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Sample records for hamilton harbour lake

  1. Source apportionment of PAH in Hamilton Harbour suspended sediments: comparison of two factor analysis methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofowote, Uwayemi M; McCarry, Brian E; Marvin, Christopher H

    2008-08-15

    A total of 26 suspended sediment samples collected over a 5-year period in Hamilton Harbour, Ontario, Canada and surrounding creeks were analyzed for a suite of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and sulfur heterocycles. Hamilton Harbour sediments contain relatively high levels of polycyclic aromatic compounds and heavy metals due to emissions from industrial and mobile sources. Two receptor modeling methods using factor analyses were compared to determine the profiles and relative contributions of pollution sources to the harbor; these methods are principal component analyses (PCA) with multiple linear regression analysis (MLR) and positive matrix factorization (PMF). Both methods identified four factors and gave excellent correlation coefficients between predicted and measured levels of 25 aromatic compounds; both methods predicted similar contributions from coal tar/coal combustion sources to the harbor (19 and 26%, respectively). One PCA factor was identified as contributions from vehicular emissions (61%); PMF was able to differentiate vehicular emissions into two factors, one attributed to gasoline emissions sources (28%) and the other to diesel emissions sources (24%). Overall, PMF afforded better source identification than PCA with MLR. This work constitutes one of the few examples of the application of PMF to the source apportionment of sediments; the addition of sulfur heterocycles to the analyte list greatly aided in the source identification process.

  2. Variation in PAH inputs and microbial community in surface sediments of Hamilton Harbour: Implications to remediation and monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slater, G.F.; Cowie, B.R.; Harper, N.; Droppo, I.G.

    2008-01-01

    Variations in concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and microbial community indicators were investigated in representative highly contaminated and less contaminated surface sediment sites of Hamilton Harbour. Inputs of PAH to the upper 3 cm of sediments up to four times the average upper sediment concentrations were observed. Associated PAH fingerprint profiles indicated that the source was consistent with the PAH source to the industrial region of the harbour. Increased PAH loadings were associated with decreased bacterial populations as indicated by phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) concentrations. However, relatively minor impacts on overall community composition were indicated. Porewater methane concentrations and isotopic data indicated a difference in the occurrence of methane oxidation between the two sites. This study confirms temporally limited transport of contaminants from highly impacted regions as a vector for contaminants within the harbour and the impact on microbial carbon cycling and bed stability. - Variations in PAH inputs to harbour sediments have implications to implementation and monitoring of mitigation/remediation efforts

  3. Deciphering natural to anthropogenic control on sedimentation: the Late Holocene Magdala (Kinneret Lake, Israel) harbour hystory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarti, G.; Rossi, V.; Amorosi, A.; Bertoni, D.; Ribolini, A.; Sammartino, I.; Zanchetta, G.

    2012-04-01

    Using a multidisciplinary approach involving geologists, geomorphologists and archeologists, the late Holocene sedimentary succession buried beneath the ancient Magdala harbour area (Kinneret Lake, Israel) was studied, in order to highlight the strict relationships among harbour evolutive phases (e.g. foundation, siltation, abandonment), natural events (e.g. sea-level variations, climatic changes and earthquakes among the most important) and, obviously, archaeological history. Recent excavations performed within the "Magdala Project" have discovered a harbour structure with late Hellenistic-Roman mooring stones at altitudes of 208.100 m and 208.320 m bsl respectively, suggestive of a higher lake-level (about 212 m bsl) than previously hypothesized. Along the most representative sections of trenches, integrated sedimentological, micropalaeontological (benthic meiofauna and pollen) and geochemical analyses were carried out on sedimentary deposits underlying and overlying the harbour structures, to define the main depositional facies and evolution phases that took place during the last millennia. Spatial variability of coeval palaeoenvironments across the archaeological site allowed to reconstruct a comprehensive picture of the harbour complex, evidencing the occurrence of three main evolution phases, similar to those reported from several Mediterranean Sea harbour systems: 1) a pre-harbor foundation phase; 2) a sin-harbor activity phase and 3) an harbor-abandonment phase. The first phase corresponds to the development of a natural lacustrine sandy beach barren in archaeological remains and containing an ostracod fauna very similar to the one observed within the present-day lake basin at ca. 5 m water depth. The second phase was characterized by the formation of an early Hellenistic sheltered lacustrine basin, recording the first anthropogenic control exerted on coastal sedimentation by the construction of harbour structures ("anthropogenically forced sheltered basin

  4. Application of a Spectral Wave Model to Assess Breakwater Configurations at a Small Craft Harbour on Lake Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia H. Cooper

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A surface wave model using three nested grids is applied to the eastern end of Lake Ontario to investigate wave propagation from an open lake environment to a small craft harbour protected by a breakwater. The Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN spectral wave model, coupled with the Delft3D hydrodynamic model, is applied to simulate a series of storms in November, 2013. The model results are compared to observations from two pressure sensors, and used to quantify wave properties around existing and future breakwaters to evaluate the bulk changes to the harbour configuration. Overall, the results indicate that the rubblemound breakwater reduces wave heights in the existing harbour by 63% compared to no breakwater, and that the addition of a surface breakwater extension could reduce wave heights by an additional 54%. Wave height attenuation was found to be highly dependent on the incident wave direction relative to breakwater orientation. The spectral wave model is useful for simulating wave transformation for broad directional spectra in wind-sea conditions over large scales to semi-protected areas such as small craft harbours.

  5. Lead concentrations in fresh water, muscle, gill and liver of catla catla (hamilton) from keenjhar lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korai, A.L.; Sahato, G.A.

    2008-01-01

    This study of the abundance and distribution of lead in water and freshwater fish Catla catla (Ham.) from Keenjhar Lake was conducted during January 2003 to December 2005. The lead content was determined in water and in muscle, gill and liver tissue of Catla catla (Ham.) by using a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The lead concentrations in water samples were in the range of 0.076 and 0.225 macro g L-1 during the years of 2003, 2004 and 2005. The lead concentrations in the tissues of Catla catla (Ham.) varied, with liver > gill > muscle. The concentrations in muscle, gill and liver were in the range of 0.7-2.39 micro g g/sub -1/, 0.74-2.25 micro g g/sub -1/ and 0.89-2.68 micro g g/sub -1/ (dry weight) during 2003, 2004 and 2005. 9.87 % did not exceed the UK limit of 1.0 micro g g/sub -1/ (1979), 45.67 % were lower than the (USFDA) level of 1.3 micro g g/sub -1/ (USEPA 1997) and remaining 44.46 % were well below than 4.88 micro g g/sub -1/ (USEPA 1990). The levels in the water samples were also below the permissible level of less then 50 micro g L/sub -1/ recommended by (WHO 1984). (author)

  6. Characterization of contaminants in snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) from Canadian Lake Erie Areas of Concern: St. Clair River, Detroit River, and Wheatley Harbour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solla, Shane R. de; Fernie, Kimberly J

    2004-11-01

    PCBs, organochlorine pesticides and dioxins/furans in snapping turtle eggs and plasma (Chelydra serpentina) were evaluated at three Areas of Concern (AOCs) on Lake Erie and its connecting channels (St. Clair River, Detroit River, and Wheatley Harbour), as well as two inland reference sites (Algonquin Provincial Park and Tiny Marsh) in 2001-2002. Eggs from the Detroit River and Wheatley Harbour AOCs had the highest levels of p,p'-DDE (24.4 and 57.9 ng/g) and sum PCBs (928.6 and 491.0 ng/g) wet weight, respectively. Contaminant levels in eggs from St. Clair River AOC were generally higher than those from Algonquin Park, but similar to those from Tiny Marsh. Dioxins appeared highest from the Detroit River. The PCB congener pattern in eggs suggested that turtles from the Detroit River and Wheatley Harbour AOCs were exposed to Aroclor 1260. TEQs of sum PCBs in eggs from all AOCs and p,p'-DDE levels in eggs from the Wheatley Harbour and the Detroit River AOCs exceeded the Canadian Environmental Quality Guidelines. Furthermore, sum PCBs in eggs from Detroit River and Wheatley Harbour exceeded partial restriction guidelines for consumption. Although estimated PCB body burdens in muscle tissue of females were well below consumption guidelines, estimated residues in liver and adipose were above guidelines for most sites.

  7. Characterization of contaminants in snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) from Canadian Lake Erie Areas of Concern: St. Clair River, Detroit River, and Wheatley Harbour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Solla, Shane R; Fernie, Kimberly J

    2004-11-01

    PCBs, organochlorine pesticides and dioxins/furans in snapping turtle eggs and plasma (Chelydra serpentina) were evaluated at three Areas of Concern (AOCs) on Lake Erie and its connecting channels (St. Clair River, Detroit River, and Wheatley Harbour), as well as two inland reference sites (Algonquin Provincial Park and Tiny Marsh) in 2001-2002. Eggs from the Detroit River and Wheatley Harbour AOCs had the highest levels of p,p'-DDE (24.4 and 57.9 ng/g) and sum PCBs (928.6 and 491.0 ng/g) wet weight, respectively. Contaminant levels in eggs from St. Clair River AOC were generally higher than those from Algonquin Park, but similar to those from Tiny Marsh. Dioxins appeared highest from the Detroit River. The PCB congener pattern in eggs suggested that turtles from the Detroit River and Wheatley Harbour AOCs were exposed to Aroclor 1260. TEQs of sum PCBs in eggs from all AOCs and p,p'-DDE levels in eggs from the Wheatley Harbour and the Detroit River AOCs exceeded the Canadian Environmental Quality Guidelines. Furthermore, sum PCBs in eggs from Detroit River and Wheatley Harbour exceeded partial restriction guidelines for consumption. Although estimated PCB body burdens in muscle tissue of females were well below consumption guidelines, estimated residues in liver and adipose were above guidelines for most sites.

  8. Characterization of contaminants in snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) from Canadian Lake Erie Areas of Concern: St. Clair River, Detroit River, and Wheatley Harbour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solla, Shane R. de; Fernie, Kimberly J.

    2004-01-01

    PCBs, organochlorine pesticides and dioxins/furans in snapping turtle eggs and plasma (Chelydra serpentina) were evaluated at three Areas of Concern (AOCs) on Lake Erie and its connecting channels (St. Clair River, Detroit River, and Wheatley Harbour), as well as two inland reference sites (Algonquin Provincial Park and Tiny Marsh) in 2001-2002. Eggs from the Detroit River and Wheatley Harbour AOCs had the highest levels of p,p'-DDE (24.4 and 57.9 ng/g) and sum PCBs (928.6 and 491.0 ng/g) wet weight, respectively. Contaminant levels in eggs from St. Clair River AOC were generally higher than those from Algonquin Park, but similar to those from Tiny Marsh. Dioxins appeared highest from the Detroit River. The PCB congener pattern in eggs suggested that turtles from the Detroit River and Wheatley Harbour AOCs were exposed to Aroclor 1260. TEQs of sum PCBs in eggs from all AOCs and p,p'-DDE levels in eggs from the Wheatley Harbour and the Detroit River AOCs exceeded the Canadian Environmental Quality Guidelines. Furthermore, sum PCBs in eggs from Detroit River and Wheatley Harbour exceeded partial restriction guidelines for consumption. Although estimated PCB body burdens in muscle tissue of females were well below consumption guidelines, estimated residues in liver and adipose were above guidelines for most sites

  9. Characterization of contaminants in snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) from Canadian Lake Erie Areas of Concern: St. Clair River, Detroit River, and Wheatley Harbour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solla, Shane R. de; Fernie, Kimberly J

    2004-11-01

    PCBs, organochlorine pesticides and dioxins/furans in snapping turtle eggs and plasma (Chelydra serpentina) were evaluated at three Areas of Concern (AOCs) on Lake Erie and its connecting channels (St. Clair River, Detroit River, and Wheatley Harbour), as well as two inland reference sites (Algonquin Provincial Park and Tiny Marsh) in 2001-2002. Eggs from the Detroit River and Wheatley Harbour AOCs had the highest levels of p,p'-DDE (24.4 and 57.9 ng/g) and sum PCBs (928.6 and 491.0 ng/g) wet weight, respectively. Contaminant levels in eggs from St. Clair River AOC were generally higher than those from Algonquin Park, but similar to those from Tiny Marsh. Dioxins appeared highest from the Detroit River. The PCB congener pattern in eggs suggested that turtles from the Detroit River and Wheatley Harbour AOCs were exposed to Aroclor 1260. TEQs of sum PCBs in eggs from all AOCs and p,p'-DDE levels in eggs from the Wheatley Harbour and the Detroit River AOCs exceeded the Canadian Environmental Quality Guidelines. Furthermore, sum PCBs in eggs from Detroit River and Wheatley Harbour exceeded partial restriction guidelines for consumption. Although estimated PCB body burdens in muscle tissue of females were well below consumption guidelines, estimated residues in liver and adipose were above guidelines for most sites.

  10. Hamilton : the electric city

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, R [Richard Gilbert Consultant, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2006-04-13

    The City of Hamilton has launched an extensive energy planning exercise that examines the possibility of steep increases in oil and natural gas prices. This report examined and illustrated the issue of oil and gas price points. The report also examined and presented the city's role in an era of energy constraints, focusing on the city's transit system and its vehicle fleet. In addition, in response to City Council's direction, the report presented the aerotropolis proposal and discussed freight transport issues. Specific topics of discussion included oil and natural gas prospects; prospects for high oil and natural gas prices; impacts of fuel price increases; strategic planning objectives for energy constraints; reducing energy use by Hamilton's transport and in buildings; and land-use planning for energy constraints. Energy production opportunities involve the use of solar energy; wind energy; deep lake water cooling (DLWC); hydro-electric power; energy from waste; biogas production; district energy; and local food production. Economic and social development through preparing for energy constraints and matters raised by city council were also presented. The report also demonstrated how an energy-based strategy could be paid for and its components approved. The next steps for Hamilton were also identified. refs., tabs., figs.

  11. Hamilton : the electric city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, R.

    2006-01-01

    The City of Hamilton has launched an extensive energy planning exercise that examines the possibility of steep increases in oil and natural gas prices. This report examined and illustrated the issue of oil and gas price points. The report also examined and presented the city's role in an era of energy constraints, focusing on the city's transit system and its vehicle fleet. In addition, in response to City Council's direction, the report presented the aerotropolis proposal and discussed freight transport issues. Specific topics of discussion included oil and natural gas prospects; prospects for high oil and natural gas prices; impacts of fuel price increases; strategic planning objectives for energy constraints; reducing energy use by Hamilton's transport and in buildings; and land-use planning for energy constraints. Energy production opportunities involve the use of solar energy; wind energy; deep lake water cooling (DLWC); hydro-electric power; energy from waste; biogas production; district energy; and local food production. Economic and social development through preparing for energy constraints and matters raised by city council were also presented. The report also demonstrated how an energy-based strategy could be paid for and its components approved. The next steps for Hamilton were also identified. refs., tabs., figs

  12. Fluctuating asymmetry in evaluating the developmental instability of Glossogobius giuris (Hamilton, 1822 from Lake Mainit, Surigao del Norte, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.C.D.Joseph

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess the status of Lake Mainit by using fluctuating asymmetry in the populations of Glossogobius giuris. A total of 200 G. giuris was collected with 100 per sex. All the samples were placed in a flat styrofoam for the pinning of its fins to make it wider and to clearly see the samples point of origin for the land-marking process. 10% Formalin was applied in all the fins of the fish samples to make it hardened using a small brush. Twenty (20 landmarks were used to analyze the body shape of the fish. Several studies proved that FA can be used to directly assess water quality and the overall status of the ecosystem. Using thin-plate spline (TPS series, landmark analyses were obtained and subjected to Symmetry and Asymmetry in Geometric Data (SAGE software. Results in Procrustes ANOVA showed that individual symmetry showed a highly significant difference (P = 0.00 as well as Sides (Directional Asymmetry and Interaction (Fluctuating Asymmetry in the study area. All the samples showed FA in both sexes. The results of Principal Component Scores displayed a higher percentage in female (69.2797% than male (63.9214% from Lake Mainit. Variations are almost found in all the body part of the goby in female and male gobies except for anterior insertion of second dorsal fin and superior margin of the preoperculum. Females have a higher fluctuating asymmetry than in males. Females spawn and males protect the eggs from any predators. In this case, females are more susceptible to stress because they have to forage in order to compensate the energy used up during spawning. Males are less susceptible because they usually stay on the nesting ground, and don't have to cover far distances in finding food. This study validates the use of FA in determining the status of the fishes caught connecting to what the status of the environment is based on the result.

  13. Sir William Rowan Hamilton

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    In this picture, wave fronts are defined as surfaces of constant S(x), while .... Recall here that physical quantities are represented in ... his memory imperishable? Hamilton ... self in the words Ptolemy used of Hipparchus: a lover of labour and a ...

  14. Fate and transport modelling of uranium in Port Hope Harbour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinilla, C.E.; Garisto, N.; Peters, R.

    2010-01-01

    Fate and transport modelling of contaminants in Port Hope Harbour and near-shore Lake Ontario was undertaken in support of an ecological and human health risk assessment. Uranium concentrations in the Harbour and near-shore Lake Ontario due to groundwater and storm water loadings were estimated with a state-of-the-art 3D hydrodynamic and contaminant transport model (ECOMSED). The hydrodynamic model was simplified to obtain a first estimate of the flow pattern in the Harbour. The model was verified with field data using a tracer (fluoride). The modelling results generally showed good agreement with the tracer field data. (author)

  15. Hamilton's principle for beginners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brun, J L

    2007-01-01

    I find that students have difficulty with Hamilton's principle, at least the first time they come into contact with it, and therefore it is worth designing some examples to help students grasp its complex meaning. This paper supplies the simplest example to consolidate the learning of the quoted principle: that of a free particle moving along a line. Next, students are challenged to add gravity to reinforce the argument and, finally, a two-dimensional motion in a vertical plane is considered. Furthermore these examples force us to be very clear about such an abstract principle

  16. Environmental magnetic methods for detecting and mapping contaminated sediments in lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, J. I.

    2009-05-01

    The remediation of contaminated sediments is an urgent environmental priority in the Great Lakes and requires detailed mapping of impacted sediment layer thickness, areal distribution and pollutant levels. Magnetic property measurements of sediment cores from two heavily polluted basins in Lake Ontario (Hamilton Harbour, Frenchman's Bay) show that concentrations of hydrocarbons (PAH) and a number of heavy metals (Pb, As, Ni, Cu, Cr, Zn, Cd, Fe) are strongly correlated with magnetic susceptibility. The magnetic susceptibility contrast between the contaminated sediment and underlying 'pre-colonial' sediments is sufficient to generate a total field anomaly (ca. 2-20 nT) that can be measured with a magnetometer towed above the lake bed. Systematic magnetic surveying (550 line km) of Hamilton Harbour using a towed marine magnetometer clearly identifies a number of well-defined magnetic anomalies that coincide with known accumulations of contaminated lake sediment. When calibrated against in-situ magnetic property measurements, the modeled apparent susceptibility from magnetic survey results can be used to classify the relative contaminant impact levels. The results demonstrate the potential of magnetic property measurements for rapid reconnaissance mapping of large areas of bottom contamination prior to detailed coring and sediment remediation.

  17. William Rowan Hamilton: Mathematical genius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkins, D.R. [School of Mathematics, Trinity College, Dublin (Ireland)]. E-mail: dwilkins@maths.tcd.ie

    2005-08-01

    This year Ireland celebrates the bicentenary of the mathematician William Rowan Hamilton, best remembered for 'quaternions' and for his pioneering work on optics and dynamics. Two centuries after his birth, the extent to which terms such as 'Hamiltonian' and 'Hamiltonian system' have entered the everyday language of mathematicians and physicists testifies to the continuing impact of the scientific work of William Rowan Hamilton. (U.K.)

  18. William Rowan Hamilton: Mathematical genius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkins, D.R.

    2006-01-01

    This year Ireland celebrates the bicentenary of the mathematician William Rowan Hamilton, best remembered for quaternions and for his pioneering work on optics and dynamics. Two centuries after his birth, the extent to which terms such as Hamiltonian and Hamiltonian system have entered the everyday language of mathematicians and physicists testifies to the continuing impact of the scientific work of William Rowan Hamilton. (U.K.)

  19. Distribution of acidic and neutral drugs in surface waters near sewage treatment plants in the lower Great Lakes, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Chris D; Miao, Xiu-Sheng; Koenig, Brenda G; Struger, John

    2003-12-01

    Prescription and nonprescription drugs have been detected in rivers and streams in Europe and the United States. Sewage treatment plants (STPs) are an important source of these contaminants, but few data exist on the spatial distribution of drugs in surface waters near STPs. Samples of surface water were collected in the summer and fall of 2000 at open-water sites in the lower Great Lakes (Lake Ontario and Lake Erie), at sites near the two STPs for the city of Windsor (ON, Canada), and at sites in Hamilton Harbour (ON, Canada), an embayment of western Lake Ontario that receives discharges from several STPs. In a follow-up study in the summer of 2002, samples of surface water and final effluent from adjacent STPs were collected from sites in Hamilton Harbour and Windsor. In addition, surface water and STP effluent samples were collected in Peterborough (ON, Canada). All samples of surface water and STP effluents were analyzed for selected acidic and neutral drugs. In the survey of Hamilton Harbour and Windsor conducted in 2000, acidic drugs and the antiepileptic drug carbamazepine were detected at ng/L concentrations at sites that were up to 500 m away from the STP, but the hydrological conditions of the receiving waters strongly influenced the spatial distribution of these compounds. Drugs were not detected at open-water locations in western Lake Erie or in the Niagara River near the municipality of Niagara-on-the-Lake (ON, Canada). However, clofibric acid, ketoprofen, fenoprofen, and carbamazepine were detected in samples collected in the summer of 2000 at sites in Lake Ontario and at a site in the Niagara River (Fort Erie, ON, Canada) that were relatively remote from STP discharges. Follow-up studies in the summer of 2002 indicated that concentrations of acidic and neutral drugs in surface waters near the point of sewage discharge into the Little River (ON, Canada) STP were approximately equal to the concentrations in the final effluent from the STP. Caffeine and

  20. Unified Symmetry of Hamilton Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xuejun; Qin Maochang; Mei Fengxiang

    2005-01-01

    The definition and the criterion of a unified symmetry for a Hamilton system are presented. The sufficient condition under which the Noether symmetry is a unified symmetry for the system is given. A new conserved quantity, as well as the Noether conserved quantity and the Hojman conserved quantity, deduced from the unified symmetry, is obtained. An example is finally given to illustrate the application of the results.

  1. KINETIC ALGORITHMS FOR HARBOUR MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Gold

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern harbour management for a busy port needs to resolve a variety of simultaneous problems. Harbour traffic may be busy and the waterways congested, both by the major shipping and by the attendant harbour tugs. The harbour channel may be narrow and tortuous, and rapidly changing tides may require frequent course adjustments. Navigation aids must be clearly specified and immediately identifiable, in order to permit safe passage for the vessels. This requires a GIS with attributes not easily available with traditional products. The GeoVS system is a kinetic GIS with full three-dimensional visualisation, so that ships, bathymetry and landscape may be viewed in a form that is immediately understandable to both harbour pilots and the harbour authority. The system is kinetic because the data structures used to preserve the topological relationships between ships, seafloor and coastline are able to be maintained on a real-time basis, taking account of ship movement recorded on the compulsory AIS (Automatic Information System beacons. Maintenance of this real-time topology allows for easy detection of potential collisions, as well as real-time bathymetric estimations, necessary to prevent ship grounding in highly tidal environments. The system, based on previous research into kinetic Voronoi diagrams, as well as development of a completely new graphical engine, is now in commercial production, where its advantages over simpler twodimensional models without automatic collision and grounding detection are becoming evident. Other applications are readily envisaged, and will be addressed in the near future.

  2. Muddy waters and the Wadden Sea harbours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eekelen, van E.; Baptist, M.J.; Dankers, P.; Grasmeijer, B.T.; Kessel, van T.; Maren, van D.S.

    2016-01-01

    Several harbours along the Dutch Wadden Sea deal with large siltation rates and limited possibilities for developments. However, development of new harbour activities is needed for these harbours to be able to survive in the long run. As these harbours lie in or close to areas with a protected

  3. High-Order Hamilton's Principle and the Hamilton's Principle of High-Order Lagrangian Function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Hongxia; Ma Shanjun

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, based on the theorem of the high-order velocity energy, integration and variation principle, the high-order Hamilton's principle of general holonomic systems is given. Then, three-order Lagrangian equations and four-order Lagrangian equations are obtained from the high-order Hamilton's principle. Finally, the Hamilton's principle of high-order Lagrangian function is given.

  4. SECURITY SYSTEMS FOR MARITIME HARBOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgică SLĂMNOIU

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Infrastructure protection objectives are at the top of the agenda of those responsible in the European Union. Currently Romania is one of the countries on its eastern border of the Union and this has special implications in terms of security measures that are required to be implemented. Ships and harbours are important current conflict stage. An integrated system of protection of harbours must be prepared in advance in order to continuously provide information that will increase the overall performance of the intervention forces.

  5. Hamilton-Jacobi theory of continuos systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guler, Y.

    1987-01-01

    The Hamilton-Jacobi partial differential equation for classical field systems is obtained in a 5n-dimensional phase space and it is integrated by the method of characteristics. Space-time partial derivatives of Hamilton's principal functions S μ (Φ i , x v ) (μ, v = 1, 2, 3, 4) are identified as the energy-momentum tensor of the system

  6. The birds of Blyth Harbour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Still, D.; Carver, H.; Little, B.; Lawrence, S.G.

    1995-01-01

    Blyth Harbour Wind Farm, constructed upon an exposed pier, is not a Site of Special Scientific Interest and is designated to become a RAMSAR location because of the presence of a significant population of the Purple Sandpiper. A study of the effect of the wind farm on the birds was started before the wind farm was constructed and is ongoing. Initial evidence of how the wind turbines have affected the 110 varieties of birds recorded within the harbour will be presented and compared to previous research carried out in Europe and the USA. Methodology has included intensive beach surveys, visits to wind farms in the UK and USA and consultations with wildlife advisory bodies. The study will continue until 1996. (Author)

  7. Transfer pricing and safe harbours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Solilová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Transfer prices are significant for both taxpayers and tax administrations because they determine in large part taxable profits of associated enterprises in different tax jurisdictions. Moreover, in the context of taxation, transfer prices must be complied with the arm’s length principle. However, Multinational Enterprises have been faced daily by conflicting rules and approaches to applying the arm’s length principle, burdensome documentation requirements, inconsistent audit standards and unpredictable competent authority outcomes. Therefore, the Committee on Fiscal Affairs launched another project on the administrative aspects of transfer pricing in 2010. On 16 May 2013 as a partial solution of this project was approved by the OECD Council the Revised Section E on Safe Harbours in Chapter IV of the Transfer Pricing Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises and Tax Authorities. The paper is focused on significant changes of newly approved chapter IV of the Transfer Pricing Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises and Tax Authorities, further on analysis of practice in this area, on advantages and disadvantages of safe harbours for taxpayers and competent authorities with aim to suggest recommendations on use of safe harbours in the Czech Republic.

  8. Benthic ecological status of Algerian harbours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauvin, J C; Bakalem, A; Baffreau, A; Grimes, S

    2017-12-15

    This work is an overview of all available benthic data collected in the Algerian harbours between 1983 and 2001. So, total of 571 stations were reported in the 10 major Algerian harbours along the Algerian coast (1200km). Two main categories of harbours were distinguished according to their hydrodynamic regime and volume of water exchange between inner harbour basins and the entrance of the harbours. Univariate, multivariate, benthic indices and Biological Traits of Life approaches were applied on stations sampled in the late 1990s and long-term observations in six out of these ten harbours. These approaches assessed the main characteristics and ecological statuses from these south Mediterranean harbours. One of the main characteristics of the Algerian harbours was the very high species diversity (847 species). Although all the fauna was dominated by pollution-tolerant species; some harbours such as Bethioua and Djendjen hosted normal benthic communities as found in the open sea, but also included some pollution indicator species typical of a slight polluted system. On the contrary, the newly constructed port of Skikda showed perturbed benthic communities in relation to hydrocarbon pollution. Biological Traits of Life analysis reinforced the separation of benthic species along a gradient reflecting their sensitivity or tolerance to pollution. This response was related to an increase in organic matter content, probably associated with a general organic and metal contamination, from the entrance of the harbour to the innermost basins in areas with weak circulation, high sedimentation rate and concentrations of pollutants. Except for Oran harbour, where the poor to moderate ecological status remained unchanged with time, the other harbours showed an improvement or a slight degradation. A strategy of long-term monitoring should be promoted, based on a restricted and selected number of stations characteristic of the different basins and water masses occupying the

  9. Hamilton's indicators of the force of selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baudisch, Annette

    2005-01-01

    To quantify the force of selection, Hamilton [Hamilton, W. D. (1966) J. Theor. Biol. 12, 12-45] derived expressions for the change in fitness with respect to age-specific mutations. Hamilton's indicators are decreasing functions of age. He concluded that senescence is inevitable: survival...... and fertility decline with age. I show that alternative parameterizations of mutational effects lead to indicators that can increase with age. I then consider the case of deleterious mutations with age-specific effects. In this case, it is the balance between mutation and selection pressure that determines...... the equilibrium number of mutations in a population. In this balance, the effects of different parameterizations cancel out, but only to a linear approximation. I show that mutation accumulation has little impact at ages when this linear approximation holds. When mutation accumulation matters, nonlinear effects...

  10. Fifty years with the Hamilton scales for anxiety and depression. A tribute to Max Hamilton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bech, P

    2009-01-01

    From the moment Max Hamilton started his psychiatric education, he considered psychometrics to be a scientific discipline on a par with biochemistry or pharmacology in clinical research. His clinimetric skills were in operation in the 1950s when randomised clinical trials were established as the method for the evaluation of the clinical effects of psychotropic drugs. Inspired by Eysenck, Hamilton took the long route around factor analysis in order to qualify his scales for anxiety (HAM-A) and depression (HAM-D) as scientific tools. From the moment when, 50 years ago, Hamilton published his first placebo-controlled trial with an experimental anti-anxiety drug, he realized the dialectic problem in using the total score on HAM-A as a sufficient statistic for the measurement of outcome. This dialectic problem has been investigated for more than 50 years with different types of factor analyses without success. Using modern psychometric methods, the solution to this problem is a simple matter of reallocating the Hamilton scale items according to the scientific hypothesis under examination. Hamilton's original intention, to measure the global burden of the symptoms experienced by the patients with affective disorders, is in agreement with the DSM-IV and ICD-10 classification systems. Scale reliability and obtainment of valid information from patients and their relatives were the most important clinimetric innovations to be developed by Hamilton. Max Hamilton therefore belongs to the very exclusive family of eminent physicians celebrated by this journal with a tribute. 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Source of Aegean Sea harbour porpoises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lockyer, Christina; Rosel, P. E.; Frantzis, A.

    2003-01-01

    Documented sightings of harbour porpoises in the Mediterranean are rare, although the species is common in the neighbouring North Atlantic and Black Sea. However, in the past 2 decades, 4 harbour porpoises Phocoena phocoena have been recorded in the northern Aegean Sea in the eastern Mediterranea...

  12. Measuring Social Capital in Hamilton, Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, Peter; Williams, Allison; Simone, Dylan

    2012-01-01

    Social capital has been studied by academics for more than 20 years and within the past decade there has been an explosion of growth in research linking social capital to health. This paper investigates social capital in Hamilton, Ontario by way of a telephone survey of 1,002 households in three neighbourhood groups representing high, mixed and…

  13. Algebra and Geometry of Hamilton's Quaternions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... ... Public Lectures · Lecture Workshops · Refresher Courses · Symposia. Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 21; Issue 6. Algebra and Geometry of Hamilton's Quaternions: 'Well, Papa, Can You Multiply Triplets?' General Article Volume 21 Issue 6 June 2016 pp 529-544 ...

  14. Hamiltonization of theories with degenerate coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gitman, D.M.; Tyutin, I.V.

    2002-01-01

    We consider a class of Lagrangian theories where part of the coordinates does not have any time derivatives in the Lagrange function (we call such coordinates degenerate). We advocate that it is reasonable to reconsider the conventional definition of singularity based on the usual Hessian and, moreover, to simplify the conventional hamiltonization procedure. In particular, in such a procedure, it is not necessary to complete the degenerate coordinates with the corresponding conjugate momenta

  15. Hamiltonization of theories with degenerate coordinates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gitman, D.M. E-mail: gitman@fma.if.usp.br; Tyutin, I.V. E-mail: tyutin@lpi.ru

    2002-05-27

    We consider a class of Lagrangian theories where part of the coordinates does not have any time derivatives in the Lagrange function (we call such coordinates degenerate). We advocate that it is reasonable to reconsider the conventional definition of singularity based on the usual Hessian and, moreover, to simplify the conventional hamiltonization procedure. In particular, in such a procedure, it is not necessary to complete the degenerate coordinates with the corresponding conjugate momenta.

  16. Mercury in Thana creek, Bombay harbour

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Zingde, M.D.; Desai, B.N.

    weight) with marked increased from harbour to the creek region suggests substantial mercury input in the head region. Chemical extraction by hydrogen peroxide indicated that more than 70% of mercury was leachable and probably organically bound...

  17. Fifty years with the Hamilton scales for anxiety and depression. A tribute to Max Hamilton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, P; Bech, P

    2009-01-01

    as the method for the evaluation of the clinical effects of psychotropic drugs. Inspired by Eysenck, Hamilton took the long route around factor analysis in order to qualify his scales for anxiety (HAM-A) and depression (HAM-D) as scientific tools. From the moment when, 50 years ago, Hamilton published his first...... placebo-controlled trial with an experimental anti-anxiety drug, he realized the dialectic problem in using the total score on HAM-A as a sufficient statistic for the measurement of outcome. This dialectic problem has been investigated for more than 50 years with different types of factor analyses without...

  18. Snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) as bioindicators in Canadian Areas of Concern in the Great Lakes Basin. II. Changes in hatching success and hatchling deformities in relation to persistent organic pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solla, S.R. de , [Population Assessment Unit, Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Road, Box 5050, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6 (Canada); Fernie, K J; Ashpole, S [Population Assessment Unit, Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Road, Box 5050, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6 (Canada)

    2008-06-15

    Hatching success and deformities in snapping turtle hatchlings (Chelydra serpentina) were evaluated using eggs collected from 14 sites in the Canadian lower Great Lakes, including Areas of Concern (AOC), between 2001 and 2004. Eggs were analyzed for PCBs, PBDEs, and pesticides. Between 2002 and 2004, hatchling deformity rates were highest in two AOCs (18.3-28.3%) compared to the reference sites (5.3-11.3%). Hatching success was poorest in three AOCs (71.3-73.1%) compared to the reference sites (86.0-92.7%). Hatching success and deformity rates were generally poorer in 2001 compared to 2002-2004, irrespective of the study location and could be due to egg handling stress in 2001. Hatching success and deformities were generally worst from the Wheatley Harbour, St. Lawrence River (Cornwall), Detroit River, and Hamilton Harbour AOCs. Associations between contaminant burdens with embryonic development were sufficiently poor that the biological relevance is questionable. Stressors not measured may have contributed to development abnormalities. - Hatching success and deformities of snapping turtle eggs varied among Great Lake Areas of Concern, but were not attributable to specific chemical exposure.

  19. Snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) as bioindicators in Canadian Areas of Concern in the Great Lakes Basin. II. Changes in hatching success and hatchling deformities in relation to persistent organic pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solla, S.R. de; Fernie, K.J.; Ashpole, S.

    2008-01-01

    Hatching success and deformities in snapping turtle hatchlings (Chelydra serpentina) were evaluated using eggs collected from 14 sites in the Canadian lower Great Lakes, including Areas of Concern (AOC), between 2001 and 2004. Eggs were analyzed for PCBs, PBDEs, and pesticides. Between 2002 and 2004, hatchling deformity rates were highest in two AOCs (18.3-28.3%) compared to the reference sites (5.3-11.3%). Hatching success was poorest in three AOCs (71.3-73.1%) compared to the reference sites (86.0-92.7%). Hatching success and deformity rates were generally poorer in 2001 compared to 2002-2004, irrespective of the study location and could be due to egg handling stress in 2001. Hatching success and deformities were generally worst from the Wheatley Harbour, St. Lawrence River (Cornwall), Detroit River, and Hamilton Harbour AOCs. Associations between contaminant burdens with embryonic development were sufficiently poor that the biological relevance is questionable. Stressors not measured may have contributed to development abnormalities. - Hatching success and deformities of snapping turtle eggs varied among Great Lake Areas of Concern, but were not attributable to specific chemical exposure

  20. Traditional Korean islanders encounters with the British navy in the 1880s: The Port Hamilton Affair of 1885–1887

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A. Royle

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the encounters between a traditional Korean rural and island population and western military forces when the British navy occupied Geomundo, an archipelago known to them as Port Hamilton, for 22 months between 1885 and 1887. The paper first outlines the sometimes painful process of East Asian countries being opened up to trade and outside influences in the 19th century, a process sometimes urged upon them by naval weapons in this era of gunboat diplomacy. This provides the setting for the Port Hamilton Affair itself when in preparation for possible war with Russia, a British naval squadron steamed into Port Hamilton and took it without reference to the local people or their national government. After brief reference to the political consequences of this action, the focus is then on what the records from the occupation and earlier investigations by the British, who had long coveted the islands’ strategic harbour, reveal about the life of the islanders. The article considers both their traditional life, from a time rather before western travel accounts were written about the Korean mainland, and how the islanders fared under the British.

  1. Earlier pupping in harbour seals, Phoca vitulina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, P.J.H.; Brasseur, S.M.J.M.; Meesters, H.W.G.

    2010-01-01

    The annual reproductive cycle of most seal species is characterized by a tight synchrony of births. Typically, timing of birth shows little inter-annual variation. Here, however we show that harbour seals Phoca vitulina from the Wadden Sea (southeast North Sea) have shortened their yearly cycle,

  2. Subsurface geology of the Bombay Harbour

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Almeida, F.; Ramana, M.V.; Vora, K.H.; Bhattacharya, G.C.; Subrahmanyam, V.

    As part of engineering pre-design investigations, high resolution geophysical surveys were carried out in and around Bombay harbour, India. The depth in the area varies from dries over the mudflats to about 14m towards the offshore end. The seabed...

  3. Phytoremediation of TBT-contaminated Harbour Sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trapp, Stefan; Novak, Jana; DeClercq, Bartel

    This sub-project of the TBT CLEAN project investigated the feasibility of growing plants on dredged harbour sediments and the influence of vegetation on TBT degradation. The toxicity of TBT to vascular plants was determined with the willow tree transpiration test. Compared to other species, the t...

  4. Harborsim, a generally applicable harbour simulation model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenveld, R.

    1983-01-01

    Every planning of a port development or design of a new harbour is confronted with the unique physical properties and related problems to be solved. On the other hand every port can be defined as a link in the transport chain involved in the transfer of cargo from one medium of transport to another.

  5. Seabed surveys of Victoria harbour, Mahe, Seychelles

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Hashimi, N.H.; Wagle, B.G.

    The seabed surveys in the Victoria Harbour, Mahe, Seychelles shows that the prominent feature is the navigational channel aligned in the northeast-southwest direction with a width varying from 300 to 450m. The depth in the channel ranges from 14...

  6. Viscous warm inflation: Hamilton-Jacobi formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtari, L.; Mohammadi, A.; Sayar, K.; Saaidi, Kh.

    2017-04-01

    Using Hamilton-Jacobi formalism, the scenario of warm inflation with viscous pressure is considered. The formalism gives a way of computing the slow-rolling parameter without extra approximation, and it is well-known as a powerful method in cold inflation. The model is studied in detail for three different cases of the dissipation and bulk viscous pressure coefficients. In the first case where both coefficients are taken as constant, it is shown that the case could not portray warm inflationary scenario compatible with observational data even it is possible to restrict the model parameters. For other cases, the results shows that the model could properly predicts the perturbation parameters in which they stay in perfect agreement with Planck data. As a further argument, r -ns and αs -ns are drown that show the acquired result could stand in acceptable area expressing a compatibility with observational data.

  7. Hamilton y el Descubrimiento de los Cuaterniones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Sánchez Muñoz

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo pretende ofrecer una visión general del descubrimiento de los llamados cuaterniones por parte del matemático irlandés William Rowan Hamilton. Se pretende dar al lector algunos detalles del nacimiento de los números imaginarios en el siglo XVI, su interpretación geométrica a principios del siglo XIX, y la extensión del plano complejo a las tres dimensiones a través de los cuaterniones, que abrirían el paso al estudio y el desarrollo de las nuevas álgebras no conmutativas y a una nueva interpretación tridimensional de la realidad física.

  8. Pollution characteristics and water quality in the Visakhapatnam harbour

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, V.V.; Raju, G.R.K.; Babu, T.B.

    The impact of organic pollution on the quality of waters in the Visakhapatnam harbour has been studied over a year at 8 stations. The enrichment of nutrients in these waters enhances the eutrophication. The construction of outer harbour retards...

  9. Impact investigations of access channel modifications of Cochin harbour, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DineshKumar, P.K.

    Though the modernization projects over the decades for harbour development also brought about several severe environmental modifications in Cochin harbour, along the west coast of India, so far, the physical processes involved are seldom...

  10. Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equations for quantum control | Ogundiran ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this work is to study Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation for quantum control driven by quantum noises. These noises are annhihilation, creation and gauge processes. We shall consider the solutions of Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation via the Hamiltonian system measurable in time. JONAMP Vol. 11 2007: pp.

  11. 78 FR 9001 - Airworthiness Directives; Hamilton Sundstrand Corporation Propellers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ... airplane. The Hamilton Sundstrand investigation revealed some of their auxiliary feathering pump motors had internal corrosion that may cause the stator magnets in the pump motor to fail and rotate into the path of... using certain Hamilton Sundstrand Corporation auxiliary pumps and motors (auxiliary feathering pumps...

  12. Hamilton's equations for a fluid membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capovilla, R; Guven, J; Rojas, E

    2005-01-01

    Consider a homogeneous fluid membrane described by the Helfrich-Canham energy, quadratic in the mean curvature of the membrane surface. The shape equation that determines equilibrium configurations is fourth order in derivatives and cubic in the mean curvature. We introduce a Hamiltonian formulation of this equation which dismantles it into a set of coupled first-order equations. This involves interpreting the Helfrich-Canham energy as an action; equilibrium surfaces are generated by the evolution of space curves. Two features complicate the implementation of a Hamiltonian framework. (i) The action involves second derivatives. This requires treating the velocity as a phase-space variable and the introduction of its conjugate momentum. The canonical Hamiltonian is constructed on this phase space. (ii) The action possesses a local symmetry-reparametrization invariance. The two labels we use to parametrize points on the surface are themselves physically irrelevant. This symmetry implies primary constraints, one for each label, that need to be implemented within the Hamiltonian. The two Lagrange multipliers associated with these constraints are identified as the components of the acceleration tangential to the surface. The conservation of the primary constraints implies two secondary constraints, fixing the tangential components of the momentum conjugate to the position. Hamilton's equations are derived and the appropriate initial conditions on the phase-space variables are identified. Finally, it is shown how the shape equation can be reconstructed from these equations

  13. Dredging up the past -- removal of historic low-level radioactive sediment from the Port Hope harbour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Case, G. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Port Hope, ON (Canada); Kolberg, M. [Baird, Oakville, ON (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    Port Hope is located on the northern shore of Lake Ontario at the confluence of the Ganaraska River and has existed as a Port of Entry since at least 1819. Once operated as a major Lake Ontario port, through periods of vibrant industrial growth, it is now a recreational anchorage for the local yacht club. The history of the Port Hope harbour from the early 1800s to today is typical of other small-town ports along Lake Ontario that have experienced growth and decline in direct relation to Great Lake shipping volumes and the shift in industry and commerce to larger urban areas. However, in the case of the Port Hope harbour, the presence of low-level radioactive sediment, resulting from a former radium and uranium refinery that operated alongside the harbour, currently limits redevelopment and revitalization opportunities. The presence of low-level radioactive waste is not limited to only harbour sediments. Several other on-land locations within the community are also affected by the low-level radioactive waste management practices of the past. To address these situations, the Port Hope Area Initiative project is currently underway to implement a local, safe, long-term waste management solution. The Port Hope Area Initiative is a community initiated undertaking that will result in the consolidation of an estimated 1.2 million cubic metres of the low-level radioactive waste from the various sites in Port Hope into a new engineered above ground long-term waste management facility. The remedial cleanup of the estimated 120,000 cubic metres of contaminated sediments from the Port Hope harbour is one of the more challenging components of the Initiative. This paper demonstrates how the historical development of the harbour over the past 200 years, the nature and extent of the contaminated sediments, and Municipality of Port Hope’s desires for future redevelopment of the waterfront area have all played a role in the design of the remedial cleanup plan for the Port Hope

  14. Dredging up the past -- removal of historic low-level radioactive sediment from the Port Hope harbour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Case, G.; Kolberg, M.

    2011-01-01

    Port Hope is located on the northern shore of Lake Ontario at the confluence of the Ganaraska River and has existed as a Port of Entry since at least 1819. Once operated as a major Lake Ontario port, through periods of vibrant industrial growth, it is now a recreational anchorage for the local yacht club. The history of the Port Hope harbour from the early 1800s to today is typical of other small-town ports along Lake Ontario that have experienced growth and decline in direct relation to Great Lake shipping volumes and the shift in industry and commerce to larger urban areas. However, in the case of the Port Hope harbour, the presence of low-level radioactive sediment, resulting from a former radium and uranium refinery that operated alongside the harbour, currently limits redevelopment and revitalization opportunities. The presence of low-level radioactive waste is not limited to only harbour sediments. Several other on-land locations within the community are also affected by the low-level radioactive waste management practices of the past. To address these situations, the Port Hope Area Initiative project is currently underway to implement a local, safe, long-term waste management solution. The Port Hope Area Initiative is a community initiated undertaking that will result in the consolidation of an estimated 1.2 million cubic metres of the low-level radioactive waste from the various sites in Port Hope into a new engineered above ground long-term waste management facility. The remedial cleanup of the estimated 120,000 cubic metres of contaminated sediments from the Port Hope harbour is one of the more challenging components of the Initiative. This paper demonstrates how the historical development of the harbour over the past 200 years, the nature and extent of the contaminated sediments, and Municipality of Port Hope’s desires for future redevelopment of the waterfront area have all played a role in the design of the remedial cleanup plan for the Port Hope

  15. Hamilton Place - Ontario Canadá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garwood-Jones, T. P.

    1975-04-01

    Full Text Available Although comparatively modest as to its exterior, the interior of the theatre-auditorium Hamilton Place has been most successfully solved, both as regards design and acoustics. Construction techniques and elements have been utilized to achieve two different sections in one and the same hall with on one hand the capacity to be able to capture shades of the spoken word at theatrical functions and on the other to reproduce the sharpness and variety of orchestras and choirs. The following elements deserve special mention: the mobile wall which incorporates the orchestra into the hall by closing the proscenium arch; the two elevating platforms where the orchestra is placed; the vertical velvet surfaces, hung like banners which soften the repercussion of the sound; the mobile horizontal surfaces over the orchestra that direct and orient the sound. The most interesting construction techniques are: the subdivision of the building into different parts, each one with independent foundation so as to avoid the transmission of the sound from one section to the other; the texture of the brick walls that disperse the reflected sound; and the use of counterforts to create smaller more personal sections for varied use. The acoustic characteristics are improved by means of a sound installation, formed by small loudspeakers placed under each seat and by other bigger ones distributed in the walls that surround the hall. The building is completed by various service installations that are appropriate to this type of construction, as well as by a small theatre-studio for the rehearsals of the orchestra and the actors, while other functions are going on in the main hall.El teatro-auditorio Hamilton Place, aunque relativamente modesto por fuera, tiene soluciones muy afortunadas en el interior, tanto por su diseño como por su adecuación acústica. Se han utilizado elementos y técnicas constructivas destinadas a conseguir, en una única sala, dos espacios

  16. Convergent Difference Schemes for Hamilton-Jacobi equations

    KAUST Repository

    Duisembay, Serikbolsyn

    2018-01-01

    In this thesis, we consider second-order fully nonlinear partial differential equations of elliptic type. Our aim is to develop computational methods using convergent difference schemes for stationary Hamilton-Jacobi equations with Dirichlet

  17. Researcher Profile: An Interview with Axton Betz-Hamilton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axton Betz-Hamilton

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Dr. Axton Betz-Hamilton teaches consumer studies courses at Eastern Illinois University, including Personal and Family Finance, Housing, and Consumer Issues. She conducts research on identity theft as well as financial abuse within families.

  18. Empty space-times with separable Hamilton-Jacobi equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collinson, C.D.; Fugere, J.

    1977-01-01

    All empty space-times admitting a one-parameter group of motions and in which the Hamilton-Jacobi equation is (partially) separable are obtained. Several different cases of such empty space-times exist and the Riemann tensor is found to be either type D or N. The results presented here complete the search for empty space-times with separable Hamilton-Jacobi equation. (author)

  19. Uranium isotopes in El hamraween harbour sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salahel Din, K.

    2009-01-01

    Isotopes of uranium in marine sediments collected from El Hamraween harbour and Ras El-Bhar areas on the Egyptian coast of the Red Sea have been studied using radiochemical separation procedures and alpha-particle spectrometry. Activity concentrations of 238 U, 235 U, 234 U were calculated. The activities observed indicating the enhancement of radioactivity level in El Hamraween harbor area due to the activities of phosphate shipment operation. Secular equilibrium between 234 U and 238 U was found in the analyzed samples. The average activity ratio of 235 U/ 238 U was close to the value 0.046 for uranium in nature

  20. Removal of Historic Low-Level Radioactive Sediment from the Port Hope Harbour - 13314

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolberg, Mark [Baird and Associates, 1267 Cornwall Rd., Suite 100, Oakville ON, L6J7T5 (Canada); Case, Glenn [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Port Hope, ON (Canada); Ferguson Jones, Andrea [MMM Group Limited, Thornhill, ON (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    At the Port Hope Harbour, located on the north shore of Lake Ontario, the presence of low-level radioactive sediment, resulting from a former radium and uranium refinery that operated alongside the Harbour, currently limits redevelopment and revitalization opportunities. These waste materials contain radium-226, uranium, arsenic and other contaminants. Several other on-land locations within the community of Port Hope are also affected by the low-level radioactive waste management practices of the past. The Port Hope Project is a community initiated undertaking that will result in the consolidation of an estimated 1.2 million cubic metres of the low-level radioactive waste from the various sites in Port Hope into a new engineered above ground long-term waste management facility. The remediation of the estimated 120,000 m{sup 3} of contaminated sediments from the Port Hope Harbour is one of the more challenging components of the Port Hope Project. Following a thorough review of various options, the proposed method of contaminated sediment removal is by dredging. The sediment from the dredge will then be pumped as a sediment-water slurry mixture into geo-synthetic containment tubes for dewatering. Due to the hard substrate below the contaminated sediment, the challenge has been to set performance standards in terms of low residual surface concentrations that are attainable in an operationally efficient manner. (authors)

  1. Removal of Historic Low-Level Radioactive Sediment from the Port Hope Harbour - 13314

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolberg, Mark; Case, Glenn; Ferguson Jones, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    At the Port Hope Harbour, located on the north shore of Lake Ontario, the presence of low-level radioactive sediment, resulting from a former radium and uranium refinery that operated alongside the Harbour, currently limits redevelopment and revitalization opportunities. These waste materials contain radium-226, uranium, arsenic and other contaminants. Several other on-land locations within the community of Port Hope are also affected by the low-level radioactive waste management practices of the past. The Port Hope Project is a community initiated undertaking that will result in the consolidation of an estimated 1.2 million cubic metres of the low-level radioactive waste from the various sites in Port Hope into a new engineered above ground long-term waste management facility. The remediation of the estimated 120,000 m 3 of contaminated sediments from the Port Hope Harbour is one of the more challenging components of the Port Hope Project. Following a thorough review of various options, the proposed method of contaminated sediment removal is by dredging. The sediment from the dredge will then be pumped as a sediment-water slurry mixture into geo-synthetic containment tubes for dewatering. Due to the hard substrate below the contaminated sediment, the challenge has been to set performance standards in terms of low residual surface concentrations that are attainable in an operationally efficient manner. (authors)

  2. Snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) as bioindicators in Canadian areas of concern in the Great Lakes Basin. II. Changes in hatching success and hatchling deformities in relation to persistent organic pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Solla, S R; Fernie, K J; Ashpole, S

    2008-06-01

    Hatching success and deformities in snapping turtle hatchlings (Chelydra serpentina) were evaluated using eggs collected from 14 sites in the Canadian lower Great Lakes, including Areas of Concern (AOC), between 2001 and 2004. Eggs were analyzed for PCBs, PBDEs, and pesticides. Between 2002 and 2004, hatchling deformity rates were highest in two AOCs (18.3-28.3%) compared to the reference sites (5.3-11.3%). Hatching success was poorest in three AOCs (71.3-73.1%) compared to the reference sites (86.0-92.7%). Hatching success and deformity rates were generally poorer in 2001 compared to 2002-2004, irrespective of the study location and could be due to egg handling stress in 2001. Hatching success and deformities were generally worst from the Wheatley Harbour, St. Lawrence River (Cornwall), Detroit River, and Hamilton Harbour AOCs. Associations between contaminant burdens with embryonic development were sufficiently poor that the biological relevance is questionable. Stressors not measured may have contributed to development abnormalities.

  3. A generalization of Hamilton's rule--love others how much?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alger, Ingela; Weibull, Jörgen W

    2012-04-21

    According to Hamilton's (1964a, b) rule, a costly action will be undertaken if its fitness cost to the actor falls short of the discounted benefit to the recipient, where the discount factor is Wright's index of relatedness between the two. We propose a generalization of this rule, and show that if evolution operates at the level of behavior rules, rather than directly at the level of actions, evolution will select behavior rules that induce a degree of cooperation that may differ from that predicted by Hamilton's rule as applied to actions. In social dilemmas there will be less (more) cooperation than under Hamilton's rule if the actions are strategic substitutes (complements). Our approach is based on natural selection, defined in terms of personal (direct) fitness, and applies to a wide range of pairwise interactions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Solution Hamilton-Jacobi equation for oscillator Caldirola-Kanai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEONARDO PASTRANA ARTEAGA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The method allows Hamilton-Jacobi explicitly determine the generating function from which is possible to derive a transformation that makes soluble Hamilton's equations. Using the separation of variables the partial differential equation of the first order called Hamilton-Jacobi equation is solved; as a particular case consider the oscillator Caldirola-Kanai (CK, which is characterized in that the mass presents a temporal evolution exponentially  . We demonstrate that the oscillator CK position presents an exponential decay in time similar to that obtained in the damped sub-critical oscillator, which reflects the dissipation of total mechanical energy. We found that in the limit that the damping factor  is small, the behavior is the same as an oscillator with simple harmonic motion, where the effects of energy dissipation is negligible.

  5. Estimation of Wave Disturbance in Harbours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helm-Petersen, Jacob

    . Information on how the sponge layers perform with respect to reflection of short-crested waves are presented mainly in terms of overall reflection coefficients and main directions as functions of incident main direction relative to the structure. The influence of a irregular structure front has also been......The motivation for the present study has been to improve the reliability in using numerical wave propagation models as a tool for estimating wave disturbance in harbours. Attention has been directed towards the importance of the modelling of reflection in the applied mild-slope model. Methods have...... been presented for the analysis of reflected wave fields in 2D and 3D. The Bayesian Directional Wave Spectrum Estimation Method has been applied throughout the study. Reflection characteristics have been investigated by use of physical models for three types of coastal structures with vertical fronts...

  6. Reuse of harbour sediments in the Greenlandic construction industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belmonte, Louise Josefine; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate possibilities of using harbour sediments from the Greenlandic harbours as substitutes in the Greenlandic construction industry, mainly for concrete production and road construction. Materials for use in the Greenlandic construction industry are shipped...

