Sample records for hammer1 alessio micheli2

  1. Design of the monitoring system at the Sant'Alessio induced riverbank filtration plant (Lucca, Italy)

    Rossetto, Rudy; Barbagli, Alessio; Borsi, Iacopo; Mazzanti, Giorgio; Picciaia, Daniele; Vienken, Thomas; Bonari, Enrico


    In Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) schemes the monitoring system, for both water quality and quantity issues, plays a key role in assuring that a groundwater recharge plant is really managed. Considering induced Riverbank Filtration (RBF) schemes, while the effect of the augmented filtration consists in an improvement of the quality and quantity of the water infiltrating the aquifer, there is in turn the risk for groundwater contamination, as surface water bodies are highly susceptible to contamination. Within the framework of the MARSOL (2014) EU FPVII-ENV-2013 project, an experimental monitoring system has been designed and will be set in place at the Sant'Alessio RBF well field (Lucca, Italy) to demonstrate the sustainability and the benefits of managing induced RBF versus the unmanaged option. The RBF scheme in Sant'Alessio (Borsi et al. 2014) allows abstraction of an overall amount of about 0,5 m3/s groundwater providing drinking water for about 300000 people of the coastal Tuscany. Water is derived by ten vertical wells set along the Serchio River embankments inducing river water filtration into a high yield (10-2m2/s transmissivity) sand and gravel aquifer. Prior to the monitoring system design, a detailed site characterization has been completed taking advantage of previous and new investigations, the latter performed by means of MOSAIC on-site investigation platform (UFZ). A monitoring network has been set in place in the well field area using existing wells. There groundwater head and the main physico-chemical parameters (temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity and redox potential) are routinely monitored. Major geochemical compounds along with a large set of emerging pollutants are analysed (in cooperation with IWW Zentrum Wasser, Germany) both in surface-water and ground-water. The experimental monitoring system (including sensors in surface- and ground-water) has been designed focusing on managing abstraction efficiency and safety at

  2. Research Paper ISSN 0189-6016©2009

    oxidative stress in general (Alessio, 1993; Venditti et al., 1996) by oxygen ... The production of free radicals increases in parallel with the .... cum co-treated control (EPCC) - received composite extract through oral route as .... Statistical analysis.

  3. Characterization of Emissions and Air Quality Modeling for Predicting the Impacts of Prescribed Burns at DoD Lands


    States Prescribed Burns with Daysmoke. Atmosphere, 2(3): 358-388. Alessio, G.A., De Lillis , M., Fanelli, M., Pinelli, P. and Loreto, F., 2004. Direct...for Peace and Security Series B-Physics and Biophysics, pp. 189-193. Odman, M.T. and Russell, A.G., 2000. Mass conservative coupling of non

  4. Novuju "Voinu i mir" snimala vsja Jevropa / Julia Larina

    Larina, Julia


    Paljude lääneriikide ja Venemaa koostöös valminud seriaalist Lev Tolstoi romaani "Sõda ja rahu" järgi (režissöör Robert Dornhelm, Natasha rollis Clemence Poesy, Andrei Bolkonski rollis Alessio Boni). Võrreldud King Vidori ja Sergei Bondartshuki ekraniseeringutega (viimase ühe stsenaristi Vassili Solovjovi meenutused)

  5. 罗伯特·洛德和他的国际艺术家工作室



    "我想我在路上碰到了‘Robot’,但是我没有和他讲话。"英国煤气厂艺术车间和三角艺术创作营(Gasworks and Triangle Arts Trust)的负责人阿莱修(Alessio Antoniolli)愣了一下,没讲话,但很吃惊。最

  6. Easy quantitative methodology to assess visual-motor skills

    Chiappedi M; Toraldo A; Mandrini S; Scarpina F; Aquino M; Magnani FG; Bejor M


    Matteo Chiappedi,1 Alessio Toraldo,2 Silvia Mandrini,3 Federica Scarpina,2 Melissa Aquino,2 Francesca Giulia Magnani,2 Maurizio Bejor31Don Carlo Gnocchi ONLUS Foundation, Milan, Italy; 2University of Pavia, Department of Psychology, Pavia, Italy; 3University of Pavia, Department of Surgical, Resuscitative, Rehabilitative and Transplant Sciences, Pavia, ItalyIntroduction: Visual-motor skills are the basis for a great number of daily activities. To define a correct rehabilitation program for ne...

  7. Radio responding media. Prosumers, media innovation in web-based radio

    Brundu, Gabriella


    After a century of traditional broadcasting, this is the history of how the radio as a medium entered the web world, becoming web-based radios. Our case is based on an Italian web-radio, Radio Casa Bertallot, which started to make radio programmes using the possibilities of new media technology and the internet to create a platform for interacting with the users. The founder Alessio Bertallot, expressed his view on the radio production by describing the radio as, a place, as a home, a room, ...

  8. Chromosomes of four species of Galactia (Fabaceae CROMOSOMAS DE CUATRO ESPECIES DE GALACTIA (FABACEAE

    Flavia S. Bossi


    Full Text Available

    The chromosomes of 4 species of Galactia (Fabaceae have been studied and all of them have 2n=20. The chromosome numbers for Galactia marginalis Benth. (2n=2x=20, G. boavista (Vell.
    Burkart (n=x=1 O and G. benthamiana Micheli (2n=2x=20 are presented for the first time. The karyotypes of G. striata (Jacq. Urb. var. striata (20m and G. benthamiana (14m + 6sm are
    described. Both species can be distinguished by their karyotypic formula.
    Los cromosomas de cuatro especies de Galactia (Fabaceae han sido estudiados y todos ellos tienen 2n = 20. El número de cromosomas de Galactia marginalis Benth. (2n = 2x = 20, G. Boavista (Vell. Burkart (n = 1 x = O y G. benthamiana Micheli (2n = 2x = 20 se presentan por primera vez. Los cariotipos de G. striata (Jacq. Urb.. var. striata (20m y G. benthamiana (14m + 6sm son descriptos. Ambas especies se distinguen por su fórmula cariotípica

  9. Modelling tools for managing Induced RiverBank Filtration MAR schemes

    De Filippis, Giovanna; Barbagli, Alessio; Marchina, Chiara; Borsi, Iacopo; Mazzanti, Giorgio; Nardi, Marco; Vienken, Thomas; Bonari, Enrico; Rossetto, Rudy


