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Sample records for hammam area northwest

  1. Radiological Studies in the Hot Spring Region of Oyoun Mossa and Hammam Faraun Thermal Spring Areas in Western Sinai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, Kh.A.; Badran, H.M.; Ramadan, Kh.A.; Seddeek, M.K.; Sharshar, T.; Sharshar, T.

    2009-01-01

    Radioactivity in and around the two hot springs, Oyoun Mossa and Hammam Faraun, Western Sinai has been determined. The ground water, sediment and sand samples were measured by gamma-ray spectrometer for 232 Th, 226 Ra and 40 K isotopes. The enrichment of 226 Ra in Hammam Faraun hot spring was the most prominent feature. The concentration of 226 Ra in Oyoun Mossa and Hammam Faraun hot springs are 68 and 2377 Bq/kg for sediments, 3.5 and 54.7 Bq/kg for wild plants, and 205 and 1945 mBq/l for the ground water, respectively. In addition, the concentration of sand samples are 14 times larger in the area of Hammam Faraun compared with that of Oyoun Mossa. On the other hand, the concentration of 232 Th in different samples are comparable in the two areas while 137 Cs concentrations are relatively higher in Oyoun Mossa. For the purpose of comparison, sand samples were collected from two locations 5-12 km away from each spring. The activity concentrations of the four locations are comparable and in agreement with those from the area of the two springs except in one case. The major difference was the activity concentration of 226 Ra in the area of Hammam Faraun, which is much higher. The concentrations of all detected isotopes in water samples from these two springs are much higher than that detected in 27 natural wells in north Sinai. The results of the present study indicate that water only in Hammam Faraun hot spring is contaminated with 238 U-isotopes and the surrounding area is affected by this contamination. The calculated annual effective dose equivalents in the surroundings of Hammam Faraun (81.8 μSv) is superior to the maximum contaminant levels recommended.

  2. Program Contacts for Northwest Indiana Area (Indiana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northwest Indiana Area (Indiana) of the Urban Waters Federal Partnership (UWFP) reconnects urban communities with their waterways by improving coordination among federal agencies and collaborating with community-led efforts.

  3. 75 FR 48986 - Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota... Area Water Supply Project (NAWS Project), a Federal reclamation project, located in North Dakota. A... CONTACT: Alicia Waters, Northwest Area Water Supply Project EIS, Bureau of Reclamation, Dakotas Area...

  4. 75 FR 49518 - Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota... Area Water Supply Project (NAWS Project), a Federal reclamation project, located in North Dakota. A... CONTACT: Alicia Waters, Northwest Area Water Supply Project EIS, Bureau of Reclamation, Dakotas Area...

  5. 7 CFR 1124.2 - Pacific Northwest marketing area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pacific Northwest marketing area. 1124.2 Section 1124.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order...

  6. Interagency strategy for the Pacific Northwest Natural Areas Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd M. Wilson; Reid Schuller; Russ Holmes; Curt Pavola; Robert A. Fimbel; Cynthia N. McCain; John G. Gamon; Pene Speaks; Joan I. Seevers; Thomas E. DeMeo; Steve. Gibbons

    2009-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, the Pacific Northwest Interagency Natural Areas Committee has promoted the establishment and management of natural areas in Oregon and Washington—protected areas devoted to research, education, and conservation of biodiversity. This growing collection of sites is now unmatched in its diversity and representation of both common and unique natural...

  7. Atmospheric dust deposition on soils around an abandoned fluorite mine (Hammam Zriba, NE Tunisia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djebbi, Chaima; Chaabani, Fredj; Font, Oriol; Queralt, Ignasi; Querol, Xavier

    2017-10-01

    The present study focuses on the eolian dispersion and dust deposition, of major and trace elements in soils in a semi-arid climate, around an old fluorite (CaF 2 ) and barite (BaSO 4 ) mine, located in Hammam Zriba in Northern Tunisia. Ore deposits from this site contain a high amount of metal sulphides constituting heavy metal pollution in the surrounding environment. Samples of waste from the surface of mine tailings and agricultural topsoil samples in the vicinity of the mine were collected. The soil samples and a control sample from unpolluted area, were taken in the direction of prevailing northwest and west winds. Chemical analysis of these solids was performed using both X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction. To determine the transfer from mine wastes to the soils, soluble fraction was performed by inductively coupled plasma and ionic chromatography. The fine grained size fraction of the un-restored tailings, still contained significant levels of barium, strontium, sulphur, fluorine, zinc and lead with mean percentages (wt%) of 30 (calculated as BaO), 13 (as SrO), 10 (as SO 3 ), 4 (F), 2 (Zn) and 1.2 (Pb). Also, high concentrations of cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg) were found with an averages of 36, 24 and 1.2mgkg -1 , respectively. As a result of the eolian erosion of the tailings and their subsequent wind transport, the concentrations of Ba, Sr, S, F, Zn and Pb were extremely high in the soils near to the tailings dumps, with 5%, 4%, 7%, 1%, 0.8% and 0.2%, respectively. Concentration of major pollutants decreases with distance, but they were high even in the farthest samples. Same spatial distribution was observed for Cd, As and Hg. While, the other elements follow different spatial patterns. The leaching test revealed that most elements in the mining wastes, except for the anions, had a low solubility despite their high bulk concentrations. According the 2003/33/CE Decision Threshold, some of these tailings samples were considered as

  8. A CONTEMPORARY HAMMAM: WELLNESS CENTRE IN BODRUM, TURKEY

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    Ahmet ğdirdligil

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents and reviews the design of a contemporary hammam and wellness centre in Bodrum, Turkey. The project conceived in Ortakent (near Bodrum, was designed to serve mainly tourists during the summer holiday season and residents of the region in the off-season periods. The complex consists of the main component; the hammam, and also includes other components such as a sauna, steam bath, massage parlour etc. The design concept provides flexibility and adaptability to allow the fluctuations caused by seasonal variations in both type of activities and the frequency of usage during the intended year-long operations of the facilities. The ground floor, where the administrative section is located, has been architecturally designed with integral solar energy panels in order to offset a very significant portion of energy expenditures, which constitutes an important part of the total operating costs of the complex. Water re-use and local construction materials are used in this project. In essence, this project attempts to offer new solutions and opportunities for architects and designers to improve the performance of contemporary building in order to reach an optimum of sustainability levels for the building. It combines modern technology and architectural techniques adapted to the hammam spaces and ambiences. The design is inspired from traditional architectural concepts adapted to today’s technological developments.

  9. Path of Social Construction in Northwest Sichuan Plateau Pastoral Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of main contents of social construction and key points of construction,this paper analyzes features of conditions of northwest Sichuan plateau pastoral area.The social construction at current stage mainly includes social cause in narrow sense,and social management at meso-level.The northwest Sichuan plateau pastoral area is faced with the best policy and development opportunity.However,there are still many weak aspects.Firstly,social structure is not coordinated with economic structure.Secondly,social construction ability of grass-roots government is weak.Thirdly,the ability to respond to public demands is low.Fourthly,there is a big gap in availability of basic public service.Finally,it presents path selection for social construction of northwest Sichuan plateau pastoral area:strengthen social construction ability of grass-roots government;promote social construction with livelihood projects as key projects;boost social construction taking advantage of ecological construction;develop basic public service with the aid of external forces;intensify evaluation system for supervision of social construction works.

  10. Occurrence and genesis of Quaternary microbialitic tufa at Hammam Al Ali, Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaf, Fikry I.

    2017-05-01

    Remnants of late Quaternary microbialitic tufa occurs within a shallow depression in the Hammam Al Ali hot spring area, which is located approximately 14.5 km to the southwest of Muscat, Oman. The tufa precipitated from hot spring water supersaturated with respect to calcium carbonate and is mostly of a porous phytogenic type, with occasional detrital and stromatolitic types. Microscopic and nanoscopic examination revealed that the tufa deposits developed through two successive processes of calcite precipitation, biotic and abiotic, preceded by limited precipitation of unstable aragonite. It is suggested that biologically mediated precipitation results in the construction of incomplete skeletal calcite crystals. The latter provide a base for classical physiochemical precipitation and, eventually, the development of complete sparry calcite crystals. The initiation of dendritic calcite crystals in the stromatolitic tufa as incomplete biogenic skeletal crystals and their characteristic growth pattern indicates that the tufa represents a clear example of hot spring calcitic microbialite.

  11. Benefits of donkeys in rural and urban areas in northwest Nigeria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassan, M.R.; Steenstra, F.A.; Udo, H.M.J.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to explore the benefits of donkeys for rural and urban smallholder farmers in northwest Nigeria. We visited 112 smallholder donkey farmers located in rural and urban areas from four states in northwest Nigeriathrough four focus group meetings, interviews with

  12. Fatty acids and survival of bacteria in Hammam Pharaon springs, Egypt

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    Yehia A. Osman

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available A great lack of knowledge of Hammam Pharaon's microbial community; the most famous hot spring in Sinai, Egypt, derived this work. Three different hyperthermophilic bacterial were isolated from vents in the area, where the temperature was above 80 °C. Response Surface Methodology algorithm such as Central Composite Design determined the optimum cultivation conditions for these isolates. Accordingly, the best growth conditions were at 70 °C and at neutral to slightly acidic pH values. The constructed phylogenetic tree built using the 16S rRNA gene sequences has shown that the isolated strains (HM101, HM102 and HM103 belong to Geobacillus, Rhodothermus and Thermus bacteria, respectively. The fatty acid profiles, an indicative of thermotolerance, dominated by the short chain Dodecanoic acid (Lauric acid; (12:0, which represented about 40% of the total fatty acid contents for each of the three isolates. The enzymatic capabilities of the three strains were determined and α-amylase was found to be the most prominent one. Our own data had led us to conclude that the length of the fatty acid chain and the degree of saturation could be species specific. Moreover, the biotechnological potentials of these local isolates could contribute to fighting viral diseases and/or improve their amylolytic activities for sugar industry; where thermotolerance is really an important factor.

  13. Realité urbaine et planification – Cas du P.O.S.(Hammam Dalaa – M Sila – Algérie

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    L. FELOUSSIA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to better understand t he incompatibility between the urban phenomenon in Algeria, and the physical and socio-e conomic city as "urban reality" through the case study of land use plan "L.U.P." said " Hammam Dalaa Road " to M'sila. We treat the context of the urban phenomenon locally, taking as an examp le the city of M'sila. The work will therefore, in terms of land use, its contents and the changes it undergoes during its application. After a critical study on the plan of land entitle d "Hammam Dala Road", by observation field, to better understand the urban phenomenon, a nd see the continuing evolution of urban space, we will make Comparison of the first urban project, as a graphic document, and (urban reality. We found that there are changes in use of land which creates a conflict with the recommendations of the "L.U.P.". This has lead to that, specializat ion areas have not been respected at the city of M'sila, and that the areas allocated to activities or habitat no longer play their role. This article presents a first step in the land use plan, and then it will focus on the mismatch between the "L.U.P.", and the urban reality

  14. Effect of Air Pollutants on Rain Water Characteristics in Hammam Al-Aleel District/ Al-Erej Village South of Mosul City

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    Ayad F. Qasim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on Hammam Al-Aleel district/ Al-Erej village which is located south of Mosul city. This area has been suffering from spreading the air-pollutants resulted from the chimneys of Hammam Al-Aleel cement factories. Different areas were chosen for collecting samples of the rain water from December 2008 to March 2009. The study showed that rain-water is generally basic. The tests show an increase in ( EC, Mg+2, Ca+2, Cl-1, SO4-2 and NO-1,  due to the air pollutants emitted from local industries. The concentration of heavy elements represented by  Pb and Cd were high and this increase is due to the source of these elements from burning of the crude oil which is used in running the rotating kiln to produce the clinker in cement factory, In addition to the fuel used for  running vehicle and the friction between tires and  road.

  15. Recent tectonic and its consequences on the thermomineralism of Hammam-bouhadjar (Algeria NW)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, H.; Safa, A.; Stambouli, M.; Verdeil, P.; Mania, J.; Achour, F.

    1996-01-01

    The recent fragile tectonic in the region of Hammam-bouhadjar, Oran, Algeria led to the emergency of a thermomineral sources network. The flows are variable and depend mainly on the degree of the plugging of fissures. The resistivities included between 140 Ohm/cm 2 /cm and 280 Ohm/cm 2 /cm show hypermineralized waters. By and large, the pH is close to 7 for temperatures included between 35 and 70 degrees Celcius (author)

  16. Northwest Territories Protected Areas Strategy: How community values are shaping the protection of wild spaces and heritage places

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angela Stadel; Raymond Taniton; Heidi Heder

    2002-01-01

    The Northwest Territories Protected Areas Strategy (NWT PAS), approved in 1999, presents a unique community-driven approach to establishing a network of protected areas in the North. The NWT PAS arose from increasing resource development pressures in the Northwest Territories and is being implemented in the context of the land claim and treaty processes. Aboriginal...

  17. Phylogeography of Schizopygopsis stoliczkai (Cyprinidae) in Northwest Tibetan Plateau area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanghe, Kunyuan; Tang, Yongtao; Tian, Fei; Feng, Chenguang; Zhang, Renyi; Li, Guogang; Liu, Sijia; Zhao, Kai

    2017-11-01

    Schizopygopsis stoliczkai (Cyprinidae, subfamily Schizothoracinae) is one of the major freshwater fishes endemic to the northwestern margin of the Tibetan Plateau. In the current study, we used mitochondrial DNA markers cytochrome b (Cyt b ) and 16S rRNA (16S), as well as the nuclear marker, the second intron of the nuclear beta-actin gene (Act2), to uncover the phylogeography of S. stoliczkai . In total, we obtained 74 haplotypes from 403 mitochondrial concatenated sequences. The mtDNA markers depict the phylogenetic structures of S. stoliczkai , which consist of clade North and clade South. The split time of the two clades is dated back to 4.27 Mya (95% HPD = 1.96-8.20 Mya). The estimated split time is earlier than the beginning of the ice age of Pleistocene (2.60 Mya), suggesting that the northwestern area of the Tibetan Plateau probably contain at least two glacial refugia for S. stoliczkai . SAMOVA supports the formation of four groups: (i) the Karakash River group; (ii) The Lake Pangong group; (iii) the Shiquan River group; (iv) the Southern Basin group. Clade North included Karakash River, Lake Pangong, and Shiquan River groups, while seven populations of clade South share the haplotypes. Genetic diversity, star-like network, BSP analysis, as well as negative neutrality tests indicate recent expansions events of S. stoliczkai . Conclusively, our results illustrate the phylogeography of S. stoliczkai , implying the Shiquan River is presumably the main refuge for S. stoliczkai .

  18. Thermo-mineral waters of Hammam Meskoutine (north-east Algeria: Composition and origin of mineralization

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    Benamara Abdelwaheb

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The extreme north-eastern Algeria, in particular the Guelma city conceals thermal springs, whose waters circulating at great depths allow the rain-waters to warm up (according to the average geothermal gradient of 1°C per 33 m and to acquire a mineralization which depends on the traversed rock. The goal of this research work was to determine mineralization origin of the thermo-mineral waters of Hammam Meskoutine (Algerian N-E. A hydro-chemical study involved analyses of a number of physical and chemical parameters of waters such as: temperature, hydrogen potential, electrolytical conductivity, Cl-, SO4 2-, HCO3 -, Ca2+, Mg2+, K+ and Na+. The data processing on the diagram revealed two dominating chemical facies: sulphate-magnesium and bicarbonate magnesium. With a high conductivity in excess of 2300 μS·cm-1, the temperature reaches 97°C. Calculation of the saturation index shows that the waters are supersaturated in carbonate minerals (calcite, dolomite and aragonite and less saturated with evaporite minerals (halite, anhydrite, sylvite and gypsum. The reconstitution in dissolved salts reveals a dominant salt rich in calcium bicarbonates, in calcium sulphates and secondarily in magnesium salts. Geological sections used in the study zone affirm that the chemical composition of the spring waters comes from the neritic limestone dissolution and the gypso-saline complex of Hammam Meskoutine.

  19. Area Monitoring Dosimeter Program for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: Results for CY 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bivins, Steven R; Stoetzel, Gregory A

    2001-01-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) established an area monitoring dosimeter program in accordance with Article 514 of the Department of Energy (DOE) Radiological Control Manual (RCM) in January 1993. This program is to minimize the number of areas requiring issuance of personnel dosimeters and to demonstrate that doses outside Radiological Buffer Areas are negligible. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 835.402 (a) (1)-(4) and Article 511.1 of the DOE Standard Radiological Control, personnel dosimetry shall be provided to (1) radiological workers who are likely to receive at least 100 mrem annually, and (2) declared pregnant workers, minors, and members of the public who are likely to receive at least 50 mrem annually. Program results for calendar years 1993-2000 confirm that personnel dosimetry is not needed for individuals located in areas monitored by the program

  20. Prevalence and determinants of metabolic syndrome among adults in a rural area of Northwest China.

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    Yaling Zhao

    Full Text Available To evaluate the prevalence and determinants of metabolic syndrome (MetS among adults in a rural area of Northwest China.A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010 among adults aged 18 to 80 years in rural areas of Hanzhong, in Northwest China. Interview, physical and clinical examinations, and fasting blood glucose and lipid measurements were completed for 2990 adults. The definitions of MetS proposed by the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel (Adults Treatment Panel III, ATP III and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF, and the modified ATP III definition for Asian population were used and compared. Proportions were adjusted for age and sex.The prevalence of MetS was 7.9%, 10.8% and 15.1% according to ATP III, IDF and modified ATP III criteria, respectively. Agreement between ATP III and IDF criteria and that between ATP III and modified ATP III criteria were moderate (Kappa = 0.52 and 0.64, respectively, whereas agreement between IDF and modified ATP III criteria was good (Kappa = 0.83. The prevalence of MetS increased with age, and was higher in women than in men (10.4% versus 5.4%, 13.6% versus 8.1% and 17.4% versus 12.8%, according to ATP III, IDF and modified ATP III criteria, respectively. The most common MetS component was high blood pressure. Having family history of hypertension, lack of physical activity, high economical level, overweight and obesity were positively associated with MetS.MetS is prevalent among rural adults in Northwest China and high blood pressure is the most common MetS component. Prevention and treatment of hypertension and MetS should be a public health priority to reduce cardiovascular diseases in rural areas of Northwest China. More attention should be given to the elderly, women, people with family history of hypertension and obese people who are at high risk of MetS.

  1. Magnitude and Rupture Area Scaling Relationships of Seismicity at The Northwest Geysers EGS Demonstration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreger, D. S.; Boyd, O. S.; Taira, T.; Gritto, R.

    2017-12-01

    Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) resource development requires knowledge of subsurface physical parameters to quantify the evolution of fracture networks. Spatio-temporal source properties, including source dimension, rupture area, slip, rupture speed, and slip velocity of induced seismicity are of interest at The Geysers geothermal field, northern California to map the coseismic facture density of the EGS swarm. In this investigation we extend our previous finite-source analysis of selected M>4 earthquakes to examine source properties of smaller magnitude seismicity located in the Northwest Geysers Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) demonstration project. Moment rate time histories of the source are found using empirical Green's function (eGf) deconvolution using the method of Mori (1993) as implemented by Dreger et al. (2007). The moment rate functions (MRFs) from data recorded using the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) short-period geophone network are inverted for finite-source parameters including the spatial distribution of fault slip, rupture velocity, and the orientation of the causative fault plane. The results show complexity in the MRF for the studied earthquakes. Thus far the estimated rupture area and the magnitude-area trend of the smaller magnitude Geysers seismicity is found to agree with the empirical relationships of Wells and Coppersmith (1994) and Leonard (2010), which were developed for much larger M>5.5 earthquakes worldwide indicating self-similar behavior extending to M2 earthquakes. We will present finite-source inversion results of the micro-earthquakes, attempting to extend the analysis to sub Mw, and demonstrate their magnitude-area scaling. The extension of the scaling laws will then enable the mapping of coseismic fracture density of the EGS swarm in the Northwest Geysers based on catalog moment magnitude estimates.

  2. Area monitoring dosimeter program for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: Results for CY 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bivins, S.R.; Stoetzel, G.A.

    1998-07-01

    In January 1993, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) established an area monitoring dosimeter program in accordance with Article 514 of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Radiological Control Manual (RCM). The purpose of the program was to minimize the number of areas requiring issuance of personnel dosimeters and to demonstrate that doses outside Radiological Buffer Areas are negligible. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 835.402 (a) (1)--(3) and Article 511.1 of the RCM, personnel dosimetry shall be provided to (1) radiological workers who are likely to receive at least 100 mrem annually, and (2) declared pregnant workers, minors, and members of the public who are likely to receive at least 50 mrem annually. Program results for calendar years (CY) 1993--1996 confirmed that personnel dosimetry was not needed for individuals located in areas monitored by the program. A total of 93 area thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were placed in PNNL facilities during CY 1997. The TLDs were exchanged and analyzed quarterly. All routine area monitoring TLD results were less than 50 mrem annually after correcting for worker occupancy. The results support the conclusions that personnel dosimeters are not necessary for staff, declared pregnant workers, minors, or members of the public in these monitored areas

  3. Area Monitoring Dosimeter Program for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: Results for CY 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GA Stoetzel; SR Bivins

    1999-01-01

    In January 1993, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) established an area monitoring dosimeter program in accordance with Article 514 of the Department of Energy (DOE) Radiological Control Manual (RCM). The purpose of the program was to minimize the number of areas requiring issuance of personnel dosimeters and to demonstrate that doses outside Radiological Buffer Areas are negligible. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 835.402 (a)(1)-(4) and Article 511.1 of the RCM, personnel dosimetry shall be provided to (1) radiological workers who are likely to receive at least 100 mrem annually and (2) declared pregnant workers, minors, and members of the public who are likely to receive at least 50 mrem annually. Program results for calendar years 1993-1997 confirmed that personnel dosimetry was not needed for individuals located in areas monitored by the program. A total of 97 area thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were placed in PNNL facilities during calendar year 1998. The TLDs were exchanged and analyzed quarterly. All routine area monitoring TLD results were less than 50 mrem annually after correcting for worker occupancy. The results support the conclusion that personnel dosimeters are not necessary for staff, declared pregnant workers, minors, or members of the public in these monitored areas

  4. Gravity, magnetic, and physical property data in the Smoke Creek Desert area, northwest Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilden, Janet E.; Ponce, David A.; Glen, Jonathan M.G.; Chuchel, Bruce A.; Tushman, Kira; Duvall, Alison

    2006-01-01

    The Smoke Creek Desert, located approximately 100 km (60 mi) north of Reno near the California-Nevada border, is a large basin situated along the northernmost parts of the Walker Lane Belt (Stewart, 1988), a physiographic province defined by northwest-striking topographic features and strike-slip faulting. Because geologic framework studies play an important role in understanding the hydrology of the Smoke Creek Desert, a geologic and geophysical effort was begun to help determine basin geometry, infer structural features, and estimate depth to Pre-Cenozoic rocks, or basement. In May and June of 2004, and June of 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected 587 new gravity stations, more than 160 line-kilometers (100 line-miles) of truck-towed magnetometer data, and 111 rock property samples in the Smoke Creek Desert and vicinity in northwest Nevada, as part of an effort to characterize its hydrogeologic framework. In the Smoke Creek Desert area, gravity highs occur over rocks of the Skedaddle Mountains, Fox Range, Granite Range, and over portions of Tertiary volcanic rocks in the Buffalo Hills. These gravity highs likely reflect basement rocks, either exposed at the surface or buried at shallow depths. The southern Smoke Creek Desert corresponds to a 25-mGal isostatic gravity low, which corresponds with a basin depth of approximately 2 km. Magnetic highs are likely due to granitic, andesitic, and metavolcanic rocks, whereas magnetic lows are probably associated with less magnetic gneiss and metasedimentary rocks in the region. Three distinctive patterns of magnetic anomalies occur throughout the Smoke Creek Desert and Squaw Creek Valley, likely reflecting three different geological and structural settings.

  5. THE MEDIEVAL AND OTTOMAN HAMMAMS OF ALGERIA; ELEMENTS FOR A HISTORICAL STUDY OF BATHS ARCHITECTURE IN NORTH AFRICA

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    Nabila Cherif-Seffadj

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Algerian medinas (Islamic cities have several traditional public baths (hammams. However, these hammams are the least known in the Maghreb countries. The first French archaeological surveys carried out on Islamic monuments and sites in Algeria, have found few historic baths in medieval towns. All along the highlands route, from Algiers (capital city of Algeria located in the North to Tlemcen (city in the Western part of Algeria, these structures are found in all the cities founded after the Islamic religion expanded in the Western North Africa. These buildings are often associated to large mosques. In architectural history, these baths illustrate original spatial and organizational compositions under form proportions, methods of construction, ornamental elements and the technical skills of their builders. The ancient traditions of bathing interpreted in this building type are an undeniable legacy. They are present through architectural typology and technical implementation reflecting the important architectural heritage of the great Roman cities in Algeria. Furthermore, these traditions and buildings evolved through different eras. Master builders, who left Andalusia to seek refuge in the Maghreb countries, added the construction and ornamentation skills and techniques brought from Muslim Spain, while the Ottomans contribution in the history of many urban cities is important. Hence, the dual appellation of the hammam as “Moorish bath” and “Turkish bath” in Algeria is the perfect illustration of the evolution of bath architecture in Algeria.

  6. Malaria infection has spatial, temporal, and spatiotemporal heterogeneity in unstable malaria transmission areas in northwest Ethiopia.

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    Kassahun Alemu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Malaria elimination requires successful nationwide control efforts. Detecting the spatiotemporal distribution and mapping high-risk areas are useful to effectively target pockets of malaria endemic regions for interventions. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to identify patterns of malaria distribution by space and time in unstable malaria transmission areas in northwest Ethiopia. METHODS: Data were retrieved from the monthly reports stored in the district malaria offices for the period between 2003 and 2012. Eighteen districts in the highland and fringe malaria areas were included and geo-coded for the purpose of this study. The spatial data were created in ArcGIS10 for each district. The Poisson model was used by applying Kulldorff methods using the SaTScan™ software to analyze the purely temporal, spatial and space-time clusters of malaria at a district levels. RESULTS: The study revealed that malaria case distribution has spatial, temporal, and spatiotemporal heterogeneity in unstable transmission areas. Most likely spatial malaria clusters were detected at Dera, Fogera, Farta, Libokemkem and Misrak Este districts (LLR =197764.1, p<0.001. Significant spatiotemporal malaria clusters were detected at Dera, Fogera, Farta, Libokemkem and Misrak Este districts (LLR=197764.1, p<0.001 between 2003/1/1 and 2012/12/31. A temporal scan statistics identified two high risk periods from 2009/1/1 to 2010/12/31 (LLR=72490.5, p<0.001 and from 2003/1/1 to 2005/12/31 (LLR=26988.7, p<0.001. CONCLUSION: In unstable malaria transmission areas, detecting and considering the spatiotemporal heterogeneity would be useful to strengthen malaria control efforts and ultimately achieve elimination.

  7. Mitochondrial genetic characterization of Gujar population living in the Northwest areas of Pakistan

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    Inam Ullah

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diversity of communities with specific cultural, ethnic, lingual and geographical backgrounds makes Pakistani society a suitable study subject to unravel the early human migrations, evolutionary history of population having about 18 ethnic groups. Gujars are mostly Indic-speaking nomadic herders with the claims of multiple origins in the sub-continent. Present study was aimed at the determination of maternal lineage of Gujars by mitochondrial DNA analysis. Methods: Total DNA from the human buccal cells was isolated using modified phenol chloroform method. Purified DNA was used for the PCR amplification of mitochondrial Hyper Variable Region 1 and 2 (HVR1 & 2. The nucleotide sequences of amplified PCR products were used to explore the maternal lineage of the Gujar population residing in Northern Pakistan. Results: Haplotypes, allele frequencies and population data of the mitochondrial control region was determined in 73 unrelated individuals belonging to Gujar ethnic group of Northwest areas of Pakistan. Total 46 diverse haplotypes were identified out of which 29 were found unique with (0.9223 genetic diversity and (0.9097 power of discrimination. Haplogroup R was the most frequent (48% followed by haplogroup M (45% and N (7%. Conclusion: We found that the Gujar population has multiple maternal gene pool comprising of South Asian, West Eurasian, East Eurasian, Southeast Asian and fractions of Eastern Asian, Eastern Europe and Northern Asian lineages. This study will contribute for the development of mitochondrial DNA database for Pakistani population.

  8. Precipitation alters plastic film mulching impacts on soil respiration in an arid area of northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Guanghui; Hu, Hongchang; Tian, Fuqiang; Peng, Zhenyang; Yang, Pengju; Luo, Yiqi

    2018-05-01

    Plastic film mulching (PFM) has widely been used around the world to save water and improve crop yield. However, the effect of PFM on soil respiration (Rs) remains unclear and could be further confounded by irrigation and precipitation. To address these topics, controlled experiments were conducted in mulched and non-mulched fields under drip irrigation from 2014 to 2016 in an arid area of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, northwest China. The spatio-temporal pattern of soil surface CO2 flux as an index of soil respiration under drip irrigation with PFM was investigated, and the confounded effects of PFM and irrigation/precipitation on soil respiration were explored. The main findings were as follows. (1) Furrows, planting holes, and plastic mulch are three important pathways of soil CO2 emissions in mulched fields, of which the planting hole efflux outweighs that from the furrow, with the largest values of 8.0 and 6.6 µmol m-2 s-1, respectively, and the plastic mulch itself can emit up to 3.6 µmol m-2 s-1 of CO2. (2) The frequent application of water (i.e. through irrigation and precipitation) elevates soil moisture and soil respiration and enhances their variation. The resultant higher variation of soil moisture further alleviates the sensitivity of soil respiration to soil temperature, leading to a weak correlation and lower Q10 values. (3) Soil CO2 effluxes from furrows and ridges in mulched fields outweigh the corresponding values in non-mulched fields in arid areas. However, this outweighing relation attenuates with increasing precipitation. Furthermore, by combining our results with those from the literature, we show that the difference in soil CO2 effluxes between non-mulched and mulched fields presents a linear relation with the amount of precipitation, which results in negative values in arid areas and positive values in humid areas. Therefore, whether PFM increases soil respiration or not depends on the amount of precipitation during the crop

  9. Global Warming: The Instability of Desert Climate is Enhancing in the Northwest Area in China: A Case Study in the Desert Area in Northwestern China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao-Feng Chang; Shu-Juan Zhu; Fu-Gui Han; Sheng-Nnian Zhong; Qiang-Qiang Wang; Jian-Hui Zhang

    2013-01-01

    To disclose the relation between the sandstorms change and the temperature changes, a case study in the desert area in northwestern china is investigated. The results showed that: the instability of climate in Minqin desert area is enhancing in the arid desert region in northwest China. Mainly as follows: Variation the annual extreme maximum temperature increasing. Variation of extreme minimum temperature also an increasing trend. Average visibility of sandstorms significantly reduced and the...

  10. Marine geology and bathymetry of nearshore shelf of Chukchi Sea, Ogotoruk Creek area, northwest Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, D. W.; Sainsbury, C.L.

    1960-01-01

    During July and August 1958 the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a study in behalf of the Atomic Energy Commission of the oceanography, bathymetry, and marine geology of the nearshore shelf of the Chukchi Sea off the Ogotoruk Creek area, northwest Alaska. Ogotoruk Creek enters the Chukchi Sea about 32 miles southeast of the large cuapate spit of Point Hope at long 165 degrees 4446 W. and lat 68 degrees 0551 N. The Ogotoruk Creek area extends approximately 10 miles west and 7 miles east of the creek mouth. Knowledge of the marine geology and oceanography is confined primarily to the nearshore shelf, which includes about 70 square miles of the shelf and is defined as the sea floor lying shoreward of the 50-foot submarine contour. The 50-foot contour generally lies from 2 to 4 miles from shore. Submarine topography was studied to a distance of 15 miles from shore over an area of approximately 340 square miles. A northwest coastal current flows past the Ogotoruk Creek area and during July and August averaged 0.5 mile per hour. Persistent northerly winds cause general upwelling near shore and at times of pronounced upwelling the coastal current was reversed or appreciably reduced in speed. Longshore currents shoreward of the breaker zone averaged 0.3 mile per hour and moved to the east for the greater part of the time of the study. The overall seaward slope of the inner 15 miles of the Chukchi shelf from a depth of 40 to 135 feet is approximately 0 degrees 04, or about 6 feet per mile. Slopes near shore to depths of 15-20 feet are steep and average 2 degrees 30. Beyond these depths they increase gradually out to a depth of 40-45 feet. Seaward of this point the shelf is flattest and slopes are as low as 0 degree 01. This terrace or flat part of the nearshore shelf is about 2 miles wide and descends to a depth of 50-55 feet beyond which the gradient increases to about 0 degree 06. At depths greater than 85 feet the submarine declivity gradually decreases to 0 degree 03 at

  11. Biological response to coastal upwelling and dust deposition in the area off Northwest Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohde, T.; Siegel, H.

    2010-05-01

    Nutrient supply in the area off Northwest Africa is mainly regulated by two processes, coastal upwelling and deposition of Saharan dust. In the present study, both processes were analyzed and evaluated by different methods, including cross-correlation, multiple correlation, and event statistics, using remotely sensed proxies of the period from 2000 to 2008 to investigate their influence on the marine environment. The remotely sensed chlorophyll- a concentration was used as a proxy for the phytoplankton biomass stimulated by nutrient supply into the euphotic zone from deeper water layers and from the atmosphere. Satellite-derived alongshore wind stress and sea-surface temperature were applied as proxies for the strength and reflection of coastal upwelling processes. The westward wind and the dust component of the aerosol optical depth describe the transport direction of atmospheric dust and the atmospheric dust column load. Alongshore wind stress and induced upwelling processes were most significantly responsible for the surface chlorophyll- a variability, accounting for about 24% of the total variance, mainly in the winter and spring due to the strong north-easterly trade winds. The remotely sensed proxies allowed determination of time lags between biological response and its forcing processes. A delay of up to 16 days in the surface chlorophyll- a concentration due to the alongshore wind stress was determined in the northern winter and spring. Although input of atmospheric iron by dust storms can stimulate new phytoplankton production in the study area, only 5% of the surface chlorophyll- a variability could be ascribed to the dust component in the aerosol optical depth. All strong desert storms were identified by an event statistics in the time period from 2000 to 2008. The 57 strong storms were studied in relation to their biological response. Six events were clearly detected in which an increase of chlorophyll- a was caused by Saharan dust input and not by

  12. Riparian area protection and outdoor recreation: lessons from the Northwest Forest Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick Impero Wilson; Troy E. Hall; Linda E. Kruger

    2012-01-01

    The Northwest Forest Plan required the US Forest Service (USFS) to shift its management focus to ecological values rather than the utilitarian ones that had dominated forest policy in the region. This article examines the effects of this shift on the USFS's historic mission to provide recreational access to the region's forests. Focusing on six national...

  13. Late Quaternary pollen records from the Lower Cobb Valley and adjacent areas, north-west Nelson, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shulmeister, J.; McLea, W.L.; Singer, C.; McKay, R.M.; Hosie, C.

    2003-01-01

    Ten pollen records from the Cobb Valley and adjacent areas in North-West Nelson are described. Collectively they provide a vegetation record extending from the Last Glacial Maximum to the present day. During the Last Glacial Maximum the uplands of North-West Nelson were glaciated. By about 17,000 radiocarbon years BP ice had retreated some distance up the Cobb River Valley and a podocarp heath and tussockland vegetation covered non-glaciated areas. By 14,000 radiocarbon years BP, the valley floor and adjacent lower ridges were occupied by montane podocarp forest dominated by Phyllocladus and Halocarpus. Beech forest expanded into some sites as early as 13,000 yr BP but the modern beech cover was not established until the Holocene. Forest cover has fluctuated in response to disturbance over the Holocene, but the most significant recent change, which is related to clearing for pastoralism in the last two centuries, has had surprisingly little impact on the pollen records. (author). 40 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab

  14. Impact of Climate Change on Rain-fed Farming and Response Solutions in Semiarid Area of Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Hong-li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of climate change on the agriculture production in semi-arid areas of Northwest, the major drought-resistant technology, the mechanism of increasing grain production were analyzed to explore technical solutions to retort the future climate change, future development of rainfed agriculture, and provide reference for food security. The results showed that the impact of future climate change on crop growth had main three aspects: Firstly, higher temperatures resulted in lower crop yield and quality decline; Secondly, changes in precipitation and precipitation patterns resulted in drought/flooding problems; Thirdly, meteorological disasters caused by extreme weather lead to fluctuations of food production. To adapt or mitigate these adverse effects, increase use efficiency of limited rainfall, optimize soil structure, improve soil fertility, enhance withstanding environmental change ability of crop-soil system, mitigate the impact of future climate change on food production in semi-arid region of Northwest China, the mainly solutions were: (1 Covering gathered precipitation, improve the ability to accumulate soil moisture, change the distribution of soil moisture, regulate the migration and improve the infiltration of precipitation, thus “adjusting water” to adapt to precipitation changes; (2 Optimizing soil structure, physical and chemical properties by soil fertilization, thus “regulating soil” to improve the ability of crop-soil system against to environmental changes, in order to stabilize productivity of rainfed agriculture; (3 Integrate “adjusting water” and “regulating soil” technology, forming technical system of “coordination of water and soil” to comprehensively response to future climate change, mitigate the adverse impact of future climate change on food production in semi-arid region of Northwest, China.

  15. Optical properties and source analysis of aerosols over a desert area in Dunhuang, Northwest china

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yongjing; Xin, Jinyuan; Ma, Yining; Kong, Lingbin; Zhang, Kequan; Zhang, Wenyu; Wang, Yuesi; Wang, Xiuqin; Zhu, Yongfeng

    2017-08-01

    Aerosol observational data for 2012 obtained from Dunhuang Station of CARE-China (Campaign on Atmospheric Aerosol Research Network of China) were analyzed to achieve in-depth knowledge of aerosol optical properties over Dunhuang region. The results showed that the annual average aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 500 nm was 0.32±0.06, and the Ångström exponent ( α) was 0.73 ± 0.27. Aerosol optical properties revealed significant seasonal characteristics. Frequent sandstorms in MAM (March-April-May) resulted in the seasonal maximum AOD, 0.41 ± 0.04, and a relatively smaller α value, 0.44±0.04. The tourism seasons, JJA (June-July-August) and SON (September-October-November) coincide with serious emissions of small anthropogenic aerosols. While in DJF (December-January-February), the composition of the atmosphere was a mixture of dust particles and polluted aerosols released by domestic heating; the average AOD and α were 0.29 ± 0.02 and 0.66 ± 0.17, respectively. Different air masses exhibited different degrees of influence on the aerosol concentration over Dunhuang in different seasons. During MAM, ranges of AOD (0.11-1.18) and α (0.06-0.82) were the largest under the dust influence of northwest-short-distance air mass in the four trajectories. Urban aerosols transported by northwest-short-distance air mass accounted for a very large proportion in JJA and the mixed aerosols observed in SON were mainly conveyed by air masses from the west. In DJF, the similar ranges of AOD and α under the three air mass demonstrated the analogous diffusion effects on regional pollutants over Dunhuang.

  16. Geological Factors and Reservoir Properties Affecting the Gas Content of Coal Seams in the Gujiao Area, Northwest Qinshui Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo Zou

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Coalbed methane (CBM well drilling and logging data together with geological data were adopted to provide insights into controlling mechanism of gas content in major coal seams and establish gas accumulation models in the Gujiao area, Northwest Qinshui Basin, China. Gas content of targeted coals is various in the Gujiao area with their burial depth ranging from 295 to 859 m. Highly variable gas content of coals should be derived from the differences among tectonism, magmatism, hydrodynamism, and sedimentation. Gas content preserved in the Gujiao area is divided into two parts by the geological structure. Gas tends to accumulate in the groundwater stagnant zone with a total dissolved solids (TDS value of 1300–1700 ppm due to water pressure in the Gujiao area. Reservoir properties including moisture content, minerals, and pore structure also significantly result in gas content variability. Subsequently, the gray correlation statistic method was adopted to determine the most important factors controlling gas content. Coal metamorphism and geological structure had marked control on gas content for the targeted coals. Finally, the favorable CBM exploitation areas were comprehensively evaluated in the Gujiao area. The results showed that the most favorable CBM exploitation areas were in the mid-south part of the Gujiao area (Block I.

  17. LONG-TERM REMOTE MONITORING OF THREE TYPICAL LAKE AREA VARIATIONS IN THE NORTHWEST CHINA OVER THE PAST 40 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available water resources management and sustainable development strategy, but also provide reference for assessing the impact of climate change and human activities. This paper selects three inland lakes in Northwest China, using Landsat MSS/TM/ETM+/OLI data from 1970 to 2015, Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI and Modified Normalized Difference Water Index (MNDWI were used to extract lake area and analysed the dynamic trends. Meteorological station rainfall, evaporation and other meteorological data of the lakes were used to analyse reasons for the area change. The results showed that area of Hongjiannao Lake in the past 40 a was reduced, the groundwater impoundment and underground coal mining are the main cause of area reduction; the area of Bosten Lake in recent 40 a showed a decreasing trend after the first increase, the area was mainly affected by the surface runoff and snowmelt; the area of Qinghai Lake in the past 40 a shows a trend of decreasing first and then increasing, the change of its area is mainly affected by regional precipitation and the inflow.

  18. Long-Term Remote Monitoring of Three Typical Lake Area Variations in the Northwest China Over the Past 40 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Lu, Y.; Li, Y.; Yue, H.

    2018-04-01

    water resources management and sustainable development strategy, but also provide reference for assessing the impact of climate change and human activities. This paper selects three inland lakes in Northwest China, using Landsat MSS/TM/ETM+/OLI data from 1970 to 2015, Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) and Modified Normalized Difference Water Index (MNDWI) were used to extract lake area and analysed the dynamic trends. Meteorological station rainfall, evaporation and other meteorological data of the lakes were used to analyse reasons for the area change. The results showed that area of Hongjiannao Lake in the past 40 a was reduced, the groundwater impoundment and underground coal mining are the main cause of area reduction; the area of Bosten Lake in recent 40 a showed a decreasing trend after the first increase, the area was mainly affected by the surface runoff and snowmelt; the area of Qinghai Lake in the past 40 a shows a trend of decreasing first and then increasing, the change of its area is mainly affected by regional precipitation and the inflow.

  19. Connectivity, persistence, and loss of high abundance areas of a recovering marine fish population in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreau, Stephanie A; Shackell, Nancy L; Carson, Stuart; den Heyer, Cornelia E

    2017-11-01

    In the early 1990s, the Northwest Atlantic Ocean underwent a fisheries-driven ecosystem shift. Today, the iconic cod ( Gadus morhua ) remains at low levels, while Atlantic halibut ( Hippoglossus hippoglossus ) has been increasing since the mid-2000s, concomitant with increasing interest from the fishing industry. Currently, our knowledge about halibut ecology is limited, and the lack of recovery in other collapsed groundfish populations has highlighted the danger of overfishing local concentrations. Here, we apply a Bayesian hierarchical spatiotemporal approach to model the spatial structure of juvenile Atlantic halibut over 36 years and three fisheries management regimes using three model parameters to characterize the resulting spatiotemporal abundance structure: persistence (similarity of spatial structure over time), connectivity (coherence of temporal pattern over space), and spatial variance (variation across the seascape). Two areas of high juvenile abundance persisted through three decades whereas two in the northeast are now diminished, despite the increased abundance and landings throughout the management units. The persistent areas overlap with full and seasonal area closures, which may act as refuges from fishing. Connectivity was estimated to be 250 km, an order of magnitude less than the distance assumed by the definition of the Canadian management units (~2,000 km). The underlying question of whether there are distinct populations within the southern stock unit cannot be answered with this model, but the smaller ~250 km scale of coherent temporal patterns suggests more complex population structure than previously thought, which should be taken into consideration by fishery management.

  20. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northwest Arctic, Alaska: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing management area data for Designated Critical Habitats, National Park Service properties, Wildlife Refuges, and...

  1. Faculty Lives: Vitality and Change. A Study of the Foundation's Grants in Faculty Development, 1979-1984. A Northwest Area Foundation Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, R. Eugene

    Faculty development projects funded by the Northwest Area Foundation are described. While some projects addressed retrenchment and the nature and structure of academic careers, others involved multi-institutional strategies. Types of projects and institutions are: new teaching and administrative competencies (College of Saint Scholastica, Mary…

  2. [Species-area and species-abundance relationships of arthropod community in various vegetation restoration areas in Zhifanggou watershed, Shaanxi province of Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Hong, Bo; Li, Ying-Mei; Chen, Zhi-Jie; Zhang, Shu-Lian; Zhao, Hui-Yan

    2013-02-01

    Taking the Zhifanggou watershed in Ansai, Shaanxi Province of Northwest China as a study unit, an investigation on the arthropods in 8 forest stands was conducted from 2006 to 2008, with the species-area and species-abundance relationships of the arthropods in these stands analyzed by various mathematical models. In these forest stands, the species-area relationship of the arthropods accorded with the formula S= CAm With the increase of investigation area, the species number approached to a constant, and the corresponding smallest investigation area was in the order of natural bush > natural forest > Populus davidiana+Robinia pseudoacacia forest > Hippaphae rhamnoides +Caragana mocrophylla forest> Periploca sepium forest > Hippaphae rhamnoides forest > Robinia pseudoacacia forest > Caragana mocrophylla forest, indicating that the more complex the stands, the larger the minimum area needed to be investigated. Based on sampling investigation, the species-abundance models of the arthropods in various stands were established. Lognormal distribution model (LN) was most suitable to fit the arthropod community in natural recovery stands, suggesting that in the arthropod community, there were more species with medial individual amount and fewer abundant species and rare species, and no obvious dominant species. LogCauchy distribution model (LC) was most suitable to fit the arthropod community in mixed and pure stands. As compared with natural recovery stand, mixed and pure stands had more abundant and rare species, and more dominant species.

  3. [Soil sandy desertification and salinization and their interrelationships in Yanghuang irrigated area of Hongsipu, Ningxia of northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin-guo; Song, Nai-ping

    2011-09-01

    By the methods of controlled and typical sampling, this paper analyzed the texture, salinization characteristics, cation exchange capacity (CEC), and their correlations in the 0-40 cm soil profiles of corn land, medlar land, and non-utilized land in Yanghuang irrigated area of Hongsipu, Northwest China. Under controlled sampling, the salt content in the soil profiles was 0.69-1.30 g x kg(-1) (except in non-utilized land where the 0-10 cm soil salt content was up to 1.74 g x kg(-1)), with no obvious salinization. The sodium adsorption ratio and exchangeable sodium percentage in the 20-40 cm soil layer of medlar land were 12.18 and 14.1%, respectively, and the total content of clay and silt in the 0-40 cm soil profile of medlar land was up to 37.3% whereas that in the 0-20 cm soil layer of corn land was only 13.5%. In the 20-40 cm soil layer of corn land, the indices of sandy desertification and salinization had significant correlations under controlled sampling but no correlations under typical sampling, while the CEC and the sandy desertification and salinization indices had significant correlations under typical sampling. In different land use types in the study area, soil sandy desertification and salinization had complicated interrelationships, and CEC could be used as the indicator for the changes in soil environmental quality.

  4. Petrology and geochemistry of volcanic rocks of Cheshmeh Khuri and Shekasteh Sabz areas, Khur, northwest of Birjand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Javidi Moghaddam

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Khur area is located in east of Iran and northwest of Birjand. The area comprises outcrops of Eocene to Oligocene volcanics with basaltic andesite to rhyolite composition, which were intruded by subvolcanic and intrusive bodies of granodiorite to gabbro. In the present work, petrogenesis of volcanic units in Cheshmeh Khuri and Shekasteh Sabz areas was studied, which are located in Khur area and these volcanics have most widespread in them. Rhyolite, dacite, andesite, trachyandesite and basaltic andesite units in Cheshmeh Khuri and trachyandesite unit in Shekasteh Sabz were identified. The main textures of these units are porphyritic, hialoporphyritic and microlitic and plagioclase, pyroxene, K-feldspar, hornblende, biotite and quartz are the main minerals. Volcanic units of Cheshmeh Khuri have characteristic of high-K Calc-alkaline. Enrichment of LREE relative to HREE and LILE to HFSE are important evidences that magma was formed in a magmatic belt of a subduction zone. Based on the initial 87Sr/86Sr of andesite and dacite, their magma has originated from partial melting of an enriched mantle and contaminated with the crust through its differentiation. Trachyandesites of Shekaste Sabz have characteristic of shoshonitic nature. These units are characterized by high FeOt/FeOt+MgO, K2O/Na2O and Zr>360 ppm, Y>39 ppm, and Ce> 100 ppm. Also, they are enrichment in REE particularly in LREE, depletion of Eu, strong enrichment in HFSE, and depletion in Ba and Sr. Therefore, trachyandesites of Shekaste Sabz belong to post collision volcanics.

  5. Mineralogical investigations of the area to the North-West of Qattara Depression, Western Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosson, S.; Roshdy, H.M.K.

    2000-01-01

    Petrophysical and mineralogical investigations are given for subsurface samples from this area. The paper deals with mineralogical investigations of Middle Jurassic, Lower Cretaceous and Upper Cretaceous sedimentary rocks. It includes thin section examinations for 14 samples of sandstone, siltstone and carbonates, and x-ray powder diffraction analyses of some argillaceous samples, untreated and glycolated. It was found that the kaolinite group is the main clay mineral recorded in the argillaceous sandstone and siltstone samples. Illite and montmorillonite are identified in the shale sample representing the Kharita Formation. Siderite was also recorded in the sample. Illite and montmorillonite were recorded as well as kaolinite in two siltstone samples. (Author)

  6. Historical tank content estimate for the northwest quadrant of the Hanford 200 west area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brevick, C.H.; Stroup, J.L.; Funk, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    The Historical Tank Content Estimate for the Quadrant provides historical information on a tank-by-tank basis of the radioactive mixed wastes stored in the underground single-shell tanks for the Hanford 200 West Area. This report summarized historical information such as waste history, level history, temperature history, riser configuration, tank integrity, and inventory estimates on a tank-by-tank basis. Tank farm aerial photographs and interior tank montages are also provided for each tank. A description of the development of data for the document of the inventory estimates provided by Los Alamos National Laboratory are also given in this report

  7. Historical Tank Content Estimate for the Northwest Quandrant of the Hanford 200 East Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brevick, C.H.; Gaddis, L.A.; Pickett, W.W.

    1994-06-01

    Historical Tank Content Estimate of the Northeast Quadrant provides historical evaluations on a tank by tank basis of the radioactive mixed wastes stored in the underground single-shell tanks of the Hanford 200 East area. This report summaries historical information such at waste history, temperature, tank integrity, inventory estimates and tank level history on a tank by tank basis. Tank Farm aerial photos and in-tank photos of each tank are provided. A brief description of instrumentation methods used for waste tank surveillance, along with the components of the data management effort, such as waste status and Transaction Record Summary, Tank Layering Model, Defined Waste Types, and Inventory Estimates to generate these tank content estimates are also given in this report

  8. Historical Tank Content Estimate for the Northwest Quandrant of the Hanford 200 East Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brevick, C.H.; Gaddis, L.A.; Pickett, W.W.

    1994-06-01

    Historical Tank Content Estimate of the Northeast Quadrant provides historical evaluations on a tank by tank basis of the radioactive mixed wastes stored in the underground single-shell tanks of the Hanford 200 East area. This report summaries historical information such at waste history, temperature, tank integrity, inventory estimates and tank level history on a tank by tank basis. Tank Farm aerial photos and in-tank photos of each tank are provided. A brief description of instrumentation methods used for waste tank surveillance, along with the components of the data management effort, such as waste status and Transaction Record Summary, Tank Layering Model, Defined Waste Types, and Inventory Estimates to generate these tank content estimates are also given in this report.

  9. Distribution and larval breeding habitats of Aedes mosquito species in residential areas of northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferede, Getachew; Tiruneh, Moges; Abate, Ebba; Kassa, Wondmeneh Jemberie; Wondimeneh, Yitayih; Damtie, Demekech; Tessema, Belay

    2018-01-01

    The Aedes mosquito is a vector for transmitting many arboviruses. Knowledge of the breeding habitat of this vector is vital for implementing appropriate interventions. Thus, this study was conducted to determine the breeding habitats and presence of Aedes mosquito species in the study areas. A house-to-house cross-sectional survey of Aedes mosquito breeding habitats was carried out in Metema and Humera, Ethiopia, in August 2017. All available water-holding containers present in and around houses were inspected for the presence of immature stages of Aedes mosquitoes, and they were collected and reared to the adult stage for species identification. In the larval survey, the house index, container index, and Breteau index were computed as risk indices. Of the 384 houses surveyed for the presence of Aedes mosquito larval breeding, 98 were found to be positive for larvae. During the survey, a total of 566 containers were inspected, of which 186 were found to be infested with Aedes mosquito larvae, with a container index of 32.9, a house index of 25.5, and a Breteau index of 48.4. The most common Aedes mosquito breeding habitats were discarded tires (57.5%), followed by mud pots (30.0%). Of the 1,077 larvae and pupae collected and reared, Aedes aegypti (49.3%), Ae. vittatus (6.5%), and Culex species (44.2%) were identified. Discarded tires were the most preferred breeding habitats for Aedes mosquitoes. Moreover, Ae. aegypti , the main vector of dengue and other arboviruses, was identified for the first time in this region, suggesting a high potential for arbovirus transmission in the study areas.

  10. Quantification of Environmental Flow Requirements to Support Ecosystem Services of Oasis Areas: A Case Study in Tarim Basin, Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Xue

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a wide range of quantitative research on the identification of environmental flow requirements (EFRs has been conducted. However, little focus is given to EFRs to maintain multiple ecosystem services in oasis areas. The present study quantifies the EFRs in oasis areas of Tarim Basin, Xinjiang, Northwest China on the basis of three ecosystem services: (1 maintenance of riverine ecosystem health, (2 assurance of the stability of oasis–desert ecotone and riparian (Tugai forests, and (3 restoration of oasis–desert ecotone groundwater. The identified consumptive and non-consumptive water requirements are used to quantify and determine the EFRs in Qira oasis by employing the summation and compatibility rules (maximum principle. Results indicate that the annual maximum, medium, and minimum EFRs are 0.752 × 108, 0.619 × 108, and 0.516 × 108 m3, respectively, which account for 58.75%, 48.36%, and 40.29% of the natural river runoff. The months between April and October are identified as the most important periods to maintain the EFRs. Moreover, the water requirement for groundwater restoration of the oasis–desert ecotone accounts for a large proportion, representing 48.27%, 42.32%, and 37.03% of the total EFRs at maximum, medium, and minimum levels, respectively. Therefore, to allocate the integrated EFRs, focus should be placed on the water demand of the desert vegetation’s groundwater restoration, which is crucial for maintaining desert vegetation to prevent sandstorms and soil erosion. This work provides a reference to quantify the EFRs of oasis areas in arid regions.

  11. Land Use Changes of an Aeolian-Loessial Soil Area in Northwest China: Implications for Ecological Restoration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yu-Fu; LIU Yan-Sui; WANG Jing; YAN Jian-Ping; GUO Xu-Dong

    2009-01-01

    China has experienced dramatic land use changes over recent decades,with marked environmental and socio-economic consequences.Hcngshan County,located in the aeolian-loessial area of Northwest China,was investigated to illustrate land use changes and their implications for environmental and long-term rural economic development.The farmland in Hengshan County significantly decreased during 1990-2003,whereas forest land and grassland increased.The conversion rates of farmland,orchard land,forest land and construction land varied markedly among different periods:1990-1995,1995-2000 and 2000-2003.Conversion of orchard land,grassland and construction land was dominant in 1990-1995,whereas the conversion of farmland to forest land mainly occurred in 2000-2003.The results suggested a profound transition in institutional policy and political economy of land management,including implementation of integrated soil erosion control projects,adoption of a market-oriented economy and the 'Grain-for-Green' policy,during this period in China.To achieve long-term sustainable land use in Hengshan County,efforts should aim at increasing off-farm income of rural families as well as establishing land-economizing mechanisms to promote land productivity,in addition to conservation measures.

  12. Exposure of birds to radionuclides and other contaminants in Special Protection Areas (SPAs) in North-West England

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, K.; Watson, S.; McDonald, P.; Copplestone, D.; Watts, S.J.

    2010-01-01

    There has been a decline in the population of some bird species at Morecambe Bay and the Solway Firth Special Protected Areas in North-West England during the last fifty years. It was suggested that the declines were caused, in part, by contaminants in the food and environment, primarily from the radioactive effluent discharge from the Sellafield Ltd nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Cumbria. This study analysed bird feathers and tissues, vegetation and sediment for radionuclides, metals and persistent organic compounds. The non-radionuclide results were all low compared to relevant action limits. The ERICA model was used with field data to estimate the radiological dose to birds from exposure to 137 Cs and 241 Am with results between 1.26 to 3.83 μGy h -1 , below the ERICA screening level of 10 μGy h -1 and within the IAEA 40 μGy h -1 guideline value below which potential adverse impacts on biota are unlikely. The study showed no link between bird population decline and anthropogenic discharges to the SPAs.

  13. [Comparative study of habits in students before and during the university in northwest area of Madrid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias López, María Teresa; Cuesta Santa Teresa, Elvira; Sáez Crespo, Antonio

    2014-11-12

    In most Western countries young people adopt lifestyles that adversely affect their health, thus increasing the risk of premature onset of chronic diseases. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare patterns of habits in pre-university and university students in west-central area of Madrid. Descriptive longitudinal study with randomly selected students from Madrid in Madrid universities and schools-institutes. Accepting to participate 1590 students of both sex: 653 males (4,1%) and 937 women (58,9%). To facilitate the study were classified into ≤ 17 years (pre university) and ≥ 18 years (university). BMI, physical activity, alcohol consumption and negative habits with regard to food consumption was studied. Almost 80% have normal weight, are more active pre-university. Gender differences were observed, which should guide the actions of intervention in terms of physical activity or habits. It seems essential to make nutritional programs as well as psychosocial intervention in adolescents and youth to prevent and / or reduce alcohol consumption. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  14. A New Insight into Shale-Gas Accumulation Conditions and Favorable Areas of the Xinkailing Formation in the Wuning Area, North-West Jiangxi, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shangru Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In north-west Jiangxi, China, most shale-gas exploration has been focused on the Lower Cambrian Hetang and Guanyintang formations, whereas the Upper Ordovician Xinkailing formation shale has been ignored for years due to heavy weathering. This study systematically analyzed gas source conditions, reservoir conditions and gas-bearing ability in order to reveal the shale-gas accumulation conditions of the Xinkailing formation. The results show that the Xinkailing formation is characterized by thick deposition of black shale (10–80 m, high organic content (with total organic carbon between 1.18% and 3.11%, on average greater than 2%, relatively moderate thermal evolution (with vitrinite reflectance between 2.83% and 3.21%, high brittle-mineral content (greater than 40%, abundant nanopores and micro-fractures, very good adsorption ability (adsorption content between 2.12 m3/t and 3.47 m3/t, on average about 2.50 m3/t, and strong sealing ability in the underlying and overlying layers, all of which favor the generation and accumulation of shale gas. The Wuning-Lixi and Jinkou-Zhelin areas of the Xinkailing formation were selected as the most realistic and favorable targets for shale-gas exploration and exploitation. In conclusion, the Wuning area has great potential and can provide a breakthrough in shale gas with further investigation.

  15. Methane-metabolizing microbial communities in sediments of the Haima cold seep area, northwest slope of the South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Mingyang; Fan, Xibei; Zhuang, Guangchao; Liang, Qianyong; Wang, Fengping

    2017-09-01

    Cold seeps are widespread chemosynthetic ecosystems in the deep-sea environment, and cold seep microbial communities of the South China Sea are poorly constrained. Here we report on the archaeal communities, particularly those involved in methane metabolization, in sediments of a newly discovered cold seep (named 'Haima') on the northwest slope of the South China Sea. Archaeal diversity, abundance and distribution were investigated in two piston cores collected from a seep area (QDN-14B) and a non-seep control site (QDN-31B). Geochemical investigation of the QDN-14B core identified an estimated sulfate-methane transition zone (Estimated SMTZ) at 300-400 cm below sea floor (cmbsf), where a high abundance of anaerobic methane-oxidizing archaea (ANME) occurred, as revealed by analysis of the 16S rRNA gene and the gene (mcrA) encoding the α-subunit of the key enzyme methyl-coenzyme M reductase. ANME-2a/b was predominant in the upper and middle layers of the estimated SMTZ, whereas ANME-1b outcompeted ANME-2 in the sulfate-depleted bottom layers of the estimated SMTZ and the methanogenic zone. Fine-scale phylogenetic analysis further divided the ANME-1b group into three subgroups with different distribution patterns: ANME-1bI, ANME-1bII and ANME-1bIII. Multivariate analyses indicated that dissolved inorganic carbon and sulfate may be important factors controlling the composition of the methane-metabolizing community. Our study on ANME niche separation and interactions with other archaeal groups improves our understanding of the metabolic diversity and flexibility of ANME, and the findings further suggest that ANME subgroups may have evolved diversified/specified metabolic capabilities other than syntrophic anaerobic oxidation of methane coupled with sulfate reduction in marine sediments. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus as a Source of Ectoparasites in Urban-suburban Areas of Northwest of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Hajipour

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hedgehogs are small, nocturnal mammals which become popular in the world and have important role in transmission of zoonotic agents. Thus, the present study aimed to survey ectoparasite infestation from April 2010 to December 2011 in urban and suburban parts of Urmia and Tabriz Cities, Northwest of Iran.Methods: A total number of 84 hedgehogs (40 females and 44 males were examined. They have been carefully inspected for ectoparasites and collected arthropods were stored in 70% ethanol solution. The identification of arthropods was carried out using morphological diagnostic keys.Results: The occurrence of ticks on hedgehogs was 23 (67.7% with Rhipicephalus turanicus in Urmia and 11 (22% as well as 1(2% with Rh. turanicus and Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum in Tabriz, respectively. One flea species, Archaeopsylla erinacei, was found with prevalence of 19 (55.9% and 27 (54% in Urmia and Tabriz Cities, respectively. Prevalence of infestation with Rh. turanicus and A. erinacei were not different (P> 0.05 between sexes of hedgehogs in two study areas. Highest prevalence of tick and flea infestation was in June in Urmia, whereas it was observed in August in Tabriz. Both tick and flea parasitizing hedgehogs showed seasonal difference in prevalence (P< 0.05 in Urmia, but it was not detected in Tabriz (P> 0.05.Conclusion: The result showed the high occurrence of ectoparasites in hedgehog population and according to the zoonotic potential of these animals as vector of some agents further studies are needed to investigate in different parts of Iran.