  7. Quantum Hamilton mechanics: Hamilton equations of quantum motion, origin of quantum operators, and proof of quantization axiom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.-D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper gives a thorough investigation on formulating and solving quantum problems by extended analytical mechanics that extends canonical variables to complex domain. With this complex extension, we show that quantum mechanics becomes a part of analytical mechanics and hence can be treated integrally with classical mechanics. Complex canonical variables are governed by Hamilton equations of motion, which can be derived naturally from Schroedinger equation. Using complex canonical variables, a formal proof of the quantization axiom p → p = -ih∇, which is the kernel in constructing quantum-mechanical systems, becomes a one-line corollary of Hamilton mechanics. The derivation of quantum operators from Hamilton mechanics is coordinate independent and thus allows us to derive quantum operators directly under any coordinate system without transforming back to Cartesian coordinates. Besides deriving quantum operators, we also show that the various prominent quantum effects, such as quantization, tunneling, atomic shell structure, Aharonov-Bohm effect, and spin, all have the root in Hamilton mechanics and can be described entirely by Hamilton equations of motion

  8. The Magnus problem in Rodrigues-Hamilton parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshliakov, V. N.

    1984-04-01

    The formalism of Rodrigues-Hamilton parameters is applied to the Magnus problem related to the systematic drift of a gimbal-mounted astatic gyroscope due to the nutational vibration of the main axis of the rotor. It is shown that the use of the above formalism makes it possible to limit the analysis to a consideration of a linear system of differential equations written in perturbed values of Rodrigues-Hamilton parameters. A refined formula for the drift of the main axis of the gyroscope rotor is obtained, and an estimation is made of the effect of the truncation of higher-order terms.

  9. Numerical Solution of Hamilton-Jacobi Equations in High Dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    high dimension FA9550-10-1-0029 Maurizio Falcone Dipartimento di Matematica SAPIENZA-Universita di Roma P. Aldo Moro, 2 00185 ROMA AH930...solution of Hamilton-Jacobi equations in high dimension AFOSR contract n. FA9550-10-1-0029 Maurizio Falcone Dipartimento di Matematica SAPIENZA

  10. Time-advance algorithms based on Hamilton's principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, H.R.; Kostelec, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    Time-advance algorithms based on Hamilton's variational principle are being developed for application to problems in plasma physics and other areas. Hamilton's principle was applied previously to derive a system of ordinary differential equations in time whose solution provides an approximation to the evolution of a plasma described by the Vlasov-Maxwell equations. However, the variational principle was not used to obtain an algorithm for solving the ordinary differential equations numerically. The present research addresses the numerical solution of systems of ordinary differential equations via Hamilton's principle. The basic idea is first to choose a class of functions for approximating the solution of the ordinary differential equations over a specific time interval. Then the parameters in the approximating function are determined by applying Hamilton's principle exactly within the class of approximating functions. For example, if an approximate solution is desired between time t and time t + Δ t, the class of approximating functions could be polynomials in time up to some degree. The issue of how to choose time-advance algorithms is very important for achieving efficient, physically meaningful computer simulations. The objective is to reliably simulate those characteristics of an evolving system that are scientifically most relevant. Preliminary numerical results are presented, including comparisons with other computational methods

  11. Proof of the 1-factorization and Hamilton decomposition conjectures

    CERN Document Server

    Csaba, Béla; Lo, Allan; Osthus, Deryk; Treglown, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the authors prove the following results (via a unified approach) for all sufficiently large n: (i) [1-factorization conjecture] Suppose that n is even and D\\geq 2\\lceil n/4\\rceil -1. Then every D-regular graph G on n vertices has a decomposition into perfect matchings. Equivalently, \\chi'(G)=D. (ii) [Hamilton decomposition conjecture] Suppose that D \\ge \\lfloor n/2 \\rfloor . Then every D-regular graph G on n vertices has a decomposition into Hamilton cycles and at most one perfect matching. (iii) [Optimal packings of Hamilton cycles] Suppose that G is a graph on n vertices with minimum degree \\delta\\ge n/2. Then G contains at least {\\rm reg}_{\\rm even}(n,\\delta)/2 \\ge (n-2)/8 edge-disjoint Hamilton cycles. Here {\\rm reg}_{\\rm even}(n,\\delta) denotes the degree of the largest even-regular spanning subgraph one can guarantee in a graph on n vertices with minimum degree \\delta. (i) was first explicitly stated by Chetwynd and Hilton. (ii) and the special case \\delta= \\lceil n/2 \\rceil of (iii) answe...

  12. Particular intervention plan of Cherbourg's military harbour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The Particular intervention plan (PPI in French) is an emergency plan which foresees the measures and means to be implemented to address the potential risks of the presence and operation of a nuclear facility. This plan is implemented and developed by the Prefect in case of nuclear accident (or incident leading to a potential accident), the impact of which extending beyond the facility perimeter. It represents a special section of the organisation plan for civil protection response (ORSEC plan). The PPI foresees the necessary measures and means for crisis management during the first hours following the accident and is triggered by the Department Prefect according to the information provided by the facility operator. Its aim is to protect the populations leaving within 10 km of the facility against a potential radiological hazard. The PPI describes: the facility, the intervention area, the protection measures for the population, the conditions of emergency plan triggering, the crisis organisation, the action forms of the different services, and the post-accident stage. This document is the public version of the Particular intervention plan of the military harbour of Cherbourg (Manche, France) which hosts several nuclear facilities devoted to the construction and dismantling of nuclear submarines (without weapons)

  13. A Hamilton-like vector for the special-relativistic Coulomb problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz, Gerardo; Pavic, Ivana

    2006-01-01

    A relativistic point charge moving in a Coulomb potential does not admit a conserved Hamilton vector. Despite this fact, a Hamilton-like vector may be developed that proves useful in the derivation and analysis of the particle's orbit

  14. 78 FR 73750 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Hamilton, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ...: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM). SUMMARY: This action proposes to amend Class E airspace at Hamilton, OH. Decommissioning of the Hamilton nondirectional... the views and suggestions presented are particularly helpful in developing reasoned regulatory...

  15. n-Alkanes in surficial sediments of Visakhapatnam harbour, east ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Visakhapatnam harbour, a semi-enclosed water body is one of the .... PDB − 1. } × 1000. 2.5 Extraction of lipids. Total lipids (TL) were extracted from lyophilized sediments following ..... 2010 Sources of OM and microbial community structure.

  16. Mumbai harbour, India: Gateway for introduction of marine organisms

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaonkar, C.; Sawant, S.S.; Anil, A; Venkat, K.; Harkantra, S.N.

    Ships have been identified as one of the important vectors in the translocation of organisms from one bioregion to another leading to bioinvasion. In this context, harbours serve as a gateway for the introduction of alien species. Surveys were...

  17. Seabed surveys of Mormugao Harbour, Central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wagle, B.G.; Gujar, A.R.; Subrahmanyam, V.; Mislankar, P.G.

    Detailed echosounding, side scan sonar and shallow seismics (125 line km) covering an area of 6.2 km2 in the Mormugao harbour provided information on seabed topography, surficial distribution of sediments, their thickness and rock outcrops along...

  18. Characterisation of dust material emitted during harbour operations (HADA Project)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, N.; Alastuey, A.; Querol, X.; Artinano, B.; Guerra, A.; Luaces, J.A.; Lorente, A.; Basora, J. [CSIC, Institute of Earth Science ' Jaume Almera' , Barcelona (Spain)

    2007-09-15

    The aim of this work is to compile an inventory of the main characteristics (chemical, morphological, mineralogical and grain size parameters) of the bulk cargo materials and of the material emitted during different port operations for possible use as tracers of the fugitive PM emission sources. For all cases, the tracer characteristics determined for each bulk material were also identified in the corresponding PM material emitted. This inventory could assist the harbour authorities to identify the origin of high PM events recorded by air quality monitoring networks in harbour areas, and could also help modellers to predict the impact of harbour activities on ambient PM levels. The harbour of Tarragona (north-east Spain) was selected for this study given the high volume of solids in bulk handled. To this end, 12 handling operations of selected materials (clinker, phosphate, pyrite ash, Mn mineral, fine Si-Mn, coke (coal), bituminous coal, tapioca, soybean, alfalfa, corn, andalusite) were selected for the characterisation of suspended and deposited PM. In spite of the coarse grain size distribution of these bulk cargo materials, with a very low % in the fraction {lt}10 {mu}m, manipulation of these materials during harbour operations may result in high emissions of PM 10 with relatively high levels of potential toxic elements. Furthermore, ambient PM 10 in the area with the highest traffic density of the harbour was also sampled and characterised.

  19. El distribuidor de trafico de Hamilton-Inglaterra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babtie Shaw and Morton, Ingenieros Consultores

    1969-06-01

    Full Text Available The first part of this article describes the initial stages in the construction of the complex traffic interchange at Hamilton, and gives details of all the special aspects which it involves. The second part deals with two of the three bridges at the Maryville interchange, and a detailed description is given of the most important features of these structures.La primera parte de este artículo muestra el trabajo de la primera etapa del complejo del distribuidor de tráfico de Hamilton, dándonos cuenta de las obras que engloba. La segunda parte trata de dos de los tres puentes que hay en el empalme de Maryville, describiéndolos y mostrando sus partes más importantes.

  20. Convergent Difference Schemes for Hamilton-Jacobi equations

    KAUST Repository

    Duisembay, Serikbolsyn

    2018-05-07

    In this thesis, we consider second-order fully nonlinear partial differential equations of elliptic type. Our aim is to develop computational methods using convergent difference schemes for stationary Hamilton-Jacobi equations with Dirichlet and Neumann type boundary conditions in arbitrary two-dimensional domains. First, we introduce the notion of viscosity solutions in both continuous and discontinuous frameworks. Next, we review Barles-Souganidis approach using monotone, consistent, and stable schemes. In particular, we show that these schemes converge locally uniformly to the unique viscosity solution of the first-order Hamilton-Jacobi equations under mild assumptions. To solve the scheme numerically, we use Euler map with some initial guess. This iterative method gives the viscosity solution as a limit. Moreover, we illustrate our numerical approach in several two-dimensional examples.

  1. Regularization of Hamilton-Lagrangian guiding center theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa-Restrepo, D.; Wimmel, H.K.

    1985-04-01

    The Hamilton-Lagrangian guiding-center (G.C.) theories of Littlejohn, Wimmel, and Pfirsch show a singularity for B-fields with non-vanishing parallel curl at a critical value of vsub(parallel), which complicates applications. The singularity is related to a sudden breakdown, at a critical vsub(parallel), of gyration in the exact particle mechanics. While the latter is a real effect, the G.C. singularity can be removed. To this end a regularization method is defined that preserves the Hamilton-Lagrangian structure and the conservation theorems. For demonstration this method is applied to the standard G.C. theory (without polarization drift). Liouville's theorem and G.C. kinetic equations are also derived in regularized form. The method could equally well be applied to the case with polarization drift and to relativistic G.C. theory. (orig.)

  2. Hamilton-Jacobi equations and brane associated Lagrangians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, L.M.; Fairlie, D.B.

    2001-01-01

    This article seeks to relate a recent proposal for the association of a covariant Field Theory with a string or brane Lagrangian to the Hamilton-Jacobi formalism for strings and branes. It turns out that since in this special case, the Hamiltonian depends only upon the momenta of the Jacobi fields and not the fields themselves, it is the same as a Lagrangian, subject to a constancy constraint. We find that the associated Lagrangians for strings or branes have a covariant description in terms of the square root of the same Lagrangian. If the Hamilton-Jacobi function is zero, rather than a constant, then it is in in one dimension lower, reminiscent of the 'holographic' idea. In the second part of the paper, we discuss properties of these Lagrangians, which lead to what we have called 'Universal Field Equations', characteristic of covariant equations of motion

  3. Lie-Hamilton systems on curved spaces: a geometrical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herranz, Francisco J.; de Lucas, Javier; Tobolski, Mariusz

    2017-12-01

    A Lie-Hamilton system is a nonautonomous system of first-order ordinary differential equations describing the integral curves of a t-dependent vector field taking values in a finite-dimensional Lie algebra, a Vessiot-Guldberg Lie algebra, of Hamiltonian vector fields relative to a Poisson structure. Its general solution can be written as an autonomous function, the superposition rule, of a generic finite family of particular solutions and a set of constants. We pioneer the study of Lie-Hamilton systems on Riemannian spaces (sphere, Euclidean and hyperbolic plane), pseudo-Riemannian spaces (anti-de Sitter, de Sitter, and Minkowski spacetimes) as well as on semi-Riemannian spaces (Newtonian spacetimes). Their corresponding constants of motion and superposition rules are obtained explicitly in a geometric way. This work extends the (graded) contraction of Lie algebras to a contraction procedure for Lie algebras of vector fields, Hamiltonian functions, and related symplectic structures, invariants, and superposition rules.

  4. Higher order derivatives via Hamilton-Jacobi approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertin, M.C.; Pimentel, B.M.; Pompeia, P.J.

    2006-01-01

    In this work we will show how can be derived a general method for dealing with Lagrangians containing high order derivatives using the Hamilton-Jacobi Formalism for singular systems. By the expansion the configuration space of a n dimensional system we will be able to introduce first order actions and build the equations of motion of the system. We will work with the Generalized Electrodynamics of Podolsky as an example. (author)

  5. [Anna Hamilton (1864-1935), the excellence of nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diebolt, Évelyne

    2017-12-01

    A Frenchwoman, Anna Hamilton (1864-1935), daughter of a Franco-English couple, reads with passion the works of Florence Nightingale and takes an interest in nursing. In order to practice it, she first passes the equivalent of a bachelor’s degree in self-education and registers at the Marseille medical school. She wants to prepare a medical thesis on the nursing staff in the hospitals in Europe and is conducting an investigation throughout Europe. She passed her thesis on June 15, 1900 entitled “Considerations on hospital nurses”. This work is immediately published. That same year, she took up a post at the “Maison de santé protestante” in Bordeaux (MSP), founded in 1863. Without managerial staff, she is forced to recruit them abroad. She publishes a professional journal : “La Garde-Malade hospitalière” (1906-1914). Then the war turned the MSP into a military hospital, but the institution continued to receive local paying patients. She was given permission to call the school of nurses : Florence Nightingale School. Anna Hamilton is working with American women to create a medical and social service in Aisne. A graduate, Antoinette Hervey, then opened a medical-social service in Rouen, which would employ up to 30 visiting nurses. In 1916, the MSP received a donation from the domain of Bagatelle. The board of directors wants to sell it, but Anna Hamilton manages to finance a hospital-school thanks to families bereaved by the war and a subscription announced in the “Journal of Nursing”. Other establishments created by former students of the MSP opened : the School-hospital Ambroise Paré in Lille, a nursing home for nurses in Chambon-sur-Lignon in 1927 (the Edith-Seltzer foundation) and a sanatorium in Briançon. After a busy life, Anna Hamilton died of cancer in 1935 and is buried in Bordeaux.

  6. Nuclear power and the Hamilton-Jefferson debate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hacker, A.

    1980-01-01

    The basic sources of nuclear opposition derive from the philosophical arguments of Thomas Jefferson against Alexander Hamilton's vision of an industrial society with a strong central authority. Today's young people continue Jefferson's radical plea for the individual freedoms associated with personal ownership and limited government, but they accept the structure of the former while searching for the romanticism of the latter. The nuclear debate reflects this dichotomy and will continue even if the issues of waste disposal and safety are resolved

  7. Beyond WKB quantum corrections to Hamilton-Jacobi theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurisch, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we develop quantum mechanics of quasi-one-dimensional systems upon the framework of the quantum-mechanical Hamilton-Jacobi theory. We will show that the Schroedinger point of view and the Hamilton-Jacobi point of view are fully equivalent in their description of physical systems, but differ in their descriptive manner. As a main result of this, a wavefunction in Hamilton-Jacobi theory can be decomposed into travelling waves in any point in space, not only asymptotically. Using the quasi-linearization technique, we derive quantum correction functions in every order of h-bar. The quantum correction functions will remove the turning-point singularity that plagues the WKB-series expansion already in zeroth order and thus provide an extremely good approximation to the full solution of the Schroedinger equation. In the language of quantum action it is also possible to elegantly solve the connection problem without asymptotic approximations. The use of quantum action further allows us to derive an equation by which the Maslov index is directly calculable without any approximations. Stationary quantum trajectories will also be considered and thoroughly discussed

  8. Water Quality Observations in the Dekhaila Harbour, Alexandria, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahmy, M.A.; Abdel-Aziz, N.E.; Dorgham, M.M.

    2004-01-01

    The Dekhaila Harbour, which was recently constructed in Alexandria, had become a highly eutrophied areas due to intensive maritime activities, and the effect of a mixture of nutrients and different pollutants reaching the harbour through land-based effluent. Environmental observations which were carried monthly from April 1998 to March 1999 demonstrated extremely high nutrient level and productive phytoplankton, showing wide temporal and spatial variations. The variability of surface salinity was one of the characteristic features of the harbour, falling within the range of 17.3-39.2 ppt. Nutrients sustained pronouncedly high values, with annual average of 19.22uM for nitrate, 4.16um for nitrite, 38.69uM for ammonia, 6.44uM for phosphate and 49.52 for silicate. Chlorophyll a was exceptionally high (up to 13.23ug/1), having an annual average of 107.5ug/1. The harbour water was relatively turbid most of the year. The concentrations of dissolved oxygen revealed the alternations of good (5-10ml/1) aeration conditions. Consequently, low zooplankton abundance was found in the Dekhalia Harbour (annual average: 22,640 ind./m3). Statistical analysis showed that the envirnomental factors controlling both phyplankton and zooplankton biomass had different seasonal patterns. (author)

  9. Fouling Bryozoa from some Alexandria harbours, EGYPT. (I Erect species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KH.M. ABDEL-SALAM

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The fouling erect Bryozoa settled on polystyrene test panels immersed half a meter deep in the water of Abu Qir Harbour, the Eastern Harbour and El-Dekheila Harbour were studied. The present study yields 5 species of erect bryozoa. These areAmathia pruvoti, Zoobotryon verticillatum, Bowerbankia gracilis,Bugula neritina and Bugula stolonifera. The first three ones pertain to 3 genera of the family Vesiculariidae belonging to suborder the Stolonifera; while the other two species affiliate to the genus Bugula belonging to the family Bugulidae of suborder Anasca. The present record of Amathia pruvoti is the first from the Egyptian Mediterranean waters. A re-description, supplied with full structural illustrations of the recorded species is given. Moreover, the temporal and spatial distributions of the species recorded are encountered.

  10. Hamilton's gradient estimate for the heat kernel on complete manifolds

    OpenAIRE

    Kotschwar, Brett

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we extend a gradient estimate of R. Hamilton for positive solutions to the heat equation on closed manifolds to bounded positive solutions on complete, non-compact manifolds with $Rc \\geq -Kg$. We accomplish this extension via a maximum principle of L. Karp and P. Li and a Bernstein-type estimate on the gradient of the solution. An application of our result, together with the bounds of P. Li and S.T. Yau, yields an estimate on the gradient of the heat kernel for complete manifol...

  11. Nuclear power and the Hamilton-Jefferson debate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hacker, A.

    The basic sources of nuclear opposition derive from the philosophical arguments of Thomas Jefferson against Alexander Hamilton's vision of an industrial society with a strong central authority. Today's young people continue Jefferson's radical plea for the individual freedoms associated with personal ownership and limited government, but they accept the structure of the former while searching for the romanticism of the latter. The nuclear debate reflects this dichotomy and will continue even if the issues of waste disposal and safety are resolved. (DCK)

  12. Hamilton and Hardy for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Trevor

    2016-01-01

    Hamilton and Hardy’s Industrial Toxicology is now 80 years old, and the new sixth edition links us with a pioneer era. This is an impressive book, but the usefulness of the hardback version as a reference book is unfortunately limited by its poor index. There is now an ebook version, and for the practitioner on the move this has the great advantages of searchability and portability. However, Wiley ebooks can apparently only be downloaded when first purchased, so their lifetime is limited to that of the device. The Kindle edition should avoid this shortcoming.

  13. Multimodal electromechanical model of piezoelectric transformers by Hamilton's principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal, Clement; Pigache, Francois

    2009-11-01

    This work deals with a general energetic approach to establish an accurate electromechanical model of a piezoelectric transformer (PT). Hamilton's principle is used to obtain the equations of motion for free vibrations. The modal characteristics (mass, stiffness, primary and secondary electromechanical conversion factors) are also deduced. Then, to illustrate this general electromechanical method, the variational principle is applied to both homogeneous and nonhomogeneous Rosen-type PT models. A comparison of modal parameters, mechanical displacements, and electrical potentials are presented for both models. Finally, the validity of the electrodynamical model of nonhomogeneous Rosen-type PT is confirmed by a numerical comparison based on a finite elements method and an experimental identification.

  14. Survey of research on the optimal design of sea harbours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Diab

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The design of harbours, as with any other system design, must be an optimization process. In this study, a global examination of the different constraints in coastal engineering was performed and an optimization problem was defined. The problem has multiple objectives, and the criteria to be minimized are the structure cost and wave height disturbance inside a harbour. As concluded in this survey, the constraints are predefined parameters, mandatory constraints or optional constraints. All of these constraints are categorized into four categories: environmental, fluid mechanical, structural and manoeuvring.

  15. Hamilton's inclusive fitness maintains heritable altruism polymorphism through rb = c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changcao; Lu, Xin

    2018-02-20

    How can altruism evolve or be maintained in a selfish world? Hamilton's rule shows that the former process will occur when rb > c -the benefits to the recipients of an altruistic act b , weighted by the relatedness between the social partners r , exceed the costs to the altruists c -drives altruistic genotypes spreading against nonaltruistic ones. From this rule, we infer that altruistic genotypes will persist in a population by forming a stable heritable polymorphism with nonaltruistic genotypes if rb = c makes inclusive fitness of the two morphs equal. We test this prediction using the data of 12 years of study on a cooperatively breeding bird, the Tibetan ground tit Pseudopodoces humilis , where helping is performed by males only and kin-directed. Individual variation in ever acting as a helper was heritable ( h 2 = 0.47), and the resultant altruism polymorphism remained stable as indicated by low-level annual fluctuation of the percentage of helpers among all adult males (24-28%). Helpers' indirect fitness gains from increased lifetime reproductive success of related breeders statistically fully compensated for their lifetime direct fitness losses, suggesting that rb = c holds. While our work provides a fundamental support for Hamilton's idea, it highlights the equivalent inclusive fitness returns to altruists and nonaltruists mediated by rb = c as a theoretically and realistically important mechanism to maintain social polymorphism.

  16. Epizootics in harbour seals (Phoca vitulina: clinical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Siebert

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Epizootic diseases causing considerable mortality in harbour seal populations have mainly been reported from the waters of the United States and Europe. Such die-offs were largely attributable to viral infections. Several hundred individuals died from respiratory infections caused by Influenza A viruses at the coast of New England, USA, in 1979, 1980 and 1982. More than 53,000 harbour seals were killed in European waters by Phocine Distemper Virus (PDV, a morbillivirus,in two outbreaks in 1988 and 2002. For several other epizootics of smaller scale in the waters of the Atlantic and Pacific coast of the USA and, most recently, in Danish and Swedish waters in 2007 the causes remain unclear, although characteristic respiratory symptoms and interstitial pneumonia suspicious of viral etiology were detected as well as occasionally bacterial infections caused by Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Mass mortalities caused by biotoxins, direct human interactions or changes in oceanographic conditions have so far not been described for harbour seals. However, high organochlorine loads detected in European harbour seal populations and suspected to impede immune functions, were considered an aggravating factor in the 1988 morbillivirus epizootic. Establishing supranational stranding networks is a key prerequisite for the detection of future unusual die-offs in marine mammals. Detailed post-mortem investigations of all organ systems are essential for targeted etiological studies towards the causes of mass mortalities in seals.

  17. Pollution studies on harbours and jetties in Nigeria | Agbagwa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The distribution of bacteria in the surface waters and sediment of selected harbours and landing jetties in the city of Port Harcourt was investigated. Nine water and sediments samples were allocated on each trip and cultured for various organisms on the rainy and dry season. The total heterotrophic count of the water ...

  18. Water quality effects of harbour activities assessed with integrated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ecological tools were developed to study the water quality in Cochin harbour, a complex aquatic ecosystems, through the integration of microbiological monitoring (faecal coliforms and Pseudomonas species) and heavy metal contamination (lead, cadmium and mercury). One way ANOVA indicates statistically significant ...

  19. Plastic ingestion by harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bravo Rebolledo, E.; Franeker, van J.A.; Jansen, O.E.; Brasseur, S.M.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Abundance of ingested debris by seals has been mentioned as a potential indicator of marine litter in the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). A sample of 107 stomachs, 100 intestines and 125 scats of harbour seals from the Netherlands was analysed for the presence of plastics.

  20. Status of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina in Atlantic Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike O Hammill

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Harbour seals are associated with small islets, reefs and rocks exposed at low tide and estuarine habitats throughout eastern Canada. Evidence of harvesting by indigenous people has been found in pre-European contact archaeological excavations. A bounty harvest as well as subsistence and commercial hunting probably lead to a decline in the population from 1949 to the early 1970s. The bounty was removed in 1976, and harbour seals, in the southern parts of their range have been protected since then. There is little information available on total abundance and current population trend. Mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA research has shown separation between Northeast and Northwest Atlantic harbour seals. Within Canada, the subspecies Phoca vitulina concolor shows some population sub-structure with three distinct units that could be separated into Hudson Bay, Gulf of St. Lawrence and Sable Island. Urban development resulting in habitat degradation is probably the most important factor affecting harbour seal populations in AtlanticCanada, although other factors such as incidental catches in commercial fisheries and competition with grey seals may also be important.

  1. Harbour porpoise occurrence in relation to the Prinses Amaliawindpark

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polanen Petel, van T.; Geelhoed, S.C.V.; Meesters, H.W.G.

    2012-01-01

    The potential effects of the construction and operation of wind farms at sea on marine life is a pertinent question in today’s world. Although for this report we focus on harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena), wind farms have the potential to affect all marine life, including marine mammals, fish,

  2. Water quality effects of harbour activities assessed with integrated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    moes2

    Ecological tools were developed to study the water quality in Cochin harbour, a complex aquatic ecosystems ... contamination index is another important factor to assess ... Nutrient agar with the ... yeast extract 3.0 g; beef extract 2.0 g; agar 15.0 g; aged sea water .... ability to be incorporated into food chains (Kishe and.

  3. Shoreline stability in the vicinity of Cochin Harbour

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Vethamony, P.

    , showing stability over a period of one year. The growth of shoreline north of Cochin harbour channel takes place at the cost of sediment that should have otherwise by-passed the estuarine mouth. During the southwest monsoon the development of opposing...

  4. Status of the harbour seal (Phoca vitulina in Southern Scandinavia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Tange Olsen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The harbour seal population in Southern Scandinavia has experienced repeated declines caused by hunting and epizootics. These events have shaped the current distribution and abundance of the population. This paper assesses the current status of the population. We estimate trends in abundance of harbour seals from long term survey data, compare these with historic trends inferred from previously published material, and discuss past and potential threats to the harbour seal population of Southern Scandinavia. It is evident that harbour seals have disappeared from haulout areas along the Danish shores of Kattegat and in the westernmost part of the Baltic Sea, where they were previously numerous. In the 1920-30s, when abundance was at its lowest, the population is estimated to have been only a fraction of its original size. Following 30 years of protection the population is currently approaching historic abundance and might have reached the carrying capacity in some areas. Further development depends largely on effects of future epizootics, anthropogenic disturbance, and availability of suitable haulout sites.

  5. Determining optimal pinger spacing for harbour porpoise bycatch mitigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Finn; Krog, Carsten; Eigaard, Ole Ritzau

    2013-01-01

    A trial was conducted in the Danish North Sea hake gillnet fishery in July to September 2006 to determine whether the spacing of the Aquatec AQUAmark100 pinger could be increased without reducing the effectiveness of the pinger in mitigating harbour porpoise bycatch. The trial was designed as a c...

  6. Numerical simulation of ship motion in offshore and harbour areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Jensen, Bjarne; Mortensen, Simon Brandi

    2008-01-01

    A method for simulating the motions and mooring forces of a moored ship subject to wave forcing has been further developed and validated for both the open water case and inside harbour areas. The method was originally developed and reported in Bingham (2000). The simulation tool is named WAMSIM...

  7. Hamilton-Jacobi Approach to Pre-Big Bang Cosmology at Long-wavelengths

    CERN Document Server

    Saygili, K

    1999-01-01

    We apply the long-wavelength approximation to the low energy effective string action in the context of Hamilton-Jacobi theory. The Hamilton-Jacobi equation for the effective string action is explicitly invariant under scale factor duality. We present the leading order, general solution of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation. The Hamilton-Jacobi approach yields a solution consistent with the with the Lagrange formalism. The momentum constraints take an elegant, simple form. Furthermore this general solution reduces to the quasi-isotropic one, if the evolution of the gravitational field is neglected. Duality transformation for the general solution is written as a coordinate transformation in an abstract field space.

  8. 75 FR 4783 - Federal Consistency Appeal by Villa Marina Yacht Harbour, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Federal Consistency Appeal by Villa Marina Yacht Harbour, Inc. AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA... days, closure of the decision record in an administrative appeal filed by Villa Marina Yacht Harbour...

  9. A systematic study of wave conditions and sediment transport near Mormugao harbour

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Reddy, M.P.M.

    Wave conditions and the nature of sediment transport in the Mormugao Harbour area have been evaluated in view of the proposed development project of this harbour It has been found from this study that generally high waves will be experienced...

  10. Comparison of tropical nematode communities from three harbours, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nanajkar, M.; Ingole, B.S.

    The three major harbours from the central west coast of India were investigated for their benthic environmental status using nematodes as surrogate community. As these three harbours have shown deteriorated conditions revealed from macrobenthic...

  11. Third Indian National Conference on Harbour and Ocean Engineering (INCHOE - 2004). Proceedings

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mandal, S.; SanilKumar, V.; Jayakumar, S.

    The two volumes contain 103 scientific papers in the field of harbour and ocean engineering, presented at the Third Indian National Conference on Harbour and Ocean Engineering (INCHOE - 2004), held at National Institute of Oceanography (NIO), Dona...

  12. Vuosaari Harbour Road Tunnel Traffic Management and Incident Detection System Design Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caj Holm

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Helsinki is constructing in Vuosaari a new modem and effectivecargo harbour. All cargo harbour activities will be concentratedthere. The total project includes the harbour, a logisticsarea, traffic connections (road, railway and fairway and aBusiness Park. The road connection goes through the Porvarinlahtiroad tunnel. The harbour will commence operatingin 2008. This paper gives an oveTView of the tunnel design phasefunctional studies and risk analysis tunnel incident detectionsystem design issues and some specific environmental featuresof the tunnel.

  13. Hamilton-Jacobi formalism to warm inflationary scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayar, K.; Mohammadi, A.; Akhtari, L.; Saaidi, Kh.

    2017-01-01

    The Hamilton-Jacobi formalism as a powerful method is being utilized to reconsider the warm inflationary scenario, where the scalar field as the main component driving inflation interacts with other fields. Separating the context into strong and weak dissipative regimes, the goal is followed for two popular functions of Γ . Applying slow-rolling approximation, the required perturbation parameters are extracted and, by comparing to the latest Planck data, the free parameters are restricted. The possibility of producing an acceptable inflation is studied where the result shows that for all cases the model could successfully suggest the amplitude of scalar perturbation, scalar spectral index, its running, and the tensor-to-scalar ratio.

  14. Hamilton-Jacobi approach to non-slow-roll inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinney, W.H.

    1997-01-01

    I describe a general approach to characterizing cosmological inflation outside the standard slow-roll approximation, based on the Hamilton-Jacobi formulation of scalar field dynamics. The basic idea is to view the equation of state of the scalar field matter as the fundamental dynamical variable, as opposed to the field value or the expansion rate. I discuss how to formulate the equations of motion for scalar and tensor fluctuations in situations where the assumption of slow roll is not valid. I apply the general results to the simple case of inflation from an open-quotes invertedclose quotes polynomial potential, and to the more complicated case of hybrid inflation. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  15. Delayed development of the Provost Viking ''C'' Pool formerly the Hamilton Lake Oilfield. [Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bokman, J

    1970-06-01

    The Provost Viking ''C'' Pool has had an unusual development history. This history has consisted of several distinct stages covering a span of almost 20 yr from 1952 to 1970. Each stage was initiated by a change in concepts concerning the pool and changes in specific technological or economic factors. Examples of these are: modified views as to what constitutes an acceptable exploration target (thin pay), implementation of a new recovery method or production scheme for the area, cheaper well drilling and development costs, wider well spacing and the development of an inexpensive, reliable source of water for injection. This discussion is designed to illustrate how these changes in concepts and in technology can be effective in stimulating the development of new and regeneration of old prospects. They illustrate exceptionally well the interrelationship and interdependence of the various tools - exploration and development geology, production and reservoir engineering, land and economics - which are employed in the oil industry. They also should contain some lessons which are applicable to other situations.

  16. Generally covariant Hamilton-Jacobi equation and rotated liquid sphere metrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdil'din, M.M.; Abdulgafarov, M.K.; Abishev, M.E.

    2005-01-01

    In the work Lense-Thirring problem on corrected Fock's first approximation metrics by Hamilton-Jacobi method considered. Generally covariant Hamilton-Jacobi equation had been sold by separation of variable method. Path equation of probe particle motion in rotated liquid sphere field is obtained. (author)

  17. Echolocation by the harbour porpoise: Life in coastal waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Anton Miller

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The harbour porpoise is one of the smallest and most widely spread of all toothed whales. They are found abundantly in coastal waters all around the northern hemisphere. They are among the 11 species known to use high frequency sonar of relative narrow bandwidth. Their narrow biosonar beam helps isolate echoes from prey among those from unwanted items and noise. Obtaining echoes from small objects like net mesh, net floats and small prey is facilitated by the very high peak frequency around 130 kHz with a wavelength of about 12 mm. We argue that such echolocation signals and narrow band auditory filters give the harbour porpoise a selective advantage in a coastal environment. Predation by killer whales and a minimum noise region in the ocean around 130 kHz may have provided selection pressures for using this frequency band for biosonar signals.

  18. Sexually dimorphic proportions of the harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) skeleton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galatius, Anders

    2005-01-01

    Sexual differences in growth, allometric growth patterns and skeletal proportions were investigated by linear measurements of skeletal parts on 225 harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) from the inner Danish and adjacent waters. Females show larger asymptotic sizes and extended period of growth...... to females is also found in the vertebral epiphyses that mature later in males than females, although the males finish growth at a younger age....

  19. Status of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina in mainland Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjell Tormod Nilssen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Harbour seals were counted along the entire Norwegian coast at known moulting haulout sites in the period mid-August to early September 2003-2006. In 2003-2005, almost all known moulting areas from Finnmark to Vestfold counties were covered by aerial photo surveys flown at altitudes of approximately 800-900 ft (243-274m, and at low tide (± 2 hours. Surveys in the Østfold County were flown in 2003-2006 at 300 ft (91m, and the small tidal amplitudes permitted counts to be carried out irrespective of the tidal cycle. In some sub-areas, two or three independent surveys were conducted. Visual counts using binoculars from smaller boats and islands were carried out in some selected areas. The surveys revealed a total minimum population of 6,705 harbour seals in Norwegian waters. Harbour seals were most abundant in the Nordland and Sør-Trøndelag counties with minimum estimates of approximately 2,500 and 1,500 seals, respectively. The presented minimum estimate is approximately 800 seals lower than an estimate obtained in a comparable study carried out during the moult in 1996-1999. Increased anthropogenic removals, and the phocine distemper virus (PDV epidemic in the Skagerrak region in 2002, may have contributed to the current lower estimate.

  20. Pilot remediation of sediment from the Petroleum harbour in Amsterdam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakstege, A.L.; Geldermalsen, L.A. van

    1998-01-01

    The Petroleum Harbour project is the third pilot remediation, which was carried out within the framework of POSW (the national development programme for treatment processes of polluted sediments). The main objectives of the pilot remediation are: to demonstrate the biological treatment of dredged materials on a practical scale; and to gain knowledge and experience for the future remediation of the total Petroleum harbour. A strict tender procedure was carefully executed in order to select the most effective and 'state of the art' biodegradation technology. The selected remediation chain was a combination of 'standard' soil treatment technology and newly developed biotechnology. Dredging, biotechnological treatment and the effects of the remediation on the environment were monitored in detail. The quality of the treated sand fraction complied with the Dutch standards for re-use and was actually applied in a project of Rijkswaterstaat. Biodegradation resulted in a substantial decrease of the oil and PAH's contents, but due to the lack of breakdown of a few high-molecular PAH's, the quality requirements of the contract were not achieved. It is concluded that the two main objectives of the project have been attained. Finally some recommendations for the future clean-up of the Petroleum harbour are given. (author)

  1. Geodetic infrastructure at the Barcelona harbour for sea level monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Benjamin, Juan Jose; Gili, Josep; Lopez, Rogelio; Tapia, Ana; Pros, Francesc; Palau, Vicenc; Perez, Begona

    2015-04-01

    The presentation is directed to the description of the actual geodetic infrastructure of Barcelona harbour with three tide gauges of different technologies for sea level determination and contribution to regional sea level rise and understanding past and present sea level rise in the Barcelona harbour. It is intended that the overall system will constitute a CGPS Station of the ESEAS (European Sea Level) and TIGA (GPS Tide Gauge Benchmark Monitoring) networks. At Barcelona harbour there is a MIROS radar tide gauge belonging to Puertos del Estado (Spanish Harbours).The radar sensor is over the water surface, on a L-shaped structure which elevates it a few meters above the quay shelf. 1-min data are transmitted to the ENAGAS Control Center by cable and then sent each 1 min to Puertos del Estado by e-mail. The information includes wave forescast (mean period, significant wave height, sea level, etc.This sensor also measures agitation and sends wave parameters each 20 min. There is a GPS station Leica Geosystems GRX1200 GG Pro and antenna AX 1202 GG. The Control Tower of the Port of Barcelona is situated in the North dike of the so-called Energy Pier in the Barcelona harbor (Spain). This tower has different kind of antennas for navigation monitoring and a GNSS permanent station. As the tower is founded in reclaimed land, and because its metallic structure, the 50 m building is subjected to diverse movements, including periodic fluctuations due to temperature changes. In this contribution the 2009, 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2014 the necessary monitoring campaigns are described. In the framework of a Spanish Space Project, the instrumentation of sea level measurements has been improved by providing the Barcelona site with a radar tide gauge Datamar 2000C from Geonica S.L. in June 2014 near an acoustic tide gauge from the Barcelona Harbour installed in 2013. Precision levelling has been made several times in the last two years because the tower is founded in reclaimed land and

  2. Quantitative Compactness Estimates for Hamilton-Jacobi Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancona, Fabio; Cannarsa, Piermarco; Nguyen, Khai T.

    2016-02-01

    We study quantitative compactness estimates in {W^{1,1}_{loc}} for the map {S_t}, {t > 0} that is associated with the given initial data {u_0in Lip (R^N)} for the corresponding solution {S_t u_0} of a Hamilton-Jacobi equation u_t+Hbig(nabla_{x} ubig)=0, qquad t≥ 0,quad xinR^N, with a uniformly convex Hamiltonian {H=H(p)}. We provide upper and lower estimates of order {1/\\varepsilon^N} on the Kolmogorov {\\varepsilon}-entropy in {W^{1,1}} of the image through the map S t of sets of bounded, compactly supported initial data. Estimates of this type are inspired by a question posed by Lax (Course on Hyperbolic Systems of Conservation Laws. XXVII Scuola Estiva di Fisica Matematica, Ravello, 2002) within the context of conservation laws, and could provide a measure of the order of "resolution" of a numerical method implemented for this equation.

  3. Hamilton's equations for a fluid membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capovilla, R [Departamento de Fisica, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Apdo. Postal 14-740, 07000 Mexico, DF (Mexico); Guven, J [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo. Postal 70-543, 04510 Mexico, DF (Mexico); Rojas, E [Facultad de Fisica e Inteligencia Artificial, Universidad Veracruzana, 91000 Xalapa, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2005-10-14

    Consider a homogeneous fluid membrane described by the Helfrich-Canham energy, quadratic in the mean curvature of the membrane surface. The shape equation that determines equilibrium configurations is fourth order in derivatives and cubic in the mean curvature. We introduce a Hamiltonian formulation of this equation which dismantles it into a set of coupled first-order equations. This involves interpreting the Helfrich-Canham energy as an action; equilibrium surfaces are generated by the evolution of space curves. Two features complicate the implementation of a Hamiltonian framework. (i) The action involves second derivatives. This requires treating the velocity as a phase-space variable and the introduction of its conjugate momentum. The canonical Hamiltonian is constructed on this phase space. (ii) The action possesses a local symmetry-reparametrization invariance. The two labels we use to parametrize points on the surface are themselves physically irrelevant. This symmetry implies primary constraints, one for each label, that need to be implemented within the Hamiltonian. The two Lagrange multipliers associated with these constraints are identified as the components of the acceleration tangential to the surface. The conservation of the primary constraints implies two secondary constraints, fixing the tangential components of the momentum conjugate to the position. Hamilton's equations are derived and the appropriate initial conditions on the phase-space variables are identified. Finally, it is shown how the shape equation can be reconstructed from these equations.

  4. Organochlorine residues in harbour porpoises from Southwest Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borrell, Asuncion; Aguilar, Alex; Cantos, Gemma; Lockyer, Christina; Heide-Joergensen, Mads Peter; Jensen, Jette

    2004-02-01

    During the 1995 hunting season, 75 harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) were sampled in three locations in West Greenland: Maniitsoq, Nuuk, and Paamiut. Sex, age, morphometrics, reproductive condition, and organochlorine compound (OC) levels in blubber were determined for each individual. OC levels were extremely low and, therefore considered unlikely to affect the population adversely: mean blubber concentrations, expressed on lipid weight basis were 1.98 (S.D.=1.1) mg/kg for PCBs, 2.76 (S.D.=1.66) mg/kg for tDDT and 0.21 (S.D.=0.11) mg/kg for HCB. No statistical differences were observed among individuals caught in the various locations. OC concentrations showed statistically significant positive associations with age in males but negative in females; consequently, mature females presented lower pollutant loads than their male counterparts. Juveniles did not show differences between sexes. A higher proportion of less chlorinated and more metabolizable polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) compared to tPCBs was found in calves (age<=1) than in mature females, indicating that the feeding habits of these two groups differ and that a greater transfer of less chlorinated compounds is passed from females to their pups through lactation and parturition. Harbour porpoises significantly contribute to the dietary intake of OCs by local Inuit populations. This contribution could be reduced if mature males were selectively avoided; however, current hunting procedures make this selection impracticable. - While organochlorine levels in W. Greenland harbour porpoises are low, their contribution to Inuit dietary intake should not be disregarded.

  5. Organochlorine residues in harbour porpoises from Southwest Greenland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borrell, Asuncion; Aguilar, Alex; Cantos, Gemma; Lockyer, Christina; Heide-Joergensen, Mads Peter; Jensen, Jette

    2004-01-01

    During the 1995 hunting season, 75 harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) were sampled in three locations in West Greenland: Maniitsoq, Nuuk, and Paamiut. Sex, age, morphometrics, reproductive condition, and organochlorine compound (OC) levels in blubber were determined for each individual. OC levels were extremely low and, therefore considered unlikely to affect the population adversely: mean blubber concentrations, expressed on lipid weight basis were 1.98 (S.D.=1.1) mg/kg for PCBs, 2.76 (S.D.=1.66) mg/kg for tDDT and 0.21 (S.D.=0.11) mg/kg for HCB. No statistical differences were observed among individuals caught in the various locations. OC concentrations showed statistically significant positive associations with age in males but negative in females; consequently, mature females presented lower pollutant loads than their male counterparts. Juveniles did not show differences between sexes. A higher proportion of less chlorinated and more metabolizable polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) compared to tPCBs was found in calves (age<=1) than in mature females, indicating that the feeding habits of these two groups differ and that a greater transfer of less chlorinated compounds is passed from females to their pups through lactation and parturition. Harbour porpoises significantly contribute to the dietary intake of OCs by local Inuit populations. This contribution could be reduced if mature males were selectively avoided; however, current hunting procedures make this selection impracticable. - While organochlorine levels in W. Greenland harbour porpoises are low, their contribution to Inuit dietary intake should not be disregarded

  6. 78 FR 28838 - Hamilton Street Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 14507-000] Hamilton Street... Project would consist of the following: (1) An existing 10.5-foot-high rock fill gravity dam with a 655... a storage [[Page 28839

  7. An optimal L1-minimization algorithm for stationary Hamilton-Jacobi equations

    KAUST Repository

    Guermond, Jean-Luc; Popov, Bojan

    2009-01-01

    We describe an algorithm for solving steady one-dimensional convex-like Hamilton-Jacobi equations using a L1-minimization technique on piecewise linear approximations. For a large class of convex Hamiltonians, the algorithm is proven

  8. The community takes charge : story and success of Clean Air Hamilton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarry, B.

    2004-01-01

    Clean Air Hamilton was established in 2001 to identify priority air quality issues, pollution sources, and evaluate impacts and solutions for air quality issues. Clean Air Hamilton also assesses the human health effects of ambient air exposures in Hamilton. A 1997 survey of Hamilton residents showed that most citizens were extremely concerned about health effects, black fallout, smog visibility, and odours. Clean Air Hamilton has established an air monitoring network which includes 19 member companies and 22 industrial sites. The objective is to determine recent contaminant trends in upwind/downwind air quality. The timeline for establishing the Hamilton air monitoring network was presented. The network, which serves as a model for Ontario and Canada, monitors the impact of vehicular and industrial emissions and establishes ten-year air quality trends for benzo(a)pyrene, sulphur, nitrogen dioxide, and ozone at industrial sites and the downtown core. Analysis of air quality trends shows that there has been improvement in levels of some locally-generated contaminants. The data has also been used for epidemiological studies to determine the health effects of industry on Hamiltonians. figs

  9. Hamilton Utilities Corporation annual report 2002 : people, performance, productivity : the business of public service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    A brief overview of the municipally-owned Hamilton Utilities Corporation was provided. When Ontario's electricity market opened to competition, it allowed wholesale and retail electricity marketers to operate on a competitive basis. This report describes how Hamilton Hydro, the largest subsidiary, successfully faced the challenges brought about by the open market. The strategy of growth as a multi-utility corporation progressed significantly. Major financial restructuring was completed, income level was maintained, as well as a strong balance sheet. The construction of Hamilton's first district energy system was effected by Hamilton Community Energy, another subsidiary. This project is expected to provide heat to 10 buildings in the downtown area, producing 3.5 megawatts of electricity for the City. The third subsidiary, FibreWired, applied its vast communications expertise to the health care sector. It offered Virtual Private Network (VPN) services to area hospitals and other health care providers in pharmaceutical and biotechnology. A major study was undertaken jointly with the City of Hamilton. It examined the feasibility of restructuring water and wastewater services into a municipally owned corporation under the umbrella of Hamilton Utilities Corporation. Various examples were provided throughout the report to better illustrate how corporate vision was translated into reality. tabs

  10. Hamilton-Jacobi theorems for regular reducible Hamiltonian systems on a cotangent bundle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, some of formulations of Hamilton-Jacobi equations for Hamiltonian system and regular reduced Hamiltonian systems are given. At first, an important lemma is proved, and it is a modification for the corresponding result of Abraham and Marsden (1978), such that we can prove two types of geometric Hamilton-Jacobi theorem for a Hamiltonian system on the cotangent bundle of a configuration manifold, by using the symplectic form and dynamical vector field. Then these results are generalized to the regular reducible Hamiltonian system with symmetry and momentum map, by using the reduced symplectic form and the reduced dynamical vector field. The Hamilton-Jacobi theorems are proved and two types of Hamilton-Jacobi equations, for the regular point reduced Hamiltonian system and the regular orbit reduced Hamiltonian system, are obtained. As an application of the theoretical results, the regular point reducible Hamiltonian system on a Lie group is considered, and two types of Lie-Poisson Hamilton-Jacobi equation for the regular point reduced system are given. In particular, the Type I and Type II of Lie-Poisson Hamilton-Jacobi equations for the regular point reduced rigid body and heavy top systems are shown, respectively.

  11. Pollution effects on ecobiology of benthic polychaetes in Visakhapatnam Harbour (Bay of Bengal)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raman, A.V.; Ganapati, P.N.

    1983-02-01

    Rapid urbanization and industrialization of Visakhapatnam and construction of an outer harbour, restricting water flow, have markedly increased the organic load in the inner harbour. Studies of the physico-chemical and biological characteristics of six selected stations along a decreasing gradient of organic pollution have been carried out over a period of two years. The predominantly polychaete benthic fauna occurs in three distinct assemblages: Capitella capitata-Nereis glandicincta in the inner harbour; Cossura coasta-Tharyx marioni in the outer harbour; and a Chloeia-Axiothella-Chaetozone-Nephtys assemblage in the open sea.

  12. Chemical tracers of shipping emissions in a Mediterranean harbour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, M.; Amato, F.; Alastuey, A.; Querol, X.; Román, A.; García, M.

    2009-04-01

    Particle emissions from transport-related activities are known as one of the most important sources contributing to the PM mass concentrations in urban environments. However, only limited information is currently available in the literature on the contribution to PM levels by specific transport related sources such as shipping emissions, even though according to the latest IPCC report (Ribeiro et al., 2007), shipping emissions are receiving increased scrutiny by international and regional regulatory agencies because of their potential impact on air quality and human health in communities downwind from major shipping lanes and ports (Dominguez et al., 2008). One of the main reasons for this lack of information is the complexity in the detection of shipping emissions, given that no specific emission tracers have so far been identified as a consequence of the vast variability of combustion fuels burnt by vessels. The city of Melilla was selected for the study of shipping emissions due to its location on the South-Western sector of the Mediterranean basin, on the Northern coast of Morocco and less than 200 km from the Gibraltar Strait (35°17´40" N, 2°56´30" W). The city covers an extension of 13.4 km2, with a population of 70000 inhabitants. The monitoring station selected for the present study is representative of urban background levels, and it is located at approximately 150 m from the Melilla harbour. The harbour is mainly characterised by commercial traffic (passanger and container), although minerals and other loose materials are also stocked on the docks located farthest away from the monitoring site. PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 levels were determined on an hourly basis between 12/01/2008 and 19/12/2008 using a GRIMM laser spectrometer, which produced more than 8000 data points for each size fraction (24000 data points in total). In addition, PM10 and PM2.5 levels were sampled on quartz fibre filter substrates (Munktell) by means of high-volume samplers (PM1025 MCV

  13. The National Trust and the Heritage of Sydney Harbour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron Logan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Campaigns to preserve the legacy of the past in Australian cities have been particularly focused on the protection of natural landscapes and public open space. From campaigns to protect Perth’s Kings Park and the Green Bans of the Builders Labourers Federation in New South Wales to contemporary controversies such as the Perth waterfront redevelopment, Melbourne’s East West Link, and new development at Middle Harbour in Sydney’s Mosman, heritage activists have viewed the protection and restoration of ‘natural’ vistas, open spaces and ‘scenic landscapes’ as a vital part of the effort to preserve the historic identity of urban places. The protection of such landscapes has been a vital aspect of establishing a positive conception of the environment as a source of both urban and national identity. Drawing predominantly on the records of the National Trust of Australia (NSW, this paper examines the formation and early history of the Australian National Trust, in particular its efforts to preserve and restore the landscapes of Sydney Harbour. It then uses that history as a basis for examining the debate surrounding the landscape reconstruction project that forms part of Sydney’s highly contested Barangaroo development.

  14. Effects of the Horns Reef wind farm on harbour porpoises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tougaard, J.; Teilmann, J.; Rye Hansen, J.

    2004-09-01

    Horns Reef offshore wind farm was established in 2002. It consists of 80 2 MW wind turbines, mounted on steel monopile foundations. A harbour porpoise monitoring program was set up in connection with the environmental impact assessment (EIA) of the wind farm project. This monitoring program started in 1999 with collection of baseline data and has continued though construction and operational period. The program continues through 2005. Baseline studies showed that harbour porpoises are abundant in the area, including the area where the wind farm is now located. Significant effects on behaviour and distribution of the porpoises were observed during the construction of the wind farm. Changes could be linked to pile driving operations, where monopile foundations were rammed into the seabed. This procedure produced high levels of underwater noise and mitigation procedures in the form of a ramp up procedure and deployment of acoustic alarms were employed. During the construction period very few animals were observed inside the wind farm area. Acoustic monitoring data showed a significant increase in waiting time between porpoise encounters in connection with pile driving operations, followed by a rapid return to levels normal for the construction period as a whole. However, when the entire construction period was considered as a whole, T-POD activity increased relative to baseline. Observations during operation of the wind farm in 2003 showed a return to baseline levels on most of the indicators derived from the acoustic monitoring and animals were again seen inside the wind farm area. (au)

  15. LIMNOLOGY, LAKE BASINS, LAKE WATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petre GÂŞTESCU

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Limnology is a border discipline between geography, hydrology and biology, and is also closely connected with other sciences, from it borrows research methods. Physical limnology (the geography of lakes, studies lake biotopes, and biological limnology (the biology of lakes, studies lake biocoenoses. The father of limnology is the Swiss scientist F.A. Forel, the author of a three-volume entitled Le Leman: monographie limnologique (1892-1904, which focuses on the geology physics, chemistry and biology of lakes. He was also author of the first textbook of limnology, Handbuch der Seenkunde: allgemeine Limnologie,(1901. Since both the lake biotope and its biohydrocoenosis make up a single whole, the lake and lakes, respectively, represent the most typical systems in nature. They could be called limnosystems (lacustrine ecosystems, a microcosm in itself, as the American biologist St.A. Forbes put it (1887.

  16. Sydney harbourings, rehabilitations and the politics of procurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine de Lorenzo

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available In the last three years Sydney has been transformed to an unprecedented extent by public art projects, most of which have been developed by government instrumentalities, agencies or partnerships. The central city council has initiated a Sculpture Walk through the streets and around the rocky foreshores of the inner city; the Sydney Olympic site at Homebush Bay is home to a number of public art works; the government’s water utility company has sponsored an annual, temporary art installation walk along a spectacularly rugged ocean escarpment linking several medium-density suburbs; another instrumentality recently established to oversee the reuse of abandoned heavy industrial sites in the harbour, has established the ‘Promenart’ program along fifteen kilometres of harbour foreshores; and a government-appointed statutory authority responsible for the redevelopment of an extensive and highly polluted former industrial site between the CDB and the airport, has worked closely with designers and artists to develop comprehensive briefs addressing environmental rehabilitation and social interaction. This impressive list is by no means exhaustive. The surge in bureaucratic and artistic creative energy demands critical evaluation. In this paper I will contrast two sets of projects. This first concerns actual projects, in or near the spectacular Sydney Harbour setting, which are premised on placemaking principles and on the whole elicit actual or imagined histories for the delight and reverie of the promenader. Despite the popular and aesthetic success of these projects, one of them, the ambitious Sculpture Walk, is currently being re-evaluated. The second set, in more mundane suburban environments and centred on toxic waterways, concerns projects that at this stage are either being implemented or nearing commencement by interdisciplinary groups of artists, designers, engineers, environmentalists, community representatives, and other specialists. Their

  17. A Holocene pollen and sediment record of Whangape Harbour, far northern New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horrocks, M.; Nichol, S.L.; Gregory, M.R.; Creese, R.; Augustinus, P.C.

    2001-01-01

    The sediment record of Whangape Harbour shows that there were significant fluctuations in depositional energy in the harbour during the period from c. >8000 cal. yr BP to some time within the last millenium, and that fluvial influences increased as the harbour infilled. The pollen record (highly discontinuous) from Whangape Harbour indicates that conifer-hardwood forest covered the hills surrounding the harbour during this period. The main canopy conifers were Dacrydium and Prumnopitys taxifolia, with some Libocedrus, Dacrycarpus, and Phyllocladus. Agathis was also present. Common canopy hardwoods were Metrosideros and, in the latter part of the period, Elaeocarpus. Ascarina and Cyathea were abundant in the sub-canopy. Leptospermum grew on disturbed areas fringing the estuary. Marsh or swamp environments probably never developed on a large scale in the harbour. Avicennia, extremely under-represented in the pollen flora, has been present on tidal flats in the harbour since at least c. 2500 cal. yr BP. Large-scale anthropogenic deforestation by burning commenced in the Whangape catchment some time during or since 700-430 cal. yr BP. The associated increase in erosion rates in the catchment resulted in a change towards a sandier sediment regime in the harbour which has continued to the present day. Weinmannia and Ackama, previously rare in the catchment, expanded in remaining forest. (author). 39 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  18. Telemetry studies in harbour porpoises - An overview of the technical and practical state of the art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucke, K.

