

  13. Precise Receiver Clock Offset Estimations According to Each Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) Timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongtan, Thayathip; Tirawanichakul, Pawit; Satirapod, Chalermchon

    2017-12-01

    Each GNSS constellation operates its own system times; namely, GPS system time (GPST), GLONASS system time (GLONASST), BeiDou system time (BDT) and Galileo system time (GST). They could be traced back to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) scale and are aligned to GPST. This paper estimates the receiver clock offsets to three timescales: GPST, GLONASST and BDT. The two measurement scenarios use two identical multi-GNSS geodetic receivers connected to the same geodetic antenna through a splitter. One receiver is driven by its internal oscillators and another receiver is connected to the external frequency oscillators, caesium frequency standard, kept as the Thailand standard time scale at the National Institute of Metrology (Thailand) called UTC(NIMT). The three weeks data are observed at 30 seconds sample rate. The receiver clock offsets with respected to the three system time are estimated and analysed through the geodetic technique of static Precise Point Positioning (PPP) using a data processing software developed by Wuhan University - Positioning And Navigation Data Analyst (PANDA) software. The estimated receiver clock offsets are around 32, 33 and 18 nanoseconds from GPST, GLONASST and BDT respectively. This experiment is initially stated that each timescale is inter-operated with GPST and further measurements on receiver internal delay has to be determined for clock comparisons especially the high accuracy clock at timing laboratories.

  14. Determination of band offsets at GaN/single-layer MoS2 heterojunction

    KAUST Repository

    Tangi, Malleswararao

    2016-07-25

    We report the band alignment parameters of the GaN/single-layer (SL) MoS2 heterostructure where the GaN thin layer is grown by molecular beam epitaxy on CVD deposited SL-MoS2/c-sapphire. We confirm that the MoS2 is an SL by measuring the separation and position of room temperature micro-Raman E1 2g and A1 g modes, absorbance, and micro-photoluminescence bandgap studies. This is in good agreement with HRTEM cross-sectional analysis. The determination of band offset parameters at the GaN/SL-MoS2 heterojunction is carried out by high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy accompanying with electronic bandgap values of SL-MoS2 and GaN. The valence band and conduction band offset values are, respectively, measured to be 1.86 ± 0.08 and 0.56 ± 0.1 eV with type II band alignment. The determination of these unprecedented band offset parameters opens up a way to integrate 3D group III nitride materials with 2D transition metal dichalcogenide layers for designing and modeling of their heterojunction based electronic and photonic devices.

  15. Interface dependence of band offsets in lattice-matched isovalent heterojunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrecht, Walter R. L.; Segall, Benjamin

    1990-01-01

    Using a previously developed self-consistent dipole theory, we find that the interface dependence of band offsets for lattice-matched isovalent heterojunction is generally small. Specifically, we find the difference between the (001) and (110) band offsets for the common-anion heterojunctions AlP/GaP, AlAs/GaAs, AlSb/GaSb, and CdTe/HgTe to be, at most, 0.02 eV. An investigation of the various details in the calculations leads to an error estimate of +/-0.03 eV; the differences are therefore insignificant. For the noncommon-anion systems, the difference between two different bonding configurations of the (001) interface is noted. Although the differences between the various interfaces are found to be slightly larger than for the common-anion cases, the only significant difference is found to occur between the In-Sb and Ga-As (001) interfaces, where it is 0.1 eV. In this case, the (110) band offset lies midway between the two.

  16. Development of a Fiber-Optics Microspatially Offset Raman Spectroscopy Sensor for Probing Layered Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenabeele, Peter; Conti, Claudia; Rousaki, Anastasia; Moens, Luc; Realini, Marco; Matousek, Pavel

    2017-09-05

    Microspatially offset Raman spectroscopy (micro-SORS) has been proposed as a valuable approach to sample molecular information from layers that are covered by a turbid (nontransparent) layer. However, when large magnifications are involved, the approach is not straightforward, as spatial constraints exist to position the laser beam and the objective lens with the external beam delivery or, with internal beam delivery, the maximum spatial offset achievable is restricted. To overcome these limitations, we propose here a prototype of a new micro-SORS sensor, which uses bare glass fibers to transfer the laser radiation to the sample and to collect the Raman signal from a spatially offset zone to the Raman spectrometer. The concept also renders itself amenable to remote delivery and to the miniaturization of the probe head which could be beneficial for special applications, e.g., where access to sample areas is restricted. The basic applicability of this approach was demonstrated by studying several layered structure systems. Apart from proving the feasibility of the technique, also, practical aspects of the use of the prototype sensor are discussed.

