WorldWideScience

Sample records for hammer drilling contract

  1. Ultrasonic rotary-hammer drill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor); Badescu, Mircea (Inventor); Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor); Bao, Xiaoqi (Inventor); Kassab, Steve (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A mechanism for drilling or coring by a combination of sonic hammering and rotation. The drill includes a hammering section with a set of preload weights mounted atop a hammering actuator and an axial passage through the hammering section. In addition, a rotary section includes a motor coupled to a drive shaft that traverses the axial passage through the hammering section. A drill bit is coupled to the drive shaft for drilling by a combination of sonic hammering and rotation. The drill bit includes a fluted shaft leading to a distal crown cutter with teeth. The bit penetrates sampled media by repeated hammering action. In addition, the bit is rotated. As it rotates the fluted bit carries powdered cuttings helically upward along the side of the bit to the surface.

  2. OPTIMIZATION OF MUD HAMMER DRILLING PERFORMANCE - A PROGRAM TO BENCHMARK THE VIABILITY OF ADVANCED MUD HAMMER DRILLING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnis Judzis

    2003-01-01

    This document details the progress to date on the ''OPTIMIZATION OF MUD HAMMER DRILLING PERFORMANCE -- A PROGRAM TO BENCHMARK THE VIABILITY OF ADVANCED MUD HAMMER DRILLING'' contract for the quarter starting October 2002 through December 2002. Even though we are awaiting the optimization portion of the testing program, accomplishments included the following: (1) Smith International participated in the DOE Mud Hammer program through full scale benchmarking testing during the week of 4 November 2003. (2) TerraTek acknowledges Smith International, BP America, PDVSA, and ConocoPhillips for cost-sharing the Smith benchmarking tests allowing extension of the contract to add to the benchmarking testing program. (3) Following the benchmark testing of the Smith International hammer, representatives from DOE/NETL, TerraTek, Smith International and PDVSA met at TerraTek in Salt Lake City to review observations, performance and views on the optimization step for 2003. (4) The December 2002 issue of Journal of Petroleum Technology (Society of Petroleum Engineers) highlighted the DOE fluid hammer testing program and reviewed last years paper on the benchmark performance of the SDS Digger and Novatek hammers. (5) TerraTek's Sid Green presented a technical review for DOE/NETL personnel in Morgantown on ''Impact Rock Breakage'' and its importance on improving fluid hammer performance. Much discussion has taken place on the issues surrounding mud hammer performance at depth conditions.

  3. Downhole drilling hammer. Marteau de forage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Techy, M.

    1987-07-28

    This invention concerns a drilling hammer of the downhole type, comprising a tubular body fed by compressed air, a drilling cutter and a hammer piston set into movement inside an interior cylinder by a compressed air distribution mechanism alternately above and below the piston. The hammer includes a gas-oil injection device in the chamber above the piston and a mechanism for initiating the injection during the rising of the piston; the additional compression provokes the combustion of the gas-oil-air mixture, which hurls the piston towards the cutter. This type of apparatus permits an important reduction in costs of materials and of operation, and permits at the same time an increase in drilling power and a reduction in energy consumption. 8 figs.

  4. Development of a Piezoelectric Rotary Hammer Drill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domm, Lukas N.

    2011-01-01

    The Piezoelectric Rotary Hammer Drill is designed to core through rock using a combination of rotation and high frequency hammering powered by a single piezoelectric actuator. It is designed as a low axial preload, low mass, and low power device for sample acquisition on future missions to extraterrestrial bodies. The purpose of this internship is to develop and test a prototype of the Piezoelectric Rotary Hammer Drill in order to verify the use of a horn with helical or angled cuts as a hammering and torque inducing mechanism. Through an iterative design process using models in ANSYS Finite Element software and a Mason's Equivalent Circuit model in MATLAB, a horn design was chosen for fabrication based on the predicted horn tip motion, electromechanical coupling, and neutral plane location. The design was then machined and a test bed assembled. The completed prototype has proven that a single piezoelectric actuator can be used to produce both rotation and hammering in a drill string through the use of a torque inducing horn. Final data results include bit rotation produced versus input power, and best drilling rate achieved with the prototype.

  5. Ultrasonic/Sonic Rotary-Hammer Drills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Bao, Xiaoqi; Kassab, Steve

    2010-01-01

    Ultrasonic/sonic rotary-hammer drill (USRoHD) is a recent addition to the collection of apparatuses based on ultrasonic/sonic drill corer (USDC). As described below, the USRoHD has several features, not present in a basic USDC, that increase efficiency and provide some redundancy against partial failure. USDCs and related apparatuses were conceived for boring into, and/or acquiring samples of, rock or other hard, brittle materials of geological interest. They have been described in numerous previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. To recapitulate: A USDC can be characterized as a lightweight, lowpower, piezoelectrically driven jackhammer in which ultrasonic and sonic vibrations are generated and coupled to a tool bit. A basic USDC includes a piezoelectric stack, an ultrasonic transducer horn connected to the stack, a free mass ( free in the sense that it can bounce axially a short distance between hard stops on the horn and the bit), and a tool bit. The piezoelectric stack creates ultrasonic vibrations that are mechanically amplified by the horn. The bouncing of the free mass between the hard stops generates the sonic vibrations. The combination of ultrasonic and sonic vibrations gives rise to a hammering action (and a resulting chiseling action at the tip of the tool bit) that is more effective for drilling than is the microhammering action of ultrasonic vibrations alone. The hammering and chiseling actions are so effective that unlike in conventional twist drilling, little applied axial force is needed to make the apparatus advance into the material of interest. There are numerous potential applications for USDCs and related apparatuses in geological exploration on Earth and on remote planets. In early USDC experiments, it was observed that accumulation of cuttings in a drilled hole causes the rate of penetration of the USDC to decrease steeply with depth, and that the rate of penetration can be increased by removing the cuttings. The USRoHD concept provides for

  6. OPTIMIZATION OF MUD HAMMER DRILLING PERFORMANCE - A PROGRAM TO BENCHMARK THE VIABILITY OF ADVANCED MUD HAMMER DRILLING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan Black; Arnis Judzis

    2003-01-01

    Progress during current reporting year 2002 by quarter--Progress during Q1 2002: (1) In accordance to Task 7.0 (D. No.2 Technical Publications) TerraTek, NETL, and the Industry Contributors successfully presented a paper detailing Phase 1 testing results at the February 2002 IADC/SPE Drilling Conference, a prestigious venue for presenting DOE and private sector drilling technology advances. The full reference is as follows: IADC/SPE 74540 ''World's First Benchmarking of Drilling Mud Hammer Performance at Depth Conditions'' authored by Gordon A. Tibbitts, TerraTek; Roy C. Long, US Department of Energy, Brian E. Miller, BP America, Inc.; Arnis Judzis, TerraTek; and Alan D. Black, TerraTek. Gordon Tibbitts, TerraTek, will presented the well-attended paper in February of 2002. The full text of the Mud Hammer paper was included in the last quarterly report. (2) The Phase 2 project planning meeting (Task 6) was held at ExxonMobil's Houston Greenspoint offices on February 22, 2002. In attendance were representatives from TerraTek, DOE, BP, ExxonMobil, PDVSA, Novatek, and SDS Digger Tools. (3) PDVSA has joined the advisory board to this DOE mud hammer project. PDVSA's commitment of cash and in-kind contributions were reported during the last quarter. (4) Strong Industry support remains for the DOE project. Both Andergauge and Smith Tools have expressed an interest in participating in the ''optimization'' phase of the program. The potential for increased testing with additional Industry cash support was discussed at the planning meeting in February 2002. Progress during Q2 2002: (1) Presentation material was provided to the DOE/NETL project manager (Dr. John Rogers) for the DOE exhibit at the 2002 Offshore Technology Conference. (2) Two meeting at Smith International and one at Andergauge in Houston were held to investigate their interest in joining the Mud Hammer Performance study. (3) SDS Digger Tools (Task 3

  7. Drilling contracts and incentives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmundsen, Petter; Sorenes, Terje; Toft, Anders

    2008-01-01

    Shortages of rigs and personnel have encouraged discussion of designing incentive contracts in the drilling sector. However, for the drilling contracts, there are not a large variety of contract types in use. This article describes and analyses incentives for drilling contractors. These are directly represented by the compensation formats utilised in the present and in the consecutive drilling contracts. Indirectly, incentives are also provided by the evaluation criteria that oil companies use for awarding drilling assignments. Changes in contract format pose a number of relevant questions relating to resource management, and the article takes an in-depth look at some of these. Do evaluation criteria for awarding drilling assignments encourage the development of new technology and solutions? How will a stronger focus on drilling efficiency influence reservoir utilisation?

  8. Drilling contract issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davison, G.B.; Worden, D.R.; Borbridge, G.K.D.

    1997-01-01

    Some selected issues which are facing both operators and contractors in drilling for oil and gas, such as the allocation of risk by contract and by statute and the implementation of new technologies, were discussed. There are three varieties of written drilling contracts used in Canada: (1) day work and meterage contracts, (2) master drilling agreements, and (3) contracts that are used in construction projects that do not specifically relate to drilling. Issues relevant to the contractual allocation of risk, to implementing new drilling technologies, to reconciling contract and statute liability, and the formation of strategic alliances for mutual benefit, and the factors contributing to the success of such alliances were explored. 12 refs

  9. Voice Coil Percussive Mechanism Concept for Hammer Drill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okon, Avi

    2009-01-01

    A hammer drill design of a voice coil linear actuator, spring, linear bearings, and a hammer head was proposed. The voice coil actuator moves the hammer head to produce impact to the end of the drill bit. The spring is used to store energy on the retraction and to capture the rebound energy after each impact for use in the next impact. The maximum actuator stroke is 20 mm with the hammer mass being 200 grams. This unit can create impact energy of 0.4 J with 0.8 J being the maximum. This mechanism is less complex than previous devices meant for the same task, so it has less mass and less volume. Its impact rate and energy are easily tunable without changing major hardware components. The drill can be driven by two half-bridges. Heat is removed from the voice coil via CO2 conduction.

  10. High-tech hammer : BBJ Tools transforms the traditional fluid hammer into a revolutionary drilling tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byfield, M.

    2010-12-15

    This article described BBJ Tools' patent-pending fluid hammer that enhances drilling rate of penetration. The technology was awarded the 2010 winner for best drilling technology for a company with fewer than 100 employees. The fluid hammer features several improvements in terms of maintaining drill-bit integrity, steering ability, and operating flexibility. The hammer incorporates a positive displacement motor and adjustable housing that uniquely allow the driller to steer the drill bit. The fluid hammer works with both polycrystalline diamond compact bits and roller cones. The unique weight-to-bit-transfer design allows the operator to have diversified percussion control. More weight on the bit results in more force, and hammering stops when weight is taken off the bit. The major components of the mud motor are incorporated into the fluid hammer, allowing the tool to compete in every application in which a mud motor is used. The percussion mechanism transmits left-hand reactive torque to the housing. The rate of penetration is substantially better than other similar tools on the market. 2 figs.

  11. Enhancing down-the-hole air hammer capacity in directional drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klishin, V. I.; Timonin, V. V.; Kokoulin, D. I.; Alekseev, S. E.; Kubanychbek, B.

    2017-09-01

    The authors discuss the issue connected with drilling trajectory deviation and present the technique of rotary-percussion drilling with a down-the-hole air hammer. The article describes pilot testing of the air hammer drill PNB76 in Berezovskaya Mine. The ways of improving the air hammer drill are identified, and the basic diagram and R&D test data are given.

  12. Optimization of Mud Hammer Drilling Performance--A Program to Benchmark the Viability of Advanced Mud Hammer Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnis Judzis

    2006-03-01

    Operators continue to look for ways to improve hard rock drilling performance through emerging technologies. A consortium of Department of Energy, operator and industry participants put together an effort to test and optimize mud driven fluid hammers as one emerging technology that has shown promise to increase penetration rates in hard rock. The thrust of this program has been to test and record the performance of fluid hammers in full scale test conditions including, hard formations at simulated depth, high density/high solids drilling muds, and realistic fluid power levels. This paper details the testing and results of testing two 7 3/4 inch diameter mud hammers with 8 1/2 inch hammer bits. A Novatek MHN5 and an SDS Digger FH185 mud hammer were tested with several bit types, with performance being compared to a conventional (IADC Code 537) tricone bit. These tools functionally operated in all of the simulated downhole environments. The performance was in the range of the baseline ticone or better at lower borehole pressures, but at higher borehole pressures the performance was in the lower range or below that of the baseline tricone bit. A new drilling mode was observed, while operating the MHN5 mud hammer. This mode was noticed as the weight on bit (WOB) was in transition from low to high applied load. During this new ''transition drilling mode'', performance was substantially improved and in some cases outperformed the tricone bit. Improvements were noted for the SDS tool while drilling with a more aggressive bit design. Future work includes the optimization of these or the next generation tools for operating in higher density and higher borehole pressure conditions and improving bit design and technology based on the knowledge gained from this test program.

  13. Sliding pressure control valve for pneumatic hammer drill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polsky, Yarom [Albuquerque, NM

    2011-08-30

    A pneumatic device control apparatus and method comprising a ported valve slidably fitted over a feed tube of the pneumatic device, and using a compliant biasing device to constrain motion of the valve to provide asymmetric timing for extended pressurization of a power chamber and reduced pressurization of a return chamber of the pneumatic device. The pneumatic device can be a pneumatic hammer drill.

  14. Percussive Augmenter of Rotary Drills for Operating as a Rotary-Hammer Drill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrich, Jack Barron (Inventor); Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor); Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor); Badescu, Mircea (Inventor); Bao, Xiaoqi (Inventor); Scott, James Samson (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A percussive augmenter bit includes a connection shaft for mounting the bit onto a rotary drill. In a first modality, an actuator percussively drives the bit, and an electric slip-ring provides power to the actuator while being rotated by the drill. Hammering action from the actuator and rotation from the drill are applied directly to material being drilled. In a second modality, a percussive augmenter includes an actuator that operates as a hammering mechanism that drives a free mass into the bit creating stress pulses that fracture material that is in contact with the bit.

  15. Air distribution system with the discharge action in the working cavity of downhole air hammer drills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timonin, VV; Alekseev, SE; Kokoulin, DI; Kubanychbek, B.

    2018-03-01

    It is proposed to carry out pre-mine methane drainage using underground degassing holes made by downhole air hammer drills. The features of downhole air drills are described. The downhole air drill layout with the simple-shape striking part is presented with its pluses and minuses. The researchers point at available options to eliminate the shortcomings. The improved layout of the downhole air hammer drill is suggested. The paper ends with the test data on the prototype air hammer drill, its characteristics and trial drilling results.

  16. Single Piezo-Actuator Rotary-Hammering Drill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2011-01-01

    This innovation comprises a compact drill that uses low-axial preload, via vibrations, that fractures the rock under the bit kerf, and rotates the bit to remove the powdered cuttings while augmenting the rock fracture via shear forces. The vibrations fluidize the powered cuttings inside the flutes around the bit, reducing the friction with the auger surface. These combined actions reduce the consumed power and the heating of the drilled medium, helping to preserve the pristine content of the produced samples. The drill consists of an actuator that simultaneously impacts and rotates the bit by applying force and torque via a single piezoelectric stack actuator without the need for a gearbox or lever mechanism. This reduces the development/fabrication cost and complexity. The piezoelectric actuator impacts the surface and generates shear forces, fragmenting the drilled medium directly under the bit kerf by exceeding the tensile and/or shear strength of the struck surface. The percussive impact action of the actuator leads to penetration of the medium by producing a zone of finely crushed rock directly underneath the struck location. This fracturing process is highly enhanced by the shear forces from the rotation and twisting action. To remove the formed cuttings, the bit is constructed with an auger on its internal or external surface. One of the problems with pure hammering is that, as the teeth become embedded in the sample, the drilling efficiency drops unless the teeth are moved away from the specific footprint location. By rotating the teeth, they are moved to areas that were not fragmented, and thus the rock fracturing is enhanced via shear forces. The shear motion creates ripping or chiseling action to produce larger fragments to increase the drilling efficiency, and to reduce the required power. The actuator of the drill consists of a piezoelectric stack that vibrates the horn. The stack is compressed by a bolt between the backing and the horn in order to

  17. Design of a water-powered DTH hammer for deep drilling application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Min Jae; Kim, Donguk; Oh, Joo Young; Yook, Se-Jin; Kim, Young Won

    2017-11-01

    A DTH (Down-the-hole) hammer powered by highly pressurized fluid is a drilling tool using the motion of percussion of a drill bit. In retrospect, a DTH by using compressed air as a power source has been widely used in drilling industries such as applications of mining, geothermal etc. On the other hand, another type of a DTH that uses pressurized water, called a water hammer, has recently seen deep drilling applications, while it has been rarely investigated. In this study, we designed a water-powered DTH hammer which mainly consists of several components such as a piston, a poppet valve, a cap and a bit for deep drilling applications. We optimized the components of the hammer on the basis of the results of 1D analysis using commercial software of AMESIM. An experimental study has been also conducted to investigate a performance of the designed water hammer. We measured a pressure distribution inside the hammer system as a function of time, and it thus estimates a frequency of impaction of the bit, which has been also analyzed in frequency domain. In addition, some important parameters have been discussed in conjunction with a limitation of impaction frequency as input pressure. We believe that this study provides design rules of a water-based DTH for deep drilling applications. This work is supported by KITECH of Korean government.

  18. INTEGRATED DRILLING SYSTEM USING MUD ACTUATED DOWN HOLE HAMMER AS PRIMARY ENGINE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John V. Fernandez; David S. Pixton

    2005-12-01

    A history and project summary of the development of an integrated drilling system using a mud-actuated down-hole hammer as its primary engine are given. The summary includes laboratory test results, including atmospheric tests of component parts and simulated borehole tests of the hammer system. Several remaining technical hurdles are enumerated. A brief explanation of commercialization potential is included. The primary conclusion for this work is that a mud actuated hammer can yield substantial improvements to drilling rate in overbalanced, hard rock formations. A secondary conclusion is that the down-hole mud actuated hammer can serve to provide other useful down-hole functions including generation of high pressure mud jets, generation of seismic and sonic signals, and generation of diagnostic information based on hammer velocity profiles.

  19. A Universal Rig for Supporting Large Hammer Drills: Reduced Injury Risk and Improved Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempel, David; Barr, Alan

    2015-10-01

    Drilling holes into concrete with heavy hammer and rock drills is one of the most physically demanding tasks performed in commercial construction and poses risks for musculoskeletal disorders, noise induced hearing loss, hand arm vibration syndrome and silicosis. The aim of this study was to (1) use a participatory process to develop a rig to support pneumatic rock drills or large electric hammer drills in order to reduce the health risks and (2) evaluate the usability of the rig. Seven prototype rigs for supporting large hammer drills were developed and modified with feedback from commercial contractors and construction workers. The final design was evaluated by laborers and electricians (N=29) who performed their usual concrete drilling with the usual method and the new rig. Subjective regional fatigue was significantly less in the neck, shoulders, hands and arms, and lower back) when using the universal rig compared to the usual manual method. Usability ratings for the rig were significantly better than the usual method on stability, control, drilling, accuracy, and vibration. Drilling time was reduced by approximately 50% with the rig. Commercial construction contractors, laborers and electricians who use large hammer drills for drilling many holes should consider using such a rig to prevent musculoskeletal disorders, fatigue, and silicosis.

  20. Application of air hammer drilling technology in igneous rocks of Junggar basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongshan; Feng, Guangtong; Yu, Haiye

    2018-03-01

    There were many technical problems such as serious well deviation, low penetration rate and long drilling cycle in igneous rocks because of its hardness, strong abrasive and poor drillability, which severely influenced the exploration and development process of Junggar basin. Through analyzing the difficulties of gas drilling with roller bits in Well HS 2, conducting the mechanics experiments about igneous rock, and deeply describing the rock-breaking mechanism of air hammer drilling and its adaptability in igneous rocks, air hammer drilling can realize deviation control and fast drilling in igneous rocks of piedmont zone and avoid the wear and fatigue fracture of drilling strings due to its characteristics of low WOB, low RPM and high frequency impact. Through firstly used in igneous rocks of Well HS 201, compared with gas drilling with cone bit, the average penetration rate and one-trip footage of air hammer drilling respectively increased by more than 2.45 times and 6.42 times while the well deviation was always controlled less than 2 degrees. Two records for Block HS were set up such as the fastest penetration rate of 14.29m/h in Φ444.5mm well hole and the highest one-trip footage of 470.62m in Φ311.2mm well hole. So air hammer drilling was an effective way to realize optimal and fast drilling in the igneous rock formation of Junggar basin.

  1. Auto-Gopher: A Wire-Line Rotary-Hammer Ultrasonic Drill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaogi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Chen, Beck

    2011-01-01

    Developing technologies that would enable NASA to sample rock, soil, and ice by coring, drilling or abrading at a significant depth is of great importance for a large number of in-situ exploration missions as well as for earth applications. Proven techniques to sample Mars subsurface will be critical for future NASA astrobiology missions that will search for records of past and present life on the planet, as well as, the search for water and other resources. A deep corer, called Auto-Gopher, is currently being developed as a joint effort of the JPL's NDEAA laboratory and Honeybee Robotics Corp. The Auto-Gopher is a wire-line rotary-hammer drill that combines rock breaking by hammering using an ultrasonic actuator and cuttings removal by rotating a fluted bit. The hammering mechanism is based on the Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) that has been developed as an adaptable tool for many of drilling and coring applications. The USDC uses an intermediate free-flying mass to transform the high frequency vibrations of the horn tip into a sonic hammering of a drill bit. The USDC concept was used in a previous task to develop an Ultrasonic/Sonic Ice Gopher. The lessons learned from testing the ice gopher were implemented into the design of the Auto-Gopher by inducing a rotary motion onto the fluted coring bit. A wire-line version of such a system would allow penetration of significant depth without a large increase in mass. A laboratory version of the corer was developed in the NDEAA lab to determine the design and drive parameters of the integrated system. The design configuration lab version of the design and fabrication and preliminary testing results are presented in this paper

  2. Single Piezo-Actuator Rotary-Hammering (SPaRH) Drill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor); Bao, Xiaoqi (Inventor); Badescu, Mircea (Inventor); Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A Single Piezo-Actuator Rotary-Hammering (SPaRH) Drill includes a horn actuator having high power piezoelectric materials and a flexure pre-stress to increase the actuators effectiveness. The drill is a low mass, low power, compact coring drill measuring 20-cm high by 7-cm diameter and having a total weight of 2 kg including drive electronics. Using an average power of 50-Watts, the drill basalt is expected to cut basalt at a rate of 0.2 cm/min down to depth of 10-cm and create cuttings and an intact core. The drill is expected to operate under different environments including Martian ambient (6 Torr and down to -50 degree C), and liquid nitrogen temperatures (77 K) and low pressure (<<1 Torr) to simulate lunar polar and Europa conditions. Materials expected to be sampled include Kaolinite, Saddleback Basalt, Limestone, Volcanic Breccia, Siltstone, ice, permafrost and layered rocks with different hardness.

  3. Drilling, Coring and Sampling Using Piezoelectric Actuated Mechanisms: From the USDC to a Piezo-Rotary-Hammer Drill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Bao, Xiaoqi

    2012-01-01

    NASA exploration missions are increasingly including sampling tasks but with the growth in engineering experience (particularly, Phoenix Scout and MSL) it is now very much recognized that planetary drilling poses many challenges. The difficulties grow significantly with the hardness of sampled material, the depth of drilling and the harshness of the environmental conditions. To address the requirements for samplers that could be operated at the conditions of the various bodies in the solar system, a number of piezoelectric actuated drills and corers were developed by the Advanced Technologies Group of JPL. The basic configuration that was conceived in 1998 is known as the Ultrasonic/Sonic Driller/Corer (USDC), and it operates as a percussive mechanism. This drill requires as low preload as 10N (important for operation at low gravity) allowing to operate with as low-mass device as 400g, use an average power as low as 2- 3W and drill rocks as hard as basalt. A key feature of this drilling mechanism is the use of a free-mass to convert the ultrasonic vibrations generated by piezoelectric stack to sonic impacts on the bit. Using the versatile capabilities f the USDC led to the development of many configurations and device sizes. Significant improvement of the penetration rate was achieved by augmenting the hammering action by rotation and use of a fluted bit to remove cuttings. To reach meters deep in ice a wireline drill was developed called the Ultrasonic/Sonic Gopher and it was demonstrated in 2005 to penetrate about 2-m deep at Antarctica. Jointly with Honeybee Robotics, this mechanism is currently being modified to incorporate rotation and inchworm operation forming Auto-Gopher to reach meters deep in rocks. To take advantage of the ability of piezoelectric actuators to operate over a wide temperatures range, piezoelectric actuated drills were developed and demonstrated to operate at as cold as -200oC and as hot as 500oC. In this paper, the developed mechanisms

  4. Theoretical analysis and design of hydro-hammer with a jet actuator: An engineering application to improve the penetration rate of directional well drilling in hard rock formations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiang-Fu; Liang, Yun-Pei; Li, Li-Jia; Luo, Yong-Jiang

    2018-01-01

    Rapid horizontal directional well drilling in hard or fractured formations requires efficient drilling technology. The penetration rate of conventional hard rock drilling technology in horizontal directional well excavations is relatively low, resulting in multiple overgrinding of drill cuttings in bottom boreholes. Conventional drilling techniques with reamer or diamond drill bit face difficulties due to the long construction periods, low penetration rates, and high engineering costs in the directional well drilling of hard rock. To improve the impact energy and penetration rate of directional well drilling in hard formations, a new drilling system with a percussive and rotary drilling technology has been proposed, and a hydro-hammer with a jet actuator has also been theoretically designed on the basis of the impulse hydro-turbine pressure model. In addition, the performance parameters of the hydro-hammer with a jet actuator have been numerically and experimentally analyzed, and the influence of impact stroke and pumped flow rate on the motion velocity and impact energy of the hydro-hammer has been obtained. Moreover, the designed hydro-hammer with a jet actuator has been applied to hard rock drilling in a trenchless drilling program. The motion velocity of the hydro-hammer ranges from 1.2 m/s to 3.19 m/s with diverse flow rates and impact strokes, and the motion frequency ranges from 10 Hz to 22 Hz. Moreover, the maximum impact energy of the hydro-hammer is 407 J, and the pumped flow rate is 2.3 m3/min. Thus, the average penetration rate of the optimized hydro-hammer improves by over 30% compared to conventional directional drilling in hard rock formations.

  5. The Effects of Bit Wear on Respirable Silica Dust, Noise and Productivity: A Hammer Drill Bench Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carty, Paul; Cooper, Michael R; Barr, Alan; Neitzel, Richard L; Balmes, John; Rempel, David

    2017-07-01

    Hammer drills are used extensively in commercial construction for drilling into concrete for tasks including rebar installation for structural upgrades and anchor bolt installation. This drilling task can expose workers to respirable silica dust and noise. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the effects of bit wear on respirable silica dust, noise, and drilling productivity. Test bits were worn to three states by drilling consecutive holes to different cumulative drilling depths: 0, 780, and 1560 cm. Each state of bit wear was evaluated by three trials (nine trials total). For each trial, an automated laboratory test bench system drilled 41 holes 1.3 cm diameter, and 10 cm deep into concrete block at a rate of one hole per minute using a commercially available hammer drill and masonry bits. During each trial, dust was continuously captured by two respirable and one inhalable sampling trains and noise was sampled with a noise dosimeter. The room was thoroughly cleaned between trials. When comparing results for the sharp (0 cm) versus dull bit (1560 cm), the mean respirable silica increased from 0.41 to 0.74 mg m-3 in sampler 1 (P = 0.012) and from 0.41 to 0.89 mg m-3 in sampler 2 (P = 0.024); levels above the NIOSH recommended exposure limit of 0.05 mg m-3. Likewise, mean noise levels increased from 112.8 to 114.4 dBA (P < 0.00001). Drilling productivity declined with increasing wear from 10.16 to 7.76 mm s-1 (P < 0.00001). Increasing bit wear was associated with increasing respirable silica dust and noise and reduced drilling productivity. The levels of dust and noise produced by these experimental conditions would require dust capture, hearing protection, and possibly respiratory protection. The findings support the adoption of a bit replacement program by construction contractors. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  6. Water hammer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    The overall NRC program for the resolution of the water hammer issue is divided into four tasks: water hammer summary reports; revision of CP and OL review procedures; water hammer positions for operating reactors; and water hammer safety studies

  7. Reduced-impact sliding pressure control valve for pneumatic hammer drill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polsky, Yarom [Oak Ridge, TN; Grubelich, Mark C [Albuquerque, NM; Vaughn, Mark R [Albuquerque, NM

    2012-05-15

    A method and means of minimizing the effect of elastic valve recoil in impact applications, such as percussive drilling, where sliding spool valves used inside the percussive device are subject to poor positioning control due to elastic recoil effects experienced when the valve impacts a stroke limiting surface. The improved valve design reduces the reflected velocity of the valve by using either an energy damping material, or a valve assembly with internal damping built-in, to dissipate the compression stress wave produced during impact.

  8. Electromagnetic Hammer for Metalworking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, S. A.; Brunet, F.; Dowd, A.; Durham, R.; Ezell, J.; Gorr, G.; Hartley, D.; Jackson, F.; Marchand, J.; Macfarlane, W.; hide

    1986-01-01

    High eddy currents apply pressure for cold-forming. Coil housing constructed for mechanical strength to hold coil against magnetic force, to maintain electrical contact with coil ends, and to maintain insulation between coil turns. Drilled holes placed to facilitate release of bubbles during potting. In contrast with mechanical hammers, electromagnetic hammer requires no dynamic material contact with workpiece; consequently, produces almost no change in metal grain structure.

  9. What you should know about contract core drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koontz, J.

    1985-07-01

    Most core drilling jobs are on the basis of so much per foot drilled. The driller pays for his crew's wages and overtime pay. He assumes the cost of all necessary supplies and has responsibility for unexpected problems. The customer is responsible for a water supply and must provide access roads to drill sites and prepare the sites. The following are important in selecting a driller; how long they have been in business, how many rigs they have and what condition the rigs are in and their financial condition. Detailed discussions with the driller before he starts the job and a daily drill report are important. A best possible core recovery should be expected. Communication with the driller is the most important factor when involved in a core drilling project.

  10. Strategies and structures for drilling and service contracts in the nineties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Wardt, J.P.; van Gils, J.M.I.

    1992-01-01

    Drilling in the Nineties initiatives were introduced to the industry in early 1990. Contractual mechanisms for the application of these initiatives have been developed to meet the challenges. This paper describes the major elements of these mechanisms. This paper reports that the strategy foreseen for integrating services to provide a total service concept either directly through a drilling contractor or in parallel to a drilling contractor is described. The latter concept envisages a service contractor providing multiple services on an incentive basis in parallel to a drilling contractor. The challenge to the operator is to provide a framework for co-operation, through the contracts, with one or each of these parties such that they perform as if a single entity. The newly developed structure of Designated Subcontracts is introduced. This defines the relationship between the drilling contractor and the subcontractors providing designated services. In this manner many of the difficulties encountered through subcontracting additional services have been overcome

  11. Impact Driver With Integral Sliding Hammer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Bilby J.

    1987-01-01

    Tool combines impact driver with sliding dead-blow hammer. Used for any purpose for which ordinary impact driver used; tightening fasteners or driving starter holes for drill. Tool protects user from accidental injury and surrounding equipment from damage that might occur from ordinary arm-wielded hammer. Especially useful in underwater work.

  12. Strategies and structures for drilling and service contracts in the 1990's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wardt, J.P. de; Gils, J.M.I. van.

    1994-01-01

    Drilling in the nineties initiatives were introduced to the industry in early 1990. Contractual mechanisms for application of these initiatives have been developed. A strategy is developed for integrating services to provide a total service concept either directly through or parallel with a drilling contractor. Development of cooperative customer/supplier relationship are emerging as the way to sustain performance improvements

  13. Water hammer simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, S.K.; Madia, J.; Dixon, S.

    1995-01-01

    The Consolidated Edison Company of New York, Inc. (Con Edison) has constructed a first-of-a-kind water hammer events simulator for use at its training center. The Learning Center, Con Edison's central training facility, intends to use the simulator as an educational tool to demonstrate the various mechanisms of the water hammer phenomenon to power plant designers, engineers and operators. The water hammer phenomenon has been studied extensively for the past 15 years for the nuclear industry. However, the acknowledge of the various water hammer mechanisms and the measures to prevent or mitigate water hammer have not been widely disseminated among the operators of fossil-fueled power plants. Con Edison personnel who operate the various generation stations and the New York City steam distribution systems are expected to benefit from the new simulator. Knowledge gained from interacting with the simulator will be very important in helping the Con Edison prevent, mitigate, or accommodate water hammer at its facilities. The water hammer simulator was fabricated in Con Edison's central machine shop. Details of the design and construction of the simulator were finalized in consultation with Creare, Inc., an engineering research firm, located in Hanover, New Hampshire. The simulator seeks to recreate the essential features of water hammer in steam mines following the buildup of cold (subcooled) water by condensation and steam-water interaction. This paper describes the fabrication, design, testing, and operation of the Con Edison water hammer simulator. A discussion of how Con Edison plans to use the facility at The Learning Center is included

  14. Water hammer research in networks

    OpenAIRE

    Anželika Jurkienė; Mindaugas Rimeika

    2015-01-01

    Formation of water hammer, its consequences and possible protection measures are rarely topics, however the problem is significant. Water hammer can form in water supply and pressurized sewage networks, for various reasons. The article presents short theory of water hammer and methodology for calculation of specific parameters. Research of water hammer was performed in real water supply and sewer networks of country. Simulation of water hammer was carried out by turning on and off water pumps...

  15. Water hammer research in networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anželika Jurkienė

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Formation of water hammer, its consequences and possible protection measures are rarely topics, however the problem is significant. Water hammer can form in water supply and pressurized sewage networks, for various reasons. The article presents short theory of water hammer and methodology for calculation of specific parameters. Research of water hammer was performed in real water supply and sewer networks of country. Simulation of water hammer was carried out by turning on and off water pumps in pumping station. Successful measurement of water hammer depends on accuracy of the measurement equipment, therefore during the research surge wave fluctuations were measured with especially high resolution pressure meters. Detailed analysis of water hammer and selection of protecting equipment hydraulic model of water supply network was created. Protection against water hammer helps to avoid breaking of the water network and extend operation time.

  16. Maximum Water Hammer Sensitivity Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jalil Emadi; Abbas Solemani

    2011-01-01

    Pressure waves and Water Hammer occur in a pumping system when valves are closed or opened suddenly or in the case of sudden failure of pumps. Determination of maximum water hammer is considered one of the most important technical and economical items of which engineers and designers of pumping stations and conveyance pipelines should take care. Hammer Software is a recent application used to simulate water hammer. The present study focuses on determining significance of ...

  17. Water hammer conservatisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uffer, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    Calculated water hammer forces often contain excessive conservatisms resulting in unrealistic damage predictions. This is especially true for void filling and column separation scenarios. Pressure rise times can be as important as pressure amplitudes. Forces based on in situ test data can also contain excessive conservatisms. This paper discusses the causes of such conservatisms and means of minimizing them

  18. The Velvet Hammer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    This article features the life of Louise Underwood, an advocate for people with disabilities and their families. Underwood is known for her nickname "The Velvet Hammer" because of her relentless attitude when it comes to advocating for people with disabilities. Many times she has pulled strings to halt legislation that would have…

  19. Hypothenar hammer syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröttle, Angelika; Czihal, Michael; Lottspeich, Christian; Kuhlencordt, Peter; Nowak, Dennis; Hoffmann, Ulrich

    2015-05-01

    The diagnosis of hypothenar hammer syndrome (HHS) should be considered in the case of hand ischemia in people who occupationally or recreationally use the hypothenar region literally as a “hammer”. Routine diagnostics should consist of physical examination including Allen’s test, acral plethysmography and duplex sonography. According to the prevailing opinion angiography remains the «gold standard test» for establishing the diagnosis of HHS. Early diagnosis allows more effective therapeutic strategies and is important to prevent long-term negative medical sequelae. Several basic principles apply to all patients, for example hand protection and smoking cessation. The optimal treatment options, particularly the indication for surgery, remain controversial due to a lack of sound data from case series or prospective randomized trials.

  20. Meshless computation of water hammer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijsseling, A.S.; Bergant, A.

    2007-01-01

    Water hammer concerns the generation, propagation, reflection and damping of pressure waves in liquidfilled pipe systems. The numerical simulation of water-hammer events is usually based on one-dimensional mathematical models. Two equations representing the conservation of mass and momentum govern

  1. Hammering towards QED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmin C. Blanchette

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper surveys the emerging methods to automate reasoning over large libraries developed with formal proof assistants. We call these methods hammers. They give the authors of formal proofs a strong "one-stroke" tool for discharging difficult lemmas without the need for careful and detailed manual programming of proof search.The main ingredients underlying this approach are efficient automatic theorem provers that can cope with hundreds of axioms, suitable translations of richer logics to their formalisms, heuristic and learning methods that select relevant facts from large libraries, and methods that reconstruct the automatically found proofs inside the proof assistants.We outline the history of these methods, explain the main issues and techniques, and show their strength on several large benchmarks. We also discuss the relation of this technology to the QED Manifesto and consider its implications for QED-style efforts.

  2. Dynamic Analysis of Hammer Mechanism "Twin Hammer" of Impact Wrench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konečný, M.; Slavík, J.

    This paper describes function of the hammer mechanism "Twin hammer" the impact wrench, calculation of dynamic forces exerted on the mechanism and determining the contact pressures between the parts of the mechanism. The modelling of parts was performed in system Pro ENGINEER—standard. The simulation and finding dynamic forces was performed in advanced module Pro ENGINEER—mechanism design and finding contacts pressures in modul Pro ENGENEER—mechanica.

  3. Volpentest HAMMER Federal Training Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — HAMMER stands for Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response, and was named for Sam Volpentest, a long-time community leader and advocate of the Hanford...

  4. Hammer's Monsters: A Screen Bestiary

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Matthew; Chibnall, S.

    2016-01-01

    This public exhibition, housed in the DMU Heritage Centre, ran from October 2016 to October 2017. It displayed materials from the Hammer Script Archive held by the Cinema and Television History (CATH) Research Centre at DMU and provided a critical and historical commentary on these materials. Locating the archival objects and images within the industrial and creative history of the iconic Hammer Film Productions, the exhibition invited the public to reflect on the place of this studio within ...

  5. Hypothenar hammer syndrome in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, L P; Rudig, L; Kreitner, K F; Degreif, J

    1996-01-01

    Repetitive blunt trauma or single severe trauma to the hypothenar region may lead to traumatic thrombosis of the distal ulnar artery (hypothenar hammer syndrome, HHS). In the sports-related literature we found and analysed isolated cases attributed to injuries sustained during sporting activities such as baseball, badminton, handball, football, frisbee, softball, karate, weight-lifting and hockey. Further, we report the case of an amateur golf player with ischaemic symptoms of his left hand, where angiography revealed filling defects in the digital arteries associated with a corkscrew-like configuration of the distal ulnar artery. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan demonstrated, at the level of the hamulus ossis hamati, accessory fibres of m. palmaris brevis forming a sling around the ulnar artery. Treatment by resection of the thrombosed a. ulnaris segment and replacement with an autologous vein graft resulted in complete relief of symptoms. Histological sections revealed partially organized thrombi adherent to the intimal surface with fragmentation of the internal elastic membrane, indicating a traumatic genesis. As the mechanism of injury, we suspected intensive golf playing with the grip style and subsequent motions leading to pressure injury of the hypothenar area and the underlying ulnar artery. Contraction of the anomalous muscle belly may have additionally compressed the artery, slowing down the arterial flow and promoting thrombosis. In most reported cases including our own, it took a relatively long time until the cause of the disease as traumatic was found and accepted. The initial repetitive blunt or single severe trauma initiating the HHS can easily be overlooked or ignored. After intimal damage of a. ulnaris, the beginning of symptoms may be prolonged and mislead one into thinking the cause is a collagen or vasospastic disease.

  6. Water hammers in direct contact heater systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uffer, R.

    1983-01-01

    This paper discusses the causes and mitigation or prevention of water hammers occurring in direct contact heaters and their attached lines. These water hammers are generally caused by rapid pressure reductions in the heaters or by water lines not flowing full. Proper design and operating measures can prevent or mitigate water hammer occurrence. Water hammers often do not originate at the areas where damage is noted

  7. Observations on steam generator water hammer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildebrandt, P.C.

    1979-01-01

    The present state of understanding of water hammer phenomena apparently does not permit analytically predicting the occurrence or consequence of water hammer, with any confidence, or conclusively evaluating the benefit associated with any particular action taken to ameliorate an existing or potential water hammer problem. Features or fixes are incorporated based on overwhelming the problem, and trial and error

  8. The Auto-Gopher Deep Drill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badescu, Mircea

    2014-01-01

    Subsurface penetration by coring, drilling or abrading is of great importance for a large number of space and earth applications. An Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) has been in development at JPL's Nondestructive Evaluation and Advanced Actuators (NDEAA) lab as an adaptable tool for many of these applications. The USDC uses a novel drive mechanism to transform the high frequency ultrasonic or sonic vibrations of the tip of a horn into a lower frequency sonic hammering of a drill bit through an intermediate free-flying mass. The USDC device idea has been implemented at various scales from handheld drills to large diameter coring devices. A series of computer programs that model the function and performance of the USDC device were developed and were later integrated into an automated modeling package. The USDC has also evolved from a purely hammering drill to a rotary hammer drill as the design requirements increased form small diameter shallow drilling to large diameter deep coring. A synthesis of the Auto-Gopher development is presented in this paper.

  9. Dynamic shock wave: hammer blow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lackme, Claude

    1978-01-01

    The general properties of shocks, their generation and the conditions of reflexion to an interface are dealt with in turn. By then applying these concepts to a liquid column and its environment (wall, free area, closing devices) the hammer blow is presented as being a relatively weak shock [fr

  10. Project T100 -- Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response Training Center (HAMMER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, C.E.

    1994-01-01

    The scope of this Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) is to provide a system of Quality Assurance reviews and verifications on the design and construction of the Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER) Training Center, project 95L-EWT-100 at Hanford. The reviews and verifications will be on activities associated with design, procurement, and construction of the HAMMER project which includes, but is not limited to earthwork, placement of concrete, laying of rail, drilling of wells, water and sewer line fabrication and installation, communications systems, fire protection/detection systems, line tie-ins, building and mock-up (prop) construction, electrical, instrumentation, pump and valves and special coatings

  11. Condensation induced water hammer safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gintner, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    Condensation induced water hammer events in piping systems can cause catastrophic steam system failures which can result in equipment damage, personal injury, and even death. As an industry, we have learned to become accustomed to the ''banging'' that we often hear in our steam piping systems, and complacent in our actions to prevent it. It is unfortunate that lives are lost needlessly, as this type of water hammer event is preventable if one only applies some basic principles when operating and maintaining their steam systems. At the U. S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site where I work, there was one such accident that occurred in 1993 which took the life of a former co-worker and friend of mine. Hanford was established as part of the Manhattan Project during World War II. it is a 560 square mile complex located along the banks of the Columbia River in Southeastern Washington State. For almost 45 years, hanford's mission was to produce weapons grade plutonium for our nations defense programs. Today, Hanford no longer produces plutonium, but is focused on site clean-up and economic diversification. Hanford still uses steam for heating and processing activities, utilizing over 20 miles of piping distribution systems similar to those found in industry. Although these aging systems are still sound, they cannot stand up to the extreme pressure pulses developed by a condensation induced water hammer

  12. Condensation induced water hammer safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gintner, M.A.

    1997-03-10

    Condensation induced water hammer events in piping systems can cause catastrophic steam system failures which can result in equipment damage, personal injury, and even death. As an industry, we have learned to become accustomed to the ''banging'' that we often hear in our steam piping systems, and complacent in our actions to prevent it. It is unfortunate that lives are lost needlessly, as this type of water hammer event is preventable if one only applies some basic principles when operating and maintaining their steam systems. At the U. S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site where I work, there was one such accident that occurred in 1993 which took the life of a former co-worker and friend of mine. Hanford was established as part of the Manhattan Project during World War II. it is a 560 square mile complex located along the banks of the Columbia River in Southeastern Washington State. For almost 45 years, hanford's mission was to produce weapons grade plutonium for our nations defense programs. Today, Hanford no longer produces plutonium, but is focused on site clean-up and economic diversification. Hanford still uses steam for heating and processing activities, utilizing over 20 miles of piping distribution systems similar to those found in industry. Although these aging systems are still sound, they cannot stand up to the extreme pressure pulses developed by a condensation induced water hammer.

  13. Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Volpentest Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER) Federal Training Center is a safety and emergency response training center that offers...

  14. Tests of HAMMER (original) and HAMMER-TECHNION systems with critical experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, A. dos

    1986-01-01

    Performances of the reactor cell codes HAMMER (original) and HAMMER-TECHNION were tested against experimental results of critical benchmarks. The option made was the utilization of consistent methodologies so that only the NIT (Nordheim Integral Technique) was utilized in the HAMMER-TECHNION. All differences encountered in the analysis made with these systems can be attributed to their basic nuclear data library. Five critical benchmarks was utilized on this study. Surprisingly, the performance of the original HAMMER system was betterthan that of the HAMMER-TECHNION. (Author) [pt

  15. Water hammer and cavitational hammer in process plant pipe systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudlik, A.; Schoenfeld, S.B.H.; Hagemann, O.; Fahlenkamp, H.

    2003-01-01

    Fast acting valves are often applied for quick safety shut-down of pipelines for liquids and gases in the chemical and petrochemical industry as well as in power plants and state water supplies. The fast deceleration of the liquid leads to water hammer upstream the valve and to cavitational hammer downstream the fast closing valve. The valve characteristics given by manufacturers are usually measured at steady state flow conditions of the liquid. In comparison, the dynamic characteristics depend on the initial liquid velocity, valve closing velocity, the absolute pipe pressure and the pipe geometry. Fraunhofer UMSICHT conducts various test series examining valve dynamic characteristics in order of the dynamic analysis of pressure surges in fast closing processes. Therefore a test rig is used which consists of two pipelines of DN 50 and DN 100 with an approximate length of 230 m each. In this paper the results of performed pressure surge experiments with fast closing and opening valves will be compared to calculations of commercial software programs such as MONA, FLOWMASTER 2. Thus the calculation software for water supply, power plants oil and gas and chemical industry can be permanently improved. (orig.)

  16. Skalak's extended theory of water hammer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijsseling, A.S.; Lambert, M.F.; Simpson, A.R.; Stephens, M.L.; Vítkovský, J.P.; Bergant, A.

    2008-01-01

    Half a century ago Richard Skalak [see T.C. Skalak, A dedication in memoriam of Dr. Richard Skalak, Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering 1 (1999) 1–18] published a paper with the title "An extension of the theory of water hammer" [R. Skalak, An Extension of the Theory of Water Hammer, PhD Thesis,

  17. Metal Forming With a Magnetomotive Hammer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    During the Apollo era Marshall Space Flight Center's engineers developed the Magnetomotive Hammer to remove distortions from Saturn V bulkhead gore segments. Using an intense magnetic field, the Hammer removed manufacturing distortions from rejected segments which otherwise would have been discarded at a cost of $30,000 each. Various automobile, ship and aircraft manufacturers adoped the technology for commercial use.

  18. Water Hammer in Pumped Sewer Mains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    This publication is intended for engineers seeking an introduction to the problem of water hammer in pumped pressure mains. This is a subject of increasing interest because of the development of larger and more integrated sewer systems. Consideration of water hammer is essential for structural...

  19. Simulation of low pressure water hammer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himr, D.; Habán, V.

    2010-08-01

    Numerical solution of water hammer is presented in this paper. The contribution is focused on water hammer in the area of low pressure, which is completely different than high pressure case. Little volume of air and influence of the pipe are assumed in water, which cause sound speed change due to pressure alterations. Computation is compared with experimental measurement.

  20. Review of two-phase water hammer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beuthe, T.G.

    1997-01-01

    In a thermalhydraulic system like a nuclear power plant, where steam and water mix and are used to transport large amounts of energy, there is a potential to create two-phase water hammer. Large water hammer pressure transients are a threat to piping integrity and represent an important safety concern. Such events may cause unscheduled plant down time. The objective of this review is to provide a summary of the information on two-phase water hammer available in the open literature with particular emphasis on water hammer occurrences in nuclear power plants. Past reviews concentrated on studies concerned with preventing water hammer. The present review focuses on the fundamental experimental, analytical, and modelling studies. The papers discussed here were chosen from searches covering up to July 1993. (author)

  1. Deep drilling KLX 02. Drilling and documentation of a 1700 m deep borehole at Laxemar, Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, O [VBB VIAK AB, Malmoe (Sweden)

    1994-08-01

    In this report the preparation and execution of the deep core drilling KLX 02 is described. The hole was drilled with the wireline methods, NQ dimension (diameter 76 mm), to a final depth of 1700.5 m. Prior to core drilling a diameter 215 mm pilot hole was pre drilled to 200 m with controlled hammer drilling (DTH). In this hole casing and air-lift equipment was installed with the aim to support the circulation of drilling fluid. During core drilling there was a measurement of major drilling parameters and drilling fluid in and out of hole. As a fluid tracer uranine was used. Each 300 m of core drilling air-lift pump tests were performed. After completion a flow-meter log was run to finalize the project phase. It can be concluded that both the pre drilling and core drilling methods used proved to be successful. No severe technical problem occurred. However, potential risks have been pointed at in the report. The air-lift system functioned only partly and has to be modified for further use. Also the technique for monitoring of drilling parameters needs improvement as does the method for air-lift pump tests with packer. The organisation model for planning and realization functioned satisfactory and can be recommended for similar future projects. 9 refs, numerous tabs and figs.

  2. Deep drilling KLX 02. Drilling and documentation of a 1700 m deep borehole at Laxemar, Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, O.

    1994-08-01

    In this report the preparation and execution of the deep core drilling KLX 02 is described. The hole was drilled with the wireline methods, NQ dimension (diameter 76 mm), to a final depth of 1700.5 m. Prior to core drilling a diameter 215 mm pilot hole was pre drilled to 200 m with controlled hammer drilling (DTH). In this hole casing and air-lift equipment was installed with the aim to support the circulation of drilling fluid. During core drilling there was a measurement of major drilling parameters and drilling fluid in and out of hole. As a fluid tracer uranine was used. Each 300 m of core drilling air-lift pump tests were performed. After completion a flow-meter log was run to finalize the project phase. It can be concluded that both the pre drilling and core drilling methods used proved to be successful. No severe technical problem occurred. However, potential risks have been pointed at in the report. The air-lift system functioned only partly and has to be modified for further use. Also the technique for monitoring of drilling parameters needs improvement as does the method for air-lift pump tests with packer. The organisation model for planning and realization functioned satisfactory and can be recommended for similar future projects. 9 refs, numerous tabs and figs

  3. The Hammer Award is presented to KSC and 45th Space Wing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    KSC's Director of Public Affairs Joe Gordon (left) applauds as Ed Gormel and Chris Fairey are named recipients of the Hammer Award at a special presentation in the IMAX 2 Theater in the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex. Presenting the award is Morley Winograd (at the podium), director of the National Partnership for Reinventing Government. The Hammer Award is Vice President Al Gore's special recognition of teams of federal employees who have made significant contributions in support of the principles of the National Partnership for Reinventing Government. This Hammer Award acknowledges the accomplishments of a joint NASA and Air Force team that established the Joint Base Operations and Support Contract (J-BOSC) Source Evaluation Board (SEB). Gormel and Fairey are co-chairs of the SEB. The team developed and implemented the acquisition strategy for establishing a single set of base operations and support service requirements for KSC, Cape Canaveral Air Station and Patrick Air Force Base.

  4. WATER HAMMER OSCILLATIONS IN THE IRRIGATION FACILITIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurata, Kouichi; Sasaki, Katsuhito; Makihata, Toshiaki

    In case a gate installed at the end of discharge conduit is vibrating during discharge, or an air valve is vibrating during water-filling operation into the conduit pipe between main gate and auxiliary gate, and vibration period tv is larger than tc (water hammer propagation time) that is equivalent to the phenomenon of slow closure, there is a possibility that water hammer oscillation in the discharge conduit could be induced. In this paper, by using two case examples, vibration phenomena transmitted to each part are analyzed, on the basis of water pressure fluctuation and pressure wave propagation due to occurrence of water hammer oscillation.

  5. Modern Modeling of Water Hammer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urbanowicz Kamil

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic equipment on board ships is common. It assists in the work of: steering gear, pitch propellers, watertight doors, cargo hatch covers, cargo and mooring winches, deck cranes, stern ramps etc. The damage caused by transient flows (which include among others water hammer are often impossible to repair at sea. Hence, it is very important to estimate the correct pressure runs and associated side effects during their design. The presented study compares the results of research on the impact of a simplified way of modeling the hydraulic resistance and simplified effective weighting functions build of two and three-terms on the estimated results of the pressure changes. As it turns out, simple effective two-terms weighting functions are able to accurately model the analyzed transients. The implementation of the presented method will soon allow current automatic protection of hydraulic systems of the adverse effects associated with frequent elevated and reduced pressures.