  17. Diurnal and seasonal variations in carbon dioxide exchange in ecosystems in the Zhangye oasis area, Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Sun, Rui; Xu, Ziwei; Qiao, Chen; Jiang, Guoqing

    2015-01-01

    Quantifying carbon dioxide exchange and understanding the response of key environmental factors in various ecosystems are critical to understanding regional carbon budgets and ecosystem behaviors. For this study, CO2 fluxes were measured in a variety of ecosystems with an eddy covariance observation matrix between June 2012 and September 2012 in the Zhangye oasis area of Northwest China. The results show distinct diurnal variations in the CO2 fluxes in vegetable field, orchard, wetland, and maize cropland. Diurnal variations of CO2 fluxes were not obvious, and their values approached zero in the sandy desert, desert steppe, and Gobi ecosystems. Additionally, daily variations in the Gross Primary Production (GPP), Ecosystem Respiration (Reco) and Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) were not obvious in the sandy desert, desert steppe, and Gobi ecosystems. In contrast, the distributions of the GPP, Reco, and NEE show significant daily variations, that are closely related to the development of vegetation in the maize, wetland, orchard, and vegetable field ecosystems. All of the ecosystems are characterized by their carbon absorption during the observation period. The ability to absorb CO2 differed significantly among the tested ecosystems. We also used the Michaelis-Menten equation and exponential curve fitting methods to analyze the impact of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) on the daytime CO2 flux and impact of air temperature on Reco at night. The results show that PAR is the dominant factor in controlling photosynthesis with limited solar radiation, and daytime CO2 assimilation increases rapidly with PAR. Additionally, the carbon assimilation rate was found to increase slowly with high solar radiation. The light response parameters changed with each growth stage for all of the vegetation types, and higher light response values were observed during months or stages when the plants grew quickly. Light saturation points are different for different species. Nighttime

  18. The extent of anthelmintic Resistance on Nematodes in communally grazed sheep and goats in a Semi-Arid area of North-west Province (RSA) / Tebogo Stanely Ramotshwane

    OpenAIRE

    Ramotshwane, Tebogo Stanely

    2011-01-01

    A survey was conducted to investigate the occurrence of anthelmintic resistance of nematodes in communally grazed sheep and goat herds in the Zeerust area of the North-West Province, Republic of South Africa. The fecal egg count reduction test (FECR%) tests were used to assess the sheep and goat small holder farmers. Efficacy of albendazole, ivermectin and closantel was done on both the treatment and control animals. Anthelmintic efficacy of 80% was considered a threshold for ...

  19. Foraging areas, offshore habitat use, and colony overlap by incubating Leach's storm-petrels Oceanodroma leucorhoa in the Northwest Atlantic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April Hedd

    Full Text Available Despite their importance in marine food webs, much has yet to be learned about the spatial ecology of small seabirds. This includes the Leach's storm-petrel Oceanodroma leucorhoa, a species that is declining throughout its Northwest Atlantic breeding range. In 2013 and 2014, we used global location sensors to track foraging movements of incubating storm-petrels from 7 eastern Canadian breeding colonies. We determined and compared the foraging trip and at-sea habitat characteristics, analysed spatial overlap among colonies, and determined whether colony foraging ranges intersected with offshore oil and gas operations. Individuals tracked during the incubation period made 4.0 ± 1.4 day foraging trips, travelling to highly pelagic waters over and beyond continental slopes which ranged, on average, 400 to 830 km from colonies. Cumulative travel distances ranged from ~900 to 2,100 km among colonies. While colony size did not influence foraging trip characteristics or the size of areas used at sea, foraging distances tended to be shorter for individuals breeding at the southern end of the range. Core areas did not overlap considerably among colonies, and individuals from all sites except Kent Island in the Bay of Fundy foraged over waters with median depths > 1,950 m and average chlorophyll a concentrations ≤ 0.6 mg/m3. Sea surface temperatures within colony core areas varied considerably (11-23°C, coincident with the birds' use of cold waters of the Labrador Current or warmer waters of the Gulf Stream Current. Offshore oil and gas operations intersected with the foraging ranges of 5 of 7 colonies. Three of these, including Baccalieu Island, Newfoundland, which supports the species' largest population, have experienced substantial declines in the last few decades. Future work should prioritize modelling efforts to incorporate information on relative predation risk at colonies, spatially explicit risks at-sea on the breeding and wintering grounds

  20. Adaption strategies to the effect of climate change on a coastal area in Northwest Germany with different land management scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graeff, Thomas; Krause, Stefan; Maier, Martin; Oswald, Sascha

    2015-04-01

    Coastal areas are highly vulnerable to the impact of climate change and handling is difficult. Adaption to two different situations has to be taken into account. On the one hand, increasing global sea level in combination with increased precipitation and higher storm surge frequency has to be handled. On the other hand, in summer periods due to the increase of temperature, enhanced evapotranspiration and an increase of salty seawater intrusion into groundwater have to be managed. In this study we present different landuse management scenarios on a coastal area in Northwest Germany, East Frisia, and their effect on the hydrological response. Landuse is dominated by dairy farming and intensive crop farming. 30 percent of the area lies below sea level. A dense channel network in combination with several pumping stations allows permeant drainage. The soils are characterised by marsh soils and impermeable layers which prevent an interaction with the confined brackish aquifer. Observations in those areas indicate a high salinity with concentrations peaking during the summer period. The landuse strategies include a scenario that the technological level of the management will be adapted to rainfall and sea level but without additional drainage from the hinterland to reduce salt water concentration. A second scenario includes the adaptation to increasing precipitation and the sea level with a polder system and wetland areas designated as potential buffer for winter storm surges and inland floods and as freshwater storage for dry summer periods. Two scenarios use large polder areas in the future as potential buffer for winter storm surges and inland floods and as freshwater storage for dry summer periods, additional usage for nature conservation and as the storage of carbon sequestration or extensive farming are planned. Also, stakeholders have developed a system of several smaller polders in combination with an intensification of the water resource management, and this is

  1. Spatial and temporal patterns of forest disturbance and regrowth within the area of the Northwest Forest Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Kennedy; Zhiqiang Yang; Warren B. Cohen; Eric Pfaff; Justin Braaten; Peder. Nelson

    2012-01-01

    Understanding fine-grain patterns of forest disturbance and regrowth at the landscape scale is critical for effective management, particularly in forests in western Washington, Oregon, and California, U.S., where the policy known as the Northwest Forest Plan (NWFP) was imposed in 1994 over > 8 million ha of forest in an effort to balance environmental and economic...

  2. The effects of dolomitization on petrophysical properties and fracture distribution within rift-related carbonates (Hammam Faraun Fault Block, Suez Rift, Egypt)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korneva, I.; Bastesen, E.; Corlett, H.; Eker, A.; Hirani, J.; Hollis, C.; Gawthorpe, R. L.; Rotevatn, A.; Taylor, R.

    2018-03-01

    Petrographic and petrophysical data from different limestone lithofacies (skeletal packstones, matrix-supported conglomerates and foraminiferal grainstones) and their dolomitized equivalents within a slope carbonate succession (Eocene Thebes Formation) of Hammam Faraun Fault Block (Suez Rift, Egypt) have been analyzed in order to link fracture distribution with mechanical and textural properties of these rocks. Two phases of dolomitization resulted in facies-selective stratabound dolostones extending up to two and a half kilometers from the Hammam Faraun Fault, and massive dolostones in the vicinity of the fault (100 metres). Stratabound dolostones are characterized by up to 8 times lower porosity and 6 times higher frequency of fractures compared to the host limestones. Precursor lithofacies type has no significant effect on fracture frequency in the stratabound dolostones. At a distance of 100 metres from the fault, massive dolostones are present which have 0.5 times porosity of precursor limestones, and lithofacies type exerts a stronger control on fracture frequency than the presence of dolomitization (undolomitized vs. dolomitized). Massive dolomitization corresponds to increased fracture intensity in conglomerates and grainstones but decreased fracture intensity in packstones. This corresponds to a decrease of grain/crystal size in conglomerates and grainstones and its increase in packstones after massive dolomitization. Since fractures may contribute significantly to the flow properties of a carbonate rock, the work presented herein has significant applicability to hydrocarbon exploration and production from limestone and dolostone reservoirs, particularly where matrix porosities are low.

  3. Diurnal and seasonal variations in carbon dioxide exchange in ecosystems in the Zhangye oasis area, Northwest China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    Full Text Available Quantifying carbon dioxide exchange and understanding the response of key environmental factors in various ecosystems are critical to understanding regional carbon budgets and ecosystem behaviors. For this study, CO2 fluxes were measured in a variety of ecosystems with an eddy covariance observation matrix between June 2012 and September 2012 in the Zhangye oasis area of Northwest China. The results show distinct diurnal variations in the CO2 fluxes in vegetable field, orchard, wetland, and maize cropland. Diurnal variations of CO2 fluxes were not obvious, and their values approached zero in the sandy desert, desert steppe, and Gobi ecosystems. Additionally, daily variations in the Gross Primary Production (GPP, Ecosystem Respiration (Reco and Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE were not obvious in the sandy desert, desert steppe, and Gobi ecosystems. In contrast, the distributions of the GPP, Reco, and NEE show significant daily variations, that are closely related to the development of vegetation in the maize, wetland, orchard, and vegetable field ecosystems. All of the ecosystems are characterized by their carbon absorption during the observation period. The ability to absorb CO2 differed significantly among the tested ecosystems. We also used the Michaelis-Menten equation and exponential curve fitting methods to analyze the impact of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR on the daytime CO2 flux and impact of air temperature on Reco at night. The results show that PAR is the dominant factor in controlling photosynthesis with limited solar radiation, and daytime CO2 assimilation increases rapidly with PAR. Additionally, the carbon assimilation rate was found to increase slowly with high solar radiation. The light response parameters changed with each growth stage for all of the vegetation types, and higher light response values were observed during months or stages when the plants grew quickly. Light saturation points are different for different

  4. Edaiila area of interest non-renewable resource assessment (phase 1) Great Bear Lake area, Northwest Territories Parts of NTS 86 K, 86 L, 86 M, 86 N and 96 I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebert, J.S.; Jackson, J.E.; O' Neil, C.E. [AMEC Americas Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada). Earth and Environment Division

    2007-07-01

    The Edaiila study area of interest is located in the Deline District of the Sahtu Settlement area in the Northwest Territories. It lies in the Proterozoic Bear geologic province of the Canadian Shield. The area is currently covered by prospecting claims and is likely undergoing exploration for uranium, precious metals, base metals and diamonds. This document presented a Phase 1 non-renewable resource assessment (NRA) of the area that was completed as part of the Northwest Territories Protect Area Strategy (PAS). It presented compiled historical information, provided a preliminary resource assessment and made recommendations for further Phase 2 studies. This region is within the continuous permafrost zone and is characterized by a high subarctic climate. The study area straddles the tree line and contains vegetation typical of taiga and tundra regions. The bedrock covering the flat to gently rolling topography is covered by undulating glacial drift, raised beaches and outwash deposits. About 25 per cent of the area is covered by wetlands. The Bear province is subdivided into two major domains, the Wopmay orogen and the Coppermine homocline. In the eastern portion of the study area, basement rocks are part of the Great Bear magmatic zone and are locally exposed in the Fault River area. Although basement rocks in the western portion of the study area are not exposed, they are assumed to be composed of the Hottah terrane. 86 refs., 14 tabs., 7 figs., 4 appendices.

  5. A conceptual framework for characterizing forest areas with high societal values: experiences from the Pacific Northwest of USA and Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simončič, Tina; Spies, Thomas A; Deal, Robert L; Bončina, Andrej

    2015-07-01

    In recent decades, much work has been invested to describe forest allocations with high societal values. Yet, few comparative analyses have been conducted on their importance and differences across the regions of the globe. This paper introduces a conceptual framework to characterize forest priority areas defined as areas with identified higher importance of societal values in the context of multi-objective forest management. The six dimensions of the framework (designation objective, prioritization of objectives, governance, permanency, spatial scale, and management regime) characterize the general approach (integrative vs. segregative) to multi-objective forest management and explain the form and role of priority areas for providing forest services. The framework was applied in two case study regions--Pacific Northwest of USA (PNW) and Central Europe (CE). Differences between the regions exist in all dimensions. Late-successional and riparian reserves are specific to the PNW, while protection against natural hazards is specific to CE. In PNW, priority areas are mainly focused on public lands whereas in CE they include public and private lands. Priority areas in PNW are designated in a much larger spatial context and have longer time commitments. In CE, integration of management objectives on priority areas prevails, whereas in PNW priority areas tend to be designated for single objectives. In CE, greater tolerance of timber management within priority areas compared to PNW is allowed. Convergent trends in application of priority areas between the regions indicate mixing of segregation and integration approaches to forest management.

  6. Relations between red beds times and uranic mineralization at the area of north-west China, Shaanxi and Inner Mongolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Qiaosheng; Quan Zhigao

    1989-04-01

    Rad beds played an important role in the uranic mineralization. After analyzing the geological evolution in North-West China, Saanxi and Inner Mongolia the red beds is divided into six periods. The evolution rules at each period are studied. The authors found that the time of uranic mineralication and formation of red beds (basin) is simultaneously, the uranic deposits and red beds are accompanying minerals in all places existing deposits. Uranic mineralization is bound up with the continental red beds which was formed under dry and hot climate, but has no relations with the marine red beds. The place where the deposits exist, the red beds must exist, conversely it is not true. In the section, a big uranic deposit is generated only under or above the red beds. The relations between red beds and rich deposit are also explored. The mineralization theory and the model of uranic mineralization in red beds times are presented

  7. A descriptive approach to the social and territorial inequality in rural areas of Northwest Argentina in the first decade of the XXI century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Krapovickas

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available From the last decades of the twentieth century, the rural sector of the Argentine Northwest was the scene of deep territorial and productive transformations linked to the expansion of extractive activities. The effects of these activities include privatization, concentration and land grabs, generating an increase of social and territorial inequality. The aim of this paper is therefore to analyze the socio-territorial inequality in rural areas of Northwest Argentina in the first decade of the XXI century. Four dimensions were analyzed: poverty, education, habitat quality, and agrarian structure. For the analysis of the first three dimensions, data from national population census 2001 and 2010 were used. For the analysis of the territorial and productive transformations were used data from national agricultural censuses 1988, 2002 and 2008. The results allow us to observe that while the habitat quality and education improved during the first decade of the century, there are high poverty and vulnerability in a context of a progressively unequal agrarian structure.

  8. GIS database and discussion for the distribution, composition, and age of Cenozoic volcanic rocks of the Pacific Northwest Volcanic Aquifer System study area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrod, David R.; Keith, Mackenzie K.

    2018-03-30

    A substantial part of the U.S. Pacific Northwest is underlain by Cenozoic volcanic and continental sedimentary rocks and, where widespread, these strata form important aquifers. The legacy geologic mapping presented with this report contains new thematic categorization added to state digital compilations published by the U.S. Geological Survey for Oregon, California, Idaho, Nevada, Utah, and Washington (Ludington and others, 2005). Our additional coding is designed to allow rapid characterization, mainly for hydrogeologic purposes, of similar rocks and deposits within a boundary expanded slightly beyond that of the Pacific Northwest Volcanic Aquifer System study area. To be useful for hydrogeologic analysis and to be more statistically manageable, statewide compilations from Ludington and others (2005) were mosaicked into a regional map and then reinterpreted into four main categories on the basis of (1) age, (2) composition, (3) hydrogeologic grouping, and (4) lithologic pattern. The coding scheme emphasizes Cenozoic volcanic or volcanic-related rocks and deposits, and of primary interest are the codings for composition and age.

  9. Evaluation of water productivity under climate change in irrigated areas of the arid Northwest China using an assemble statistical downscaling method and an agro-hydrological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liu; Guo, Zezhong; Huang, Guanhua

    2018-06-01

    The Heihe River Basin (HRB) is the second largest inland river basin, located in the arid region of Northwest China with a serious water shortage. Evaluation of water productivity will provide scientific implications for agricultural water-saving in irrigated areas of the arid region under climate change. Based on observed meteorological data, 23 GCMs outputs and the ERA-40 reanalysis data, an assemble statistical downscaling model was developed to generate climate change scenarios under RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP8.5 respectively, which were then used to drive the SWAP-EPIC model to simulate crop growth in the irrigated areas of the middle HRB for the future period from 2018 to 2047. Crop yield showed an increasing trend, while crop water consumption decreased gradually in Gaotai and Ganzhou irrigated areas. The water productivity in future 30 years showed an increasing trend in both Gaotai and Ganzhou areas, with the most significant increase under RCP4.5 scenario, which were both larger than 2 kg m-3. Compared with that of the period from 2012 to 2015, the water productivity during 2018-2047 under three RCP scenarios increased by 9.2, 14.3 and 11.8 % in the Gaotai area, and 15.4, 21.6, 19.9 % in the Ganzhou area, respectively.

  10. Identifying the tundra-forest border in the stomate record: an analysis of lake surface samples from the Yellowknife area, Northwest Territories, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, B.C.S. [Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis, MN (United States). Limnological Research Center; MacDonald, G.M. [California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Botanical Sciences; Moser, K.A. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    1996-05-01

    The relationship between conifer stomata and existing vegetation across tundra, forest-tundra, and closed zones in the Yellowknife area of the Northwest Territories was studied. Conifer stomata were identified in surface samples from lakes in the treeline zone, but were absent in samples from tundra lakes. Stomate analysis was recorded and the results were presented in a concentration diagram plotting stomate concentrations according to vegetation zone. Conifer stomate analysis was not able to resolve differences between forest-tundra and closed forest. Nevertheless, it was suggested that stomate analysis will become an important technique supplementing pollen analysis for reconstructing past tree-line changes since the presence of stomata in lakes make it possible to separate the tundra from forest-tundra and closed forest. The limited dispersal of conifer stomata permitted a better resolution of tree-line boundaries than did pollen. 13 refs., 3 figs.

  11. Improving the steady-state loading margin to voltage collapse in the North-West Control Area of the Mexican Power System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderon-Guizar, J.G.; Inda-Ruiz, G.A.; Tovar, G.E. [Gerencia de Analisis de Redes, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico). Inst. de Investigaciones Eleectricas

    2003-10-01

    This paper reports the application of a static approach for assessing the steady-state loading margin to voltage collapse of the North-West Control Area (NWCA) of the Mexican Power System. The approach uses both optimal load flow (OLF) and conventional load flow (LF) solutions, and singular value decomposition of the load flow Jacobian matrix (J). Additionally, the approach allows to determine suitable locations for corrective actions such as, the addition of new equipment or load shedding. The results shows that the combination of OLF and LF resulted in a steady-state loading margin to voltage collapse of the NWCA 7.2% higher than the case when only conventional load flow solutions were considered. (author)

  12. Distribution and transfer of potentially toxic metal(loid)s in Juncus effusus from the indigenous zinc smelting area, northwest region of Guizhou Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yishu; Chen, Jun; Wei, Huairui; Li, Shibin; Jin, Tao; Yang, Ruidong

    2018-05-15

    We collected samples (i.e., the aerial parts and roots of Juncus effusus and their growth media) in the indigenous zinc smelting area in the northwest region of Guizhou Province, China, and we measured and analyzed potentially toxic metal(loid)s (arsenic, As; cadmium, Cd; chromium, Cr; copper, Cu; mercury, Hg; lead, Pb and zinc, Zn) in these samples. The results include the following: First, there is a high concentration of one or more potentially toxic metal(loid)s in the slag and surrounding soil in the research area. This situation might be caused by metal(loid) damage or contamination due to the circumstances. Additionally, Juncus effusus in the indigenous zinc smelting area are contaminated by some potentially toxic metal(loid)s; since they are used for Chinese medical materials, it is especially significant that their As, Cd and Pb concentrations are greater than their limited standard values. Finally, both the bioconcentration factors and transfer factors for most potentially toxic metal(loid)s in Juncus effusus are less than 1 in the study area. Therefore, we suggest that Juncus effusus could be used for phytostabilization or as a pioneer plant for phytoremediation of potentially toxic metal(loid)s because it has a tolerance and exclusion mechanism for these metal(loid)s in the research district. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Nose Structure Delineation of Bouguer Anomaly as the Interpretation Basis of Probable Hydrocarbon Traps: A Case Study on the Mainland Area of Northwest Java Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamtono Kamtono

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v7i3.144Two important aspects in the exploration of oil and gas are technology and exploration concepts, but the use of technology is not always suitable for areas with geological conditions covered by young volcanic sediments or limestone. The land of the Northwest Java Basin is mostly covered by young volcanic products, so exploration using seismic methods will produce less clear image resolution. To identify and interpret the subsurface structure and the possibility of hydrocarbon trap, gravity measurements have been carried out. Delineation of nose structures of a Bouguer anomaly map was used to interpret the probability of hydrocarbon traps. The result of the study shows that the gravity anomalies could be categorized into three groups : low anomaly (< 34 mgal, middle anomaly (34 - 50 mgal, and high anomaly (> 50 mgal. The analysis of Bouguer anomaly indicates that the low anomaly is concentrated in Cibarusa area as a southern part of Ciputat Subbasin, and in Cikampek area. The result of delineation of the Bouguer anomaly map shows the nose structures existing on Cibinong-Cileungsi and Pangkalan-Bekasi Highs, while delineation of residual anomaly map shows the nose structures occurs on Cilamaya-Karawang high. Locally, the gas fields of Jatirangon and Cicauh areas exist on the flank of the nose structure of Pangkalan-Bekasi High, while the oil/gas field of Northern Cilamaya is situated on the flank of the nose structure of Cilamaya-Karawang High. The concept of fluid/gas migration concentrated on nose structures which are delineated from gravity data can be applied in the studied area. This concept needs to be tested in other oil and gas field areas.

  14. Mapping Daily Evapotranspiration based on Spatiotemporal Fusion of ASTER and MODIS Images over Irrigated Agricultural Areas in the Heihe River Basin, Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C.; LI, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Continuous monitoring of daily evapotranspiration (ET) is crucial for allocating and managing water resources in irrigated agricultural areas in arid regions. In this study, continuous daily ET at a 90-m spatial resolution was estimated using the Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) by fusing Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) images with high temporal resolution and Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission Reflectance Radiometer (ASTER) images with high spatial resolution. The spatiotemporal characteristics of these sensors were obtained using the Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (STARFM). The performance of this approach was validated over a heterogeneous oasis-desert region covered by cropland, residential, woodland, water, Gobi desert, sandy desert, desert steppe, and wetland areas using in situ observations from automatic meteorological systems (AMS) and eddy covariance (EC) systems in the middle reaches of the Heihe River Basin in Northwest China. The error introduced during the data fusion process based on STARFM is within an acceptable range for predicted LST at a 90-m spatial resolution. The surface energy fluxes estimated using SEBS based on predicted remotely sensed data that combined the spatiotemporal characteristics of MODIS and ASTER agree well with the surface energy fluxes observed using EC systems for all land cover types, especially for vegetated area with MAP values range from 9% to 15%, which are less than the uncertainty (18%) of the observed in this study area. Time series of daily ET modelled from SEBS were compared to that modelled from PT-JPL (one of Satellite-based Priestley-Taylor ET model) and observations from EC systems. SEBS performed generally better than PT-JPL for vegetated area, especially irrigated cropland with bias, RMSE, and MAP values of 0.29 mm/d, 0.75 mm/d, 13% at maize site, -0.33 mm/d, 0.81 mm/d, and 14% at vegetable sites.

  15. Environmental diagnoses from landscape units in the northwest area from the State of Rio Grande do Sul in the period from 1984 to 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo L. Holzschuh

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In the State of Big Rio of the South, the use and the occupation of the soil was always associated the aggressive practices to the environment. Development at any cost can bring irreversible consequences for the ecosystems, the landscapes, the biosphere and its biological diversity. With the growing demand for natural resources the periodic diagnosis of the use of the soil becomes a fundamental aspect for the understanding of the patterns of organization of space, which are rarely permanent, in function of the high dynamics of anthropic activities . In this context, the derived information of orbital sensor, to gether with the geoprocessamento techniques, have been an efficient tool the characterization of elements of the landscape and in identification studies and maping of the natural resources. This work objectifies, then, the characterization and the environmental diagnosis of five microbasins of the Northwest area of the State of Big Rio of the South. The use of GIS was essential for obtaining the information related to the structural elements of the landscape as: hipsometria, clinografia, hidrografia, uses of the soil, risk areas and areas of permanent preservation. Agriculture represents the main occupation of the soil in the area, being necessary to promote the control and the accompaniment of the use of natural resources, mainly in the areas of permanent preservation, facilitating the execution of the environmental legislation. The available cartographic base for the making of precise thematic letters is limitante. This problem is not just local, the shortage of cartographic information is general Brazil as a whole.

  16. SOIL 222Rn CONCENTRATION, CO2 AND CH4 FLUX MEASUREMENTS AROUND THE JWALAMUKHI AREA OF NORTH-WEST HIMALAYAS, INDIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arvind; Walia, Vivek; Yang, Tsanyao Frank; Fu, Ching-Chou; Singh, Surinder; Bajwa, Bikramjit Singh; Arora, Vishal

    2016-10-01

    Soil 222 Rn concentration, CO 2 and CH 4 flux measurements were conducted around the Jwalamukhi area of North-West Himalayas, India. During this study, around 37 soil gas points and flux measurements were taken with the aim to assure the suitability of this method in the study of fault zones. For this purpose, RAD 7 (Durridge, USA) was used to monitor radon concentrations, whereas portable diffuse flux meter (West Systems, Italy) was used for the CO 2 and CH 4 flux measurements. The recorded radon concentration varies from 6.1 to 34.5 kBq m -3 with an average value of 16.5 kBq m -3 The anomalous value of radon concentrations was recorded between Jwalamukhi thrust and Barsar thrust. The recorded average of CO 2 and CH 4 flux were 11.8 and 2.7 g m -2 day -1 , respectively. The good correlation between anomalous CO 2 flux and radon concentrations has been observed along the fault zone in the study area, suggesting that radon migration is dependent on CO 2 . © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Hot food and beverage consumption and the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: A case-control study in a northwest area in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Wei-Ping; Nie, Guo-Ji; Chen, Meng-Jie; Yaz, Tajigul Yiminni; Guli, Arzi; Wuxur, Arzigul; Huang, Qing-Qing; Lin, Zhi-Gang; Wu, Jing

    2017-12-01

    This study was trying to investigate the association of hot food and beverage consumption and the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in Hotan, a northwest area of China with high risk of esophageal squmous cell carcinoma. A population-based case-control study was designed. For the study, 167 patients diagnosed with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma were selected from Hotan during 2014 to 2015, and 167 community-based controls were selected from the same area, matched with age and sex. Information involved of temperature of food and beverage intake was obtained by face-to-face interview. Logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate the association between temperature of food and beverage intake and the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. The temperature of the food and beverage consumed by the esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients was significantly higher than the controls. High temperature of tea, water, and food intake significantly increased the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma by more than 2-fold, with adjusted odds ratio 2.23 (1.45-2.90), 2.13 (1.53-2.66), and 2.98 (1.89-4.12). Intake of food and beverage with high temperature was positively associated with the incidence of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in Northwestern China. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Reforestation feasibility in area formerly used for cattle rasing in the state of Rondônia, Northwest Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelliny de Matos Bentes Gama

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Little knowledge on initial behavior of native tree species in recovering landscapes in the Amazon is a current concern for expanding reforestation in the region. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the establishment of native tree species that could be used for reforestation in area previously covered by a pasture of brachiaria grass (Brachiaria brizantha destined for intensive cattle rasing in the State of Rondônia. For this, there were performed previous diagnostic of landscape changes and the election of tree species based on the ecological group information. Some of the critical macronutrients for plant growth were supplied in the holes to alleviate nutrient deficiencies. In addition, growth and survival parameters were taken to evaluate the initial behavior of species. Six native tree species planted with different combinations (10mx10m, 5mx5m and 3mx3m had survival rate and growth (total height, girth stem and crown projection area measured in different intervals: 6-month, 12-month and 24-month after planting. All the species presented survival rate over 90% at 24 months and comparable growth indices to other native species under similar situation and in the region. Overall, Schizolobium amazonicum (bandarra, the non-identified legume tree 1 (acácia grande and Colubrina glandulosa (sóbrasil averaged over 90% the highest girth stem growth all over the area. S. amazonicum and the non-identified legume tree 1 (acácia grande presented the best results for height and canopy area growth parameters, respectively. The combination among native tree species from initial successional ecological groups and fertilizer was favorable to promote reforestation in the conditions of the study area in Rondônia.

  19. Reforestation feasibility in area formerly used for cattle rasing in the state of Rondônia, Northwest Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Gama, Michelliny de Matos Bentes; Rocha, Rodrigo Barros; Salman, Ana Karina Dias; Mendes, Ângelo Mansur; Figueiró, Marivaldo Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    Little knowledge on initial behavior of native tree species in recovering landscapes in the Amazon is a current concern for expanding reforestation in the region. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the establishment of native tree species that could be used for reforestation in area previously covered by a pasture of brachiaria grass (Brachiaria brizantha) destined for intensive cattle rasing in the State of Rondônia. For this, there were performed previous diagnostic of landscape ch...

  20. Geological interpretation of an airborne gamma-ray spectrometer survey of the Hearne Lake area, Northwest Territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, A.R.; Slaney, V.R.

    1978-01-01

    This study shows how large volumes of airborne data can be displayed in a simple format which provides both mapping and exploration geologists with information not easily obtained from the original data. Eleven lines or part-lines from a gamma-ray survey of the Hearne Lake area were chosen as test lines, and airphotos were used to identify outcrops of each rock type and the distribution of overburden, swamp and water along each line. Geological maps were used to locate the test lines and to provide a listing of the rock types in the area. With this information, it was possible to calculate the average radioelement characteristics of each rock type and to group the rock signatures into a number of rock classes. The techniques described are most usefully applied to those areas where the outcrop is extensive, where some form of geological map already exists, where there are airphotos at scales of 1:30,000 or larger, and where the gamma-ray survey lines are less than 2.5 km apart

  1. Relationships between environmental governance and water quality in a growing metropolitan area of the Pacific Northwest, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, H.; Thiers, P.; Netusil, N. R.; Yeakley, J. A.; Rollwagen-Bollens, G.; Bollens, S. M.; Singh, S.

    2014-04-01

    We investigate relationships between environmental governance and water quality in two adjacent growing metropolitan areas in the western US. While the Portland, Oregon and Vancouver, Washington metro areas share many common biophysical characteristics, they have different land development histories and water governance structures, providing a unique opportunity for examining how differences in governance might affect environmental quality. We conceptualize possible linkages in which water quality influences governance directly, using monitoring efforts as a metric, and indirectly by using the change in the sale price of single-family residential properties. Governance may then influence water quality directly through riparian restoration resulting from monitoring results and indirectly through land use policy. We investigate evidence to substantiate these linkages. Our results showed that changes in monitoring regimes and land development patterns differed in response to differences in growth management policy and environmental governance systems. Our results also showed similarities in environmental quality responses to varying governance systems. For example, we found that sales prices responded positively to improved water quality (e.g., increases in DO and reductions in bacteria counts) in both cities. Furthermore, riparian restoration efforts improved over time for both cities, indicating the positive effect of governance on this land-based resource that may result in improved water quality. However, as of yet, there were no substantial differences across study areas in water temperature over time, despite an expansion of these urban areas of more than 20 % over 24 years. The mechanisms by which water quality was maintained was similar in the sense that both cities benefited from riparian restoration, but different in the sense that Portland benefited indirectly from land use policy. A combination of long-term legacy effects of land development, and a

  2. [Models for biomass estimation of four shrub species planted in urban area of Xi'an city, Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zheng-Yang; Liu, Jian-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Four common greening shrub species (i. e. Ligustrum quihoui, Buxus bodinieri, Berberis xinganensis and Buxus megistophylla) in Xi'an City were selected to develop the highest correlation and best-fit estimation models for the organ (branch, leaf and root) and total biomass against different independent variables. The results indicated that the organ and total biomass optimal models of the four shrubs were power functional model (CAR model) except for the leaf biomass model of B. megistophylla which was logarithmic functional model (VAR model). The independent variables included basal diameter, crown diameter, crown diameter multiplied by height, canopy area and canopy volume. B. megistophylla significantly differed from the other three shrub species in the independent variable selection, which were basal diameter and crown-related factors, respectively.

  3. Prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis and assessment of trypanocidal drug resistance in tsetse infested and non-tsetse infested areas of Northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimelis Dagnachew

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Northwestern region of Ethiopia is affected by both tsetse and non-tsetse transmitted trypanosomosis with a significant impact on livestock productivity. The control of trypanosomosis in Ethiopia relies on either curative or prophylactic treatment of animals with diminazene aceturate (DA or isometamidium chloride (ISM. In the present work; questionnaire survey, cross-sectional and experimental studies were carried out to; a assess the utilization of trypanocidal drugs; b determine the prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis and; c assess the drug resistant problems respectively in Tsetse and non-tsetse infested areas on NW Ethiopia. A total of 100 respondents were included for the survey and the questionnaires focused on the drug utilization practices for the control of Trypanosomosis. Blood from cattle 640 (324 cattle tested in 2011, 316 cattle tested in 2012 and 795 (390 cattle tested in 2011, 405 cattle tested in 2012 were examined from tsetse infested and non-tsetse infested areas respectively using the buffy coat technique and thin blood smear for the detection of trypanosomes and measurement of packed cell volume (PCV. For the assessment of trypanocidal drug resistance three isolates, one from tsetse (TT and two from non-tsetse (NT areas were used on thirty six trypanosome naïve calves. The experimental animals were divided randomly into six groups of six animals (TT-ETBS2-DA, TT-ETBS2-ISM, NT-ETBD2-DA, NT-ETBD2-ISM, NT-ETBD3-DA and NT-ETBD3-ISM, which were infected with T. vivax isolated from a tsetse-infested or non-tsetse infested area with 2 × 106 trypanosomes from donor animals, and in each case treated with higher dose of DA or ISM. The results of the questionnaire survey showed trypanosomosis was a significant animal health constraint for 84% and 100% of the farmers questioned in non-tsetse and tsetse infested areas of Northwest Ethiopia respectively. Responses on trypanocidal drug utilization practices indicated that risk

  4. Determination of NEHRP Site Class of Seismic Recording Stations in the Northwest Himalayas and Its Adjoining Area Using HVSR Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harinarayan, N. H.; Kumar, Abhishek

    2018-01-01

    Local site characteristics play an important role in controlling the damage pattern during earthquakes (EQs). These site characteristics may vary from simple to complex and can be estimated by various field tests. In addition, extended Nakamura's method, which uses horizontal to vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) based on available EQ records also available for site class (SC) determination. In this study, SCs for 90 recording stations which are maintained by Program for Excellence in Strong Motion Studies (PESMOS), located in the northwestern Himalayas and the adjoining areas are determined using extended Nakamura's technique. Average HVSR curves obtained at majority of the recording stations are found matching with the existing literature. Predominant frequency ( f peak) from average HVSR curve at each recording station is then used for the determination of SC. Original SC given by PESMOS is purely based on geology and not based on comprehensive soil investigation exercise. In this study, the SC, which is based on the average HVSR curves is found matching with SC given by PESMOS for a majority of recording stations. However, for considerable number of recording stations, a mismatch is also found which is consistent with the existing literature. In addition, SC based on National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program (NEHRP) scheme is proposed based on f peak for all the 90 recording stations.

  5. Combinations of Quality and Frequency of Immunization Activities to Stop and Prevent Poliovirus Transmission in the High-Risk Area of Northwest Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radboud J Duintjer Tebbens

    Full Text Available Frequent supplemental immunization activities (SIAs with the oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV represent the primary strategy to interrupt poliovirus transmission in the last endemic areas.Using a differential-equation based poliovirus transmission model tailored to high-risk areas in Nigeria, we perform one-way and multi-way sensitivity analyses to demonstrate the impact of different assumptions about routine immunization (RI and the frequency and quality of SIAs on population immunity to transmission and persistence or emergence of circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs after OPV cessation.More trivalent OPV use remains critical to avoid serotype 2 cVDPVs. RI schedules with or without inactivated polio vaccine (IPV could significantly improve population immunity if coverage increases well above current levels in under-vaccinated subpopulations. Similarly, the impact of SIAs on overall population immunity and cVDPV risks depends on their ability to reach under-vaccinated groups (i.e., SIA quality. Lower SIA coverage in the under-vaccinated subpopulation results in a higher frequency of SIAs needed to maintain high enough population immunity to avoid cVDPVs after OPV cessation.National immunization program managers in northwest Nigeria should recognize the benefits of increasing RI and SIA quality. Sufficiently improving RI coverage and improving SIA quality will reduce the frequency of SIAs required to stop and prevent future poliovirus transmission. Better information about the incremental costs to identify and reach under-vaccinated children would help determine the optimal balance between spending to increase SIA and RI quality and spending to increase SIA frequency.

  6. Combinations of Quality and Frequency of Immunization Activities to Stop and Prevent Poliovirus Transmission in the High-Risk Area of Northwest Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duintjer Tebbens, Radboud J; Pallansch, Mark A; Wassilak, Steven G F; Cochi, Stephen L; Thompson, Kimberly M

    2015-01-01

    Frequent supplemental immunization activities (SIAs) with the oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) represent the primary strategy to interrupt poliovirus transmission in the last endemic areas. Using a differential-equation based poliovirus transmission model tailored to high-risk areas in Nigeria, we perform one-way and multi-way sensitivity analyses to demonstrate the impact of different assumptions about routine immunization (RI) and the frequency and quality of SIAs on population immunity to transmission and persistence or emergence of circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs) after OPV cessation. More trivalent OPV use remains critical to avoid serotype 2 cVDPVs. RI schedules with or without inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) could significantly improve population immunity if coverage increases well above current levels in under-vaccinated subpopulations. Similarly, the impact of SIAs on overall population immunity and cVDPV risks depends on their ability to reach under-vaccinated groups (i.e., SIA quality). Lower SIA coverage in the under-vaccinated subpopulation results in a higher frequency of SIAs needed to maintain high enough population immunity to avoid cVDPVs after OPV cessation. National immunization program managers in northwest Nigeria should recognize the benefits of increasing RI and SIA quality. Sufficiently improving RI coverage and improving SIA quality will reduce the frequency of SIAs required to stop and prevent future poliovirus transmission. Better information about the incremental costs to identify and reach under-vaccinated children would help determine the optimal balance between spending to increase SIA and RI quality and spending to increase SIA frequency.

  7. Legal protection is not enough: Posidonia oceanica meadows in marine protected areas are not healthier than those in unprotected areas of the northwest Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montefalcone, Monica; Albertelli, Giancarlo; Morri, Carla; Parravicini, Valeriano; Bianchi, Carlo Nike

    2009-04-01

    Using the Conservation Index, which measures the proportional amount of dead matte relative to live Posidonia oceanica, we assessed the health of 15 P. oceanica meadows at a regional scale along the coast of Liguria (NW Mediterranean). These areas were characterized by different degrees of anthropization, from highly urbanized sites to marine protected areas. Two different scenarios were identified according to depth: in shallow zones, the health of P. oceanica meadows was related to the degree of anthropization along the coastline. In contrast, in deep zones, most meadows exhibited poor health, independent of both the degree of disturbance and the legal measures protecting the area. Working synergistically with the regional impact of increased water turbidity, local impacts from the coast were recognized as the main causes of the severe regression of most Ligurian P. oceanica meadows. We conclude that marine protected areas alone are not sufficient to guarantee the protection of P. oceanica meadows. We emphasize the need for a management network involving the Sites of Community Interest (SCIs) containing P. oceanica meadows.

  8. Spatial and seasonal variations of pesticide contamination in agricultural soils and crops sample from an intensive horticulture area of Hohhot, North-West China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fujin; He, Jiang; Yao, Yiping; Hou, Dekun; Jiang, Cai; Zhang, Xinxin; Di, Caixia; Otgonbayar, Khureldavaa

    2013-08-01

    The spatial variability and temporal trend in concentrations of the organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), in soils and agricultural corps were investigated on an intensive horticulture area in Hohhot, North-West China, from 2008 to 2011. The most frequently found and abundant pesticides were the metabolites of DDT (p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDD). Total DDT concentrations ranged from ND (not detectable) to 507.41 ng/g and were higher than the concentration of total HCHs measured for the range of 4.84-281.44 ng/g. There were significantly positive correlations between the ∑DDT and ∑HCH concentrations (r (2)>0.74) in soils, but no significant correlation was found between the concentrations of OCPs in soils and clay content while a relatively strong correlation was found between total OCP concentrations and total organic carbon (TOC). β-HCH was the main isomer of HCHs, and was detected in all samples; the maximum proportion of β-HCH compared to ∑HCHs (mean value 54%) was found, suggesting its persistence. The α/γ-HCH ratio was between 0.89 and 5.39, which signified the combined influence of technical HCHs and lindane. Low p,p'-DDE/p,p'-DDT in N1, N3 and N9 were found, reflecting the fresh input of DDTs, while the relatively high o,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDT ratios indicated the agricultural application of dicofol. Ratios of DDT/(DDE+DDD) in soils do not indicate recent inputs of DDT into Hohhot farmland soil environment. Seasonal variations of OCPs featured higher concentrations in autumn and lower concentrations in spring. This was likely associated with their temperature-driven re-volatilization and application of dicofol in late spring.

  9. Relative importance of climate changes at different time scales on net primary productivity-a case study of the Karst area of northwest Guangxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huiyu; Zhang, Mingyang; Lin, Zhenshan

    2017-10-05

    Climate changes are considered to significantly impact net primary productivity (NPP). However, there are few studies on how climate changes at multiple time scales impact NPP. With MODIS NPP product and station-based observations of sunshine duration, annual average temperature and annual precipitation, impacts of climate changes at different time scales on annual NPP, have been studied with EEMD (ensemble empirical mode decomposition) method in the Karst area of northwest Guangxi, China, during 2000-2013. Moreover, with partial least squares regression (PLSR) model, the relative importance of climatic variables for annual NPP has been explored. The results show that (1) only at quasi 3-year time scale do sunshine duration and temperature have significantly positive relations with NPP. (2) Annual precipitation has no significant relation to NPP by direct comparison, but significantly positive relation at 5-year time scale, which is because 5-year time scale is not the dominant scale of precipitation; (3) the changes of NPP may be dominated by inter-annual variabilities. (4) Multiple time scales analysis will greatly improve the performance of PLSR model for estimating NPP. The variable importance in projection (VIP) scores of sunshine duration and temperature at quasi 3-year time scale, and precipitation at quasi 5-year time scale are greater than 0.8, indicating important for NPP during 2000-2013. However, sunshine duration and temperature at quasi 3-year time scale are much more important. Our results underscore the importance of multiple time scales analysis for revealing the relations of NPP to changing climate.

  10. Physico-chemical quality of drinking water in the northwest area of Madrid (Spain); Calidad fisico-quimica de las aguas de abastecimiento de la zona noroeste de Madrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Mata, M.; Orzaez Villanueva, M. T.; Tenorio Sanz, M. D.; Garcia Puertas, P. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain); Montes Boltella, C. [Universidad Carlos III. Leganes Madrid (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    A physico-chemical analytical study of the edible waters of the northwest area of Madrid has been made. The object was to evaluate the quality characters of this water thought the water analysis of 40 representative buildings. The parameters analyzed were odour, taste, turbidity, pH, conductivity, nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, oxid ability and chlorine. The results show the analyzed waters agree with the current public consume waters legislation through with some punctual exceptions. (Author) 13 refs.

  11. Main types and metallogenetic characteristics of sandstone-type uranium deposits in central asian mobile belt and its neighbouring area, and the study on prospecting direction of northwest China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Chengming

    2007-01-01

    Based on the study of geotectonic setting, formation evolution model and metallogenic characteristics of uranium productive basins, important sandstone-type uranium deposits in Central Asian mobile belt and neighbouring area are divided into five types. The statial distribution pattern of different sandstone-type uranium deposits is analyzed in detail. Geotectonic setting and metallogenetic characteristics are discussed. Finally, the characteristics of basin geodynamics, prospecting type and ore-bearing stratigraphy in Northwest China have been proposed. (authors)

  12. 77 FR 73635 - Northwest Storage GP, LLC; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    ...) 1254 to a proposed 346-megawatt (MW) power plant located within the north industrial area of the Port...] Northwest Storage GP, LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on November 21, 2012, Northwest Storage GP, LLC. (Northwest) filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission an application under section 7 of...

  13. Phytosociological description of norite koppies in the Rustenburg area, North-West Province and refinement of the distribution of the Norite Koppies Bushveld on the national vegetation classification map of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. H. Lamprecht

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Norite Koppies Bushveld vegetation type boasts a distinctive and contrasting topography and species composition easily distinguished from that of surrounding areas. A phytosociological study was done on the leased mining area of the Impala Platinum Mining Company north of Rustenburg in the North-West Province. Similar norite koppies, situated west of the Norite Koppies Bushveld vegetation, and not yet mapped by Mucina & Rutherford (2006, were identified in the study area and phytosociologically described. Six plant communities and two subcommunities were identified. Multivariate statistical analyses (correspondence analyses confirmed that the species composition of these areas corresponds with and does therefore form part of the Norite Koppies Bushveld vegetation type as described by Mucina & Rutherford (2006. Some of these communities contain Boscia albitrunca, a protected plant species, and should therefore be considered as areas with conservation value.

  14. Trends in population blood pressure and prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension among middle-aged and older adults in a rural area of Northwest China from 1982 to 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaling Zhao

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess trends in average blood pressure levels and prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension among adults in a rural area of Northwest China, and to determine associated risk factors. METHODS: Four cross-sectional population-based surveys were conducted between 1982 and 2010 among randomly selected adults in rural areas of Hanzhong, in Northwest China. Data on blood pressure, body mass index, family history of hypertension, and socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics were collected in similar way by trained investigators in four surveys. Data of 8575 participants aged 35-64 years was analyzed. Averages and proportions were adjusted for age and sex. RESULTS: Average blood pressure in the population has increased since 1982 from 76.9 mm Hg to 79.6 mm Hg in 2010 (diastolic and from 120.9 to 129.7 mm Hg (systolic. Prevalence of hypertension increased from 18.4% in 1982 to 30.5% in 2010, and awareness of hypertension increased from 16.8% to 38.4% in 2010. Treatment of hypertension increased from 1.0% in 1982 to 17.4% in 2010, and control of hypertension increased from 0.1% in 1982 to 3.5% in 2010. All these gradients were statistically significant (P<0.01 for trend. Population blood pressure and prevalence, awareness and treatment of hypertension were positively associated with increasing age, body mass index and having family history of hypertension. CONCLUSIONS: Average blood pressure levels and the prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension among adults in rural areas of Hanzhong have increased since 1982. However, awareness, treatment and control rates remain low. Public health programs and practical strategies are required to improve prevention and control of hypertension in rural Northwest China. In particular, attention should be given to the elderly and obese, and to those with a family history of hypertension, while raising awareness and treatment among younger adults.

  15. Multi-element characterization and source identification of trace metal in road dust from an industrial city in semi-humid area of Northwest China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mengmeng Zhang; Xinwei Lu; Hao Chen; Panpan Gao; Yi Fu

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations and sources of multi-elements in road dusts from an industrial city of northwest China were determined. Dust samples have elevated concentrations of Co, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, Sr and Ba. The dusts were mainly moderate enrichment by Co and Pb, minimal enrichment to moderate enrichment by Sr and Zn, and deficiency to minimal enrichment by other trace metals. Mn, V, Y, La, Hf, Th and U originated from soil. Cu, Pb, Cr, Ba and Sr mainly derived from traffic. Co, Zr, Ni, Ga, As and Zn have mixed sources of nature, industry and traffic. (author)

  16. Canyons off northwest Puerto Rico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, W.D.; Glover, L.K.; Hollister, C.D.

    1980-01-01

    The Nuclear-Research Submarine NR-1 was used to study morphoplogy, sediment, and sediment-water interactions off the northwest coast of Puerto Rico. New detailed bathymetry from the surface-support ship, USS Portland, shows several submarine canyons in the area, some of them unreported previously. The north coast canyons, Arecibo, Tiberones and Quebradillas, are primarily erosional features although no recent turbidity-current evidence is seen. The canyons are presently filling with river-transported sediments. (orig./ME)

  17. A conceptual framework for characterizing forest areas with high societal values: experiences from the Pacific Northwest of USA and Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tina Simonèiè; Thomas A. Spies; Robert L. Deal; Andrej Bonèina

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, much work has been invested to describe forest allocations with high societal values. Yet, few comparative analyses have been conducted on their importance and differences across the regions of the globe. This paper introduces a conceptual framework to characterize forest priority areas defined as areas with identified higher importance of societal...

  18. [Effects of heavy metals pollution on soil microbial communities metabolism and soil enzyme activities in coal mining area of Tongchuan, Shaanxi Province of Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xing-Liang; Gu, Jie; Chen, Zhi-Xue; Gao, Hua; Qin, Qing-Jun; Sun, Wei; Zhang, Wei-Juan

    2012-03-01

    This paper studied the metabolism of soil microbes, functions of soil microbial communities, and activities of soil enzymes in a coal mining area of Tongchuan. In the coal mining area, the concentrations of soil Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb were significantly higher than those in the non-mining area, of which, Cd contributed most to the heavy metals pollution. By adopting Biolog method combining with principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis, it was found that the metabolic characteristics of different soil microbial communities varied significantly with increasing soil heavy metals pollution, and the variation was mainly manifested in the metabolic patterns of carbon sources such as saccharides and amino acids. In slightly and moderately polluted soils, the utilization of carbon sources by soil microbial communities was activated; while in heavily polluted soils, the carbon sources utilization was inhibited. The activities of soil urease, protease, alkaline phosphatase, and catalase all tended to decline with intensifying soil heavy metals pollution. The soil urease, protease, alkaline phosphatase, and catalase activities in the coal mining area were 50.5%-65.1%, 19.1%-57.1%, 87.2%-97.5%, and 77.3%-86.0% higher than those in the non-mining area, respectively. The activities of soil sucrase and cellulase were activated in slightly and moderately polluted soils, but inhibited in heavily polluted soils.

  19. U-Pb zircon age for a volcanic suite in the Rankin Inlet Group, Rankin Inlet map area, District of Keewatin, Northwest Territories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tella, S; Roddick, J C; VanBreemen, O [Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    U-Pb zircon analyses from a felsic band within dominantly mafic volcanics of the Rankin Inlet Group yields a U-Pb upper concordia intercept age of 2663 {+-} 3 Ma. These supracrustals at Rankin Inlet appear to be 15-20 Ma younger than volcanics of the Kaminak Group in the Tavani area, 70 km to the southwest. The 2.68-2.66 Ga volcanism in the Tavani and Rankin Inlet areas coincided with the last stage of the main phase of magmatism in the Slave Structural Province. (author). 16 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  20. U-Pb zircon age for a volcanic suite in the Rankin Inlet Group, Rankin Inlet map area, District of Keewatin, Northwest Territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tella, S.; Roddick, J.C.; VanBreemen, O.

    1996-01-01

    U-Pb zircon analyses from a felsic band within dominantly mafic volcanics of the Rankin Inlet Group yields a U-Pb upper concordia intercept age of 2663 ± 3 Ma. These supracrustals at Rankin Inlet appear to be 15-20 Ma younger than volcanics of the Kaminak Group in the Tavani area, 70 km to the southwest. The 2.68-2.66 Ga volcanism in the Tavani and Rankin Inlet areas coincided with the last stage of the main phase of magmatism in the Slave Structural Province. (author). 16 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  1. Investigation of land subsidence due to climate changes in surrounding areas of Urmia Lake (located in northwest of Iran) using wavelet coherence analysis of geodetic measurements and methodological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghtased-Azar, K.; Mirzaei, A.; Nankali, H. R.; Tavakoli, F.

    2012-04-01

    Urmia Lake (salt lake in northwest of Iran) plays a valuable role in environment, wildlife and economy of Iran and the region, and now faces great challenges for survival. The Lake is in immediate and great danger and rapidly going to become salty desert. During the recent years and new heat wave, Iran, like many other countries are experiencing, is faced with relativity reduced rain fall. From a few years ago environment activists warned about potential dangers. Geodetic measurements, e.g., repeated leveling measurements of first order leveling network of Iran and continuous GPS measurements of Iranian Permanent GPS network of Iran (IPGN) showed that there is subsidence in surrounding areas of the lake. This paper investigates the relation between subsidence and climate changing in the area, using the wavelet coherence of the data of permanent GPS stations and daily methodological data. The results show that there is strong coherence between the subsidence phenomena induced by GPS data and climate warming from January 2009 up to end of August 2009. However, relative lake height variations computed from altimetry observations (TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P), Jason-1 and Jason-2/OSTM) confirms maximum evaporation rates of the lake in this period.

  2. Effects of Heavy Metals from Soil and Dust Source on DNA Damage of the Leymus chinensis Leaves in Coal-Mining Area in Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianxin; Zhang, Minjie; Lu, Zhongming; Herman, Uwizeyimana; Mumbengegwi, Dzivaidzo; Crittenden, John

    2016-01-01

    Air and soil pollution from mining activities has been considered as a critical issue to the health of living organisms. However, few efforts have been made in distinguishing the main pathway of organism genetic damage by heavy metals related to mining activities. Therefore, we investigated the genetic damage of Leymus chinensis leaf cells, the air particulate matter (PM) contents, and concentrations of the main heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, Hg) in soil and foliar dust samples collected from seven experiment points at the core mining area and one control point 20 kilometers away from the core mining area in Inner Mongolia in 2013. Comet assay was used to test the genetic damage of the Leymus chinensis leaf cells; the Tail DNA% and Tail Moment were used to characterize the genetic damage degree of the plant cells. The comet assay results showed that the cell genetic damage ratio was up to 77.0% in experiment points but was only 35.0% in control point. The control point also had the slight Tail DNA% and Tail Moment values than other experiment groups. The cell damage degree of the control group was 0.935 and experiment groups were 1.299-1.815. The geo-accumulation index and comperehensive pollution index(CPI) were used to characterize heavy metal pollution in foliar dust samples, and single factor pollution index and CPI were used to characterize the heavy metal pollution in soil samples. The CPIfoliar dust of control group was 0.36 and experiment groups were 1.45-2.57; the CPIsoil of control group was 0.04 and experiment groups were 0.07-0.12. The results of correlation analyze showed that Air Quality Index (AQI) -CPIfoliar dust(r = 0.955**)>Damage degree-CPIfoliar dust(r = 0.923**)>Damage degree-AQI(r = 0.908**)>Damage degree-CPIsoil (r = 0.824*). The present research proved that mining activity had a high level of positive correlation with organism genetic damage caused by heavy metals through comparing with the control point; soil and atmosphere were both the

  3. Environmental Assessment for moving the Pacific Northwest Laboratory radon generators from Life Sciences Laboratory II, Richland North Area, to Life Sciences Laboratory I, 300 Area, and their continued use in physical and biological research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, I.C.

    1993-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) radon generators are a core resource of the overall U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Radon Research Program and are administratively controlled within the ''Radon Hazards in Homes'' project. This project primarily focuses on radon exposures of animals and addresses the major biologic effects and factors influencing risks of indoor radon exposures. For example, the ''Mechanisms of Radon Injury'' and ''In vivo/In vitro Radon-Induced Cellular Damage'' projects specifically address the cytogenetic and DNA damage produced by radon exposure as part of a larger effort to understand radon carcinogenesis. Several other ongoing PNL projects, namely: ''Biological Effectiveness of Radon Alpha Particles: A Microbeam Study of Dose Rate Effects,'' ''Laser Measurements of Pb-210,'' ''Radon Transport Modeling in Soils,'' ''Oncogenes in Radiation Carcinogenesis,'' ''Mutation of DNA Targets,'' ''Dosimetry of Radon Progeny,'' and ''Aerosol Technology Development'' also use the radon exposure facilities in the conduct of their work. While most, but not all, studies in the PNL Radon Research Program are funded through DOE's Office of Health and Environmental Research, PNL also has ongoing collaborative radon studies with investigators worldwide; many of these use the radon exposure facilities. The purpose of the proposed action is to provide for relocation of the radon generators to a DOE-owned facility and to continue to provide a controlled source of radon-222 for continued use in physical and biological research

  4. SEASONAL DISTRIBUTION OF YELLOW-LEGGED GULL (LARUS CACHINNANS PALLAS, 1811 OF ISLANSDS OF OBITOCHNAYA BAY (NORTH-WEST AZOV SEA AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubinina U.U.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Considered territorial connection of Yellow-legged gull in breeding colony on islands Obitochnaya Bay. Analysis of the basic stages of the annual life cycle of Larus cachinnans Pallas, 1811 with taking into account the seasonal characteristics of each age group of seagulls (young, immature, adult. Based on this data set direction and distance of displacement, among whom were identified intra-continental migrations, domestic migrations within the territory of Ukraine and migrations within the nesting area. Settlement species on islands Obitochnaya Bay characterized by: high degree conservatism of adult Yellow-legged gull a wide range in season after nesting migrations and variance of young birds, the exchange of individuals between neighbouring settlements and the establishment of new colonies at the expense of immature individuals.

  5. SEEDBANK AND SEEDLING EMERGENCE CHARACTERISTICS OF WEEDS IN RICEFIELD SOILS OF THE MUDA GRANARY AREA IN NORTH-WEST PENINSULAR MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Tlie experiment was conducted in the glasshouse of UPM from March 2003 to June 2004 to determine the soil seedbank in the ricefields ot'Muda rice granary area in Peninsular Malaysia. Six soil cores of 5 cm in diameter and 10 cm depth were sampled from each of 24 fields. All samples from each individual field were bulked and placed in plastic trays of 38 x 25 x 10 cm. Soil was moistened as required and emergence of weed seedlings were recorded over period of one year. After one year, remaining seeds were separated, removed and identified. The total seed bank was estimated at 1136.48 million/ha of whic h 62.35% (708.60 million seedlings ha"1 germinated within 12 months and 37.65% (427.88 million seeds ha"1 remained ungerminated. Total of 20 taxa were recognized. Based on importance value (I.V. the five most dominant species in terms of emerged seedling were Fimbristylis miliacea, Leplochloa chinensis, LitJwigia hyssopifolia, Cyperus difformii and C. iria. Of the remaining seeds the five dominant species with decreasing trend in ranking were F. miliacea, Scirpus lateriflonis, Monochoria vagina/is, L. hyssopifolia and L. chinensis. Ranking of total seed reserves (seedlings+ remaining seeds were similar to emerged seedling indi cating that emerged seedlings reflect the actual weed flora in the Muda area. Among the dominant species F. miliacea accounted for 58.07% of emerged seedlings, 79.31% of remaining seeds and 66.07% of total seed bank. Total seedling emergence of all species was higher in the first observation in April 2003 and cumulative seedling emergence showed no clear peaks.

  6. Satellite-derived NDVI, LST, and climatic factors driving the distribution and abundance of Anopheles mosquitoes in a former malarious area in northwest Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantur Juri, María Julia; Estallo, Elizabet; Almirón, Walter; Santana, Mirta; Sartor, Paolo; Lamfri, Mario; Zaidenberg, Mario

    2015-06-01

    Distribution and abundance of disease vectors are directly related to climatic conditions and environmental changes. Remote sensing data have been used for monitoring environmental conditions influencing spatial patterns of vector-borne diseases. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Land Surface Temperature (LST) obtained from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and climatic factors (temperature, humidity, wind velocity, and accumulated rainfall) on the distribution and abundance of Anopheles species in northwestern Argentina using Poisson regression analyses. Samples were collected from December, 2001 to December, 2005 at three localities, Aguas Blancas, El Oculto and San Ramón de la Nueva Orán. We collected 11,206 adult Anopheles species, with the major abundance observed at El Oculto (59.11%), followed by Aguas Blancas (22.10%) and San Ramón de la Nueva Orán (18.79%). Anopheles pseudopunctipennis was the most abundant species at El Oculto, Anopheles argyritarsis predominated in Aguas Blancas, and Anopheles strodei in San Ramón de la Nueva Orán. Samples were collected throughout the sampling period, with the highest peaks during the spring seasons. LST and mean temperature appear to be the most important variables determining the distribution patterns and major abundance of An. pseudopunctipennis and An. argyritarsis within malarious areas. © 2015 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  7. Identifying areas with potential for high indoor radon levels: analysis of the national airborne radiometric reconnaissance data for California and the Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moed, B.A.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Nero, A.V.; Schwehr, M.B.; Van Heuvelen, A.

    1984-04-01

    Radon-222 is an important indoor air pollutant which, through the inhalation of its radioactive decay products, accounts for nearly half of the effective dose equivalent to the public from natural ionizing radiation. Indoor radon concentrations vary widely, largely because of local and regional differences in the rate of entry from sources. The major sources are soil and rock near building foundations, earth-based building materials, and domestic water; of these, soil and rock are thought to be predominant in many buildings with higher-than-average concentrations. Thus, one key factor in determining radon source potential is the concentration of radium, the progenitor of radon, in surficial rocks and soils. Aerial radiometric data were analyzed, collected for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program, for seven Western states to: (1) provide information on the spatial distribution of radium contents in surficial geologic materials for those states; and (2) investigate approaches for using the aerial data, which have been collected throughout the contiguous United States and Alaska, to identify areas where high indoor radon levels may be common. Radium concentrations were found to be relatively low in central and western portions of Washington, Oregon, and northern California; they were found to be relatively high in central and southern California. A field validation study, conducted along two flight-line segments near Spokane, Washington, showed close correspondence between the aerial data, in situ measurements of both radium content and radon flux from soil, and laboratory measurements of both radium content of and radon emanation rate from soil samples. 99 references, 11 figures, 3 tables.

  8. Identifying areas with potential for high indoor radon levels: analysis of the national airborne radiometric reconnaissance data for California and the Pacific Northwest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moed, B.A.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Nero, A.V.; Schwehr, M.B.; Van Heuvelen, A.