  17. Administration and transaction cost estimates for a greenhouse gas offset system : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Canada's Climate Change Plan provides large final emitters (LFEs) with the option to meet their emission targets through the purchase of domestic greenhouse gas (GHG) offset credits. This paper presents the results of a study which identified and estimated transaction costs associated with an offset system. The cost to both proponents and governments were identified. The study also suggested ways to reduce administration and transaction costs through design options. The study considered projects involving agriculture, forests, landfill gas capture, renewable energy and energy efficiency within a potential domestic offset system. It was determined that average transaction costs per tonne range from $19 per tonne to $0.05 depending on the design choice and project type. Total administration costs did not vary more than 5 per cent between different design choices. The total system costs, which are the combination of all transaction and administration costs, are the best indicator for the potential of a project. Eight case studies were examined and costs per tonne were presented. According to the results, the best opportunities to reduce both transaction and administration costs are to choose a broad approach to baselines, boundaries and quantification; and, to allow pooling in the forestry and agriculture sectors. Transaction costs can be lowered further by reducing the frequency of monitoring and verification and allowing pre-2008 crediting. refs., tabs., figs

  18. Modification of the axial offsets trajectory method to control xenon oscillation during load following operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimazu, Yoichiro

    1996-01-01

    A new method which can give continuous guidance for controlling axial xenon oscillations in large PWRs has been presented. The method is based on two additional newly defined axial offsets, A Oi and A Ox together with the conventional axial offset of power distribution A Op. A Oi and A Ox are the axial offsets of power distributions which would give the current iodine and xenon distributions under equilibrium conditions, respectively. The information from A Oi, A Ox and A Op are used to display the trajectory of (A Op - A Ox, A Oi - A Ox) in the X-Y plane. The trajectory shows a very characteristic behavior. With the characteristics in mind the xenon oscillation can be controlled quite easily to lead the plot to the origin where three A Os are identical. The method has been proved with the power level constant. However, it is necessary to modify the definition of A Ox so as to apply this method to load following operations. A reasonable way of the modification is described and the results are presented. (author)

  19. Dispersion tolerance enhancement using an improved offset-QAM OFDM scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jian; Townsend, Paul D

    2015-06-29

    Discrete-Fourier transform (DFT) based offset quadrature amplitude modulation (offset-QAM) orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) without cyclic prefix (CP) was shown to offer a dispersion tolerance the same as that of conventional OFDM with ~20% CP overhead. In this paper, we analytically study the fundamental mechanism limiting the dispersion tolerance of this conventional scheme. It is found that the signal and the crosstalk from adjacent subcarriers, which are orthogonal with π/2 phase difference at back to back, can be in-phase when the dispersion increases to a certain value. We propose a novel scheme to overcome this limitation and significantly improve the dispersion tolerance to that of one subcarrier. Simulations show that the proposed scheme can support a 224-Gb/s polarization-division-multiplexed offset-4QAM OFDM signal over 160,000 ps/nm without any CP under 128 subcarriers, and this tolerance scales with the square of the number of subcarriers. It is also shown that this scheme exhibits advantages of greatly enhanced spectral efficiency, larger dispersion tolerance, and/or reduced complexity compared to the conventional CP-OFDM and reduced-guard-interval OFDM using frequency domain equalization.

  20. Modal analysis and acoustic transmission through offset-core honeycomb sandwich panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Adam Dustin

    The work presented in this thesis is motivated by an earlier research that showed that double, offset-core honeycomb sandwich panels increased thermal resistance and, hence, decreased heat transfer through the panels. This result lead to the hypothesis that these panels could be used for acoustic insulation. Using commercial finite element modeling software, COMSOL Multiphysics, the acoustical properties, specifically the transmission loss across a variety of offset-core honeycomb sandwich panels, is studied for the case of a plane acoustic wave impacting the panel at normal incidence. The transmission loss results are compared with those of single-core honeycomb panels with the same cell sizes. The fundamental frequencies of the panels are also computed in an attempt to better understand the vibrational modes of these particular sandwich-structured panels. To ensure that the finite element analysis software is adequate for the task at hand, two relevant benchmark problems are solved and compared with theory. Results from these benchmark results compared well to those obtained from theory. Transmission loss results from the offset-core honeycomb sandwich panels show increased transmission loss, especially for large cell honeycombs when compared to single-core honeycomb panels.