    Induced RiverBank Filtration (IRBF) is a widely used technique in Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) schemes, when aquifers are hydraulically connected with surface water bodies, with proven positive effects on quality and quantity of groundwater. IRBF allows abstraction of a large volume of water, avoiding large decrease in groundwater heads. Moreover, thanks to the filtration process through the soil, the concentration of chemical species in surface water can be reduced, thus becoming an excellent resource for the production of drinking water. Within the FP7 MARSOL project (demonstrating Managed Aquifer Recharge as a SOLution to water scarcity and drought;, the Sant'Alessio IRBF (Lucca, Italy) was used to demonstrate the feasibility and technical and economic benefits of managing IRBF schemes (Rossetto et al., 2015a). The Sant'Alessio IRBF along the Serchio river allows to abstract an overall amount of about 0.5 m3/s providing drinking water for 300000 people of the coastal Tuscany (mainly to the town of Lucca, Pisa and Livorno). The supplied water is made available by enhancing river bank infiltration into a high yield (10-2 m2/s transmissivity) sandy-gravelly aquifer by rising the river head and using ten vertical wells along the river embankment. A Decision Support System, consisting in connected measurements from an advanced monitoring network and modelling tools was set up to manage the IRBF. The modelling system is based on spatially distributed and physically based coupled ground-/surface-water flow and solute transport models integrated in the FREEWAT platform (developed within the H2020 FREEWAT project - FREE and Open Source Software Tools for WATer Resource Management; Rossetto et al., 2015b), an open source and public domain GIS-integrated modelling environment for the simulation of the hydrological cycle. The platform aims at improving water resource management by simplifying the application of EU water-related Directives and at

  10. Reviving the Ancient Art of Making Persian Crucible Steel for Bladed Weaponry

    Manouchehr Moshtagh Khorasani


    Full Text Available This article is intended to both explain three traditional methods of manufacturing Persian crucible steel and to describe recent attempts by three German bladesmiths to replicate the results of traditional crucible steel making. The article will explain the process of making crucible steel, from the making of crucible steel cakes and forging of crucible cakes into bars, to polishing and etching these bars to reveal the crucible steel pattern. First described are three traditional methods of making crucible steel that are mentioned in Persian manuscripts. Second, elaborations are provided on three different modern processes carried out by three different talented German smiths, Achim Wirtz, Andreas Schweikert, and Cyrus Haghjoo. Finally, illustrations are shown some finished crucible steel blades made by Achim Wirtz and Andreas Schweikert as well as some crucible steel knives, made by the talented Belgian knifemaker Salsi Alessio, made from crucible steel bars provided by Achim Wirtz.

  11. Quantitative Doppler measures in coiled vessels: investigation on excised umbilical veins.

    Guiot, C; Roatta, S; Piccoli, E; Saccomandi, F; Todros, T


    Quantitative assessment of umbilical venous blood velocity with Doppler ultrasound (US) must cope with the coiled structure of the vein inside the cord. Both an experimental and a theoretical approach showed remarkable variations in the insonation angle when the probe was moved along the vein, provided the inclination between the Doppler probe and the cord was kept constant. Inaccurate signal processing, stochastic variability and flow disturbances could, however, mask the influence of the geometry. The above hypotheses were assessed by investigating five cords in vitro a few hours after delivery from normal pregnancies at term. The Doppler signal was sampled at different sites along each cord and the mean Doppler shift estimated by FFT spectral analysis, both directly and through the noise rejection D'Alessio's algorithm, which proved effective in improving the Doppler shift estimate in condition of low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR).

  12. A procedure for Applying a Maturity Model to Process Improvement

    Elizabeth Pérez Mergarejo


    Full Text Available A maturity model is an evolutionary roadmap for implementing the vital practices from one or moredomains of organizational process. The use of the maturity models is poor in the Latin-Americancontext. This paper presents a procedure for applying the Process and Enterprise Maturity Modeldeveloped by Michael Hammer [1]. The procedure is divided into three steps: Preparation, Evaluationand Improvement plan. The Hammer´s maturity model joint to the proposed procedure can be used byorganizations to improve theirs process, involving managers and employees.

  13. Mean reversion in the US stock market

    Serletis, Apostolos [Department of Economics, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 1N4 (Canada)], E-mail:; Rosenberg, Aryeh Adam [Department of Economics, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 1N4 (Canada)


    This paper revisits the evidence for the weaker form of the efficient market hypothesis, building on recent work by Serletis and Shintani [Serletis A, Shintani M. No evidence of chaos but some evidence of dependence in the US stock market. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2003;17:449-54], Elder and Serletis [Elder J, Serletis A. On fractional integrating dynamics in the US stock market. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2007;34;777-81], Koustas et al. [Koustas Z, Lamarche J.-F, Serletis A. Threshold random walks in the US stock market. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals, forthcoming], Hinich and Serletis [Hinich M, Serletis A. Randomly modulated periodicity in the US stock market. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals, forthcoming], and Serletis et al. [Serletis A, Uritskaya OY, Uritsky VM. Detrended Fluctuation analysis of the US stock market. Int J Bifurc Chaos, forthcoming]. In doing so, we use daily data, over the period from 5 February 1971 to 1 December 2006 (a total of 9045 observations) on four US stock market indexes - the Dow Jones Industrial Average, the Standard and Poor's 500 Index, the NASDAQ Composite Index, and the NYSE Composite Index - and a new statistical physics approach - namely the 'detrending moving average (DMA)' technique, recently introduced by Alessio et al. [Alessio E, Carbone A, Castelli G, Frappietro V. Second-order moving average and scaling of stochastic time series. Euro Phys J B 2002;27;197-200.] and further developed by Carbone et al. [Carbone A, Castelli G, Stanley HE. Time dependent hurst exponent in financial time series. Physica A 2004;344;267-71, Carbone A, Castelli G, Stanley HE. Analysis of clusters formed by the moving average of a long-range correlated time series. Phys Rev E 2004;69;026105.]. The robustness of the results to the use of alternative testing methodologies is also investigated, by using Lo's [Lo AW. Long-term memory in stock market prices. Econometrica 1991;59:1279-313.] modified rescaled range analysis. We

  14. NATO Workshop on Soot in Combustion Systems

    Prado, G


    Our interest in Mulhouse for carbon black and soot began some 30 years ago when J.B. Donnet developed the concept of surface chemistry of carbon and its involvement in interactions with gas, liquid and solid phases. In the late sixties, we began to study soot formation in pyrolytic systems and later on in flames. The idea of organ1z1ng a meeting on soot formation originated some four or five years ago, through discussions among Professor J.B. Howard, Dr. A. D'Alessio and ourselves. At that time the scientific community was becoming aware of the necessity to strictly control soot formation and emission. Being involved in the study of surface properties of carbon black as well as of formation of soot, we realized that the combustion community was not always fully aware of the progress made by the physical-chemists on carbon black. Reciprocally, the carbon specialists were often ignoring the research carried out on soot in flames. One objective of this workshop was to stimulate discussions between these two scie...