    1984-04-01

    Radon-222 is an important indoor air pollutant which, through the inhalation of its radioactive decay products, accounts for nearly half of the effective dose equivalent to the public from natural ionizing radiation. Indoor radon concentrations vary widely, largely because of local and regional differences in the rate of entry from sources. The major sources are soil and rock near building foundations, earth-based building materials, and domestic water; of these, soil and rock are thought to be predominant in many buildings with higher-than-average concentrations. Thus, one key factor in determining radon source potential is the concentration of radium, the progenitor of radon, in surficial rocks and soils. Aerial radiometric data were analyzed, collected for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program, for seven Western states to: (1) provide information on the spatial distribution of radium contents in surficial geologic materials for those states; and (2) investigate approaches for using the aerial data, which have been collected throughout the contiguous United States and Alaska, to identify areas where high indoor radon levels may be common. Radium concentrations were found to be relatively low in central and western portions of Washington, Oregon, and northern California; they were found to be relatively high in central and southern California. A field validation study, conducted along two flight-line segments near Spokane, Washington, showed close correspondence between the aerial data, in situ measurements of both radium content and radon flux from soil, and laboratory measurements of both radium content of and radon emanation rate from soil samples. 99 references, 11 figures, 3 tables

  9. The Fractionation of Some Heavy Metals in Calcareous Soils Affected by Land Uses of Central Area of Zanjan Provine (Northwest of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Afshari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Heavy metals are found to be one of the major environmental hazardous contaminants, for human health, animal life, air quality and other components of environment. They can affect geochemical cycles and accumulate in animal tissues since physical processes are not able to remove them, so they are consistent in long term. The analysis of the total concentration of heavy metals in soil may provide information about soils enrichment but in general, it is widely used to determine the potential mobility of heavy metals in environmental behavior under chemical forms of metals in soils. Heavy metals existat several phases including water-soluble, exchangeable, bounded to organic matter, bounded to carbonates, bounded to Fe-Mn oxides, secondary clay minerals and residual fraction within primary minerals network. There is a dynamic equilibrium between different fractions of elements in soil. The main objectives of the present study were a The analysis of the total concentration of heavy metals such as Fe, Mn, Ni, Cr, Co, Pb, Zn, Cd and Cu and b The fractionations of heavy metals and identification of controlling factors to distribution and behavior of heavy metals in soils at different land uses. Materials and Methods: The study was performed at central area of Zanjan province (Iran. The study area was over 2000 km2 in coordinates 20´ 36° to 41´ 36° E and 19´ 48° to 53´ 48° N. The average altitudes were over 1500 meters above sea level. The major land uses of the study area included agriculture (AG, rangeland (RA and urban (UR. Sample collection was done based on the random grid method in August 2011. Surface soil samples (0-10 cm depth were taken from grid centers included 137, 77 and 27 samples from AG, RA and UR land uses, respectively. The samples were digested in Nitric acid 5 normal (Sposito et al., 1982 and total concentration of Pb, Zn, Ni, Mn, Cu, Cr, Fe and Co were measured by Perkin-Elmer: AA 200 atomic absorption

  10. The Northwest Passage Dispute

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burke, Danita Catherine

    2018-01-01

    This is an article written for the Oxford Research Group "Sustainable Security" series. It gives an overview of the dispute of the Northwest Passage and discusses factors which will contribute to the evolution of the dispute in the 21st century. This short contribution summarizes and adds to the ...... to the research recently published by the author through Palgrave Macmillan, Danita Catherine Burke, 2018, International Disputes and Cultural Ideas in the Canadian Arctic...

  11. In-stand scenic beauty of variable retention harvests and mature forests in the U.S. Pacific Northwest: the effects of basal area, density, retention pattern and down wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.G. Ribe

    2009-01-01

    Tensions between amenity- and timber-based economies in the U.S. and Canadian Pacific Northwest motivated a study of scenic beauty inside mature forests and timber harvests. A diverse sample of regional forests, measures of forest structure, and large, representative samples of photographs and public judges were employed to measure scenic beauty inside unharvested...

  12. Agony in the Northwest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labella, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    A public power crisis in the Pacific Northwest arose over plans to build five nuclear power plants. This review traces the decisions made by the 23 members of the Washington Public Power Supply System (WPPSS), the Bonneville Power Administration, and 115 other utilities and industrial users, rural cooperatives, and investor-owned utilities during the planning and construction stages to the decision to terminate three plants. The effects of political action committees working for referenda to stop bond issues, suits by rate payers and cooperatives, and other financial problems led to the decision to mothball two units and halt construction of a third, which led to the loss of 6000 construction jobs. Work continues at one site at record levels. The region must submit a cost-effective conservation and renewable resource plan next year that will help to clarify the future of nuclear plants in the affected states

  13. Global warming: A Northwest perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, M.J.; Counts, C.A. (eds.)

    1990-02-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council convened a symposium in Olympia, Washington, on the subject of global climate change ( the greenhouse effect'') and its potential for affecting the Pacific Northwest. The symposium was organized in response to a need by the Power Council to understand global climate change and its potential impacts on resource planning and fish and wildlife planning for the region, as well as a need to understand national policy developing toward climate change and the Pacific Northwest's role in it. 40 figs., 15 tabs.

  14. Timber resource of Wisconsin's Northwest Survey Unit, 1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Brad Smith

    1984-01-01

    The fourth inventory of the timber resource of the Northwest Wisconsin Survey Unit shows a 1.8% decline in commercial forest area and a 36% gain in growing-stock volume between 1968 and 1983. Presented are highlights and statistics on area, volume, growth, mortality, removals, utilization, and biomass.

  15. Nouvelles données biostratigraphiques et sédimentologiques des formations carbonifères de la région de Bouqachmir (Maroc central). Implications sur la paléogéographie des bassins carbonifères nord-mésétiensNew biostratigraphic and sedimentological data of the Carboniferous formations in the Bouqachmir area (central Morocco). Implications on the palaeogeography of the north Mesetian Carboniferous basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izart, Alain; Tahiri, Abdelfatah; El Boursoumi, Abdou; Vachard, Daniel; Saidi, Mariam; Chèvremont, Philippe; Berkhli, Mostafa

    2001-02-01

    New Visean formations and biozones of foraminifera were defined on the Bouqachmir map. The new biozonation concerns the Moroccan biozone, Cfm1, which is subdivided into two subzones, Cfm1a and Cfm1b. This map exhibited, from north-west to south-east, the Tilouine, Bouqachmir-Tougouroulmès and Fourhal turbiditic basins. The first one, from Tournaisian to Late Visean, was the equivalent of the Sidi Bettache basin, located westwards. The second extended the Tilouine basin eastwards during the Visean. The third was a basin from Visean to Westphalian. They were separated by the Zaer-Oulmes and El Hammam horsts, else emerged or immersed, bordered by faults and with materials feeding chaotic deposits.

  16. Pacific Northwest geothermal 1977 review - 1978 outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youngquist, W

    1978-06-01

    A survey covers some of the more important geothermal exploration and development activity in Oregon, Washington, and Idaho in 1977, including a projection of what may be expected in these areas in 1978 and the Pacific Northwest extensive young volcanic terrain as a prime exploration target; continuing investment by the geothermal industry; and recommendations that access should be provided to public lands which hold much of this resource, that it should be recognized that the hydrologic systems which bring this energy to the well bore in economic quantities can be depleted, and that taxation should account for this depletion.

  17. 40 CFR 81.115 - Northwest Nevada Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.115 Section 81.115 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.115 Northwest Nevada Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Northwest Nevada Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the...

  18. Highlights of science contributions to implementing the Northwest Forest Plan—1994 to 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy M. Diaz; Richard W. Haynes

    2002-01-01

    During 5 years of research (1994-98) in support of the Northwest Forest Plan (NWFP), Pacific Northwest Research Station scientists and their collaborators have made significant progress in both validating some of the NWFP’s major assumptions and providing research that sets the stage for further evolution of the plan. Studies have provided new information in the areas...

  19. Irradiation of Northwest agricultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eakin, D.E.; Tingey, G.L.; Anderson, D.B.; Hungate, F.P.

    1985-01-01

    Irradiation of food for disinfestation and preservation is increasing in importance because of increasing resrictions on various chemical treatments. Irradiation treatment is of particular interest in the Northwest because of a growing supply of agricultural products and the need to develop new export markets. Several products have, or could potentially have, significant export markets if stringent insect control procedures are developed and followed. Due to the recognized potential benefits of irradiation, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting this program to evaluate the benefits of using irradiation on Northwest agricultural products under the US Department of Energy (DOE) Defense Byproducts Production and Utilization Program. Commodities currently included in the program are cherries, apples, asparagus, spices, hay, and hides

  20. Irradiation of Northwest agricultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eakin, D.E.; Tingey, G.L.

    1985-02-01

    Irradiation of food for disinfestation and preservation is increasing in importance because of increasing restrictions on various chemical treatments. Irradiation treatment is of particular interest in the Northwest because of a growing supply of agricultural products and the need to develop new export markets. Several products have, or could potentially have, significant export markets if stringent insect control procedures are developed and followed. Due to the recognized potential benefits of irradiation, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting this program to evaluate the benefits of using irradiation on Northwest agricultural products under the US Department of Energy (DOE) Defense Byproducts Production and Utilization Program. Commodities currently included in the program are cherries, apples, asparagus, spices, hay, and hides

  1. Pacific Northwest Salmon Habitat Project Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the Pacific Northwest Salmon Habitat Project Database Across the Pacific Northwest, both public and private agents are working to improve riverine habitat for a...

  2. Solar 78 Northwest conference proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    Thirty eight papers are included. One was abstracted previously. Separate entries were prepared for thirty-seven. Also included are the conference evaluation summary, Pacific Northwest Solar Energy Association organization information, lists of commercial and non-commercial exhibitors, speakers and stearing committee members, and attendees. (MHR)

  3. Pacific Northwest regional assessment program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest (comprised of the states of Alaska, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington and Wyoming) can by several measures be regarded as a national warehouse of fossil energy resources. This condition coupled with an evolving national policy stressing utilization of fossil fuels in the near term prior to development of more advanced technologies for energy supply, could result in the imposition of major changes in the region's environmental, socioeconomic and possibly health status. The objective of the Pacific Northwest Regional Assessment Program is to establish and exercise an integrated analytical assessment program for evaluation of these potential changes that may result from various energy development or conservation scenarios. After consideration of a variety of approaches to integrated assessment at a regional level, Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) has concluded that dynamic simulation techniques provide the best available approach to evaluating the issues pertinent to the Northwest. As a result, the PNW Regional Assessment Program has been structured in a framework involving ten sectors. Each of these sectors involve their own submodels that receive information either from outside the model as exogenous inputs or from other sector submodels

  4. Safeguards training at Pacific Northwest Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickman, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    In recent years considerable attention has been given to upgrading security education programs at facilities across the country. At Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), a Laboratory-wide Safeguard Awareness Training Program has been established in order to raise the cognizance of the entire staff with regard to safeguards issues and concerns. This aggressive safeguards program involves a strong interface of physical security measure and material control and accountability systems. Within PNL, four distinct audiences were defined and a needs assessment analysis performed for each to determine specific training requirements. The target audiences identified were: material balance area (MBA) custodians, managers of material balance areas, material handlers, and new employees. Five safeguards training courses were created to meet the needs of those audiences. This paper discusses the development of the Safeguards Awareness Program at PNL and its benefits to the Laboratory

  5. Biogas digestate and its economic impact on farms and biogas plants according to the upper limit for nitrogen spreading—the case of nutrient-burdened areas in north-west Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Auburger

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available At the end of 2012, an expert group presented its evaluation of the forthcoming amendment of the German Fertilizer Ordinance (DüV. The new proposal intends to include manure of plant origin in the calculation of the upper limit for nitrogen spreading, determined to be 170 kg per hectare. This would particularly affect regions of north-west Germany that are characterized by intensive animal husbandry and biogas production. This would lead to increased costs of the disposal of manure and the use of agricultural land, especially for pig farms and biogas producers. A spatial model of nutrient distribution demonstrates the regional impacts of the amendment, and example calculations at an enterprise level show that many farmers would no longer be able to suitably pay for the factors used. Monte Carlo analysis shows a relatively high probability that only successful pig farmers and biogas producers would be able to compensate for the rising costs of transport and land use in a sustainable manner. Successful piglet producers would improve their relative competitiveness compared to biogas producers and especially to pig-fattening enterprises. The adoption of new strategies should factor in both the water protection requirements and the ability of the affected farms to evolve and grow on a sustainable basis.

  6. The ecological system and the regionalization of landscape reconstruction in northwest of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peicheng LI,Guoyuan DU,Qilei LI,Jinfeng WANG,Feimin ZHENG

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The northwest of China is a vast area with abundant resources and significant potential for development. However, the ecological system is extremely vulnerable to damage and must be managed carefully. Thus, the Chinese government is strengthening research on improvement and reconstruction of the ecological system and landscape in northwest of China while moving forward with large-scale development in west China. The disadvantages and vulnerabilities in the northwest area in China are presented. It is suggested that the reconstruction of landscape should be conducted by step by step regionalization across the various ecological systems in the 3.04 million km2 northwest area of China. The first level regionalization results of reconstruction of landscape are discussed.

  7. Sediment Evaluation Framework for the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Sediment Evaluation Framework provides a regional framework for assessment, characterization and management of sediments in the Pacific Northwest to determine suitability for unconfined in-water disposal.

  8. Pacific Northwest regional AGU meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyndman, Roy

    The 27th Annual Pacific Northwest Regional American Geophysical Union Meeting, held September 25 and 26, 1980, was hosted by the Pacific Geoscience Centre at the Institute of Ocean Sciences, near Victoria, British Columbia. A total of 79 papers was presented to the 150 registrants in six general sessions: seismology; electromagnetic induction; general geophysics; volcanology; hydrology; and oceanography, and in three special symposia: ‘The Queen Charlotte-Fairweather fault system and other active faults of the Pacific Northwest’ ‘Coastal circulation in the northeast Pacific’ and ‘Studies of the eruption of Mount St. Helens.’

  9. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory institutional plan: FY 1996--2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    This report contains the operation and direction plan for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory of the US Department of Energy. The topics of the plan include the laboratory mission and core competencies, the laboratory strategic plan; the laboratory initiatives in molecular sciences, microbial biotechnology, global environmental change, complex modeling of physical systems, advanced processing technology, energy technology development, and medical technologies and systems; core business areas, critical success factors, and resource projections.

  10. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Annual Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, Joanne P. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sackschewsky, Michael R. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tilden, Harold T. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Barnett, J. Matthew [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Su-Coker, Jennifer [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ballinger, Marcel Y. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fritz, Brad G. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stoetzel, Gregory A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lowry, Kami L. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Moon, Thomas W. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Becker, James M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mendez, Keith M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Raney, Elizabeth A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chamness, Michele A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Larson, Kyle B. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-09-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), one of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science’s 10 national laboratories, provides innovative science and technology development in the areas of energy and the environment, fundamental and computational science, and national security. DOE’s Pacific Northwest Site Office (PNSO) is responsible for oversight of PNNL at its Campus in Richland, Washington, as well as its facilities in Sequim, Seattle, and North Bonneville, Washington, and Corvallis and Portland, Oregon.

  11. Delimiting communities in the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellen M. Donoghue

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents an approach for delimiting communities in the Northwest Forest Plan (NWFP) region of the Pacific Northwest that responds to the need to assess impacts and issues associated with broad-scale ecosystem management. Census block groups are aggregated to provide an alternative to more commonly used geographic delimitations of communities, specifically...

  12. Will climate change affect biodiversity in pacific northwest forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, S.; Rosenbaum, B.J.

    1992-01-01

    Global climate change could have significant consequences for biological diversity in Pacific Northwest (PNW) forested ecosystems, particularly in areas already threatened by anthropogenic activities and the resultant habitat modification and fragmentation. The forests of the Pacific Northwest have a high biological diversity, not only in terms of tree species, but also in terms of herbs, bryophytes and hepatophytes, algae, fungi, protist, bacteria, and many groups of vertebrates and invertebrates. Global circulation and vegetation model projections of global climate change effects on PNW forests include reductions in species diversity in low elevation forests as well as elevational and latitudinal shifts in species ranges. As species are most likely to be stressed at the edges of their ranges, plant and animal species with low mobility, or those that are prevented from migrating by lack of habitat corridors, may become regionally extinct. Endangered species with limited distribution may be especially vulnerable to shifts in habitat conditions

  13. 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-12-01

    The Loads and Resources Study is presented in three documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; (2) a technical appendix detailing forecasted Pacific Northwest economic trends and loads, and (3) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a range of forecasted electricity consumption. The forecasted future electricity demands -- firm loads -- are subtracted from the projected capability of existing and {open_quotes}contracted for{close_quotes} resources to determine whether Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the region will be surplus or deficit. If resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is a surplus of energy and/or capacity, which BPA can sell to increase revenues. Conversely, if firm loads exceed available resources, there is a deficit of energy and/or capacity, and additional conservation, contract purchases, or generating resources will be needed to meet load growth. The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study analyzes the Pacific Northwest`s projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the Federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency; and (2) the larger Pacific Northwest regional power system, which includes loads and resource in addition to the Federal system. The loads and resources analysis in this study simulates the operation of the power system under the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA) produced by the Pacific Northwest Coordinating Group. This study presents the Federal system and regional analyses for five load forecasts: high, medium-high, medium, medium-low, and low. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for Operating Years (OY) 1994--95 through 2003--04.

  14. Composição química da cachaça produzida na região noroeste do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Chemical composition of the sugar cane spirit "cachaça" produced in the northwest area of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislau Bogusz Junior

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de conhecer a composição química e os requisitos de qualidade da cachaça produzida na Região Noroeste do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, foram analisadas 27 amostras de cachaça, produzidas e comercializadas em 18 municípios pertencentes às microrregiões Ijuí, Cruz Alta, Santa Rosa e Três Passos, que integram o Noroeste do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, e compararam-se os valores encontrados com aqueles estabelecidos pela Legislação. Para as análises estatísticas, aplicaram-se os testes de ANOVA e Tukey. As amostras avaliadas apresentaram valores médios de teor alcoólico, acidez, álcoois superiores, aldeídos, ésteres e metanol dentro do que estabelece a Legislação. Entretanto os valores de intervalo de concentração para estes mesmos parâmetros revelaram amostras fora do estipulado por Lei, indicando falta de conhecimento tecnológico de produção por parte de alguns dos produtores. Sugere-se a ampliação do presente estudo, com a finalidade de se investigar outros aspectos tecnológicos, tendo em vista a otimização dos processos de fabricação e a melhoria da qualidade da bebida.With the aim of knowing the chemical composition and quality requirement of the sugar cane spirit, "cachaça" produced in the Northwest Region of the Rio Grande do Sul State, 27 samples of "cachaça" were analyzed, produced and marketed in 18 municipal districts that belong to the areas of Ijuí, Cruz Alta, Santa Rosa and Três Passos, which are in the Northwest of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The values found were compared with the ones established in the Legislation. Concerning the statistical analyses, the ANOVA and Tukey tests were applied. The evaluated samples showed a medium value of alcoholic text, acidity, higher alcohols, aldehydes, esters and methanol within what the Legislation establishes. However, the interval values of concentration to these same parameters revealed samples that are not stipulated by law, showing a

  15. Recycling of beverage containers in the Northwest Territories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-02-01

    This study researched existing recycling systems, presented pertinent data on the beverage and transportation industries, and evaluated the potential of recycling beverage bottles and cans in the Northwest Territories. The study first describes the history and existing concepts of recycling, provides a general description of recycling methods with advantages and disadvantages, and highlights particular approaches taken by other provinces. Markets for the Northwest Territories are also discussed, including the potential of recoverable material, anticipated recovery rates, transportation to markets, and present recycling operations. Three strategies are identified for the southwest, northwest, and the eastern Region. Recycling is preferred for aluminium cans, glass beer bottles, plastic bottles, and glass wine and liquor bottles in that order. The report recommends a limited program for aluminium cans and beer bottles to begin immediately. Beer bottles should be refilled either in Alberta or the Northwestern Territories and aluminium cans should be compacted and shipped to recycling markets in southern Canada or the United States. The program should first be implemented in areas serviced by Alberta and accessible by truck or barge from Hay River. A program implementation plan is also included. 8 refs., 2 figs., 14 tabs.

  16. Unfrozen sea : sailing the northwest passage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byers, M.

    2007-01-01

    This article described the author's journey into the Canadian Arctic that documented the shrinking sea of Canada's Arctic region. It emphasized the loss of ecosystem and animal habitat. It addressed issues regarding Canada's claims of Arctic sovereignty over disputed waters, such as the Northwest Passage. In March 2006, the area covered during the winter by sea-ice was at an all-time low, namely 300,000 square kilometres less than the previous year. At this rate the Arctic could lose all of its sea-ice by 2030. The article also discussed phytoplankton in the Arctic which, removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere by photosynthesis. Since the waters they live in are so cold, the phytoplankton sink into the ocean depths when they die, without decomposing. The carbon they removed from the atmosphere remains at the bottom of the sea for hundreds of years. However, as water warms up, the activity of marine bacteria that feed on the dead plankton will increase, releasing carbon dioxide back into the atmosphere. Issues related to international shipping, navigation, ownership of Arctic islands, military presence and boats in the northern channels, and political promises with respect to the Canadian Coast Guard and northern waterways were also discussed. 1 fig

  17. Northwest Atlantic Regional Climatology (NCEI Accession 0155889)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To provide an improved oceanographic foundation and reference for multi-disciplinary studies of the Northwest Atlantic Ocean, NCEI Regional Climatology Team...

  18. DYNAMICS ECONOMIC DISPARITIES IN NORTH-WEST REGION OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florea Adrian

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Even though over the years has enjoyed wide media coverage, with highlighted aspects, discrepancies and inequalities of economic potential between different regions of the world, or even parts of the same countries always remained topical. Difficulties arising from these differences were always felt, extremely painful by humans. Analyzing distinctly, participation of each county to the GDP of the Northwest Region and the composition of all indicators, we can identify significant discrepancies between counties, regions and municipalities. This is one of the reasons that led us trying to identify the causes that generated the current situation. From the perspective of the contribution of each county in the Northwest Region to Region's domestic product composition, the first place is taken by Cluj county 32.3%, followed by Bihor with 24.3%, Maramures, with 14.9% Satu-Mare, 12.1%, Bistrita-Nasaud, 9.1% and 7.2% Salaj. Consulting of the Regional Operational Programme 2007-2013 indicates that the poorest areas in the Northwest Region are in Maramures and Bistrita-Nasaud. An important part of the active population of North-West Region was employed in public enterprises and an increase of unemployment in the counties of Salaj, Satu Mare and Maramures became predictable, imminent amid restructuring of public enterprises with losses. Studies of employed population by sectors of the economy, shows a high rate of population employed in services in the counties of Cluj and Bihor and high employment in agriculture on other four counties. In a modern market economy, services are most concentrated labors, and how the workforce is distributed in the Northwest region also shows an imbalance. How Northwest Region is participating in international economic cycle has major effects on the population's living standards. Relevant for the inter-district disparities analysis is the human and agents behavior analysis and the savings and loan relationships. How people

  19. Invasive crayfish in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Christopher A.; McCreary, Brome; Adams, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Invasive species directly threaten freshwater biodiversity, particularly in regions of high aquatic richness like the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Crayfish are among the most impactful of aquatic invasive species. Invasive crayfish are considered ecosystem engineers due to their ability to alter basic wetland properties, such as reducing vegetation and bank integrity and increasing turbidity. In areas where invasion is advanced, crayfish pose major economic and ecological problems. Crayfish have been widely introduced for aquaculture and can become established in a wide range of habitat conditions. They also may be spread by anglers who use them as bait. Several non-native crayfish are established in the PNW, but the extent of their invasion is not well known. At least two groups are known from scattered sites in the PNW, and both have proven problematic for native species in other parts of the world: Red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) and several members of the genus Orconectes. Both groups are native to areas of the eastern United States. Both are identified globally as invasives of high concern and appear on the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife's "10 Most Unwanted" and the U.S. Forest Service's "Primary Species of Concern" lists for stream systems in the PNW. Despite the presence of introduced crayfish in the PNW and their high potential for negative effects, the scope of their invasion and effects on aquatic systems are not well known. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), along with local groups and state agencies, is working to clarify crayfish distribution and to outline which basins may not yet be invaded. Other goals are to improve understanding of habitat associations of invasive crayfish and their potential effects on native crayfish.

  20. The Northwest Indiana Robotic Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Shawn D.; Rengstorf, A. W.; Aros, J. C.; Segally, W. B.

    2011-01-01

    The Northwest Indiana Robotic (NIRo) Telescope is a remote, automated observing facility recently built by Purdue University Calumet (PUC) at a site in Lowell, IN, approximately 30 miles from the PUC campus. The recently dedicated observatory will be used for broadband and narrowband optical observations by PUC students and faculty, as well as pre-college students through the implementation of standards-based, middle-school modules developed by PUC astronomers and education faculty. The NIRo observatory and its web portal are the central technical elements of a project to improve astronomy education at Purdue Calumet and, more broadly, to improve science education in middle schools of the surrounding region. The NIRo Telescope is a 0.5-meter (20-inch) Ritchey-Chrétien design on a Paramount ME robotic mount, featuring a seven-position filter wheel (UBVRI, Hα, Clear), Peltier (thermoelectrically) cooled CCD camera with 3056 x 3056, square, 12 μm pixels, and off-axis guiding. It provides a coma-free imaging field of 0.5 degrees square, with a plate scale of 0.6 arcseconds per pixel. The observatory has a wireless internet connection, local weather station which publishes data to an internet weather site, and a suite of CCTV security cameras on an IP-based, networked video server. Control of power to every piece of instrumentation is maintained via internet-accessible power distribution units. The telescope can be controlled on-site, or off-site in an attended fashion via an internet connection, but will be used primarily in an unattended mode of automated observation, where queued observations will be scheduled daily from a database of requests. Completed observational data from queued operation will be stored on a campus-based server, which also runs the web portal and observation database. Partial support for this work was provided by the National Science Foundation's Course, Curriculum, and Laboratory Improvement (CCLI) program under Award No. 0736592.

  1. Progress and prospects of climate change impacts on hydrology in the arid region of northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yaning; Li, Zhi; Fan, Yuting; Wang, Huaijun; Deng, Haijun

    2015-05-01

    The arid region of Northwest China, located in the central Asia, responds sensitively to global climate change. Based on the newest research results, this paper analyzes the impacts of climate change on hydrology and the water cycle in the arid region of Northwest China. The analysis results show that: (1) In the northwest arid region, temperature and precipitation experienced "sharply" increasing in the past 50 years. The precipitation trend changed in 1987, and since then has been in a state of high volatility, during the 21st century, the increasing rate of precipitation was diminished. Temperature experienced a "sharply" increase in 1997; however, this sharp increasing trend has turned to an apparent hiatus since the 21st century. The dramatic rise in winter temperatures in the northwest arid region is an important reason for the rise in the average annual temperature, and substantial increases in extreme winter minimum temperature play an important role in the rising average winter temperature; (2) There was a significant turning point in the change of pan evaporation in the northwest arid area in 1993, i.e., in which a significant decline reversed to a significant upward trend. In the 21st century, the negative effects of global warming and increasing levels of evaporation on the ecology of the northwest arid region have been highlighted; (3) Glacier change has a significant impact on hydrology in the northwest arid area, and glacier inflection points have appeared in some rivers. The melting water supply of the Tarim River Basin possesses a large portion of water supplies (about 50%). In the future, the amount of surface water will probably remain at a high state of fluctuation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. FY 1999 Annual Self-Evaluation Report of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randy R. LaBarge

    1999-11-05

    This is a report of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (Pacific Northwest's) FY1999 Annual Self-Evaluation Report. This report summarizes our progress toward accomplishment of the critical outcomes, objectives, and performance indicators as delineated in the FY1999 Performance Evaluation & Fee Agreement. It also summarizes our analysis of the results of Pacific Northwest's Division and Directorate annual self-assessments, and the implementation of our key operational improvement initiatives. Together, these provide an indication of how well we have used our Integrated Assessment processes to identify and plan improvements for FY2000. As you review the report you will find areas of significantly positive progress; you will also note areas where I believe the Laboratory could make improvements. Overall, however, I believe you will be quite pleased to note that we have maintained, or exceeded, the high standards of performance we have set for the Laboratory.

  3. Foraging strategy of little auks during chick rearing in northwest Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbech, Anders; Møller, Eva Friis; Johansen, Kasper Lambert

    of the ongoing warming of the Arctic. Here we present the first results from GPS tracking of breeding little auks in northwest Greenland, involving data from four different breeding colonies. We examine time budgets, foraging trip patterns and habitat preferences at foraging areas, including comparison......Foraging strategy of little auks during chick rearing in northwest Greenland Anders Mosbech, Kasper Johansen, Eva Friis Møller & Peter Lyngs Department of Biology and Arctic Center, Aarhus University, Denmark An estimated 80 % of the global little auk population breeds in the coastal landscape...... bordering the north water polynya in high Arctic northwest Greenland, and from this main breeding area very little is known on foraging behavior. Little auks are feeding on lipid-rich copepods associated with cold artic waters, and are potentially important for monitoring and assessing the impact...

  4. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Institutional Plan FY 2000-2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, Erik W.

    2000-03-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Institutional Plan for FY 2000-2004 sets forth the laboratory's mission, roles, technical capabilities, and laboratory strategic plan. In the plan, major initiatives also are proposed and the transitioning initiatives are discussed. The Programmatic Strategy section details our strategic intent, roles, and research thrusts in each of the U.S. Department of Energy's mission areas. The Operations/Infrastructure Strategic Plan section includes information on the laboratory's human resources; environment, safety, and health management; safeguards and security; site and facilities management; information resources management; management practices and standards; and communications and trust.

  5. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Institutional Plan FY 2001-2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, Darrell R.; Pearson, Erik W.

    2000-12-29

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Institutional Plan for FY 2001-2005 sets forth the laboratory's mission, roles, technical capabilities, and laboratory strategic plan. In the plan, major initiatives also are proposed and the transitioning initiatives are discussed. The Programmatic Strategy section details our strategic intent, roles, and research thrusts in each of the U.S. Department of Energy's mission areas. The Operations/Infrastructure Strategic Plan section includes information on the laboratory's human resources; environment, safety, and health management; safeguards and security; site and facilities management; information resources management; managaement procatices and standards; and communications and trust.

  6. The Pacific northwest stream quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Morace, Jennifer L.; Sheibley, Rich W.

    2015-01-01

    In 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program is assessing stream quality in the Pacific Northwest. The goals of the Pacific Northwest Stream Quality Assessment (Pacific Northwest study) are to assess the quality of streams in the region by characterizing multiple water-quality factors that are stressors to aquatic life and to evaluate the relation between these stressors and biological communities. The effects of urbanization and agriculture on stream quality for the Puget Lowlands and Willamette Valley are the focus of this regional study. Findings will provide the public and policymakers with information regarding which human and environmental factors are the most critical in affecting stream quality and, thus, provide insights about possible approaches to protect or improve the health of streams in the region.

  7. Area selection for a geological repository of high level radioactive waste in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Yuanxin; Wang Ju; Chen Weiming; Guo Yonghai; Su Rui; Zhao Honggang; Xu Guoqing

    2012-01-01

    China started research on HLW disposal in 1985 and 6 areas, including Northwest, Southwest, East China, South China, Inner Mongolia and Xinjiang area, are selected. The results show that the Northwest area has obvious comprehensive advantages, which can be considered as the first area for site selection, while site characterization and comparison research in the area should be continued. (authors)

  8. 1991 Pacific Northwest loads and resources study, Pacific Northwest economic and electricity use forecast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This publication provides detailed documentation of the load forecast scenarios and assumptions used in preparing BPA's 1991 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (the Study). This is one of two technical appendices to the Study; the other appendix details the utility-specific loads and resources used in the Study. The load forecasts and assumption were developed jointly by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) staff. This forecast is also used in the Council's 1991 Northwest Conservation and Electric Power Plan (1991 Plan)

  9. Knowledge-Based Information Management for Watershed Analysis in the Pacific Northwest U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith Reynolds; Richard Olson; Michael Saunders; Donald Latham; Michael Foster; Bruce Miller; Lawrence Bednar; Daniel Schmoldt; Patrick Cunningham; John Steffenson

    1996-01-01

    We are developing a knowledge-based information management system to provide decision support for watershed analysis in the Pacific Northwest region of the U.S. The system includes: (1) a GIS interface that allows users to graphically navigate to specific provinces and watersheds and display a variety of themes and other area-specific information, (2) an analysis...

  10. Intestinal helminths of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes in north-west Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magi M.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of 180 foxes (Vulpes vulpes from an area scarcely investigated of north-west Italy, were examined for intestinal helminths using sedimentation and counting technique (SCT. Faecal samples were submitted to centrifugation with 50 % zinc sulphate used as flotation solution.

  11. The 2010-2011 excavation season at Al Zubarah, north-west Qatar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Tobias; al-Naimi, Faisal; Yeomans, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    This paper briefly summarizes the results of the 2010–2011 archaeological fieldwork at the late eighteenth–twentieth-century abandoned city of al-Zubarah in north-west Qatar. The excavations in five areas inside the town, covering courtyard houses, a suq, a palatial compound, and a midden...

  12. Anatomy of a field trial: Wood-based biochar and compost influences a Pacific Northwest soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biochar land application research in elevated rainfall areas (980 millimeters of annual rainfall) of the U.S. Pacific Northwest is lacking. A proof-of-concept field study examined the effects of spruce-pine-fir wood chip biochar (slow pyrolysis; 450-500 degrees Celsius; 35 megagrams per hectare), d...

  13. Inter-regional spillovers of seaports: the case of North-West Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merk, O.M.; Manshanden, W.J.J.; Dröes, M.I.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the inter-regional spillover of seaports by assessing four large ports in Northwest Europe: Rotterdam, Antwerp, Hamburg and Le Havre. The authors disaggregate national input/output-tables to the level of the functional port area and calculate the relevant Leontief multipliers

  14. Impacts of timber harvesting on soil organic matter, nitrogen, productivity, and health of inland northwest forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. F. Jurgensen; A. E. Harvey; R. T. Graham; D. S. Page-Dumroese; J. R. Tonn; M. J. Larsen; T. B. Jain

    1997-01-01

    Soil organic components are important factors in the health and productivity of Inland Northwest forests. Timber harvesting and extensive site preparation (piling, windrowing, or scalping) reduces the amount of surface organic material (woody residues and forest floor layers) over large areas. Some wildfires and severe prescribed burns can have similar consequences....

  15. Timber resource statistics for non-federal forest land in northwest Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald R. Gedney; Patricia M. Bassett; Mary A. Mei

    1986-01-01

    This report summarizes a 1986 timber resource inventory of the non-Federal forest land in the 10 counties (Clackamas, Clatsop, Columbia, Hood River, Marion, Multnomah , Polk, Tillamook, Washington, and Yamhill) in northwest Oregon. Detailed tables of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest are presented.

  16. 77 FR 20807 - Northwest Pipeline GP; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... diameter pipelines away from an adjacent surface coal mine west of Kemmerer, Wyoming. Northwest also... directed to Pam Barnes, Manager Certificates and Tariffs, Northwest Pipeline GP, 295 Chipeta Way, Salt Lake...

  17. Achievements in emergency medical rescue service, North-West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-08-28

    Aug 28, 2006 ... In North-West province this process of provincialisation took place in ... Emergency Medical Rescue Service, Department of Health, North-West. Victor R .... recovery after CPR treatment should be started as soon as possible ...

  18. 2010 Ecological Survey of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamness, Michele A.; Perry, Christopher; Downs, Janelle L.; Powell, Sylvia D.

    2011-02-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Pacific Northwest Site Office (PNSO) oversees and manages the DOE contract for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), a DOE Office of Science multi-program laboratory located in Richland, Washington. PNSO is responsible for ensuring that all activities conducted on the PNNL Site comply with applicable laws, policies, and DOE orders. The DOE Pacific Northwest Site Office Cultural and Biological Resources Management Plan (DOE/PNSO 2008) addresses the requirement for annual surveys and monitoring for species of concern and to identify and map invasive species. In addition to the requirement for an annual survey, proposed project activities must be reviewed to assess any potential environmental consequences of conducting the project. The assessment process requires a thorough understanding of the resources present, the potential impacts of a proposed action to those resources, and the ultimate consequences of those actions. The PNNL Site is situated on the southeastern corner of the DOE Hanford Site, located at the north end of the city of Richland in south-central Washington. The site is bordered on the east by the Columbia River, on the west by Stevens Drive, and on the north by the Hanford Site 300 Area (Figure 1). The environmental setting of the PNNL Site is described in Larson and Downs (2009). There are currently two facilities on the PNNL Site: the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), and the recently completed Physical Sciences Facility (PSF). This report describes the results of the annual survey of the biological resources found on the undeveloped portions of the PNNL Site in 2010. A brief description of the methods PNNL ecologists used to conduct the surveys and the results of the surveys are presented. Actions taken to fully delineate noxious weed populations discovered in 2009 and efforts in 2010 to control those weeds also are described. Appendix A provides a list of plant and

  19. Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Strategies in Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Hong-Yan; LIU Cai-Hong; LI Yan-Chun; FANG Jian-Gang; LI Lin; LI Hong-Mei; ZHENG Guang-Fen; DENG Zhen-Yong; DONG An-Xiang; GUO Jun-Qin; ZHANG Cun-Jie; SUN Lan-Dong; ZHANG Xu-Dong; LIN Jing-Jing; WANG You-Heng; FANG Feng; MA Peng-Li

    2014-01-01

    Climate change resulted in changes in crop growth duration and planting structure, northward movement of planting region, and more severe plant diseases and insect pests in Northwest China. It caused earlier seeding for spring crop, later seeding for autumn crop, accelerated crop growth, and reduced mortality for winter crop. To adapt to climate change, measures such as optimization of agricultural arrangement, adjustment of planting structure, expansion of thermophilic crops, and development of water-saving agriculture have been taken. Damaging consequences of imbalance between grassland and livestock were enhanced. The deterioration trend of grassland was intensified; both grass quantity and quality declined. With overgrazing, proportions of inferior grass, weeds and poisonous weeds increased in plateau pastoral areas. Returning farmland to grazing, returning grazing to grassland, fence enclosure and artificial grassland construction have been implemented to restore the grassland vegetation, to increase the grassland coverage, to reasonably control the livestock carrying capacity, to prevent overgrazing, to keep balance between grassland and livestock, and to develop the ecological animal husbandry. In Northwest China, because the amount of regional water resources had an overall decreasing trend, there was a continuous expansion in the regional land desertification, and soil erosion was very serious. A series of measures, such as development of artificial precipitation (snow), water resources control, regional water diversion, water storage project and so on, were used effectively to respond to water deficit. It had played a certain role in controlling soil erosion by natural forest protection and returning farmland to forest and grassland. In the early 21st century, noticeable achievements had been made in prevention and control of desertification in Northwest China. The regional ecological environment has been improved obviously, and the desertification trend

  20. Northwest Boreal Landscape Conservation Cooperative strategic plan 2015 - 2025

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markon, Carl; Schroff, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The Northwest Boreal Landscape Conservation Cooperative (NWB LCC) is a voluntary, diverse, self-directed management-science partnership, informing and promoting integrated science, sustainable natural and cultural resource management, and conservation to address impacts of climate change and other stressors within and across ecosystems. The NWB LCC area includes parts of Alaska, Yukon, Northwest Territories, and British Columbia. Our partnership reflects both the broad geographic scope and an extensive array of active and engaged participants including resource management organizations, government representatives, policy makers, Tribes and First Nations, industry leaders, researchers, non-governmental organizations, and research/education institutions. Bringing together diverse partners will help assure the northwest boreal is a functioning, sustainable landscape. We live in an era of profound conservation challenges, including the loss and fragmentation of habitats, genetic isolation, invasive species, and unnatural wildfire. The effects of rapidly changing climate are already evident on the landscape. In these circumstances, it is imperative that natural resource management agencies, science providers, Tribes, First Nations, conservation organizations, and other stakeholders work together to understand the drivers and impacts of landscape change and to determine how best to address those challenges. Further, it is essential that the public and communities receive clear communication about the vision and activities of the NWB LCC. Open public access to NWB LCC activities and products will promote acceptance and support of the science that guides potential changes in management action and conservation strategy. This strategic plan provides a great opportunity for the NWB LCC to share our approach and intentions to the LCC members, collaborators, communities, and the public at large.

  1. 7 CFR 319.8-13 - From Northwest Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false From Northwest Mexico. 319.8-13 Section 319.8-13... for the Entry of Cotton and Covers from Mexico § 319.8-13 From Northwest Mexico. Contingent upon continued freedom of Northwest Mexico and of the West Coast of Mexico from infestations of the pink bollworm...

  2. Indians of Yukon and Northwest Territories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Ottawa (Ontario).

    A report is presented of the 7 American Indian tribes (Chipewyan, Yellowknife, Slave, Dogrib, Hare, Nahani, and Kutchin) of the Yukon and Northwest Territories. Described is each tribe's history, foodgathering methods, clothing, work distribution practices, social organization, and religion. A brief history of formal education among the tribes…

  3. SCIENCE, POLITICS, AND PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON RECOVERY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throughout the Pacific Northwest, since 1850, all wild salmon runs have declined and some have disappeared. Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline. Each year, hundreds of millions of dollars continue to be spent in variou...

  4. Solar Energy for Pacific Northwest Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, John S.

    Data presented in this report indicate that solar space and water heating are possible in the Pacific Northwest. The first section of the report contains solar records from several stations in the region illustrating space heating needs that could be met, on an average daily basis, by solar energy. The data are summarized, and some preliminary…

  5. Urbanization Process Monitoring in Northwest China based on DMSP/OLS Nighttime Light Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, K.; Bai, L. Y.; Feng, J. Z.

    2017-02-01

    In recent years, the DMSP/OLS nighttime light data have been widely applied to various fields such as monitoring and evaluation of urbanization, estimation of social economy, economical environment and health effects, hazards analysis, and fisheries research. The general urbanized level in China has rapidly developed since the 1990s, and the cities in northwest China, which were important population centres of the ancient silk road, have also been developed in a high speed thanks to China’s national strategy of Western Development. Given the Xinjiang autonomous region as a core area of One Belt and One Road, it is very necessary to study the urbanization processes and changes of its urban system and the whole northwest region of China. In this paper, we extracted built-up areas of the cities in northwest China in 1992, 1997, 2002, 2007, and 2012, evaluated urban expansion and spatial pattern through appropriate indexes, and also quantitatively analyzed the urbanized level of each city. The results showed that the cities in northwest China generally presented high strong and rapid expansion, but there were some large differences among cities. Urban expansion forms alternate with exterior expansion and interior filling, in general, the cities externally expandedafter 2002 and internally filledbefore 2002, meanwhile, there were a high positive correlation between urban built-up areas and population growth in Xinjiang autonomous.

  6. Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batten, Belinda [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Polagye, Brian [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); LiVecchi, Al [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-06-30

    In 2008, the US Department of Energy’s (DOE) Wind and Water Power Program issued a funding opportunity announcement to establish university-led National Marine Renewable Energy Centers. Oregon State University and the University of Washington combined their capabilities in wave and tidal energy to establish the Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center, or NNMREC. NNMREC’s scope included research and testing in the following topic areas: • Advanced Wave Forecasting Technologies; • Device and Array Optimization; • Integrated and Standardized Test Facility Development; • Investigate the Compatibility of Marine Energy Technologies with Environment, Fisheries and other Marine Resources; • Increased Reliability and Survivability of Marine Energy Systems; • Collaboration/Optimization with Marine Renewable and Other Renewable Energy Resources. To support the last topic, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) was brought onto the team, particularly to assist with testing protocols, grid integration, and testing instrumentation. NNMREC’s mission is to facilitate the development of marine energy technology, to inform regulatory and policy decisions, and to close key gaps in scientific understanding with a focus on workforce development. In this, NNMREC achieves DOE’s goals and objectives and remains aligned with the research and educational mission of universities. In 2012, DOE provided NNMREC an opportunity to propose an additional effort to begin work on a utility scale, grid connected wave energy test facility. That project, initially referred to as the Pacific Marine Energy Center, is now referred to as the Pacific Marine Energy Center South Energy Test Site (PMEC-SETS) and involves work directly toward establishing the facility, which will be in Newport Oregon, as well as supporting instrumentation for wave energy converter testing. This report contains a breakdown per subtask of the funded project. Under each subtask, the following

  7. Recent and Future Climate Change in Northwest China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Yafeng; Shen, Yongping; Kang, Ersi; Li, Dongliang; Ding, Yongjian [Cold and Arid Regions, Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, 730000 (China); Zhang, Guowei [Xinjiang Bureau of Hydrology and Water Resources, Urumqi, 830010 (China); Hu, Ruji [Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi, 830011 (China)

    2007-02-15

    As a consequence of global warming and an enhanced water cycle, the climate changed in northwest China, most notably in the Xinjiang area in the year 1987. Precipitation, glacial melt water and river runoff and air temperature increased continuously during the last decades, as did also the water level of inland lakes and the frequency of flood disasters. As a result, the vegetation cover is improved, number of days with sand-dust storms reduced. From the end of the 19th century to the 1970s, the climate was warm and dry, and then changed to warm and wet. The effects on northwest China can be classified into three classes by using the relation between precipitation and evaporation increase. If precipitation increases more than evaporation, runoff increases and lake water levels rise. We identify regions with: (1) notable change, (2) slight change and (3) no change. The future climate for doubled CO2 concentration is simulated in a nested approach with the regional climate model-RegCM2. The annual temperature will increase by 2.7C and annual precipitation by 25%. The cooling effect of aerosols and natural factors will reduce this increase to 2.0C and 19% of precipitation. As a consequence, annual runoff may increase by more than 10%.

  8. Recent and Future Climate Change in Northwest China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Yafeng; Shen, Yongping; Kang, Ersi; Li, Dongliang; Ding, Yongjian; Zhang, Guowei; Hu, Ruji

    2007-01-01

    As a consequence of global warming and an enhanced water cycle, the climate changed in northwest China, most notably in the Xinjiang area in the year 1987. Precipitation, glacial melt water and river runoff and air temperature increased continuously during the last decades, as did also the water level of inland lakes and the frequency of flood disasters. As a result, the vegetation cover is improved, number of days with sand-dust storms reduced. From the end of the 19th century to the 1970s, the climate was warm and dry, and then changed to warm and wet. The effects on northwest China can be classified into three classes by using the relation between precipitation and evaporation increase. If precipitation increases more than evaporation, runoff increases and lake water levels rise. We identify regions with: (1) notable change, (2) slight change and (3) no change. The future climate for doubled CO2 concentration is simulated in a nested approach with the regional climate model-RegCM2. The annual temperature will increase by 2.7C and annual precipitation by 25%. The cooling effect of aerosols and natural factors will reduce this increase to 2.0C and 19% of precipitation. As a consequence, annual runoff may increase by more than 10%

  9. Tourism: an alternative to development?: reconsidering farming, tourism and conservation incentives in Northwest Yunnan mountainous communities

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Mingyu; Hens, Luc; Ou, XiaoKun; De Wulf, Robert

    2009-01-01

    In the last decade, tourism has developed rapidly in the mountainous areas of northwest Yunnan. This growth has led to substantial economic and social changes, with resulting environmental consequences. This article uses a case study to illustrate how local farmers involved in tourism changed their agricultural practices as a result of the transformations that took place in the area. The aim was to examine tourism's expected benefits of poverty alleviation and conservation incentives. Tourism...

  10. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory HEPA filter box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCoy, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    This safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) evaluates and documents the safe onsite transport of eight high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters in the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory HEPA Filter Box from the 300 Area of the Hanford Site to the Central Waste Complex and on to burial in the 200 West Area. Use of this SEP is authorized for 1 year from the date of release

  11. Pacific Northwest Laboratory ALARA report for Calendar Year 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, S.L.

    1995-08-01

    This report provides summary results of the Calendar Year (CY) 1994 As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) Program performance at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). This report includes data regarding performance in the area of personnel exposures to radiation, skin contaminations, control of contaminated areas, minimization of radioactive waste, and control of radioactive releases. In CY 1994: (1) The collective total effective dose equivalent to PNL employees during 1994 was 55 person-rem. The Field Dosimetry Services of the Radiological Control Department, Technical Support Section, projected that no PNL employee's dose would exceed 2 rem based on dosimeters processed during the year; no worker actually exceeded the projection-by the end of CY 1994. The maximum dose to any individual was 1.11 rem. (2) There were 34 instances of skin and personal-clothing contamination events for PNL employees during 1994. Eighteen of these contamination events occurred at the 324 Building; eleven occurred at the 325 Building; two occurred in the 327 Building; one occurred in the 326 Building; one occurred in the 3708 Building; and one occurred in the RTL Building. (3) PNL facilities contained 12 Airborne Radioactivity Areas, and 60 Contamination Areas and High Contamination Areas. The area of the Airborne Radioactivity Areas was 383 m 2 (4125 ft 2 ). The area of the Contamination Areas was 5290 m 2 (56,947 ft 2 ). The area of the High Contamination Areas was 266 m 2 (2863 ft 2 ). (4) PNL disposed of 10.5 m 3 (371 ft 3 ) of compacted low level waste. Also disposed was 423 m 3 (14,949 ft 3 ) of noncompacted low level and mixed waste that was not subject to volume reduction. The total radioactivity of the disposed waste was 1217 Ci. (5) PNL facilities released 165.2 Ci of noble gas, 3.0E-5 Ci of airborne particulate radioactive material, and 12.2 Ci of tritium to the environment

  12. Regional climate change for the Pacific Northwest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McBean, G.A.; Thomas, G.

    1991-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest climate is dominated by topography and the Pacific Ocean; the forests have become adapted to the present climate. Within short distances there are large changes in precipitation and temperature, with resultant changes in ecosystems. As the atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases increase, global climate is expected to warm and precipitation to increase. Global climate model simulations show enhanced warming at high northern latitudes. For the Pacific Northwest, models show 2-6 degree C warming and increased precipitation in the winter for doubled atmospheric CO 2 concentration. However, the regional details of these models are presently not very reliable. The results and limitations of present global climate models are reviewed. The roles of the oceans, clouds, and other feedback mechanisms are described along with some of the possible impacts of climate change on forest resources. 24 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  13. Sustaining the Northwest way of life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-08-01

    These Discussion Papers are from a number of organizations with a high stake in the future performance of the Bonneville Power Administration. Bonneville solicited papers from other organizations to assure a broaded-based discussion of the topics for the 1991 Programs in Perspective. PIP meetings will be held throughout the Northwest in September. PIP runs on a two-year cycle. The first year is aimed at discussion of broad, strategic issues. The second year evaluates specific program levels for all Bonneville programs and test them for affordability against financial constraints. This year's PIP focuses on strategic-issues discussion. It specifically asks for regional discussion to help put some flesh on the skeleton of Bonneville's own vision for its future: ''Best for the Northwest Through Teamwork B... P... A... The Most Competitive and Socially Responsible Power System in the Nation'' Specific topics are (1) achieving social responsibility and (2) conserving Northwest competitiveness. Bonneville executives chose this vision as a means of directing the organization into and beyond the 1990s. It guides the 3000 plus employees of the agency in their day-to-day operations. By asking for discussion of the terms ''Most Competitive'' and ''Socially Responsible'' in the 1991 PIP, Bonneville intends to better understand the diverse needs of its customers and constituents, and to become of even greater service to the Northwest. The papers are designed to help stimulate thought about the dimensions of the future direction of BPA. Bonneville intends that the real substance of PIP will occur in the meetings themselves. We hope that these papers will provoke new thinking, and that the interchange of views in the meetings will produce new approaches to the issues

  14. Sustaining the Northwest Way of Life.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration. Customer Services.

    1991-08-01

    These Discussion Papers are from a number of organizations with a high stake in the future performance of the Bonneville Power Administration. Bonneville solicited papers from other organizations to assure a broaded-based discussion of the topics for the 1991 Programs in Perspective. PIP meetings will be held throughout the Northwest in September. PIP runs on a two-year cycle. The first year is aimed at discussion of broad, strategic issues. The second year evaluates specific program levels for all Bonneville programs and test them for affordability against financial constraints. This year's PIP focuses on strategic-issues discussion. It specifically asks for regional discussion to help put some flesh on the skeleton of Bonneville's own vision for its future: Best for the Northwest Through Teamwork B... P... A... The Most Competitive and Socially Responsible Power System in the Nation'' Specific topics are (1) achieving social responsibility and (2) conserving Northwest competitiveness. Bonneville executives chose this vision as a means of directing the organization into and beyond the 1990s. It guides the 3000 plus employees of the agency in their day-to-day operations. By asking for discussion of the terms Most Competitive'' and Socially Responsible'' in the 1991 PIP, Bonneville intends to better understand the diverse needs of its customers and constituents, and to become of even greater service to the Northwest. The papers are designed to help stimulate thought about the dimensions of the future direction of BPA. Bonneville intends that the real substance of PIP will occur in the meetings themselves. We hope that these papers will provoke new thinking, and that the interchange of views in the meetings will produce new approaches to the issues.

  15. Electricity: Cornerstone of the northwest economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    The goal of this Northwest Power Plan is to preserve and enhance valuable assets by identifying the steps that need to be taken to ensure the lowest cost electrical energy future for the Pacific Northwest. With the 1980's the region entered a new age of electrical power, which poses five major new challenges for the region. (1) All new sources of power are much more expensive than the region's existing hydropower system. (2) The region's industries have divergent needs, and the dilemma is that new additions to the power system will raise costs and threaten the traditional industries. (3) The current surplus of electricity is expensive. Today's surplus is made up of coal and nuclear powered systems which are expensive. (4) The surplus is not evenly shared. High growth metropolitan served by investor-owned utilities with fewer resources compared to demand than the publicly-owned utilities. (5) The surplus could disappear quickly, with high growth the region would need new supplies in the next few years. A 25 year history of the Northwest electrical power development is given

  16. Navigable windows of the Northwest Passage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xing-he; Ma, Long; Wang, Jia-yue; Wang, Ye; Wang, Li-na

    2017-09-01

    Artic sea ice loss trends support a greater potential for Arctic shipping. The information of sea ice conditions is important for utilizing Arctic passages. Based on the shipping routes given by ;Arctic Marine Shipping Assessment 2009 Report;, the navigable windows of these routes and the constituent legs were calculated by using sea ice concentration product data from 2006 to 2015, by which a comprehensive knowledge of the sea ice condition of the Northwest Passage was achieved. The results showed that Route 4 (Lancaster Sound - Barrow Strait - Prince Regent Inlet and Bellot Strait - Franklin Strait - Larsen Sound - Victoria Strait - Queen Maud Gulf - Dease Strait - Coronation Gulf - Dolphin and Union Strait - Amundsen Gulf) had the best navigable expectation, Route 2 (Parry Channel - M'Clure Strait) had the worst, and the critical legs affecting the navigation of Northwest Passage were Viscount Melville Sound, Franklin Strait, Victoria Strait, Bellot Strait, M'Clure Strait and Prince of Wales Strait. The shortest navigable period of the routes of Northwest Passage was up to 69 days. The methods used and the results of the study can help the selection and evaluation of Arctic commercial routes.

  17. The public view of Pacific Northwest forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, P.R.

    1991-01-01

    There are diverse communities that make up the public in the Pacific Northwest, all with differing views on the forest. To the media, the public are those indirect stakeholders, or average citizens, who have become keenly aware of the importance of environmental issues, including the implications for global change. Linkages between the forests, deforestation, global climate change, and overall environmental sustainability have been widely publicized, though less frequently analyzed in depth. Consequently, the state of Northwest forests has become a vital public interest. The need for an overall margin of global environmental security, and a concern over unsuspected consequences of all economic activity (including forestry) have created a community of interest among the urban population. In part, this is a spillover effect from promoting individual environmental responsibility and the conserver ethic into issues beyond the city boundary. In the Northwest, this often translates as a deep concern over forest management issues and strong conviction that changes are needed. At the same time, and largely as a direct response, the socioeconomic interests of rural forest communities have become a high-profile issue, raising debate over local empowerment and local forest stewardship models. The consequences of this complex and rapidly evolving public view of the forests are critical to forest managers and policymakers. 12 refs

  18. 2011 Annual Ecological Survey: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, James M.; Chamness, Michele A.

    2012-02-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Pacific Northwest Site Office (PNSO) oversees and manages the DOE contract for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), a DOE Office of Science multi-program laboratory located in Richland, Washington. PNSO is responsible for ensuring that all activities conducted on the PNNL site comply with applicable laws, policies, and DOE Orders. The DOE Pacific Northwest Site Office Cultural and Biological Resources Management Plan (DOE/PNSO 2008) addresses the requirement for annual surveys and monitoring for species of concern and to identify and map invasive species. In addition to the requirement for an annual survey, proposed project activities must be reviewed to assess any potential environmental consequences of conducting the project. The assessment process requires a thorough understanding of the resources present, the potential impacts of a proposed action to those resources, and the ultimate consequences of those actions. The PNNL site is situated on the southeastern corner of the DOE Hanford Site, located at the north end of the city of Richland in south-central Washington. The site is bordered on the east by the Columbia River, on the west by Stevens Drive, and on the north by the Hanford Site 300 Area (Figure 1). The environmental setting of the PNNL site is described in Larson and Downs (2009). There are currently two facilities on the PNNL site: the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory and the Physical Sciences Facility. This report describes the annual survey of biological resources found on the undeveloped upland portions of the PNNL site. The annual survey is comprised of a series of individual field surveys conducted on various days in late May and throughout June 2011. A brief description of the methods PNNL ecologists used to conduct the baseline surveys and a summary of the results of the surveys are presented. Appendix A provides a list of plant and animal species identified in the

  19. Formative pre-Hispanic agricultural soils in northwest Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampietro Vattuone, María Marta; Roldán, Jimena; Neder, Liliana; Maldonado, Mario Gabriel; Vattuone, Marta Amelia

    2011-01-01

    Our study area is from an early agricultural archaeological site named "El Tolar" (1st to 9th century AD), located in Tafí Valley (Tucumán, northwest Argentina). The objective was to identify geochemical signatures generated by the sustained agrarian use of soils. Chemical and pedological studies were made in different archaeological contexts. Physical and chemical features, such as bulk density, pH, organic and inorganic phosphorus, and available copper, manganese and iron, were taken into account. The results suggested that a buried paleosol identified was contemporary with the occupation of the site. It also showed characteristics clearly related to pre-Hispanic agrarian production. The concentrations of organic phosphorus and iron in agricultural soils probably reflect the use of fertilizers. The application of geoscience techniques allowed us to obtain important information on their behaviour and socio-economic development. This paper constitutes the first pedogeochemical approach to the study of Argentinean pre-Hispanic agricultural soils.

  20. Caldwell Ranch Exploration and Confirmation Project, Northwest Geysers, CA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, Mark A.

    2013-04-25

    The purpose of the Caldwell Ranch Exploration and Confirmation Project was to drill, test, and confirm the present economic viability of the undeveloped geothermal reservoir in the 870 acre Caldwell Ranch area of the Northwest Geysers that included the CCPA No.1 steam field. All of the drilling, logging, and sampling challenges were met. Three abandoned wells, Prati 5, Prati 14 and Prati 38 were re-opened and recompleted to nominal depths of 10,000 feet in 2010. Two of the wells required sidetracking. The flow tests indicated Prati 5 Sidetrack 1 (P-5 St1), Prati 14 (P-14) and Prati 38 Sidetrack 2 (P-38 St2) were collectively capable of initially producing an equivalent of 12 megawatts (MWe) of steam using a conversion rate of 19,000 pounds of steam/hour

  1. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory institutional plan FY 1998--2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory`s core mission is to deliver environmental science and technology in the service of the nation and humanity. Through basic research the lab creates fundamental knowledge of natural, engineered, and social systems that is the basis for both effective environmental technology and sound public policy. They solve legacy environmental problems by delivering technologies that remedy existing environmental hazards, they address today`s environmental needs with technologies that prevent pollution and minimize waste, and they are laying the technical foundation for tomorrow`s inherently clean energy and industrial processes. The lab also applies their capabilities to meet selected national security, energy, and human health needs; strengthen the US economy; and support the education of future scientists and engineers. The paper summarizes individual research activities under each of these areas.

  2. Seabird colonies in the Melville Bay, Northwest Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boertmann, David; Huffeldt, Nicholas Per

    This report describes the results of a survey for breeding and colonial seabirds in a hitherto un-surveyed area of Northwest Greenland - the Melville Bay. The results shall be included as background data for oil spill sensitivity mapping, preparation of environmental impact assessments of petroleum...... activities in Baffin Bay and for the regulation (by the Greenland government) of petroleum activities. The survey showed, that compared to other coasts of West Greenland, the Melville Bay holds only few breeding colonies and low numbers of breeding seabirds. The most widespread and numerous species...... is the black guillemot followed by the glaucous gull. However, one colony is of national significance – Sabine Øer, with high numbers of breeding Arctic terns and Sabine’s gulls. Other noteworthy observations were puffins on Thom Ø and many new Iceland gull colonies that extended the known northern breeding...

  3. Fish resource data from the Snare River, Northwest Territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jessop, E.F.; Chang-Kue, K.T.J.; MacDonald, G.

    1994-01-01

    An extensive fish sampling and tagging program was conducted on the Snare River, Northwest Territories, in order to collect baseline data on the fish populations in sections of the river altered by hydroelectric projects. Fish populations were sampled from May to July 1977 in five sections of the river that were influenced by development of hydropower at three dams currently on line; 530 tagged fish were also released. The biweekly catch composition in experimental gill nets for each study area and the catch per gill net mesh size are presented for walleye (Stizostedion vitreum), lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), lake cisco (Coregonus artedi), northern pike (Esox lucius), white sucker (Catostomus commersoni), and longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus). Age-specific data on length, weight, age, sex, and maturity are also included. 7 refs., 12 figs., 42 tabs

  4. Dendroclimatology of the Slave River Delta, Northwest Territories, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, S.; Buhay, W. M.; Blair, D.; Tardif, J.; Bailey, D.