  1. Determination of band offsets at GaN/single-layer MoS{sub 2} heterojunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tangi, Malleswararao; Mishra, Pawan; Ng, Tien Khee; Janjua, Bilal; Alias, Mohd Sharizal; Ooi, Boon S., E-mail: boon.ooi@kaust.edu.sa [Photonics Laboratory, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal 23955-6900 (Saudi Arabia); Hedhili, Mohamed Nejib; Anjum, Dalaver H. [Adavanced Nanofabrication Imaging and Characterization, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal 23955-6900 (Saudi Arabia); Tseng, Chien-Chih; Shi, Yumeng; Li, Lain-Jong [Physical Sciences and Engineering Division, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal 23955-6900 (Saudi Arabia); Joyce, Hannah J. [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, 9 JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire CB3 0FA (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-18

    We report the band alignment parameters of the GaN/single-layer (SL) MoS{sub 2} heterostructure where the GaN thin layer is grown by molecular beam epitaxy on CVD deposited SL-MoS{sub 2}/c-sapphire. We confirm that the MoS{sub 2} is an SL by measuring the separation and position of room temperature micro-Raman E{sup 1}{sub 2g} and A{sup 1}{sub g} modes, absorbance, and micro-photoluminescence bandgap studies. This is in good agreement with HRTEM cross-sectional analysis. The determination of band offset parameters at the GaN/SL-MoS{sub 2} heterojunction is carried out by high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy accompanying with electronic bandgap values of SL-MoS{sub 2} and GaN. The valence band and conduction band offset values are, respectively, measured to be 1.86 ± 0.08 and 0.56 ± 0.1 eV with type II band alignment. The determination of these unprecedented band offset parameters opens up a way to integrate 3D group III nitride materials with 2D transition metal dichalcogenide layers for designing and modeling of their heterojunction based electronic and photonic devices.

  2. Determination of band offsets at GaN/single-layer MoS2 heterojunction

    KAUST Repository

    Tangi, Malleswararao; Mishra, Pawan; Ng, Tien Khee; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Janjua, Bilal; Alias, Mohd Sharizal; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Tseng, Chien-Chih; Shi, Yumeng; Joyce, Hannah J.; Li, Lain-Jong; Ooi, Boon S.

    2016-01-01

    We report the band alignment parameters of the GaN/single-layer (SL) MoS2 heterostructure where the GaN thin layer is grown by molecular beam epitaxy on CVD deposited SL-MoS2/c-sapphire. We confirm that the MoS2 is an SL by measuring the separation and position of room temperature micro-Raman E1 2g and A1 g modes, absorbance, and micro-photoluminescence bandgap studies. This is in good agreement with HRTEM cross-sectional analysis. The determination of band offset parameters at the GaN/SL-MoS2 heterojunction is carried out by high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy accompanying with electronic bandgap values of SL-MoS2 and GaN. The valence band and conduction band offset values are, respectively, measured to be 1.86 ± 0.08 and 0.56 ± 0.1 eV with type II band alignment. The determination of these unprecedented band offset parameters opens up a way to integrate 3D group III nitride materials with 2D transition metal dichalcogenide layers for designing and modeling of their heterojunction based electronic and photonic devices.

  3. Nuclear Gas Dynamics of NGC2110: A Black Hole Offset from the Host Galaxy Mass Center?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundell, C. G.; Ferruit, P.; Nagar, N.; Wilson, A. S.