  6. Quality assurance for hammer forgings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potthast, E.

    1984-01-01

    The quality assurance program introduced by Arbed Saarstahl and laid down in a quality assurance manual is described. A particular attention is attached thereby both to quality practice proper and to a reliable flow of information amongst all the persons involved. The production and test sequence schedules of the hammer forging plant are illustrated by the example of a forged valve housing for nuclear power plants. These schedules specify not only the forging process in the individual production stages but also the workpiece contour after each working operation, the heat treatment, the furnace charging, and the inspection of finished parts. The formalization of the tests is designed both to promote the customer's trust towards the supplier and to prevent the formal operations involved from hindering further technical development. (orig.) [de

  7. Helium hammer in superfluid transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tward, E.; Mason, P. V.

    1984-01-01

    Large transient pressure pulses, referred to as a helium hammer, which occurred in the transfer line of the main cryogenic tank during the development tests of the Infrared Astronomical Satellite, launched on January 25, 1983, are analyzed, and the measures taken to prevent a failure described. The modifications include an installation of a 2.3-liter surge tank upstream, and a back-up relief valve downstream, of a burst disk. The surge tank is designed to attenuate a 0.33-MPa pressure pulse at the inlet down to 0.092 MPa at the outlet. A mechanism of the pulse generation is suggested, which involves flashing and rapid recondensation of the small amount of liquid entering the warm section of a transition to room temperature.

  8. Development of a jet-assisted polycrystalline diamond drill bit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pixton, D.S.; Hall, D.R.; Summers, D.A.; Gertsch, R.E.

    1997-12-31

    A preliminary investigation has been conducted to evaluate the technical feasibility and potential economic benefits of a new type of drill bit. This bit transmits both rotary and percussive drilling forces to the rock face, and augments this cutting action with high-pressure mud jets. Both the percussive drilling forces and the mud jets are generated down-hole by a mud-actuated hammer. Initial laboratory studies show that rate of penetration increases on the order of a factor of two over unaugmented rotary and/or percussive drilling rates are possible with jet-assistance.

  9. A Study of Specific Fracture Energy at Percussion Drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    A, Shadrina; T, Kabanova; V, Krets; L, Saruev

    2014-08-01

    The paper presents experimental studies of rock failure provided by percussion drilling. Quantification and qualitative analysis were carried out to estimate critical values of rock failure depending on the hammer pre-impact velocity, types of drill bits and cylindrical hammer parameters (weight, length, diameter), and turn angle of a drill bit. Obtained data in this work were compared with obtained results by other researchers. The particle-size distribution in granite-cutting sludge was analyzed in this paper. Statistical approach (Spearmen's rank-order correlation, multiple regression analysis with dummy variables, Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric test) was used to analyze the drilling process. Experimental data will be useful for specialists engaged in simulation and illustration of rock failure.

  10. A Study of Specific Fracture Energy at Percussion Drilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shadrina A; Krets V; Saruev L; Kabanova T

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents experimental studies of rock failure provided by percussion drilling. Quantification and qualitative analysis were carried out to estimate critical values of rock failure depending on the hammer pre-impact velocity, types of drill bits and cylindrical hammer parameters (weight, length, diameter), and turn angle of a drill bit. Obtained data in this work were compared with obtained results by other researchers. The particle-size distribution in granite-cutting sludge was analyzed in this paper. Statistical approach (Spearmen's rank-order correlation, multiple regression analysis with dummy variables, Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric test) was used to analyze the drilling process. Experimental data will be useful for specialists engaged in simulation and illustration of rock failure

  11. Casing drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heenan, D. [Tesco Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    This paper reviewed the experience that Tesco has gained by drilling several wells using only casings as the drill stem. Tesco has manufactured a mobile and compact hydraulic drilling rig called the Casing Drilling {sup TM} system. The system could be very effective and efficient for exploration and development of coalbed methane (CBM) reserves which typically require extensive coring. Continuous coring while drilling ahead, along wire line retrieval, can offer time savings and quick core recovery of large diameter core which is typically required for exploration core desorption tests. The proposed system may also have the potential to core or drill typically tight gas sands or underbalanced wells with air or foam. This would reduce drilling fluid damage while simultaneously finding gas. Compared to conventional drill pipes, Casing Drilling {sup TM} could also be effective with water production from shallow sands because of the smaller annual clearance which requires less air volumes to lift any produced water. 9 figs.

  12. Investigation of water hammer in Globochica HPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergant, Anton; Saveski, Vasil; Sijamhodjic, Esad

    2004-01-01

    Water hammer should be one of the key elements of the feasibility and design studies in order to ensure safe operation of the hydroelectric power plant (HPP). The main objective of this paper is to identify critical flow regimes which may cause unacceptable water hammer in a Francis turbine HPP. Water hammer is described by the set of hyperbolic partial differential equations, the continuity equation and the equation of motion. The method of characteristics is used for solving these equations. The water turbine is treated as a boundary condition within the method of characteristics. The paper concludes with water hammer analysis in Globocica HPP, Republic of Macedonia. The system tinder consideration is fitted with two 23 MW Francis turbines. There is a reasonable agreement between the computational is field test results. (Author)

  13. Water hammer in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-07-01

    In the past few years, licensees of operating reactors have reported a large number of water hammer events during commercial operation. Most of these events resulted in damage to piping supports and restraints. A few cases involved small cracks or ruptures in feedwater systems. As a result, in 1977 the NRC staff initiated a review of reported water hammer events and of the potential for occurrence of water hammer in all fluid systems that could have an impact on plant safety. The objectives of the review were to identify the causes of water hammer events that could affect reactor safety and to recommend further staff actions needed to reduce the likelihood of such events

  14. Development of safety assessment method for human intrusion scenario in Japan. Part 1. Drilling scenario database for safety assessment of geological disposal (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagasawa, Hirokazu; Takeda, Seiji; Kimura, Hideo; Sasaki, Toshihisa

    2010-11-01

    In deep geological disposal or intermediate depth disposal, human intrusion, i.e. accidental excavation or drilling into the disposal site, may make a direct or an indirect effect on the disposal system. Safety assessment method for the human intrusion scenario, that is, the evaluation code of radiological effect from the human intrusion and the data to examine the reduction of the probability of the human intrusion occurring, is essential for the future safety regulation. Assuming that drilling action into the disposal site leads to the human proximity to the radioactive waste or the damage to the barrier system (drilling scenario), we have collected both the data on borehole drilling implemented in Japan and information on actual situation of drilling activities. Based on the data and information, we provide concrete exposure scenarios associated with borehole drilling in the vicinity of the repository and model for estimating the frequency on borehole reaching the depth of repository. The frequency is characterized with the relation to objective of excavation, geographical features, and region in Japan etc. We have developed an assembly of the information mentioned above as database, including the model parameters used in the code to assess radiation dose for drilling scenario. (author)

  15. Drilling unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umanchik, N P; Demin, A V; Khrustalev, N N; Linnik, G N; Lovchev, S V; Rozin, M M; Sidorov, R V; Sokolov, S I; Tsaregradskiy, Yu P

    1981-01-01

    A drilling unit is proposed which includes a hydraulic lifter, hydraulic multiple-cylinder pump with valve distribution and sectional drilling pump with separators of the working and flushing fluid. In order to reduce metal consumption and the overall dimensions of the drilling unit, the working cavity of each cylinder of the hydraulic multiple-cylinder pump is equipped with suction and injection valves and is hydraulically connected to the working cavity by one of the sections of the drilling pump.

  16. Water hammer in USA nuclear power plants and it's evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shuqian.

    1987-01-01

    The results of evaluations about the water hammer events in USA nuclear power plants in recent years are summarily reported. The evaluations included underlying causes and frequency of water hammer events, damages incurred and systems affected. Through the evaluations about water hammer events and on the basis of past operation experiences in nuclear power plants, the design and operational modifications to prevent or mitigate water hammer events were presented. The NRC's current opinions relating to the water hammer problems are summarized, the importance of water hammer events for nuclear power plants construction in China is indicated

  17. Estimation of the effectiveness of the destruction of natural stone oversized by a hydraulic hammer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.G. Kravets

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The experience of mining operations shows that even with the application of progressive methods of drilling, it is impossible to completely exclude the output of a large fraction (oversized. The percentage of oversized mass emissions from the blasting mass depending on the mining and geological conditions may vary from 5 to 20 percent. Catching an oversized piece into the receiving slit of the main crusher is associated with stopping the whole technological chain of the enterprise. Sharpening of oversized pieces of the work area during conducting of extraction or overturning works leads to a decrease in the efficiency of mining operations. Crushing of oversized materials to the required sizes can be carried out in an explosive way (by a bore or overhead charge or by non-explosive methods, most of which are based on mechanical destruction under the action of local dynamic stresses that cause stress exceeding the resistance of internal bonds in the rock. To date, manufacturers are offered many types of shock mechanisms, based on the transformation of various types of energy (from gravitational, to the energy of chemical processes into mechanical. For a number of reasons, mostly economic, to date, the most common way is the mechanical method of the destruction of oversized beams using hydraulic and hydro pneumatic hammer. That is why the work considers the main factors influencing the performance of the hydraulic hammer, among which – the specific energy consumption of the oversize and the main parameters of the hydraulic engine passport on the basis of the excavator. In the publication the power law of the hydraulic hammer changes in dependence of the size of the oversized. Also, the basic parameters of the JCB JS235 HD excavator passport are defined in the work with the use of the INDECO HP 1500 hammer hammer.

  18. Correlation of the manual compaction hammer with mechanical hammers for the Marshall method of design for asphaltic concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1964-09-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to establish, through a series of correlations, the compactive effort (number of blows) needed using the mechanical hammers to yield similar physical properties obtained with 75 blows of the manual hammer.

  19. 21 CFR 890.1450 - Powered reflex hammer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Powered reflex hammer. 890.1450 Section 890.1450 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... hammer. (a) Identification. A powered reflex hammer is a motorized device intended for medical purposes...

  20. Hypothenar hammer syndrome in an office worker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Weerakkody, Yuranga; Tosenovsky, Patrik

    2017-12-01

    Hypothenar hammer syndrome (HHS) is an uncommon cause of unilateral Raynaud's phenomenon, splinter haemorrhages and hypothenar weakness. The typical patient is a male blue-collar worker who uses their hypothenar eminence to hammer objects as part of their work. The distal ulnar artery beyond Guyon's canal is superficial and vulnerable to blunt trauma. CTA and MRA are common initial investigations and can suggest the diagnosis. DSA is the gold standard imaging modality and offers therapeutic opportunities. Management is controversial, but unless there is critical digital ischaemia, conservative treatment is first line. © 2017 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  1. Unusual Cases of Hypothenar Hammer Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrapin, Saranat; Arworn, Supapong; Wisetborisut, Anawat

    2015-01-01

    Hypothenar hammer syndrome (HHS) is a rare occupational disease. The risk group of HHS is patient whose dominate hand used as a hammer. Our study report unusually cases in Chiang Mai University Hospital. 19 year-old basketball player had right ulnar artery aneurysm for two months. After operation, his symptom was relieved and returned to play basketball again. 65 year-old housekeeper had non-dominated hand ulnar artery aneurysm for two years. After operation she still had hand claudication due to poor run-off vessel. HHS is previously state in risk group. But from our report there was a risk in different occupation.

  2. On HammerCloud and ETF

    CERN Document Server

    Babik, Marian; CERN. Geneva. IT Department

    2017-01-01

    This technical report presents the two major synthetic testing platforms used in WLCG, HammerCloud (HC) and Experiments Test Framework (ETF). It gives an overview of their architecture, components, deployment and operations and discusses the possible commonalities/differences and possible future synergies between the two projects.

  3. Muffling Hammer Blows In A Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, Alfred W.; Gilbert, Jeffrey L.; Gutow, David A.

    1994-01-01

    Sound-deadening bags placed on hammered workpieces. Useful in many workshop situations. Fabricated easily and inexpensively. Bags filled with particles of sand, metal shot, plastic, or glass, then sewn or molded shut. Tailored to fit special configurations of some workpieces. Devices used to deaden print rollers and to reduce vibrations in main-injector inlet manifold of rocket engine.

  4. Muscle fibre type composition and body composition in hammer throwers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzis, Gerasimos; Spengos, Konstantinos; Kavouras, Stavros; Manta, Panagiota; Georgiadis, Giorgos

    2010-01-01

    Aim of the present study was to describe the muscle fibre type composition and body composition of well-trained hammer throwers. Six experienced hammer throwers underwent the following measurements: one repetition maximum in squat, snatch, and clean, standing broad jump, backward overhead shot throw and the hammer throw. Dual x-ray absorptiometry was used for body composition analysis. Fibre type composition and cross sectional area was determined in muscle biopsy samples of the right vastus lateralis. Eight physical education students served as a control group. One repetition maximum in squat, snatch and clean for the hammer throwers was 245 ± 21, 132 ± 13 and 165 ± 12kg, respectively. Lean body mass was higher in hammer throwers (85.9 ± 3. 9kg vs. 62.7 ± 5.1kg (p hammer throwers and 51 ± 8% in the control group (p Hammer throwers had significantly larger type IIA fibres (7703 ± 1171 vs. 5676 ± 1270μm(2), p Hammer throwing performance correlated significantly with lean body mass (r = 0.81, p hammer throwers have larger lean body mass and larger muscular areas occupied by type II fibres, compared with relatively untrained subjects. Moreover, it seems that the enlarged muscle mass of the hammer throwers contributes significantly to the hammer throwing performance. Key pointsWell-trained hammer throwers had increased lean body mass, higher type IIA muscle fibres cross sectional areas, as well as higher bone mineral density, compared to controls.Increased lean body mass was closely related with hammer throwing performance.The relative high percentage of type IIX muscle fibres in vastus lateralis in hammer throwers warrants further investigation.

  5. Drilling reorganizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    As the first in a proposed series of steps that would move scientific ocean drilling from its own niche within the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Directorate for Astronomical, Atmospheric, Earth, and Ocean Sciences (AAEO) into the agency's Division of Ocean Sciences, Grant Gross, division director, has been appointed acting director of the Office of Scientific Ocean Drilling (OSOD). Gross will retain the directorship of the division, which also is part of AAEO. Allen M. Shinn, Jr., OSOD director for nearly 2 years, has been reassigned effective July 10 to a position in NSF's Office of Planning and Resource Management.The move aims to tie drilling operations more closely to the science with which it is associated, Gross said. This first step is an organizational response to the current leaning toward using a commercial drilling vessel as the drilling platform, he said. Before the market for such commercial drill ships opened (Eos, February 22, 1983, p . 73), other ship options for scientific ocean drilling included refurbishing the aging Glomar Challenger or renovating, at great expense, the Glomar Explorer. A possible next step in the reorganization is to make OSOD the third section within the Ocean Sciences Division. Currently, the division is divided into the Oceanographic Facilities and Support Section and the Ocean Sciences Research Section.

  6. Economic environmental management of drilling operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longwell, H.J.; Akers, T.J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents significant environmental and regulatory initiatives developed by Exxon's New Orleans Drilling Organization. Specifically, the paper will cover drilling waste minimization techniques and disposal options, recycling of drilling waste streams, and environmentally managed drilling location design considerations. The implementation of some of these initiatives at Exxon's Chalkley field land locations have resulted in a fifty percent reduction in drilling location waste management costs. Some of these same initiatives have been successfully applied to Exxon's barge drilling locations. For operations at the environmentally sensitive Mobile Bay, Exxon contracted with a local company and assisted in the development of an economically and environmentally superior drilling waste disposal and treatment system. In summary, it is possible for drilling operators to pro-actively manage escalating environmental and regulatory challenges through the implementation of economic and practical initiatives

  7. Preventive measures of water hammer in the design stage of mine drainage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Dongyan

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms and types of water hammer accident in mine drainage system are introduced. Through calculating water hammer pressure head of pump-failure water hammer, the extent of the harm caused by water hammer can be displayed visually, therefore,the preventive measures to be taken in the design stage are put forward in order to reduce water hammer accident. (author)

  8. Advanced Percussive Drilling Technology for Geothermal Exploration and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Jiann [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Raymond, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Prasad, Somuri [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wolfer, Dale [Atlas-Copco Secoroc LLC, Fagersta (Sweden)

    2017-06-12

    Percussive hammers are a promising advance in drilling technology for geothermal since they rely upon rock reduction mechanisms that are well-suited for use in the hard, brittle rock characteristic of geothermal formations. The project research approach and work plan includes a critical path to development of a high-temperature (HT) percussive hammer using a two phase approach. The work completed in Phase I of the project demonstrated the viability of percussive hammers and that solutions to technical challenges in design, material technology, and performance are likely to be resolved. Work completed in Phase II focused on testing the findings from Phase I and evaluating performance of the materials and designs at high operating temperatures. A high-operating temperature (HOT) drilling facility was designed, built, and used to test the performance of the DTH under extreme conditions. Results from the testing indicate that a high-temperature capable hammer can be developed and is a viable alternative for use in the driller’s toolbox.

  9. TPS-HAMMER: improving HAMMER registration algorithm by soft correspondence matching and thin-plate splines based deformation interpolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guorong; Yap, Pew-Thian; Kim, Minjeong; Shen, Dinggang

    2010-02-01

    We present an improved MR brain image registration algorithm, called TPS-HAMMER, which is based on the concepts of attribute vectors and hierarchical landmark selection scheme proposed in the highly successful HAMMER registration algorithm. We demonstrate that TPS-HAMMER algorithm yields better registration accuracy, robustness, and speed over HAMMER owing to (1) the employment of soft correspondence matching and (2) the utilization of thin-plate splines (TPS) for sparse-to-dense deformation field generation. These two aspects can be integrated into a unified framework to refine the registration iteratively by alternating between soft correspondence matching and dense deformation field estimation. Compared with HAMMER, TPS-HAMMER affords several advantages: (1) unlike the Gaussian propagation mechanism employed in HAMMER, which can be slow and often leaves unreached blotches in the deformation field, the deformation interpolation in the non-landmark points can be obtained immediately with TPS in our algorithm; (2) the smoothness of deformation field is preserved due to the nice properties of TPS; (3) possible misalignments can be alleviated by allowing the matching of the landmarks with a number of possible candidate points and enforcing more exact matches in the final stages of the registration. Extensive experiments have been conducted, using the original HAMMER as a comparison baseline, to validate the merits of TPS-HAMMER. The results show that TPS-HAMMER yields significant improvement in both accuracy and speed, indicating high applicability for the clinical scenario. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Recurrent Hypothenar Hammer Syndrome: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Nicholas S; Ford, Ronald D

    2016-10-01

    Hypothenar hammer syndrome (HHS) is a rare cause of digital ischemia and pain caused from repetitive trauma to the palm. Often related to occupational practices, thrombosis and embolization can occur. Treatment is often surgical and involves excision with or without reconstruction. We describe a 55 year-old, male pipe fitter previously diagnosed and treated for HHS with excision and repair using a reversed interpositional vein graft in the mid-1980's. He continued to work in the profession, which he regularly used his palm as a hammer and returned approximately 30 years later with recurrent symptoms of cold intolerance and pain. Angiography confirmed occlusion of the ulnar artery with emboli present distally. The patient was again treated with excision and reconstruction. HHS is an uncommon cause of digital ischemia. Its recurrence is even more rare. To our knowledge, this is the first described case of diagnosed and treated recurrent HHS.

  11. Hammering Does Not Fit Fitts' Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadej Petrič

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available While movement is essential to human wellbeing, we are still unable to reproduce the deftness and robustness of human movement in automatons or completely restore function to individuals with many types of motor impairment. To better understand how the human nervous system plans and controls movements, neuromechanists employ simple tasks such as upper extremity reaches and isometric force tasks. However, these simple tasks rarely consider impacts and may not capture aspects of motor control that arise from real-world complexity. Here we compared existing models of motor control with the results of a periodic targeted impact task extended from Bernstein's seminal work: hammering a nail into wood. We recorded impact forces and kinematics from 10 subjects hammering at different frequencies and with hammers with different physical properties (mass and face area. We found few statistical differences in most measures between different types of hammer, demonstrating human robustness to minor changes in dynamics. Because human motor control is thought to obey optimality principles, we also developed a feedforward optimal simulation with a neuromechanically inspired cost function that reproduces the experimental data. However, Fitts' Law, which relates movement time to distance traveled and target size, did not match our experimental data. We therefore propose a new model in which the distance moved is a logarithmic function of the time to move that yields better results (R2 ≥ 0.99 compared to R2 ≥ 0.88. These results support the argument that humans control movement in an optimal way, but suggest that Fitts' Law may not generalize to periodic impact tasks.

  12. Water Hammer Modelling and Simulation by GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hariri Asli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work defined an Eulerian-based computational model compared with regression of the relationship between the dependent and independent variables for water hammer surge wave in transmission pipeline. The work also mentioned control of Unaccounted-for-Water (UFW based on the Geography Information System (GIS for water transmission pipeline. The experimental results of laboratory model and the field test results showed the validity of prediction achieved by computational model.

  13. Hypothenar hammer syndrome and basilic bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chander, R K; Phair, J; Oza, P; Patel, M; Balar, N

    2014-12-01

    We report a case of hypothenar hammer syndrome. The case presents necessary diagnostic measures and discusses the etiology of this syndrome. Additionally, the case reviews treatments, which culminated in the eventual use of ulnar artery bypass with autogenous basilica vein to treat and resolve the ischemic fingers of the patient. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  14. Automated Grid Monitoring for LHCb through HammerCloud

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    The HammerCloud system is used by CERN IT to monitor the status of the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG). HammerCloud automatically submits jobs to WLCG computing resources, closely replicating the workflow of Grid users (e.g. physicists analyzing data). This allows computation nodes and storage resources to be monitored, software to be tested (somewhat like continuous integration), and new sites to be stress tested with a heavy job load before commissioning. The HammerCloud system has been in use for ATLAS and CMS experiments for about five years. This summer's work involved porting the HammerCloud suite of tools to the LHCb experiment. The HammerCloud software runs functional tests and provides data visualizations. HammerCloud's LHCb variant is written in Python, using the Django web framework and Ganga/DIRAC for job management.

  15. An evaluation of water hammer in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serkiz, A.

    1983-01-01

    Water hammer can occur as a result of to steam-void collapse, steam-driven slugs of water, pump startup into voided lines, and inadverdent closures of valves; the result is large hydraulic pressure loads. Since 1968, about 150 water hammer events have been reported in U.S. nuclear power plants; damage has been confined to pipe hangers and snubbers. The increase in reported water hammer events in the 1970s led to the designation of water hammer as Unresolved Safety Issue A-1 in 1979. Since the mid-1970s reported occurrences and their underlying phenomena have been studied, and corrective design and operational measures have been implemented. This paper presents the results of generic evaluations of water hammer occurrence and reported damage and sets forth technical findings. These findings indicate that good design practices and operational procedures can minimize the occurrence of water hammer

  16. Condensation driven water hammer studies for feed water distribution pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savolainen, S.; Katajala, S.; Elsing, B.; Nurkkala, P.; Longvinov, S.A.; Trunov, N.B.; Sitnik, Yu.K.

    1997-01-01

    Special T-shaped feedwater distribution pipes were installed in steam generators at the Loviisa (Finland) and Rovno (Russia) nuclear power plants. The new shape was tested in an extensive testing programme. Since the tubes frequently suffer from corrosion damage, large-scale water hammer experiments were performed on a model facility in 1996. The main objectives of the water hammer experiments were to find out the prevailing parameters leading to water hammers, as well as the sensitivity of hammering to boundary conditions. A water hammer may occur when the mass flow rate into the steam generator exceeds 6 kg/s and the temperature difference between steam generator and feedwater exceeds 100 degC. Visual experiments and stress analyses of the pipe were also carried out. The weakest part, the T-joint, may hold against such water hammers only for a limited time of the order of few minutes. (M.D.)

  17. Hydrodynamics of the Fluid Filtrate on Drilling-In

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasov, É. M.; Agaeva, N. A.

    2014-01-01

    The volume of the liquid penetrating into the formation after drilling-in has been determined on the basis of theoretical investigations. The dynamics of change in the bottom-hole pressure has been determined in this process. It has been shown that because of the water hammer, the bottom-hole pressure can be doubled in the presence of large fractures and pores closer to the well-bottom zone.

  18. Physics-Based Pneumatic Hammer Instability Model, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Florida Turbine Technologies (FTT) proposes to conduct research necessary to develop a physics-based pneumatic hammer instability model for hydrostatic bearings...

  19. Value-impact analysis for USI A-1, water hammer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serkiz, A.W.

    1983-05-01

    The Unresolved Safety Issue (USI) A-1 deals with safety concerns related to water hammer occurrence in nucler power plants. The staff's concerns were prompted by the increasing frequency of water hammer occurrence in the mid-1970's as new plants were coming on line, and in particular, by the feedwater line rupture at Indian Point No. 2 in 1973 (attributed to water hammer induced by steam-void collapse). Principal concerns were: the potential for inadequate dynamic load design, disablement of safety systems, and the release of radioactivity. The staff's views were set forth in NUREG-0582 and water hammer was designated a USI in 1979

  20. Water hammer and its effect on ageing: an analytical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kedia, Suruchi

    2006-01-01

    Water hammer can be disastrous from the point of view of ageing of the pipe(s)/Piping system. Design of restraints and protection devices for the various piping systems must consider severe stresses that may generate because of fluid transients. These fluid transients are termed as water hammer when it is restricted to water. But to have limited margins on the stress loads of piping system it is very important to predict the actual dimensions of the stresses. This paper covers various causes and analyses of the situations under which water hammer waves get generated and also way(s) to have control on occurrences of such situations. Few case studies are also covered showing the results and graphs of the stress waves generated because of water hammer. Effort has also been made in the paper in the direction to find out the methodology to compute the ageing of the system because of water hammer waves. Further in this paper an attempt is made to show the systematic methodology towards the diagnosis of water hammer that can be treated as a foundation stone for the creation of water hammer diagnosis system. Active measures to minimize the water hammer intensity by influencing fluid dynamic conditions of the system will also be suggested. Finally the paper will present the ageing aspects because of the stresses that generate due to water hammer. (author)

  1. Drilling rig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galiopa, A A; Yegorov, E K

    1981-01-04

    A drilling rig is proposed which contains a tower, lifter in the form of n infinite chain, and mobile rotator with holding device connected to the chain, and pipe holder. In order to accelerate the auxiliary operations to move the drilling string and unloaded rotator, the rotator is equipped with a clamp with means for transverse connection of it to both branches of the chain, while the pipe holders equipped with a clamp with means of connecting it to one of the branches of the chain.

  2. Drilling mud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusayev, A A; Bibikov, K V; Simonenkov, I D; Surkova, K I

    1982-01-01

    Drilling mud is proposed which contains clay, water, water output reducer, pH regulator, viscosity reducer and hydrogen sulfide absorber. In order to improve the absorbing capacity of the drilling mud with pH 8-11 and simultaneously preservation of the technological properties of the mud, it contains as the absorber of hydrogen sulfide pyrite cinders with the following ratio of components, % by mass: clay 5.0-35.0; water output reducer 0.2-2.0; pH regulator 0.05-0.25; viscosity reducer 0.1-1.0; pyrite cinders 0.5-4.0; water--the rest.

  3. The Hammer-and-Nail Phenomenon in Mathematics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kien H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses the hammer-and-nail metaphor to highlight the rigidity and impulsiveness that can be found in student mathematical behaviour. The hammer-and-nail phenomenon can be attributed to two plausible causes: (1) the way the human mind works; and (2) the way mathematics is traditionally taught in school. In this paper, the following aspects…

  4. Electromagnetic hammer removes weld distortions from aluminum tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwinghamer, R. J.

    1965-01-01

    Distortions around weld areas on sheet-aluminum tanks and other structures are removed with a portable electromagnetic hammer. The hammer incorporates a coil that generates a controlled high-energy pulsed magnetic field over localized areas on the metal surface.

  5. A Comparative Analysis of the Rebound Hammer and Ultrasonic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work presents a study on the comparison between some non-destructive testing tech-niques (Rebound Hammer and Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity). Tests were performed to com-pare the accuracy between the rebound hammer and the ultrasonic pulse velocity methodin estimating the strength of concrete. Eighty samples ...

  6. Regulatory analysis for USI A-1, Water Hammer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serkiz, A.W.

    1984-03-01

    This is the staff's regulatory analysis dealing with the resolution of the Unresolved Safety Issue A-1, Water Hammer. This report contains the value-impact analysis for this issue, public comments received, and staff response, or action taken, in response to those comments. The staff's technical findings regarding water hammer in nuclear power plants are contained in NUREG-0927

  7. Validity and Reliability of the Cycleops Hammer Cycle Ergometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillo-Bevia, José R; Pallarés, Jesús G

    2017-11-28

    To validate the new drive indoor trainer Hammer designed by Cycleops®. Eleven cyclists performed 44 randomized and counterbalanced graded exercise tests (100-500W), at 70, 85 and 100 rev.min -1 cadences, in seated and standing positions, on 3 different Hammer units, while a scientific SRM system continuously recorded cadence and power output data. No significant differences were detected between the three Hammer devices and the SRM for any workload, cadence, or pedalling condition (P value between 1.00 and 0.350), except for some minor differences (P 0.03 and 0.04) found in the Hammer 1 at low workloads, and for Hammer 2 and 3 at high workloads, all in seated position. Strong ICCs were found between the power output values recorded by the Hammers and the SRM (≥0.996; P=0.001), independently from the cadence condition and seated position. Bland-Altman analysis revealed low Bias (-5.5-3.8) and low SD of Bias (2.5-5.3) for all testing conditions, except marginal values found for the Hammer 1 at high cadences and seated position (9.6±6.6). High absolute reliability values were detected for the 3 Hammers (150-500W; CVreliable device to drive and measure power output in cyclists, providing an alternative to larger and more expensive laboratory ergometers, and allowing cyclists to use their own bicycle.

  8. Simulating water hammer with corrective smoothed particle method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, Q.; Kruisbrink, A.C.H.; Tijsseling, A.S.; Keramat, A.

    2012-01-01

    The corrective smoothed particle method (CSPM) is used to simulate water hammer. The spatial derivatives in the water-hammer equations are approximated by a corrective kernel estimate. For the temporal derivatives, the Euler-forward time integration algorithm is employed. The CSPM results are in

  9. Concrete density estimation by rebound hammer method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, Mohamad Pauzi bin; Masenwat, Noor Azreen bin; Sani, Suhairy bin; Mohd, Shukri; Jefri, Muhamad Hafizie Bin; Abdullah, Mahadzir Bin; Isa, Nasharuddin bin; Mahmud, Mohamad Haniza bin

    2016-01-01

    Concrete is the most common and cheap material for radiation shielding. Compressive strength is the main parameter checked for determining concrete quality. However, for shielding purposes density is the parameter that needs to be considered. X- and -gamma radiations are effectively absorbed by a material with high atomic number and high density such as concrete. The high strength normally implies to higher density in concrete but this is not always true. This paper explains and discusses the correlation between rebound hammer testing and density for concrete containing hematite aggregates. A comparison is also made with normal concrete i.e. concrete containing crushed granite

  10. Analysis of water hammer events in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Masahiro; Yanagi, Chihiro

    1999-01-01

    A water hammer issue in nuclear power plants was one of unresolved safety issues listed by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission and was regarded as resolved. But later on, the water hammer events are still experienced intermittently, while the number of the events is decreasing. We collected water hammer events of PWRs in Japan and the United States and relevant documents, analyzed them, and studied corrective actions taken by Japanese plants. As a result, it is confirmed that preventive measured in design, operation etc. have been already taken and that mitigation mechanisms against water hammer have also been considered. However, it is clarified that attention should be continuously paid to operation of valves and/or pumps, as the prevention of water hammer still relies on operation. (author)

  11. Optimization analysis of swing check valve closing induced water hammer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Wenwei; Han Weishi; Guo Qing; Wang Xin; Liu Chunyu

    2014-01-01

    A mathematical-physics model of double pump parallel feed system was constructed. The water hammer was precisely calculated, which was formed in the closing process of swing check valve. And a systematic analysis was carried out to determine the influence of the torques from both valve plate and damping torsion spring on the valve closing induced water hammer. The results show that the swing check valve would distinctly produce the water hammer during the closing procedure in the double pump parallel feed water system. The torques of the valve plate can partly reduce the water hammer effect, and implying appropriate materials of valve plate and appropriate spring can effectively relieve the harm of water hammer. (authors)

  12. Drilling mud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babets, M A; Nechayev, N D; Vinogradova, G P

    1982-01-01

    A drilling mud is proposed which contains clay, alkali, water and stabilizer reagent. It is distinguished by the fact that in order to improve the viscosity and static shear stress, the stabilizer reagent contained is composted solid general wastes with the following ratio of components (% by weight): clay 10-15, alkali 0.1-0.2; composted solid general wastes 2-5; water--the rest.

  13. Rotary Percussive Auto-Gopher for Deep Drilling and Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart

    2009-01-01

    The term "rotary percussive auto-gopher" denotes a proposed addition to a family of apparatuses, based on ultrasonic/ sonic drill corers (USDCs), that have been described in numerous previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. These apparatuses have been designed, variously, for boring into, and/or acquiring samples of, rock or other hard, brittle materials of geological interest. In the case of the rotary percussive autogopher, the emphasis would be on developing an apparatus capable of penetrating to, and acquiring samples at, depths that could otherwise be reached only by use of much longer, heavier, conventional drilling-and-sampling apparatuses. To recapitulate from the prior articles about USDCs: A USDC can be characterized as a lightweight, low-power jackhammer in which a piezoelectrically driven actuator generates ultrasonic vibrations and is coupled to a tool bit through a free mass. The bouncing of the free mass between the actuator horn and the drill bit converts the actuator ultrasonic vibrations into sonic hammering of the drill bit. The combination of ultrasonic and sonic vibrations gives rise to a hammering action (and a resulting chiseling action at the tip of the tool bit) that is more effective for drilling than is the microhammering action of ultrasonic vibrations alone. The hammering and chiseling actions are so effective that the size of the axial force needed to make the tool bit advance into soil, rock, or another material of interest is much smaller than in ordinary rotary drilling, ordinary hammering, or ordinary steady pushing. The predecessor of the rotary percussive auto-gopher is an apparatus, now denoted an ultrasonic/sonic gopher and previously denoted an ultrasonic gopher, described in "Ultrasonic/ Sonic Mechanism for Drilling and Coring" (NPO-30291), NASA Tech Briefs Vol. 27, No. 9 (September 2003), page 65. The ultrasonic/sonic gopher is intended for use mainly in acquiring cores. The name of the apparatus reflects the fact that, like a

  14. Bucket drill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezverkhiy, V.M.; Nabokov, I.M.; Podoksik, D.Z.; Sadovskiy, S.S.; Shanyukevich, V.A.

    1983-01-01

    The bucket drill including a cylindrical housing with bottom, ground intake windows and cutting knives is hinged to the housing, the mechanism of rotation of the cutting knives including rods connected by the cutter knives, and drive shaft is distinguished by the fact that in order to improve the effectiveness of drilling by automatic change in the angle of cutting depending on the strength of the drillable rock, the drill is equipped with elastic elements and cap with annular slits in which there are elastic elements. The mechanism of rotation of the cutting knives is equipped with levers hinged to the housing, pins with shaft and rocker arm. The rods are made with a slit and from one end are rigidly connected to the cutting knives, and from the other end to the levers by means of pins which are arranged in slits of the rod with the possibility of movement. The upper ends of the levers are installed with the possibility of movement in the pins whose shafts are arranged with the possibility of rotation in the rocker arm rigidly connected to the drive shaft. The drive shaft is equipped with cantilevers installed in the cap with the possibility of rotation and interaction with the elastic elements.

  15. Drilling mortar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theodorescu, V; Ditulescu, E

    1979-01-30

    A method is proposed for producing stable drilling mortar from drilled rock which makes it possible to stabilize the walls of the borehole and to maintain producing horizons of oil and gas wells in an undisturbed state. The proposed drilling mortar includes 5-12 wt.-% dry modified calcium lignosulfonate in the form of a solution containing about 30% dry matter with the addition of 0.1 wt.-% anti-foaming agent consisting of C/sub 19/-C/sub 20/ alcohol dissolved in a light petroleum product; cream of milk with about 10 wt.-% Ca(OH)/sub 2/ in a quantity sufficient for reducing the pH value of the ions down to 10.5; sodium chloride in amounts from 5 mg to 100 ml (aqueous phase); ordinarily used agents for ensuring the necessary density, viscosity, and filterability. For example, the preparation of the drilling fluid begins with the processing under laboratory conditions of lignosulfonic pulp obtained in the production of yeast fodder with the following characteristics: specific density, 1.15 kgf/dm/sup 3/; water content, 67% (according to the Dean and Stark method); pH 4.0. In the vessel is placed 1000 cm/sup 3/ lignosulfonic pulp containing 33% dry matter, and the pulp is heated to 90-95/sup 0/C by means of a water bath. To the heated pulp 33 cm/sup 3/ formic acid at a 40-% concentration is added by mixing. The specific temperature of the pulp is maintained in the constant mixing process for two hours. Then the cream of milk containing 10 wt.-% Ca(OH)/sub 2/ is added to raise the pH to 10.5. The cooled product is calcium lignosulfonate. To produce a stable form of the drilling mortar, 750 g clay and 10 g trass gel are added to a vessel containing 1500 cm/sup 3/ fresh water by means of mixing. The resulting dispersed mass remains at rest for 12 hours for purposes of hydration. Then 2 g of an anti-foaming agent dissolved in 6 cm/sup 3/ benzene is introduced to 1000 cm/sup 3/ modified calcium lignosulfonate produced by the above method.

  16. Effect of hammer mass on upper extremity joint moments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balendra, Nilanthy; Langenderfer, Joseph E

    2017-04-01

    This study used an OpenSim inverse-dynamics musculoskeletal model scaled to subject-specific anthropometrics to calculate three-dimensional intersegmental moments at the shoulder, elbow and wrist while 10 subjects used 1 and 2 lb hammers to drive nails. Motion data were collected via an optoelectronic system and the interaction of the hammer with nails was recorded with a force plate. The larger hammer caused substantial increases (50-150%) in moments, although increases differed by joint, anatomical component, and significance of the effect. Moment increases were greater in cocking and strike/follow-through phases as opposed to swinging and may indicate greater potential for injury. Compared to shoulder, absolute increases in peak moments were smaller for elbow and wrist, but there was a trend toward larger relative increases for distal joints. Shoulder rotation, elbow varus-valgus and pronation-supination, and wrist radial-ulnar deviation and rotation demonstrated large relative moment increases. Trial and phase durations were greater for the larger hammer. Changes in moments and timing indicate greater loads on musculoskeletal tissues for an extended period with the larger hammer. Additionally, greater variability in timing with the larger hammer, particularly for cocking phase, suggests differences in control of the motion. Increased relative moments for distal joints may be particularly important for understanding disorders of the elbow and wrist associated with hammer use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Water-hammer prevention, mitigation, and accommodation: a perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present an industry perspective on water hammer, revisit the issues, and renew interest in this area with aim to prevent, mitigate, and accommodate water hammer. Water hammer keeps recurring in nuclear power plants and damages plant components and impacts on plant operations and availability through forced outages of plants. The implication is that water hammer in nuclear power plants still needs attention and is a problem that has not been fundamentally resolved. The paper displays statistics of the reported water hammer events between 1969 and 1985. The consequences of these water hammer events were: pipe support damage (hangers, anchors, and snubbers), 60%; component damage (piping, pumps, and valves), 17%; reactor trip, 10%; and plant shutdown, 7%. Reactor trips and plant shutdowns account for 17% of the event consequences. At the request of the nuclear utility industry, a workshop on water hammer was sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), with cosponsorship from Northeast Utility Service Company, Yankee Atomic Electric Company, and Boston Edison Company, which drew some 90 specialists representing 28 utility companies as well as other nuclear industry, academia, and the NRC. The workshop recommendations are summarized

  18. Drilling mud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranovskiy, V D; Brintsev, A I; Gusev, V G; Katenev, Ye P; Pokhorenko, I V

    1979-10-25

    A drilling mud is proposed, which contains a dispersion medium, a dispersion phase, for instance, clay, a stabilizer reagent, for instance, carboxymethylcellulose and a weighter. In order to reduce the viscosity and to increase the stability of the mud it contains as the dispersion medium a 75% aqueous solution of the L-7 reagent. To increase the salt resistance of the mud, it additionally contains sodium chloride in a volume of 4.04.5 percent by weight, and to regulate the alkalinity, it additionally contains sodium hydroxide in a volume of 1.1 to 1.3 percent by weight.

  19. Goal Translation for a Hammer for Coq (Extended Abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Czajka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hammers are tools that provide general purpose automation for formal proof assistants. Despite the gaining popularity of the more advanced versions of type theory, there are no hammers for such systems. We present an extension of the various hammer components to type theory: (i a translation of a significant part of the Coq logic into the format of automated proof systems; (ii a proof reconstruction mechanism based on a Ben-Yelles-type algorithm combined with limited rewriting, congruence closure and a first-order generalization of the left rules of Dyckhoff's system LJT.

  20. Chebyshev super spectral viscosity method for water hammer analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Chen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new fast and efficient algorithm, Chebyshev super spectral viscosity (SSV method, is introduced to solve the water hammer equations. Compared with standard spectral method, the method's advantage essentially consists in adding a super spectral viscosity to the equations for the high wave numbers of the numerical solution. It can stabilize the numerical oscillation (Gibbs phenomenon and improve the computational efficiency while discontinuities appear in the solution. Results obtained from the Chebyshev super spectral viscosity method exhibit greater consistency with conventional water hammer calculations. It shows that this new numerical method offers an alternative way to investigate the behavior of the water hammer in propellant pipelines.

  1. Condensation induced water hammer in steam supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, P.B.; Antaki, G.A.; Rawls, G.B.; Gutierrez, B.J.

    1995-01-01

    The accidental mixing of steam and water usually leads to condensation induced water hammer. This phenomenon is not uncommon in the power and process industries, and is of particular concern due to the high energies which accompany steam transients. The paper discusses the conditions which lead to a recent condensation induced water hammer in a 150 psig steam supply header. The ensuing structural damage, inspection and repairs are described. Finally, a list of design, maintenance and operational cautions are presented to help minimize the potential for condensation induced water hammer in steam lines

  2. Condensation induced water hammer in steam supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, P.B.; Antaki, G.A.; Rawls, G.B.; Gutierrez, B.J.

    1995-01-01

    The accidental mixing of steam and water usually leads to condensation induced water hammer. THis phenomenon is not uncommon in the power and process industries, and is of particular concern due to the high energies which accompany steam transients. The paper discusses the conditions which lead to a recent condensation induced water hammer in a 150 psig steam supply header. The insuing structural damage, inspection and repairs are described. Finally, a list of design cautions are presented to help minimize the potential for condensation induced water hammer in steam lines

  3. Vibration and recoil control of pneumatic hammers. [by air flow pressure regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinescu, I. N.; Darabont, A. V.

    1974-01-01

    Vibration sources are described for pneumatic hammers used in the mining industry (pick hammers), in boiler shops (riveting hammers), etc., bringing to light the fact that the principal vibration source is the variation in air pressure inside the cylinder. The present state of the art of vibration control of pneumatic hammers as it is practiced abroad, and the solutions adopted for this purpose, are discussed. A new type of pneumatic hammer with a low noise and vibration level is presented.

  4. Condensation induced water hammer in steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, O.C. Jr.; Saha, P.; Wu, B.J.C.; Ginsberg, T.

    1979-06-01

    The case of condensation induced water hammer in nuclear steam generators is summarized, including both feed ring-type and economizer-type geometries. A slug impact model is described and used to demonstrate the parametric dependence of the impact pressures on heat transfer rates, initial pressures, and relative initial slug and void lengths. The results of the parametric study are related also to the economizer geometry and a suggested alternative model is presented. The importance of concerns regarding attenuation of shocks in two-phase media is delineated, and a simple experiment is described which was used to determine negligible attenuation within the accuracy of the experiment for void fractions up to over 30% in bubbly and slug flows

  5. HAMMER: Reweighting tool for simulated data samples

    CERN Document Server

    Duell, Stephan; Ligeti, Zoltan; Papucci, Michele; Robinson, Dean

    2016-01-01

    Modern flavour physics experiments, such as Belle II or LHCb, require large samples of generated Monte Carlo events. Monte Carlo events often are processed in a sophisticated chain that includes a simulation of the detector response. The generation and reconstruction of large samples is resource-intensive and in principle would need to be repeated if e.g. parameters responsible for the underlying models change due to new measurements or new insights. To avoid having to regenerate large samples, we work on a tool, The Helicity Amplitude Module for Matrix Element Reweighting (HAMMER), which allows one to easily reweight existing events in the context of semileptonic b → q ` ̄ ν ` analyses to new model parameters or new physics scenarios.

  6. Dynamic Brazilian Test of Rock Under Intermediate Strain Rate: Pendulum Hammer-Driven SHPB Test and Numerical Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, W. C.; Niu, L. L.; Li, S. H.; Xu, Z. H.

    2015-09-01

    The tensile strength of rock subjected to dynamic loading constitutes many engineering applications such as rock drilling and blasting. The dynamic Brazilian test of rock specimens was conducted with the split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) driven by pendulum hammer, in order to determine the indirect tensile strength of rock under an intermediate strain rate ranging from 5.2 to 12.9 s-1, which is achieved when the incident bar is impacted by pendulum hammer with different velocities. The incident wave excited by pendulum hammer is triangular in shape, featuring a long rising time, and it is considered to be helpful for achieving a constant strain rate in the rock specimen. The dynamic indirect tensile strength of rock increases with strain rate. Then, the numerical simulator RFPA-Dynamics, a well-recognized software for simulating the rock failure under dynamic loading, is validated by reproducing the Brazilian test of rock when the incident stress wave retrieved at the incident bar is input as the boundary condition, and then it is employed to study the Brazilian test of rock under the higher strain rate. Based on the numerical simulation, the strain-rate dependency of tensile strength and failure pattern of the Brazilian disc specimen under the intermediate strain rate are numerically simulated, and the associated failure mechanism is clarified. It is deemed that the material heterogeneity should be a reason for the strain-rate dependency of rock.

  7. Reduced abrasion drilling fluid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    A reduced abrasion drilling fluid system and method of drilling a borehole by circulating the reduced abrasion drilling fluid through the borehole is disclosed. The reduced abrasion drilling fluid comprises a drilling fluid, a first additive and a weighting agent, wherein the weighting agent has a

  8. Reduced abrasion drilling fluid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    A reduced abrasion drilling fluid system and method of drilling a borehole by circulating the reduced abrasion drilling fluid through the borehole is disclosed. The reduced abrasion drilling fluid comprises a drilling fluid, a first additive and a weighting agent, wherein the weighting agent has a

  9. Moving HammerCloud to CERN's private cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Barrand, Quentin

    2013-01-01

    HammerCloud is a testing framework for the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid. Currently deployed on about 20 hand-managed machines, it was desirable to move it to the Agile Infrastructure, CERN's OpenStack-based private cloud.

  10. A simple measurement hammer for quantitative reflex studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, J.; van Leeuwen, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    A reflex hammer for measurement of the mechanical stimulus strength was designed. Combined with standard EMG equipment this instrument permits the study of both stimulus-response relations and latencies of myotatic reflexes. Some results in normal subjects are discussed

  11. Physics-Based Pneumatic Hammer Instability Model, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this project is to develop a physics-based pneumatic hammer instability model that accurately predicts the stability of hydrostatic bearings...

  12. Solenoid hammer valve developed for quick-opening requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrench, E. H.

    1967-01-01

    Quick-opening lightweight solenoid hammer valve requires a low amount of electrical energy to open, and closes by the restoring action of the mechanical springs. This design should be applicable to many quick-opening requirements in fluid systems.

  13. Pressurized water-reactor feedwater piping response to water hammer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, D.

    1978-03-01

    The nuclear power industry is interested in steam-generator water hammer because it has damaged the piping and components at pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Water hammer arises when rapid steam condensation in the steam-generator feedwater inlet of a PWR causes depressurization, water-slug acceleration, and slug impact at the nearest pipe elbow. The resulting pressure pulse causes the pipe system to shake, sometimes violently. The objective of this study is to evaluate the potential structural effects of steam-generator water hammer on feedwater piping. This was accomplished by finite-element computation of the response of two sections of a typical feedwater pipe system to four representative water-hammer pulses. All four pulses produced high shear and bending stresses in both sections of pipe. Maximum calculated pipe stresses varied because the sections had different characteristics and were sensitive to boundary-condition modeling

  14. Theoretical calculation possibilities of the computer code HAMMER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onusic Junior, J.

    1978-06-01

    With the aim to know the theoretical calculation possibilities of the computer code HAMMER, developed at Savanah River Laboratory, a analysis of the crytical cells assembly of the kind utilized in PWR reactors is made. (L.F.S.) [pt

  15. Impact of pipes networks simplification on water hammer phenomenon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    problem; the finite difference method using water hammer and mass oscillation ... Mohamed (2003) introduced the effect of different parameters such as time of valve closure, ..... for computing the water age equivalent diameter, Dew. Dew = ⎡.

  16. A Hammer-Impact, Aluminum, Shear-Wave Seismic Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Seth

    2007-01-01

    Near-surface seismic surveys often employ hammer impacts to create seismic energy. Shear-wave surveys using horizontally polarized waves require horizontal hammer impacts against a rigid object (the source) that is coupled to the ground surface. I have designed, built, and tested a source made out of aluminum and equipped with spikes to improve coupling. The source is effective in a variety of settings, and it is relatively simple and inexpensive to build.

  17. Pump-stopping water hammer simulation based on RELAP5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, W S; Jiang, J; Li, D D; Lan, G; Zhao, Z

    2013-01-01

    RELAP5 was originally designed to analyze complex thermal-hydraulic interactions that occur during either postulated large or small loss-of-coolant accidents in PWRs. However, as development continued, the code was expanded to include many of the transient scenarios that might occur in thermal-hydraulic systems. The fast deceleration of the liquid results in high pressure surges, thus the kinetic energy is transformed into the potential energy, which leads to the temporary pressure increase. This phenomenon is called water hammer. Generally water hammer can occur in any thermal-hydraulic systems and it is extremely dangerous for the system when the pressure surges become considerably high. If this happens and when the pressure exceeds the critical pressure that the pipe or the fittings along the pipeline can burden, it will result in the failure of the whole pipeline integrity. The purpose of this article is to introduce the RELAP5 to the simulation and analysis of water hammer situations. Based on the knowledge of the RELAP5 code manuals and some relative documents, the authors utilize RELAP5 to set up an example of water-supply system via an impeller pump to simulate the phenomena of the pump-stopping water hammer. By the simulation of the sample case and the subsequent analysis of the results that the code has provided, we can have a better understand of the knowledge of water hammer as well as the quality of the RELAP5 code when it's used in the water-hammer fields. In the meantime, By comparing the results of the RELAP5 based model with that of other fluid-transient analysis software say, PIPENET. The authors make some conclusions about the peculiarity of RELAP5 when transplanted into water-hammer research and offer several modelling tips when use the code to simulate a water-hammer related case

  18. Modelling water hammer in viscoelastic pipelines: short brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanowicz, K.; Firkowski, M.; Zarzycki, Z.

    2016-10-01

    The model of water hammer in viscoelastic pipelines is analyzed. An appropriate mathematical model of water hammer in polymer pipelines is presented. An additional term has been added to continuity equation to describe the retarded deformation of the pipe wall. The mechanical behavior of viscoelastic material is described by generalized Kelvin-Voigt model. The comparison of numerical simulation and experimental data from well known papers is presented. Short discussion about obtained results are given.

  19. Pump-stopping water hammer simulation based on RELAP5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, W. S.; Jiang, J.; Li, D. D.; Lan, G.; Zhao, Z.

    2013-12-01

    RELAP5 was originally designed to analyze complex thermal-hydraulic interactions that occur during either postulated large or small loss-of-coolant accidents in PWRs. However, as development continued, the code was expanded to include many of the transient scenarios that might occur in thermal-hydraulic systems. The fast deceleration of the liquid results in high pressure surges, thus the kinetic energy is transformed into the potential energy, which leads to the temporary pressure increase. This phenomenon is called water hammer. Generally water hammer can occur in any thermal-hydraulic systems and it is extremely dangerous for the system when the pressure surges become considerably high. If this happens and when the pressure exceeds the critical pressure that the pipe or the fittings along the pipeline can burden, it will result in the failure of the whole pipeline integrity. The purpose of this article is to introduce the RELAP5 to the simulation and analysis of water hammer situations. Based on the knowledge of the RELAP5 code manuals and some relative documents, the authors utilize RELAP5 to set up an example of water-supply system via an impeller pump to simulate the phenomena of the pump-stopping water hammer. By the simulation of the sample case and the subsequent analysis of the results that the code has provided, we can have a better understand of the knowledge of water hammer as well as the quality of the RELAP5 code when it's used in the water-hammer fields. In the meantime, By comparing the results of the RELAP5 based model with that of other fluid-transient analysis software say, PIPENET. The authors make some conclusions about the peculiarity of RELAP5 when transplanted into water-hammer research and offer several modelling tips when use the code to simulate a water-hammer related case.