    2013-01-01

    Information on the life functions and ecology of harbour porpoises is still scarce. Only a limited number of animals are available for research in controlled situations. Satellite tracking allows to gather information on individual movements of harbour porpoises, hence providing direct insight into

  19. Biochemical indicators of pollution exposure in shorthorn sculpin (Myoxocephalus scorpius), caught in four harbours on the southwest coast of Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephensen; Svavarsson; Sturve; Ericson; Adolfsson-Erici; Förlin

    2000-04-01

    Shorthorn sculpins (Myoxocephalus scorpius) were caught in four Icelandic harbours, differing in size, use and traffic. Biochemical responses in liver were measured and chemicals analysed in bile. Eyrarbakki harbour, which has not been in use for many years was chosen as a control site. Njar partial differentialvík harbour is a small fishing harbour and a marina, Sandger partial differentiali harbour is a large fishing harbour, and Reykjavík harbour is a large fishing harbour and an international transport harbour. Higher levels of DNA-adducts and cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) in the fish from the harbours in Sandger partial differentiali, Njar partial differentialvík and Reykjavík, compared to Eyrarbakki harbour, indicate PAH exposure. This was confirmed by PAH analysis in bile. The higher activities of the antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) in fish caught in Sandger partial differentiali, than in fish caught in the other harbours, indicate exposure of sculpin to prooxidative compounds in Sandger partial differentiali harbour. Shorthorn sculpin seems to be a convenient species for monitoring pollution in northern coastal areas.

  20. Sources of contamination and modelled pollutant trajectories in a Mediterranean harbour (Tarragona, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestres, M; Sierra, J P; Mösso, C; Sánchez-Arcilla, A

    2010-06-01

    The proximity of commercial harbours to residential areas and the growing environmental awareness of society have led most port authorities to include environmental management within their administration plan. Regarding water quality, it is necessary to have the capacity and tools to deal with contamination episodes that may damage marine ecosystems and human health, but also affect the normal functioning of harbours. This paper presents a description of the main pollutant sources in Tarragona Harbour (Spain), and a numerical analysis of several pollution episodes based on the Port Authority's actual environmental concerns. The results show that pollution generated inside the harbour tends to remain confined within the port, whereas it is very likely that oil spills from a nearby monobuoy may affect the neighbouring beaches. The present combination of numerical models proves itself a useful tool to assess the environmental risk associated to harbour activities and potential pollution spills.

  1. Role of commercial harbours and recreational marinas in the spread of non-indigenous fouling species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrario, Jasmine; Caronni, Sarah; Occhipinti-Ambrogi, Anna; Marchini, Agnese

    2017-09-01

    The role of commercial harbours as sink and source habitats for non-indigenous species (NIS) and the role of recreational boating for their secondary spread were investigated by analysing the fouling community of five Italian harbours and five marinas in the western Mediterranean Sea. It was first hypothesised that NIS assemblages in the recreational marinas were subsets of those occurring in commercial harbours. However, the data did not consistently support this hypothesis: the NIS pools of some marinas significantly diverged from harbours even belonging to the same coastal stretches, including NIS occurring only in marinas. This study confirms harbours as hotspots for marine NIS, but also reveals that numbers of NIS in some marinas is higher than expected, suggesting that recreational vessels effectively facilitate NIS spread. It is recommended that this vector of NIS introduction is taken into account in the future planning of sustainable development of maritime tourism in Europe.

  2. Hamilton and Hardy: Mentoring and Friendship in the Service of Occupational Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Marianne

    This article explores the mentoring relationship between Alice Hamilton and Harriet Hardy, two female physician-researchers who had a tremendous impact on the development of the field of occupational health in the United States during the 20th century. The article relies on letters the women wrote to each other. Hamilton, the elder, supported and furthered Hardy's career by asking her to coauthor the second edition of a seminal occupational health text. After beginning this intellectual collaboration, Hamilton remained a mentor to Hardy, and a decades-long friendship ensued. The article explores their relationship within the historical, political, and social context in which the women worked and made remarkable contributions to public health.

  3. Obituary: George Hamilton Bowen Jr. (1925-2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willson, Lee Anne; Struck, Curtis

    2011-12-01

    Our colleague and collaborator George Hamilton Bowen, Jr., passed away November 1, 2009 in Ames, Iowa. George was born June 20, 1925 in Tulsa, Oklahoma to George and Dorothy (Huntington) Bowen. He married Marjorie Brown June 19, 1948 in Redondo Beach, California; they had five children, with eight grandchildren and five great-grandchildren at the time of his death. George H. Bowen's third or perhaps his fourth career was in astronomy. He was drafted into the navy in 1944, at the end of his first year as a student at Caltech, and ended his war-time service as an electronic technician on the aircraft carrier Shangri-La. He later said "In just nine months, starting from scratch (Ohm's law!), we learned an amazing amount - not by memorization, of course, but by study and real understanding of the basic function of the most advanced AC circuits then being used for instrumentation, measurements, communications, control systems, and much more." He gained a confidence that he could quickly and accurately diagnose and solve technical problems that stood him well in future work. One accomplishment he took particular pride in was figuring out how the radar control used cams and gears to solve the trigonometry for accurate pointing. He also described how the captain was alarmed when weather conditions changed so that refraction no longer showed them distant, small boats around the curvature of Earth. After the war, George Bowen returned to undergraduate and eventually graduate study at Caltech, where he was recruited to the biophysics research group headed by future Nobel Laureate Max Delbrück. George often described his joy in working with these first-rate scientists and finding himself accepted as a part of the effort. He finished his BS with honors in 1949 and his PhD in 1953 with a thesis on "Kinetic Studies on the Mechanism of Photoreactivation of Bacteriophase T2 Inactivated by Ultraviolet Light" involving work with E Coli. This work was supported by grants from the U

  4. Game theory to characterize solutions of a discrete-time Hamilton-Jacobi equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toledo, Porfirio

    2013-01-01

    We study the behavior of solutions of a discrete-time Hamilton-Jacobi equation in a minimax framework of game theory. The solutions of this problem represent the optimal payoff of a zero-sum game of two players, where the number of moves between the players converges to infinity. A real number, called the critical value, plays a central role in this work; this number is the asymptotic average action of optimal trajectories. The aim of this paper is to show the existence and characterization of solutions of a Hamilton-Jacobi equation for this kind of games

  5. Nonlinear H-infinity control, Hamiltonian systems and Hamilton-Jacobi equations

    CERN Document Server

    Aliyu, MDS

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive overview of nonlinear Haeu control theory for both continuous-time and discrete-time systems, Nonlinear Haeu-Control, Hamiltonian Systems and Hamilton-Jacobi Equations covers topics as diverse as singular nonlinear Haeu-control, nonlinear Haeu -filtering, mixed H2/ Haeu-nonlinear control and filtering, nonlinear Haeu-almost-disturbance-decoupling, and algorithms for solving the ubiquitous Hamilton-Jacobi-Isaacs equations. The link between the subject and analytical mechanics as well as the theory of partial differential equations is also elegantly summarized in a single chapter

  6. New Li-Yau-Hamilton Inequalities for the Ricci Flow via the Space-Time Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Chow, Bennett; Knopf, Dan

    2002-01-01

    We generalize Hamilton's matrix Li-Yau-type Harnack estimate for the Ricci flow by considering the space of all LYH (Li-Yau-Hamilton) quadratics that arise as curvature tensors of space-time connections satisfying the Ricci flow with respect to the natural space-time degenerate metric. As a special case, we employ scaling arguments to derive a linear-type matrix LYH estimate. The new LYH quadratics obtained in this way are associated to the system of the Ricci flow coupled to a 1-form and a 2...

  7. Distribution of uranium at Mumbai Harbour Bay (MHB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugandhi, S.; Prabhu, S.P.; Mishra, D.G.; Ravi, P.M.; Hegde, A.G.

    2010-01-01

    Mumbai Harbour Bay (MHB) is a recipient of low level treated effluents from BARC, Trombay. In addition, the Bay is also a recipient of domestic and industrial wastes from the city of Mumbai and adjoining areas. Uranium though considered as a rare element, occurs in seawater. The present study is dealt with the distribution of uranium in seawater of Mumbai Harbour Bay (MHB). Uranium is mainly present as Tricarbanato uranyl anion ((UO 2 (CO 3 ) 3 ) 4- ) in seawater and its concentration varies with the locality and depth. The average value of uranium concentration reported for Indian Bay water at Tarapur and Mumbai is ∼ 3.0 ppb which is comparable with the reported value for Arabian sea. As such the global average is reported to be ∼ 3.3 ppb by Oceanologists. A total of 18 seawater samples covering the upstream, downstream and middle stream of MHB were collected and filtered through 0.22 μm filter paper. 10 L of filtered sample was subjected to chemical separation using ion-exchange technique which involved the following steps: the filtered samples were acidified with conc. HNO 3 and digested. Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 was precipitated at pH 8-9 by addition of liquid ammonia which coprecipitates uranium. The precipitate was allowed to settle overnight, supernatant discarded; precipitate was washed thoroughly with distilled water twice, dissolved in electronic grade conc. HNO 3 and evaporated to dryness. Residue formed was heated with electronic grade conc. HCI and taken up in 8M HCI and loaded on to Dowex 1x8 (Cl -1 for, 1.5 g, 100-200 mesh, anion exchanger), preconditioned with 8M HCI. Uranium adsorbed on the resin was eluted with 1 M HNO 3 . The eluant was evaporated to dryness and electrodeposited on a stainless steel planchette and the uranium content was estimated by alpha spectrometry (PIPS, Type IPC). The uranium activity in MHB by alpha spectrometry was found to be between 1.0-4.4 ppb with an average concentration of 2.5 ppb which is comparable with the earlier

  8. Catch history and status of the harbour seal (Phoca vitulina in Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aqqalu Rosving-Asvid

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The number of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina in West Greenland declined rapidly after the 1950s and the seals have now abandoned their traditional haulout locations along the Greenland west coast. However, in recent years, a previously undetected group of about 60-100 harbour seals has been observed approximately 80 km upstream in a large river, and some traditional hauloutlocations are still in use near the south-eastern tip of Greenland. A small number of harbour seals is caught annually far from any of these locations, indicating that other groups might live unnoticed. Catch statistics provide the best evidence of the presence and locations of these remnant harbour seals. Therefore efforts were made to validate the recent catch statistics and to describe the catch history for the past 60 years. The catch statistics were also used to estimate plausibleranges of past and present numbers of harbour seals based on the assumption that hunting has caused the observed decline. The total number of harbour seals in Greenland according to these estimates was about 3,000 in 1950 and fewer than 1,000 in 2007. The number of harbour seals caught in the southernmost part of Greenland has, unlike in the rest of Greenland, increased significantly in some of the recent years. This change seems to be related to changes in the amount of drift ice. Drift ice reduces the frequency of contact between hunters and harbour seals in South Greenland and above normal quantities of drift ice from the mid 1960s to the mid 1980s probably allowed these seals to increase in numbers. Record low inflow of drift ice in some of the recent years, however, has resulted in record high catches, which likely have reduced the seals again. The remaining harbour seals in Greenland are few and without protection these sealsare potentially in danger of extinction.

  9. n-Alkanes in surficial sediments of Visakhapatnam harbour, east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Punyu, V.R.; Harji, R.R.; Bhosle, N.B.; Sawant, S.S.; Venkat, K.

    -alkanes mainly at C15, C17 and C19 Keywords. Sediments; lipids; n-alkanes; Visakhapatnam harbour. J. Earth Syst. Sci. 122, No. 2, April 2013, pp. 467–477 c© Indian Academy of Sciences 467 468 V R Punyu et al while terrestrial plants exhibit predominance of long... steel plant, a fertilizer plant and a lead and zinc smelter in the vicinity are discharged into this harbour. The harbour handles items such as man- ganese and iron ore, coal and oil products. Added to this, it receives most of the urban run...

  10. Seasonal, diel, tidal, and geographical variation in male harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) vocalizations in southern Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faxe Sabinsky, Puk; Tougaard, Jakob; Wahlberg, Magnus

    Male harbour seals make underwater calls in the mating season but remarkable little is known about the circumstances under which the calls are made and the role of the calls in mating. This study reports on the first recordings of harbour seal calls from Danish waters and investigates...... calling behavior of harbour seals. This gives prospects of a tool, which can aid in identifying essential underwater areas used in mating behavior by the seals, and can allow assessment of the need for adequate protection of these areas as required by the Habitats Directive....

  11. OPINIONS REGARDING THE TOURISTIC POTENTIAL OF THE DANUBIAN HARBOURS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena MATEI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of European integration, the creation of transnational tourism products represents the brand of an inter-state collaboration, which, based on a common strategy, implies objectives that aim at achieving the global development of a destination, making thus possible an efficient and effective allocation of resources, in order to achieve a sustainable development, both from a touristic point of view and from an economic, social, cultural, technological, etc. one. The route of the Danube could represent one of the most important European destinations, appertaining to more than one country; therefore, in order to develop and sustain its touristic potential, a common strategy is necessary, with an integrated marketing image, associated to a consistent tourism product, inspiring common values, regardless of the territory of the country it is located in. In this direction, a quantitative marketing research, conducted on 992 respondents, aged 18-24, in order to determine the opinions concerning the touristic potential of the Danubian harbours – as a fundamental element, precursory to the market analysis.

  12. Insect symbiotic bacteria harbour viral pathogens for transovarial transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Dongsheng; Mao, Qianzhuo; Chen, Yong; Liu, Yuyan; Chen, Qian; Wu, Wei; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Chen, Hongyan; Li, Yi; Wei, Taiyun

    2017-03-06

    Many insects, including mosquitoes, planthoppers, aphids and leafhoppers, are the hosts of bacterial symbionts and the vectors for transmitting viral pathogens 1-3 . In general, symbiotic bacteria can indirectly affect viral transmission by enhancing immunity and resistance to viruses in insects 3-5 . Whether symbiotic bacteria can directly interact with the virus and mediate its transmission has been unknown. Here, we show that an insect symbiotic bacterium directly harbours a viral pathogen and mediates its transovarial transmission to offspring. We observe rice dwarf virus (a plant reovirus) binding to the envelopes of the bacterium Sulcia, a common obligate symbiont of leafhoppers 6-8 , allowing the virus to exploit the ancient oocyte entry path of Sulcia in rice leafhopper vectors. Such virus-bacterium binding is mediated by the specific interaction of the viral capsid protein and the Sulcia outer membrane protein. Treatment with antibiotics or antibodies against Sulcia outer membrane protein interferes with this interaction and strongly prevents viral transmission to insect offspring. This newly discovered virus-bacterium interaction represents the first evidence that a viral pathogen can directly exploit a symbiotic bacterium for its transmission. We believe that such a model of virus-bacterium communication is a common phenomenon in nature.

  13. Derivation of the Schrodinger Equation from the Hamilton-Jacobi Equation in Feynman's Path Integral Formulation of Quantum Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, J. H.

    2011-01-01

    It is shown how the time-dependent Schrodinger equation may be simply derived from the dynamical postulate of Feynman's path integral formulation of quantum mechanics and the Hamilton-Jacobi equation of classical mechanics. Schrodinger's own published derivations of quantum wave equations, the first of which was also based on the Hamilton-Jacobi…

  14. Hamilton-Jacobi equation and the breaking of the WKB approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canfora, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, GC di Salerno (Italy) and Dipartimento di Fisica E.R. Caianiello, Universita di Salerno, Via S. Allende, 84081 Baronissi (Salerno) (Italy)]. E-mail: canfora@sa.infn.it

    2005-03-17

    A simple method to deal with four-dimensional Hamilton-Jacobi equation for null hypersurfaces is introduced. This method allows to find simple geometrical conditions which give rise to the failure of the WKB approximation on curved spacetimes. The relation between such failure, extreme blackholes and the Cosmic Censor hypothesis is briefly discussed.

  15. Light Rail Transit in Hamilton: Health, Environmental and Economic Impact Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topalovic, P.; Carter, J.; Topalovic, M.; Krantzberg, G.

    2012-01-01

    Hamilton's historical roots as an electric, industrial and transportation-oriented city provide it with a high potential for rapid transit, especially when combined with its growing population, developing economy, redeveloping downtown core and its plans for sustainable growth. This paper explores the health, environmental, social and economic…

  16. 78 FR 22873 - Hamilton Street Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 14500-000] Hamilton Street... Hydroelectric Project would consist of the following: (1) An existing 14-foot-high concrete gravity dam with a 480-foot-long spillway; (2) an existing impoundment having a surface area of 50 acres and a storage...

  17. 78 FR 22872 - Hamilton Street Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 14499-000] Hamilton Street... Project would consist of the following: (1) An existing 20-foot-high concrete gravity dam with a 690-foot-long spillway; (2) an existing impoundment having a surface area of 300 acres and a storage capacity of...

  18. 77 FR 52058 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Longyear Museum of Anthropology, Colgate University, Hamilton, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    ... Inventory Completion: Longyear Museum of Anthropology, Colgate University, Hamilton, NY AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Longyear Museum of Anthropology has completed an... cultural affiliation with the human remains should contact the Longyear Museum of Anthropology at the...

  19. 76 FR 48178 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Longyear Museum of Anthropology, Colgate University, Hamilton, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    ...: Longyear Museum of Anthropology, Colgate University, Hamilton, NY AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Longyear Museum of Anthropology has completed an inventory of a human remain... human remain should contact the Longyear Museum of Anthropology at the address below by September 7...

  20. L∞-error estimates of a finite element method for the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouldbrachene, M.

    1994-11-01

    We study the finite element approximation for the solution of the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equations involving a system of quasi-variational inequalities (QVI). We also give the optimal L ∞ -error estimates, using the concepts of subsolutions and discrete regularity. (author). 7 refs

  1. Perceptions of Quality Life in Hamilton's Neighbourhood Hubs: A Qualitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eby, Jeanette; Kitchen, Peter; Williams, Allison

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines perceptions of quality of life in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada from the perspective of residents and key community stakeholders. A series of eight focus groups were conducted. Six sessions were held with residents of neighbourhood "hubs", areas characterized by high levels of poverty. The following themes were…

  2. Octavia Butler and Virginia Hamilton: Black Women Writers and Science Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, Gregory Jerome; Brooks, Wanda M.

    2003-01-01

    Notes that African American literature has always had science fiction elements in its focus on narratives of the alienated and marginalized "other." Contends that Octavia Butler and Virginia Hamilton are two African American writers of science fiction who examine the connections between the stories of a culture and the genre of science…

  3. Air Quality in Hamilton: Who Is Concerned? Perceptions from Three Neighbourhoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone, Dylan; Eyles, John; Newbold, K. Bruce; Kitchen, Peter; Williams, Allison

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the factors influencing perceptions of air quality in the industrial city of Hamilton, Canada. The research employs data collected via a telephone survey of 1,002 adult residents in three neighbourhoods. Perceptions in the neighbourhoods were examined by individual socio-demographic factors (age, gender, marital and…

  4. An optimal L1-minimization algorithm for stationary Hamilton-Jacobi equations

    KAUST Repository

    Guermond, Jean-Luc

    2009-01-01

    We describe an algorithm for solving steady one-dimensional convex-like Hamilton-Jacobi equations using a L1-minimization technique on piecewise linear approximations. For a large class of convex Hamiltonians, the algorithm is proven to be convergent and of optimal complexity whenever the viscosity solution is q-semiconcave. Numerical results are presented to illustrate the performance of the method.

  5. 76 FR 25534 - Airworthiness Directives; Hamilton Sundstrand Propellers Model 247F Propellers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ... 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. The AD docket contains this AD, the... through FR2279 inclusive, FR 2398, FR2449 to FR2958 inclusive, FR20010710 to FR20010722 inclusive, and FR20010723RT to FR20020127RT inclusive, installed. Propeller blades reworked to Hamilton Sundstrand Service...

  6. Durand Neighbourhood Heritage Inventory: Toward a Digital Citywide Survey Approach to Heritage Planning in Hamilton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, V.; Garvey, A.; Sydor, M.

    2017-08-01

    In the face of changing economies and patterns of development, the definition of heritage is diversifying, and the role of inventories in local heritage planning is coming to the fore. The Durand neighbourhood is a layered and complex area located in inner-city Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, and the second subject area in a set of pilot inventory studies to develop a new city-wide inventory strategy for the City of Hamilton,. This paper presents an innovative digital workflow developed to undertake the Durand Built Heritage Inventory project. An online database was developed to be at the centre of all processes, including digital documentation, record management, analysis and variable outputs. Digital tools were employed for survey work in the field and analytical work in the office, resulting in a GIS-based dataset that can be integrated into Hamilton's larger municipal planning system. Together with digital mapping and digitized historical resources, the Durand database has been leveraged to produce both digital and static outputs to shape recommendations for the protection of Hamilton's heritage resources.

  7. Mobile Air Monitoring: Measuring Change in Air Quality in the City of Hamilton, 2005-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Matthew D.; DeLuca, Patrick F.; Corr, Denis; Kanaroglou, Pavlos S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the change in air pollutant concentrations between 2005 and 2010 occurring in the City of Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. After analysis of stationary air pollutant concentration data, we analyze mobile air pollutant concentration data. Air pollutants included in the analysis are CO, PM[subscript 2.5], SO[subscript 2], NO,…

  8. Hamilton-Jacobi formalism for Podolsky's electromagnetic theory on the null-plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, M. C.; Pimentel, B. M.; Valcárcel, C. E.; Zambrano, G. E. R.

    2017-08-01

    We develop the Hamilton-Jacobi formalism for Podolsky's electromagnetic theory on the null-plane. The main goal is to build the complete set of Hamiltonian generators of the system as well as to study the canonical and gauge transformations of the theory.

  9. Determination of petroleum hydrocarbons in sediment samples from Bombay harbour, Dharamtar creek and Amba river estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, S.A.; Dhaktode, S.S.; Kadam, A.N.

    The surface sediment samples were collected by van Veen grab sampler during premonsoon, monsoon and postmonsoon seasons from Bombay harbour, Dharamtar creek and Amba river estuary Moisture content of the samples ranges from 36 to 67.5...

  10. Extractable organics in surface sediments from Thana creek and Bombay harbour

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rokade, M.A.; Bhosle, N.B.; Kadam, A.N.

    Considerable variations in hydrocarbon and fatty acid levels in surface sediments from Thana creek and Bombay harbour were observed Sediments from the westernside nearshore locations yielded higher values The residues were characterised by infrared...

  11. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT: TORONTO HARBOUR COMMISSIONERS (THC) SOIL RECYCLE TREATMENT TRAIN. Project Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    A demonstration of the Toronto Harbour Commissioners' (THC) Soil Recycle Treatment Train was performed under the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program at a pilot plant facility in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. The Soil Recycle Treatment Train, which consists of s...

  12. Investigations on oil patches around 'M.T.Lajpatrai' Bombay harbour

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kadam, A.N.; Zingde, M.D.

    Samples from three oil patches observed around the burning tanker 'M. T. Lajpatrai' at Bombay Harbour were characterised using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (PMR). Two of them were found to be from used lubricating oils. As indicated by gas...

  13. Phytoplankton characteristics in a polluted Bombay Harbour-Thana-Bassein creek estuarine complex

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, Neelam; Ramaiah, N.; Nair, V.R.

    Annual variations in phytoplankton characteristics were studied from Bombay Harbour-Thana creek-Bassein creek (BHTCBC) estuarine confluence to assess the levels of pigment concentration, productivity and, qualitative and qunatitative nature...

  14. Mixing in Visakhapatnam harbour and nutrient inputs to nearshore waters, east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RamaRaju, V.S.; Sarma, V.V.; Raju, G.R.K.; Rao, V.S.

    The flushing time (t) and replacement time CD are computed for different seasons to understand mixing in Visakhapatnam harbour. Replacement times are higher than the flushing times indicating that the transverse mixing in the tidal flow...

  15. Species composition, abundance and distribution of hydromedusae from Dharamtar estuarine system, adjoining Bombay Harbour

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Santhakumari, V.; Tiwari, L.R.; Nair, V.R.

    Species composition, abundance and distribution of hydromedusae from Dharamtar estuarine system, adjoining Bombay Harbour, Maharashtra, India were investigated during 1984-1985. Twenty six species belonging to 19 genera were obtained from this area...

  16. A new species of Acartia (Copepoda, Calanoida) from Cochin Harbour, India, and adjacent areas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Abraham, S.

    During the course of a study of the family Acartiidae of Cochin harbour and its neighbourhood, a species of Acartia different from all other known species of Acartia, was found. Its characteristics, habitat and seasonal distribution form the theme...

  17. Lake Cadagno

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonolla, Mauro; Storelli, Nicola; Danza, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Lake Cadagno (26 ha) is a crenogenic meromictic lake located in the Swiss Alps at 1921 m asl with a maximum depth of 21 m. The presence of crystalline rocks and a dolomite vein rich in gypsum in the catchment area makes the lake a typical “sulphuretum ” dominated by coupled carbon and sulphur...... cycles. The chemocline lies at about 12 m depth, stabilized by density differences of salt-rich water supplied by sub-aquatic springs to the monimolimnion and of electrolyte-poor surface water feeding the mixolimnion. Steep sulphide and light gradients in the chemocline support the growth of a large...... in the chemocline. Small-celled PSB together with the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfocapsa thiozymogenes sp. form stable aggregates in the lake, which represent small microenvironments with an internal sulphur cycle. Eukaryotic primary producers in the anoxic zones are dominated by Cryptomonas phaseolus...

  18. Playa Lakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This digital dataset provides information about the spatial distribution of soil units associated with playa lakes. Specific soil types have been designated by the...

  19. Radioactivity concentrations and their radiological significance in sediments of the Tema Harbour (Greater Accra, Ghana)

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin O. Botwe; Antonio Schirone; Ivana Delbono; Mattia Barsanti; Roberta Delfanti; Peter Kelderman; Elvis Nyarko; Piet N.L. Lens

    2017-01-01

    Studies on environmental radioactivity in tropical Africa are scarce. Therefore, a baseline study of natural (238U, 210Pb, 226Ra, 232Th, 228Ra, 228Th, 40K) and anthropogenic (137Cs) radionuclides was carried out on Tema Harbour (Greater Accra, Ghana) surface sediments and on their radiological significance. Grab surface sediment samples were collected from 21 stations within the Tema Harbour and their radioactivity concentrations measured by gamma spectrometry. The mean sediment radioactivity...

  20. Characterization of the novel In1059 harbouring VIM gene cassette

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongguo Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background VIM-type enzyme encodes the most widely acquired metallo-β-lactamases in Gram- negative bacteria. To obtain current epidemiological data for integrons from enterobacteriae in hospital, the study characterizes the genetic structure in In1059 by comparison with In846 integrons harbouring VIM gene and other class 1 integrons including In37, In62, In843 and In1021 with the aim of identifying the putative mechanisms involved integron mobilization and infer evolution of relevant integrons. Methods Six of 69 recombinant plasmids from clinical strains were found to be class 1 integrons by digestion with BamHI, drug susceptibility testing, conjugation experiments, PCR amplification, integron cloning and sequencing, genome comparison, and detection of carbapenemase activity. Results The sequences of the six recombinant plasmids encoding In1021, In843, In846, In37, In62, and the novel In1059 integron had approximate lengths of ~4.8-, 4.1-, 5.1-, 5.3-, 5.3- and 6.6- kb, respectively. The genetic structures of these integrons were mapped and characterized, and the carbapenemase activities of their parental strains were assessed. Conclusions Our results suggest that the six variable integron structures and regular variations that exist in the gene cassettes provide a putative mechanism for the integron changes. Our study has also shown that the genetic features in the integrons named above fall within a scheme involving the stepwise and parallel evolution of class 1 integron variation likely under antibiotic selection pressure in clinical settings.

  1. The spatial and temporal distribution of heavy metals in sediments of Victoria Harbour, Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Chloe Wing-yee; Ip, Carman Ching-man; Zhang Gan; Shin, Paul K.S.; Qian Peiyuan; Li Xiangdong

    2008-01-01

    Victoria Harbour has received substantial loadings of pollutants from industrial and municipal wastewater discharged since the 1950s. Inputs of contaminants have declined dramatically during the last two decades as a result of better controls at the source and improved wastewater treatment facilities. To assess the spatial and temporal changes of metal contaminants in sediments in Victoria Harbour, core and grab sediments were collected. The central harbour areas were generally contaminated with heavy metals. The spatial distribution of trace metals can probably be attributed to the proximity of major urban and industrial discharge points, and to the effect of tidal flushing in the harbour. In the sediment cores, the highest concentrations of trace metals were observed to have accumulated during the 1950s-1980s, corresponding with the period of rapid urban and industrial development in Hong Kong. From the late 1980s, there has been a major decline in the concentrations of trace metals, due to a reduction in industrial activities and to the enactment of wastewater pollution controls in the territory. The Pb isotopic compositions of the sediments revealed the anthropogenic inputs of Pb to the harbour. The 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratios varied from 1.154 to 1.190, which were lower than those of background geological materials in Hong Kong ( 206 Pb/ 207 Pb: 1.201-1.279). The data also indicated that the Pb in the harbour sediments most likely originated from mixed sources, including the leaded gasoline used in the past and other anthropogenic sources

  2. Principles of lake sedimentology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janasson, L.

    1983-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive outline on the basic sedimentological principles for lakes, and focuses on environmental aspects and matters related to lake management and control-on lake ecology rather than lake geology. This is a guide for those who plan, perform and evaluate lake sedimentological investigations. Contents abridged: Lake types and sediment types. Sedimentation in lakes and water dynamics. Lake bottom dynamics. Sediment dynamics and sediment age. Sediments in aquatic pollution control programmes. Subject index

  3. 'From Man to Bacteria': W.D. Hamilton, the theory of inclusive fitness, and the post-war social order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Sarah A

    2015-02-01

    W.D. Hamilton's theory of inclusive fitness aimed to define the evolved limits of altruism with mathematical precision. Although it was meant to apply universally, it has been almost irretrievably entwined with the particular case of social insects that featured in his famous 1964 papers. The assumption that social insects were central to Hamilton's early work contradicts material in his rich personal archive. In fact, careful study of Hamilton's notes, letters, diaries, and early essays indicates the extent to which he had humans in mind when he decided altruism was a topic worthy of biological inquiry. For this reason, this article reconsiders the role of extra-scientific factors in Hamilton's early theorizing. In doing so, it offers an alternative perspective as to why Hamilton saw self-sacrifice to be an important subject. Although the traditional narrative prioritizes his distaste for benefit-of-the-species explanations as a motivating factor behind his foundational work, I argue that greater attention ought to be given to Hamilton's hope that science could be used to address social ills. By reconsidering the meaning Hamilton intended inclusive fitness to have, we see that while he was no political ideologue, the socio-political relevance of his theory was nevertheless integral to its development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Organo chlorine pesticides (OCPs) contaminants in sediments from Karachi harbour, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, N.; Khan, S.H.; Amjad, S.; Muller, J.; Nizamani, S.; Bhanger, M.I.

    2010-01-01

    Mangrove swamps, inter tidal mud flats and creeks of backwaters represent main feature of Karachi harbour area. Karachi harbour sediment is under continuous influence of untreated industrial effluents and domestic waste discharged into the Harbour area via Lyari River. Sediment samples from sixteen locations were collected to evaluate the levels of contamination of organo chlorine pesticides (OCPs) in Karachi harbour and adjoining areas. It has been observed that residual concentrations of various organo chlorine pesticides were considerably higher in the semi-enclosed area of the upper Harbour in the vicinity of the discharge point of Lyari River. The residue of DDT mainly its metabolites (DDE and DDD) were widely distributed and have been detected in most of the sediment samples in relatively higher concentrations as compared to other OCPs. The higher levels of the DDTs would attribute to low tidal flushing of the area. The high proportion of pp'-DDE in the most sediment sampled (41-95%) suggested old inputs of DDTs in the environment. Ratio of sigma DDT and DDT was in the range of 0.04 - 0.24 at all locations which also reflects that the discharges of DDT were negligible in the Harbour area. This may be due to the restrictions being implemented on the use of DDTs and Pakistan has also switched over to natural pest control or using safer formulas. The data obtained during the study showed that concentration levels of other pesticides such as HCHs, HCB and Cyclodienes in the sediment were generally lower than the threshold levels known to harm wildlife by OCPs. The results clearly indicate that elevated concentration of organo chlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the marine sediment of Karachi harbour and adjoining area was localized and much lower than the concentrations reported from neighbouring and regional countries which suggests/confirms that the present use of pesticide in Pakistan is environmentally safe. (author)

  5. A generalization of Hamilton's rule for the evolution of microbial cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeff; Van Dyken, J David; Zee, Peter C

    2010-06-25

    Hamilton's rule states that cooperation will evolve if the fitness cost to actors is less than the benefit to recipients multiplied by their genetic relatedness. This rule makes many simplifying assumptions, however, and does not accurately describe social evolution in organisms such as microbes where selection is both strong and nonadditive. We derived a generalization of Hamilton's rule and measured its parameters in Myxococcus xanthus bacteria. Nonadditivity made cooperative sporulation remarkably resistant to exploitation by cheater strains. Selection was driven by higher-order moments of population structure, not relatedness. These results provide an empirically testable cooperation principle applicable to both microbes and multicellular organisms and show how nonlinear interactions among cells insulate bacteria against cheaters.

  6. Perturbation to Unified Symmetry and Adiabatic Invariants for Relativistic Hamilton Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Mingjiang; Fang Jianhui; Lu Kai; Pang Ting; Lin Peng

    2009-01-01

    Based on the concept of adiabatic invariant, the perturbation to unified symmetry and adiabatic invariants for relativistic Hamilton systems are studied. The definition of the perturbation to unified symmetry for the system is presented, and the criterion of the perturbation to unified symmetry is given. Meanwhile, the Noether adiabatic invariants, the generalized Hojman adiabatic invariants, and the Mei adiabatic invariants for the perturbed system are obtained. (general)

  7. Respiratory Medicine at McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario: 1968 to 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman L Jones

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The medical school at McMaster University (Hamilton, Ontario was conceived in 1965, and admitted the first class in 1969. John Evans became the founding Dean and he invited EJ Moran Campbell to be the first Chairman of the Department of Medicine. Moran Campbell, already a world figure in respiratory medicine and physiology, arrived at McMaster in September 1968, and he invited Norman Jones to be Coordinator of the Respiratory Programme.

  8. Respiratory Medicine at McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario: 1968 To 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman L Jones

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The medical school at McMaster University (Hamilton, Ontario was conceived in 1965 and admitted the first class in 1969. John Evans became the founding Dean and he invited Moran Campbell to be the first Chairman of the Department of Medicine. Moran Campbell, already a world figure in respiratory medicine and physiology, arrived at McMaster in September 1968, and he invited Norman Jones to be Coordinator of the Respiratory Programme.

  9. Existence of solutions for Hamiltonian field theories by the Hamilton-Jacobi technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno, Danilo

    2011-01-01

    The paper is devoted to prove the existence of a local solution of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation in field theory, whence the general solution of the field equations can be obtained. The solution is adapted to the choice of the submanifold where the initial data of the field equations are assigned. Finally, a technique to obtain the general solution of the field equations, starting from the given initial manifold, is deduced.

  10. Regional climate change trends and uncertainty analysis using extreme indices: A case study of Hamilton, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Razavi, Tara; Switzman, Harris; Arain, Altaf; Coulibaly, Paulin

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to provide a deeper understanding of the level of uncertainty associated with the development of extreme weather frequency and intensity indices at the local scale. Several different global climate models, downscaling methods, and emission scenarios were used to develop extreme temperature and precipitation indices at the local scale in the Hamilton region, Ontario, Canada. Uncertainty associated with historical and future trends in extreme indices and future climate projectio...

  11. Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman approach for the climbing problem for heavy launchers

    OpenAIRE

    Bokanowski , Olivier; Cristiani , Emiliano; Laurent-Varin , Julien; Zidani , Hasnaa

    2012-01-01

    International audience; In this paper we investigate the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) approach for solving a complex real-world optimal control problem in high dimension. We consider the climbing problem for the European launcher Ariane V: The launcher has to reach the Geostationary Transfer Orbit with minimal propellant consumption under state/control constraints. In order to circumvent the well-known curse of dimensionality, we reduce the number of variables in the model exploiting the spe...

  12. Variational energy principle for compressible, baroclinic flow. 2: Free-energy form of Hamilton's principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, L. A.

    1977-01-01

    The first and second variations are calculated for the irreducible form of Hamilton's Principle that involves the minimum number of dependent variables necessary to describe the kinetmatics and thermodynamics of inviscid, compressible, baroclinic flow in a specified gravitational field. The form of the second variation shows that, in the neighborhood of a stationary point that corresponds to physically stable flow, the action integral is a complex saddle surface in parameter space. There exists a form of Hamilton's Principle for which a direct solution of a flow problem is possible. This second form is related to the first by a Friedrichs transformation of the thermodynamic variables. This introduces an extra dependent variable, but the first and second variations are shown to have direct physical significance, namely they are equal to the free energy of fluctuations about the equilibrium flow that satisfies the equations of motion. If this equilibrium flow is physically stable, and if a very weak second order integral constraint on the correlation between the fluctuations of otherwise independent variables is satisfied, then the second variation of the action integral for this free energy form of Hamilton's Principle is positive-definite, so the action integral is a minimum, and can serve as the basis for a direct trail and error solution. The second order integral constraint states that the unavailable energy must be maximum at equilibrium, i.e. the fluctuations must be so correlated as to produce a second order decrease in the total unavailable energy.

  13. Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edsall, Thomas A.; Mac, Michael J.; Opler, Paul A.; Puckett Haecker, Catherine E.; Doran, Peter D.

    1998-01-01

    The Great Lakes region, as defined here, includes the Great Lakes and their drainage basins in Minnesota, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York. The region also includes the portions of Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the 21 northernmost counties of Illinois that lie in the Mississippi River drainage basin, outside the floodplain of the river. The region spans about 9º of latitude and 20º of longitude and lies roughly halfway between the equator and the North Pole in a lowland corridor that extends from the Gulf of Mexico to the Arctic Ocean.The Great Lakes are the most prominent natural feature of the region (Fig. 1). They have a combined surface area of about 245,000 square kilometers and are among the largest, deepest lakes in the world. They are the largest single aggregation of fresh water on the planet (excluding the polar ice caps) and are the only glacial feature on Earth visible from the surface of the moon (The Nature Conservancy 1994a).The Great Lakes moderate the region’s climate, which presently ranges from subarctic in the north to humid continental warm in the south (Fig. 2), reflecting the movement of major weather masses from the north and south (U.S. Department of the Interior 1970; Eichenlaub 1979). The lakes act as heat sinks in summer and heat sources in winter and are major reservoirs that help humidify much of the region. They also create local precipitation belts in areas where air masses are pushed across the lakes by prevailing winds, pick up moisture from the lake surface, and then drop that moisture over land on the other side of the lake. The mean annual frost-free period—a general measure of the growing-season length for plants and some cold-blooded animals—varies from 60 days at higher elevations in the north to 160 days in lakeshore areas in the south. The climate influences the general distribution of wild plants and animals in the region and also influences the activities and distribution of the human

  14. Environmental assessment of metal exposure to corals living in Castle Harbour, Bermuda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prouty, N.G.; Goodkin, N.F.; Jones, R.; Lamborg, C.H.; Storlazzi, C.D.; Hughen, K.A.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental contamination in Castle Harbour, Bermuda, has been linked to the dissolution and leaching of contaminants from the adjacent marine landfill. This study expands the evidence for environmental impact of leachate from the landfill by quantitatively demonstrating elevated metal uptake over the last 30 years in corals growing in Castle Harbour. Coral Pb/Ca, Zn/Ca and Mn/Ca ratios and total Hg concentrations are elevated relative to an adjacent control site in John Smith's Bay. The temporal variability in the Castle Harbour coral records suggests that while the landfill has increased in size over the last 35 years, the dominant input of metals is through periodic leaching of contaminants from the municipal landfill and surrounding sediment. Elevated contaminants in the surrounding sediment suggest that resuspension is an important transport medium for transferring heavy metals to corals. Increased winds, particularly during the 1990s, were accompanied by higher coral metal composition at Castle Harbour. Coupled with wind-induced resuspension, interannual changes in sea level within the Harbour can lead to increased bioavailability of sediment-bound metals and subsequent coral metal assimilation. At John Smith's Bay, large scale convective mixing may be driving interannual metal variability in the coral record rather than impacts from land-based activities. Results from this study provide important insights into the coupling of natural variability and anthropogenic input of contaminants to the nearshore environment.

  15. The Coffs Harbour 'Our Living City Settlement Strategy' Health Impact Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tugwell, Andrew; Johnson, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The short report reviews an experience of conducting a Health Impact Assessment (HIA) in the local government context. The aim of this review was to identify if carrying out an HIA would result in recommendations that could influence council planning and help establish ongoing working relationships between North Coast Area Health Service (NCAHS) staff and the Coffs Harbour City Council. Methods: A process and impact evaluation was conducted on the Coffs Harbour 'Our Living City Settlement Strategy' HIA, which focused on the Coffs Harbour City Council's strategic planning document. Information gained through the evaluation was themed and the findings were reviewed against published information on HIA experience. Main findings: HIA has reported benefits for both the Coffs Harbour City Council and NCAHS as it provides a tool to address many of the issues facing these organisations. Local council has increasing responsibilities including the environment, housing and urban planning, which all have health implications. HIA has been demonstrated as an effective tool for NCAHS staff and the Coffs Harbour City Council to engage and build relationships, increase the understanding of all planning aspects related to health, and most importantly utilise evidence to inform decision making. Conclusion: HIA should be adopted as a key tool to facilitate effective working partnerships between organisations. Improved engagement, partnerships and use of evidence to produce shared outcomes can result from utilising this tool.

  16. From the Snell-Descartes refraction law, to the Hamilton equations in the phase space of geometrical optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Moreno, E.; Wolf, K.B.

    1989-01-01

    Starting from the Snell-Descartes' refraction law, we obtain in a brief and direct way the Hamilton equations of Geometrical Optics. We show the global structure of phase space and compare it with that used in paraxial optics. (Author)

  17. Hamilton's Optics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    ing to the two well-known laws. These lead to ... through a telescope – the theory is rather uninspiring. ... Figure 1b. The law of reflection implies that the path length is `stationary' . ..... imum principles, governing two different kinds of sys-.

  18. Economic study for the establishment of A food irradiation facility at port said harbour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-Gameel, E.A.

    2004-01-01

    The present study discusses the economic aspects of establishing food irradiation facility at Port Said harbour and the effect of various parameters on the unit processing costs. The study is concerned with carrying out an economic evaluation for the application of food exports from Port Said harbour and the marketing and technical aspects where the suitable commodity mix has been determined for the agricultural crops which were proposed for irradiation. The investment criteria utilized for commercial evaluation were internal rate of return (IRR) and pay back period (PEP). The irradiation cost and the additional income are also discussed. The results of this analysis showed that the establishment of food irradiation unit in Port Said harbour in Egypt would be economically feasible

  19. Chemometric Analysis for Pollution Source Assessment of Harbour Sediments in Arctic Locations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kristine B.; Lejon, Tore; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2015-01-01

    Pollution levels, pollutant distribution and potential source assessments based on multivariate analysis (chemometrics) were made for harbour sediments from two Arctic locations; Hammerfest in Norway and Sisimiut in Greenland. High levels of heavy metals were detected in addition to organic...... pollutants. Preliminary assessments based on principal component analysis (PCA) revealed different sources and pollutant distribution in the sediments of the two harbours. Tributyltin (TBT) was, however, found to originate from point source(s), and the highest concentrations of TBT in both harbours were...... indicated relation primarily to German, Russian and American mixtures in Hammerfest; and American, Russian and Japanese mixtures in Sisimiut. PCA was shown to be an important tool for identifying pollutant sources and differences in pollutant composition in relation to sediment characteristics....

  20. Lungworm seroprevalence in free-ranging harbour seals and molecular characterisation of marine mammal MSP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Arlena Ulrich

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Harbour seals (Phoca vitulina are frequently infected with the lungworms Otostrongylus circumlitus and Parafilaroides gymnurus. The infection is often accompanied by secondary bacterial infections and can cause severe bronchopneumonia and even death in affected animals. Hitherto, the detection of lungworm infections was based on post mortem investigations from animals collected within stranding networks and a valid detection method for live free-ranging harbour seals was not available. Recently, an ELISA was developed for detecting lungworm antibodies in harbour seal serum, using major sperm protein (MSP of the bovine lungworm, Dictyocaulus viviparus as recombinant diagnostic antigen. To determine lungworm seroprevalence in free-ranging harbour seals, serum was taken from four different seal age groups (n = 313 resulting in an overall prevalence of 17.9% (18.9% of males, 16.7% of females. 0.7% of harbour seals up to six weeks of age were seropositive, as were 89% of seals between six weeks and six months, 53.6% between six and 18 months and 24.2% of seals over 18 months of age. In the 18 months and over age group, seropositive animals showed statistically significant reductions in body weight (P = 0.003 and length (P < 0.001. Sera from lungworm infected harbour seals in rehabilitation (n = 6 revealed that duration of antibody persistence may be similar to that of lungworm infected cattle, but further studies are needed to confirm this. Phylogenetic analyses of MSP sequences of different marine and terrestrial mammal parasitic nematodes revealed that lungworm MSP of the genus Dictyocaulus (superfamily Trichostrongyloidea is more closely related to metastrongylid marine mammal lungworms than to trichostrongylid nematodes of terrestrial hosts.

  1. Phocine distemper virus (PDV) seroprevalence as predictor for future outbreaks in harbour seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludes-Wehrmeister, Eva; Dupke, Claudia; Harder, Timm C; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Haas, Ludwig; Teilmann, Jonas; Dietz, Rune; Jensen, Lasse F; Siebert, Ursula

    2016-02-01

    Phocine distemper virus (PDV) infections caused the two most pronounced mass mortalities in marine mammals documented in the past century. During the two outbreaks, 23,000 and 30,000 harbour seals (Phoca vitulina), died in 1988/1989 and 2002 across populations in the Wadden Sea and adjacent waters, respectively. To follow the mechanism and development of disease spreading, the dynamics of Morbillivirus-specific antibodies in harbour seal populations in German and Danish waters were examined. 522 serum samples of free-ranging harbour seals of different ages were sampled between 1990 and 2014. By standard neutralisation assays, Morbillivirus-specific antibodies were detected, using either the PDV isolate 2558/Han 88 or the related canine distemper virus (CDV) strain Onderstepoort. A total of 159 (30.5%) of the harbour seals were seropositive. Annual seroprevalence rates showed an undulating course: Peaks were seen in the post-epidemic years 1990/1991 and 2002/2003. Following each PDV outbreak, seroprevalence decreased and six to eight years after the epidemics samples were tested seronegative, indicating that the populations are now again susceptible to new PDV outbreak. After the last outbreak in 2002, the populations grew steadily to an estimated maximum (since 1975) of about 39,100 individuals in the Wadden Sea in 2014 and about 23,540 harbour seals in the Kattegat area in 2013. A re-appearence of PDV would presumably result in another epizootic with high mortality rates as encountered in the previous outbreaks. The current high population density renders harbour seals vulnerable to rapid spread of infectious agents including PDV and the recently detected influenza A virus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The spatial and temporal distribution of heavy metals in sediments of Victoria Harbour, Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Chloe Wing-yee; Ip, Carman Ching-man [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Zhang Gan [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Shin, Paul K.S. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Qian Peiyuan [Department of Biology and Coastal Marine Laboratory, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Li Xiangdong [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong)], E-mail: cexdli@polyu.edu.hk

    2008-07-01

    Victoria Harbour has received substantial loadings of pollutants from industrial and municipal wastewater discharged since the 1950s. Inputs of contaminants have declined dramatically during the last two decades as a result of better controls at the source and improved wastewater treatment facilities. To assess the spatial and temporal changes of metal contaminants in sediments in Victoria Harbour, core and grab sediments were collected. The central harbour areas were generally contaminated with heavy metals. The spatial distribution of trace metals can probably be attributed to the proximity of major urban and industrial discharge points, and to the effect of tidal flushing in the harbour. In the sediment cores, the highest concentrations of trace metals were observed to have accumulated during the 1950s-1980s, corresponding with the period of rapid urban and industrial development in Hong Kong. From the late 1980s, there has been a major decline in the concentrations of trace metals, due to a reduction in industrial activities and to the enactment of wastewater pollution controls in the territory. The Pb isotopic compositions of the sediments revealed the anthropogenic inputs of Pb to the harbour. The {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratios varied from 1.154 to 1.190, which were lower than those of background geological materials in Hong Kong ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb: 1.201-1.279). The data also indicated that the Pb in the harbour sediments most likely originated from mixed sources, including the leaded gasoline used in the past and other anthropogenic sources.

  3. Year-round spatiotemporal distribution of harbour porpoises within and around the Maryland wind energy area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingfield, Jessica E; O'Brien, Michael; Lyubchich, Vyacheslav; Roberts, Jason J; Halpin, Patrick N; Rice, Aaron N; Bailey, Helen

    2017-01-01

    Offshore windfarms provide renewable energy, but activities during the construction phase can affect marine mammals. To understand how the construction of an offshore windfarm in the Maryland Wind Energy Area (WEA) off Maryland, USA, might impact harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena), it is essential to determine their poorly understood year-round distribution. Although habitat-based models can help predict the occurrence of species in areas with limited or no sampling, they require validation to determine the accuracy of the predictions. Incorporating more than 18 months of harbour porpoise detection data from passive acoustic monitoring, generalized auto-regressive moving average and generalized additive models were used to investigate harbour porpoise occurrence within and around the Maryland WEA in relation to temporal and environmental variables. Acoustic detection metrics were compared to habitat-based density estimates derived from aerial and boat-based sightings to validate the model predictions. Harbour porpoises occurred significantly more frequently during January to May, and foraged significantly more often in the evenings to early mornings at sites within and outside the Maryland WEA. Harbour porpoise occurrence peaked at sea surface temperatures of 5°C and chlorophyll a concentrations of 4.5 to 7.4 mg m-3. The acoustic detections were significantly correlated with the predicted densities, except at the most inshore site. This study provides insight into previously unknown fine-scale spatial and temporal patterns in distribution of harbour porpoises offshore of Maryland. The results can be used to help inform future monitoring and mitigate the impacts of windfarm construction and other human activities.

  4. Effects of wind farms on harbour porpoise behaviour and population dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob; Tougaard, Jakob; Teilmann, Jonas

    We developed an individual-based simulation model in order to study the cumulative impacts of wind farms and ship traffic on the long-term survival and population dynamics of the harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) in Kattegat and the Belt Seas. The model is based on knowl- edge of the porpoises...... at distances >1 km. Our simulations suggest that operating wind farms and wind farms under construction do not affect the size or dynamics of the harbour porpoise population in Kattegat. Ship traffic may, in contrast, cause the population size to decrease....

  5. Identification of a novel gammaherpesvirus associated with (muco)cutaneous lesions in harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beurden, Steven J; IJsseldijk, Lonneke L; Ordonez, Soledad R; Förster, Christine; de Vrieze, Geert; Gröne, Andrea; Verheije, M Hélène; Kik, Marja

    2015-12-01

    Herpesviruses infect a wide range of vertebrates, including toothed whales of the order Cetacea. One of the smallest toothed whales is the harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), which is widespread in the coastal waters of the northern hemisphere, including the North Sea. Here, we describe the detection and phylogenetic analysis of a novel gammaherpesvirus associated with mucocutaneous and skin lesions in stranded harbour porpoises along the Dutch coast, tentatively designated phocoenid herpesvirus 1 (PhoHV1). Phylogenetically, PhoHV1 forms a monophyletic clade with all other gammaherpesviruses described in toothed whales (Odontoceti) to date, suggesting a common evolutionary origin.

  6. Empirical data and optimal monitoring policies: the case of four Russian sea harbours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deissenberg, C. [CEFI-CNRS, Les Milles (France); Gurman, V.; Shevchuk, E. [RAS, Program Systems Inst., Pereslavl-Zalessky (Russian Federation); Ryumina, E. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Economic Market Problems; Shevlyagin, K. [State Committee of the Environment Protection of the Russian Federation, Moscow (Russian Federation). Marine Environment Dept.

    2001-07-01

    In this paper, we describe the present state of empirical information about oil spills and oil monitoring activities in Russian harbours. We explain how we gathered, organized, and estimated the data needed to run the monitoring efforts optimization model of Deissenberg et al. (2001). We present, analyse, and discuss the results of the optimizations carried out with this model on the basis of the empirical data. These results show, in particular, that the economic efficiency of the monitoring activities decreases rapidly as the corresponding budget increases. This suggests that, rather urgently, measures other than monitoring should be initiated to control sea harbour pollution. (Author)

  7. Codes of Practice related to Harbour and Coastal Engineering in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.

    2000-01-01

    Codes of practice for building and civil engineering works have been produced since 1893 by the "Danish Society of Engineers". Among the early codes are: Reinforces concrete structures (1908, 1943), calculation of reinforced concrete structures in harbour works (1926), Harbour Works (1927), Steel...... structures (1941). The codes were based on the principle of allowable stresses. However, already in 1948 a Danish consulting engineer used a partial safety factor concept for a power station design in order to secure satisfactory safety. The concept was in fact old as it was used by Gerber in his design...

  8. Fishing for food : feeding ecology of harbour porpoises Phocoena phocoena and white-beaked dolphins Lagenorhynchus albirostris in Dutch waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, O.E.

    2013-01-01

    Harbour porpoises and white-beaked dolphins are the most common small cetaceans in the North Sea and Dutch coastal waters. The distribution and relative abundance of harbour porpoises and white-beaked dolphins from the Dutch coastal waters has changed significantly over the past decades. This

  9. Bathymetry of Lake Michigan

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Michigan has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and make it more...

  10. Bathymetry of Lake Ontario

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Ontario has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and make it more...

  11. Bathymetry of Lake Superior

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Superior has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and make it more...

  12. Great Lakes Bathymetry

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lakes Michigan, Erie, Saint Clair, Ontario and Huron has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and...

  13. Bathymetry of Lake Huron

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Huron has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and make it more...

  14. Non-destructive examination of a time capsule recovered from the Gore Park excavations, Hamilton, Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, B.L.; Vanderstelt, J.

    2015-01-01

    Non-destructive analytical techniques are becoming increasingly important for the study of objects of cultural heritage interest. We present a study that applied two techniques: x-ray fluorescence (XRF) and neutron radiography, for the investigation of a time capsule recovered from an urban construction site in Gore Park, Hamilton. XRF analysis revealed the composition of the artifact, while n-radiography showed that its contents remained intact after being interred for 91 years. Results of this study demonstrate the value of non-destructive techniques for the analysis and preservation of cultural heritage. (author)

  15. On the Connection between the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman and the Fokker-Planck Control Frameworks

    KAUST Repository

    Annunziato, Mario

    2014-09-01

    In the framework of stochastic processes, the connection between the dynamic programming scheme given by the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation and a recently proposed control approach based on the Fokker-Planck equation is discussed. Under appropriate assumptions it is shown that the two strategies are equivalent in the case of expected cost functionals, while the FokkerPlanck formalism allows considering a larger class of objectives. To illustrate the connection between the two control strategies, the cases of an Itō stochastic process and of a piecewise-deterministic process are considered.

  16. Results of the radiological survey at Diebold Safe Company, 1550 Grand Boulevard, Hamilton, Ohio (HO001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, R.D.; Floyd, L.M.

    1990-02-01

    At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), a group from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted investigative radiological surveys at Diebold Safe Company, 1550 Grand Boulevard, Hamilton, Ohio in 1988 and 1989. The purpose of the surveys was to determine whether the property was contaminated with radioactive residues, principally 238 U. The surveys included gamma scans; direct and transferable measurements of alpha, beta, and gamma radiation levels; and dust, debris, air, and soil sampling for radionuclide analyses. 6 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

  17. Code Red: Explaining Average Age of Death in the City of Hamilton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick F. DeLuca

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify the underlying factors that explain the average age of death in the City of Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, as identified in the Code Red Series of articles that were published in the city's local newspaper in 2010. Using a combination of data from the Canadian Census, the Government of Ontario and the Canadian Institute for Health Information, factor analysis was performed yielding three factors relating to poverty, working class, and health and aging. In a regression analysis these factors account for 42% of the total variability in the average ages of death observed at the census tract level of geography within the city.

  18. A case study: the initiative to improve RN scheduling at Hamilton Health Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Laurel-Anne; Pierson, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    In 2003, Hamilton Health Sciences embarked on an initiative to improve and standardize nursing schedules and scheduling practices. The scheduling project was one of several initiatives undertaken by a corporate-wide Nursing Resource Group established to enhance the work environment and patient care and to ensure appropriate utilization of nursing resources across the organization's five hospitals. This article focuses on major activities undertaken in the scheduling initiative. The step-by-step approach described, plus examples of the scheduling resources developed and samples of extended-tour schedules, will all provide insight, potential strategies and practical help for nursing administrators, human resources (HR) personnel and others interested in improving nurse scheduling.