    2004-01-01

    It has been suggested that the central regions of many galaxies are unlikely to be in a static steady state, with instabilities caused by sinking satellites, the influence of a supermassive black hole or residuals of galaxy formation, resulting in the nuclear black hole orbiting the galaxy center. The observational signature of such an orbiting black hole is an offset of the active nucleus (AGN) from the kinematic center defined by the galaxy rotation curve. This orbital motion may provide fuel for the AGN, as the hole 'grazes' on the ISM, and bent radio jets, due to the motion of their source. The early type (E/SO) Seyfert galaxy, NGC2210, with its striking twin, 'S'-shaped radio jets, is a unique and valuable test case for the offset-nucleus phenomenon since, despite its remarkably normal rotation curve, its kinematically-measured mass center is displaced both spatially (260 pc) and kinematically (170 km/s) from the active nucleus located in optical and radio studies. However, the central kinematics, where the rotation curve rises most steeply, have been inaccessible with ground-based resolutions. We present new, high resolution WFPC2 imaging and long-slit STIS spectroscopy of the central 300 pc of NGC2110. We discuss the structure and kinematics of gas moving in the galactic potential on subarcsecond scales and the reality of the offset between the black hole and the galaxy mass center.

  4. A direct-conversion WLAN transceiver baseband with DC offset compensation and carrier leakage reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan Fang; Yan Jun; Ma Heping; Shi Yin [Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Foster, Dai Fa, E-mail: fyuan@sci-inc.com.c [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849-5201 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    A dual-band direct-conversion WLAN transceiver baseband compliant with the IEEE 802.11a/b/g standards is described. Several critical techniques for receiver DC offset compensation and transmitter carrier leakage rejection calibration are presented that enable the direct-conversion architecture to meet all WLAN specifications. The receiver baseband VGA provides 62 dB gain range with steps of 2 dB and a DC offset cancellation circuit is introduced to remove the offset from layout and self-mixing. The calibration loop achieves constant high-pass pole when gain changes; and a fast response time by programming the pole to 1 MHz during preamble and to 30 kHz during receiving data. The transmitter baseband employs an auto-calibration loop with on-chip AD and DA to suppress the carrier leakage, and AD can be powered down after calibration to save power consumption. The chip consumes 17.52 mA for RX baseband VGA and DCOC, and 8.3 mA for TX carrier leakage calibration (5.88 mA after calibration) from 2.85 V supply. Implemented in a 0.35 {mu}m SiGe technology, they occupy 0.68 mm{sup 2} and 0.18 mm{sup 2} die size respectively. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  5. Exogenous and endogenous control of attention: the effect of visual onsets and offsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theeuwes, J

    1991-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out to investigate the relation between exogenous and endogenous control of visual attention. Subjects searched for a target letter among three nontarget letters that were positioned on an imaginary circle around a fixation point. At different cue-display intervals, a centrally located arrowhead cue reliably indicated the location of the target letter. At different SOAs, a peripheral line segment near one of the letters was either abruptly switched on (Experiment 1) or abruptly switched off (Experiment 2). Presenting the central arrowhead after display onset prevents attention from being focused in advance on the critical location. In this unfocused attentional state, both onset and offset transients attracted attention. When the central arrowhead was available in advance, the focusing of attention prior to display onset precluded attention attraction to the location of the onset or offset transient. Contrary to an offset transient, an onset transient presented at the attended location disrupted performance, indicating that an onset within the spotlight of attention attracts attention. The results are reconciled by means of the zoom-lens theory of attention, suggesting that outside the focus of attention, abrupt transients are not capable of attracting attention. Since the size of the zoom lens is under voluntary control, it can be argued that transients do not fulfill the intentionality criterion of automaticity.

  6. Rounded leaf end effect of multileaf collimator on penumbra width and radiation field offset: an analytical and numerical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Dong; Zhang, Hui; Ye, Peiqing

    2015-01-01

    Penumbra characteristics play a significant role in dose delivery accuracy for radiation therapy. For treatment planning, penumbra width and radiation field offset strongly influence target dose conformity and organ at risk sparing. In this study, we present an analytical and numerical approach for evaluation of the rounded leaf end effect on penumbra characteristics. Based on the rule of half-value layer, algorithms for leaf position calculation and radiation field offset correction were developed, which were advantageous particularly in dealing with large radius leaf end. Computer simulation was performed based on the Monte Carlo codes of EGSnrc/BEAMnrc, with groups of leaf end radii and source sizes. Data processing technique of curve fitting was employed for deriving penumbra width and radiation field offset. Results showed that penumbra width increased with source size. Penumbra width curves for large radius leaf end were U-shaped. This observation was probably related to the fact that radiation beams penetrated through the proximal and distal leaf sides. In contrast, source size had negligible impact on radiation field offset. Radiation field offsets were found to be constant both for analytical method and numerical simulation. However, the overall resulting values of radiation field offset obtained by analytical method were slightly smaller compared with Monte Carlo simulation. The method we proposed could provide insight into the investigation of rounded leaf end effects on penumbra characteristics. Penumbra width and radiation field offset calibration should be carefully performed to commission multileaf collimator for intensity modulated radiotherapy