  15. The Hurst exponent in energy futures prices

    Serletis, Apostolos; Rosenberg, Aryeh Adam


    This paper extends the work in Elder and Serletis [Long memory in energy futures prices, Rev. Financial Econ., forthcoming, 2007] and Serletis et al. [Detrended fluctuation analysis of the US stock market, Int. J. Bifurcation Chaos, forthcoming, 2007] by re-examining the empirical evidence for random walk type behavior in energy futures prices. In doing so, it uses daily data on energy futures traded on the New York Mercantile Exchange, over the period from July 2, 1990 to November 1, 2006, and a statistical physics approach-the ‘detrending moving average’ technique-providing a reliable framework for testing the information efficiency in financial markets as shown by Alessio et al. [Second-order moving average and scaling of stochastic time series, Eur. Phys. J. B 27 (2002) 197-200] and Carbone et al. [Time-dependent hurst exponent in financial time series. Physica A 344 (2004) 267-271; Analysis of clusters formed by the moving average of a long-range correlated time series. Phys. Rev. E 69 (2004) 026105]. The results show that energy futures returns display long memory and that the particular form of long memory is anti-persistence.

  16. Geodetic constraints on the 2014 M 6.0 South Napa earthquake

    Barnhart, William D.; Murray, Jessica R.; Yun, S H; Svarc, Jerry L.; Samsonov, SV; Fielding, EJ; Brooks, Benjamin A.; Milillo, Pietro


    On 24 August 2014, the M 6.0 South Napa earthquake shook much of the San Francisco Bay area, leading to significant damage in the Napa Valley. The earthquake occurred in the vicinity of the West Napa fault (122.313° W, 38.22° N, 11.3 km), a mapped structure located between the Rodger’s Creek and Green Valley faults, with nearly pure right‐lateral strike‐slip motion (strike 157°, dip 77°, rake –169°;, last accessed December 2014) (Fig. 1). The West Napa fault previously experienced an M 5 strike‐slip event in 2000 but otherwise exhibited no previous definitive evidence of historic earthquake rupture (Rodgers et al., 2008; Wesling and Hanson, 2008). Evans et al. (2012) found slip rates of ∼9.5  mm/yr along the West Napa fault, with most slip rate models for the Bay area placing higher slip rates and greater earthquake potential on the Rodger’s Creek and Green Valley faults, respectively (e.g., Savage et al., 1999; d’Alessio et al., 2005; Funning et al., 2007).

  17. Investigating FP Tau’s protoplanetary disk structure through modeling

    Brinjikji, Marah; Espaillat, Catherine


    This project presents a study aiming to understand the structure of the protoplanetary disk around FP Tau, a very young, very low mass star in the Taurus star-forming region. We have gathered existing optical, Spitzer, Herschel and submillimeter observations to construct the spectral energy distribution (SED) of FP Tau. We have used the D’Alessio et al (2006) physically self-consistent irradiated accretion disk model including dust settling to model the disk of FP Tau. Using this method, the best fit for the SED of FP Tau is a model that includes a gap located 10-20 AU away from the star. This gap is filled with optically thin dust that separates the optically thick dust in the outer disk from the optically thick dust in the inner disk. These characteristics indicate that FP Tau’s protostellar system is best classified as a pre-transitional disk. Near-infrared interferometry in the K-Band from Willson et al 2016 indicates that FP Tau has a small gap located 10-20 AU from the star, which is consistent with the model we produced, lending further support to the pre-transitional disk interpretation. The most likely explanation for the existence of a gap in the disk is a forming planet.

  18. A Herschel view of protoplanetary disks in the $\\sigma$ Ori cluster

    Maucó, Karina; Calvet, Nuria; Ballesteros-Paredes, Javier; Briceño, César; McClure, Melissa; D'Alessio, Paola; Anderson, Kassandra; Ali, Babar


    We present new Herschel PACS observations of 32 T Tauri stars in the young ($\\sim$3 Myr) $\\sigma$ Ori cluster. Most of our objects are K & M stars with large excesses at 24 $\\mu$m. We used irradiated accretion disk models of D'Alessio et al. (2006) to compare their spectral energy distributions with our observational data. We arrive at the following six conclusions. (i) The observed disks are consistent with irradiated accretion disks systems. (ii) Most of our objects (60%) can be explained by significant dust depletion from the upper disk layers. (iii) Similarly, 61% of our objects can be modeled with large disk sizes ($\\rm R_{\\rm d} \\geq$ 100 AU). (iv) The masses of our disks range between 0.03 to 39 $\\rm M_{Jup}$, where 35% of our objects have disk masses lower than 1 Jupiter. Although these are lower limits, high mass ($>$ 0.05 M$_{\\odot}$) disks, which are present e.g, in Taurus, are missing. (v) By assuming a uniform distribution of objects around the brightest stars at the center of the cluster, we...

  19. Neon Fine-Structure Line Emission By X-ray Irradiated Protoplanetary Disks

    Glassgold, A E; Igea, J; Glassgold, Alfred E.; Najita, Joan R.; Igea, Javier


    Using a thermal-chemical model for the generic T-Tauri disk of D'Alessio et al. (1999), we estimate the strength of the fine-structure emission lines of NeII and NeIII at 12.81 and 15.55 microns that arise from the warm atmosphere of the disk exposed to hard stellar X-rays. The Ne ions are produced by the absorption of keV X-rays from the K shell of neutral Ne, followed by the Auger ejection of several additional electrons. The recombination cascade of the Ne ions is slow because of weak charge transfer with atomic hydrogen in the case of Ne2+ and by essentially no charge transfer for Ne+. For a distance of 140pc, the 12.81 micron line of Ne II has a flux of 1e-14 erg/cm2s, which should be observable with the Spitzer Infrared Spectrometer and suitable ground based instrumentation. The detection of these fine-structure lines would clearly demonstrate the effects of X-rays on the physical and chemical properties of the disks of young stellar objects and provide a diagnostic of the warm gas in protoplanetary dis...