  19. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and tributyltin (TBT) in Barcelona harbour sediments and their impact on benthic communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Llado, Xavier [Environmental Technology Area, CTM-UPC, Avda. Bases de Manresa 1, 08240 Manresa (Spain); Gibert, Oriol [Environmental Technology Area, CTM-UPC, Avda. Bases de Manresa 1, 08240 Manresa (Spain); Marti, Vicens [Environmental Technology Area, CTM-UPC, Avda. Bases de Manresa 1, 08240 Manresa (Spain)]. E-mail: vicens.marti@upc.edu; Diez, Sergi [Environmental Chemistry Department, IIQAB-CSIC, c/Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Environmental Geology Department, ICTJA-CSIC, Lluis Sole i Sabaris, s/n, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Romo, Javier [Environmental Service of Barcelona Harbour Authority, Carretera de la Circumval.lacio, s/n, Tram VI, Sector 6, Barcelona (Spain); Bayona, Josep Maria [Environmental Chemistry Department, IIQAB-CSIC, c/Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Pablo, Joan de [Environmental Technology Area, CTM-UPC, Avda. Bases de Manresa 1, 08240 Manresa (Spain)

    2007-09-15

    Sediments have long been recognised as a sink for many contaminants like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and tributyltin (TBT), which by virtue of their nature can strongly adsorb onto sediments affecting the benthic community inhabiting them. Using geographical information systems, this study reports and combines the results of several already existing studies along Barcelona harbour in order to assess the potential ecological impacts of these contaminants on the benthos of the harbour ecosystem. Chemical analysis indicated low to moderate contents of PAHs and high contents of TBT in sediments in Barcelona harbour. Comparison against existing sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) indicated that acutely toxic effects would not be expected for PAHs but for TBT, which represents a serious environmental threat for the benthic community. Benthos surveys revealed a deterioration of the benthic community throughout the harbour, especially in the inner port. - A possible correlation exists between TBT concentration in sediments and ecological effects on benthos in Barcelona harbour.

  20. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and tributyltin (TBT) in Barcelona harbour sediments and their impact on benthic communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Llado, Xavier; Gibert, Oriol; Marti, Vicens; Diez, Sergi; Romo, Javier; Bayona, Josep Maria; Pablo, Joan de

    2007-01-01

    Sediments have long been recognised as a sink for many contaminants like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and tributyltin (TBT), which by virtue of their nature can strongly adsorb onto sediments affecting the benthic community inhabiting them. Using geographical information systems, this study reports and combines the results of several already existing studies along Barcelona harbour in order to assess the potential ecological impacts of these contaminants on the benthos of the harbour ecosystem. Chemical analysis indicated low to moderate contents of PAHs and high contents of TBT in sediments in Barcelona harbour. Comparison against existing sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) indicated that acutely toxic effects would not be expected for PAHs but for TBT, which represents a serious environmental threat for the benthic community. Benthos surveys revealed a deterioration of the benthic community throughout the harbour, especially in the inner port. - A possible correlation exists between TBT concentration in sediments and ecological effects on benthos in Barcelona harbour

  1. Establishment of gravity stations and inference of crustal thickness around Mormugao Harbour and NIO

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Subbaraju, L.V.; Krishna, K.S.

    Complete descriptions and basic facts of nine gravity stations of Marmugao Harbour, Goa, India are presented. They exhibit a maximum Bouguer difference of 2.12 mGal in an overall distance of about 2 km. Keeping in view the limited amount of data...

  2. Analysis of Wave Reflection from Wave Energy Converters Installed as Breakwaters in Harbour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zanuttigh, B.; Margheritini, Lucia; Gambles, L.

    2009-01-01

    loads on the structure, i.e. better survivability. Nevertheless these devices must comply with the requirements of harbour protection structures and thus cope with problems due to reflection of incoming waves, i.e. dangerous sea states close to harbors entrances and intensified sediment scour, which can...

  3. The Westward Movement of Chinese Export Harbour Views : Significant Paintings with a Social Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poel, van der R.H.M.

    2012-01-01

    Article (Chapter) in proceedings of the First Rombouts Graduate Conference Globalization and Glocalization in China, at Leiden University, held in Leiden on 6 and 7 September 2011. This article offers a closer examination of Chinese export harbour views and, in doing so, reveals that waterfronts and

  4. Petroleum hydrocarbons and trace metals in Visakhapatnam harbour and Kakinada Bay, east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, V.V.; VaraPrasad, S.J.D.; Gupta, G.V.M.; Sudhakar, U.

    High concentrations of PHC were observed in the inner channels (viz. South lighter canal, Northern arm, North Western arm and Western arm) of Visakhapatnam Harbour, Andhra Pradesh, India. The estimation of trace metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Co, Ni and Cr...

  5. Tide dependent seasonal changes in water quality and assimilative capacity of anthropogenically influenced Mormugao harbour water

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shirodkar, P.V.; Deepthi, M.; Vethamony, P.; Mesquita, A.M.; Pradhan, U.K.; Babu, M.T.; Verlecar, X.N.; Haldankar, S.R.

    Water quality data from Mormugao harbour area at the mouth of Zuari estuary in Goa have been obtained over two tidal cycles monthly for the year 2003 to 2004. R-mode factor analyses of the data indicated strong positive loadings of coliforms...

  6. Settling fluxes and ecotoxicological risk assessment of fine sedimentary metals in Tema Harbour (Ghana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botwe, Benjamin O; Nyarko, Elvis; Lens, Piet N L

    2018-01-01

    Sediment traps were deployed in the Tema Harbour to estimate the settling fluxes of silt-clay particles and associated metals (Fe, Mn, Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn, Ni, Hg, Sn and As) and characterise their potential ecotoxicological risks. The mean daily settling fluxes of the silt-clay particles and associated metals ranged from 42.7 to 85.0gm -2 d -1 and 1.3×10 -2 to 49.4mgm -2 d -1 , respectively, and were characterised by large fluctuations at each station. The silt-clay and metal fluxes strongly correlated, indicating the important role of the silt-clay particles in metal transport and distribution in the harbour. Geochemical indices indicated anthropogenic influences on the harbour as the Pb, Cr, Zn, Hg, Sn and As content in the settling silt-clay particles exceeded their average crustal concentrations. Sediment quality guidelines indicated these metals pose appreciable ecotoxicological risks, particularly As. Increasing temporal trends in As necessitates increased pollution control efforts at the harbour. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Metal contamination in harbours impacts life-history traits and metallothionein levels in snails.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alexandra Bighiu

    Full Text Available Harbours with limited water exchange are hotspots of contaminant accumulation. Antifouling paints (AF contribute to this accumulation by leaching biocides that may affect non-target species. In several leisure boat harbours and reference areas in the Baltic Sea, chronic exposure effects were evaluated using caging experiments with the snail Theodoxus fluviatilis. We analysed variations in ecologically relevant endpoints (mortality, growth and reproduction in concert with variation in metallothionein-like proteins (MTLP levels. The latter is a biomarker of exposure to metals, such as copper (Cu and zinc (Zn, which are used in AF paints as active ingredient and stabilizer, respectively. In addition, environmental samples (water, sediment were analysed for metal (Cu and Zn and nutrient (total phosphorous and nitrogen concentrations. All life-history endpoints were negatively affected by the exposure, with higher mortality, reduced growth and lower fecundity in the harbours compared to the reference sites. Metal concentrations were the key explanatory variables for all observed adverse effects, suggesting that metal-driven toxicity, which is likely to stem from AF paints, is a source of anthropogenic stress for biota in the harbours.

  8. Radioactivity concentrations and their radiological significance in sediments of the Tema Harbour (Greater Accra, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin O. Botwe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on environmental radioactivity in tropical Africa are scarce. Therefore, a baseline study of natural (238U, 210Pb, 226Ra, 232Th, 228Ra, 228Th, 40K and anthropogenic (137Cs radionuclides was carried out on Tema Harbour (Greater Accra, Ghana surface sediments and on their radiological significance. Grab surface sediment samples were collected from 21 stations within the Tema Harbour and their radioactivity concentrations measured by gamma spectrometry. The mean sediment radioactivity concentrations (Bq kg−1 dw were 34 for 238U, 210 for 210Pb, 14 for 226Ra, 30 for 232Th, 29 for 228Ra, 31 for 228Th, 320 for 40K, and 1.5 for 137Cs. Large 238U/226Ra disequilibria were observed in the harbour sediments and a complex dynamics of several mixed sources of sediments within the Tema Harbour can be inferred from the spatial variations in the radioactivity concentrations. The estimated total absorbed dose rate in air (D, radium equivalent activity (Raeq, external hazard index (Hex, annual gonadal dose equivalent (AGDE and annual effective dose equivalent (AEDE indicated no significant radiological risks from the sediment radioactivity concentrations. Application of the Environmental Risk from Ionising Contaminants Assessment and Management tool (ERICA confirmed that the potential dose rates to biota from the sediment radioactivity concentrations are unlikely to pose appreciable ecological risks. The radioactivity levels are compared with levels reported in sediments from other coastal areas of the world.

  9. Variation of physico-chemical characteristics with tide in Visakhapatnam harbour waters, east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RamaRaju, V.S.; Rao, T.V.N.; Rathod, V.

    Variations in physico-chemical parameters (DO, BOD, NO2, SiO4, PO4 suspended solids, salinity and currents) observed in the waters of main channel of Visakhapatnam Harbour over a tidal cycle in different seasons from February 1982 to January 1983...

  10. Detection and direction discrimination of single vortex rings by harbour seals (Phoca vitulina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Yvonne; Hanke, Wolf; Miersch, Lars; Dehnhardt, Guido

    2018-04-25

    Harbour seals possess highly sensitive vibrissae that enable them to track hydrodynamic trails left behind by a swimming fish. Most of these trails contain vortex rings as a main hydrodynamic component. They may reveal information about their generator as the trails differ depending on the fish species, the fish's body shape, size and swimming style. In addition, fish generate single vortex rings in diverse natural situations. In this study, the ability of blindfolded stationary harbour seals to detect and analyse single vortex rings regarding directional information has been investigated. In three different behavioural experiments, the animals were trained to respond to single artificially generated vortex rings. The results show that harbour seals are able to respond to a variety of different vortex rings upon vibrissal stimulation. The investigation of the minimum hydrodynamically perceivable angle revealed that it is at least as small as 5.7 deg, which was the smallest adjustable angle. Moreover, harbour seals are capable of analysing the travel direction of a vortex ring perceived by the mystacial vibrissae irrespective of whether the vibrissae were stimulated ipsilaterally or contralaterally. In situations in which no complex hydrodynamic trail is available, it is advantageous for a hunting seal to be able to extract information from a single vortex ring. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. TORONTO HARBOUR COMMISSIONERS (THC) SOIL RECYCLE TREATMENT TRAIN - APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Toronto Harbour Commissioners (THC) have developed a soil treatment train designed to treat inorganic and organic contaminants in soils. THC has conducted a large-scale demonstration of these technologies in an attempt to establish that contaminated soils at the Toronto Port ...

  12. Correlation between the seasonal distribution of harbour porpoises and their prey in the Sound, Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveegaard, Signe; Andreasen, Heidi; Mouritsen, Kim N.

    2012-01-01

    herring and Atlantic cod were equally important during the low-density season. Prey availability and predictability are suggested as the main drivers for harbour porpoise distribution, and this could be caused by the formation of frontal zones in spring in the northern part of the Sound, leading to prey...

  13. Identification and typing of Brucella spp. in stranded harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) on the Dutch coast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maio, Elisa; Begeman, Lineke; Bisselink, Yvette; van Tulden, Peter; Wiersma, Lidewij; Hiemstra, Sjoukje; Ruuls, Robin; Gröne, Andrea; Roest, Hendrik-Ido-Jan; Willemsen, Peter; van der Giessen, Joke

    2014-01-01

    The presence of Brucella (B.) spp. in harbour porpoises stranded between 2008 and 2011 along the Dutch coast was studied. A selection of 265 tissue samples from 112 animals was analysed using conventional and molecular methods. In total, 4.5% (5/112) of the animals corresponding with 2.3% (6/265)

  14. Identification and typing of Brucella spp. in stranded harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) on the Dutch coast.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maio, E.; Begeman, L.; Bisselink, Y.J.W.M.; Tulden, van P.W.; Wiersma, L.; Hiemstra, S.; Ruuls, R.; Gröne, A.; Roest, H.I.J.; Willemsen, P.T.J.; Giessen, van der J.

    2014-01-01

    The presence of Brucella (B.) spp. in harbour porpoises stranded between 2008 and 2011 along the Dutch coast was studied. A selection of 265 tissue samples from 112 animals was analysed using conventional and molecular methods. In total, 4.5% (5/112) of the animals corresponding with 2.3% (6/265)

  15. No serological evidence that harbour porpoises are additional hosts of influenza B viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogier Bodewes

    Full Text Available Influenza A and B viruses circulate among humans causing epidemics almost annually. While various hosts for influenza A viruses exist, influenza B viruses have been detected only in humans and seals. However, recurrent infections of seals in Dutch coastal waters with influenza B viruses that are antigenetically distinct from influenza B viruses circulating among humans suggest that influenza B viruses have been introduced into this seal population by another, non-human, host. Harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena are sympatric with seals in these waters and are also occasionally in close contact with humans after stranding and subsequent rehabilitation. In addition, virus attachment studies demonstrated that influenza B viruses can bind to cells of the respiratory tract of these animals. Therefore, we hypothesized that harbour porpoises might be a reservoir of influenza B viruses. In the present study, an unique set of serum samples from 79 harbour porpoises, stranded alive on the Dutch coast between 2003 and 2013, was tested for the presence of antibodies against influenza B viruses by use of the hemagglutination inhibition test and for antibodies against influenza A viruses by use of a competitive influenza A nucleoprotein ELISA. No antibodies were detected against either virus, suggesting that influenza A and B virus infections of harbour porpoises in Dutch coastal waters are not common, which was supported by statistical analysis of the dataset.

  16. Genetic variation in Phoca vitulina (the harbour seal) revealed by DNA fingerprinting and RAPDs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappe, A.L.; van de Zande, L.; Vedder, E.J.; Bijlsma, R.; van Delden, Wilke

    Genetic variation in two harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) populations from the Dutch Wadden Sea and Scotland was examined by RAPD analysis and DNA fingerprinting. For comparison a population of grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) was studied. The RAPD method revealed a very low number of polymorphic bands.

  17. The use of desorbing agents in electrodialytic remediation of harbour sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nystrøm, Gunvor Marie; Pedersen, Anne Juul; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2006-01-01

    Electrodialytic removal of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd from contaminated harbour sediment was made with the emphasis of testing the effectiveness of different desorbing agents: HCl, NaCl, citric acid, lactic acid, ammonium citrate and distilled water. Extraction experiments with the desorbing agents were...

  18. Grey seal attacks on harbour porpoises in the Eastern Scheldt: cases of survival and mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Podt, Annemieke; IJsseldijk, L.L.

    2017-01-01

    In the southern North Sea, hundreds of mutilated harbour porpoise carcasses (Phocoena phocoena) are found each year on beaches. Recent studies have confirmed that these concern the remains of predation by grey seals (Halichoerus grypus). A retrospective study of post mortem photos helped to further

  19. Exposing the grey seal as a major predator of harbour porpoises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leopold, M.F.; Begeman, L.; van Bleijswijk, J.D.L.; IJsseldijk, L.L.; Witte, H.; Gröne, A.

    2015-01-01

    Harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) stranding in large numbers around the southern North Sea with fatal, sharp-edged mutilations have spurred controversy among scientists, the fishing industry and conservationists, whose views about the likely cause differ. The recent detection of grey seal

  20. Distribution of 137Cs in sediments in Xiangshan, Xiamen and Yangpu harbours, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, S.; Xu, Q.

    1999-01-01

    Xiangshan Harbour (Zhejing Province), Xiamen Harbour (Fujian Province) and Yangpu Harbour (Hainan Province) are tide-channel type bays, located on the southeast coast of China. Six sediment cores were collected in the Harbours in several projects respectively. Sediment samples were collected with a Lehigh gravity corer which utilized a 10.3 cm diameter, PVC core barrel. Styrofoam sediment core retainers were fitted into the top of the core barrel following core recovery to facilitate core sampling without loss of sediment from the barrel. The core barrels were split lengthwise using a circular saw. Following visual inspection for geological parameters (colour, texture, etc.) and photography of the cores, they were subsampled at 1-2 cm or 5 cm intervals for the entire length of the core. The sediment samples were stored in air-tight, plastic containers and returned to Nanjing University for 137 Cs and other types of analysis. The sediment samples were oven dried at approximately 100 deg. C. at the Nanjing University isotope laboratory and the % loss of water used to determine the wet and dry densities. The contents of 137 Cs were counted using an n-type HPGe γ-ray spectrometry system. The coaxial detector has an efficiency of 25%, with a lead shield 12 cm thick. Each sample was measured for 12h

  1. Coastal Changes due to the Construction of Artificial Harbour Entrances and Practical Solutions, including Beach Replenishment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijker, E.W.; Van der Leijé, J.P.; Pilon, J.J.; Svasek, J.N.; In 't Veld, J.K.; Verhagen, H.J.

    1981-01-01

    When longshore sediment transport is interrupted by a construction along a coast, e.g harbour moles or a dredged approach channel, the equilibrium of the coastline may be disturbed. When the disruption is caused by breakwaters, the longshore transport that is held back will cause accretion updrift

  2. Comparative sensitivity of harbour and grey seals to several environmental contaminants using in vitro exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufresne, M.M.; Frouin, H.; Pillet, S.; Lesage, V.; De Guise, S.; Fournier, M.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of cadmium chloride (CdCl 2 ), mercury chloride (HgCl 2 ), methylmercury chloride (CH 3 HgCl), and PCBs on lymphocyte proliferation in phocids. PBMCs isolated from harbour and grey seals were exposed in vitro to varying concentrations of contaminants. A reduction of viability occurred when cells were exposed to 10 -4 M HgCl 2 or CH 3 HgCl or to 50 ppm of Aroclor 1254. In both grey and harbour seals, T-lymphocyte proliferation was suppressed when their cells were incubated with 5 x 10 -5 M CdCl 2 or 10 -4 M HgCl 2 . An inhibition of proliferation occurred with CH 3 HgCl from 10 -6 M in grey seals and from 10 -5 M in harbour seals. In grey seals, Aroclor 1254 reduced lymphocyte proliferation at 15 ppm. In both harbour and grey seals, CH 3 HgCl was ten times more immunotoxic that HgCl 2 . From IC 50 , chemicals were ranked in terms of toxicity as followed: CH 3 HgCl > CdCl 2 > HgCl 2 > Aroclor 1254.

  3. Monitoring effects of offshore windfarms on harbour porpoises using PODs (porpoise detectors)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teilmann, J.; Damsgaard Henriksen, O.; Carstensen, Jacob; Skov, H.

    2002-02-01

    The areas designated for offshore windfarms in Denmark, are all known habitats for harbour porpoises. It is possible that some of the activities involved in erection and operation of offshore windfarms will have a negative impact on the harbour porpoises in and around the windfarms. The most significant sources of these effects are thought to be the physical presence and the noise from ships and construction work as well as temporary and even permanent loss of suitable habitats near the windfarms. The noise from existing offshore windturbines has been measured and a detection distance of 20 m was calculated in the EIA study regarding the Roedsand windfarm. In order to study possible effects from the erection and operation of windfarms on harbour porpoises a number of studies were suggested as part of the EIA background study on harbour porpoises. Among these suggestions was the use of acoustic dataloggers (PODs). The POD is recording click sounds of short duration. It is programmable and can be set to specifically record the echolocation signals that harbour porpoises uses for orientation and foraging. This method will potentially give data on harbour porpoise activity in a specific area on a diurnal and year-round basis. The construction work will take place over several months and since there is no available information on the seasonal sensitivity of porpoises to disturbance, the data necessary to detect and evaluate the effect of the windfarm would need to cover all seasons. No other method is feasible to provide data on the presence of harbour porpoises year round in a particular area. However, this method has its limitations in that only porpoises echolocating are recorded. No data exists on the seasonal, diurnal and area specific use of echolocation but since echolocation is believed to be the primary sense for porpoises we expect that porpoises used their echolocation most of the time and that it is correlated to the density of porpoises. However, the actual

  4. Monitoring effects of offshore windfarms on harbour porpoises using PODs (porpoise detectors)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teilmann, J.; Damsgaard Henriksen, O. [National Environmental Res. Inst., Dept. of Arctic Enviroment, Roskilde (Denmark); Carstensen, Jacob [National Environmental Res. Lab., Dept. of Marine Ecology, Roskilde (Denmark); Skov, H. [Ornis Consult A/S, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2002-02-15

    The areas designated for offshore windfarms in Denmark, are all known habitats for harbour porpoises. It is possible that some of the activities involved in erection and operation of offshore windfarms will have a negative impact on the harbour porpoises in and around the windfarms. The most significant sources of these effects are thought to be the physical presence and the noise from ships and construction work as well as temporary and even permanent loss of suitable habitats near the windfarms. The noise from existing offshore windturbines has been measured and a detection distance of 20 m was calculated in the EIA study regarding the Roedsand windfarm. In order to study possible effects from the erection and operation of windfarms on harbour porpoises a number of studies were suggested as part of the EIA background study on harbour porpoises. Among these suggestions was the use of acoustic dataloggers (PODs). The POD is recording click sounds of short duration. It is programmable and can be set to specifically record the echolocation signals that harbour porpoises uses for orientation and foraging. This method will potentially give data on harbour porpoise activity in a specific area on a diurnal and year-round basis. The construction work will take place over several months and since there is no available information on the seasonal sensitivity of porpoises to disturbance, the data necessary to detect and evaluate the effect of the windfarm would need to cover all seasons. No other method is feasible to provide data on the presence of harbour porpoises year round in a particular area. However, this method has its limitations in that only porpoises echolocating are recorded. No data exists on the seasonal, diurnal and area specific use of echolocation but since echolocation is believed to be the primary sense for porpoises we expect that porpoises used their echolocation most of the time and that it is correlated to the density of porpoises. However, the actual

  5. Great Lakes Science Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Since 1927, Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC) research has provided critical information for the sound management of Great Lakes fish populations and other important...

  6. Evaluation of trophic state and plankton abundance from the environmental parameters of Visakhapatnam Harbour and near-shore waters, east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripathy, S.C.; KusumaKumari, B.A.V.L.; Sarma, V.V.; Murty, T.V.R.

    The present work describes the nutrient indices of the Visakhapatnam harbour and near-shore waters. The inner channels of Visakhapatnam harbour are considered to be eutrophic while near-shore waters (coastal and inshore waters) associated...

  7. Municipal water quantities and health in Nunavut households: an exploratory case study in Coral Harbour, Nunavut, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiley Daley

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Access to adequate quantities of water has a protective effect on human health and well-being. Despite this, public health research and interventions are frequently focused solely on water quality, and international standards for domestic water supply minimums are often overlooked or unspecified. This trend is evident in Inuit and other Arctic communities even though numerous transmissible diseases and bacterium infections associated with inadequate domestic water quantities are prevalent. Objectives: Our objective was to explore the pathways by which the trucked water distribution systems being used in remote northern communities are impacting health at the household level, with consideration given to the underlying social and environmental determinants shaping health in the region. Methods: Using a qualitative case study design, we conducted 37 interviews (28 residents, 9 key informants and a review of government water documents to investigate water usage practices and perspectives. These data were thematically analysed to understand potential health risks in Arctic communities and households. Results: Each resident receives an average of 110 litres of municipal water per day. Fifteen of 28 households reported experiencing water shortages at least once per month. Of those 15, most were larger households (5 people or more with standard sized water storage tanks. Water shortages and service interruptions limit the ability of some households to adhere to public health advice. The households most resilient, or able to cope with domestic water supply shortages, were those capable of retrieving their own drinking water directly from lake and river sources. Residents with extended family and neighbours, whom they can rely on during shortages, were also less vulnerable to municipal water delays. Conclusions: The relatively low in-home water quantities observed in Coral Harbour, Nunavut, appear adequate for some families. Those living in

  8. DURAND NEIGHBOURHOOD HERITAGE INVENTORY: TOWARD A DIGITAL CITYWIDE SURVEY APPROACH TO HERITAGE PLANNING IN HAMILTON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Angel

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In the face of changing economies and patterns of development, the definition of heritage is diversifying, and the role of inventories in local heritage planning is coming to the fore. The Durand neighbourhood is a layered and complex area located in inner-city Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, and the second subject area in a set of pilot inventory studies to develop a new city-wide inventory strategy for the City of Hamilton,. This paper presents an innovative digital workflow developed to undertake the Durand Built Heritage Inventory project. An online database was developed to be at the centre of all processes, including digital documentation, record management, analysis and variable outputs. Digital tools were employed for survey work in the field and analytical work in the office, resulting in a GIS-based dataset that can be integrated into Hamilton’s larger municipal planning system. Together with digital mapping and digitized historical resources, the Durand database has been leveraged to produce both digital and static outputs to shape recommendations for the protection of Hamilton’s heritage resources.

  9. Lax-Friedrichs sweeping scheme for static Hamilton-Jacobi equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, C.Y.; Osher, Stanley; Qian Jianliang

    2004-01-01

    We propose a simple, fast sweeping method based on the Lax-Friedrichs monotone numerical Hamiltonian to approximate viscosity solutions of arbitrary static Hamilton-Jacobi equations in any number of spatial dimensions. By using the Lax-Friedrichs numerical Hamiltonian, we can easily obtain the solution at a specific grid point in terms of its neighbors, so that a Gauss-Seidel type nonlinear iterative method can be utilized. Furthermore, by incorporating a group-wise causality principle into the Gauss-Seidel iteration by following a finite group of characteristics, we have an easy-to-implement, sweeping-type, and fast convergent numerical method. However, unlike other methods based on the Godunov numerical Hamiltonian, some computational boundary conditions are needed in the implementation. We give a simple recipe which enforces a version of discrete min-max principle. Some convergence analysis is done for the one-dimensional eikonal equation. Extensive 2-D and 3-D numerical examples illustrate the efficiency and accuracy of the new approach. To our knowledge, this is the first fast numerical method based on discretizing the Hamilton-Jacobi equation directly without assuming convexity and/or homogeneity of the Hamiltonian

  10. Lax-Friedrichs sweeping scheme for static Hamilton-Jacobi equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Chiu Yen; Osher, Stanley; Qian, Jianliang

    2004-05-01

    We propose a simple, fast sweeping method based on the Lax-Friedrichs monotone numerical Hamiltonian to approximate viscosity solutions of arbitrary static Hamilton-Jacobi equations in any number of spatial dimensions. By using the Lax-Friedrichs numerical Hamiltonian, we can easily obtain the solution at a specific grid point in terms of its neighbors, so that a Gauss-Seidel type nonlinear iterative method can be utilized. Furthermore, by incorporating a group-wise causality principle into the Gauss-Seidel iteration by following a finite group of characteristics, we have an easy-to-implement, sweeping-type, and fast convergent numerical method. However, unlike other methods based on the Godunov numerical Hamiltonian, some computational boundary conditions are needed in the implementation. We give a simple recipe which enforces a version of discrete min-max principle. Some convergence analysis is done for the one-dimensional eikonal equation. Extensive 2-D and 3-D numerical examples illustrate the efficiency and accuracy of the new approach. To our knowledge, this is the first fast numerical method based on discretizing the Hamilton-Jacobi equation directly without assuming convexity and/or homogeneity of the Hamiltonian.

  11. Ecological structuring of yeasts associated with trees around Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maganti, Harinad; Bartfai, David; Xu, Jianping

    2012-02-01

    This study seeks to determine the distribution and diversity of yeasts in and around the Hamilton area in Canada. In light of the increasing number of fungal infections along with rising morbidity and mortality rates, especially among the immunocompromised, understanding the diversity and distribution of yeasts in natural environments close to human habitations has become an increasingly relevant topic. In this study, we analyzed 1110 samples obtained from the hollows of trees, shrubs and avian droppings at 8 geographical sites in and around Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. A total of 88 positive yeast strains were isolated and identified belonging to 20 yeast species. Despite the relative proximity of the sampling sites, our DNA fingerprinting results showed that the yeast populations were highly heterogenous. Among the 14 tree species sampled, cedar, cottonwood and basswood hollows had relatively high yeast colonization rates. Interestingly, Candida parapsilosis was isolated almost exclusively from Pine trees only. Our results are consistent with microgeographic and ecological differentiation of yeast species in and around an urban environment. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Expanded social fitness and Hamilton's rule for kin, kith, and kind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queller, David C

    2011-06-28

    Inclusive fitness theory has a combination of simplicity, generality, and accuracy that has made it an extremely successful way of thinking about and modeling effects on kin. However, there are types of social interactions that, although covered, are not illuminated. Here, I expand the inclusive fitness approach and the corresponding neighbor-modulated approach to specify two other kinds of social selection. Kind selection, which includes greenbeards and many nonadditive games, is where selection depends on an actor's trait having different effects on others depending on whether they share the trait. Kith selection includes social effects that do not require either kin or kind, such as mutualism and manipulation. It involves social effects of a trait that affect a partner, with feedback to the actor's fitness. I derive expanded versions of Hamilton's rule for kith and kind selection, generalizing Hamilton's insight that we can model social selection through a sum of fitness effects, each multiplied by an appropriate association coefficient. Kinship is, thus, only one of the important types of association, but all can be incorporated within an expanded inclusive fitness.

  13. On global solutions of the random Hamilton-Jacobi equations and the KPZ problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtin, Yuri; Khanin, Konstantin

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we discuss possible qualitative approaches to the problem of KPZ universality. Throughout the paper, our point of view is based on the geometrical and dynamical properties of minimisers and shocks forming interlacing tree-like structures. We believe that the KPZ universality can be explained in terms of statistics of these structures evolving in time. The paper is focussed on the setting of the random Hamilton-Jacobi equations. We formulate several conjectures concerning global solutions and discuss how their properties are connected to the KPZ scalings in dimension 1  +  1. In the case of general viscous Hamilton-Jacobi equations with non-quadratic Hamiltonians, we define generalised directed polymers. We expect that their behaviour is similar to the behaviour of classical directed polymers, and present arguments in favour of this conjecture. We also define a new renormalisation transformation defined in purely geometrical terms and discuss conjectural properties of the corresponding fixed points. Most of our conjectures are widely open, and supported by only partial rigorous results for particular models.

  14. Lake Cadagno

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonolla, Mauro; Storelli, Nicola; Danza, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    cycles. The chemocline lies at about 12 m depth, stabilized by density differences of salt-rich water supplied by sub-aquatic springs to the monimolimnion and of electrolyte-poor surface water feeding the mixolimnion. Steep sulphide and light gradients in the chemocline support the growth of a large...... in the chemocline. Small-celled PSB together with the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfocapsa thiozymogenes sp. form stable aggregates in the lake, which represent small microenvironments with an internal sulphur cycle. Eukaryotic primary producers in the anoxic zones are dominated by Cryptomonas phaseolus...

  15. Development in Harbour Construction, Infrastructure and Topography on the Eve of the Early Modern Age in the Baltic (1450-1600)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Springmann, Maik Jens O R

    2016-01-01

    Ships are no Flying Dutchmen! They need a harbour. Therefore, the development of ship construction is pretty much connected with that of harbour construction, and beyond this, they influence the topography and infrastructure of a harbour. The transition between the Medieval period and the Early M...... construction, topography and infrastructure follow the development of ship construction. The paper focuses on the deep impact that larger multi-mast sailing ships had on the development of Baltic harbours...

  16. Detection and effects of harmful algal toxins in Scottish harbour seals and potential links to population decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Silje-Kristin; Lacaze, Jean-Pierre; Hermann, Guillaume; Kershaw, Joanna; Brownlow, Andrew; Turner, Andrew; Hall, Ailsa

    2015-04-01

    Over the past 15 years or so, several Scottish harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) populations have declined in abundance and several factors have been considered as possible causes, including toxins from harmful algae. Here we explore whether a link could be established between two groups of toxins, domoic acid (DA) and saxitoxins (STXs), and the decline in the harbour seal populations in Scotland. We document the first evidence that harbour seals are exposed to both DA and STXs from consuming contaminated fish. Both groups of toxins were found in urine and faeces sampled from live captured (n = 162) and stranded animals (n = 23) and in faecal samples collected from seal haul-out sites (n = 214) between 2008 and 2013. The proportion of positive samples and the toxins levels measured in the excreta were significantly higher in areas where harbour seal abundance is in decline. There is also evidence that DA has immunomodulatory effects in harbour seals, including lymphocytopenia and monocytosis. Scottish harbour seals are exposed to DA and STXs through contaminated prey at potentially lethal levels and with this evidence we suggest that exposure to these toxins are likely to be important factors driving the harbour seal decline in some regions of Scotland. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Macro- and meiofaunal community features in the critical environmental system of a tourist harbour (Rapallo, Ligurian Sea, NW Mediterranean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harriague, Anabella Covazzi; Albertelli, Giancarlo; Misic, Cristina

    2012-03-01

    Two samplings were carried out in a tourist harbour, during low and high touristic activity periods, to study the macro- and meiofaunal communities in relation to the environmental features. A multivariate analysis showed close relationships: the maritime traffic disturbance and the food quality and availability drive the spatial differences of the assemblages, dividing the area into three sub-areas: the area near the Boate torrent that empties into the harbour, the harbour proper, and the external area (just outside the harbour). Macro- and meiofauna showed notably different temporal trends, indicating competition for the resources and the higher sensitivity of the macrofauna to environmental pressures. The macrofauna strongly decreased as a response to heavier harbour activities, with increasing turbidity also affecting the external station outside the harbour. Finally, comparing the macrofaunal communities to those sampled in the same area 10 years before, we found that their abundance, richness and biomass had notably decreased, highlighting the worsening of the harbour environment due to the increased organic load and turbidity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Periodic solutions of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation by the shooting method: A technique for beam dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabella, W.E.; Ruth, R.D.; Warnock, R.L.

    1988-05-01

    Periodic solutions of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation determine invariant tori in phase space. The Fourier spectrum of a torus with respect to angular coordinates gives useful information about nonlinear resonances and their potential for causing instabilities. We describe a method to solve the Hamilton-Jacobi equation for an arbitrary accelerator lattice. The method works with Fourier modes of the generating functions, and imposes periodicity in the machine azimuth by a shooting method. We give examples leading to three-dimensional plots in a surface of section. It is expected that the technique will be useful in lattice optimization. 14 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  19. Limnology of Eifel maar lakes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scharf, Burkhard W; Björk, Sven

    1992-01-01

    ... & morphometry - Physical & chemical characteristics - Calcite precipitation & solution in Lake Laacher See - Investigations using sediment traps in Lake Gemundener Maar - Phytoplankton of Lake Weinfelder Maar...

  20. Management of fisheries in harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) marine protected areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindt-Larsen, Lotte

    , Member States are obliged to nominate candidate protected areas in their waters to the EU Commission and within six years establish legislation to implement them as special areas of conservation and prepare management plans. Up to this point in time, however, no such management plans exist. This Ph...... thus be used as a tool to identify areas of porpoise bycatch risk and thereby support the management of both fisheries and harbour porpoises in accordance with the Habitats Directive. Thirdly, the behaviour of porpoises in relation to two different pinger types with different acoustic properties.......D. thesis focuses on research methods and management tools, which can contribute to a better scientific understanding in the preparation of fisheries management plans for Natura2000 sites designated for harbour porpoises. Firstly, it investigates the potential use of CCTV cameras to document bycatch...

  1. From echolocation clicks to animal density – acoustic sampling of harbour porpoises with static dataloggers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyhn, Line Anker; Tougaard, Jakob; Thomas, L.

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring abundance and population trends of small odontocetes is notoriously difficult and labour intensive. There is a need to develop alternative methods to the traditional visual line transect surveys, especially for low density areas. Here, the prospect of obtaining robust density estimates....... This provides a method suitable for monitoring in areas with densities too low for visual surveys to be practically feasible, e.g. the endangered harbour porpoise population in the Baltic....... for porpoises by passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) is demonstrated by combining rigorous application of methods adapted from distance sampling to PAM. Acoustic dataloggers (T-PODs) were deployed in an area where harbour porpoises concurrently were tracked visually. Probability of detection was estimated...

  2. Screening of variable importance for optimizing electrodialytic remediation of heavy metals from polluted harbour sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kristine B.; Lejon, Tore; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2015-01-01

    Using multivariate design and modelling, the optimal conditions for electrodialytic remediation (EDR) of heavy metals were determined for polluted harbour sediments from Hammerfest harbour located in the geographic Arctic region of Norway. The comparative importance of the variables, current......) was computed and variable importance in the projection was used to assess the influence of the experimental variables. Current density and remediation time proved to have the highest influence on the remediation of the heavy metals Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in the studied experimental domain. In addition......, it was shown that excluding the acidification time improved the PLS model, indicating the importance of applying a limited experimental domain that covers the removal phases of each heavy metal in the specific sediment. Based on PLS modelling, the optimal conditions for remediating the Hammerfest sediment were...

  3. An empirically tractable model of optimal oil spills prevention in Russian sea harbours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deissenberg, C. [CEFI-CNRS, Les Milles (France); Gurman, V.; Tsirlin, A. [RAS, Program Systems Inst., Pereslavl-Zalessky (Russian Federation); Ryumina, E. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Economic Market Problems

    2001-07-01

    Based on previous theoretical work by Gottinger (1997, 1998), we propose a simple model of optimal monitoring of oil-related activities in harbour areas that is suitable for empirical estimation within the Russian-Ukrainian context, in spite of the poor availability of data in these countries. Specifically, the model indicates how to best allocate at the steady state a given monitoring budget between different monitoring activities. An approximate analytical solution to the optimization problem is derived, and a simple procedure for estimating the model on the basis of the actually available data is suggested. An application using data obtained for several harbours of the Black and Baltic Seas is given. It suggests that the current Russian monitoring practice could be much improved by better allocating the available monitoring resources. (Author)

  4. Hamilton-Jacobi formalism for inflation with non-minimal derivative coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheikhahmadi, Haidar [Institute for Advance Studies in Basic Sciences (IASBS) Gava Zang, Zanjan 45137-66731 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Saridakis, Emmanuel N. [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad de Católica de Valparaíso, Casilla 4950, Valparaíso (Chile); Aghamohammadi, Ali [Sanandaj Branch Islamic Azad University (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Saaidi, Khaled, E-mail: h.sh.ahmadi@gmail.com, E-mail: Emmanuel_Saridakis@baylor.edu, E-mail: a.aqamohamadi@iausdj.ac.ir, E-mail: ksaaidi@uok.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-10-01

    In inflation with nonminimal derivative coupling there is not a conformal transformation to the Einstein frame where calculations are straightforward, and thus in order to extract inflationary observables one needs to perform a detailed and lengthy perturbation investigation. In this work we bypass this problem by performing a Hamilton-Jacobi analysis, namely rewriting the cosmological equations considering the scalar field to be the time variable. We apply the method to two specific models, namely the power-law and the exponential cases, and for each model we calculate various observables such as the tensor-to-scalar ratio, and the spectral index and its running. We compare them with 2013 and 2015 Planck data, and we show that they are in a very good agreement with observations.

  5. Hamilton-Jacobi approach for first order actions and theories with higher derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertin, M.C.; Pimentel, B.M.; Pompeia, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    In this work, we analyze systems described by Lagrangians with higher order derivatives in the context of the Hamilton-Jacobi formalism for first order actions. Two different approaches are studied here: the first one is analogous to the description of theories with higher derivatives in the hamiltonian formalism according to [D.M. Gitman, S.L. Lyakhovich, I.V. Tyutin, Soviet Phys. J. 26 (1983) 730; D.M. Gitman, I.V. Tyutin, Quantization of Fields with Constraints, Springer-Verlag, New York, Berlin, 1990] the second treats the case where degenerate coordinate are present, in an analogy to reference [D.M. Gitman, I.V. Tyutin, Nucl. Phys. B 630 (2002) 509]. Several examples are analyzed where a comparison between both approaches is made

  6. Hamilton-Jacobi formalism for inflation with non-minimal derivative coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikhahmadi, Haidar; Saridakis, Emmanuel N.; Aghamohammadi, Ali; Saaidi, Khaled

    2016-01-01

    In inflation with nonminimal derivative coupling there is not a conformal transformation to the Einstein frame where calculations are straightforward, and thus in order to extract inflationary observables one needs to perform a detailed and lengthy perturbation investigation. In this work we bypass this problem by performing a Hamilton-Jacobi analysis, namely rewriting the cosmological equations considering the scalar field to be the time variable. We apply the method to two specific models, namely the power-law and the exponential cases, and for each model we calculate various observables such as the tensor-to-scalar ratio, and the spectral index and its running. We compare them with 2013 and 2015 Planck data, and we show that they are in a very good agreement with observations.

  7. The Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D) and the Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Scale (MADRS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Per; Allerup, Peter; Larsen, Erik Roj

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this re-analysis of the European Genome-Based Therapeutic Drugs for Depression Study (GENDEP) was to psychometrically test the unidimensionality of the full Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS10) and the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D17) versus their respective...... subscales (MADRS5 and HAM-D6) containing the core symptoms of depression severity. Rasch analysis was applied using RUMM 2030 software to assess the overall fit for unidimensionality. Neither the MADRS10 nor the HAM-D17 was found to fit the Rasch model for unidimensionality. The HAM-D6 (containing the items...... of depressed mood, guilt, work and interests, psychomotor retardation, psychic anxiety, and somatic general) as well as the analogue MADRS5 were tested for unidimensionality by use of the RUMM 2030 programme, and only the HAM-D6 was accepted. When testing for invariance across rating weeks or centres, the RUMM...

  8. Filling the gaps in SCWR materials research: advanced nuclear corrosion research facilities in Hamilton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krausher, J.L.; Zheng, W.; Li, J.; Guzonas, D.; Botton, G.

    2011-01-01

    Research efforts on materials selection and development in support of the design of supercritical water-cooled reactors (SCWRs) have produced a considerable amount of data on corrosion, creep and other related properties. Summaries of the data on corrosion [1] and stress corrosion cracking [2] have recently been produced. As research on the SCWR advances, gaps and limitations in the published data are being identified. In terms of corrosion properties, these gaps can be seen in several areas, including: 1) the test environment, 2) the physical and chemical severity of the tests conducted as compared with likely reactor service/operating conditions, and 3) the test methods used. While some of these gaps can be filled readily using existing facilities, others require the availability of advanced test facilities for specific tests and assessments. In this paper, highlights of the new materials research facilities jointly established in Hamilton by CANMET Materials Technology Laboratory and McMaster University are presented. (author)

  9. Solutions to estimation problems for scalar hamilton-jacobi equations using linear programming

    KAUST Repository

    Claudel, Christian G.; Chamoin, Timothee; Bayen, Alexandre M.

    2014-01-01

    This brief presents new convex formulations for solving estimation problems in systems modeled by scalar Hamilton-Jacobi (HJ) equations. Using a semi-analytic formula, we show that the constraints resulting from a HJ equation are convex, and can be written as a set of linear inequalities. We use this fact to pose various (and seemingly unrelated) estimation problems related to traffic flow-engineering as a set of linear programs. In particular, we solve data assimilation and data reconciliation problems for estimating the state of a system when the model and measurement constraints are incompatible. We also solve traffic estimation problems, such as travel time estimation or density estimation. For all these problems, a numerical implementation is performed using experimental data from the Mobile Century experiment. In the context of reproducible research, the code and data used to compute the results presented in this brief have been posted online and are accessible to regenerate the results. © 2013 IEEE.

  10. Balance equations for a viscous fluid from a Hamilton type variational principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fierros Palacios, A.

    1992-01-01

    The partial differential field equations for any viscous fluid are obtained from the Lagrangian formalism as in classical field theory. An action functional is introduced as a space-time integral over a region of three-dimensional Euclidean space, of a Lagrangian density function of certain field variables. A Hamilton type extremum action principle is postulated with adequate boundary conditions, and a set of differential field equations is derived. With an appropriate Lagrangian density of the T-V type, the equation of motion for any viscous fluid is reproduced. A theorem referring to the invariance of the action under time variations lead to the generalized energy balance equation for the viscous fluid and to the energy balance equation proper. The same theoretical approach can be used to solve the problem of potential flow. (Author)

  11. Field differential equations for a potential flow from a Hamilton type variational principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fierros Palacios, A.

    1992-01-01

    The same theoretical frame that was used to solve the problem of the field equations for a viscous fluid is utilized in this work. The purpose is to obtain the differential field equations for a potential flow from the Lagrangian formalism as in classical field theory. An action functional is introduced as a space-time integral over a region of three-dimensional Euclidean space, of a Lagrangian density as a function of certain field variables. A Hamilton type extremum action principle is postulated with adequate boundary conditions, and a set of differential field equations is derived. A particular Lagrangian density of the T-V type leads to the wave equation for the velocity potential. (Author)

  12. Probabilistic formulation of estimation problems for a class of Hamilton-Jacobi equations

    KAUST Repository

    Hofleitner, Aude; Claudel, Christian G.; Bayen, Alexandre M.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a method for deriving the probability distribution of the solution to a Hamilton-Jacobi partial differential equation for which the value conditions are random. The derivations lead to analytical or semi-analytical expressions of the probability distribution function at any point in the domain in which the solution is defined. The characterization of the distribution of the solution at any point is a first step towards the estimation of the parameters defining the random value conditions. This work has important applications for estimation in flow networks in which value conditions are noisy. In particular, we illustrate our derivations on a road segment with random capacity reductions. © 2012 IEEE.

  13. Superintegrability on curved spaces, orbits and momentum hodographs: revisiting a classical result by Hamilton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carinena, Jose F; Ranada, Manuel F; Santander, Mariano

    2007-01-01

    The equation of the orbits (in the configuration space) and of the hodographs (in the 'momentum' plane) for the 'curved' Kepler and harmonic oscillator systems, living in a configuration space of any constant curvature and either signature type, are derived by purely algebraic means. This result extends to the 'curved' Kepler or harmonic oscillator for the classical Hamilton derivation of the orbits of the Euclidean Kepler problem through its hodographs. In both cases, the fundamental property allowing these derivations to work is the superintegrability of the 'curved' Kepler and harmonic oscillator, no matter whether the constant curvature of the configuration space is zero or not, or whether the configuration space metric is Riemannian or Lorentzian. In the 'curved' case the basic result does not refer to the 'velocity hodograph' but to the 'momentum hodograph'; both coincide in a Euclidean configuration space, but only the latter is unambiguously defined in all curved spaces

  14. [«I stole with my eyes»: Hamilton Naki, a pioneer in heart transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Valdés, Julio César

    On December 2, 1967, when Denise Darvall was hit by a car, a surgery that made medical history was unfold: Hamilton Naki, a black man, expertly removed her heart and gave it to Christian Barnard, who was preparing the receptor, Louis Washkansky, in an adjacent operating room. Naki's contribution was an outlaw act, a criminal offense under the laws of apartheid due to the difference of races; the law forbade him to cut white meat or touch white blood. Naki was perhaps the second most important man in the team that day. There were few photographs where he and Barnard appeared together, but because of the nature of society was Barnard who won the world's attention.

  15. Probabilistic formulation of estimation problems for a class of Hamilton-Jacobi equations

    KAUST Repository

    Hofleitner, Aude

    2012-12-01

    This article presents a method for deriving the probability distribution of the solution to a Hamilton-Jacobi partial differential equation for which the value conditions are random. The derivations lead to analytical or semi-analytical expressions of the probability distribution function at any point in the domain in which the solution is defined. The characterization of the distribution of the solution at any point is a first step towards the estimation of the parameters defining the random value conditions. This work has important applications for estimation in flow networks in which value conditions are noisy. In particular, we illustrate our derivations on a road segment with random capacity reductions. © 2012 IEEE.

  16. Direct oral anticoagulants for treatment of HIT: update of Hamilton experience and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warkentin, Theodore E; Pai, Menaka; Linkins, Lori-Ann

    2017-08-31

    Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are attractive options for treatment of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). We report our continuing experience in Hamilton, ON, Canada, since January 1, 2015 (when we completed our prospective study of rivaroxaban for HIT), using rivaroxaban for serologically confirmed HIT (4Ts score ≥4 points; positive platelet factor 4 [PF4]/heparin immunoassay, positive serotonin-release assay). We also performed a literature review of HIT treatment using DOACs (rivaroxaban, apixaban, dabigatran, edoxaban). We focused on patients who received DOAC therapy for acute HIT as either primary therapy (group A) or secondary therapy (group B; initial treatment using a non-DOAC/non-heparin anticoagulant with transition to a DOAC during HIT-associated thrombocytopenia). Our primary end point was occurrence of objectively documented thrombosis during DOAC therapy for acute HIT. We found that recovery without new, progressive, or recurrent thrombosis occurred in all 10 Hamilton patients with acute HIT treated with rivaroxaban. Data from the literature review plus these new data identified a thrombosis rate of 1 of 46 patients (2.2%; 95% CI, 0.4%-11.3%) in patients treated with rivaroxaban during acute HIT (group A, n = 25; group B, n = 21); major hemorrhage was seen in 0 of 46 patients. Similar outcomes in smaller numbers of patients were observed with apixaban (n = 12) and dabigatran (n = 11). DOACs offer simplified management of selected patients, as illustrated by a case of persisting (autoimmune) HIT (>2-month platelet recovery with inversely parallel waning of serum-induced heparin-independent serotonin release) with successful outpatient rivaroxaban management of HIT-associated thrombosis. Evidence supporting efficacy and safety of DOACs for acute HIT is increasing, with the most experience reported for rivaroxaban. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  17. On the Geometry of the Hamilton-Jacobi Equation and Generating Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Sebastián; de León, Manuel; Marrero, Juan Carlos; Martín de Diego, David; Vaquero, Miguel

    2017-10-01

    In this paper we develop a geometric version of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation in the Poisson setting. Specifically, we "geometrize" what is usually called a complete solution of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation. We use some well-known results about symplectic groupoids, in particular cotangent groupoids, as a keystone for the construction of our framework. Our methodology follows the ambitious program proposed by Weinstein (In Mechanics day (Waterloo, ON, 1992), volume 7 of fields institute communications, American Mathematical Society, Providence, 1996) in order to develop geometric formulations of the dynamical behavior of Lagrangian and Hamiltonian systems on Lie algebroids and Lie groupoids. This procedure allows us to take symmetries into account, and, as a by-product, we recover results from Channell and Scovel (Phys D 50(1):80-88, 1991), Ge (Indiana Univ. Math. J. 39(3):859-876, 1990), Ge and Marsden (Phys Lett A 133(3):134-139, 1988), but even in these situations our approach is new. A theory of generating functions for the Poisson structures considered here is also developed following the same pattern, solving a longstanding problem of the area: how to obtain a generating function for the identity transformation and the nearby Poisson automorphisms of Poisson manifolds. A direct application of our results gives the construction of a family of Poisson integrators, that is, integrators that conserve the underlying Poisson geometry. These integrators are implemented in the paper in benchmark problems. Some conclusions, current and future directions of research are shown at the end of the paper.

  18. Environmental Risk Assessment of dredging processes – application to Marin harbour (NW Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    A. G. Gómez; J. García Alba; A. Puente; J. A. Juanes

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT. A methodological procedure to estimate the environmental risk of dredging operations in aquatic systems has been developed. Environmental risk estimations are based on numerical models results, which provide an appropriated spatio-temporal framework analysis to guarantee an effective decision-making process. The methodological procedure has been applied on a real dredging operation in the port of Marin (NW Spain). Results from Marin harbour confirmed the suitabi...

  19. Environmental Risk Assessment of dredging processes - application to Marin harbour (NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, A. G.; García Alba, J.; Puente, A.; Juanes, J. A.

    2014-04-01

    A methodological procedure to estimate the environmental risk of dredging operations in aquatic systems has been developed. Environmental risk estimations are based on numerical models results, which provide an appropriated spatio-temporal framework analysis to guarantee an effective decision-making process. The methodological procedure has been applied on a real dredging operation in the port of Marin (NW Spain). Results from Marin harbour confirmed the suitability of the developed methodology and the conceptual approaches as a comprehensive and practical management tool.

  20. Effects of granulometric gradient on macrofaunal assemblages in Los Cristianos harbour (Tenerife, Canary Islands)

    OpenAIRE

    Riera, Rodrigo; Monterroso, Óscar; Núñez, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Along the rapid increase of coastal tourism worldwide, evidence is accumulating on the numerous environmental coastal impacts that it causes on marine environments. One of the most important anthropogenic pressures is the construction of marinas or recreational harbours. Typically, most of the studies provide snapshots of the spatial distribution of macrobenthic communities inside and outside of the marina area. However, there is no much information about sedimentary dynamics inside the harbo...

  1. Patterns of Occurrence of Sharks in Sydney Harbour, a Large Urbanised Estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoothey, Amy F; Gray, Charles A; Kennelly, Steve J; Masens, Oliver J; Peddemors, Victor M; Robinson, Wayne A

    2016-01-01

    Information about spatial and temporal variability in the distribution and abundance of shark-populations are required for their conservation, management and to update measures designed to mitigate human-shark interactions. However, because some species of sharks are mobile, migratory and occur in relatively small numbers, estimating their patterns of distribution and abundance can be very difficult. In this study, we used a hierarchical sampling design to examine differences in the composition of species, size- and sex-structures of sharks sampled with bottom-set longlines in three different areas with increasing distance from the entrance of Sydney Harbour, a large urbanised estuary. During two years of sampling, we obtained data for four species of sharks (Port Jackson, Heterodontus portusjacksoni; wobbegong, Orectolobus maculatus; dusky whaler, Carcharhinus obscurus and bull shark, Carcharhinus leucas). Only a few O. maculatus and C. obscurus were caught, all in the area closest to the entrance of the Harbour. O. maculatus were caught in all seasons, except summer, while C. obscurus was only caught in summer. Heterodontus portusjacksoni were the most abundant species, caught in the entrance location mostly between July to November, when water temperature was below 21.5°C. This pattern was consistent across both years. C. leucas, the second most abundant species, were captured in all areas of Sydney Harbour but only in summer and autumn when water temperatures were above 23°C. This study quantified, for this first time, how different species utilise different areas of Sydney Harbour, at different times of the year. This information has implications for the management of human-shark interactions, by enabling creation of education programs to modify human behaviour in times of increased risk of potentially dangerous sharks.

  2. Review on utilization and research on harbour seal (Phoca vitulina in Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlingur Hauksson

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Harbour seals (Phoca vitulina have been harvested in Iceland since the first settlers arrived in the 9th century. Pups were generally netted, clubbed and harpooned until 1875 when general use of guns for hunting began. Seal-hunting has been traditional amongst the farms legal rights. Seal hunting was an important supplement to other economic resources. Harbour seal skins, salted ordried, were exported and large dataset of catch statistics is available from trading logbooks since the late 19th century. In the early 20th century catch was about 6,000. In the ‘bounty’ period 1982 – 1989, maximum catches were of 4,000 animals with about 350 hunters participated; in 2006 catches were only about 100 animals with 18 hunters. After 1989 the population continued to decline even though catches decreased markedly. Unreported by-catch in fishing gear, hunt for local consumption and shooting of seals swimming in salmon rivers estuaries may have kept the total removal from the stock above sustainable levels. A considerable Icelandic knowledge base had been compiled about the biology of the harbour seal since the late 16th century, with the first written reference in 1588-1589. In the last decades, research on various aspects of its biology and monitoring have been intensified, with focus on abundance, distribution, diet and nematode infestation. The main results show that the Icelandic harbour seal population - has declined annually about 5% in the period 1980-2006, - was most abundant on the NW-coast, - feeds mainly on sand-eels and gadoids, - and was less infected with anisakid nematodes than grey seals. Seal watching, as a low-consumptive indirect utilization, may represent a new economical opportunity if properly regulated.

  3. A system shift in tidal choking due to the construction of Yangshan Harbour, Shanghai, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wenyun; Wang, Xiao Hua; Ding, Pingxing; Ge, Jianzhong; Song, Dehai

    2018-06-01

    Tidal choking is a geometric feature caused by a narrowed channel. Construction of the Yangshan Harbour, Shanghai, China obstructed three key channels and intensively changed the local geometry and topography. In this study nine numerical experiments based on the Finite-Volume Community Ocean Model are conducted to study the project's influence on tidal characteristics. Results show that stronger tidal choking happened at the East Entrance after project, mainly due to the jet induced water-level drop forced by Bernoulli law and the longer and narrower geometry. The stronger tidal choking forces a faster flow and larger tidal energy flux at the choked channel while reducing the tidal amplitude in the Inner Harbour Area (IHA). The scouring on this channel reduces the choking effect but further enlarges tidal energy flux. Moreover, damming the channels decrease the tidal amplitude at the lee side of tidal propagating direction while increasing the amplitude on the stoss side. The dams also decrease the tidal current on both sides, and meanwhile develop two patches with stronger current aside the dam. The project induced changes in tidal characteristics are complex in space, and perturbations in bathymetry increase this complexity. Yangshan Harbour's construction induces little changes in the total tidal energy density in the IHA, but induces obvious changes in the spatial distribution of tidal energy. Although this study is site-specific, the findings may be applicable to tidal dynamics in land reclamation close to open seas, such as the dramatic reclamation of islands in the South China Sea.