  20. Characteristics of laminar MHD fluid hammer in pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Z.Y.; Liu, Y.J.

    2016-01-01

    As gradually wide applications of MHD fluid, transportation as well as control with pumps and valves is unavoidable, which induces MHD fluid hammer. The paper attempts to combine MHD effect and fluid hammer effect and to investigate the characteristics of laminar MHD fluid hammer. A non-dimensional fluid hammer model, based on Navier–Stocks equations, coupling with Lorentz force is numerically solved in a reservoir–pipe–valve system with uniform external magnetic field. The MHD effect is represented by the interaction number which associates with the conductivity of the MHD fluid as well as the external magnetic field and can be interpreted as the ratio of Lorentz force to Joukowsky force. The transient numerical results of pressure head, average velocity, wall shear stress, velocity profiles and shear stress profiles are provided. The additional MHD effect hinders fluid motion, weakens wave front and homogenizes velocity profiles, contributing to obvious attenuation of oscillation, strengthened line packing and weakened Richardson annular effect. Studying the characteristics of MHD laminar fluid hammer theoretically supplements the gap of knowledge of rapid-transient MHD flow and technically provides beneficial information for MHD pipeline system designers to better devise MHD systems. - Highlights: • Characteristics of laminar MHD fluid hammer are discussed by simulation. • MHD effect has significant influence on attenuation of wave. • MHD effect strengthens line packing. • MHD effect inhibits Richardson annular effect.

  1. Treatise on water hammer in hydropower standards and guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergant, A; Mazij, J; Karney, B; Pejović, S

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews critical water hammer parameters as they are presented in official hydropower standards and guidelines. A particular emphasize is given to a number of IEC standards and guidelines that are used worldwide. The paper critically assesses water hammer control strategies including operational scenarios (closing and opening laws), surge control devices (surge tank, pressure regulating valve, flywheel, etc.), redesign of the water conveyance system components (tunnel, penstock), or limitation of operating conditions (limited operating range) that are variably covered in standards and guidelines. Little information is given on industrial water hammer models and solutions elsewhere. These are briefly introduced and discussed in the light of capability (simple versus complex systems), availability of expertise (in house and/or commercial) and uncertainty. The paper concludes with an interesting water hammer case study referencing the rules and recommendations from existing hydropower standards and guidelines in a view of effective water hammer control. Recommendations are given for further work on development of a special guideline on water hammer (hydraulic transients) in hydropower plants

  2. Water hammer characteristics of integral pressurized water reactor primary loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo, Qiaolin; Qiu, Suizheng; Lu, Wei; Tian, Wenxi; Su, Guanghui; Xiao, Zejun

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Water hammer models developed for IPWR primary loop using MOC. • Good agreement between the developed code and the experiment. • The good agreement between WAHAP and Flowmaster can validate the equations in WAHAP. • The primary loop of IPWR suffers from slight water hammer impact. -- Abstract: The present work discussed the single-phase water hammer phenomenon, which was caused by the four-pump-alternate startup in an integral pressurized water reactor (IPWR). A new code named water hammer program (WAHAP) was developed independently based on the method of characteristic to simulate hydraulic transients in the primary system of IPWR and its components such as reactor core, once-through steam generators (OTSG), the main coolant pumps and so on. Experimental validation for the correctness of the equations and models in WAHAP was carried out and the models fit the experimental data well. Some important variables were monitored including transient volume flow rates, opening angle of valve disc and pressure drop in valves. The water hammer commercial software Flowmaster V7 was also employed to compare with WAHAP and the good agreement can validate the equations in WAHAP. The transient results indicated that the primary loop of IPWR suffers from slight water hammer impact under pump switching conditions

  3. Treatise on water hammer in hydropower standards and guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergant, A.; Karney, B.; Pejović, S.; Mazij, J.

    2014-03-01

    This paper reviews critical water hammer parameters as they are presented in official hydropower standards and guidelines. A particular emphasize is given to a number of IEC standards and guidelines that are used worldwide. The paper critically assesses water hammer control strategies including operational scenarios (closing and opening laws), surge control devices (surge tank, pressure regulating valve, flywheel, etc.), redesign of the water conveyance system components (tunnel, penstock), or limitation of operating conditions (limited operating range) that are variably covered in standards and guidelines. Little information is given on industrial water hammer models and solutions elsewhere. These are briefly introduced and discussed in the light of capability (simple versus complex systems), availability of expertise (in house and/or commercial) and uncertainty. The paper concludes with an interesting water hammer case study referencing the rules and recommendations from existing hydropower standards and guidelines in a view of effective water hammer control. Recommendations are given for further work on development of a special guideline on water hammer (hydraulic transients) in hydropower plants.

  4. Water hammer characteristics of integral pressurized water reactor primary loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuo, Qiaolin [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shanxi 710049 (China); Qiu, Suizheng, E-mail: szqiu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shanxi 710049 (China); Lu, Wei; Tian, Wenxi; Su, Guanghui [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shanxi 710049 (China); Xiao, Zejun [Nuclear Power Institute of China, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China)

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: • Water hammer models developed for IPWR primary loop using MOC. • Good agreement between the developed code and the experiment. • The good agreement between WAHAP and Flowmaster can validate the equations in WAHAP. • The primary loop of IPWR suffers from slight water hammer impact. -- Abstract: The present work discussed the single-phase water hammer phenomenon, which was caused by the four-pump-alternate startup in an integral pressurized water reactor (IPWR). A new code named water hammer program (WAHAP) was developed independently based on the method of characteristic to simulate hydraulic transients in the primary system of IPWR and its components such as reactor core, once-through steam generators (OTSG), the main coolant pumps and so on. Experimental validation for the correctness of the equations and models in WAHAP was carried out and the models fit the experimental data well. Some important variables were monitored including transient volume flow rates, opening angle of valve disc and pressure drop in valves. The water hammer commercial software Flowmaster V7 was also employed to compare with WAHAP and the good agreement can validate the equations in WAHAP. The transient results indicated that the primary loop of IPWR suffers from slight water hammer impact under pump switching conditions.

  5. Avoiding pollution in scientific ocean drilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, T.J.G.

    1999-01-01

    Scientific ocean drilling has been carried out in the world's oceans since the nineteen sixties. From 1968-83 the Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP), managed by the Scripps Institution of Oceanography in California under a contract with the US National Science Foundation, employed the drilling vessel Glomar Challenger for this purpose. In January 1985 the Ocean Drilling Program (GDP), operated by Texas A and M University, began operations with the drillship JOIDES Resolution which continue to this day. The principal funding agency remains the US National Science Foundation, but since its inception GDP has been an international program and currently receives financial support from 21 countries. The ODP operates globally and, as with DSDP before it, drills without a riser or blowout preventer in a wide range of geological environments. Water depths at GDP drill sites have ranged from 38 m to 5969 m, but are typically within the range 1000-5000 m. Depths of penetration at GDP drill sites, while generally less than 1000 m, have ranged up to 2111 m below the sea floor. The drilling fluid is seawater, although occasional slugs of mud are circulated to clean or condition the hole. Thus drilling is carried out without well control, i.e. without the ability to control pressures within the well. Because of the absence of well control, it is vital to ensure that the drillship does not drill into an accumulation of oil or gas. Drilling into a charged reservoir and causing oil or gas to escape into the marine environment is recognised as the main pollution hazard in scientific ocean drilling

  6. Optimizing drilling performance using a selected drilling fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judzis, Arnis [Salt Lake City, UT; Black, Alan D [Coral Springs, FL; Green, Sidney J [Salt Lake City, UT; Robertson, Homer A [West Jordan, UT; Bland, Ronald G [Houston, TX; Curry, David Alexander [The Woodlands, TX; Ledgerwood, III, Leroy W.

    2011-04-19

    To improve drilling performance, a drilling fluid is selected based on one or more criteria and to have at least one target characteristic. Drilling equipment is used to drill a wellbore, and the selected drilling fluid is provided into the wellbore during drilling with the drilling equipment. The at least one target characteristic of the drilling fluid includes an ability of the drilling fluid to penetrate into formation cuttings during drilling to weaken the formation cuttings.

  7. Stable sonoluminescence within a water hammer tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, Avik; Georghiou, Theo; Phillipson, Tacye E; Walton, Alan J

    2004-06-01

    The sonoluminescence (SL) from the collapse of a single gas bubble within a liquid can be produced repetitively using an acoustic resonator. An alternative technique using a water hammer tube, producing SL from bubbles of greater size, is described here. A sealed vertical tube partly filled with a liquid and a gas at low pressure is subjected to vertical vibrations. The oscillation of the pressure within the liquid column, due to inertial forces, excites cavitation bubbles to grow and collapse. Rotation is used to confine the bubbles to the axis of the tube. Bright SL emissions were observed in a number of liquids. Repetitive emission was produced from bubbles in condensed phosphoric acid. Bubbles of 0.4 mm ambient radius (containing 2x 10(14) xenon atoms) were excited by vibration at 35 Hz. Approximately 10(12) photons were emitted per collapse in the range 400-700 nm (over four orders of magnitude greater than the brightest SL reported previously), corresponding to a 1% efficiency of the conversion of mechanical energy into light.

  8. CASING DRILLING TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nediljka Gaurina-Međimurec

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Casing drilling is an alternative option to conventional drilling and uses standard oilfield casing instead of drillstring. This technology is one of the greatest developments in drilling operations. Casing drilling involves drilling and casing a well simultaneously. In casing driling process, downhole tools can be retrieved, through the casing on wire-line, meaning tool recovery or replacement of tools can take minutes versus hours under conventional methods. This process employs wireline-retrievable tools and a drill-lock assembly, permitting bit and BHA changes, coring, electrical logging and even directional or horizontal drilling. Once the casing point is reached, the casing is cemented in place without tripping pipe.

  9. Advanced Drilling through Diagnostics-White-Drilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FINGER, JOHN T.; GLOWKA, DAVID ANTHONY; LIVESAY, BILLY JOE; MANSURE, ARTHUR J.; PRAIRIE, MICHAEL R.

    1999-01-01

    A high-speed data link that would provide dramatically faster communication from downhole instruments to the surface and back again has the potential to revolutionize deep drilling for geothermal resources through Diagnostics-While-Drilling (DWD). Many aspects of the drilling process would significantly improve if downhole and surface data were acquired and processed in real-time at the surface, and used to guide the drilling operation. Such a closed-loop, driller-in-the-loop DWD system, would complete the loop between information and control, and greatly improve the performance of drilling systems. The main focus of this program is to demonstrate the value of real-time data for improving drilling. While high-rate transfer of down-hole data to the surface has been accomplished before, insufficient emphasis has been placed on utilization of the data to tune the drilling process to demonstrate the true merit of the concept. Consequently, there has been a lack of incentive on the part of industry to develop a simple, low-cost, effective high-speed data link. Demonstration of the benefits of DWD based on a high-speed data link will convince the drilling industry and stimulate the flow of private resources into the development of an economical high-speed data link for geothermal drilling applications. Such a downhole communication system would then make possible the development of surface data acquisition and expert systems that would greatly enhance drilling operations. Further, it would foster the development of downhole equipment that could be controlled from the surface to improve hole trajectory and drilling performance. Real-time data that would benefit drilling performance include: bit accelerations for use in controlling bit bounce and improving rock penetration rates and bit life; downhole fluid pressures for use in the management of drilling hydraulics and improved diagnosis of lost circulation and gas kicks; hole trajectory for use in reducing directional

  10. Simulation of water hammer experiments using RELAP5 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaliatka, A.; Vaisnoras, M.

    2005-01-01

    The rapid closing or opening of a valve causes pressure transients in pipelines. The fast deceleration of the liquid results in high pressure surges upstream the valve, thus the kinetic energy is transformed into the potential energy, which leads to the temporary pressure increases. This phenomenon is called water hammer. The intensity of water hammer effects will depend upon the rate of change in the velocity or momentum. Generally water hammer can occur in any thermal-hydraulic systems and it is extremely dangerous for the thermal-hydraulic system since, if the pressure induced exceeds the pressure range of a pipe given by the manufacturer, it can lead to the failure of the pipeline integrity. Due to its potential for damage of pipes, water hammer has been a subject of study since the middle of the nineteenth century. Many theoretical and experimental investigations were performed. The experimental investigation of the water hammer tests performed at Fraunhofer Institute for Environmental, Safety and Energy Technology (UMSICHT) [1] and Cold Water Hammer experiment performed by Forschungszentrum Rossendorf (CWHTF) [2] should be mentioned. The UMSICHT facility in Oberhausen was modified in order to simulate a piping system and associated supports that are typical for a nuclear power plant [3]. The Cold water hammer experiment is interesting and instructive because it covers a wide spectrum of particularities. One of them is sub-cooled water interaction with condensing steam at the closed end of the vertical pipe at room temperature and corresponding saturation pressure [4]. In the paper, the capabilities of RELAP5 code to correctly represent the water hammer phenomenon are presented. Paper presents the comparison of RELAP5 calculated and measured at UMSICHT and CWHTF test facilities pressure transient values after the fast closure (opening) of valves. The analyses of rarefaction wave travels inside the pipe and condensation of vapour bubbles in the liquid column

  11. Child health in the workplace: the Supreme Court in Hammer v. Dagenhart (1918).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, L R; Johansson, S R

    1980-01-01

    Exploitation of children in the labor force at the beginning of this century gave rise to a national campaign leading to congressional passage of the Keating-Owen Act in 1916. The act prohibited from interstate commerce goods produced in factories or mines that employed children who either were under fourteen years of age or who were under sixteen years of age and worked more than eight hours a day. Despite its popular support, the Act was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court in Hammer v. Dagenhart (1918). The Court's decision involved several major issues: interpretation of the Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments to the Constitution, freedom of contract, police power of the states, and the interstate commerce clause. Review of previous Court decisions suggests that the justices were on less than solid legal ground in reaching their decision. Examination of the historical context of the decision, however, suggests other factors that may have played a more important role than judicial precedents. The debate prompted by Hammer v. Dagenhart has much relevance to such current issues as young agricultural workers, sex discrimination in industry, and the powers of the federal government vis-a-vis states and individual citizens.

  12. On the importance of valve modelling, reflected pressures, and wall friction, in CATHENA water hammer simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beuthe, T.G.

    1998-01-01

    The results of code and modelling developments outlined in this paper show that CATHENA can be used to accurately model the behaviour of valve slam generated water hammer if sufficient care and detail are used to model the characteristics of the valve. It also shows that CATHENA can accurately predict the reflection and transmission of travelling water pressure waves at expansions, contractions, and dead ends. Finally, although CATHENA is capable of accurately predicting the critical phenomena observed in water hammer, the inter-peak timing of the pressure excursions is not well predicted when significant bulk flows occur. The use of an unsteady wall friction factor to correct for this discrepancy has been examined, but the implementation of relationships suggested in the literature provided too much damping. A good match between experimental and simulation data can be achieved, but it is suggested that the default implementation of such a relationship take place only after an investigation of further potential loss terms can be completed. (author)

  13. Real Time Seismic Prediction while Drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, F. R.; Bohlen, T.; Edelmann, T.; Kassel, A.; Heim, A.; Gehring, M.; Lüth, S.; Giese, R.; Jaksch, K.; Rechlin, A.; Kopf, M.; Stahlmann, J.; Gattermann, J.; Bruns, B.

    2009-12-01

    Efficient and safe drilling is a prerequisite to enhance the mobility of people and goods, to improve the traffic as well as utility infrastructure of growing megacities, and to ensure the growing energy demand while building geothermal and in hydroelectric power plants. Construction within the underground is often building within the unknown. An enhanced risk potential for people and the underground building may arise if drilling enters fracture zones, karsts, brittle rocks, mixed solid and soft rocks, caves, or anthropogenic obstacles. Knowing about the material behavior ahead of the drilling allows reducing the risk during drilling and construction operation. In drilling operations direct observations from boreholes can be complemented with geophysical investigations. In this presentation we focus on “real time” seismic prediction while drilling which is seen as a prerequisite while using geophysical methods in modern drilling operations. In solid rocks P- and S-wave velocity, refraction and reflection as well as seismic wave attenuation can be used for the interpretation of structures ahead of the drilling. An Integrated Seismic Imaging System (ISIS) for exploration ahead of a construction is used, where a pneumatic hammer or a magnetostrictive vibration source generate repetitive signals behind the tunneling machine. Tube waves are generated which travel along the tunnel to the working face. There the tube waves are converted to mainly S- but also P-Waves which interact with the formation ahead of the heading face. The reflected or refracted waves travel back to the working front are converted back to tube waves and recorded using three-component geophones which are fit into the tips of anchor rods. In near real time, the ISIS software allows for an integrated 3D imaging and interpretation of the observed data, geological and geotechnical parameters. Fracture zones, heterogeneities, and variations in the rock properties can be revealed during the drilling

  14. Experimental investigation of the piano hammer-string interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkett, Stephen

    2013-04-01

    Experimental techniques for investigating the piano hammer-string interaction are described. It is argued that the accuracy, consistency, and scope of conclusions of previous studies can be compromised by limitations of the conventional methods relating to key inputs; physical distortion; numerical distortion, particularly when differentiation or integration of measured signals is used to derive primary response variables; contact identification; and synchronization issues. These problems are discussed, and experimental methods that have been devised to avoid them are described and illustrated by detailed results from a study of the hammer-string interaction in a vertical piano. High resolution displacements are obtained directly by non-contact high-speed imaging and quantitative motion tracking. The attention focused on achieving very accurate and consistent temporal and spatial alignment, including the objective procedure used for contact identification, allows meaningful comparisons of responses from separate tests. String motion at the strike point and on each side of it, as well as hammer motion, is obtained for eight dynamic levels from 1.06 to 2.98 m/s impact velocity. Detailed observations of the force-compression behavior of the hammer interacting with real strings are presented. The direct effects of hammer shank deflection and agraffe string pulses on the interaction are also highlighted.

  15. Reconstruction of piano hammer force from string velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaigne, Antoine

    2016-11-01

    A method is presented for reconstructing piano hammer forces through appropriate filtering of the measured string velocity. The filter design is based on the analysis of the pulses generated by the hammer blow and propagating along the string. In the five lowest octaves, the hammer force is reconstructed by considering two waves only: the incoming wave from the hammer and its first reflection at the front end. For the higher notes, four- or eight-wave schemes must be considered. The theory is validated on simulated string velocities by comparing imposed and reconstructed forces. The simulations are based on a nonlinear damped stiff string model previously developed by Chabassier, Chaigne, and Joly [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 134(1), 648-665 (2013)]. The influence of absorption, dispersion, and amplitude of the string waves on the quality of the reconstruction is discussed. Finally, the method is applied to real piano strings. The measured string velocity is compared to the simulated velocity excited by the reconstructed force, showing a high degree of accuracy. A number of simulations are compared to simulated strings excited by a force derived from measurements of mass and acceleration of the hammer head. One application to an historic piano is also presented.

  16. A new production technique for wear resistant ring-hammers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Shifeng

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on a great number of laboratory experiments, a new technique has been developed for producing wear resistant ring-hammers. In this technology, lost foam casting with iron sand was combined to make mold; a special alloy was used to inoculate the molten steel, and proper heat treatment was used to further improve mechanical properties of wear resistant ring-hammers. The influence of this new production technology on the microstructure and mechanical properties of wear resistant ring-hammers was studied. Results show that iron sand molding, having the inherent characteristic of sand molding, changes the type of metallic compounds, refines crystal grains and increases the fineness of microstructure. Practical experience verified that the properties of the ring-hammers produced with this new technique are as follows: tensile strength (Rm 720 MPa, impact toughness (ak > 210 J•cm-2 and hardness > 200 HB. After water quenching from 1,080℃ (holding for 4 h and tempering at 320℃ for 3 h, the best wear resistance is obtained, and the wear resistance is 1.6 times higher than that of common high manganese ring-hammers.

  17. HammerCloud: A Stress Testing System for Distributed Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ster, Daniel C van der; García, Mario Úbeda; Paladin, Massimo; Elmsheuser, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Distributed analysis of LHC data is an I/O-intensive activity which places large demands on the internal network, storage, and local disks at remote computing facilities. Commissioning and maintaining a site to provide an efficient distributed analysis service is therefore a challenge which can be aided by tools to help evaluate a variety of infrastructure designs and configurations. HammerCloud is one such tool; it is a stress testing service which is used by central operations teams, regional coordinators, and local site admins to (a) submit arbitrary number of analysis jobs to a number of sites, (b) maintain at a steady-state a predefined number of jobs running at the sites under test, (c) produce web-based reports summarizing the efficiency and performance of the sites under test, and (d) present a web-interface for historical test results to both evaluate progress and compare sites. HammerCloud was built around the distributed analysis framework Ganga, exploiting its API for grid job management. HammerCloud has been employed by the ATLAS experiment for continuous testing of many sites worldwide, and also during large scale computing challenges such as STEP'09 and UAT'09, where the scale of the tests exceeded 10,000 concurrently running and 1,000,000 total jobs over multi-day periods. In addition, HammerCloud is being adopted by the CMS experiment; the plugin structure of HammerCloud allows the execution of CMS jobs using their official tool (CRAB).

  18. Two-phase water hammer in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    Water hammer events keep recurring in nuclear power plants. In the mid-1970s, water hammer was designated to be an unresolved safety issue (USI A-1) due to its high frequency of occurrence and the severity of the attendant damages. Between 1969 and 1981, a significant number of water hammer incidents (more than 12 events per year) involving BWRs and PWRs have been reported and evaluated. After intensive evaluations of the events, in late 1983, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff concluded that water hammer was not a serious contributor to the degradation of plant safety and it has been taken off the list of the unresolved safety issues. The frequency decreased to around 11 events per year between 1981 and 1985. Nevertheless, 11 events per year are still unacceptable high, especially in light of the financial losses caused by most events. Some events are not required to be reported. The number of the unreported events are estimated to be five to ten times as many as the reported events. The implication is that water hammer in nuclear power plants still needs attention and is a problem that has not been fundamentally resolved

  19. Condensation induced water hammer. Overview and own experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirndorfer, Stefan; Doerfler, Michael; Kulisch, Helmut; Malcherek, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    A condensation induced water hammer is a severe effect that has caused damages and even fatalities worldwide. This effect is not limited to the nuclear industry only. Generally it can occur in every pipe that contains water and steam (two-phase-flow). To date many experiments were executed to study this phenomenon and to validate existing water hammer codes. But theoretically versus measured results show a very high degree of deviation. Information about those experiments was obtained by literature review. This information is presented additionally to a test facility, which has been developed in order to generate water hammers. The test device is introduced in this paper and its main functions are briefly explained. In contrast to other experiments, water hammers at the UniBw are performed under controlled conditions. Air in water is a disruptive parameter that causes vigorous deviations between the theoretical system code and the experimental measurements. As in the test device presented in this paper, deionised water without air is used, this effect is ruled out. Furthermore the inception of a water hammer is controlled by a scientist. The experimental results will characterise the dynamic response of the test device as a function of system pressure, filling degree and sub-cooling. (orig.)

  20. Screening reactor steam/water piping systems for water hammer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, P.

    1997-09-01

    A steam/water system possessing a certain combination of thermal, hydraulic and operational states, can, in certain geometries, lead to a steam bubble collapse induced water hammer. These states, operations, and geometries are identified. A procedure that can be used for identifying whether an unbuilt reactor system is prone to water hammer is proposed. For the most common water hammer, steam bubble collapse induced water hammer, six conditions must be met in order for one to occur. These are: (1) the pipe must be almost horizontal; (2) the subcooling must be greater than 20 C; (3) the L/D must be greater than 24; (4) the velocity must be low enough so that the pipe does not run full, i.e., the Froude number must be less than one; (5) there should be void nearby; (6) the pressure must be high enough so that significant damage occurs, that is the pressure should be above 10 atmospheres. Recommendations on how to avoid this kind of water hammer in both the design and the operation of the reactor system are made

  1. Condensation-induced water hammer - overview and own experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirndorfer, S.; Doerfler, M.; Kulisch, H.; Malcherek, A.

    2011-01-01

    A condensation induced water hammer is a severe effect that has caused damages and even fatalities worldwide. This effect is not limited to the nuclear industry only. Generally it can occur in every pipe that contains water and steam (two-phase-flow). To date many experiments were executed to study this effect and to validate existing water hammer codes. But theoretically versus measured results show a very high degree of deviation. Information about those experiments was obtained by literature review. This information is presented additionally to a test facility, which has been developed in order to generate water hammers. The test device is introduced in this paper and its main functions are briefly explained. In contrast to other experiments, water hammers at the UniBw are performed under controlled conditions. Air in water is a disruptive parameter that causes vigorous deviations between the theoretical system code and the experimental measurements. As in the test device presented in this paper, deionised water without air is used, this effect is ruled out. Furthermore the inception of a water hammer is controlled by a scientist. The experimental results will characterise the dynamic response of the test device as a function of system pressure, filling degree and sub-cooling. (author)

  2. Drilling trends in the nineties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    At a conference on various aspects of well drilling in the 1990s, papers were presented on drilling waste management, well completion and workovers, drilling fluids, drilling rig equipment and design, drilling mechanics, drill stem testing and materials, cementing, business management, health and safety, environmental issues, and directional drilling technology. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 46 papers from this conference

  3. Grid site testing for ATLAS with HammerCloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmsheuser, J; Hönig, F; Legger, F; LLamas, R Medrano; Sciacca, F G; Ster, D van der

    2014-01-01

    With the exponential growth of LHC (Large Hadron Collider) data in 2012, distributed computing has become the established way to analyze collider data. The ATLAS grid infrastructure includes more than 130 sites worldwide, ranging from large national computing centers to smaller university clusters. HammerCloud was previously introduced with the goals of enabling virtual organisations (VO) and site-administrators to run validation tests of the site and software infrastructure in an automated or on-demand manner. The HammerCloud infrastructure has been constantly improved to support the addition of new test workflows. These new workflows comprise e.g. tests of the ATLAS nightly build system, ATLAS Monte Carlo production system, XRootD federation (FAX) and new site stress test workflows. We report on the development, optimization and results of the various components in the HammerCloud framework.

  4. Specific Characteristics of Injuries Inflicted by Claw Hammer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchaillet, Céline; Gaudin, Arnaud; Rougé-Maillart, Clotilde; Jousset, Nathalie

    2016-09-01

    Claw hammers have the specific characteristic of having two distinct ends: one a flat head of variable form, the other bifurcated. So the use of this tool as a blunt instrument will cause varying injuries. The authors present two clinical cases of assault with a claw hammer. Examinations revealed two types of wound. A first injury composed of integumentary lacerations and underlying bone injuries in terms of "shape" suggested the use of a blunt instrument. A second injury made up of damage showing two parallel wounds or two wounds located one in the extension of the other suggested the use of an object with a bifurcated end. The combination of both types of injury should alert examiners to the possibility of the use of a claw hammer in causing the injuries in order to help direct investigators in their investigations and in the search for the weapon used. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  5. Improving ATLAS computing resource utilization with HammerCloud

    CERN Document Server

    Schovancova, Jaroslava; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    HammerCloud is a framework to commission, test, and benchmark ATLAS computing resources and components of various distributed systems with realistic full-chain experiment workflows. HammerCloud contributes to ATLAS Distributed Computing (ADC) Operations and automation efforts, providing the automated resource exclusion and recovery tools, that help re-focus operational manpower to areas which have yet to be automated, and improve utilization of available computing resources. We present recent evolution of the auto-exclusion/recovery tools: faster inclusion of new resources in testing machinery, machine learning algorithms for anomaly detection, categorized resources as master vs. slave for the purpose of blacklisting, and a tool for auto-exclusion/recovery of resources triggered by Event Service job failures that is being extended to other workflows besides the Event Service. We describe how HammerCloud helped commissioning various concepts and components of distributed systems: simplified configuration of qu...

  6. Grid Site Testing for ATLAS with HammerCloud

    CERN Document Server

    Elmsheuser, J; The ATLAS collaboration; Legger, F; Medrano LLamas, R; Sciacca, G; van der Ster, D

    2014-01-01

    With the exponential growth of LHC (Large Hadron Collider) data in 2012, distributed computing has become the established way to analyze collider data. The ATLAS grid infrastructure includes more than 130 sites worldwide, ranging from large national computing centers to smaller university clusters. HammerCloud was previously introduced with the goals of enabling VO- and site-administrators to run validation tests of the site and software infrastructure in an automated or on-demand manner. The HammerCloud infrastructure has been constantly improved to support the addition of new test work-flows. These new work-flows comprise e.g. tests of the ATLAS nightly build system, ATLAS MC production system, XRootD federation FAX and new site stress test work-flows. We report on the development, optimization and results of the various components in the HammerCloud framework.

  7. Grid Site Testing for ATLAS with HammerCloud

    CERN Document Server

    Elmsheuser, J; The ATLAS collaboration; Legger, F; Medrano LLamas, R; Sciacca, G; van der Ster, D

    2013-01-01

    With the exponential growth of LHC (Large Hadron Collider) data in 2012, distributed computing has become the established way to analyze collider data. The ATLAS grid infrastructure includes more than 130 sites worldwide, ranging from large national computing centers to smaller university clusters. HammerCloud was previously introduced with the goals of enabling VO- and site-administrators to run validation tests of the site and software infrastructure in an automated or on-demand manner. The HammerCloud infrastructure has been constantly improved to support the addition of new test work-flows. These new work-flows comprise e.g. tests of the ATLAS nightly build system, ATLAS MC production system, XRootD federation FAX and new site stress test work-flows. We report on the development, optimization and results of the various components in the HammerCloud framework.

  8. Drilling-induced borehole-wall damage at spent fuel test-climax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weed, H.C.; Durham, W.B.

    1982-12-01

    Microcracks in a sample of quartz monzonite from the Spent Fuel Test-Climax were measured by means of a scanning electron microscope in order to estimate the background level of damage near the borehole-wall. It appears that the hammer-drilling operation used to create the borehole has caused some microfracturing in a region 10 to 30 mm wide around the borehole. Beyond 30 mm, the level of microfracturing cannot be distinguished from background

  9. Condensate induced water hammer in a steam distribution system results in fatality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debban, H.L.; Eyre, L.E.

    1996-02-01

    Water hammer event s in steam distribution piping interrupt service and have the potential to cause serious injury and property damage. Conditions of condensation induced water hammer are discussed and recommendations aimed to improve safety of steam systems are presented. Condensate induced water hammer events at Hanford, a DOE facility, are examined

  10. Adaptation of HAMMER computer code to CYBER 170/750 computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinheiro, A.M.B.S.; Nair, R.P.K.

    1982-01-01

    The adaptation of HAMMER computer code to CYBER 170/750 computer is presented. The HAMMER code calculates cell parameters by multigroup transport theory and reactor parameters by few group diffusion theory. The auxiliary programs, the carried out modifications and the use of HAMMER system adapted to CYBER 170/750 computer are described. (M.C.K.) [pt

  11. Robotic Planetary Drill Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Brian J.; Thompson, S.; Paulsen, G.

    2010-01-01

    Several proposed or planned planetary science missions to Mars and other Solar System bodies over the next decade require subsurface access by drilling. This paper discusses the problems of remote robotic drilling, an automation and control architecture based loosely on observed human behaviors in drilling on Earth, and an overview of robotic drilling field test results using this architecture since 2005. Both rotary-drag and rotary-percussive drills are targeted. A hybrid diagnostic approach incorporates heuristics, model-based reasoning and vibration monitoring with neural nets. Ongoing work leads to flight-ready drilling software.

  12. On the Wave Stresses in the Rods of Anvil Hammers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Sinitskiy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With operating anvil hammers, there are rigid impacts of die tools, and as a result, almost instantaneous impact stops of the falling parts of hammer. Such operating conditions lead to the accelerated breakdowns of rods because of significant wave stresses arising in them. Common differential and integral methods to estimate wave stresses are widespread in engineering practice. However, to use them a researcher has to possess certain skills and special software. We consider the method for estimating the wave stresses in the rods of anvil hammers based on Laplace transforms (LT of wave equation. The article shows a procedure to set up and solve differential wave equations by operator method. These equations describe the wave propagation process of strains and stresses in the rods of anvil hammers with rigid impact and taking into account a damping rod connection with the head of hammer. The method takes into consideration an influence of both piston and rod weights and of mechanical and geometrical characteristics of rod on the stress value in the placement of rod in hammer head. Results analysis shows that a sufficiently efficient method for practical improving the durability of rods is the method of damping impact load on the rod through setting the damping devices in the form either of elastic "pad" of one or another design or of hydraulic shock absorbers in the placement of its connection with the hammer head. In this case there is a change of the wave front, it becomes flatter. It is shown that the stresses in the rod are proportional to the amount of wave stresses because of the own impact of rod and piston, which make a total weight of the system. Effect of piston weight on the stresses value at the rod during impact is directly proportional to the ratio of its weight to the rod weight. The geometric parameters of rod and the speed of the falling parts before the impact also influence on the value of stresses in the rod.The represented

  13. 1D models for condensation induced water hammer in pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloemeling, Frank; Neuhas, Thorsten; Schaffrath, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Condensation induced water hammer (CIWH) are caused by contact of steam and subcooled water. Thus, modeling the direct contact condensation is a crucial step towards the simulation of condensation induced water hammer with 1D pressure surge codes. Therefore, also the TUeV NORD SysTec GmbH and Co. KG inhouse pressure surge code DYVRO has been equipped with a new contact condensation model. The validation of DYVRO against an experiment dealing with CIWH is presented in this contribution. (orig.)

  14. 1D models for condensation induced water hammer in pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloemeling, Frank; Neuhas, Thorsten; Schaffrath, Andreas [TUEV NORD SysTec GmbH und Co. KG, Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-03-15

    Condensation induced water hammer (CIWH) are caused by contact of steam and subcooled water. Thus, modeling the direct contact condensation is a crucial step towards the simulation of condensation induced water hammer with 1D pressure surge codes. Therefore, also the TUeV NORD SysTec GmbH and Co. KG inhouse pressure surge code DYVRO has been equipped with a new contact condensation model. The validation of DYVRO against an experiment dealing with CIWH is presented in this contribution. (orig.)

  15. Study for increasing micro-drill reliability by vibrating drilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Zhaojun; Li Wei; Chen Yanhong; Wang Lijiang

    1998-01-01

    A study for increasing micro-drill reliability by vibrating drilling is described. Under the experimental conditions of this study it is observed, from reliability testing and the fitting of a life-distribution function, that the lives of micro-drills under ordinary drilling follow the log-normal distribution and the lives of micro-drills under vibrating drilling follow the Weibull distribution. Calculations for reliability analysis show that vibrating drilling can increase the lives of micro-drills and correspondingly reduce the scatter of drill lives. Therefore, vibrating drilling increases the reliability of micro-drills

  16. The Hans Tausen drill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Sigfus Johann; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe; Steffensen, Jørgen Peder

    2007-01-01

    In the mid-1990s, excellent results from the GRIP and GISP2 deep drilling projects in Greenland opened up funding for continued ice-coring efforts in Antarctica (EPICA) and Greenland (NorthGRIP). The Glaciology Group of the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, was assigned the task...... of providing drilling capability for these projects, as it had done for the GRIP project. The group decided to further simplify existing deep drill designs for better reliability and ease of handling. The drill design decided upon was successfully tested on Hans Tausen Ice Cap, Peary Land, Greenland, in 1995....... The 5.0 m long Hans Tausen (HT) drill was a prototype for the ~11 m long EPICA and NorthGRIP versions of the drill which were mechanically identical to the HT drill except for a much longer core barrel and chips chamber. These drills could deliver up to 4 m long ice cores after some design improvements...

  17. South African drilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    According to the president of the South African Drilling Association, the drilling industry is meeting head-on the challenges created by the worldwide recession. The paper is a synopsis of several of the papers presented at the SADA symposium and a look at several mining-related drilling projects in South Africa. These papers include grouting techniques, the use of impregnated bits in hard rock drilling, tunnel boring for mines, surveying improvement methods and the use of explosives to increase groundwater yield

  18. Impact of pipes networks simplification on water hammer phenomenon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Simplification of water supply networks is an indispensible design step to make the original network easier to be analysed. The impact of networks' simplification on water hammer phenomenon is investigated. This study uses two loops network with different diameters, thicknesses, and roughness coefficients. The network is ...

  19. HAMOC: a computer program for fluid hammer analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, H.G.

    1975-12-01

    A computer program has been developed for fluid hammer analysis of piping systems attached to a vessel which has undergone a known rapid pressure transient. The program is based on the characteristics method for solution of the partial differential equations of motion and continuity. Column separation logic is included for situations in which pressures fall to saturation values

  20. Do chimpanzees use weight to select hammer tools?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Schrauf

    Full Text Available The extent to which tool-using animals take into account relevant task parameters is poorly understood. Nut cracking is one of the most complex forms of tool use, the choice of an adequate hammer being a critical aspect in success. Several properties make a hammer suitable for nut cracking, with weight being a key factor in determining the impact of a strike; in general, the greater the weight the fewer strikes required. This study experimentally investigated whether chimpanzees are able to encode the relevance of weight as a property of hammers to crack open nuts. By presenting chimpanzees with three hammers that differed solely in weight, we assessed their ability to relate the weight of the different tools with their effectiveness and thus select the most effective one(s. Our results show that chimpanzees use weight alone in selecting tools to crack open nuts and that experience clearly affects the subjects' attentiveness to the tool properties that are relevant for the task at hand. Chimpanzees can encode the requirements that a nut-cracking tool should meet (in terms of weight to be effective.

  1. Comparison of Piezosurgery and Hammer-Chisel in Endoscopic Dacryocystorhinostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çukurova, Ibrahim; Bulğurcu, Suphi; Arslan, Ilker Burak; Dikilitaş, Bünyamin

    2018-05-08

    In this study, we compared the advantages and disadvantages of piezosurgery and hammer-chisel used in endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (EDCR). Between January 2012 and January 2016, 10 women and 8 men in whom piezosurgery was used (group 1) and 11 women and 7 men in whom hammer-chisel was used (group 2) during EDCR operations were compared retrospectively. Recurrence, operation time, postoperative bleeding, and operative cost were evaluated in patients who were followed for an average of 11.8 months. In addition, visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to assess pain at 6 hours postoperatively. No recurrence was observed in group 1, but recurrence was observed in 2 patients in group 2 (P = 0.685). There was no postoperative bleeding in both groups. The mean duration of operation was 30.6 ± 8.2 minutes in group 1 and 46.8 ± 9.5 minutes in group 2 (P = 0.038). The VAS score in group 1 was 2.7 ± 1.4 and the VAS score in group 2 was 5.8 ± 2.2 (P = 0.01). Piezosurgery costs an additional $325 for each patient while the use of the hammer-chisel does not incur additional costs. Piezosurgery causes shorter operation time, less recurrence, and less pain when compared with hammer-chisel.

  2. Water hammer (with FSI): exact solution : parallelization and application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loh, K.; Tijsseling, A.S.

    2014-01-01

    The 1D fully coupled Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) model can adequately describe the water hammer effect on the fluid, and the structural behaviour of the pipe. This paper attempts to increase the capability of using an exact solution of the 1D FSI problem applied to a straight pipe with a

  3. Water hammer with column separation : a historical review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergant, A.; Simpson, A.R.; Tijsseling, A.S.

    2006-01-01

    Column separation refers to the breaking of liquid columns in fully filled pipelines. This may occur in a water-hammer event when the pressure in a pipeline drops to the vapor pressure at specific locations such as closed ends, high points or knees (changes in pipe slope). The liquid columns are

  4. Uncertainty of Water-hammer Loads for Safety Related Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Chan; Yoon, Duk Joo [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., LT., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In this study, the basic methodology is base on ISO GUM (Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurements). For a given gas void volumes in the discharge piping, the maximum pressure of water hammer is defined in equation. From equation, uncertainty parameter is selected as U{sub s} (superficial velocity for the specific pipe size and corresponding area) of equation. The main uncertainty parameter (U{sub s}) is estimated by measurement method and Monte Carlo simulation. Two methods are in good agreement with the extended uncertainty. Extended uncertainty of the measurement and Monte Carlo simulation is 1.30 and 1.34 respectively in 95% confidence interval. In 99% confidence interval, the uncertainties are 1.95 and 1.97 respectively. NRC Generic Letter 2008-01 requires nuclear power plant operators to evaluate the possibility of noncondensable gas accumulation for the Emergency Core Cooling System. Specially, gas accumulation can result in system pressure transient in pump discharge piping at a pump start. Consequently, this evolves into a gas water, a water-hammer event and the force imbalances on the piping segments. In this paper, MCS (Monte Carlo Simulation) method is introduced in estimating the uncertainty of water hammer. The aim is to evaluate the uncertainty of the water hammer estimation results carried out by KHNP CRI in 2013.

  5. U.S. drilling contractors could face stiff challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    Although the outlook for most segments of the contract drilling business is now more optimistic than in the past decade, the increased activity has brought several problems: the availability of fully trained crews, the need for new capital, and the limited number of quality drillstrings. These problems will grow in importance if natural gas deliverability begins to decline visibly and once the scramble to correct this decline begins. As the drilling recovery unfolds, the most important lesson to remember, based on worldwide activity in the past year, is how rapidly conditions can change and how quickly excess capacity can turn into chronic shortages. The various segments of the world wide contract drilling industry's prospects have changed dramatically during the past 12 months, and oddly, some market sectors have improved while others have become worse. These quick changes highlight the unpredictable and volatile nature of the markets for contract drilling and other services needed to drill and complete oil and gas wells. The paper describes the business of well drilling onshore and offshore in the US, drilling activities in Canada, international markets, capacity, the supplies of natural gas, Gulf of Mexico activities, drill pipe shortages, manpower shortages, and challenges offshore

  6. Ulnar hammer syndrome: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartija, Larisa; Cheung, Kevin; Kaur, Manraj; Coroneos, Christopher James; Thoma, Achilleas

    2013-11-01

    Ulnar hammer syndrome is an uncommon form of arterial insufficiency. Many treatments have been described, and debate continues about the best option. The goal of this systematic review was to determine whether ulnar hammer syndrome has an occupational association, to identify the most reliable diagnostic test, and to determine the best treatment modality. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and EMBASE. Data from articles meeting inclusion criteria were collected in duplicate. Methodological quality of studies was assessed using the Methodological Index for Nonrandomized Studies scale. Thirty studies were included in the systematic review. No randomized controlled trials were identified. There is low-quality evidence suggestive of an association between exposure to repetitive hand trauma and vibration and ulnar hammer syndrome. Various diagnostic investigations were used, but few were compared, making it difficult to determine the most reliable diagnostic test. Numerous nonoperative and operative treatments were reported. With nonoperative treatment, 12 percent had complete resolution and 70 percent had partial resolution of their symptoms. Of patients treated operatively, 42.5 percent had complete resolution and 42.5 percent had partial resolution of their symptoms. The heterogeneity in study design and outcome measures limits definitive conclusions about occupational association, best diagnostic test, and treatment for ulnar hammer syndrome. However, there is low-quality evidence that suggests that most patients with ulnar hammer syndrome will have partial relief of symptoms with nonoperative treatment, and operative treatment results in complete or partial resolution of symptoms in the majority of cases. Therapeutic, IV.

  7. Technical report for a fluidless directional drilling system demonstrated at Solid Waste Storage Area 6 shallow buried waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The purpose of the research was to demonstrate a fluidless directional drilling and monitoring system (FDD) specifically tailored to address environmental drilling concerns for shallow buried wasted. The major concerns are related to worker exposure, minimizing waste generation, and confining the spread of contamination. The FDD is potentially applicable to Environmental Restoration (ER) activities for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Waste Area Grouping 6 (WAG 6) shallow buried waste disposed in unlined trenches. Major ER activities for directional drilling are to develop a drilling system for leachate collection directly beneath trenches, and to provide localized control over leachate release to the environment. Other ER FDD activities could include vadose zone and groundwater monitoring of contaminant transport. The operational constraints pointed the research in the direction of purchasing a steerable impact hammer, or mole, manufactured by Steer-Rite Ltd. of Racine, Wisconsin. This drill was selected due to the very low cost ($25,000) associated with procuring the drill, steering module, instrumentation and service lines. The impact hammer is a self propelled drill which penetrates the soil by compacting cut material along the sidewalls of the borehole. Essentially, it forces its way through the subsurface. Although the pneumatic hammer exhausts compressed air which must be handled at the borehole collar, it does not generate soil cuttings or liquids. This is the basis for the term fluidless. A stub casing muffler was attached to the entrance hole for controlling exhaust gas and any airborne releases. Other environmental compliance modifications made to the equipment included operating the tool without lubrication, and using water instead of hydraulic fluid to actuate the steering fins on the tool

  8. DE-FOA-EE0005502 Advanced Percussive Drilling Technology for Geothermal Exploration and Development Phase II Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Jiann-Cherng [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Raymond, David W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Prasad, Somuri V. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wolfer, Dale R. [Atlas-Copco Secoroc, LLC, Fagersta (Sweden)

    2017-05-01

    Percussive hammers are a promising advance in drilling technology for geothermal since they rely upon rock reduction mechanisms that are well-suited for use in the hard, brittle rock characteristic of geothermal formations. The project research approach and work plan includes a critical path to development of a high-temperature (HT) percussive hammer using a two- phase approach. The work completed in Phase I of the project demonstrated the viability of percussive hammers and that solutions to technical challenges in design, material technology, and performance are likely to be resolved. Work completed in Phase II focused on testing the findings from Phase I and evaluating performance of the materials and designs at high- operating temperatures. A high-operating temperature (HOT) drilling facility was designed, built, and used to test the performance of the DTH under extreme conditions. Results from the testing indicate that a high-temperature capable hammer can be developed and is a viable alternative for user in the driller's toolbox.

  9. An analysis of the relationship between the linear hammer speed and the thrower applied forces during the hammer throw for male and female throwers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice, Sara M; Ness, Kevin F; Rosemond, Doug

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the cable force and linear hammer speed in the hammer throw and to identify how the magnitude and direction of the cable force affects the fluctuations in linear hammer speed. Five male (height: 1.88 +/- 0.06 m; body mass: 106.23 +/- 4.83 kg) and five female (height: 1.69 +/- 0.05 m; body mass: 101.60 +/- 20.92 kg) throwers participated and were required to perform 10 throws each. The hammer's linear velocity and the cable force and its tangential component were calculated via hammer head positional data. As expected, a strong correlation was observed between decreases in the linear hammer speed and decreases in the cable force (normalised for hammer weight). A strong correlation was also found to exist between the angle by which the cable force lags the radius of rotation at its maximum (when tangential force is at its most negative) and the size of the decreases in hammer speed. These findings indicate that the most effective way to minimise the effect of the negative tangential force is to reduce the size of the lag angle.

  10. Quality in drilling operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, E; Gervais, I [Sedco Forex Jacintoport Facility, Channelview, TX (United States); Le Moign, Y; Pangarkar, S; Stibbs, B [Sedco Forex, Montrouge (France); McMorran, P [Sedco Forex, Pau (France); Nordquist, E [Dubai Petroleum Company, Dubai (United Arab Emirates); Pittman, T [Sedco Forex, Perth (Australia); Schindler, H [Sedco Forex, Dubai (United Arab Emirates); Scott, P [Woodside Offshore Petroleum Pty. Ltd., Perth (Australia)

    1997-12-31

    Driven by cost and profitability pressures, quality has taken on new meaning and importance in the oil field during the past decade. In drilling operations, new initiatives have led to cooperative team efforts between operators and drilling contractors to enhance quality. In this article examples are given of how one drilling contractor, by adopting a quality culture, is reaping major benefits for its clients as well as its employees. 22 figs., 19 refs.

  11. Quality in drilling operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, E.; Gervais, I. [Sedco Forex Jacintoport Facility, Channelview, TX (United States); Le Moign, Y.; Pangarkar, S.; Stibbs, B. [Sedco Forex, Montrouge (France); McMorran, P. [Sedco Forex, Pau (France); Nordquist, E. [Dubai Petroleum Company, Dubai (United Arab Emirates); Pittman, T. [Sedco Forex, Perth (Australia); Schindler, H. [Sedco Forex, Dubai (United Arab Emirates); Scott, P. [Woodside Offshore Petroleum Pty. Ltd., Perth (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    Driven by cost and profitability pressures, quality has taken on new meaning and importance in the oil field during the past decade. In drilling operations, new initiatives have led to cooperative team efforts between operators and drilling contractors to enhance quality. In this article examples are given of how one drilling contractor, by adopting a quality culture, is reaping major benefits for its clients as well as its employees. 22 figs., 19 refs.

  12. Condensation driven water hammer studies for feedwater distribution pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savolainen, S.; Katajala, S.; Elsing, B.; Nurkkala, P.; Hoikkanen, J.; Pullinen, J.; Logvinov, S.A.; Trunov, N.B.; Sitnik, J.K.

    1997-01-01

    Imatran Voima Oy, IVO, operates two VVER 440 reactors. Unit 1 has been operating since 1977 and unit 2 since 1981. First damages of the feed water distribution (FWD) pipes were observed in 1989. In closer examinations FWD-pipe T-connection turned out to suffer from severe erosion corrosion damages. Similar damages have been found also in other VVER 440 type NPPs. In 1994 the first new FWD-pipe was replaced and in 1996 extensive water hammer experiments were carried out together with EDO Gidropress in Podolsk. After the first phase of the experiments some fundamental changes were made to the construction of the FWD-pipe. The object of this paper is to give short insight to the design of the new FWD-pipe concentrating on water hammer experiments. (orig.)

  13. Pressure and wall shear stress in blood hammer - Analytical theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Chiang C; Jing, Haixiao

    2016-10-01

    We describe an analytical theory of blood hammer in a long and stiffened artery due to sudden blockage. Based on the model of a viscous fluid in laminar flow, we derive explicit expressions of oscillatory pressure and wall shear stress. To examine the effects on local plaque formation we also allow the blood vessel radius to be slightly nonuniform. Without resorting to discrete computation, the asymptotic method of multiple scales is utilized to deal with the sharp contrast of time scales. The effects of plaque and blocking time on blood pressure and wall shear stress are studied. The theory is validated by comparison with existing water hammer experiments. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Condensation driven water hammer studies for feedwater distribution pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savolainen, S.; Katajala, S.; Elsing, B.; Nurkkala, P.; Hoikkanen, J. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland); Pullinen, J. [IVO Power Engineering Ltd., Vantaa (Finland); Logvinov, S.A.; Trunov, N.B.; Sitnik, J.K. [EDO Gidropress (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    Imatran Voima Oy, IVO, operates two VVER 440 reactors. Unit 1 has been operating since 1977 and unit 2 since 1981. First damages of the feed water distribution (FWD) pipes were observed in 1989. In closer examinations FWD-pipe T-connection turned out to suffer from severe erosion corrosion damages. Similar damages have been found also in other VVER 440 type NPPs. In 1994 the first new FWD-pipe was replaced and in 1996 extensive water hammer experiments were carried out together with EDO Gidropress in Podolsk. After the first phase of the experiments some fundamental changes were made to the construction of the FWD-pipe. The object of this paper is to give short insight to the design of the new FWD-pipe concentrating on water hammer experiments. (orig.).

  15. Modelling of Cold Water Hammer with WAHA code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gale, J.; Tiselj, I.