  7. Lateral Offset Quality Rating along Low Slip Rate Faults: Application to the Alhama de Murcia Fault (SE Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Ferrater

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Seismic hazard assessment of strike-slip faults is based partly on the identification and mapping of landforms laterally offset due to fault activity. The characterization of these features affected by slow-moving faults is challenging relative to studies emphasizing rapidly slipping faults. We propose a methodology for scoring fault offsets based on subjective and objective qualities. We apply this methodology to the Alhama de Murcia fault (SE Iberian Peninsula where we identify 138 offset features that we mapped on a high-resolution (0.5 × 0.5 m pixel size Digital Elevation Model (DEM. The amount of offset, the uncertainty of the measurement, the subjective and objective qualities, and the parameters that affect objective quality are independent variables, suggesting that our methodological scoring approach is good. Based on the offset measurements and qualifications we calculate the Cumulative Offset Probability Density (COPD for the entire fault and for each fault segment. The COPD for the segments differ from each other. Tentative interpretation of the COPDs implies that the slip rate varies from one segment to the other (we assume that channels with the same amount of offset were incised synchronously. We compare the COPD with climate proxy curves (aligning using the very limited age control to test if entrenchment events are coincident with climatic changes. Channel incision along one of the traces in Lorca-Totana segment may be related to transitions from glacial to interglacial periods.

  8. The absence or temporal offset of visual feedback does not influence adaptation to novel movement dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Erin; Bray, Laurence C Jayet; Zhou, Weiwei; Joiner, Wilsaan M

    2017-10-01

    Delays in transmitting and processing sensory information require correctly associating delayed feedback to issued motor commands for accurate error compensation. The flexibility of this alignment between motor signals and feedback has been demonstrated for movement recalibration to visual manipulations, but the alignment dependence for adapting movement dynamics is largely unknown. Here we examined the effect of visual feedback manipulations on force-field adaptation. Three subject groups used a manipulandum while experiencing a lag in the corresponding cursor motion (0, 75, or 150 ms). When the offset was applied at the start of the session (continuous condition), adaptation was not significantly different between groups. However, these similarities may be due to acclimation to the offset before motor adaptation. We tested additional subjects who experienced the same delays concurrent with the introduction of the perturbation (abrupt condition). In this case adaptation was statistically indistinguishable from the continuous condition, indicating that acclimation to feedback delay was not a factor. In addition, end-point errors were not significantly different across the delay or onset conditions, but end-point correction (e.g., deceleration duration) was influenced by the temporal offset. As an additional control, we tested a group of subjects who performed without visual feedback and found comparable movement adaptation results. These results suggest that visual feedback manipulation (absence or temporal misalignment) does not affect adaptation to novel dynamics, independent of both acclimation and perceptual awareness. These findings could have implications for modeling how the motor system adjusts to errors despite concurrent delays in sensory feedback information. NEW & NOTEWORTHY A temporal offset between movement and distorted visual feedback (e.g., visuomotor rotation) influences the subsequent motor recalibration, but the effects of this offset for

  9. High resolution remote sensing for reducing uncertainties in urban forest carbon offset life cycle assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tigges, Jan; Lakes, Tobia