  4. Rapid reassessment of the eutrophication status of Kingston Harbour, Jamaica using the zooplankton community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice A. Francis

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous extensive studies of zooplankton distribution in the eutrophic Kingston Harbour established that it was being continuously contaminated. We assessed the community in 2011, 17 years after a previous study and five years after the introduction of a tertiary waste water system. Sampling was conducted for four weeks at eight stations identical to those sampled in a previous study. We used horizontal surface tows with a 200µm net. A total of 73 zooplankton taxa were identified and copepods dominated with 20 species. Mean total abundances were high, ranging from a minimum of 2 383 animals m-3 in the southern region of Hunts Bay to 194 166 animals m-3at the Inner Harbour. Five zooplankton taxa (Acartia tonsa, Paracalanus spp., Temora turbinata, Penilia avirostris and Lucifer faxoni that were previously identified as indicators, were again important in the Harbour. The overall zooplankton abundances were similar and in some cases higher than the previous study. There was no significant improvement in the water quality since the introduction of the treatment system at Soapberry. This may be a result of unknown nutrient inputs or of nutrient remaining in the sediments.

  5. The effect of wind turbines on the bird population at Blyth Harbour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Still, D.; Little, B.; Lawrence, S.

    1996-01-01

    Bird monitoring was carried out at Blyth Harbour Wind Farm which consists of a line of nine 300kW wind turbines distributed at 200m intervals along a 1.2km breakwater. The harbour breakwater is designated as part of a Site of Special Scientific Interest as it supports an internationally important winter population of Purple Sandpipers. The Blyth estuary is to be designated as part of a Special Protection Area under the EC Habitats Directive and as part of a proposed RAMSAR site due to its peak periods up to c.5000 bird movements/day occur adjacent to the windfarm. Mortality surveys (at one week intervals) were carried out on adjacent beaches to the wind farm in order to assess the background numbers of bird corpses and locate wind farm casualties. Supplementary mortality searches were carried out near power lines less than 2.5 km upstream from the wind farm. Tests of the efficiency of the mortality surveys have been carried out in order to assess the likely impact on the local bird populations. In spite of the large bird population supported by the harbour and its close proximity to the wind farm there have been relatively few collision victims (31) since the windfarm was commissioned. This is equivalent to less than 1.34 bird strike/wind turbine per annum. (author)

  6. Bathymetry of Lake Erie and Lake Saint Clair

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Erie and Lake Saint Clair has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and...

  7. Sporadic diffuse segmental interstitial cell of Cajal hyperplasia harbouring two gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST mimicking hereditary GIST syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mafalda Costa Neves

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: We describe a diffuse form of sporadic ICC hyperplasia harbouring multifocal GISTs, mimicking diffuse ICC hyperplasia in hereditary GIST syndromes. Detection of somatic c-KIT exon 11 mutation ruled out a hereditary disorder.

  8. Impact of water quality changes on harbour environment due to port activities along the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shirodkar, P.V.; Pradhan, U.K.; Vethamony, P.

    modeling were used to understand the dominant parameters influencing water quality, trace the sources of contaminants, their impact on harbour environments and their fate. Factor analyses showed the dominance of anthropogenic nutrients, petroleum...

  9. A compact self-recording pressure based sea level gauge suitable for deployments at harbour and offshore environments

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desa, E.; Peshwe, V.B.; Joseph, A.; Mehra, P.; Naik, G.P.; Kumar, V.; Desa, E.S.; Desai, R.G.P.; Nagvekar, S.; Desai, S.P.

    A compact and lightweight self-recording pressure based sea level gauge has been designed to suit deployments from harbour and offshore environments. A novel hydraulic coupling device designed in-house was used to transfer the seawater pressure...

  10. Chaos M-ary modulation and demodulation method based on Hamilton oscillator and its application in communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yongqing; Li, Xingyuan; Li, Yanan; Yang, Wei; Song, Hailiang

    2013-03-01

    Chaotic communication has aroused general interests in recent years, but its communication effect is not ideal with the restriction of chaos synchronization. In this paper a new chaos M-ary digital modulation and demodulation method is proposed. By using region controllable characteristics of spatiotemporal chaos Hamilton map in phase plane and chaos unique characteristic, which is sensitive to initial value, zone mapping method is proposed. It establishes the map relationship between M-ary digital information and the region of Hamilton map phase plane, thus the M-ary information chaos modulation is realized. In addition, zone partition demodulation method is proposed based on the structure characteristic of Hamilton modulated information, which separates M-ary information from phase trajectory of chaotic Hamilton map, and the theory analysis of zone partition demodulator's boundary range is given. Finally, the communication system based on the two methods is constructed on the personal computer. The simulation shows that in high speed transmission communications and with no chaos synchronization circumstance, the proposed chaotic M-ary modulation and demodulation method has outperformed some conventional M-ary modulation methods, such as quadrature phase shift keying and M-ary pulse amplitude modulation in bit error rate. Besides, it has performance improvement in bandwidth efficiency, transmission efficiency and anti-noise performance, and the system complexity is low and chaos signal is easy to generate.

  11. Welcome to My House: African American and European American Students' Responses to Virginia Hamilton's "House of Dies Drear."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears-Bunton, Linda A.

    1990-01-01

    Addresses the relationship between reader response and culture. Presents portraits of a teacher and her Black students and White students as they studied a series of African American literary texts, including Virginia Hamilton's "House of Dies Drear" (1968). The reading of this text marked a turning point for the teacher and students.…

  12. Effects of waves and currents on the siltation problem of Damietta harbour, Nile Delta coast, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABO BAKER.I. ABO ZED

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the effect of prevailing dynamic factors on the sedimentation process in Damietta Harbour along the Nile delta coast of Egypt. The monitoring program spanned the period between 1978 and 1999 and included measurements of waves, currents and bathymetric profiles. The evaluation was based on determination of erosion and accretion rates, current regime, sediment transport, wave characteristics and wave refraction. Results revealed that the predominant wave direction from N-NW sector (86 % throughout the year is responsible for generation of a longshore eastward current. Less frequent waves from the N-NE sector generate an opposing longshore westward current. The refraction pattern for the prevailing wave direction indicates that the harbour and its navigation channel are located within a divergence of wave orthogonal and in an accretion sediment sink area. The annual net rate of littoral drift on the western side of the harbour is about 1.43 * 105 m3 (accretion, while the annual net rate of littoral drift on the eastern side is about 2.54 * 105 m3 (erosion. Currents fluctuate tremendously in speed and direction, especially during the winter months. Hence, sediment transport takes place in offshore, eastward, and onshore directions. Progressive vector diagrams show that the largest near bottom offshore, onshore and easterly net drift occurs during summer, spring and winter respectively. The onshore sediment transport generated during spring and summer plays an important role in the redistribution of eroded sediments during the winter. The overall study of dynamic factors indicated that the harbour site is characterized by eastern, western, offshore and onshore sediment movements. Therefore, the north-south orientation of the navigation channel, with its depth greater than the surrounding area, interrupts sediment drift from different directions and reduces the current speed. Consequently, the sediments sink within the navigation

  13. The effect of Kingston Harbour outflow on the zooplankton populations of Hellshire, south-east coast, Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindo, Mona K.

    1991-06-01

    Zooplankton sampling was conducted at 16 stations located at the mouth of Kingston Harbour and throughout the Hellshire area from November 1985 to March 1987. Parameters examined included total biomass, total numbers and numbers of numerically important zooplankton species. Maximum values were recorded west of the Harbour mouth (station 1) and these gradually decreased with distance from the Harbour especially at the 'offshore' stations, producing a gradient effect in this area. Mean biomass and abundance for the period sampled ranged from 14 g m -3 and 16 313 individuals m -3 at the western side of the Harbour mouth to 0·4 g m -3 and 172 individuals m -3 at Wreck Reef. Stations within the bays of Hellshire occasionally had values similar to those recorded at the mouth of Kingston Harbour and here there was less evidence of a gradual decline. Considerable monthly fluctuation occurred in these parameters but there was no discernible seasonal pattern. Copepods dominated the population at most stations and the sergestid Lucifer faxoni also proved an important member at the western Harbour mouth station.

  14. Environmental quality assessment of Grand Harbour (Valletta, Maltese Islands): a case study of a busy harbour in the Central Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Teresa; D'Alessandro, Michela; Esposito, Valentina; Scotti, Gianfranco; Berto, Daniela; Formalewicz, Malgorzata; Noventa, Seta; Giuliani, Silvia; Macchia, Simona; Sartori, Davide; Mazzola, Angelo; Andaloro, Franco; Giacobbe, Salvatore; Deidun, Alan; Renzi, Monia

    2015-12-01

    Contamination levels by plastic debris, trace elements and persistent organic pollutants were assessed and related to macrobenthic diversity within soft bottoms of Grand Harbour (Malta, Central Mediterranean). Sediment toxicity was evaluated by ecotoxicological method, deploying Bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), Echinodermata (Paracentrotus lividus) and Crustacea (Corophium orientale). Univariate analysis (Pearson's test) was used to test relationships between biodiversity indices, pollutants and grain size. A multivariate approach (PERMANOVA) was applied to investigate for any significant differences among sampling stations concerning plastic abundances and to test the relationship between infaunal abundances and pollutant concentrations (the BIOENV test). Significant differences in the plastic abundances were found between sampling stations. The lowest value for Shannon-Wiener biodiversity index was associated to the highest sediment pollution level. Multivariate analyses suggest that MBT and TBT were factors that most influenced macrozoobenthic abundance and biodiversity. The bivalve Corbula gibba and the introduced polychaete Monticellina dorsobranchialis were the most abundant found species.

  15. Lake or Pond WBID

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The VT DEC (Vermont Department of Environmental Conservation) manages an inventory of lake and pond information. The "Lakes and Ponds Inventory" stores the Water...

  16. National Lakes Assessment Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Lakes Assessment (NLA) is a first-ever statistically-valid survey of the biological condition of lakes and reservoirs throughout the U.S. The U.S....

  17. DNR 24K Lakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Medium scale lake polygons derived from the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) polygons and MnDOT Basemap lake delineations. Integrated with the DNR 24K Streams...

  18. Bosaso Harbour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Toschi, P.B; Turrio, E.

    1991-01-01

    The paper deals with some design and construction aspects related to the new port at Bosaso, which is the terminal of the newly completed road system which connects northern Somalia with Mogadishu in the south. The port and the road project was financed by The Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Funding...

  19. Resting cysts of freshwater dinoflagellates in southeastern Georgian Bay (Lake Huron) as proxies of cultural eutrophication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarthy, Francine M.G.; Mertens, Kenneth Neil; Ellegaard, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    conditions, comprise 60–74% of the cysts identified in Ambrosia (ragweed)-rich sediments in the upper 20 cm of a gravity core taken from Honey Harbour. Euro-Canadian settlement and land-clearing that began in the Midland-Penetanguishene region around A.D. 1840 are evident in the increase in Ambrosia (ragweed...... contained between ~ 750 and 8500 cysts/cm3. However, winnowing by bottom currents and high concentrations of dissolved oxygen adversely impact the dinoflagellate cyst record on the lakebed, and cyst concentrations in easily remobilized muds on bathymetric highs were core changes......-Canadian settlement, when cyst flux was an order of magnitude lower. This is consistent with the restriction of this species to relatively warm, oligotrophic to mesotrophic lakes in North America. An earlier increase in P. willei at the expense of P. wisconsinense in the core from Honey Harbour within pollen zone 3 d...

  20. Sources and sinks of microplastics in Canadian Lake Ontario nearshore, tributary and beach sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballent, Anika; Corcoran, Patricia L; Madden, Odile; Helm, Paul A; Longstaffe, Fred J

    2016-09-15

    Microplastics contamination of Lake Ontario sediments is investigated with the aim of identifying distribution patterns and hotspots in nearshore, tributary and beach depositional environments. Microplastics are concentrated in nearshore sediments in the vicinity of urban and industrial regions. In Humber Bay and Toronto Harbour microplastic concentrations were consistently >500 particles per kg dry sediment. Maximum concentrations of ~28,000 particles per kg dry sediment were determined in Etobicoke Creek. The microplastic particles were primarily fibres and fragments microplastics in terms of how and where to implement preventative measures to reduce the contaminant influx. Although the impacts of microplastics contamination on ecosystem health and functioning is uncertain, understanding, monitoring and preventing further microplastics contamination in Lake Ontario and the other Great Lakes is crucial. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Characterisation of microcontaminants in Darwin Harbour, a tropical estuary of northern Australia undergoing rapid development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Veronica A; Codi King, Susan; Kumar, Anu; Northcott, Grant; McGuinness, Keith; Parry, David

    2015-12-01

    The detection of microcontaminants in aquatic environments raises concerns about their potential to exert ecotoxicological effects and impact human health. In contrast to freshwater habitats, little information is available on environmental concentrations in urban estuarine and marine environments. This study investigated an extensive range of organic and inorganic microcontaminants in the Darwin Harbour catchment, a tropical estuary in northern Australia undergoing rapid urbanisation and industrial development. We sampled wastewater effluent and surface water from seven sites in Darwin Harbour for pharmaceuticals and personal care products, alkylphenols, hormones, pesticides, herbicides and metals. In vitro bioassays were used to estimate the (anti)estrogenic and (anti)androgenic activities of samples. Seventy-nine of 229 organic microcontaminants analysed were detected at concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 20 μg/L, with acesulfame, paracetamol, cholesterol, caffeine, DEET and iopromide detected at the highest concentrations in wastewater effluent (20 μg/L, 17 μg/L, 11 μg/L, 11 μg/L, 10 μg/L and 7.6 μg/L, respectively). Levels of estrogenic activity ranged from estradiol equivalency quotients (EEQs) of <0.10 to 6.29±0.16 ng/L while levels of androgenic activity ranged from dihydrotestosterone equivalency quotients (DHTEQs) of <3.50 to 138.23±3.71 ng/L. Environmental concentrations of organic microcontaminants were comparable to ranges reported from aquatic environments worldwide with sewage effluent discharges representing the dominant source of entry into Darwin Harbour. The measured concentration range of DEET was higher than ranges reported in previous studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Hydrodynamic sensory threshold in harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) for artificial flatfish breathing currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niesterok, Benedikt; Dehnhardt, Guido; Hanke, Wolf

    2017-07-01

    Harbour seals have the ability to detect benthic fish such as flatfish using the water currents these fish emit through their gills (breathing currents). We investigated the sensory threshold in harbour seals for this specific hydrodynamic stimulus under conditions which are realistic for seals hunting in the wild. We used an experimental platform where an artificial breathing current was emitted through one of eight different nozzles. Two seals were trained to search for the active nozzle. Each experimental session consisted of eight test trials of a particular stimulus intensity and 16 supra-threshold trials of high stimulus intensity. Test trials were conducted with the animals blindfolded. To determine the threshold, a series of breathing currents differing in intensity was used. For each intensity, three sessions were run. The threshold in terms of maximum water velocity within the breathing current was 4.2 cm s -1 for one seal and 3.7 cm s -1 for the other. We measured background flow velocities from 1.8 to 3.4 cm s -1 Typical swimming speeds for both animals were around 0.5 m s -1 Swimming speed differed between successful and unsuccessful trials. It appears that swimming speed is restricted for the successful detection of a breathing current close to the threshold. Our study is the first to assess a sensory threshold of the vibrissal system for a moving harbour seal under near-natural conditions. Furthermore, this threshold was defined for a natural type of stimulus differing from classical dipole stimuli which have been widely used in threshold determination so far. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. Patterns of the non-indigenous isopod Cirolana harfordi in Sydney Harbour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana B Bugnot

    Full Text Available Biological introductions can alter the ecology of local assemblages and are an important driver of global environmental change. The first step towards understanding the impact of a non-indigenous species is to study its distribution and associations in the invaded area. In Sydney Harbour, the non-indigenous isopod Cirolana harfordi has been reported in densities up to 0.5 individuals per cm(2 in mussel-beds. Abundances of this species have, however, been largely overlooked in other key habitats. The first aim of this study was to evaluate the abundances and distribution of C. harfordi across different habitats representative of Sydney Harbour. Results showed that C. harfordi occurred in oyster and mussel-beds, being particularly abundant in oyster-beds. We also aimed to determine the role of C. harfordi as a predator, scavenger and detritus feeder by investigating the relationships between densities of C. harfordi and (i the structure of the resident assemblages, and (ii deposited organic matter in oyster-beds. Densities of C. harfordi were not related to the structure of the assemblages, nor amounts of deposited organic matter. These findings suggested little or no ecological impacts of C. harfordi in oyster-beds. These relationships may, however, affect other variables such as growth of individuals, or be disguised by high variability of assemblages among different locations. Future studies should, therefore, test the impacts of C. harfordi on the size of organisms in the assemblage and use manipulative experiments to control for spatial variation. This study is the first published work on the ecology of the invasion of C. harfordi and provides the starting-point for the study of the impacts of this species in Sydney Harbour.

  4. The world's northernmost harbour seal population-how many are there?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Merkel

    Full Text Available This study presents the first abundance estimate for the world's northernmost harbour seal (Phoca vitulina population, which resides in Svalbard, Norway, based on three digital stereoscopic photographic surveys conducted in 2009 and 2010. The counts from these high resolution 3D images were combined with a novel method for estimating correction factors for animals that were in the water at the time of the surveys, in which extensive behavioural data from radio-tagged harbour seals were used together with age distribution data to estimate the proportion of seals of various age and sex classes hauled out at the times of the surveys. To detect possible seasonal shifts in age distribution between surveys, lengths of hauled out seals were measured from the stereoscopic images. No body-length differences were detected between the surveys; but, this may be due to a high degree of sexual dimorphism exhibited in this population. Applying the modelled correction factors, a total of 1888 (95% CI: 1660-3023, 1742 (1381-3549 and 1812 (1656-4418 harbour seals were estimated for the surveys flown on 01 August 2009, 01 August 2010 and 19 August 2010, respectively. The similarity between the three survey estimates (despite significant differences in the number of animals actually counted on the photos from each survey effort suggests that the variation in numbers of hauled out seals is reasonably accurately adjusted for by the haul-out probability model. The low population size, the limited spatial distribution of the population and its reduced genetic diversity make this population vulnerable to chance events, such as disease epidemics.

  5. Quantized Hamilton dynamics describes quantum discrete breathers in a simple way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igumenshchev, Kirill; Prezhdo, Oleg

    2011-01-01

    We study the localization of energy in a nonlinear coupled system, exhibiting so-called breather modes, using quantized Hamilton dynamics (QHD). Already at the lowest order, which is only twice as complex as classical mechanics, this simple semiclassical method incorporates quantum-mechanical effects. The transition between the localized and delocalized regimes is instantaneous in classical mechanics, while it is gradual due to tunneling in both quantum mechanics and QHD. In contrast to classical mechanics, which predicts an abrupt appearance of breathers, quantum mechanics and QHD show an alternation of localized and delocalized behavior in the transient region. QHD includes zero-point energy that is reflected in a shifted energy asymptote for the localized states, providing another improvement on the classical perspective. By detailed analysis of the distribution and transfer of energy within classical mechanics, QHD, and quantum dynamics, we conclude that QHD is an efficient approach that accounts for moderate quantum effects and can be used to identify quantum breathers in large nonlinear systems.

  6. Hamilton-Jacobi approach for quasi-exponential inflation: predictions and constraints after Planck 2015 results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Videla, Nelson [FCFM, Universidad de Chile, Departamento de Fisica, Santiago (Chile)

    2017-03-15

    In the present work we study the consequences of considering an inflationary universe model in which the Hubble rate has a quasi-exponential dependence in the inflaton field, given by H(φ) = H{sub inf} exp[((φ)/(m{sub p}))/(p(1+(φ)/(m{sub p})))]. We analyze the inflation dynamics under the Hamilton-Jacobi approach, which allows us to consider H(φ), rather than V(φ), as the fundamental quantity to be specified. By comparing the theoretical predictions of the model together with the allowed contour plots in the n{sub s} - r plane and the amplitude of primordial scalar perturbations from the latest Planck data, the parameters charactering this model are constrained. The model predicts values for the tensor-to-scalar ratio r and for the running of the scalar spectral index dn{sub s}/d ln k consistent with the current bounds imposed by Planck, and we conclude that the model is viable. (orig.)

  7. Potential demand for household alternative fuelled vehicles in Hamilton, Canada : a stated choices experiment and survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potoglou, D.; Kanaroglou, P.S. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). Centre for Spatial Analysis]|[McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). School of Geography and Earth Science

    2005-07-01

    Alternative fuelled vehicle (AFV) technologies are a key strategy towards improved air quality and sustainable development. These fuel-efficient, low- or zero-emission vehicles have the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and other negative externalities linked with the transportation sector. They include battery electric vehicles, fuel cell vehicles, and hybrid electric vehicles with internal combustion engines. This paper discussed AFVs development trends and modelling the demand for AFVs. It was noted that before creating policy measures that promote new vehicle technologies, one should first evaluate the demand for AFVs and the effectiveness of incentives and marketing promotions. This paper discussed the design and application of a stated choices experiment in which urban level surveys were conducted on the Internet to obtain data and public opinion on the demand for AFVs. A Choice Internet Based Experiment for Research on Cars (CIBER-CARS) was designed. This self-administered online questionnaire was used in Hamilton, Ontario. The survey design was described in detail and its implementation and data collection procedures were reviewed. Measures for evaluating the efficiency of the Internet survey were also highlighted and the characteristics of the collected information were summarized with emphasis on the profiles of respondents and households. The purpose was to determine the impact of vehicle attributes and household characteristics to the actual choice of certain vehicles. 28 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  8. DDT poisoning of big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus, in Hamilton, Montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchweitz, John P; Carson, Keri; Rebolloso, Sarah; Lehner, Andreas

    2018-06-01

    Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) is an insecticidal organochlorine pesticide with; known potential for neurotoxic effects in wildlife. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) registration for this pesticide has been cancelled and there are currently no federally active products that contain this ingredient in the U.S. We present a case of a colony of big brown bats (E. Fuscus) found dead in the attic roost of an administrative building; in the city of Hamilton, Montana from unknown cause. DDT and its metabolites; dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD) were detected in bat tissues by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and quantified by gas chromatography tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). Concentrations of 4081 ppm DDT and 890 ppm DDE wet weight were found in the brain of one bat and are the highest reported concentrations in such a mortality event to date. This case emphasizes the importance of testing wildlife mortalities against a comprehensive panel of toxicologic agents including persistent organic pollutants in the absence of other more common disease threats. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Histomorphological and microanatomical characteristics of the olfactory organ of freshwater carp, Cirrhinus reba (Hamilton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh Saroj Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The morphoanatomy, cellular organization, and surface architecture of the olfactory apparatus in Cirrhinus reba (Hamilton is described using light and scanning electron microscopy. The oval shaped olfactory rosette contained 32 ± 2 primary lamellae on each side of the median raphe, and was lodged on the floor of the olfactory chamber. The olfactory lamellae were basically flat and compactly arranged in the rosette. The olfactory chamber communicated to the outside aquatic environment through inlet and outlet apertures with a conspicuous nasal flap in between. The mid dorsal portion of the olfactory lamellae was characterized by a linguiform process. Sensory and non-sensory regions were distributed separately on each lamella. The sensory epithelium occupied the apical part including the linguiform process, whereas the resting part of the lamella was covered with non-sensory epithelium. The sensory epithelium comprised both ciliated and microvillous receptor cells distinguished by the architecture on their apical part. The non-sensory epithelium possessed mucous cells, labyrinth cells, and stratified epithelial cells with distinctive microridges. The functional importance of the different cells lining the olfactory mucosa was correlated with the ecological habits of the fish examined.

  10. Lie-admissible structure of Hamilton's original equations with external terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santilli, R.M.

    1991-09-01

    As a necessary additional step in preparation of our operator studies of closed nonhamiltonian systems, in this note we consider the algebraic structure of the original equations proposed by Lagrange and Hamilton, those with external terms representing precisely the contact nonpotential forces of the interior dynamical problem. We show that the brackets of the theory violate the conditions to characterize any algebra. Nevertheless, when properly written, they characterize a covering of the Lie-isotopic algebras called Lie-admissible algebras. It is indicated that a similar occurrence exists for conventional operator treatments, e.g. for nonconservative nuclear cases characterized by nonhermitean Hamiltonians. This occurrence then prevents a rigorous treatment of basic notions, such as that of angular momentum and spin spin, which are centrally dependent on the existence of a consistent algebraic structure. The emergence of the Lie-admissible algebras is therefore expected to be unavoidable for any rigorous operator treatment of open systems with nonlinear, nonlocal and nonhamiltonian external forces. (author). 14 refs, 1 fig

  11. Hamilton-Ostrogradsky principle in the theory of nonlinear elasticity with the combined approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sporykhin, A.N.

    1995-01-01

    The assignment of a portion of the edge conditions in the deformed state and a portion of them in the initial state so that the initial and deformed states of the body are unknowns is a characteristic feature of the statement of a number of technological problems. Haber and Haber and Abel have performed studies in this direction, where constitutive relationships have been constructed within the framework of a linearly elastic material. Use of the displacements of individual particles as variable parameters in these relationships has required additional conditions that do not follow from the formulated problem. Use of familiar variational principles described in Euler coordinates is rendered difficult by the complexity of edge-condition formulation in the special case when the initial state is unknown. The latter is governed by the fact that variational principles are derived from the initial formulations open-quotes in Lagrangian coordinates,close quotes by recalculating the operation functional. Using Lagrange's principle, Novikov and Sporykhin constructed constitutive equations in the general case of a nonlinearly elastic body with edge conditions assigned in different configurations. An analogous problem is solved in this paper using the Hamilton-Ostrogradsky principle

  12. Susceptibility and pathological consequences of catla, Catla catla (Hamilton experimentally infected with Edwardsiella tarda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Thongam Bidya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study tested the susceptibility and pathological changes of catla, Catla catla (Hamilton infected with Edwardsiella tarda (ET-PG-29. The bacterium was isolated from the kidney of a diseased pangas catfish. To determine the median lethal dose (LD50, C. catla were challenged with this bacterium (108-103 CFU ml-1, and the LD50 was calculated as 105.5 CFU ml-1. Another set of healthy C. catla were injected intraperitoneally with the LD50 dose to induce edwardsiellosis. The clinical signs of the infected C. catla were observed and recorded. Tissues such as kidney, liver, intestine, heart, and gill from the infected fish with clinical signs of edwardsiellosis were used for histopathology. The clinical and gross signs were first visible at 1 d post-injection, and the infected fish showed typical signs of hemorrhagic septicemia. The most striking histopathological features were found in the kidney which showed multi-focal necrosis with the formation of granuloma indicating an inflammatory response against the pathogen. The intestine displayed goblet cell hyperplasia, the liver showed hydropic degeneration with hyperemic central veins, and there was inflammation of gill lamellae and cardiac myositis associated with leucocyte infiltration. Collectively, the results confirmed the susceptibility of C. catla to E. tarda infection and that this bacterium is a threat to C. catla in aquaculture practices.

  13. Well-spread sequences and edge-labellings with constant Hamilton-weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Mark Kayll

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A sequence (a i of integers is well-spread if the sums a i +a j, for iHamilton cycle has the same length; we prove that 2n 2-O(n 3/2<Λ(n<2n 2 +O(n 61/40.

  14. Factor analysis of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broen, M P G; Moonen, A J H; Kuijf, M L; Dujardin, K; Marsh, L; Richard, I H; Starkstein, S E; Martinez-Martin, P; Leentjens, A F G

    2015-02-01

    Several studies have validated the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), and reported adequate reliability and construct validity. However, the factorial validity of the HAMD has not yet been investigated. The aim of our analysis was to explore the factor structure of the HAMD in a large sample of PD patients. A principal component analysis of the 17-item HAMD was performed on data of 341 PD patients, available from a previous cross sectional study on anxiety. An eigenvalue ≥1 was used to determine the number of factors. Factor loadings ≥0.4 in combination with oblique rotations were used to identify which variables made up the factors. Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure (KMO), Cronbach's alpha, Bartlett's test, communality, percentage of non-redundant residuals and the component correlation matrix were computed to assess factor validity. KMO verified the sample's adequacy for factor analysis and Cronbach's alpha indicated a good internal consistency of the total scale. Six factors had eigenvalues ≥1 and together explained 59.19% of the variance. The number of items per factor varied from 1 to 6. Inter-item correlations within each component were low. There was a high percentage of non-redundant residuals and low communality. This analysis demonstrates that the factorial validity of the HAMD in PD is unsatisfactory. This implies that the scale is not appropriate for studying specific symptom domains of depression based on factorial structure in a PD population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Husbandry stress exacerbates mycobacterial infections in adult zebrafish, Danio rerio (Hamilton)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, J.M.; Watral, Virginia G.; Schreck, C.B.; Kent, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    Mycobacteria are significant pathogens of laboratory zebrafish, Danio rerio (Hamilton). Stress is often implicated in clinical disease and morbidity associated with mycobacterial infections but has yet to be examined with zebrafish. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of husbandry stressors on zebrafish infected with mycobacteria. Adult zebrafish were exposed to Mycobacterium marinum or Mycobacterium chelonae, two species that have been associated with disease in zebrafish. Infected fish and controls were then subjected to chronic crowding and handling stressors and examined over an 8-week period. Whole-body cortisol was significantly elevated in stressed fish compared to non-stressed fish. Fish infected with M. marinum ATCC 927 and subjected to husbandry stressors had 14% cumulative mortality while no mortality occurred among infected fish not subjected to husbandry stressors. Stressed fish, infected with M. chelonae H1E2 from zebrafish, were 15-fold more likely to be infected than non-stressed fish at week 8 post-injection. Sub-acute, diffuse infections were more common among stressed fish infected with M. marinum or M. chelonae than non-stressed fish. This is the first study to demonstrate an effect of stress and elevated cortisol on the morbidity, prevalence, clinical disease and histological presentation associated with mycobacterial infections in zebrafish. Minimizing husbandry stress may be effective at reducing the severity of outbreaks of clinical mycobacteriosis in zebrafish facilities. ?? 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Communication and relationship skills for rapid response teams at hamilton health sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cziraki, Karen; Lucas, Janie; Rogers, Toni; Page, Laura; Zimmerman, Rosanne; Hauer, Lois Ann; Daniels, Charlotte; Gregoroff, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Rapid response teams (RRT) are an important safety strategy in the prevention of deaths in patients who are progressively failing outside of the intensive care unit. The goal is to intervene before a critical event occurs. Effective teamwork and communication skills are frequently cited as critical success factors in the implementation of these teams. However, there is very little literature that clearly provides an education strategy for the development of these skills. Training in simulation labs offers an opportunity to assess and build on current team skills; however, this approach does not address how to meet the gaps in team communication and relationship skill management. At Hamilton Health Sciences (HHS) a two-day program was developed in collaboration with the RRT Team Leads, Organizational Effectiveness and Patient Safety Leaders. Participants reflected on their conflict management styles and considered how their personality traits may contribute to team function. Communication and relationship theories were reviewed and applied in simulated sessions in the relative safety of off-site team sessions. The overwhelming positive response to this training has been demonstrated in the incredible success of these teams from the perspective of the satisfaction surveys of the care units that call the team, and in the multi-phased team evaluation of their application to practice. These sessions offer a useful approach to the development of the soft skills required for successful RRT implementation.

  17. Excellent reliability of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-21) in Indonesia after training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istriana, Erita; Kurnia, Ade; Weijers, Annelies; Hidayat, Teddy; Pinxten, Lucas; de Jong, Cor; Schellekens, Arnt

    2013-09-01

    The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) is the most widely used depression rating scale worldwide. Reliability of HDRS has been reported mainly from Western countries. The current study tested the reliability of HDRS ratings among psychiatric residents in Indonesia, before and after HDRS training. The hypotheses were that: (i) prior to the training reliability of HDRS ratings is poor; and (ii) HDRS training can improve reliability of HDRS ratings to excellent levels. Furthermore, we explored cultural validity at item level. Videotaped HDRS interviews were rated by 30 psychiatric residents before and after 1 day of HDRS training. Based on a gold standard rating, percentage correct ratings and deviation from the standard were calculated. Correct ratings increased from 83% to 99% at item level and from 70% to 100% for the total rating. The average deviation from the gold standard rating improved from 0.07 to 0.02 at item level and from 2.97 to 0.46 for the total rating. HDRS assessment by psychiatric trainees in Indonesia without prior training is unreliable. A short, evidence-based HDRS training improves reliability to near perfect levels. The outlined training program could serve as a template for HDRS trainings. HDRS items that may be less valid for assessment of depression severity in Indonesia are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  18. Echoes from the past: Regional variations in recovery within a harbour seal population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie M J M Brasseur

    Full Text Available Terrestrial and marine wildlife populations have been severely reduced by hunting, fishing and habitat destruction, especially in the last centuries. Although management regulations have led to the recovery of some populations, the underlying processes are not always well understood. This study uses a 40-year time series of counts of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina in the Wadden Sea to study these processes, and demonstrates the influence of historical regional differences in management regimes on the recovery of this population. While the Wadden Sea is considered one ecologically coupled zone, with a distinct harbour seal population, the area is divided into four geo-political regions i.e. the Netherlands, Lower Saxony including Hamburg, Schleswig-Holstein and Denmark. Gradually, seal hunting was banned between 1962 and 1977 in the different regions. Counts of moulting harbour seals and pup counts, obtained during aerial surveys between 1974 and 2014, show a population growth from approximately 4500 to 39,000 individuals. Population growth models were developed to assess if population growth differed between regions, taking into account two Phocine Distemper Virus (PDV epizootics, in 1988 and 2002 which seriously affected the population. After a slow start prior to the first epizootic, the overall population grew exponentially at rates close to assumed maximum rates of increase in a harbour seal population. Recently, growth slowed down, potentially indicative of approaching carrying capacity. Regional differences in growth rates were demonstrated, with the highest recovery in Netherlands after the first PDV epizootic (i.e. 17.9%, suggesting that growth was fuelled by migration from the other regions, where growth remained at or below the intrinsic growth rate (13%. The seals' distribution changed, and although the proportion of seals counted in the German regions declined, they remained by far the most important pupping region, with approximately

  19. Echoes from the past: Regional variations in recovery within a harbour seal population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasseur, Sophie M J M; Reijnders, Peter J H; Cremer, Jenny; Meesters, Erik; Kirkwood, Roger; Jensen, Lasse Fast; Jeβ, Armin; Galatius, Anders; Teilmann, Jonas; Aarts, Geert

    2018-01-01

    Terrestrial and marine wildlife populations have been severely reduced by hunting, fishing and habitat destruction, especially in the last centuries. Although management regulations have led to the recovery of some populations, the underlying processes are not always well understood. This study uses a 40-year time series of counts of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) in the Wadden Sea to study these processes, and demonstrates the influence of historical regional differences in management regimes on the recovery of this population. While the Wadden Sea is considered one ecologically coupled zone, with a distinct harbour seal population, the area is divided into four geo-political regions i.e. the Netherlands, Lower Saxony including Hamburg, Schleswig-Holstein and Denmark. Gradually, seal hunting was banned between 1962 and 1977 in the different regions. Counts of moulting harbour seals and pup counts, obtained during aerial surveys between 1974 and 2014, show a population growth from approximately 4500 to 39,000 individuals. Population growth models were developed to assess if population growth differed between regions, taking into account two Phocine Distemper Virus (PDV) epizootics, in 1988 and 2002 which seriously affected the population. After a slow start prior to the first epizootic, the overall population grew exponentially at rates close to assumed maximum rates of increase in a harbour seal population. Recently, growth slowed down, potentially indicative of approaching carrying capacity. Regional differences in growth rates were demonstrated, with the highest recovery in Netherlands after the first PDV epizootic (i.e. 17.9%), suggesting that growth was fuelled by migration from the other regions, where growth remained at or below the intrinsic growth rate (13%). The seals' distribution changed, and although the proportion of seals counted in the German regions declined, they remained by far the most important pupping region, with approximately 70% of all pups

  20. INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS FOR SMALL SCALE VERTICAL AXIS WIND TURBINES USED IN HARBOURS AND SHORE AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IONESCU Raluca Dora

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to analyse the wind turbine solutions implemented in harbours and on shore areas. Also a thorough study of the blade design solutions for small power Vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs has been conducted, with their advantages and disadvantages, in order to find the best solution that minimises the loads and helps with the self-starting capabilities of the wind turbine. First are presented all the solutions, next are discussed several research results for each solution and, in the end, a combination of solutions is chosen for our new small power VAWT with a pre-dimensioning analysis.

  1. Possible causes of a harbour porpoise mass stranding in Danish waters in 2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wright, Andrew J.; Maar, Marie; Mohn, Christian

    2013-01-01

    An unprecedented 85 harbour porpoises stranded freshly dead along approximately 100 km of Danish coastline from 7-15 April, 2005. This total is considerably above the mean weekly stranding rate for the whole of Denmark, both for any time of year, 1.23 animals/week (ranging from 0 to 20 during 2003......-2008, excluding April 2005), and specifically in April, 0.65 animals/week (0 to 4, same period). Bycatch was established as the cause of death for most of the individuals through typical indications of fisheries interactions, including net markings in the skin and around the flippers, and loss of tail flukes...

  2. Oil spills in open seas and harbours - impact on marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, S.H.

    1995-01-01

    In this article the environmental impacts of sea water near Karachi (Pakistan) harbour (Arabian Sea) are discussed. The water pollution is caused due to oil leakage from ships. The toxicity of various oils (crude oils and refined oils) to different species of marine varies greatly. The second main source of water is municipal waste water. For the control of sea water pollution, there must be education as lack of awareness of the public to ask for clean beaches and absence of coordination between concerned oil companies, tanker operating agencies, port authorities and government (A.B.)

  3. Toxic effects of tributyltin and its metabolites on harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) immune cells in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frouin, Heloise [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique - Institut Armand-Frappier, Laval, Quebec H7V 1B7 (Canada); Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Maurice Lamontagne Institute, Mont-Joli, Quebec G5H 3Z4 (Canada)], E-mail: heloise.frouin@iaf.inrs.ca; Lebeuf, Michel [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Maurice Lamontagne Institute, Mont-Joli, Quebec G5H 3Z4 (Canada); Saint-Louis, Richard [Institut des Sciences de la Mer de Rimouski (ISMER), Universite du Quebec a Rimouski, Rimouski, Quebec G5L 3A1 (Canada); Hammill, Mike [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Maurice Lamontagne Institute, Mont-Joli, Quebec G5H 3Z4 (Canada); Pelletier, Emilien [Institut des Sciences de la Mer de Rimouski (ISMER), Universite du Quebec a Rimouski, Rimouski, Quebec G5L 3A1 (Canada); Fournier, Michel [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique - Institut Armand-Frappier, Laval, Quebec H7V 1B7 (Canada)

    2008-11-21

    The widespread environmental contamination, bioaccumulation and endocrine disruptor effects of butyltins (BTs) to wildlife are well documented. Although suspected, potential effects of BTs exposure on the immune system of marine mammals have been little investigated. In this study, we assessed the effects of tributyltin (TBT) and its dealkylated metabolites dibutyltin (DBT) and monobutyltin (MBT) on the immune responses of harbour seals. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from pup and adult harbour seals were exposed in vitro to varying concentrations of BTs. DBT resulted in a significant decrease at 100 and 200 nM of phagocytotic activity and reduced significantly phagocytic efficiency at 200 nM in adult seals. There was no effect in phagocytosis with TBT and MBT. In pups, the highest concentration (200 nM) of DBT inhibited phagocytic efficiency. A reduction of tumor-killing capacity of adult natural killer (NK) cells occurred when leukocytes were incubated in vitro with 50 nM DBT and 200 nM TBT for 24 h. In adult seals, T-lymphocyte proliferation was significantly suppressed when the cells were exposed to 200 nM TBT and 100 nM DBT. In pups, the proliferative response increased after an exposure to 100 nM TBT and 50 nM DBT, but decreased with 200 nM TBT and 100 nM DBT. The immune functions were more affected by BTs exposure in adults than in pups, suggesting that other unsuspected mechanisms could trigger immune parameters in pups. The toxic potential of BTs followed the order of DBT > TBT > MBT. BT concentrations of harbour seal pups from the St. Lawrence Estuary (Bic National Park) ranged between 0.1-0.4 ng Sn/g wet weight (ww) and 1.2-13.4 ng Sn/g ww in blood and blubber, respectively. For these animals, DBT concentrations were consistently below the quantification limit of 0.04 ng Sn/g ww in blood and 0.2 ng Sn/g ww in blubber. Results suggest that concentrations measured in pups are considered too low to induce toxic effects to their immune system

  4. Toxic effects of tributyltin and its metabolites on harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) immune cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frouin, Heloise; Lebeuf, Michel; Saint-Louis, Richard; Hammill, Mike; Pelletier, Emilien; Fournier, Michel

    2008-01-01

    The widespread environmental contamination, bioaccumulation and endocrine disruptor effects of butyltins (BTs) to wildlife are well documented. Although suspected, potential effects of BTs exposure on the immune system of marine mammals have been little investigated. In this study, we assessed the effects of tributyltin (TBT) and its dealkylated metabolites dibutyltin (DBT) and monobutyltin (MBT) on the immune responses of harbour seals. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from pup and adult harbour seals were exposed in vitro to varying concentrations of BTs. DBT resulted in a significant decrease at 100 and 200 nM of phagocytotic activity and reduced significantly phagocytic efficiency at 200 nM in adult seals. There was no effect in phagocytosis with TBT and MBT. In pups, the highest concentration (200 nM) of DBT inhibited phagocytic efficiency. A reduction of tumor-killing capacity of adult natural killer (NK) cells occurred when leukocytes were incubated in vitro with 50 nM DBT and 200 nM TBT for 24 h. In adult seals, T-lymphocyte proliferation was significantly suppressed when the cells were exposed to 200 nM TBT and 100 nM DBT. In pups, the proliferative response increased after an exposure to 100 nM TBT and 50 nM DBT, but decreased with 200 nM TBT and 100 nM DBT. The immune functions were more affected by BTs exposure in adults than in pups, suggesting that other unsuspected mechanisms could trigger immune parameters in pups. The toxic potential of BTs followed the order of DBT > TBT > MBT. BT concentrations of harbour seal pups from the St. Lawrence Estuary (Bic National Park) ranged between 0.1-0.4 ng Sn/g wet weight (ww) and 1.2-13.4 ng Sn/g ww in blood and blubber, respectively. For these animals, DBT concentrations were consistently below the quantification limit of 0.04 ng Sn/g ww in blood and 0.2 ng Sn/g ww in blubber. Results suggest that concentrations measured in pups are considered too low to induce toxic effects to their immune system

  5. Toxic effects of tributyltin and its metabolites on harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) immune cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frouin, Héloïse; Lebeuf, Michel; Saint-Louis, Richard; Hammill, Mike; Pelletier, Emilien; Fournier, Michel

    2008-11-21

    The widespread environmental contamination, bioaccumulation and endocrine disruptor effects of butyltins (BTs) to wildlife are well documented. Although suspected, potential effects of BTs exposure on the immune system of marine mammals have been little investigated. In this study, we assessed the effects of tributyltin (TBT) and its dealkylated metabolites dibutyltin (DBT) and monobutyltin (MBT) on the immune responses of harbour seals. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from pup and adult harbour seals were exposed in vitro to varying concentrations of BTs. DBT resulted in a significant decrease at 100 and 200 nM of phagocytotic activity and reduced significantly phagocytic efficiency at 200 nM in adult seals. There was no effect in phagocytosis with TBT and MBT. In pups, the highest concentration (200 nM) of DBT inhibited phagocytic efficiency. A reduction of tumor-killing capacity of adult natural killer (NK) cells occurred when leukocytes were incubated in vitro with 50 nM DBT and 200 nM TBT for 24h. In adult seals, T-lymphocyte proliferation was significantly suppressed when the cells were exposed to 200 nM TBT and 100 nM DBT. In pups, the proliferative response increased after an exposure to 100 nM TBT and 50 nM DBT, but decreased with 200 nM TBT and 100 nM DBT. The immune functions were more affected by BTs exposure in adults than in pups, suggesting that other unsuspected mechanisms could trigger immune parameters in pups. The toxic potential of BTs followed the order of DBT>TBT>MBT. BT concentrations of harbour seal pups from the St. Lawrence Estuary (Bic National Park) ranged between 0.1-0.4 ng Sn/g wet weight (ww) and 1.2-13.4 ng Sn/g ww in blood and blubber, respectively. For these animals, DBT concentrations were consistently below the quantification limit of 0.04 ng Sn/g ww in blood and 0.2 ng Sn/g ww in blubber. Results suggest that concentrations measured in pups are considered too low to induce toxic effects to their immune system during

  6. Uncovering governance mechanisms surrounding harbour porpoise conservation in the Danish Skagerrak Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Kirk; Kindt-Larsen, Lotte

    2016-01-01

    mainly by the economy and the varying perceptions of the bycatch issue, with great differences between government, NGO's and fishers. Interviews with fishers and fishing effort data reveal intra-sectoral conflicts pertaining to the incompatibility of active trawling and passive gillnetting in the areas......The harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) is the focus of a range of conservation efforts and policies, including the Habitats Directive, aimed at reducing the bycatch of non-target species in gillnet fisheries. This paper describes the governance process and analyses the governance mechanisms...

  7. Measurements of boat motion in waves at Durban harbour for qualitative validation of motion model

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mosikare, OR

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available in Waves at Durban Harbour for Qualitative Validation of Motion Model O.R. Mosikare1,2, N.J. Theron1, W. Van der Molen 1 University of Pretoria, South Africa, 0001 2Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Meiring Naude Rd, Brummeria, 0001... stream_source_info Mosikare_2010.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 3033 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Mosikare_2010.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Measurements of Boat Motion...

  8. Geodetic Infrastructure in the Ibiza and Barcelona Harbours for Sea Level Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Benjamin, J. J.; Gili, J.; Lopez, R.; Tapia, A.; Perez, B.; Pros, F.

    2013-12-01

    The presentation is directed to the description of the actual situation and relevant information of the geodetic infrastructure of Ibiza and Barcelona sites for sea level determination and contribution to regional sea level rise. Time series are being analysed for mean sea level variations www.puertos.es. .In the framework of a Spanish Space Project, the instrumentation of sea level measurements has been improved by providing the Barcelona site with a radar tide gauge Datamar 2000C from Geonica s.l. near an acoustic tide gauge. Puertos del Estado installed in 2007 a MIROS radar tide gauge and the Barcelona Harbour Authority a GPS referente station in the roof of the new Control Tower situated in the Energy Pier. The radar sensor is over the water surface, on a L-shaped structure which elevates it a few meters above the quay shelf. 1-min data are transmitted to the ENAGAS Control Center by cable and then sent each 1 min to Puertos del Estado by e-mail. There is a GPS station Leica Geosystems GRX1200 GG Pro and antenna 1202. Precision levelling has been made several times in the last two years because the tower is founded in reclaimed land. The measured settlement rate is about 1cm/year that may be could mask the values registered by the tide gauge. A description of the actual infrastructure at Ibiza harbour at Marina de Botafoch, is presented and its applications to sea level monitoring and altimeter calibration in support of the main CGPS at Ibiza harbour. It is described the geometrical precision levelling made in June 2013 between the radar tide gauge and the GPS station. In particular, the CGPS located at Ibiza harbour is essential for its application to the marine campaign Baleares 2013, near Ibiza island. The main objective is to determine the altimeter bias for Jason-2, about 9:09 UTC September 15, 2013, and Saral/AltiKa, about 05:30 UTC September 16, UTC. These activities has been received funding of the Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovacion under Spanish

  9. Polymethylene-interrupted fatty acids: Biomarkers for native and exotic mussels in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezek, Tadej; Sverko, Ed; Ruddy, Martina D.; Zaruk, Donna; Capretta, Alfredo; Hebert, Craig E.; Fisk, Aaron T.; McGoldrick, Daryl J.; Newton, Teresa J.; Sutton, Trent M.; Koops, Marten A.; Muir, Andrew M.; Johnson, Timothy B.; Ebener, Mark P.; Arts, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    Freshwater organisms synthesize a wide variety of fatty acids (FAs); however, the ability to synthesize and/or subsequently modify a particular FA is not universal, making it possible to use certain FAs as biomarkers. Herein we document the occurrence of unusual FAs (polymethylene-interrupted fatty acids; PMI-FAs) in select freshwater organisms in the Laurentian Great Lakes. We did not detect PMI-FAs in: (a) natural seston from Lake Erie and Hamilton Harbor (Lake Ontario), (b) various species of laboratory-cultured algae including a green alga (Scenedesmus obliquus), two cyanobacteria (Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and Synechococystis sp.), two diatoms (Asterionella formosa, Diatoma elongatum) and a chrysophyte (Dinobryon cylindricum) or, (c) zooplankton (Daphnia spp., calanoid or cyclopoid copepods) from Lake Ontario, suggesting that PMI-FAs are not substantively incorporated into consumers at the phytoplankton–zooplankton interface. However, these unusual FAs comprised 4-6% of total fatty acids (on a dry tissue weight basis) of native fat mucket (Lampsilis siliquoidea) and plain pocketbook (L. cardium) mussels and in invasive zebra (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga (D. bugensis) mussels. We were able to clearly partition Great Lakes' mussels into three separate groups (zebra, quagga, and native mussels) based solely on their PMI-FA profiles. We also provide evidence for the trophic transfer of PMI-FAs from mussels to various fishes in Lakes Ontario and Michigan, further underlining the potential usefulness of PMI-FAs for tracking the dietary contribution of mollusks in food web and contaminant-fate studies.

  10. The role of interfacial layers in the enhanced thermal conductivity of nanofluids: A renovated Hamilton-Crosser model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, W; Choi, S.U.S.

    2004-01-01

    We previously developed a renovated Maxwell model for the effective thermal conductivity of nanofluids and determined that the solid/liquid interfacial layers play an important role in the enhanced thermal conductivity of nanofluids. However, this renovated Maxwell model is limited to suspensions with spherical particles. Here, we extend the Hamilton--Crosser model for suspensions of nonspherical particles to include the effect of a solid/liquid interface. The solid/liquid interface is described as a confocal ellipsoid with a solid particle. The new model for the three-phase suspensions is mathematically expressed in terms of the equivalent thermal conductivity and equivalent volume fraction of anisotropic complex ellipsoids, as well as an empirical shape factor. With a generalized empirical shape factor, the renovated Hamilton--Crosser model correctly predicts the magnitude of the thermal conductivity of nanotube-in-oil nanofluids. At present, this new model is not able to predict the nonlinear behavior of the nanofluid thermal conductivity

  11. Assessment of DDT, HCH and PAH contamination and associated ecotoxicological risks in surface sediments of coastal Tema Harbour (Ghana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botwe, Benjamin O; Kelderman, Peter; Nyarko, Elvis; Lens, Piet N L

    2017-02-15

    This study assessed DDTs, HCHs and PAHs contamination in sediments from the Tema Harbour (Ghana) and the associated ecotoxicological risks. The results showed widespread DDTs, HCHs and PAHs contamination in the harbour sediments with mean concentrations ranging from 6.0-12.8, 2.8-12.7 and 2750-5130μg·kg -1 d·w, respectively. The silt-clay and total organic carbon contents of the sediments poorly correlated with the pollutant concentrations. DDTs and HCHs contamination relate to past use of DDT and lindane, which under the anoxic harbour conditions resulted in disproportionately higher concentrations of p,p'-DDD and γ-HCH in the sediments. No conclusion could be drawn on the sources of PAHs as either petrogenic or pyrogenic. The pollutant concentrations in the harbour sediments, particularly γ-HCH, may pose high ecotoxicological risks. In comparison to a previous study, this study indicates there has been a considerable reduction in PAH contamination in the Tema Harbour since the last major oil spill in 2007. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Recolonization of macrofauna in unpolluted sands placed in a polluted yachting harbour: A field approach using experimental trays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-García, J. M.; García-Gómez, J. C.

    2009-01-01

    A field experiment using trays was conducted at Ceuta's yachting harbour, North Africa, to study the effect in recolonization of placing trays with unpolluted defaunate sediments (fine and gross sands with low contents of organic matter) inside an enclosed yachting harbour characterized by high percentages of silt and clay and high concentrations of organic matter. Sediment recolonization in the trays was mainly undertaken by the species living naturally at the yachting harbour, which recolonized both uncontaminated gross and fine sand trays (such as the crustaceans Corophium runcicorne, Corophium sextonae and Nebalia bipes, the mollusc Parvicardium exiguum and the polychaete Pseudomalacoceros tridentata). However, other species like the polychaetes Cirriformia tentaculata and Platynereis dumerilii, although also abundant in the yachting harbour, were unable to colonize the trays through transport of larvae and/or adults in the water column. The recolonization was very quick, and after the first month, the values of abundance, species richness, diversity and evenness were similar in the experimental trays and in the reference area (yachting harbour). Although the multivariate analysis showed that the species composition differed between the trays and the reference area, there were no significant differences in recolonization of gross and fine sands, indicating that other factors different from the granulometry are modulating the recolonization patterns.

  13. Integrating factors and conservation theorems for Hamilton's canonical equations of motion of variable mass nonholonomic nonconservative dynamical systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李仁杰; 乔永芬; 刘洋

    2002-01-01

    We present a general approach to the construction of conservation laws for variable mass nonholonomic noncon-servative systems. First, we give the definition of integrating factors, and we study in detail the necessary conditionsfor the existence of the conserved quantities. Then, we establish the conservation theorem and its inverse theorem forHamilton's canonical equations of motion of variable mass nonholonomic nonconservative dynamical systems. Finally,we give an example to illustrate the application of the results.

  14. Harbour porpoises on Horns Reef - Effects of the Horns Reef wind farm. Annual status report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tougaard, J.; Carstensen, J.; Henriksen, Oluf. D.; Teilmann, J.; Rye Hansen, J.

    2004-06-01

    Occurrence and distribution of harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) in and around the off-shore wind farm on Horns Reef, Denmark, was investigated. This report describes data collected in 2003 as part of an ongoing monitoring program, covering a period before construction of the wind farm (baseline), the construction period in 2002 and one year following construction of the wind farm. Data from acoustic dataloggers (T-PODs) and visual surveys conducted from ships confirmed the presence of harbour porpoises inside the wind farm area during all periods investigated. Comparison with baseline data from 1999-2001 and with control areas outside the wind farm did not show a statistical significant change in sighting rates inside the wind farm area in the first year following construction relative to baseline. T-POD data showed a pronounced effect of the construction of the wind farm on the indicators 'encounter duration' (measure of how long porpoises remain close to the POD) and 'waiting time' (measure of time interval between porpoise encounters). Both parameters seem to indicate higher levels of porpoise activity during construction (encounter duration went up, waiting time went down) compared to baseline. A partial return to baseline levels was seen for these two indicators in 2003. (au)

  15. Harbour porpoises on Horns Reef - Effects of the Horns Reef wind farm. Annual status report 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tougaard, J.; Carstensen, J.; Henriksen, Oluf. D.; Teilmann, J. [National Environmental Research Inst., Roskilde (Denmark); Rye Hansen, J. [DDH Consulting A/S, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2004-06-15

    Occurrence and distribution of harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) in and around the off-shore wind farm on Horns Reef, Denmark, was investigated. This report describes data collected in 2003 as part of an ongoing monitoring program, covering a period before construction of the wind farm (baseline), the construction period in 2002 and one year following construction of the wind farm. Data from acoustic dataloggers (T-PODs) and visual surveys conducted from ships confirmed the presence of harbour porpoises inside the wind farm area during all periods investigated. Comparison with baseline data from 1999-2001 and with control areas outside the wind farm did not show a statistical significant change in sighting rates inside the wind farm area in the first year following construction relative to baseline. T-POD data showed a pronounced effect of the construction of the wind farm on the indicators 'encounter duration' (measure of how long porpoises remain close to the POD) and 'waiting time' (measure of time interval between porpoise encounters). Both parameters seem to indicate higher levels of porpoise activity during construction (encounter duration went up, waiting time went down) compared to baseline. A partial return to baseline levels was seen for these two indicators in 2003. (au)

  16. Developing a Social, Cultural and Economic Report Card for a Regional Industrial Harbour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Pascoe

    Full Text Available Report cards are increasingly used to provide ongoing snap-shots of progress towards specific ecosystem health goals, particularly in coastal regions where planners need to balance competing demands for coastal resources from a range of industries. While most previous report cards focus on the biophysical components of the system, there is a growing interest in including the social and economic implications of ecosystem management to provide a greater social-ecological system understanding. Such a report card was requested on the Gladstone Harbour area in central Queensland, Australia. Gladstone Harbour adjoins the southern Great Barrier Reef, and is also a major industrial and shipping port. Balancing social, economic and environmental interests is therefore of great concern to the regional managers. While environmental benchmarking procedures are well established within Australia (and elsewhere, a method for assessing social and economic performance of coastal management is generally lacking. The key aim of this study was to develop and pilot a system for the development of a report card relating to appropriate cultural, social and economic objectives. The approach developed uses a range of multicriteria decision analysis methods to assess and combine different qualitative and quantitative measures, including the use of Bayesian Belief Networks to combine the different measures and provide an overall quantitative score for each of the key management objectives. The approach developed is readily transferable for purposes of similar assessments in other regions.