  20. Easy quantitative methodology to assess visual-motor skills

    Chiappedi M


    Full Text Available Matteo Chiappedi,1 Alessio Toraldo,2 Silvia Mandrini,3 Federica Scarpina,2 Melissa Aquino,2 Francesca Giulia Magnani,2 Maurizio Bejor31Don Carlo Gnocchi ONLUS Foundation, Milan, Italy; 2University of Pavia, Department of Psychology, Pavia, Italy; 3University of Pavia, Department of Surgical, Resuscitative, Rehabilitative and Transplant Sciences, Pavia, ItalyIntroduction: Visual-motor skills are the basis for a great number of daily activities. To define a correct rehabilitation program for neurological patients who have impairment in these skills, there is a need for simple and cost-effective tools to determine which of the visual-motor system levels of organization are compromised by neurological lesions. In their 1995 book, The Visual Brain in Action (Oxford: Oxford University Press, AD Milner and MA Goodale proposed the existence of two pathways for the processing of visual information, the “ventral stream” and “dorsal stream,” that interact in movement planning and programming. Beginning with this model, our study aimed to validate a method to quantify the role of the ventral and dorsal streams in perceptual and visual-motor skills.Subjects and methods: Nineteen right-handed healthy subjects (mean age 22.8 years ± 3.18 with normal or corrected-to-normal vision were recruited. We proposed that a delayed pointing task, a distance reproduction task, and a delayed anti-pointing task could be used to assess the ventral stream, while the dorsal stream could be evaluated with a grasping task and an immediate pointing task. Performance was recorded and processed with the video-analysis software Dartfish ProSuite.Results: Results showed the expected pattern of predominance of attention for the superior left visual field, predominance of the flexor tone in proximal peri-personal space arm movements, tendency toward overestimation of short distances, and underestimation of long distances.Conclusion: We believe that our method is advantageous

  1. Volumetric modulated arc therapy for treatment of solid tumors: current insights

    Macchia G


    Full Text Available Gabriella Macchia,1 Francesco Deodato,1 Savino Cilla,2 Silvia Cammelli,3 Alessandra Guido,3 Martina Ferioli,3 Giambattista Siepe,3 Vincenzo Valentini,4 Alessio Giuseppe Morganti,3,* Gabriella Ferrandina5,6,* 1Radiation Oncology Unit, 2Medical Physics Unit, “Giovanni Paolo II” Foundation, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Campobasso, 3Radiation Oncology Unit, Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine, University of Bologna, S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna, 4Department of Radiation Oncology, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome, 5Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome, 6Department of Health Sciences and Medicine, University of Molise, Campobasso, Italy *These authors contributed equally to this work Aim: This article discusses the current use of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT techniques in clinical practice and reviews the available data from clinical outcome studies in different clinical settings. An overview of available literature about clinical outcomes with VMAT stereotactic/radiosurgical treatment is also reported.Materials and methods: All published manuscripts reporting the use of VMAT in a clinical setting from 2009 to November 2016 were identified. The search was carried out in December 2016 using the National Library of Medicine (PubMed/Medline. The following words were searched: “volumetric arc therapy”[All Fields] OR “vmat”[All Fields] OR “rapidarc”[All Fields], AND “radiotherapy”[All Fields] AND “Clinical Trial”[All Fields].Results: Overall, 37 studies (21 prospective and 16 retrospective fulfilling inclusion criteria and thus included in the review evaluated 2,029 patients treated with VMAT; of these patients, ~30.8% had genitourinary (GU tumors (81% prostate, 19% endometrial, 26.2% head-and-neck cancer (H&NC, 13.9% oligometastases, 11.2% had anorectal cancer, 10.6% thoracic neoplasms (81% breast, 19% lung, and 7

  2. Development and performance of a diagnostic/prognostic scoring system for breakthrough pain

    Samolsky Dekel BG


    Full Text Available Boaz Gedaliahu Samolsky Dekel,1–3 Marco Palma,4 Maria Cristina Sorella,1–3 Alberto Gori,3 Alessio Vasarri,3 Rita Maria Melotti1–3 1Department of Medicine and Surgery Sciences, University of Bologna, 2Department of Emergency-Urgency, Bologna’s University Teaching Hospital, Policlinic S. Orsola-Malpighi, 3University of Bologna, Post Graduate School of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, 4Collegio Superiore, Istituto di Studi Superiori – ISS, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy Objectives: Variable prevalence and treatment of breakthrough pain (BTP in different clinical contexts are partially due to the lack of reliable/validated diagnostic tools with prognostic capability. We report the statistical basis and performance analysis of a novel BTP scoring system based on the naïve Bayes classifier (NBC approach and an 11-item IQ-BTP validated questionnaire. This system aims at classifying potential BTP presence in three likelihood classes: “High,” “Intermediate,” and “Low.”Methods: Out of a training set of n=120 mixed chronic pain patients, predictors associated with the BTP likelihood variables (Pearson’s χ2 and/or Fisher’s exact test were employed for the NBC planning. Adjusting the binary classification to a three–likelihood classes case enabled the building of a scoring algorithm and to retrieve the score of each predictor’s answer options and the Patient’s Global Score (PGS. The latter medians were used to establish the NBC thresholds, needed to evaluate the scoring system performance (leave-one-out cross-validation.Results: Medians of PGS in the “High,” “Intermediate,” and “Low” likelihood classes were 3.44, 1.53, and −2.84, respectively. Leading predictors for the model (based on score differences were flair frequency (∆S=1.31, duration (∆S=5.25, and predictability (∆S=1.17. Percentages of correct classification were 63.6% for the “High” and of 100.0% for either the “Intermediate” and

  3. Negatively charged silver nanoparticles with potent antibacterial activity and reduced toxicity for pharmaceutical preparations