    2017-10-04

    Urban forests reduce greenhouse gas emissions by storing and sequestering considerable amounts of carbon. However, few studies have considered the local scale of urban forests to effectively evaluate their potential long-term carbon offset. The lack of precise, consistent and up-to-date forest details is challenging for long-term prognoses. Therefore, this review aims to identify uncertainties in urban forest carbon offset assessment and discuss the extent to which such uncertainties can be reduced by recent progress in high resolution remote sensing. We do this by performing an extensive literature review and a case study combining remote sensing and life cycle assessment of urban forest carbon offset in Berlin, Germany. Recent progress in high resolution remote sensing and methods is adequate for delivering more precise details on the urban tree canopy, individual tree metrics, species, and age structures compared to conventional land use/cover class approaches. These area-wide consistent details can update life cycle inventories for more precise future prognoses. Additional improvements in classification accuracy can be achieved by a higher number of features derived from remote sensing data of increasing resolution, but first studies on this subject indicated that a smart selection of features already provides sufficient data that avoids redundancies and enables more efficient data processing. Our case study from Berlin could use remotely sensed individual tree species as consistent inventory of a life cycle assessment. However, a lack of growth, mortality and planting data forced us to make assumptions, therefore creating uncertainty in the long-term prognoses. Regarding temporal changes and reliable long-term estimates, more attention is required to detect changes of gradual growth, pruning and abrupt changes in tree planting and mortality. As such, precise long-term urban ecological monitoring using high resolution remote sensing should be intensified

  10. A new strategy of axial power distribution control based on three axial offsets concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimazu, Yoichiro

    2009-01-01

    We have proposed a very simple control procedure for axial xenon oscillation control based on a characteristic trajectory. The trajectory is drawn by three offsets of power distributions, namely, AOp, AOi and AOx. They are defined as the offset of axial power distribution, the offset of the power distribution under which the current iodine distribution is obtained as the equilibrium and that for xenon distribution, respectively. When these offsets are plotted on X-Y plane for (AOp-AOx, AOi-AOx) the trajectory draws a quite characteristic ellipse (or an elliptic spiral). On the other hands, Constant Axial Offset Control (CAOC) procedure is adopted as axial power distribution control strategy during both base load and load following operations in domestic PWRs. In the previous paper, we have presented an innovative procedure of axial power distribution control during load following in PWRs based on this trajectory such that the AOp-AOx is to be controlled to zero when the value deviates the pre-determined limiting values. In this paper we propose a modified control strategy to get more stability of axial power distributions. In this strategy, we control the trajectory to be close to the major axis of the ellipse when the power distribution reaches the limiting values. In other words, the plot is not controlled only to reduce AOp-AOx but also AOi-AOx is taken into account at the same time. It is known that when the plot is controlled to the major axis, it means that the point gives the peak position of axial xenon oscillation. Therefore xenon oscillation will not increase its amplitude any more. Thus more stable axial power distribution control is attained. This kind of design concept is quite important especially for the future PWRs with elongated fuel length and longer core life. Because in a longer effective core and also the longer core life, it has been known that the stability of axial xenon oscillation becomes more unstable. In this paper, some simulation

  11. Valence band offset of wurtzite InN/SrTiO3 heterojunction measured by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhiwei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The valence band offset (VBO of wurtzite indium nitride/strontium titanate (InN/SrTiO3 heterojunction has been directly measured by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The VBO is determined to be 1.26 ± 0.23 eV and the conduction band offset is deduced to be 1.30 ± 0.23 eV, indicating the heterojunction has a type-I band alignment. The accurate determination of the valence and conduction band offsets paves a way to the applications of integrating InN with the functional oxide SrTiO3.

  12. Synchronizing modified van der Pol-Duffing oscillators with offset terms using observer design: application to secure communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fodjouong, G J; Fotsin, H B; Woafo, P

    2007-01-01

    This study addresses the adaptive synchronization of the modified van der Pol-Duffing (MVDPD) oscillator with offset terms. From our investigations of the system dynamics, we obtain that the system presents a chaotic behaviour at weak values of the offset parameters. Routh-Hurwitz criteria are used to study the asymptotic stability of the steady states. An adaptive observer design method is applied to achieve synchronization of two identical MVDPD oscillators with offset. Numerical simulations are given to validate the proposed synchronization approach. Moreover, as an application, the proposed scheme is applied to secure communication. Also, simulation results verify the proposed scheme's success in the communication application

  13. 36 CFR 1011.21 - How do other Federal agencies use the offset process to collect debts from payments issued by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., including salary payments issued to the Presidio Trust employees. This section and § 1011.22 of this subpart... collection of debts through tax refund offset. (b) Administrative offset (including salary offset... paid in full or otherwise resolved to the satisfaction of the creditor agency. (c) Where a creditor...

  14. 28 CFR Appendix C to Part 79 - Radiation Exposure Compensation Act Offset Worksheet-On Site Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Column 4 “Actuarial Present Value”of past payments = $0.00 NET AMOUNT OWED CLAIMANT ($75,000 less APV... Compensation Act Offset Worksheet—On Site Participants [Present CPI = 185.20] VA paymentsyear Payment Indicated...