  17. Endoparasitic helminths of the harbour seal, Phoca vitulina, in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgsteede, F. H. M.; Bus, H. G. J.; Verplanke, J. A. W.; van Burg, W. P. J.

    The endoparasitic helminth fauna of harbour seals which had died during the epidemic of the phocine distemper virus in 1988 was studied. Lungs, heart and gastrointestinal tracts of 94 animals collected along the Dutch coast were available for investigation. The following parasites and infection percentages were found: Nematoda: Dipetalonema spirocauda (24.5%), Otostrongylus circumlitus (6.4%), Parafilaroides gymnurus (24.5%), Ascaridoidea spec. (58.5%); Trematoda: Phagicola septentrionalis (66.0%), Cryptocotyle lingua (74.5%); Cestoda: Diphyllobothrium spec. (8.5%); Acanthocephala: Corynosoma strumosum (70.2%). The presence of worm species was not evenly distributed over the age classes. Seals younger than one year harboured fewer parasites. The highest percentages were found in 1 to 2 year old seals. The number of worms per seal varied greatly. The highest burden for ascarids was 253, for P. septentrionalis 123 000, for C. lingua 112 000 and for C. strumosum 251. A comparison of the present results with those described in the literature shows that in Dutch seals the same species were present and that numbers of worms were not higher than before the 1988 mass mortality. It is therefore concluded that helminth parasites did not cause the mass mortality.

  18. Respiratory transmission of an avian H3N8 influenza virus isolated from a harbour seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Erik A.; Ip, Hon S.; Hall, Jeffrey S.; Yoon, Sun W.; Johnson, Jordan; Beck, Melinda A.; Webby, Richard J.; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey

    2014-01-01

    The ongoing human H7N9 influenza infections highlight the threat of emerging avian influenza viruses. In 2011, an avian H3N8 influenza virus isolated from moribund New England harbour seals was shown to have naturally acquired mutations known to increase the transmissibility of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses. To elucidate the potential human health threat, here we evaluate a panel of avian H3N8 viruses and find that the harbour seal virus displays increased affinity for mammalian receptors, transmits via respiratory droplets in ferrets and replicates in human lung cells. Analysis of a panel of human sera for H3N8 neutralizing antibodies suggests that there is no population-wide immunity to these viruses. The prevalence of H3N8 viruses in birds and multiple mammalian species including recent isolations from pigs and evidence that it was a past human pandemic virus make the need for surveillance and risk analysis of these viruses of public health importance.

  19. Identification and typing of Brucella spp. in stranded harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) on the Dutch coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maio, Elisa; Begeman, Lineke; Bisselink, Yvette; van Tulden, Peter; Wiersma, Lidewij; Hiemstra, Sjoukje; Ruuls, Robin; Gröne, Andrea; Roest, Hendrik-Ido-Jan; Willemsen, Peter; van der Giessen, Joke

    2014-09-17

    The presence of Brucella (B.) spp. in harbour porpoises stranded between 2008 and 2011 along the Dutch coast was studied. A selection of 265 tissue samples from 112 animals was analysed using conventional and molecular methods. In total, 4.5% (5/112) of the animals corresponding with 2.3% (6/265) Brucella positive tissue samples were Brucella positive by culture and these were all confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) based on the insertion element 711 (IS711). In addition, two more Brucella-positive tissue samples from two animals collected in 2011 were identified using real-time PCR resulting in an overall Brucella prevalence of 6.3% (7/112 animals). Brucella spp. were obtained from lungs (n=3), pulmonary lymph node (n=3) and lungworms (n=2). Multi Locus Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (VNTR) Analysis (MLVA) typing based on the MLVA-16 showed that the Brucella isolates were B. ceti. Additional in silico Multi Locus Sequence typing (MLST) after whole genome sequencing of the 6 Brucella isolates confirmed B. ceti ST 23. According to the Brucella 2010 MLVA database, the isolated Brucella strains encountered were of five genotypes, in two distinct subclusters divided in two different time periods of harbour porpoises collection. This study is the first population based analyses for Brucella spp. infections in cetaceans stranded along the Dutch coast. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. An X-Band Radar System for Bathymetry and Wave Field Analysis in a Harbour Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Ludeno

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine X-band radar based systems are well tested to provide information about sea state and bathymetry. It is also well known that complex geometries and non-uniform bathymetries provide a much bigger challenge than offshore scenarios. In order to tackle this issue a retrieval method is proposed, based on spatial partitioning of the data and the application of the Normalized Scalar Product (NSP, which is an innovative procedure for the joint estimation of bathymetry and surface currents. The strategy is then applied to radar data acquired around a harbour entrance, and results show that the reconstructed bathymetry compares well with ground truth data obtained by an echo-sounder campaign, thus proving the reliability of the whole procedure. The spectrum thus retrieved is then analysed to show the evidence of reflected waves from the harbour jetties, as confirmed by chain of hydrodynamic models of the sea wave field. The possibility of using a land based radar to reveal sea wave reflection is entirely new and may open up new operational applications of the system.

  1. Recent changes in estuarine benthic and suprabenthic communities resulting from the development of harbour infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauvin, J C; Desroy, N; Janson, A L; Vallet, C; Duhamel, S

    2006-01-01

    Using a Before/During/After sampling protocol, the effects of the Le Havre harbour extension, which was started at the end of 2001, on the macrobenthic and suprabenthic communities in the eastern Bay of Seine (English Channel) were examined. As the construction phase has not yet been completed, the results presented here reflect only the data collected before and during the operations (September 2000 and 2002 for benthos sampling and March 2001, September 2001, October 2002 and March 2003 for suprabenthos sampling). Although bio-sedimentary changes did occur at the mouth of the Seine river, an analysis of benthic assemblages reveals that the dredging and construction operations do not seem to have influenced assemblage structure or the spatial distribution of organisms. Comparisons of the suprabenthic assemblages at each sampling date indicate that seasonal dynamics was mainly responsible for determining species distribution. We conclude that, 1 year into the harbour management plan, the observed changes in benthic and suprabenthic assemblage abundance do not exceed the range of spatial variability that exists naturally in the Seine estuary. Despite this compensatory actions designed to protect the aquatic habitats and to preserve a sustainable and healthy ecosystem have been added to the infrastructure development plan.

  2. Hydrodynamic determination of the moving direction of an artificial fin by a harbour seal (Phoca vitulina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieskotten, S; Dehnhardt, G; Mauck, B; Miersch, L; Hanke, W

    2010-07-01

    Harbour seals can use their vibrissal system to detect and follow hydrodynamic trails left by moving objects. In this study we determined the maximum time after which a harbour seal could indicate the moving direction of an artificial fish tail and analysed the hydrodynamic parameters allowing the discrimination. Hydrodynamic trails were generated using a fin-like paddle moving from left to right or from right to left in the calm water of an experimental box. The blindfolded seal was able to recognise the direction of the paddle movement when the hydrodynamic trail was up to 35 s old. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) revealed that the seal might have perceived and used two different hydrodynamic parameters to determine the moving direction of the fin-like paddle. The structure and spatial arrangement of the vortices in the hydrodynamic trail and high water velocities between two counter-rotating vortices are characteristic of the movement direction and are within the sensory range of the seal.

  3. The impact of glide phases on the trackability of hydrodynamic trails in harbour seals (Phoca vitulina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieskotten, S; Dehnhardt, G; Mauck, B; Miersch, L; Hanke, W

    2010-11-01

    The mystacial vibrissae of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) constitute a highly sensitive hydrodynamic receptor system enabling the seals to detect and follow hydrodynamic trails. In the wild, hydrodynamic trails, as generated by swimming fish, consist of cyclic burst-and-glide phases, associated with various differences in the physical parameters of the trail. Here, we investigated the impact of glide phases on the trackability of differently aged hydrodynamic trails in a harbour seal. As fish are not easily trained to swim certain paths with predetermined burst-and-glide phases, the respective hydrodynamic trails were generated using a remote-controlled miniature submarine. Gliding phases in hydrodynamic trails had a negative impact on the trackability when trails were 15 s old. The seal lost the generated trails more often within the transition zones, when the submarine switched from a burst to a glide moving pattern. Hydrodynamic parameter analysis (particle image velocimetry) revealed that the smaller dimensions and faster decay of hydrodynamic trails generated by the gliding submarine are responsible for the impaired success of the seal tracking the gliding phase. Furthermore, the change of gross water flow generated by the submarine from a rearwards-directed stream in the burst phase to a water flow passively dragged behind the submarine during gliding might influence the ability of the seal to follow the trail as this might cause a weaker deflection of the vibrissae. The possible ecological implications of intermittent swimming behaviour in fish for piscivorous predators are discussed.

  4. Contribution of harbour activities to atmospheric aerosol in the Brindisi area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donateo, Antonio; Cesari, Daniela; Nocioni, Alessandra; Grasso, Fabio M.; Merico, Eva; Giua, Roberto; Contini, Daniele

    2013-04-01

    The port areas are economic centres and transport hubs, that bring together different transport modes (sea, road, railway transport) and also industrial activities. Ship emissions when docked and during port manoeuvring can have a substantial negative effect on local air quality. The Fagerli and Tarrason (2001) simulation results indicated that ship traffic emissions contribute to 5% and 10% of PM10 concentrations in large parts of Great Britain, Portugal and Italy; similarly to what was obtained by Dalsoren et al. (2009). At the beginning of 2012 it was started the research project CESAPO (Contribution of Emission Sources on the Air quality of the POrt-cities in Greece and Italy), funded within the framework of Interreg Italy-Greece (2007/2013), having as objective the quantification of the contribution to atmospheric particles of emission sources in two important Mediterranean port-cities, namely Patra (Greece) and Brindisi (Italy). In this work the first results of the CESAPO project will be presented giving more emphasis on the analysis of the maritime transport and the activities within the harbour of Brindisi that is characterized by several emission sources operating concurrently. In 2010 and 2011, in the port of Brindisi freight traffic and total goods movement accounted for more than 9.5 million tons, with over 520,000 passengers. To recognize the contribution of harbour activities to PM2.5 and to the total number concentration of particles with respect to other emission sources (urban traffic and industrial pollution) it has been performed an intensive observation period (IOP) of 5 months (June 1 to October 31, 2012). During the IOP the data of 10 fixed monitoring stations (of the regional network managed by ARPA Puglia) and those from two additional stations specifically installed during the project inside the harbour area. A station was used to characterize the chemical composition of PM2.5 and PAHs (in the gaseous and aerosol phases) and the other was

  5. Great Lakes/Saint Lawrence Seaway Regional Transportation Study for U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Phase II. Summary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    center in Hamilton and the public utilities in Toronto. The vast majority of these shipments are loaded at U.S. Lake Erie ports. (2) The Great Lakes...fish spawning, including egg survival, behavior, distribution of species and spawning, nursery and food/cover habitats in wetlands. Although fish...30P 305 CHICAGO 0 IR 21 41 74 43 141 16P 16P CALUMFT HR 0 7S9 3%0 %On IOA4 631 1934 240A 2414 INDIANA HA 0 1 4 7 10 13 1r is BURNS HOP 0 115 65 , A ?07

  6. Marine lake ecosystem dynamics illustrate ENSO variation in the tropical western Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Laura E; Dawson, Michael N; Bell, Lori J; Colin, Patrick L

    2006-03-22

    Understanding El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and its biological consequences is hindered by a lack of high-resolution, long-term data from the tropical western Pacific. We describe a preliminary, 6 year dataset that shows tightly coupled ENSO-related bio-physical dynamics in a seawater lake in Palau, Micronesia. The lake is more strongly stratified during La Niña than El Niño conditions, temperature anomalies in the lake co-vary strongly with the Niño 3.4 climate index, and the abundance of the dominant member of the pelagic community, an endemic subspecies of zooxanthellate jellyfish, is temperature associated. These results have broad relevance because the lake: (i) illustrates an ENSO signal that is partly obscured in surrounding semi-enclosed lagoon waters and, therefore, (ii) may provide a model system for studying the effects of climate change on community evolution and cnidarian-zooxanthellae symbioses, which (iii) should be traceable throughout the Holocene because the lake harbours a high quality sediment record; the sediment record should (iv) provide a sensitive and regionally unique record of Holocene climate relevant to predicting ENSO responses to future global climate change and, finally, (v) seawater lake ecosystems elsewhere in the Pacific may hold similar potential for past, present, and predictive measurements of climate variation and ecosystem response.

  7. Disaggregate demand for conventional and alternative fuelled vehicles in the Census Metropolitan Area of Hamilton, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potoglou, Dimitrios

    The focus of this thesis is twofold. First, it offers insight on how households' car-ownership behaviour is affected by urban form and availability of local-transit at the place of residence, after controlling for socio-economic and demographic characteristics. Second, it addresses the importance of vehicle attributes, household and individual characteristics as well as economic incentives and urban form to potential demand for alternative fuelled vehicles. Data for the empirical analyses of the aforementioned research activities were obtained through an innovative Internet survey, which is also documented in this thesis, conducted in the Census Metropolitan Area of Hamilton. The survey included a retrospective questionnaire of households' number and type of vehicles and a stated choices experiment for assessing the potential demand for alternative fuelled vehicles. Established approaches and emerging trends in automobile demand modelling identified early on in this thesis suggest a disaggregate approach and specifically, the estimation of discrete choice models both for explaining car ownership and vehicle-type choice behaviour. It is shown that mixed and diverse land uses as well as short distances between home and work are likely to decrease the probability of households to own a large number of cars. Regarding the demand for alternative fuelled vehicles, while vehicle attributes are particularly important, incentives such as free parking and access to high occupancy vehicle lanes will not influence the choice of hybrids or alternative fuelled vehicles. An improved understating of households' behaviour regarding the number of cars as well as the factors and trade-offs for choosing cleaner vehicles can be used to inform policy designed to reduce car ownership levels and encourage adoption of cleaner vehicle technologies in urban areas. Finally, the Internet survey sets the ground for further research on implementation and evaluation of this data collection method.

  8. Biometrics of the rare fish Rhinomugil corsula (Hamilton, 1822 (Mugiliformes: Mugilidae in the Ganges, Northwestern Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Yeamin Hossain

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate biometrics of the Rhinomugil corsula (Hamilton, 1822 (R. corsula, including length-weight relationships (LWRs, condition factors (Allometric, KA; Fulton’s, KF; Relative, KR; Relative weight, WR, and sex ratio and length-frequency distributions in the Ganges (Padma River, Northwestern Bangladesh. Methods: Monthly sampling was conducted using traditional fishing gears during June to August 2012. Total length was measured to the nearest 0.01 cm using digital slide calipers, and total body weight was measured using an electronic balance with 0.01 g accuracy. The LWR was calculated using the expression: W= a×Lb , where the W is the body weight , L is the total length , a and b are the parameters of the regression. Results: A total of 350 specimens ranging from 8.59-15.71 cm in total length and 9.57-32.59 g in body weight were analyzed during this study. The overall sex ratio was not significantly different from the expected value of 1:1 (χ2 =2.57, P>0.05, but there was significant difference in the length-frequency distributions between the sexes (P=0.03. The allometric coefficient b for the LWR indicated negative allometric growth (b≈3.00 in males, female and combined sexes. Results further indicated that KF was not significantly different between the sexes (P=0.57. However, the mean WR of R. corsula showed significant differences from 100 for males (P=0.03 and females (P<0.001 in this study, indicating the imbalance habitat with food availability relative to the presence of predators. Conclusions: This study reported the first description of biometric relationships for R. corsula, which would be useful for the sustainable conservation of this rear fishery in Bangladesh and also neighboring countries.

  9. Integrating genetic data and population viability analyses for the identification of harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) populations and management units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Morten Tange; Andersen, Liselotte Wesley; Dietz, Rune

    2014-01-01

    present a novel approach, integrating genetic, life-history and demographic data to identify populations and management units in southern Scandinavian harbour seals. First, 15 microsatellite markers and model- and distance-based genetic clustering methods were used to determine the population genetic...... structure in harbour seals. Second, we used harbour seal demographic and life-history data to conduct population viability analyses (PVAs) in the VORTEX simulation model in order to determine whether the inferred genetic units could be classified as management units according to Lowe and Allendorf's (2010......, and that the combined use of genetic data and PVAs constitute a promising approach for delineating populations and management units. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  10. Western Alaska ESI: LAKES (Lake Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing lakes and land masses used in the creation of the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) for Western Alaska. The...

  11. Stress level in wild harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) during satellite tagging measured by respiration, heart rate and cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskesen, Ida Grønborg; Teilmann, J.; Geertsen, B. M.

    2009-01-01

    During satellite tagging of harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena), heart rate, respiration rate and cortisol value were measured to evaluate stress effects during handling and tagging. Respiration rates were obtained using video recordings, heart rates were recorded and serum cortisol levels were...... between cortisol and month of year, sex and body length. As high individual variations occurred in response to tagging of harbour porpoises, it is not possible to give general advice based oil the factors investigated, on how to reduce stress during handling. However, pouring water over the animal...

  12. Comparison of the iPCoD and DEPONS models for modelling population consequences of noise on harbour porpoises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob; Harwood, John

    Two different frameworks have been developed to assess the potential effects of noise associated with offshore renewable energy developments on harbour porpoise populations: The Interim Population Consequences of Disturbance (iPCoD) and Disturbance Effects of Noise on the Harbour Porpoise...... Population in the North Sea (DEPONS). Although both models simulate population dynamics based on the birth and survival rates of individual animals, they model survival in a different way. iPCoD uses average survival rates derived from data from North Sea animals. In the DEPONS model, survival emerges from...

  13. Dinoflagellate cyst assemblages in recent sediments of Visakhapatnam harbour, east coast of India: Influence of environmental characteristics

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSilva, M.S.; Anil, A.C.; Sawant, S.S.

    . There are 18 and 6 berths in the inner and outer harbour area with two moorings respectively. The climate in Visakhapatnam is governed by its location in the tropics and mainly affected by seasonal monsoons (south–west and north–east). There is inadequate... was classified based on geographic location and environmental characteristics into two zones; the inner (Stations 1–14) and outer (Stations 15–24) harbour stations (Fig. 1). 2.3. Sediment sampling, processing and analysis for dinocysts Sediment samples were...

  14. Pollution at Lake Mariut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nour ElDin, H.; Halim, S. N.; Shalby, E.

    2004-01-01

    Lake Mariut, south Alexandria, Egypt suffered in the recent decades from intensive pollution as a result of a continuous discharge of huge amounts of agriculture wastewater that contains a large concentration of the washed pesticides and fertilizers in addition to domestic and industrial untreated wastewater. The over flow from the lake is discharged directly to the sea through El-Max pumping station via EI-Umum drain. Lake Mariout is surrounded by a huge number of different industrial activities and also the desert road is cutting the lake, this means that a huge number of various pollutants cycle through the air and settle down in the lake, by the time and during different seasons these pollutants after accumulation and different chemical interactions will release again from the lake to the surrounding area affecting the surrounding zone

  15. Great Lakes Literacy Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortner, Rosanne W.; Manzo, Lyndsey

    2011-03-01

    Lakes Superior, Huron, Michigan, Ontario, and Erie together form North America's Great Lakes, a region that contains 20% of the world's fresh surface water and is home to roughly one quarter of the U.S. population (Figure 1). Supporting a $4 billion sport fishing industry, plus $16 billion annually in boating, 1.5 million U.S. jobs, and $62 billion in annual wages directly, the Great Lakes form the backbone of a regional economy that is vital to the United States as a whole (see http://www.miseagrant.umich.edu/downloads/economy/11-708-Great-Lakes-Jobs.pdf). Yet the grandeur and importance of this freshwater resource are little understood, not only by people in the rest of the country but also by many in the region itself. To help address this lack of knowledge, the Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE) Great Lakes, supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, developed literacy principles for the Great Lakes to serve as a guide for education of students and the public. These “Great Lakes Literacy Principles” represent an understanding of the Great Lakes' influences on society and society's influences on the Great Lakes.

  16. The Key Lake project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Key Lake is located in the Athabasca sand stone basin, 640 kilometers north of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. The three sources of ore at Key Lake contain 70 100 tonnes of uranium. Features of the Key Lake Project were described under the key headings: work force, mining, mill process, tailings storage, permanent camp, environmental features, worker health and safety, and economic benefits. Appendices covering the historical background, construction projects, comparisons of western world mines, mining statistics, Northern Saskatchewan surface lease, and Key Lake development and regulatory agencies were included

  17. The Identification of Land Subsidance by Levelling Measurement and GPR Data at Tanjung Emas Harbour, Semarang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purnomo Raharjo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the main problem in Semarang City is flood. This area has low relief that consists of coastal alluvial deposits, swamp and marine sediments. The coastline is characterized by muddy, sandy, and rocky coasts, and mangrove coast. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR records, show that subsurface geological condition of northern part of Semarang is coastal alluvial deposit and in the south is volcanic rocks. The aims of this this research is to determine land subsidence by levelling measurement in 2005 in Tanjung Emas Harbour area built on 1995. During ten years, there are various land subsidance in this area: in Coaster Street (21 – 41 cm, container wharf (62 – 94 cm, north breakwater (64 – 79 cm, west breakwater (74 – 140 cm, east groin (76 – 89 cm, and stacking area ( 77 – 109 cm. According to this research, it is concluded that one reason causes of flooding in this area is land subsidence.

  18. Abundance and recruitment data for Undaria pinnatifida in Brest harbour, France: Model versus field results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James T. Murphy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled “A modelling approach to explore the critical environmental parameters influencing the growth and establishment of the invasive seaweed Undaria pinnatifida in Europe” [1]. This article describes raw simulation data output from a novel individual-based model of the invasive kelp species Undaria pinnatifida. It also includes field data of monthly abundance and recruitment values for a population of invasive U. pinnatifida (in Brest harbour, France that were used to validate the model. The raw model output and field data are made publicly available in order to enable critical analysis of the model predictions and to inform future modelling efforts of the study species.

  19. Kidnapping small icy asteroids in Earth near encounter to harbour life and to deflect trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fargion, Daniele

    2016-07-01

    The inter-planetary flight for human being is under danger because of unscreened and lethal solar flare radioactive showers. The screening of the astronauts by huge superconducting magnetic fields is unrealistic by many reasons. On the contrary the ability to reach nearby icy asteroids, to harbour there a complete undergound room where ecological life systems are first set, this goal may offer a later natural and safe currier for future human stations and enterprise. The need to deflect such a small size (a few thousands tons objects) maybe achieved by micro nuclear engines able to dig the asteroid icy skin, to heat and propel the soil by a synchronous jet engine array, bending and driving it to any desired trajectories. The need for such a wide collection of icy asteroid stations, often in a robotic ibernated state, it will offer the safe help station, raft in the wide space sea, where to collect material or energy in long human planetary travels.

  20. A comparative study of macrobenthic community from harbours along the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, B.S.; Sivadas, S.; Nanajkar, M.; Sautya, S.; Nag, A.

    and exploitation for sustainable development and conservation on fish stocks, V.S. Somvanshi, (Ed.)), Fishery Survey of India, (pp 54-58). 17. Hines, A.H., Hadden, A.E. & Weichest, L.A. 1990. Guild structure and foraging impact of blue crabs and epibenthic fish...) between the harbours A 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 s p eci es r i ch n ess ± S E B 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 Rat1 Rat2 Goa 1 Goa 2 Kar 1 Kar 2 Stations D i ve r s it y ± S E 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 E ven n ess ± S E H J 23 Fig. 6: ABC curve...

  1. Incidence of Child cancers in the Finistere and around the Brest harbour between 1991 and 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the study was to describe the temporal variations of child cancers incidence in the Finistere department and around the Brest harbour between 1991 and 2005 looking for any excess. In case of identification of an aggregate of cases, the secondary objective was to describe the aggregate by seeking common risk factors for cases in particular in relation to the activities of 'Ile Longue'. A leukemia excess was highlighted in Brest on the period 200-2005 and more particularly in 200-2001. This peak of incidence seems isolated in time, that is not in favour of a persistent environmental cause but should be the object of a follow-up in the future. Besides, no argument in favour of an occupational exposure of the parents of suffering children was highlighted. (N.C.)

  2. Environmental drivers of harbour porpoise fine‑scale movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Beest, Floris; Teilmann, Jonas; Dietz, Rune

    2018-01-01

    Quantifying intraspecific variation in movement behaviour of marine predators and the underlying environmental drivers is important to inform conservation management of protected species. Here, we provide the first empirical data on fine-scale movements of free-ranging harbour porpoises (Phocoena...... of various static and dynamic environmental conditions on the movement characteristics: speed, turning angle, dive duration, dive depth, dive wiggliness (a proxy for prey chasing behaviour), and post-dive duration. Despite substantial individual differences in horizontal and vertical movement patterns, we...... found that all the tracked porpoises responded similar to variation in environmental conditions and displayed movements that indicate a higher likelihood of foraging behaviour in shallower and more saline waters. Our study contributes to the identification of important feeding areas for porpoises...

  3. Differential leaching of 137Cs from sediment core depth fractions of Bombay harbour bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemalatha, P.; Desai, M.V.M.

    1998-01-01

    Bombay harbour bay receives 137 Cs from the effluents of research reactors, fuel reprocessing plant and isotope laboratories. 137 Cs is strongly taken up by suspended particulates and sediments and is trapped in the layer lattices of the clay minerals. As the siltation rate is high in the bay, 137 Cs gets distributed vertically along the depth of sediment. NaCl solution has been proved to desorb 137 Cs from clay minerals effectively. NaCl solution of ionic strength 1.6 was used to desorb 137 Cs from depth fractions of a sediment core to obtain a possible gradient of leaching with the depth. A definite rate of leaching was observed for the 137 Cs in the core sediment depth fractions. About 13% to 56% of 137 Cs was leached. As the depth increases removal rate of cesium decreases. This is expected to bring out a relation between age of 137 Cs and rate of its leaching. (author)

  4. Canine distemper virus ISCOMS induce protection in harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) against phocid distemper but still allow subsequent infection with phocid distemper virus-1.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.K.G. Visser (Ilona); E.J. Vedder (Lies); C. Örvell; T. Barrett (Thomas); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); M.W.G. van de Bildt (Marco)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractA candidate canine distemper virus (CDV) ISCOM vaccine has been shown to be effective in protecting harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) from phocid distemper in 1988. However, of the 35 harbour seals receiving this vaccine upon admission to a seal rehabilitation and research centre

  5. Movements and site fidelity of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) in Kattegat, Denmark, with implications for the epidemiology of the phocine distemper virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietz, R.; Teilmann, J.; Andersen, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    Twenty-seven harbour seals were caught and tagged at the island of Anholt in central Kattegat, Denmark, the epicentre of the phocine distemper virus (PDV) outbreaks in 1988 and 2002 that killed 50–60% of the populations. The satellite tagging shows that harbour seals from Anholt moved widely across...

  6. Limnology of Eifel maar lakes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scharf, Burkhard W; Björk, Sven

    1992-01-01

    ... : Species composition & seasonal periodicity - Qualitative & quantitative investigations on cladoceran zooplankton of oligotrophic maar lakes - Population dynamics of pelagic copepods in maar lakes - Population dynamics...

  7. Spatial avoidance to experimental increase of intermittent and continuous sound in two captive harbour porpoises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Annebelle C M; Engelberts, J Pamela; Kastelein, Ronald A; Helder-Hoek, Lean; Van de Voorde, Shirley; Visser, Fleur; Slabbekoorn, Hans

    2018-02-01

    The continuing rise in underwater sound levels in the oceans leads to disturbance of marine life. It is thought that one of the main impacts of sound exposure is the alteration of foraging behaviour of marine species, for example by deterring animals from a prey location, or by distracting them while they are trying to catch prey. So far, only limited knowledge is available on both mechanisms in the same species. The harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) is a relatively small marine mammal that could quickly suffer fitness consequences from a reduction of foraging success. To investigate effects of anthropogenic sound on their foraging efficiency, we tested whether experimentally elevated sound levels would deter two captive harbour porpoises from a noisy pool into a quiet pool (Experiment 1) and reduce their prey-search performance, measured as prey-search time in the noisy pool (Experiment 2). Furthermore, we tested the influence of the temporal structure and amplitude of the sound on the avoidance response of both animals. Both individuals avoided the pool with elevated sound levels, but they did not show a change in search time for prey when trying to find a fish hidden in one of three cages. The combination of temporal structure and SPL caused variable patterns. When the sound was intermittent, increased SPL caused increased avoidance times. When the sound was continuous, avoidance was equal for all SPLs above a threshold of 100 dB re 1 μPa. Hence, we found no evidence for an effect of sound exposure on search efficiency, but sounds of different temporal patterns did cause spatial avoidance with distinct dose-response patterns. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The harbours in Bremen as a 'neutral zone' for nuclear fuels?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruttloff, Marc

    2013-01-01

    The federal legislator has delivered his energy policy commitment as part of the energy turnaround with the decision on the forced backing out from nuclear energy to be completed until the end of 2022 at the latest. This was obviously not enough for the parliamentary groups of the SPD and Die Gruenen (Green party) of the Bremen City Parliament. With an Act dated 25 January 2012, the Bremen Parliament decided to amend the Harbour Operation Act insofar as '..the turnover of nuclear fuels in the sense of paragraph 2 Para. 1 of the Nuclear Act is excluded..'. This means that the turnover of nuclear fuels in the Bremer harbours is principally forbidden, unless the senate grants an explicit exception. However: Can a federal legislator enforce its energy policies like that? In order to receive an answer to this question, the representatives of the CDU parliamentary group of the Bremen Parliament lodged a complaint of unconstitutionality at the Bremen State Court of Justice. The decision was delivered on 12 April 2013 (AZ: St 1/12). And what answer did the CDU parliamentary group receive to their question? None. The Bremen State Court of Justice did not make a decision on this politically controversial issue. As its position, the State Court stated that the rules of the Basic Law on the limitations for the legislative jurisdiction between the Federation and the federal states do not constitute a component of the Bremen federal state constitution. And the legal criterion of the State Court of Justice is solely the Bremen constitution, not however, the Basic Law. In short: The State Court of Justice declares itself de facto not competent. (orig.)

  9. High-yielding Wheat Varieties Harbour Superior Plant Growth Promoting-Bacterial Endophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehwish Yousaf

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the endophytic microbial flora of different wheat varieties to check whether a better yielding variety also harbours superior plant growth promoting bacteria. Such bacteria are helpful in food biotechnology as their application can enhance the yield of the crop.Material and Methods: Three wheat varieties (Seher, Faisalabad and Lasani were selected, Seher being the most superior variety. endophytic bacteria were isolated from the histosphere of the leaves and roots at different growth phases of the plants. The isolates were analyzed for plant growth promoting activities. Isolates giving best results were identified through 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Statistical analysis was done using Microsoft Excel 2013. All the experiments were conducted in triplicates.Results and Conclusion: The endophytes of Seher variety showed maximum plant growth promoting abilities. Among the shoot endophytes, the highest auxin production was shown by Seher isolate SHHP1-3 up to 51.9μg ml-1, whereas in the case of root endophytes, the highest auxin was produced by SHHR1-5 up to 36 μg ml-1. The bacteria showing significant plant growth promoting abilities were identified by 16S rRNA sequencing. Bacillus, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria species were the dominant bacteria showing all the traits of plant growth promotion. It can be concluded that Seher variety harbours superior plant growth promoting endophytes that must be one of the reasons for its better growth and yield as compared to the other two varieties. The investigated results support possible utilization of the selected isolates in wheat growth promotion with respect to increase in agro-productivity. The application of such bacteria could be useful to enhance wheat yield and can help in food biotechnology.Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

  10. Testing the effects of an acoustic harassment device on the behaviour of harbour porpoises (Phocoena Phocoena)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diederichs, Ansgar; Brandt, Miriam J.; Hoeschle, Caroline; Betke, Klaus; Nehls, Georg

    2011-07-01

    Full text: The use of monopile foundations for offshore wind farm construction goes along with considerable underwater noise emissions during pile driving, which can potentially harm marine mammals in the vicinity of the sound source. In order to avoid hearing damage in porpoises and seals the use of deterring devices is mandatory during pile driving in German waters. However, so far there is too little information to judge if the deterring effect is sufficient to prevent physical damage in these marine mammals. Using a combination of visual observations and passive acoustic monitoring (C-PODs) we investigated the spatial effects of a Lofitech seal scarer on harbour porpoises. The seal scarer emits pulses at 14 kHz at a source level of about 189dB re 1 muPa, and sound measurements at various distances where carried out. Sighting rates of porpoises significantly declined within the whole 1 km observation radius. Recordings of porpoise echolocation signals by C-PODs were significantly reduced out to a distance of 7 km, with the strongest effect at the nearest PODs and a weak effect at further distances. Minimum observed approach distance during 28 hours of seal scarer activity was 700 m. A response study revealed clear avoidance reactions by porpoises out to the maximum studied distance of 2.6 km. However, in some cases no reaction was found, and occasionally porpoises were also recorded by PODs at close distances. This shows that there may be substantial variation between individuals, different motivational states or different environmental conditions. These results show that the application of seal scarers is useful for reducing the number of harbour porpoises that may suffer hearing damage caused by pile driving. However, since complete exclusion of all animals cannot be achieved, alternative mitigation measures should be considered. (Author)

  11. Generalized anxiety disorder and the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale in Parkinson's disease Transtorno de ansiedade generalizada e a Escala de Ansiedade de Hamilton na doença de Parkinson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Kummer

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety is common in Parkinson's disease (PD, but studies concerning specific anxiety disorders are scarce. Essential psychometric properties of anxiety rating scales are also lacking. OBJECTIVE: To investigate general anxiety disorder (GAD in PD and psychometric properties of the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (Ham-A. METHOD: Ninety-one PD patients underwent neurological and psychiatric examination, which included the MINI-Plus, the Ham-A and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (Ham-D. RESULTS: GAD was present in 30.8% of PD patients. Patients with GAD had longer disease duration (p=0.044 and were in use of higher doses of levodopa (p=0.034. They also tended to have more motor fluctuations and dyskinesias. The group with GAD scored higher in Ham-A (pAnsiedade é comum na doença de Parkinson (DP, mas estudos sobre transtornos de ansiedade específicos são ainda escassos. Faltam também estudos sobre propriedades psicométricas essenciais das escalas de ansiedade. OBJETIVO: Investigar o transtorno de ansiedade generalizada (TAG na DP e propriedades psicométricas da Escala de Ansiedade de Hamilton (Ham-A. MÉTODO: Noventa e um pacientes com DP se submeteram a exames neurológico e psiquiátrico, que incluiu o MINI-Plus, a Ham-A e a Escala de Depressão de Hamilton (Ham-D. RESULTADOS: TAG esteve presente em 30,8% dos participantes. Pacientes com TAG tinham maior duração de doença (p=0,044 e estavam em uso de maiores doses de levodopa (p=0,034. Também havia uma tendência desses pacientes terem mais flutuações motoras e discinesias. O grupo com TAG pontuou mais alto na Ham-A (p<0,001, nas subescalas somática (p<0,001 e psíquica da Ham-A (p<0,001, e na Ham-D (p=0,004. A Ham-A mostrou boa consistência interna (alfa de Cronbach=0,893 e um ponto de corte de 10/11 é sugerido para triar o TAG. CONCLUSÃO: TAG é freqüente na DP e a Ham-A pode ser um instrumento útil para triar esse transtorno.

  12. Lakes, Lagerstaetten, and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordesch, E. G.; Park, L. E.

    2001-12-01

    The diversity of terrestrial systems is estimated to be greater than in the marine realm. However no hard data yet exists to substantiate this claim. Ancient lacustrine deposits may preserve an exceptionally diverse fossil fauna and aid in determining continental faunal diversities. Fossils preserved in lake deposits, especially those with exceptional preservation (i.e. Konservat Lagerstaetten), may represent a dependable method for determining species diversity changes in the terrestrial environment because of their faunal completeness. Important Konservat Lagerstaetten, such as the Green River Formation (US) and Messel (Germany), both Eocene in age, are found in lake sediments and show a remarkable faunal diversity for both vertebrates and invertebrates. To date information from nearly 25 lake lagerstaetten derived from different types of lake basins from the Carboniferous to the Miocene have been collected and described. Carboniferous sites derive from the cyclothems of Midcontinent of the US while many Cenozoic sites have been described from North and South America as well as Europe and Australia. Asian sites contain fossils from the Mesozoic and Cenozoic. With this data, insight into the evolutionary processes associated with lake systems can be examined. Do lakes act as unique evolutionary crucibles in contrast to marine systems? The speciation of cichlid fishes in present-day African lakes appears to be very high and is attributed to the diversity of environments found in large rift lakes. Is this true of all ancient lakes or just large rift lakes? The longevity of a lake system may be an important factor in allowing speciation and evolutionary processes to occur; marine systems are limited only in the existence of environments as controlled by tectonics and sea level changes, on the order of tens of millions of years. Rift lakes are normally the longest lived in the millions of years. Perhaps there are only certain types of lakes in which speciation of

  13. Differences in the response of a striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) and a harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) to an acoustic alarm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kastelein, R.A.; Jennings, N.; Verboom, W.C.; Haan, D.de; Schooneman, N.M.

    2006-01-01

    Small cetacean bycatch in gillnet fisheries may be reduced by deterring odontocetes from nets acoustically. However, different odontocete species may respond differently to acoustic signals from alarms. Therefore, in this study a striped dolphin and a harbour porpoise were subjected simultaneously

  14. Differences in the response of a striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) and a harbour popoise (Phocoena phocoena) to an acoustic alarm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kastelein, R.A.; Jennings, N.; Verboom, W.C.; Haan, de D.; Schooneman, N.M.

    2006-01-01

    Small cetacean bycatch in gillnet fisheries may be reduced by deterring odontocetes from nets acoustically. However, different odontocete species may respond differently to acoustic signals from alarms. Therefore, in this study a striped dolphin and a harbour porpoise were subjected simultaneously

  15. In search of virus carriers of the 1988 and 2002 phocine distemper virus outbreaks in European harbour seals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreutzer, M.; Kreutzer, R.; Siebert, U.; Muller, G.; Reijnders, P.J.H.; Brasseur, S.M.J.M.; Harkonen, T.; Dietz, R.; Sonne, C.; Born, E.W.; Baumgartner, W.

    2008-01-01

    European harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) populations decreased substantially during the phocine distemper virus (PDV) outbreaks of 1988 and 2002. Different hypotheses have stated that various seals and terrestrial carnivore species might be the source of infection. To further analyse these hypotheses,

  16. Vaccination of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) against phocid distemper with two different inactivated canine distemper virus (CDV) vaccines.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.K.G. Visser (Ilona); M.W.G. van de Bildt (Marco); H.N. Brugge; P.J.H. Reijnders; E.J. Vedder (Lies); J. Kuiper; P. de Vries (Petra); J. Groen (Jan); H.C. Walvoort; F.G.C.M. Uytdehaag (Fons); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1989-01-01

    textabstractTwo inactivated canine distemper virus (CDV) vaccines--an adjuvanted whole inactivated virus and a subunit ISCOM preparation--were tested for their ability to induce protective immunity in harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) against phocid distemper, a disease that recently killed greater

  17. Applicability of market-based instruments for safeguarding water quality in coastal waterways: Case study for Darwin Harbour, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, Romy

    2014-02-01

    Water pollution of coastal waterways is a complex problem due to the cocktail of pollutants and multiplicity of polluters involved and pollution characteristics. Pollution control therefore requires a combination of policy instruments. This paper examines the applicability of market-based instruments to achieve effective and efficient water quality management in Darwin Harbour, Northern Territory, Australia. Potential applicability of instruments is examined in the context of biophysical and economic pollution characteristics, and experience with instruments elsewhere. The paper concludes that there is potential for inclusion of market-based instruments as part of an instrument mix to safeguard water quality in Darwin Harbour. It recommends, in particular, expanding the existing licencing system to include quantitative pollution limits for all significant point polluters; comprehensive and independent pollution monitoring across Darwin Harbour; public disclosure of water quality and emissions data; positive incentives for landholders in the Darwin Harbour catchment to improve land management practices; a stormwater offset program for greenfield urban developments; adoption of performance bonds for developments and operations which pose a substantial risk to water quality, including port expansion and dredging; and detailed consideration of a bubble licensing scheme for nutrient pollution. The paper offers an analytical framework for policy makers and resource managers tasked with water quality management in coastal waterways elsewhere in Australia and globally, and helps to scan for MBIs suitable in any given environmental management situation.

  18. Passive acoustic monitoring of bottlenose dolphin and harbour porpoise, in Cardigan Bay, Wales, with implications for habitat use and partitioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simon, Malene Juul; Nuuttila, Hanna; Reyes-Zamudio, Mercedes M

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge about harbour porpoise and bottlenose dolphin occurrence in Cardigan Bay Special Area of Conservation (SAC), Wales, is limited to daylight hours during summer, when conditions are suitable for traditional visual surveys. T-PODs are autonomous instruments programmed to log time-cues of s...

  19. Modelling the distribution of hard seabed using calibrated multibeam acoustic backscatter data in a tropical, macrotidal embayment: Darwin Harbour, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siwabessy, P. Justy W.; Tran, Maggie; Picard, Kim; Brooke, Brendan P.; Huang, Zhi; Smit, Neil; Williams, David K.; Nicholas, William A.; Nichol, Scott L.; Atkinson, Ian

    2018-06-01

    Spatial information on the distribution of seabed substrate types in high use coastal areas is essential to support their effective management and environmental monitoring. For Darwin Harbour, a rapidly developing port in northern Australia, the distribution of hard substrate is poorly documented but known to influence the location and composition of important benthic biological communities (corals, sponges). In this study, we use angular backscatter response curves to model the distribution of hard seabed in the subtidal areas of Darwin Harbour. The angular backscatter response curve data were extracted from multibeam sonar data and analysed against backscatter intensity for sites observed from seabed video to be representative of "hard" seabed. Data from these sites were consolidated into an "average curve", which became a reference curve that was in turn compared to all other angular backscatter response curves using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness-of-fit. The output was used to generate interpolated spatial predictions of the probability of hard seabed ( p-hard) and derived hard seabed parameters for the mapped area of Darwin Harbour. The results agree well with the ground truth data with an overall classification accuracy of 75% and an area under curve measure of 0.79, and with modelled bed shear stress for the Harbour. Limitations of this technique are discussed with attention to discrepancies between the video and acoustic results, such as in areas where sediment forms a veneer over hard substrate.

  20. Postglacial climate changes and rise of three ecotypes of harbour porpoises, Phocoena phocoena, in western Palearctic waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fontaine, Michaël C; Roland, Kathleen; Calves, Isabelle; Austerlitz, Frederic; Palstra, Friso P; Tolley, Krystal A; Ryan, Sean; Ferreira, Marisa; Jauniaux, Thierry; Llavona, Angela; Öztürk, Bayram; Öztürk, Ayaka A; Ridoux, Vincent; Rogan, Emer; Sequeira, Marina; Siebert, Ursula; Vikingsson, Gísli A; Borrell, Asunción; Michaux, Johan R; Aguilar, Alex

    Despite no obvious barriers to gene flow in the marine realm, environmental variation and ecological specializations can lead to genetic differentiation in highly mobile predators. Here, we investigated the genetic structure of the harbour porpoise over the entire species distribution range in

  1. Variations of the entrepreneurial city: Goals, roles visions in Rotterdam’s Kop van Zuid and the Glasgow Harbour megaprojects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doucet, B.M.

    2013-01-01

    Both Rotterdam’s Kop van Zuid and the Glasgow Harbour waterfront developments are examples of different forms of European urban entrepreneurial megaprojects. They are both situated on formerly vacant land in older industrial cities. In Rotterdam, the municipality has taken the initiative in

  2. Comparison of 2-compartment, 3-compartment and stack designs for electrodialytic removal of heavy metals from harbour sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kristine B.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2015-01-01

    Comparisons of cell and stack designs for the electrodialytic removal of heavy metals from two harbour sediments, were made. Multivariate modelling showed that sediment properties and experimental set-ups had the highest influence on the heavy metal removal indicating that they should be modelled...

  3. Fine-scale hydrodynamics influence the spatio-temporal distribution of harbour porpoises at a coastal hotspot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, A.R.; Hosegood, P.; Wynn, R.B.; Boer, de M.N.; Butler-Cowdry, S.; Embling, C.B.

    2014-01-01

    The coastal Runnelstone Reef, off southwest Cornwall (UK), is characterised by complex topography and strong tidal flows and is a known high-density site for harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena); a European protected species. Using a multidisciplinary dataset including: porpoise sightings from a

  4. Structure and amount of genetic variation at minisatellite loci within the subspecies complex of Phoca vitulina (the harbour seal)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappe, A.L.; Bijlsma, R.; Osterhaus, ADME; van Delden, W.; van de Zande, L.

    The structure and amount of genetic variation within and between three subspecies of the harbour seal Phoca vitulina was assessed by multilocus DNA fingerprinting. Bandsharing similarity indicates that the subspecies Phoca vitulina richarhsi (Alaska, East Pacific) is clearly separated from the other

  5. What a jerk: prey engulfment revealed by high-rate, super-cranial accelerometry on a harbour seal (Phoca vitulina)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ydesen, Kristina S; Wisniewska, Danuta Maria; Hansen, Janni D

    2014-01-01

    in particular shaped dives or when the animal remains in an area for an extended interval. However, fast movements of the head and jaws may provide reliable feeding cues that can be detected by small low-power accelerometers mounted on the head. To test this notion, a harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) was trained...

  6. Ecology of Meromictic Lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gulati, R.D.; Zadereev, E.S.; Degermendzhy, A.G.

    2017-01-01

    This volume presents recent advances in the research on meromictic lakes and a state-of-the art overview of this area. After an introduction to the terminology and geographic distribution of meromictic lakes, three concise chapters describe their physical, chemical and biological features. The

  7. Trace Formulae of Characteristic Polynomial and Cayley-Hamilton's Theorem, and Applications to Chiral Perturbation Theory and General Relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Honghao; Yan Wenbin; Li Xuesong

    2008-01-01

    By using combinatorics, we give a new proof for the recurrence relations of the characteristic polynomial coefficients, and we further obtain an explicit expression for the generic term of the coefficient sequence, which yields the trace formulae of the Cayley-Hamilton's theorem with all coefficients explicitly given. This implies a byproduct, a complete expression for the determinant of any finite-dimensional matrix in terms of the traces of its successive powers. And we discuss some of their applications to chiral perturbation theory and general relativity

  8. Biological variables and health status affecting inorganic element concentrations in harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) from Portugal (western Iberian Peninsula)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Marisa; Monteiro, Silvia S.; Torres, Jordi; Oliveira, Isabel; Sequeira, Marina; López, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    The coastal preferences of harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) intensify their exposure to human activities. The harbour porpoise Iberian population is presently very small and information about the threats it endures is vital for the conservation efforts that are being implemented to avoid local extinction. The present study explored the possible relation between the accumulation of trace elements by porpoises and their sex, body length, nutritional state, presence of parasites and gross pathologies. The concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn) and selenium (Se) were evaluated in 42 porpoises stranded in Portugal between 2005 and 2013. Considering European waters, porpoises stranded in Portugal present the highest Hg concentrations and the lowest Cd concentrations, which may reflect dietary preferences and the geographic availability of these pollutants. While no effect of sex on trace element concentrations was detected, there was a positive relationship between porpoise body length and the concentration of Cd, Hg and Pb. Animals in worse nutritional condition showed higher levels of Zn. Harbour porpoises with high parasite burdens showed lower levels of Zn and As in all analysed tissues and also lower levels of renal Ni, while those showing gross pathologies presented higher Zn and Hg levels. This is the first data on the relationship between trace elements and health-related variables in porpoises from southern European Atlantic waters, providing valuable baseline information about the contamination status of this vulnerable population. - Highlights: • High levels of mercury in harbour porpoises from Portugal. • Evidence of bioaccumulation of non-essential trace elements. • Presence of parasites influenced some essential trace elements. • Evidence of nutritional state effect on Zn levels. • Presence of gross pathologies influenced Zn and Hg levels. - The small harbour

  9. Lake Afdera: a threatened saline lake in Ethiopia | Getahun | SINET ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lake Afdera is a saline lake located in the Afar region, Northern Ethiopia. Because of its inaccessibility it is one of the least studied lakes of the country. It supports life including three species of fish of which two are endemic. Recently, reports are coming out that this lake is used for salt extraction. This paper gives some ...

  10. Lake trout in northern Lake Huron spawn on submerged drumlins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Stephen C.; Binder, Thomas; Wattrus, Nigel J.; Faust, Matthew D.; Janssen, John; Menzies, John; Marsden, J. Ellen; Ebener, Mark P.; Bronte, Charles R.; He, Ji X.; Tucker, Taaja R.; Hansen, Michael J.; Thompson, Henry T.; Muir, Andrew M.; Krueger, Charles C.

    2014-01-01

    Recent observations of spawning lake trout Salvelinus namaycush near Drummond Island in northern Lake Huron indicate that lake trout use drumlins, landforms created in subglacial environments by the action of ice sheets, as a primary spawning habitat. From these observations, we generated a hypothesis that may in part explain locations chosen by lake trout for spawning. Most salmonines spawn in streams where they rely on streamflows to sort and clean sediments to create good spawning habitat. Flows sufficient to sort larger sediment sizes are generally lacking in lakes, but some glacial bedforms contain large pockets of sorted sediments that can provide the interstitial spaces necessary for lake trout egg incubation, particularly if these bedforms are situated such that lake currents can penetrate these sediments. We hypothesize that sediment inclusions from glacial scavenging and sediment sorting that occurred during the creation of bedforms such as drumlins, end moraines, and eskers create suitable conditions for lake trout egg incubation, particularly where these bedforms interact with lake currents to remove fine sediments. Further, these bedforms may provide high-quality lake trout spawning habitat at many locations in the Great Lakes and may be especially important along the southern edge of the range of the species. A better understanding of the role of glacially-derived bedforms in the creation of lake trout spawning habitat may help develop powerful predictors of lake trout spawning locations, provide insight into the evolution of unique spawning behaviors by lake trout, and aid in lake trout restoration in the Great Lakes.

  11. Lake sturgeon population characteristics in Rainy Lake, Minnesota and Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, W.E.; Kallemeyn, L.W.; Willis, D.W.

    2006-01-01

    Rainy Lake contains a native population of lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens that has been largely unstudied. The aims of this study were to document the population characteristics of lake sturgeon in Rainy Lake and to relate environmental factors to year-class strength for this population. Gill-netting efforts throughout the study resulted in the capture of 322 lake sturgeon, including 50 recaptures. Lake sturgeon in Rainy Lake was relatively plump and fast growing compared with a 32-population summary. Population samples were dominated by lake sturgeon between 110 and 150 cm total length. Age–structure analysis of the samples indicated few younger (<10 years) lake sturgeon, but the smallest gill net mesh size used for sampling was 102 mm (bar measure) and would not retain small sturgeon. Few lake sturgeon older than age 50 years were captured, and maximum age of sampled fish was 59 years. Few correlations existed between lake sturgeon year-class indices and both annual and monthly climate variables, except that mean June air temperature was positively correlated with year-class strength. Analysis of Rainy Lake water elevation and resulting lake sturgeon year-class strength indices across years yielded consistent but weak negative correlations between late April and early June, when spawning of lake sturgeon occurs. The baseline data collected in this study should allow Rainy Lake biologists to establish more specific research questions in the future.

  12. Outbreak of salmonellosis associated with consumption of pulled pork at a church festival - Hamilton County, Ohio, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-03

    On June 18, 2010, Hamilton County Public Health (HCPH), a local health department in Ohio, began receiving reports of gastrointestinal illness from persons who attended a church festival held during June 11-13 in a suburban community of Hamilton County. HCPH investigated and confirmed the existence of a foodborne outbreak associated with consumption of pulled pork prepared in a private home and sold at the church festival. Sixty-four attendees with gastroenteritis were identified. Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium (Salmonella Typhimurium) was found in stool specimens from three patients; no other pathogen was found. Because the outbreak was identified after the church festival had concluded, the environmental investigation was limited to interviews of food handlers. The primary public health interventions consisted of 1) active surveillance for additional cases of salmonellosis associated with the festival, 2) consultation with the festival organizers and food vendors to ensure the pork product was not resold or consumed elsewhere, 3) education of the festival organizers and food vendors about relevant public health regulations and food safety practices, 4) traceback of the implicated product to the retailer in Indiana, and 5) notification of the Indiana State Department of Health. The results of the investigation call attention to the public health implications of unregulated food service at events such as church festivals, which generally are exempt from public health inspection and licensure in Ohio. Food sold in such environments might place populations at risk for foodborne illness.

  13. Relationship Between the DSM-5 Anxious Distress Specifier and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale Anxiety/Somatization Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Mark; Clark, Heather; McGonigal, Patrick; Harris, Lauren; Guzman Holst, Carolina; Martin, Jacob

    2018-02-01

    We examined the association between the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD) approach to classifying depressed patients into anxious and nonanxious subgroups and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) anxious distress specifier subtyping. Two hundred two depressed patients were interviewed with semistructured diagnostic interviews. Patients were rated on the 17-item HAMD and the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale and completed the Clinically Useful Anxiety Outcome Scale. Both approaches toward identifying anxiety in depressed patients resulted in most of the patients meeting the anxiety subtype. Both subtyping methods were significantly correlated with clinician-rated and self-report measures of anxiety, and scores on the anxiety scales were higher in the patients who met the anxious subtype. However, DSM-5 anxious distress subtyping was only marginally associated with the HAMD anxiety/somatization factor subtyping approach (k = 0.21), and dimensional scores were only moderately correlated (r = 0.50). These findings indicate that the DSM-5 and HAMD approaches toward identifying an anxious subtype of depression are not interchangeable.

  14. Yellowstone Lake Nanoarchaeota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott eClingenpeel

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Considerable Nanoarchaeota novelty and diversity were encountered in Yellowstone Lake, Yellowstone National Park, where sampling targeted lake floor hydrothermal vent fluids, streamers and sediments associated with these vents, and in planktonic photic zones in three different regions of the lake. Significant homonucleotide repeats (HR were observed in pyrosequence reads and in near full-length Sanger sequences, averaging 112 HR per 1,349 bp clone and could confound diversity estimates derived from pyrosequencing, resulting in false nucleotide insertions or deletions (indels. However, Sanger sequencing of two different sets of PCR clones (110 bp, 1349 bp demonstrated that at least some of these indels are real. The majority of the Nanoarchaeota PCR amplicons were vent associated; however, curiously, one relatively small Nanoarchaeota OTU (70 pyrosequencing reads was only found in photic zone water samples obtained from a region of the lake furthest removed from the hydrothermal regions of the lake. Extensive pyrosequencing failed to demonstrate the presence of an Ignicoccus lineage in this lake, suggesting the Nanoarchaeota in this environment are associated with novel Archaea hosts. Defined phylogroups based on near full-length PCR clones document the significant Nanoarchaeota 16S rRNA gene diversity in this lake and firmly establish a terrestrial clade distinct from the marine Nanoarcheota as well as from other geographical locations.