    2003-01-01

    The Cold Water Hammer experiment described in the present paper is a simple facility where overpressure accelerates a column of liquid water into the steam bubble at the closed vertical end of the pipe. Severe water hammer with high pressure peak occurs when the vapor bubble condenses and the liquid column hits the closed end of the pipe. Experimental data of Forschungszentrum Rossendorf are being used to test the newly developed computer code WAHA and the computer code RELAP5. Results show that a small amount of noncondensable air in the steam bubble significantly affects the magnitude of the calculated pressure peak, while the wall friction and condensation rate only slightly affect the simulated phenomena. (author)

  16. OREST, LWR Burnup Simulation Using Program HAMMER and ORIGEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesse, Ulrich; Sieberer, Johann

    2006-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: In OREST, the 1-dimensional lattice code HAMMER and the isotope generation and depletion code ORIGEN are directly coupled for burnup simulation in light-water reactor fuels (GRS recommended). Additionally heavy water and graphite moderated systems can be calculated. New version differs from the previous version in the following features: An 84-group-library LIB84 for up to 200 isotopes is used to update the 3-group -POISON-XS. LIB84 uses the same energy boundaries as THERMOS and HAMLET in . In this way, high flexibility is achieved in very different reactor models. The coupling factor between THERMOS and HAMLET is now directly transferred from HAMMER to THERES and omits the equation 4 (see page 6 of the manual). Sandwich-reactor fuel reactivity and burnup calculations can be started with NGEOM = 1. Thorium graphite reactivity and burnup calculations can be started with NLIBE = 1. High enriched U-235 heavy water moderated reactivity and burnup calculations can be started. HAMLET libraries in for U-235, U-236, U-238, Np-237, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-242, Am-241, Am-243 and Zirconium are updated using resonance parameters. NEA-1324/04: A new version of the module hamme97.f has replaced the old one. 2 - Method of solution: For the user-defined irradiation history, an input data processor generates program loops over small burnup steps for the main codes HAMMER and ORIGEN. The user defined assembly description is transformed to an equivalent HAMMER fuel cell. HAMMER solves the integral neutron transport equation in a four-region cylindrical or sandwiched model with reflecting boundaries and runs with fuel power calculated rod temperatures. ORIGEN runs with HAMMER-calculated cross sections and neutron spectra and calculates isotope concentrations during burnup by solving the buildup-, depletion- and decay-chain equations. An output data processor samples the outputs of the program modules and generates tabular works for the

  17. Condensation driven water hammer studies for feedwater distribution pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savolainen, S; Katajala, S; Elsing, B; Nurkkala, P; Hoikkanen, J [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland); Pullinen, J [IVO Power Engineering Ltd., Vantaa (Finland); Logvinov, S A; Trunov, N B; Sitnik, J K [EDO Gidropress (Russian Federation)

    1998-12-31

    Imatran Voima Oy, IVO, operates two VVER 440 reactors. Unit 1 has been operating since 1977 and unit 2 since 1981. First damages of the feed water distribution (FWD) pipes were observed in 1989. In closer examinations FWD-pipe T-connection turned out to suffer from severe erosion corrosion damages. Similar damages have been found also in other VVER 440 type NPPs. In 1994 the first new FWD-pipe was replaced and in 1996 extensive water hammer experiments were carried out together with EDO Gidropress in Podolsk. After the first phase of the experiments some fundamental changes were made to the construction of the FWD-pipe. The object of this paper is to give short insight to the design of the new FWD-pipe concentrating on water hammer experiments. (orig.).

  18. Water hammer prediction and control: the Green's function method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Li-Jun; Mao, Feng; Wu, Jie-Zhi

    2012-04-01

    By Green's function method we show that the water hammer (WH) can be analytically predicted for both laminar and turbulent flows (for the latter, with an eddy viscosity depending solely on the space coordinates), and thus its hazardous effect can be rationally controlled and minimized. To this end, we generalize a laminar water hammer equation of Wang et al. (J. Hydrodynamics, B2, 51, 1995) to include arbitrary initial condition and variable viscosity, and obtain its solution by Green's function method. The predicted characteristic WH behaviors by the solutions are in excellent agreement with both direct numerical simulation of the original governing equations and, by adjusting the eddy viscosity coefficient, experimentally measured turbulent flow data. Optimal WH control principle is thereby constructed and demonstrated.

  19. Water hammer analysis in a water distribution system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Twyman

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The solution to water hammer in a water distribution system (WDS is shown by applying three hybrid methods (HM based on the Box’s scheme, McCormack's method and Diffusive Scheme. Each HM formulation in conjunction with their relative advantages and disadvantages are reviewed. The analyzed WDS has pipes with different lengths, diameters and wave speeds, being the Courant number different in each pipe according to the adopted discretization. The HM results are compared with the results obtained by the Method of Characteristics (MOC. In reviewing the numerical attenuation, second order schemes based on Box and McCormack are more conservative from a numerical point of view, being recommendable their application in the analysis of water hammer in water distribution systems.

  20. Operator and contractor benefit from incentive contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandon, B.

    1991-01-01

    This book reports that with incentive contracts, drilling and service contractors assume greater responsibility for operations. That helps them to align their goals more closely with those of the operator. This achieves a more equitable division of the risks. Many operators and contractors believe this is a more appropriate approach to contracting drilling services. As they assume manageable responsibility, each party also has opportunities for greater reward. Innovations in cooperation can create a win-win situation. In a win-win contract all parties benefit from the new relationships between operator, contractor, and service company. The win-win situation can only be achieved by allowing the contracting parties to become much more closely involved in drilling operations. This is the primary motivation behind development of more productive contracting strategies

  1. Fundamental Research on Percussion Drilling: Improved rock mechanics analysis, advanced simulation technology, and full-scale laboratory investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael S. Bruno

    2005-12-31

    This report summarizes the research efforts on the DOE supported research project Percussion Drilling (DE-FC26-03NT41999), which is to significantly advance the fundamental understandings of the physical mechanisms involved in combined percussion and rotary drilling, and thereby facilitate more efficient and lower cost drilling and exploration of hard-rock reservoirs. The project has been divided into multiple tasks: literature reviews, analytical and numerical modeling, full scale laboratory testing and model validation, and final report delivery. Literature reviews document the history, pros and cons, and rock failure physics of percussion drilling in oil and gas industries. Based on the current understandings, a conceptual drilling model is proposed for modeling efforts. Both analytical and numerical approaches are deployed to investigate drilling processes such as drillbit penetration with compression, rotation and percussion, rock response with stress propagation, damage accumulation and failure, and debris transportation inside the annulus after disintegrated from rock. For rock mechanics modeling, a dynamic numerical tool has been developed to describe rock damage and failure, including rock crushing by compressive bit load, rock fracturing by both shearing and tensile forces, and rock weakening by repetitive compression-tension loading. Besides multiple failure criteria, the tool also includes a damping algorithm to dissipate oscillation energy and a fatigue/damage algorithm to update rock properties during each impact. From the model, Rate of Penetration (ROP) and rock failure history can be estimated. For cuttings transport in annulus, a 3D numerical particle flowing model has been developed with aid of analytical approaches. The tool can simulate cuttings movement at particle scale under laminar or turbulent fluid flow conditions and evaluate the efficiency of cutting removal. To calibrate the modeling efforts, a series of full-scale fluid hammer

  2. Cavitation luminescence in a water hammer: Upscaling sonoluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, C.-K.; Camara, C.; Kappus, B.; Putterman, S. J.

    2003-06-01

    Oscillatory acceleration and deceleration of a column of water leads to a pipe hammer as well as cavitation. With a small amount of xenon gas dissolved in the water, we can detect a stream of predominantly ultraviolet subnanosecond flashes of light which are attributed to collapsing bubbles. The observed emission can exceed 108 photons for a single collapse and has a peak power over 0.4 W.

  3. Lessons learned from the SONGS Unit 1 water hammer event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, C.

    1987-01-01

    On November 21, 1985, a water hammer event occurred in horizontal feedwater line B at San Onofre Nuclear Generation Site (SONGS) Unit 1. The SONGS Unit 1 is a three-loop pressurized water reactor designed by Westinghouse Electric Corp. The event was initiated by a differential current trip on the bus of auxiliary transformer C. The root cause of the event was a simultaneous failure of five check valves in the feedwater system. Two of them are located downstream of the feedwater pump, and three of them are located further downstream and on the lines to the steam generators. The failure mechanism was determined to be flow-induced vibration, which caused repeated impact between the disk stud and the disk stop. The water hammer occurred in feedwater line B during the refilling of feedwater lines A, B, and C with auxiliary feedwater. The thermal-hydraulic process to initiate the water hammer and the reason that the water hammer only happened in line B have been fully investigated and explained. A root cause analysis after the event was prompted to answer the following two questions: (1) why did these five check valves fail at that time and not in the preceding 15 yr? (2) why did only these five check valves fail? The scope of the root cause analysis involves an investigation of the valve vibration characteristics, plant operation history, and the maintenance history of the valves. The paper answers these two questions, after a brief study of the vibration characteristics of a check valve

  4. Automated Grid Monitoring for the LHCb Experiment Through HammerCloud

    CERN Document Server

    Dice, Bradley

    2015-01-01

    The HammerCloud system is used by CERN IT to monitor the status of the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG). HammerCloud automatically submits jobs to WLCG computing resources, closely replicating the workflow of Grid users (e.g. physicists analyzing data). This allows computation nodes and storage resources to be monitored, software to be tested (somewhat like continuous integration), and new sites to be stress tested with a heavy job load before commissioning. The HammerCloud system has been in use for ATLAS and CMS experiments for about five years. This summer's work involved porting the HammerCloud suite of tools to the LHCb experiment. The HammerCloud software runs functional tests and provides data visualizations. HammerCloud's LHCb variant is written in Python, using the Django web framework and Ganga/DIRAC for job management.

  5. Comparative evaluation of recent water hammer events in light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    House, R.K.; Sursock, J.P.; Kim, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    Water hammer events that occurred in commercial U.S. light water reactors in the five-year period from 1981 to 1985 were surveyed, and a preliminary evaluation of the events was conducted. The information developed supplements a previous study which evaluated water hammer events in the twelve-year period from 1969 to 1981. The current study of water hammer events in the 1980's confirms that the rate of events remains relatively constant (less than 0.25 events per plant year) in both PWRs and BWRs. Although water hammer events are not normally considered a safety issue, the economic impact of the events on plant operations can be significant. One particular severe water hammer event is estimated to have cost the plant owner $10 million for repair and evaluation alone. A variety of key characteristics of the recent water hammer events are summarized to establish a basis for further study of preventative methods

  6. Management of Hypothenar Hammer Syndrome A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swofford, Brenen P; Swofford, Devon P

    2018-02-09

    BACKGROUND Hypothenar hammer syndrome is a relatively rare disease process caused by repetitive stress or injury to the hypothenar eminence leading to chronic injury to the ulnar artery. This chronic stress (usually as a result of occupational or sport activities) may result in arterial constriction or thickening, which may lead to thrombosis or aneurysm formation. A review of current literature revealed that reports related to management of hypothenar hammer syndrome are limited. CASE REPORT A 33-year-old male without significant past medical history presented with left hand/digit pain, skin discoloration, and coolness of the hand/digits after a mechanical accident experienced 12 hours prior to presentation. Angiography confirmed reduced flow in the ulnar and radial artery with significant spasm of the ulnar artery. Treatment consisted of heparin, nitroglycerin, and papaverine with rapid resolution of symptoms. The patient was discharged on anticoagulation and a calcium channel blocker, with scheduled follow-up. CONCLUSIONS Hypothenar hammer syndrome is a rare disease process which manifests in certain occupations and activities that put undue stress on the hypothenar area. The use of angiography for definitive diagnosis and the use of anticoagulation and calcium channel blockers for treatment should continue to be studied to determine a standard treatment regimen.

  7. Drilling bits for deep drilling and process for their manufacture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhode, H.; Juergens, R.; Feenstra, R.; Busking, B.E.

    1978-11-30

    The invention concerns a drilling head or a drilling bit for use in deep drilling in underground formations and particularly concerns a drilling bit with a drilling bit body, which has a shank and a hollow space, which is connected with a duct extending through the shank. The drilling bit body has several separate cutting elements for removing material from the floor of a borehole and hydraulic devices for cooling and/or cleaning the cutting elements are provided.

  8. Proximal forearm extensor muscle strain is reduced when driving nails using a shock-controlled hammer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Kimberly A; Maza, Maria; Pérez-Vázquez, Carlos E; Yen, Thomas Y; Kijowski, Richard; Liu, Fang; Radwin, Robert G

    2016-10-01

    Repetitive hammer use has been associated with strain and musculoskeletal injuries. This study investigated if using a shock-control hammer reduces forearm muscle strain by observing adverse physiological responses (i.e. inflammation and localized edema) after use. Three matched framing hammers were studied, including a wood-handle, steel-handle, and shock-control hammer. Fifty volunteers were randomly assigned to use one of these hammers at a fatiguing pace of one strike every second, to seat 20 nails in a wood beam. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to scan the forearm muscles for inflammation before the task, immediately after hammering, and one to two days after. Electromyogram signals were measured to estimate grip exertions and localized muscle fatigue. High-speed video was used to calculate the energy of nail strikes. While estimated grip force was similar across the three hammers, the shock-control hammer had 40% greater kinetic energy upon impact and markedly less proximal extensor muscle edema than the wood-handle and steel-handle hammers, immediately after use (phandle shock can mitigate strain in proximal forearm extensor muscles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A body is not a metaphor: Barbara Hammer's X-ray vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterweil, Ara

    2010-01-01

    This article examines three films by legendary experimental filmmaker Barbara Hammer that deal with the sick, aging, or dying body: Optic Nerve (1985), Sanctus (1990), and A Horse is Not a Metaphor (2008). By analyzing films that do not explicitly confront sexual identity, this article questions the continuing usefulness of the designation "lesbian filmmaker" when considering Hammer's diverse body of work. Tracing the "double consciousness" through which Hammer approaches the body and its construction in patriarchy-particularly in the discourse of medicine-this article argues that Hammer's is a thoroughly corporeal, but not exclusively lesbian, cinema.

  10. Overview of Prevention for Water Hammer by Check Valve Action in Nuclear Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dayong; Yoon, Hyungi; Seo, Kyoungwoo; Kim, Seonhoon

    2016-01-01

    Water hammer can cause serious damage to pumping system and unexpected system pressure rise in the pipeline. In nuclear reactor, water hammer can influence on the integrity of safety related system. Water hammer in nuclear reactor have been caused by voiding in normally water-filled lines, steam condensation line containing both steam and water, as well as by rapid check valve action. Therefore, this study focuses on the water hammer by check valve among the sources of water hammer occurrence and suggests proper methodology for check valve type selection against water hammer. This study focuses on the water hammer by check valve action among the sources of water hammer occurrence and suggests proper methodology for check valve type selection against water hammer. If the inadvertent pump trip or pipe rupture in high velocity and pressure pipe is predicted, the fast response check valve such as tiled disc, dual disc and nozzle check valve should be installed in the system. If the inadvertent pump trip or pipe rupture in very high velocity and pressure pipe and excessively large revered flow velocity are predicted, the very slowly closing check valve such as controlled closure check valve should be installed in the system

  11. A study of water hammer phenomena in a one-component two-phase bubbly flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Terushige; Akagawa, Koji

    2000-01-01

    Water hammer phenomena caused by a rapid valve closure, that is, shock phenomena in two-phase flows, are an important problem for the safety assessment of a hypothetical LOCA. This paper presents the results of experimental and analytical studies of the water hammer phenomena in a one-component tow-phase bubbly flow. In order to clarify the characteristics of water hammer phenomena, experiments for a one-component two-phase flow of Freon R-113 were conducted and a numerical simulation of pressure transients was developed. An overall picture of the water hammer phenomena in a one-component two-phase flow is presented an discussed. (author)

  12. Overview of Prevention for Water Hammer by Check Valve Action in Nuclear Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dayong; Yoon, Hyungi; Seo, Kyoungwoo; Kim, Seonhoon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Water hammer can cause serious damage to pumping system and unexpected system pressure rise in the pipeline. In nuclear reactor, water hammer can influence on the integrity of safety related system. Water hammer in nuclear reactor have been caused by voiding in normally water-filled lines, steam condensation line containing both steam and water, as well as by rapid check valve action. Therefore, this study focuses on the water hammer by check valve among the sources of water hammer occurrence and suggests proper methodology for check valve type selection against water hammer. This study focuses on the water hammer by check valve action among the sources of water hammer occurrence and suggests proper methodology for check valve type selection against water hammer. If the inadvertent pump trip or pipe rupture in high velocity and pressure pipe is predicted, the fast response check valve such as tiled disc, dual disc and nozzle check valve should be installed in the system. If the inadvertent pump trip or pipe rupture in very high velocity and pressure pipe and excessively large revered flow velocity are predicted, the very slowly closing check valve such as controlled closure check valve should be installed in the system.

  13. Analysis and prevention of water hammer for the emergency core cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jun

    2008-01-01

    Emergency core cooling system (ECCS) is an engineered safety feature of nuclear power plant. If the water hammer happens during ECCS injection, the piping system may be broken. It will cause loss of ECC system and affect the safety of reactor core. Based on the functions and characteristics of ECCS and the theory of water hammer, the paper analyzed the potential risk of water hammer in ECCS in Qinshan III, and proposed modifications to prevent the water-hammer damage during ECCS injection. (authors)

  14. Optimal Control of the Valve Based on Traveling Wave Method in the Water Hammer Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, H. Z.; Wang, F.; Feng, J. L.; Tan, H. P.

    2011-09-01

    Valve regulation is an effective method for process control during the water hammer. The principle of d'Alembert traveling wave theory was used in this paper to construct the exact analytical solution of the water hammer, and the optimal speed law of the valve that can reduce the water hammer pressure in the maximum extent was obtained. Combining this law with the valve characteristic curve, the principle corresponding to the valve opening changing with time was obtained, which can be used to guide the process of valve closing and to reduce the water hammer pressure in the maximum extent.

  15. Banking contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Durčáková, Klára

    2010-01-01

    Resumé - Bank Contracts Bank Contracts are an integral part of our everyday lives. Citizen and bussines entities used bank contracts very often. Despite this fact we can't find legal definition in the Czech law. Banking contracts understand contracts that are signed by banks in their business activities and obligations under these contracts arise. While the banking contracts have been widely used, in Czech law there is not too much literature and judgements abou this issue. Lack of legislatio...

  16. Drilling technologies in hydrogeological survey

    OpenAIRE

    Vorlíček, Petr

    2014-01-01

    This work deals with the drilling technologies used in hydrogeology. The main aim of the work is to explore types of drilling technologies used at hydrogeological drilling wells and modern technologies that could potentially be used in the future. The work also summarizes a historical development of drilling techniques, a drilling process procedure, information obtained from boreholes and the most common types of drilling fluids.

  17. Developmental test report, assessment of XT-70E percussion drill rig operation in tank farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougherty, L.F.

    1996-01-01

    The following report documents the testing of the XT-70E percussion drill rig for use in the 241-SX Tank Farm. The test is necessary to support evaluation of the safety and authorization level of the proposed activity of installing up to three new drywells in the 241- SX Tank Farm. The proposed activity plans to install drywells by percussion drilling 7 inch O.D./6 inch I.D. pipe in close proximity of underground storage tanks and associated equipment. The load transmitted from the drill rig's percussion hammer through the ground to the tank structure and equipment is not known and therefore testing is required to ensure the activity is safe and authorized

  18. A vision for drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millheim, K. [Montanuniversitaet Leoben (Austria)

    1995-12-31

    The future of drilling lies in its relationship with the oil and gas industry. This paper examines how the future of drilling is seen from the view point of the exploration manager, the drilling contractor, the drilling engineer and the company president or managing director. The various pressures on the oil and gas industry are examined, such as environmental issues, alternative energy sources, and the price of oil which determines how companies are run. Exploration activity is driven by the price of oil and gas. The development of wells with multiple horizontal wells or multiple horizontal wells with tributaries will reduce the cost of exploration. Companies will rely less and less on reservoir simulation and more on cheap well-bores, multi-lateral well-bores and will exploit oil that could not be exploited before. The cost of exploratory drilling will need to be kept down so that in the future the industry will get better at economically finding fields at the 10 million to 20 million barrel range that would not have been possible before. The future is expected to see drilling contractors tunnelling, making sewerage lines and drilling 10,000 foot wells with purpose built rigs. Franchising will become a feature of the industry as will the use of databases to answer key technical questions. Offshore platforms will be built to be moveable and disposable. The industry is capable of solving problems, meeting challenges and making ideas work, providing much hope for the future. 10 figs., 1 photo.

  19. Drilling cost analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anand, A.B.

    1992-01-01

    Drilling assumes greater importance in present day uranium exploration which emphasizes to explore more areas on the basis of conceptual model than merely on surface anomalies. But drilling is as costly as it is important and consumes a major share (50% to 60%) of the exploration budget. As such the cost of drilling has great bearing on the exploration strategy as well as on the overall cost of the project. Therefore, understanding the cost analysis is very much important when planning or intensifying an exploration programme. This not only helps in controlling the current operations but also in planning the budgetary provisions for future operations. Also, if the work is entrusted to a private party, knowledge of in-house cost analysis helps in fixing the rates of drilling in different formations and areas to be drilled. Under this topic, various factors that contribute to the cost of drilling per meter as well as ways to minimize the drilling cost for better economic evaluation of mineral deposits are discussed. (author)

  20. Drilling for scientific purpose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Shoichi

    1987-09-01

    Drilling for scientific purpose is a process of conducting geophysical exploration at deep underground and drilling for collecting crust samples directly. This is because earth science has advanced to get a good understanding about the top of the crust and has shifted its main interest to the lower layer of the crust in land regions. The on-land drilling plan in Japan has just started, and the planned drilling spots are areas around the Minami River, Hidaka Mts., kinds of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic granite in outside zone, the extension of Japan Sea, Ogasawara Is., Minami-Tori Is., and active volcanos. The paper also outlines the present situation of on-land drilling in the world, focusing on the SG-3rd super-deep well SG-3 on the Kola Peninsula, USSR, Satori SG-1st well SG-1 in Azerbaidzhan S.S.R, V.S.S.R, Sweden's wells, Cyprus' wells, Bayearn well Plan in West Germany, and Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Program in the U.S. At its end, the paper explains the present situation and the future theme of the Japanese drilling technique and points out the necessity of developing equipment, and techniques. (14 figs, 5 tabs, 26 refs)

  1. Excavation and drilling at a spent-fuel test facility in granitic rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick, W.C.; Mayr, M.C.

    1981-10-01

    Funding for a project to test the feasibility of safe and reliable storage and retrieval of spent fuel from a commercial nuclear reactor was approved by the Department of Energy on June 2, 1978. By May 28, 1980, 11 spent-fuel assemblies had been emplaced 420 m below the surface in the Climax granitic stock at the Nevada Test Site. Design and construction of the Spent Fuel Test-Climax, including fuel emplacement, had taken less than two years, at a total cost of $18.4 million. Construction activities were preceded by geologic exploration using four cored holes and existing underground workings. The sinking of a 0.76-m-diam shaft to the 420-m level initiated construction at the site. Effective rates of sinking varied from 0.16 m/h with a rotary tricone drill to 0.5 m/h with a hammer drill. Underground excavation included a central canister-storage drift 4.6 x 6.1 x 64 m long, two parallel 3.4 x 3.4-m heater drifts, and a tail drift. About 6700 m{sup 3} were excavated at an average rate of 2 m{sup 3}/h, and 178 cored holes, with diameters from 38 to 152 mm, were drilled. A total length of nearly 1100 m was drilled at rates ranging from 0.4 m/h to 1 m/h, depending on hole size and drilling equipment. Eighteen 610-mm-diam canister emplacement holes were hammer-drilled at an average rate of 1.4 m/h. The use of the critical path method, integrated contractors, and close cooperation between project participants facilitated completion of the project on schedule.

  2. Excavation and drilling at a spent-fuel test facility in granitic rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrick, W.C.; Mayr, M.C.

    1981-10-01

    Funding for a project to test the feasibility of safe and reliable storage and retrieval of spent fuel from a commercial nuclear reactor was approved by the Department of Energy on June 2, 1978. By May 28, 1980, 11 spent-fuel assemblies had been emplaced 420 m below the surface in the Climax granitic stock at the Nevada Test Site. Design and construction of the Spent Fuel Test-Climax, including fuel emplacement, had taken less than two years, at a total cost of $18.4 million. Construction activities were preceded by geologic exploration using four cored holes and existing underground workings. The sinking of a 0.76-m-diam shaft to the 420-m level initiated construction at the site. Effective rates of sinking varied from 0.16 m/h with a rotary tricone drill to 0.5 m/h with a hammer drill. Underground excavation included a central canister-storage drift 4.6 x 6.1 x 64 m long, two parallel 3.4 x 3.4-m heater drifts, and a tail drift. About 6700 m 3 were excavated at an average rate of 2 m 3 /h, and 178 cored holes, with diameters from 38 to 152 mm, were drilled. A total length of nearly 1100 m was drilled at rates ranging from 0.4 m/h to 1 m/h, depending on hole size and drilling equipment. Eighteen 610-mm-diam canister emplacement holes were hammer-drilled at an average rate of 1.4 m/h. The use of the critical path method, integrated contractors, and close cooperation between project participants facilitated completion of the project on schedule

  3. Drilling and well technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milheim, K. [Mining University Leoben Institute for Drilling Technology, (Austria)

    1996-12-31

    Over a billion dollars a year is lost by exploration and production companies drilling wells because of the lack of learn curve management (LMC) practices. This paper presents the importance of the LMC concept, what it is, why LMC has not yet been recognized as a major initiative for improving drilling cost performance. The paper discusses the different types of planning, problems with implementation of plans, the use and misuse of drilling results and data bases, and the lack of post analysis practices. The major point of the paper is to show the massive savings that can be achieved by valuing LMC, learning LMC and successfully implementing LMC. . 2 refs., 5 figs.

  4. Prey selection of a captive Oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegus hammering Mussels Mytilus edulis from the ventral side

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ens, Bruno J.; Alting, D

    1996-01-01

    We studied prey choice of a captive Oystercatcher:hat hammered Mussels from the ventral side. The results replicate previous findings that ventral hammerers select Mussels of intermediate size, select against thick-shelled Mussels, abandon an increasing proportion of Mussels with increasing size and

  5. Improving milling and production of a dust-producing unit equipped with hammer mills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorotnikov, Ye.G.; Nikiforov, A.A.; Rasputin, O.V.; Sukhunin, V.I.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents generalized experience for deriving coarse ground coal dust in hammer mills by providing comparison data on improving efficiency of operation of the unit when switching to a coarser-type grind of the fuel. Need to have more precise formulas to calculate grinding potential of hammer mills when using a coarser grind is shown.

  6. Fluid dynamic interaction between water hammer and centrifugal pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismaier, A.; Schluecker, E.

    2009-01-01

    Centrifugal pumps generate in piping systems noticeable pressure pulsations. In this paper the dynamic interaction between water hammer and pressure pulsations is presented. The experimental investigations were performed at a piping system with nominal diameter DN 100 (respectively NPS 4) and 75 m total length, built at the Institute for Process Technology and Machinery. Different measurements at this testing facility show that pulsating centrifugal pumps can damp pressure surges generated by fast valve closing. It is also shown that 1-dimensional fluid codes can be used to calculate this phenomenon. Furthermore it is presented that pressure surges pass centrifugal pumps almost unhindered, because they are hydraulic open.

  7. Simulation of water hammer phenomena using the system code ATHLET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bratfisch, Christoph; Koch, Marco K. [Bochum Univ. (Germany). Reactor Simulation and Safety Group

    2017-07-15

    Water Hammer Phenomena can endanger the integrity of structures leading to a possible failure of pipes in nuclear power plants as well as in many industrial applications. These phenomena can arise in nuclear power plants in the course of transients and accidents induced by the start-up of auxiliary feed water systems or emergency core cooling systems in combination with rapid acting valves and pumps. To contribute to further development and validation of the code ATHLET (Analysis of Thermalhydraulics of Leaks and Transients), an experiment performed in the test facility Pilot Plant Pipework (PPP) at Fraunhofer UMSICHT is simulated using the code version ATHLET 3.0A.

  8. Vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia induced hydrocephalus: the water-hammer effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaso Zisimopoulou

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia is a clinical entity associated rarely with obstructive hydrocephalus. We present a 48-year old male with a profound dilatation of the ventricular system due to a dolichoectatic basilar artery, as appeared in imaging studies. The patient suffered from longstanding hydrocephalus and presenile dementia. The underlying mechanism for obstructive hydrocephalus due to vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia is considered to be both a water-hammer effect and a direct compression of adjacent structures. We suggest prompt surgical intervention upon diagnosis as a first choice treatment in order to avoid further complications.

  9. Simulation of water hammer phenomena using the system code ATHLET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratfisch, Christoph; Koch, Marco K.

    2017-01-01

    Water Hammer Phenomena can endanger the integrity of structures leading to a possible failure of pipes in nuclear power plants as well as in many industrial applications. These phenomena can arise in nuclear power plants in the course of transients and accidents induced by the start-up of auxiliary feed water systems or emergency core cooling systems in combination with rapid acting valves and pumps. To contribute to further development and validation of the code ATHLET (Analysis of Thermalhydraulics of Leaks and Transients), an experiment performed in the test facility Pilot Plant Pipework (PPP) at Fraunhofer UMSICHT is simulated using the code version ATHLET 3.0A.

  10. Water-hammer experimental set-up and water-hammer experimental study for new types of check valve applied to PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hanxun.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes a self-designed constant temperature water-hammer shock test rig with stainless steel loop in which deionized water is used as working medium. To conduct water-hammer shock simulation tests for the countercurrent phenomenon occurred in the process of shutting, stopping, parallelling and switching the coolant loops of nuclear reactor, a specially designed four-way switching valve and its pneumatic mechanism are used. Water-hammer experimental study is performed for two types of PWR's nonshock check valve with diameter of 150 mm and 200 mm simultaneously. Transient performance of the shock waves, magnitude of their peaks and durations of their fluctuation, is obtained. Some analyses for existing calculational method on water-hammer are made

  11. Humvee Armor Plate Drilling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    When drilling holes in hard steel plate used in up-armor kits for Humvee light trucks, the Anniston Army Depot, Anniston, Alabama, requested the assistance of the National Center for Defense Manufacturing and Machining (NCDMM...

  12. Evaluation of water-hammer experience in nuclear power plants. Technical findings relevant to Unresolved Safety Issue A-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serkiz, A.W.

    1983-05-01

    This report summarizes key technical findings relevant to the Unresolved Safety Issue A-1, Water Hammer. These findings were derived from studies of reported water hammer occurrences and underlying causes and provide key insights into means to minimize or eliminate further water hammer occurrences. It should also be noted that this report does not represent a substitute for current rules and regulations

  13. Evaluation of water hammer occurrence in nuclear power plants: technical findings relevant to unresolved safety issue A-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-03-01

    This report, which includes responses to public comments, summarizes key technical findings relevant to the Unresolved Safety Issue A-1, Water Hammer. These findings were derived from studies of reported water hammer occurrences and underlying causes and provide key insights into means to minimize or eliminate further water hammer occurrences. This report does not represent a substitute for current rules and regulations

  14. Drilling rig mast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulgakov, E.S.; Barashkov, V.A.; Lebedev, A.I.; Panin, N.M.; Sirotkin, N.V.

    1981-01-07

    A drilling rig mast is proposed that contains a portal with a carrier shaft hinged to it and struts with stays. In order to decrease the time expended in the assembly and dessembly of the drilling rig, the portal is constructed from mobile and immobile parts that are connected together by a ball pivot; the immobile section of the portal has a T-shaped recess for directing the mobile section.

  15. Reliability of the input admittance of bowed-string instruments measured by the hammer method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ailin; Woodhouse, Jim

    2014-12-01

    The input admittance at the bridge, measured by hammer testing, is often regarded as the most useful and convenient measurement of the vibrational behavior of a bowed string instrument. However, this method has been questioned, due especially to differences between human bowing and hammer impact. The goal of the research presented here is to investigate the reliability and accuracy of this classic hammer method. Experimental studies were carried out on cellos, with three different driving conditions and three different boundary conditions. Results suggest that there is nothing fundamentally different about the hammer method, compared to other kinds of excitation. The third series of experiments offers an opportunity to explore the difference between the input admittance measuring from one bridge corner to another and that of single strings. The classic measurement is found to give a reasonable approximation to that of all four strings. Some possible differences between the hammer method and normal bowing and implications of the acoustical results are also discussed.

  16. The significance of water hammer events to public dose from reactor accidents: A probabilistic assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amico, P.J.; Ferrell, W.L.; Rubin, M.P.

    1984-01-01

    A probabilistic assessment was made of the effects on public dose of water hammer events in LWRs. The analysis utilized actual historical water hammer data to determine if the water hammer events contributed either to system failure rates or initiating event frequencies. Representative PRAs were used to see if changes in initiating events and/or system failures caused by water hammer resulted in new values for the dominant sequences in the PRAs. New core melt frequencies were determined and carried out to the subsequent increase in public dose. It is concluded that water hammer is not a significant problem with respect to risk to the public for either BWRs or PWRs. (orig./HP)

  17. Well drilling by rotary percussive drill above ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabatier, G.

    1987-01-01

    Originally, the Well Drilling Section of Cogema used only the diamond core drilling technique. The appearance of independent rotation for compressed air rock drills has led to the use and to the development of this drilling system, as a drill core is not indispensable, when the material of the search is radioactive. During the last few years, hydraulic drills have replaced the compressed air drills and have resulted in a very marked improvement: - of the penetration rates; - of the depth achieved. The Well Drilling Section of Cogema has to drill about 400 km per year with rock drills above ground and holds also the record for depth achieved with this technique, i.e. 400 m in granite. In France, the costs of these types of drilling are for the same depth of the order of one-quarter of the core drilling and half of the drilling with a down-the-hole drill. Cogema has greatly developed the types of well logging which now permits the extension of this type of drilling to the search for other materials than uranium [fr

  18. Horizontal drilling under Lake Erie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meller, R.

    2001-07-01

    Drilling oil wells under Lake Erie calls for horizontal drilling wells to be drilled from shore out into the pay-zone under the lake. The nature and characteristics of horizontal wells as compared to vertical wells are explored. Considerations that have to be taken into account in drilling horizontal wells are explained (the degree of curvature, drilling fluid quality, geosteering in the pay-zone, steering instrumentation, measurements while drilling (MWD), logging while drilling (LWD)). The concept and reasons for extended reach wells are outlined, along with characteristic features of multilateral wells.

  19. Modeling pellet impact drilling process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalyov, A. V.; Ryabchikov, S. Ya; Isaev, Ye D.; Ulyanova, O. S.

    2016-03-01

    The paper describes pellet impact drilling which could be used to increase the drilling speed and the rate of penetration when drilling hard rocks. Pellet impact drilling implies rock destruction by metal pellets with high kinetic energy in the immediate vicinity of the earth formation encountered. The pellets are circulated in the bottom hole by a high velocity fluid jet, which is the principle component of the ejector pellet impact drill bit. The experiments conducted has allowed modeling the process of pellet impact drilling, which creates the scientific and methodological basis for engineering design of drilling operations under different geo-technical conditions.

  20. Crosswell Imaging Technology & Advanced DSR Navigation for Horizontal Directional Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry Stolarczyk

    2008-08-08

    The objective of Phase II is to develop and demonstrate real-time measurement-while-drilling (MWD) for guidance and navigation of drill strings during horizontal drilling operations applicable to both short and long holes. The end product of Phase II is a functional drill-string assembly outfitted with a commercial version of Drill String Radar (DSR). Project Objectives Develop and demonstrate a dual-phase methodology of in-seam drilling, imaging, and structure confirmation. This methodology, illustrated in Figure 1, includes: (1) Using RIM to image between drill holes for seam thickness estimates and in-seam structures detection. Completed, February 2005; and (2) Using DSR for real-time MWD guidance and navigation of drillstrings during horizontal drilling operations. Completed, November 2008. As of November 2008, the Phase II portion of Contract DE-FC26-04NT42085 is about 99% complete, including milestones and tasks original outlined as Phase II work. The one percent deficiency results from MSHA-related approvals which have yet to be granted (at the time of reporting). These approvals are pending and are do not negatively impact the scope of work or project objectives.

  1. Testing as a service with HammerCloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llamas, Ramón Medrano; Barrand, Quentin; Sciabà, Andrea; Ster, Daniel van der; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Legger, Federica; Sciacca, Gianfranco

    2014-01-01

    HammerCloud was designed and born under the needs of the grid community to test the resources and automate operations from a user perspective. The recent developments in the IT space propose a shift to the software defined data centres, in which every layer of the infrastructure can be offered as a service. Testing and monitoring is an integral part of the development, validation and operations of big systems, like the grid. This area is not escaping the paradigm shift and we are starting to perceive as natural the Testing as a Service (TaaS) offerings, which allow testing any infrastructure service, such as the Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) platforms being deployed in many grid sites, both from the functional and stressing perspectives. This work will review the recent developments in HammerCloud and its evolution to a TaaS conception, in particular its deployment on the Agile Infrastructure platform at CERN and the testing of many IaaS providers across Europe in the context of experiment requirements. The first section will review the architectural changes that a service running in the cloud needs, such an orchestration service or new storage requirements in order to provide functional and stress testing. The second section will review the first tests of infrastructure providers on the perspective of the challenges discovered from the architectural point of view. Finally, the third section will evaluate future requirements of scalability and features to increase testing productivity.

  2. Testing as a Service with HammerCloud

    CERN Document Server

    Medrano Llamas, Ramón; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Legger, Federica; Sciacca, Gianfranco; Sciabà, Andrea; van der Ster, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    HammerCloud was designed and born under the needs of the grid community to test the resources and automate operations from a user perspective. The recent developments in the IT space propose a shift to the software defined data centres, in which every layer of the infrastructure can be offered as a service. Testing and monitoring is an integral part of the development, validation and operations of big systems, like the grid. This area is not escaping the paradigm shift and we are starting to perceive as natural the Testing as a Service (TaaS) offerings, which allow testing any infrastructure service, such as the Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) platforms being deployed in many grid sites, both from the functional and stressing perspectives. This work will review the recent developments in HammerCloud and its evolution to a TaaS conception, in particular its deployment on the Agile Infrastructure platform at CERN and the testing of many IaaS providers across Europe in the context of experiment requirements....

  3. Water hammer reduces fouling during natural water ultrafiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broens, F; Menne, D; Pothof, I; Blankert, B; Roesink, H D W; Futselaar, H; Lammertink, R G H; Wessling, M

    2012-03-15

    Today's ultrafiltration processes use permeate flow reversal to remove fouling deposits on the feed side of ultrafiltration membranes. We report an as effective method: the opening and rapid closing of a valve on the permeate side of an ultrafiltration module. The sudden valve closure generates pressure fluctuations due to fluid inertia and is commonly known as "water hammer". Surface water was filtrated in hollow fiber ultrafiltration membranes with a small (5%) crossflow. Filtration experiments above sustainable flux levels (>125 l (m2h)(-1)) show that a periodic closure of a valve on the permeate side improves filtration performance as a consequence of reduced fouling. It was shown that this effect depends on flux and actuation frequency of the valve. The time period that the valve was closed proved to have no effect on filtration performance. The pressure fluctuations generated by the sudden stop in fluid motion due to the valve closure are responsible for the effect of fouling reduction. High frequency recording of the dynamic pressure evolution shows water hammer related pressure fluctuations to occur in the order of 0.1 bar. The pressure fluctuations were higher at higher fluxes (higher velocities) which is in agreement with the theory. They were also more effective at higher fluxes with respect to fouling mitigation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Qualification of the new version of HAMMER computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chia, C.T.

    1984-06-01

    (HTEC) code were tested with a great number of diferent type of experiments. This experiments covers the most important parameters in neutronic calculations, such as the cell geometry and composition. The HTEC code results have been analysed and compared with experimental data and results given by the literature and simulated by HAMMER and LEOPARD codes. The quantities used for analysis were Keff and the following integral parameters: R28 - ratio of epicadmium-to-subcadmium 238 U captures; D25 - ratio of epicadmium-to-subcadmium 235 U fission; D28 - ratio of 238 U fissions to 235 U fissions; C - ratio of 238 U captures to 235 U fissions; RC02 - ratio of epicadmium-to-subcadmium 232 Th capture. The analysis shows that the results given by the code are in good agreement with the experimental data and the results given by the other codes. The calculation that have been done with the detailed ressonance profile tabulations of plutonium isotopes shows worst results than that obtained with the ressonance parameters. Almost all the simulated cases, shows that the HTEC results are closest to the experimental data than the HAMMER results, when one do not use the detailed ressonance profile tabulations of the plutonium isotopes. (Author) [pt

  5. HYDRATE CORE DRILLING TESTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John H. Cohen; Thomas E. Williams; Ali G. Kadaster; Bill V. Liddell

    2002-11-01

    The ''Methane Hydrate Production from Alaskan Permafrost'' project is a three-year endeavor being conducted by Maurer Technology Inc. (MTI), Noble, and Anadarko Petroleum, in partnership with the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The project's goal is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition. The project team plans to design and implement a program to safely and economically drill, core and produce gas from arctic hydrates. The current work scope includes drilling and coring one well on Anadarko leases in FY 2003 during the winter drilling season. A specially built on-site core analysis laboratory will be used to determine some of the physical characteristics of the hydrates and surrounding rock. Prior to going to the field, the project team designed and conducted a controlled series of coring tests for simulating coring of hydrate formations. A variety of equipment and procedures were tested and modified to develop a practical solution for this special application. This Topical Report summarizes these coring tests. A special facility was designed and installed at MTI's Drilling Research Center (DRC) in Houston and used to conduct coring tests. Equipment and procedures were tested by cutting cores from frozen mixtures of sand and water supported by casing and designed to simulate hydrate formations. Tests were conducted with chilled drilling fluids. Tests showed that frozen core can be washed out and reduced in size by the action of the drilling fluid. Washing of the core by the drilling fluid caused a reduction in core diameter, making core recovery very difficult (if not impossible). One successful solution was to drill the last 6 inches of core dry (without fluid circulation). These tests demonstrated that it will be difficult to capture core when drilling in permafrost or hydrates without implementing certain safeguards. Among the coring tests was a simulated hydrate

  6. Optimal Force Control of Vibro-Impact Systems for Autonomous Drilling Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrich, Jack B.; Okon, Avi B.

    2012-01-01

    The need to maintain optimal energy efficiency is critical during the drilling operations performed on future and current planetary rover missions (see figure). Specifically, this innovation seeks to solve the following problem. Given a spring-loaded percussive drill driven by a voice-coil motor, one needs to determine the optimal input voltage waveform (periodic function) and the optimal hammering period that minimizes the dissipated energy, while ensuring that the hammer-to-rock impacts are made with sufficient (user-defined) impact velocity (or impact energy). To solve this problem, it was first observed that when voice-coil-actuated percussive drills are driven at high power, it is of paramount importance to ensure that the electrical current of the device remains in phase with the velocity of the hammer. Otherwise, negative work is performed and the drill experiences a loss of performance (i.e., reduced impact energy) and an increase in Joule heating (i.e., reduction in energy efficiency). This observation has motivated many drilling products to incorporate the standard bang-bang control approach for driving their percussive drills. However, the bang-bang control approach is significantly less efficient than the optimal energy-efficient control approach solved herein. To obtain this solution, the standard tools of classical optimal control theory were applied. It is worth noting that these tools inherently require the solution of a two-point boundary value problem (TPBVP), i.e., a system of differential equations where half the equations have unknown boundary conditions. Typically, the TPBVP is impossible to solve analytically for high-dimensional dynamic systems. However, for the case of the spring-loaded vibro-impactor, this approach yields the exact optimal control solution as the sum of four analytic functions whose coefficients are determined using a simple, easy-to-implement algorithm. Once the optimal control waveform is determined, it can be used

  7. Evacuation drill at CMS

    CERN Multimedia

    Niels Dupont-Sagorin and Christoph Schaefer

    2012-01-01

    Training personnel, including evacuation guides and shifters, checking procedures, improving collaboration with the CERN Fire Brigade: the first real-life evacuation drill at CMS took place on Friday 3 February from 12p.m. to 3p.m. in the two caverns located at Point 5 of the LHC.   CERN personnel during the evacuation drill at CMS. Evacuation drills are required by law and have to be organized periodically in all areas of CERN, both above and below ground. The last drill at CMS, which took place in June 2007, revealed some desiderata, most notably the need for a public address system. With this equipment in place, it is now possible to broadcast audio messages from the CMS control room to the underground areas.   The CMS Technical Coordination Team and the GLIMOS have focused particularly on preparing collaborators for emergency situations by providing training and organizing regular safety drills with the HSE Unit and the CERN Fire Brigade. This Friday, the practical traini...

  8. Load and wear experiments on the impact hammer of a vertical shaft impact crusher

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, J H; Fang, H Y; Luo, M

    2015-01-01

    Impact hammers are important components of impact crushers, and are often shortlived due to the high-impact nature of their use. Wear-resistant alloys are welded to the surface of impact hammers to prolong their service life. In this paper, a simulation model of the rotor and impact hammers in impact crushers was designed to utilize the Discrete Element Method (DEM). The wear-resistant alloy on each impact hammer was divided into twenty-two action regions. The load distribution on each alloy block is affected by the structural and manufacturing parameters of the impact crusher. The wear distribution of the impact hammer was measured by shape morphology according to relative impact crushers. The results demonstrated that the real measurements of wear distribution on the impact hammer were similar to simulated load distribution measurements on the same surface. The study of load distribution of impact hammers by DEM established a theoretical foundation on which to base the optimal design of impact crushers. (paper)

  9. Factors analysis of water hammer in FLOWMASTER for main feedwater systems of PWR nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xin; Han Weishi

    2010-01-01

    The main feedwater system of a nuclear power plant (NPP) is an important part in ensuring the cooling of a steam generator. It is the main pipe section where water hammers frequently occur. Studying the regulator patterns of water hammers in the main feedwater systems is significant to the stable operation of the system. This article focuses on a parametric study to avoid the consequences of water hammer effect in PWR by employing a general purpose fluid dynamic simulation software-FLOWMASTER. Through FLOWMASTER's transient calculating functions, a mathematical model is established with boundary conditions such as feedwater pumps, control valves, etc., calculations of water hammer pressure when feedwater pumps and control valves shut down, and simulations during instantaneous changes in water hammer pressure. Combining a plethora of engineering practical examples, this research verified the viability of calculating water hammer pressure through FLOWMASTER's transient functions and we found out that, increasing the periods of closure of control valves and feedwater pumps control water hammers effectively. We also found out that changing the intervals of closing signals to feedwater pumps and control valves aid to relieve hydraulic impact. This could be a guideline for practical engineering design and system optimization. (author)

  10. Mars Drilling Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandell, Humboldt, C., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the current status of work to explore Mars beneath the surface of planet. One of the objective of this work is to enable further exploration of Mars by humans. One of the requirements for this is to find water on Mars. The presences of water is critical for Human Exploration and a permanent presence on Mars. If water is present beneath the surface it is the best chance of finding life on Mars. The presentation includes a timeline showing the robotic missions, those that have already been on Mars, and planned missions, an explanation of why do we want to drill on Mars, and some of the challenges, Also include are reviews of a missions that would drill 200 and 4,000 to 6,000 meters into the Martian bedrock, and a overview description of the drill. There is a view of some places where we have hopes of finding water.

  11. Advanced Seismic While Drilling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Radtke; John Fontenot; David Glowka; Robert Stokes; Jeffery Sutherland; Ron Evans; Jim Musser

    2008-06-30

    A breakthrough has been discovered for controlling seismic sources to generate selectable low frequencies. Conventional seismic sources, including sparkers, rotary mechanical, hydraulic, air guns, and explosives, by their very nature produce high-frequencies. This is counter to the need for long signal transmission through rock. The patent pending SeismicPULSER{trademark} methodology has been developed for controlling otherwise high-frequency seismic sources to generate selectable low-frequency peak spectra applicable to many seismic applications. Specifically, we have demonstrated the application of a low-frequency sparker source which can be incorporated into a drill bit for Drill Bit Seismic While Drilling (SWD). To create the methodology of a controllable low-frequency sparker seismic source, it was necessary to learn how to maximize sparker efficiencies to couple to, and transmit through, rock with the study of sparker designs and mechanisms for (a) coupling the sparker-generated gas bubble expansion and contraction to the rock, (b) the effects of fluid properties and dynamics, (c) linear and non-linear acoustics, and (d) imparted force directionality. After extensive seismic modeling, the design of high-efficiency sparkers, laboratory high frequency sparker testing, and field tests were performed at the University of Texas Devine seismic test site. The conclusion of the field test was that extremely high power levels would be required to have the range required for deep, 15,000+ ft, high-temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) wells. Thereafter, more modeling and laboratory testing led to the discovery of a method to control a sparker that could generate low frequencies required for deep wells. The low frequency sparker was successfully tested at the Department of Energy Rocky Mountain Oilfield Test Center (DOE RMOTC) field test site in Casper, Wyoming. An 8-in diameter by 26-ft long SeismicPULSER{trademark} drill string tool was designed and manufactured by TII

  12. Ultrasonically assisted drilling of rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailova, N. V.; Onawumi, P. Y.; Roy, A.; Silberschmidt, V. V.

    2018-05-01

    Conventional drilling of rocks can generate significant damage in the drilled material; a material layer is often split off a back surface of a sample during drilling, negatively affecting its strength. To improve finish quality, ultrasonically assisted drilling (UAD) was employed in two rocks - sandstone and marble. Damage areas in both materials were reduced in UAD when compared to conventional drilling. Reductions in a thrust force and a torque reduction were observed only for UAD in marble; ultrasonic assistance in sandstone drilling did not result in improvements in this regard.

  13. Rotary core drills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1967-11-30

    The design of a rotary core drill is described. Primary consideration is given to the following component parts of the drill: the inner and outer tube, the core bit, an adapter, and the core lifter. The adapter has the form of a downward-converging sleeve and is mounted to the lower end of the inner tube. The lifter, extending from the adapter, is split along each side so that it can be held open to permit movement of a core. It is possible to grip a core by allowing the lifter to assume a closed position.

  14. Analysis of water hammer phenomena in RBMK-1500 reactor main circulation circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaliatka, A.; Uspuras, E.; Vaisnoras, M.

    2006-01-01

    Water hammer can occur in any thermal-hydraulic systems. Water hammer can reach pressure levels far exceeding the pressure range of a pipe given by the manufacturer, and it can lead to the failure of the pipeline integrity. In the past three decades, since a large number of water hammer events occurred in the light-water- reactor power plants, a number of comprehensive studies on the phenomena associated with water hammer events have been performed. There are three basic types of severe water hammer occurring at power plants that can result in significant plant damage: rapid valve operation events; void-induced water hammer; condensation-induced water hammer. Correct prediction of water hammer transients, is therefore of paramount importance for the safe operation of the plant. Therefore verifying of computer codes capability to simulate water hammer type transients is very important issue at performing of safety analyses for nuclear power plants. Verification of RELAP5/MOD3.3 code capability to simulate water hammer type transients employing the experimental investigations is presented. Experience gained from benchmarking analyses has been used at development of the detail RELAP5 code RBMK-1500 model for simulation of water hammer effects in reactor main circulation circuit. Analysis of reactor cooling system shows, that water hammers can occur in main circulation circuit of RBMK-1500 reactor in cases of: (1) Guillotine break of the inlet piping upstream of the Group Distribution Header and (2) Guillotine break of the pressure piping upstream the Main Circulation Pump check valve. Analysis of above mentioned accident scenarios is presented in this paper. First scenario of the accident potentially is more dangerous, because the pressure pulses influence not only the reactor cooling circuit, but also the piping of safety related system (Emergency Core Cooling System pipeline) connected to affected Group Distribution Header. The performed analysis using RELAP5 code

  15. Study of effect of in-line hydropneumatic accumulators on output characteristics of hydraulic hammer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redelin, R. A.; Kravchenko, V. A.; Kamanin, Y. N.; Panichkin, A. V.; Bozhanov, A. A.

    2017-10-01

    The article presents the results of studies of the effect of in-line hydropneumatic accumulators on the output parameters of a hydraulic hammer during their joint operation. Based on mathematical modeling, computational experiments were performed and the output characteristics of the hammer, depending on the design and operating parameters of the in-line hydropneumatic accumulators, were obtained. It was established that for the most effective operation of the hammer, the precharge pressure of the pressure line hydropneumatic accumulator should be 70-80% of the working pressure of the hydraulic system. The utilization of a hydropneumatic accumulator without special additional devices in the discharge line is impractical.

  16. Prevention and mitigation of steam-generator water-hammer events in PWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, J.T.; Anderson, N.

    1982-11-01

    Water hammer in nuclear power plants is an unresolved safety issue under study at the NRC (USI A-1). One of the identified safety concerns is steam generator water hammer (SGWH) in pressurized-water reactor (PWR) plants. This report presents a summary of: (1) the causes of SGWH; (2) various fixes employed to prevent or mitigate SGWH; and (3) the nature and status of modifications that have been made at each operating PWR plant. The NRC staff considers that the issue of SGWH in top feedring designs has been technically resolved. This report does not address technical findings relevant to water hammer in preheat type steam generators. 10 figures, 2 tables

  17. Method to study water hammer with fluid-structure interaction in spatial pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi Zhide; Ma Jianzhong; Sun Lei

    2013-01-01

    The theory of coupling 4-function models and its solution approach are first introduced in this paper, and the method of CFD to calculate fluid-structure interaction is also introduced. Finally, the model in related reference is applied with this method to simulate the process of water hammer. By CFD calculation for the classical water hammer, the numerical scheme and grid are selected, and the results of CFD are compared with reference. The results show that the method in this paper can be used in more complex pipe system to simulate the water hammer effect. (authors)

  18. Prevention and mitigation of steam generator water hammer events in PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, J.T.; Anderson, N.

    1983-01-01

    Water hammer in nuclear power plants is an unresolved safety issue under study by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This article summarizes (1) the causes of steam generator water hammer (SGWH) events in pressurized-water reactors (PWRs), (2) various methods used to prevent or mitigate SGWH events, and (3) modifications that have been made at each operating PWR. The NRC staff considers the issue of SGWH in top feedring designs to be technically resolved. This article does not address technical findings relevant to water hammer in preheat-type steam generators

  19. Influence of fluiddynamic parameters upon fluid-hammer forces and spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meder, G.; Grams, J.