  15. Analysis of collector-emitter offset voltage of InGaP/GaAs composite collector double heterojunction bipolar transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, K. L.; Yoon, S. F.

    2002-04-01

    The Ebers-Moll-like terminal current expressions of a composite collector double heterojunction bipolar transistor (DHBT), which takes the recombination effect into account, have been formulated and an expression for collector-emitter offset voltage [VCE(offset)] has been derived. Factors affecting the VCE(offset) of a composite collector DHBT are investigated and good agreement between the calculated and reported experimental results is shown. Analytical results showed that the transmission coefficient of the base-collector (B-C) junction does not have a considerable effect on the VCE(offset), provided that the B-C junction is of good quality. Thus, despite its asymmetric structure, the VCE(offset) of an optimally designed composite collector DHBT could be as low as that of a conventional DHBT. Hence a composite collector DHBT with low saturation voltage and negligible VCE(offset) is possible if the two conditions: (i) good quality B-C junction, (ii) base transport factor, α≈1, are fulfilled.

  16. A 24 GHz Waveguide based Radar System using an Advanced Algorithm for I/Q Offset Cancelation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Will

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Precise position measurement with micrometer accuracy plays an important role in modern industrial applications. Herewith, a guided wave Six-Port interferometric radar system is presented. Due to limited matching and discontinuities in the radio frequency part of the system, the designers have to deal with DC offsets. The offset voltages in the baseband lead to worse relative modulation dynamics relating to the full scale range of the analog-to-digital converters and thus, considerably degrade the system performance. While common cancelation techniques try to estimate and extinguish the DC offsets directly, the proposed radar system is satisfied with equalizing both DC offsets for each of the two differential baseband signal pairs. Since the complex representation of the baseband signals is utilized for a subsequent arctangent demodulation, the proposed offset equalization implicates a centering of the in-phase and quadrature (I/Q components of the received signal, which is sufficient to simplify the demodulation and improve the phase accuracy. Therefore, a standard Six-Port radar system is extended and a variable phase shifter plus variable attenuators are inserted at different positions. An intelligent algorithm adjusts these configurable components to achieve optimal I/Q offset cancelation.

  17. Variability of medial and posterior offset in patients with fourth-generation stemmed shoulder arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irlenbusch, Ulrich; Berth, Alexander; Blatter, Georges; Zenz, Peter

    2012-03-01

    Most anthropometric data on the proximal humerus has been obtained from deceased healthy individuals with no deformities. Endoprostheses are implanted for primary and secondary osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis,humeral-head necrosis, fracture sequelae and other humeral-head deformities. This indicates that pathologicoanatomical variability may be greater than previously assumed. We therefore investigated a group of patients with typical shoulder replacement diagnoses, including posttraumatic and rheumatic deformities. One hundred and twenty-two patients with a double eccentrically adjustable shaft endoprosthesis served as a specific dimension gauge to determine in vivo the individual humeral-head rotation centres from the position of the adjustable prosthesis taper and the eccentric head. All prosthesis heads were positioned eccentrically.The entire adjustment range of the prosthesis of 12 mm medial/lateral and 6 mm dorsal/ventral was required. Mean values for effective offset were 5.84 mm mediolaterally[standard deviation (SD) 1.95, minimum +2, maximum +11]and 1.71 mm anteroposteriorly (SD 1.71, minimum −3,maximum 3 mm), averaging 5.16 mm (SD 1.76, minimum +2,maximum + 10). The posterior offset averaged 1.85 mm(SD 1.85, minimum −1, maximum + 6 mm). In summary, variability of the combined medial and dorsal offset of the humeral-head rotational centre determined in patients with typical underlying diagnoses in shoulder replacement was not greater than that recorded in the literature for healthy deceased patients.The range of deviation is substantial and shows the need for an adjustable prosthetic system.