    Salvioni L


    Full Text Available Lucia Salvioni,1 Elisabetta Galbiati,1 Veronica Collico,1 Giulia Alessio,1 Svetlana Avvakumova,1 Fabio Corsi,2,3 Paolo Tortora,1 Davide Prosperi,1 Miriam Colombo1 1Nanobiolab, Department of Biotechnology and Bioscience, University of Milano-Bicocca, 2Biological and Clinical Science Department, University of Milan, Milano, 3Surgery Department, Breast Unit, IRCCS S Maugeri Foundation, Pavia, Italy Background: The discovery of new solutions with antibacterial activity as efficient and safe alternatives to common preservatives (such as parabens and to combat emerging infections and drug-resistant bacterial pathogens is highly expected in cosmetics and pharmaceutics. Colloidal silver nanoparticles (NPs are attracting interest as novel effective antimicrobial agents for the prevention of several infectious diseases.Methods: Water-soluble, negatively charged silver nanoparticles (AgNPs were synthesized by reduction with citric and tannic acid and characterized by transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, zeta potential, differential centrifuge sedimentation, and ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy. AgNPs were tested with model Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria in comparison to two different kinds of commercially available AgNPs.Results: In this work, AgNPs with higher antibacterial activity compared to the commercially available colloidal silver solutions were prepared and investigated. Bacteria were plated and the antibacterial activity was tested at the same concentration of silver ions in all samples. The AgNPs did not show any significant reduction in the antibacterial activity for an acceptable time period. In addition, AgNPs were transferred to organic phase and retained their antibacterial efficacy in both aqueous and nonaqueous media and exhibited no toxicity in eukaryotic cells.Conclusion: We developed AgNPs with a 20 nm diameter and negative zeta potential with powerful antibacterial activity and low toxicity compared

  4. Sofosbuvir for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C: between current evidence and future perspectives

    Degasperi E


    Full Text Available Elisabetta Degasperi, Alessio AghemoDivision of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, AM and M Migliavacca Center, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Maggiore Hospital, University of Milan, Milan, ItalyAbstract: In recent years, clinical research in the field of new treatments for chronic hepatitis C (HCV has been devoted to developing regimens based on direct-acting antivirals (DAAs, with the goal of increasing treatment efficacy and improving tolerability and safety. This can be achieved by Peginterferon (PegIFN-free anti-HCV regimens, as PegIFN is responsible for many side effects and limits treatment access due to contraindications in some patient categories. Sofosbuvir (SOF is the first compound to enter the market with IFN-free combination regimens; it belongs to the nucleotide inhibitors of viral polymerase NS5B and acts as a chain terminator during the HCV replication process, exhibiting pan-genotypic antiviral activity with a high barrier to resistance. Clinical trials in HCV genotype 2/3 patients have demonstrated optimal efficacy in HCV-2, where the combination SOF/ribavirin (Rbv for 12 weeks resulted in >90% sustained virological response (SVR rates, while HCV-3 patients with advanced liver fibrosis and previous failure to PegIFN plus Rbv therapy still require individualized and optimized treatment strategies. Historically difficult-to-treat genotypes HCV-1, -4–6 can benefit from reduced duration of PegIFN plus SOF and Rbv, while IFN-free regimens in these patients will be based on SOF in combination with other DAA classes. Due to an optimal tolerability and safety profile with no significant drug-to-drug interactions, SOF is currently undergoing clinical trials in the setting of pre- and post-liver transplantation and HIV-coinfected patients, with the objective to address the until now unmet need for safe and efficient treatment in these populations. This article provides an overview of SOF features and the main clinical trials, discussing

  5. A Kinematic Fault Network Model of Crustal Deformation for California and Its Application to the Seismic Hazard Analysis

    Zeng, Y.; Shen, Z.; Harmsen, S.; Petersen, M. D.


    We invert GPS observations to determine the slip rates on major faults in California based on a kinematic fault model of crustal deformation with geological slip rate constraints. Assuming an elastic half-space, we interpret secular surface deformation using a kinematic fault network model with each fault segment slipping beneath a locking depth. This model simulates both block-like deformation and elastic strain accumulation within each bounding block. Each fault segment is linked to its adjacent elements with slip continuity imposed at fault nodes or intersections. The GPS observations across California and its neighbors are obtained from the SCEC WGCEP project of California Crustal Motion Map version 1.0 and SCEC Crustal Motion Map 4.0. Our fault models are based on the SCEC UCERF 2.0 fault database, a previous southern California block model by Shen and Jackson, and the San Francisco Bay area block model by d’Alessio et al. Our inversion shows a slip rate ranging from 20 to 26 mm/yr for the northern San Andreas from the Santa Cruz Mountain to the Peninsula segment. Slip rates vary from 8 to 14 mm/yr along the Hayward to the Maacama segment, and from 17 to 6 mm/yr along the central Calaveras to West Napa. For the central California creeping section, we find a depth dependent slip rate with an average slip rate of 23 mm/yr across the upper 5 km and 30 mm/yr underneath. Slip rates range from 30 mm/yr along the Parkfield and central California creeping section of the San Andres to an average of 6 mm/yr on the San Bernardino Mountain segment. On the southern San Andreas, slip rates vary from 21 to 30 mm/yr from the Cochella Valley to the Imperial Valley, and from 7 to 16 mm/yr along the San Jacinto segments. The shortening rate across the greater Los Angeles region is consistent with the regional tectonics and crustal thickening in the area. We are now in the process of applying the result to seismic hazard evaluation. Overall the geodetic and geological derived

  6. Knowledge of seismic hazard for the preservation of cultural heritage: the case study of Naples (Southern Italy)

    Porfido, Sabina; Alessio, Giuliana; Gaudiosi, Germana; Nappi, Rosa; Spiga, Efisio


    seismic events of the same magnitude that could still cause damages to the city of Naples. This brief review of the strong Apennines earthquakes highlights that the city of Naples has a high seismic risk level. Therefore is crucial to implement all appropriate measures to reduce seismic risk, but also for planning measures of prevention, useful for the preservation of the rich local architectural heritage declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1995. References Porfido, et al., 2007-Seismically induced ground effects of the 1805, 1930 and 1980 earthquakes in the southern Apennines, in «Boll. Soc. Geol. It.»,126, p. 333-346 Porfido S., Alessio G., Gaudiosi G., Nappi R., Spiga E., 2017-Analisi dei risentimenti dei forti terremoti appenninici che hanno colpito Napoli. Proc. Int, Conf.:La Baia di Napoli. Strategie integrate per la conservazione e la fruizione del paesaggio culturale". (in press) Pucci S., P. M. De Martini, R. Civico, F. Villani, R. Nappi et al. 2017 - Coseismic ruptures of the 24 August 2016, Mw 6.0 Amatrice earthquake (central Italy) DOI: 10.1002/2016GL071859

  7. Integrated analysis of seismological, gravimetric and structural data for identification of active faults geometries in Abruzzo and Molise areas (Italy)

    Gaudiosi, Germana; Nappi, Rosa; Alessio, Giuliana; Porfido, Sabina; Cella, Federico; Fedi, Maurizio; Florio, Giovanni


    detected. The main results of our integrated analysis show a strong correlation among faults, hypocentral location of earthquakes and MDA lineaments from gravity data. Furthermore 2D seismic hypocentral locations together with high-resolution analysis of gravity anomalies have been correlated to estimate the fault systems parameters (strike, dip direction and dip angle) of some structures of the areas, through the application of the DEXP method (Fedi M. and M. Pilkington, 2012). References Fedi M., Cella F., Florio G., Rapolla A.; 2005: Multiscale Derivative Analysis of the gravity and magnetic fields of the Southern Apennines (Italy). In: Finetti I.R. (ed), CROP PROJECT: Deep Seismic Exploration of the Central Mediterranean and Italy, pp. 281-318. Fedi M., Pilkington M.; 2012: Understanding imaging methods for potential field data. Geophysics, 77: G13-G24. Gaudiosi G., Alessio G., Cella F., Fedi M., Florio G., Nappi, R.; 2012: Multiparametric data analysis for seismic sources identification in the Campanian area: merging of seismological, structural and gravimetric data. BGTA,. Vol. 53, n. 3, pp. 283-298.