    2004-05-01

    It is well documented that changing hydrological conditions impact delta ecosystems. Such changes can also affect local inhabitants who have historical connections to the area and its resources. During the summer of 2003 a multifaceted paleo-environmental project was initiated to reconstruct the frequencies of floods and droughts in the Slave River Delta (SRD), Northwest Territories, Canada. The project goal is to forecast future hydrological and ecological conditions in the SRD in light of anticipated climate change and increasing demand on water resources. With the intent of expanding the climate history of the SRD, this particular aspect of the project will employ white spruce tree-ring chronologies constructed from six sites visited within the delta. Work is currently in progress to build a master chronology estimated to span over 300 years. In addition, a climate model for the SRD is also being developed and will be highlighted.

  5. Possible pingos and a periglacial landscape in northwest Utopia Planitia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soare, R.J.; Burr, D.M.; Wan, Bun Tseung J.-M.

    2005-01-01

    Hydrostatic (closed-system) pingos are small, elongate to circular, ice-cored mounds that are perennial features of some periglacial landscapes. The growth and development of hydrostatic pingos is contingent upon the presence of surface water, freezing processes and of deep, continuous, ice-cemented permafrost. Other cold-climate landforms such as small-sized, polygonal patterned ground also may occur in the areas where pingos are found. On Mars, landscapes comprising small, elongate to circular mounds and other possible periglacial features have been identified in various areas, including Utopia Planitia, where water is thought to have played an important role in landscape evolution. Despite the importance of the martian mounds as possible markers of water, most accounts of them in the planetary science literature have been brief and/or based upon Viking imagery. We use a high-resolution Mars Orbiter Camera image (EO300299) and superposed Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter data tracks to describe and characterise a crater-floor landscape in northwest Utopia Planitia (64.8?? N/292.7?? W). The landscape comprises an assemblage of landforms that is consistent with the past presence of water and of periglacial processes. This geomorphological assemblage may have formed as recently as the last episode of high obliquity. A similar assemblage of landforms is found in the Tuktoyaktuk peninsula of northern Canada and other terrestrial cold-climate landscapes. We point to the similarity of the two assemblages and suggest that the small, roughly circular mounds on the floor of the impact crater in northwest Utopia Planitia are hydrostatic pingos. Like the hydrostatic pingos of the Tuktoyaktuk peninsula, the origin of the crater-floor mounds could be tied to the loss of ponded, local water, permafrost aggradation and the evolution of a sub-surface ice core. ?? 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Northwest Territories Power Corporation annual report 1991/92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    The Northwest Territories Power Corporation is a crown corporation of the government of the Northwest Territories. The Corporation operates diesel and hydroelectric production facilities to provide utility services on a self-sustaining basis in the Northwest Territories. Total revenue for 1991/92 amounted to $92,872,000 with $84,954,000 coming from the sale of power. Financial statements are presented. 3 figs

  7. Northwest Territories Power Corporation annual report 1992/93

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    The Northwest Territories Power Corporation is a crown corporation of the government of the Northwest Territories. The Corporation operates diesel and hydroelectric production facilities to provide utility services on a self-sustaining basis in the Northwest Territories. Total revenue for 1992/93 amounted to $98,327,000 with $90,274,000 coming from the sale of power. Financial statements are presented. 3 figs

  8. Hammam Al Alil Division Training Center Mosul, Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-07

    displacement of the concrete slab. The SOW required translucent material for the cladding and provided specific details for windows inserted in the...of poor curing practice; however, SIGIR did not observe any significant cracking or displacement of the concrete slab. The SOW required translucent ...Documentation that addressed the safety concerns of removing the overhead baffles was not available. In addition, the contractor used precast concrete planks

  9. Hammam Dalaa, M'Sila-Algérie

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PR BOKO

    ... le quotient pluviothermique d'Emberger (Q2) est élevé. La station de. M'Sila appartient à l'étage bioclimatique aride à hiver tempérée et la zone d'étude El Haourane se trouve dans une ambiance bioclimatique semi-aride frais [2]. Figure 1 : Localisation géographique du canton El Haourane (Carte touristique. ONAT).

  10. Dynamic Agroecological Zones for the Inland Pacific Northwest, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, D. R.; Rupp, R.; Gessler, P.; Pan, W.; Brown, D. J.; Machado, S.; Walden, V. P.; Eigenbrode, S.; Abatzoglou, J. T.

    2011-12-01

    Northwest cereal production systems to adapt to and mitigate climate change. The AEZ concept is central to project-wide integration that will enable researchers, stakeholders, students, the public, and policymakers to acquire a more holistic understanding of the interrelationships of agriculture, climate change and the development of mitigation and adaptation strategies. Therefore AEZ's are part of a prescription for land management, given climate change that will enable the incorporation of information from climate models, economic models, crop models, pest disease and weed vulnerabilities, and other data sources. Specific to this presentation, we address the AEZ-related objective of developing methodology for defining major AEZ's within the Inland Pacific Northwest REACCH study area based on annual NASS cropland data.

  11. Household energy conservation attitudes and behaviors in the Northwest: Tracking changes between 1983 and 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, J.M.; Hattrup, M.P.; Nordi, R.T.; Shankle, S.A.; Ivey, D.L.

    1987-05-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has analyzed the changes in consumer energy conservation attitudes and behaviors in the Pacific Northwest between 1983 and 1985. The information was collected through stratified random telephone surveys on 2000 and 1058 households, respectively, for 1983 and 1985 in the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) service area in Idaho, Oregon, Washington and Western Montana. This report covers four topic areas and tests two hypotheses. The topics are as follows: consumer perceptions and attitudes of energy use and conservation in the home; consumer perceptions of energy institutions and other entities; past and intended conservation actions and investments; and segmentation of homeowners into market prospect groups. The hypotheses tested are as follows: (1) There has been no change in the size and psychographic make-up of the original three market segments found in the 1983 survey analysis; and (2) image profiles of institutions with respect to familiarity, overall impression, and believability as sources of energy conservation information remain unchanged since 1983.

  12. BOUND PERIODICAL HOLDINGS BATTELLE - NORTHWEST LIBRARY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1967-05-01

    This report lists the bound periodicals in the Technical Library at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, operated by Battelle Memorial Institute. It was prepared from a computer program and is arranged in two parts. Part one is an alphabetical list of journals by title; part two is an arrangement of the journals by subject. The list headings are self-explanatory, with the exception of the title code, which is necessary in the machine processing. The listing is complete through June, 1966 and updates an earlier publication issued in March, 1965.

  13. Participation in Farm Markets in Rural Northwest Pakistan: A Regression Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Inayatullah Jan

    2012-01-01

    Participation in farm markets is important for increasing income of farmers in the developing countries. A number of factors account for a household participation in agricultural marketing. This study attempts to explore such associated factors which playa significant role in farmers’ participation in farm markets in rural northwest Pakistan. Drawing on empirical data from the field survey; gur, vegetables, and milk were the main products offered for marketing in the area. The degree of speci...

  14. Perception of beekeepers about the melliferous plants from the Dry Forest of the Northwest (Dominican Republic).

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas May; Sesar Rodríguez

    2012-01-01

    The melliferous flora honey and its flowering in the subtropical dry forest area of the Northwest, of the Dominican Republic were studied. A survey of 30 local beekeepers as well as four semi-structured interviews on important plants for beekeeping were applied. Plants were scored according to their importance by observation is confirmed in the field visits bees species observed and consulted information secondary on flowering dates and features honey, secondary data, and applied the index Ja...

  15. Energy wood resources availability and delivery cost in Northwest Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerasimov, Yuri; Karjalainen, Timo [Finnish Forest Research Inst., Joensuu (Finland)], E-mail: yuri.gerasimov@metla.fi

    2013-10-01

    Availability of solid by-products from wood harvesting and mechanical wood processing was estimated as sources for energy production based on recent actual harvesting, sawmill, and plywood production in Northwest Russia at 30 million m{sup 3}. Nearly 70% of the energy wood, 20 million m{sup 3}, was from harvesting, consisting of non-industrial round wood, unused branches and tops, defective wood resulting from logging, and spruce stumps removed after final felling. Over 30%, 10 million m{sup 3}, of the available volume was from sawmills and plywood mills, i.e. wood chips, sawdust, and bark. Due to current low utilization of energy wood for bioenergy in Northwest Russia, delivery cost of energy wood to the potential border-crossing points in Finland was analyzed for three means of transport: railways, roadways, and waterways. Nearly 28 million m{sup 3} of the energy wood could be transported by railways and 2 million m{sup 3} by roadways and waterways. The costs were lowest by roadways from the nearby border areas (10-15 Euro/m{sup 3} for wood processing by-products and 16-22 Euro/m{sup 3} for forest chips). The costs by railways varied from 12 to 27 Euro/m{sup 3} on shorter distances to 47-58 Euro/m{sup 3} on longer distances. Waterway transportation was the most expensive, about 28-48 Euro/m{sup 3}. It should be emphasized that we have estimated availability and delivery costs of energy wood, not prices which are defined by the market based on supply and demand.

  16. Incidence of Leukemia in the Northwest of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atabak Asvadi Kermani

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leukemia is cancer of the blood or bone marrow, characterized by an unusualincrease in white blood cells. It is the sixth most common malignancy in the country in bothmales and females. The aim of this study was to document some epidemiological features ofleukemia in the Northwest of Iran.Methods: The study subjects (n=669, including 377 males and 292 females comprised allleukemia cases registered/notified to the clinical and pathology centers of Tabriz and Ardebilcities, from 2003 to 2006. All patients were classified using the ICD-10 based coding system(C91-C95, C77 and C42. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals were calculated to assessthe statistical significance of the data.Results: Annual incidence of leukemia was 3.7 [95% CI: 3.3–4.0] and 4.9 [95% CI: 4.2–5.6]per 100 000 population in Tabriz and Ardebil, respectively, with an overall case fatality rateof 13.5 percent [95% CI: 10.8–16.0]. The sex ratio (male/female was 1.23. Myeloid leukemia(C92 and Hematopoetic and Reticuloendothelial system (C42 accounted proportionally formore than 47 percent of cases in the region. Over the study period, the annual occurrence ofleukemia in the region increased from 3.9 [95% CI: 3.4–4.5] to 4.1 [95% CI: 3.5–4.6] per 100000 population (P>0.1.Conclusions- The data from this cross-sectional study of leukemia in the North-West of Iranmay be used as the baseline information to establish a population-based registry of hematologicdisorders in the area for health care and research purposes. However, more investigationsare needed to develop effective strategies to control the relevant disorders in high-riskgroups.

  17. Proceedings of the Northwest regional energy conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denman, A S; Comstock, D R [eds.

    1978-12-01

    The conference was directed toward two main objectives. First, a major portion of the proceedings were to focus on the policies, programs, and priorities of the new US DOE, and their relationships to the Pacific Northwest region. Second, the conference was to explore specific energy issues of regional significance and provide an opportunity for regional feedback on energy policies. The 10 sessions of the conference are Keynote Session: Congress, and the National Energy Plan Sen. Henry Jackson; National Perspectives on Energy Issues (I): An Overview of the NEP, Programs and Priorities of DOE (Alvin Alm and NEP - Conservation and Solar Applications (Don Beattie); and Luncheon address - Alaska Energy Issues (Robert LeResche); National Perspectives on Energy Issues (II): Utility Rate Reform - National Provisions and Relationships to the Pacific Northwest (David Bardin) and Technology for Energy and Long Term Short Alternatives (Robert Thorne); Concurrent Interest Group Sessions: State and Local Roles in Energy Planning and Decision-Making and Industry and University Roles in DOE Research and Programs; Banquet address. The US Energy Future (James Schlesinger); Regional Perspectives on Energy Issues: DOE-X - Organization and Response to Regional Needs (Randall Hardy). What Comes After Number 13 (Sterling Munro), Hanford 1978 (Alex Fremling), and Low Head Hydro and Geothermal (Richard Wood); Lucheon address - The Washington Perspective on Energy (Dixie Lee Ray); Regional Power Planning (Panel); and Conference Wrap Up Session. (MCW)

  18. Northwest Region Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoding, David [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)

    2013-09-30

    The main objective of the Northwest Clean Energy Application Center (NW CEAC) is to promote and support implementation of clean energy technologies. These technologies include combined heat and power (CHP), district energy, waste heat recovery with a primary focus on waste heat to power, and other related clean energy systems such as stationary fuel cell CHP systems. The northwest states include AK, ID, MT, OR, and WA. The key aim/outcome of the Center is to promote and support implementation of clean energy projects. Implemented projects result in a number of benefits including increased energy efficiency, renewable energy development (when using opportunity fuels), reduced carbon emissions, improved facility economics helping to preserve jobs, and reduced criteria pollutants calculated on an output-based emissions basis. Specific objectives performed by the NW CEAC fall within the following five broad promotion and support categories: 1) Center management and planning including database support; 2) Education and Outreach including plan development, website, target market workshops, and education/outreach materials development 3) Identification and provision of screening assessments & feasibility studies as funded by the facility or occasionally further support of Potential High Impact Projects; 4) Project implementation assistance/trouble shooting; and 5) Development of a supportive clean energy policy and initiative/financing framework.

  19. Marginal thinning in Northwest Greenland during 2002-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Kjær, K. H.; Wahr, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Many glaciers along the southeast and northwest coast of Greenland have accelerated, increasing the Greenland ice sheet's (GrIS) contribution to global sea-level rise. Here, we map elevation changes in northwest Greenland during 2003-2009 using high-resolution Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satell...

  20. Drought-triggered western spruce budworm outbreaks in the Interior Pacific Northwest: A multi-century dendrochronological record

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Flower; D. G. Gavin; E. K. Heyerdahl; R. A. Parsons; G. M. Cohn

    2014-01-01

    Douglas-fir forests in the interior Pacific Northwest are subject to sporadic outbreaks of the western spruce budworm, a species widely recognized as the most destructive defoliator in western North America. Outbreaks of the western spruce budworm often occur synchronously over broad regions and lead to widespread loss of leaf area and decrease in growth rates in...

  1. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1993 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 4: Physical sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braby, L.A.

    1994-08-01

    Part 4 of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Annual Report for 1993 to the DOE Office of Energy Research includes those programs funded under the title ``Physical and Technological Research.`` The Field Task Program Studies reported in this document are grouped by budget category. Attention is focused on the following subject areas: dosimetry research; and radiological and chemical physics.

  2. Spatial Runoff Estimation and Mapping of Potential Water Harvesting Sites: A GIS and Remote Sensing Perspective, Northwest Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonnen, M.M.; Melesse, A.M.; Keesstra, S.D.

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater resources scarcity is becoming a limiting factor for development and sustenance in most parts of Ethiopia. The Debre Mewi watershed, in northwest Ethiopia, is one of such areas where the need for supplemental water supply through rainwater harvesting is essential. Suitable water

  3. Genetic variation in yield and chemical composition of wide range of sorghum accessions grown in north-west China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.S.; Wang, M.L.; Spiertz, J.H.J.; Liu, Z.; Han, L.; Xie, G.H.

    2013-01-01

    Sorghum can be grown on marginal and waste lands as a versatile feedstock for biofuel production in the vast areas of north-west China. Fifty-six sorghum accessions were grown in 2009 at the experimental station of Xinjiang Agricultural University, located at Urumchi, Xinjiang, China. A total of 31

  4. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1993 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 4: Physical sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braby, L.A.

    1994-08-01

    Part 4 of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Annual Report for 1993 to the DOE Office of Energy Research includes those programs funded under the title ''Physical and Technological Research.'' The Field Task Program Studies reported in this document are grouped by budget category. Attention is focused on the following subject areas: dosimetry research; and radiological and chemical physics

  5. Maturation history modeling of Sufyan Depression, northwest Muglad Basin, Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Liu, Luofu; An, Fuli; Wang, Hongmei; Pang, Xiongqi

    2016-08-01

    The Sufyan Depression is located in the northwest of Muglad Basin and is considered as a favorable exploration area by both previous studies and present oil shows. In this study, 16 wells are used or referred, the burial history model was built with new seismic, logging and well data, and the thermal maturity (Ro, %) of proved AG source rocks was predicted based on heat flow calculation and EASY %Ro modeling. The results show that the present heat flow range is 36 mW/m2∼50 mW/m2 (average 39 mW/m2) in 13 wells and 15 mW/m2∼55 mW/m2 in the whole depression. Accordingly, the geothermal gradient is 20 °C/km∼26 °C/km and 12 °C/km∼30 °C/km, respectively. The paleo-heat flow has three peaks, namely AG-3 period, lower Bentiu period and Early Paleogene, with the value decreases from the first to the last, which is corresponding to the tectonic evolution history. Corresponding to the heat flow distribution feature, the AG source rocks become mature earlier and have higher present marurity in the south area. For AG-2_down and AG-3_up source rocks that are proved to be good-excellent, most of them are mature with Ro as 0.5%-1.1%. But they can only generate plentiful oil and gas to charge reservoirs in the middle and south areas where their Ro is within 0.7%-1.1%, which is consistent with the present oil shows. Besides, the oil shows from AG-2_down reservoir in the middle area of the Sufyan Depression are believed to be contributed by the underlying AG-3_up source rock or the source rocks in the south area.

  6. Northwest Africa 8535 and Northwest Africa 10463: New Insights into the Angrite Parent Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, A. R.; Agee, C. B.; Shearer, C. K.; McCubbin, F. M.

    2016-01-01

    The angrite meteorites are valuable samples of igneous rocks formed early in Solar System history (approx.4.56 Ga, summarized in [1]). This small meteorite group (approx.24 individually named specimens) consists of rocks with somewhat exotic mineral compositions (e.g., high Ca olivine, Al-Ti-bearing diopside-hedenbergite, calcium silico-phosphates), resulting in exotic bulk rock compositions. These mineral assemblages remain fairly consistent among angrite samples, which suggests they formed due to similar processes from a single mantle source. There is still debate over the formation process for these rocks (see summary in [1]), and analysis of additional angrite samples may help to address this debate. Toward this end, we have begun to study two new angrites, Northwest Africa 8535, a dunite, and Northwest Africa 10463, a basaltic angrite.

  7. Pacific Northwest Laboratory's Solid Waste Initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holter, G.M.

    1993-09-01

    In fiscal year 1992 (FY-92), a Solid Waste Initiative was undertaken within the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). This action was partly in response to a perceived increase in the frequency and severity of impacts associated with solid waste issues at all levels. It also recognized the limited attention of previous efforts in addressing the broader impacts resulting from solid waste and, thus, dealing with solid waste issues in a holistic fashion. This paper provides a description of the Solid Waste Initiative at PNL, including a historical perspective on PNL's involvement in solid waste issues, the goals and objectives of the Solid Waste Initiative, and a discussion of selected activities being conducted under the Initiative

  8. Public information - Northwest region of Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiapina, A.

    2001-01-01

    Regional Center of Public Information in Northwest region of Russian Federation is a part of the State Regional Educational Center of Ministry of the Russian Federation for atomic energy in St.-Petersburg, Russia (http://graph.runnet.ru/). This Center of Public Information (CPI) provides a wide range of information dealing with the nuclear power. The objectives of the CPI are: to conduct informational and educational activities so as to form a positive attitude toward atomic energy and nuclear technologies; to provide the population with a means reliable information about objects of potential risk; to organize an active exchange of the information with enterprises using nuclear technologies in the region. The main topics of informational support are these: electricity production, the ground of nuclear power, new Russian nuclear reactors, nuclear safety, nuclear power and environment, radioactivity, Leningrad nuclear power plant, responsibilities in nuclear engineering. (author)

  9. New chromosome reports in Lamiaceae of Kashmir (Northwest Himalaya), India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Reyaz Ahmad; Gupta, Raghbir Chand; Singh, Vijay; Bala, Santosh; Kumari, Santosh

    2017-03-01

    Meiotic studies and chromosome data are imperative in order to have an overall germplasm evaluation of a taxon. In the present effort, the meiotic study is carried out in 48 populations belonging to 26 species of Lamiaceae collected from their natural habitats in Kashmir Himalaya, which forms an important part of Northwest Himalaya. Chromosome counts in the five species viz. Dracocephalum nutans (2n = 10), Lycopus europaeus (2n = 22), Marrubium vulgare (2n = 54), Nepeta nervosa (2n = 18) and Salvia sclarea (2n = 22) are first time reported from India. Besides, 17 species are cytologically evaluated for the first time from the study area-Kashmir Himalaya. In Marrubium vulgare, hexaploid cytotype (2n = 6 × =54) is reported for the first time. Also, diploid and tetraploid cytomorphovariants are observed in Calamintha vulgaris (2n = 20, 40), Elsholtzia ciliata (2n = 16, 32) and Mentha longifolia (2n = 20, 40). Various meiotic abnormalities like chromatin stickiness, cytomixis, nonsynchronous disjunction, laggards, chromatin bridges, etc. leading to pollen abnormalities have been documented for the first time in some species. The worldwide status of chromosome number data in each genus is presented.

  10. The relict forests of Northwest Peru and Southwest Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Weigend

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The forest fragments or relict forests on the Western slopes of the Andes in northwest Peru and in south-west Ecuador are fragile ecosystems, which were largely continuous at some stage in the past. The importance and uniqueness of these forests as «refuges» and stable habitats roots partly in their complex diversity and their high levels of endemicity. These in turn are the outcome of a complex topography and ecology. In this introductory chapter 12 studies are analysed, which were presented at the Taller sobre Bosques Relictos de la Vertiente Occidental Andina del Norte del Perú y Sur del Ecuador in May 2004 at the X CONABOT, Trujillo-Perú. This helps to consolidate and update our knowledge on these over 20 forests fragments in northern Peru and two previously unknown fragments are presented for the first time: Bosque La Oscurana (Cajamarca and Kañaris (Lambayeque. Some ideas are exposed on the the relationships between the relict forests, how to analyse their dynamics, how to characterize their structure and how their conservation may be achieved. It is proposed that crucial elements in a conservation of these forests are a urgently inventorizing them to demonstrate their high diversity b emphasizing their economic potential with respect to the abundance of phytogenetic ressources c evaluating their role as catchment areas for the rivers which are the primary source of water for agriculture and urban life on the coast.

  11. Primary sinonasal tuberculosis in north-west Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawaz, G.; Khan, M.R.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To record the frequency of primary involvement of nose and paranasal sinuses with tuberculosis in today's situation in the north-west region of Pakistan. Patients and Methods: A total of ten cases of primary sinonasal tuberculosis were included. The inclusion criteria were biopsy and acid-fast bacilli (AFB) examination after Ziel Neelsen (ZN) staining. Patients were put on anti-tuberculous chemotherapy. Response to the therapy and compliance of the patients were studied through follow up. Patients were admitted and offered surgical treatment wherever needed. Results: The primary sinonasal tuberculosis affected mainly young adults (18-60 years), both genders almost equally. Majority (80%) of the patients belonged to far-flung rural areas and all (100%) were poor. More frequent presenting features were granular lesion and mass in the nose (40%), epistaxis (30%), septal perforation (30%), external deformity (30%), palpable cervical lymph nodes (30%) and others. All the cases were diagnosed microscopically. Compliance to treatment was not good. Conclusion: The incidence of primary tuberculosis of nose and paranasal sinuses has risen in the recent past. The patients manifested no evidence of pulmonary tuberculosis. (author)

  12. Risk factors for neurocysticercosis: A study from Northwest India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohit Girotra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neurocysticercosis (NCC is a common cause of epilepsy in the low- and middle-income countries. The risk factors for NCC vary from region to region. Aims: To study the risk factors NCC among patients with NCC and compare with age-and gender-matched controls without NCC. Setting and Design: Hospital-based case-control study. Materials and Methods: A total of 214 subjects were studied (109 NCC patients and 105 age- and gender-matched controls without NCC. The participants were selected from neurology and medical wards of a tertiary referral hospital in Northwest India. They were interviewed by trained medical interns using a questionnaire. Results: Patients with NCC were more likely to dispose garbage close to water source (P = 0.01, eat nonvegetarian food (P < 0.001, and often eat in restaurants (P < 0.001. Pigs were seen more in and around the NCC patient′s houses than the control subjects residential areas (P = 0.001. A total of 15% of the NCC subjects lived close to slaughter houses, while only 2.7% of the control group stayed near a slaughter house (P = 0.002. Conclusions: Unhygienic practices, nonvegetarian food, and eating in restaurants were the risk factors for NCC in this study. There is an opportunity for prevention of NCC using public education.

  13. Modeled effects of irrigation on surface climate in the Heihe River Basin, Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuezhen; Xiong, Zhe; Tang, Qiuhong

    2017-08-01

    In Northwest China, water originates from the mountain area and is largely used for irrigation agriculture in the middle reaches. This study investigates the local and remote impact of irrigation on regional climate in the Heihe River Basin, the second largest inland river basin in Northwest China. An irrigation scheme was developed and incorporated into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with the Noah-MP land surface scheme (WRF/Noah-MP). The effects of irrigation is assessed by comparing the model simulations with and without consideration of irrigation (hereafter, IRRG and NATU simulations, respectively) for five growth seasons (May to September) from 2009 to 2013. As consequences of irrigation, daily mean temperature decreased by 1.7°C and humidity increased by 2.3 g kg-1 (corresponding to 38.5%) over irrigated area. The temperature and humidity of IRRG simulation matched well with the observations, whereas NATU simulation overestimated temperature and underestimated humidity over irrigated area. The effects on temperature and humidity are generally small outside the irrigated area. The cooling and wetting effects have opposing impacts on convective precipitation, resulting in a negligible change in localized precipitation over irrigated area. However, irrigation may induce water vapor convergence and enhance precipitation remotely in the southeastern portion of the Heihe River Basin.

  14. Photographic atlas of fish otoliths of the Northwest Atlantic Ocean

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Campana, Steven E

    2004-01-01

    This photographic atlas presents light and (or) scanning electron micrographs of 580 pairs of sagittal otoliths representing 288 species, 97 families, and 27 orders of fish from the northwest Atlantic...

  15. 2007 Northwest Florida Water Management District (NWFWMD) Lidar: Holmes County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — LIDAR-derived binary (.las) files containing points classified as bare-earth and canopy (first return) were produced for the 2007/2008 Northwest Florida Water...

  16. Building an infrastructure project performance in the North-West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    projects are numerous, and it is believed that the inputs and views of as many participants ... all companies listed. ..... Inadequate contingency allowance by the contractor; .... facing small contractors in the North-West Province of South Africa.

  17. A survey of bees (hymenoptera: Apoidea) of the Indiana dunes and Northwest Indiana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundel, R.; Jean, R.P.; Frohnapple, K.J.; Gibbs, J.; Glowacki, G.A.; Pavlovic, N.B.

    2011-01-01

    The Indiana Dunes, and nearby natural areas in northwest Indiana, are floristically rich Midwest U.S. locales with many habitat types. We surveyed bees along a habitat gradient ranging from grasslands to forests in these locales, collecting at least 175 bee species along this gradient plus 29 additional species in other nearby habitats. About 25% of all species were from the genus Lasioglossum and 12% of the species were associated with sandy soils. Several bumblebee (Bombus) species of conservation concern that should occur in this region were not collected during our surveys. Similarity of the northwest Indiana bee fauna to other published U.S. faunas decreased about 1.3% per 100 km distance from northwest Indiana. Thirty percent of bees netted from flowers were males. Males and females differed significantly in their frequency of occurrence on different plant species. For bees collected in bowl traps, the percentage captured in fluorescent yellow traps declined and in fluorescent blue traps increased from spring to late summer. Capture rates for different bee genera varied temporally, with about a quarter of the genera being captured most frequently in late spring and a quarter in late summer. Capture rates for most genera were higher in more open than in more closed canopy habitats. The maximum number of plant species on which a single bee species was captured plateaued at 24, on average. Forty-nine percent of bee species known to occur in Indiana were found at these northwest Indiana sites. Having this relatively high proportion of the total Indiana bee fauna is consistent with Indiana Dunes existing at a biogeographic crossroads where grassland and forest biomes meet in a landscape whose climate and soils are affected by proximity to Lake Michigan. The resulting habitat, plant, edaphic, and climatic diversity likely produces the diverse bee community documented.

  18. Safeguards training at Pacific Northwest Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickman, D.A.

    1986-10-01

    Safeguarding our country's nuclear materials against theft or diversion is extremely important due to their significantly strategic value. In addition, nuclear materials also have an extremely high monetary value. The term ''safeguards'' is defined as an integrated system of physical protection, accountability, and material control measures designed to deter, prevent, detect, and respond to unauthorized possession and use of special nuclear materials. An aggressive Safeguards program, therefore, employs both good security measures and a strong material control and accountability system. For effective internal control of nuclear materials, having people qualified in the many aspects of safeguards and accountability is essential. At Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), this goal is accomplished through a Laboratory-wide Safeguards Awareness Program. All PNL staff members receive a level of Safeguards training appropriate to their particular function within the Laboratory. This paper presents an overview of the unique training opportunities this topic provides and how the training goals are accomplished through the various training courses given to the staff members

  19. Pacific Northwest Laboratory Maintenance Implementation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bright, J.D.

    1992-06-01

    This Maintenance Implementation plan has been developed for Pacific Northwest Laboratory's (PNL) Nuclear Facilities: 306W, 324, 325, 327 and 329NMF. It is based on a graded approach, self-assessment of the existing maintenance program(s) per the requirements specified by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 4330.4A, Chapter II, Change number-sign 3. The results of this assessment were evaluated to determine needed improvements in PNL Craft Services' current maintenance program. The objective of this implementation plan is to provide baseline information for compliance to the DOE 4330.4A, and for needed improvements. The prime consideration in applying a graded approach to the Order has been to maintain safe and reliable operations, environmental compliance, safeguards and security, programmatic mission, facility preservation, and/or other facility-specific requirements. Using the results of the self-assessment, PNL has selected nine of the 18 elements of the Maintenance Program defined by DOE Order 4330.4A for improvement. The elements selected for improvement are Training and Qualification of Maintenance Personnel; Maintenance Procedures; Planning, Scheduling, and Coordination of Maintenance; Control of Maintenance Activities; Post-Maintenance Testing; Facility Condition Inspection; Management Involvement; Maintenance History; and Additional Maintenance Requirements. Based upon graded approach and current funding, those elements considered most important have been selected as goals for earliest compliance. Commitment dates for these elements have been established for compliance. The remaining elements of noncompliance will be targeted for implementation during later budget periods

  20. Long-term dynamic characterization of aeolian desertification in northwest Shanxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Zhanjin; Qin, Zuodong; Cheng, Fangqin; Ding, Guangwei; Li, Hongjian

    2017-07-01

    Northwest Shanxi is located on the farming-pastoral ecotone of northern China, where aeolian desertification is one of the most serious environmental and socioeconomic issues. The remote sensing image and geostatistical approach were implemented to estimate aeolian desertified land (ADL) dynamic variations from 1975 to 2015. Results showed that the ADL covered 11,685.21 km 2 (82.29%) of the study area in 2015, the majority of which was classified as a light or moderate degree. The area of ADL gradually expanded at an increasing rate of 87.37 km 2 a -1 during the 1975-2000 periods. More specifically, the area of ADL has increased by 1259.23 km 2 from 1975 to 1990 and by 924.96 km 2 from 1990 to 2000, respectively. In contrast, spatial transfer of ADL areas has dwindled by 2365.85 km 2 with a net decrease of 157.72 km 2 a -1 , and the mitigated areas of aeolian desertification were 10,602.24 km 2 between 2000 and 2015. During the past 40 years, the gravity center of ADL migrated to southeast until 2000 and moved northwest in 2000-2015. From 1975 to 2000, the migration distance of severe ADL was the largest, migrated toward the northwest by 19.03 km in 1975-1990 and by 20.16 km in 1990-2000, respectively. From 2000 to 2015, the migration distance of light ADL was the largest, 27.54 km migrated to the northwest. Aeolian desertification rapidly expanded from 1975 to 2000 under the combination of climate change and intensive human activities. Since the year of 2000, ecological engineering strategy initiated by the governments has been the dominant contributor to the aeolian desertification severity reversal. Aeolian desertification prevention is a complicated process. Both the central and local government should play a critical role in the rehabilitation of ADL in the long term.

  1. Geophysical investigation using gravity data in Kinigi geothermal field, northwest Rwanda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwiduhaye, Jean d.'Amour; Mizunaga, Hideki; Saibi, Hakim

    2018-03-01

    A land gravity survey was carried out in the Kinigi geothermal field, Northwest Rwanda using 184 gravity stations during August and September, 2015. The aim of the gravity survey was to understand the subsurface structure and its relation to the observed surface manifestations in the study area. The complete Bouguer Gravity anomaly was produced with a reduction density of 2.4 g/cm3. Bouguer anomalies ranging from -52 to -35 mGals were observed in the study area with relatively high anomalies in the east and northwest zones while low anomalies are observed in the southwest side of the studied area. A decrease of 17 mGals is observed in the southwestern part of the study area and caused by the low-density of the Tertiary rocks. Horizontal gradient, tilt angle and analytical signal methods were applied to the observed gravity data and showed that Mubona, Mpenge and Cyabararika surface springs are structurally controlled while Rubindi spring is not. The integrated results of gravity gradient interpretation methods delineated a dominant geological structure trending in the NW-SE, which is in agreement with the regional geological trend. The results of this gravity study will help aid future geothermal exploration and development in the Kinigi geothermal field.

  2. Influence of background particulate matter (PM) on urban air quality in the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timonen, H; Wigder, N; Jaffe, D

    2013-11-15

    Elevated particulate matter concentrations due to Asian long-range transport (LRT) are frequently observed in the free troposphere (FT) above the Pacific Northwest, U.S. Transport of this aerosol from the FT to the boundary layer (BL) and its effect to local air quality remain poorly constrained. We used data collected at the Mount Bachelor observatory (MBO, 2.8 km a.s.l) and from ground stations in the Pacific Northwest to study transport of fine particulate matter (PM) from the FT to the BL. During Asian LRT episodes PM concentrations were clearly elevated above the corresponding monthly averages at MBO as well as at low elevation sites across Washington and Oregon. Also, a clear correlation between MBO and low elevation sites was observed, indicating that LRT episodes are seen in both the FT and BL. In addition, drum impactor measurements show that the chemical composition of PM at MBO was similar to that measured at the BL sites. Using a simple regression model, we estimate that during springtime, when the transport from Asia is most effective, the contribution of Asian sources to PM2.5 in clean background areas of the Pacific Northwest was on average 1.7 μg m(-3) (representing approximately 50-80% of PM). The influence of LRT PM was also seen in measurement stations situated in the urban and urban background areas. However, the fraction of LRT PM was less pronounced (36-50% of PM) due to larger local emissions in the urban areas. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Nuclear desalination for the northwest of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega C, R. F.

    2008-01-01

    The IMPULSA project of the Engineering Institute of UNAM, it has dedicated from the year 2005 to the study and development of new desalination technologies of seawater with renewable energies. The objective is to form a group of expert engineers and investigators in the desalination topics able to transform their scientific knowledge in engineering solutions, with a high grade of knowledge of the environment and the renewable energies. In the middle of 2007 was took the initiative in the IMPULSA project to study the nuclear desalination topic. It is evident that before the high cost of the hydrocarbons and its high environmental impact, the nuclear generation alternative of energy becomes extremely attractive, mainly for desalination projects of seawater of great size. The Northwest of Mexico is particularly attractive as the appropriate site for one nuclear desalination plant of great size given its shortage of drink water and the quick growth of its population; as well as its level of tourist, agricultural and industrial activity. In this study was revised the state of the art of the nuclear desalination on the world and it is simulated some couplings and operation forms of nuclear reactors and desalination units, from the thermodynamic and economic viewpoint with the purpose of identifying the main peculiarities of this technology. The objective of the study was to characterize several types and sizes of nuclear reactors of the last generation that could be couple to a desalination technology as multi-stage distillation, type flash distillation or inverse osmosis. It is used for this effect the DEEP 3.1 program of the IAEA to simulate the coupling and to carry out an economic preliminary evaluation. Was found cost very competitive of 0.038-0.044 US$/kWh for the electric power production and 0.60 to 0.77 US$/m 3 for the drink water produced, without including the water transport cost or the use of carbon certificates. (Author)

  4. Oblique view of crater Theophilus at northwest edge of Sea of Nectar

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    An Apollo 11 oblique view of the large crater Theophilus located at the northwest edge of the Sea of Nectar on the lunar nearside. Theophilus is about 60 statute miles in diameter. the smooth area is Mare Nectaris. The smaller crater Madler, about 14 statute miles in diameter, is located to the east of Theophilus. Visible in the background are the large crater Fracastorius and the smaller crater Beaumont. The coordinates of the center of this photograph are 29 degrees east longitude and 11 degrees south latitude.

  5. Radioactivity of soils from north-west side of Stara planina mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momcilovic, M.; Dragovic, S.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper specific activities of 238U, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs in soil samples collected from north-west side of Stara planina in 2006 are presented. Specific activities varied between 15.1 and 34.0 Bq/kg for 238U; 16.8 and 44.6 Bq/kg for 232Th; 358 and 765 Bq/kg for 40K and 3.89 and 58.7 Bq/kg for 137Cs. The wide ranges of specific activities are influenced by a variety of geological and ecological features of the investigated area. (author) [sr

  6. Contamination of mercury in the biological and physical environment of northwest Quebec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delisle, C E

    1977-10-01

    Mercury and its compounds are present in the environment of northwest Quebec and present serious risks to human health. This study shows that all bodies of water investigated yield fish with mercury concentrations in excess of the Canadian safe limit (0.5 ppm) for human consumption. Data are reported for total mercury in 902 fishes from 58 bodies of water sampled between 1972 and 1976. Out of these, 158 were Coregonus clupeaformis with an average concentration of 0.27 ppm of mercury, 82 were Catostomus commersoni with 0.38 ppm, 287 were Stizostedion vitreum vitreum with 0.79 ppm, 364 were Esox lucius with 0.84 ppm, and 11 were Acipenser fulvescens with 0.36 ppm. It is concluded that walleye and pike are rarely safe to eat in northwest Quebec. Data on limited numbers of molluscs, benthic organisms, plankton, aquatic birds and aquatic mammals from this area are also reported and show only a few in excess of the safe level. Exceptions are found in ducks, grebes, mergansers and otters, mink and marten. Mercury in sediments varied from 50 ppb (background level) to more than 1000 ppb, depending on the body of water and its proximity to zones of influence of human activity. Surface waters rarely exceed 0.20 ppb mercury even in areas where sediment contamination is high. Ground water reached 48 ppb in some areas, however, suggesting contamination from natural sources.

  7. Northwest Africa 5790: Revisiting nakhlite petrogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jambon, A.; Sautter, V.; Barrat, J.-A.; Gattacceca, J.; Rochette, P.; Boudouma, O.; Badia, D.; Devouard, B.

    2016-10-01

    Northwest Africa 5790, the latest nakhlite find, is composed of 58 vol.% augite, 6% olivine and 36% vitrophyric intercumulus material. Its petrology is comparable to previously discovered nakhlites but with key differences: (1) Augite cores display an unusual zoning between Mg# 54 and 60; (2) Olivine macrocrysts have a primary Fe-rich core composition (Mg# = 35); (3) The modal proportion of mesostasis is the highest ever described in a nakhlite; (4) It is the most magnetite-rich nakhlite, together with MIL 03346, and exhibits the least anisotropic fabric. Complex primary zoning in cumulus augite indicates resorption due to complex processes such as remobilization of former cumulates in a new magma batch. Textural relationships indicate unambiguously that olivine was growing around resorbed augite, and that olivine growth was continuous while pyroxene growth resumed at a final stage. Olivine core compositions (Mg# = 35) are out of equilibrium with the augite core compositions (Mg# 60-63) and with the previously inferred nakhlite parental magma (Mg# = 29). The presence of oscillatory zoning in olivine and augite precludes subsolidus diffusion that could have modified olivine compositions. NWA 5790 evidences at least two magma batches before eruption, with the implication that melt in equilibrium with augite cores was never in contact with olivine. Iddingsite is absent. Accordingly, the previous scenarios for nakhlite petrogenesis must be revised. The first primary parent magmas of nakhlites generated varied augite cumulates at depth (Mg# 66-60) as they differentiated to different extents. A subsequent more evolved magma batch entrained accumulated augite crystals to the surface where they were partly resorbed while olivine crystallized. Trace element variations indicate unambiguously that they represent consanguineous but different magma batches. The compositional differences among the various nakhlites suggest a number of successive lava flows. To account for all

  8. Biomass energy - large potential in North-West Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borchsenius, Hans

    2000-01-01

    Changing from oil or coal to bio fuel is a high priority in all European countries. The potential for such a transition is largest in North-West Russia, where several factors point to biomass energy: large bio fuel resources, large need for heating because of the cold climate, and almost 100% coverage of district heating. Here, the largest continuous coniferous forest in Europe supplies the raw material for a considerable forest industry, including some of the biggest sawmills and paper- and cellulose factories in the world. The fraction of the timber that cannot go into this production is suitable as bio fuel. About 15% of the raw material in this industry is bark and sawdust which can be used for energy production. In addition, 10% of the biomass of the trees remains on the forest floor as twigs, treetops etc. If all this sawdust and felling waste was used to replace heating oil, the corresponding reduction of CO2 emission would amount to 25 mill m3 per year. The forest industry in Russia is currently in full production, and an increasing mass of sawdust and wood waste is accumulating in depositories that cover larger and larger areas. Depositories are often set on fire to keep down the masses; at the same time, the district heating plants are fired with expensive oil or coal. This paradoxical situation is due to the economical crises in the 1990s. Neither private companies nor the local governments could invest in bio fueled boilers. Bio fuel projects are cost-effective and easy to document and perfectly suitable for joint implementations under the Kyoto Protocol

  9. Extensive genetic divergence among Diptychus maculatus populations in northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Wei; Yang, Tianyan; Hai, Sa; Ma, Yanwu; Cai, Lingang; Ma, Xufa; Gao, Tianxiang; Guo, Yan

    2015-05-01

    D. maculates is a kind of specialized Schizothoracinae fish has been locally listed as a protected animal in Xinjiang Province, China. Ili River located in north of Tianshan Mountain and Tarim River located in north of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau were two main distribution areas of this fish. To investigate the genetic diversity and genetic structure of D. maculates, four populations from Tarim River system and two populations from Ili River system were collected in this study. A 570-bp sequence of the control region was obtained for 105 specimens. Twenty-four haplotypes were detected from six populations, only Kunes River population and Kashi River population shared haplotypes with each other. For all the populations examined, the haplotype diversity ( h) was 0.904 8±0.012 6, nucleotide diversity (π) was 0.027 9±0.013 9, and the average number of pairwise nucleotide differences ( k) was 15.878 3±7.139 1. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that 86.31% of the total genetic variation was apportioned among populations, and the variation within sampled populations was 13.69%. Genetic differences among sampled populations were highly significant. F st statistical test indicated that all populations were significantly divergent from each other ( P<0.01). The largest F st value was between Yurungkash River population and Muzat River population, while the smallest F st value was between Kunes River population and Kashi River population. NJ phylogenetic tree of D-loop haplotypes revealed two main clades. The neutrality test and mismatch distribution analysis suggested that the fish had went through a recent population expansion. The uplift of Tianshan Mountain and movement of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau might contribute to the wide genetic divergence of D. maculates in northwest China.

  10. Gundlachia dutrae: n. sp. from northwest Brazil (Mollusca: Basommatophora: Ancylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Barbosa dos Santos

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Gundlachia, Gundlachia dutrae is described from northwest Brazil. It is distinguishable from other congenerie species by characteristics of the shell, radula and internal organs. Shell relatively high. Aperture near-circular; periostracum dark brown without periostracal hairs. Apex slightly inclined to the right, projected but not hooked, with an apical depression surrounted by a sculpture of well-marked irregular punctations. Shell surface with prominent radial sculpture. No septate specimens were observed. Ratios (n= 59: shell width/shell lenght = 0,66- 0,79 (mean 0,73; shell height/shell length = 0,32- 0,45 ( mean 0,37; shell height/shell width = 0,43- 0,63 (mean 0,51. Body of normal ancylid type; mantle pigmentation dark brown or black, concentrated along the mantle collar. The dorsal surface of the right anterior muscle is elongated and medially constricted. The left anterior and the posterior muscles are almost elliptical. Adhesive area is V-shaped. Pseudobranch unpigmented bearing a very small and thin dorsal lobe. Ovotestis with more than 25 unbranched diverticula. Ovispermiduct with seminal vesicle rather developed. Elongated nidamental gland continous with the glandular wall of the uterus. Nidamental gland appendix ending into a bulbous swelling Spermathecal body almost rounded. Well-developed prostate with five long diverticula. Ejaculatory complex with long glandular flagellum, without a penis or true ultra-penis. "Penis sheath" developed. "Ultra-penis" projected as a tube inside the lumem of prepuce, with a slit between "ultra-penis" and "penis sheath". Rachidian tooth tetracuspid, with two median cusps assymmetrical and aculeated. Lateral teeth tricuspid, with a reduced endocon and a prominent mesocon. A well marked gap occurs between meso and ectocon. Marginal teeth similar to lateral ones. Jaw T-shaped, with about 28 dorsal plates.

  11. Decadal variability on the Northwest European continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sam; Cottier, Finlo; Inall, Mark; Griffiths, Colin

    2018-02-01

    Decadal scale time series of the shelf seas are important for understanding both climate and process studies. Despite numerous investigations of long-term temperature variability in the shelf seas, studies of salinity variability are few. Salt is a more conservative tracer than temperature in shallow seas, and it can reveal changes in local hydrographic conditions as well as transmitted basin-scale changes. Here, new inter-annual salinity time series on the northwest European shelf are developed and a 13 year high resolution salinity record from a coastal mooring in western Scotland is presented and analysed. We find strong temporal variability in coastal salinity on timescales ranging from tidal to inter-annual, with the magnitude of variability greatest during winter months. There is little seasonality and no significant decadal trend in the coastal time series of salinity. We propose 4 hydrographic states to explain salinity variance in the shelf area west of Scotland based on the interaction between a baroclinic coastal current and wind-forced barotropic flow: while wind forcing is important, we find that changes in the buoyancy-driven flow are more likely to influence long-term salinity observations. We calculate that during prevailing westerly wind conditions, surface waters in the Sea of the Hebrides receive a mix of 62% Atlantic origin water to 38% coastal sources. This contrasts with easterly wind conditions, during which the mix is 6% Atlantic to 94% coastal sources on average. This 'switching' between hydrographic states is expected to impact nutrient transport and therefore modify the level of primary productivity on the shelf. This strong local variability in salinity is roughly an order of magnitude greater than changes in the adjacent ocean basin, and we infer from this that Scottish coastal waters are likely to be resilient to decadal changes in ocean climate.

  12. Seroepidemiology of toxoplasmosis in childbearing women of Northwest Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaii, Mehrangiz; Pourhassan, Aboulfazl; Asle-Rahnamaie-Akbari, Najibeh; Aghebati, Leili; Xie, Juliana Ling; Goldust, Mohammad; Naghavi-Behzad, Mohammad

    2013-09-01

    Toxoplasma gondii causes the most common parasitic infection in the world. Congenital transmission, prenatal mortality and abortion are major problems of T. gondii. Prevalence of toxoplasmosis is high in Iran, especially in Azerbaijan. The current literature reviewed in this paper reveal results pertaining to various regions of Iran. The present cross-sectional e-study was designed to evaluate the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in childbearing women in Northwest Iran. We evaluated 1659 women in childbearing age from several cities in Northwestern Iran (Tabriz, Maragheh, Ahar, Marand, Sarab, Miane) from July 2009 to August 2010. Women aged between 20 and 40 years and seeking prenatal care were enrolled in the study. The subjects' sera were probed with indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA). A total of 1659 subjects were examined. Titres ranged from 1:100 to 1:800. In all, 899 subjects (54.13%) were seropositive. The highest frequency of seropositivity was shown in 1:200 dilution (36.08%) and in subjects from Maragheh (84% of 211 subjects). There was a direct linear relationship between seropositivity and age (p 0.001). Also, seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis was higher in subjects with primary school/lower educational level (p 0.001) and subjects living in rural regions (p 0.001). Overall, more than 50% of women in childbearing age were seropositive for toxoplasmosis in northwestern Iran. Increasing seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis with age was a predictable result due to longer exposure to the parasite. The relationship between increasing seroprevalence and lower educational level as well as living in rural areas is in line with the latest epidemiological findings, which also show such relationships due to lower socioeconomic status.

  13. Coastal Culture Area. Native American Curriculum Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Cathy; Fernandes, Roger

    Background information, legends, games, illustrations, and art projects are provided in this booklet introducing elementary students to the history and culture of Indian tribes of the North Pacific Coast and Pacific Northwest. One in a series of Native American instructional materials, the booklet provides an overview of the coastal culture area,…

  14. A Pelagic Paleocene Seouence in the Biga Peninsula Northwest Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Burak YIKILMAZ

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available A sequence of pelagic limestone, calciturbidite, debris flow, greywacke, basalt and limestone blocks. up to several hundred metres across, occur west of the town of Biga in northwest Turkey. The pelagic limestones in this sequence, named as the Ballıkaya formation, comprise pelagic foraminifera of Palaeocene age. Neritic limestone of Mid-Eocene age lies unconformably over the Ballıkaya formation. The age and the sedimentary environment of the Ballıkaya formation indicate the presence of a tectonically active deep-sea environment in northwest Turkey during the Palaeocene, and constrain the main Alpide deformation in northwest Turkey to the Late Palaeocene - Early Eocene interval.

  15. Air Pollution over North-West Bay of Bengal in the Early Post-Monsoon Season Based on NASA MERRAero Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishcha, Pavel; DaSilva, Arlindo M.; Starobinets, Boris; Alpert, Pinhas

    2013-01-01

    The MERRA Aerosol Reanalysis (MERRAero) has been recently developed at NASA's Global Modeling Assimilation Office (GMAO). This reanalysis is based on a version of the GEOS-5 model radiatively coupled with GOCART aerosols, and it includes assimilation of bias-corrected Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) from the MODIS sensor on both Terra and Aqua satellites. Our main finding is that, in October, in the absence of aerosol sources in north-west Bay of Bengal (BoB), MERRAero showed increasing AOT trends over north-west BoB exceeding those over the east of the Ganges basin. The Ganges basin is characterized by significant population growth accompanied by developing industry, agriculture, and increasing transportation: this has resulted in declining air quality. MERRAero data for the period 2002-2009 was used to study AOT trends over north-west Bay of Bengal (BoB) in the early post-monsoon season. This season is characterized by aerosol transport from the Ganges basin to north-west BoB by prevailing winds; and still significant rainfall of over 150 mmmonth. Different aerosol components showed strong increasing AOT trends over north-west BoB. The following factors contributed to the increasing AOT trend over the area in question in October: an increasing number of days when prevailing winds blew from land to sea, resulting in a drier environment and an increase in air pollution over north-west BoB; wind convergence was observed over north-west BoB causing the accumulation of aerosol particles over that region, when prevailing winds blew from land to sea. MERRAero aerosol reanalysis can be used on a global scale.

  16. 1998 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study: The White Book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book) is published annually by BPA and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to the 1981 regional power sales contracts. Specifically, BPA uses the information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for inventory planning to determine BPA revenues. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions, including expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. The 1998 White Book is presented in two documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; and (2) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. This analysis updates the December 1997 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study

  17. 1998 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study: The White Book.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1998-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book) is published annually by BPA and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to the 1981 regional power sales contracts. Specifically, BPA uses the information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for inventory planning to determine BPA revenues. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions, including expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. The 1998 White Book is presented in two documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; and (2) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. This analysis updates the December 1997 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

  18. Regeneration of nitrogen by zooplankton and fish in the Northwest Africa and Peru upwelling ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitledge, T E

    1976-01-01

    The availability of nutrients and light are the dominant controlling factors of the levels of primary production in the ocean. In the lower latitudes where most coastal upwelling areas are located, the amount of light is seldom below the critical level to inhibit productivity so nutrients are often the limiting factor in phytoplankton growth. Nutrients utilized in primary productivity are derived from two sources in upwelling areas. Nutrients are introduced to the euphotic zone from depth by the physical processes that create upwelling and nutrients are recycled by biological organisms that inhabit the area. Nitrate introduced into the euphotic zone by upwelling supports new productivity while ammonium and other excretory products regenerated by zooplankton and nekton supports regenerated productivity. Results are reported from studies off the coast of Northwest Africa and Peru using /sup 15/N as a tracer that showed that recycled ammonium may fulfill nearly half of the daily nitrogen requirement of phytoplankton and upwelled nitrate may provide the other half.

  19. Implications of climate change for Pacific Northwest forest management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, G.

    1991-01-01

    A Canada/USA symposium was held to identify potential consequences of global climate change to Pacific Northwest forests; to identify the future role and relative contribution of those forests in the balance of carbon, moisture, and energy exchange of the atmosphere; and to develop recommendations for Pacific Northwest forest management strategies and policy options for responding to global climate change. Papers were presented on such topics as regional climatic change, forest responses and processes, public policy on forests and climatic change, sequestration of atmospheric carbon, forest management, and forest adaptation to climatic change. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 14 papers from this symposium

  20. Timber resource of Missouri's Northwest Ozarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Brad Smith

    1990-01-01

    In 1989 the fourth forest inventory of the Norwest Ozarks found 2.2 million acres of timberland, an increase of nearly 13% since 1972. This bulletin presents highlights and statistics on area, volume, growth, removals, and mortality.

  1. North-West Iowa Groundwater Vulnerability Regions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The regions on this map represent areas with similar hydro-geologic characteristics thought to represent similar potentials for contamination of groundwater and/or...

  2. A measure for the efficiency of water use and its determinants, a case study of small-scale irrigation schemes in North-West Province, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speelman, S.; Haese, D' M.F.C.; Buysse, J.; Haese, D' L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses the efficiency with which water is used in small-scale irrigation schemes in North-West Province in South Africa and studies its determinants. In the study area, small-scale irrigation schemes play an important role in rural development, but the increasing pressure on water

  3. Sandy aeolian deposits and environments and their relation to climate during the Last Glacial Maximum and Lateglacial in northwest and central Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasse, C.

    2002-01-01

    Periglacial aeolian sand sheets and dunes of the last glacial cover extensive areas of northwest and central Europe. Four sedimentary facies have been described that could be related to fluvio-aeolian and cryogenic processes, moisture content of the depositional surface and surface morphology.

  4. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1988 to the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health: Part 5, Environment, safety, health, and quality assurance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faust, L.G.; Pennell, W.T.; Selby, J.M.

    1989-02-01

    This document summarizes the research programs now underway at Battelle's Pacific Northwest Laboratory in the areas of environmental safety, health, and quality assurance. Topics include internal irradiation, emergency plans, dose equivalents, risk assessment, dose equivalents, surveys, neutron dosimetry, and radiation accidents. (TEM)

  5. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1988 to the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health: Part 5, Environment, safety, health, and quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faust, L.G.; Pennell, W.T.; Selby, J.M.

    1989-02-01

    This document summarizes the research programs now underway at Battelle's Pacific Northwest Laboratory in the areas of environmental safety, health, and quality assurance. Topics include internal irradiation, emergency plans, dose equivalents, risk assessment, dose equivalents, surveys, neutron dosimetry, and radiation accidents

  6. Monitoring the expanding distribution of non-indigenous dwarf eelgrass Zostera japonica in a Pacific Northwest USA estuary using high-resolution digital aerialphotomaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    The proliferation of non-indigenous species is a world-wide issue. Environmental managers need improved methods of detecting and monitoring the distribution of such invaders over large areas. In recent decades, numerous estuaries of the Pacific Northwest USA have experienced th...

  7. Effect of Tide Elevation on Extratropical Storm Surge in Northwest Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshtpoor, M.; Carnacina, I.; Yablonsky, R. M.

    2016-12-01

    Extratropical cyclones (ETCs) are the major storm surge-generating meteorological events in northwest Europe. The total water level increase induced by these ETCs is significantly influenced by the local tidal range, which exceeds 8 meters along the southwestern UK coastline. In particular, a surge-generating ETC during high tide may put coastal assets and infrastructure in risk. Also, during low tide, the risk of surge induced by extreme ETC events is diminished. Here, the effect of tidal elevation on storm surge is investigated at 196 tide gauges in northwest Europe. A numerical, hydrodynamic model was developed using Delft3D-FM framework to simulate the coastal hydrodynamics during ETCs. Then, 1750 historical events were simulated to investigate the pattern of coastal inundation. Results suggest that in areas with a large tidal range ( 8 meters) and during the time period surrounding high or low tide, the pattern of coastal hydrodynamics is governed by tide and not storm surge. This result is most evident near the English Channel and Bristol Channel, where low frequency maximum water levels are observed when storm surge is combined with high tide. In contrast, near the tidal phase reversal, coastal hydrodynamics responds primarily to the storm surge, and low frequency maximum water elevation largely depends on the surge. In the areas with a small tidal range, ETC strength determines the pattern of coastal inundation.

  8. A TWO CENTURY HISTORY OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON: LESSONS LEARNED FOR ACHIEVING A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achieving ecological sustainability is a daunting challenge. In the Pacific Northwest one of the most highly visible public policy debates concerns the future of salmon populations. Throughout the Pacific Northwest, many wild salmon stocks have declined and some have disappeare...

  9. Geology, tectonism and composition of the northwest Imbrium region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yunzhao; Li, Lin; Luo, Xiaoxing; Lu, Yu; Chen, Yuan; Pieters, Carle M.; Basilevsky, Alexander T.; Head, James W.

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study is to explore the regional geology of the northwest Imbrium region in which the Chang'E-3 (CE-3) landing site is located. CE-3 successfully landed on December 14, 2013 on the unsampled Eratosthenian basalts whose study is important for understanding the evolution of the Moon. New geologic and structural maps of the research area were produced through the integrated analysis of diverse datasets. The highlands surrounding Imbrium differ from typical Farside Highlands Terrain (FHT). The Iridum highland region (as well as the surrounding Imbrium region) exhibits elevated concentrations of Fe, and abundant local exposures of low-Ca pyroxene and olivine bearing lithologies. In this study these highlands are named as mafic highlands (MH). Our dating results using crater size-frequency distributions (CSFDs) show that the Iridum basin (hosting Sinus Iridum) was formed ∼3.8 Ga, shortly following the Imbrium basin formation and before the last large multiringed basin, Orientale. The Eratosthenian period of lunar basalt eruptions, which lasted longer than other stratigraphic units, is suggested to divide into the Lower Eratosthenian mare (LEm) and Upper Eratosthenian mare (UEm) units. This subdivision is based on whether lava fronts can be clearly seen or not and the age separating the units is 2.35 Ga. The mafic mineralogy of the mare basalts in Imbrium is characterized by abundant olivine in the Eratosthenian-aged basalts and average pyroxene compositions near pigeonite to sub-calcic augite in the Imbrian and Em1 units. The thickness of individual lava for UEm units is 8-11 m, indicative of high effusion rates. The thickness of the Em3 unit ranges from ∼17 m to ∼45 m with lesser thickness to the west and greater thickness in the interior and to the east. The estimated volume and average flux of the Eratosthenian-aged basalts are greater than previously thought. The presence of these youngest basalts in the Procellarum-KREEP terrain (PKT) is

  10. Assessing Dryland Ecosystem Services in Xinjiang, Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siew, T. F.; Brauman, K. A.; Zuo, L.; Doll, P. M.

    2014-12-01

    Dryland ecosystems, including grassland, forest, and irrigated cropland, cover about 41% of earth's land area and are inhabited by over two billion people. In drylands, particularly arid and semiarid areas, the production of ecosystem services is primarily constrained by freshwater availability. Often, water allocated to production by one ecosystem or of one ecosystem service negatively impacts other ecosystems or ecosystem services (ESS). The challenge is to determine how much water should be allocated to which ecosystems (natural and manmade) such that multiple ESS are maximized, thus improving overall well-being. This strategic management decision must be supported by knowledge about spatial and temporal availability of water and its relationship to production (location and scale) of ESS that people receive. We assess the spatial and temporal relationships between water availability and ESS production in Xinjiang, Northwest China. We address four questions: (1) What services are produced by which ecosystems with water available? (2) Where are these services produced? (3) Who uses the services produced? (4) How the production of services changes with variability of water available? Using existing global, national, and regional spatial and statistical data, we assess food, fiber, livestock, and wood production as well as unique forest landscapes (as a proxy for aesthetic appreciation and habitats for unique animals and plants) and protection from dust storms. Irrigation is necessary for crop production in Xinjiang. The production of about 4.2 million tons of wheat and 500,000 tons of cotton requires more than 2 km3 of water each year. This is an important source of food and income for local residents, but the diverted water has negative and potentially costly impacts on downstream forests that potentially provide aesthetic services and protection from dust. Our analyses also show that cropland had increased by about 1.6 million ha from 1987 to 2010, while

  11. Streamnet; Northwest Aquatic Information Network, 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Bruce (Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission, Gladstone, OR)

    2003-02-07

    A primary focus of the StreamNet project in FY-02 was maintenance and update of ongoing data types. Significant progress was made toward updating data for the primary data categories in the StreamNet regional database. Data updates had been slowed in previous years due to the time required for conversion of georeferencing for most data types from the 1:250,000 scale River Reach Number (RRN) system to the 1:100,000 Longitude-Latitude Identifier (LLID) system. In addition, data relating to Protected Areas and Smolt Density Model results, the last data sets in the StreamNet database still in the 1:250,000 RRN format, were converted this year to the LLID system, making them available through the on-line Web Query System. The Protected Areas data were also made available through an on-line interactive mapping application. All routine project activities continued, including project administration at the full project and cooperating project levels, project management through the StreamNet Steering Committee, maintenance of databases and Internet data delivery systems, and providing data related services to the Northwest Power Planning Council's (NWPPC) Fish and Wildlife Program. As part of system management, a new web server was put in operation, significantly improving speed and reliability of Internet data delivery. The web based data query system was modified to utilize ColdFusion, in preparation for a full conversion to ColdFusion from the custom programming in Delphi. This greatly increased flexibility and the ability to modify query system function, correct errors, and develop new query capabilities. All project participants responded to numerous requests for information (data, maps, technical assistance, etc.) throughout the year. A significant accomplishment this year was resolution of long standing differences in how fish distribution is defined and presented. By focusing strictly on definitions related to current distribution (ignoring potential and

  12. Characteristics of low-frequency oscillation intensity of airsea turbulent heat fluxes over the northwest Pacific

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Based on the daily turbulent heat fluxes and related meteorological variables datasets (1985-2006) from Objectively Analyzed air-sea Fluxes (OAFlux) Project of Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), characteristics of low-frequency oscillation intensity of air-sea turbulent heat fluxes over the northwest Pacific are analyzed by linear perturbation method and correlation analysis. It can be concluded that: 1) the distribution of low-frequency oscillation intensity of latent heat flux (LHF) over the northwest Pacific is mainly affected by that of low-frequency oscillation intensity of anomalous air-sea humidity gradient (Δq′) as well as mean air-sea humidity gradient ( Δ q), while the distribution of low-frequency oscillation intensity of sensible heat flux (SHF) is mainly affected by that of low-frequency oscillation intensity of anomalous air-sea temperature gradient (ΔT′). 2) The low-frequency oscillation of turbulent heat fluxes over the northwest Pacific is the strongest in winter and the weakest in summer. And the seasonal transition of low-frequency oscillation intensity of LHF is jointly influenced by those of low-frequency oscillation intensity of Δq′, low-frequency oscillation intensity of anomalous wind speed (U′), Δ q and mean wind speed (U ), while the seasonal transition of low-frequency oscillation intensity of SHF is mainly influenced by those of low-frequency oscillation intensity of ΔT′ and U . 3) Over the tropical west Pacific and sea areas north of 20°N, the low-frequency oscillation of LHF (SHF) is mainly influenced by atmospheric variables qa′ (Ta′) and U′, indicating an oceanic response to overlying atmospheric forcing. In contrast, over the tropical eastern and central Pacific south of 20°N, qs′ (Ts′) also greatly influences the low-frequency oscillation of LHF (SHF).