    1984-01-01

    For proper dynamic calculation of piping systems under fluid-hammer loading it is necessary to know the frequency content of the fluid-hammer force. Therefore, in this paper, the spectra of fluid-hammer loading will be examined. In particular, the influence of a change of fluiddynamic parameters upon the spectra will be investigated. When changes are made, the normal result is a change or shift in the frequency content of the spectra. However, for changes in certain fluiddynamic parameters, only the force amplitudes are changed. Both types of changes will be discussed. (orig.)

  20. Drilling comparison in "warm ice" and drill design comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augustin, L.; Motoyama, H.; Wilhelms, F.

    2007-01-01

    For the deep ice-core drilling community, the 2005/06 Antarctic season was an exciting and fruitful one. In three different Antarctic locations, Dome Fuji, EPICA DML and Vostok, deep drillings approached bedrock (the ice-water interface in the case of Vostok), emulating what had previously been...... achieved at NorthGRIP, Greenland, (summer 2003 and 2004) and at EPICA Dome C2, Antarctica (season 2004/05). For the first time in ice-core drilling history, three different types of drill (KEMS, JARE and EPICA) simultaneously reached the depth of 'warm ice' under high pressure. After excellent progress...... at each site, the drilling rate dropped and the drilling teams had to deal with refrozen ice on cutters and drill heads. Drills have different limits and perform differently. In this comparative study, we examine depth, pressure, temperature, pump flow and cutting speed. Finally, we compare a few...

  1. Development of a system of programs HAMMER - ORIGEN - 2 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, L.N.F.

    1984-07-01

    The development of a system of programs (Hamor-2) to calculate precision inventory of LWR reactors is presented. The Hamor-2 code generates with the Hammer-technion code the four (4) energy groupe effective cross section of the actinides: U-235, U-236, U-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, Pu-242. Hamor-2 collapses the four group energy effective cross section to one group energy effective cross section. Hamor-2 calculates with origen-2 the new concentrations for the actinides using the one group energy effective cross section. Two PWR reactors were analised. (HBR, KWO). The discrepancy between the final actinides conentration results calculated by Hamor-2 and the results of measures finded in the references were calculated. That discrepancies have been compared with the discrepancy between : the final actinide concentration results calculated by Origen-2 and some measured results finded in the references. (E.G.) [pt

  2. Computation of water hammer protection of modernized pumping station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himr, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    Pumping station supplies water for irrigation. Maximal capacity 2 × 1.2m3·s-1 became insufficient, thus it was upgraded to 2 × 2m3·s-1. Paper is focused on design of protection against water hammer in case of sudden pumps trip. Numerical simulation of the most dangerous case (when pumps are giving the maximal flow rate) showed that existing air vessels were not able to protect the system and it would be necessary to add new vessels. Special care was paid to influence of their connection to the main pipeline, because the resistance of the connection has a significant impact on the scale of pressure pulsations. Finally, the pump trip was performed to verify if the system worked correctly. The test showed that pressure pulsations are lower (better) than computation predicted. This discrepancy was further analysed.

  3. Improved ATLAS HammerCloud Monitoring for local Site Administration

    CERN Document Server

    Boehler, Michael; The ATLAS collaboration; Hoenig, Friedrich; Legger, Federica; Sciacca, Francesco Giovanni; Mancinelli, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Every day hundreds of tests are run on the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid for the ATLAS, and CMS experiments in order to evaluate the performance and reliability of the different computing sites. All this activity is steered, controlled, and monitored by the HammerCloud testing infrastructure. Sites with failing functionality tests are auto-excluded from the ATLAS computing grid, therefore it is essential to provide a detailed and well organized web interface for the local site administrators such that they can easily spot and promptly solve site issues. Additional functionality has been developed to extract and visualize the most relevant information. The site administrators can now be pointed easily to major site issues which lead to site blacklisting as well as possible minor issues that are usually not conspicuous enough to warrant the blacklisting of a specific site, but can still cause undesired effects such as a non-negligible job failure rate. This paper summarizes the different developments and optimiz...

  4. Improved ATLAS HammerCloud Monitoring for local Site Administration

    CERN Document Server

    Boehler, Michael; The ATLAS collaboration; Hoenig, Friedrich; Legger, Federica

    2015-01-01

    Every day hundreds of tests are run on the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid for the ATLAS, CMS, and LHCb experiments in order to evaluate the performance and reliability of the different computing sites. All this activity is steered, controlled, and monitored by the HammerCloud testing infrastructure. Sites with failing functionality tests are auto-excluded from the ATLAS computing grid, therefore it is essential to provide a detailed and well organized web interface for the local site administrators such that they can easily spot and promptly solve site issues. Additional functionalities have been developed to extract and visualize the most relevant information. The site administrators can now be pointed easily to major site issues which lead to site blacklisting as well as possible minor issues that are usually not conspicuous enough to warrant the blacklisting of a specific site, but can still cause undesired effects such as a non-negligible job failure rate. This contribution summarizes the different developm...

  5. Steam condensation induced water hammer simulations for different pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barna, I.F.; Ezsol, G.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate steam condensation induced water hammer (CIWH) phenomena and present theoretical results for different kind of pipelines. We analyze the process with the WAHA3 model based on two-phase flow six first-order partial differential equations that present one dimensional, surface averaged mass, momentum and energy balances. A second order accurate high-resolution shock-capturing numerical scheme was applied with different kind of limiters in the numerical calculations. At first, we present calculations for various pipelines in the VVER-440-312 type nuclear reactor. Our recent calculation clearly shows that the six conditions of Griffith are only necessary conditions for CIWH but not sufficient. As second results we performed calculations for various geometries and compare with the theory of Chun. (author)

  6. Water hammer caused by closure of turbine safety spherical valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadžić, U.; Bergant, A.; Vukoslavčević, P.

    2010-08-01

    This paper investigates water hammer effects caused by closure of spherical valves against the discharge. During the first phase of modernisation of Perućica high-head hydropower plant (HPP), Montenegro, safety spherical valves (inlet turbine valves) have been refurbished on the first two Pelton turbine units. The valve closure is controlled by the valve actuator (hydraulic servomotor). Because the torque acting on the valve body is dependent on flow conditions the valve closing time may vary significantly for different flow velocities (passive valve). For the passive valve the torques acting on the valve body should be considered in the valve model. The valve closing time results from numerical simulation. On the contrary, for the active valve the valve closing time is assumed prior to simulation. The spherical valve boundary condition is incorporated into the method of characteristics (MOC) algorithm. The staggered (diamond) grid in applying the MOC is used in this paper. The passive valve boundary condition is described by the water hammer equations, the valve equation that relates discharge to pressure head drop and the dynamic equation of the valve body motion (torque equation). The active valve boundary condition is described by the first two equations, respectively. Standard quasi-steady friction model is used for estimating friction losses in plant's tunnel and penstocks. Numerical results using both the active and the passive spherical valve models are compared with results of measurements. It has been found that the influence of flow conditions on the spherical valve closing time is minor for the cases considered. Computed and measured results agree reasonably well.

  7. Water hammer caused by closure of turbine safety spherical valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karadzic, U; Vukoslavcevic, P; Bergant, A

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates water hammer effects caused by closure of spherical valves against the discharge. During the first phase of modernisation of Perucica high-head hydropower plant (HPP), Montenegro, safety spherical valves (inlet turbine valves) have been refurbished on the first two Pelton turbine units. The valve closure is controlled by the valve actuator (hydraulic servomotor). Because the torque acting on the valve body is dependent on flow conditions the valve closing time may vary significantly for different flow velocities (passive valve). For the passive valve the torques acting on the valve body should be considered in the valve model. The valve closing time results from numerical simulation. On the contrary, for the active valve the valve closing time is assumed prior to simulation. The spherical valve boundary condition is incorporated into the method of characteristics (MOC) algorithm. The staggered (diamond) grid in applying the MOC is used in this paper. The passive valve boundary condition is described by the water hammer equations, the valve equation that relates discharge to pressure head drop and the dynamic equation of the valve body motion (torque equation). The active valve boundary condition is described by the first two equations, respectively. Standard quasi-steady friction model is used for estimating friction losses in plant's tunnel and penstocks. Numerical results using both the active and the passive spherical valve models are compared with results of measurements. It has been found that the influence of flow conditions on the spherical valve closing time is minor for the cases considered. Computed and measured results agree reasonably well.

  8. Water hammer caused by closure of turbine safety spherical valves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karadzic, U; Vukoslavcevic, P [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Montenegro Dzordza Vasingtona nn, Podgorica, 81000 (Montenegro); Bergant, A, E-mail: uros.karadzic@ac.m [LitostrojPower d.o.o., Litostrojska 50, Ljubljana, 1000 (Slovenia)

    2010-08-15

    This paper investigates water hammer effects caused by closure of spherical valves against the discharge. During the first phase of modernisation of Perucica high-head hydropower plant (HPP), Montenegro, safety spherical valves (inlet turbine valves) have been refurbished on the first two Pelton turbine units. The valve closure is controlled by the valve actuator (hydraulic servomotor). Because the torque acting on the valve body is dependent on flow conditions the valve closing time may vary significantly for different flow velocities (passive valve). For the passive valve the torques acting on the valve body should be considered in the valve model. The valve closing time results from numerical simulation. On the contrary, for the active valve the valve closing time is assumed prior to simulation. The spherical valve boundary condition is incorporated into the method of characteristics (MOC) algorithm. The staggered (diamond) grid in applying the MOC is used in this paper. The passive valve boundary condition is described by the water hammer equations, the valve equation that relates discharge to pressure head drop and the dynamic equation of the valve body motion (torque equation). The active valve boundary condition is described by the first two equations, respectively. Standard quasi-steady friction model is used for estimating friction losses in plant's tunnel and penstocks. Numerical results using both the active and the passive spherical valve models are compared with results of measurements. It has been found that the influence of flow conditions on the spherical valve closing time is minor for the cases considered. Computed and measured results agree reasonably well.

  9. Hypothenar hammer syndrome: long-term results of vascular reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endress, Ryan D; Johnson, Craig H; Bishop, Allen T; Shin, Alexander Y

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate long-term patency rates and related outcomes after vascular reconstruction of hypothenar hammer syndrome and identify patient- or treatment-related factors that may contribute to differences in outcome. We used color flow ultrasound to determine the patency of 18 vein graft reconstructions of the ulnar artery at the wrist in 16 patients. Validated questionnaires evaluated patients' functional disability with the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand score, pain with the visual analog scale, and cold intolerance with the Cold Intolerance Symptom Severity survey. Patient demographics, clinical data, and surgical factors were analyzed for association with graft failure. Patients were asked to grade the result of treatment on a scale of 0 to 10. Of 18 grafts, 14 (78%) were occluded at a mean of 118 months postoperatively. Patients with patent grafts had significantly less disability related to cold intolerance according to the Cold Intolerance Symptom Severity survey in addition to significantly less pain on the visual analog scale. There was no statistical difference in Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand scores between patients with patent or occluded grafts. Patients graded the result significantly higher in patent reconstructions. We noted a higher incidence of graft occlusion than previously reported at a mean follow-up of 9.8 years, which represents a long-duration follow-up study of surgical treatment of hypothenar hammer syndrome. Despite a high percentage of occlusion, overall, patients remained satisfied with low functional disability and all would recommend surgical reconstruction. This study suggests that improved outcomes may result from patent grafts in the long term. Prognostic IV. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Follow-up of hearing thresholds among forge hammering workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamal, A.A.; Mikael, R.A.; Faris, R. (Ain Shams Univ., Abbasia, Cairo (Egypt))

    1989-01-01

    Hearing threshold was reexamined in a group of forge hammering workers investigated 8 years ago with consideration of the age effect and of auditory symptoms. Workers were exposed to impact noise that ranged from 112 to 139 dB(A)--at an irregular rate of 20 to 50 drop/minute--and a continuous background noise that ranged from 90 to 94 dB(A). Similar to what was observed 8 years ago, the present permanent threshold shift (PTS) showed a maximum notch at the frequency of 6 kHz and considerable elevations at the frequencies of 0.25-1 kHz. The age-corrected PTS and the postexposure hearing threshold were significantly higher than the corresponding previous values at the frequencies 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 8 kHz only. The rise was more evident at the low than at the high frequencies. Temporary threshold shift (TTS) values were significantly less than those 8 years ago. Contrary to the previous TTS, the present TTS were higher at low than at high frequencies. Although progression of PTS at the frequencies 0.25 and 0.5 kHz was continuous throughout the observed durations of exposure, progression at higher frequencies occurred essentially in the first 10 to 15 years of exposure. Thereafter, it followed a much slower rate. Tinnitus was significantly associated with difficulty in hearing the human voice and with elevation of PTS at all the tested frequencies, while acoustic after-image was significantly associated with increment of PTS at the frequencies 0.25-2 kHz. No relation between PTS and smoking was found. PTS at low frequencies may provide an indication of progression of hearing damage when the sensitivity at 6 and 4 kHz diminishes after prolonged years of exposure. Tinnitus and acoustic after-image are related to the auditory effect of forge hammering noise.

  11. Drill Sergeant Candidate Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    leadership styles of NCOs entering Drill Sergeant School (DSS). ARI also developed and administered a prototype DS Assessment Battery to assess...preferred leadership styles . DSS training increases both the degree to which the DSC feels obligated to and identifies with the Army. DSS training...4 TABLE 3. PREFERRED LEADERSHIP STYLES DEFINITIONS .............................................6 TABLE 4. DSC CHANGE IN

  12. Measurement Space Drill Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-30

    II) H-47 Block II (I) *H-47 Block II (II) AVN FVL Att (I) * AVN FVL Att (II) TRAC- MTRY F2025B Logistic Flow MS Drill Support FY15 Research...does not have to use other AVN /ground assets to cover the area, freeing these assets to perform other missions and potentially enhancing the

  13. A different challenge: the directional drilled crossing for the Yacuiba - Rio Grande Gas Line Project - GASYRG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Wayne; Garcia, Francisco [Bolinter Ltda., Santa Cruz (Bolivia); Montano, Ruben [Transierra, Santa Cruz (Bolivia)

    2003-07-01

    The Rio Grande River's directional drilling, 2002 m. long and 25 m. deep was a great challenge for Transierra - Owner - as well as Laney - Bolinter - Contractor - to accomplish a feat yet to be done in the entire world. The dedication of the people involved showed their degree of professionalism that these companies have obtained and the determination in doing the job overcoming unforeseen obstacles and still being able to finish on time, mitigating environmental impacts and leaving a first class crossing. This document presents a description of the technical, logistic and construction factors that were involved in the project and which allowed to perform 7 directional drillings, including Rio Grande River, which during the pull got the last 60 m. of pipe stuck, being freed only after using a pneumatic hammer. (author)

  14. Mathematical Methodology for New Modeling of Water Hammer in Emergency Core Cooling System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seungchan; Yoon, Dukjoo; Ha, Sangjun

    2013-01-01

    In engineering insight, the water hammer study has carried out through the experimental work and the fluid mechanics. In this study, a new access methodology is introduced by Newton mechanics and a mathematical method. Also, NRC Generic Letter 2008-01 requires nuclear power plant operators to evaluate the effect of water-hammer for the protection of pipes of the Emergency Core Cooling System, which is related to the Residual Heat Removal System and the Containment Spray System. This paper includes modeling, the processes of derivation of the mathematical equations and the comparison with other experimental work. To analyze the effect of water-hammer, this mathematical methodology is carried out. This study is in good agreement with other experiment results as above. This method is very efficient to explain the water-hammer phenomena

  15. Systematic methodology for diagnosis of water hammer in LWR power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safwat, H.H.; Arastu, A.H.; Husaini, S.M.

    1990-01-01

    The paper gives the dimensions of the knowledge base that is necessary to carry out a diagnosis of water hammer susceptibility/root cause analyses for Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) and Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) nuclear power plant systems. After introducing some fundamentals, water hammer phenomena are described. Situations where each phenomenon is encountered are given and analytical models capable of simulating the phenomena are referenced. Water hammer events in operating plants and their inclusion in the knowledge base is discussed. The diagnostic methodology is presented through an application on a system in a typical light water reactor plant. The methodology presented serves as a possible foundation for the creation of an expert water hammer diagnosis system. (orig.)

  16. An analysis on water hammer in liquid injection shutdown system of CANDU-9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, T. H.; Heo, J.; Han, S. K.; Choi, H. Y.; No, T. S.

    2000-01-01

    The water hammer analysis code, PTRAN, is used for computation of transient pressures and pressure differentials in the Liquid Injection Shutdown System(LISS) piping network of CANDU-9 to ensure that the design allowables for LEVEL C Service Limit are met for the water hammer loads resulting from the water hammer. The LISS piping network of CANDU-9 has incorporated design improvement in considering the water hammer, such as declining the horizontal part of helium header, and raising the elevation of the overall system piping configuration, etc. The maximum pressure in the LISS piping network is found to be 7.92 MPa(a) at the closed valve in the vent line, which is below the allowable working pressure and the valve design pressure under Level C service conditions. And it is also shown that the maximum pressure in CANDU-9 is much lower than that in CANDU-6

  17. Water hammer experiences in the startup and early operation of the Shearon Harris plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casada, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    During the course of preoperational testing and early operation of the Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, several water hammer events have occurred. A description of the events and corrective/preventive measures taken are discussed

  18. Koolitamine : andmisrõõm või edevus? / Ants Vasar, Arne Kaasik, Hele Hammer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vasar, Ants

    2007-01-01

    Küsimusele, miks olete hakanud ettevõtjana koolitajaks, vastavad ASi Viru Keskus juhatuse liige Ants Vasar, Columbus IT Partner Eesti ASi pertner ja nõukogu esimees Arne Kaasik ja Amserv Grupi finantsdirektor Hele Hammer

  19. Effects of air vessel on water hammer in high-head pumping station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L; Wang, F J; Zou, Z C; Li, X N; Zhang, J C

    2013-01-01

    Effects of air vessel on water hammer process in a pumping station with high-head were analyzed by using the characteristics method. The results show that the air vessel volume is the key parameter that determines the protective effect on water hammer pressure. The maximum pressure in the system declines with increasing air vessel volume. For a fixed volume of air vessel, the shape of air vessel and mounting style, such as horizontal or vertical mounting, have little effect on the water hammer. In order to obtain good protection effects, the position of air vessel should be close to the outlet of the pump. Generally, once the volume of air vessel is guaranteed, the water hammer of a entire pipeline is effectively controlled

  20. Effects of air vessel on water hammer in high-head pumping station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; Wang, F. J.; Zou, Z. C.; Li, X. N.; Zhang, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    Effects of air vessel on water hammer process in a pumping station with high-head were analyzed by using the characteristics method. The results show that the air vessel volume is the key parameter that determines the protective effect on water hammer pressure. The maximum pressure in the system declines with increasing air vessel volume. For a fixed volume of air vessel, the shape of air vessel and mounting style, such as horizontal or vertical mounting, have little effect on the water hammer. In order to obtain good protection effects, the position of air vessel should be close to the outlet of the pump. Generally, once the volume of air vessel is guaranteed, the water hammer of a entire pipeline is effectively controlled.

  1. Compilation of data concerning know and suspected water hammer events in nuclear power plants, CY 1969

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, R.L.; Christensen, D.D.; Dafoe, R.E.; Hanner, O.M.; Wells, M.E.

    1981-05-01

    This report compiles data concerning known and suspected water hammer events reported by BWR and PWR power plants in the United States from January 1, 1969, to May 1, 1981. This information is summarized for each event and is tabulated for all events by plant, plant type, year of occurrence, type of water hammer, system affected, basis/cause for the event, and damage incurred. Information is also included from other events not specifically identified as water hammer related. These other events involved vibration and/or system components similar to those involved in the water hammer events. The other events are included to ensure completeness of the report, but are not used to point out particular facts or trends. This report does not evaluate findings abstracted from the data

  2. Mathematical Methodology for New Modeling of Water Hammer in Emergency Core Cooling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seungchan; Yoon, Dukjoo; Ha, Sangjun [Korea Hydro Nuclear Power Co. Ltd, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    In engineering insight, the water hammer study has carried out through the experimental work and the fluid mechanics. In this study, a new access methodology is introduced by Newton mechanics and a mathematical method. Also, NRC Generic Letter 2008-01 requires nuclear power plant operators to evaluate the effect of water-hammer for the protection of pipes of the Emergency Core Cooling System, which is related to the Residual Heat Removal System and the Containment Spray System. This paper includes modeling, the processes of derivation of the mathematical equations and the comparison with other experimental work. To analyze the effect of water-hammer, this mathematical methodology is carried out. This study is in good agreement with other experiment results as above. This method is very efficient to explain the water-hammer phenomena.

  3. Laser Drilling - Drilling with the Power of Light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iraj A. Salehi; Brian C. Gahan; Samih Batarseh

    2007-02-28

    Gas Technology Institute (GTI) has been the leading investigator in the field of high power laser applications research for well construction and completion applications. Since 1997, GTI (then as Gas Research Institute- GRI) has investigated several military and industrial laser systems and their ability to cut and drill into reservoir type rocks. In this report, GTI continues its investigation with a 5.34 kW ytterbium-doped multi-clad high power fiber laser (HPFL). When compared to its competitors; the HPFL represents a technology that is more cost effective to operate, capable of remote operations, and requires considerably less maintenance and repair. Work performed under this contract included design and implementation of laboratory experiments to investigate the effects of high power laser energy on a variety of rock types. All previous laser/rock interaction tests were performed on samples in the lab at atmospheric pressure. To determine the effect of downhole pressure conditions, a sophisticated tri-axial cell was designed and tested. For the first time, Berea sandstone, limestone and clad core samples were lased under various combinations of confining, axial and pore pressures. Composite core samples consisted of steel cemented to rock in an effort to represent material penetrated in a cased hole. The results of this experiment will assist in the development of a downhole laser perforation or side tracking prototype tool. To determine how this promising laser would perform under high pressure in-situ conditions, GTI performed a number of experiments with results directly comparable to previous data. Experiments were designed to investigate the effect of laser input parameters on representative reservoir rock types of sandstone and limestone. The focus of the experiments was on laser/rock interaction under confining pressure as would be the case for all drilling and completion operations. As such, the results would be applicable to drilling, perforation, and

  4. Sketches of a hammer-impact, spiked-base, shear-wave source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasbrouck, W.P.

    1983-01-01

    Generation of shear waves in shallow seismic investigations (those to depths usually less than 100 m) can be accomplished by horizontally striking with a hammer either the end of a wood plank or metal structure embedded at the ground surface. The dimensioned sketches of this report are of a steel, hammer-impact, spiked-base, shear-wave source. It has been used on outcrops and in a desert environment and for conducting experiments on the effect of rotating source direction.

  5. Muscle imbalance and reduced ankle joint motion in people with hammer toe deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, O Y; Tuttle, L J; Johnson, J E; Mueller, M J

    2009-10-01

    Multiple factors may contribute to hammer toe deformity at the metatarsophalangeal joint. The purposes of this study were to (1) compare the ratio of toe extensor/flexor muscle strength in toes 2-4 among groups with and without hammer toe deformity, (2) to determine correlations between the ratio of toe extensor/flexor muscle strength in toes 2-4, and metatarsophalangeal joint deformity (3) to determine if other clinical measures differ between groups and if these measures are correlated with metatarsophalangeal joint angle. Twenty-seven feet with visible hammer toe deformity and 31 age matched feet without hammer toe deformity were tested. Toe muscle strength was measured using a dynamometer and the ratio of toe extensor muscle strength to flexor muscle strength was calculated. Metatarsophalangeal joint angle was measured from a computerized tomography image. Ankle and subtalar joint range of motion, and tibial torsion were measured using goniometry. Extensor/flexor toe muscle strength ratio was 2.3-3.0 times higher in the hammer toe group compared to the non-hammer toe group, in toes 2-4. The ratios of extensor/flexor toe muscle strength for toes 2-4 and metatarsophalangeal joint angle were highly correlated (r=0.69-0.80). Ankle dorsiflexion and metatarsophalangeal joint angle were negatively correlated for toes 2-4 (r=-0.38 to -0.56) as were eversion and metatarsophalangeal joint angle. These results provide insight into potential risk factors for the development of hammer toe deformity. Additional research is needed to determine the causal relationship between hammer toe deformity and the ratio of toe extensor/flexor muscle strength in toes 2-4.

  6. Assessment of Analytic Water hammer Pressure Model of FAI/08-70

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ju Yeop; Yoo, Seung Hun; Seul, Kwang-Won

    2016-01-01

    In evaluating water hammer effect on the safety related systems, methods developed by the US utility are likely to be adopted in Korea. For example, the US utility developed specific methods to evaluate pressure and loading transient on piping due to water hammer as in FAI/08-70. The methods of FAI/08-70 would be applied in Korea when any regulatory request on the evaluation of water hammer effect due to the non-condensable gas accumulation in the safety related systems. Specifically, FAI/08-70 gives an analytic model which can be used to analyze the maximum transient pressure and maximum transient loading on the piping of the safety-related systems due to the non-condensable induced water hammer effect. Therefore, it seems to be meaningful to review the FAI/08-70 methods and attempt to apply the methods to a specific case to see if they really give reasonable estimate before the application of FAI/08-70 methods to domestic nuclear power plants. In the present study, analytic water hammer pressure model of FAI/08-70 is reviewed in detail and the model is applied to the specific experiment of FAI/08-70 to see if the analytic water hammer pressure model really gives reasonable estimate of the peak water hammer pressure. Specifically, we assess the experiment 52A of FAI/08-70 which adopts flushed initial condition with a short rising piping length and a high level piping length of 51inch. The calculated analytic water hammer pressure peak shows a close agreement with the measured experimental data of 52A. Unfortunately, however, the theoretical value is a little bit less than that of the experimental value. This implies the analytic model of FAI/08-70 is not conservative

  7. Assessment of Analytic Water hammer Pressure Model of FAI/08-70

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ju Yeop; Yoo, Seung Hun; Seul, Kwang-Won [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In evaluating water hammer effect on the safety related systems, methods developed by the US utility are likely to be adopted in Korea. For example, the US utility developed specific methods to evaluate pressure and loading transient on piping due to water hammer as in FAI/08-70. The methods of FAI/08-70 would be applied in Korea when any regulatory request on the evaluation of water hammer effect due to the non-condensable gas accumulation in the safety related systems. Specifically, FAI/08-70 gives an analytic model which can be used to analyze the maximum transient pressure and maximum transient loading on the piping of the safety-related systems due to the non-condensable induced water hammer effect. Therefore, it seems to be meaningful to review the FAI/08-70 methods and attempt to apply the methods to a specific case to see if they really give reasonable estimate before the application of FAI/08-70 methods to domestic nuclear power plants. In the present study, analytic water hammer pressure model of FAI/08-70 is reviewed in detail and the model is applied to the specific experiment of FAI/08-70 to see if the analytic water hammer pressure model really gives reasonable estimate of the peak water hammer pressure. Specifically, we assess the experiment 52A of FAI/08-70 which adopts flushed initial condition with a short rising piping length and a high level piping length of 51inch. The calculated analytic water hammer pressure peak shows a close agreement with the measured experimental data of 52A. Unfortunately, however, the theoretical value is a little bit less than that of the experimental value. This implies the analytic model of FAI/08-70 is not conservative.

  8. Validation of CATHENA MOD-3.5/Rev0 for single-phase water hammer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beuthe, T.G.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes work performed to validate the system thermalhydraulics code CATHENA MOD-3.5c/Rev0 for single-phase water hammer. Simulations were performed and are compared quantitatively against numerical tests and experimental results from the Seven Sisters Water Hammer Facility to demonstrate CATHENA can predict the creation and propagation of pressure waves when valves are opened and closed. Simulations were also performed to show CATHENA can model the behaviour of reflected and transmitted pressure waves at area changes, dead ends, tanks, boundary conditions, and orifices in simple and more complex piping systems. The CATHENA results are shown to calculate pressure and wave propagation speeds to within 0.2% and 0.5% respectively for numerical tests and within 3.3% and 5% for experimental results respectively. These results are used to help validate CATHENA for use in single-phase water hammer analysis. They also provide assurance that the fundamental parameters needed to successfully model more complex forms of water hammer are accounted for in the MOD-3.5c/Rev0 version of CATHENA, and represent the first step in the process to validate the code for use in modelling two-phase water hammer and condensation-induced water hammer. (author)

  9. A wireless sensor system for a biofeedback training of hammer throwers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ye; Wan, Bingjun; Li, Hua; Shan, Gongbing

    2016-01-01

    Hammer-throw has a long-standing history in track and field, but unlike some other sports events, men's hammer throw has not seen a new world record since 1986. One of the possible reasons for this stagnation could be the lack of real-time biomechanical feedback training. In this study, we proposed to establish scientifically described training targets and routes, which in turn required tools that could measure and quantify characteristics of an effective hammer-throw. Towards this goal, we have developed a real-time biomechanical feedback device-a wireless sensor system-to help the training of hammer-throw. The system includes two sensors-an infrared proximity sensor for tracing the hip vertical movement and a load cell for recording the wire tension during a hammer-throw. The system uses XBees for data transmission and an Arduino processor for data processing and system control. The results revealed that the wire tension measurement could supply sufficient key features for coaches to analyze hammer-throw and give real-time feedback for improving training efficiency.

  10. STUDY ON OPERATING CHARACTERISTECS OF WATER HAMMER GENERATING DEVICE FOR TREATMENT OF MICROORGANISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Tatsuhisa; Endo, Shigekatsu; Oda, Akira; Shimizu, Yasushi

    The phenomenon that has been actualized due to the water quality deterioration because of the inflow of drainage and the industrial wastewater includes the phenomenon that is called water-bloom generated in the freshwater environment made a eutrophic. This is becoming a serious problem to secure the water.Mixing with the drinking water has already been confirmed, and the generation of water-bloom is becoming a big social problem, and fundamental measures have not been established yet.On the other hand, authors are proving the pressure to be a fast the pressure speed of the impact pressure by the water hammer and effective in the destruction of the blue-green algae.In this studies, the hydraulics flow characteristics of an effective water hammer pressure generator to the shredding of the water-bloom cell were examined.As a result, there was a boundary in the region where the water hammer was generated by length and the water supply head of conduit, and the water hammer pressure was able to be understood to be influenced according to the angle of the valve that generated the water hammer in addition in the water hammer generator.The demonstration in the locale was confirmed based on these and the scale etc. of an effective device to the doing water-bloom processing were able to be confirmed by continuous running.

  11. A study on the initiation of condensation-induced water hammer in a long horizontal pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Joo Wan

    1992-02-01

    Condensation-induced water hammer (CIWH) is the most severe and has the highest frequency among the water hammer events occurred in nuclear power plants. Among mechanisms associated with this type of water hammer, the steam and water countercurrent flow in a horizontal pipe is known as the dominant mechanism in Pressurized Water Reactors. The CIWH due to steam-water counter-flow in a long horizontal pipe has been analytically investigated with emphasis on the effect of pipe length, in order to identify the conditions necessary to initiate a water hammer and to provide stability maps describing the zone of water hammer to be avoided with the combination of filling water flowrate and pipe length. Analytical models which can be used to predict the limiting boundaries, upper and lower one, of CIWH initiation have been developed and the calculation results have been compared with the data of an actual incident occurred previously in a nuclear power plant. From the approach used in this study, boundary estimates including simple relationships between critical inlet water flowrates and pipe length-to-diameter on the CIWH initiation in a long horizontal pipe could be made, and several corrective actions to prevent water hammer recurrence could be taken. However, because of the limited understanding of the direct-contact condensation phenomena in the typical range of nuclear power plant operation, it is likely that the overall uncertainty of the analysis results will be high. Therefore, further research on this area including scaling analysis is required

  12. Avoiding steam-bubble-collapse-induced water hammers in piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Y.; Griffith, P.

    1989-10-01

    In terms of the frequency of occurrence, steam bubble collapse in subcooled water is the dominant initiating mechanism for water hammer events in nuclear power plants. Water hammer due to steam bubble collapse occurs when water slug forms in stratified horizontal flow, or when steam bubble is trapped at the end of the pipe. These types of water hammer events have been studied experimentally and analytically in order to develop stability maps showing those combinations of filling velocities and liquid subcooling that cause water hammer and those which don't. In developing the stability maps, experiments with different piping orientations were performed in a low pressure laboratory apparatus. Details of these experiments are described, including piping arrangement, test procedures, and test results. Visual tests using a transparent Lexan pipe are also performed to study the flow regimes accompanying the water hammer events. All analytical models were tested by comparison with the corresponding experimental results. Based on these models, and step-by-step approach for each flow geometry is presented for plant designers and engineers to follow in avoiding water hammer induced by steam bubble collapse when admitting cold water into pipes filled with steam. 37 refs., 54 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Water hammer calculation and analysis in main feedwater system of PWR nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xin; Han Weishi

    2010-01-01

    The main feedwater system of a nuclear power plant is an important part in ensuring the cooling of the steam generator. Moreover, it is the main pipe section where water hammers frequently occur. Studying the regular patterns of water hammers to the main feedwater system is significant to the stable operation of the system. The paper focuses on the study of water hammers through Flowmaster's transient calculating function to establish a mathematical model with boundary conditions such as a feedwater pump, control valves, etc.; calculation of the water hammers pressure when feedwater pumps and control valves shut down; exporting the instantaneous change in solution of pressure. Combined with engineering practical examples, the conclusions verify the viability of calculating the water hammers pressure through Flowmaster's transient function, increasing the periods of closure of control valves and feedwater pumps control water hammers effectively, changing the intervals of closing signals to feedwater pumps and control valves to relieve hydraulic impact. This could be a guideline for practical engineering design and system optimization. (authors)

  14. Drilling subsurface wellbores with cutting structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansure, Arthur James; Guimerans, Rosalvina Ramona

    2010-11-30

    A system for forming a wellbore includes a drill tubular. A drill bit is coupled to the drill tubular. One or more cutting structures are coupled to the drill tubular above the drill bit. The cutting structures remove at least a portion of formation that extends into the wellbore formed by the drill bit.

  15. High Temperature Piezoelectric Drill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Shrout, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Venus is one of the planets in the solar systems that are considered for potential future exploration missions. It has extreme environment where the average temperature is 460 deg C and its ambient pressure is about 90 atm. Since the existing actuation technology cannot maintain functionality under the harsh conditions of Venus, it is a challenge to perform sampling and other tasks that require the use of moving parts. Specifically, the currently available electromagnetic actuators are limited in their ability to produce sufficiently high stroke, torque, or force. In contrast, advances in developing electro-mechanical materials (such as piezoelectric and electrostrictive) have enabled potential actuation capabilities that can be used to support such missions. Taking advantage of these materials, we developed a piezoelectric actuated drill that operates at the temperature range up to 500 deg C and the mechanism is based on the Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) configuration. The detailed results of our study are presented in this paper

  16. Offset drilling obligations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, K.D.; Kalmakoff, J.J.

    1998-01-01

    A review of the 'offset well' clause found in freehold and Crown natural gas and petroleum leases was presented. The objective was to provide lessors and lessees with a clear understanding of the rights and obligations associated with offset wells. It was noted that offset well obligations vary according to the form of lease used, the type of offsetting well, the regulatory regime and the geophysical characteristics of the producing formation. Some suggestions were made as to how current versions of the offset well clause can be amended to overcome some of the problems encountered in applying the clause to an offset horizontal well that has been drilled on adjoining lands. Failure to resolve the new issues presented by horizontal drilling technology in terms of documentation, which records respective rights and obligations on the basis of generally accepted principles, will result in large numbers of conflicts and unnecessary litigation. 144 refs., 1 fig

  17. Analytical models for lower and upper bounds of the condensation-induced water hammer in long horizontal pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Moon Hyun; Park, Joo Wan; Nam, Ho Yun

    1992-01-01

    Improved analytical models have been proposed that can predict the lower and upper limits of the water hammer region for given flow conditions by incorporation of recent advances made in the understanding of phenomena associated with the condensation-induced water hammer into existing methods. Present models are applicable for steam-water counterflow in a long horizontal pipe geometry. Both lower and upper bounds of the water hammer region are expressed in terms of the 'critical inlet water flow rate' as a function of axial position. Water hammer region boundaries predicted by present and typical existing models are compared for particular flow conditions of the water hammer event occurred at San Onofre Unit 1 to assess the applicability of the models examined. The result shows that present models for lower and upper bounds of the water hammer region compare favorably with the best performing existing models

  18. Polymorphic Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belo, João Filipe; Greenberg, Michael; Igarashi, Atsushi; Pierce, Benjamin C.

    Manifest contracts track precise properties by refining types with predicates - e.g., {x : Int |x > 0 } denotes the positive integers. Contracts and polymorphism make a natural combination: programmers can give strong contracts to abstract types, precisely stating pre- and post-conditions while hiding implementation details - for example, an abstract type of stacks might specify that the pop operation has input type {x :α Stack |not ( empty x )} . We formalize this combination by defining FH, a polymorphic calculus with manifest contracts, and establishing fundamental properties including type soundness and relational parametricity. Our development relies on a significant technical improvement over earlier presentations of contracts: instead of introducing a denotational model to break a problematic circularity between typing, subtyping, and evaluation, we develop the metatheory of contracts in a completely syntactic fashion, omitting subtyping from the core system and recovering it post facto as a derived property.

  19. Administrative contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukićević-Petković Milica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Administrative contracts are a special type of contract where usually one of the contracting parties is a public law body and which is concluded for the performance of public service and the realization of a public interest. They go a long way since its inception to its eventual final acceptance of all the legal systems. One of the enduring characteristics of this type of contract is their disquised or unnoticed existence. This is why only monitoring their development may lead to a complete understanding of the importance and essence of this institution as well as the need for its complete legal regulation.

  20. Electrical contracting

    CERN Document Server

    Neidle, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Electrical Contracting, Second Edition is a nine-chapter text guide for the greater efficiency in planning and completing installations for the design, installation and control of electrical contracts. This book starts with a general overview of the efficient cabling and techniques that must be employed for safe wiring design, as well as the cost estimation of the complete electrical contract. The subsequent chapters are devoted to other electrical contracting requirements, including electronic motor control, lighting, and electricity tariffs. A chapter focuses on the IEE Wiring Regulations an

  1. Administrative contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Vukićević-Petković Milica

    2015-01-01

    Administrative contracts are a special type of contract where usually one of the contracting parties is a public law body and which is concluded for the performance of public service and the realization of a public interest. They go a long way since its inception to its eventual final acceptance of all the legal systems. One of the enduring characteristics of this type of contract is their disquised or unnoticed existence. This is why only monitoring their development may lead to a complete u...

  2. Numerical and experimental investigations of water hammers in nuclear industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Messahel

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In nuclear and petroleum industries, supply pipes are often exposed to high pressure loading which can cause to the structure high strains, plasticity and even, in the worst scenario, failure. Fast Hydraulic Transient phenomena such as Water Hammers (WHs are of this type. It generates a pressure wave that propagates in the pipe causing high stress. Such phenomena are of the order of few msecs and numerical simulation can offer a better understanding and an accurate evaluation of the dynamic complex phenomenon including fluid-structure interaction, multi-phase flow, cavitation … For the last decades, the modeling of phase change taking into account the cavitation effects has been at the centre of many industrial applications (chemical engineering, mechanical engineering, … and has a direct impact on the industry as it might cause damages to the installation (pumps, propellers, control valves, …. In this paper, numerical simulation using FSI algorithm and One-Fluid Cavitation models ("Cut-Off" and "HEM (Homogeneous Equilibrium Model Phase-Change" introduced by Saurel et al. [1] of WHs including cavitation effects is presented.

  3. Color management with a hammer: the B-spline fitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Ian E.; Liu, Bonny H. P.

    2003-01-01

    To paraphrase Abraham Maslow: If the only tool you have is a hammer, every problem looks like a nail. We have a B-spline fitter customized for 3D color data, and many problems in color management can be solved with this tool. Whereas color devices were once modeled with extensive measurement, look-up tables and trilinear interpolation, recent improvements in hardware have made B-spline models an affordable alternative. Such device characterizations require fewer color measurements than piecewise linear models, and have uses beyond simple interpolation. A B-spline fitter, for example, can act as a filter to remove noise from measurements, leaving a model with guaranteed smoothness. Inversion of the device model can then be carried out consistently and efficiently, as the spline model is well behaved and its derivatives easily computed. Spline-based algorithms also exist for gamut mapping, the composition of maps, and the extrapolation of a gamut. Trilinear interpolation---a degree-one spline---can still be used after nonlinear spline smoothing for high-speed evaluation with robust convergence. Using data from several color devices, this paper examines the use of B-splines as a generic tool for modeling devices and mapping one gamut to another, and concludes with applications to high-dimensional and spectral data.

  4. Multiple condensation induced water hammer events, experiments and theoretical investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barna, Imre Ferenc; Ezsoel, Gyoergy

    2011-01-01

    We investigate steam condensation induced water hammer (CIWH) phenomena and present experimental and theoretical results. Some of the experiments were performed in the PMK-2 facility, which is a full-pressure thermalhydraulic model of the nuclear power plant of VVER-440/312 type and located in the Atomic Energy Research Institute Budapest, Hungary. Other experiments were done in the ROSA facility in Japan. On the theoretical side CIWH is studied and analyzed with the WAHA3 model based on two-phase flow six first-order partial differential equations that present one dimensional, surface averaged mass, momentum and energy balances. A second order accurate high-resolution shockcapturing numerical scheme was applied with different kind of limiters in the numerical calculations. The applied two-fluid model shows some similarities to RELAP5 which is widely used in the nuclear industry to simulate nuclear power plant accidents. New features are the existence of multiple, independent CIWH pressure peaks both in experiments and in simulations. Experimentally measured and theoretically calculated CIWH pressure peaks are in qualitative agreement. However, the computational results are very sensitive against flow velocity. (orig.)

  5. HammerCloud: A Stress Testing System for Distributed Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    van der Ster, Daniel C; Ubeda Garcia, Mario; Paladin, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Distributed analysis of LHC data is an I/O-intensive activity which places large demands on the internal network, storage, and local disks at remote computing facilities. Commissioning and maintaining a site to provide an efficient distributed analysis service is therefore a challenge which can be aided by tools to help evaluate a variety of infrastructure designs and configurations. HammerCloud (HC) is one such tool; it is a stress testing service which is used by central operations teams, regional coordinators, and local site admins to (a) submit arbitrary number of analysis jobs to a number of sites, (b) maintain at a steady-state a predefined number of jobs running at the sites under test, (c) produce web-based reports summarizing the efficiency and performance of the sites under test, and (d) present a web-interface for historical test results to both evaluate progress and compare sites. HC was built around the distributed analysis framework Ganga, exploiting its API for grid job management. HC has been ...

  6. New drilling optimization technologies make drilling more efficient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, D.C.-K. [Halliburton Energy Services, Calgary, AB (Canada). Sperry Division

    2004-07-01

    Several new technologies have been adopted by the upstream petroleum industry in the past two decades in order to optimize drilling operations and improve drilling efficiency. Since financial returns from an oil and gas investment strongly depend on drilling costs, it is important to reduce non-productive time due to stuck pipes, lost circulation, hole cleaning and well bore stability problems. The most notable new technologies are the use of computer-based instrumentation and data acquisition systems, integrated rig site systems and networks, and Measurement-While-Drilling and Logging-While-Drilling (MWD/LWD) systems. Drilling optimization should include solutions for drillstring integrity, hydraulics management and wellbore integrity. New drilling optimization methods emphasize information management and real-time decision making. A recent study for drilling in shallow water in the Gulf of Mexico demonstrates that trouble time accounts for 25 per cent of rig time. This translates to about $1.5 MM U.S. per well. A reduction in trouble time could result in significant cost savings for the industry. This paper presents a case study on vibration prevention to demonstrate how the drilling industry has benefited from new technologies. 13 refs., 10 figs.

  7. Importance of drill string assembly swivel in horizontal drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmund Tasak

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available A part of the drill string – the swivel (rotational connector – accomplishes an important task in the horizontal drilling. Its malfunctioning makes it impossible to draw in ( install large diameter and length pipelines. The causes of the connector break-down during the horizontal drilling are investigated in the paper. The drilling has been made for twenty inches gas pipeline installation during reaming operations. A trouble was encountered making good work conditions of a system consisting of the drilling machine drill string reamer swivel tube shield of Cardan joint and the gas pipeline 500 m long. In this case, the swivel brokes down and the planned operation was not finished. The assessment of improper drilling conditions, selection of operation system components, and drilling parameters and the insufficient technological supervising have created an excessive risk of failure. A proper application of technical analysis would considerably decrease the hazard of failure which cause large costs, delays and decrease of confidence to the drilling contractor and pipeline installation.

  8. Drill string gas data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siciliano, E.R.

    1998-05-12

    Data and supporting documentation were compiled and analyzed for 26 cases of gas grab samples taken during waste-tank core sampling activities between September 1, 1995 and December 31, 1997. These cases were tested against specific criteria to reduce uncertainties associated with in-tank sampling location and conditions. Of the 26 possible cases, 16 qualified as drill-string grab samples most likely to represent recently released waste gases. The data from these 16 ``confirmed`` cases were adjusted to remove non-waste gas contributions from core-sampling activities (argon or nitrogen purge), the atmospheric background, and laboratory sampler preparation (helium). The procedure for subtracting atmospheric, laboratory, and argon purge gases was unambiguous. No reliable method for determining the exact amount of nitrogen purge gas was established. Thus, the final set of ``Adjusted`` drill string gas data for the 6 nitrogen-purged cases had a greater degree of uncertainty than the final results for the 10 argon-purged cases. Including the appropriate amounts of uncertainty, this final set of data was added to the set of high-quality results from the Retained Gas Sampler (RGS), and good agreement was found for the N{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and N{sub 2}O mole fractions sampled from common tanks. These results indicate that under favorable sampling conditions, Drill-String (DS) grab samples can provide reasonably accurate information about the dominant species of released gas. One conclusion from this set of total gas data is that the distribution of the H{sub 2} mole fractions is bimodal in shape, with an upper bound of 78%.

  9. Drilling string lifter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shakhobalov, A B; Galiopa, A A; Ponomarev, G V; Ushakov, A M

    1981-04-28

    A drilling string lifter is suggested which includes a rotating tower installed on a fixed base, hydraulic cylinder and pipe-clamping assembly connected through a chain gear to the drive motor. In order to simplify the design of the hydraulic lifter, the drive motor is installed on a fixed base so that the axis of the outlet shaft of the drive motor coincides with the axis of rotation of the tower. In addition, the axis of rotation of the tower is made in the form of a tubular element, and the outlet shaft of the drive motor is ranged between the tubular element.

  10. Experimental study on the simple water hammer pump; Kan`igata water hammer pump ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muto, M; Ushiyama, I [Ashikaga Institute of Technology, Tochigi (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Outlined herein are experimental results with a water hammer pump. It is a unique pump in that it depends only on potential energy of water to pump-up water. Water flows downwards from a reservoir at a high position into the pump , and is released from the exhaust valve. When velocity of water flowing in the pipe reaches a certain level, hydraulic force exceeds gravity of the exhaust valve to rapidly closes it, which is accompanied by rapid increase in pressure in the pump. High-pressure water flows into the air chamber, after pushing up the lifting valve, to compress air in the chamber. The lifting valve is closed, when pressure in the air chamber exceeds that in the pump, to pump up water in the chamber through the lifting pipe. Closure of the lifting valve produces a negative pressure within the pump, which, together with gravity of the exhaust valve, opens the valve again. The pump lifts water at 1.64l/min under the conditions of head: 3m and lift: 6m at an efficiency of 48.1%. 1 ref., 4 fig., 2 tab.

  11. Application of odex drilling method in a variably fractured volcanic/igneous environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, J.

    1992-01-01

    A case history of a subsurface investigation at a geothermal waste disposal facility within a volcanic flow regime illustrates a classic example of critical drilling problems arising from severe air and mud circulation loss. Extremely dense dacite and rhyolite rock alternating with severely fractured flow margins (interconnected with numerous voids and caverns) has provided the scenario for open-quotes gravel pilesclose quotes of substantial size between competent dacite flows. The interconnected void space at numerous depths beneath the site is great enough to create complete loss of circulation while using more than 3000 cubic feet per minute (cfm) of air at 350 pounds per square inch (psi). This initial failed effort also included the use of a foam additive. The technologies employed at this site to address the problem of circulation loss included air rotary casing hammer methods, mud rotary (with beat pulp additives and linen additives), boring wall stabilization, telescoped casing and ultimately the ODEX casing advancement system. The relative success of this seldom used method invites a discussion of the principals of the under-reamer drilling method (ODEX) and the physical limitations of the system. A practical knowledge of the advantages and disadvantages of each drilling method is necessary when designing an investigation addressing problems of soil and water contamination. Additionally, by addressing the methods that were unsuccessful, geologists, contractors and engineers can gain insight into the value and application of the various technologies available for similar drilling problems

  12. Reducing forces during drilling brittle hard materials by using ultrasonic and variation of coolant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopf, C.; Rascher, R.

    2016-11-01

    The process of ultrasonic machining is especially used for brittle hard materials as the additional ultrasonic vibration of the tool at high frequencies and low amplitudes acts like a hammer on the surface. With this technology it is possible to drill holes with lower forces, therefor the machining can be done faster and the worktime is much less than conventionally. A three-axis dynamometer was used to measure the forces, which act between the tool and the sample part. A focus is set on the sharpness of the tool. The results of a test series are based on the Sauer Ultrasonic Grinding Centre. On the same machine it is possible to drill holes in the conventional way. Additional to the ultasonic Input the type an concentration of coolant is important for the Drilling-force. In the test there were three different coolant and three different concentrations tested. The combination of ultrasonic vibration and the right coolant and concentration is the best way to reduce the Forces. Another positive effect is, that lower drilling-forces produce smaller chipping on the edge of the hole. The way to reduce the forces and chipping is the main issue of this paper.

  13. Study of cooling rates during metallic glass formation in a hammer and anvil apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroeger, D.M.; Coghlan, W.A.; Easton, D.S.; Koch, C.C.; Scarbrough, J.O.

    1982-01-01

    A model is presented of the simultaneous spreading and cooling of the liquid drop in a hammer and anvil apparatus for rapid quenching of liquid metals. The viscosity of the melt is permitted to vary with temperature, and to avoid mathematical complications which would be associated with spatial variation of the viscosity, Newtonian cooling is assumed. From an expression for the force required to spread the specimen, coupled equations for the mechanical energy balance for the system and the heat transfer from the sample to the hearth and hammer were obtained, and solved numerically. The sample reaches its final thickness when the force required to deform it becomes greater than the force exerted on it by the decelerating hammer. The model was fit to measurements of sample thickness versus hammer speed, using the interface heat transfer coefficient, h, as an adjustable parameter. The values of h so obtained vary somewhat with the melt alloy/substrate metal combination. From predicted cooling curves, the effects of hammer speed, sample size, and initial melt temperature on the cooling rate and the efficiency of glass formation can be assessed. Addition of sample superheat shifts the cooling curve relative to the expected position of the time-temperature-transformation curve for formation of crystalline material from the melt, and thus is an effective means of increasing the probability of glass formation in this type of apparatus

  14. Experimental studies of water hammer in propellant feed system of reaction control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avanish Kumar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Water hammer pressure transient produces large dynamic forces which can damage the pipes and other assemblies in the feed line of a reaction control system (RCS. It has led to the failure of pressure transducers monitoring the manifold pressure in the feed line of RCS. Therefore, water hammer studies have been carried out to understand its effect in feed line. Feedline system has been simplified to develop a mathematical model and experiments have been carried out at extensive levels. The mathematical model was developed considering pipe of uniform c/s and moving liquid-gas interface. The experimental studies have been done using water as working medium instead of actual propellant. The studies showed that rate of pressurization have a very critical role on the water hammer amplitude. Sensitivity studies have been also carried out to study the effect of density, friction and initial liquid column length on water hammer amplitude. Keywords: Water hammer, Reaction control system (RCS, Propellant feed system, Experimental study, Testing

  15. Analisa Pengaruh Water Hammer Terhadap Nilai Strees Pipa Pada Sistem Loading-Offloading PT.DABN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Adi Siswanto

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Jalur pipa (pipeline merupakan media yang  digunakan sebagai alat transportasi fluida (cair atau gas, mixed of liquid, solid dan fluid-solid mixture. Ada beberapa tahap penting dalam siklus suatu jalur perpipaan yang digunakan sebagai alat transportasi minyak atau gas: desain, konstruksi, operasional dan pemeliharaan, dan terakhir perbaikan. Operasional merupakn proses kemungkinan terbesar terjadinya kegagalan pada suatu jalur perpipaan. Salah satu kegagalan yang mungkin terjadi adalah fenomena water hammaer. Water hammer adalah sebuah fenomena terjadinhya kenaiakan tekanan yang disebabkan oleh terhenti atau dihentikannya aliran di dalam pipa secara mendadak. Hal ini bisa disebabkan oleh operasional penutupan katup yang dilakukan secara tiba-tiba. Pada paper ini akan dijelaskan kajian mengenai pengaruh kenaikan tekanan yang terjadi karena adanya fenomena water hammer terhadap nilai tegangan jalur perpipaan di sisi discharge. Dari hasil perhitungan diketahui bahwa kenaikan tekanan akibat fenomena water hammer sangat mempengaruhi naiknya nilai tegangan pada pipa. Hasil analisa menunjukan bahwa tegangan yang terjadi ketika fenomena water hammer masih dapat diterima, tetapi kenaikan tekanan ketika terjadi fenomena water hammer melebihi dari batas yang diizinkan sehingga perlu dilakukan prosedur penutupan katup yang sesuai untuk menjaga agar pada saat dioperasionalkan pipa dalam kondisi aman.