  8. Quantitative imaging of coronary blood flow

    Adam M. Alessio


    Full Text Available Adam M. Alessio received his PhD in Electrical Engineering from the University of Notre Dame in 2003. During his graduate studies he developed tomographic reconstruction methods for correlated data and helped construct a high-resolution PET system. He is currently a Research Assistant Professor in Radiology at the University of Washington. His research interests focus on improved data processing and reconstruction algorithms for PET/CT systems with an emphasis on quantitative imaging. Erik Butterworth recieved the BA degree in Mathematics from the University of Chicago in 1977. Between 1977 and 1987 he worked as a computer programmer/analyst for several small commercial software firms. Since 1988, he has worked as a software engineer on various research projects at the University of Washington. Between 1988 and 1993 he developed a real-time data aquisition for the analysis of estuarine sediment transport in the department of Geophysics. Between 1988 and 2002 he developed I4, a system for the display and analysis of cardic PET images in the department of Cardiology. Since 1993 he has worked on physiological simulation systems (XSIM from 1993 to 1999, JSim since 1999 at the National Simulation Resource Facility in Cirulatory Mass Transport and Exchange, in the Department of Bioengineering. His research interests include simulation systems and medical imaging. James H. Caldwell, MD, University of Missouri-Columbia 1970, is Professor of Medicine (Cardiology and Radiology and Adjunct Professor of Bioengineering at the University of Washington School of Medicine and Acting Head, Division of Cardiology and Director of Nuclear Cardiology for the University of Washington Hospitals, Seattle WA, USA. James B. Bassingthwaighte, MD, Toronto 1955, PhD Mayo Grad Sch Med 1964, was Professor of Physiology and of Medicine at Mayo Clinic until 1975 when he moved to the University of Washington to chair Bioengineering. He is Professor of Bioengineering and

  9. PhD Dissertations Tesi di dottorato

    Redazione Reti Medievali (a cura di


    Full Text Available Report of PhD Dissertations.Anna Airò La scrittura delle regole. Politica e istituzioni a Taranto nel Quattrocento, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia medievale, Università degli studi di Firenze, 2005 Pasquale Arfé La Clavis Physicae II (316-529 di Honorius Augustodunensis. Studio ed edizione critica, Tesi di dottorato in Storia della filosofia medievale, Università degli Studi di Napoli "L'Orientale", 2005 Alessandro Azzimonti Scrittura agiografica e strutture di potere nell'Italia centro-settentrionale (X-XII secolo, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Forme del sapere storico dal medioevo alla contemporaneità, Università degli Studi di Trieste, 2004 Domenico Cerami Il "Confine conteso". Uomini, istituzioni, culture a Monteveglio tra VIII-XII secolo, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia Medievale, Università degli studi di Bologna, 2005 Federica Chilà Ostaggi. Uno strumento di pacificazione e governo tra i secoli VIII e XII, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Istituzioni, società, religioni dal Tardo Antico alla fine del Medioevo, Università degli Studi di Torino, 2004 Enrico Faini Firenze nei secoli X-XIII: economia e società, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia medievale, Università degli studi di Firenze, 2005Alessio FioreStrutture e pratiche del potere signorile in area umbro-marchigiana (secoli XI-XIII, Tesi di dottorato ricerca in Storia, Università degli studi di Pisa, 2004Giampaolo FrancesconiTra Riforma, vescovo e clientes. Camaldoli e le società locali (secoli XI-XIII, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia medievale, Università degli studi di Firenze, 2005 [09/05] Giuseppe Gardoni "Episcopus et potestas". Vescovi e società a Mantova nella prima metà del Duecento, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia del Cristianesimo e delle Chiese (antichità, medioevo, età moderna, Università degli Studi di Padova, 2005 Nicola Mancassola La gestione delle campagne tra Langobardia e Romània in età carolingia e post

  10. Managed Aquifer Recharge in Italy: present and prospects.

    Rossetto, Rudy


    riverbank filtration plant, worth 15 Mm3/year in Lucca (Tuscany; Borsi et al. 2014). In 2014, the Regional Authority of Emilia Romagna started a pilot on the Marecchia River fan using a recharge basin to alleviate water scarcity in the Rimini area as results of drought periods (Severi et al. 2014). To apply MAR techniques on a large scale is of particular interest the possibility to allow farmer's associations or drainage consortiums to play an important role in storing excess rainfall water in aquifers. Few hectares of land in rural areas may be dedicated to MAR plants, transforming a traditionally water consumer sector in one preserving it - opportunities are then linked to the provision of water related ecosystem services. Aquifer recharge is allowed in Italy only since September 2013, but still a regulatory framework is missing. Hopefully, this regulatory scheme will benefit from previous and on-going experiences. Dissemination of MAR scientific findings and technical know-how among governing authorities and the general public is crucial for the application of MAR techniques. Fundings for setting up new MAR plants may be available at national level. At the same time, lack of knowledge at intermediate governing bodies level is preventing the application of these techniques (i.e. building of small dams is favored although less convenient by several points of view in respect of MAR plants). Finally, it is of outmost importance to define which are the financial instruments to sustain these water infrastructures, so to guarantee not only their set up, but also routinely operations, opening as such a new market in the water sector. Acknowledgments This paper is co-financed within the framework of the EU FP7-ENV-2013-WATER-INNO-DEMO MARSOL (Grant Agreement n. 619120). References Borsi, I., Mazzanti, G., Barbagli, A., Rossetto, R., 2014. The riverbank filtration plant in S. Alessio (Lucca): monitoring and modeling activity within EU the FP7 MARSOL project. Acque Sotterranee