  13. The intertwining paths of the density managment and riparian buffer study and the Northwest Forest Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth J. Ruzicka; Deanna H. Olson; Klaus J. Puettmann

    2013-01-01

    Initiated simultaneously, the Density Management and Riparian Buff er Study of western Oregon and the Northwest Forest Plan have had intertwining paths related to federal forest management and policy changes in the Pacifi c Northwest over the last 15 to 20 years. We briefl y discuss the development of the Northwest Forest Plan and how it changed the way forest policy...

  14. Watershed analysis on federal lands of the Pacific northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie M. Reid; Robert R. Ziemer; Michael J. Furniss

    1994-01-01

    Abstract - Watershed analysis-the evaluation of processes that affect ecosystems and resources in a watershed-is now being carried out by Federal land-management and regulatory agencies on Federal lands of the Pacific Northwest. Methods used differ from those of other implementations of watershed analysis because objectives and opportunities differ. In particular,...

  15. Special forest products: species information guide for the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan C. Vance; Melissa Borsting; David Pilz; Jim. Freed

    2001-01-01

    This guide is a collection of information about economically important vascular and nonvascular plants and fungi found in the Pacific Northwest that furnish special forest products. Many of these plants and fungi are also found in Alaska, northern Idaho, and western Montana. They contribute to many botanical, floral, woodcraft, and decorative industries and to the...

  16. Northwest range-plant symbols adapted to automatic data processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George A. Garrison; Jon M. Skovlin

    1960-01-01

    Many range technicians, agronomists, foresters, biologists, and botanists of various educational institutions and government agencies in the Northwest have been using a four-letter symbol list or code compiled 12 years ago from records of plants collected by the U.S. Forest Service in Oregon and Washington, This code has served well as a means of entering plant names...

  17. Earliest occupation of north-west Europe: A coastal perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, K.M.; MacDonald, K.; Joordens, J.C.A.; Roebroeks, W.; Gibbard, P.L.

    2012-01-01

    Recent discoveries from Pakefield and Happisburgh (Britain) have provided clear evidence for an unexpectedly early hominin occupation of north-west Europe. The sites, found in the deposits of interglacial rivers and estuaries on the southern rim of the ancient North Sea coast, span the older and

  18. Planning for prescribed burning in the inland northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Martin; John D. Dell

    1978-01-01

    Fire has historically played a role in forests and ranges of the inland Northwest. This guide has been prepared to help managers understand the role of fire and the potential uses of fire and to plan for fire use in managing these lands. Sections deal with these topics, and steps in planning a prescribed burn are outlined. A sample burning situation illustrates the...

  19. Inventory of North-West European algae initiatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruijt, J.

    2015-01-01

    In 2012 an inventory of North-West European (NWE) algae initiatives was carried out to get an impression of the market and research activities on algae production and refinery, especially for bioenergy purposes. A questionnaire was developed that would provide the EnAlgae project with information on

  20. Teacher Certification: The Problem in the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Leo D.

    1985-01-01

    Teacher certification procedures in the Pacific Northwest are used to illustrate the kinds of problems facing the nation in terms of teacher certification and program accreditation. Proposals for change include: cooperation between public schools and universities; five year programs; and use of research to study the teacher education process. (DF)

  1. Pacific Northwest Laboratory monthly activities report, April 1965

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1965-05-14

    This report discusses research at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory on topics relating to hanford production reactors. The topic deal with: reactor and material technology; reactor physics and instruments; chemistry; biology and medicine; applied mathematics; radiation protection; and test reactor and engineering services.

  2. Risk assessment for biodiversity conservation planning in Pacific Northwest forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becky K. Kerns; Alan Ager

    2007-01-01

    Risk assessment can provide a robust strategy for landscape-scale planning challenges associated with species conservation and habitat protection in Pacific Northwest forests. We provide an overview of quantitative and probabilistic ecological risk assessment with focus on the application of approaches and influences from the actuarial, financial, and technical...

  3. 2014 Science Accomplishments Report of the Pacific Northwest Research Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhonda Mazza

    2015-01-01

    Communicating the scientific knowledge generated by the Pacific Northwest Research Station is integral to our mission. The 2014 Science Accomplishments reports highlights the breadth of the station’s research, the relevance of our science findings, and the application of these findings. The photographs throughout the report showcase the region where we work and how...

  4. 2013 Science Accomplishments Report of the Pacific Northwest Research Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhonda Mazza

    2014-01-01

    Communicating the scientific knowledge generated by the Pacific Northwest Research Station is integral to our mission. The 2013 Science Accomplishments reports highlights the breadth of the station’s research, the relevance of our science findings, and the application of these findings. The photographs throughout the report showcase the region where we work and how...

  5. Climate change and health effects in Northwest Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Brubaker

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This article provides examples of adverse health effects, including weather-related injury, food insecurity, mental health issues, and water infrastructure damage, and the responses to these effects that are currently being applied in two Northwest Alaska communities.In Northwest Alaska, warming is resulting in a broad range of unusual weather and environmental conditions, including delayed freeze-up, earlier breakup, storm surge, coastal erosion, and thawing permafrost. These are just some of the climate impacts that are driving concerns about weather-related injury, the spread of disease, mental health issues, infrastructure damage, and food and water security. Local leaders are challenged to identify appropriate adaptation strategies to address climate impacts and related health effects.The tribal health system is combining local observations, traditional knowledge, and western science to perform community-specific climate change health impact assessments. Local leaders are applying this information to develop adaptation responses.The Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium will describe relationships between climate impacts and health effects and provide examples of community-scaled adaptation actions currently being applied in Northwest Alaska.Climate change is increasing vulnerability to injury, disease, mental stress, food insecurity, and water insecurity. Northwest communities are applying adaptation approaches that are both specific and appropriate.The health impact assessment process is effective in raising awareness, encouraging discussion, engaging partners, and implementing adaptation planning. With community-specific information, local leaders are applying health protective adaptation measures.

  6. Community Service, Educational Performance and Social Responsibility in Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Renfu; Shi, Yaojiang; Zhang, Linxiu; Liu, Chengfang; Li, Hongbin; Rozelle, Scott; Sharbono, Brian

    2011-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to analyse the effect of high school scholarships tied to community service on the development of secondary school students in Northwest China. Using data from three rounds of surveys of thousands of students in 298 classes in 75 high schools in Shaanxi province, the paper documents the implementation of the…

  7. 2008 Science Accomplishments Report of the Pacific Northwest Research Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhonda Mazza

    2009-01-01

    This report highlights significant research findings and accomplishments by scientists at the Pacific Northwest (PNW) Research Station during fiscal year 2008. The mission of the PNW Research Station is to generate and communicate scientific knowledge that helps people understand and make informed choices about people, natural resources, and the environment. The work...

  8. Investigations of Fusarium diseases within Inland Pacific Northwest forest nurseries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. James; R. Kasten Dumroese

    2007-01-01

    Fusarium spp. cause important diseases that limit production of seedlings in forest nurseries worldwide. Several aspects of these diseases have been investigated for many years within Inland Pacific Northwest nurseries to better understand disease etiology, pathogen inoculum sources, and epidemiology. Investigations have also involved improving...

  9. Potato psyllid vector of zebra chip disease in Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebra chip is a destructive disease of potatoes in the Pacific Northwest and other potato production regions of North America. The pathogen associated with this disease is transmitted by the potato psyllid. A team of researchers which included a scientist at the ARS in Wapato, WA updated an extens...

  10. Fire ecology of Scots pine in Northwest Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hille, M.G.

    2006-01-01

    Keywords: biodiversity, fire ecology, fuel modelling, succession, tree regenerationIn this thesis the ecological consequences of forest fire are studied in North-west European Scots pine {Pinus sylvestris) forests. The focus is on post-fire succession, and the factors and mechanisms that influence

  11. Silvicultural approaches to animal damage management in Pacific Northwest forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugh C. Black

    1992-01-01

    This book examines the potential of Silvicultural approaches for managing animal damage in forests at two levels: management of free-to-grow stands and sitespecific practices that foster prompt and successful regeneration. Introductory chapters provide a historical perspective of animal damage management in the Pacific Northwest, describe the elements of an integrated...

  12. Sampling methods for amphibians in streams in the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Bruce Bury; Paul Stephen. Corn

    1991-01-01

    Methods describing how to sample aquatic and semiaquatic amphibians in small streams and headwater habitats in the Pacific Northwest are presented. We developed a technique that samples 10-meter stretches of selected streams, which was adequate to detect presence or absence of amphibian species and provided sample sizes statistically sufficient to compare abundance of...

  13. Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Northwest Plume interceptor system evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laase, A.D.; Clausen, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) recently installed an interceptor system consisting of four wells, evenly divided between two well fields, to contain the Northwest Plume. As stated in the Northwest Plume Record of Decision (ROD), groundwater will be pumped at a rate to reduce further contamination and initiate control of the northwest contaminant plume. The objective of this evaluation was to determine the optimum (minimal) well field pumping rates required for plume hotspot containment. Plume hotspot, as defined in the Northwest Plume ROD and throughout this report, is that portion of the plume with trichloroethene (TCE) concentrations greater than 1,000 microg/L. An existing 3-dimensional groundwater model was modified and used to perform capture zone analyses of the north and south interceptor system well fields. Model results suggest that the plume hotspot is not contained at the system design pumping rate of 100 gallons per minute (gal/min) per well field. Rather, the modeling determined that north and south well field pumping rates of 400 and 150 gal/min, respectively, are necessary for plume hotspot containment. The difference between the design and optimal pumping rates required for containment can be attributed to the discovery of a highly transmissive zone in the vicinity of the two well fields

  14. Remediation System Evaluation, Northwest Pipe and Casing Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Northwest Pipe and Casing Site is located in Clackamas, Oregon, approximately 20 miles southeastof Portland. The site consists of approximately 53 acres, and has historically been divided into two parcels(Parcel A to the north and Parcel B to the..

  15. Aeromagnetic map of northwest Utah and adjacent parts of Nevada and Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenheim, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Two aeromagnetic surveys were flown to promote further understanding of the geology and structure in northwest Utah and adjacent parts of Nevada and Idaho by serving as a basis for geophysical interpretations and by supporting geological mapping, water and mineral resource investigations, and other topical studies. Although this area is in general sparsely populated, (except for cities and towns along the Wasatch Front such as Ogden and Brigham City), it encompasses metamorphic core complexes in the Grouse Creek and Raft River Mountains (figure 1) of interest to earth scientists studying Cenozoic extension. The region was shaken in 1909 and 1934 by M6+ earthquakes east of the Hansel Mountains (Doser, 1989; Arabasz and others, 1994); damage from the 1934 earthquake occurred as far east as Logan, Utah (http:// www.seis.utah.edu/lqthreat/nehrp_htm/1934hans/n1934ha1. shtml#urbse). The presence of Quaternary shield volcanoes and bimodal Pleistocene volcanism in Curlew Valley (Miller and others, 1995; Felger and others, 2016) as well as relatively high temperature gradients encountered in the Indian Cove drillhole in the north arm of Great Salt Lake (Blackett and others, 2014) may indicate some potential for geothermal energy development in the area (Miller and others, 1995). The area also hosts four significant mining districts, in the northern Pilot Range, the Goose Creek Mountains in the northwest corner of the map, the southern end of the Promontory Mountains, and the southwest part of the Raft River Mountains, although production notably waned after World War II (Doelling, 1980). Other prospects of interest include those in the southern Grouse Creek Mountains, Silver Island, and the northern Newfoundland Mountains.Large areas of northwest Utah are covered by young, surficial deposits or by Great Salt Lake or are down-dropped into deep Cenozoic basins, making extrapolation of bedrock geology from widely spaced exposures difficult or tenuous (figure 1). Local spatial

  16. THE BAFFIN BAY REGION DURING THE LAST INTERGLACIATION: EVIDENCE FROM NORTHWEST GREENLAND

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funder, Svend Visby

    1989-01-01

    Coastal sections in the Thule area, northwest Greenland, provide a recordof last interglacial glacial and oceanographic events on the northern perimeter of Baffin Bay. The record is dated by a combination of thermoluminescence and 14C dating; local and regional correlation is provided by amino acid...... for the last nterglacial/glacial cycle was attained during Middle Sangamonian times, and a smaller advance took place in the Late Wisconsinan. In beween ice coverage was similar to the present, or smaller. The record provides a link between events in Arctic Canada and northern Greenland, and shows...... analyses of mollusc shells, and periods of penetration by warm subarctic water have been identified by their foraminifera and mollusc faunas. Subarclic water reached the area on three occasions: during the Holocene, and in the Early and Late Sangamonian. Maximum, although restricted, ice coverage...

  17. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory FY96 Annual Self-Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) research and development efforts are concentrated on DOE`s environmental quality mission and the scientific research required to support that mission. The Laboratory also supports the energy resources and national security missions in areas where an overlap between our core competencies and DOE`s goals exists. Fiscal year 1996 saw the Laboratory focus its efforts on the results necessary for us to meet DOE`s most important needs and expectations. Six Critical Outcomes were established in partnership with DOE. The Laboratory met or exceeded performance expectations in most areas, including these outcomes and the implementation of the Laboratory`s Integrated Assessment Program. We believe our overall performance for this evaluation period has been outstanding. A summary of results and key issues is provided.

  18. FY2000 Annual Self-Evaluation Report for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RR Labarge

    2000-11-15

    This self-evaluation report offers a summary of results from FY2000 actions to achieve Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's strategy and provides an analysis of the state of their self-assessment process. The result of their integrated planning and assessment process identifies Laboratory strengths and opportunities for improvement. Critical elements of that process are included in this report; namely, a high-level summary of external oversight activities, progress against Operations Improvement Initiatives, and a summary of Laboratory strengths and areas for improvement developed by management from across the laboratory. Some key areas targeted for improvement in FY2001 are: systems approach to resource management; information protection; integrated safety management flow-down to the benchtop; cost management; integrated assessment; Price Anderson Amendments Act (PAAA) Program; and travel risk mitigation.

  19. Level of literacy and dementia: A secondary post-hoc analysis from North-West India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Raina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A relation between literacy and dementia has been studied in past and an association has been documented. This is in spite of some studies pointing to the contrary. The current study was aimed at investigating the influence of level of literacy on dementia in a sample stratified by geography (Migrant, Urban, Rural and Tribal areas of sub-Himalayan state of Himachal Pradesh, India. Materials and Methods: The study was based on post-hoc analysis of data obtained from a study conducted on elderly population (60 years and above from selected geographical areas (Migrant, Urban, Rural and Tribal of Himachal Pradesh state in North-west India. Results: Analysis of variance revealed an effect of education on cognitive scores [F = 2.823, P =0.01], however, post-hoc Tukey′s HSD test did not reveal any significant pairwise comparisons. Discussion: The possibility that education effects dementia needs further evaluation, more so in Indian context.

  20. Empirical study on regional differentiation of rural household energy use in Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenheng; Zhang, Xin; Guo, Xiaodong

    2018-02-01

    To better understand regional differentiation of rural household energy use, data of energy use of 232 rural households in the Linwei District located in the lower reaches of the Weihe River of Northwest China were collected by questionnaires combined with face-to-face interview. Location quotient of energy use (LQEU) method is adopted in the paper. The results show that multiple energy sources are utilized due to market orientation in the plain area, and biogas is prominent as a result of policy orientation in the loess tableland, whereas firewood is dominant due to the influence of natural environment in the Qinling mountainous area. Regional differentiation of energy use is comprehensively affected by income level, air temperature, development conditions, energy policy, etc.

  1. An examination on the ostracod genus Cytherelloidea from the Aptian deposits of west and northwest of Kerman, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi, Zohreh; Vaziri, Mohammad Reza; Arab, Ahmad Lotfabad

    2018-05-01

    This research provides the first detailed taxonomic study of Cytherelloidea species from the Aptian deposits of the Kerman area. One hundred and seventy-five samples from two measured stratigraphic sections, Baghin and Siriz, in west and northwest of Kerman, have been analyzed and 11 species identified among them three new species Cytherelloidea baghinensis, Cytherelloidea mazarensis and Cytherelloidea sirizensis are reported for the first time from the regions. The paleoecological aspects of the studied ostracods are discussed as well. A compatible age determination has been inferred through the analysis of benthic foraminifera, gastropoda, pelecypoda and brachiopoda, which have been recovered in the study areas.

  2. Planning for Regional Water Resources in Northwest China Using a Dynamic Simulation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C.; Kalra, A.; Ahmad, S.

    2014-12-01

    Problem of water scarcity is prominent in northwest China due to its typical desert climate. Exceedence of sustainable yield of groundwater resources has resulted in groundwater depletion, which has raised a series of issues such as drying wells, increasing pumping costs and environmental damage. With a rapid agricultural and economic development, population increase has added extra stress on available water resources by increasing municipal, agricultural and industrial demands. This necessitates efficient water resources management strategies with better understanding of the causes of water stress and options for sustainable development of economy and management of environment. This study focuses on simulating the water supply and demand, under the influence of changing climate, for Shanshan County, located in northwest of China. A dynamic simulation model is developed using the modeling tool Stella for monthly water balance for the period ranging from 2000-2030. Different future water demand and supply scenarios are developed to represent: (1) base scenario- with current practices; (2) change of the primary water source; (3) improvement of irrigation efficiency; (4) reduction of irrigation area; and (5) reduction of industrial water demand. The results indicate that besides growing demand, the low water use efficiency and low level of water reuse are the primary concerns for water scarcity. Groundwater recharge and abstraction could be balanced by 2030, by reducing industrial demand by 50% and using high efficiency irrigation for agriculture. The model provided a better understanding of the effect of different policies and can help in identifying water resources management strategies.

  3. NPP estimation and seasonal change research of Gansu province in northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Tao; Wang, Dawei; Hao, Xiaocui; Jiang, Youyan

    2018-03-01

    Based on GIS and remote sensing technology, this paper estimates the NPP of the 2015 year-round and every season of Gansu province in northwest China by using the CASA(Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) light energy utilization model. The result shows that the total annual NPP of Gansu province gradually decline from southeast to northwest in the space, which is in accordance with the water and heat condition in Gansu province. The results show that the summer NPP in Gansu Province is the maximum in each season. The maximum value of summer NPP in Gansu Province reached 695 (gCm-2•season-1), and the maximum value was 473 in spring, and 288 in the autumn, and the NPP in the winter in Gansu province were under 60. The fluctuation range of NPP value is large, this is due to the diversity of ecosystem types in Gansu province, including desert, grassland, farmland and forest, among them, the grassland area is the largest, and the grassland type is very diverse, the grassland coverage is obviously different, especially the low coverage grassland growth is affected by precipitation and temperature and other meteorological factors obviously.

  4. Advances on application of remote sensing technology to uranium prospecting in northwest of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Fawang; Liu Dechang; Zhao Yingjun; Zhang Jielin; Fang Maolong

    2012-01-01

    Some advances on application of remote sensing technology to uranium prospecting in northwest of China since 21st century are presented in this paper. They included: (1) application of ETM multi-spectral remote sensing technology to identify the sandstone-type uranium ore-controlling structure in north of Ordos Basin and investigate the uranium metallogenetic geological conditions in Qiangtang Basin, Tibet, (2) application of ASTER multi-spectral and QuickBird high spatial resolution remote sensing technology to extract and analyze the oil-gas reduced alteration in Bashibulake uranium ore district, Xinjiang, (3) discovery of Salamubulake uranium metallogenetic belt in Keping, Xinjiang, using ASTER multi-spectral, QuickBird high spatial resolution, and CASI/SASI airborne hyper-spectral remote sensing comprehensively, and (4) application of CASI/SASI airborne hyper-spectral remote sensing technology to extract volcanicrock type uranium mineralization alteration in Baiyanghe area, Xinjiang. These application advances show the good application effects of remote sensing technology to uranium exploration in northwest of China, which provides important references for making further uranium prospecting using remote sensing technology. (authors)

  5. Petroleum system of Northwest Java basin based on gravity data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widianto, E.

    2018-01-01

    Energy management in the upstream oil and gas sector becomes very important for the country’s energy security. The renewal of energy resources and reserves becomes necessary and is a must. In the oil and gas industry, gravity data is usually used only for regional surveys, but with the development of instrumentation technology and gravity software development, this method can be used for assessing oil and gas survey stages from exploration to production. This study was conducted to evaluate aspects of petroleum system and exploration play concept in the part of Northwest Java Basin, covering source rock deposition regions (source kitchen area, migration direction), development of reservoirs, structural and stratigraphic trap, based on gravity data. This study uses data from Bouguer gravity anomaly map by filtering process to produce a residual map depicting sedimentation basin configuration. The mapping generated 20 sedimentary basins in Java Island with the total hydrocarbon resources of 113 BBOE (Billion Barrel of Oil Equivalent). The petroleum system analysis was conducted in the Northwest Basin section. The final map produced illustrates the condition of petroleum system and play concept that can be used as exploration direction, expectedly reducing the risk of drilling failure.

  6. Investigation of Prescribed Fires Impacts on Air Quality in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, V.; Chung, S. H.; Vaughan, J. K.; Lamb, B. K.

    2014-12-01

    Emissions from wildland and prescribed fires cause significant aerosol loading in the atmospheric environment. Using 2011 NEI-Fire emission inventory, we investigate the impacts of prescribed fire emissions on the air quality of the Pacific Northwest (PNW) for a month long period in October-November 2011. This study utilizes the AIRAPCT-4 regional air quality forecasting system, which is based on the WRF-SMOKE-CMAQ framework. We simulate three different emission scenarios - 1) emissions with prescribed fires, 2) emissions without prescribed fires and 3) a scenario where prescribed fire emissions are reduced by 60%. AIRPACT-4 results are examined for impacts of prescribed fire emissions on ambient levels of PM2.5 and Ozone for entire PNW. We also look at the contribution of prescribed fire emissions to ambient PM2.5 concentrations for selected non-attainment areas in the PNW. This work supports the analysis of using woody residue as a feedstock for an aviation biofuel supply chain through the Northwest Advanced Renewables Alliance (NARA).

  7. ESPECIALLY VEGETATION ISLANDS OF NORTHWEST OF THE CASPIAN SEA(SEAL, CHECHEN ISLAND, NORDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Soltanmuradova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim The identification of the species flora of Northwest islands of the Caspian Sea.Methods. The collection of useful material were implemented by route-forwarding method. For collect and herbarization of theplants were used the traditional equipments necessary for fioristic studies. For identifying plants in the laboratory conditions were used by binocular MBS-2, and in the field conditions were used by magnifiers with eight-fold increase.Results. Flora of the islands of the Northwest of the Caspian Sea counts 269 species of higher plants, belonging to 49 families and 186 geniuses: the Seals – 32 families, the Nordova – 26 families, 57 geniuses, 65 species.Main conclusions. All the leading families of the islands are specific for Iran-Turan and Mediterranean of floristic areas. Also shared with the Central Asian deserts are families Tamaricaceae, Frankeniaceae, Elaeagnaceae, Apiaceae, Boraginaceae, and the geniuses Halocnemum, Halopeplis, Suaeda.

  8. The Fort Smith radioactive belt, Northwest Territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charbonneau, B.W.

    1980-01-01

    The Fort Smith Belt is an elongate zone, about 200 km x 50 km, extending from the East Arm of Great Slave Lake southerly into northeastern Alberta. The major feature of the belt is that it is one of the most radioactive regions so far recognized in the Canadian Shield. Potassium, uranium, and thorium are all enriched but the greatest increase is in thorium. The dominant rock type underlying the area is a foliated porphyritic granite. This rock contains an average of about 80 ppm thorium (with areas of tens of square kilometres containing up to 200 ppm) and approximately 11 ppm uranium. In places, dark elongate zones rich in biotite, apatite, and opaque minerals within the porphyritic granite may contain an order of magnitude more uranium and thorium than the porphyry. Radioactive minerals within both the porphyry and the dark zones are principally monazite (containing up to 16% ThO 2 ) and isolated grains of uraninite. This foliated porphyritic granite is interpreted as being pre- or syntectonic with respect to the Hudsonian event because its foliation parallels that of the surrounding rocks. There has been subsequent deformation. The second characteristic feature of the Fort Smith Belt is the development of a peripheral zone where eU is enriched relative to eTh correlating mainly with granitoid rocks which surround the thorium-rich area and wherein ratios of eU/eTh exceed 1:2 (compared to the crustal average of 1:4). Uranium may have moved laterally into this marginal area from the thorium-rich porphyry, possibly in a vapour phase. There is a possibility that concentrations of uranium as well as other metals such as Cu, Mo, Zn, Sn, and W could exist in the porphyry and its margin in appropriate chemical and/or structural traps. The radioactive granite rocks of the Fort Smith Belt are adjacent to uranium-thorium occurrences in the nearby Proterozoic Nonacho sediments but whether or not a genetic relationship exists between the two situations is uncertain. (auth)

  9. Herpetofauna of the Northwest Amazon forest in the state of Maranhão, Brazil, with remarks on the Gurupi Biological Reserve

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio de Freitas,Marco; Saldanha Vieira,Ruhan; Entiauspe-Neto,Omar; Oliveira e Sousa,Samantha; Farias,Tayse; Grazieli,Alanna; Barbosa de Moura,Geraldo

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the biodiversity of an area is the first step for establishing effective interventions for conservation, especially when it comes to herpetofauna, since 4.1% and 9.2%, respectively, of Brazilian amphibians and reptiles are endangered. The aim of this study is to identify the composition of the herpetofauna occurring in the Northwest Amazonian state of Maranhão, with a focus on the Gurupi Biological Reserve and surrounding areas. Samples were collected between May 2012 and Octobe...

  10. Modelling the Effects of Temperature and Cloud Cover Change on Mountain Permafrost Distribution, Northwest Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnaventure, P. P.; Lewkowicz, A. G.

    2008-12-01

    Spatial models of permafrost probability for three study areas in northwest Canada between 59°N and 61°N were perturbed to investigate climate change impacts. The models are empirical-statistical in nature, based on basal temperature of snow (BTS) measurements in winter, and summer ground-truthing of the presence or absence of frozen ground. Predictions of BTS values are made using independent variables of elevation and potential incoming solar radiation (PISR), both derived from a 30 m DEM. These are then transformed into the probability of the presence or absence of permafrost through logistic regression. Under present climate conditions, permafrost percentages in the study areas are 44% for Haines Summit, British Columbia, 38% for Wolf Creek, Yukon, and 69% for part of the Ruby Range, Yukon (Bonnaventure and Lewkowicz, 2008; Lewkowicz and Bonaventure, 2008). Scenarios of air temperature change from -2K (approximating Neoglacial conditions) to +5K (possible within the next century according to the IPCC) were examined for the three sites. Manipulations were carried out by lowering or raising the terrain within the DEM assuming a mean environmental lapse rate of 6.5K/km. Under a -2K scenario, permafrost extent increased by 22-43% in the three study areas. Under a +5K warming, permafrost essentially disappeared in Haines Summit and Wolf Creek, while in the Ruby Range less than 12% of the area remained perennially frozen. It should be emphasized that these model predictions are for equilibrium conditions which might not be attained for several decades or longer in areas of cold permafrost. Cloud cover changes of -10% to +10% were examined through adjusting the partitioning of direct beam and diffuse radiation in the PISR input field. Changes to permafrost extent were small, ranging from -2% to -4% for greater cloudiness with changes of the opposite magnitude for less cloud. The results show that air temperature change has a much greater potential to affect mountain

  11. Regional Disparities in Emissions of Rural Household Energy Consumption: A Case Study of Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenheng Wu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present the emissions status of multiple rural areas from the perspective of a field survey and make up for the defects of the traditional emission cognition of single type of area. The basic data in the lower reaches of the Weihe River of Northwest China were collected through household questionnaire surveys, and emissions from rural household energy consumption were calculated in the paper. In addition, the grey relational analysis method was used to identify influential factors of emission disparities. The results show that the total emissions of the plain, loess tableland, and Qinling piedmont areas are 1863.20, 1850.43, and 2556.68 kg, respectively. Regional disparities in emissions of rural household energy consumption vary greatly. CO2 emissions are highest in the Qinling piedmont area, followed by the loess tableland area. For other emissions, there is no fixed order of the three areas, which suggests that disparities in emissions are connected with the dominant type of energy consumption. Diversification of energy use might not necessarily produce higher emissions, but the traditional biomass energy pattern does generate more emissions. The regional supply capacity of household energy is the original influence factor of disparities in emissions, and factors that influence these disparities are directly related to differences among farmers, followed by the age structure, educational background, income level, occupation, and so on.

  12. Thermoluminescence dosimetry in Northwest Puerto Rico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, A.M.; Clements, R.G.; Rosa, L.I.; Santos, F.

    1975-01-01

    In October, 1973, the Puerto Rico Water Resources Authority sought the initiation of studies aimed at determining background radiological characteristics of the northwestern quadrant of Puerto Rico using thermoluminescent dosemeters. Some of the studies were required for supporting data for the environmental report submitted as part of the licensing procedure in the establishment of thermonuclear electric power generation facilities in Barrio Islote, Arecibo, Puerto Rico. Previous studies of radiological characteristics of the area had been made using sodium iodide sensing equipment in an airplane flying at an altitude of 500 ft. The results are expressed in counts per second, and provide useful comparative levels for radioactivity measured with the thermoluminescent detectors. (U.S.)

  13. Forest management considerations and climatic change in the Pacific Northwest: A framework for devising adaptation/mitigation strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gucinski, H.; McKelvey, R.

    1991-01-01

    The potential for global climate change, especially in its regional and local manifestations, requires decision making in the face of uncertainty. It is demonstrated that in the Pacific Northwest region, the present climate forecasts are uncertain and probabilistic, and the ecological responses are equally uncertain, but a framework for analyzing and devising response strategies for future conditions is feasible in this context. A risk-based approach derived from classical decision analysis is suggested as the most rational response currently practicable to protect the forest resources of the Pacific Northwest. Lists of possible events are needed for two areas: the anticipated outcome of climate change and the possible responses of Pacific Northwest forests to these changes. Meaningful analysis requires estimates of the outcomes and responses, even if they remain subjective for some time, or at least until better and more reliable information becomes available. Once possible responses have been identified, an analysis of the valuation of the tradeoffs for various strategies needs to be made. This approach permits updating, revision, and even negation, but also provides a process that puts focus on information needs and priorities for action. It is concluded that it is highly unlikely that mitigation may be easier to implement than adaptation. 39 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  14. Critical experiments AT Pacific Northwest Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, E.D.; Bierman, S.R.

    1984-01-01

    After a short description of the facility, a brief listing of the principal types of fuel forms and assembly geometries is provided. A number of experiments have recently been performed on plain fissionable units, or isolated assemblies of single units, that include measurements on solutions composed of Pu-U mixtures and critical experiment data on lattices of low enriched uranium in water. Experiments have been performed on planar arrays of containers with Pu solutions because of the lack of data in this field concerning the safe storage of nuclear fuel; others have been conducted on arrays of low enriched U lattice assemblies. Neutronic measurements to date have shown they can be used to provide additional benchmark data for improvement and validation of criticality codes. Studies have previously been made to ascertain the need for critical experiments in support of fuel recycle operations. The result of an effort to update the list of needed critical experiments is summarized in this section. Experiments are listed in support of uranium based fuels and fast breeder reactor fuels. An effort is made to identify those areas within the fuel cycle wherein the critical experiment data would be applied and to identify the experiments (and data) required to fulfill the needs in each of these areas. The type and form of fuel on which the data would be obtained also are identified. In presenting this information, no attempt is made to describe the experiments in detail, or to define the actual number of critical experiments that might be needed to provide the required data

  15. Collaborative environmental assessment in the Northwest Territories, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armitage, Derek R.

    2005-01-01

    Recent trends in environmental assessment theory and practice indicate a growing concern with collaboration and learning. Although there are few examples of the institutional, organizational, and socio-political forms and processes required to foster this collaboration and learning, the establishment of an environmental planning, management, and assessment regime in Canada's Northwest Territories offers useful insights. Consequently, this paper identifies and examines the institutional, organizational, and socio-political conditions that have encouraged more collaborative forms of environmental assessment practice in the Northwest Territories. Key issues highlighted include: (1) the development of decentralized regulatory organizations more responsive to changing circumstances; (2) strategies for more effective communication and participation of community interests; (3) efforts to build a collaborative vision of economic and social development through region-specific land use plans; (4) the integration of knowledge frameworks; and (5) a concern with the capacity required to encourage effective intervention in the assessment process

  16. Evaluation of electrical power alternatives for the Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-09-01

    This study evaluates the concept of implementation of large-scale energy conservation to reduce end-use demand for electrical energy as an alternative to the need for continued construction of new power plants to meet projected energy requirements for the Pacific Northwest. In particular, the numerical accuracy, economic feasibility, and institutional impact of a conservation-oriented scenario developed by the Natural Resources Defense Council, Inc., is assessed, relative to the energy forecast prepared by the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Commission. The results of this study are presented in four detailed sections following an introductory and summary section: Reconstruction and Numerical Evaluation of Alternative Scenario; Economic Analysis; Institutional Impact; and Impact of New National Energy Policy.

  17. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory institutional plan FY 1997--2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory`s core mission is to deliver environmental science and technology in the service of the nation and humanity. Through basic research fundamental knowledge is created of natural, engineered, and social systems that is the basis for both effective environmental technology and sound public policy. Legacy environmental problems are solved by delivering technologies that remedy existing environmental hazards, today`s environmental needs are addressed with technologies that prevent pollution and minimize waste, and the technical foundation is being laid for tomorrow`s inherently clean energy and industrial processes. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory also applies its capabilities to meet selected national security, energy, and human health needs; strengthen the US economy; and support the education of future scientists and engineers. Brief summaries are given of the various tasks being carried out under these broad categories.

  18. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Institutional Plan FY 2004-2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quadrel, Marilyn J.

    2004-04-15

    This Institutional Plan for FY 2004-2008 is the principal annual planning document submitted to the Department of Energy's Office of Science by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in Richland, Washington. This plan describes the Laboratory's mission, roles, and technical capabilities in support of Department of Energy priorities, missions, and plans. It also describes the Laboratory strategic plan, key planning assumptions, major research initiatives, and program strategy for fundamental science, energy resources, environmental quality, and national security.

  19. Alteration of Sedimentary Clasts in Martian Meteorite Northwest Africa 7034

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, F. M.; Tartese, R.; Santos, A. R.; Domokos, G.; Muttik, N.; Szabo, T.; Vazquez, J.; Boyce, J. W.; Keller, L. P.; Jerolmack, D. J.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The martian meteorite Northwest Africa (NWA) 7034 and pairings represent the first brecciated hand sample available for study from the martian surface [1]. Detailed investigations of NWA 7034 have revealed substantial lithologic diversity among the clasts [2-3], making NWA 7034 a polymict breccia. NWA 7034 consists of igneous clasts, impact-melt clasts, and "sedimentary" clasts represented by prior generations of brecciated material. In the present study we conduct a detailed textural and geochemical analysis of the sedimentary clasts.

  20. The realities of doing business in the Northwest Territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gullberg, E.

    2000-01-01

    The practical and legal issues regarding business operations in the Northwest Territories were discussed for the benefit of any enterprise wishing to conduct business in the territory. The non-renewable resources in the North are greatly responsible for the economic development in the Northwest Territories. Yellowknife was established in 1930's to service the gold mines and is now the service centre for Canada's only diamond mine located in the tundra one hour by air from Yellowknife. Other major oil and gas discoveries include Norman Wells along the Mackenzie River and the Beaufort Delta Region. In addition, new oil and gas has been discovered near Fort Liard. There is no legislation governing businesses operating in the oil and gas industry specifically, but several Acts exist where general applications would apply. This paper described the demographics of the territory and the types of government. Band councils play a significant role in local government. Much of the land in the Northwest Territories is the subject of land claims or has been transferred to indigenous people as part of settled land claims. A socio-economic agreement signed in 1996 ensures a certain percentage of northern suppliers, northern resident employees and aboriginal employees in both the construction and operation of the BHP mine. An even more demanding agreement was signed for the Diavik Diamond mine in 1999. The registration and licensing requirements that the government of the Northwest Territories imposes on businesses were described with emphasis on the Business Corporations Act, the Business License Act and the Worker's Compensation Act. Employee issues were also discussed as they relate to the Canada Labour Code, the Employment Standards Regulation, Fair Practices Act, and the Payroll Tax Act. Other regulatory requirements which would apply to the oil and gas industry include the Safety Act, the Motor Vehicles Act

  1. Pertussis outbreak in northwest Ireland, January - June 2010.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Barret, A S

    2010-09-02

    We report a community pertussis outbreak that occurred in a small town located in the northwest of Ireland. Epidemiological investigations suggest that waning immunity and the absence of a booster dose during the second year of life could have contributed to the outbreak. The report also highlights the need to reinforce the surveillance of pertussis in Ireland and especially to improve the clinical and laboratory diagnosis of cases.

  2. Prediction of Potential Fishing Zones for Skipjack Tuna During the Northwest Monsoon Using Remotely Sensed Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukti Zainuddin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available One of economically important fish in the Bay of Bone is Skipjack tuna which their distribution and migration are influenced by surrounding environment.  This study aims to investigate the relationship between skipjack tuna and their environments, and to predict potential fishing zones (PFZs for the fish in the Bone Bay-Flores Sea using satellite-based oceanography and catch data. Generalized additive models (GAMs were used to assess the relationship. A generalized linear model(GLM constructed from GAMs was used for prediction. Monthly mean sea surface temperature (SST and chlorophyll-a during the northwest monsoon (December-January together with catch data were used for the year 2012-2013. We used the GAMs to assess the effect of the environment variables on skipjack tuna CPUE (catch per unit effort. The best GLM was selected to predict skipjack tuna abundance.  Results indicated that the highest CPUEs (fish/trip occurred in areas where SST and chlorophyll-a ranged from 29.5°-31.5°C and 0.15 - 0.25 mg m-3, respectively. The PFZs for skipjack were closely related to the spatial distribution of the optimum oceanographic conditions and these mainly developed in three locations, northern area of Bone Bay in December, in the middle area of the bay (4°-5.5°S and 120.5°-121.5°E during January and moved to the Flores Sea in February. The movement of skipjack concentration was consistent with the fishery data.  This suggests that the dynamics of the optimum oceanographic signatures provided a good indicator for predicting feeding grounds as hotspot areas for skipjack tuna in Bone Bay-Flores Sea during northwest monsoon.   Keywords:  skipjack tuna, potential fishing zones, satellite based-oceanographic data, Northwest monsoon

  3. Chronostratigraphic recognition in Ceara northwest region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novais, F.R.G.; Kawashita, K.; Brito Neves, B.B. de

    1979-01-01

    This paper reports a geochronological reconaissance through the K-Ar and Rb-Sr methods in a area northeast of the state of Ceara, aiming to suplement and assess the geological mapping 1/250.000. Migmatitic rocks of the basement showed values within the span of the transamazonian cycle. The volcanic-sedimentary complex (Grupo Martinopole) showed pre-brazilian Rb-Sr conventional ages and isochronic ages compatible to the brazilian cycle. Likewise, regional metamorphism of brazilian age (c.a. 610 m.y.) was recorded for the clastic-carbonatic metassedimentary rocks of the Ubajara Group. Fissural intrusives cuts rocks of the Ubajara Group and yielded ages around 580 m.y. For the molasse-type sequence of the brazilian system (Massape and Pacuja formations), the age of the Cambrian regional metamorphism was adopted, 535+-27 m.y., with late events in Ordovician times (Aprazivel Formation). The post tectonic granitic stocks of Meruoca, Mocambo and Serra da Barriga show problems of geochronological grounds, not solved at this stage. The interval between 540-580 m.y. for their emplacement is adopted in the light of the obtained data [pt

  4. Environmental review of the Mary Kathleen uranium minesite, Northwest Queensland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costelloe, M.T.; Lottermoser, B.G.; Ashley, P.M.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: The Mary Kathleen uranium deposit, in northwest Queensland, was discovered in 1954 and mined in 19561963 and 1976-1982. Rehabilitation of the site was completed in 1985 and the work won an award for environmental excellence. In 1999 gamma-ray data, plus stream sediment, soil, rock chip, mineral efflorescence, vegetation and water samples were collected from selected sites to assist in the examination of the current environmental status of the rehabilitated area. This paper presents preliminary results and interpretations. In the Mark Kathleen open pit, skarn type U-Th-REE mineralisation is hosted in amphibolite grade metamorphosed calc-silicate, mafic to intermediate igneous and sedimentary rocks. Remnant ore zones are composed of medium to coarse grained garnet and clinopyroxene, with accessory allanite, plagioclase, pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite and uraninite. Later retrograde alteration to chlorite, calcite, sericite, epidote and scapolite occurs. Fine grained uraninite is enclosed in allanite, and is partly replaced by metamict products nd traces of galena. Elevated gamma-ray readings in the open pit correspond to exposed ore lenses, the former haul road and abandoned ore stockpiles (up to 16 mSv/year). Surficial oxidation of ore and adjacent sulphide-bearing calc-silicate rocks has led to contemporary precipitation of yellow, orange, green and white mineral efflorescences on the pit walls. Wallrock oxidation of reactive sulphides (mainly pyrrhotite breakdown) produces acidic solutions, however, buffering reactions of these fluids with gangue calc-silicates and carbonate phases prevent low pH conditions from developing. The open pit lake is approximately 40m deep and contains saline (0.15%) surface waters which are Ca-, SO 4 -rich with elevated Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, U and Zn at a pH of 6.11. Waste rock piles are up to 30m thick and have been covered by a thin veneer of benign waste. However, there are high radiation levels on several waste rock piles (up to 20

  5. LATE DEVONIAN-TOURNAISIAN CONODONTS FROM THE EASTERN KHYBER REGION, NORTH-WEST PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PETER D. MOLLOY

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Conodonts (62 species and subspecies from acid-leaching of 226 samples from four sections through the Ali Masjid Formation west of Misri Khel in the former South Khyber Agency, north-west Pakistan, are documented by illustrations and distributional data. These indicate that most of this unit, at least in that area, spans the interval Middle crepida Zone (low in the Famennian to at least Early crenulata Zone (mid-Tournaisian, though a fauna from low in one of the sections produced conodonts indicative of the Late falsiovalis Zone (early Frasnian. Two major hiatuses are inferred: between the Late falsiovalis and Middle crepida zones, and between the Late expansa and Early duplicata zones. Coherence of the conodont biostratigraphy accords with lithologic alignments between the sections.  

  6. Trends of rural tropospheric ozone at the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, S; Rodríguez, A; Souto, J A; Casares, J J; Bermúdez, J L; Soto, B

    2012-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone levels around urban and suburban areas at Europe and North America had increased during 80's-90's, until the application of NO(x) reduction strategies. However, as it was expected, this ozone depletion was not proportional to the emissions reduction. On the other hand, rural ozone levels show different trends, with peaks reduction and average increments; this different evolution could be explained by either emission changes or climate variability in a region. In this work, trends of tropospheric ozone episodes at rural sites in the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula were analyzed and compared to others observed in different regions of the Atlantic European coast. Special interest was focused on the air quality sites characterization, in order to guarantee their rural character in terms of air quality. Both episodic local meteorological and air quality measurements along five years were considered, in order to study possible meteorological influences in ozone levels, different to other European Atlantic regions.

  7. [Epidemiological studies on Echinococcus multilocularis in red foxes in north-west Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramisz, A; Eckert, J; Balicka-Ramisz, A; Bieńko, R; Pilarczyk, B

    1999-01-01

    The studies were carried out in 15 provinces of North-West part of Poland in the years 1994 - 1997 under a regime of strict laboratory safety regulation. The intestine of 1909 red foxes were examined for the presence of Echinococcus multilocularis according to the method of Eckert et al (1991). The intestines were divided finto four to six sections and fifteen smears were prepared from each animal under study. Foxes infected with E. multilocularis were detected in 8 provinces. The average prevalence rate in these provinces was 1.20 per cent. Of special interest fis the finding in Slupsk and Gdafisk regions, where 9.6 per cent of foxes were infected with E. multilocularis. In comparison with some other European endemic regions the prevalence rates of E. multilocularis in Poland was low, except for the Stupsk-Gdańsk area.

  8. Analysis of Precipitation and Drought Data in Hexi Corridor, Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyang Yu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Precipitation data from nine meteorological stations in arid oases of Hexi Corridor, northwest China during 1970–2012 were analyzed to detect trends in precipitation and Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI at multiple time scales using linear regression, Mann–Kendall and Spearman’s Rho tests. The results found that annual precipitation in the observed stations was rare and fell into the arid region category according to the aridity index analysis. The monthly analysis of precipitation found that three stations showed significant increasing trends in different months, while on the annual level, only Yongchang station had a significant increasing trend. The analysis of SPI-12 found three main drought intervals, i.e., 1984–1987, 1991–1992 and 2008–2011, and an extremely dry year among the stations was recorded in 1986; the southeast and middle portions of the study area are expected to have more precipitation and less dry conditions.

  9. Fluoride, boron and nitrate toxicity in ground water of northwest Rajasthan, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Veena; Kumar, Mukesh; Sharma, Mukesh; Yadav, B S

    2010-02-01

    The study was carried out to access the fluoride, boron, and nitrate concentrations in ground water samples of different villages in Indira Gandhi, Bhakra, and Gang canal catchment area of northwest Rajasthan, India. Rural population, in the study site, is using groundwater for drinking and irrigation purposes, without any quality test of water. All water samples (including canal water) were contaminated with fluoride. Fluoride, boron, and nitrate were observed in the ranges of 0.50-8.50, 0.0-7.73, and 0.0-278.68 mg/l, respectively. Most of the water samples were in the categories of fluoride 1.50 mg/l, of boron 2.0-4.0 mg/l, and of nitrate availability of these compounds in groundwater was due to natural reasons and by the use of chemical fertilizers.

  10. A 50 to 70-year-old-oil-spill : Bluefish Creek, Northwest Territories, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikstrom, C.B. [Imperial Oil Resources, Cold Lake, AB (Canada); Jensen, P.K. [Imperial Oil Resources, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1998-09-01

    In 1991, an oil spill was discovered in Bluefish Creek near Fort Norman, Northwest Territories. It was estimated that the spill was between 50 to 70 years old. The spill was discovered in an excavated area that appeared to be a drilling sump. The old spill exhibited an unusual occurrence of patterned partitioning of translucent wax-like material. Gas chromatography found the substance to be consistent with a paraffin based crude oil similar to Norman Wells crude oil. It is possible that Norman Wells crude was used for drilling purposes at the site. It is not likely that the Bluefish wells were the source of the oil because they were both dry holes and there were no records of hydrocarbons being encountered during drilling. Imperial Oil Resources (NWT) Ltd., and Fort Norman Band have made joint efforts in removing 118 barrels of oily debris and have successfully restored the site. 12 refs., 4 figs.

  11. Monitoring Annual Urban Changes in a Rapidly Growing Portion of Northwest Arkansas with a 20-Year Landsat Record

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Reynolds

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Northwest Arkansas has undergone a significant urban transformation in the past several decades and is considered to be one of the fastest growing regions in the United States. The urban area expansion and the associated demographic increases bring unprecedented pressure to the environment and natural resources. To better understand the consequences of urbanization, accurate and long-term depiction on urban dynamics is critical. Although urban mapping activities using remote sensing have been widely conducted, long-term urban growth mapping at an annual pace is rare and the low accuracy of change detection remains a challenge. In this study, a time series Landsat stack covering the period from 1995 to 2015 was employed to detect the urban dynamics in Northwest Arkansas via a two-stage classification approach. A set of spectral indices that have been proven to be useful in urban area extraction together with the original Landsat spectral bands were used in the maximum likelihood classifier and random forest classifier to distinguish urban from non-urban pixels for each year. A temporal trajectory polishing method, involving temporal filtering and heuristic reasoning, was then applied to the sequence of classified urban maps for further improvement. Based on a set of validation samples selected for five distinct years, the average overall accuracy of the final polished maps was 91%, which improved the preliminary classifications by over 10%. Moreover, results from this study also indicated that the temporal trajectory polishing method was most effective with initial low accuracy classifications. The resulting urban dynamic map is expected to provide unprecedented details about the area, spatial configuration, and growing trends of urban land-cover in Northwest Arkansas.

  12. An Isotopic view of water and nitrogen transport through the vadose zone in Oregon's southern Willamette Valley's Groundwater Management Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Question/MethodsGroundwater nitrate contamination affects thousands of households in Oregon's southern Willamette Valley and many more across the Pacific Northwest. The southern Willamette Valley Groundwater Management Area (SWV GWMA) was established in 2004 due to nit...

  13. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Pacific Northwest)--ghost and blue mud shrimp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornig, S.; Sterling, A.; Smith, Styles

    1989-01-01

    Geographic range: The ghost shrimp is found in intertidal areas along the west coast of North America from Mutiny Bay, Alaska, to the mouth of the Tijuana River, San Diego County, California; MacGinitie (1934) and Ricketts and Calvin (1968) reported finding specimens as far south as El Estuario de Punto Banda, Baja California Norte, Mexico. The blue mud shrimp is found from southeastern Alaska to San Quentin Bay (Bahia de San Quentin) in Baja California Norte. The general distribution of the two species in the Pacific Northwest is identical (Figure 3).

  14. Zircon Geochronology (U-Pb), Petrography, Geochemistry and Radioisotopes of Bornaward Metarhyolites (Central Taknar Zone-Northwest of Bardaskan)

    OpenAIRE

    Reza Monazzami Bagherzadeh; Mohammad Hassan Karimpour; G. Lang Farmer; Charles R. Stern; Jose Francisco Santos; Sara Ribeiro; Behnam Rahimi; Mohammad Reza Haidarian Shahri

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The Bornaward area is located in the Northeastern Iran (in the Khorasan Razavi province) 28 km northwest of the city of Bardaskan at 57˚ 46΄ to 57˚ 52΄ N latitude and 35˚ 21΄ to 35˚ 24΄E longitude. The Taknar structural zone, situated in the North central Iranian micro continent, is part of the Lut block (Forster, 1978). The Taknar zone is an allochthonous block bounded by the Darouneh and Taknar major faults. Much of this zone consists of metarhyolite-rhyodacite volcanic rock...

  15. Sea Ice and Hydrographic Variability in the Northwest North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenty, I. G.; Heimbach, P.; Wunsch, C. I.

    2010-12-01

    Sea ice anomalies in the Northwest North Atlantic's Labrador Sea are of climatic interest because of known and hypothesized feedbacks with hydrographic anomalies, deep convection/mode water formation, and Northern Hemisphere atmospheric patterns. As greenhouse gas concentrations increase, hydrographic anomalies formed in the Arctic Ocean associated with warming will propagate into the Labrador Sea via the Fram Strait/West Greenland Current and the Canadian Archipelago/Baffin Island Current. Therefore, understanding the dynamical response of sea ice in the basin to hydrographic anomalies is essential for the prediction and interpretation of future high-latitude climate change. Historically, efforts to quantify the link between the observed sea ice and hydrographic variability in the region has been limited due to in situ observation paucity and technical challenges associated with synthesizing ocean and sea ice observations with numerical models. To elaborate the relationship between sea ice and ocean variability, we create three one-year (1992-1993, 1996-1997, 2003-2004) three-dimensional time-varying reconstructions of the ocean and sea ice state in Labrador Sea and Baffin Bay. The reconstructions are syntheses of a regional coupled 32 km ocean-sea ice model with a suite of contemporary in situ and satellite hydrographic and ice data using the adjoint method. The model and data are made consistent, in a least-squares sense, by iteratively adjusting several model control variables (e.g., ocean initial and lateral boundary conditions and the atmospheric state) to minimize an uncertainty-weighted model-data misfit cost function. The reconstructions reveal that the ice pack attains a state of quasi-equilibrium in mid-March (the annual sea ice maximum) in which the total ice-covered area reaches a steady state -ice production and dynamical divergence along the coasts balances dynamical convergence and melt along the pack’s seaward edge. Sea ice advected to the

  16. Non-timber forest products of the North-West District of Guyana

    OpenAIRE

    Andel, T.R. van

    2000-01-01

    This thesis describes the use of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) by indigenous peoples of northwest Guyana. Part I contains a general analysis of NTFP harvesting in northwest Guyana Part II is an illustrated field guide of the useful plants encountered. Chapter 1: introduction Chapter 2: floristic composition and vegetation structure of well-drained mixed forest and 20- and 60-year old secondary forests. Previous forest inventories predicted a general low diversity for the North-West Distr...

  17. Intensity attenuation relation at Chamba–Garhwal area in north-west ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Seismic hazard assessment of any region depends on the attenuation relation ... The present study includes 10 moderate and major earthquakes (Ms ≥ 4.9) that had occurred during the ... city and attenuation of strong seismic ground motion. ... Seismologists have benefitted from the development .... In that case, we inferred.

  18. The tectonic and stratigraphic history of the Cardaño area, Cantabrian mountains, Northwest Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, van J.

    1965-01-01

    The Devonian and Carboniferous rock-sequence in the Cantabrian Mountains is developed in two different facies which are separated by an E-W tectonic line, the León Line, and called the Leonide and Palentian facies, respectively to the S and N. The Leonide facies is widely exposed throughout the

  19. Groundwater Quality in Jingyuan County, a Semi-Humid Area in Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Jianhua

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater quality assessment is an essential study which plays an important role in the rational development and utilization of groundwater in any part of the world. In the study, groundwater qualities in Jingyuan County, in Ningxia, China were assessed with entropy weighted water quality index method. In the assessment, 12 hydrochemical parameters including chloride, sulphate, sodium, iron, pH, total dissolved solid (TDS, total hardness (TH, nitrate, ammonia, nitrogen, fluoride, iodine and nitrite were selected. The assessment results show that the concentrations of iodine, TH, iron and TDS are the most influencing parameters affecting the groundwater quality. The assessment results are rational and are in consistency with the results of filed investigation of which both indicates the groundwater in Jingyuan County is fit for drinking.

  20. 78 FR 66695 - Loveland Area Projects, Colorado River Storage Project, Pacific Northwest-Pacific Southwest...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... constitutes a minor rate adjustment as defined by 10 CFR part 903. As such, Western has determined it is not..., in essence, offers the coordinated hourly, non-firm, point-to-point transmission service at a single... for this proposed minor rate adjustment as defined by 10 CFR part 903. After a review of public...

  1. Petrography and petrology of the Ayghalesi granite, east of Takab area (northwest of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Kamran

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The investigated granite intrusion is located at the north of Ayghalesi village, east of Takab The Ayghalesi granite has been intruded the Eocene sandstone and conglomerate rocks and low grade metamorphic hornfels have been metamorphosed host rocks. The main constituent minerals are K-feldspar, plagioclase, quartz and muscovite.and minor garnet. The main texture is granular but pegmatitic, myrmektitic, graphic and perthitic occur as minor textures. Chemically, the rocks are granite on the various classification diagrams. The Ayghalesi intrusion body is classified as S-type, peraluminous composition, calc-alkaline nature and is calcic-alkali to alkali-calcic on the base of modified alkali lime index (MALI. The investigated body, on the tectonic discrimination diagrams, fall on syn-collisional tectonic setting domain, suggesting that it was originated during collision of Central Iranian and Arabian plates Key words: granite,

  2. Soil gas radon–thoron monitoring in Dharamsala area of north-west ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2National Center for Research on Earthquake Engineering, NARL, Taipei 106, Taiwan. ... The study described here is based on the measurements of soil gas radon–thoron concentrations performed ..... Himachal Pradesh, India; Nat. Hazards ...

  3. A population-based study examining hepatitis B virus infection and immunization rates in Northwest China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaohua Ji

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: Current baseline data regarding the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV infections and the immune status in hyperendemic areas is necessary in evaluating the effectiveness of ongoing HBV prevention and control programs in northwest China. This study aims to determine the prevalence of chronic HBV infections, past exposure rates, and immune response profiles in Wuwei City, northwest China in 2010. METHODS: Cross-sectional household survey representative of the Wuwei City population. 28,579 participants were interviewed in the seroepidemiological survey ≥1 year of age. House to house screening was conducted using a standard questionnaire. All serum samples were screened by enzyme-linked immunoassays for the presence of hepatitis B surface antigen, antibodies against HBV surface antigen, and antibodies to the hepatitis B core antigen. RESULTS: Among individuals ≥1 year of age, 7.2% (95%CI: 6.3-8.1% had chronic HBV infections, 43.9% (CI: 40.4-47.4% had been exposed to HBV, and 23.49% (CI: 21.6-25.3% had vaccine-induced immunity. Multi-factor weighted logistic regression analysis showed that having household contact with HBV carriers (OR = 2.6, 95%CI: 2.3-3.0 and beauty treatments in public places (OR = 1.2, 95%CI: 1.1-1.3 were the risk factors of HBV infection in whole population. Having household contact with HBV carriers (OR = 3.8, 95% CI: 2.2-6.5 and lack of hepatitis vaccination (OR = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.4-3.3 were the risk factors for HBV infection in children aged 1-14 years. CONCLUSIONS: Hepatitis B infection remains a serious public health problem in northwest China. Having household contact with HBV carriers and beauty treatments in public places represented HBV infection risk factors. Hepatitis B vaccine immunization strategies need further improvement, particularly by targeting the immunization of rural migrant workers.

  4. Northwest Territories Power Corporation annual report 1999/2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-05-01

    The Northwest Territories Power Corp. is a crown corporation with the responsibility to generate, transform, transmit, distribute, deliver, sell and supply electrical and heat energy throughout the Northwest Territories on a safe, economic and reliable basis. The Corporation distributes electricity directly to the consumer in most of the 52 communities it serves. It also supplies electricity on a wholesale basis to two distributing utilities which retail electricity to customers in Yellowknife and Hay River, Northwest Territories. The Corporation consists of 48 separate power systems and serves a population of 67,000 with a total load of about 90 megawatts. This report presented highlights of the 1999 safety program which included vehicle safety, safe oil transfer and contractor safety. In addition, the report highlighted the restoring of power to Sanikiluaq after the plant was destroyed by fire. Emergency measures were put into effect and power was restored in record time. In 2000, the Corporation received approval for the renewal of three Snare hydro dam licenses. In addition, new plant construction in Clyde River and Paulatuk began in the summer of 1999. The $5 million program to replace the existing cable splices on the 140 km Snare transmission line was also completed. This report also included the company's balance sheets which presented the financial position of the Corporation and the results of its operations and the changes in cash flow for the year. The net income for 1999/2000 would have been $12.1 million, the highest net income in the Corporation's history, if not for the spending of $0.4 million on its Y2K plan, and an allowance of $1 million restructuring costs to allow the Nunavut Territory to operate and manage their own electrical utility. The net earnings therefore, after considering these one-time expenditures for 1999/2000, were $10.7 million, a decrease of $0.8 million from the 1998/1999. tabs., figs.

  5. Big interest for climate actions in Northwest Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borchsenius, Hans

    2006-01-01

    There is a large potential for projects in Northwest Russia aiming at reducing CO 2 and other greenhouse gas emissions. Many countries are currently showing interest in buying carbon credits from Russia in order to meet their Kyoto agreement commitments. Even though the body of rules is not yet in place there are a number of efforts at identifying possible projects that may give Norway and other countries much needed carbon credits, and simultaneously provide Russian industry and municipalities with investment aid that can make industry processes and district heating systems more effective. The Nordic countries have established an experimental scheme for joint implementation in the Baltic region (ml)

  6. Government of the Northwest Territories annual report, 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, R M [ed.

    1988-01-01

    The Government of the Northwest Territories issues a combined annual report for all departments and agencies. Information contained in this report covers native rights, energy policy, women's issues, education, public works, cultural affairs, government services and finance, health and social services, economic development and tourism, justice, renewable resources, housing, highways, public utilities and workers' compensation. In addition, there is a report from the courts, the Legislative Assembly and the Office of the Commissioner, and a report from each of the regional governments describing the accomplishments for the year 1987. 55 Figs., 2 tabs.

  7. H-Isotopic Composition of Apatite in Northwest Africa 7034

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, F. M.; Barnes, J. J.; Santos, A. R.; Boyce, J. W.; Anand, M.; Franchi, I. A.; Agee, C. B.

    2016-01-01

    Northwest Africa (NWA) 7034 and its pairings comprise a regolith breccia with a basaltic bulk composition [1] that yields a better match than any other martian meteorite to estimates of Mars' bulk crust composition [1]. Given the similarities between NWA 7034 and the martian crust, NWA 7034 may represent an important sample for constraining the crustal composition of components that cannot be measured directly by remote sensing. In the present study, we seek to constrain the H isotopic composition of the martian crust using Cl-rich apatite in NWA 7034.