  16. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of parameters affecting water hammer pressure wave behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaliatka, A.; Uspuras, E.; Vaisnoras, M.

    2006-01-01

    Pressure surges occurring in pipeline systems may be caused by fast control interference, start up and shut down processes and operation failure. They lead to water hammer upstream the closing valve and cavitational hammer downstream the valve, which may cause considerable damages to the pipeline and the support structures. Appearance of water hammer in thermal-hydraulic systems was widely studied employing different state-of-the-art thermal-hydraulic codes in many organizations. For the analysis water hammer test performed at Fraunhofer Institute for Environmental, Safety and Energy Technology (UMSICHT) at Oberhausen was considered. This paper presents the comparison of UMSICHT test facility experiment calculations employing the best estimate system code RELAP5/Mod3.3 to measured water hammer values after fast closure of a valve. The analysis revealed that the calculated first pressure peak, which has the highest value, matches the measured value very well. The performed analysis (as well as any other analyses) as a results of each individual calculation always contains uncertainty owing to initial conditions of installations, errors of measuring systems, errors caused by nodalization of objects at modelling, code correlations, etc. In this connection, results of uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of the initial conditions and code-selected models are shown in the paper. (orig.)

  17. An Analysis of the Impact of Valve Closure Time on the Course of Water Hammer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodura, Apoloniusz

    2016-06-01

    The knowledge of transient flow in pressure pipelines is very important for the designing and describing of pressure networks. The water hammer is the most common example of transient flow in pressure pipelines. During this phenomenon, the transformation of kinetic energy into pressure energy causes significant changes in pressure, which can lead to serious problems in the management of pressure networks. The phenomenon is very complex, and a large number of different factors influence its course. In the case of a water hammer caused by valve closing, the characteristic of gate closure is one of the most important factors. However, this factor is rarely investigated. In this paper, the results of physical experiments with water hammer in steel and PE pipelines are described and analyzed. For each water hammer, characteristics of pressure change and valve closing were recorded. The measurements were compared with the results of calculations perfomed by common methods used by engineers - Michaud's equation and Wood and Jones's method. The comparison revealed very significant differences between the results of calculations and the results of experiments. In addition, it was shown that, the characteristic of butterfly valve closure has a significant influence on water hammer, which should be taken into account in analyzing this phenomenon. Comparison of the results of experiments with the results of calculations? may lead to new, improved calculation methods and to new methods to describe transient flow.

  18. 30 CFR 57.7052 - Drilling positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drilling positions. 57.7052 Section 57.7052... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface and Underground § 57.7052 Drilling positions. Persons shall not drill...

  19. 30 CFR 56.7052 - Drilling positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drilling positions. 56.7052 Section 56.7052... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7052 Drilling positions. Persons shall not drill from— (a) Positions which hinder...

  20. Control procedure for well drilling operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourdon, J C

    1988-09-09

    A control procedure of rotary drilling operations is proposed. It uses the Drill off test. The drill-off test permits to determine the rock drill speed variation as a function of the wright applied on the top of the pipe. We can deduce from that a rock drill wear parameter. The method permits to prevent a rupture and its grave economic consequences.

  1. 30 CFR 33.34 - Drilling test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drilling test. 33.34 Section 33.34 Mineral... MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES Test Requirements § 33.34 Drilling test. (a) A drilling test shall consist of drilling a set of 10 test holes, without...

  2. Hypothenar hammer syndrome from ice hockey stick-handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayed, Mohamed A; McDonald, Joey; Tittley, Jacques G

    2013-11-01

    Ulnar artery thrombosis and hypothenar hammer syndrome are rare vascular complications that could potentially occur with repeated blows or trauma to the hand. Although initially reported as an occupational hazard among laborers and craftsmen, it has been observed more recently among recreationalists and athletes. Until now, it has never been reported as a complication in ice hockey players. In this case report, a 26-year-old Canadian professional ice hockey player presented with acute dominant right hand paleness, coolness, and pain with hand use. The patient used a wooden hockey stick with a large knob of tape at the end of the handle, which he regularly gripped in the palm of his right hand to help with face-offs and general stick-handling. Sonographic evaluation demonstrated no arterial flow in the distal right ulnar artery distribution, and ulnar artery occlusion with no aneurysmal degeneration was confirmed by magnetic resonance angiogram. Intraarterial thrombolytic therapy was initiated, and subsequent serial angiograms demonstrated significant improvement in distal ulnar artery flow as well as recanalization of right hand deep palmar arch and digital arteries. The patient's symptoms resolved, and he was maintained on therapeutic anticoagulation for 3 months prior to returning to playing ice hockey professionally, but with a padded glove and no tape knob at the handle tip. This case highlights a unique presentation of hockey stick-handling causing ulnar artery thrombosis that was likely from repeated palmar hypothenar trauma. Appropriate diagnostic imaging, early intraarterial thrombolysis, and postoperative surveillance and follow-up were crucial for the successful outcome in this patient. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Activity plan: Directional drilling and environmental measurements while drilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.A.

    1998-01-01

    This activity plan describes the testing of directional drilling combined with environmental measurements while drilling at two Hanford Site locations. A cold test is to be conducted at the 105A Mock Tank Leak Facility in the 200 East Area. A hot test is proposed to be run at the 216-B-8 tile field north of the 241-B Tank Farm in 200 East Area. Criteria to judge the success, partial success or failure of various aspects of the test are included. The TWRS program is assessing the potential for use of directional drilling because of an identified need to interrogate the vadose zone beneath the single-shell tanks. Because every precaution must be taken to assure that investigation activities do not violate the integrity of the tanks, control of the drill bit and ability to follow a predetermined drill path are of utmost importance and are being tested

  4. Design and Exploitation Problems of Drill String in Directional Drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bednarz Stanislaw

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Drill string design for directional drilling requires accounting for a number of factors. First, types and expected values of loads should be determined. Then, elements of the drill string should be so selected as to enable realization of the plan at specified loads. Some of additional factors, e. g. purchase, exploitation cost, geological conditions in the bore-hole, washing of the bore-hole, stability, trajectory, rig parameters, accuracy of gauges, pumps parameters remain in conflict. Drill pipes are made of rolled pipes, upset and welded with tool joints to 9,5 m long; the shorter ones can be made of hot forged rods. Exploitation requirements, being a result of practical experience supported by theoretical and laboratory analyses should be a part of syllabuses of technical staff educational programs. Apart from designing the string, it is also vital to lower the risk of a drilling failure. The significance of these aspects seems to be unquestionable.

  5. A new drilling method-Earthworm-like vibration drilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Ni, Hongjian; Wang, Ruihe

    2018-01-01

    The load transfer difficulty caused by borehole wall friction severely limits the penetration rate and extended-reach limit of complex structural wells. A new friction reduction technology termed "earthworm-like drilling" is proposed in this paper to improve the load transfer of complex structural wells. A mathematical model based on a "soft-string" model is developed and solved. The results show that earthworm-like drilling is more effective than single-point vibration drilling. The amplitude and frequency of the pulse pressure and the installation position of the shakers have a substantial impact on friction reduction and load transfer. An optimization model based on the projection gradient method is developed and used to optimize the position of three shakers in a horizontal well. The results verify the feasibility and advantages of earthworm-like drilling, and establish a solid theoretical foundation for its application in oil field drilling.

  6. Case drilling - an innovative approach to reducing drilling costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madell, G.; Tessari, R. M. [Tesco Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada); Warren, T. [Tesco Drilling Technology, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1999-11-01

    Casing drilling is introduced as a new drilling technique that uses standard oil field casing to simultaneously drill and case the well. The technology includes both rig and downhole equipment, customized to function effectively as an integrated drilling system. This paper describes the testing program designed to identify and overcome technical challenges. Although not fully optimized, it appears that the system is functional. Test results indicate the need for improvements in the pump down cement float equipment and the tools and procedures for drilling up the cement plugs. The pump down latch and retrieval system also needs to be further developed and tested for high angle directional applications. Cost savings in the range of 10 to 15 per cent are expected for trouble-free wells. By eliminating the cost of unscheduled events encountered in troublesome wells, cost savings may reach as high as 30 per cent. 3 refs., 7 figs.

  7. Activity plan: Directional drilling and environmental measurements while drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, D.A.

    1998-07-16

    This activity plan describes the testing of directional drilling combined with environmental measurements while drilling at two Hanford Site locations. A cold test is to be conducted at the 105A Mock Tank Leak Facility in the 200 East Area. A hot test is proposed to be run at the 216-B-8 tile field north of the 241-B Tank Farm in 200 East Area. Criteria to judge the success, partial success or failure of various aspects of the test are included. The TWRS program is assessing the potential for use of directional drilling because of an identified need to interrogate the vadose zone beneath the single-shell tanks. Because every precaution must be taken to assure that investigation activities do not violate the integrity of the tanks, control of the drill bit and ability to follow a predetermined drill path are of utmost importance and are being tested.

  8. Conceptual design report, Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER) Training Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, K.E. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-11-09

    For the next 30 years, the main activities at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site will involve the management, handling, and cleanup of toxic substances. If the DOE is to meet its high standards of safety, the thousands of workers involved in these activities will need systematic training appropriate to their tasks and the risks associated with these tasks. Furthermore, emergency response for DOE shipments is the primary responsibility of state, tribal, and local governments. A collaborative training initiative with the DOE will strengthen emergency response at the Hanford Site and within the regional communities. Local and international labor has joined the Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER) partnership, and will share in the HAMMER Training Center core programs and facilities using their own specialized trainers and training programs. The HAMMER Training Center will provide a centralized regional site dedicated to the training of hazardous material, emergency response, and fire fighting personnel.

  9. Treatment of Rigid Hammer-Toe Deformity: Permanent Versus Removable Implant Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, Jesse F; Fogleman, Jason A

    2018-03-01

    Hammer-toe deformities that fail nonoperative treatment can be successfully addressed with proximal interphalangeal joint resection arthroplasty or fusion. The goal of surgery is to eliminate the deformity and rigidly fix the toe in a well-aligned position. Hammer-toe correction procedures can be performed with temporary Kirschner wire (K-wire) fixation for 3 to 6 weeks with high success rates. Pain relief with successful hammer-toe correction approaches 90%; patient satisfaction rates approximate 84%. Although complication rates are rare in most series, there remains a concern regarding exposed temporary K-wire fixation, which has led to the development of multiple permanent internal fixation options. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. IMPACT OF ROCK HARDNESS ON FRAGMENTATION BY HYDRAULIC HAMMER AND CRUSHING IN JAW CRUSHER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trpimir Kujundžić

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The physical and mechanical characteristics of intact rocks depend on the way of their formation, sustained deformations and the process of wearing a specific rock has been exposed to. These characteristics have a rather high influence on the technological process of extraction and dressing of mineral raw materials. However, the mechanical characteristics of rocks due to use of explosives for their extraction in the open pit have a more significant impact. The rock blocks extracted by blasting which are larger than the opening of the primary crusher are usually fragmented by hydraulic hammer. The paper presents the results of the testing of impact of rock hardness on fragmentation of rocks by means of hydraulic hammer and during crushing in jaw crusher. The testing was carried out on the rock samples from five quarries. According to the obtained results the hardness has a considerably larger impact on the fragmentation energy by hydraulic hammer than on the crushing energy in jaw crusher.

  11. Conceptual design report, Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER) Training Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, K.E.

    1994-01-01

    For the next 30 years, the main activities at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site will involve the management, handling, and cleanup of toxic substances. If the DOE is to meet its high standards of safety, the thousands of workers involved in these activities will need systematic training appropriate to their tasks and the risks associated with these tasks. Furthermore, emergency response for DOE shipments is the primary responsibility of state, tribal, and local governments. A collaborative training initiative with the DOE will strengthen emergency response at the Hanford Site and within the regional communities. Local and international labor has joined the Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER) partnership, and will share in the HAMMER Training Center core programs and facilities using their own specialized trainers and training programs. The HAMMER Training Center will provide a centralized regional site dedicated to the training of hazardous material, emergency response, and fire fighting personnel

  12. Experiments of condensation-induced water hammers at the UniBw Munich

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirndorfer, Stefan; Kulisch, Helmut; Malcherek, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Condensation-induced water hammers belong to the most serious and complex pressure surges. Experimental data from literature are scanty, incomplete, not public or simply missing. A new test facility at the UniBw (University of the German Armed Forces) was constructed to perform own experiments within a research alliance. This new test facility uses a complete new approach. In contrast to other test stations, the UniBw water hammer test facility is a closed system. This leads on the one hand to a more complex handling with respect of conducting experiments but on the other hand also to a more realistic characterization of thermo-hydraulic phenomena which can occur in a power plant. The first results of a measured condensation-induced water hammer are presented. (orig.)

  13. Water hammer caused by rapid steam production in a severe accident in a light water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inasaka, Fujio; Adachi, Masaki; Murata, Hiroyuki; Aya, Izuo

    2007-01-01

    We conducted the experimental studies on the water hammer caused by striking of a water mass pushed up by a rapidly growing steam bubble, using a cylindrical model containment vessel of 0.4286 m in diameter. In the experiments, a rapid gas growth was simulated by injecting high-pressure steam into a water pool. It was clarified that coherency of the water mass movement and its water hammer caused by the condensable gas production considerably decreased in comparison with the case of the non-condensable gas production because the rising velocity of the water mass was suppressed due to the steam bubble condensation. On the basis of the data, experimental correlations for estimating the water hammer on the structures in the containment vessel were proposed. (author)

  14. Effects of valve characteristics and pipe diameter on water hammer phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hur, J.; Kim, T. H.; Mun, B. H.; Choi, H. Y.; Lee, K. W.; Noh, T. S.

    2001-01-01

    The water hammer phenomena mean that the dynamic loads are induced on the pipe, the pipe support and the equipments in the system due to the sudden change of the flow velocity inside the pipe. The sudden changes are mainly caused by the valve sudden on/off and pump sudden start/trip. To develop a selection criterion of the parts to be analyzed for the water hammer, the effects of the valve characteristics and pipe diameter on the water hammer are analyzed. The analyses using Method of Characteristics (MOC) show that the effects of the valve pressure difference and the valve opening time are very significant, but the effects of the pipe diameter are not dominant

  15. Experiments of condensation-induced water hammers at the UniBw Munich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirndorfer, Stefan; Kulisch, Helmut; Malcherek, Andreas [Universitaet der Bundeswehr Muenchen, Neubiberg (Germany). Hydromechanik und Wasserbau

    2013-03-15

    Condensation-induced water hammers belong to the most serious and complex pressure surges. Experimental data from literature are scanty, incomplete, not public or simply missing. A new test facility at the UniBw (University of the German Armed Forces) was constructed to perform own experiments within a research alliance. This new test facility uses a complete new approach. In contrast to other test stations, the UniBw water hammer test facility is a closed system. This leads on the one hand to a more complex handling with respect of conducting experiments but on the other hand also to a more realistic characterization of thermo-hydraulic phenomena which can occur in a power plant. The first results of a measured condensation-induced water hammer are presented. (orig.)

  16. Development of methodologies for coupled water-hammer analysis of piping systems and supports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamil, H.; Gantayat, A.; Attia, A.; Goulding, H.

    1983-01-01

    The paper presents the results of an investigation on the development of methodologies for coupled water-hammer analyses. The study was conducted because the present analytical methods for calculation of loads on piping systems and supports resulting from water-hammer phenomena are overly conservative. This is mainly because the methods do not usually include interaction between the fluid and the piping and thus predict high loads on piping systems and supports. The objective of the investigation presented in this paper was to develop methodologies for coupled water-hammer analyses, including fluid-structure interaction effects, to be able to obtain realistic loads on piping systems and supports, resulting in production of more economical designs. (orig./RW)

  17. Reinforcement and Drill by Microcomputer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balajthy, Ernest

    1984-01-01

    Points out why drill work has a role in the language arts classroom, explores the possibilities of using a microcomputer to give children drill work, and discusses the characteristics of a good software program, along with faults found in many software programs. (FL)

  18. High cost for drilling ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooghiemstra, J.

    2007-01-01

    Prices for the rent of a drilling ship are very high. Per day the rent is 1% of the price for building such a ship, and those prices have risen as well. Still, it is attractive for oil companies to rent a drilling ship [nl

  19. Definitions of hammer toe and claw toe: an evaluation of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrier, Joost C M; Verheyen, Cees C P M; Louwerens, Jan Willem

    2009-01-01

    Lesser toe surgery is among the most conducted interventions in general orthopedic practice. However, the definitions of hammer toe and claw toe are not uniform. The objective of this literature study is to propose clear definitions for these deformities to establish unambiguous communication. A literature search was performed in the PubMed database (May 2006). Of 81 eligible articles, 42 that stated a clear definition of hammer toe or claw toe were selected. In all 35 articles in which hammer toe was clearly defined, flexion in the proximal interphalangeal joint was part of the definition. Seventeen articles (49%) defined hammer toe as a combination of metatarsophalangeal extension and proximal interphalangeal flexion. Thirteen articles showed flexion of the proximal interphalangeal joint as the single criterion. Twenty-three articles with a clear definition of claw toe were selected. Twenty-one articles (91%) showed metatarsophalangeal extension as part of the claw toe deformity. Twelve articles (52%) regarded metatarsophalangeal extension and flexion of the proximal interphalangeal and distal interphalangeal joints as the essential characteristics. Seven articles described a claw toe as metatarsophalangeal extension with flexion in the proximal interphalangeal joint. There are variations in the definitions of lesser toe deformities in the literature. We propose that extension of the metatarsophalangeal joint is the discriminating factor and essential characteristic for claw toe. Claw toe and hammer toe should be characterized by flexion in the proximal interphalangeal joint, which is the single criterion for a hammer toe. The flexibility of these joints could be a basic factor in discriminating between these deformities. The development of these deformities should be regarded as a continuum in the same pathophysiologic process.

  20. Experimental evaluation of ability of Relap5 and DRAKO to calculate water hammer with phase changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcinkiewicz, Jerzy; Adamkowski, Adam; Lewandowski, Mariusz

    2007-01-01

    Mechanical loadings on pipe systems caused by water hammer with phase changes make calculation of final forces difficult in nuclear power plants. The common procedure in Sweden is to calculate the water hammer loadings, according to the classical one-dimensional theory of liquid transient flow in pipeline, and then transfer the results to strength analyses of pipeline structure. This procedure assumes that there is quasi-steady response of the pipeline structure to pressure surges - no dynamic interaction between the fluid and the pipeline construction. The hydraulic loadings are calculated with 1-D so-called 'network' programs. Commonly used in Sweden are Relap5 (Mod3.2.2 and higher) and Drako. As a third party accredited inspection body INSPECTA NUCLEAR AB reviews calculations of water hammer loadings. An important question for the reviewer (and also for the users) is knowledge about their ability to calculate the dynamic loadings. While the ability of Relap5 and DRAKO to calculate water hammer without phase changes is relatively well investigated the skills of the programs when phase changes are present need some more attention. The presented work shall be seen as an attempt to illustrate ability of Relap5, and Drako programs to calculate the water hammer loadings with phase changes. A special attention was paid to using of Relap5 for calculation of water hammer pressure surges (including some aspects of influence of discretisation of space on the calculation results). The calculations are compared with experimental results. The experiments have been conducted at a test rig designed and constructed at the Szewalski Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery of the Polish Academy of Sciences (IMP PAN) in Gdansk, Poland. The comparison of calculated and measured pressures shows some differences, only the first pressure peak, occurring before evaporation is calculated quite exactly. All next coming pressure peaks differ slightly from the measured with respect to amplitude

  1. A Water Hammer Protection Method for Mine Drainage System Based on Velocity Adjustment of Hydraulic Control Valve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfei Kou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Water hammer analysis is a fundamental work of pipeline systems design process for water distribution networks. The main characteristics for mine drainage system are the limited space and high cost of equipment and pipeline changing. In order to solve the protection problem of valve-closing water hammer for mine drainage system, a water hammer protection method for mine drainage system based on velocity adjustment of HCV (Hydraulic Control Valve is proposed in this paper. The mathematic model of water hammer fluctuations is established based on the characteristic line method. Then, boundary conditions of water hammer controlling for mine drainage system are determined and its simplex model is established. The optimization adjustment strategy is solved from the mathematic model of multistage valve-closing. Taking a mine drainage system as an example, compared results between simulations and experiments show that the proposed method and the optimized valve-closing strategy are effective.

  2. Water Hammer Analysis using RELAP5/MOD 3.3 for Yonggwang Nuclear Power Unit 1 and 2 Blowdown System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Il; Kim, Hea Zoo; Chu, Jung Ho; Ahn, Se Hong; Jung, Chang Ho

    2010-01-01

    Water hammer can be defined as a rapid pressure step occurring in the liquid in a closed pipe caused by a sudden change in the liquid velocity. This pressure acts for a period which is twice the transit time of sonic wave in the pipe. Generally, water hammer can occur in any thermal-hydraulic systems like nuclear power plant and is extremely dangerous for nuclear power plant piping system since, if the pressure induced exceeds the pressure range of the pipe given by the manufacturer, it can lead to the failure of the piping system integrity. For Yonggwang nuclear power unit 1 and 2, water hammer occurred repeatedly on the outlet piping of regenerative heat exchanger of steam generator blowdown system. Thus, design modification was performed to prevent the water hammer and the analysis of effect on water hammer before and after design modification was performed to verify the validity of the design modification

  3. The Marskhod Egyptian Drill Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaltout, M. A. M.

    We describe a possible participation of Egypt in a future Mars rover Mission. It was suggested that Egypt participate through involvement in the design, building and testing of a drill to obtain sub-surface samples. The Space Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IKI), formally invited the Egyptian Ministry of Scientific Research to study the concept for potential use on the Russian Mars 2001 Mission. As one of the objectives of the Marskhod mission was the analysis of sub-surface samples, a drilling mechanism in the payload would be essential. The Egyptian expertise in drill development is associated with the archaeological exploration of the Pyramids. A sophisticated drilling system perforated limestone to a depth of 2 m without the use of lubricants or cooling fluids that might have contaminated the Pit's environment. This experience could have been applied to a drill development Mars 2001 mission, which was unfortunately canceled due to economic problems.

  4. Drilling waste makes concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosfjord, A.

    1993-01-01

    The article deals with a method of drilling waste reclamation by utilizing the converted oil-containing cuttings from the North Sea in the concrete production in Norway. The oil content is to be removed in an incineration process by heating the cuttings to about 800 o C. The output capacity from the exhaust gas water cooling system is 7500 kW/hour, and is to be used in different industrial heating processes. The remaining content of pollutants in the cleaned exhaust gas outlet corresponds to the required limits with the exception of SO 2 and HCl. In addition, an exhaust gas washing plant is to be installed in the near future designed for the further reduction of pollutants by 90%. The converted raw materials are used as a supplement for lessening the demand of sand and cement in the production of concrete-made pipes. 1 fig

  5. Hospital preparation and drills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, J.C.; Mettler, F.A. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The authors discuss how effective management of radiation accidents requires a large amount of preparation and thought. In addition, training of the staff is absolutely essential. This is best accomplished through annual drills, but also may be accomplished through the use of videotapes. The critical points to be remembered in the handling of such accidents and in writing the procedures is that treatment of non-radiation-related injuries and medical stabilization are paramount. The second point is that it is important to be able to distinguish between a patient who has been irradiated from an external radiation source and one who is contaminated with radioactive materials. The handling of these two types of accidents is entirely different and this distinction needs to be made early. All of the items outlined in this chapter concern the care of the severely injured and radioactively contaminated

  6. Contract Renewal Information - all Contracts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Multifamily Portfolio datasets (section 8 contracts) - The information has been compiled from multiple data sources within FHA or its contractors. HUD oversees more...

  7. Computational models to determine fluiddynamical transients due to condensation induced water hammer (CIWH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swidersky, Harald; Schaffrath, Andreas; Dudlik, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Condensation induced water hammer ('condensation hammer', CIWH) represent a dangerous phenomenon in pipings, which can endanger the pipe integrity. If they cannot be excluded, they have to be taken into account for the integrity proof of components and pipe structures. Up to now, there exists no substantiated model, which sufficiently determines loads due to CIWH. Within the framework of the research alliance CIWA, a tool for estimating the potential and the amount of pressure loads will be developed based on theoretical work and supported by experimental results. This first study discusses used computational models, results of experimental observations and gives an outlook onto future techniques. (orig.)

  8. Utilization of the Nelkin model in a Hammer computer code for calculation the reactor parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leal, L.C.

    1980-07-01

    The possibility of modifying the HAMMER code, in the thermal part, by changing the thermal neutron scattering Kernel of its library for another one calculated in a subprogramm which can be incorporated to the code, is studied. This subprogramm uses the original version of the Nelkin model instead of its approximation which is used in the HAMMER. It has the advantage of giving the values of the Kernel for any temperature of the reactor for the approximations P 0 , P 1 , P 2 and P 3 . (Author) [pt

  9. Drillings at Veitsivaara in Hyrynsalmi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinkkanen, H.; Oehberg, A.

    1990-04-01

    According to Governmen's decision in principle Teollisuuden Voima Oy is obliged to make bedrock investigations for the final disposal of the spent fuel produced by its power plant in Olkiluoto. Areas in Kuhmo, Hyrynsalmi, Sievi, Konginkangas and Olkiluoto were selected for the preliminary site investigations to be carried out during years 1987-1992. In Veitsivaara, Hyrynsalmi the investigation program was started in April 1987. During years 1987-1988 a deep borehole (1002 m) and 4 and 500 m deep additional boreholes were core drilled in the area. Various parameters were measured from the flushing water during the drilling. Corelogging included collecting detailed data of fractures and determining the weathering degree and petrographical properties. Rock mechanical properties, uniaxial compressive strength, Young's modulus and Poisso's ratio were measured from core samples. The flushing water needed in the drillings was pumped from 100 m deep borehole wells drilled with down-the-hole method in the vicinity of the borehole. The water was labeled with 2 tracers before use. About 75 m deep hole was percussion drilled near the borehole KR1. The spreading of the flushing water in the upper part of bedrock and the quality off the ground of the groundwater were studied by taking watersamples from the hole. 30 vertical holes were core drilled down to the depth of 10 m in bedrock with a light drilling unit. Drilling was carried out in order to determine the thickness of the overburden, to investigate the geophysical anomaly sources and to support geological mapping in areas covered with overburden. Groundwater hydraulics is one of the main subjects during the preliminary site investigation phase. For that reason 7 multilevel piezometers were installed on the site to monitore hydraulic head in 3 levels in the uppermost part of bedrock. The work consisted of borehole drillings to the depth of 100 m, geophysical borehole loggings and installation of piezometers. In addition

  10. Contract theory and EU Contract Law

    OpenAIRE

    Hesselink, M.W.; Twigg-Flesner, C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between contract theory and European contract law. In particular, it confronts the leading contract law theories with the main characteristics of EU contract law. The conclusion is that the two do not match well. In particular, monist normative contract theories are largely irreconcilable with the contract law of the EU. The paper further addresses the main implications of this mismatch, both for contract theory and for EU contract law. It suggests that in...

  11. Microgravity Drill and Anchor System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parness, Aaron; Frost, Matthew A.; King, Jonathan P.

    2013-01-01

    This work is a method to drill into a rock surface regardless of the gravitational field or orientation. The required weight-on-bit (WOB) is supplied by a self-contained anchoring mechanism. The system includes a rotary percussive coring drill, forming a complete sampling instrument usable by robot or human. This method of in situ sample acquisition using micro - spine anchoring technology enables several NASA mission concepts not currently possible with existing technology, including sampling from consolidated rock on asteroids, providing a bolt network for astronauts visiting a near-Earth asteroid, and sampling from the ceilings or vertical walls of lava tubes and cliff faces on Mars. One of the most fundamental parameters of drilling is the WOB; essentially, the load applied to the bit that allows it to cut, creating a reaction force normal to the surface. In every drilling application, there is a minimum WOB that must be maintained for the system to function properly. In microgravity (asteroids and comets), even a small WOB could not be supported conventionally by the weight of the robot or astronaut. An anchoring mechanism would be needed to resist the reactions, or the robot or astronaut would push themselves off the surface and into space. The ability of the system to anchor itself to a surface creates potential applications that reach beyond use in low gravity. The use of these anchoring mechanisms as end effectors on climbing robots has the potential of vastly expanding the scope of what is considered accessible terrain. Further, because the drill is supported by its own anchor rather than by a robotic arm, the workspace is not constrained by the reach of such an arm. Yet, if the drill is on a robotic arm, it has the benefit of not reflecting the forces of drilling back to the arm s joints. Combining the drill with the anchoring feet will create a highly mobile, highly stable, and highly reliable system. The drilling system s anchor uses hundreds of

  12. Learning by Drilling: Interfirm Learning and Relationship Persistence in the Texas Oilpatch

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan Kellogg

    2011-01-01

    This article examines learning-by-doing that is specific not just to individual firms but to pairs of firms working together in a contracting relationship. Using data from the oil and gas industry, I find that the productivity of an oil production company and its drilling contractor increases with their joint experience. This learning is relationship-specific: drilling rigs cannot fully appropriate the productivity gains acquired through experience with one production company to their work fo...

  13. Learning by Drilling: Inter-Firm Learning and Relationship Persistence in the Texas Oilpatch

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan Kellogg

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the importance of learning-by-doing that is specific not just to individual firms, but to pairs of firms working together in a contracting relationship. Using new, detailed data from the oil and gas industry, I find that the joint productivity of an oil production company and its drilling contractor is enhanced significantly as they accumulate experience working together. This learning is relationship-specific: drilling rigs generally cannot fully appropriate the productiv...

  14. Agile Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Pries-Heje, Lene

    2014-01-01

    with “endless” re-negotiation of the requirements; you need a more flexible way to develop IS. A new way of coping with many changes is to use an agile development approach and a fixed budget and resources contract. This paper presents an example case. We analyse the case and design a guideline for how......When you have stable and non-ambiguous requirements then a classic contract for IS between a supplier and a public sector institution based on a requirements specification may be well suited. However, if you have to accept many changes or have ambiguous requirements then you may end up...... to implement a fixed budget and resources contract in the public sector. The guideline includes elements to cope with challenges in a tender process such as transparency, criteria for supplier selection, and live assessment of resource skills and capabilities, as well as achieving the flexibility for change...

  15. Turnkey contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langetepe, G.

    1977-01-01

    To make energy available economically and in sufficient quantity is a main point for the future of an industrial and more for a developing country. The investment costs and the availability of a power plant and in particular for a nuclear power plant are the most significant factors in the economic operation of the plant. In the phase before signing the contract the essential decisions are made with high influence in the economic operation and the availability of the plant. A turn-key contract offers good possibilities to minimize the risks referring a) the plant quality and functionality, b) the plant investment cost, c) the plant completion date, d) the handling of the licensing procedures, e) the availability of the operation. The lecture mentions the points which are of high influence for a successful erection and operation period and which must be clarified before signing the contract between the buyer and supplier of the plant. (orig./HP) [de

  16. Drilling miniature holes, Part III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillespie, L.K.

    1978-07-01

    Miniature components for precision electromechanical mechanisms such as switches, timers, and actuators typically require a number of small holes. Because of the precision required, the workpiece materials, and the geometry of the parts, most of these holes must be produced by conventional drilling techniques. The use of such techniques is tedious and often requires considerable trial and error to prevent drill breakage, minimize hole mislocation and variations in hole diameter. This study of eight commercial drill designs revealed that printed circuit board drills produced better locational and size repeatability than did other drills when centerdrilling was not used. Boring holes 1 mm in dia, or less, as a general rule did not improve hole location in brass or stainless steel. Hole locations of patterns of 0.66-mm holes can be maintained within 25.4-..mu..m diametral positional tolerance if setup misalignments can be eliminated. Size tolerances of +- 3.8 ..mu..m can be maintained under some conditions when drilling flat plates. While these levels of precision are possible with existing off-the-shelf drills, they may not be practical in many cases.

  17. Drillings at Kivetty in Konginkangas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinkkanen, H.; Oehberg, A.

    1990-05-01

    According to Government's decision in principle Teollisuuden Voima Oy is obliged to make bedrock investigations for the final disposal of the spent fuel produced by its power plant in Olkiluoto. Areas in Kuhmo, Hyrynsalmi, Sievi, Konginkangas and Olkiluoto were selected for the preliminary site investigations to be carried out during years 1987-1992. In Kivetty, Konginkangas the investigation program was started in spring 1988. During years 1988-1989 a deep borehole (1019 m) and 4 about 500 m deep additional boreholes were core drilled in the area. The structure of the holes makes it possible to carry out many investigations in the holes. Various parameters were measured from the flushing water during the drilling. Corelogging included collecting detailed data of fractures and determining the weathering degree and petrographical properties. Rock mechanical properties, uniaxial compressive strength, Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio were measured from core samples. The flushing water needed in the drillings was pumped from 100 m deep borehole wells drilled with down-the-hole method in the vicinity of the borehole. The water was labeled with 2 tracers before use. 30 vertical holes were core drilled down to the depth of 10 m in bedrock with a light drilling unit. Drilling was carried out in order to determine the thickness of the overburden to investigate the geophysical anomaly sources and to support geological mapping in areas covered with overburden. Groundwater hydraulics is one of the main subjects during the preliminary site investigation phase. For that reason 7 multilevel piezometers were installed on the site to monitore hydraulic head in 3 levels in the uppermost part of bedrock. The work consisted of borehole drillings to the depth of 100 m, geophysical borehole loggings and installation of piezometers. In addition about 65 shotholes were drilled for VSP-, tubewave and seismic measurements

  18. Drillings at Syyry in Sievi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinkkanen, H.; Oehberg, A.

    1990-10-01

    According to Government's decision in principle Teollisuuden Voima Oy is obliged to make bedrock investigations for the final disposal of the spent fuel produced by its power plant in Olkiluoto. Areas in Kuhmo, Hyrynsalmi, Sievi, Konginkangas and Olkiluoto were selected for the preliminary site investigations to be carried out during years 1987-1992. In Syyry, Sievi the investigation program was started in spring 1988. During years 1988-1989 a deep borehole (1022 m) and 4 about 500-700 m deep additional boreholes were core drilled in the area. The structure of the holes makes it possible to carry out many investigations in the holes. Various parameters were measured from the flushing water during the drilling. Corelogging included collecting detailed data of fractures and determining the weathering degree and petrographical properties. Rock mechanical properties, uniaxial compressive strength, Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio were measured from core samples. The flushing water needed in the drillings was pumped from 100 m deep borehole wells drilled with down-the-hole method in the vicinity of the borehole. The water was labeled with 2 tracers before use. 35 vertical holes were core drilled down to the depth of 10-20 m in bedrock with a light drilling unit. Drilling was carried out in order to determine the thickness of the overburden, to investigate the geophysical anomaly sources and to support geological mapping in areas covered with overburden. Groundwater hydraulics is one of the main subjects during the preliminary site investigation phase. For that reason 7 multilevel piezometers were installed on the site to monitore hydraulic head in 3 levels in the uppermost part of bedrock. The work consisted of borehole drillings to the depth of 100 m, geophysical borehole loggings and installation of piezometers. In addition about 85 shotholes were drilled for VSP-, tubewave and seismic measurements

  19. A new drilling method—Earthworm-like vibration drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Wang, Ruihe

    2018-01-01

    The load transfer difficulty caused by borehole wall friction severely limits the penetration rate and extended-reach limit of complex structural wells. A new friction reduction technology termed “earthworm-like drilling” is proposed in this paper to improve the load transfer of complex structural wells. A mathematical model based on a “soft-string” model is developed and solved. The results show that earthworm-like drilling is more effective than single-point vibration drilling. The amplitude and frequency of the pulse pressure and the installation position of the shakers have a substantial impact on friction reduction and load transfer. An optimization model based on the projection gradient method is developed and used to optimize the position of three shakers in a horizontal well. The results verify the feasibility and advantages of earthworm-like drilling, and establish a solid theoretical foundation for its application in oil field drilling. PMID:29641615

  20. Inverted emulsion drilling fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ana, I; Astanei, E; Mireanu, G; Orosz, M; Popescu, F; Vasile, I

    1979-07-28

    The subject of the invention is the method of obtaining inverted drilling fluid which is required during stripping of a productive bed and ending of a well where difficulties develop during drilling of the argillaceous rock. Example: in a reservoir with capacity 30 m/sup 3/, 10 m/sup 3/ of diesel fuel are added. A total of 1000 kg of emulsifier are added to the diesel fuel consisting of: 85 mass% of a mixture of sodium and potassium salts of fatty acids, residues of fatty acids or naphthene acids with high molecular weight taken in proportion of 10:90; 5 mass% of a mixture of polymers with hydrophilic-hydrophobic properties obtained by mixing 75 mass% of polyethylene oxide with molecular weight 10,000 and 25 mass% of propylene oxide with molecular weight 15,000, and 10 mass% of salt on alkaline earth metal (preferably calcium chloride). The mixture is mixed into complete dissolving. Then 1200 kg of filtering accelerator are added obtained from concentrated sulfuric acid serving for sulfur oxidation, asphalt substance with softening temperature 85-104/sup 0/C and fatty acids C/sub 10/-C/sub 20/ taken in a proportion of 23.70 and 7 mass% The mixture obtained in this manner is neutralized by adding calcium hydroxide and equal quantities of alumina and activated bentonite clay in a concentration of 1-10 mass%, more preferably 5 mass% in relation to the initial mixture. The obtained mass is mixed until complete dispersion, after which 200 kg of organophilic clay are added obtained from bentonite of the type montmorillonite of sodium by processing with derivate obtained from amine of the type of the quaternary base of ammonium salt, and agent of hydrophobization of the type of fatty alcohols, fatty acids, nonion surfactants of the block-polymer type. After complete dispersion of the organophilic clay, 100 kg of stabilizer of emulsion of the surfactant type was added with molecular weight of 250010,000, more preferably 5000, in concentration of 0.1-5.0 mass%, more

  1. Learning to Control Orientation and Force in a Hammering Task The Initial Stage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vernooij, Carlijn A.; Mouton, Leonora J.; Bongers, Raoul M.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to create stone tools is considered an important step in the emergence of human cognition. To further our understanding of these evolutionary processes we focused on the initial learning processes with which this percussive skill may be acquired. We studied a hammering task in which

  2. Identification of characteristic frequencies of damaged railway tracks using field hammer test measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregui, M.; Li, Z.; Dollevoet, R.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, the feasibility of the Frequency Response Function (FRF)-based statistical method to identify the characteristic frequencies of railway track defects is studied. The method compares a damaged track state to a healthy state based on non-destructive field hammer test measurements. First, a study is carried out to investigate the repeatability of hammer tests in railway tracks. By changing the excitation and measurement locations it is shown that the variability introduced by the test process is negligible. Second, following the concepts of control charts employed in process monitoring, a method to define an approximate healthy state is introduced by using hammer test measurements at locations without visual damage. Then, the feasibility study includes an investigation into squats (i.e. a major type of rail surface defect) of varying severity. The identified frequency ranges related to squats agree with those found in an extensively validated vehicle-borne detection system. Therefore, the FRF-based statistical method in combination with the non-destructive hammer test measurements has the potential to be employed to identify the characteristic frequencies of damaged conditions in railway tracks in the frequency range of 300-3000 Hz.

  3. The Effect of Venue and Wind on the Distance of a Hammer Throw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Iain

    2005-01-01

    In track and field, gravity and air resistance act on the hammer after it has been released. Both of these forces depend on altitude and latitude. In addition, air resistance also depends on wind, temperature, humidity, and barometric pressure. Often, air resistance and varying gravity throughout the earth are not considered when throwing…

  4. Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award: Joseph H. Hammer

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Joseph H. Hammer, recipient of the Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award, is cited for an outstanding research paper whose findings provide important evidence regarding the promise of a male-sensitive approach to mental health marketing and empirically support the inclusion of theory-driven enhancements in group-targeted mental…

  5. If I Had a Hammer: Technology in the Language Arts Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jester, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Describes the computer as a hammer, a tool with unique qualities that allows people to perceive, manipulate, and express language in ways quite different from traditional media. Explores the tool of the multimedia presentation, a common use of technology in classrooms today. Describes a simple project with sixth graders that incorporates reading,…

  6. Saturation of plastic deformation by swift heavy ion irradiation: Ion hammering vs. surface effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferhati, Redi; Dautel, Knut; Bolse, Wolfgang [Institut fuer Halbleiteroptik und Funktionelle Grenzflaechen, Universitaet Stuttgart (Germany); Fritzsche, Monika [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Swift heavy ion (SHI) induced plastic deformation is a subject of current research and scientific discussion. This *Ion Hammering* phenomenon was first observed 30 years ago in amorphous materials like metallic glasses. About 10 years ago, Feyh et al. have shown that stress generation and *Ion Hammering* result in self-organization of thin NiO-films on Si-wafers into a sub-micron lamellae-like structure under grazing angle irradiation. The growth of the lamellae was found to saturate as soon as they have reached a thickness of a few hundreds of nm. Here we show our latest results on the restructuring of pre-patterned thin oxide films by SHI under various irradiation conditions. The experiments were performed by employing (in-situ) scanning electron microscopy, and were complemented by (in-situ) energy dispersive x-ray analysis and atomic force microscopy. As we will show, the saturation behavior can be understood as a competition of *Ion Hammering* and surface energy effects, while the unexpected fact, that the initially crystalline films undergo *Ion Hammering* can possibly be attributed to oxygen loss and thus amorphization during irradiation.

  7. Generation and tests of the new version 88 library for HAMMER system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalhoub, E.S.; Anaf, J.

    1988-08-01

    A new library, version 88, for the HAMMER system, was generated using the ENDF/B-IV FRENDL evaluated nuclear data libraries. It is composed of epithermal and thermal libraries obtained by processing the new versions of ETOG-3 and FLANGE-II codes, respectively. Test results for two benchmark critical assemblies are presented. (author) [pt

  8. Genome sequence of the thermophile Bacillus coagulans Hammer, the type strain of the species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Fei; Tao, Fei; Tang, Hongzhi; Xu, Ping

    2012-11-01

    Here we announce a 3.0-Mb assembly of the Bacillus coagulans Hammer strain, which is the type strain of the species within the genus Bacillus. Genomic analyses based on the sequence may provide insights into the phylogeny of the species and help to elucidate characteristics of the poorly studied strains of Bacillus coagulans.

  9. Genome Sequence of the Thermophile Bacillus coagulans Hammer, the Type Strain of the Species

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Fei; Tao, Fei; Tang, Hongzhi; Xu, Ping

    2012-01-01

    Here we announce a 3.0-Mb assembly of the Bacillus coagulans Hammer strain, which is the type strain of the species within the genus Bacillus. Genomic analyses based on the sequence may provide insights into the phylogeny of the species and help to elucidate characteristics of the poorly studied strains of Bacillus coagulans.

  10. Water hammer due to rapid bubble growth at a severe accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aya, Izuo; Adachi, Masaki; Shiozaki, Koki; Inasaka, Fujio

    2000-01-01

    On a severe accident of the light water reactor (LWR), by steam explosion and so forth due to hydrogen formation by water-metal reaction and direct contact of molted core with water, it is presumed that a lot of vapor forms for a short time in water at reactor vessel and under part of containment vessel. This study aims at and carries out, under reference of the conventional study results, experimental elucidation on coherence of water block motion due to rapid bubble growth, proposal on reduction method of water hammering, development of water hammer estimating method in an actual reactor, and proposal for upgrading of reliability on severe accident evaluation. In 1998 fiscal year, an 'Experimental apparatus on water hammering elements on sever accident' simulated rapid bubble growth due to steam explosion by injecting high pressure air into water was produced to carry out its function test. As a result of the carried out function tests, extreme water hammering phenomena were observed, by which validity of establishment on the study objects could be confirmed. (G.K.)

  11. Water hammer with column separation : a review of research in the twentieth century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergant, A.; Simpson, A.R.; Tijsseling, A.S.

    2004-01-01

    Column separation refers to the breaking of liquid columns in fully filled pipelines. This may occur in a water hammer event when the pressure drops to the vapor pressure at specific locations such as closed ends, high points or knees (changes in pipe slope). A vapor cavity, driven by the inertia of

  12. Fluid-structure interaction with pipe-wall viscoelasticity during water hammer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keramat, A.; Tijsseling, A.S.; Hou, Q.; Ahmadi, A.

    2011-01-01

    Fluid-structure interaction (FSI) due to water hammer in a pipeline which has viscoelastic wall behaviour is studied. Appropriate governing equations are derived and numerically solved. In the numerical implementation of the hydraulic and structural equations, viscoelasticity is incorporated using

  13. Experimental and numerical analysis of water hammer in a large-scale PVC pipeline apparatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergant, A.; Hou, Q.; Keramat, A.; Tijsseling, A.S.; Gajic, A.; Benisek, M.; Nedeljkovic, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of the pipe-wall viscoelasticity on water-hammer pressures. A large-scale pipeline apparatus made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) at Deltares, Delft, The Netherlands, has been used to carry out waterhammer experiments. Tests have been conducted in a

  14. Fluid-structure interaction with pipe-wall viscoelasticity during water hammer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keramat, A.; Tijsseling, A.S.; Hou, Q.; Ahmadi, A.

    2012-01-01

    Fluid–structure interaction (FSI) due to water hammer in a pipeline which has viscoelastic wall behaviour is studied. Appropriate governing equations are derived and numerically solved. In the numerical implementation of the hydraulic and structural equations, viscoelasticity is incorporated using

  15. Avoiding water hammer/fluid transients in nuclear piping systems by controlled filling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    A variety of geometries and operating procedures that lead to steam bubble collapse induced water hammers have been explored experimentally. Construction guidelines that will eliminate the problem at the design stage have been proposed and methods for predicting the pressure signatures proposed

  16. Water hammer with fluid-structure interaction in thick-walled pipes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijsseling, A.S.

    2007-01-01

    A one-dimensional mathematical model is presented which describes the acoustic behaviour of thick-walled liquid-filled pipes. The model is based on conventional water-hammer and beam theories. Fluid–structure interaction (FSI) is taken into account. The equations governing straight pipes are derived

  17. Library generation and tests for the HAMMER system from the ENDF/B-IV data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queiroz Bogado Leite, S. de; Chalhoub, E.S.; Moraes, Marisa de.

    1983-05-01

    The modifications made to a number of programs belonging to the HAMMER system in order to process data from ENDF/B-IV are presented. An alternate scheme of representing the resonance region by means of extensive tabulation of profiles is made available for selected materials. Numerical examples illustrate comparisons of the results obtained with these libraries against those from the literature. (Author) [pt

  18. Analysis of water hammer in control rod drive systems of boiling water reactor nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safwat, H.H.; Arastu, A.H.; Lau, S.

    1983-01-01

    The method of characteristics is applied to analyze water hammer in BWR (Boiling Water Reactor) Control Rod Drive (CRD) Systems following fast opening of scram valves. The modelling of the CRD mechanism is presented. Numerical predictions are compared to experimental data. (author)

  19. A drilling rig tower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mironov, A.A.; Barashkov, V.A.; Bulgakov, E.S.; Kuldoshin, I.P.; Lebedev, A.I.; Papin, N.M.; Rebrik, B.M.; Sirotkin, N.V.

    1981-05-23

    Presentation is made of a drilling rig tower, comprising a gantry, a support shaft with a bracing strut and drawings out, and turn buckles. In order to increase the reliability of the tower in operation, to decrease the over all dimensions in a transport position, and to decrease the amount of time taken to transfer the tower from an operational position into a transportable one, and vice versa, the tower is equipped with a rotary frame made in the form of a triangular prism, whose lateral edges are connected by hinges: the first one with the lower part of the support shaft, the second with the gantry, and the third one to the upper part of the support shaft by means of the drawings out. The large boundary of the rotary frame is connected by a hinge to the support shaft by means of a bracing strut, which is equipped with a slide block connected to it by a hinge, and the rotary frame has a guide for the slide block reinforced to it on the large boundary. Besides this, the lateral edge of the rotary frame is connected to the gantry by means of turn buckles.

  20. Estimation on separation efficiency of aluminum from base-cap of spent fluorescent lamp in hammer crusher unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Seung-Whee

    2017-09-01

    In order to separate aluminum from the base-cap of spent fluorescent lamp (SFL), the separation efficiency of hammer crusher unit is estimated by introducing a binary separation theory. The base-cap of SFL is composed by glass fragment, binder, ferrous metal, copper and aluminum. The hammer crusher unit to recover aluminum from the base-cap consists of 3stages of hammer crusher, magnetic separator and vibrating screen. The optimal conditions of rotating speed and operating time in the hammer crusher unit are decided at each stage. At the optimal conditions, the aluminum yield and the separation efficiency of hammer crusher unit are estimated by applying a sequential binary separation theory at each stage. And the separation efficiency between hammer crusher unit and roll crush system is compared to show the performance of aluminum recovery from the base-cap of SFL. Since the separation efficiency can be increased to 99% at stage 3, from the experimental results, it is found that aluminum from the base-cap can be sufficiently recovered by the hammer crusher unit. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Steam condensation induced water hammer in a vertical up-fill configuration within an integral test facility. Experiments and computational simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirndorfer, Stefan

    2017-01-17

    Condensation induced water hammer is a source of danger and unpredictable loads in pipe systems. Studies concerning condensation induced water hammer were predominantly made for horizontal pipes, studies concerning vertical pipe geometries are quite rare. This work presents a new integral test facility and an analysis of condensation induced water hammer in a vertical up-fill configuration. Thanks to the state of the art technology, the phenomenology of vertical condensation induced water hammer can be analysed by means of sufficient high-sampled experimental data. The system code ATHLET is used to simulate UniBw condensation induced water hammer experiments. A newly developed and implemented direct contact condensation model enables ATHLET to calculate condensation induced water hammer. Selected experiments are validated by the modified ATHLET system code. A sensitivity analysis in ATHLET, together with the experimental data, allows to assess the performance of ATHLET to compute condensation induced water hammer in a vertical up-fill configuration.

  2. Steam condensation induced water hammer in a vertical up-fill configuration within an integral test facility. Experiments and computational simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirndorfer, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Condensation induced water hammer is a source of danger and unpredictable loads in pipe systems. Studies concerning condensation induced water hammer were predominantly made for horizontal pipes, studies concerning vertical pipe geometries are quite rare. This work presents a new integral test facility and an analysis of condensation induced water hammer in a vertical up-fill configuration. Thanks to the state of the art technology, the phenomenology of vertical condensation induced water hammer can be analysed by means of sufficient high-sampled experimental data. The system code ATHLET is used to simulate UniBw condensation induced water hammer experiments. A newly developed and implemented direct contact condensation model enables ATHLET to calculate condensation induced water hammer. Selected experiments are validated by the modified ATHLET system code. A sensitivity analysis in ATHLET, together with the experimental data, allows to assess the performance of ATHLET to compute condensation induced water hammer in a vertical up-fill configuration.

  3. Drilling a borehole for LEP

    CERN Multimedia

    1981-01-01

    Boreholes were drilled along the earlier proposed line of the LEP tunnel under the Jura to find out the conditions likely to be encountered during the construction of the LEP tunnel (Annual Report 1981 p. 106, Fig. 10).

  4. Computed tomography of drill cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, T.

    1985-08-01

    A preliminary computed tomography evaluation of drill cores of granite and sandstone has generated geologically significant data. Density variations as small as 4 percent and fractures as narrow as 0.1 mm were easily detected

  5. Geothermal drilling in Cerro Prieto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez A., Bernardo

    1982-08-10

    The number of characteristics of the different wells that have been drilled in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field to date enable one to summarize the basic factors in the applied technology, draw some conclusions, improve systems and procedures, and define some problems that have not yet been satisfactorily solved, although the existing solution is the best now available. For all practical purposes, the 100 wells drilled in the three areas or blocks into which the Cerro Prieto field has been divided have been completed. Both exploratory and production wells have been drilled; problems of partial or total lack of control have made it necessary to abandon some of these wells, since they were unsafe to keep in production or even to be used for observation and/or study. The wells and their type, the type of constructed wells and the accumulative meters that have been drilled for such wells are summarized.