  18. An offset tone based gain stabilization technique for mixed-signal RF measurement systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Gopal, E-mail: gjos@barc.gov.in [BARC, Mumbai 400085 (India); Motiwala, Paresh D.; Randale, G.D.; Singh, Pitamber [BARC, Mumbai 400085 (India); Agarwal, Vivek; Kumar, Girish [IIT Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076 (India)

    2015-09-21

    This paper describes a gain stabilization technique for a RF signal measurement system. A sinusoidal signal of known amplitude, phase and close enough in frequency is added to the main, to be measured RF signal at the input of the analog section. The system stabilizes this offset tone in the digital domain, as it is sampled at the output of the analog section. This process generates a correction factor needed to stabilize the magnitude of the gain of the analog section for the main RF signal. With the help of a simple calibration procedure, the absolute amplitude of the main RF signal can be measured. The technique is especially suited for a system that processes signals around a single frequency, employs direct signal conversion into the digital domain, and processes subsequent steps in an FPGA. The inherent parallel signal processing in an FPGA-based implementation allows a real time stabilization of the gain. The effectiveness of the technique is derived from the fact, that the gain stabilization stamped to the main RF signal measurement branch requires only a few components in the system to be inherently stable. A test setup, along with experimental results is presented from the field of RF instrumentation for particle accelerators. Due to the availability of a phase synchronized RF reference signal in these systems, the measured phase difference between the main RF and the RF reference is also stabilized using this technique. A scheme of the signal processing is presented, where a moving average filter has been used to filter out not only the unwanted frequencies, but also to separate the main RF signal from the offset tone signal. This is achieved by a suitable choice of sampling and offset tone frequencies. The presented signal processing scheme is suitable to a variety of RF measurement applications.

  19. Performance investigation of an innovative offset strip fin arrays in compact heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Hao; Ling, Xiang; Li, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The effect of fin pitch, length and bending distance on thermal performance were presented. • The corresponding Re C values at the j and f slope changes are in the range of 2000–2100. • The numerical results showed a good agreement with the experimental data. • Local high Nu values near the channel inlet, decreasing through the flow directions. - Abstract: Experimental and numerical studies on the flow and heat transfer characteristics for an innovative offset strip fins compact heat exchangers were performed. First, five fin schemes were investigated with various air flow velocities and a constant inlet steam pressure by experiments. The Reynolds number ranged from 500 to 5000 at the air side. The experimental results indicated that the fin pitch (P f ), fin length (L f ) and fin bending distance (C f ) have a significant influence on thermal performance of fins. The Colburn factor j, friction factor f and ‘point of transition’ were calculated from the experimental data. Then, the thermal–hydraulic performances of the novel offset strip fins were analyzed numerically. The simulation results obtained are in agreement with experimental data. Based on these simulations, the maximum values for local Nu number are at the channel inlet which is due to the thermal entrance effect. The longitudinal vortexes near the fin region will increase velocity gradient and reduce the thickness of boundary layer to improve heat transfer. The main conclusion draws from this work will be helpful for future development and design of a high-efficiency heat exchangers involving offset strip fin structures

  20. Modification of band offsets of InGaZnO4/Si heterojunction through nitrogenation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, X.F.; He, G.; Lv, J.G.; Liu, M.; Wang, P.H.; Chen, X.S.; Sun, Z.Q.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of nitrogen on the band offset of sputtering-derived InZnGaO 4 (IGZO)/Si heterostructures has been systematically investigated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements. Elemental analysis indicates that nitrogen has been successfully incorporated into the IGZO film. By using In 3d 5/2 , In 3d 3/2 and Ga 3d core level (CL) XPS spectra as references, values of valence band offsets (ΔE v ) of have been determined to be 2.56 ± 0.02 and 2.44 ± 0.02 eV for IGZO/Si and IGZO:N/Si heterojunctions, respectively. Using the experimental band gap of 3.59 and 3.50 eV of the IGZO/Si and IGZO:N/Si, the calculated values of conduction band offset (ΔE c ) is 0.09 ± 0.01 and 0.06 ± 0.01 eV, respectively. The results indicate that nitrogen incorporation leads to the reduction in band gap and ΔE v and the slight effect on the ΔE c has also been detected. - Highlights: • α-IGZO/Si and α-IGZO:N/Si heterostructures have been obtained by sputtering. • Nitrogen dependent ΔE v and ΔE v have been determined by XPS measurements. • Nitrogen incorporation in IGZO leads to the reduced band gap and increased ΔE v . • Nitrogen incorporation has no apparent effect on the ΔE c of α-IGZO/Si