  8. Comparative analysis of hospital energy use: pacific northwest and scandinavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burpee, Heather; McDade, Erin

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to establish the potential for significant energy reduction in hospitals in the United States by providing evidence of Scandinavian operational precedents with high Interior Environmental Quality (IEQ) and substantially lower energy profiles than comparable U.S. facilities. These facilities set important precedents for design teams seeking operational examples for achieving aggressive energy and interior environmental quality goals. This examination of operational hospitals is intended to offer hospital owners, designers, and building managers a strong case and concrete framework for strategies to achieve exceptionally high performing buildings. Energy efficient hospitals have the potential to significantly impact the U.S.'s overall energy profile, and key stakeholders in the hospital industry need specific, operationally grounded precedents in order to successfully implement informed energy reduction strategies. This study is an outgrowth of previous research evaluating high quality, low energy hospitals that serve as examples for new high performance hospital design, construction, and operation. Through extensive interviews, numerous site visits, the development of case studies, and data collection, this team has established thorough qualitative and quantitative analyses of several contemporary hospitals in Scandinavia and the Pacific Northwest. Many Scandinavian hospitals demonstrate a low energy profile, and when analyzed in comparison with U.S. hospitals, such Scandinavian precedents help define the framework required to make significant changes in the U.S. hospital building industry. Eight hospitals, four Scandinavian and four Pacific Northwest, were quantitatively compared using the Environmental Protection Agency's Portfolio Manager, allowing researchers to answer specific questions about the impact of energy source and architectural and mechanical strategies on energy efficiency in operational hospitals. Specific architectural, mechanical

  9. Hydro models and salmon recovery in the northwest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragoon, K.

    1993-01-01

    Hydro regulation models provide extensive support for analyzing the efficacy of salmon recovery plans in the Northwest. Power planners developed these computer programs to help plan and efficiently operate a large multiple use river system. The models represent physical relationships and operational requirements on the system. They also simulate coordinated system operations for efficient power generation. These models are being pressed into service to provide data for fish recovery plans. They provide important information about hydro system capabilities and responses to recovery programs. However, the models cannot meet all of the analytical needs of fish biologists working toward salmon recovery

  10. Learning from urban growth management in the Pacific Northwest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Christian

    2010-01-01

    The development of contemporary urban growth management in the Northwest United States began in the 1970s. The major tool is the implementation of urban containment boundaries, fostering growth within and limiting it outside the boundary. Additionally a set of policies reaching from densification...... Washington and Oregon as e.g. the municipalities in Denmark have strong control options in planning. However, especially the metropolitan co-operation and co-ordination instruments can certainly contribute to the discussion on urban growth management in Denmark and elsewhere....

  11. Logging and Agricultural Residue Supply Curves for the Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerstetter, James D.; Lyons, John Kim

    2001-01-01

    This report quantified the volume of logging residues at the county level for current timber harvests. The cost of recovering logging residues was determined for skidding, yearding, loading, chipping and transporting the residues. Supply curves were developed for ten candidate conversion sites in the Pacific Northwest Region. Agricultural field residues were also quantified at the county level using five-year average crop yields. Agronomic constraints were applied to arrive at the volumes available for energy use. Collection costs and transportation costs were determined and supply curves generated for thirteen candidate conversion sites.

  12. Mixed waste management in Washington and the Northwest Compact Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlin, E.M.

    1988-01-01

    The state of Washington's concerns about the management of mixed waste have evolved over the past year. One concern that receives increasing attention is the Northwest Compact Region's need to plan for disposal of its own mixed waste. An informal survey of the region's potential mixed waste generators has indicated that mixed waste volumes are low. However, the opening of a disposal facility may result in increased waste volumes. A preliminary proposal for such a facility has been reviewed by the federal and state agencies that dually regulate mixed waste. Initial conclusions reached by the regulators are presented

  13. Package testing capabilities at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the package testing capabilities at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). In the past all of the package testing that was performed at PNL was done on prototype or mocked up radioactive material packaging. Presently, we are developing the capability to perform testing on non-radioactive material packaging. The testing on the non-radioactive material packaging will be done to satisfy the new performance oriented packaging requirements (DOT Docket HM-181, 1991). This paper describes the equipment used to perform the performance oriented packaging tests and also describes some testing capability for testing radioactive material packaging

  14. Control Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This feature class represents electric power Control Areas. Control Areas, also known as Balancing Authority Areas, are controlled by Balancing Authorities, who are...

  15. Emergy evaluation of agricultural sustainability of Northwest China before and after the grain-for-green policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiuhong; Shen, Jianxiu; Zhang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    China’s grain-for-green policy (GFGP) was implemented with the goal of improving ecological security. Consequently, agricultural energy and agrochemical inputs have been significantly increased to improve food security and to increase the income of farmers in the regions where the GFGP was implemented. In analysis of the sustainability of the agricultural system affected by the GFGP, it is essential to consider both economic profitability and environmental sustainability. Using Yanchi County as a case study area, this study used an emergy synthesis to examine the sustainability of the agricultural system before and after the GFGP in Northwest China. We found that the total emergy input and energy output of the agricultural system in the study area increased from 1991 to 2008; however, the sustainability of the system declined, and this decline was especially evident after the GFGP was launched in 2001. Increasing inputs of non-renewable purchased resources will not only reduce the effectiveness of the GFGP in Northwest China, but also hinder the implementation of the energy-saving and emission-reduction policy that China launched in 2005. We suggest that sustainable agricultural development in Northwest China should be based on effective use of renewable resources and development of a low-carbon agricultural economy. - Highlights: • The total emergy input and energy output of the study system increased from 1991 to 2008. • The change of each emergy index was more evident after the GFGP launched in 2001. • The increase in input of non-renewable purchased resources will gradually reduce the function of the GFGP in West China. • Agricultural development in West China should be based on organic agriculture

  16. New geologic evidence for additional 16.5-15.5 Ma silicic calderas in northwest Nevada related to initial impingement of the Yellowstone hot spot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coble, Matthew A; Mahood, Gail A

    2008-01-01

    Three silicic calderas have been newly identified in northwest Nevada west of McDermitt caldera. This volcanism is interpreted to have formed during a short interval at 16.5-15.5 Ma, during the waning stage of Steens flood basalt volcanism after the initial impingement of the Yellowstone hot spot. New mapping demonstrates that the area affected by this mid-Miocene silicic volcanism is significantly larger than previously appreciated in the western U.S.

  17. New geologic evidence for additional 16.5-15.5 Ma silicic calderas in northwest Nevada related to initial impingement of the Yellowstone hot spot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coble, Matthew A; Mahood, Gail A [Department Geological and Environmental Sciences, 450 Serra Mall, Bldg 320, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-3115 (United States)

    2008-10-01

    Three silicic calderas have been newly identified in northwest Nevada west of McDermitt caldera. This volcanism is interpreted to have formed during a short interval at 16.5-15.5 Ma, during the waning stage of Steens flood basalt volcanism after the initial impingement of the Yellowstone hot spot. New mapping demonstrates that the area affected by this mid-Miocene silicic volcanism is significantly larger than previously appreciated in the western U.S.

  18. Short-term changes in the northwest African Upwelling System induced by Saharan dust deposition events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, A G; Coca, J; Redondo, A [SeaSnet Canarias. Dpto. de Biologia (University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria), Canary Islands (Spain); Cuevas, E; Alonso-Perez, S; Bustos, J J [Izana Atmospheric Research Center, Agencia Estatal de Meteorologia, Tenerife (Spain); Perez, C; Baldasano, J M [Earth Sciences Department. Barcelona Supercomputing Center, Barcelona (Spain); Nickovic, S [Atmospheric Research and Environment Branch, World Meteorological Organization, Geneva (Switzerland)], E-mail: aramos@pesca.gi.ulpgc.es

    2009-03-01

    During the last 7-year period (2000-2006) atmosphere circulation changes show strong influences on the dust storm deposition dynamics and, as a result, on the primary production dynamics of the northwest African Upwelling System. From 2000 to 2006, the annual mean sea level pressure became higher ranging from 1014 to 1015 mb. Mean annual zonal wind intensity became higher (from 1.1 to 1.8 m s{sup -1}), while the mean annual meridional was reduced from 6.2 to 5.3 m s{sup -1} at the north of the Canary Islands. Mean annual satellite-derived AVHRR/NOAA SST recorded in the northwest African Upwelling became warmer in both locations, from 18.3 deg. C to 18.8 deg. C in Cape Ghir and from 19.5 deg. C to 20.3 deg. C north Canary Islands waters. CHL records from the SeaWiFS/OV-2 showed a different pattern trend. Mean annual CHL levels increased at Cape Ghir from 0.65 mg m-3 to 0.9 mg m-3 and significantly reduced from 0.59 mg m{sup -3} to 0.31 mg m{sup -3} at the north of the Canary Islands. Changes observed in the role of CHL during the last 7-years period could be associated to intensive dust deposition and exceptional weather warming observed in this area since 2000. However, this study focused on a 7-year period and conclusions on possible links between dust deposition and marine biochemistry activity cannot be generalized.

  19. Leatherback turtle movements, dive behavior, and habitat characteristics in ecoregions of the Northwest Atlantic Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara L Dodge

    Full Text Available Leatherback sea turtles, Dermochelys coriacea, are highly migratory predators that feed exclusively on gelatinous zooplankton, thus playing a unique role in coastal and pelagic food webs. From 2007 to 2010, we used satellite telemetry to monitor the movements and dive behavior of nine adult and eleven subadult leatherbacks captured on the Northeast USA shelf and tracked throughout the Northwest Atlantic. Leatherback movements and environmental associations varied by oceanographic region, with slow, sinuous, area-restricted search behavior and shorter, shallower dives occurring in cool (median sea surface temperature: 18.4°C, productive (median chlorophyll a: 0.80 mg m(-3, shallow (median bathymetry: 57 m shelf habitat with strong sea surface temperature gradients (median SST gradient: 0.23°C km(-1 at temperate latitudes. Leatherbacks were highly aggregated in temperate shelf and slope waters during summer, early fall, and late spring and more widely dispersed in subtropical and tropical oceanic and neritic habitat during late fall, winter and early spring. We investigated the relationship of ecoregion, satellite-derived surface chlorophyll, satellite-derived sea surface temperature, SST gradient, chlorophyll gradient and bathymetry with leatherback search behavior using generalized linear mixed-effects models. The most well supported model showed that differences in leatherback search behavior were best explained by ecoregion and regional differences in bathymetry and SST. Within the Northwest Atlantic Shelves region, leatherbacks increased path sinuosity (i.e., looping movements with increasing SST, but this relationship reversed within the Gulf Stream region. Leatherbacks increased path sinuosity with decreasing water depth in temperate and tropical shelf habitats. This relationship is consistent with increasing epipelagic gelatinous zooplankton biomass with decreasing water depth, and bathymetry may be a key feature in identifying

  20. Estimation of net primary productivity using a process-based model in Gansu Province, Northwest China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Peijuan; Xie, Donghui; Zhou, Yuyu; E, Youhao; Zhu, Qijiang

    2014-01-16

    The ecological structure in the arid and semi-arid region of Northwest China with forest, grassland, agriculture, Gobi, and desert, is complex, vulnerable, and unstable. It is a challenging and sustaining job to keep the ecological structure and improve its ecological function. Net primary productivity (NPP) modeling can help to improve the understanding of the ecosystem, and therefore, improve ecological efficiency. The boreal ecosystem productivity simulator (BEPS) model provides the possibility of NPP modeling in terrestrial ecosystem, but it has some limitations for application in arid and semi-arid regions. In this paper we improve the BEPS model, in terms of its water cycle by adding the processes of infiltration and surface runoff, to be applicable in arid and semi-arid regions. We model the NPP of forest, grass, and crop in Gansu Province as an experimental area in Northwest China in 2003 using the improved BEPS model, parameterized with moderate resolution remote sensing imageries and meteorological data. The modeled NPP using improved BEPS agrees better with the ground measurements in Qilian Mountain than that with original BEPS, with a higher R2 of 0.746 and lower root mean square error (RMSE) of 46.53 gC/m2 compared to R2 of 0.662 and RMSE of 60.19 gC/m2 from original BEPS. The modeled NPP of three vegetation types using improved BEPS show evident differences compared to that using original BEPS, with the highest difference ratio of 9.21% in forest and the lowest value of 4.29% in crop. The difference ratios between different vegetation types lie on the dependence on natural water sources. The modeled NPP in five geographic zones using improved BEPS are higher than those with original BEPS, with higher difference ratio in dry zones and lower value in wet zones.

  1. Reconstructing Colonization Dynamics of the Human Parasite Schistosoma mansoni following Anthropogenic Environmental Changes in Northwest Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Broeck, Frederik; Maes, Gregory E.; Larmuseau, Maarten H. D.; Rollinson, David; Sy, Ibrahima; Faye, Djibril; Volckaert, Filip A. M.; Polman, Katja; Huyse, Tine

    2015-01-01

    Background Anthropogenic environmental changes may lead to ecosystem destabilization and the unintentional colonization of new habitats by parasite populations. A remarkable example is the outbreak of intestinal schistosomiasis in Northwest Senegal following the construction of two dams in the ‘80s. While many studies have investigated the epidemiological, immunological and geographical patterns of Schistosoma mansoni infections in this region, little is known about its colonization history. Methodology/Principal Findings Parasites were collected at several time points after the disease outbreak and genotyped using a 420 bp fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1) and nine nuclear DNA microsatellite markers. Phylogeographic and population genetic analyses revealed the presence of (i) many genetically different haplotypes at the non-recombining mitochondrial marker and (ii) one homogenous S. mansoni genetic group at the recombining microsatellite markers. These results suggest that the S. mansoni population in Northwest Senegal was triggered by intraspecific hybridization (i.e. admixture) between parasites that were introduced from different regions. This would comply with the extensive immigration of infected seasonal agricultural workers from neighboring regions in Senegal, Mauritania and Mali. The spatial and temporal stability of the established S. mansoni population suggests a swift local adaptation of the parasite to the local intermediate snail host Biomphalaria pfeifferi at the onset of the epidemic. Conclusions/Significance Our results show that S. mansoni parasites are very successful in colonizing new areas without significant loss of genetic diversity. Maintaining high levels of diversity guarantees the adaptive potential of these parasites to cope with selective pressures such as drug treatment, which might complicate efforts to control the disease. PMID:26275049

  2. Building on Two Decades of Ecosystem Management and Biodiversity Conservation under the Northwest Forest Plan, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominick A. DellaSala

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The 1994 Northwest Forest Plan (NWFP shifted federal lands management from a focus on timber production to ecosystem management and biodiversity conservation. The plan established a network of conservation reserves and an ecosystem management strategy on ~10 million hectares from northern California to Washington State, USA, within the range of the federally threatened northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina. Several subsequent assessments—and 20 years of data from monitoring programs established under the plan—have demonstrated the effectiveness of this reserve network and ecosystem management approach in making progress toward attaining many of the plan’s conservation and ecosystem management goals. This paper (1 showcases the fundamental conservation biology and ecosystem management principles underpinning the NWFP as a case study for managers interested in large-landscape conservation; and (2 recommends improvements to the plan’s strategy in response to unprecedented climate change and land-use threats. Twenty years into plan implementation, however, the U.S. Forest Service and Bureau of Land Management, under pressure for increased timber harvest, are retreating from conservation measures. We believe that federal agencies should instead build on the NWFP to ensure continuing success in the Pacific Northwest. We urge federal land managers to (1 protect all remaining late-successional/old-growth forests; (2 identify climate refugia for at-risk species; (3 maintain or increase stream buffers and landscape connectivity; (4 decommission and repair failing roads to improve water quality; (5 reduce fire risk in fire-prone tree plantations; and (6 prevent logging after fires in areas of high conservation value. In many respects, the NWFP is instructive for managers considering similar large-scale conservation efforts.

  3. Short-term changes in the northwest African Upwelling System induced by Saharan dust deposition events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, A G; Coca, J; Redondo, A; Cuevas, E; Alonso-Perez, S; Bustos, J J; Perez, C; Baldasano, J M; Nickovic, S

    2009-01-01

    During the last 7-year period (2000-2006) atmosphere circulation changes show strong influences on the dust storm deposition dynamics and, as a result, on the primary production dynamics of the northwest African Upwelling System. From 2000 to 2006, the annual mean sea level pressure became higher ranging from 1014 to 1015 mb. Mean annual zonal wind intensity became higher (from 1.1 to 1.8 m s -1 ), while the mean annual meridional was reduced from 6.2 to 5.3 m s -1 at the north of the Canary Islands. Mean annual satellite-derived AVHRR/NOAA SST recorded in the northwest African Upwelling became warmer in both locations, from 18.3 deg. C to 18.8 deg. C in Cape Ghir and from 19.5 deg. C to 20.3 deg. C north Canary Islands waters. CHL records from the SeaWiFS/OV-2 showed a different pattern trend. Mean annual CHL levels increased at Cape Ghir from 0.65 mg m-3 to 0.9 mg m-3 and significantly reduced from 0.59 mg m -3 to 0.31 mg m -3 at the north of the Canary Islands. Changes observed in the role of CHL during the last 7-years period could be associated to intensive dust deposition and exceptional weather warming observed in this area since 2000. However, this study focused on a 7-year period and conclusions on possible links between dust deposition and marine biochemistry activity cannot be generalized.

  4. Corrective action investigation plan for CAU Number 453: Area 9 Landfill, Tonopah Test Range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains the environmental sample collection objectives and criteria for conducting site investigation activities at the Area 9 Landfill, Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 453/Corrective Action (CAS) 09-55-001-0952, which is located at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). The TTR, included in the Nellis Air Force Range, is approximately 255 kilometers (140 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The Area 9 Landfill is located northwest of Area 9 on the TTR. The landfill cells associated with CAU 453 were excavated to receive waste generated from the daily operations conducted at Area 9 and from range cleanup which occurred after test activities

  5. Experience with basal area estimation by prisms in lodgepole pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Trappe

    1957-01-01

    Estimation of basal area by prisms offers intriguing possibilities for reducing time and effort in making stand inventories. Increased inventory efficiency is a particular need in stands that are relatively low in value due to small stems, predominance of low value species or heavy defect. In the Pacific Northwest, lodgepole pine characteristically forms dense low-...

  6. Air Pollution Over the Ganges Basin and Northwest Bay of Bengal in the Early Postmonsoon Season Based on NASA MERRAero Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishcha, Pavel; Da Silva, Arlindo M.; Starobinets, Boris; Alpert, Pinhas

    2014-01-01

    The MERRA Aerosol Reanalysis (MERRAero) has been recently developed at NASA's Global Modeling Assimilation Office. This reanalysis is based on a version of the Goddard Earth Observing System-5 (GEOS-5) model radiatively coupled with Goddard Chemistry, Aerosol, Radiation, and Transport aerosols, and it includes assimilation of bias-corrected aerosol optical thickness (AOT) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor on both Terra and Aqua satellites. In October over the period 2002-2009, MERRAero showed that AOT was lower over the east of the Ganges basin than over the northwest of the Ganges basin: this was despite the fact that the east of the Ganges basin should have produced higher anthropogenic aerosol emissions because of higher population density, increased industrial output, and transportation. This is evidence that higher aerosol emissions do not always correspond to higher AOT over the areas where the effects of meteorological factors on AOT dominate those of aerosol emissions. MODIS AOT assimilation was essential for correcting modeled AOT mainly over the northwest of the Ganges basin, where AOT increments were maximal. Over the east of the Ganges basin and northwest Bay of Bengal (BoB), AOT increments were low and MODIS AOT assimilation did not contribute significantly to modeled AOT. Our analysis showed that increasing AOT trends over northwest BoB (exceeding those over the east of the Ganges basin) were reproduced by GEOS-5, not because of MODIS AOT assimilation butmainly because of the model capability of reproducing meteorological factors contributing to AOT trends. Moreover, vertically integrated aerosol mass flux was sensitive to wind convergence causing aerosol accumulation over northwest BoB.

  7. Pacific Northwest Aquatic Monitoring Partnership 2017 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puls, Amy L.; Scully, Rebecca A.; Dethloff, Megan M.; Bayer, Jennifer M.; Olson, Sheryn J.; Cimino, Samuel A.

    2018-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest Aquatic Monitoring Partnership (PNAMP) continued to promote the integration of monitoring resources and development of tools to support monitoring in 2017. Improved coordination and integration of goals, objectives, and activities among Pacific Northwest monitoring programs is essential to improving the quality and consistency of monitoring in the region.PNAMP operates through inter-organizational teams to make progress on a variety of projects identified to support partner needs and PNAMP goals. These teams are largely ad hoc and formed for the specific purpose of achieving the objectives of the identified projects. For each project, the PNAMP Coordination Team identified interested Steering Committee (SC) members and subject matter experts to form the working teams that provide guidance and leadership. In addition, the teams acted as an intermediate between the larger group of interested participants and the SC, thus maintaining the concept of better SC/participant exchange. The PNAMP Coordination Team continued to facilitate dialog among experts to move forward with ongoing and new projects. In addition, the Coordination Team continued their efforts to track in-kind contributions of time from participants at meetings, workshops, and other PNAMP hosted events; in 2017 this estimate amounted to 2,039 hours by 67 organizations.

  8. Pyrethroid insecticides in urban salmon streams of the Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weston, D.P., E-mail: dweston@berkeley.edu [Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, 3060 Valley Life Sciences Bldg., Berkeley, CA 94720-3140 (United States); Asbell, A.M., E-mail: aasbell@berkeley.edu [Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, 3060 Valley Life Sciences Bldg., Berkeley, CA 94720-3140 (United States); Hecht, S.A., E-mail: scott.hecht@noaa.gov [NOAA Fisheries, Office of Protected Resources, 510 Desmond Drive S.E., Lacey, WA 98503 (United States); Scholz, N.L., E-mail: nathaniel.scholz@noaa.gov [NOAA Fisheries, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, 2725 Montlake Blvd. E., Seattle, WA 98112 (United States); Lydy, M.J., E-mail: mlydy@siu.edu [Fisheries and Illinois Aquaculture Center and Department of Zoology, Southern Illinois University, 171 Life Sciences II, Carbondale, IL 62901 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Urban streams of the Pacific Northwest provide spawning and rearing habitat for a variety of salmon species, and food availability for developing salmon could be adversely affected by pesticide residues in these waterbodies. Sediments from Oregon and Washington streams were sampled to determine if current-use pyrethroid insecticides from residential neighborhoods were reaching aquatic habitats, and if they were at concentrations acutely toxic to sensitive invertebrates. Approximately one-third of the 35 sediment samples contained measurable pyrethroids. Bifenthrin was the pyrethroid of greatest concern with regards to aquatic life toxicity, consistent with prior studies elsewhere. Toxicity to Hyalella azteca and/or Chironomus dilutus was found in two sediment samples at standard testing temperature (23 deg. C), and in one additional sample at a more environmentally realistic temperature (13 deg. C). Given the temperature dependency of pyrethroid toxicity, low temperatures typical of northwest streams can increase the potential for toxicity above that indicated by standard testing protocols. - Highlights: > Salmon-bearing creeks can be adversely impacted by insecticides from urban runoff. > Pyrethroid insecticides were found in one-third of the creeks in Washington and Oregon. > Two creeks contained concentrations acutely lethal to sensitive invertebrates. > Bifenthrin was of greatest concern, though less than in prior studies. > Standard toxicity testing underestimates the ecological risk of pyrethroids. - Pyrethroid insecticides are present in sediments of urban creeks of Oregon and Washington, though less commonly than in studies elsewhere in the U.S.

  9. Pyrethroid insecticides in urban salmon streams of the Pacific Northwest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weston, D.P.; Asbell, A.M.; Hecht, S.A.; Scholz, N.L.; Lydy, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Urban streams of the Pacific Northwest provide spawning and rearing habitat for a variety of salmon species, and food availability for developing salmon could be adversely affected by pesticide residues in these waterbodies. Sediments from Oregon and Washington streams were sampled to determine if current-use pyrethroid insecticides from residential neighborhoods were reaching aquatic habitats, and if they were at concentrations acutely toxic to sensitive invertebrates. Approximately one-third of the 35 sediment samples contained measurable pyrethroids. Bifenthrin was the pyrethroid of greatest concern with regards to aquatic life toxicity, consistent with prior studies elsewhere. Toxicity to Hyalella azteca and/or Chironomus dilutus was found in two sediment samples at standard testing temperature (23 deg. C), and in one additional sample at a more environmentally realistic temperature (13 deg. C). Given the temperature dependency of pyrethroid toxicity, low temperatures typical of northwest streams can increase the potential for toxicity above that indicated by standard testing protocols. - Highlights: → Salmon-bearing creeks can be adversely impacted by insecticides from urban runoff. → Pyrethroid insecticides were found in one-third of the creeks in Washington and Oregon. → Two creeks contained concentrations acutely lethal to sensitive invertebrates. → Bifenthrin was of greatest concern, though less than in prior studies. → Standard toxicity testing underestimates the ecological risk of pyrethroids. - Pyrethroid insecticides are present in sediments of urban creeks of Oregon and Washington, though less commonly than in studies elsewhere in the U.S.

  10. Northwest Hazardous Waste Research, Development, and Demonstration Center: Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-02-01

    The Northwest Hazardous Waste Research, Development, and Demonstration Center was created as part of an ongoing federal effort to provide technologies and methods that protect human health and welfare and environment from hazardous wastes. The Center was established by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) to develop and adapt innovative technologies and methods for assessing the impacts of and remediating inactive hazardous and radioactive mixed-waste sites. The Superfund legislation authorized $10 million for Pacific Northwest Laboratory to establish and operate the Center over a 5-year period. Under this legislation, Congress authorized $10 million each to support research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) on hazardous and radioactive mixed-waste problems in Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington, including the Hanford Site. In 1987, the Center initiated its RD and D activities and prepared this Program Plan that presents the framework within which the Center will carry out its mission. Section 1.0 describes the Center, its mission, objectives, organization, and relationship to other programs. Section 2.0 describes the Center's RD and D strategy and contains the RD and D objectives, priorities, and process to be used to select specific projects. Section 3.0 contains the Center's FY 1988 operating plan and describes the specific RD and D projects to be carried out and their budgets and schedules. 9 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs

  11. Predicting Waves in the Pacific Northwest of the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan-Haller, H. T.; Oskamp, J. A.; Garcia, G.; Kassem, S.; McNutt, J.

    2010-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest region of the US is characterized by an energetic deep water wave climate with large swell and sea waves that can approach from multiple directions. As these waves propagate from the open ocean over the continental shelf towards shore, they are affected by the underwater topography (or bathymetry) of the shelf. The US West Coast shelf is characterized by complicated bathymetry with numerous canyons and large banks. Such features can at places focus wave energy and at others divert waves away. As a result the wave field near the coast (in 10-50m water depth) varies significantly along the coast. Although a comprehensive prediction and validation effort for waves exists for the California shoreline, it is currently lacking for the Pacific Northwest shorelines. Herein, we present comprehensive long-term wave model simulations for several regions within the Oregon coastline, show validation of the results with existing nearshore observations, and discuss the dominant dynamics responsible for the observed wave transformation.

  12. Effects of ozone on crops in north-west Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Muhammad Nauman; Büker, Patrick; Khalid, Sofia; Van Den Berg, Leon; Shah, Hamid Ullah; Wahid, Abdul; Emberson, Lisa; Power, Sally A.; Ashmore, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Although ozone is well-documented to reduce crop yields in the densely populated Indo-Gangetic Plain, there is little knowledge of its effects in other parts of south Asia. We surveyed crops close to the city of Peshawar, in north-west Pakistan, for visible injury, linking this to passive measurements of ozone concentrations. Foliar injury was found on potato, onion and cotton when mean monthly ozone concentrations exceeded 45 ppb. The symptoms on onion were reproduced in ozone fumigation experiments, which also showed that daytime ozone concentrations of 60 ppb significantly reduce the growth of a major Pakistani onion variety. Aphid infestation on spinach was also reduced at these elevated ozone concentrations. The ozone concentrations measured in April–May in Peshawar, and used in the fumigation experiment, are comparable to those that have been modelled to occur over many parts of south Asia, where ozone may be a significant threat to sensitive crops. -- Highlights: ► Visible ozone injury to onion, cotton and potato was identified in north-west Pakistan. ► The symptoms on onion were reproduced by exposure to elevated ozone. ► Elevated ozone levels also significantly reduced onion growth. ► Levels of aphid infestation on spinach were lower under elevated ozone. ► These effects were observed at ozone levels that have been modelled to occur widely across south Asia. -- Ozone concentrations in NW Pakistan have adverse effects on sensitive crop species

  13. Late Holocene Radiocarbon Variability in Northwest Atlantic Slope Waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherwood, O; Edinger, E; Guilderson, T P; Ghaleb, B; Risk, M J; Scott, D B

    2008-08-15

    Deep-sea gorgonian corals secrete a 2-part skeleton of calcite, derived from dissolved inorganic carbon at depth, and gorgonin, derived from recently fixed and exported particulate organic matter. Radiocarbon contents of the calcite and gorgonin provide direct measures of seawater radiocarbon at depth and in the overlying surface waters, respectively. Using specimens collected from Northwest Atlantic slope waters, we generated radiocarbon records for surface and upper intermediate water layers spanning the pre- and post bomb-{sup 14}C eras. In Labrador Slope Water (LSW), convective mixing homogenizes the pre-bomb {Delta}{sup 14}C signature (-67 {+-} 4{per_thousand}) to at least 1000 m depth. Surface water bomb-{sup 14}C signals were lagged and damped (peaking at {approx} +45{per_thousand} in the early 1980s) relative to other regions of the northwest Atlantic, and intermediate water signals were damped further. Off southwest Nova Scotia, the vertical gradient in {Delta}{sup 14}C is much stronger. In surface water, pre-bomb {Delta}{sup 14}C averaged -75 {+-} 5{per_thousand}. At 250-475 m depth, prebomb {Delta}{sup 14}C oscillated quasi-decadally between -80 and -100{per_thousand}, likely reflecting interannual variability in the presence of Labrador Slope Water vs. Warm Slope Water (WSW). Finally, subfossil corals reveal no systematic changes in vertical {Delta}{sup 14}C gradients over the last 1200 years.

  14. Analysis of metallogenic conditions of sandstone type uranium deposits in interlayer oxidation zone in the northwest of Junggar basin, Xinjiang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Shuangxing

    1997-01-01

    From various aspects such as the basin structures, structure features of the sedimentary cover, lithofacies features of basin sediments, geochemical characteristics of sedimentary rocks, regional hydrogeologic conditions and epigenetic reworking of the sedimentary cover and so on, the author analyzes the metallogenic conditions of sandstone type uranium deposits in interlayer oxidation zone in the northwest of Junggar basin. The author proposes that the area has abundant uranium sources, and possesses favourable stratigraphic combinations for the development of interlayer oxidation zone. Secondarily oxidized sandstone bodies present universally at places from the source area to stream channel facies. Reducing beds and secondarily reducing barrier are developed at the front of the secondarily oxidized sandstone body. The tectonic features of the sedimentary cover indicate that the area belongs to a relatively-stable suborogenic region and possesses secondary mobilization and reworking conditions during the uplifting and contraction stage of the basin. Epigenetic metallization is evident in the sedimentary cover of the basin

  15. RESIDENTIAL LOAD ON THE STEPPE LANDSCAPE OF THE NORTHWEST AND WEST NORTHWEST CISCAUCASIA AND ITS TURIST-RECREATIONAL USE WITHIN THE KRASNODAR REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Alexandrovich Mishchenko

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the cumulative interaction of political, ethnic, demographic, economic, social, biological and other ties, processes and relationships the structure of modern landscapes was formed. Aggregate settlement the Krasnodar region, especially large and medium, together with the lines of communication between them forms a supporting framework of the settlement. Determination of anthropogenic loads on individual components of nature and also on the natural complexes in general, is a central part in assessing the contemporary geo-ecological situation of the area. Within the boundaries of the Northwest Ciscaucasia rural residential landscape occupies 99% of the residential landscape. Agricultural zoning based on landscape approaches is one of the main directions of the transition to sustainable agriculture, which focuses on the combination of high productivity and environmental sustainability of the agrogeosistems. The optimal existence of the landscapes requires that their functions are consistent with their natural properties, resource potential. Complex process of impacts on the landscape extends as chain reactions on the vertical and horizontal landscape relations. On this territory, there is a significant recreational potential. Territory can be used for weekend tours for urban residents, who are located quite close to these recreational richest places. Development of the agro-tourism is the most effective if the industry is evolving as a support towards the main tourist or agricultural specialization.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2014-4-6

  16. Miscellaneous investigations series: Bedrock geologic map of the Lone Mountain pluton area, Esmeralda County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maldonado, F.

    1984-01-01

    The joint attitudes were measured in the field and plotted on aerial photos at a scale of 1:24,000. The pluton is intensely jointed, primarily as a result of cooling and movement of the magma within a northwest-trending stress field. Foliation, in general, is poorly developed, and quality varies from area to area, but it is best developed close to the contacts with the metasedimentary rocks. A prominent northwest foliation direction was observed that parallels the northwest elongation of the exposed pluton. Faults in the pluton are difficult to identify because of the homogeneity of the rock. Several faults were mapped in the northern part of the area where they have a northeast trend and intersect the northwest-trending lamprophyre dikes with little apparent displacement. A major fault that bounds the northern part of the pluton is downthrown to the north and strikes northeast. This fault offsets the alluvium, the metasedimentary rocks, and the pluton and forms fault scraps as high as 10 m. Aeromagnetic data (US Geological Survey, 1979) suggest the following: (1) the local magnetic highs in the central part of the Lone Mountain pluton are probably related to topographic highs (peaks) where the flight lines are closer to the pluton; (2) a magnetic low in the northeastern part of Lone Mountain coincides with the pluton-country rock contact, which may be very steep; (3) the contours for the southwestern part of the mapped area indicate that the pluton-country rock contact is not as steep as that in the northeastern part and that the pluton probably coalesces at depth with the Weepah pluton, a pluton exposed south of the mapped area; and (4) the contours for the area of the Lone Mountain pluton express a northwest-trending gradient that parallels the northwest elongation of the Lone Mountain pluton and the northwest-trending stress field. 10 refs

  17. Cognitive styles of Forest Service scientists and managers in the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew B. Carey

    1997-01-01

    Preferences of executives, foresters, and biologists of the Pacific Northwest Research Station and executives, District Rangers, foresters, engineers, and biologists of the Pacific Northwest Region, National Forest System (USDA Forest Service), were compared for various thinking styles. Herrmann brain dominance profiles from 230 scientists and managers were drawn from...

  18. Evaluation of possible means to stop production of nuclear power in northwest Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skaugen, Aud K.

    2007-08-01

    This note illuminates the status and some elements in the Russian efforts on use of nuclear power, with special emphasis on northwest Russia. In addition the report describes an evaluation of the possibilities of Norwegian influence on the nuclear power in northwest Russia and Kola Peninsula

  19. Non-timber forest products of the North-West District of Guyana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andel, T.R. van

    2000-01-01

    This thesis describes the use of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) by indigenous peoples of northwest Guyana. Part I contains a general analysis of NTFP harvesting in northwest Guyana Part II is an illustrated field guide of the useful plants encountered. Chapter 1: introduction Chapter

  20. 75 FR 5353 - Energy Northwest; Notice of Receipt and Availability of Application for Renewal of Columbia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-02

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2010-0029; Docket No. 50-397] Energy Northwest; Notice of Receipt and Availability of Application for Renewal of Columbia Generating Station Facility Operating... Commission) has received an application, dated January 19, 2010, from Energy Northwest (EN), filed pursuant...

  1. Quality modeling of drinking groundwater using GIS in rural communities, northwest of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosaferi, Mohammad; Pourakbar, Mojtaba; Shakerkhatibi, Mohammad; Fatehifar, Esmaeil; Belvasi, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Given the importance of groundwater resources in water supply, this work aimed to study quality of drinking groundwater in rural areas in Tabriz county, northwest of Iran. Thirty two groundwater samples from different areas were collected and analyzed in terms of general parameters along with 20 heavy metals (e.g. As, Hg and …). The data of the analyses were applied as an attribute database for preparing thematic maps and showing water quality parameters. Multivariate statistical techniques, including principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (CA) were used to compare and evaluate water quality. The findings showed that hydrochemical faces of the groundwater were of calcium-bicarbonate type. EC values were from 110 to 1750 μs/cm, in which concentration of salts was high in the east and a zone in north of the studied area. Hardness was from 52 to 476 mg/l and CaCO3 with average value of 185.88 ± 106.56 mg/L indicated hard water. Dominant cations and anions were Ca(2+) > Na(+) > Mg(2+) > K(+) and HCO3 (-) > Cl(-) > SO4 (2-) > NO3 (2), respectively. In the western areas, arsenic contamination was observed as high as 69 μg/L. Moreover, mercury was above the standard level in one of the villages. Eskandar and Olakandi villages had the lowest quality of drinking water. In terms of CA, sampling sites were classified into four clusters of similar water quality and PCA demonstrated that 3 components could cover 84.3% of the parameters. For investigating arsenic anomaly, conducting a comprehensive study in the western part of studied area is strongly recommended.

  2. Characteristics of low-frequency oscillation intensity of air-sea turbulent heat fluxes over the northwest Pacific

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Gen; REN BaoHua; ZHENG JianOiu; WANG Jun

    2009-01-01

    Based on the daily turbulent heat fluxes and related meteorological variables dataeets (1985-2006) from Objectively Analyzed air-sea Fluxes (OAFlux) Project of Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), characteristics of low-frequency oscillation intensity of air-sea turbulent heat fluxes over the northwest Pacific are analyzed by linear perturbation method and correlation analysis. It can be concluded that: 1) the distribution of low-frequency oscillation intensity of latent heat flux (LHF) over the northwest Pacific is mainly affected by that of low-frequency oscillation intensity of anomalous air-eea humidity gradient (△q') as well as mean air-eea humidity gradient (△q), while the distribution of low-frequency oscillation Intensity of sensible heat flux (SHF) is mainly affected by that of low-frequency oscillation intensity of anomalous air-sea temperature gradient (△T'). 2) The low-frequency oscillation of turbulent heat fluxes over the northwest Pacific is the strongest in winter and the weakest in summer. And the seasonal transition of low-frequency oscillation intensity of LHF is jointly influenced by those of low-frequency oscillation intensity of △q', low-frequency oscillation intensity of anomalous wind speed (U'), △q and mean wind speed (U), while the seasonal transition of low-frequency oscillation intensity of SHF is mainly influenced by those of low-frequency oscillation Intensity of △T' and U. 3) Over the tropical west Pacific and sea areas north of 20ON, the low-frequency oscillation of LHF (SHF) is mainly influenced by atmospheric variables qa' (Ta') and U', indicating an oceanic response to overlying atmospheric forcing. In contrast, over the tropical eastern and central Pacific south of 20°N, qs' (Ts') also greatly influences the low-frequency oscillation of LHF (SHF).

  3. 78 FR 50088 - Notice of Availability of the Northwest Colorado Greater Sage-Grouse Draft Resource Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... Availability of the Northwest Colorado Greater Sage- Grouse Draft Resource Management Plan Amendment and Draft... Land Management (BLM) has prepared a Northwest Colorado Greater Sage-Grouse Draft Resource Management.../or mailings. ADDRESSES: You may submit comments related to the Northwest Colorado Greater Sage-Grouse...

  4. Watershed restoration, jobs-in-the woods, and community assistance: Redwood National Park and the Northwest Forest Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher E. DeForest

    1999-01-01

    There are many parallels between the 1978 legislation to expand Redwood National Park and the Northwest Forest Plan, which together with the Northwest Economic Adjustment Initiative formed the 1993 Pacific Northwest Initiative. In both situations, the Federal Government sought to promote retraining for displaced workers, to undertake watershed assessment and...

  5. Bird surveys at McKinley Bay and Hutchinson Bay, Northwest Territories, in 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornish, B J; Dickson, D L; Dickson, H L

    1991-03-01

    Monitoring surveys of bird abundance and distribution were conducted in 1990 at McKinley Bay in the Northwest Territories, the site of a winter harbour for drillships and the proposed location for a major year-round support base for oil and gas exploration. Primary objectives of the survey were to determine whether diving duck numbers had changed since the initial phase of the study from 1981-1985, and to provide additional baseline data on natural annual fluctuations in diving duck numbers. Three aerial surveys at each bay were carried out using techniques identical to those in previous years. On 5 August 1990, when survey conditions were considered best of the three surveys, more than twice as many diving ducks were found in McKinley Bay and Hutchinson Bay than on average during the five years of 1981-1985. Old squaw and scooters comprised ca 90% of the diving ducks observed, and both species showed significant increases in numbers. The increase in abundance of diving ducks was likely unrelated to industrial activity in the area since a similar increase occurred in the control area, Hutchinson Bay. Many factors, including both environmental factors such as those affecting nesting success and timing of the moult, and factors related to the survey methods, could be involved in causing the large fluctuations observed. 9 refs., 8 figs., 10 tabs.

  6. Bird surveys at McKinley Bay and Hutchison Bay, Northwest Territories, in 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornish, B J; Dickson, D L; Dickson, H L

    1992-03-01

    McKinley Bay is a shallow protected bay along the eastern Beaufort Sea coast which provides an important habitat for diving ducks. Since 1979, the bay has been the site of a winter harbor and support base for oil and gas exploraton in the Beaufort Sea. Aerial surveys for bird abundance and distribution were conducted in August 1991 as a continuation of long-term monitoring of birds in McKinley Bay and Hutchison Bay, a nearby area used as a control. The main objectives of the 1991 surveys were to expand the set of baseline data on natural annual fluctuations in diving duck numbers, and to determine if numbers of diving ducks had changed since the initial 1981-85 surveys. On the day with the best survey conditions, the population of diving ducks at McKinley bay was estimated at ca 32,000, significantly more than 1981-85. At Hutchison Bay, there were an estimated 11,000 ducks. As in previous years, large numbers of diving ducks were observed off Atkinson Point at the northwest corner of McKinley Bay, at the south end of the bay, and in the northeast corner near a long spit. Most divers in Hutchison Bay were at the west side. Diving ducks, primarily Oldsquaw and scoter, were the most abundant bird group in the study area. Observed distribution patterns of birds are discussed with reference to habitat preferences. 16 refs., 7 figs., 30 tabs.

  7. Estimation of wind erosion from construction of a railway in arid Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benli Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A state-of-the-art wind erosion simulation model, the Wind Erosion Prediction System and the United States Environmental Protection Agency's AP 42 emission factors formula, were combined together to evaluate wind-blown dust emissions from various construction units from a railway construction project in the dry Gobi land in Northwest China. The influence of the climatic factors: temperature, precipitation, wind speed and direction, soil condition, protective measures, and construction disturbance were taken into account. Driven by daily and sub-daily climate data and using specific detailed management files, the process-based WEPS model was able to express the beginning, active, and ending phases of construction, as well as the degree of disturbance for the entire scope of a construction project. The Lanzhou-Xinjiang High-speed Railway was selected as a representative study because of the diversities of different climates, soil, and working schedule conditions that could be analyzed. Wind erosion from different working units included the building of roadbeds, bridges, plants, temporary houses, earth spoil and barrow pit areas, and vehicle transportation were calculated. The total wind erosion emissions, 7406 t, for the first construction area of section LXS-15 with a 14.877 km length was obtained for quantitative analysis. The method used is applicable for evaluating wind erosion from other complex surface disturbance projects.

  8. [Ecological and economic harmony evaluation and spatial evolution of the Hexi corridor, northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hai-long; Shi, Pei-ji; Li, Sheng-mei; Tong, Hua-li; Nie, Xiao-ying; Wei, Wei

    2014-12-01

    The relationship between economic development and environment and the evolution characteristics of spatial pattern in Hexi Corridor of Northwest China were analyzed based on Landsat images in 1985, 1995, 2000 and 2011 with twenty counties in Hexi Corridor chosen as the basic research units. The ecological economic harmony during 1985-2011 was estimated according to ESV (ecosystem services value) and EEH (ecological and economic harmony) index with the ecosystem services value estimation methods. The results showed that the land type of the study area dramatically changed during the study period, the grassland decreased badly, and the construction land and cultivated land increased quickly. The ESV showed an overall downward trend, especially in the Shiyang River basin and the middle of Heihe River. The ESV in the Shule River basin in this period. After 2000, the economic growth speeded up visibly in the study area. The economic development concentrated in the resource-based cities and regional central cities, and declined from the center of corridor to the both sides. The ecological-economic relation in Hexi Corridor experienced a transformation of "preliminary deterioration--further deterioration--low grade coordination". The EEH had large changes in the Shiyang River basin and the middle of Heihe River, which experienced a transformation of "conflict--more conflicts--less conflicts", however, there was little change in Shule River basin. The development mode and the comprehensive reclamation of Shiyang River basin and Heihe River basin had a significant influence on the regional ecological and economic harmony.

  9. Bioarchaeological investigation of ancient Maya violence and warfare in inland Northwest Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, Stanley; Lope, Carlos Peraza; Uc González, Eunice

    2014-05-01

    This study investigates evidence of changes and continuities in ancient Maya violence and warfare in inland northwest Yucatan, Mexico from the Middle Preclassic (600-300 BC) to the Postclassic (AD 1050-1542) through bioarchaeological analysis of cranial and projectile trauma. It is hypothesized that the frequency of violence increases before the Classic Maya collapse and remains high during the Postclassic period. It is also hypothesized that the flat, open terrain was conducive to warfare and resulted in higher trauma frequencies than in other parts of the Maya area. Results show that the frequency of cranial trauma decreases before the Classic collapse and increases in the Postclassic, partially matching the expected chronological trends. The frequency of cranial trauma does not differ significantly from other Maya regions but the pattern does: for all periods, males have more healed injuries than females and they are concentrated on the left side of the anterior of the skull. Some injuries appear to be from small points hafted in wooden clubs. In addition, projectile trauma is evident in a scapula with an embedded arrowhead tip, the first such case reported in a Maya skeleton. Overall, these results suggest greater reliance on open combat and less on raids in this region compared with other parts of the Maya area, possibly due to the flat, open terrain, though the identification of perimortem trauma in both women and men indicates surprise raids on settlements were also practiced. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Simulating the Effect of Climate Change on Vegetation Zone Distribution on the Loess Plateau, Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqing Li

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A risk assessment of vegetation zone responses to climate change was conducted using the classical Holdridge life zone model on the Loess Plateau of Northwest China. The results show that there are currently ten vegetation zones occurring on the Loess Plateau (1950–2000, including alvar desert, alpine wet tundra, alpine rain tundra, boreal moist forest, boreal wet forest, cool temperate desert, cool temperate desert scrub, cool temperate steppe, cool temperate moist forest, warm temperate desert scrub, warm temperate thorn steppe, and warm temperate dry forest. Seventy years later (2070S, the alvar desert, the alpine wet tundra and the cool temperate desert will disappear, while warm temperate desert scrub and warm temperate thorn steppe will emerge. The area proportion of warm temperate dry forest will expand from 12.2% to 22.8%–37.2%, while that of cool temperate moist forest will decrease from 18.5% to 6.9%–9.5%. The area proportion of cool temperate steppe will decrease from 51.8% to 34.5%–51.6%. Our results suggest that future climate change will be conducive to the growth and expansion of forest zones on the Loess Plateau, which can provide valuable reference information for regional vegetation restoration planning and adaptive strategies in this region.

  11. Bird surveys at McKinley Bay and Hutchinson Bay, Northwest Territories, in 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornish, B.J.; Dickson, D.L.; Dickson, H.L.

    1991-01-01

    Monitoring surveys of bird abundance and distribution were conducted in 1990 at McKinley Bay in the Northwest Territories, the site of a winter harbour for drillships and the proposed location for a major year-round support base for oil and gas exploration. Primary objectives of the survey were to determine whether diving duck numbers had changed since the initial phase of the study from 1981-1985, and to provide additional baseline data on natural annual fluctuations in diving duck numbers. Three aerial surveys at each bay were carried out using techniques identical to those in previous years. On 5 August 1990, when survey conditions were considered best of the three surveys, more than twice as many diving ducks were found in McKinley Bay and Hutchinson Bay than on average during the five years of 1981-1985. Old squaw and scooters comprised ca 90% of the diving ducks observed, and both species showed significant increases in numbers. The increase in abundance of diving ducks was likely unrelated to industrial activity in the area since a similar increase occurred in the control area, Hutchinson Bay. Many factors, including both environmental factors such as those affecting nesting success and timing of the moult, and factors related to the survey methods, could be involved in causing the large fluctuations observed. 9 refs., 8 figs., 10 tabs

  12. Prevalence of Linguatula serrata Nymph in Goat in Tabriz, North-West of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yacob Garedaghi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Linguatula serrata is one of well-known members of Pentastomida which infects both humans and animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of L. serrata in mesenteric lymph nodes, livers and lungs of goats slaughtered in Tabriz area, Iran. Mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs, livers and lungs of 280 goats slaughtered in Tabriz, North-west of Iran were investigated for nymphs of L. serrata from September 2009 to September 2010. The organs were examined macroscopically and then a tissue digestion method was also done for investigation of liver and lung of the goats that were infected MLN. The liver and lung samples were mostly taken from the condemned and rejected part of organs. The infection rate of L. serrata nymphs in MLNs, livers and lungs was 27.1 %, 2.8 % and 2.8 % respectively. The number of isolated nymph in infected lymph nodes varied from 1 to 22 with a mean of 7. Only one nymph was isolated from each infected livers and lungs. The infection rate increased with age (P 0.05. Linguatula infection occurs as an endemic zoonosis in the study area and has an active transmission life cycle.

  13. Significance and effect of ecological rehabilitation project in inland river basins in northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Feng, Qi; Chen, Lijuan; Yu, Tengfei

    2013-07-01

    The Ecological Water Transfer and Rehabilitation Project in the arid inland area of northwest China is an important measure in restoring a deteriorated ecosystem. However, the sustainability of the project is affected by many socio-economic factors. This article examines the attitudes of the local populace toward the project, its impact on the livelihood of the people, and the positive effects of water-efficient agricultural practices in Ejina County. Related data were collected through questionnaire surveys and group discussions. The results identified three critical issues that may influence the sustainability of the project in the study area. The first issue relates to the impact of the project on the livelihood of local herdsmen. The potential for the sustainability of the project is compromised because the livelihood of the herdsmen greatly depends on the compensation awarded by the project. The second issue is that the project did not raise the water resource utilization ratio, which may undermine its final purpose. Finally, the compensation provided by the project considers losses in agriculture, but neglects the externalities and public benefit of eco-water. Thus, appropriate compensation mechanisms should be established and adopted according to local economic, environmental, and social conditions. Some recommendations for improving the sustainability of the project are provided based on the results of this study.

  14. Landslide inventory along a pipeline corridor in the Mackenzie Valley, Northwest Territories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couture, R.; Riopel, S. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Geological Survey of Canada

    2007-07-01

    The route for the proposed Mackenzie Valley gas pipeline in the Northwest Territories includes areas that are known for widespread landsliding. Natural Resources Canada initiated a landslide mapping project in an effort to develop a synthesis of the types, regional distribution, and controlling factors of landslides in the region. The study area is covered by unconsolidated sediments dominated by morainal, lacustrine, and alluvial deposits. Three types of permafrost were mapped, notably continuous, extensive discontinuous, and intermediate discontinuous. A preliminary inventory of 1,807 landslides and other natural terrain hazard features were identified by air photo interpretations. The landslide limits were digitized and catalogued in the Mackenzie Valley landslide spatial database. Several attributes were recorded for each landslide feature, including unique identifiers, landslide type, size, location, morphological parameters, and relative age. The landslide distribution was then characterized. The results indicate an average density of one landslide per 5 km{sup 2}. The dominant landslide types are retrogressive thaw flows and active layer detachments, followed by rock falls, debris flows, earth slides, surficial landslides, and retrogressive thaw slides. Nearly half of all landslides took place in morainal deposits, 19 per cent in lacustrine sediments, 14 per cent in bedrock, and 13 per cent in glaciofluvial sediments. According to tone, texture, and vegetation regrowth attributes, 39 per cent of the landslides were classified as being older than 50 years, 39 per cent were 10 to 50 years old and 22 per cent were less than 10 years old.

  15. ICP/AES radioactive sample analyses at Pacific Northwest Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzaki, C.L.; Hara, F.T.

    1986-03-01

    Inductively coupled argon plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP/AES) analyses of radioactive materials at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) began about three years ago upon completion of the installation of a modified Applied Research Laboratory (ARL) 3560. Funding for the purchase and installation of the ICP/AES was provided by the Nuclear Waste Materials Characterization Center (MCC) established at PNL by the Department of Energy in 1979. MCC's objective is to ensure that qualified materials data are available on waste materials. This paper is divided into the following topics: (1) Instrument selection considerations; (2) initial installation of the simultaneous system with the source stand enclosed in a 1/2'' lead-shielded glove box; (3) retrofit installation of the sequential spectrometer; and (4) a brief discussion on several types of samples analyzed. 1 ref., 7 figs., 1 tab

  16. Exiled by Definition:The Salar of Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David SG Goodman

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The reform of state socialism came relatively late to Qinghai Province in the Northwest of the People’s Republic of China. One of Qinghai’s most dynamic groups in the social leadership of reform has been the Salar. The Salar were one of the officially recognized nationalities identified in the People’s Republic of China during the 1950s. A relatively small group of some 100,000 currently live along the upper reaches of the Yellow River, on the borders of Qinghai and Gansu Provinces. The Salar are characterised by their commitment to both Islam and China, and by their belief that they live in permanent exile, though there is considerable uncertainty about their origins. The evidence of recent research in Qinghai suggests the perspective of being Chinese citizens, yet a people in exile, significantly shapes recent Salar social and economic activism.

  17. Northwest conservation and electric power plan 1986. Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    This 20 year plan is prepared in accordance with the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act - Public Law 96-501, of 1980. This Act required the Council to develop and adopt a 20-year electrical power plan for the region with a program to protect, mitigate and enhance the fish and wildlife affected by hydroelectric development in the Columbia River Basin. The plan provides a 25 year history of the regions power development and comments on its unique features and changing nature. Presentations covers problems, solutions and the planning strategy for risk management. The existing electrical power system is discussed along with future electricity needs, generating resources, conservation of resources, regional needs and resources, and the 1986 action plan. Underlying details are provided in Volume II

  18. FUNDAMENTAL MOVEMENT SKILLS OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN IN NORTHWEST ENGLAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulkes, J D; Knowles, Z; Fairclough, S J; Stratton, G; O'Dwyer, M; Ridgers, N D; Foweather, L

    2015-08-01

    This cross-sectional study examined fundamental movement skill competency among deprived preschool children in Northwest England and explored sex differences. A total of 168 preschool children (ages 3-5 yr.) were included in the study. Twelve skills were assessed using the Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Motor Skills Protocol and video analysis. Sex differences were explored at the subtest, skill, and component levels. Overall competence was found to be low among both sexes, although it was higher for locomotor skills than for object-control skills. Similar patterns were observed at the component level. Boys had significantly better object-control skills than girls, with greater competence observed for the kick and overarm throw, while girls were more competent at the run, hop, and gallop. The findings of low competency suggest that developmentally appropriate interventions should be implemented in preschool settings to promote movement skills, with targeted activities for boys and girls.

  19. Weed management: a case study from north-west Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marwat, K.B.; Hashim, S.; Ali, H.

    2010-01-01

    Alien and exotic plant invasions are threatening the floral diversity around the globe and affect ecological processes. Weed invasion has been documented in North-West Pakistan. A total of 16 weeds were reported as invasive. These were Xanthium strumarium, Ipomoea eriocarpa, Alternanthera pungens, Trianthema portulacastrum, Tagetes minuta, Imperata cylindrica, Amaranthus hybridus subsp. hybridus, Robinia pseudo-acacia, Broussonetia papyrifera, Ailanthus altissima, Pistia stratiotes, Phragmites australis, Parthenium hysterophorus, Cannabis sativa, Galium aparine and Emex spinosus. Among these Robinia pseudo-acacia, Broussonetia papyrifera and Ailanthus altissima are trees and were purposely introduced as they later became invasive. They were aggressive in nature and replaced or suppressed the local vegetation. Their distribution, history of invasion and management has been discussed here. The behaviour and association of the 36 problem weeds with different crops has also been outlined as they perspired from the farmers. (author)

  20. Weed management: a case study from north-west Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marwat, K B; Hashim, S; Ali, H [KPK Agriculture University, Peshawar (Pakistan). Dept. of Weed Science

    2010-12-15

    Alien and exotic plant invasions are threatening the floral diversity around the globe and affect ecological processes. Weed invasion has been documented in North-West Pakistan. A total of 16 weeds were reported as invasive. These were Xanthium strumarium, Ipomoea eriocarpa, Alternanthera pungens, Trianthema portulacastrum, Tagetes minuta, Imperata cylindrica, Amaranthus hybridus subsp. hybridus, Robinia pseudo-acacia, Broussonetia papyrifera, Ailanthus altissima, Pistia stratiotes, Phragmites australis, Parthenium hysterophorus, Cannabis sativa, Galium aparine and Emex spinosus. Among these Robinia pseudo-acacia, Broussonetia papyrifera and Ailanthus altissima are trees and were purposely introduced as they later became invasive. They were aggressive in nature and replaced or suppressed the local vegetation. Their distribution, history of invasion and management has been discussed here. The behaviour and association of the 36 problem weeds with different crops has also been outlined as they perspired from the farmers. (author)

  1. High dose calibrations at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, J.C.; Fox, R.A.

    1988-10-01

    The need is increasing for both high radiation exposures and calibration measurements that provide traceability of such exposures to national standards. The applications of high exposures include: electronic component damage studies, sterilization of medical products and food irradiation. Accurate high exposure measurements are difficult to obtain and cannot, in general, be carried out with a single dose measurement system or technique because of the wide range of doses and the variety of materials involved. This paper describes the dosimetric measurement and calibration techniques used at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) that make use of radiochromic dye films, thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs), ionization chambers, and calorimetric dosimeters. The methods used to demonstrate the consistency of PNL calibrations with national standards will also be discussed. 4 refs

  2. The first record of Lutzomyia longipalpis in the Argentine northwest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Gomez Bravo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2004, the urban presence of Lutzomyia longipalpis was recorded for the first time in Formosa province. In 2006, the first autochthonous case of human urban visceral leishmaniasis (VL was recorded in Misiones in the presence of the vector, along with some canine VL cases. After this first case, the vector began to spread primarily in northeast Argentina. Between 2008-2011, three human VL cases were reported in Salta province, but the presence of Lu. longipalpis was not recorded. Captures of Phlebotominae were made in Tartagal, Salta, in 2013, and the presence of Lu. longipalpis was first recorded in northwest Argentina at that time. Systematic sampling is recommended to observe the distribution and dispersion patterns of Lu. longipalpis and consider the risk of VL transmission in the region.

  3. PACIFIC NORTHWEST REGIONAL COLLABORATORY ANNUAL REPORT FOR SYNERGY VII (2007)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagestad, Jerry D.; Bolte, John; Guzy, Michael; Woodruff, Dana L.; Humes, Karen; Walden, Von; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Glenn, Nancy; Ames, Dan; Rope, Ronald; Martin, David; Sandgathe, Scott

    2008-04-01

    During this final year of the Pacific Northwest Regional Collaboratory we focused significantly on continuing the relationship between technical teams and government end-users. The main theme of the year was integration. This took the form of data integration via our web portal and integration of our technologies with the end users. The PNWRC's technical portfolio is based on EOS strategies, and focuses on 'applications of national priority: water management, invasive species, coastal management and ecological forecasting.' The products of our technical approaches have been well received by the community of focused end-users. The objective this year was to broaden that community and develop external support to continue and operationalize product development.

  4. Insecurity, polio vaccination rates, and polio incidence in northwest Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Amol A; Jimenez, Marcia P; Tangermann, Rudolf H; Subramanian, S V; Razak, Fahad

    2018-02-13

    Pakistan is one of three countries in which endemic transmission of poliovirus has never been stopped. Insecurity is often cited but poorly studied as a barrier to eradicating polio. We analyzed routinely collected health data from 32 districts of northwest Pakistan and constructed an index of insecurity based on journalistic reports of the monthly number of deaths and injuries resulting from conflict-related security incidents. The primary outcomes were the monthly incidence of paralytic polio cases within each district between 2007 and 2014 and the polio vaccination percentage from 666 district-level vaccination campaigns between 2007 and 2009, targeting ∼5.7 million children. Multilevel Poisson regression controlling for time and district fixed effects was used to model the association between insecurity, vaccinator access, vaccination rates, and polio incidence. The number of children inaccessible to vaccinators was 19.7% greater (95% CI: 19.2-20.2%), and vaccination rates were 5.3% lower (95% CI: 5.2-5.3%) in "high-insecurity" campaigns compared with "secure" campaigns. The unadjusted mean vaccination rate was 96.3% (SD = 8.6) in secure campaigns and 88.3% (SD = 19.2) in high-insecurity campaigns. Polio incidence was 73.0% greater (95% CI: 30-131%) during high-insecurity months (unadjusted mean = 0.13 cases per million people, SD = 0.71) compared with secure months (unadjusted mean = 1.23 cases per million people, SD = 4.28). Thus, insecurity was associated with reduced vaccinator access, reduced polio vaccination, and increased polio incidence in northwest Pakistan. These findings demonstrate that insecurity is an important obstacle to global polio eradication.

  5. SPIDERS (ARANEI IN HEPRETOBIONT MESOFAUNA OF THE NORTHWEST CAUCASUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Ponomarev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Aim. We discussed in previous work a herpetobiont fauna of arachnids (Arachnida from the isolated yewboxwood wood, located in the Caucasian State Biosphere Reserve, 20 km near Sochi (Ponomarev, Chumachenko, 2007. The aim of the paper is to summarize available data about herpetobiont araneofauna of the Northwest Caucasus. Location. Republic of Adygea, Russia.Methods. Material was collected in 2009 on north macroslope of Main Caucasian Ridge within the territory of the Caucasian State Biosphere Reserve between 1000–1820 m. The following plant communities are studied: beech-silver fir (assotiation Abieti-Fagetion orientalis Korotkov et Belonovskaya 1987, maple forest (assotiation Petasito albae-Abietetum nordmannianae subassotiation Aceretosum trautvetteri Francuzov 2006, subalpine meadow (assotiation Poa longifolii – Calamagrostietum arundinaceae Semagina, 1992. Soil traps were used for collection of spiders.Results and main conclusions. During the period of study 100 species of spiders from 19 families are registered. Most diverse araneofauna of subalpine meadows includs 54 species belonging to 14 families. The least diverse araneofauna is in maple forest (24 species of 7 families. In beech-silver fir includes 45 species of 16 families of spiders. Only 3 species (Pireneitega ovtchinnikovi, Cybaeus abchasicus, Tenuiphantes mengei were found in all surveyed habitats. These 3 species clearly tend to forest habitats. Herpetobiont araneofauna of the Northwest Caucasus characterized by high taxonomic diversity with clear predominance of representatives of the family Linyphiidae. Specificity of araneofauna in different types of plant communities is high.