  6. Experimental Study on the Measurement of Water Bottom Vibration Induced by Underwater Drilling Blasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu Wenbin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the lack of proper instrumentations and the difficulties in underwater measurements, the studies about water bottom vibration induced by underwater drilling blasting are seldom reported. In order to investigate the propagation and attenuation laws of blasting induced water bottom vibration, a water bottom vibration monitor was developed with consideration of the difficulties in underwater measurements. By means of this equipment, the actual water bottom vibration induced by underwater drilling blasting was measured in a field experiment. It shows that the water bottom vibration monitor could collect vibration signals quite effectively in underwater environments. The followed signal analysis shows that the characteristics of water bottom vibration and land ground vibration induced by the same underwater drilling blasting are quite different due to the different geological environments. The amplitude and frequency band of water bottom vibration both exceed those of land ground vibration. Water bottom vibration is mainly in low-frequency band that induced by blasting impact directly acts on rock. Besides the low-frequency component, land vibration contains another higher frequency band component that induced by followed water hammer wave acts on bank slope.

  7. THE LEVEL AND AGE DYNAMICS OF SPORTS ACHIEVEMENTS OF ATHLETES-VETERANS OF THE HAMMER THROW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova Natalya Dmitrievna

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the records of the world and Russian athletes veterans in the hammer throw, starting with the age group 35-39 years and up to age group 100-104 years, and a comparison of the records of veterans subject to an age factor and of the high scores of athletes in the current sports. The aim of the work is to analyze the level and dynamics of the records of the world and Russian athletes, veterans in the hammer throw in each five-year group starting with the age group 35-39 years and up to age group 100-104 years. The novelty of the work consists in comparison of the records of the world and Russia in the hammer throw active athletes and records of veterans with the amendment to the age factor. Analysis of the level and age dynamics of sports achievements of domestic and foreign athletes-throwers older age groups. In the course of the research it is established, that in the throwing hammer, decreasing absolute (without regard to the age factor results, which is largely due to the natural age-related changes in the organism of athletes. Records of the world athletes-veterans compared with the records of active athletes and the transition from each of the five-year group in the following, decline on average in men by 10,0%, among women by 19,3%, in spite of the fact that the weight of the shells in the hammer throw with age decreases. Presented the reasons for the backwardness of Russian athletes older than 35 years of foreign veterans.

  8. S-HAMMER: hierarchical attribute-guided, symmetric diffeomorphic registration for MR brain images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guorong; Kim, Minjeong; Wang, Qian; Shen, Dinggang

    2014-03-01

    Deformable registration has been widely used in neuroscience studies for spatial normalization of brain images onto the standard space. Because of possible large anatomical differences across different individual brains, registration performance could be limited when trying to estimate a single directed deformation pathway, i.e., either from template to subject or from subject to template. Symmetric image registration, however, offers an effective way to simultaneously deform template and subject images toward each other until they meet at the middle point. Although some intensity-based registration algorithms have nicely incorporated this concept of symmetric deformation, the pointwise intensity matching between two images may not necessarily imply the matching of correct anatomical correspondences. Based on HAMMER registration algorithm (Shen and Davatzikos, [2002]: IEEE Trans Med Imaging 21:1421-1439), we integrate the strategies of hierarchical attribute matching and symmetric diffeomorphic deformation to build a new symmetric-diffeomorphic HAMMER registration algorithm, called as S-HAMMER. The performance of S-HAMMER has been extensively compared with 14 state-of-the-art nonrigid registration algorithms evaluated in (Klein et al., [2009]: NeuroImage 46:786-802) by using real brain images in LPBA40, IBSR18, CUMC12, and MGH10 datasets. In addition, the registration performance of S-HAMMER, by comparison with other methods, is also demonstrated on both elderly MR brain images (>70 years old) and the simulated brain images with ground-truth deformation fields. In all experiments, our proposed method achieves the best registration performance over all other registration methods, indicating the high applicability of our method in future neuroscience and clinical applications. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Structure and Conceptual Design of a Water-Hammering-Type Honsang for Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Sam Lee

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the manufacturing procedure, specifications, repair history, and details of celestial movements of the water-hammering type Honsang (celestial globe. Results from our study on the remaining Honsangs in China and Japan and on the reconstruction models in Korea were applied to our conceptual design of the water-hammering type Honsang. A Honui (armillary sphere and Honsang using the water-hammering method were manufactured in Joseon in 1435 (the 17th year of King Sejong. Jang Yeong-Sil developed the Honsang system based on the water-operation method of Shui yün i hsiang t’ai in China. Water-operation means driving water wheels using a water flow. The most important factor in this type of operation is the precision of the water clock and the control of the water wheel movement. The water-hammering type Honsang in Joseon probably adopted the Cheonhyeong (天衡; oriental escapement device system of Shui yün i hsiang t’ai in China and the overflow mechanism of Jagyeongnu (striking clepsydra in Joseon, etc. In addition to the Cheonryun system, more gear instruments were needed to stage the rotation of the Honsang globe and the sun’s movement. In this study, the water-hammering mechanism is analyzed in the structure of a water clock, a water wheel, the Cheonhyeong system, and the Giryun system, as an organically working operation mechanism. We expect that this study will serve as an essential basis for studies on Heumgyeonggaknu, the water-operating astronomical clock, and other astronomical clocks in the middle and latter parts of the Joseon dynasty.

  10. Influence of pin and hammer mill on grinding characteristics, thermal and antioxidant properties of coriander powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnwal, P; Singh, K K; Sharma, Alka; Choudhary, A K; Saxena, S N

    2015-12-01

    In present study, influence of grinding (hammer and pin mills) and moisture content (range: 6.4-13.6 % dry basis) on the quality traits of coriander powder were investigated. These include grinding parameters, colour parameters, specific heat, thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, glass transition temperature, essential oil, total phenolic content, total flavonoid content and DPPH scavenging (%) of coriander powder. For coriander seed, the geometric properties such as major, medium, minor dimensions, geometric mean diameter, arithmetic mean diameter, sphericity, surface area and volume of coriander seeds increased significantly with increasing moisture (6.4-13.6 % db). For coriander powder, the grinding parameters such as average particle size, volume surface mean diameter and volume mean diameter increased significantly with increasing moisture (6.4-13.6 % db). With the grinding method, the colour attributes of coriander powder such as L-value, a-value, b-value, hue angle and browning index varied significantly. It was observed that the specific heat followed second order polynomial relationship with temperature and moisture whereas thermal conductivity varied linearly with temperature and moisture content. The variation of glass transition temperature with moisture can be best represented in quadratic manner. Total flavonoid content (mg QE/g crude seed extract) and DPPH scavenging % activity of coriander powder is significantly affected by grinding methods. A lower value of specific heat was observed for hammer ground coriander powder as compared to pin mill ground coriander powder. The thermal conductivity of hammer mill ground coriander powder was higher as compared to pin mill ground coriander. It was observed that hammer mill yields more fine coriander powder in comparison to pin mill. The browning index was more in hammer mill ground coriander powder.

  11. Synthesis of engineering designs of drilling facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porozhsky, K.

    2018-03-01

    The article sets forth key principles of engineering of drilling equipment based on successive analysis of the goals of the production method, technologies of its implementation and conditions of mineral mining using a new approach to systematization of drilling methods. Potential advancement in the technologies and equipment of drilling is illustrated in terms of oil-well drilling.

  12. A performance incentive contract that pays off for all parties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krummrich, C.R.; Johnston, R.E.; Crist, T.W.

    1995-01-01

    The Western Business Unit Bakersfield drilling department of Chevron, U.S.A. Production Company developed a drilling performance incentive contract that was implemented during 1994 in the Lost Hills field of California. The performance incentive contract (PIC) financially rewarded all of the drilling contractor's rig employees for outperforming pre-established drilling performance goals. The key elements of the performance incentive program are: (1) Goals that rigger incentives are based on cost categories that are controllable by the drilling team; (2) Goals were established using a database of past years performance; (3) Goals that are not achieved negatively impact the incentive earned in an effort to deter repeated errors; (4) Accidents that occur on the job negatively impact the incentive earned; (5) Administration of the program is not time consuming. The results of using an incentive contract in the Lost Hills drilling program are: (1) Time and cost of operations are reduced; (2) The results are measurable and repeatable; (3) A team environment develops in which ideas are shared and acted upon by crew members and supervisory personnel

  13. Device for storing drilling pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolasinski, A; Wedrychowicz, J

    1981-02-16

    The patented device contains a profiled arch 14 (see figure) installed in the upper part of the drilling rig 15. On base 16 of the drilling unit, there is bin 1 which is installed on frame 2 to which it is hinge connected with the help of pin 3. On the other side, the bin rests on rollers 4 which are attached to lever 5 of lifting mechanism 6. Bin 1 is a series of parallel-arranged guides rigidly connected by transverse beams. Frame 2 contains the collapsible support 10. During operation of the device, the hydraulic lifter 6 with the help of frame 5 and rollers 4 lifts bin 1 with drilling pipes installed on it, giving it an angle of 4/sup 0/ in relation to the plane of frame 2. The collapsible support 10 is installed in a vertical position and holds bin 1. This position of bin 1 is the most suitable for movement of the vertically installed drilling pipes on the guides. The distinguishing feature of the patented device is the possibility of convenient arrangement of the drilling pipes on the guides of bin 1. Because of this, the time spent on lifting and lowering the drill apparatus is considerably reduced.

  14. Counterevidence to the ion hammering scenario as a driving force for the shape elongation of embedded nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amekura, H.; Okubo, N.; Tsuya, D.; Ishikawa, N.

    2017-08-01

    Counterevidence is provided in the ion-hammering scenario as a driving force for the shape elongation of embedded nanoparticles (NPs) under swift heavy ion irradiation (SHII). Ion-induced compaction and the hammering, which are both induced in silica under SHII, dominate at low and high fluences, respectively, causing a crossover between them around a fluence of ˜4 × 1012 ions/cm2. Nevertheless, the shape elongation of NPs detected by the optical dichroism exhibits nearly linear dependence in a wide fluence range between ˜1 × 1011 and 2 × 1013 ions/cm2, indicating that the hammering does not play an important role.

  15. Contract theory and EU Contract Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.; Twigg-Flesner, C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between contract theory and European contract law. In particular, it confronts the leading contract law theories with the main characteristics of EU contract law. The conclusion is that the two do not match well. In particular, monist normative contract theories

  16. Drilling a better pair : new technologies in SAGD directional drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmer, C.; Richter, D. [Statoil Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Person, J.; Tilley, J.; Bittar, M. [Halliburton Energy Services, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The Leismer Demonstration Project (LDP) is the first of 8 proposed major steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) projects for Statoil's Kai Kos Dehseh (KKD) asset in the Athabasca oil sands deposit. The bitumen resources are expected to produce approximately 2.2 billion barrels of oil over approximately 35 years with a peak production of 220,000 bbl/day. To date, 23 well pairs have been drilled on 4 drilling pads. The precise placement of well pairs is among the most important factors in a successful SAGD drilling program. The producer well must be placed in relation to the reservoir boundaries. It must also be accurately twinned with the injector well. A strong focus on technological innovation is needed in order to deliver on these high expectations in unconsolidated formations, such as the McMurray oil sands. Lateral SAGD pairs are often drilled with conventional steerable mud motors and logging-while-drilling (LWD) resistivity measurements, but this combination imposes certain limitations in terms of wellbore quality and placement. Several industry firsts were successfully implemented at the Statoil LDP, including a combination of the newest and most cutting-edge directional, measurement, and LWD technology. The keystone of these industry firsts was the use of a soft formation modified, point-the-bit rotary steerable system (RSS), used on 20 horizontal wells. The RRS was combined with an ultra deep azimuthal resistivity sensor to provide precise geosteering along the bottom bed boundary in the producer wells, resulting in improved reservoir capture and reservoir characterization. This paper described the new drilling system and its impact on the progressive future of directional drilling in SAGD. 8 refs., 1 tab., 22 figs.

  17. Muscle Contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, H Lee; Hammers, David W

    2018-02-01

    SUMMARYMuscle cells are designed to generate force and movement. There are three types of mammalian muscles-skeletal, cardiac, and smooth. Skeletal muscles are attached to bones and move them relative to each other. Cardiac muscle comprises the heart, which pumps blood through the vasculature. Skeletal and cardiac muscles are known as striated muscles, because the filaments of actin and myosin that power their contraction are organized into repeating arrays, called sarcomeres, that have a striated microscopic appearance. Smooth muscle does not contain sarcomeres but uses the contraction of filaments of actin and myosin to constrict blood vessels and move the contents of hollow organs in the body. Here, we review the principal molecular organization of the three types of muscle and their contractile regulation through signaling mechanisms and discuss their major structural and functional similarities that hint at the possible evolutionary relationships between the cell types. Copyright © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  18. Contract design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, P.

    2006-01-01

    The current state of the electric power industry in Ontario was discussed with particular reference to the procurement of contracts and why the Ontario Power Authority (OPA) must be contracting to resolve many of Ontario's electricity issues. As Ontario increasingly relies on imports and natural gas-fired generation, the price of electricity continues to rise given that supply is at a low level. In addition to the generation gap, there are also several transmission constrained areas in Ontario, particularly in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA). The OPA announced 2 projects totalling 1900 MW to relieve congestion. According to the Independent Electricity System Operator (IESO), the total potential opportunity for new generation by 2015 is about 5,000 to 7,000 megawatts. OPA is expected to launch procurement processes for up to 1000 MW of cogeneration, 250 MW of province-wide conservation initiatives, 1900 MW of generation in the western part of the GTA, and 600 MW of generation in downtown Toronto. New nuclear capacity is also anticipated in addition to renewables and conservation/demand management (CDM) initiatives. The OPA's competitive procurement processes will include requests for expressions of interest, requests for qualifications and requests for proposals. The challenge of balancing the technical complexities and realities of procuring generation assets with the need for a fair procurement process was discussed. Contracts will be designed to react to market signals and will include 3 styles: tariff style, tolling style and standard offer contract. OPA will make every effort to balance generator and ratepayer interests. 6 figs

  19. Rotary steerable motor system for underground drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, William E [Durham, CT; Perry, Carl A [Middletown, CT; Wassell, Mark E [Kingwood, TX; Barbely, Jason R [Middletown, CT; Burgess, Daniel E [Middletown, CT; Cobern, Martin E [Cheshire, CT

    2008-06-24

    A preferred embodiment of a system for rotating and guiding a drill bit in an underground bore includes a drilling motor and a drive shaft coupled to drilling motor so that drill bit can be rotated by the drilling motor. The system further includes a guidance module having an actuating arm movable between an extended position wherein the actuating arm can contact a surface of the bore and thereby exert a force on the housing of the guidance module, and a retracted position.

  20. Diagnostic System of Drill Condition in Laminated Chipboard Drilling Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swiderski Bartosz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an on-line automatic system for recognition of the drill condition in a laminated chipboard drilling process. Two states of the drill are considered: the sharp enough (still able to drill holes acceptable for processing quality and worn out (excessive drill wear, not satisfactory from the quality point of view of the process. The automatic system requires defining the diagnostic features, which are used as the input attributes to the classifier. The features have been generated from 5 registered signals: feed force, cutting torque, noise, vibration and acoustic emission. The statistical parameters defined on the basis of the auto regression model of these signals have been used as the diagnostic features. The sequential step-wise feature selection is applied for choosing the most discriminative set of features. The final step of recognition is done by support vector machine classifier working in leave one out mode. The results of numerical experiments have confirmed good quality of the proposed diagnostic system.

  1. Team contracts at the Gorlovskuglestroi organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasil' ev, A.Z.

    1984-08-01

    Details are given of successes achieved in mine drivage under the team contract system at Artemugol' mines. Of 43 drivage teams, 15 are working with this system. In 1983 plan figures were generally exceeded. In one mine, the new system led to an increase from 48 to 73 m/month in average drivage rates. Production per man per shift rose from 1.04 to 1.5 m/sup 3/. These increases were partly due to use of a spiral cut for explosive fracturing, BU-1 drilling units and PPN-4 loaders. More efficient work organization led to the elimination of absenteeism and a decrease in consumption of materials and compressed air. Concrete forms were used 4-5 times instead of twice, and drill bits sharpened up to 5 times. Drawbacks to the system include cumbersome accounting procedures and the need for frequent amendments to contracts.

  2. Research on water hammer forces caused by rapid growth of bubbles at severe accidents of water cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inasaka, Fujio; Adachi, Masaki; Aya, Izuo

    2004-01-01

    At severe accidents of Water Cooled Reactors a great deal of gas is expected to be produced in a short time within the water of lower part of nuclear pressure vessel and containment vessel caused by hydrogen production with a metal water reaction and steam explosions with direct contact of melting core and water. Water hammer forces caused by rapid growth of bubbles shall work on the wall of containment vessel and affect its integrity. Coherency of water block movement is not clear, whether simultaneous or in the same direction. Water block behavior and water hammer forces caused by rapid growth of bubbles have been tested using a modified scale model and analyzed to obtain experimental correlated equation to estimate water block's rising distance and velocity from water hammer data. Numerical analysis using RELAP5-3D (Reactor Excursion and Leak Analysis Program) has been conducted to evaluate water hammer forces and makes clear its modifications needed. (T. Tanaka)

  3. Hypothenar hammer syndrome: long-term follow-up after ulnar artery reconstruction with the lateral circumflex femoral artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Niet, A; Van Uchelen, J H

    2017-06-01

    In symptomatic patients with hypothenar hammer syndrome, the occluded part of the ulnar artery can be reconstructed with an autologous graft. Venous grafts are used frequently, but they are known for their low patency rate. Arterial grafts show better patency rates than venous grafts in coronary bypass surgery. We performed 11 ulnar artery reconstructions with the descending branch of the lateral circumflex femoral artery and compared these with previously performed venous reconstructions. All patients with an arterial graft reconstruction had a patent graft at a mean follow-up of 63 months. In addition, nine out of 11 patients reported improvement in their symptoms. The patency rate of venous reconstructions in hypothenar hammer syndrome is significantly lower. Arterial grafting for hypothenar hammer syndrome has superior patency compared with venous grafting; we recommend it as the surgical treatment of choice for symptomatic hypothenar hammer syndrome. 4.

  4. Water hammer phenomena occurring in nuclear power installations while filling horizontal pipe containing saturated steam with liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selivanov, Y.F.; Kirillov, P.L.; Yefanov, A.D. [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    1995-09-01

    The potentiality of the water hammer occurrence in nuclear reactor loop components has been considered under the conditions of filling a steam-containing pipeline leg involving horizontal and vertical sections with liquid subcooled to the saturation temperature. As a result of free discharging from the tank, the liquid enters the horizontal pipeline. When the liquid slug formation in the pipeline is fulfilled. The pressure drop being occurred in steam flowing along the pipelines causes the liquid slug to move to the pipeline inlet. When the liquid slug decelerates, a water hammer occurs. This mechanism of water hammer occurrence is tested by experiments. The regimes of the occurrence of multiple considerable water hammers were identified.

  5. Analytical study on water hammer pressure in pressurized conduits with a throttled surge chamber for slow closure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-liang Zhang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analytical investigation of water hammer in a hydraulic pressurized pipe system with a throttled surge chamber located at the junction between a tunnel and a penstock, and a valve positioned at the downstream end of the penstock. Analytical formulas of maximum water hammer pressures at the downstream end of the tunnel and the valve were derived for a system subjected to linear and slow valve closure. The analytical results were then compared with numerical ones obtained using the method of characteristics. There is agreement between them. The formulas can be applied to estimating water hammer pressure at the valve and transmission of water hammer pressure through the surge chamber at the junction for a hydraulic pipe system with a surge chamber.

  6. Water hammer phenomena occurring in nuclear power installations while filling horizontal pipe containing saturated steam with liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selivanov, Y.F.; Kirillov, P.L.; Yefanov, A.D.

    1995-01-01

    The potentiality of the water hammer occurrence in nuclear reactor loop components has been considered under the conditions of filling a steam-containing pipeline leg involving horizontal and vertical sections with liquid subcooled to the saturation temperature. As a result of free discharging from the tank, the liquid enters the horizontal pipeline. When the liquid slug formation in the pipeline is fulfilled. The pressure drop being occurred in steam flowing along the pipelines causes the liquid slug to move to the pipeline inlet. When the liquid slug decelerates, a water hammer occurs. This mechanism of water hammer occurrence is tested by experiments. The regimes of the occurrence of multiple considerable water hammers were identified

  7. Evaluation of Relationships between Drilling Rate Index and Physical and Strength Properties of Selected Rock Units of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafique, U.; Abu Bakar, M. Z.

    2015-01-01

    Fifteen selected rock types collected from different formations of Pakistan were subjected to Drilling Rate Index (DRI) tests and various physical and strength properties tests including, porosity (n), density, primary wave velocity (V/sub p/), uniaxial compressive strength (sigma/sub c/), Brazilian tensile strength (sigma/sub t/) and Schmidt hammer rebound number (R/sub n/),. Prior knowledge of the drill ability of rocks and their physico-mechanical properties plays a decisive role in planning and design of rock drilling and excavation processes. DRI tests developed by NTNU/SINTEF are in use by the industry since 1960s and have proved very successful in estimation of the boreability of rocks, but no such work has been reported for Pakistani rocks to date. Reasonable correlations were found between the DRI and the properties of the tested rocks. The trends shown in this paper are of interest for the machine manufacturers and operators working on various projects involving the use of drilling machines and other mechanical excavators. (author)

  8. Western Canada drilling cycle optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-06-01

    The oil and gas industry in western Canada operates in annual and seasonal cycles with peak activity periods that require a large skilled labour force for short periods of time. This study examines why seismic and drilling activity is greatest during the first quarter of the year instead of being distributed evenly over the year. The objective of the study was to provide recommendations that would help optimize the industry cycle. The study includes an analysis of historical trends that validate the industry first quarter peaking activity. It also includes interviews with 36 industry representatives and provides insight and validation of trends. The final phase of the report includes recommendations that both industry and governments may wish to implement. The study includes financial, operational and environmental considerations. It was shown that natural gas directed drilling activity is strongly correlated with changes in natural gas prices. In the case of oil drilling activity, peak activity responds to oil prices from the prior quarter. In general, drilling and seismic costs are higher in the winter months because of increased demand for equipment and services. In addition winter drilling operations require a diesel fired boiler to generate steam. 36 refs., 2 tabs., 52 figs

  9. Retractable Contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Barbanera

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In calculi for modelling communication protocols, internal and external choices play dual roles. Two external choices can be viewed naturally as dual too, as they represent an agreement between the communicating parties. If the interaction fails, the past agreements are good candidates as points where to roll back, in order to take a different agreement. We propose a variant of contracts with synchronous rollbacks to agreement points in case of deadlock. The new calculus is equipped with a compliance relation which is shown to be decidable.

  10. Comparison of Electrostatic Fins with Piezoelectric Impact Hammer Techniques to Extend Impulse Calibration Range of a Torsional Thrust Stand (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    prac- tical max impulse to 1mNs. The newly developed Piezo - electric Impact Hammer (PIH) calibration system over- comes geometric limits of ESC...the fins to behave as part of an LRC circuit which results in voltage oscillations. By adding a resistor in series between the pulse generator and...series resistor as well as the effects of no loading on the pulse generator. III. PIEZOELECTRIC IMPACT HAMMER SYSTEM The second calibration method tested

  11. Analysis of mixed oxides critical experiments using the Hammer-Technion code with self-shielding treatment by Bondarenko method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Alfredo Y.; Santos, Adimir dos

    1995-01-01

    The present work summarizes the verification of the treatment of self-shielding based on Bondarenko method in HAMMER-TECHNION cell code for the Pu O 2 -U O 2 critical system using JENDL-3 nuclear data library. The results obtained are in excellent agreement with the original treatment of self-shielding employed by HAMMER-TECHNION cell code. (author). 9 refs, 1 fig, 9 tabs

  12. Review of casing while drilling technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavković Bojan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional drilling methods have been plagued with huge operational and financial challenges, such as cost of purchasing, inspecting, handling, transporting the drill equipment and most importantly, tripping in-and-out of the drill string whenever the Bottom Hole Assembly (BHA needs a replacement, needs of wiper trip or when total depth is reached. The tripping in-and-out of the drill string not only contributes to Non Productive Time (NPT but also leads to well control difficulties including wellbore instability and lost circulation. All this has led Oil and Gas industry, as well as any other engineering industry, to seek for new ways and methods in order to reduce these problems. Thanks to the advances in technical solutions and constant improvements of conventional drilling methods, a new drilling method - casing while drilling has been developed. Casing Drilling encompasses the process of simultaneously drilling and casing a well, using the active casing and thus optimizes the production. This paper presents a review of casing while drilling method (CwD and its practical usage in drilling wells. The comparison of conventional drilling method and casing while drilling is also presented. The CwD method achieves significantly better results than conventional drilling method.

  13. Water hammer caused by rapid gas production in a severe accident in a light water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inasaka, Fujio; Adachi, Masaki; Aya, Izuo; Nariai, Hideki; Shiozaki, Kohki

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the water hammer caused by striking of water mass pushed up by a rapidly growing bubble and its scale effects using two cylindrical model containment vessels of 1.0 and 0.428 m diameters. We also closely observed the movement of water mass and the growing bubble in the vessels. In these experiments, rapid bubble growth was simulated by injecting high-pressure air into a water pool. It was clarified that the water mass was pushed up without any air penetration until the water level reached a certain elevation. On the basis of all data, experimental correlations for estimating the height and striking velocity of the water mass with coherency were proposed, and the water hammer pressure for exerting large forces on the structures was quantitatively evaluated. (author)

  14. A Hybrid Resynthesis Model for Hammer-String Interaction of Piano Tones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen Kristoffer

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a source/resonator model of hammer-string interaction that produces realistic piano sound. The source is generated using a subtractive signal model. Digital waveguides are used to simulate the propagation of waves in the resonator. This hybrid model allows resynthesis of the vibration measured on an experimental setup. In particular, the nonlinear behavior of the hammer-string interaction is taken into account in the source model and is well reproduced. The behavior of the model parameters (the resonant part and the excitation part is studied with respect to the velocities and the notes played. This model exhibits physically and perceptually related parameters, allowing easy control of the sound produced. This research is an essential step in the design of a complete piano model.

  15. The hammer QSD-quick stop device for high speed machining and rubbing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, J. T.; James, C. R.

    1980-01-01

    A quick stop device (QSD) was designed for use in orthogonal machining and rubbing experiments. QSD's are used to obtain chip root samples that are representative of the deformation taking place during dynamic (actual) cutting conditions. These 'frozen' specimens are helpful in examining the plastic deformation that occurs in the regions of compression and shear which form the chip; the secondary shear at the tool-chip interface; and the nose ploughing/flank rubbing action which operates on the newly machined surface. The Hammer QSD employs a shear pin mechanism, broken by a flying hammer, which is traveling at the same velocity as the workpiece. The device has been successfully tested up to 6000 sfpm (30.48 m/sec).

  16. Mitigating check valve slamming and subsequentwater hammer events for PPFS using MOC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Wenxi; Su Guanghui; Wang Gaopeng; Qiu Suizheng; Xiao Zejun

    2009-01-01

    The method of characteristic (MOC) was adopted to analyze the check valve-induced water hammer behaviors for a Parallel Pumps Feedwater System (PPFS) during the alternate startup process. The motion of check valve disc was simulated using inertial valve model. Transient parameters including the pressure oscillation, local flow velocity and slamming of the check valve disc etc. have been obtained. The results showed that severe slamming between the valve disc and valve seat occurred during the alternate startup of parallel pumps. The induced maximum pressure vibration amplitude is up to 5.0 MPa. The scheme of appending a damping torque to slow down the check valve closing speed was also performed to mitigate of water hammer. It has been numerically approved to be an effective approach. (authors)

  17. Mitigating check valve slamming and subsequentwater hammer events for PPFS using MOC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Wenxi; SU Guanghui; WANG Gaopeng; QIU Suizheng; XIAO Zejun

    2009-01-01

    The method of characteristic (MOC) was adopted to analyze the check valve-induced water hammer behaviors for a Parallel Pumps Feedwater System (PPFS) during the alternate startup process. The motion of check valve disc was simulated using inertial valve model. Transient parameters including the pressure oscillation, local flow velocity and slamming of the check valve disc etc. have been obtained. The results showed that severe slamming between the valve disc and valve seat occurred during the alternate startup of parallel pumps. The induced maximum pressure vibration amplitude is up to 5.0 MPa. The scheme of appending a damping torque to slow down the check valve closing speed was also performed to mitigate of water hammer. It has been numerically approved to be an effective approach.

  18. Linear or Rotary Actuator Using Electromagnetic Driven Hammer as Prime Mover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paine, Jeffrey S. N. (Inventor); Smith, Byron F. (Inventor); Sesler, Joshua J. (Inventor); Paine, Matthew T. (Inventor); McMahan, Bert K. (Inventor); McMahan, Mark C. (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    We claim a hammer driven actuator that uses the fast-motion, low-force characteristics of an electro-magnetic or similar prime mover to develop kinetic energy that can be transformed via a friction interface to produce a higher-force, lower-speed linear or rotary actuator by using a hammering process to produce a series of individual steps. Such a system can be implemented using a voice-coil, electro-mechanical solenoid or similar prime mover. Where a typical actuator provides limited range of motion or low force, the range of motion of a linear or rotary impact driven motor can be configured to provide large displacements which are not limited by the characteristic dimensions of the prime mover.

  19. Water-hammer experiences in the startup and early operation of the Shearon Harris plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casada, D.

    1987-01-01

    During the startup testing and initial operation of any power plant, systems undergo planned transients to confirm their ability to respond as designed. In addition to planned testing, unplanned transients infrequently occur as equipment is initially used. Some of both the planned and unplanned transients result in water-hammer events. Several water-hammer events experienced during preoperational testing, power ascension testing, and early operation of the Shearon Harris nuclear power plant are presented. The cause, effect, and corrective actions undertaken to prevent recurrence for each event discussed are provided. In addition, examples of preventive measures taken, based on industry experience accrued at other plants, to prevent a similar occurrence at Shearon Harris are discussed

  20. Condensation induced water hammer (CIWH). Relevance in the nuclear industry and state of science and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swidersky, Harald [TUeV Sued Industrie Service GmbH, Muenchen (Germany)

    2013-03-15

    Condensation-induced water hammers (CIWH) are consequences of rapid condensation of steam in partially filled pipes. They present a particular hazard potential, as they seem to occur spontaneously and out of stagnation. The entire process still eludes a secured analytical or numerical predictability and determination of the fluid dynamic loads. The simulation of these processes is one of the most difficult tasks of thermal hydraulic transient analyses. Condensation induced water hammers in plants - mostly power plants - can lead to significant costs if they result in long downtimes, detailed analyses and upgrades. In this contribution, the phenomenon CIWH is explained and the relevance for nuclear engineering will be discussed. An outlook on the actual requirements of regulatory guidelines and the state of science and technology will be given. (orig.)

  1. Condensation induced water hammer (CIWH). Relevance in the nuclear industry and state of science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swidersky, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Condensation-induced water hammers (CIWH) are consequences of rapid condensation of steam in partially filled pipes. They present a particular hazard potential, as they seem to occur spontaneously and out of stagnation. The entire process still eludes a secured analytical or numerical predictability and determination of the fluid dynamic loads. The simulation of these processes is one of the most difficult tasks of thermal hydraulic transient analyses. Condensation induced water hammers in plants - mostly power plants - can lead to significant costs if they result in long downtimes, detailed analyses and upgrades. In this contribution, the phenomenon CIWH is explained and the relevance for nuclear engineering will be discussed. An outlook on the actual requirements of regulatory guidelines and the state of science and technology will be given. (orig.)

  2. Gas-Induced Water-hammer Loads Calculation for Safety Related Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seungchan; Yoon, Dukjoo [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., LTd, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dooyong [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    Of particular interest, gas accumulation can result in system pressure transient in pump discharge piping following a pump start. Consequently, this evolves into a gas-water, a water-hammer event and the accompanying force imbalances on the piping segments can be sufficient to challenge the piping supports and restraint. This paper describes an method performing to the water-hammer loads to determine the maximum loading that would occur in the piping system following the safety injection signal and to evaluate its integrity. For a given gas void volumes in the discharge piping, the result of the calculation shows the maximum loads of 18,894.2psi, which is smaller than the allowable criteria. Also, the maximum peak axial force imbalances acting on the support is 1,720lbf as above.

  3. Method for estimating steam hammer effects on swing-check valves during closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uram, E.M.

    1976-01-01

    Relationships are developed for estimating the disk impact velocity resulting from a free swing closure of swing-check valves in normal flow and for pipe rupture. They derive from a phase-plane solution of the differential equation for the disk motion that accounts for the nature of the valve pressure drop variation due to steam-hammer effects during closure. For closure in normal flow, the method presented has a more correct foundation than that given in reference where a constant, average valve pressure differential based upon the steady-state pressure drop for the total piping system (which has no real relationship to the steam-hammer-induced valve pressure changes during the closure transient) is used in the valve disk motion equation

  4. Analysis of water hammer in pipelines by partial fraction expansion of transfer function in frequency domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jun Shin; Lee, Wook Ryun; Oh, Ki Yong; Kim, Bong Ki

    2010-01-01

    Understanding water hammer is very important to the prevention of excessive pressure build-up in pipelines. Many researchers have studied this phenomenon, drawing effective solutions through the time- and frequency-domain approaches. For the purposes of enhancing the advantages of the frequency-domain approach and, thereby, rendering investigations of the dynamic characteristics of pipelines more effective, we propose partial fraction expansion of the transfer function between the unsteady flow source and a given section. We simulate the proposed approach using a vibration element inserted into a simple pipeline, deducing much useful physical information pertaining to pipeline design. We conclude that locating the resonance of the vibration element between the first and second resonances of the pipeline can mitigate the excessive pressure build-up attendant on the occurrence of water hammer. Our method of partial fraction expansion is expected to be useful and effective in analyses of unsteady flows in pipelines

  5. Gas-Induced Water-hammer Loads Calculation for Safety Related Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seungchan; Yoon, Dukjoo; Lee, Dooyong

    2013-01-01

    Of particular interest, gas accumulation can result in system pressure transient in pump discharge piping following a pump start. Consequently, this evolves into a gas-water, a water-hammer event and the accompanying force imbalances on the piping segments can be sufficient to challenge the piping supports and restraint. This paper describes an method performing to the water-hammer loads to determine the maximum loading that would occur in the piping system following the safety injection signal and to evaluate its integrity. For a given gas void volumes in the discharge piping, the result of the calculation shows the maximum loads of 18,894.2psi, which is smaller than the allowable criteria. Also, the maximum peak axial force imbalances acting on the support is 1,720lbf as above

  6. Active Suppression of Drilling System Vibrations For Deep Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymond, David W.; Blankenship, Douglas A.; Buerger, Stephen; Mesh, Mikhail; Radigan, William Thomas; Su, Jiann-Cherng

    2015-10-01

    The dynamic stability of deep drillstrings is challenged by an inability to impart controllability with ever-changing conditions introduced by geology, depth, structural dynamic properties and operating conditions. A multi-organizational LDRD project team at Sandia National Laboratories successfully demonstrated advanced technologies for mitigating drillstring vibrations to improve the reliability of drilling systems used for construction of deep, high-value wells. Using computational modeling and dynamic substructuring techniques, the benefit of controllable actuators at discrete locations in the drillstring is determined. Prototype downhole tools were developed and evaluated in laboratory test fixtures simulating the structural dynamic response of a deep drillstring. A laboratory-based drilling applicability demonstration was conducted to demonstrate the benefit available from deployment of an autonomous, downhole tool with self-actuation capabilities in response to the dynamic response of the host drillstring. A concept is presented for a prototype drilling tool based upon the technical advances. The technology described herein is the subject of U.S. Patent Application No. 62219481, entitled "DRILLING SYSTEM VIBRATION SUPPRESSION SYSTEMS AND METHODS", filed September 16, 2015.

  7. Evaluation of SPT energy for Donut and Safety hammers using CPT measurements in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Rami M. El-Sherbiny; Manal A. Salem

    2013-01-01

    Standard Penetration Test (SPT) blow counts require correction prior to utilization in soil characterization and determination of properties and behavior. Among the most important corrections is the energy correction required to adjust the blow counts to 60% energy efficiency. However, there are no published data supporting commonly used value in Egypt. This paper presents an evaluation of the energy efficiency of the Donut and Safety hammers commonly used in Egypt and the associated energy c...

  8. Analysis of water hammer phenomena - Application to deaerator-feedwater pump node

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigu, Melania; Tenescu, Mircea; Nita, Iulian Pavel

    2008-01-01

    The hydraulic hammer adverse effects are extensively presented in the literature available to those who operate and design installations in which this phenomenon occurs. There are specialized computational programs which evaluate diverse technical aspects which occur in this phenomenon. One must be noticed that not all the technical characteristics and not all effective operating modes which are treated in this paper are covered by existing computational programs. Moreover, even specialized developers of such programs recommend insistently that computational results offered by specialized programs to be verified by specialized technologists with experience in alternative theoretical computations in order to avoid any misinterpretation of results obtained by computational codes. After selective exposures of theoretical fundamentals of the problem there are presented a computational calculation obtained using the specialized calculation code PIPENET (Sunrise System Limited, Cambridge, Great Britain). The PIPENET calculation is compared with a standard computational calculation using theoretical correlations. An evaluation of the differences between those two computational methods is made in order to reveal the capabilities of the computational codes in solving the hydraulic hammering problems. In the first stage we obtained the elastic characteristics of the pipe where the phenomena of hydraulic hammering takes place. There are derivative descriptions of differential equations which describe the physical phenomena. In the second part we carried out a complete system analysis of water hammer effect due to a faulty closing of the four level control valves in steam generators. We compared the highest attended pressure with design pressure of the system. We observed that the design pressure is not overpassed. The analysis concluded that pumps' head protection is a very important parameter against overpressure in the feed water system. (authors)

  9. Water-hammer in the feed-water pipes for PWR steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonnet, Bernard; Leroy, Claude; Oullion, Jean; Yazidjian, J.-C.

    1979-01-01

    PWR boiler water feed pipes have been known for several years to be affected by violent water-hammer during start-ups and operation of the plant. In view of the varying results of corrective design modifications in America and Europe, FRAMATOME undertook an experimental research programme which resulted in the adoption of cruciform tubes on the feed-water distributor as the most reliable solution. Subsequent tests at Fessenheim I confirmed the effectiveness of this device [fr

  10. Computerized Hammer Sounding Interpretation for Concrete Assessment with Online Machine Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jiaxing; Kobayashi, Takumi; Iwata, Masaya; Tsuda, Hiroshi; Murakawa, Masahiro

    2018-03-09

    Developing efficient Artificial Intelligence (AI)-enabled systems to substitute the human role in non-destructive testing is an emerging topic of considerable interest. In this study, we propose a novel hammering response analysis system using online machine learning, which aims at achieving near-human performance in assessment of concrete structures. Current computerized hammer sounding systems commonly employ lab-scale data to validate the models. In practice, however, the response signal patterns can be far more complicated due to varying geometric shapes and materials of structures. To deal with a large variety of unseen data, we propose a sequential treatment for response characterization. More specifically, the proposed system can adaptively update itself to approach human performance in hammering sounding data interpretation. To this end, a two-stage framework has been introduced, including feature extraction and the model updating scheme. Various state-of-the-art online learning algorithms have been reviewed and evaluated for the task. To conduct experimental validation, we collected 10,940 response instances from multiple inspection sites; each sample was annotated by human experts with healthy/defective condition labels. The results demonstrated that the proposed scheme achieved favorable assessment accuracy with high efficiency and low computation load.

  11. Diagnosis of the hypothenar hammer syndrome by high-resolution contrast-enhanced MR angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winterer, J.T.; Ghanem, N.; Schaefer, O.; Lehnhardt, S.; Thuerl, C.; Laubenberger, J. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Freiburg, Hugstetter Strasse 55, 79106 Freiburg (Germany); Roth, M. [Center of Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology Freiburg, University of Freiburg, Hugstetter Strasse 55, 79106 Freiburg (Germany); Horch, R.E. [Department of Plastic and Hand Surgery, University of Freiburg, Hugstetter Strasse 55, 79106 Freiburg (Germany)

    2002-10-01

    Our objective was to describe the imaging features of hypothenar hammer syndrome using minimally invasive contrast-enhanced MR angiography in comparison with oscillography study. In five patients with hypothenar hammer syndrome Gd-BOPTA-enhanced elliptically reordered 3D pulse sequence MR was compared with oscillography findings and clinical symptoms focusing on angiographic appearance of vessel injury, distribution pattern of hand vasculature and joining branches between the radial and ulnar artery supply. All patients showed segmental occlusion at the site of trauma impact with varying involvement of the superficial palmar arch, common volar digital arteries. Embolic disease was present in 50% of patients and could be clearly identified with MRA. Good correspondence was found between angiographic appearance including the presence of collaterals, clinical symptoms and oscillography. Bilateral comparison was helpful in distinguishing between vessel variants and pathology. Bilateral Gd-BOPTA-enhanced MR angiography is a minimally invasive method to depict clearly the localization and extent of vessel injury in hypothenar hammer syndrome providing valuable information about distribution pattern of hand vasculature and presence of collaterals; however, no flow data can be obtained. (orig.)

  12. Evaluation of SPT energy for Donut and Safety hammers using CPT measurements in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rami M. El-Sherbiny

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Standard Penetration Test (SPT blow counts require correction prior to utilization in soil characterization and determination of properties and behavior. Among the most important corrections is the energy correction required to adjust the blow counts to 60% energy efficiency. However, there are no published data supporting commonly used value in Egypt. This paper presents an evaluation of the energy efficiency of the Donut and Safety hammers commonly used in Egypt and the associated energy correction factor. The energy efficiency is estimated by comparing N-values from the SPT to back-calculated N60 values from the Cone Penetration Test (CPT using well established correlations. Results indicate that the energy efficiency of the Donut hammer based on current practice in Egypt is approximately 50%. Thus, the back-calculated energy correction factor is approximately 0.82. For the Safety hammer, results indicate that the energy efficiency is approximately 60%, and the energy correction factor is approximately 1.0.

  13. Water-hammer in the cold leg during an SBLOCA due to cold ECCS injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, M.G.; Ghan, L.S.

    1991-01-01

    Water-hammer might occur in the cold leg of pressurized water reactors (PWR) during small break loss-of-coolant accidents (SBLOCA's), when cold emergency core cooling system (ECCS) water is injected into a pipe that may be partially filled with saturated steam. The water may mix with the steam and cause it to condense abruptly. Depending on the flow regime present, slugs of liquid may then be accelerated towards each other or against the piping structure. The possibility of this phenomenon is of concern to us because it may become a dominant phenomenon and change the character of the transient. In performing the code scaling, applicability, and uncertainty study (CSAU) on a SBLOCA scenario, we had to examine the possibility that the transient being analyzed could experience water-hammer and thus depart from the scope of the study. Two criteria for water-hammer initiation were investigated and tested using a RELAP5/MOD3 simulation of the transient. Our results indicated a very low likelihood of occurrence of the phenomenon. 8 refs., 6 figs

  14. Diagnosis of the hypothenar hammer syndrome by high-resolution contrast-enhanced MR angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winterer, J.T.; Ghanem, N.; Schaefer, O.; Lehnhardt, S.; Thuerl, C.; Laubenberger, J.; Roth, M.; Horch, R.E.

    2002-01-01

    Our objective was to describe the imaging features of hypothenar hammer syndrome using minimally invasive contrast-enhanced MR angiography in comparison with oscillography study. In five patients with hypothenar hammer syndrome Gd-BOPTA-enhanced elliptically reordered 3D pulse sequence MR was compared with oscillography findings and clinical symptoms focusing on angiographic appearance of vessel injury, distribution pattern of hand vasculature and joining branches between the radial and ulnar artery supply. All patients showed segmental occlusion at the site of trauma impact with varying involvement of the superficial palmar arch, common volar digital arteries. Embolic disease was present in 50% of patients and could be clearly identified with MRA. Good correspondence was found between angiographic appearance including the presence of collaterals, clinical symptoms and oscillography. Bilateral comparison was helpful in distinguishing between vessel variants and pathology. Bilateral Gd-BOPTA-enhanced MR angiography is a minimally invasive method to depict clearly the localization and extent of vessel injury in hypothenar hammer syndrome providing valuable information about distribution pattern of hand vasculature and presence of collaterals; however, no flow data can be obtained. (orig.)

  15. On the prediction of impact noise, V: The noise from drop hammers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, E. J.; Carr, I.; Westcott, M.

    1983-06-01

    In earlier papers in this series, the concepts of "acceleration" and "ringing" noise have been studied in relation to impact machines, and values of radiation efficiency have been obtained for the various types of structural components. In the work reported in this paper the predicted and measured noise radiation from a drop hammer, both in full-scale and in {1}/{3}- scale model form, were examined. It is found that overall noise levels ( Leq per event) can be predicted from vibration measurements to within ± 1·5 dB, and to within ±2·5 dB in one-third octave bands. In turn this has permitted noise reduction techniques to be examined by studies of local component vibration levels rather than overall noise, a method which provides considerable enlightenment at the design stage. It is shown that on one particular drop hammer, the noise energy is shared surprisingly uniformly over four or five sources, and that when these have been reduced, the overall noise reduction is severely limited by the "acceleration" noise from the "tup" or "hammer" itself. As this is difficult to eliminate without a basic change in forging technology, it follows that "tup" enclosure or modification of the sharpness of the final "hard" impact are the only means available for any serious noise reduction. Also indicated is the reliability of using model techniques, suitably scaled in frequency and impulse magnitude, in developing machinery with impact characteristics.

  16. A four-equation friction model for water hammer calculation in quasi-rigid pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghodhbani, Abdelaziz; Haj Taïeb, Ezzeddine

    2017-01-01

    Friction coupling affects water hammer evolution in pipelines according to the initial flow regime. Unsteady friction models are only validated with uncoupled formulation. On the other hand, coupled models such as four-equation model, provide more accurate prediction of water hammer since fluid-structure interaction (FSI) is taken into account, but they are limited to steady-state friction formulation. This paper deals with the creation of the “four-equation friction model” which is based on the incorporation of the unsteady head loss given by an unsteady friction model into the four-equation model. For transient laminar flow cases, the Zielke model is considered. The proposed model is applied to a quasi-rigid pipe with axial moving valve, and then calculated by the method of characteristics (MOC). Damping and shape of the numerical solution are in good agreement with experimental data. Thus, the proposed model can be incorporated into a new computer code. - Highlights: • Both Zielke model and four-equation model are insufficient to predict water hammer. • The four-equation friction model proposed is obtained by incorporating the unsteady head loss in the four-equation model. • The solution obtained by the proposed model is in good agreement with experimental data. • The wave-speed adjustment scheme is more efficient than interpolations schemes.

  17. Drilling history of core hole DB-15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diediker, L.D.; Ledgerwood, R.K.

    1980-09-01

    This core hole was drilled to obtain hydrologic and chemical data on the permeable zones of the Saddle Mountains and Wanapum Formations. These data were obtained by testing the zones that were penetrated during drilling. This testing-as-drilled method reduced the potential problems of interflow and water contamination. This report summarizes the drilling and coring operations; geologic logging, hydrologic testing, and geophysical logging activities; and cementing operations of DB-15 during drilling. The successful completion of DB-15 demonstrated that hydrologic testing can be conducted during core drilling operations. More reliable head measurements and uncontaminated representative water samples from isolated permeable zones, which have not been exposed to potential open borehole cross-flow and head equilibration problems, were benefits derived from the testing-as-drilled method. Disadvantages of the technique were a longer time to complete the borehole caused by time required for testing and increased drilling costs due to rig standby time during testing. Extension of the testing-as-drilled method to the drilling of future core holes is recommended. An evaluation should be made of the required hydrologic data and expected borehole stratigraphy before and during drilling to allow uninterrupted drilling in zones of low permeability that can be tested after drilling is complete

  18. Types of contracts and contracting procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zijl, N.A. van

    1977-01-01

    Contracting for a nuclear power plant can be carried out in many different ways, from a bilateral agreement between two countries to an international open bidding competition. Also the kind of contracts (turnkey, split-package or multi-contract type) are discussed with their pros and cons as well as the contracting procedures which can be followed to come to the conclusion of a contract. (orig.) [de

  19. Additive to clay drilling muds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voytenko, V.S.; Nekrasova, V.B.; Nikitinskiy, E.L.; Ponomarev, V.N.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of the invention is to improve the lubricating and strengthening properties of clay drilling muds. This goal is achieved because the lubricating and strengthening additive used is waste from the pulp and paper industry at the stage of reprocessing crude sulfate soap into phytosterol.

  20. Drilling azimuth gamma embedded design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Yi Ren

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Embedded drilling azimuth gamma design, the use of radioactive measuring principle embedded gamma measurement while drilling a short section analysis. Monte Carlo method, in response to the density of horizontal well logging numerical simulation of 16 orientation, the orientation of horizontal well analysed, calliper, bed boundary location, space, different formation density, formation thickness, and other factors inclined strata dip the impact by simulating 137Cs sources under different formation conditions of the gamma distribution, to determine the orientation of drilling density tool can detect window size and space, draw depth of the logging methods. The data 360° azimuth imaging, image processing method to obtain graph, display density of the formation, dip and strata thickness and other parameters, the logging methods obtain real-time geo-steering. To establish a theoretical basis for the orientation density logging while drilling method implementation and application of numerical simulation in-depth study of the MWD azimuth and density log response factors of horizontal wells.

  1. Development of controlled drilling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiho, Kenzo; Miyakawa, Kimio; Suzuki, Koichi; Sunaga, Takayuki

    2008-01-01

    In Japan, the soft sedimentary rock of the Neogene tertiary is being focused as a host rock for the High Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) disposal. Especially, the soft sedimentary rock at the offshore, region is thought to be one of the best candidates, since there is no driving force of the underground water. The measurement and logging in the bore hole in order to check the hydro-geological and geomechanical conditions of the host rock is a very important way to examine the potentially of the disposal candidates. The CRIEPI (Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry) has been conducting the project about the controlled drilling technology and the measurement and logging technologies in its borehole. In 2000, as the beginning year of the project, we made the conceptual design of the drilling and measuring systems, and made key tools concerning each technology on an experimental basis. We have been developing sub tools constructing drilling and measuring systems since 2000, and applying these systems to the Horonobe site recent 5 years. We will briefly report the outline of the system and the results of drilling and measurement that were carried out at the Horonobe site. (author)

  2. Hydraulics calculation in drilling simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malyugin, Aleksey A.; Kazunin, Dmitry V.

    2018-05-01

    The modeling of drilling hydraulics in the simulator system is discussed. This model is based on the previously developed quasi-steady model of an incompressible fluid flow. The model simulates the operation of all parts of the hydraulic drilling system. Based on the principles of creating a common hydraulic model, a set of new elements for well hydraulics was developed. It includes elements that correspond to the in-drillstring and annular space. There are elements controlling the inflow from the reservoir into the well and simulating the lift of gas along the annulus. New elements of the hydrosystem take into account the changing geometry of the well, loss in the bit, characteristics of the fluids including viscoplasticity. There is an opportunity specify the complications, the main one of which is gas, oil and water inflow. Correct work of models in cases of complications makes it possible to work out various methods for their elimination. The coefficients of the model are adjusted on the basis of incomplete experimental data provided by operators of drilling platforms. At the end of the article the results of modeling the elimination of gas inflow by a continuous method are presented. The values displayed in the simulator (drill pipe pressure, annulus pressure, input and output flow rates) are in good agreement with the experimental data. This exercise took one hour, which is less than the time on a real rig with the same configuration of equipment and well.

  3. DM Considerations for Deep Drilling

    OpenAIRE

    Dubois-Felsmann, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    An outline of the current situation regarding the DM plans for the Deep Drilling surveys and an invitation to the community to provide feedback on what they would like to see included in the data processing and visualization of these surveys.

  4. Stakeholder acceptance analysis ResonantSonic drilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, T.

    1995-12-01

    This report presents evaluations, recommendations, and requirements concerning ResonantSonic Drilling (Sonic Drilling), derived from a three-year program of stakeholder involvement. Sonic Drilling is an innovative method to reach contamination in soil and groundwater. The resonant sonic drill rig uses counter-rotating weights to generate energy, which causes the drill pipe to vibrate elastically along its entire length. In the resonant condition, forces of up to 200,000 pounds are transmitted to the drill bit face to create a cutting action. The resonant energy causes subsurface materials to move back into the adjacent formation, permitting the drill pipe to advance. This report is for technology developers and those responsible for making decisions about the use of technology to remediate contamination by volatile organic compounds. Stakeholders' perspectives help those responsible for technology deployment to make good decisions concerning the acceptability and applicability of sonic drilling to the remediation problems they face

  5. Drill machine guidance using natural occurring radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahl, H.D.; Schroeder, R.L.; Williams, B.J.

    1980-01-01

    A drilling machine guidance system is described which uses only the naturally occuring radiation within the seam or stratum of interest. The apparatus can be used for guiding horizontal drilling machines through coal seams and the like. (U.K.)