  15. Whiting in Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Satellites provide a view from space of changes on the Earth's surface. This series of images from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) aboard the Orbview-2 satellite shows the dramatic change in the color of Lake Michigan during the summer. The bright color that appears in late summer is probably caused by calcium carbonate-chalk-in the water. Lake Michigan always has a lot of calcium carbonate in it because the floor of the lake is limestone. During most of the year the calcium carbonate remains dissolved in the cold water, but at the end of summer the lake warms up, lowering the solubility of calcium carbonate. As a result, the calcium carbonate precipitates out of the water, forming clouds of very small solid particles that appear as bright swirls from above. The phenomenon is appropriately called a whiting event. A similar event occured in 1999, but appears to have started later and subsided earlier. It is also possible that a bloom of the algae Microcystis is responsible for the color change, but unlikely because of Lake Michigan's depth and size. Microcystis blooms have occured in other lakes in the region, however. On the shore of the lake it is possible to see the cities of Chicago, Illinois, and Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Both appear as clusters of gray-brown pixels. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  16. Biological and chemical characterization of harbour sediments from the Stockholm area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eklund, Britta; Elfstroem, Maria; Bengtsson, Bengt-Erik; Breitholtz, Magnus [Dept. of Applied Environmental Science (ITM), Stockholm Univ. (Sweden); Gallego, Irene [Granada Univ. (Spain)

    2010-01-15

    Purpose: The main objective of the current study was to assess the impact of pleasure boat activities on harbour sediment quality in the Stockholm area. Sediment contamination is a growing ecological issue, and there is consequently a need to use sediment bioassays in combination with chemical analysis to determine the impact on the ecosystem. To generate sediment toxicity data relevant for the Baltic Sea, a secondary objective was to further develop and evaluate two well-established bioassays for saltwater, with the macroalga Ceramium tenuicorne and the crustacean Nitocra spinipes, to be useful also for toxicity testing of whole sediment. A major concern has been to minimize any manipulation of the sediments. A third objective was to assess whether a simple leaching procedure could be used to simulate sediment toxicity by comparing results from whole sediment and leachate tests. Materials and methods: Surface sediments (0-2 cm) from five different types of pleasure boat harbours were collected. Chemical measurements of boat related compounds, i.e. tin organic substances (tributyltin (TBT), dibutyl tin, and monobutyl tin), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), copper, zinc, lead, tin and irgarol were conducted. The sediments were tested for toxic effects using the established Microtox {sup registered} test as well as the developed sediment tests with C. tenuicorne and N. spinipes. The endpoints are growth inhibition for the algal test and for the crustacean test mortality of larvae and rate of development expressed as the ratio between nauplia and copepodites. Two different procedures have been compared with both organisms, i.e. exposure to whole sediment and to leachate. The duration of both tests is around 1 week. Results and discussion: All harbour locations were more or less heavily contaminated with remnants from use of antifouling paints. The sediment in a smaller marina (ca. 250 boats) contained the highest levels of TBT (max 1,400 {mu}g/kg dry weight (dw

  17. Growth of plants on TBT-contaminated harbour sludge and effect on TBT removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Jana; Trapp, Stefan

    2005-11-01

    Worldwide, large amounts of sediments have to be dredged annually from waterways and harbours. These sediments are sometimes polluted with a variety of toxic compounds. In some countries, including Belgium, the load with the biocide tributyltin (TBT) from ship coatings prohibits the dumping of harbour sludge into the sea. Land-based dumping is a commonly used alternative. This research investigated the feasibility to use land-deposited harbour sludge for plant production. In a field trial, the growth of 38 more or less salt-tolerant plant species on low and high TBT-contaminated sediments was studied. The elimination of TBT from sludge with and without vegetation was compared. The uptake of TBT and its degradation products di- and monobutyltin (DBT and MBT) into harvest products under field conditions was determined. EXPERIMENTAL SET-UP: Sediments dredged in May 2003 from the brackish waters of the port of Antwerp were analysed in the laboratory for soil texture, pH, electroconductivity, sodium, magnesium, potassium, calcium, ammonium, nitrate, total nitrogen, chloride, sulphur and the organotins TBT, DBT and MBT. The sediments were lagooned for one year to dewater, desalinate and improve their structure. Salt-tolerant domestic and wild plants were selected and sown in May 2004. In August 2004, plants were harvested and the produced biomass was determined. Samples were taken from vegetated and non-vegetated top and bottom sediments and from plants growing above soil and analysed for TBT, DBT and MBT. The fresh sediments showed a good supply with nutrients and a neutral pH, but were rather saline (EC 14 mS cm(-1) of the saturated paste extract). The salinity decreased to 3.7 mS cm(-1) during lagoonation. The high and the low contaminated sediment had initially 43 and 1.6 mg TBT kg(-1) dry weight, respectively. Besides TBT, several other contaminants were present in the sediments at critical levels. The biomass production of the plant species from the field trial

  18. Relating desorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from harbour sludges to type of organic material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heister, K.; Pols, S.; Loch, J. P. G.; Bosma, T.

    2009-04-01

    For decades, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) cause great concern as environmental pollutants. Especially river and marine harbour sediments are frequently polluted with PAH derived from surface runoff, fuel and oil spills due to shipping and industrial activities, industrial waste and atmospheric deposition. Harbour sediments contain large amounts of organic carbon and clay minerals and are therefore not easy to remediate and have to be stored in sludge depositories after dredging to maintain sufficient water depth for shipping. The organic contaminants will be adsorbed to particles, leached in association with dissolved organic material or microbially degraded. However, compounds of high molecular weight are very persistent, particularly under anaerobic conditions, thus giving rise to the potential to become desorbed again. PAH adsorb mainly to organic material. It has been shown that components of the organic material with a low polarity and a high hydrophobicity like aliphatic and aromatic components exhibit a high sorption capacity for hydrophobic organic contaminants like PAH. Accordingly, not only the amount but also the type of organic material needs to be determined in order to be able to predict contaminant behaviour. In this study, desorption behaviour of the 16 EPA-PAH in two different harbour sludges from the port of Rotterdam, the Netherlands, has been investigated. The Beerkanaal (BK) site is located relatively close to the North Sea and represents a brackish environment; the Beneden Merwede River (BMR) site originates from a fresh water environment and is close to industrial sites. The samples were placed in dialysis membranes and brought into contact with water for a period of 130 days. At several time intervals, water samples were retrieved for analysis of pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content, electrical conductivity and PAH concentrations. The experiment was conducted at 4 and at 20°C. Although the samples were initially treated with

  19. Ecology of playa lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haukos, David A.; Smith, Loren M.

    1992-01-01

    Between 25,000 and 30,000 playa lakes are in the playa lakes region of the southern high plains (Fig. 1). Most playas are in west Texas (about 20,000), and fewer, in New Mexico, Oklahoma, Kansas, and Colorado. The playa lakes region is one of the most intensively cultivated areas of North America. Dominant crops range from cotton in southern areas to cereal grains in the north. Therefore, most of the native short-grass prairie is gone, replaced by crops and, recently, grasses of the Conservation Reserve Program. Playas are the predominant wetlands and major wildlife habitat of the region.More than 115 bird species, including 20 species of waterfowl, and 10 mammal species have been documented in playas. Waterfowl nest in the area, producing up to 250,000 ducklings in wetter years. Dominant breeding and nesting species are mallards and blue-winged teals. During the very protracted breeding season, birds hatch from April through August. Several million shorebirds and waterfowl migrate through the area each spring and fall. More than 400,000 sandhill cranes migrate through and winter in the region, concentrating primarily on the larger saline lakes in the southern portion of the playa lakes region.The primary importance of the playa lakes region to waterfowl is as a wintering area. Wintering waterfowl populations in the playa lakes region range from 1 to 3 million birds, depending on fall precipitation patterns that determine the number of flooded playas. The most common wintering ducks are mallards, northern pintails, green-winged teals, and American wigeons. About 500,000 Canada geese and 100,000 lesser snow geese winter in the playa lakes region, and numbers of geese have increased annually since the early 1980’s. This chapter describes the physiography and ecology of playa lakes and their attributes that benefit waterfowl.

  20. Reproductive Failure in UK Harbour Porpoises Phocoena phocoena: Legacy of Pollutant Exposure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinéad Murphy

    Full Text Available Reproductive failure in mammals due to exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs can occur either through endocrine disrupting effects or via immunosuppression and increased disease risk. To investigate further, full necropsies and determination of summed 25 polychlorinated biphenyls congeners (∑PCBs lipid weight in blubber were undertaken on 329 UK-stranded female harbour porpoises (1990-2012. In sexually mature females, 25/127 (19.7% showed direct evidence of reproductive failure (foetal death, aborting, dystocia or stillbirth. A further 21/127 (16.5% had infections of the reproductive tract or tumours of reproductive tract tissues that could contribute to reproductive failure. Resting mature females (non-lactating or non-pregnant had significantly higher mean ∑PCBs (18.5 mg/kg than both lactating (7.5 mg/kg and pregnant females (6 mg/kg, though not significantly different to sexually immature females (14.0 mg/kg. Using multinomial logistic regression models ΣPCBs was found to be a significant predictor of mature female reproductive status, adjusting for the effects of confounding variables. Resting females were more likely to have a higher PCB burden. Health status (proxied by "trauma" or "infectious disease" causes of death was also a significant predictor, with lactating females (i.e. who successfully reproduced more likely to be in good health status compared to other individuals. Based on contaminant profiles (>11 mg/kg lipid, at least 29/60 (48% of resting females had not offloaded their pollutant burden via gestation and primarily lactation. Where data were available, these non-offloading females were previously gravid, which suggests foetal or newborn mortality. Furthermore, a lower pregnancy rate of 50% was estimated for "healthy" females that died of traumatic causes of death, compared to other populations. Whether or not PCBs are part of an underlying mechanism, we used individual PCB burdens to show further evidence of

  1. Population development and status of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina in the Wadden Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter JH Reijnders

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available An index for the condition of a population should include a measure of the recuperative power or resilience of the population in question. This measure needs to cover both the demographic and physiological condition of the population. Applied to the harbour seal population in the Wadden Sea we therefore address respectively the population development and distribution, and its health condition, and relate these to environmental conditions. The harbour seal population has been severely depleted by hunting in the first half of the 20th century. After hunting was stopped in the mid-1970s the population recovered gradually. This recovery was twice interrupted by Phocine Distemper Virus (PDV outbreaks in 1988 and 2002. These PDV-epizootics reduced the population by 57% and 50% respectively. They also lead to changes in age and sex structure of the population, which gradually returned to a stable age-structure. Despite the reduction in population size by respectively 57% and 50%, the population showed a strong recovery with a growth rate close to the considered maximum possible for this species. The observed changes in the distribution of the population over the 4 sub-regions indicate that distribution is not a static phenomenon. Long term field and pathological investigations point out that the general health status of the population has improved, particularly that of newborn seals (0-6months old. The increasing prevalence of parasites in lungs and intestine warrants continued monitoring of the health status of seals. This is especially relevant in view of the exponential increase of the population, which may finally approach the carrying capacity of the area. Concluding, we canstate that the condition of the population in terms of demographic and health parameters is satisfactory. The best guarantee for maintaining such a favourable conservation status is to abstain from human interferences (e.g. rescue, rehabilitation and release with natural

  2. Calculation of blade-data for the Hamilton standard structural analysis of the composite blade for the 18 meter diameter rotor and a comparison with FFA-calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundemo, C

    1979-04-01

    Section property data for the composite blade manufactured by Karlskronavarvet was calculated for the analysis performed by Hamilton Standard. The HS investigation was carried out for various operating conditions, including dynamic response loads, stresses, frequencies and dynamic stability. The Hamilton Standard results has been compared with the FFA (The Aeronautical Research Institute of Sweden) calculation. The results show that the stresses and moments calculated by HS never exceed the allowable levels for the hinged hub configuration. The natural frequencies seem to agree quite well with the measured frequencies. In the input data of the Hamilton Standard dynamic response analysis a too far aft position of the cordwise center of gravity of the outher third of the blade was used. Correct position will give lower stresses.

  3. A meta-analytic comparison of the Beck Depression Inventory and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression as measures of treatment outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, B C; Lambert, M J; Moran, P W; McCully, T; Smith, K C; Ellingson, A G

    1984-05-01

    Some clinicians have considered the Beck Depression Inventory, a self-rating scale, too reactive to patient halo effects and, therefore, a liberal measure of treatment outcome. On the other hand, interviewer-rating scales, like the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression have been viewed as more conservative measures of treatment gain. Studies which compared the Beck Depression Inventory to the Hamilton Rating Scale, as dependent measures, were reviewed for the purpose of determining if the scales provided comparable data for assessing treatment effects. The use of meta-analysis techniques resulted in a comparison of effect sizes which indicated that the Beck Depression Inventory was significantly less liberal than the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. The implications of these results for selecting outcome measures and the application of meta-analysis techniques for comparing dependent measures are discussed.

  4. Halls Lake 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Salt marsh habitats along the shoreline of Halls Lake are threatened by wave erosion, but the reconstruction of barrier islands to reduce this erosion will modify or...

  5. Lake Level Reconstructions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past lake levels, mostly related to changes in moisture balance (evaporation-precipitation). Parameter keywords describe what was measured in this data...

  6. The Key Lake project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glattes, G.

    1985-01-01

    Aspects of project financing for the share of the Canadian subsidiary of Uranerzbergbau-GmbH, Bonn, in the uranium mining and milling facility at Key Lake, Saskatchewan, by a Canadian bank syndicate. (orig.) [de

  7. Great Lakes Ice Charts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Charts show ice extent and concentration three times weekly during the ice season, for all lakes except Ontario, from the 1973/74 ice season through the 2001/2002...

  8. Foy Lake paleodiatom data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Percent abundance of 109 diatom species collected from a Foy Lake (Montana, USA) sediment core that was sampled every ∼5–20 years, yielding a ∼7 kyr record over 800...

  9. Underwater recordings of the whistles of bottlenose dolphins in Fremantle Inner Harbour, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, Sarah A.; Erbe, Christine; Kent, Chandra P. Salgado

    2017-09-01

    Dolphins use frequency-modulated whistles for a variety of social functions. Whistles vary in their characteristics according to context, such as activity state, group size, group composition, geographic location, and ambient noise levels. Therefore, comparison of whistle characteristics can be used to address numerous research questions regarding dolphin populations and behaviour. However, logistical and economic constraints on dolphin research have resulted in data collection biases, inconsistent analytical approaches, and knowledge gaps. This Data Descriptor presents an acoustic dataset of bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) whistles recorded in the Fremantle Inner Harbour, Western Australia. Data were collected using an autonomous recorder and analysed using a range of acoustic measurements. Acoustic data review identified 336 whistles, which were subsequently measured for six key characteristics using Raven Pro software. Of these, 164 'high-quality' whistles were manually measured to provide an additional five acoustic characteristics. Digital files of individual whistles and corresponding measurements make this dataset available to researchers to address future questions regarding variations within and between dolphin communities.

  10. Harbour porpoises on Horns Reef - Effects of the Horns Reef wind farm. Annual status report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tougaard, J.; Carstensen, J.; Wisz, M.S.; Teilmann, J.; Bech, N.I. [National Environmental Res. Inst., Roskilde (Denmark); Skov, H. [DHI - Water and Environment, Hoersholm (Denmark); Henriksen, Oluf, D. [DDH-Consulting A/S, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2005-07-15

    This report describes the monitoring of harbour porpoises at Horns Reef Offshore Wind Farm, Denmark, with emphasis on data collected in 2004. Three 2-day surveys with line transect observations of porpoises were conducted in 2004 and data from acoustic data loggers (TPODs) were collected from January through July. Although new data from 2004 was included in the analysis there were no significant additions to conclusions from previous years' reports. On the contrary, the general conclusions regarding effects of construction and operation of the wind farm on porpoise abundance inside and outside the wind farm area have been weakened somewhat compared to previous reports. The specific conclusions regarding short-time effects of construction activities (especially pile drivings) has not been changed, however. Modelling of the spatial distribution of porpoises in the area demonstrated very weak correlations with static environmental variables (water depth, change in water depth and distance to 6 m depth contour). This highlights the importance of dynamic environmental variables, in particular tide and salinity, in determining the fine-scale distribution of porpoises and their prey in the area. a strong correlation between tide and porpoise abundance observed in the T-POD data on some parts of the reef (high abundance at high tide, low at low tide) supports the importance of this variable. Tide and salinity will be included in a forthcoming analysis of the entire dataset from the monitoring program. (au)

  11. Plants of the fynbos biome harbour host species-specific bacterial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyambo, Tsakani; Makhalanyane, Thulani P; Cowan, Don A; Valverde, Angel

    2016-08-01

    The fynbos biome in South Africa is globally recognised as a plant biodiversity hotspot. However, very little is known about the bacterial communities associated with fynbos plants, despite interactions between primary producers and bacteria having an impact on the physiology of both partners and shaping ecosystem diversity. This study reports on the structure, phylogenetic composition and potential roles of the endophytic bacterial communities located in the stems of three fynbos plants (Erepsia anceps, Phaenocoma prolifera and Leucadendron laureolum). Using Illumina MiSeq 16S rRNA sequencing we found that different subpopulations of Deinococcus-Thermus, Alphaproteobacteria, Acidobacteria and Firmicutes dominated the endophytic bacterial communities. Alphaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria were prevalent in P. prolifera, whereas Deinococcus-Thermus dominated in L. laureolum, revealing species-specific host-bacteria associations. Although a high degree of variability in the endophytic bacterial communities within hosts was observed, we also detected a core microbiome across the stems of the three plant species, which accounted for 72% of the sequences. Altogether, it seems that both deterministic and stochastic processes shaped microbial communities. Endophytic bacterial communities harboured putative plant growth-promoting bacteria, thus having the potential to influence host health and growth. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Harbour porpoises on Horns Reef - Effects of the Horns Reef wind farm. Annual status report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tougaard, J; Carstensen, J; Wisz, M S; Teilmann, J; Bech, N I [National Environmental Res. Inst., Roskilde (Denmark); Skov, H [DHI - Water and Environment, Hoersholm (Denmark); Henriksen, Oluf, D. [DDH-Consulting A/S, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2005-07-15

    This report describes the monitoring of harbour porpoises at Horns Reef Offshore Wind Farm, Denmark, with emphasis on data collected in 2004. Three 2-day surveys with line transect observations of porpoises were conducted in 2004 and data from acoustic data loggers (TPODs) were collected from January through July. Although new data from 2004 was included in the analysis there were no significant additions to conclusions from previous years' reports. On the contrary, the general conclusions regarding effects of construction and operation of the wind farm on porpoise abundance inside and outside the wind farm area have been weakened somewhat compared to previous reports. The specific conclusions regarding short-time effects of construction activities (especially pile drivings) has not been changed, however. Modelling of the spatial distribution of porpoises in the area demonstrated very weak correlations with static environmental variables (water depth, change in water depth and distance to 6 m depth contour). This highlights the importance of dynamic environmental variables, in particular tide and salinity, in determining the fine-scale distribution of porpoises and their prey in the area. a strong correlation between tide and porpoise abundance observed in the T-POD data on some parts of the reef (high abundance at high tide, low at low tide) supports the importance of this variable. Tide and salinity will be included in a forthcoming analysis of the entire dataset from the monitoring program. (au)

  13. Harbour porpoises on Horns Reef - Effects of the Horns Reef wind farm. Annual status report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tougaard, J.; Carstensen, J.; Wisz, M.S.; Teilmann, J.; Bech, N.I.; Skov, H.; Henriksen, Oluf D.

    2005-01-01

    This report describes the monitoring of harbour porpoises at Horns Reef Offshore Wind Farm, Denmark, with emphasis on data collected in 2004. Three 2-day surveys with line transect observations of porpoises were conducted in 2004 and data from acoustic data loggers (TPODs) were collected from January through July. Although new data from 2004 was included in the analysis there were no significant additions to conclusions from previous years' reports. On the contrary, the general conclusions regarding effects of construction and operation of the wind farm on porpoise abundance inside and outside the wind farm area have been weakened somewhat compared to previous reports. The specific conclusions regarding short-time effects of construction activities (especially pile drivings) has not been changed, however. Modelling of the spatial distribution of porpoises in the area demonstrated very weak correlations with static environmental variables (water depth, change in water depth and distance to 6 m depth contour). This highlights the importance of dynamic environmental variables, in particular tide and salinity, in determining the fine-scale distribution of porpoises and their prey in the area. a strong correlation between tide and porpoise abundance observed in the T-POD data on some parts of the reef (high abundance at high tide, low at low tide) supports the importance of this variable. Tide and salinity will be included in a forthcoming analysis of the entire dataset from the monitoring program. (au)

  14. Vertical distribution of tritium in core sediment of Mumbai Harbour Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rupali, C.K.; Joshi, Vikram; Jha, S.K.; Tripathi, R.M.; Sonali, B.; Priyanka, R.

    2014-01-01

    In the past few years there has been an increasing interest in the study of behavior of tritium in the environment, worldwide many countries have initiated monitoring of organically bound tritium in the environmental samples as part of their radiological assessments. Tritium ( 3 H) is ubiquitous in the aquatic environment and has a various sources of origin. It is transported to the earth's surface via hydrological cycle. 3 H is produced in variety of processes in nuclear power plants. Discharges to aquatic environment from these establishment results in locally enhanced water concentrations. Levels of 3 H have been further elevated due to atmospheric weapons testing between 1952 and 1962. Recent studies have demonstrated significant accumulation of tritium in both organic-rich sediments and food chain. The present study describes the vertical profile of tritium distribution in core sediment collected from Mumbai Harbour Bay (MHB). This will help in better understanding of the biogeochemical behavior and ecological impacts of tritium in the sediment

  15. Radiotracer investigations on dispersion of low level effluents discharged into Mumbai Harbour Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, Noble; Mendhekar, G.N.; Singh, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Two radiotracer investigations (using radioactive 82 Br) were carried out near the CIRUS jetty in the Mumbai Harbour Bay (MHB) to evaluate the dilution and dispersion of low level liquid effluents discharged from the BARC Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP). The first experiment was conducted during an ebb tide while the second was conducted during a flood tide. In both the experiments, about 1.55Ci (57 GBq) of 82 Br was injected into one of the aeration tanks of the ETP. The labelled effluent was discharged into the bay and the movement of the plume in the coastal water was monitored using underwater γ-scintillation detectors. Contour map depicting the spread of the radioactive plume was prepared and dilution factors were estimated. The extent of spread of the tracer was comparatively higher during the ebb tide than in flood tide. A 2-D advection dispersion (analytical) model was used to obtain the system parameters D x and D y (for the ebb tide D x is ∼ 5 m 2 s -1 and D y : 0.7 m 2 s -1 ; for flood tide D x is 5 m 2 s -1 and D y : 0.15 m 2 s -1 ). (author)

  16. Effects of meteorological factors on the temporal distribution of red tides in Tolo Harbour, Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiansheng; Liu, Hao; Yin, Kedong

    2018-01-01

    Red tides represent a major environmental issue in coastal waters globally. However, few studies have examined the relationship between red tides and meteorological factors. Thus, we used a 32-year time-series of frequent red tide events in Tolo Harbour and Channel, to study their relationship with meteorological factors. Most red tides are dominated by dinoflagellates in March, while most diatom red tides in May. Dinoflagellate and diatom red tides respond differently to different meteorological factors. Warming air temperatures in spring favor the generation of dinoflagellate red tides, while precipitation hinders them. The optimum temperature range is approximately 17-23°C and 26-29°C for dinoflagellate and diatom red tides, respectively. Moderate northeasterly winds promote the formation of dinoflagellate red tides. Dinoflagellate red tides are not hindered by cloudy weather and occur in sunlight of varying brightness, whereas diatoms red tides require a certain amount of bright sunlight. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Malignant melanoma arising from a perianal fistula and harbouring a BRAF gene mutation: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Cadenas, Conrado; Lozoya, Rafael; Boldó, Enrique; Bosch, Nuria; Peñas, Lucas; Flores-Couce, Esther; Ochoa, Enrique; Munárriz, Javier; Aracil, Juan P; Tajahuerce, Marcos; Royo, Ramón

    2011-01-01

    Melanoma of the anal region is a very uncommon disease, accounting for only 0.2-0.3% of all melanoma cases. Mutations of the BRAF gene are usually absent in melanomas occurring in this region as well as in other sun-protected regions. The development of a tumour in a longstanding perianal fistula is also extremely rare. More frequent is the case of a tumour presenting as a fistula, that is, the fistula being a consequence of the cancerous process, although we have found only two cases of fistula-generating melanomas reported in the literature. Here we report the case of a 38-year-old male who presented with a perianal fistula of four years of evolution. Histopathological examination of the fistulous tract confirmed the presence of malignant melanoma. Due to the small size and the central location of the melanoma inside the fistulous tract, we believe the melanoma reported here developed in the epithelium of the fistula once the latter was already formed. Resected sentinel lymph nodes were negative and the patient, after going through a wide local excision, remains disease-free nine years after diagnosis. DNA obtained from melanoma tissue was analysed by automated direct sequencing and the V600E (T1799A) mutation was detected in exon 15 of the BRAF gene. Since fistulae experience persistent inflammation, the fact that this melanoma harbours a BRAF mutation strengthens the view that oxidative stress caused by inflammatory processes plays an important role in the genesis of BRAF gene mutations

  18. Pathogenicity of pan-drug-resistant Serratia marcescens harbouring blaNDM-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Teresa M; Göttig, Stephan; Mark, Laura; Christ, Sara; Kempf, Volkhard A J; Wichelhaus, Thomas A; Hamprecht, Axel

    2015-04-01

    To characterize a pan-drug-resistant Serratia marcescens clinical isolate carrying the New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM)-1. The presence of β-lactamase genes was examined by PCR and sequencing. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined by antibiotic gradient test. Transformation assays, transconjugation assays, PFGE and PCR-based replicon typing were used for plasmid analysis. Horizontal gene transfer was evaluated by liquid mating using Escherichia coli J53 as a recipient. Pathogenicity of NDM-1 expressing S. marcescens was analysed using the Galleria mellonella infection model. S. marcescens isolate SM1890 was non-susceptible to all tested antibiotics, with minocycline retaining intermediate activity. blaNDM-1 was located on a 140 kb IncA/C-type plasmid which was transferable to E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae by conjugation. The LD50 of the NDM-positive, SM1890 isolate was higher than that of other, NDM-1 negative, S. marcescens strains. The presence of a blaNDM-1-harbouring IncA/C plasmid resulted in marked resistance to β-lactam antibiotics, but had no significant effect on virulence of isogenic strains. Because of the intrinsic resistance of S. marcescens to colistin and reduced susceptibility to tigecycline, treatment options for infections by NDM-1-positive isolates are extremely limited in this species. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Biological effects of rice harbouring Bph14 and Bph15 on brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Chen, Qiuhong; Wang, Liangquan; Liu, Jia; Shang, Keke; Hua, Hongxia

    2011-05-01

    Brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål; BPH) resistance genes Bph14 and Bph15 have been introgressed singly or pyramided into rice variety Minghui 63 (MH63). The antibiosis and antixenosis effects of these rice lines on BPH and the expression of five P450 genes of BPH regulated by these rice lines were investigated in this study. The resistance level of rice lines harbouring resistance genes was improved compared with MH63. MH63::14 (carrying Bph14) had negative effects on the development of males, honeydew excretion of females, the female ratio and the copulation rate compared with MH63. MH63::14 also exhibited antixenosis action against BPH nymphs, female adults and oviposition. Besides these negative effects, MH63::15 (carrying Bph15) could also retard the development of females, lower the fecundity and shorten the lifespan of females. The antixenosis action of MH63::15 was stronger than that of MH63::14. When Bph14 and Bph15 were pyramided, antibiosis and antixenosis effects were significantly enhanced relative to single-introgression lines. Among the five P450 genes of BPH, expression of three genes was upregulated, one gene was downregulated and one gene was unchanged by resistant hosts. Both Bph14 and Bph15 could improve resistance levels of MH63. MH63::15 and MH63::14&15 had greater potential to control BPH infestations than MH63::14. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Exposure of harbour seals Phoca vitulina to Brucella in declining populations across Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershaw, Joanna L; Stubberfield, Emma J; Foster, Geoffrey; Brownlow, Andrew; Hall, Ailsa J; Perrett, Lorraine L

    2017-09-20

    Since 2000 there has been a major decline in the abundance of Scottish harbour seals Phoca vitulina. The causes of the decline remain uncertain. The aim of this study was to establish the extent to which the seals in the regions of greatest decline have been exposed to Brucella, a bacterial pathogen that causes reproductive failure in terrestrial mammalian hosts. Tissues from dead seals collected between 1992 and 2013 were cultured for Brucella (n = 150). Serum samples collected from live capture-released seals (n = 343) between 1997 and 2012 were tested for Brucella antibodies using the Rose Bengal plate agglutination test (RBT) and a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA). In total, 16% of seals cultured had Brucella isolated from one or more tissues, but there were no pathological signs of infection. The cELISA results were more sensitive than the RBT results, showing that overall 25.4% of seals were seropositive, with the highest seroprevalence in juveniles. As there was no evidence of either a higher seroprevalence or higher circulating antibody levels in seropositive animals in the areas with the greatest declines, it was concluded that Brucella infection is likely not a major contributing factor to recent declines. However, the consistently high proportion of seals exposed to Brucella indicates possible endemicity in these populations, likely due to B. pinnipedialis, which has demonstrated a preference for pinniped hosts. Importantly, given the close proximity between seals, humans and livestock in many areas, there is the potential for cross-species infections.

  1. Generation of mice harbouring a conditional loss-of-function allele of Gata6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Stephen A

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The zinc finger transcription factor GATA6 is believed to have important roles in the development of several organs including the liver, gastrointestinal tract and heart. However, analyses of the contribution of GATA6 toward organogenesis have been hampered because Gata6-/- mice fail to develop beyond gastrulation due to defects in extraembryonic endoderm function. We have therefore generated a mouse line harbouring a conditional loss-of-function allele of Gata6 using Cre/loxP technology. LoxP elements were introduced into introns flanking exon 2 of the Gata6 gene by homologous recombination in ES cells. Mice containing this altered allele were bred to homozygosity and were found to be viable and fertile. To assess the functional integrity of the loxP sites and to confirm that we had generated a Gata6 loss-of-function allele, we bred Gata6 'floxed' mice to EIIa-Cre mice in which Cre is ubiquitously expressed, and to Villin-Cre mice that express Cre in the epithelial cells of the intestine. We conclude that we have generated a line of mice in which GATA6 activity can be ablated in a cell type specific manner by expression of Cre recombinase. This line of mice can be used to establish the role of GATA6 in regulating embryonic development and various aspects of mammalian physiology.

  2. Lichens as indicators of fluoride emission from a phosphorus plant, Long Harbour, Newfoundland, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, B.A.; Thompson, L.K.

    1980-01-01

    Fluoride concentrations in the terrestrial lichens Cladina rangiferina (L.) Harm. and Cladina stellaris (Opiz.) Brodo. were correlated inversely with distance from an industrial plant producing elemental phosphorus at Long Harbour, Nfld., in the direction (NE) of the prevailing wind. The fluoride concentrations ranged from 2830 ppm dry weight in a severely damaged area close to the emission source to 15.5 ppm (dry weight) 12 km NE of the industrial plant. Control samples from unpolluted areas had an average fluoride content of 6.4 ppm dry weight. The minimum observed damage symptoms occurred when these lichens had a fluoride content of 25 ppm dry weight. Damage symptoms included discolouration and structure loss. Discolouration effects were not as pronounced as observed on Abies balsamea (L.) Mill. or on Polytrichum commune (Hedw.) but combined with structure loss allowed the degree of damage to be readily identified in the field. Fluoride concentrations in these terrestrial lichens are compared with levels in soil humus, A. balsamea and some terrestrial bryophytes in four damage zones. The lichen tissue had, on average, twice as much fluoride as occurred in soil humus from the same site and about one half the amount of fluoride found in the terrestrial bryophyte P. commune. The effects of fluoride emissions on the epiphytic lichens Hypogymnia physodes (L.) W. Wats. and Alectoria sarmentosa (Ach.) Ach. in this area are also discussed.

  3. Distribution and population structure of North Atlantic harbour seals (Phoca vitulina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liselotte Andersen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A review of the known geographical distribution and current knowledge on the genetic population structure of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina in the North Atlantic is presented. Based on a synthesis of the results fromfive different studies of neutral geneticmarkers (mtDNAand nuclear microsatellites, mainly twelve genetically distinct populations were identified in the North Atlantic: USA/Canada, Iceland, west coast of Norway, Ireland-Scotland, English east coast, Channel area, Wadden Sea, Limfjord, Skagerrak, Kattegat, West Baltic, and East Baltic. Most of the studies addressed the population structure at the regional level, while only a few addressed the structuring at a local level, i.e. within countries. Due to the limited number of studies conducted, the identified population units were considered preliminary andmore detailed, local studieswould probably reveal structuring on a finer scale. The choice of genetic markers, their properties, resolution in time and applicability in population structure studies is shortly discussed and compared to ecological methods used to delineate populations.

  4. Glas Journal: Deep Mappings of a Harbour or the Charting of Fragments, Traces and Possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Loeffler

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available With reference to a hybrid ethnographic project entitled Glas Journal (2014–2016, this article invites readers to reflect on the cultural mapping of spaces we intimately inhabit. Developed with the participation of local inhabitants of Dún Laoghaire Harbour, Ireland, Glas Journal seeks to explore the maritime environment as a liminal space, whereby the character of buildings and an area’s economic implications determine our relationship to space as much as our daily spatial rhythms and feelings of safety. Deep mapping provides the methodological blueprint for Glas Journal. In order to create a heteroglossic narrative of place and belonging, I will contextualise the project with references to seminal works in the visual arts, literature, film and geography that emotionally map spaces. Chronotopes of the threshold will be used to elaborate on spatial and cultural phenomena that occur when crossings from public to private and interior to exterior take place. Touching upon questions such as “What is a space of protection?”, “Who am I in it?”, and “Who is the Other?”, this article traces forms of liquid mapping that do not strive to conquer but rather to gain insight into the inner landscapes that are reflected in outer space.

  5. Autonomously hyperfunctioning cystic nodule harbouring thyroid carcinoma - Case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Maria João; Soares, Virgínia; Koch, Pedro; Silva, Artur; Taveira-Gomes, António

    2018-01-01

    Hyperthyroidism is rarely associated with malignancy, but it cannot rule out thyroid cancer. Although there is published data describing this coexistence, thyroid carcinomas inside autonomously functioning nodules are uncommon. A 49-year-old woman presented with a cervical mass, unexplained weight loss and anxiousness, sweating and insomnia. On physical examination, she had a palpable left thyroid nodule. Thyroid function tests showed suppressed TSH (nodule. 99mTC thyroid scintigraphy showed a hyperfunctioning nodule with suppression of the remainder parenchyma. Fine-needle aspiration cytology was nondiagnostic (cystic fluid). The patient was started on thiamazole 5 mg daily with subsequent normalization of thyroid function, but she developed cervical foreign body sensation and a left hemithyroidectomy was performed. Histology showed a 4 cm cystic nodule with a follicular variant papillary carcinoma and the patient underwent completion thyroidectomy, followed by radio-iodine ablation. Published literature showed an increased prevalence of autonomously functioning nodules, harbouring thyroid carcinomas in adults. Papillary carcinoma is the most frequently described but the follicular variant is rare. Although rare, thyroid cancer is not definitively excluded in hyperthyroid patients and it should always be considered as differential diagnosis. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Gas exchange and heart rate in the harbour porpoise, Phocoena phocoena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reed, J.Z.; Chambers, C.; Hunter, C.J.

    2000-01-01

    a comparatively high minute rate of gas exchange. Oxygen consumption under these experimental conditions (247 +/- 13.8 ml O-2. min(-1)) was 1.9- fold higher than predicted by standard scaling relations. These data together with an estimate of the total oxygen stores predicted an aerobic dive limit of 5.4 min......The respiratory physiology, heart rates and metabolic rates of two captive juvenile male harbour porpoises (both 28 kg) were measured using a rapid-response respiratory gas analysis system in the laboratory. Breath-hold durations in the laboratory (12 +/- 0.3 s, mean +/- SEM) were shorter than...... field observations. although a few breath-holds of over 40 s were recorded. The mean percentage time spent submerged was 89 +/- 0.4%. Relative to similarly-sized terrestrial mammals, the respiratory frequency was low (4.9 +/- 0.19 breaths min(-1)) but with high tidal volumes (1.1 +/- 0.01 l), enabling...

  7. MOCCA-SURVEY Database I: Is NGC 6535 a dark star cluster harbouring an IMBH?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askar, Abbas; Bianchini, Paolo; de Vita, Ruggero; Giersz, Mirek; Hypki, Arkadiusz; Kamann, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    We describe the dynamical evolution of a unique type of dark star cluster model in which the majority of the cluster mass at Hubble time is dominated by an intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH). We analysed results from about 2000 star cluster models (Survey Database I) simulated using the Monte Carlo code MOnte Carlo Cluster simulAtor and identified these dark star cluster models. Taking one of these models, we apply the method of simulating realistic `mock observations' by utilizing the Cluster simulatiOn Comparison with ObservAtions (COCOA) and Simulating Stellar Cluster Observation (SISCO) codes to obtain the photometric and kinematic observational properties of the dark star cluster model at 12 Gyr. We find that the perplexing Galactic globular cluster NGC 6535 closely matches the observational photometric and kinematic properties of the dark star cluster model presented in this paper. Based on our analysis and currently observed properties of NGC 6535, we suggest that this globular cluster could potentially harbour an IMBH. If it exists, the presence of this IMBH can be detected robustly with proposed kinematic observations of NGC 6535.

  8. Homogenous stands of a wetland grass harbour diverse consortia of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirsel, Stefan G R

    2004-05-01

    A molecular approach was applied to investigate the colonisation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on the wetland grass Phragmites australis. A PCR assay targeting the traditional families of the Glomeromycota yielded products that were used to construct libraries of 18S rDNA. Five hundred and forty six clones were typed by restriction analysis and 76 representatives were sequenced. The majority corresponded to a wide range of taxa within Glomus group A, a few belonged to the "Diversisporaceae" and none to the genera Scutellospora or Acaulospora. Among these sequences, some were very similar to those reported earlier, e.g. Glomus mosseae and G. fasciculatum, other pointed to various new taxa. Although this wetland habitat harboured just one single plant species, phylogenetic analysis exhibited 21 AMF phylotypes, which is in the same range as reported for other natural ecosystems composed of more diverse host communities. Diversity indices supported the perception that the AMF mycoflora associated with this natural grass "monoculture" is not depauperate as it had been described for grasses of crop monocultures. Soil conditions determined the mycorrhizal state of the host, since AMF were not detected at the lakeward front of the reed belt, which is permanently waterlogged.

  9. MOCCA-SURVEY Database I: Galactic Globular Clusters Harbouring a Black Hole Subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askar, Abbas; Sedda, Manuel Arca; Giersz, Mirek

    2018-05-01

    There have been increasing theoretical speculations and observational indications that certain globular clusters (GCs) could contain a sizeable population of stellar mass black holes (BHs). In this paper, we shortlist at least 29 Galactic GCs that could be hosting a subsystem of BHs (BHS). In a companion paper, we analysed results from a wide array of GC models (simulated with the MOCCA code for cluster simulations) that retained few tens to several hundreds of BHs at 12 Gyr and showed that the properties of the BHS in those GCs correlate with the GC's observable properties. Building on those results, we use available observational properties of 140 Galactic GCs to identify 29 GCs that could potentially be harbouring up to a few hundreds of BHs. Utilizing observational properties and theoretical scaling relations, we estimate the density, size and mass of the BHS in these GCs. We also calculate the total number of BHs and the fraction of BHs contained in a binary system for our shortlisted Galactic GCs. Additionally, we mention other Galactic GCs that could also contain significant number of single BHs or BHs in binary systems.

  10. Dragon Lake, Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Nicknamed 'Dragon Lake,' this body of water is formed by the Bratskove Reservoir, built along the Angara river in southern Siberia, near the city of Bratsk. This image was acquired in winter, when the lake is frozen. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on December 19, 1999. This is a natural color composite image made using blue, green, and red wavelengths. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  11. Identification of high-risk areas for harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena bycatch using remote electronic monitoring and satellite telemetry data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindt-Larsen, Lotte; Berg, Casper Willestofte; Tougaard, J.

    2016-01-01

    grounds, quantify fishing effort and document harbour porpoise bycatch. Movement data from 66 harbour porpoises equipped with satellite transmitters from 1997 to 2012 were used to model population density. A simple model was constructed to investigate the relationship between the response (number...... telemetry or REM data allow for identification of areas of potential high and low bycatch risk, and better predictions are obtained when combining the 2 sources of data. The final model can thus be used as a tool to identify areas of bycatch risk...... and lower risk of porpoise bycatch. From May 2010 to April 2011, 4 commercial gillnet vessels were equipped with remote electronic monitoring (REM) systems. The REM system recorded time, GPS position and closed-circuit television (CCTV) footage of all gillnet hauls. REM data were used to identify fishing...

  12. Hydrodynamic discrimination of wakes caused by objects of different size or shape in a harbour seal (Phoca vitulina)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieskotten, S.; Mauck, B.; Miersch, L.

    2011-01-01

    Harbour seals can use their mystacial vibrissae to detect and track hydrodynamic wakes. We investigated the ability of a harbour seal to discriminate objects of different size or shape by their hydrodynamic signature and used particle image velocimetry to identify the hydrodynamic parameters...... that a seal may be using to do so. Hydrodynamic trails were generated by different sized or shaped paddles that were moved in the calm water of an experimental box to produce a characteristic signal. In a two-alternative forced-choice procedure the blindfolded subject was able to discriminate size differences...... of down to 3.6. cm (Weber fraction 0.6) when paddles were moved at the same speed. Furthermore the subject distinguished hydrodynamic signals generated by flat, cylindrical, triangular or undulated paddles of the same width. Particle image velocimetry measurements demonstrated that the seal could have...

  13. A population on the edge: genetic diversity and population structure of the world's northernmost harbour seals (Phoca vitulina)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Liselotte Wesley; Lydersen, Christian; Frie, Anne Kirstine

    2011-01-01

    insight into consequences of population declines in a broader conservation context. The harbour seal population at Svalbard is the world's northernmost harbour seal population. Nothing is known about the genetic diversity, distinctiveness or origin of this small, marginalized mammalian population. Thus......  It is crucial to examine the genetic diversity and structure of small, isolated populations, especially those at the edge of their distribution range, because they are vulnerable to stochastic processes if genetic diversity is low and isolation level high, and because such populations provide...... microsatellites and variation in the D-loop. Each of the four locations was a genetically distinct population. The Svalbard population was highly genetically distinct, had reduced genetic diversity, received limited gene flow, had a rather low effective population size and showed an indication of having...

  14. Lake Chad, Chad, Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Hydrologic and ecologic changes in the Lake Chad Basin are shown in this Oct 1992 photograph. In space photo documentation, Lake Chad was at its greatest area extent (25,000 sq. km.) during Gemini 9 in June 1966 (see S66-38444). Its reduction during the severe droughts from 1968 to 1974 was first noted during Skylab (1973-1974). After the drought began again in 1982, the lake reached its minimum extent (1,450 sq. km.) in Space Shuttle photographs taken in 1984 and 1985. In this STS-52 photograph, Lake Chad has begun to recover. The area of the open water and interdunal impoundments in the southern basin (the Chari River Basin) is estimated to be 1,900 to 2100 sq. km. Note the green vegetation in the valley of the K'Yobe flow has wetted the northern lake basin for the first time in several years. There is evidence of biomass burning south of the K'Yobe Delta and in the vegetated interdunal areas near the dike in the center of the lake. Also note the dark 'Green Line' of the Sahel (the g

  15. Resilience and Restoration of Lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R. Carpenter

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Lake water quality and ecosystem services are normally maintained by several feedbacks. Among these are nutrient retention and humic production by wetlands, nutrient retention and woody habitat production by riparian forests, food web structures that cha nnel phosphorus to consumers rather than phytoplankton, and biogeochemical mechanisms that inhibit phosphorus recycling from sediments. In degraded lakes, these resilience mechanisms are replaced by new ones that connect lakes to larger, regional economi c and social systems. New controls that maintain degraded lakes include runoff from agricultural and urban areas, absence of wetlands and riparian forests, and changes in lake food webs and biogeochemistry that channel phosphorus to blooms of nuisance al gae. Economic analyses show that degraded lakes are significantly less valuable than normal lakes. Because of this difference in value, the economic benefits of restoring lakes could be used to create incentives for lake restoration.

  16. Monitoring water quality in Sydney Harbour using blue mussels during remediation of the Sydney Tar Ponds, Nova Scotia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Tony R; MacAskill, Devin

    2014-03-01

    Using mussels as monitoring tools we measured water quality in Sydney Harbour during a large scale, multi-year remediation project of the Sydney Tar Ponds (STPs); one of Canada's most contaminated sites. Chemical contaminants were measured in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) in Sydney Harbour, which were used as monitoring tools to assess the spatio-temporal distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs); metals (As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn) and lipid content during baseline and 3 years of remediation. The overall spatio-temporal distribution of chemicals in mussels was also compared to contaminants in other marine indicators (e.g., sediment, water and crab tissue). Measured metal concentrations in mussels showed some minor temporal variability (4 years), but these did not appear to be directly related to remediation activities, with the highest concentrations of As, Hg and Zn measured at reference stations. Most measured contaminants showed stable or potentially decreasing concentrations during the study, except Pb and Zn. Individual PAH compounds were mostly undetected during baseline and remediation, except for fluoranthene and pyrene. Concentrations of fluoranthene in mussels and deep water samples were moderately related. Generally, PCBs were undetected (remediation at some near-field stations. Contaminants measured during this study were at much lower concentrations than previously reported in other studies of mussels in Sydney Harbour and eastern Canada. This is likely due to the ongoing natural recovery of Sydney Harbour and to a lesser extent because of the environmental mitigation protection measures implemented during remediation activities at the STPs. The lack of detection of most individual PAHs and PCBs, plus relatively low bio-accumulation of metals observed during baseline and remediation attest to the effectiveness of using mussels as monitoring tools for environmental quality.

  17. Are toxins from harmful algae a factor involved in the decline of harbour seal populations in Scotland?

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Silje-Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Firstly this study builds on the investigation initiated by Hall and Frame (2010), which found that Scottish harbour seals were exposed to domoic acid (DA), a potent natural neurotoxin produced by phytoplankton. Using the same sample collection technique to gather urine and faecal material from various populations around Scotland with differing population trajectories (Lonergan et al., 2007), the objective was to investigate not only exposure to DA, but also other groups of ...

  18. First case of bacteraemia due to Acinetobacter schindleri harbouring blaNDM-1 in an immunocompromised patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Montaña

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinically significant NDM-1-producing Acinetobacter schindleri has not yet been described in the literature. We report the first case of bacteraemia due to an A. schindleri strain harbouring blaNDM-1 recovered from an immunocompromised patient. Our report reinforces the fact that NDM-1 can easily be acquired by Acinetobacter species. Keywords: Acinetobacter schindleri, bacteraemia, blaNDM-1, clinically significant isolate, immunocompromised patient

  19. Wave simulation for the design of an innovative quay wall: the case of Vlorë Harbour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonini, Alessandro; Archetti, Renata; Lamberti, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Sea states and environmental conditions are basic data for the design of marine structures. Hindcasted wave data have been applied here with the aim of identifying the proper design conditions for an innovative quay wall concept. In this paper, the results of a computational fluid dynamics model are used to optimise the new absorbing quay wall of Vlorë Harbour (Republic of Albania) and define the design loads under extreme wave conditions. The design wave states at the harbour entrance have been estimated analysing 31 years of hindcasted wave data simulated through the application of WaveWatch III. Due to the particular geography and topography of the Bay of Vlorë, wave conditions generated from the north-west are transferred to the harbour entrance with the application of a 2-D spectral wave module, whereas southern wave states, which are also the most critical for the port structures, are defined by means of a wave generation model, according to the available wind measurements. Finally, the identified extreme events have been used, through the NewWave approach, as boundary conditions for the numerical analysis of the interaction between the quay wall and the extreme events. The results show that the proposed method, based on numerical modelling at different scales from macro to meso and to micro, allows for the identification of the best site-specific solutions, also for a location devoid of any wave measurement. In this light, the objectives of the paper are two-fold. First, they show the application of sea condition estimations through the use of wave hindcasted data in order to properly define the design wave conditions for a new harbour structure. Second, they present a new approach for investigating an innovative absorbing quay wall based on CFD modelling and the NewWave theory.

  20. Is Lake Chabot Eutrophic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, K.; Logan, J.; Esterlis, P.; Lew, A.; Nguyen, M.

    2013-12-01

    Introduction/Abstract: Lake Chabot is an integral part of the East Bay watershed that provides habitats for animals and recreation for humans year-round. Lake Chabot has been in danger of eutrophication due to excessive dumping of phosphorous and nitrogen into the water from the fertilizers of nearby golf courses and neighboring houses. If the lake turned out to be eutrophified, it could seriously impact what is currently the standby emergency water supply for many Castro Valley residents. Eutrophication is the excessive richness of nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus in a lake, usually as a result of runoff. This buildup of nutrients causes algal blooms. The algae uses up most of the oxygen in the water, and when it dies, it causes the lake to hypoxify. The fish in the lake can't breathe, and consequently suffocate. Other oxygen-dependant aquatic creatures die off as well. Needless to say, the eutrophication of a lake is bad news for the wildlife that lives in or around it. The level of eutrophication in our area in Northern California tends to increase during the late spring/early summer months, so our crew went out and took samples of Lake Chabot on June 2. We focused on the area of the lake where the water enters, known on the map as Honker Bay. We also took readings a ways down in deeper water for comparison's sake. Visually, the lake looked in bad shape. The water was a murky green that glimmered with particulate matter that swirled around the boat as we went by. In the Honker Bay region where we focused our testing, there were reeds bathed in algae that coated the surface of the lake in thick, swirling patterns. Surprisingly enough, however, our test results didn't reveal any extreme levels of phosphorous or nitrogen. They were slightly higher than usual, but not by any significant amount. The levels we found were high enough to stimulate plant and algae growth and promote eutrophication, but not enough to do any severe damage. After a briefing with a

  1. Economic and marketing aspects of using food irradiation technology in treatment of Egyptian exports in domietta harbour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-Khateeb, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    The present study discuss the economic and marketing aspects for the establishment of food irradiation facility in Domietta harbour and the effect of various parameters on unit processing costs. This study is concerned with carrying out an economic evaluation for the application of food exports from Domietta harbour. The study has been carried out according to the approach applied in the evaluation of economic projects and also considering the requirements of technology projects for food preservation.The study is divided into two sections.The first section: concerned with the marketing and technical aspects where the suitable commodity mix was determined for the agricultural crops which are proposed for irradiation. The marketing study comprised determination of the commodity mix, distributions of the commodity mix all over the year according to the harvest seasons and determination the type and capacity of the source. The second section: comprises the economic analysis according to the method adopted by the International Bank for Development taking into consideration the effect of applying radiation technology on the national income. It provides a model for calculating specific unit processing costs by correlating the known capital costs with the annual operation cost and annual throughputs. The cost benefit of the proposed food irradiation facility was analyzed taking into account the cost of the capital investment, operation cost and other additional parameters. The results of this study showed that there is no economic feasibility for the establishment of an irradiation facility for the radiation treatment of food commodities exported from Domietta harbour

  2. Fostering Ecological Literacy: A Case Study of the Saint John Harbour in Two High School English Language Arts Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Velta

    Integrating environmental education into curriculum in a way that tackles the holistic and complicated nature of multi-dimensional issues continues to be a challenge for educators and administrators. There is potential in using ecological literacy to introduce local environmental case studies into English Language Arts high school classrooms. This research examines the experiences of two ELA classrooms in one Saint John, NB, high school with a two-week unit based on stakeholder relationships within the Saint John Harbour. Through presentations by guest speakers and research sourced from local community groups, students learned about the highly complex environmental issues that inform management decisions for the Harbour. Using these materials as background, students participated in a mock stakeholders meeting. Case study methodology was used to explore student learning in both a higher-level and a lower-level grade 10 ELA class. Data for the analysis included: cognitive mapping exercises; oral and written classroom assignments and activities; a videotape of the mock stakeholder meetings; a focus group interview with selected students; and researcher field notes. Data demonstrated significant student learning about environmental issues including increased sophistication in describing links between and among environmental issues affecting the harbour, and much more complex understandings of the positions and roles of the various stakeholder groups. Some important areas of resistance to new learning were also evident. Implications for practice and policy and recommendations for future research are discussed.

  3. Glacial lake inventory and lake outburst potential in Uzbekistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Maxim A; Sabitov, Timur Y; Tomashevskaya, Irina G; Glazirin, Gleb E; Chernomorets, Sergey S; Savernyuk, Elena A; Tutubalina, Olga V; Petrakov, Dmitriy A; Sokolov, Leonid S; Dokukin, Mikhail D; Mountrakis, Giorgos; Ruiz-Villanueva, Virginia; Stoffel, Markus

    2017-08-15

    Climate change has been shown to increase the number of mountain lakes across various mountain ranges in the World. In Central Asia, and in particular on the territory of Uzbekistan, a detailed assessment of glacier lakes and their evolution over time is, however lacking. For this reason we created the first detailed inventory of mountain lakes of Uzbekistan based on recent (2002-2014) satellite observations using WorldView-2, SPOT5, and IKONOS imagery with a spatial resolution from 2 to 10m. This record was complemented with data from field studies of the last 50years. The previous data were mostly in the form of inventories of lakes, available in Soviet archives, and primarily included localized in-situ data. The inventory of mountain lakes presented here, by contrast, includes an overview of all lakes of the territory of Uzbekistan. Lakes were considered if they were located at altitudes above 1500m and if lakes had an area exceeding 100m 2 . As in other mountain regions of the World, the ongoing increase of air temperatures has led to an increase in lake number and area. Moreover, the frequency and overall number of lake outburst events have been on the rise as well. Therefore, we also present the first outburst assessment with an updated version of well-known approaches considering local climate features and event histories. As a result, out of the 242 lakes identified on the territory of Uzbekistan, 15% are considered prone to outburst, 10% of these lakes have been assigned low outburst potential and the remainder of the lakes have an average level of outburst potential. We conclude that the distribution of lakes by elevation shows a significant influence on lake area and hazard potential. No significant differences, by contrast, exist between the distribution of lake area, outburst potential, and lake location with respect to glaciers by regions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Convergence of a semi-discretization scheme for the Hamilton-Jacobi equation: A new approach with the adjoint method

    KAUST Repository

    Cagnetti, Filippo

    2013-11-01

    We consider a numerical scheme for the one dimensional time dependent Hamilton-Jacobi equation in the periodic setting. This scheme consists in a semi-discretization using monotone approximations of the Hamiltonian in the spacial variable. From classical viscosity solution theory, these schemes are known to converge. In this paper we present a new approach to the study of the rate of convergence of the approximations based on the nonlinear adjoint method recently introduced by L.C. Evans. We estimate the rate of convergence for convex Hamiltonians and recover the O(h) convergence rate in terms of the L∞ norm and O(h) in terms of the L1 norm, where h is the size of the spacial grid. We discuss also possible generalizations to higher dimensional problems and present several other additional estimates. The special case of quadratic Hamiltonians is considered in detail in the end of the paper. © 2013 IMACS.

  5. Mathematical methods in the solution of the the Hamilton-Darwin and the Takagi-Taupin equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, S.A.; Berliner, R.R.; Arif, M.; Missouri Univ., Columbia

    1986-01-01

    The diffraction of neutrons by a single crystal is intrinsically a multiple scattering problem. For an ideally imperfect mosaic crystal the Hamilton-Darwin transfer equations describe the coupling of the incident and diffracted beams; whereas, for a perfect crystal one must use the dynamical theory of diffraction, which can be recast in the form of two coupled partial differential equations commonly referred to as the Takagi-Taupin equations. From a mathematical point of view these two problems are equivalent, although the physical manifestations of the solutions are quite different. For the occasion of Professor Shull's seventieth birthday celebration, we bring together in this paper some of the mathematical techniques which we have found useful in elucidating the subtleties of the Bragg diffraction of neutron by crystals. (orig.)

  6. Convergence of a semi-discretization scheme for the Hamilton-Jacobi equation: A new approach with the adjoint method

    KAUST Repository

    Cagnetti, Filippo; Gomes, Diogo A.; Tran, Hung Vinh

    2013-01-01

    We consider a numerical scheme for the one dimensional time dependent Hamilton-Jacobi equation in the periodic setting. This scheme consists in a semi-discretization using monotone approximations of the Hamiltonian in the spacial variable. From classical viscosity solution theory, these schemes are known to converge. In this paper we present a new approach to the study of the rate of convergence of the approximations based on the nonlinear adjoint method recently introduced by L.C. Evans. We estimate the rate of convergence for convex Hamiltonians and recover the O(h) convergence rate in terms of the L∞ norm and O(h) in terms of the L1 norm, where h is the size of the spacial grid. We discuss also possible generalizations to higher dimensional problems and present several other additional estimates. The special case of quadratic Hamiltonians is considered in detail in the end of the paper. © 2013 IMACS.