  6. Integrated prediction based on GIS for sandstone-type uranium deposits in the northwest of Ordos Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Shaoyang; Ke Dan; Hu Shuiqing; Guo Qingyin; Hou Huiqun

    2005-01-01

    The integrated prediction model of sandstone-type uranium deposits and its integrated evaluation methods as well as flow of the work based on GIS are studied. A software for extracting metallogenic information is also developed. A multi-source exploring information database is established in the northwest of Ordos Basin, and an integrated digital mineral deposit prospecting model of sandstone-type uranium deposits is designed based on GIS. The authors have completed metallogenic information extraction and integrated evaluation of sandstone-type uranium deposits based on GIS in the study area. Research results prove that the integrated prediction of sandstone-type uranium deposits based on GIS may further delineate prospective target areas rapidly and improve the predictive precision. (authors)

  7. Spatial statistical analysis of contamination level of 241Am and 239Pu Thule, North-West Greenland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strodl Andersen, J.

    2011-10-01

    A spatial analysis of data on radioactive pollution on land at Thule, North-West Greenland is presented. The data comprises levels of 241 Am and 239,240 Pu on land. Maximum observed level of 241 Am is 2.8x10 5 Bq m -2 . Highest levels were observed near Narsaarsuk. This area was also sampled most intensively. In Groennedal the maximum observed level of 241 Am is 1.9Oe10 4 Bq m -2 . Prediction of the overall amount of 241 Am and 239,240 Pu is based on grid points within the range from the nearest measurement location. The overall amount is therefore highly dependent on the model. Under the optimal spatial model for Narsaarsuk, within the area of prediction, the predicted total amount of 241 Am is 45 GBq and the predicted total amount of 239,240 Pu is 270 GBq. (Author)

  8. Spatial statistical analysis of contamination level of 241Am and 239Pu, Thule, North-West Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strodl Andersen, J. (JSA EnviroStat (Denmark))

    2011-10-15

    A spatial analysis of data on radioactive pollution on land at Thule, North-West Greenland is presented. The data comprises levels of 241Am and 239,240Pu on land. Maximum observed level of 241Am is 2.8x105 Bq m-2. Highest levels were observed near Narsaarsuk. This area was also sampled most intensively. In Groennedal the maximum observed level of 241Am is 1.9-104 Bq m-2. Prediction of the overall amount of 241Am and 239,240Pu is based on grid points within the range from the nearest measurement location. The overall amount is therefore highly dependent on the model. Under the optimal spatial model for Narsaarsuk, within the area of prediction, the predicted total amount of 241Am is 45 GBq and the predicted total amount of 239,240Pu is 270 GBq. (Author)

  9. Liquefaction along Late Pleistocene to early Holocene Faults as Revealed by Lidar in Northwest Tasmania, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, J.; Gardner, T.

    2016-12-01

    In northwest Tasmania well-preserved mid-Holocene beach ridges with maximum radiocarbon ages of 5.25 ka occur along the coast; inland are a parallel set of lower relief beach ridges of probable MIS 5e age. The latter are cut by northeast-striking faults clearly visible on LIDAR images, with a maximum vertical displacement (evident as difference in topographic elevation) of 3 m. Also distinct on the LIDAR images are large sand boils along the fault lines; they are up to 5 m in diameter and 2-3 m high and mostly occur on the hanging wall close to the fault traces. Without LIDAR it would have been almost impossible to distinguish either the fault scarps or the sand boils. Excavations through the sand boils show that they are massive, with no internal structure, suggesting that they formed in a single event. They are composed of well-sorted, very fine white sand, identical to the sand in the underlying beach ridges. The sand boils overlie a peaty paleosol; this formed in the tea-tree swamp that formerly covered the area, and has been offset along the faults. Radiocarbon dating of the buried organic-rich paleosol gave ages of 14.8-7.2 ka, suggesting that the faulting is latest Pleistocene to early Holocene in age; it occurred prior to deposition of the mid-Holocene beach ridges, which are not offset. The beach ridge sediments are up to 7 m thick and contain an iron-cemented hard pan 1-3 m below the surface. The water table is very shallow and close to the ground surface, so the sands of the beach ridges are mostly saturated. During faulting these sands experienced extensive liquefaction. The resulting sand boils rose to a substantial height of 2-3 m, probably possibly reflecting the elevation of the potentiometric surface within the confined part of the beach ridge sediments below the iron-cemented hard pan. Motion on the faults was predominantly dip slip (shown by an absence of horizontal offset) and probably reverse, which is consistent with the present-day northwest

  10. High-biomass forests of the Pacific Northwest: who manages them and how much is protected?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krankina, Olga N; DellaSala, Dominick A; Leonard, Jessica; Yatskov, Mikhail

    2014-07-01

    To examine ownership and protection status of forests with high-biomass stores (>200 Mg/ha) in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) region of the United States, we used the latest versions of publicly available datasets. Overlay, aggregation, and GIS-based computation of forest area in broad biomass classes in the PNW showed that the National Forests contained the largest area of high-biomass forests (48.4 % of regional total), but the area of high-biomass forest on private lands was important as well (22.8 %). Between 2000 and 2008, the loss of high-biomass forests to fire on the National Forests was 7.6 % (236,000 ha), while the loss of high-biomass forest to logging on private lands (364,000 ha) exceeded the losses to fire across all ownerships. Many remaining high-biomass forest stands are vulnerable to future harvest as only 20 % are strictly protected from logging, while 26 % are not protected at all. The level of protection for high-biomass forests varies by state, for example, 31 % of all high-biomass federal forests in Washington are in high-protection status compared to only 9 % in Oregon. Across the conterminous US, high-biomass forest covers forest land and the PNW region holds 56.8 % of this area or 5.87 million ha. Forests with high-biomass stores are important to document and monitor as they are scarce, often threatened by harvest and development, and their disturbance including timber harvest results in net C losses to the atmosphere that can take a new generation of trees many decades or centuries to offset.

  11. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program High-Performance Test Homes - Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-05-01

    This project represents the third phase of a multi-year effort to develop and bring to market a High Performance Manufactured Home (HPMH). In this project, the Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program worked with Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction and Bonneville Power Administration to help four factory homebuilders build prototype zero energy ready manufactured homes, resulting in what is expected to be a 30% savings relative to the Building America Benchmark. (The actual % savings varies depending on choice of heating equipment and climate zone). Previous phases of this project created a HPMH specification and prototyped individual measures from the package to obtain engineering approvals and develop preliminary factory construction processes. This case study describes the project team's work during 2014 to build prototype homes to the HPMH specifications and to monitor the homes for energy performance and durability. Monitoring is expected to continue into 2016.

  12. Preliminary study on site-selection for disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes on the northwest of Lop Nur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Gexin; Chen Jianjie

    2008-01-01

    To clean up some radioactively polluted area, site-selection research was conducted for disposal of L/ILW on the northwest of Lop Nur. The research is involved mainly with regional ecological environment, human and cultural environment, natural resources, geological evolution, structural geology, petrography, hydrogeology and the stability of regional crust. It is found preliminarily that in the region the social and natural conditions are advantageous for disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes, without permanent local residents, far form residential area, with little vegetation, great evaporation and very low precipitation, stable geological environment, deep slow groundwater far from discharge region while the groundwater properties unfavorable for radionuclides to migrate. (authors)

  13. Planning for a soft landing : non-renewable resource development and community infrastructure in the Northwest Territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-02-01

    This paper provided a high-level overview of research related to the boom and bust cycle of resource-based economic development and community infrastructure in the north, particularly in the Northwest Territories. The paper focused on what is known and on knowledge gaps that needed to be filled in each of 3 theme areas for an experts workshop on northern communities. The themes that were discussed at the workshop and in this paper were: the connections between non-renewable resources development and community infrastructure in the north; planning for resource development; and strategies for moving ahead and putting ideas into practice. The paper discussed the objectives of the research and discussed findings under each of the 3 themes. Topics discussed included: changes in the infrastructure mix; infrastructure and climate change; infrastructure financing; uncertainty; knowledge; planning tools; stakeholder participation; and measuring and monitoring planning implementation. Data availability was also discussed along with funding mechanisms, technological innovations and community capacity building. It was concluded that strategies for dealing with the boom-induced infrastructure challenges facing communities in the Northwest Territories should focus on making more creative use of available funding; promoting technical innovation; and improving maintenance capacity at the community level. 62 refs

  14. Variations of Ecosystem Service Value in Response to Land-Use Change in the Kashgar Region, Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aynur Mamat

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing anthropogenic activities have significantly altered ecosystems in arid oasis regions. Estimating the impact on a wide range of ecosystem services is important for decision making and the sustainable development of these regions. This study analyzed time-series Landsat data to determine the influences of oasis land-use changes on the ecosystem services in the Kashgar region in Northwest China. The following results were found. The total value of the ecosystem services in the Kashgar region were approximately $10,845.3, $11,218.6, $10,291.7, and $10,127.3 million in 1986, 1996, 2005, and 2015, respectively. The water supply, waste treatment, biodiversity protection, and recreation and cultural services were the four ecosystem services with the highest service value, contributing 77.05% of the total ecosystem services. The combined contribution rate of food production and raw material value was only about 4.02%, relatively small. The sensitivity analysis indicated that the estimated total ecosystem service value (ESV for this study area was relatively inelastic with respect to the value coefficients. The findings of this study will be crucial for maintaining the stability and sustainable development of the oasis region, where socio-economic development and the integrity of the natural ecosystem complement each other. Furthermore, the results provide a scientific basis for decision makers in land use management, and provide a reference for researchers in the Northwest China.

  15. Radioactive impacts on nekton species in the Northwest Pacific and humans more than one year after the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Men, Wu; Deng, Fangfang; He, Jianhua; Yu, Wen; Wang, Fenfen; Li, Yiliang; Lin, Feng; Lin, Jing; Lin, Longshan; Zhang, Yusheng; Yu, Xingguang

    2017-10-01

    This study investigated the radioactive impacts on 10 nekton species in the Northwest Pacific more than one year after the Fukushima Nuclear Accident (FNA) from the two perspectives of contamination and harm. Squids were especially used for the spatial and temporal comparisons to demonstrate the impacts from the FNA. The radiation doses to nekton species and humans were assessed to link this radioactivity contamination to possible harm. The total dose rates to nektons were lower than the ERICA ecosystem screening benchmark of 10μGy/h. Further dose-contribution analysis showed that the internal doses from the naturally occurring nuclide 210 Po were the main dose contributor. The dose rates from 134 Cs, 137 Cs, 90 Sr and 110m Ag were approximately three or four orders of magnitude lower than those from naturally occurring radionuclides. The 210 Po-derived dose was also the main contributor of the total human dose from immersion in the seawater and the ingestion of nekton species. The human doses from anthropogenic radionuclides were ~ 100 to ~ 10,000 times lower than the doses from naturally occurring radionuclides. A morbidity assessment was performed based on the Linear No Threshold assumptions of exposure and showed 7 additional cancer cases per 100,000,000 similarly exposed people. Taken together, there is no need for concern regarding the radioactive harm in the open ocean area of the Northwest Pacific. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. 1991 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, Technical Appendix: Volume 1.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-03-01

    This publication provides detailed documentation of the load forecast scenarios and assumptions used in preparing BPA's 1991 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (the Study). This is one of two technical appendices to the Study; the other appendix details the utility-specific loads and resources used in the Study. The load forecasts and assumption were developed jointly by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) staff. This forecast is also used in the Council's 1991 Northwest Conservation and Electric Power Plan (1991 Plan).

  17. Tall shrub expansion facilitated by patterned ground in the northwest Siberian Low Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, G. V.; Epstein, H. E.; Walker, D. A.; Matyshak, G.; Ermokhina, K.

    2011-12-01

    We integrated field observations with a time-series of satellite imagery to identify key biophysical attributes associated with tall shrub expansion and increased vegetation productivity within a forest-tundra ecotone near Kharp, northwest Siberia. Comparison of high-resolution Corona and QuickBird satellite photography indicates that alder (Alnus fruticosa) cover increased by ~10% since 1968. Additionally, areas of sharply increasing productivity detected using a Landsat TM/ETM+ time-series for 1985-2009 are consistently co-located with expanding shrub stands. Field observations made in 2011 revealed that most of the shrub expansion has occurred in areas of patterned ground in which abundant mineral-dominated microsites ("circles") have been maintained by cryogenic disturbance. In order to test whether shrub expansion was facilitated by circles, we established a series of transects according to categories of alder stand age and circle density. Along the transects, we mapped the location of alders and circles, measured soil organic depth and leaf area index (LAI), and characterized plant communities. In recent expansion areas, young alders occur almost exclusively on silt-rich circles that lack vegetation and surface organic matter. Alder abundance and LAI increased with the total area occupied by exposed circles. Analyses using spatial statistics indicate that young alders tend to occur in evenly-spaced groups that mirror the spacing of circles. This distribution pattern persists in older alder stands, especially where circles are large and widely-spaced. Stands on closely-spaced circles quickly develop dense canopies and low species-diversity. Based on ground- and satellite-based observations, we conclude that the abundance of mineral-dominated circles at Kharp has facilitated rapid alder expansion and associated alterations in plant community structure, composition, and productivity. Physical processes in areas of patterned ground promote continuous, rather than

  18. Natural areas as a basis for assessing ecosystem vulnerability to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaret H. Massie; Todd M. Wilson; Anita T. Morzillo; Emilie B. Henderson

    2016-01-01

    There are more than 580 natural areas in Oregon and Washington managed by 20 federal, state, local, and private agencies and organizations. This natural areas network is unparalleled in its representation of the diverse ecosystems found in the Pacific Northwest, and could prove useful for monitoring long-term ecological responses to climate change. Our objectives were...

  19. Timber resource statistics for the North Coast resource area of California 1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen L. Waddell; Patricia M. Bassett

    1996-01-01

    This report is a summary of timber resource statistics for the North Coast Resource Area of California, which includes Del Norte, Humboldt, Mendocino, and Sonoma Counties. Data were collected by the Pacific Northwest Research Station as part of a State-wide multi-resource inventory. The inventory sampled private and public lands except reserved areas and National...

  20. Area-to-Area Poisson Kriging and Spatial Bayesian Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmarian, Naeimehossadat; Jafari-Koshki, Tohid; Soleimani, Ali; Taghi Ayatollahi, Seyyed Mohammad

    2016-10-01

    Background: In many countries gastric cancer has the highest incidence among the gastrointestinal cancers and is the second most common cancer in Iran. The aim of this study was to identify and map high risk gastric cancer regions at the county-level in Iran. Methods: In this study we analyzed gastric cancer data for Iran in the years 2003-2010. Areato- area Poisson kriging and Besag, York and Mollie (BYM) spatial models were applied to smoothing the standardized incidence ratios of gastric cancer for the 373 counties surveyed in this study. The two methods were compared in term of accuracy and precision in identifying high risk regions. Result: The highest smoothed standardized incidence rate (SIR) according to area-to-area Poisson kriging was in Meshkinshahr county in Ardabil province in north-western Iran (2.4,SD=0.05), while the highest smoothed standardized incidence rate (SIR) according to the BYM model was in Ardabil, the capital of that province (2.9,SD=0.09). Conclusion: Both methods of mapping, ATA Poisson kriging and BYM, showed the gastric cancer incidence rate to be highest in north and north-west Iran. However, area-to-area Poisson kriging was more precise than the BYM model and required less smoothing. According to the results obtained, preventive measures and treatment programs should be focused on particular counties of Iran. Creative Commons Attribution License

  1. Anchorage Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An anchorage area is a place where boats and ships can safely drop anchor. These areas are created in navigable waterways when ships and vessels require them for...

  2. An Approach for Forest Inventory in Canada's Northern Boreal region, Northwest Territories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, C.; Hopkinson, C.; Hall, R.; Filiatrault, M.

    2017-12-01

    The northern extent of Canada's northern boreal forest is largely inaccessible resulting in logistical, financial, and human challenges with respect to obtaining concise and accurate forest resource inventory (FRI) attributes such as stand height, aboveground biomass and forest carbon stocks. This challenge is further exacerbated by mandated government resource management and reporting of key attributes with respect to assessing impacts of natural disturbances, monitoring wildlife habitat and establishing policies to mitigate effects of climate change. This study presents a framework methodology utilized to inventory canopy height and crown closure over a 420,000 km2 area in Canada's Northwest Territories (NWT) by integrating field, LiDAR and satellite remote sensing data. Attributes are propagated from available field to coincident airborne LiDAR thru to satellite laser altimetry footprints. A quality controlled form of the latter are then submitted to a k-nearest neighbor (kNN) imputation algorithm to produce a continuous map of each attribute on a 30 m grid. The resultant kNN stand height (r=0.62, p=0.00) and crown closure (r=0.64, p=0.00) products were identified as statistically similar to a comprehensive independent airborne LiDAR source. Regional uncertainty can be produced with each attribute to identify areas of potential improvement through future strategic data acquisitions or the fine tuning of model parameters. This study's framework concept was developed to inform Natural Resources Canada - Canadian Forest Service's Multisource Vegetation Inventory and update vast regions of Canada's northern forest inventories, however, its applicability can be generalized to any environment. Not only can such a framework approach incorporate other data sources (such as Synthetic Aperture Radar) to potentially better characterize forest attributes, but it can also utilize future Earth observation mission data (for example ICESat-2) to monitor forest dynamics and the

  3. Phylogeographic patterns of Lygus pratensis (Hemiptera: Miridae): Evidence for weak genetic structure and recent expansion in northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Juan; Cai, Wan-Zhi; Luo, Jun-Yu; Zhang, Shuai; Wang, Chun-Yi; Lv, Li-Min; Zhu, Xiang-Zhen; Wang, Li; Cui, Jin-Jie

    2017-01-01

    Lygus pratensis (L.) is an important cotton pest in China, especially in the northwest region. Nymphs and adults cause serious quality and yield losses. However, the genetic structure and geographic distribution of L. pratensis is not well known. We analyzed genetic diversity, geographical structure, gene flow, and population dynamics of L. pratensis in northwest China using mitochondrial and nuclear sequence datasets to study phylogeographical patterns and demographic history. L. pratensis (n = 286) were collected at sites across an area spanning 2,180,000 km2, including the Xinjiang and Gansu-Ningxia regions. Populations in the two regions could be distinguished based on mitochondrial criteria but the overall genetic structure was weak. The nuclear dataset revealed a lack of diagnostic genetic structure across sample areas. Phylogenetic analysis indicated a lack of population level monophyly that may have been caused by incomplete lineage sorting. The Mantel test showed a significant correlation between genetic and geographic distances among the populations based on the mtDNA data. However the nuclear dataset did not show significant correlation. A high level of gene flow among populations was indicated by migration analysis; human activities may have also facilitated insect movement. The availability of irrigation water and ample cotton hosts makes the Xinjiang region well suited for L. pratensis reproduction. Bayesian skyline plot analysis, star-shaped network, and neutrality tests all indicated that L. pratensis has experienced recent population expansion. Climatic changes and extensive areas occupied by host plants have led to population expansion of L. pratensis. In conclusion, the present distribution and phylogeographic pattern of L. pratensis was influenced by climate, human activities, and availability of plant hosts.

  4. Current strain accumulation in the hinterland of the northwest Himalaya constrained by landscape analyses, basin-wide denudation rates, and low temperature thermochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morell, Kristin D.; Sandiford, Mike; Kohn, Barry; Codilean, Alexandru; Fülöp, Réka-H.; Ahmad, Talat

    2017-11-01

    Rupture associated with the 25 April 2015 Mw 7.8 Gorkha (Nepal) earthquake highlighted our incomplete understanding of the structural architecture and seismic cycle processes that lead to Himalayan mountain building in Central Nepal. In this paper we investigate the style and kinematics of active mountain building in the Himalayan hinterland of Northwest India, approximately 400 km to the west of the hypocenter of the Nepal earthquake, via a combination of landscape metrics and long- (Ma) and short-term (ka) erosion rate estimates (from low temperature thermochronometry and basin-wide denudation rate estimates from 10Be concentrations). We focus our analysis on the area straddling the PT2, the physiographic transition between the Lesser and High Himalaya that has yielded important insights into the nature of hinterland deformation across much of the Himalaya. Our results from Northwest India reveal a distinctive PT2 that separates a Lesser Himalaya region with moderate relief (∼1000 m) and relatively slow erosion (400 km distance between them, similar spatiotemporal patterns of erosion and deformation observed in Northwest India and Central Nepal suggest both regions experience similar styles of active strain accumulation and both are susceptible to large seismic events.

  5. Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminthic infections and associated risk factors among schoolchildren in Tilili town, northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abera, Alamneh; Nibret, Endalkachew

    2014-07-01

    To determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminthes and associated risk factors among schoolchildren in Tilili town, northwest Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study involving 385 schoolchildren was conducted between November 2011 to February 2012. Each student was selected using systematic random sampling method. Questionnaire and observation were used to identify socio-demographic and associated risk factors. Fresh stool samples were observed using formal-ether concentration technique. Data were analyzed using SPSS 16.0 statistical software. Four species of intestinal helminthes were identified with an overall prevalence of 44.2% (170 of 385 schoolchildren). The predominant parasites were Ascaris lumbricoides (A. lumbricoides) 153 (39.7%) and Trichuris trichiura (T. trichiura) 30 (7.8%). One hundred thirty five (35.1%) had single infections and 35 (9.2%) were infected with more than one helminthic parasites in which 32 (8.4%) were double infections and 3 (0.8%) were triple infections. Significant associations were observed between intestinal helminth infection and those of age, grade level, and school variables. Prevalence of hookworm infection was significant in children who did not wear shoes regularly (P<0.05). Intervention programs and education on personal and environmental hygiene should be implemented for the prevention and control of helminthic infections in the study area. Copyright © 2014 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Anthelmintic Resistance of Strongyle Nematodes to Ivermectin and Fenbendazole on Cart Horses in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zewdu Seyoum

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted from November 2015 to April 2016 to determine fenbendazole and ivermectin resistance status of intestinal nematodes of cart horses in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia. Forty-five strongyle infected animals were used for this study. The animals were randomly allocated into three groups (15 horses per group. Group I was treated with fenbendazole and Group II with ivermectin and Group III was left untreated. Faecal samples were collected from each cart horse before and after treatment. Accordingly, the reduction in the mean fecal egg count at fourteen days of treatment for ivermectin and fenbendazole was 97.25% and 79.4%, respectively. It was significantly different in net egg count between treatment and control groups after treatment. From the study, resistance level was determined for fenbendazole and suspected for ivermectin. In addition, a questionnaire survey was also conducted on 90 selected cart owners to assess their perception on anthelmintics. In the survey, the most available drugs in the study area used by the owners were fenbendazole and ivermectin. Most respondents have no knowledge about drug management techniques. Hence, animal health extension services to create awareness regarding anthelmintic management that plays a key role in reducing the anthelmintic resistance parasites.

  7. Anthelmintic Resistance of Strongyle Nematodes to Ivermectin and Fenbendazole on Cart Horses in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyoum, Zewdu; Zewdu, Alemu; Dagnachew, Shimelis; Bogale, Basazinew

    2017-01-01

    A study was conducted from November 2015 to April 2016 to determine fenbendazole and ivermectin resistance status of intestinal nematodes of cart horses in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia. Forty-five strongyle infected animals were used for this study. The animals were randomly allocated into three groups (15 horses per group). Group I was treated with fenbendazole and Group II with ivermectin and Group III was left untreated. Faecal samples were collected from each cart horse before and after treatment. Accordingly, the reduction in the mean fecal egg count at fourteen days of treatment for ivermectin and fenbendazole was 97.25% and 79.4%, respectively. It was significantly different in net egg count between treatment and control groups after treatment. From the study, resistance level was determined for fenbendazole and suspected for ivermectin. In addition, a questionnaire survey was also conducted on 90 selected cart owners to assess their perception on anthelmintics. In the survey, the most available drugs in the study area used by the owners were fenbendazole and ivermectin. Most respondents have no knowledge about drug management techniques. Hence, animal health extension services to create awareness regarding anthelmintic management that plays a key role in reducing the anthelmintic resistance parasites.

  8. Modelling desertification risk in the north-west of Jordan using geospatial and remote sensing techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawad T. Al-Bakri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing, climate, and ground data were used within a geographic information system (GIS to map desertification risk in the north-west of Jordan. The approach was based on modelling wind and water erosion and incorporating the results with a map representing the severity of drought. Water erosion was modelled by the universal soil loss equation, while wind erosion was modelled by a dust emission model. The extent of drought was mapped using the evapotranspiration water stress index (EWSI which incorporated actual and potential evapotranspiration. Output maps were assessed within GIS in terms of spatial patterns and the degree of correlation with soil surficial properties. Results showed that both topography and soil explained 75% of the variation in water erosion, while soil explained 25% of the variation in wind erosion, which was mainly controlled by natural factors of topography and wind. Analysis of the EWSI map showed that drought risk was dominating most of the rainfed areas. The combined effects of soil erosion and drought were reflected on the desertification risk map. The adoption of these geospatial and remote sensing techniques is, therefore, recommended to map desertification risk in Jordan and in similar arid environments.

  9. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae of livestock and their seasonal activities, northwest of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Ramezani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the ticks (Acari: Ixodidae of livestock and their seasonal activities, in northwest of Iran, including the combination of two of the geographical regions of Iran (Caspian and mountain plateau where the majority of the domestic ruminants in Iran exist. Methods: Fifteen villages of Meshkin-Shahr County were selected randomly from different areas of the county. The animal dwellings were visited and the whole body of sheep, cows, goats and dogs were examined for their probable infestation. Samples were identified at the level of species according to the standard morphological key. Results: In this study 1 208 specimen were collected and totally nine species (Dermacentor marginatus, Dermacentor niveus, Haemaphysalis erinacei, Haemaphysalis punctata, Hyalomma anatolicum, Hyalomma asiaticum, Hyalomma marginatum, Rhipicephalus bursa and Rhipicephalus sanguineus were identified in this study. Also 569 host including 40 cows, 450 sheep, 70 goats and 9 dogs were examined for infestation and among them 255 were infested which showed a 44% of infestation among examined livestock. The infestation rate among sheep (46% was higher than other hosts. The infestation rates among the rest of hosts were as: cows (40%, goat (37% and dogs (33%. Conclusions: The results of this study and other studies of the region showed the probability of the establishment and development of the burden of several tick-borne diseases.

  10. Earthquake swarm of Himachal Pradesh in northwest Himalaya and its seismotectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rakesh; Prasath, R. Arun; Paul, Ajay; Kumar, Naresh

    2018-02-01

    On the 27th of August 2016, a seismic swarm activity consisting of 58 earthquakes (1.5 ≤ ML ≤ 4.4), which occurred in Rampur area of the Kullu-Rampur Tectonic window of Himachal Pradesh in Northwest Himalaya. The epicenters of these events are located at the northern front of the Berinag Thrust in its hanging wall. To better understand the seismotectonics of this region, we analyzed the spectral source parameters and source mechanism of this swam activity. Spectral analysis shows the low stress drop values (from 0.05 to 28.9 bars), suggesting that the upper crust has low strength to withstand accumulated strain energy in this region. The Moment Tensor solutions of 12 earthquakes (≥2.7ML) obtained by waveform inversion yield the shallow centroid depths between 5 and 10 km. All these events are of dominantly thrust fault mechanism having an average dip angle of ∼30°. The P-axes and the maximum horizontal compressive stresses are NE-SW oriented; the relative motion of the Indian Plate. The present study reveals that the swarm activity in the Himachal region of NW Himalaya is related to the out-of-sequence thrusting or the Lesser Himalayan Duplex system.

  11. The Tourist and Recreation Potential of Historical Cities in North-West Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hodachek V. M.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the development of historical cities has been high on research agenda. This is explained by the growing role of tourism and recreation in socioeconomic development and the persisting problem of the national economy’s spatial organisation amidst the absence of a clear-cut regional policy. The authors stress the discrepancy between the distribution of economic activities and the established system of settlement. This is particularly true for many historical cities, whose economic resources have been curtailed. This study provides a rationale for a more efficient use of the tourist and recreational potential to boost the socio-economic development of Russia’s historical cities. The article describes problems of the cities’ development using the country’s North-West as an example. The authors explore factors behind the formation of a new development strategy for historical cities and analyse conditions necessary for the efficient exploitation of the historical cities’ tourism and recreation potential. The findings obtained suggest that strategic areas of tourism and recreation development in Russia’s historical cities should be identified depending on city type, development conditions and other relevant factors.

  12. Modelling Snowmelt Runoff under Climate Change Scenarios in an Ungauged Mountainous Watershed, Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonggang Ma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An integrated modeling system has been developed for analyzing the impact of climate change on snowmelt runoff in Kaidu Watershed, Northwest China. The system couples Hadley Centre Coupled Model version 3 (HadCM3 outputs with Snowmelt Runoff Model (SRM. The SRM was verified against observed discharge for outlet hydrological station of the watershed during the period from April to September in 2001 and generally performed well for Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient (EF and water balance coefficient (RE. The EF is approximately over 0.8, and the water balance error is lower than ± 10%, indicating reasonable prediction accuracy. The Statistical Downscaling Model (SDSM was used to downscale coarse outputs of HadCM3, and then the downscaled future climate data were used as inputs of the SRM. Four scenarios were considered for analyzing the climate change impact on snowmelt flow in the Kaidu Watershed. And the results indicated that watershed hydrology would alter under different climate change scenarios. The stream flow in spring is likely to increase with the increased mean temperature; the discharge and peck flow in summer decrease with the decreased precipitation under Scenarios 1 and 2. Moreover, the consideration of the change in cryosphere area would intensify the variability of stream flow under Scenarios 3 and 4. The modeling results provide useful decision support for water resources management.

  13. Trends of Rural Tropospheric Ozone at the Northwest of the Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Saavedra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropospheric ozone levels around urban and suburban areas at Europe and North America had increased during 80’s–90’s, until the application of NOx reduction strategies. However, as it was expected, this ozone depletion was not proportional to the emissions reduction. On the other hand, rural ozone levels show different trends, with peaks reduction and average increments; this different evolution could be explained by either emission changes or climate variability in a region. In this work, trends of tropospheric ozone episodes at rural sites in the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula were analyzed and compared to others observed in different regions of the Atlantic European coast. Special interest was focused on the air quality sites characterization, in order to guarantee their rural character in terms of air quality. Both episodic local meteorological and air quality measurements along five years were considered, in order to study possible meteorological influences in ozone levels, different to other European Atlantic regions.

  14. Changes in present and future circulation types frequency in northwest Iberian Peninsula.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María N Lorenzo

    Full Text Available The aim of the work described herein was to study projection scenarios in order to find changes in the synoptic variability of the northwest Iberian Peninsula in the 21st century. To this end, we investigated the changes in the frequency of the different circulation types computed for the study area using three different models used in the IPCC 4(th assessment report. The circulation types were computed using the procedure known as Lamb circulation types. The control simulation for the late 20th century was evaluated objectively from the results obtained using data from the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis, as to evaluate the ability of the model to reproduce the present climate. We have compared not only seasonal mean sea level pressure fields but also the mean seasonal frequency of circulation types. The results for the end of the 21st century show a decrease in the frequency of cyclonic, W, and SW circulation types in the spring and summer months. This trend also appears in the autumn, with a concomitant increase in the anticyclonic types.

  15. Changes in present and future circulation types frequency in northwest Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, María N; Ramos, Alexandre M; Taboada, Juan J; Gimeno, Luis

    2011-01-21

    The aim of the work described herein was to study projection scenarios in order to find changes in the synoptic variability of the northwest Iberian Peninsula in the 21st century. To this end, we investigated the changes in the frequency of the different circulation types computed for the study area using three different models used in the IPCC 4(th) assessment report. The circulation types were computed using the procedure known as Lamb circulation types. The control simulation for the late 20th century was evaluated objectively from the results obtained using data from the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis, as to evaluate the ability of the model to reproduce the present climate. We have compared not only seasonal mean sea level pressure fields but also the mean seasonal frequency of circulation types. The results for the end of the 21st century show a decrease in the frequency of cyclonic, W, and SW circulation types in the spring and summer months. This trend also appears in the autumn, with a concomitant increase in the anticyclonic types.

  16. Influence of environmental properties on macrobenthos in the northwest Indian shelf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraj, K A; Jayalakshmi, K V; Saraladevi, K

    2007-04-01

    The paper deals with the standing stock of macrobenthic infauna and associated environmental factors influencing the benthic community in the shelf region of the northwest Indian coast. The data were collected onboard FORV Sagar Sampada during the winter monsoon (January-February, 2003) to understand the community structure and the factors influencing the benthic distribution. The environmental parameters, sediment characteristics and macrobenthic infauna were collected at 26 stations distributed in the depths between 30 and 200 m extending from Mormugao to Porbander. Total benthic abundance was high in lower depths (50-75 m), and low values noticed at 30 m depth contour was peculiar. Polychaetes were the dominant group and were more abundant in shallow and middle depths with moderate organic matter, clay and relatively high dissolved oxygen. On the other hand crustaceans and molluscs were more abundant in deeper areas having sandy sediment and low temperature. High richness and diversity of whole benthic groups observed in deeper depths counter balanced the opposite trend shown by polychaete species. Generally benthos preferred medium grain sized texture with low organic matter and high organic matter had an adverse effect especially on filter feeders. Deposit feeding polychaetes dominated in shallow depths while carnivore species in the middle depths. Ecologically, benthos were controlled by a combination of factors such as temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, sand and organic matter and no single factor could be considered as an ecological master factor.

  17. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1991 to the DOE Office of Energy Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    Within the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER), the atmospheric sciences and carbon dioxide research programs are part of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD). One of the central missions of the division Is to provide the DOE with scientifically defensible information on the local, regional, and global distributions of energy-related pollutants and their effects on climate. This information is vital to the definition and Implementation of a sound national energy strategy. This volume reports on the progress and status of all OHER atmospheric science and climate research projects at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). Research at PNL provides basic scientific underpinnings to DOE's program of global climate research. Research projects within the core carbon dioxide and ocean research programs are now integrated with those in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM), the Computer Hardware, Advanced Mathematics and Model Physics (CHAMMP), and quantitative links programs to form DOEs contribution to the US Global Change Research Program. Climate research in the ESD has the common goal of improving our understanding of the physical, chemical, biological, and social processes that influence the Earth system so that national and international policymaking relating to natural and human-induced changes in the Earth system can be given a firm scientific basis. This report describes the progress In FY 1991 in each of these areas

  18. Participation in Farm Markets in Rural Northwest Pakistan: A Regression Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inayatullah Jan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Participation in farm markets is important for increasing income of farmers in the developing countries. A number of factors account for a household participation in agricultural marketing. This study attempts to explore such associated factors which playa significant role in farmers’ participation in farm markets in rural northwest Pakistan. Drawing on empirical data from the field survey; gur, vegetables, and milk were the main products offered for marketing in the area. The degree of specialization of marketrelations was based on the nature of the farm product. In gur markets, the marketing relations were based on personalized terms whereas in vegetable markets, they were exclusively commercialized. The results of the binary logit model show that size of selfcultivatedland and number of livestock, were important determinants of a household participation in agricultural marketing. The study concludes that participation in agricultural markets could be substantially increased through improved infrastructure,commercialized farming systems, and increased number of farm markets so that the dominance of few selected commission agents is minimized.

  19. Lithostratigraphy of Espinhaco supergroup and Bambini group in the north-west of Bahia state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, M.E. da; Karmann, J.; Trompette, R.

    1989-01-01

    The lithostragraphic aspects of the Middle to Upper Proterozoic metasedimentary sequences of the Espinhaco Supergroup and the Bambui Group in northwest Bahia, east-central Brazil, have been studied. The studied area was divided five tectonic domains on the basis of differences in metamorphism and style of folding. This paper proposes the subdivision of Bambui Group into four formations, from bottom to top: Canabravinha, Sao Desiderio, Serra da Mamona, and Riachao das Neves, here correlated, respectively, with Jequitai, Lagoa do Jacare, Serra da Saudade, and Tres Marias formations, all well characterized further south in the State of Minas Gerais. The Espinhaco Supergroup is separable into two metasedimentary units. The younger one, here defined as the Rio Preto Group, was involved in the evolution of the Rio Preto Fold System and contains mainly siliciclastic sediments correlable with the Chapada Diamantina Group. The older unit belongs to the Espinhaco Fold Belt and also is composed mostly of detritic sediments. This sequences in the Santo Onofre Group. (author0 [pt

  20. HIV, appendectomy and postoperative complications at a reference hospital in Northwest Tanzania: cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heukelbach Jorg

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Appendicitis is a frequent surgical emergency worldwide. The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of HIV, and the association of infection with clinical, intraoperative and histological findings and outcome, among patients with appendicitis. Methods We performed a cross sectional study at Weill-Bugando Medical Centre in northwest Tanzania. In total, 199 patients undergoing appendectomy were included. Demographic characteristics of patients, clinical features, laboratory, intraoperative and histopathological findings, and HIV serostatus were recorded. Results In total, 26/199 (13.1% were HIV-seropositive. The HIV-positive population was significantly older (mean age: 38.4 years than the HIV-negative population (25.3 years; p Conclusion HIV infections are common among patients with appendicitis in Tanzania, and are associated with severe morbidity, postoperative complications and longer hospital stays. Early diagnosis of appendicitis and prompt appendectomy are crucial in areas with high prevalence of HIV infection. Routine pre-test counseling and HIV screening for appendicitis patients is recommended to detect early cases who may benefit from HAART.

  1. Prevalence of cattle flukes infection at Andassa Livestock Research Center in north-west of Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asressa Yeneneh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A cross sectional study was carried out from October 2010 to March 2011 at Andassa Livestock Research Center, North-West Ethiopia. The objective was to determine the prevalence of cattle flukes infection. Faecal samples were collected from a total of 384 cattle, cross breed (n= 39 and Fogera breed (n=345 of all age groups and sex. Sedimentation technique was employed for the recovery of fluke eggs from freshly collected fecal sample. The results indicated that the overall prevalence of bovine flukes infection was 60.42%. In this study, the highest prevalence was recorded from Paramphistomosis (45.83% followed by Fasciolosis (23.96%, and Schistosomosis (9.89%. The prevalence of flukes infection was higher in age group 1- 2 years old. There was significant difference in case of Paramphistomosis among age groups. No significant association was found between crossed breeds and sex groups for fluke’s infection. The prevalence of Paramphistomosis was high in cross breed (58.97% than Fogera breed (44.35%. However, in both cases, there was no significant difference. The result of the present study revealed that the prevalence of major bovine fluke infection in the study area was relatively low and is the definite proof of active infection.

  2. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1990 to the DOE Office of Energy Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. F.; Kreml, S. A.; Wildung, R. E.; Hefty, M. G.; Perez, D. A.; Chase, K. K.; Elderkin, C. E.; Owczarski, E. L.; Toburen, L. H.; Parnell, K. A.; Faust, L. G.; Moraski, R. V.; Selby, J. M.; Hilliard, D. K.; Tenforde, T. S.

    1991-02-01

    This report summarizes progress in the environmental sciences research conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the Office of Health and Environment Research in FY 1990. Research is directed toward developing the knowledge needed to guide government policy and technology development for two important environmental problems: environmental restoration and global change. The report is organized by major research areas contributing to resolution of these problems. Additional sections summarize exploratory research, educational institutional interactions, technology transfer, and publications. The PNL research program continues make contributions toward defining and quantifying processes that effect the environment at the local, regional, and global levels. Each research project forms a component in an integrated laboratory, intermediate-scale, and field approach designed to examine multiple phenomena at increasing levels of complexity. This approach is providing system-level insights into critical environmental processes. University liaisons continue to be expanded to strengthen the research and to use PNL resources to train the scientists needed to address long-term environmental problems.

  3. Energy investment and trade opportunities emerging in Central Asia, Northwest China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorian, J.P.; Abbasovich, T.U.; Tonkopy, M.S.; Jumabekovich, O.A.; Qiu Daxiong

    1998-01-01

    Cooperation in the business of oil and natural gas among governments of Central Asia and Northwest China could help the countries overcome obstacles to development of their vast petroleum resources. The most important obstacle facing these countries is also the one most widely discussed: limited infrastructure for transporting energy. But there are other problems holding back oil and gas development. They include poor communications infrastructure, unstable government structures, political conflict, payments difficulties, and inadequate energy policies. For countries analyzed in a recent Asian Development Bank (ADB) study of economic cooperation in the region--Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, and the Xinjiang autonomous region of the People's Republic of China (Xinjiang PRC)--oil and gas are the most abundant and valuable natural resources. While Central Asia is poised to become a major world supplier of energy, especially oil and gas, countries in the region emphasize energy self-sufficiency at the expense of developing new trading linkages. Governments thus tend to ignore the benefits of regional cooperation and remain reluctant to commit to area-wide trade and other forms of cooperation. The paper discusses oil and gas sectors; major energy trends, including restructuring, foreign investment, and energy diversification; opportunities for cooperation; impediments to cooperation; and models of cooperation

  4. Antiphospholipid syndrome in northwest Italy (APS Piedmont Cohort): demographic features, risk factors, clinical and laboratory profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertero, M T; Bazzan, M; Carignola, R; Montaruli, B; Silvestro, E; Sciascia, S; Vaccarino, A; Baldovino, S; Roccatello, D

    2012-06-01

    We report the experience from the Antiphospholipid Antibodies (aPL) Regional Consortium in northwest Italy, meant to support clinical research and foster collaboration among health professionals regarding the diagnosis and management of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) patients. This cohort-study (APS Piedmont Cohort) was designed to register the clinical characteristics at inception and associated immunological manifestations at diagnosis (if any) of patients who strictly fulfilled the current criteria for APS, all recruited at the Piedmont and Valle d'Aosta regions. Clinical and laboratory data from 217 APS patients (171 with vascular events, 33 with pregnancy morbidity and 13 with both), from 16 centres within the geographical area were collected. Venous thrombosis was recorded in 45.6% of patients, arterial thrombosis in 35%, small-vessel thrombosis in 1.12% and mixed arterial and venous thrombosis in the remaining 19.4% of the cases. Pregnancy morbidity included 19 patients with unexplained fetal death beyond the 10th week of pregnancy, 17 with premature birth before the 34th week and 10 with three or more unexplained spontaneous abortions before the 10th week of gestation. This consortium represents an instrument by which to audit clinical practice, to provide counselling to local centres and to sustain future basic and clinical APS research.

  5. Survey of medico-legal investigation of homicide in the region of Epirus (Northwest Greece).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragkouli, Kleio; Boumba, Vassiliki; Vougiouklakis, Theodore

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzed the forensic features of homicides in North-West Greece (Epirus) from 1998 to 2013, a borderland area between Greece and Albania. Although Greece is critically influenced by both the increasing flow of refugees and the current socioeconomic crisis, very little information has been published regarding the patterns of homicide in the country. Fifty-eight autopsied victims (36 males; 22 females) were investigated. The median age was 37 years old. The average annual homicide rate was 0.85 per 100,000 inhabitants and showed remarkable fluctuation, with largest increase during Greek financial downturn. Sixteen victims were not Greek citizens. The most common method of commitment was the use of firearm (40%). The main motives were economical causes (26%) and passion (14%). Four cases were categorized as matricide (7%), 3 as homicide-suicide (5%), 2 as patricide (3%) and 1 as infanticide (2%). Toxicological analysis proved negative for ethanol and other psychotropic substances in the majority of the victims (50%). There is an urgent need for public actions both in Epirus and in Greece, with the application of effective strategies against criminality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  6. The origin of high hydrocarbon groundwater in shallow Triassic aquifer in Northwest Guizhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shan; Qi, Shihua; Luo, Zhaohui; Liu, Fangzhi; Ding, Yang; Huang, Huanfang; Chen, Zhihua; Cheng, Shenggao

    2018-02-01

    Original high hydrocarbon groundwater represents a kind of groundwater in which hydrocarbon concentration exceeds 0.05 mg/L. The original high hydrocarbon will significantly reduce the environment capacity of hydrocarbon and lead environmental problems. For the past 5 years, we have carried out for a long-term monitoring of groundwater in shallow Triassic aquifer in Northwest Guizhou, China. We found the concentration of petroleum hydrocarbon was always above 0.05 mg/L. The low-level anthropogenic contamination cannot produce high hydrocarbon groundwater in the area. By using hydrocarbon potential, geochemistry and biomarker characteristic in rocks and shallow groundwater, we carried out a comprehensive study in Dalongjing (DLJ) groundwater system to determine the hydrocarbon source. We found a simplex hydrogeology setting, high-level water-rock-hydrocarbon interaction and obviously original hydrocarbon groundwater in DLJ system. The concentration of petroleum hydrocarbon in shallow aquifer was found to increase with the strong water-rock interaction. Higher hydrocarbon potential was found in the upper of Guanling formation (T 2 g 3 ) and upper of Yongningzhen formation (T 1 yn 4 ). Heavily saturated carbon was observed from shallow groundwater, which presented similar distribution to those from rocks, especially from the deeper groundwater. These results indicated that the high concentrations of original hydrocarbon in groundwater could be due to the hydrocarbon release from corrosion and extraction out of strata over time.

  7. HIV associated hypocalcaemia among diarrheic patients in northwest Ethiopia: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moges, Beyene; Amare, Bemnet; Yabutani, Timoki; Kassu, Afework

    2014-07-04

    Hypocalcaemia, defined by serum calcium level less than 8.5 mg/dl, could be caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and diarrheal diseases. In Ethiopia, while morbidities from diarrheal diseases and HIV are serious health problems, studies assessing the interactions amongst of the three do not exist. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to investigate the level of calcium among diarrheic patients with and without HIV co-infection. Consecutive diarrheic patients attending Gondar University Hospital in Ethiopia were enrolled and screened for HIV, intestinal parasites, Shigella and Salmonella. Concentration of calcium in serum was determined using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. A total of 206 diarrheic patients were included in the study (109 = HIV positive, 97 = HIV negative). Intestinal parasites and Shigella species were detected in 32.2% and 8.5% of the patients, respectively. The serum calcium levels in the patients who were found positive for Shigella species or intestinal parasites was not significantly different by the presence or absence of HIV co-infection. HIV infected diarrheic patients had significantly lower mean serum calcium levels (7.82 ± 1.23 mg/dl) than those negative for HIV (8.38 ± 1.97) (P = 0.015). The age groups 25-35 and greater than 45 years showed significantly lower mean serum calcium levels (7.77 ± 1.55 mg/dl) in comparison to the other age groups (7.84 ± 1.41 mg/dl, P = 0.009). On the other hand, females presented with significantly lower mean serum calcium levels (7.79 ± 1.60 mg/dl, P = 0.044) than males (8.26 ± 1.65 mg/dl). There is high prevalence of hypocalcaemia among diarrheic patients in northwest Ethiopia. And HIV stood out to be a major risk factor for development of hypocalcaemia among the diarrheic patients in northwest Ethiopia. Further studies are required to substantiate and characterize the mechanisms and consequences of calcium metabolism disorders among HIV infected individuals in the

  8. Paleoproductivity and intermediate-water ventilation in the subarctic Northwest Pacific during the last deglaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khim, B.; Ikehara, K.; Sagawa, T.; Shibahara, A.; Yamamoto, M.

    2010-12-01

    Holocene values. Interesting are the remarkable double peaks of δ15N values, also corresponding to B/A and PB intervals, respectively. Such increased δ15N values indicated the enhanced nitrate utilization through the promoted phytoplankton production. Otherwise, the high δ15N records could be indicative of water column denitrification in the source region. Thus, our study area possibly experienced high surface water productivity at times of reduced intermediate ventilation in the subarctic Northwest Pacific during the last deglaciation.

  9. Motivational factors affecting informal women entrepreneurs in North-West Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchen Henning

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Informal women entrepreneurs in the rural villages of North-West strive to progress from poverty to prosperity. There is a growing appreciation that the conditions that support women’s ability to start and grow ventures may be different from those that help men and therefore there is a need to examine the motivational factors affecting women’s enterprise development. Aim: The study aimed to identify the motivational factors of women in the Mahikeng area to start informal enterprises, the barriers they experience and their developmental business needs. Setting: The study focussed on informal women entrepreneurs in the rural villages of Mahikeng in the North-West province. Methods: In total, 80 face-to-face questionnaires were completed with women entrepreneurs. A principal component analysis of 15 items of the total questionnaire was performed on the data to determine which items could be reduced and transformed into new components. Results: ‘Destitute conditions’, ‘Entrepreneurial Spirit’ and ‘Passion for Product’ emerged as the three underlying motivational factors. The component ‘Destitute conditions’ was ranked as the most important reason for starting an informal business. The need to transcend impoverished conditions (a push factor and the need for self-determination (a pull factor were almost equally strong amongst the 80 participants. ‘Lack of financial and business skills’ was ranked as the biggest obstacle to keeping the business running. Ninety-one per cent of the women entrepreneurs reported that they had never received any training from the government or the private sector. Conclusions: Access to basic infrastructure, training, funding and business networks will enable self-efficacy behaviour of women entrepreneurs in the Mahikeng district to move beyond poverty. Recommendations included the establishment of a regional database of informal women entrepreneurs, the improvement of basic

  10. Evaluation of mulched drip irrigation for cotton in arid Northwest China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Z.; Jin, M.; Simunek, J.; van Genuchten, M.T.

    2014-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted in arid Southern Xinjiang, Northwest China, for 3 years to evaluate sustainable irrigation regimes for cotton. The experiments involved mulched drip irrigation during the growing season and flood irrigation afterward. The drip irrigation experiments included control

  11. 2008 Northwest Florida Water Management District (NWFWMD) Lidar: Eglin Air Force Base, Walton County, FL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the summer of 2008, the Northwest Florida Water Management District collected lidar data over a portion of Walton County, FL (Eglin Air force Base) to support...

  12. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northwest Arctic, Alaska: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, freshwater, and anadromous fish species in Northwest Arctic, Alaska. Vector polygons...

  13. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northwest Arctic, Alaska: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, pelagic birds, and gulls/terns in Northwest...

  14. Climate Change Impact Assessment for Surface Transportation in the Pacific Northwest and Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The states in the Pacific Northwest and Alaska region share interconnected transportation networks for people, goods, and services that support the : regional economy, mobility, and human safety. Regional weather has and will continue to affect the p...

  15. 2007 Northwest Florida Water Manangement District (NWFWMD) Lidar: Jackson County ("Jackson Blue")

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — LIDAR-derived binary (.las) files containing points classified as bare-earth and canopy (first return) were produced for the 2007 Northwest Florida Water Management...

  16. 2007 Northwest Florida Water Manangement District(NWFWMD) Lidar: Gadsden County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — LIDAR-derived binary (.las) files containing points classified as bare-earth and canopy (first return) were produced for the 2007 Northwest Florida Water Management...

  17. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northwest Arctic, Alaska: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine and estuarine invertebrate species in Northwest Arctic, Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set...

  18. Development and validation of a MODIS colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) algorithm in northwest Florida estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satellite remote sensing provides synoptic and frequent monitoring of water quality parameters that aids in determining the health of aquatic ecosystems and the development of effective management strategies. Northwest Florida estuaries are classified as optically-complex, or wat...

  19. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northwest Arctic, Alaska: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for nesting birds in Northwest Arctic, Alaska. Vector points in this data set represent locations of...

  20. GEOMORPHOLOGY AND ANTHROPOGENIC INFLUENCES ON FISH AND AMPHIBIANS IN PACIFIC NORTHWEST COASTAL STREAMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical habitat degradation has been implicated as a major contributor to the historic decline of salmonids in Pacific Northwest streams. Native aquatic vertebrate assemblages in the Oregon and Washington Coast Range consist primarily of coldwater salmonids, cottids, and amphib...

  1. 2007 Northwest Florida Water Manangement District (NWFWMD) Lidar: 5 Counties (Jackson, Calhoun, Washington, Liberty, Holmes)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — LIDAR-derived binary (.las) files containing points classified as bare-earth and canopy (first return) were produced for the 2007/2008 Northwest Florida Water...

  2. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northwest Arctic, Alaska: FISHL (Fish Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for anadromous fish species in Northwest Arctic, Alaska. Vector arcs in this data set represent species...

  3. Oceanographic and marine meteorological observations in the Northwest Pacific ocean during 1998 (NODC Accession 0000070)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile, plankton, and nutrients data were collected using buoy and CTD casts in the Northwest Pacific Ocean. Data were collected from 22 January 1998 to...

  4. Executive summary: Climate change in the northwest: Implications for our landscapes, waters, and communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Meghan M.; Bethel, Jeffrey; Capalbo, Susan M.; Cuhaciyan, J.E.; Eigenbrode, Sanford D.; Glick, Patty; Houston, Laurie L.; Littell, Jeremy S.; Lynn, Kathy; Mote, Philip W.; Raymondi, Rick R.; Reeder, W. Spencer; Shafer, Sarah L.; Snover, Amy K.

    2013-01-01

    Climate Change in the Northwest: Implications for Our Landscapes, Waters, and Communities is aimed at assessing the state of knowledge about key climate impacts and consequences to various sectors and communities in the northwest United States. It draws on a wealth of peer-reviewed literature, earlier state-level assessment reports conducted for Washington (2009) and Oregon (2010), as well as a risk-framing workshop. As an assessment, it aims to be representative (though not exhaustive) of the key climate change issues as reflected in the growing body of Northwest climate change science, impacts, and adaptation literature now available. This report will serve as an updated resource for scientists, stakeholders, decision makers, students, and community members interested in understanding and preparing for climate change impacts on Oregon, Washington, and Idaho. This more detailed, foundational report is intended to support the key findings presented in the Northwest chapter of the Third National Climate Assessment.

  5. THE NATURAL MOVEMENT OF POPULATION IN THE NORTH-WEST REGION OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANUELA-DORA ORBOI

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available From the perspective of human development indicators during the past 15 years, Region North-West has undergone a series of negative processes, which are the most significant demographic decline due to negative natural growth and increased migration of people, especially those assets. Region North-West faces a negative demographic trend, with life expectancy of 71.38 years, the national average (72.22 years with high external migration, especially of highly qualified workforce. Analysis of employment trends of population in Region North-West shows a downward trend and projections for the development for years emphasized the decrease in employment. Estimates on the evolution of the population in Region North-West during 2005-2013 reveals a total population decreased by 4.2%.

  6. Glacial vicariance in the Pacific Northwest: evidence from a lodgepole pine mitochondrial DNA minisatellite for multiple genetically distinct and widely separated refugia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbout, Julie; Fazekas, Aron; Newton, Craig H; Yeh, Francis C; Bousquet, Jean

    2008-05-01

    The Canadian side of the Pacific Northwest was almost entirely covered by ice during the last glacial maximum, which has induced vicariance and genetic population structure for several plant and animal taxa. Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex. Loud.) has a wide latitudinal and longitudinal distribution in the Pacific Northwest. Our main objective was to identify relictual signatures of glacial vicariance in the population structure of the species and search for evidence of distinct glacial refugia in the Pacific Northwest. A maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA minisatellite-like marker was used to decipher haplotype diversity in 91 populations of lodgepole pine located across the natural range. Overall population differentiation was sizeable (G(ST) = 0.365 and R(ST) = 0.568). Four relatively homogeneous groups of populations, possibly representative of as many genetically distinct glacial populations, were identified for the two main subspecies, ssp. latifolia and ssp. contorta. For ssp. contorta, one glacial lineage is suggested to have been located at high latitudes and possibly off the coast of mainland British Columbia (BC), while the other is considered to have been located south of the ice sheet along the Pacific coast. For ssp. latifolia, two genetically distinct glacial populations probably occurred south of the ice sheet: in the area bounded by the Cascades and Rocky Mountains ranges, and on the eastern side of the Rockies. A possible fifth refugium located in the Yukon may have also been present for ssp. latifolia. Zones of contact between these ancestral lineages were also apparent in interior and northern BC. These results indicate the role of the Queen Charlotte Islands and the Alexander Archipelago as a refugial zone for some Pacific Northwest species and the vicariant role played by the Cascades and the American Rocky Mountains during glaciation.

  7. Seismotectonics and Crustal Thickness of Northwest Mindoro, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, P. F.; Olavere, E. A.; Lee, K. M.; Bautista, B.; Solidum, R., Jr.; Huang, B. S.

    2015-12-01

    Mindoro Island locates where the Palawan Continental Block (PCB) indented into the Philippine Mobile Belt (PMB) during the Early Miocene and where the Manila Trench terminates, having ceased convergence due to collision. On the transition from subduction to collision, Northwest Mindoro exhibits vigorous seismic activity and has been debated about its affiliation being PCB or PMB. Here, we use data from both the EHB and Global Centroid Moment Tensor catalogues to study the regional seismotectonics. We also deployed five broadband stations to probe the crustal thickness beneath NW Mindoro using receiver function analysis. Results show that, following the southeasterly reduction of convergence rates at the southern termination of the Manila Trench, the slab dipping angles steepen, were initiated at depth (~200 km) and propagate upwards. The horizontal distances of the trench and slab, as measured from the Wadati-Benioff zone at 200 km depth, also reduce in a southeasterly direction. Observations of intermediate-depth earthquakes that exhibit predominantly down-dip extensional stress patterns attest that the steepening of slab dipping angles is due to the negative buoyancy of the slab. Preliminary results of receiver function analysis suggest that the crustal thickness beneath NW Mindoro is about 40 km and is probably PCB affiliated.

  8. Coastal dynamics off Northwest Iberia during a stormy winter period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Pablo; Ruiz-Villarreal, Manuel; García-García, Luz; González-Nuevo, Gonzalo; Cabanas, Jose Manuel

    2013-01-01

    The consequences of a stormy winter period (2009/2010) on the shelf and coastal dynamics off Northwest Iberia are analysed by using model results in combination with the set of available observations in the frame of the Iberian Margin Ocean Observatory (RAIA), a cross-border infrastructure among North Portugal and Galicia (Spain). During the study winter, the frequent arrival of weather fronts forced river plumes to flow along the inner shelf in a fast (>1 m s-1) jet-like structure. The buoyant current strongly influenced the outer rías, the name of the estuaries in the region, where a strong decay of surface salinity (15 °C) and salty (>35.9) waters into the rías associated with the Iberian Poleward Current. Finally, some Lagrangian modelling experiments were performed to analyse the transport ability of the plume and the effect that could have had in the biological material trapped on it. The experiments reveal that an overall northward displacement of surface particles will be expected after several alternate wind events.

  9. Liquid Effluent Monitoring Program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballinger, M.Y.

    1995-05-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting a program to monitor the waste water from PNL-operated research and development facilities on the Hanford Site. The purpose of the program is to collect data to assess administrative controls and to determine whether discharges to the process sewer meet sewer criteria. Samples have been collected on a regular basis from the major PNL facilities on the Hanford Site since March 1994. A broad range of analyses has been performed to determine the primary constituents in the liquid effluent. The sampling program is briefly summarized in the paper. Continuous monitoring of pH, conductivity, and flow also provides data on the liquid effluent streams. In addition to sampling and monitoring, the program is evaluating the dynamics of the waste stream with dye studies and is evaluating the use of newer technologies for potential deployment in future sampling/monitoring efforts. Information collected to date has been valuable in determining sources of constituents that may be higher than the Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) for the Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF). This facility treats the waste streams before discharge to the Columbia River

  10. Cases of bed bug (Cimex lectularius infestations in Northwest Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Giorda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius have been a common problem for humans for at least 3,500 years and in Europe their presence was endemic until the end of World War II, when infestations began to decrease. However, since the beginning of the 21st century new cases of infestations have been reported in developed countries. Many theories have been put forward to explain this change of direction, but none has been scientifically proven. The aim of this study is to provide some reports of bed bug infestations in Northern Italy (Liguria, Piedmont and Aosta valley regions and a brief summary about their identification, clinical significance, bioecology and control. From 2008 to date, 17 bed bug infestations were identified in Northwest Italy. Knowledge about the presence and distribution of bed bugs in Italy is scanty, prior to this work only 2 studies reported the comeback of these arthropods in the Italian territory; further investigations would be necessary to better understand the current situation.

  11. The Local Residents’ Concerns about Environmental Issues in Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanus A. Aregay

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes public awareness and perception about current issues of environmental and water resources in China in comparison to the socio-economic issues. The ranking, Likert scale, and ordered logit analysis were applied to data from 1773 sample residents in northwest China. The results show that the residents rank the degradation of the ecological environment and water resources as the most important issue, and education, political involvement, gender, employment, and residential location play significant roles in explaining the observed differences in concern. Of the possible environmental and water resource restoration policies, residents ranked water quantity and quality, agricultural and industrial water use, erosion control, vegetation restoration, wildlife habitat, animal brooding and migration services, biodiversity landscape, and eco-tourism from one to nine in order of importance, respectively. The results are relevant for policymaking and imply that environmental restoration is a high public demand. Welfare gains from investments in it would be higher or equal to gains from other socio-economic and livelihood activities. Thus, public policies must emphasize restoring and maintaining a sustainable ecological environment.

  12. North-West Russia in the context of European integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kochegarova Tamara

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Integration is one of the main consequences of globalization. Elements of microsystems are growing closer, which brings to the foreground problems of interaction and — in a longer perspective — those of close cooperation between different social systems. The article considers the case of North-West Russia, the only territory having a common border with the EU, in order to examine the issue of Russia using the geographical factor, which Otto von Bismarck called the most powerful and intrinsic factor in history. The significance of this factor increased after the Cold War. It was then when the independent Baltic States became a platform for emergence and recognition of the Baltic Sea region. The author focuses on the social and cultural integrity of the region and considers the traditional Nordic countries and the Baltic Sea states as interrelated components of a single region, different from other European regions in terms of economic interests, as well as its natural and sociocultural landscape.

  13. Disposal of hazardous wastes in Canada's Northwest Territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henney, P.L.; Heinke, G.W.