  6. Catamaran type semisubmersible platform for offshore drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pouget, G; Chevallier, J; Hampton, G

    1988-06-10

    A semi-submersible oil rig which allows the vertical storage of drilling tubes and drill pipes is presented. The structure which links the floaters to the bridge consists of hollow columns forming caissons and containing means for storing tubes.

  7. Steel, hard metal and diamonds. The history of drilling blast holes in mining and tunneling; Stahl, Hartmetall und Diamanten. Zur Geschichte des Sprenglochbohrens im Berg- und Tunnelbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feistkorn, E. [Inst. fuer Vortrieb und Gewinnung, DMT-Gesellschaft fuer Forschung und Pruefung mbH, Essen (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Beginning of the blasting technique in mining and tunneling during the 17th century required drilling holes to take the explosive. Following the use of hammer and wedge, drilling was done over a long period of time by hand with mallet and drillsteel. Continuously, during the 19th century the handwork was replaced by drilling machines. Technically, the evolution of drilling equipment is marked by electrohydraulic control and automatization with the assistance of microelectronics. Regarding the material, the introduction of hard metal and - in addition for rotary drilling - the development of synthetic diamond material are the main features. (orig.) [Deutsch] Mit der Einfuehrung der Sprengtechnik im Bergbau und Tunnelbau im 17. Jahrhundert mussten verfahrensbedingt Bohrloecher zur Aufnahme des Sprengstoffes hergestellt werden. In Anlehnung an die Arbeit mit Schlaegel und Eisen erfolgte dies lange Zeit manuell mit dem Bohrfaeustel und Stahlbohrern. Die Handarbeit wurde waehrend der 2. Haelfte des 19. Jahrhunderts kontinuierlich durch Bohrmaschinen verdraengt. Maschinentechnisch ist die weitere Entwicklung durch elektrohydraulische Steuerungen und die Automatisierung der Bohrgeraete mit Hilfe der Mikroelektronik gekennzeichnet. Materialtechnisch stellen die Einfuehrung des Hartmetalls und beim drehenden Bohren zusaetzlich die Entwicklung synthetischer Diamantwerkstoffe die herausragenden Marksteine dar. (orig.)

  8. Heat accumulation during sequential cortical bone drilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmisano, Andrew C; Tai, Bruce L; Belmont, Barry; Irwin, Todd A; Shih, Albert; Holmes, James R

    2016-03-01

    Significant research exists regarding heat production during single-hole bone drilling. No published data exist regarding repetitive sequential drilling. This study elucidates the phenomenon of heat accumulation for sequential drilling with both Kirschner wires (K wires) and standard two-flute twist drills. It was hypothesized that cumulative heat would result in a higher temperature with each subsequent drill pass. Nine holes in a 3 × 3 array were drilled sequentially on moistened cadaveric tibia bone kept at body temperature (about 37 °C). Four thermocouples were placed at the center of four adjacent holes and 2 mm below the surface. A battery-driven hand drill guided by a servo-controlled motion system was used. Six samples were drilled with each tool (2.0 mm K wire and 2.0 and 2.5 mm standard drills). K wire drilling increased temperature from 5 °C at the first hole to 20 °C at holes 6 through 9. A similar trend was found in standard drills with less significant increments. The maximum temperatures of both tools increased from drill sizes was found to be insignificant (P > 0.05). In conclusion, heat accumulated during sequential drilling, with size difference being insignificant. K wire produced more heat than its twist-drill counterparts. This study has demonstrated the heat accumulation phenomenon and its significant effect on temperature. Maximizing the drilling field and reducing the number of drill passes may decrease bone injury. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Drill cuttings mount formation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Su Yean; Koh, Hock Lye

    2014-07-01

    Oil, Gas and Energy sector has been identified as an essential driving force in the Malaysian Economic Transformation Programs (ETP). Recently confirmed discovery of many offshore oil and gas deposits in Malaysian waters has ignited new confidence in this sector. However, this has also spurred intense interest on safeguarding the health and environment of coastal waters in Malaysia from adverse impact resulting from offshore oil and gas production operation. Offshore discharge of spent drilling mud and rock cuttings is the least expensive and simplest option to dispose of large volumes of drilling wastes. But this onsite offshore disposal may have adverse environmental impacts on the water column and the seabed. It may also pose occupational health hazards to the workers living in the offshore platforms. It is therefore important to model the transport and deposition of drilling mud and rock cuttings in the sea to enable proper assessment of their adverse impacts on the environment and the workers. Further, accumulation of drill particles on the seabed may impede proper operation of pipelines on the seabed. In this paper, we present an in-house application model TUNA-PT developed to cater to local oil and gas industry needs to simulate the dispersion and mount formation of drill cuttings by offshore oil and gas exploration and production platforms. Using available data on Malaysian coastal waters, simulation analyses project a pile formation on the seabed with a maximum height of about 1 m and pile radius of around 30 to 50 m. Simulated pile heights are not sensitive to the heights of release of the cuttings as the sensitivity has been mitigated by the depth of water.

  10. Effects of a Short Drilling Implant Protocol on Osteotomy Site Temperature and Drill Torque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihali, Sorin G; Canjau, Silvana; Cernescu, Anghel; Bortun, Cristina M; Wang, Hom-Lay; Bratu, Emanuel

    2018-02-01

    To establish a protocol for reducing the drilling sequence during implant site preparation based on temperature and insertion torque. The traditional conventional drilling sequence (used several drills with 0.6-mm increment each time) was compared with the proposed short drilling protocol (only used 2 drills: initial and final drill). One hundred drilling osteotomies were performed in bovine and porcine bones. Sets of 2 osteotomy sites were created in 5 bone densities using 2 types of drilling protocols. Thermographic pictures were captured throughout all drilling procedures and analyzed using ThermaCAM Researcher Professional 2.10. Torque values were determined during drilling by measuring electrical input and drill speed. There were statistically significant differences in bone temperature between the conventional and short drilling protocols during implant site preparation (analysis of variance P = 0.0008). However, there were no significant differences between the 2 types of drilling protocols for both implant diameters. Implant site preparation time was significantly reduced when using the short drilling protocol compared with the conventional drilling protocol (P drilling protocol proposed herein may represent a safe approach for implant site preparation.

  11. Surgical drill system and surgical drill bit to be used therein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Margallo Balbas, E.; Wieringa, P.A.; French, P.J.; Lee, R.A.; Breedveld, P.

    2007-01-01

    Surgical drill system comprising a mechanical drill bit and means for imaging the vicinity of the drill bit tip, said means comprising: at least one optical fiber having a distal end and a proximal end, said distal end being located adjacent said drill bit tip, an optical processing unit, said

  12. 25 CFR 226.33 - Line drilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Line drilling. 226.33 Section 226.33 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Requirements of Lessees § 226.33 Line drilling. Lessee shall not drill within 300 feet...

  13. 30 CFR 256.71 - Directional drilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Directional drilling. 256.71 Section 256.71... drilling. In accordance with an approved exploration plan or development and production plan, a lease may be maintained in force by directional wells drilled under the leased area from surface locations on...

  14. Drilling of bone: A comprehensive review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Rupesh Kumar; Panda, S.S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Bone fracture treatment usually involves restoring of the fractured parts to their initial position and immobilizing them until the healing takes place. Drilling of bone is common to produce hole for screw insertion to fix the fractured parts for immobilization. Orthopaedic drilling during surgical process causes increase in the bone temperature and forces which can cause osteonecrosis reducing the stability and strength of the fixation. Methods A comprehensive review of all the relevant investigations carried on bone drilling is conducted. The experimental method used, results obtained and the conclusions made by the various researchers are described and compared. Result Review suggests that the further improvement in the area of bone drilling is possible. The systematic review identified several consequential factors (drilling parameters and drill specifications) affecting bone drilling on which there no general agreement among investigators or are not adequately evaluated. These factors are highlighted and use of more advanced methods of drilling is accentuated. The use of more precise experimental set up which resembles the actual situation and the development of automated bone drilling system to minimize human error is addressed. Conclusion In this review, an attempt has been made to systematically organize the research investigations conducted on bone drilling. Methods of treatment of bone fracture, studies on the determination of the threshold for thermal osteonecrosis, studies on the parameters influencing bone drilling and methods of the temperature measurement used are reviewed and the future work for the further improvement of bone drilling process is highlighted. PMID:26403771

  15. 30 CFR 250.1605 - Drilling requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... deposit. (2) Inclinational surveys shall be obtained on all vertical wells at intervals not exceeding 1... to that leaseholder. (f) Fixed drilling platforms. Applications for installation of fixed drilling... removed or have been otherwise immobilized are classified as fixed bottom founded drilling platforms. (g...

  16. Development of vertical drilling apparatus (Terra-Drill); Entwicklung eines Vertikal-Bohrgeraets (Terra-Drill) - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenne, D.

    2009-05-15

    This well-illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reports on the development of a vertical drilling apparatus named Terra-Drill. The various stages of the development of the apparatus, which is based on earlier designs, is discussed. New norms issued in Germany for the size of boreholes for buried vertical heat-exchangers and the appropriate linings to be used are discussed. The new Terra Drill 4407 V drilling apparatus and its testing are discussed. The drill is quoted as being particularly suitable for cramped locations. Technical details are presented and a comprehensive collection of photographs is included. Various preliminary reports and development documentation are included.

  17. Study on drilling induced delamination of woven kenaf fiber reinforced epoxy composite using carbide drills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhaily, M.; Hassan, C. H. Che; Jaharah, A. G.; Azmi, H.; Afifah, M. A.; Khairusshima, M. K. Nor

    2018-04-01

    In this research study, it presents the influences of drilling parameters on the delamination factor during the drilling of woven kenaf fiber reinforced epoxy composite laminates when using the carbide drill bits. The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of drilling parameters such as cutting speed, feed rate and drill sizes on the delamination produced when drilling woven kenaf reinforced epoxy composite using the non-coated carbide drill bits. The damage generated on the woven kenaf reinforced epoxy composite laminates were observed both at the entrance and exit surface during the drilling operation. The experiments were conducted according to the Box Behnken experimental designs. The results indicated that the drill diameter has a significant influence on the delamination when drilling the woven kenaf fiber reinforced epoxy composites.

  18. A drilling mud for drilling wells in collapsing rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bochkarev, G P; Anderson, B A; Minkhayrov, K A; Sharipov, A U

    1982-01-01

    In a known drilling mud for drilling wells in collapsing rocks, which contains clay, sodium silicate and polyacrylamide (PAA), in order to increase its specific electrical resistance and to increase the strengthening properties, a silicoorganic liquid is additionally introduced into its composition with the following component ratio (percent): clay, 5 to 7; sodium silicate, 5 to 7; polyacrylamide, 0.3 to 0.5; silicoorganic liquid, GKZh-94, 0.5 to 1.5 and water, the remainder. The GKZh-94 is a chemical compound based on alkylphenylchlorsilanes and substituted ethers of orthosilicic acid, used for waterproofing fabrics and soils. The addition of GKZh-94 provides the required values of the specific electric resistance of the mud and does not distort the gas logging indications. The proposed mud has low water production (4 to 6 cubic centimeters), optimal viscosity (25 to 31 seconds) and high structural and mechanical properties. Its strengthening properties are substantially above those of the known mud.

  19. Automatic real time drilling support on Ekofisk utilizing eDrilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rommetveit, Rolv; Bjorkevoll, Knut S.; Halsey, George W.; Kluge, Roald; Molde, Dag Ove; Odegard, Sven Inge [SINTEF Petroleum Research, Trondheim (Norway); Herbert, Mike [HITEC Products Drilling, Stavanger (Norway); ConocoPhillips Norge, Stavanger (Norway)

    2008-07-01

    eDrilling is a new and innovative system for real time drilling simulation, 3D visualization and control from a remote drilling expert centre. The concept uses all available real time drilling data (surface and downhole) in combination with real time modelling to monitor and optimize the drilling process. This information is used to visualize the wellbore in 3D in real time. eDrilling has been implemented in an Onshore Drilling Center in Norway. The system is composed of the following elements, some of which are unique and ground-breaking: an advanced and fast Integrated Drilling Simulator which is capable to model the different drilling sub-processes dynamically, and also the interaction between these sub-processes in real time; automatic quality check and corrections of drilling data; making them suitable for processing by computer models; real time supervision methodology for the drilling process using time based drilling data as well as drilling models / the integrated drilling simulator; methodology for diagnosis of the drilling state and conditions. This is obtained from comparing model predictions with measured data. Advisory technology for more optimal drilling. A Virtual Wellbore, with advanced visualization of the downhole process. Dat low and computer infrastructure. e-Drilling has been implemented in an Onshore Drilling Center on Ekofisk in Norway. The system is being used on drilling operations, and experiences from its use are presented. The supervision and diagnosis functionalities have been useful in particular, as the system has given early warnings on ECD and friction related problems. This paper will present the eDrilling system as well as experiences from its use. (author)

  20. Advanced control strategies for a drill rig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, A.; Hiller, M.; Fink, B.

    1996-01-01

    The construction of tunnels is usually undertaken using a combination of blasting and drilling to achieve rock excavation. Easy handling and high accuracy, and thus greater efficiency, in drilling rigs is an essential ingredient of successful competition in the market place. This article describes a cartesian control concept used for a twin boom drill rig. This simplifies the handling of a drilling boom, reduces the duration of a working cycle and increases security. A remote control system has been added to the drill rig to support the operator working in complicated environments. (UK)

  1. Numerical and in-situ investigations of water hammer effects in Drava river Kaplan turbine hydropower plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergant, A.; Gregorc, B.; Gale, J.

    2012-11-01

    This paper deals with critical flow regimes that may induce unacceptable water hammer in Kaplan turbine hydropower plants. Water hammer analysis should be performed for normal, emergency and catastrophic operating conditions. Hydropower plants with Kaplan turbines are usually comprised of relatively short inlet and outlet conduits. The rigid water hammer theory can be used for this case. For hydropower plants with long penstocks the elastic water hammer should be used. Some Kaplan turbine units are installed in systems with long open channels. In this case, water level oscillations in the channels should be carefully investigated. Computational results are compared with results of measurements in recently rehabilitated seven Drava river hydroelectric power plants in Slovenia. Water hammer in the six power plants is controlled by appropriate adjustment of the wicket gates and runner blades closing/opening manoeuvres. Due to very long inflow and outflow open channels in Zlatoličje HPP a special vaned pressure regulating device attenuates extreme pressures in Kaplan turbine flow-passage system and controls unsteady flow in both open channels. Comparisons of results include normal operating regimes. The agreement between computed and measured results is reasonable.

  2. Ex Vivo Evaluation of Cementless Acetabular Cup Stability Using Impact Analyses with a Hammer Instrumented with Strain Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijou, Antoine; Rosi, Giuseppe; Hernigou, Philippe; Flouzat-Lachaniette, Charles-Henri; Haïat, Guillaume

    2017-12-27

    The acetabular cup (AC) implant stability is determinant for the success of cementless hip arthroplasty. A method based on the analysis of the impact force applied during the press-fit insertion of the AC implant using a hammer instrumented with a force sensor was developed to assess the AC implant stability. The aim of the present study was to investigate the performance of a method using a hammer equipped with strain sensors to retrieve the AC implant stability. Different AC implants were inserted in five bovine samples with different stability conditions leading to 57 configurations. The AC implant was impacted 16 times by the two hammers consecutively. For each impact; an indicator I S (respectively I F ) determined by analyzing the time variation of the signal corresponding to the averaged strain (respectively force) obtained with the stress (respectively strain) hammer was calculated. The pull-out force F was measured for each configuration. F was significantly correlated with I S (R² = 0.79) and I F (R² = 0.80). The present method has the advantage of not modifying the shape of the hammer that can be sterilized easily. This study opens new paths towards the development of a decision support system to assess the AC implant stability.

  3. The influence of the non-Newtonian properties of blood on blood-hammer through the posterior cerebral artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazraei, Pedram; Riasi, Alireza; Takabi, Behrouz

    2015-06-01

    This work investigates a two dimensional numerical analysis of blood hammer through the posterior cerebral artery. The non-Newtonian and usual Newtonian blood models are compared in the case of blood hammer through the posterior cerebral artery to quantify the differences between the models. In this way, a validated CFD simulation is used to study non-Newtonian shear-thinning effects of blood. The governing equations for the modeling of two-dimensional transient flow are solved using a combination of characteristics and central finite difference methods, respectively for the hyperbolic and parabolic parts. Herein, the non-Newtonian viscosity characteristic of blood is incorporated by using the Carreau model. To convert the nonlinear terms available in the characteristics equation into the linear ones, the Newton-Kantorovich method is implemented. The verification and validation of the numerical results are carried out in detail. Hemodynamic characteristics of blood hammer through the posterior cerebral artery are derived with both the Newtonian and non-Newtonian models, and the results are meticulously compared and discussed. The results show that when blood hammer occurs, the non-Newtonian properties greatly influence the velocity and shear stress profiles. At the early stages of blood hammer, there is a 64% difference between magnitudes of wall shear stress in these two models, and the magnitude of the wall shear stress for the shear-thinning blood flow is lower than the Newtonian one. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Numerical and in-situ investigations of water hammer effects in Drava river Kaplan turbine hydropower plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergant, A; Gregorc, B; Gale, J

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with critical flow regimes that may induce unacceptable water hammer in Kaplan turbine hydropower plants. Water hammer analysis should be performed for normal, emergency and catastrophic operating conditions. Hydropower plants with Kaplan turbines are usually comprised of relatively short inlet and outlet conduits. The rigid water hammer theory can be used for this case. For hydropower plants with long penstocks the elastic water hammer should be used. Some Kaplan turbine units are installed in systems with long open channels. In this case, water level oscillations in the channels should be carefully investigated. Computational results are compared with results of measurements in recently rehabilitated seven Drava river hydroelectric power plants in Slovenia. Water hammer in the six power plants is controlled by appropriate adjustment of the wicket gates and runner blades closing/opening manoeuvres. Due to very long inflow and outflow open channels in Zlatolicje HPP a special vaned pressure regulating device attenuates extreme pressures in Kaplan turbine flow-passage system and controls unsteady flow in both open channels. Comparisons of results include normal operating regimes. The agreement between computed and measured results is reasonable.

  5. Stratified flow instability and slug formation leading to condensation-induced water hammer in a horizontal refrigerant pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel Martin, C.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: An experimental apparatus was designed for the purpose of investigating the phenomenon of condensation-induced water hammer in an ammonia refrigeration system. Water hammer was initiated by introducing warm ammonia gas over static subcooled ammonia liquid placed in a horizontal 146.3 mm diameter carbon steel pipe 6.0 m in length. By means of fast response piezoelectric pressure transducers and a high speed data acquisition system rapid dynamic pressures were recorded whenever a shock event occurred. Moreover, by means of top-mounted diaphragm pressure transducers the speed of liquid slugs propagating along the pipe was determined. The occurrence of condensation induced water hammer depended upon three major variables; namely, (1) initial liquid depth, (2) liquid temperature, and (3) mass flow rate of warm gas. For given liquid depth and temperature, once the warm gas threshold conditions were exceeded shocks occurred with greater magnitude as the mass flow rate of gas input was increased. With adequate subcooling condensation-induced water hammer occurred for initial liquid depths ranging from 25% to 95% of internal pipe diameter. The threshold mass flow rate of warm gas necessary to initiate water hammer was greater as the initial liquid depth was lowered. Based upon experimental results obtained from four pressure transducers located on the top of the test pipe conditions corresponding to bridging were ascertained. For various initial liquid depths the onset of instability from stratified flow to bridging was correlated with the Taitel-Dukler instability criterion. (author)

  6. UO2-PuO2 critical experiments based on a coupled NJOY/AMPX-II/HAMMER-TECHNION system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, M.A.R.

    1990-01-01

    The performance of the HAMMER-TECHNION system in the criticality analysis of mixed oxide (UO sub(2)-PuO sub(2)) fuel pins clad with Zircaloy-2 and having light water as moderator was analyzed in this work. The basic nuclear data libraries for the HAMMER-TECHNION have been generated by processing the ENDF/B-IV and JENDL-2 nuclear data files with the NJOY system. The question of the effect of Plutonium resonances close to the thermal region on the average thermal parameters was addressed by creating a special version of the HAMMER-TECHNION system with the thermal energy cut-off at 1.855 eV. The final system effective multiplication factor was calculated with the CITATION code by using the homogeneized four-group cross sections generated by the HAMMER-TECHNION system. Results are shown for the original HAMMER-TECHNION thermal cut-off and for the one at 1.855 eV. Besides that, for some selected critical systems, the effect of the resonance interference among the resonances of the Uranium and Plutonium isotopes was addressed by using the ROLAIDS module of the AMPX-II system. The effect of the thermal energy cut-off on the integral parameters of the critical systems was not found to be of extreme importance. (author)

  7. Electric drill-string telemetry

    CERN Document Server

    Carcione, J M

    2003-01-01

    We design a numerical algorithm for simulation of low-frequency electric-signal transmission through a drill string. This is represented by a transmission line with varying geometrical and electromagnetic properties versus depth, depending on the characteristics of the drill-string/formation system. These properties are implicitly modeled by the series impedance and the shunt admittance of the transmission line. The differential equations are parabolic, since at low frequencies the wave field is diffusive. We use an explicit scheme for the solution of parabolic problems, based on a Chebyshev expansion of the evolution operator and the Fourier pseudospectral method to compute the spatial derivatives. The results are verified by comparison to analytical solutions obtained for the initial-value problem with a voltage source.

  8. Innovative techniques cut costs in wetlands drilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro, A.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on an approach to drilling oil and gas wells in sensitive wetlands areas contributed to a savings of over $1.2 million on a three-well, $3 million drilling project in south Louisiana. ARCO Oil and Gas Co. drilled a three-well project in the Bayou Sale field with a truck-mounted workover rig and a modified solids-control system. This smaller equipment eliminated the need to build a large location in the marsh. Traditional drilling techniques require a large drillsite to accommodate all the equipment of a modern drilling complex. However, recently imposed environmental regulations substantially limit, and in some cases prohibit, the use of these conventional techniques for drilling wells in wetlands areas. Based on the potentially huge economic and operational impact on the drilling industry because of these stricter regulations, alternatives to these traditional practices are essential

  9. Chemical Speciation of Chromium in Drilling Muds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taguchi, Takeyoshi; Yoshii, Mitsuru; Shinoda, Kohzo

    2007-01-01

    Drilling muds are made of bentonite and other clays, and/or polymers, mixed with water to the desired viscosity. Without the drilling muds, corporations could not drill for oil and gas and we would have hardly any of the fuels and lubricants considered essential for modern industrial civilization. There are hundreds of drilling muds used and some kinds of drilling muds contain chromium. The chemical states of chromium in muds have been studied carefully due to concerns about the environmental influence. However it is difficult to determine the chemical state of chromium in drilling muds directly by conventional analytical methods. We have studied the chemical form of chromium in drilling muds by using a laboratory XAFS system and a synchrotron facility

  10. Deep Drilling and Sampling via the Wireline Auto-Gopher Driven by Piezoelectric Percussive Actuator and EM Rotary Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Zacny, Kris; Paulsen, Gale L; Beegle, Luther; Bao, Xiaoqi

    2012-01-01

    The ability to penetrate subsurfaces and perform sample acquisition at depths of meters is critical for future NASA in-situ exploration missions to bodies in the solar system, including Mars and Europa. A corer/sampler was developed with the goal of acquiring pristine samples by reaching depths on Mars beyond the oxidized and sterilized zone. To developed rotary-hammering coring drill, called Auto-Gopher, employs a piezoelectric actuated percussive mechanism for breaking formations and an electric motor rotates the bit to remove the powdered cuttings. This sampler is a wireline mechanism that is incorporated with an inchworm mechanism allowing thru cyclic coring and core removal to reach great depths. The penetration rate is being optimized by simultaneously activating the percussive and rotary motions of the Auto-Gopher. The percussive mechanism is based on the Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) mechanism that is driven by piezoelectric stack and that was demonstrated to require low axial preload. The Auto-Gopher has been produced taking into account the a lessons learned from the development of the Ultrasonic/Sonic Gopher that was designed as a percussive ice drill and was demonstrated in Antarctica in 2005 to reach about 2 meters deep. A field demonstration of the Auto-Gopher is currently being planned with objective of reaching as deep as 3 to 5 meters in tufa subsurface.

  11. Drilling Performance of Rock Drill by High-Pressure Water Jet under Different Configuration Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songyong Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the rock drilling progress, the resistant force results in tools failure and the low drilling efficiency; thus, it is necessary to reduce the tools failure and enhance the drilling efficiency. In this paper, different configuration modes of drilling performance assisted with water jet are explored based on the mechanism and experiment analysis of rock drilling assisted with water jet. Moreover, the rotary sealing device with high pressure is designed to achieve the axial and rotation movement simultaneously as well as good sealing effect under high-pressure water jet. The results indicate that the NDB and NFB have better effects on drilling performance compared with that of NSB. Moreover, the high-pressure water jet is helpful not only to reduce the drill rod deflection, but also to reduce the probability of drill rod bending and improve the drill rod service life.

  12. Assessment of a potential rapid condensation induced water hammer in a passive auxiliary feedwater system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Jong Chull; Shin, Byung Soo; Do, Kyu Sik [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Moody, Frederick J. [General Electric (Retired), CA (United States)

    2012-10-15

    A passive auxiliary feedwater system (PAFS) which is incorporated in the APR+ system is a kind of closed natural circulation loop. The PAFS has no operating functions during normal plant operation, but it has a dedicated safety function of the residual heat removal following initiating events, including the unlikely event of the most limiting single failure occurring coincident with a loss of offsite power, when the feedwater system becomes inoperable or unavailable. Even in the unlikely event of a station blackout, the isolation valves can be opened either by DC power or manual operation and then the PAFS can also provide adequate condensate to the steam generator (SG). The PAFS piping in the vicinity of each of the two SGs is designed to minimize the potential for destructive water hammer during start up operation by setting the stroke time for full close or full open of the condensate isolation valves upon receipt of a passive auxiliary feedwater actuation signal. The temperature of the stagnant condensate water and its surrounding tubes and piping during the reactor normal operation modes may fall to the ambient temperature. A possible concern is the introduction of saturated steam into the PAFS recirculation pipe downstream of the PCHX in the beginning of the PAFS operation. Although the steam introduction rate is expected to be slow, a rapid condensation rate is expected due to the initial cold surrounding temperature in the pipe, which could result in a localized pressure reduction and the propagation of decompression and velocity disturbances into the condensate water leg, which might cause the sudden closure of check valves and associated water hammer. Thus, it is requisite for the licensing review of the PAFS design to confirm if destructive water hammers will not be produced due to such rapid condensation induced decompressions in the system. This paper addresses an assessment of the potential local decompressions which could result from the steam

  13. Slant rigs offer big payoffs in shallow drilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.; Edwards, B.

    1992-01-01

    Slant hole drilling technology can result in considerable savings over conventionally drilled deviated holes because mud motors and deviation control with measurement while drilling tools are usually unnecessary. The benefits of using slant hole rigs for development drilling improve after the bit walk tendencies and the correct bottom hole assemblies have been determined for a particular area. This article discusses three recent drilling operations that successfully used slant drilling technology on land-based projects: drilling for heavy oil in Alberta, drilling for gas in Alberta, and drilling a river crossing for a gas pipeline in British Columbia. These examples demonstrate the flexibility of slant drilling technology

  14. Impact of industrial hammer mill rotor speed on extraction efficiency and quality of extra virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polari, Juan J; Garcí-Aguirre, David; Olmo-García, Lucía; Carrasco-Pancorbo, Alegría; Wang, Selina C

    2018-03-01

    Crushing is a key step during olive oil extraction. Among commercial crushers, the hammer mill is the most widely used due to its robustness and high throughput. In the present work, the impact of hammer mill rotor speed on extraction yield and overall quality of super-high-density Arbosana olive oils were assessed in an industrial facility. Our results show that increasing the rotor speed from 2400rpm to 3600rpm led to a rise in oil yield of 1.2%, while conserving quality parameters. Sensory analysis showed more pungency with increased rotation speed, while others attributes were unaffected. Volatile compounds showed little variation with the differences in crusher speed; however, total phenols content, two relevant secoiridoids, and triterpenoids levels increased with rotor speed. Hammer mill rotor speed is a processing variable that can be tuned to increase the extraction efficiency and modulate the chemical composition of extra virgin olive oil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A new approach for evaluating water hammer including the initial state of pressurization of the installation and fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kaless

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The water hammer phenomenon is well known since the 19th century, while its mathematical formulation, by means of differential equations, is due to works of researchers such us Allievi (1903 and others from the beginning of the 20th century. The equations found in the technical publications produce a strange water hammer when the initial condition is defined assuming an incompressible fluid and a rigid pipe. The correct solution requires solving the water hammer equations for the initial state. When the finite difference method is applied, the initial state is solved by means of a set of non-linear equations. A novel approach is proposed including the initial state of pressurization into the governing equations and hence simplifying the calculus of the initial conditions. Furthermore, a critical reading of the deduction of the equations is done pointing out conceptual inconsistencies and proposing corrections.

  16. Experimental Study of Air Vessel Behavior for Energy Storage or System Protection in Water Hammer Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Besharat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental assessment of an air pocket (AP, confined in a compressed air vessel (CAV, has been investigated under several different water hammer (WH events to better define the use of protection devices or compressed air energy storage (CAES systems. This research focuses on the size of an AP within an air vessel and tries to describe how it affects important parameters of the system, i.e., the pressure in the pipe, stored pressure, flow velocity, displaced volume of water and water level in the CAV. Results present a specific range of air pockets based on a dimensionless parameter extractable for other real systems.

  17. Hypothenar hammer syndrome: caused by a muscle anomaly? A case report with review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estermann, Lea; Ducommun, Pascal; Steurer-Dober, Isabelle; Hug, Urs

    2018-05-01

    The hypothenar hammer syndrome (HHS) is a rare entity of secondary Raynaud's phenomenon. The blunt hypothenar trauma causes a lesion of the vessel wall with a consecutive thrombosis or aneurysm of the ulnar artery at the Guyon's canal. Different risk factors are discussed such as nicotine abuse, or a muscle anomaly in the Guyon's canal. To date, there are five case reports published about muscle anomalies and HHS. We present a case of a 51-year-old shipbuilder with a unilateral HHS on his right dominant hand with a bilateral muscle anomaly. We successfully treated the patient by resection of the aneurysm without a resection of the atypical muscle.

  18. Investigation of the Hammer-Gamma measurement technique: A feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Showalter, R.

    1987-05-01

    As a reconnaissance tool for the determination of the approximate extent of shallow subsurface radium contamination, various detectors were evaluated to determine the most appropriate size for use in this task. Measurements were taken in the calibration models with existing instrumentation to determine sensitivities and calibration factors. Field measurements were taken to ensure subsurface contamination could be located with the instrumentation selected. Various methods of constructing a slim and shallow borehole were investigated to determine the easiest and quickest method of inserting the detector into the ground. Based on these investigations, a prototype ''Hammer-Gamma'' system was designed, built, and tested. 7 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  19. Computational models to determine fluid dynamical transients due to condensation induced water hammer (CIWH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swidersky, H.; Schaffrath, A.; Dudlik, A.

    2011-01-01

    Condensation induced water hammer (CIWH) represent a dangerous phenomenon in pipings, which can endanger the pipe integrity. If they cannot be excluded, they have to be taken into account for the integrity proof of components and pipe structures. Up to now, there exists no substantiated model, which sufficiently determines loads due to CIWH. Within the framework of the research alliance CIWA, a tool for estimating the potential and the amount of pressure loads will be developed based on theoretical work and supported by experimental results. This first study discusses used computational models, compares their results against experimental observations and gives an outlook onto future techniques. (author)

  20. CFPL installs products pipeline with directional drilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    Central Florida Pipeline Company (CFPL), a subsidiary of GATX Terminals Corp., Tampa, FL, has used directional drilling under seven water bodies in Hillsborough, Polk and Osceola Counties in constructing its new pipeline from Tampa to Orlando. Primary reason for using directional drilling is to protect the environment by minimizing water turbidity while the 16-inch diameter, 109-mile refined petroleum products pipeline is being installed. Total cost of the project is pegged at $68.5 million. Directional drilling enabled the pipe to be placed about 20 feet below the bottom of: The Alafia River in Riverview with 999 feet drilled; Port Sutton Channel near the Port of Tampa with 2,756 feet drilled; Reedy Creek Swamp at the intersection of Interstate 4 and Highway 192 which had 1,111 feet drilled; Wetland number-sign 70 southwest of Lake Wales with 1,575 feet drilled; Peace River south of Bartow had 2,470 feet drilled; Bonnet Creek west of Kissimmee had 693 feet drilled. Shingle Creek near the borders of Osceola and Orange Counties with 1,700 feet drilled. This paper reviews the design plans for construction and the emergency response plans should a rupture occur in the line

  1. Methods to ensure optimal off-bottom and drill bit distance under pellet impact drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalyov, A. V.; Isaev, Ye D.; Vagapov, A. R.; Urnish, V. V.; Ulyanova, O. S.

    2016-09-01

    The paper describes pellet impact drilling which could be used to increase the drilling speed and the rate of penetration when drilling hard rock for various purposes. Pellet impact drilling implies rock destruction by metal pellets with high kinetic energy in the immediate vicinity of the earth formation encountered. The pellets are circulated in the bottom hole by a high velocity fluid jet, which is the principle component of the ejector pellet impact drill bit. The paper presents the survey of methods ensuring an optimal off-bottom and a drill bit distance. The analysis of methods shows that the issue is topical and requires further research.

  2. Wave Stresses in the Anvil Hammer Rods under Impact Including Ram Mass and Deformation Force of Forgings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Sinitskiy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available When operating the anvil hammers there occur impacts of die tooling and as a consequence, virtually instantaneous impact stops of motion of drop hammer parts. Such operating conditions come with accelerated failures of the anvil hammer rods because of emerging significant wave stresses. Engineering practice widely uses variation, difference, and integral methods to calculate wave stresses. However, to use them a researcher has to acquire certain skills, and the special programs should be available. The paper considers a method for estimating the wave stress changes in the anvil hammer rods, which is based on the wave equation of the Laplace transform. It presents a procedure for generating differential equations and their solution using the operator method. These equations describe the wave processes of strain and stress propagation in the anvil hammer rod under non-rigid impact with the compliance obstacle of the drop hammer parts. The work defines how the piston and rod mass and also the mechanical and geometric parameters of the rod influence on the stress level in the rod sealing of the hammer ram. Analysis of the results shows that the stresses in the rod sealing are proportional to the total amount of wave stresses caused by the rod and piston impact included in the total weight of the system. The piston influence on the stresses in the rod under impact is in direct proportion to the ratio of its mass to the mass of the rod. Geometric parameters of the rod and speed of drop parts before the impact influence on the stress value as well. It was found that if the time of impact is less than the time of the shock wave running in forward and backward direction, the impact with a compliance obstacle is equivalent to that of with a rigid obstacle, and the dependence of the wave stresses follows the Zhukovsky formula of direct pressure shock. The presented method of stress calculation can be successfully used to select the optimal mass and the rod

  3. Studi Numerik Variasi Pemilihan Gas Accumulator Untuk Pencegahan Water Hammer Pada Sistem Perpipaan Sepanjang 1 Kilometer dan Debit Aliran 800 GPM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anindika Bagus Pradana

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sistem jaringan perpipaan sangat penting dalam menunjang produksi pada bidang industri. Jaringan perpipaan mengalami beberapa fenomena seperti distribusi fluida dan water hammer. Water hammer sering terjadi di daerah discharge pompa saat pengoperasian dan gagalnya beroperasinya pompa. Water hammer dapat merusak jaringan perpipaan. Fenomena water hammer dapat terjadi hampir di setiap sistem instalasi perpipaan. Fenomena ini mempunyai dampak buruk apabila sistem perpipaan tersebut tidak memperhatikan akibat dari water hammer. Fenomena dalam sistem perpipaan mempunyai dampak negatif dengan selang waktu tertentu, water hammer adalah fenomena dimana dampak yang ditimbulkan terjadi seketika itu juga. Penanggulangan yang tidak tepat terhadap dampak tersebut dapat mengakibatkan instalasi tersebut harus dimatikan (shutdown. Pada simulasi ini digunakan sistem instalasi perpipaan dengan panjang 1 kilometer dan debit aliran 800 gpm.Pada sistem instalasi ini memiliki rangkaian pompa tunggal yang dilengkapi dengan gas accumulator di sisi discharge pompa. Ketika terjadi perubahan flow rate yang menyebabkan pompa beroprasi atau gagal beroprasi akan menimbulkan fenomena water hammer.Penelitian dilakukan secara numerik menggunakan software AFT Impulse 4.0. Water hammer dapat diminimalisi dengan memasang gas accumulator pada daerah dekat discharge pompa. Variasi gas accumulator adalah gas accumulator merk NOK tipe AT 175-20 dengan volume maksimum 20 liter, tipe AT 210-60 dengan volume maksimum 60 liter dan tipe AT 230-120 dengan volume maksimum 100 liter. Hasil yang didapatkan pada simulasi menunjukan pada jarak 4 meter dari rumah pompa masing-masing P max dan P min  untuk sistem perpipaan dengan simulasi proses trip pompa tanpa proteksi water hammer adalah 1729 Kpa dan 381 Kpa, untuk sistem perpipaan dengan gas accumulator volume setting 20 liter adalah 1228 Kpa dan 927 Kpa, untuk sistem perpipaan dengan gas accumulator volume setting 60 liter adalah 1161 Kpa

  4. New optimized drill pipe size for deep-water, extended reach and ultra-deep drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jellison, Michael J.; Delgado, Ivanni [Grant Prideco, Inc., Hoston, TX (United States); Falcao, Jose Luiz; Sato, Ademar Takashi [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Moura, Carlos Amsler [Comercial Perfuradora Delba Baiana Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    A new drill pipe size, 5-7/8 in. OD, represents enabling technology for Extended Reach Drilling (ERD), deep water and other deep well applications. Most world-class ERD and deep water wells have traditionally been drilled with 5-1/2 in. drill pipe or a combination of 6-5/8 in. and 5-1/2 in. drill pipe. The hydraulic performance of 5-1/2 in. drill pipe can be a major limitation in substantial ERD and deep water wells resulting in poor cuttings removal, slower penetration rates, diminished control over well trajectory and more tendency for drill pipe sticking. The 5-7/8 in. drill pipe provides a significant improvement in hydraulic efficiency compared to 5-1/2 in. drill pipe and does not suffer from the disadvantages associated with use of 6-5/8 in. drill pipe. It represents a drill pipe assembly that is optimized dimensionally and on a performance basis for casing and bit programs that are commonly used for ERD, deep water and ultra-deep wells. The paper discusses the engineering philosophy behind 5-7/8 in. drill pipe, the design challenges associated with development of the product and reviews the features and capabilities of the second-generation double-shoulder connection. The paper provides drilling case history information on significant projects where the pipe has been used and details results achieved with the pipe. (author)

  5. Trends in the Drilling Waste Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucyna Czekaj

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum Industry is trying to achieve sustainable development goals. Each year new solutions are implemented to minimize the environmental impact of drilling operations. The paper presents trends in the drilling waste management caused by introducing the sustainable development into the petroleum industry. Old solutions such as the drilling waste disposal at the waste dump or dumping ground are not acceptable from the environmental point of view. The paper presents an analysis of new solutions as the sustainable solutions. The most important problem is the chemical pollution in cuttings and the waste drilling mud. The industrial solutions as well as the laboratory research on the pollution removing from drilling wastes are analysed. The most promising method seems to be the recycling and design for the environment of drilling mud.

  6. PDVSA INTEVEP Technologies in oil well drilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolivar, C.; Rafael, A.; Davila, Manuel A.

    1998-01-01

    The orimulsion, the generation of catalytic technologies and the development of HDH (process which transform heavy crudes in light crudes), are examples of some of the well known technologies developed by PDVSA INTEVEP. But the drilling oil wells technologies developed by the same entreprise, even though are very important, are less known all around the world. This document describes some products developed through those technologies: THIXOGAS T M which is an antimigratory aditive; INTEFLOW T M which is a fluid for drilling, complementation and rehabilitation of oil drills; INTERCAB T M which is an aditive for fluids in drilling; orimatita which is a denser for drilling fluids; CARBOLIG T M which is an aditive for drilling fluids; and many other products and technologies in development, impacted considerably the venezuelan economy by preserving the environment and saving quite an important amount of money in 1997 (Bs. 3.000 M M)

  7. Thermal-hydraulic calculation and water hammer analysis on CEFR loop system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Pengfei; Zhang Xiwen; Cai Weidong; Wang Xuefang

    1997-01-01

    China Experimental Fast Reactor (CEFR) is one of the '863' High-technical Projects. It is necessary to study the hydraulic and thermal Characteristic of CEFR loop system in order to guarantee the safety of operation. The results of the thermal-hydraulic calculation have been given. The main points are as follows: 1. The simplified model is built according to the loop system of CEFR, and the calculation method which is called 'NODE'-'BRANCH' is applied. This method includes two aspects, one is the theoretical analysis that is based on fluid mechanics and heat transfer theory. The other is the engineering calculation. These two aspects are connected in the computation. On the basis of the work mentioned above, the stable state computation is presented. In order to prevent serious damage caused by power failure accident, the courses of surplus reactor heat removing through two different systems have been simulated in the computation. 2. By using the fluid dynamics theory, the simplified model and the equipment boundary conditions of loop system are given. The water hammer computation is processed during the valve closing and pump stopping accidents. Some pictures of water hammer wave are presented, and the most dangerous state in the accident is also given

  8. Experience in Grid Site Testing for ATLAS, CMS and LHCb with HammerCloud

    CERN Document Server

    Van der Ster , D; Medrano Llamas, R; Legger , F; Sciaba, A; Sciacca, G; Ubeda Garca , M

    2012-01-01

    Frequent validation and stress testing of the network, storage and CPU resources of a grid site is essential to achieve high performance and reliability. HammerCloud was previously introduced with the goals of enabling VO- and site-administrators to run such tests in an automated or on-demand manner. The ATLAS, CMS and LHCb experiments have all developed VO plugins for the service and have successfully integrated it into their grid operations infrastructures. This work will present the experience in running HammerCloud at full scale for more than 3 years and present solutions to the scalability issues faced by the service. First, we will show the particular challenges faced when integrating with CMS and LHCb offline computing, including customized dashboards to show site validation reports for the VOs and a new API to tightly integrate with the LHCbDIRAC Resource Status System. Next, a study of the automatic site exclusion component used by ATLAS will be presented along with results for tuning the exclusion p...

  9. Experience in Grid Site Testing for ATLAS, CMS and LHCb with HammerCloud

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    Frequent validation and stress testing of the network, storage and CPU resources of a grid site is essential to achieve high performance and reliability. HammerCloud was previously introduced with the goals of enabling VO- and site-administrators to run such tests in an automated or on-demand manner. The ATLAS, CMS and LHCb experiments have all developed VO plugins for the service and have successfully integrated it into their grid operations infrastructures. This work will present the experience in running HammerCloud at full scale for more than 3 years and present solutions to the scalability issues faced by the service. First, we will show the particular challenges faced when integrating with CMS and LHCb offline computing, including customized dashboards to show site validation reports for the VOs and a new API to tightly integrate with the LHCbDIRAC Resource Status System. Next, a study of the automatic site exclusion component used by ATLAS will be presented along with results for tuning the exclusion ...

  10. Pipe rupture and steam/water hammer design loads for dynamic analysis of piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strong, B.R. Jr.; Baschiere, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    The design of restraints and protection devices for nuclear Class I and Class II piping systems must consider severe pipe rupture and steam/water hammer loadings. Limited stress margins require that an accurate prediction of these loads be obtained with a minimum of conservatism in the loads. Methods are available currently for such fluid transient load development, but each method is severely restricted as to the complexity and/or the range of fluid state excursions which can be simulated. This paper presents a general technique for generation of pipe rupture and steam/water hammer design loads for dynamic analysis of nuclear piping systems which does not have the limitations of existing methods. Blowdown thrust loadings and unbalanced piping acceleration loads for restraint design of all nuclear piping systems may be found using this method. The technique allows the effects of two-phase distributed friction, liquid flashing and condensation, and the surrounding thermal and mechanical equipment to be modeled. A new form of the fluid momentum equation is presented which incorporates computer generated fluid acceleration histories by inclusion of a geometry integral termed the 'force equivalent area' (FEA). The FEA values permit the coupling of versatile thermal-hydraulic programs to piping dynamics programs. Typical applications of the method to pipe rupture problems are presented and the resultant load histories compared with existing techniques. (Auth.)

  11. Calculation of fluid (steam) hammer loading to piping systems by the response spectrum method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, G.; Schrader, W.; Leimbach, K.R.

    1983-01-01

    Today computations of fluid and steam hammer loading to piping systems are usually performed as a time-history analysis in which the transient pressure forces act as external excitations. For practical purposes it is desirable to be able to treat fluid hammer loading using the response spectrum method similarily as loads from external events. Two advantages arise from the use of spectra in the analysis of piping systems subjected to dynamic force excitations. Firstly, the response spectrum method is much less sensitive to model idealization than the time-history method. Secondly, computational efforts are reduced. In this paper the algorithm for the treatment of force excitations through the modal response spectrum method is briefly presented. The effect of the residuum accounting for higher modes which are not part of the modal decomposition is considered. In particular various methods of superposition of the responses of the dynamic forces and of the modes are investigated. Results and comparisons are presented of several response spectrum analyses and time-history analyses. (orig.)

  12. Modal spectrum analysis of piping systems under water-hammer loading: Spectra examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meder, G.; Grams, J.

    1983-01-01

    In the last few years the dynamic calculation with spectra of piping systems under fluid-hammer has been developed. In comparison with the time-history solution method the spectra method has important advantages because it can calculate a bounded solution. In this bounded solution, the inevitable uncertainties of the time-dependent forces and the uncertainties in the modeling of the piping system are taken into account. The spectra also give valuable information about the frequency content of the time-dependent forces, which is important too for correct time-step selection when using the time-history-method. Using the spectra method, the dynamic calculation is divided into stages. First and most essential is the calculation of the spectra. Secondly, a form of superposition is used for combining the results from each eigenmode analysis. In this paper the first stage, calculation of the spectra due to fluid hammer loading, will be examined. An approximate method for load calculation is shown, whereby the results from a change of fluid-dynamic parameters can be quickly determined without making a full numerical analysis. When changes are made in fluiddynamic parameters, the normal result is a change of shift in the frequency content of the spectra. However, for changes in certain parameters, only the force amplitudes are changed. Both types of changes will be discussed. (orig./RW)

  13. Water Hammer Mitigation on Postulated Pipe Break of Feed Water System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seong, Ho Je; Woo, Kab Koo; Cho, Keon Taek

    2008-01-01

    The Feed Water (FW) system supplies feedwater from the deaerator storage tank to the Steam Generators(S/G) at the required pressure, temperature, flow rate, and water chemistry. The part of FW system, from the S/G to Main Steam Valve House just outside the containment building wall, is designed as safety grade because of its safety function. According to design code the safety related system shall be designed to protect against dynamic effects that may results from a pipe break on high energy lines such as FW system. And the FW system should be designed to minimize blowdown volume of S/G secondary side during the postulated pipe break. Also the FW system should be designed to prevent the initiation or to minimize the effects of water hammer transients which may be induced by the pipe break. This paper shows the results of the hydrodynamic loads induced by the pipe break and the optimized design parameters to mitigate water hammer loads of FW system for Shin-Kori Nuclear Power Plant Unit 3 and 4 (SKN 3 and 4)

  14. Assessment of water hammer effects on boiling water nuclear reactor core dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bousbia-Salah Anis

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex phenomena, as water hammer transients, occurring in nuclear power plants are still not very well investigated by the current best estimate computational tools. Within this frame work, a rapid positive reactivity addition into the core generated by a water hammer transient is considered. The numerical simulation of such phenomena was carried out using the coupled RELAP5/PARCS code. An over all data comparison shows good agreement between the calculated and measured core pressure wave trends. However, the predicted power response during the excursion phase did not correctly match the experimental tendency. Because of this, sensitivity studies have been carried out in order to identify the most influential parameters that govern the dynamics of the power excursion. After investigating the pressure wave amplitude and the void feed back responses, it was found that the disagreement between the calculated and measured data occurs mainly due to the RELAP5 low void condensation rate which seems to be questionable during rapid transients. .

  15. Analysis on shock wave speed of water hammer of lifting pipes for deep-sea mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhi-jin; Yang, Ning; Wang, Zhao

    2013-04-01

    Water hammer occurs whenever the fluid velocity in vertical lifting pipe systems for deep-sea mining suddenly changes. In this work, the shock wave was proven to play an important role in changing pressures and periods, and mathematical and numerical modeling technology was presented for simulated transient pressure in the abnormal pump operation. As volume concentrations were taken into account of shock wave speed, the experiment results about the pressure-time history, discharge-time history and period for the lifting pipe system showed that: as its concentrations rose up, the maximum transient pressure went down, so did its discharges; when its volume concentrations increased gradually, the period numbers of pressure decay were getting less and less, and the corresponding shock wave speed decreased. These results have highly coincided with simulation results. The conclusions are important to design lifting transporting system to prevent water hammer in order to avoid potentially devastating consequences, such as damage to components and equipment and risks to personnel.

  16. A parametric study of condensation-induced water hammer in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shon, Young Uk; Chun, Moon Hyun

    1990-01-01

    Condensation-induced water hammer (CIWH), which may occur in systems involving steam and water simultaneously, has a series of processes such as formation of water slug, trapping a steam cavity, depressurization due to steam condensation, accelerating slug caused pressure difference over it and final slug impact. These processes are dependent on water flow rate in a pipe, water temperature, water subcooling, steam pressure, size of slug and cavity, and heat transfer coefficient at interface between steam and water. In the present work, the prediction of conditions to initiate water hammer has been made with full scale by applying the open channel flow theory. These conditions are expressed in terms of water flow rate according to changes of steam pressure, water subcooling, and pipe diameter. Under these conditions that induce CIWH, the effect of parameters which influence on slug impact pressure and cavity collapse rate have been studied with full scale. Also, the impact loads that may be applied to piping design were evaluated under various system conditions

  17. Application of perturbation methods and sensitivity analysis to water hammer problems in hydraulic networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balino, Jorge L.; Larreteguy, Axel E.; Andrade Lima, Fernando R.

    1995-01-01

    The differential method was applied to the sensitivity analysis for water hammer problems in hydraulic networks. Starting from the classical water hammer equations in a single-phase liquid with friction, the state vector comprising the piezometric head and the velocity was defined. Applying the differential method the adjoint operator, the adjoint equations with the general form of their boundary conditions, and the general form of the bilinear concomitant were calculated. The discretized adjoint equations and the corresponding boundary conditions were programmed and solved by using the so called method of characteristics. As an example, a constant-level tank connected through a pipe to a valve discharging to atmosphere was considered. The bilinear concomitant was calculated for this particular case. The corresponding sensitivity coefficients due to the variation of different parameters by using both the differential method and the response surface generated by the computer code WHAT were also calculated. The results obtained with these methods show excellent agreement. (author). 11 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  18. Replacement team of mining drilling rigs

    OpenAIRE

    Hamodi, Hussan; Lundberg, Jan

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a practical model to calculate the optimal replacement time (ORT) of drilling rigs used in underground mining. As a case study, cost data for drilling rig were collected over four years from a Swedish mine. The cost data include acquisition, operating, maintenance and downtime costs when using a redundant rig. A discount rate is used to determine the value of these costs over time. The study develops an optimisation model to identify the ORT of a mining drilling rig which ...

  19. Test plan for core drilling ignitability testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witwer, K.S.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this testing is to determine if ignition occurs while core drilling in a flammable gas environment. Drilling parameters are chosen so as to provide bounding conditions for the core sampling environment. If ignition does not occur under the conditions set forth in this test, then a satisfactory level of confidence will be obtained which would allow field operations under the normal drilling conditions

  20. Newberry exploratory slimhole: Drilling and testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finger, J.T.; Jacobson, R.D.; Hickox, C.E.

    1997-11-01

    During July--November, 1995, Sandia National Laboratories, in cooperation with CE Exploration, drilled a 5,360 feet exploratory slimhole (3.895 inch diameter) in the Newberry Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA) near Bend, Oregon. This well was part of Sandia`s program to evaluate slimholes as a geothermal exploration tool. During and after drilling the authors performed numerous temperature logs, and at the completion of drilling attempted to perform injection tests. In addition to these measurements, the well`s data set includes: over 4,000 feet of continuous core (with detailed log); daily drilling reports from Sandia and from drilling contractor personnel; daily drilling fluid record; and comparative data from other wells drilled in the Newberry KGRA. This report contains: (1) a narrative account of the drilling and testing, (2) a description of equipment used, (3) a brief geologic description of the formation drilled, (4) a summary and preliminary interpretation of the data, and (5) recommendations for future work.