  11. Apresentação

    Os Editores


    Full Text Available Significação, a partir deste ano de 2001, passa a ser uma revista semestral contando com o patrocínio da Universidade Tuiuti do Paraná. Vinculada, em princípio, ao Centro de Pesquisa em Poética da Imagem, do Departamento de Cinema, Rádio e Televisão da Escola de Comunicações e Artes da Universidade de São Paulo, o periódico entra, pois, numa nova fase e abre maiores possibilidades para divulgar a produção acadêmica dos cursos de pós-graduação da Universidade patrocinadora e de outros programas de pós-graduação do Brasil e do Exterior. Conseqüentemente, aumentam também as responsabilidades e o trabalho de análise dos artigos que nela se publicam, embora seus objetivos permaneçam os mesmo.Os textos reunidos neste número colocam o leitor interessado em questões relacionadas com o amplo campo da comunicação diante de um conjunto heterogêneo de pontos de vista. É só comparar, por exemplo, os artigos de Lucrécia D 'Alessio Ferrara e de Eugênio Bucci para constatar isso. A representação fenomênica de um objeto transporta o observador para uma dimensão cognoscível e cria condições para que o sujeito, por vias da interpretação, mantenha vivos os propósitos da ciência e intensifique sua relação evolutiva com o mundo. Tal idéia, defendida no primeiro dos autores citados, pode muito bem manter uma relação dialógica com os conceitos de comunicação formulados por Bucci e gerar uma espécie de perspectiva em abismo teórica a partir da qual parece possível adentrar-se num terreno crítico bastante atual. Outro tanto ocorre se compararmos os trabalhos de Ingrid Geist e Heloísa de Araújo Duarte Valente. O ritual, enquanto ato comunicativo, instaura um processo em que os signos se entregam ao simulacro de sua dissolução e abre, assim, a possibilidade de que o mundo sensível, tão valorizado pelos estudos de semiótica realizados recentemente por pesquisadores que seguem os pressupostos da chamada Escola

  12. EDITORIAL: Roberts Prize for the best paper published in 2012 Roberts Prize for the best paper published in 2012

    Cherry, Simon; Ruffle, Jon


    . 57 2829 Scott A J D, Kumar S, Nahum A E and Fenwick J D 2012 Characterizing the influence of detector density on dosimeter response in non-equilibrium small photon fields Phys. Med. Biol. 57 4461 Stam M K, Crijns S P M, Zonnenberg B A, Barendrecht M M, van Vulpen M, Lagendijk J J W and Raaymakers B W 2012 Navigators for motion detection during real-time MRI-guided radiotherapy Phys. Med. Biol. 57 6797 Xia T, Alessio A M, De Man B, Manjeshwar R, Asma E and Kinahan P E 2012 Ultra-low dose CT attenuation correction for PET/CT Phys. Med. Biol. 57 309 Yamaguchi M et al 2012 Beam range estimation by measuring bremsstrahlung Phys. Med. Biol. 57 2843 For more information on this article, see

  13. The Project Serapis: High Resolution Seismic Imagingof The Campi Flegrei Caldera Structure

    Zollo, A.; Virieux, J.; Capuano, P.; Chiarabba, C.; de Franco, R.; Makris, J.; Michelini, A.; Musacchio, G.; Serapis Group

    expected NE-SW and SE-NW structural trends and it has been designed to get 2D/3D images of the crustal structure at a regional scale. A denser 2D network of 35 OBSs has been deployed in the bay of Pozzuoli aimed at detecting and modeling reflected/converted waves from 1 the possible shallow to deep discontinuities beneath the Campi Flegrei caldera. The main target of this particular receiver lay-out is the detailed imaging of the magma chamber top, expected at 4-5 km depth, according to temperature measurements in wells and sparse seismic observations. About 5000 shots have been performed dur- ing the SERAPIS experiment, at an average spatial spacing of 125 m, for a total ship travel path of 620 km. All of the seismic lines have been re-sampled at least twice, using a staggered configuration, which results in a smaller source spacing (less than 65m). In the gulf of Pozzuoli the source array had a geometry of a 5x5 km grid, slightly shifted south with respect to the OBS array. Seismic signals produced by air- guns have been well detected up to 50-60 km distance and the whole Campi Flegrei, Ischia and Procida on-land networks have recorded high quality seismograms pro- duced by the gridded source array in the bay of Pozzuoli. Due to the extended and very dense source and receiver arrays used for SERAPIS, this campaign can provide an innovative contribution to the accurate reconstruction of the Campi Flegrei caldera structure and to the definition of its feeding system at depth. *SERAPIS group: Auger Emmanuel, Bernard Marie-Lise, Bobbio Antonella, Bonagura Mariateresa, Cantore Luciana, Convertito Vincenzo, D'Auria Luca, De Matteis Raffaella, Emolo Anto- nio, Festa Gaetano, Gasparini Paolo, Giberti Grazia, Herrero Andre, Improta Luigi, Lancieri Maria Flora, Nielsen Stefan, Nisii Vincenzo, Russo Guido, Satriano Clau- dio, Simini Mariella, Vassallo Maurizio, Bruno Pier Paolo, Buonocunto Ciro, Capello Marco, Del Pezzo Edoardo, Galluzzo Danilo, Gaudiosi Germana, Giuliana Alessio

  14. List of Participants


    Mohab Abou ZeidVrije Universiteit, Brussel Joke AdamKatholieke Universiteit Leuven Nikolas AkerblomMax-Planck-Institut für Physik, München Luis Fernando Alday Utrecht University Stelios Alexandris University of Patras Antonio Amariti Università di Milano-Bicocca Nicola Ambrosetti Université de Neuchâtel Pascal Anastasopoulos Università di Roma Tor Vergata Laura Andrianopoli Enrico Fermi Center Carlo Angelantonj Università di Torino Lilia Anguelova Queen Mary, University of London Daniel AreanUniversidade de Santiago de Compostela Gleb ArutyunovUtrecht University Spyros Avramis NTU Athens—University of Patras Ioannis Bakas University of Patras Subrata Bal Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies Igor Bandos Valencia University Jessica Barrett University of Iceland Marco Baumgartl Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule, Zürich Jacopo Bechi Università di Firenze James Bedford Queen Mary, University of London Jorge Bellorin Universidad Autonoma de Madrid Francesco Benini SISSA, Trieste Eric Bergshoeff Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen Gaetano BertoldiUniversity of Wales, Swansea Adel Bilal Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, École Normale Superieure, Paris Matthias Blau Université de Neuchâtel Johannes BroedelUniversität Hannover Felix Brümmer Universität Heidelberg Julio Cesar Bueno de Andrade São Paulo State University—UNESP Cliff Burgess McMaster University Agostino Butti Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, École Normale Superieure, Paris Marco Caldarelli Universitat de Barcelona Pablo G Camara Centre de Physique Théorique, École Polytechnique, Palaiseau Joan Camps Universitat de Barcelona Felipe Canoura FernandezUniversidade de Santiago de Compostela Luigi Cappiello Università di Napoli Federico II Luca Carlevaro École Polytechnique, Palaiseau Roberto Casero Centre de Physique Théorique, École Polytechnique, Palaiseau Claudio Caviezel Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München Alessio Celi Universitat de Barcelona Anna