    1991-01-01

    In the past decade, many jurisdictions have attempted to estimate quantities and types of hazardous wastes generated within their boundaries. Similar studies done in the Northwest Territories (NWT) are out-of-date, incomplete or specific to only one type of waste or geographical location. In 1990, an industry, business and community survey was conducted to determine types and quantities of hazardous wastes generated in the NWT and currently used disposal methods for these wastes. The survey revealed that 2,500 tons of hazardous wastes were generated each year, including waste oil and petroleum products, fuel tank sludges, acid batteries, spent solvents, antifreeze an waste paint. In many regions, disposal of these wastes may be routine, but waste disposal in arctic and subarctic regions presents unique difficulties. Severe climate, transportation expense, isolation and small quantities of waste generated can make standard solutions expensive, difficult or impossible to apply. Unique solutions are needed for northern waste disposal. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of low-cost, on-site or local hazardous wastes disposal options which can be applied in Canada's NWT and also in other arctic, remote or less-developed regions

  14. Prevalence of workplace violence in Northwest Ethiopia: a multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiruneh, Bewket Tadesse; Bifftu, Berhanu Boru; Tumebo, Akililu Azazh; Kelkay, Mengistu Mekonnen; Anlay, Degefaye Zelalem; Dachew, Berihun Assefa

    2016-01-01

    Workplace violence has been acknowledged as a global problem, particularly in the health sector. However, there is scarce data on workplace violence among nurses in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of workplace violence and associated factors among nurses in northwest Ethiopia. Hospital based cross-sectional study design was employed in 386 nurses from April 1 - April 30, 2015. Data were collected through the use of self-administered questionnaire developed by the International Labor Office/International Council of Nurses/World Health Organization and Public Services International. To keep the quality of the data collection training was given to supervisors and data collectors. Piloting was done in Debark hospital two weeks before actual data collection to assess the tool's clarity and make amendments. The proposal was approved by the Institutional Review Board of University of Gondar prior to study commencement and a written consent was obtained from each study participant. The overall prevalence of workplace violence was 26.7 %. Exploratory logistic regression analyses suggested that age, number of staff in the same work shift, working in a male ward, history of workplace violence, and marital status were factors independently associated with workplace violence. The prevalence of workplace violence among nurses was high. Creating a prevention strategy involving different stakeholders is recommended.

  15. Potential environmental effects of energy conservation measures in northwest industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baechler, M C; Gygi, K F; Hendrickson, P L

    1992-01-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) has identified 101 plants in the Pacific Northwest that account for 80% of the region's industrial electricity consumption. These plants offer a precise target for a conservation program. PNL determined that most of these 101 plants were represented by 11 major industries. We then reviewed 36 major conservation technologies used in these 11 industrial settings to determine their potential environmental impacts. Energy efficiency technologies designed for industrial use may result in direct or indirect environmental impacts. Effects may result from the production of the conservation measure technology, changes in the working environment due to different energy and material requirements, or changes to waste streams. Industry type, work-place conditions, worker training, and environmental conditions inside and outside the plant are all key variables that may affect environmental outcomes. To address these issues this report has three objectives: Describe potential conservation measures that Bonneville may employ in industrial programs and discuss potential primary impacts. Characterize industrial systems and processes where the measure may be employed and describe general environmental issues associated with each industry type. Review environmental permitting, licensing, and other regulatory actions required for industries and summarize the type of information available from these sources for further analysis.

  16. Dynamic Bubble Surface Tension Measurements in Northwest Atlantic Seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieber, D. J.; Long, M. S.; Keene, W. C.; Kinsey, J. D.; Frossard, A. A.; Beaupre, S. R.; Duplessis, P.; Maben, J. R.; Lu, X.; Chang, R.; Zhu, Y.; Bisgrove, J.

    2017-12-01

    Numerous reports suggest that most organic matter (OM) associated with newly formed primary marine aerosol (PMA) originates from the sea-surface microlayer. However, surface-active OM rapidly adsorbs onto bubble surfaces in the water column and is ejected into the atmosphere when bubbles burst at the air-water interface. Here we present dynamic surface tension measurements of bubbles produced in near surface seawater from biologically productive and oligotrophic sites and in deep seawater collected from 2500 m in the northwest Atlantic. In all cases, the surface tension of bubble surfaces decreased within seconds after the bubbles were exposed to seawater. These observations demonstrate that bubble surfaces are rapidly saturated by surfactant material scavenged from seawater. Spatial and diel variability in bubble surface evolution indicate corresponding variability in surfactant concentrations and/or composition. Our results reveal that surface-active OM is found throughout the water column, and that at least some surfactants are not of recent biological origin. Our results also support the hypothesis that the surface microlayer is a minor to negligible source of OM associated with freshly produced PMA.

  17. Surface concrete decontamination equipment developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halter, J.M.; Sullivan, R.G.; Bevan, J.L.

    1982-08-01

    This report documents a project that the Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted to identify and develop techniques for removing contaminated concrete surfaces. A major problem associated with nuclear facility decontamination and decommissioning is how to economically demolish and dispose of contaminated concrete. Removing only the contaminated portion of the concrete can substantially reduce costs. Evaluation of various methods for removing concrete surfaces shows that several techniques presently used require excessive manpower, time, and energy. Many times more material is removed than necessary, increasing the quantity of waste that must be handled under controlled conditions. These evaluations generated the basic criteria for developing a suitable concrete removal technique: provide a convenient method for cleaning surfaces (such as those contaminated by a small spill); reduce the contaminated waste volume that has to be placed into controlled storage; remove surfaces quickly; and minimize personal exposure to potentially harmful radiation or toxic materials. Removal to 1/4 to 1/2 in. of contaminated surface layer is sufficient for cleanup of most facilities. Two unique decontamination methods have been developed: the concrete spaller and the water cannon. The concrete spaller is the most efficient technique: it removes the concrete surface faster than the water cannons and at a lower cost (as little as $3.00/ft 2 of concrete surface). However, the .458 magnum water cannon may be well suited for small or hard-to-reach locations

  18. 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, Technical Appendix: Volume 2, Book 1, Energy.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-12-01

    The 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study establishes the Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) planning basis for supplying electricity to BPA customers. The Loads and Resources Study is presented in three documents: (1) this technical appendix detailing loads and resources for each major Pacific and Northwest generating utility, (2) a summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources, and (3) a technical appendix detailing forecasted Pacific Northwest economic trends and loads. This analysis updates the 1992 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study Technical Appendix published in December 1992. This technical appendix provides utility-specific information that BPA uses in its long-range planning. It incorporates the following for each utility (1) Electrical demand firm loads; (2) Generating resources; and (3) Contracts both inside and outside the region. This document should be used in combination with the 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, published in December 1993, because much of the information in that document is not duplicated here.

  19. Characterising weak layers that accommodate submarine landslides on the Northwest African continental slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urlaub, M.; Krastel, S.; Geersen, J.; Schwenk, T.

    2017-12-01

    Numerous studies invoke weak layers to explain the occurrence of large submarine landslides (>100 km³), in particular those on very gentle slopes (translational, such that failure takes place along bedding-parallel surfaces at different stratigraphic depths. This suggests that failure occurs along weak layers, which are deposited repeatedly over time. Using high resolution seismic reflection data we trace several failure surfaces of the Cap Blanc Slide complex offshore Northwest Africa to ODP-Site 658. Core-seismic integration shows that the failure surfaces coincide with diatom oozes that are topped by clay. Along Northwest Africa diatom-rich sediments are typically deposited at the end of glacial periods. In the seismic data these oozes show up as distinct high amplitude reflectors due to their characteristic low densities. Similar high-amplitude reflectors embedded into low-reflective seismic units are commonly observed in shallow sediments (<100 m below seafloor) along the entire Northwest African continental slope. The failure surfaces of at least three large landslides coincide with such reflectors. As the most recent Pleistocene glacial periods likely influenced sediment deposition along the entire Northwest African margin in a similar manner we hypothesize that diatom oozes play a critical role for the generation of submarine landslides off Northwest Africa as well as globally within subtropical regions. An initiative to drill the Northwest African continental slope with IODP is ongoing, within which this hypothesis shall be tested.

  20. Land desertification monitoring and assessment in Yulin of Northwest China using remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanzhi; Chen, Zhengyi; Zhu, Boqin; Luo, Xiuyue; Guan, Yanning; Guo, Shan; Nie, Yueping

    2008-12-01

    The objective of this study is to develop techniques for assessing and analysing land desertification in Yulin of Northwest China, as a typical monitoring region through the use of remotely sensed data and geographic information systems (GIS). The methodology included the use of Landsat TM data from 1987, 1996 and 2006, supplemented by aerial photos in 1960, topographic maps, field work and use of other existing data. From this, land cover, the Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), farmland, woodland and grassland maps at 1:100,000 were prepared for land desertification monitoring in the area. In the study, all data was entered into a GIS using ILWIS software to perform land desertification monitoring. The results indicate that land desertification in the area has been developing rapidly during the past 40 years. Although land desertification has to some extent been controlled in the area by planting grasses and trees, the issue of land desertification is still serious. The study also demonstrates an example of why the integration of remote sensing with GIS is critical for the monitoring of environmental changes in arid and semi-arid regions, e.g. in land desertification monitoring in the Yulin pilot area. However, land desertification monitoring using remote sensing and GIS still needs to be continued and also refined for the purpose of long-term monitoring and the management of fragile ecosystems in the area.

  1. Science To Support DOE Site Cleanup: The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Environmental Management Science Program Awards; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bredt, Paul R; Brockman, Fred J; Grate, Jay W; Hess, Nancy J; Meyer, Philip D; Murray, Christopher J; Pfund, David M; Su, Yali; Thornton, Edward C; Weber, William J; Zachara, John M

    2001-01-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was awarded ten Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) research grants in fiscal year 1996, six in fiscal year 1997, nine in fiscal year 1998, seven in fiscal year 1999, and five in fiscal year 2000. All of the fiscal year 1996 award projects have published final reports. The 1997 and 1998 award projects have been completed or are nearing completion. Final reports for these awards will be published, so their annual updates will not be included in this document. This section summarizes how each of the 1999 and 2000 grants address significant U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) cleanup issues, including those at the Hanford Site. The technical progress made to date in each of these research projects is addressed in more detail in the individual progress reports contained in this document. The 1999 and 2000 EMSP awards at PNNL are focused primarily in two areas: Tank Waste Remediation, and Soil and Groundwater Cleanup

  2. Hanford High-Level Waste Vitrification Program at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: technology development - annotated bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, D.E.

    1996-09-01

    This report provides a collection of annotated bibliographies for documents prepared under the Hanford High-Level Waste Vitrification (Plant) Program. The bibliographies are for documents from Fiscal Year 1983 through Fiscal Year 1995, and include work conducted at or under the direction of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The bibliographies included focus on the technology developed over the specified time period for vitrifying Hanford pretreated high-level waste. The following subject areas are included: General Documentation; Program Documentation; High-Level Waste Characterization; Glass Formulation and Characterization; Feed Preparation; Radioactive Feed Preparation and Glass Properties Testing; Full-Scale Feed Preparation Testing; Equipment Materials Testing; Melter Performance Assessment and Evaluations; Liquid-Fed Ceramic Melter; Cold Crucible Melter; Stirred Melter; High-Temperature Melter; Melter Off-Gas Treatment; Vitrification Waste Treatment; Process, Product Control and Modeling; Analytical; and Canister Closure, Decontamination, and Handling

  3. Pacific Northwest Laboratory: Annual report for 1986 to the DOE Office of Energy Research: Part 3, Atmospheric sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elderkin, C.E.

    1987-06-01

    The goals of atmospheric research at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) are to describe and predict the nature and fate of atmospheric contaminants and to develop an understanding of the atmospheric processes contributing to their distribution on local, regional, and continental scales. In 1986, atmospheric research examined the transport and diffusion of atmospheric contaminants in areas of complex terrain and participated in a large, multilaboratory program to assess the precipitation scavenging processes important to the transformation and wet deposition of chemicals composing ''acid rain.'' In addition, during 1986, a special opportunity for measuring the transport and removal of radioactivity occurred after the Chernobyl reactor accident in April 1986. Separate abstracts were prepared for individual projects.

  4. Evaluation of the tourism climate in the Hexi Corridor of northwest China's Gansu Province during 1980-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fuxian; Zhang, Mingjun; Wang, Shengjie; Qiang, Fang; Che, Yanjun; Wang, Jie

    2017-08-01

    As a pivotal section of the Silk Road in northwest China, the Hexi Corridor is a popular tourist destination. In this study, the tourism climate conditions in this region were discussed using the Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET) and the Climate-Tourism/Transfer-information-Scheme (CTIS) from 1980 to 2012. Overall, cold or cool stress was prevalent in the area, and the optimal travel period was from May to September. With global warming, the annual numbers of cumulative days with relatively cold conditions decreased, and the annual numbers of cumulative days with comfortable and relatively hot conditions increased. Two typical stations, Wushaoling and Dunhuang, were compared and analysed for their tourism climate information according to the frequency of PET and CTIS conditions, respectively. In addition, regional variations in the tourism climate conditions based on geographic information systems (GIS) were investigated during the optimal travel period.

  5. Extensional tectonics and sedimentary response of the Early–Middle Cambrian passive continental margin, Tarim Basin, Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqian Gao

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The fact that several half-grabens and normal faults developed in the Lower–Middle Cambrian of Tazhong (central Tarim Basin and Bachu areas in Tarim Basin, northwest China, indicates that Tarim Basin was under extensional tectonic setting at this time. The half-grabens occur within a linear zone and the normal faults are arranged in en echelon patterns with gradually increasing displacement eastward. Extensional tectonics resulted in the formation of a passive continental margin in the southwest and a cratonic margin depression in the east, and most importantly, influenced the development of a three-pronged rift in the northeast margin of the Tarim Basin. The fault system controlled the development of platform – slope – bathyal facies sedimentation of mainly limestone-dolomite-gypsum rock-saline rock-red beds in the half-grabens. The NW-SE trending half-grabens reflect the distribution of buried basement faults.

  6. URBAN REGIONAL NETWORKS AND TERRITORIAL DEVELOPMENT: AN ANALYSIS OF “MINAS GERAIS” NORTHWEST TERRITORY IN RECENT YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clesio Marcelino Jesus

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to show that the establishment of a rural area as a cutout for implementation of public policies for development needs to consider the configuration of the urban network of the municipalities that compose it, identifying what are the hierarchical relationships between the municipalities that make up the territory and if the most dynamic centers radiate influence to the whole. We present the case study of the Northwest Territory of Minas, where were identified various limits for the implementation of territorial development policies. In this article it is shown that such limits are manifested largely because the territory groups municipalities that have different polarizations and establish differentiated functional relationships within the regional urban network. It was found that in this territorial clipping are articulated different social production systems and that the delimitation of the territory does not match even with the regionalization of state and federal agencies.

  7. Pacific Northwest Laboratory: Annual report for 1986 to the DOE Office of Energy Research: Part 3, Atmospheric sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elderkin, C.E.

    1987-06-01

    The goals of atmospheric research at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) are to describe and predict the nature and fate of atmospheric contaminants and to develop an understanding of the atmospheric processes contributing to their distribution on local, regional, and continental scales. In 1986, atmospheric research examined the transport and diffusion of atmospheric contaminants in areas of complex terrain and participated in a large, multilaboratory program to assess the precipitation scavenging processes important to the transformation and wet deposition of chemicals composing ''acid rain.'' In addition, during 1986, a special opportunity for measuring the transport and removal of radioactivity occurred after the Chernobyl reactor accident in April 1986. Separate abstracts were prepared for individual projects

  8. Preliminary Investigations on the Distribution of Leptospira Serovars in Domestic Animals in North-west Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkirane, A; Noury, S; Hartskeerl, R A; Goris, M G A; Ahmed, A; Nally, J E

    2016-04-01

    Leptospirosis is a neglected zoonosis of global importance with a complex epidemiology that affects humans, domestic and wild mammals. However, due to the diversity of clinical signs and difficulties of establishing a confirmatory laboratory diagnosis, the disease remains poorly investigated, particularly in the developing world. In Morocco, a descriptive study of the seroprevalence of Leptospira infection in animals has never been undertaken. To fill this gap, the current study was conducted on a subset of animals in north-west Morocco as a preliminary step towards understanding the epidemiological patterns of animal leptospirosis in the country. The study was conducted on 289 serum samples collected between January and April 2012 from dogs, cattle, sheep, goats and donkeys in the areas of Rabat-Temara, Sidi Kacem and Oulmes. All serum samples were tested by the MAT with 14 reference strains of the most prevalent pathogenic serovars of Leptospira and two serovars of non-pathogenic Leptospira. The overall seroprevalence of Leptospira in cattle, sheep, goats, dogs and donkeys was 15%, 18%, 20%, 21% and 20%, respectively. The most prevalent serogroups found in each species were Ballum, Sejroe, and Australis in cattle, Ballum, Australis and Sejroe in sheep, Australis and Ballum in goats, Javanica and Australis in donkey and Australis, Ballum and Canicola in dogs. Of all the serogroups tested in this study, Icterohaemorrhagiae, the only serogroup which has been previously reported in humans in Morocco, was rarely reactive. The majority of reactive sera were collected from low land areas. A large number of sera samples classified as seronegative when tested against pathogenic leptospires were positive when tested against non-pathogenic leptospires; this is suggestive of possible novel, as yet unclassified, Leptospira serovars in Morocco. Eleven of thirteen sheep urine samples were positive by real-time PCR confirming their role as Leptospira carriers in Morocco. © 2014

  9. Geochemical characterization of acid mine lakes in northwest Turkey and their effect on the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yucel, Deniz Sanliyuksel; Baba, Alper

    2013-04-01

    Mining activity generates a large quantity of mine waste. The potential hazard of mine waste depends on the host mineral. The tendency of mine waste to produce acid mine drainage (AMD) containing potentially toxic metals depends on the amounts of sulfide, carbonate minerals, and trace-element concentrations found in ore deposits. The acid mine process is one of the most significant environmental challenges and a major source of water pollution worldwide. AMD and its effects were studied in northwest Turkey where there are several sedimentary and hydrothermal mineral deposits that have been economically extracted. The study area is located in Can county of Canakkale province. Canakkale contains marine, lagoon, and lake sediments precipitated with volcanoclastics that occurred as a result of volcanism, which was active during various periods from the Upper Eocene to Plio-Quaternary. Can county is rich in coal with a total lignite reserve >100 million tons and contains numerous mines that were operated by private companies and later abandoned without any remediation. As a result, human intervention in the natural structure and topography has resulted in large open pits and deterioration in these areas. Abandoned open pit mines typically fill with water from runoff and groundwater discharge, producing artificial lakes. Acid drainage waters from these mines have resulted in the degradation of surface-water quality around Can County. The average pH and electrical conductivity of acid mine lakes (AMLs) in this study were found to be 3.03 and 3831.33 μS cm(-1), respectively. Total iron (Fe) and aluminum (Al) levels were also found to be high (329.77 and 360.67 mg L(-1), respectively). The results show that the concentration of most elements, such as Fe and Al in particular, exceed national and international water-quality standards.

  10. Carbon storage estimation of main forestry ecosystems in Northwest Yunnan Province using remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinliang; Wang, Xiaohua; Yue, Cairong; Xu, Tian-shu; Cheng, Pengfei

    2014-05-01

    Estimating regional forest organic carbon pool has became a hot issue in the study of forest ecosystem carbon cycle. The forest ecosystem in Shangri-La County, Northwest Yunnan Province, are well preserved, and the area of Picea Likiangensis, Quercus Aquifolioides, Pinus Densata and Pinus Yunnanensis amounts to 80% of the total arboreal forest area in Shangri-La County. Based on the field measurements, remote sensing data and GIS analysis, three models were established for carbon storage estimation. The remote sensing information model with the highest accuracy were used to calculate the carbon storages of the four main forest ecosystems. The results showed: (1) the total carbon storage of the four forest ecosystems in Shangri-La is 302.984 TgC, in which tree layer, shrub layer, herb layer, litter layer, soil layer are 60.196TgC, 5.433TgC, 1.080TgC, 3.582TgC and 232.692TgC, accounting for 19.87%, 1.79%, 0.36%, 1.18%, 76.80% of the total carbon storage respectively. (2)The order of the carbon storage from high to low is soil layer, tree layer, shrub layer, litter layer and herb layer respectively for the four main forest ecosystems. (3)The total average carbon density of the four main forest ecosystems is 403.480 t/hm2, and the carbon densities of the Picea Likiangensis, Quercus Aquifolioides, Pinus Densata and Pinus Yunnanensis are 576.889 t/hm2, 326.947 t/hm2, 279.993 t/hm2 and 255.792 t/hm2 respectively.

  11. Falcon Nest Occupancy and Hatch Success Near Two Diamond Mines in the Southern Arctic, Northwest Territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel W. Coulton

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sensitivity to anthropogenic disturbance in conjunction with slow population recovery has raised conservation concerns over impacts to raptor species from industrial development in pristine areas of their North American breeding range. We evaluated whether the presence of two diamond mines resulted in negative effects to nest use and hatch success of breeding falcons in the southern Arctic barren-grounds of the Northwest Territories. A total of 20 nest sites of Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus and Gyrfalcon (Falco rusticolus breeding within 26 km of the Diavik and Ekati diamond mines were monitored annually during 1998 to 2010. The objective of the study was to test the effects of distance from mines, relative nest age, rainfall, small mammal abundance, and mine activity levels on nest occupancy and hatch rates. Model selection results indicated that nests that were older were more likely and consistently used than nests that were established more recently. A decrease in nest use associated with the mines was not detected. Hatch success was best explained by a positive association with distance from development and a negative trend over the study period, however, these effects were weak. Hatch success of nests within and beyond an estimated 5.9 km distance threshold was similar, and for nest sites within this distance was unrelated to annual changes in accumulated mine footprint area through time. Hatch success for nest sites near Diavik was unrelated to changes in this mine's activity through time. Although natural and anthropogenic effects were generally weak, the lines of evidence suggested that the observed patterns were more likely the result of natural factors operating at a regional scale than more localized effects from the activity of two diamond mines.

  12. On-site radioactive soil contamination at the Andreeva Bay shore technical base, Northwest Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reistad, O; Dowdall, M; Selnaes, Ø G; Standring, W J F; Hustveit, S; Steenhuisen, F; Sørlie, A

    2008-07-01

    The radioactive waste (RAW) storage site at Andreeva Bay in the Russian Northwest has experienced radioactive contamination both as a result of activities carried out at the site and due to incidents that have occurred there in the past such as accidental releases of radioactive materials. The site is an interesting case study for decommissioning due to the extremely large amounts of radioactivity present at the site and the conditions under which it is stored; very little has been previously published in the scientific literature about this site. This paper complements the paper describing dose rates at Andreeva Bay which is published in this issue of Journal of Environmental Radioactivity by the same authors. This study presents new data related to the activity concentrations of (137)Cs and (90)Sr in surface soils and measurements of alpha- and beta-particle fluxes taken at different areas around the site. Limited data on 60Co is also presented. The results of the study indicate that the main areas of site contamination are associated with the former spent nuclear fuel storage facility at Building 5, due to accidental discharges which began in 1982. Substantial contamination is also observed at the solid radioactive waste storage facilities, probably due to the ingress of water into these facilities. More than 240 samples were measured: maximum contamination levels were 1 x 10(6)Bq/kg (137)Cs (mean value 4.1 x 10(5)Bq/kg) and 4 x 10(6)Bq/kg (90)Sr (mean value 1.2 x1 0(5)Bq/kg). Localised patches of alpha and beta contamination were also observed throughout the site.

  13. Using a predictive model to evaluate spatiotemporal variability in streamflow permanence across the Pacific Northwest region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, K. L.

    2017-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed the PRObability Of Streamflow PERmanence (PROSPER) model, a GIS-based empirical model that provides predictions of the annual probability of a stream channel having year-round flow (Streamflow permanence probability; SPP) for any unregulated and minimally-impaired stream channel in the Pacific Northwest (Washington, Oregon, Idaho, western Montana). The model provides annual predictions for 2004-2016 at a 30-m spatial resolution based on monthly or annually updated values of climatic conditions, and static physiographic variables associated with the upstream basin. Prediction locations correspond to the channel network consistent with the National Hydrography Dataset stream grid and are publicly available through the USGS StreamStats platform (https://water.usgs.gov/osw/streamstats/). In snowmelt-driven systems, the most informative predictor variable was mean upstream snow water equivalent on May 1, which highlights the influence of late spring snow cover for supporting streamflow in mountain river networks. In non-snowmelt-driven systems, the most informative variable was mean annual precipitation. Streamflow permanence probabilities varied across the study area by geography and from year-to-year. Notably lower SPP corresponded to the climatically drier subregions of the study area. Higher SPP were concentrated in coastal and higher elevation mountain regions. In addition, SPP appeared to trend with average hydroclimatic conditions, which were also geographically coherent. The year-to-year variability lends support for the growing recognition of the spatiotemporal dynamism of streamflow permanence. An analysis of three focus basins located in contrasting geographical and hydroclimatic settings demonstrates differences in the sensitivity of streamflow permanence to antecedent climate conditions as a function of geography. Consequently, results suggest that PROSPER model can be a useful tool to evaluate regions of the

  14. Prevalence of cleft lip and palate among four provinces in the West and North-West of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Jalilevand

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the most common anomalies in newborn infants is cleft lip and/or cleft palate (CL/P. In spite of several studies about the prevalence of this, no investigation evaluated this prevalence in the West and North-West of Iran. With due attention to different ethnic groups in this area, the aim of this study is to investigate whether the distribution of CL/P live births varies regionally in this area of Iran. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using hospital registry records to identify all children born with CL/P. The hospitals with a maternity unit were selected in the capital cities of four provinces in the West and North-West of Iran, East Azarbaijan, Kurdestan, Gilan, and Markazi. The population under study included all infants born alive from 2008 to 2012. Results: During the study period, 107,317 live births were registered in the hospitals with a maternity unit of four cities, and 52 infants (0.485/1000 live births were born with CL/P. The prevalence in Rasht, Arak, Sanandaj, and Tabriz cities was 0.557, 0.352, 0.503, and 0.559/1000 live births, respectively (P 0.05, whereas the prevalence of CL/P based on sex was statistically different among the four provinces (P < 0.05. Conclusion: This study shows regional variations in the birth prevalence of clefts and various cleft types. The different effects of gender on the birth prevalence of CL/P from city-to-city may be explained environmentally and/or by genetic factors affecting the development of oral clefts.

  15. Pacific Northwest Regional and Ecozone-scale Carbon Cycle Responses to 25 Years of Variation in Climate and Disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, D. P.; Ritts, W. D.; Kennedy, R. E.; Gray, A. N.; Yang, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Spatial variation in climate, soils, disturbance regime, and forest management - as well as temporal variation in weather - all influence terrestrial carbon sources and sinks. Spatially-distributed, process-based, carbon cycle simulation models provide a means to integrate information from these various influences to estimate carbon pools and flux over large domains. Here we apply the Biome-BGC model over the 4 state (OR, WA, ID, Western MT) Northwest U.S. region for the interval from 1986-2010. Landsat data was used to characterize disturbances and revealed that the overall disturbance rate on forest land across the region was 0.8 % yr-1, with 49 % as harvests, 28 % as fire, and 23 % as pest/pathogen. A large proportion of the harvested area was on private forestland (62 %) and a large proportion of total burned area was on public forestland (89 %). Net ecosystem production (NEP) for the 2006-2010 interval on forestland was predominantly positive (a carbon sink) throughout the region, with maximum values in the Coast Range, intermediate values in the Cascade Mountains, and relatively low values in the Inland Rocky Mountain ecoregions. Croplands throughout the region had consistently high NEP. Localized negative NEPs were mostly associated with recent disturbances. There was large interannual variation in regional NEP, with notably low values across the region in 2003. In all ecoregions there was a downward trend in NEP over the 25 year study period. The net ecosystem carbon balance was positive in OR, near neutral in ID and WA, and negative (a carbon source) MT. The Northwest region as a whole was a carbon sink in the 2006-2010 period.

  16. Epidermal characters of Tamarix L. (Tamaricaceae from Northwest China and their taxonomic and palaeogeographic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Wei Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomical position of species of the genus Tamarix (Tamaricaceae has been criticized because of their gross morphological similarities (such as slender, smooth and reddish–brown branches, grey–green foliage and scale leaves, and their systematic relationships remain unclear. In this paper, the leaf epidermal features of 17 species from China are studied based on the micro-morphological characters of the epidermal cells, stomata, salt glands, papillae and epidermal hairs. According to the studies, the leaf epidermal features, together with the character of the flower, are taxonomically clearly distinct. The establishment of Tamarix albiflonum is consolidated. Tamarix korolkowi and Tamarix ramosissima have minimal differences in epidermal characters, and the former is suggested to be a junior synonym. Tamarix ramosissima, Tamarix tarimensis, Tamarix arceuthoides and Tamarix hohenackeri are most similar with respect to their leaf epidermis; considering the common morphological features, habit, distribution and especially the hybridization, it is suggested that these four species are closely genetically related and that the variations among them are probably intraspecific. The new taxonomical evidence indicates the occurrence of 13 species and four variants in China. Presently, Tamarix is a typical plant of arid and semi-arid regions, but its Eocene ancestors lived in warm and humid climates in the coastal areas of the ancient Mediterranean Sea. Thus, the papillae or epidermal hairs, which are outgrowths of the outer epidermal cells facilitating the leaf to respond to water stress and commonly seen in the plants growing in arid or semi-arid areas rather than the plants in warm and humid climates, are of relatively recent origin in Tamarix. The primitive species lack papillae or epidermal hairs, while in evolved species these structures are abundant. Based on the ecological adaptations of the epidermal features, the palaeogeographic

  17. How to help woody plants to overcome drought stress?-a control study of four tree species in Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaozhen; Zhang, Shuoxin

    2010-05-01

    Water is essential for plants and involves most physical and chemical processes within their lifecycles. Drought stress is a crucial limiting factor for plant growth and production. 48% of the land in China is arid and semi-arid, and non-irrigated land occupies approximately 51.9% of the total cultivated areas. Therefore, studies on plant drought resistant mechanisms have great significance for improving water use efficiency and thus increasing productivity of economical plants. Prior research has shown that the application of nitrogenous fertilizer affects the drought-resistant characteristics of plants. This study aimed to reveal the effect of nitrogenous fertilizer on physiological aspects and its impact on the drought resistance of four tree species (Robinia pseudoacacia L., Ligustrum lucidum Ait., Acer truncatum Bge. and Ulmus pumila L. ) in northwest China. Three levels of nitrogen fertilization (46% N based of urea adjusted to: 5g/15g soil, 15g/15g soil and 25g/15g soil) and an additional control study were applied to 2-year-old well-grown seedlings under drought conditions (30% field moisture capacity). Stomatal conductance, transpiration rate and net photosynthetic rate were measured by a LI-6400 photosynthesis system, while water use efficiency was calculated from net photosynthesis rate and transpiration rate. The results revealed that as the amount of urea applied was raised, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate and net photosynthetic rate decreased significantly, and thus water use efficiency significantly increased. It is therefore concluded that the application of nitrogenous fertilizer regulated physiological parameters by reducing stomata conductance to improve water use efficiency. In addition, among the four tree species, U. pumila had the maximum value of water use efficiency under the same drought condition. The outcome of this study provides a guided option for forest management in arid and semi-arid areas of northwest China.

  18. Influence of climate change and human activity on water resources in arid region of Northwest China: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jie Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study reviews the latest progress in research on climate change and water resources in the arid region of Northwest China, analyzes the cause of water resource changes within the region from the perspective of climate change and human activities, and summarizes future likely changes in water resources and associated adaptation strategies. The research shows that the climate in the region has experienced warming and wetting with the most significant warming in winter and the highest increase in summer precipitation since 1961. Areas with the most significant warming trends include the Qaidam Basin, the Yili River Valley, and Tacheng. Spatially, the increasing trend in precipitation becomes increasingly significant from the southeast to the northwest, and northern Xinjiang experienced the highest increase. Studies have shown a decrease in headwater of Shiyang River because runoff is mainly based on precipitation which shows a decrease trend. But an increase in western rivers was observed such as Tarim River and Shule River as well as Heihe River due to rapid glacier shrinkage and snowmelt as well as precipitation increase in mountain area. Meanwhile unreasonable human activities resulted in decrease of runoff in the middle and lower reaches of Haihe River, Shiyang River and Kaidu River. Finally, recommendations for future studies are suggested that include characteristics of changes in extreme weather events and their impacts on water resources, projections of future climate and water resource changes, climate change attribution, the selection of adaptation strategies relating to climate change and social economic activities, and use of scientific methods to quantitatively determine water resource allocation.

  19. NORTH-EAST ROMANIA AS A FUTURE SOURCE OF TREES FOR URBAN PAVED ENVIRONMENTS IN NORTH-WEST EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SJÖMAN HENRIK

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Trees are an important feature of the urban environment. The problem today lies not in finding a wide range of well-adapted tree species for park environments, but in finding species suitable for urban paved sites. In terms of north-west Europe, it is unlikely that the limited native dendroflora will provide a large variety of tree species with high tolerance to the environmental stresses characterising urban paved sites in the region. However, other regions with a comparable climate but with a rich dendroflora can potentially provide new tree species and genera well-suited to the growing conditions at urban sites in north-west Europe. This paper examines the potential of a geographical area extending over north-east Romania and the Republic of Moldavia to supply suitable tree species for urban paved sites in Central and Northern Europe (CNE. The study involved comparing the temperature, precipitation, evapotranspiration and water runoff in the woodland area of Iasi, Romania, with those the current inner-city climate of Copenhagen, Denmark and those predicted for Copenhagen 2100. The latter included urban heat island effects and predicted global climate change. The results revealed similar pattern in summer water deficit and temperature between natural woodlands in Iasi and inner-city environment of Copenhagen today. On the other hand, there is a weak match between Iasi and the future Copenhagen. In order to match the future scenario of Copenhagen with the present situation in Iasi, a greater understanding in a early phase that the solution not only depends on suitable tree species, but also on technical solutions being developed in order to have trees in paved environments in the future. On the basis of precipitation and temperature data, natural woodlands in north-east Romania have the potential to be a source of suitable trees for urban paved environments in the CNE region, even for a future climate if other aspects in the planning of trees

  20. Review of fire behavior during passage of Sandy Lake Fire 13 (NWT) across a Northwest Territories Power Corporation transmission line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, D.; Thomasson, J.

    2009-03-15

    The Sandy Lake Fire 13 of July 2008 was an intense forest fire that burned up to and across a power line right-of-way in the Northwest Territories, approximately 160 km northwest of Fort Smith. The terrain in the area is flat and vegetation is characterized by boreal pine and black spruce uplands with black spruce and tamarack in lower areas and adjacent to wetlands. This report documented post fire conditions at locations where the fire crossed the power line. The towers on this line were made from an aluminum alloy and may not have had the same resistance to heat damage as steel towers, more commonly used on major transmission lines. The transmission line was de-energized during the fire. Therefore, the effects of fire on power transmission were not documented. Although the intense wildfire crossed sections of the power line, it did not result in observable damage to the towers or lines. Fire intensity was likely greater than 40,000 kw/m along some sections of the right-of-way. Although the management of the right-of-way may have reduced heat exposure to the transmission towers, it did not stop the fire. Pine mixed with an aspen component greater than 50 per cent had a mitigating effect on fire behaviour. The fire did not result in any immediate damage to the power line infrastructure. It was concluded that the use of power lines for fire operations should consider right-of-way width in order to assess equipment maneuverability, especially around tower guy wires. 5 refs., 1 tab., 12 figs.

  1. Nutritional status of mentally retarded children in north-west Spain. I. Anthropometric indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Lastres, J; Eirís-Puñal, J; Otero-Cepeda, J L; Pavón-Belinchón, P; Castro-Gago, M

    2003-06-01

    To evaluate the nutritional status of mentally retarded children in the region of Galicia in north-west Spain, on the basis of anthropometric variables. The following variables were determined in a sample of 128 mentally retarded children (81 M, 47 F): birthweight, bodyweight, height/length, head circumference, mid-arm circumference, mid-arm muscle circumference, triceps skinfold thickness, subscapular skinfold thickness, arm area, arm muscle area, arm fat area, arm lean-to-fat ratio, Shukla's nutrition index and Quetelet's body mass index (BMI). A preliminary statistical analysis indicated that most information content could be maintained considering only eight of these variables. A factor analysis of the resulting 8 x 128 (variables by subjects) data matrix was performed, identifying two factors (FA1 and FA2) that together explained 82% of total variance. Taking these factors as indicators of nutritional status, the data were analysed for possible effects of age, gender, socioeconomic and family environment, intelligence quotient (IQ), presence/absence of cerebral palsy, quality of diet, appetite and antiepileptic use. The analysis suggested that most subjects were in the normal nutrition range, but about 33% showed either borderline or definite malnutrition. Mean score on FA2 showed a significant negative correlation with age. Children with cerebral palsy had lower mean scores on both factors, and scores on both factors varied with IQ. Children with definite malnutrition had a significantly lower IQ than those in the normal nutrition range. Mean score on both factors varied with appetite and quality of diet. The mean FAI score of children from inland-rural areas was significantly lower than that of children from coastal or urban areas. Mean FA1 score increased with increasing age of the parents. The prevalence of obesity was 13% when obesity was defined on the basis of Shukla's nutrition index, and 19% when defined on the basis of FA1 score. Malnutrition as

  2. Protocol for Monitoring Fish Assemblages in Pacific Northwest National Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenkman, Samuel J.; Connolly, Patrick J.

    2008-01-01

    Rivers and streams that drain from Olympic, Mount Rainier, and North Cascades National Parks are among the most protected corridors in the lower 48 States, and represent some of the largest tracts of contiguous, undisturbed habitat throughout the range of several key fish species of the Pacific Northwest. These watersheds are of high regional importance as freshwater habitat sanctuaries for native fish, where habitat conditions are characterized as having little to no disturbance from development, channelization, impervious surfaces, roads, diversions, or hydroelectric projects. Fishery resources are of high ecological and cultural importance in Pacific Northwest National Parks, and significantly contribute to economically important recreational, commercial, and tribal fisheries. This protocol describes procedures to monitor trends in fish assemblages, fish abundance, and water temperature in eight rivers and five wadeable streams in Olympic National Park during summer months, and is based on 4 years of field testing. Fish assemblages link freshwater, marine, and terrestrial ecosystems. They also serve as focal resources of national parks and are excellent indicators of ecological conditions of rivers and streams. Despite the vital importance of native anadromous and resident fish populations, there is no existing monitoring program for fish assemblages in the North Coast and Cascades Network. Specific monitoring objectives of this protocol are to determine seasonal and annual trends in: (1) fish species composition, (2) timing of migration of adult fish, (3) relative abundance, (4) age and size structure, (5) extent of non-native and hatchery fish, and (6) water temperature. To detect seasonal and annual trends in fish assemblages in reference sites, we rely on repeated and consistent annual sampling at each monitoring site. The general rationale for the repeated sampling of reference sites is to ensure that we account for the high interannual variability in fish

  3. Oral Hygiene Behaviors and Caries Experience in Northwest PRECEDENT Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothen, Marilynn; Cunha-Cruz, Joana; Zhou, Lingmei; Mancl, Lloyd; Jones, Jackie S.; Berg, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the association between oral hygiene behaviors (toothbrushing, water rinsing after brushing, interproximal cleaning, and adjunctive use of fluoride products) and recent caries (past 24 months) in a random sample of patients in Northwest PRECEDENT practices. Methods Practitioner-members of Northwest PRECEDENT dental Practice-based Research Network (PBRN) conducted a longitudinal study on caries risk assessment. At baseline patients completed a questionnaire on oral self-care, snacking, health, and socio-demographics. A dental exam recorded readily-visible heavy plaque and DMFT; chart review captured new caries and treatments in the previous 24 months. Bivariate and multiple GEE log-linear regression models stratified by age groups were used to relate oral hygiene behaviors to the primary outcome of mean dental caries in the past 24 months on data from 1400 patients in 63 practices. The primary exposure of interest was fluoride toothbrushing frequency. Results Fluoride toothbrushing once per day or more by patients 9-17 was significantly associated with a 50% lower mean caries rate compared to fluoride toothbrushing less than once per day, after adjustment for age, gender, race, education, income, between-meal carbohydrate snacks, sugar-added beverages, alcohol consumption, smoking, BMI, exercise, stimulated salivary pH, number of teeth, and all other oral hygiene behaviors captured [Rate Ratio (RR)=0.5; 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.3-0.8]. After adjustment, for patients 18-64 fluoride toothbrushing two or more times per day was significantly associated with a 40% lower recent mean caries rate (RR=0.6; 95%CI=0.4-0.9); in patients 65+, twice a day or more fluoride toothbrushing was not associated with lower caries rates (RR=1.1; 95%CI=0.7-1.8). Of the other oral hygiene variables, after adjustment, patients 18-64 who rinsed with water after brushing had a 40% lower mean caries rate compared to no rinsing (RR=0.6; 95%CI=0.4-0.9) and the

  4. Australian Northwest Shelf: a Late Neogene Reversible Tectonic Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kominz, M. A.; Gurnis, M.; Gallagher, S. J.; Expedition 356 Scientists, I.

    2017-12-01

    The Northwest Shelf (NWS) of Australia is characterized by several offshore basins with active rifting in Permian and Jurassic time. Thus, by the Late Neogene this continental margin should be a very slowly subsiding passive margin. However, thick, poorly dated sediments have been noted in this region leading to speculation that this part of Australia has undergone down-warping in this time period. The International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 356 was designed, in part, to better constrain this even in both time and space. Post-cruise Airy-backstripping analyses of samples from four IODP 356 well sites, located as far south as the Perth Basin and as far North as the Carnarvon Basin, suggest that, in fact, this region has undergone a latest Miocene (≈ 8 to 6 Ma) subsidence event followed by a later (≈ 2 to 1 Ma) uplift event. Age constraints are from micropaleontology with some refinement using climate cycle-stratigraphy. Water depth constraints are from benthic foraminifera and from quantitative ratios of benthic foraminifera to planktonic foraminifera. These event cannot be explained as related to either the high-magnitude glacial eustatic changes nor can the uplift event be eliminated and ascribed to sediments filling the accommodation space generated in the earlier event. The magnitude and duration of the vertical movements are remarkably similar and suggests that the subsidence is reversible. Reversibility is a key aspect of a dynamic topography signal. However, it is difficult to produce a mantle anomaly that reproduces the subsidence and subsequent uplift with the requisite amplitude and rates as observed in the NWS of Australia. Additionally, the subduction of the Australian Plate into the Java Trench is too distant to affect this region of Australia. Modeling of a flexural warping due to in-plane stress related to collision of Timor with the Java trench is

  5. Dynamics of the Pacific Northwest Lithosphere and Asthenosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, E.

    2013-12-01

    Seismic imaging resolves a complex structure beneath the Pacific Northwest (PNW) that is interpreted as: an high-velocity piece of accreted (~50 Ma) Farallon lithosphere that deepens from being exposed (at coast, where it is called Siletzia) to lower crust in SE Washington and then descending vertically to ~600 km as a 'curtain' beneath central Idaho; a stubby Juan de Fuca slab (to directed tractions on the Cascadia mega-thrust average ~4 TN per meter of along-strike fault length, or probably a shear stress of ~40 MPa over much of the locked mega-thrust (i.e., much more shear stress than the typical earthquake stress drop of 1-10 MPa). Normal to the coast, southern Cascadia is relatively tensional (where margin-normal compression is less than typical ridge push by ~4 TN/m of along-strike fault length) whereas northern Cascadia is compressional. This indicates that the southern Cascadia mega-thrust is more weakly coupled than the northern mega-thrust. Southern Cascadia slab rollback and extension of the Cascade graben and Basin-and-Range are enabled by the weak coupling, in conjunction with high gravitational potential energy of the southern Oregon arc and back-arc. Juan de Fuca-Gorda lithosphere experiences the same stress on its eastern margin as North America does on the PNW Cascadia margin (by stress continuity), although current models of the individual plates do not show this continuity. Gorda plate is strongly compressed across the Mendocino transform by the north-moving Pacific Plate. Development of the NW-trending Blanco transform has created a fault that avoids this strong compression.

  6. Railway noise annoyance on the railway track in northwest slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pultznerova, Alzbeta; Eva, Panulinova; Kucharova, Daniela; Argalasova, Lubica

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes an assessment of noise caused by railway traffic in a large high-loaded railway track in Northwest Slovakia. The measurements of noise levels generated by trains passing through residential neighborhoods were taken. Noise maps were also calculated showing noise pollution generated by the train traffic. In addition, the annoyance level and sleep disturbance of residents affected by railway noise were evaluated by a validated questionnaire on a pilot sample of 107 respondents living near the important railway track. The measurements indicated that the noise levels generated by the passage of the train were extremely high especially at night, clearly exceeding the nighttime limits of equivalent sound pressure level established by the Decree of the Slovak Ministry of Health (No.549/2007) (L Aeq  = 55 dB). Measurements at one point during the night exceeded the limit values of up to 17.4 dB. The residents reported feeling affected by the noise generated by passing trains, which caused irritability, headache, poor concentration, and insomnia. In addition, 19.64% of the residents claimed that nocturnal noise pollution was the most distressing. The results of bivariate analysis showed a higher risk of annoyance especially for railway noise [OR MH  = 7.80 (4.02-15.14)] and the noise from industry [OR MH  = 3.08 (1.72-5.50)] in the exposed location. The effects of railway traffic on annoyance/sleep and psychosocial well-being were evaluated in a few studies. In accordance with our results the railway noise mostly disturbs sleep and rest of the respondents. The pilot survey showed the importance of sleep and rest disturbance by railway noise and the possibilities of getting worse health condition in the future. Noise abatement measures and strategies should, therefore, be implemented in an effective and manageable way increasing the environmental advantages of rail transport.

  7. Noble Metal Arsenides and Gold Inclusions in Northwest Africa 8186

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, P.; McCubbin, F. M.; Rahman, Z.; Keller, L. P.; Agee, C. B.

    2016-01-01

    CK carbonaceous chondrites are a highly thermally altered group of carbonaceous chondrites, experiencing temperatures ranging between approximately 576-867 degrees Centigrade. Additionally, the mineralogy of the CK chondrites record the highest overall oxygen fugacity of all chondrites, above the fayalite-magnetite-quartz (FMQ) buffer. Me-tallic Fe-Ni is extremely rare in CK chondrites, but magnetite and Fe,Ni sulfides are commonly observed. Noble metal-rich inclusions have previously been found in some magnetite and sulfide grains. These arsenides, tellurides, and sulfides, which contain varying amounts of Pt, Ru, Os, Te, As, Ir, and S, are thought to form either by condensation from a solar gas, or by exsolution during metamorphism on the chondritic parent body. Northwest Africa (NWA) 8186 is a highly metamorphosed CK chondrite. This meteorite is predominately composed of NiO-rich forsteritic olivine (Fo65), with lesser amounts of plagioclase (An52), augite (Fs11Wo49), magnetite (with exsolved titanomagnetite, hercynite, and titanohematite), monosulfide solid solution (with exsolved pentlandite), and the phosphate minerals Cl-apatite and merrillite. This meteorite contains coarse-grained, homogeneous silicates, and has 120-degree triple junctions between mineral phases, which indicates a high degree of thermal metamorphism. The presence of NiO-rich olivine, oxides phases all bearing Fe3 plus, and the absence of metal, are consistent with an oxygen fugacity above the FMQ buffer. We also observed noble metal-rich phases within sulfide grains in NWA 8186, which are the primary focus of the present study.

  8. Pacific Northwest Laboratory ALARA Report for Calendar Year 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, S.L.

    1994-07-01

    This report provides summary results of the Calendar Year (CY) 1993 As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) Program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). This report includes information regarding whole-body exposures to radiation, and skin contaminations. The collective whole-body radiation dose to employees during 1993 was 0.58 person-sievert (58 person-rem). This dose was 11 percent lower than the projected dose of 0.65 person-sievert (65 person-rem). The Radiation Protection Section's Field Dosimetry Services group projected that no PNL employee's dose would exceed 0.02 sievert (2 rem) based on dosimeters processed during the year; no worker actually exceeded the limit by the end of CY 1993. There were 15 reported cases of skin contamination for PNL employees during 1993. This number of 60 percent of the projected total of 25 cases. There were an additional 21 cases of personal-effects contamination to PNL staff: Nine of these contamination events occurred at the 324 Building, nine occurred at the 325 Building, one occurred in the 327 Building, one occurred in the 3720 Building, and one occurred in the 326 Building. Line management set numerous challenging and production ALARA goals for their facilities. Appendix A describes the final status of the 1993 ALARA goals. Appendix B describes the radiological ALARA goals for 1994. The Radiation Protection Section of the Laboratory Safety Dept. routinely perform audits of radiological ALARA requirements for specific facilities with significant potential for exposure. These ALARA audits are part of a comprehensive safety audit of the facility, designed to evaluate and improve total safety performance

  9. Social network and dominance hierarchy analyses at Chimpanzee Sanctuary Northwest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jake A Funkhouser

    Full Text Available Different aspects of sociality bear considerable weight on the individual- and group-level welfare of captive nonhuman primates. Social Network Analysis (SNA is a useful tool for gaining a holistic understanding of the dynamic social relationships of captive primate groups. Gaining a greater understanding of captive chimpanzees through investigations of centrality, preferred and avoided relationships, dominance hierarchy, and social network diagrams can be useful in advising current management practices in sanctuaries and other captive settings. In this study, we investigated the dyadic social relationships, group-level social networks, and dominance hierarchy of seven chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes at Chimpanzee Sanctuary Northwest. We used focal-animal and instantaneous scan sampling to collect 106.75 total hours of associative, affiliative, and agonistic data from June to September 2016. We analyzed our data using SOCPROG to derive dominance hierarchies and network statistics, and we diagrammed the group's social networks in NetDraw. Three individuals were most central in the grooming network, while two others had little connection. Through agonistic networks, we found that group members reciprocally exhibited agonism, and the group's dominance hierarchy was statistically non-linear. One chimpanzee emerged as the most dominant through agonism but was least connected to other group members across affiliative networks. Our results indicate that the conventional methods used to calculate individuals' dominance rank may be inadequate to wholly depict a group's social relationships in captive sanctuary populations. Our results have an applied component that can aid sanctuary staff in a variety of ways to best ensure the improvement of group welfare.

  10. Customer satisfaction assessment at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DN Anderson; ML Sours

    2000-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing and implementing a customer satisfaction assessment program (CSAP) to assess the quality of research and development provided by the laboratory. This report presents the customer survey component of the PNNL CSAP. The customer survey questionnaire is composed of two major sections: Strategic Value and Project Performance. Both sections contain a set of questions that can be answered with a 5-point Likert scale response. The strategic value section consists of five questions that are designed to determine if a project directly contributes to critical future national needs. The project Performance section consists of nine questions designed to determine PNNL performance in meeting customer expectations. A statistical model for customer survey data is developed and this report discusses how to analyze the data with this model. The properties of the statistical model can be used to establish a gold standard or performance expectation for the laboratory, and then to assess progress. The gold standard is defined using laboratory management input-answers to four questions, in terms of the information obtained from the customer survey: (1) What should the average Strategic Value be for the laboratory project portfolio? (2) What Strategic Value interval should include most of the projects in the laboratory portfolio? (3) What should average Project Performance be for projects with a Strategic Value of about 2? (4) What should average Project Performance be for projects with a Strategic Value of about 4? To be able to provide meaningful answers to these questions, the PNNL customer survey will need to be fully implemented for several years, thus providing a link between management perceptions of laboratory performance and customer survey data

  11. Pyroxene microstructure in the Northwest Africa 856 martian meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroux, Hugues; Devouard, Bertrand; Cordier, Patrick; Guyot, François

    2004-05-01

    Transmission electron microscopy was used to examine pyroxene microstructure in the Northwest Africa (NWA) 856 martian meteorite to construct its cooling and shock histories. All pyroxenes contain strained coherent pigeonite/augite exsolution lamellae on (001). The average width and periodicity of lamellae are 80 and 400 nm, respectively, indicating a cooling rate below 0.1 °C/hr for the parent rock. Pigeonite and augite are topotactic, with strained coherent interfaces parallel to (001). The closure temperature for Ca-Fe, Mg interdiffusion, estimated from the composition at the augite pigeonite interface, is about 700 °C. Tweed texture in augite reveals that a spinodal decomposition occurred. Locally, tweed evolved toward secondary pigeonite exsolutions on (001). Due to the decreasing diffusion rate with decreasing temperature, "M-shaped" concentration profiles developed in augite lamellae. Pigeonite contains antiphase boundaries resulting from the C2/c to P21/c space group transition that occurred during cooling. The reconstructive phase transition from P21/c clinopyroxene to orthopyroxene did not occur. The deformation (shock) history of the meteorites is revealed by the presence of dislocations and mechanical twins. Dislocations are found in glide configuration, with the [001](100) glide system preferentially activated. They exhibit strong interaction with the strained augite/pigeonite interfaces and did not propagate over large distances. Twins are found to be almost all parallel to (100) and show moderate interaction with the augite/pigeonite interfaces. These twins are responsible for the plastic deformation of the pyroxene grains. Comparison with microstructure of shocked clinopyroxene (experimentally or naturally shocked) suggests that NWA 856 pyroxenes are not strongly shocked.

  12. Assessing community child passenger safety efforts in three Northwest Tribes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M L; Berger, L R

    2002-12-01

    To identify strengths and weaknesses in community based child passenger safety programs by developing a scoring instrument and conducting observations of child restraint use in three Native American communities. The three communities are autonomous Tribal reservations in the Pacific Northwest. Their per capita incomes and rates of unemployment are comparable. In each community, 100 children under 5 years old were observed for car seat use. A six item community assessment tool (100 points maximum) awarded points for such items as the type (primary or secondary) and enforcement of child restraint laws; availability of car seats from distribution programs; extent of educational programs; and access to data on vehicle injuries. For children from birth to 4 years, the car seat use rate ranged from 12%-21%. Rates for infants (71%-80%) far exceeded rates for 1-4 year old children (5%-14%). Community scores ranged from 0 to 31.5 points. There was no correlation between scores and observed car seat use. One reason was the total lack of enforcement of restraint laws. A community assessment tool can highlight weaknesses in child passenger efforts. Linking such a tool with an objective measure of impact can be applied to other injury problems, such as fire safety or domestic violence. The very process of creating and implementing a community assessment can enhance agency collaboration and publicize evidence based "best practices" for injury prevention. Further study is needed to address methodologic issues and to examine crash and medical data in relation to community child passenger safety scores.

  13. Social network and dominance hierarchy analyses at Chimpanzee Sanctuary Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funkhouser, Jake A; Mayhew, Jessica A; Mulcahy, John B

    2018-01-01

    Different aspects of sociality bear considerable weight on the individual- and group-level welfare of captive nonhuman primates. Social Network Analysis (SNA) is a useful tool for gaining a holistic understanding of the dynamic social relationships of captive primate groups. Gaining a greater understanding of captive chimpanzees through investigations of centrality, preferred and avoided relationships, dominance hierarchy, and social network diagrams can be useful in advising current management practices in sanctuaries and other captive settings. In this study, we investigated the dyadic social relationships, group-level social networks, and dominance hierarchy of seven chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) at Chimpanzee Sanctuary Northwest. We used focal-animal and instantaneous scan sampling to collect 106.75 total hours of associative, affiliative, and agonistic data from June to September 2016. We analyzed our data using SOCPROG to derive dominance hierarchies and network statistics, and we diagrammed the group's social networks in NetDraw. Three individuals were most central in the grooming network, while two others had little connection. Through agonistic networks, we found that group members reciprocally exhibited agonism, and the group's dominance hierarchy was statistically non-linear. One chimpanzee emerged as the most dominant through agonism but was least connected to other group members across affiliative networks. Our results indicate that the conventional methods used to calculate individuals' dominance rank may be inadequate to wholly depict a group's social relationships in captive sanctuary populations. Our results have an applied component that can aid sanctuary staff in a variety of ways to best ensure the improvement of group welfare.

  14. Subduction, Extension, and a Mantle Plume in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, W. B.; Allen, R. M.; Richards, M. A.

    2016-12-01

    Subduction zones are some of the most important systems that control the dynamics and evolution of the earth. The Cascadia Subduction Zone offers a unique natural laboratory for understanding the subduction process, and how subduction interacts with other large-scale geodynamical phenomena. The small size of the Juan de Fuca (JdF) plate and the proximity of the system to the Yellowstone Hotspot and the extensional Basin and Range province allow for detailed study of the effects these important systems have on each other. We present both a P-wave and an S-wave tomographic model of the Pacific Northwestern United States using regional seismic arrays, including the amphibious Cascadia Initiative. These models share important features, such as the Yellowstone plume, the subducting JdF slab, a gap in the subducting slab, and a low-velocity feature beneath the shallowest portions of the slab. But subtle differences in these features between the models—the size of the gap in the subducting JdF slab and the shape of the Yellowstone plume shaft above the transition zone, for example—provide physical insight into the interpretation of these models. The physics that we infer from our seismic tomography and other studies of the region will refine our understanding of subduction zones worldwide, and will help to identify targets for future amphibious seismic array studies. The discovery of a pronounced low-velocity feature beneath the JdF slab as it subducts beneath the coastal Pacific Northwest is, thus far, the most surprising result from our imaging work, and implies a heretofore unanticipated regime of dynamical interaction between the sublithospheric oceanic asthenosphere and the subduction process. Such discoveries are made possible, and rendered interpretable, by ever-increasing resolution that the Cascadia Initiative affords seismic tomography models.

  15. Microsatellite analyses of the trout of northwest Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, J.L.; Sage, G.K.

    2001-01-01

    The trout of northwest Mexico represent an undescribed group of fish considered part of the Oncorhynchus mykiss (Pacific trout) complex of species and subspecies. Recent genetic studies have shown these fish to have important genetic diversity and a unique evolutionary history when compared to coastal rainbow trout. Increased levels of allelic diversity have been found in this species at the southern extent of its range. In this study we describe the trout in the Sierra Madre Occidental from the rios Yaqui, Mayo, Casas Grandes and de Bavispe, and their relationship to the more southern distribution of Mexican golden trout (O. chrysogaster) using 11 microsatellite loci. Microsatellite allelic diversity in Mexican trout was high with a mean of 6.6 alleles/locus, average heterozygosity = 0.35, and a mean Fst = 0.43 for all loci combined. Microsatellite data were congruent with previously published mtDNA results showing unique panmictic population structure in the Rio Yaqui trout that differs from Pacific coastal trout and Mexican golden trout. These data also add support for the theory of headwaters transfer of trout across the Continental Divide from tributaries of the Rio de Bavispe into the Rio Casas Grandes. Rio Mayo trout share a close genetic relationship to trout in Rio Yaqui, but sample sizes from the Rio Mayo prevent significant comparisons in this study. Microsatellite analyses show significant allelic frequency differences between Rio Yaqui trout and O. chrysogaster in Sinaloa and Durango Mexico, adding further support for a unique evolutionary status for this group of northwestern Mexican trout.

  16. Human settlement and its influencing factors during the historicalperiod in an oasis-desert transition zone of Dunhuang, Hexi Corridor,northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H.; Dong, G.; Zhang, S.

    2017-12-01

    Many ancient cities and settlement sites have been found in Lucaogou, an ancient oasis near Dunhuangcity in northwest China. These settlements indicate that humans inhabited this area during the historicalperiod. However, the chronology and subsistence practices of this area remain unclear. Based on newdata from radiocarbon dating, macrobotanical analysis, and the synthesis of historical documents andhigh-resolution paleoclimatic records, we discuss the inter-relationship between human settlements andplant resource utilization strategies at Lucaogou ancient oasis during historical period. Our resultsindicate that these ancient sites in Lucaogou area were built between the Han dynasty (202 BC-AD 220)and the Ming dynasty (AD 1368-AD 1644). People mainly used foxtail millet, broomcorn millet, barleyand three types of wood (Tamarix, Salix, Populus), probably as fuel for cooking. Human settlement intensityin the area during the historical period was primarily influenced by political situations, whichmight also have been affected by fluctuations in precipitation.

  17. Science to support DOE site cleanup: The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Environmental Management Science Program awards. Fiscal year 1997, mid-year progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was awarded ten Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) research grants in Fiscal Year 1996. This report gives a summary of how each grant is addressing significant DOE cleanup issues, including those at the Hanford Site. The technical progress made to date in each of these research projects is addressed in more detail in the individual progress reports contained in this document. This research is primarily focused in three areas--Tank Waste Remediation, Soil and Groundwater Cleanup, and Health Effects

  18. Science to support DOE site cleanup: The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Environmental Management Science Program awards. Fiscal year 1998 mid-year progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-05-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was awarded ten (10) Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) research grants in Fiscal Year 1996 and six (6) in Fiscal Year 1997. This section summarizes how each grant addresses significant US Department of Energy (DOE) cleanup issues, including those at the Hanford Site. The technical progress made to date in each of these research projects is addressed in more detail in the individual progress reports contained in this document. This research is focused primarily in four areas: Tank Waste Remediation, Spent Nuclear Fuel and Nuclear Materials, Soil and Groundwater Cleanup, and Health Effects

  19. Science to support DOE site cleanup: The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Environmental Management Science Program awards. Fiscal year 1997 mid-year progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was awarded ten Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) research grants in Fiscal Year 1996. This report gives a summary of how each grant is addressing significant DOE cleanup issues, including those at the Hanford Site. The technical progress made to date in each of these research projects is addressed in more detail in the individual progress reports contained in this document. This research is primarily focused in three areas--Tank Waste Remediation, Soil and Groundwater Cleanup, and Health Effects.

  20. Science to Support DOE Site Cleanup: The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Environmental Management Science Program Awards-Fiscal Year 1999 Mid-Year Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peurrung, L.M.

    1999-06-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was awarded ten Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) research grants in fiscal year 1996, six in fiscal year 1997, and eight in fiscal year 1998. This section summarizes how each grant addresses significant U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) cleanup issues, including those at the Hanford Site. The technical progress made to date in each of these research projects is addressed in more detail in the individual progress reports contained in this document. This research is focused primarily in five areas: Tank Waste Remediation, Decontamination and Decommissioning, Spent Nuclear Fuel and Nuclear Materials, Soil and Groundwater Clean Up, and Health Effects.