  15. List of Participants


    Davide CassaniLaboratoire de Physique Théorique, École Normale Supérieure, Paris Alejandra CastroUniversity of Michigan Claudio Caviezel Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München Alessio Celi Universitat de Barcelona Anna Ceresole Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Università di Torino Athanasios ChatzistavrakidisNational Technical University of Athens Wissam ChemissanyCentre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen Eugen-Mihaita CioroianuUniversity of Craiova Andres CollinucciTechnische Universität Wien Paul CookUniversità di Roma, Tor Vergata Lorenzo CornalbaUniversità di Milano-Bicocca Aldo CotroneKatholieke Universiteit Leuven Ben Craps Vrije Universiteit, Brussel Stefano Cremonesi SISSA, Trieste Riccardo D'AuriaPolitecnico di Torino Gianguido Dall'AgataUniversity of Padova Jose A de AzcarragaUniversidad de Valencia Jan de BoerInstituut voor Theoretische Fysica, Universiteit van Amsterdam Sophie de BuylInstitut des Hautes Études Scientifiques, Bures-sur-Yvette Marius de LeeuwUtrecht University Frederik De RooVrije Universiteit, Brussel Jan De Rydt Katholieke Universiteit Leuven and CERN, Geneva Bernard de WitInstitute for Theoretical Physics, Utrecht University Stephane DetournayIstituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano Paolo Di Vecchia Niels Bohr Institute, København Eugen DiaconuUniversity of Craiova Vladimir Dobrev Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia Nick DoreyUniversity of Cambridge Hajar Ebrahim NajafabadiIPM, Tehran Federico Elmetti Università di Milano Oleg Evnin Vrije Universiteit, Brussel Francesco Fiamberti Università di Milano Davide Forcella SISSA, Trieste and CERN, Geneva Valentina Forini Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin Angelos Fotopoulos Università di Torino Denis Frank Université de Neuchâtel Marialuisa Frau Università di Torino Matthias Gaberdiel Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Zürich Diego Gallego SISSA/ISAS, Trieste Maria Pilar Garcia del

  16. Cosmic "Dig" Reveals Vestiges of the Milky Way's Building Blocks


    means of a computer-controlled deformable mirror that counteracts the image distortion introduced by atmospheric turbulence. It is based on real-time optical corrections computed at very high speed (many hundreds of times each second) from image data obtained by a wavefront sensor (a special camera) that monitors light from a reference star, Present AO systems can only correct the effect of atmospheric turbulence in a very small region of the sky - typically 15 arcseconds or less - the correction degrading very quickly when moving away from the reference star. Engineers have therefore developed new techniques to overcome this limitation, one of which is multi-conjugate adaptive optics. MAD uses up to three guide stars instead of one as references to remove the blur caused by atmospheric turbulence over a field of view thirty times larger than existing techniques (eso0719). More information This research was presented in a paper that appears in the 26 November 2009 issue of Nature , "The cluster Terzan 5 as a remnant of a primordial building block of the Galactic bulge", by F. R. Ferraro et al.. The team is composed of Francesco Ferraro, Emanuele Dalessandro, Alessio Mucciarelli and Barbara Lanzoni (Department of Astronomy, University of Bologna, Italy), Giacomo Beccari (ESA, Space Science Department, Noordwijk, Netherlands), Mike Rich (Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, Los Angeles, USA), Livia Origlia, Michele Bellazzini and Gabriele Cocozza (INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Italy), Robert T. Rood (Astronomy Department, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, USA), Elena Valenti (ESO and Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Departamento de Astronomia, Santiago, Chile) and Scott Ransom (National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, USA). ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 14 countries

  17. Matter Flashed at Ultra Speed


    "REM observations of GRB060418 and GRB060607A: the onset of the afterglow and the initial fireball Lorentz factor determination", by E. Molinari, S. D. Vergani, D. Malesani, S. Covino, et al. The paper is available at (A&A, 469, L13-L16, 2007). The REM team is formed by G. Chincarini, E. Molinari, F.M. Zerbi, L.A. Antonelli, S. Covino, P. Conconi, L. Nicastro, E. Palazzi, M. Stefanon, V. Testa, G. Tosti, F. Vitali, A. Monfardini, F. D'Alessio, P. D'Avanzo, D. Fugazza, G. Malaspina, S. Piranomonte, S.D. Vergani, P.A. Ward, S. Campana, P. Goldoni, D. Guetta, D. Malesani, N. Masetti, E.J.A. Meurs, L. Norci, E. Pian, A. Fernandez-Soto, L. Stella, G. Tagliaferri, G. Ihle, L. Gonzalez, A. Pizarro, P. Sinclair, and J. Valenzuela. Notes Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are short flashes of energetic gamma-rays lasting from less than a second to several minutes. They release a tremendous quantity of energy in this short time making them the most powerful events since the Big Bang. They come in two different flavours, long and short ones. Over the past few years, international efforts have convincingly shown that long gamma-ray bursts are linked with the ultimate explosion of massive stars (hypernovae; see e.g. ESO PR 16/03) while the short ones most likely originate from the violent collision of neutron stars and/or black holes (see e.g. ESO PR 26/05 and 32/05). Irrespective of the original source of the GRB energy, the injection of so much energy into a confined volume will cause a fireball to form. Gamma-ray photons have nearly a million times more energy than the 'visual' photons the eye can see. Strictly speaking, the Lorentz factor is the ratio between the total and rest-mass energy of the fireball. REM (Rapid Eye Mount) is a small (60 cm mirror diameter) rapid reaction automatic telescope dedicated to monitor the prompt afterglow of Gamma Ray Burst events. It is located at the ESO La Silla Observatory in Chile. For more information, see