  7. Hamilton-Jacobi theory for continuation of magnetic field across a toroidal surface supporting a plasma pressure discontinuity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGann, M.; Hudson, S.R.; Dewar, R.L.; Nessi, G. von

    2010-01-01

    The vanishing of the divergence of the total stress tensor (magnetic plus kinetic) in a neighborhood of an equilibrium plasma containing a toroidal surface of discontinuity gives boundary and jump conditions that strongly constrain allowable continuations of the magnetic field across the surface. The boundary conditions allow the magnetic fields on either side of the discontinuity surface to be described by surface magnetic potentials, reducing the continuation problem to that of solving a Hamilton-Jacobi equation. The characteristics of this equation obey Hamiltonian equations of motion, and a necessary condition for the existence of a continued field across a general toroidal surface is that there exist invariant tori in the phase space of this Hamiltonian system. It is argued from the Birkhoff theorem that existence of such an invariant torus is also, in general, sufficient for continuation to be possible. An important corollary is that the rotational transform of the continued field on a surface of discontinuity must, generically, be irrational.

  8. Risk and efficacy of human-enabled interspecific hybridization for climate-change adaptation: Response to Hamilton and Miller (2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovach, Ryan P.; Luikart, Gordon; Lowe, Winsor H.; Boyer, Matthew C.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.

    2016-01-01

    Hamilton and Miller (2016) provide an interesting and provocative discussion of how hybridization and introgression can promote evolutionary potential in the face of climate change. They argue that hybridization—mating between individuals from genetically distinct populations—can alleviate inbreeding depression and promote adaptive introgression and evolutionary rescue. We agree that deliberate intraspecific hybridization (mating between individuals of the same species) is an underused management tool for increasing fitness in inbred populations (i.e., genetic rescue; Frankham 2015; Whiteley et al. 2015). The potential risks and benefits of assisted gene flow have been discussed in the literature, and an emerging consensus suggests that mating between populations isolated for approximately 50–100 generations can benefit fitness, often with a minor risk of outbreeding depression (Frankham et al. 2011; Aitken & Whitlock 2013; Allendorf et al. 2013).

  9. Effect of the refractive index on the hawking temperature: an application of the Hamilton-Jacobi method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakalli, I.; Mirekhtiary, S. F.

    2013-10-01

    Hawking radiation of a non-asymptotically flat 4-dimensional spherically symmetric and static dilatonic black hole (BH) via the Hamilton-Jacobi (HJ) method is studied. In addition to the naive coordinates, we use four more different coordinate systems that are well-behaved at the horizon. Except for the isotropic coordinates, direct computation by the HJ method leads to the standard Hawking temperature for all coordinate systems. The isotropic coordinates allow extracting the index of refraction from the Fermat metric. It is explicitly shown that the index of refraction determines the value of the tunneling rate and its natural consequence, the Hawking temperature. The isotropic coordinates in the conventional HJ method produce a wrong result for the temperature of the linear dilaton. Here, we explain how this discrepancy can be resolved by regularizing the integral possessing a pole at the horizon.

  10. Effect of the refractive index on the hawking temperature: an application of the Hamilton-Jacobi method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakalli, I., E-mail: izzet.sakalli@emu.edu.tr; Mirekhtiary, S. F., E-mail: fatemeh.mirekhtiary@emu.edu.tr [Eastern Mediterranean University G. Magosa, Department of Physics (Turkey)

    2013-10-15

    Hawking radiation of a non-asymptotically flat 4-dimensional spherically symmetric and static dilatonic black hole (BH) via the Hamilton-Jacobi (HJ) method is studied. In addition to the naive coordinates, we use four more different coordinate systems that are well-behaved at the horizon. Except for the isotropic coordinates, direct computation by the HJ method leads to the standard Hawking temperature for all coordinate systems. The isotropic coordinates allow extracting the index of refraction from the Fermat metric. It is explicitly shown that the index of refraction determines the value of the tunneling rate and its natural consequence, the Hawking temperature. The isotropic coordinates in the conventional HJ method produce a wrong result for the temperature of the linear dilaton. Here, we explain how this discrepancy can be resolved by regularizing the integral possessing a pole at the horizon.

  11. Symptoms of anxiety in depression: assessment of item performance of the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale in patients with depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccarino, Anthony L; Evans, Kenneth R; Sills, Terrence L; Kalali, Amir H

    2008-01-01

    Although diagnostically dissociable, anxiety is strongly co-morbid with depression. To examine further the clinical symptoms of anxiety in major depressive disorder (MDD), a non-parametric item response analysis on "blinded" data from four pharmaceutical company clinical trials was performed on the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAMA) across levels of depressive severity. The severity of depressive symptoms was assessed using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD). HAMA and HAMD measures were supplied for each patient on each of two post-screen visits (n=1,668 observations). Option characteristic curves were generated for all 14 HAMA items to determine the probability of scoring a particular option on the HAMA in relation to the total HAMD score. Additional analyses were conducted using Pearson's product-moment correlations. Results showed that anxiety-related symptomatology generally increased as a function of overall depressive severity, though there were clear differences between individual anxiety symptoms in their relationship with depressive severity. In particular, anxious mood, tension, insomnia, difficulties in concentration and memory, and depressed mood were found to discriminate over the full range of HAMD scores, increasing continuously with increases in depressive severity. By contrast, many somatic-related symptoms, including muscular, sensory, cardiovascular, respiratory, gastro-intestinal, and genito-urinary were manifested primarily at higher levels of depression and did not discriminate well at lower HAMD scores. These results demonstrate anxiety as a core feature of depression, and the relationship between anxiety-related symptoms and depression should be considered in the assessment of depression and evaluation of treatment strategies and outcome.

  12. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in Tennessee Region 6 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  13. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in Ohio Region 5 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  14. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in California Region 18 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  15. Avoidance of wind farms by harbour seals is limited to pile driving activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Debbie J F; Hastie, Gordon D; Thompson, David; Janik, Vincent M; Hammond, Philip S; Scott-Hayward, Lindesay A S; Matthiopoulos, Jason; Jones, Esther L; McConnell, Bernie J

    2016-12-01

    As part of global efforts to reduce dependence on carbon-based energy sources there has been a rapid increase in the installation of renewable energy devices. The installation and operation of these devices can result in conflicts with wildlife. In the marine environment, mammals may avoid wind farms that are under construction or operating. Such avoidance may lead to more time spent travelling or displacement from key habitats. A paucity of data on at-sea movements of marine mammals around wind farms limits our understanding of the nature of their potential impacts.Here, we present the results of a telemetry study on harbour seals Phoca vitulina in The Wash, south-east England, an area where wind farms are being constructed using impact pile driving. We investigated whether seals avoid wind farms during operation, construction in its entirety, or during piling activity. The study was carried out using historical telemetry data collected prior to any wind farm development and telemetry data collected in 2012 during the construction of one wind farm and the operation of another.Within an operational wind farm, there was a close-to-significant increase in seal usage compared to prior to wind farm development. However, the wind farm was at the edge of a large area of increased usage, so the presence of the wind farm was unlikely to be the cause.There was no significant displacement during construction as a whole. However, during piling, seal usage (abundance) was significantly reduced up to 25 km from the piling activity; within 25 km of the centre of the wind farm, there was a 19 to 83% (95% confidence intervals) decrease in usage compared to during breaks in piling, equating to a mean estimated displacement of 440 individuals. This amounts to significant displacement starting from predicted received levels of between 166 and 178 dB re 1 μPa (p-p) . Displacement was limited to piling activity; within 2 h of cessation of pile driving, seals were distributed as

  16. Coral colonisation of an artificial reef in a turbid nearshore environment, Dampier Harbour, western Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Blakeway

    Full Text Available A 0.6 hectare artificial reef of local rock and recycled concrete sleepers was constructed in December 2006 at Parker Point in the industrial port of Dampier, western Australia, with the aim of providing an environmental offset for a nearshore coral community lost to land reclamation. Corals successfully colonised the artificial reef, despite the relatively harsh environmental conditions at the site (annual water temperature range 18-32°C, intermittent high turbidity, frequent cyclones, frequent nearby ship movements. Coral settlement to the artificial reef was examined by terracotta tile deployments, and later stages of coral community development were examined by in-situ visual surveys within fixed 25 x 25 cm quadrats on the rock and concrete substrates. Mean coral density on the tiles varied from 113 ± 17 SE to 909 ± 85 SE per m(2 over five deployments, whereas mean coral density in the quadrats was only 6.0 ± 1.0 SE per m(2 at eight months post construction, increasing to 24.0 ± 2.1 SE per m(2 at 62 months post construction. Coral taxa colonising the artificial reef were a subset of those on the surrounding natural reef, but occurred in different proportions--Pseudosiderastrea tayami, Mycedium elephantotus and Leptastrea purpurea being disproportionately abundant on the artificial reef. Coral cover increased rapidly in the later stages of the study, reaching 2.3 ± 0.7 SE % at 62 months post construction. This study indicates that simple materials of opportunity can provide a suitable substrate for coral recruitment in Dampier Harbour, and that natural colonisation at the study site remains sufficient to initiate a coral community on artificial substrate despite ongoing natural and anthropogenic perturbations.

  17. Analysis of seasonal changes in reproductive organs from Icelandic harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sverrir Daníel Halldórsson

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we analyse some aspects of the macro- and microscopical appearance of gonads of harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena from Icelandic coastal waters. Sampling of animals bycaught in gillnets took place in the years 1991 to 1997 and covered the months from September to June. The differences in diameter of seminiferous tubules between samples from the peripheral and central parts of the testis indicate that histological changes associated with maturity begin in the core of the testis. The average tubule diameter was 49, 78 and 118 μm in immature, pubertal and mature animals respectively. The tubule size increased from 55 to 95 μm, coinciding with combined testis weight of 75 to 150 g, indicating the onset of puberty within this range of tubule size and testis weight. The estimated average diameter of tubules when an animal reaches maturity is 82.2 μm or 86.15 μm depending on the method used. The diameter of seminiferous tubules of mature and pubertal animals varies seasonally with a steady increase in the spring. However, lack of samples after mid-June makes estimation of the exact timing of mating impossible. In females, the follicle size of mature and immature animals of age 2 years and older shows seasonalvariation, increasing in late winter or spring. The corpus luteum increases in size during the late pregnancy. The average size of the corpus albicans as a function of the total number of corpora albicantia for each animal, diminishes following the logarithmic equation y = 4.49 – 0.447 · lnx (y = corpus size, x = number of corpora albicantia but apparently they never disappear completely from the ovary. Ovarian activity was almost confined to the left ovary. Our results indicate parturition and copulation in the summer months from late June to August.

  18. Possible causes of a harbour porpoise mass stranding in Danish waters in 2005.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Wright

    Full Text Available An unprecedented 85 harbour porpoises stranded freshly dead along approximately 100 km of Danish coastline from 7-15 April, 2005. This total is considerably above the mean weekly stranding rate for the whole of Denmark, both for any time of year, 1.23 animals/week (ranging from 0 to 20 during 2003-2008, excluding April 2005, and specifically in April, 0.65 animals/week (0 to 4, same period. Bycatch was established as the cause of death for most of the individuals through typical indications of fisheries interactions, including net markings in the skin and around the flippers, and loss of tail flukes. Local fishermen confirmed unusually large porpoise bycatch in nets set for lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus and the strandings were attributed to an early lumpfish season. However, lumpfish catches for 2005 were not unusual in terms of season onset, peak or total catch, when compared to 2003-2008. Consequently, human activity was combined with environmental factors and the variation in Danish fisheries landings (determined through a principal component analysis in a two-part statistical model to assess the correlation of these factors with both the presence of fresh strandings and the numbers of strandings on the Danish west coast. The final statistical model (which was forward selected using Akaike information criterion; AIC indicated that naval presence is correlated with higher rates of porpoise strandings, particularly in combination with certain fisheries, although it is not correlated with the actual presence of strandings. Military vessels from various countries were confirmed in the area from the 7th April, en route to the largest naval exercise in Danish waters to date (Loyal Mariner 2005, 11-28 April. Although sonar usage cannot be confirmed, it is likely that ships were testing various equipment prior to the main exercise. Thus naval activity cannot be ruled out as a possible contributing factor.

  19. Terrestrial bryophytes as indicators of fluoride emission from a phosphorus plant, Long Harbour, Newfoundland, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, B.A.; Thompson, L.K.; Sidhu, S.S.

    1979-01-01

    A study of the effects of fluoride emissions (HF, SiF/sub 4/) on certain species of bryophytes was carried out in the vicinity of an industrial palnt producing elemental phosphorus at Long Harbour, Nfld. Damage symptoms varied from mild phyllid chlorosis (yellowing) to severe browning of up to 95% of the phyllids. Polytrichum commune Hedw. was the main bryophyte species used in the survey. Random collections from 45 sample sites were analysed for total fluoride. The fluoride concentrations in phyllid tissue ranged from a high of 6066 ppm (dry weight) at a distance of 1 km northeast of the emission source to 44 ppm (dry weight) 11.7 km northeast of the emission source in the direction of the prevailing wind. Control samples were obtained from similar sites in areas far removed from the industrial plant and contained, on average, 11.3 ppm (dry weight). The concentration of fluoride in the bryophyte phyllid tissue was inversely correlated with distance from the emission source, in the direction of the prevailing wind. The severity of acropetal scorching was found to be correlated with the concentration of fluoride in the bryophyte phyllid tissue, and in addition, samples high in fluoride had fewer sporophytes. Fluoride concentrations in bryophyte tissue are compared with concentrations of fluoride in the needles of balsam fir, Abies Balsamea I., in four damage zones, and also with available and total fluoride in soil humus and concentrations of fluoride in air. The total area affected by fluoride emissions was increased using bryophytes as the pollution indicator species, especially in areas far from the industrial plant.

  20. Life history and ecology of harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena from West Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Lockyer

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available During 1988, 1989 and 1995, 187 harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena were sampled from the catches off West Greenland. The samples were taken in 3 areas between 62° N and 70° N: northerly (n=134, Maniitsoq and locations Kangaamiut, Qeqertarsuaq and Qasigiannguit further north, southerly (n=30, Nuuk and southernmost (n=23, Paamiut. A suite of biological measurements and data were collected from these samples. Comparison of age and length distributions between years and areas indicated that while there were no statistical differences between the Maniitsoq and northerly samples in different years, the southerly Nuuk and Paamiut samples were biased to younger age classes. Application of the Gompertz growth model to length and weight at age data indicated an asymptotic length of 154 cm in females and 143 cm in males with weights of 64 kg and 52 kg respectively. A number of correlations were observed between length, midgirth(G3, body and blubber weights and blubber thickness. Indicators of body condition showed that overall pregnant females were fattest but that blubber thickness was greatest in juveniles. The blubber lipid content was generally 92-95% wet weight of tissue. Stomach content analysis for 92 animals indicated regional differences, although capelin (Mallotus villosus was predominant in all samples. The presence of fish, squid and crustaceans indicated opportunistic feeding. Females ovulated from age 3-4 years at a length of about 140 cm; combined testis weights >200 g indicated maturation in males from age 2 years upwards at a length >125 cm. Several small embryos were found, consistent with a mating season in late summer. Testis hypertrophy in August also supported a late summer breeding. Analysis of ovarian corpora indicated annual ovulation. Certain biological parameters, including body condition indicators, indicate differences between WestGreenland and eastern North Atlantic populations that agree with published genetic findings.

  1. Malignant melanoma arising from a perianal fistula and harbouring a BRAF gene mutation: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajahuerce Marcos

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Melanoma of the anal region is a very uncommon disease, accounting for only 0.2-0.3% of all melanoma cases. Mutations of the BRAF gene are usually absent in melanomas occurring in this region as well as in other sun-protected regions. The development of a tumour in a longstanding perianal fistula is also extremely rare. More frequent is the case of a tumour presenting as a fistula, that is, the fistula being a consequence of the cancerous process, although we have found only two cases of fistula-generating melanomas reported in the literature. Case Presentation Here we report the case of a 38-year-old male who presented with a perianal fistula of four years of evolution. Histopathological examination of the fistulous tract confirmed the presence of malignant melanoma. Due to the small size and the central location of the melanoma inside the fistulous tract, we believe the melanoma reported here developed in the epithelium of the fistula once the latter was already formed. Resected sentinel lymph nodes were negative and the patient, after going through a wide local excision, remains disease-free nine years after diagnosis. DNA obtained from melanoma tissue was analysed by automated direct sequencing and the V600E (T1799A mutation was detected in exon 15 of the BRAF gene. Conclusion Since fistulae experience persistent inflammation, the fact that this melanoma harbours a BRAF mutation strengthens the view that oxidative stress caused by inflammatory processes plays an important role in the genesis of BRAF gene mutations.

  2. St. John's Harbour's South Side Hills internal development concept: going underground for multi-use space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kierans, T W

    1979-03-01

    The advantages of underground locations for space saving, security, stability, environmental, aesthetic, and weather protection reasons with regard to power plants, municipal transport facilities, liquid fuel storage, national defence structures, public utilities and parking garages have been recognized for many years. The municipal, provincial, and federal authorities responsible for the city and seaport of St. John's, Newfoundland should consider the short-, medium-, and long-term benefits of the comprehensive concept proposed in this paper for the internal development of the South Side Hills - the rocky, sandstone hills that rise steeply to over 220 m between the crowded St. John's Harbour and Freshwater Bay. This proposal outlines a plan of excavation, space utilization, organization, financing, rock support, ventilation, water and energy supply, transportation arrangements and, not of least of all, the important use of the excavated rock to create a system of bottom-founded and floating concrete breakwaters at the entrance to Freshwater Bay. The proposed breakwaters would make it possible for St. John's to claim one of the finest deep-water harbors on the eastern seaboard of North America. Its location close to the North Atlantic main shipping lanes and on the threshold of the potential energy corridor to the Easten Arctic makes it an outstanding and natural location for such a facility. Other benefits include environmental protection and conservation of the natural beauty of the Hills and much improved utilization of the existing harbor. The employment opportunities and the potential for substantial city growth using existing untapped natural resources appear fully to merit the detailed economic cost studies that the concept now requires.

  3. Bite injuries of grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) on harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauniaux, Thierry; Garigliany, Mutien-Marie; Loos, Pauline; Bourgain, Jean-Luc; Bouveroux, Thibaut; Coignoul, Freddy; Haelters, Jan; Karpouzopoulos, Jacky; Pezeril, Sylvain; Desmecht, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Bite-like skin lesions on harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) have been suspected to be caused by grey seals (Halichoerus grypus), and a few field observations have been reported. Bite-like skin lesions observed on stranded animals were characterized by two main components: large flaps of loose or missing skin and blubber with frayed edges and puncture lesions. Definitive demonstration of predation by a grey seal was not reported so far in those stranded animals. In this study, five stranded porpoises with bite-like skin lesions were swabbed for genetic investigations. In addition, the head of a recently dead grey seal was used to mimic bite-like skin injuries on a porpoise carcass. Subsequently, the artificial skin injuries were swabbed, along with the gum of the seal used for inflicting them (positive controls). Total DNA was extracted from the swabs and was used to retrieve a fragment of mitochondrial DNA by PCR. Primers were designed to amplify a specific stretch of mitochondrial DNA known to differ between grey seals and porpoises. The amplicon targeted was successfully amplified from the positive control and from two of the stranded porpoises, and grey seal-specific mitochondrial DNA was retrieved from all those samples. We conclude that (1) it is possible to detect grey seal DNA from dead porpoises even after several days in seawater and (2) bite-like skin lesions found on dead porpoises definitively result from grey seals attacks. The attacks are most likely linked with predation although, in a number of cases, scavenging and aggressive behaviour cannot be excluded.

  4. Oxygen levels versus chemical pollutants: do they have similar influence on macrofaunal assemblages? A case study in a harbour with two opposing entrances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra-Garcia, J.M.; Garcia-Gomez, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    Generally, harbours are polluted zones characterised by low values of hydrodynamism and oxygen in the water column and high concentrations of pollutants in sediments. The harbour of Ceuta, North Africa, has an unusual structure; it is located between two bays connected by a channel, which increases the water movement and exchange in the harbour, maintaining moderate oxygen levels in the water-sediment interface. Nevertheless, high concentration of organic matter, nutrients and heavy metals were measured in sediments from this harbour. Under these unusual conditions (high levels of pollution but total saturation of oxygen in the water column) we studied the responses of soft-bottom macrobenthic communities using uni and multivariate analyses. The number of species was similar inside and outside the harbour but the species composition differed between internal and external stations; oxygen levels seem to control the 'quantity' of species whereas pollutants control the 'quality' of them. - A high diversity of benthic animals was found in a polluted harbour where high oxygen levels occurred

  5. Real-estate lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickert, David A.; Spieker, Andrew Maute

    1971-01-01

    Since the dawn of civilization waterfront land has been an irresistible attraction to man. Throughout history he has sought out locations fronting on oceans, rivers, and lakes. Originally sought for proximity .to water supply and transportation, such locations are now sought more for their esthetic qualities and for recreation. Usable natural waterfront property is limited, however, and the more desirable sites in many of our urban areas have already been taken. The lack of available waterfront sites has led to the creation of many artificial bodies of water. The rapid suburbanization that has characterized urban growth in America since the end of World War II, together with increasing affluence and le-isure time, has created a ready market for waterfront property. Accordingly, lake-centered subdivisions and developments dot the suburban landscape in many of our major urban areas. Literally thousands of lakes surrounded by homes have materialized during this period of rapid growth. Recently, several "new town" communities have been planned around this lake-centered concept. A lake can be either an asset or a liaoility to a community. A clean, clear, attractively landscaped lake is a definite asset, whereas a weed-choked, foul-smelling mudhole is a distinct liability. The urban environment poses both problems and imaginative opportunities in the development of lakes. Creation of a lake causes changes in all aspects of the environment. Hydrologic systems and ecological patterns are usually most severely altered. The developer should be aware of the potential changes; it is not sufficient merely to build a dam across a stream or to dig a hole in the ground. Development of Gl a successful lake requires careful planning for site selection and design, followed by thorough and cc ntinual management. The purpose of this report is to describe the characteristics of real-estate lakes, to pinpoint potential pmblems, and to suggest possible planning and management guidelines

  6. Lake Michigan lake trout PCB model forecast post audit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scenario forecasts for total PCBs in Lake Michigan (LM) lake trout were conducted using the linked LM2-Toxics and LM Food Chain models, supported by a suite of additional LM models. Efforts were conducted under the Lake Michigan Mass Balance Study and the post audit represents th...

  7. Methane emissions from permafrost thaw lakes limited by lake drainage.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Huissteden, J.; Berrittella, C.; Parmentier, F.J.W.; Mi, Y.; Maximov, T.C.; Dolman, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    Thaw lakes in permafrost areas are sources of the strong greenhouse gas methane. They develop mostly in sedimentary lowlands with permafrost and a high excess ground ice volume, resulting in large areas covered with lakes and drained thaw-lake basins (DTLBs; refs,). Their expansion is enhanced by

  8. Great Lakes Environmental Database (GLENDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Great Lakes Environmental Database (GLENDA) houses environmental data on a wide variety of constituents in water, biota, sediment, and air in the Great Lakes area.

  9. Functional microbiology of soda lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorokin, D.Y.; Banciu, H.L.; Muyzer, G.

    2015-01-01

    Soda lakes represent unique permanently haloalkaline system. Despite the harsh conditions, they are inhabited by abundant, mostly prokaryotic, microbial communities. This review summarizes results of studies of main functional groups of the soda lake prokaryotes responsible for carbon, nitrogen and

  10. 'Morals can not be drawn from facts but guidance may be': the early life of W.D. Hamilton's theory of inclusive fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Sarah A

    2015-12-01

    W.D. Hamilton's theory of inclusive fitness saw the evolution of altruism from the point of view of the gene. It was at heart a theory of limits, redefining altruistic behaviours as ultimately selfish. This theory inspired two controversial texts published almost in tandem, E.O. Wilson's Sociobiology: The New Synthesis (1975) and Richard Dawkins's The Selfish Gene (1976). When Wilson and Dawkins were attacked for their evolutionary interpretations of human societies, they claimed a distinction between reporting what is and declaring what ought to be. Can the history of sociobiological theories be so easily separated from its sociopolitical context? This paper draws upon unpublished materials from the 1960s and early 1970s and documents some of the ways in which Hamilton saw his research as contributing to contemporary concerns. It pays special attention to the 1969 Man and Beast Smithsonian Institution symposium in order to explore the extent to which Hamilton intended his theory to be merely descriptive versus prescriptive. From this, we may see that Hamilton was deeply concerned about the political chaos he perceived in the world around him, and hoped to arrive at a level of self-understanding through science that could inform a new social order.

  11. Negative correlation between nuptial throat colour and blood parasite load in male European green lizards supports the Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, Orsolya; Bajer, Katalin; Mészáros, Boglárka; Török, János; Herczeg, Gábor

    2013-06-01

    During female mate choice, conspicuous male sexual signals are used to infer male quality and choose the best sire for the offspring. The theory of parasite-mediated sexual selection (Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis) presumes that parasite infection can influence the elaboration of sexual signals: resistant individuals can invest more energy into signal expression and thus advertise their individual quality through signal intensity. By preferring these males, females can provide resistance genes for their offspring. Previous research showed that nuptial throat colour of male European green lizard, Lacerta viridis, plays a role in both inter- and intrasexual selections as a condition-dependent multiple signalling system. The aim of this study was to test the predictions of the Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis on male European green lizards. By blood sampling 30 adult males during the reproductive season, we found members of the Haemogregarinidae family in all but one individual (prevalence = 96 %). The infection intensity showed strong negative correlation with the throat and belly colour brightness in line with the predictions of the Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis. In addition, we found other correlations between infection intensity and other fitness-related traits, suggesting that parasite load has a remarkable effect on individual fitness. This study shows that throat patch colour of the European green lizards not only is a multiple signalling system but also possibly acts as an honest sexual signal of health state in accordance with the Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis.

  12. Microplastic pollution in lakes and lake shoreline sediments - A case study on Lake Bolsena and Lake Chiusi (central Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Elke Kerstin; Paglialonga, Lisa; Czech, Elisa; Tamminga, Matthias

    2016-06-01

    Rivers and effluents have been identified as major pathways for microplastics of terrestrial sources. Moreover, lakes of different dimensions and even in remote locations contain microplastics in striking abundances. This study investigates concentrations of microplastic particles at two lakes in central Italy (Lake Bolsena, Lake Chiusi). A total number of six Manta Trawls have been carried out, two of them one day after heavy winds occurred on Lake Bolsena showing effects on particle distribution of fragments and fibers of varying size categories. Additionally, 36 sediment samples from lakeshores were analyzed for microplastic content. In the surface waters 2.68 to 3.36 particles/m(3) (Lake Chiusi) and 0.82 to 4.42 particles/m(3) (Lake Bolsena) were detected, respectively. Main differences between the lakes are attributed to lake characteristics such as surface and catchment area, depth and the presence of local wind patterns and tide range at Lake Bolsena. An event of heavy winds and moderate rainfall prior to one sampling led to an increase of concentrations at Lake Bolsena which is most probable related to lateral land-based and sewage effluent inputs. The abundances of microplastic particles in sediments vary from mean values of 112 (Lake Bolsena) to 234 particles/kg dry weight (Lake Chiusi). Lake Chiusi results reveal elevated fiber concentrations compared to those of Lake Bolsena what might be a result of higher organic content and a shift in grain size distribution towards the silt and clay fraction at the shallow and highly eutrophic Lake Chiusi. The distribution of particles along different beach levels revealed no significant differences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Sanctuaries for lake trout in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Jon G.; Eshenroder, Randy L.; Hartman, Wilbur L.

    1987-01-01

    Populations of lake trout, severely depleted in Lake Superior and virtually extirpated from the other Great Lakes because of sea lamprey predation and intense fishing, are now maintained by annual plantings of hatchery-reared fish in Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario and parts of Lake Superior. The extensive coastal areas of the Great Lakes and proximity to large populations resulted in fishing pressure on planted lake trout heavy enough to push annual mortality associated with sport and commercial fisheries well above the critical level needed to reestablish self-sustaining stocks. The interagency, international program for rehabilitating lake trout includes controlling sea lamprey abundance, stocking hatchery-reared lake trout, managing the catch, and establishing sanctuaries where harvest is prohibited. Three lake trout sanctuaries have been established in Lake Michigan: the Fox Island Sanctuary of 121, 500 ha, in the Chippewa-Ottawa Treaty fishing zone in the northern region of the lake; the Milwaukee Reef Sanctuary of 160, 000 ha in midlake, in boundary waters of Michigan and Wisconsin; and Julian's Reef Sanctuary of 6, 500 ha, in Illinois waters. In northern Lake Huron, Drummond Island Sanctuary of 55, 000 ha is two thirds in Indian treaty-ceded waters in Michigan and one third in Ontario waters of Canada. A second sanctuary, Six Fathom Bank-Yankee Reef Sanctuary, in central Lake Huron contains 168, 000 ha. Sanctuary status for the Canadian areas remains to be approved by the Provincial government. In Lake Superior, sanctuaries protect the spawning grounds of Gull Island Shoal (70, 000 ha) and Devils Island Shoal (44, 000 ha) in Wisconsin's Apostle Island area. These seven sanctuaries, established by the several States and agreed upon by the States, Indian tribes, the U.S. Department of the Interior, and the Province of Ontario, contribute toward solving an interjurisdictional fishery problem.

  14. Study of Morphologic Change in Poyang Lake Basin Caused by Sand Dredging Using Multi-temporal Landsat Images and DEMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, S.; Zhang, X.; Wang, D.; Zhu, J.; Fang, C.

    2014-11-01

    Sand dredging has been practiced in rivers, lakes, harbours and coastal areas in recent years in China mostly because of demand from construction industry as building material. Sand dredging has disturbed aquatic ecosystems by affecting hydrological processes, increasing content of suspended sediments and reducing water clarity. Poyang Lake, connecting with Yangtze River in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, is the largest fresh water lake in China. Sand dredging in Poyang Lake has been intensified since 2001 because such practice was banned in Yangtze River and profitable. In this study, the morphologic change caused by sand dredging in Poyang Lake basin was analysed by overlaying two DEMs acquired in 1952 and 2010 respectively. Since the reflectance of middle infrared band for sand dredging vessel is much higher than that of water surface, sand dredging vessels were showed as isolated grey points and can be counted in the middle infrared band in 12 Landsat images acquired in flooding season during 2000~2010. Another two Landsat images (with low water level before 2000 and after 2010) were used to evaluate the morphologic change by comparing inundation extent and shoreline shape. The following results was obtained: (1) vessels for sand dredging are mainly distributed in the north of Poyang Lake before 2007, but the dredging area was enlarged to the central region and even to Gan River; (2) sand dredging area reached to about 260.4 km2 and is mainly distributed in the north of Songmen Mountain and has been enlarged to central of Poyang Lake from the distribution of sand vessels since 2007. Sand dredged from Poyang Lake was about 1.99 × 109 m3 or 2448 Mt assuming sediment bulk density of 1.23 t m-3. It means that the magnitude of sand mining during 2001-2010 is almost ten times of sand depositions in Poyang Lake during 1955-2010; (3) Sand dredging in Poyang Lake has alternated the lake capacity and discharge section area, some of the watercourse in the

  15. Water quality of Lake Austin and Town Lake, Austin, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Freeman L.; Wells, Frank C.; Shelby, Wanda J.; McPherson, Emma

    1988-01-01

    Lake Austin and Town Lake are located on the Colorado River in Travis County, central Texas, and serve as a source of water for municipal and industrial water supplies, electrical-power generation, and recreation for more than 500,000 people in the Austin metropolitan area. Lake Austin, located immediately downstream of Lake Travis, extends for more than 20 miles into the western edge of the city of Austin. Town Lake extends through the downtown area of the city of Austin for nearly 6 miles where the Colorado River is impounded by Longhorn Dam.

  16. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in Great Lakes Region 4 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  17. Transient Tsunamis in Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couston, L.; Mei, C.; Alam, M.

    2013-12-01

    A large number of lakes are surrounded by steep and unstable mountains with slopes prone to failure. As a result, landslides are likely to occur and impact water sitting in closed reservoirs. These rare geological phenomena pose serious threats to dam reservoirs and nearshore facilities because they can generate unexpectedly large tsunami waves. In fact, the tallest wave experienced by contemporary humans occurred because of a landslide in the narrow bay of Lituya in 1958, and five years later, a deadly landslide tsunami overtopped Lake Vajont's dam, flooding and damaging villages along the lakefront and in the Piave valley. If unstable slopes and potential slides are detected ahead of time, inundation maps can be drawn to help people know the risks, and mitigate the destructive power of the ensuing waves. These maps give the maximum wave runup height along the lake's vertical and sloping boundaries, and can be obtained by numerical simulations. Keeping track of the moving shorelines along beaches is challenging in classical Eulerian formulations because the horizontal extent of the fluid domain can change over time. As a result, assuming a solid slide and nonbreaking waves, here we develop a nonlinear shallow-water model equation in the Lagrangian framework to address the problem of transient landslide-tsunamis. In this manner, the shorelines' three-dimensional motion is part of the solution. The model equation is hyperbolic and can be solved numerically by finite differences. Here, a 4th order Runge-Kutta method and a compact finite-difference scheme are implemented to integrate in time and spatially discretize the forced shallow-water equation in Lagrangian coordinates. The formulation is applied to different lake and slide geometries to better understand the effects of the lake's finite lengths and slide's forcing mechanism on the generated wavefield. Specifically, for a slide moving down a plane beach, we show that edge-waves trapped by the shoreline and free

  18. Technologies for lake restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut KLAPPER

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Lakes are suffering from different stress factors and need to be restored using different approaches. The eutrophication remains as the main water quality management problem for inland waters: both lakes and reservoirs. The way to curb the degradation is to stop the nutrient sources and to accelerate the restoration with help of in-lake technologies. Especially lakes with a long retention time need (eco- technological help to decrease the nutrient content in the free water. The microbial and other organic matter from sewage and other autochthonous biomasses, causes oxygen depletion, which has many adverse effects. In less developed countries big reservoirs function as sewage treatment plants. Natural aeration solves problems only partly and many pollutants tend to accumulate in the sediments. The acidification by acid rain and by pyrite oxidation has to be controlled by acid neutralizing technologies. Addition of alkaline chemicals is useful only for soft waters, and technologies for (microbial alkalinization of very acidic hardwater mining lakes are in development. The corrective measures differ from those in use for eutrophication control. The salinization and water shortage mostly occurs if more water is used than available. L. Aral, L. Tschad, the Dead Sea or L. Nasser belong to waters with most severe environmental problems on a global scale. Their hydrologic regime needs to be evaluated. The inflow of salt water at the bottom of some mining lakes adds to stability of stratification, and thus accumulation of hydrogen sulphide in the monimolimnion of the meromictic lakes. Destratification, which is the most used technology, is only restricted applicable because of the dangerous concentrations of the byproducts of biological degradation. The contamination of lakes with hazardous substances from industry and agriculture require different restoration technologies, including subhydric isolation and storage, addition of nutrients for better self

  19. Lakes on Mars

    CERN Document Server

    Cabrol, Nathalie A

    2014-01-01

    On Earth, lakes provide favorable environments for the development of life and its preservation as fossils. They are extremely sensitive to climate fluctuations and to conditions within their watersheds. As such, lakes are unique markers of the impact of environmental changes. Past and current missions have now demonstrated that water once flowed at the surface of Mars early in its history. Evidence of ancient ponding has been uncovered at scales ranging from a few kilometers to possibly that of the Arctic ocean. Whether life existed on Mars is still unknown; upcoming missions may find critic

  20. Terrestrial CDOM in Lakes of Yamal Peninsula: Connection to Lake and Lake Catchment Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury Dvornikov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we analyze interactions in lake and lake catchment systems of a continuous permafrost area. We assessed colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM absorption at 440 nm (a(440CDOM and absorption slope (S300–500 in lakes using field sampling and optical remote sensing data for an area of 350 km2 in Central Yamal, Siberia. Applying a CDOM algorithm (ratio of green and red band reflectance for two high spatial resolution multispectral GeoEye-1 and Worldview-2 satellite images, we were able to extrapolate the a(λCDOM data from 18 lakes sampled in the field to 356 lakes in the study area (model R2 = 0.79. Values of a(440CDOM in 356 lakes varied from 0.48 to 8.35 m−1 with a median of 1.43 m−1. This a(λCDOM dataset was used to relate lake CDOM to 17 lake and lake catchment parameters derived from optical and radar remote sensing data and from digital elevation model analysis in order to establish the parameters controlling CDOM in lakes on the Yamal Peninsula. Regression tree model and boosted regression tree analysis showed that the activity of cryogenic processes (thermocirques in the lake shores and lake water level were the two most important controls, explaining 48.4% and 28.4% of lake CDOM, respectively (R2 = 0.61. Activation of thermocirques led to a large input of terrestrial organic matter and sediments from catchments and thawed permafrost to lakes (n = 15, mean a(440CDOM = 5.3 m−1. Large lakes on the floodplain with a connection to Mordy-Yakha River received more CDOM (n = 7, mean a(440CDOM = 3.8 m−1 compared to lakes located on higher terraces.

  1. Short-term effects of the construction of wind turbines on harbour porpoises at Horns Reef

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tougaard, J. [Hedeselskabet, Miljoe og Energi A/S, Viborg(Denmark); Carstensen, Jakob [National Environmental Res. Inst., Dept. of Marine Ecology, Roskidle (Denmark); Damsgaard Henriksen, O.; Teilmann, J. [National Environmental Res. Inst., Dept. of Arctic Biology, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2003-04-15

    In 2002 the Worlds largest offshore wind farm, consisting of 80 2MW wind turbines, was constructed on Horns Reef in the Danish North Sea. Ship based visual surveys and long-term deployment of acoustic dataloggers (PODs) were used to assess short term effects of construction on behaviour and abundance of harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena). Most focus was put on mounting of steel monopile foundations for the turbines, as they were rammed into the seabed. This type of operation is known to generate very loud underwater sound levels. Combined evidence from animal densities obtained from visual surveys, behavioural observations during surveys and acoustic activity data in and outside the construction area demonstrated effects on the behaviour and abundance of animals on both short-term (hours) and long term (entire construction period) scales. Acoustic activity by the porpoises decreased dramatically on the entire Horns Reef at the onset of ramming operations and returned to higher levels a few hours after each ramming operation was completed. A reduction in abundance close to ramming operations was anticipated, as deterring devices (pingers and seal scarers) were deployed prior to each ramming operation to deter marine mammals from the area and thus protect them from exposure to the loud sound levels generated by the ramming procedure. The changes in abundance and behaviour over large distances are unlikely to be explained by the deterring sounds, which have comparably lower intensities than the ramming sounds and these effects must be attributed to the ramming. A general effect on the behaviour of animals was seen during the construction period and at distances of up to 10-15 kilometers from the construction site. Compared to observations before and after construction there was a decrease in non-directional swimming, a behaviour assumed to correlate with feeding activity. Animal density estimates indicates that there were fewer animals present on the entire Horns

  2. Status, ecology and life history of harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena, in Danish waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Lockyer

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available A review of historical harbour porpoise catches in Danish waters, together with current distribution, are provided. Most information on distribution is derived from historical catch data with a total of about 100,000 animals taken in Little Belt alone and 40,000 from Isefjord area during the 19th century. Recent sightings surveys and tagging indicate extensive movements of animals within and between Inner Danish Waters and the Skagerrak / North Sea. Biological information is reviewed for the region, drawing on directed catches, bycatches and strandings from a databasecomprising nearly 1,900 records from 1834 through 1998. Diet, parasites, pollutants, biological parameters (age and reproduction and body condition are reported, focusing mainly on the period 1996-98 when comprehensive data were collected. In 1980s samples, gadoids were the most important prey items (found in 62% of stomachs followed by clupeoids (35%, gobiids (30%, and ammodytids (30%. Some dietary differences were observed between North Sea and Inner Danish waters. Pollutant analyses indicated a decline in sumDDT concentrations yet an increase in sumPCB and HCH levels in Danish porpoises, with comparatively higher levels here than in Baltic and Norwegian waters. Heavy metal concentrations appear higher than in Baltic porpoises. Biological parameters indicate a longevity of up to 23 years in both sexes but with fewer than 5% living beyond 12 years. Sexual maturity occurred at slightly over age 3 years in both females and males, with corresponding lengths of about 135 cm in males and 143 cm in females. The dataindicate a size range at birth of 65 - 75 cm (weight 4.5 – 6.7 kg, with a minimum of 60 cm and 3.4 kg, and a likely gestation time of 10 months. Conception most likely occurs during August, with peak births in June. Directed catches comprised adult animals whereas bycaught and stranded porpoises comprised predominantly juveniles. In data from all sources, males outnumbered

  3. Short-term effects of the construction of wind turbines on harbour porpoises at Horns Reef

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tougaard, J.; Carstensen, Jakob; Damsgaard Henriksen, O.; Teilmann, J.

    2003-04-01

    In 2002 the Worlds largest offshore wind farm, consisting of 80 2MW wind turbines, was constructed on Horns Reef in the Danish North Sea. Ship based visual surveys and long-term deployment of acoustic dataloggers (PODs) were used to assess short term effects of construction on behaviour and abundance of harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena). Most focus was put on mounting of steel monopile foundations for the turbines, as they were rammed into the seabed. This type of operation is known to generate very loud underwater sound levels. Combined evidence from animal densities obtained from visual surveys, behavioural observations during surveys and acoustic activity data in and outside the construction area demonstrated effects on the behaviour and abundance of animals on both short-term (hours) and long term (entire construction period) scales. Acoustic activity by the porpoises decreased dramatically on the entire Horns Reef at the onset of ramming operations and returned to higher levels a few hours after each ramming operation was completed. A reduction in abundance close to ramming operations was anticipated, as deterring devices (pingers and seal scarers) were deployed prior to each ramming operation to deter marine mammals from the area and thus protect them from exposure to the loud sound levels generated by the ramming procedure. The changes in abundance and behaviour over large distances are unlikely to be explained by the deterring sounds, which have comparably lower intensities than the ramming sounds and these effects must be attributed to the ramming. A general effect on the behaviour of animals was seen during the construction period and at distances of up to 10-15 kilometers from the construction site. Compared to observations before and after construction there was a decrease in non-directional swimming, a behaviour assumed to correlate with feeding activity. Animal density estimates indicates that there were fewer animals present on the entire Horns

  4. Personal exposure to benzene and 1,3-butadiene during petroleum refinery turnarounds and work in the oil harbour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerstrom, M; Almerud, P; Andersson, E M; Strandberg, B; Sallsten, G

    2016-11-01

    Petroleum refinery workers' exposure to the carcinogens benzene and 1,3-butadiene has decreased during normal operations. However, certain occupational groups or events at the refineries still involve a risk of higher exposures. The aim of this study was to examine the personal exposure to benzene and 1,3-butadiene at refinery turnarounds and during work in the oil harbour. Personal exposure measurements of benzene and 1,3-butadiene were taken during work shifts, with a priori assumed higher benzene exposure, using PerkinElmer diffusive samplers filled with Carbopack X. Mean exposure levels were calculated, and repeated exposure measurements, when available, were assessed using mixed effect models. Group and individual compliance with the Swedish occupational exposure limit (OEL) was tested for the different exposure groups. Mean benzene exposure levels for refinery workers during the three measured turnarounds were 150, 610 and 960 µg/m 3 , and mean exposures for oil harbour workers and sewage tanker drivers were 310 and 360 µg/m 3 , respectively. Higher exposures were associated with handling benzene-rich products. Most occupational groups did not comply with the Swedish OEL for benzene nor did the individuals within the groups. The exposure to 1,3-butadiene was very low, between Work within the petroleum refinery industry, with potential exposure to open product streams containing higher fractions of benzene, pose a risk of personal benzene exposures exceeding the OEL. Refinery workers performing these work tasks frequently, such as contractors, sewage tanker drivers and oil harbour workers, need to be identified and protected.

  5. MULTIFUNCTIONAL LAND USE IN THE RENEWAL OF HARBOUR AREAS: PATTERNS OF PHYSICAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE URBAN FUNCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Remesar

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Being one of the most representative spatial processes of the last 30 years, which frequently occur in strategic parts of the cities and justify special financing investments, the operations of renewal of harbour areas can be seen as a laboratory of contemporary urban design. In the context of the activity developed by the IFHP Working Party on Multifunctional and Intensive Land Use, these operations are also an high potential field of research, justifying its closer analysis, as it has been done in the last two years with the technical visits to Amsterdam, Rotterdam, Oslo, and now to Barcelona. Focusing on the multifunctional use of spaces, this paper analyses several operations of renewal of harbour areas, trying to identify the urban design solutions adopted in those operations regarding the physical distribution of the proposed urban functions. The case-study comparative analysis is the applied method, based on which are identified: (1 the different urban functions present on these operations, and; (2 the concept under which these different functions are disposed in the area and combined between themselves. The hypothesis is that it can be established a general classification on the forms how different functions are combined in these operations. The paper previously distinguishes two types of functions, regarding the relative its importance in the area: the dominant urban functions and the located urban functions. The dominant urban functions are those functions that generally dominate an urban area, although it can contain located urban functions within its perimeter on specific locations, e.g., residential areas, offices and shopping areas, industrial areas, public equipment areas and special use areas. The located urban functions are those specific functions that aren’t dominating functions and exist within the perimeter of a dominant urban function, e.g., schools, museums, public services, local shopping’s and others. The papers

  6. Sources of ambient concentrations and chemical composition of PM 2.5-0.1 in Cork Harbour, Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellebust, S.; Allanic, A.; O'Connor, I. P.; Jourdan, C.; Healy, D.; Sodeau, J. R.

    2010-02-01

    Particulate matter (PM 10-2.5 and PM 2.5-0.1) has been collected over a period of one year in Cork Harbour, Ireland, using a high-volume cascade impactor and polyurethane foam collection substrate. Collected PM 2.5-0.1 was analysed for water-soluble inorganic ions and metal content using ion chromatography and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. On average approximately 50% by mass of the chemical content of PM was identified. The motivation for the study was to assess the potential impact of shipping emissions on air quality in Cork Harbour and City, with a view to informing public health impacts. The average ambient concentration of PM 10 between May 2007 and April 2008 was 4.6 µgm - 3 and the maximum concentration measured in one sample, representing a 4 day collection period, was 16 µgm - 3 . The major inorganic constituents identified in PM collected in Haulbowline Island in Cork Harbour were sulfate, ammonium, nitrate, chloride and sodium ions, which were mainly attributable to sea salt and secondary inorganic aerosols from regional sources. The results were analysed by principal component analysis for the purpose of source apportionment. Four factors were identified explaining over 80% of the data set variance. The factors were: shipping, sea salt, crustal material and secondary inorganic aerosols (SIA). The smaller size fraction was frequently observed to dominate, as the average concentration was 2.77 µgm - 3 for PM 2.5-0.1 compared to 1.9 µgm - 3 for PM 10-2.5. Fresh ship plumes were not found to make a significant contribution to primary PM 2.5-0.1 concentrations adjacent to the shipping channel. However, this was partially attributed to the ultrafine nature of ship emissions and the majority of the toxic metal content was attributed to emissions associated with heavy oil combustion sources, which include ship engines.

  7. Poet Lake Crystal Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    This September 19, 2016 letter from EPA approves the petition from Poet Biorefining-Lake Crystal, regarding non-grandfathered ethanol produced through a dry mill process, qualifying under the Clean Air Act for renewable fuel (D-code 6) RINs under the RFS

  8. Lake Kariba, Zimbabwe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1984-02-01

    Feb 1, 1984 ... rings word opgesom terwyl sommige van die lesse wat by Kariba geleer is en 'n ... one area of the lake must have an effect, directly or indirectly, on other consumer organisms in the aquatic environment. Con- sidering ... are liable to attain their high density at the price of other taxa. ... be measured. Data on ...

  9. IN LAKE TANA, ETHIOPIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Turbidity showed depressed effect on biomass ... Key words/phrases: Biomass, duration of development, Lake Tana, large-turbid ... 36°45'-38°14'E and at an altitude of 1830 In, a.s.l. ... 30 cm mouth opening, 1.2 m cod end), which was ... times of the three copepods were measured under .... The greatest density values were.

  10. Lake whitefish diet, condition, and energy density in Lake Champlain and the lower four Great Lakes following dreissenid invasions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Seth J.; Marsden, J. Ellen; Lantry, Brian F.

    2013-01-01

    Lake Whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis support some of the most valuable commercial freshwater fisheries in North America. Recent growth and condition decreases in Lake Whitefish populations in the Great Lakes have been attributed to the invasion of the dreissenid mussels, zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha and quagga mussels D. bugensis, and the subsequent collapse of the amphipod, Diporeia, a once-abundant high energy prey source. Since 1993, Lake Champlain has also experienced the invasion and proliferation of zebra mussels, but in contrast to the Great Lakes, Diporeia were not historically abundant. We compared the diet, condition, and energy density of Lake Whitefish from Lake Champlain after the dreissenid mussel invasion to values for those of Lake Whitefish from Lakes Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario. Lake Whitefish were collected using gill nets and bottom trawls, and their diets were quantified seasonally. Condition was estimated using Fulton's condition factor (K) and by determining energy density. In contrast to Lake Whitefish from some of the Great Lakes, those from Lake Champlain Lake Whitefish did not show a dietary shift towards dreissenid mussels, but instead fed primarily on fish eggs in spring, Mysis diluviana in summer, and gastropods and sphaeriids in fall and winter. Along with these dietary differences, the condition and energy density of Lake Whitefish from Lake Champlain were high compared with those of Lake Whitefish from Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario after the dreissenid invasion, and were similar to Lake Whitefish from Lake Erie; fish from Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario consumed dreissenids, whereas fish from Lake Erie did not. Our comparisons of Lake Whitefish populations in Lake Champlain to those in the Great Lakes indicate that diet and condition of Lake Champlain Lake Whitefish were not negatively affected by the dreissenid mussel invasion.

  11. Frailty index of deficit accumulation and falls: data from the Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW) Hamilton cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guowei; Ioannidis, George; Pickard, Laura; Kennedy, Courtney; Papaioannou, Alexandra; Thabane, Lehana; Adachi, Jonathan D

    2014-05-29

    To investigate the association between frailty index (FI) of deficit accumulation and risk of falls, fractures, death and overnight hospitalizations in women aged 55 years and older. The data were from the Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW) Hamilton Cohort. In this 3-year longitudinal, observational cohort study, women (N=3,985) aged ≥ 55 years were enrolled between May 2008 and March 2009 in Hamilton, Canada. A FI including co-morbidities, activities of daily living, symptoms and signs, and healthcare utilization was constructed using 34 health deficits at baseline. Relationship between the FI and falls, fractures, death and overnight hospitalizations was examined. The FI was significantly associated with age, with a mean rate of deficit accumulation across baseline age of 0.004 or 0.021 (on a log scale) per year. During the third year of follow-up, 1,068 (31.89%) women reported at least one fall. Each increment of 0.01 on the FI was associated with a significantly increased risk of falls during the third year of follow-up (odds ratio [OR]: 1.02, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02-1.03). The area under the curve (AUC) of the predictive model was 0.69 (95% CI: 0.67-0.71). Results of subgroup and sensitivity analyses indicated the relationship between the FI and risk of falls was robust, while bootstrap analysis judged its internal validation. The FI was significantly related to fractures (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.02, 95% CI: 1.01-1.03), death (OR: 1.05, 95% CI: 1.03-1.06) during the 3-year follow-up period and overnight hospitalizations (incidence rate ratio [IRR]: 1.02, 95% CI: 1.02-1.03) for an increase of 0.01 on the FI during the third year of follow-up. Measured by per standard deviation (SD) increment of the FI, the ORs were 1.21 and 1.40 for falls and death respectively, while the HR was 1.17 for fractures and the IRR was 1.18 for overnight hospitalizations respectively. The FI of deficit accumulation increased with chronological age

  12. Coliform bacteria isolated from recreational lakes carry class 1 and class 2 integrons and virulence-associated genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koczura, R; Krysiak, N; Taraszewska, A; Mokracka, J

    2015-08-01

    To characterize the integron-harbouring Gram-negative bacteria in recreational lakes, with focus on the genetic content of integrons, antimicrobial resistance profiles and virulence-associated genes. The presence and structure of integrons in coliform bacteria isolated from the water of four recreational lakes located in Poznań, Poland, was determined by PCR method. Antimicrobial resistance testing was done by disc diffusion method. Virulence-associated genes in integron-bearing Escherichia coli isolates were detected by PCR. A total of 155 integron-bearing strains of coliform bacteria were cultured. Sequence analysis showed the presence of dfrA7, aadA1, dfrA1-aadA1, dfrA17-aadA5 and dfrA12-orfF-aadA2 gene cassette arrays in class 1 integrons and dfrA1-sat2-aadA1 in class 2 integrons. Higher frequency of integron-positive bacteria and higher antimicrobial resistance ranges were noted in colder months (January and November) compared with spring and summer months. The integron-harbouring E. coli carried up to nine virulence-associated genes, with the highest frequency of kpsMT (84.6%) and traT (783%), coding for group 2 capsule and determining human serum resistance respectively. Integron-bearing multidrug resistant coliform bacteria carrying virulence genes are present in waters of recreational lakes. This study presents antimicrobial resistance and virulence-associated genes in integron-bearing coliform bacteria present in the waters of recreational lakes, which showed that multidrug resistant bacteria with virulence traits might pose a threat to public health. Moreover, the presence of genes typical for enterotoxigenic and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli is a concern. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. CO2 emissions from a temperate drowned river valley estuary adjacent to an emerging megacity (Sydney Harbour)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, E. L.; Mulhearn, P. J.; Eyre, B. D.

    2017-06-01

    The Sydney Harbour Estuary is a large drowned river valley adjacent to Sydney, a large urban metropolis on track to become a megacity; estimated to reach a population of 10 million by 2100. Monthly underway surveys of surface water pCO2 were undertaken along the main channel and tributaries, from January to December 2013. pCO2 showed substantial spatio-temporal variability in the narrow high residence time upper and mid sections of the estuary, with values reaching a maximum of 5650 μatm in the upper reaches and as low as 173 μatm in the mid estuary section, dominated by respiration and photosynthesis respectively. The large lower estuary displayed less variability in pCO2 with values ranging from 343 to 544 μatm controlled mainly by tidal pumping and temperature. Air-water CO2 emissions reached a maximum of 181 mmol C m-2 d-1 during spring in the eutrophic upper estuary. After a summer high rainfall event nutrient-stimulated biological pumping promoted a large uptake of CO2 transitioning the Sydney Harbour Estuary into a CO2 sink with a maximum uptake of rate of -10.6 mmol C m-2 d-1 in the mid-section of the estuary. Annually the Sydney Harbour Estuary was heterotrophic and a weak source of CO2 with an air-water emission rate of 1.2-5 mmol C m-2 d-1 (0.4-1.8 mol C m-2 y-1) resulting in a total carbon emission of around 930 tonnes per annum. CO2 emissions (weighted m3 s-1 of discharge per km2 of estuary surface area) from Sydney Harbour were an order of magnitude lower than other temperate large tectonic deltas, lagoons and engineered systems of China, India, Taiwan and Europe but were similar to other natural drowned river valley systems in the USA. Discharge per unit area appears to be a good predictor of CO2 emissions from estuaries of a similar climate and geomorphic class.

  14. Proliferation and survival molecules implicated in the inhibition of BRAF pathway in thyroid cancer cells harbouring different genetic mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preto, Ana; Soares, Paula; Sobrinho-Simões, Manuel; Gonçalves, Joana; Rebocho, Ana P; Figueiredo, Joana; Meireles, Ana M; Rocha, Ana S; Vasconcelos, Helena M; Seca, Hugo; Seruca, Raquel

    2009-01-01

    Thyroid carcinomas show a high prevalence of mutations in the oncogene BRAF which are inversely associated with RAS or RET/PTC oncogenic activation. The possibility of using inhibitors on the BRAF pathway as became an interesting therapeutic approach. In thyroid cancer cells the target molecules, implicated on the cellular effects, mediated by inhibition of BRAF are not well established. In order to fill this lack of knowledge we studied the proliferation and survival pathways and associated molecules induced by BRAF inhibition in thyroid carcinoma cell lines harbouring distinct genetic backgrounds. Suppression of BRAF pathway in thyroid cancer cell lines (8505C, TPC1 and C643) was achieved using RNA interference (RNAi) for BRAF and the kinase inhibitor, sorafenib. Proliferation analysis was performed by BrdU incorporation and apoptosis was accessed by TUNEL assay. Levels of protein expression were analysed by western-blot. Both BRAF RNAi and sorafenib inhibited proliferation in all the cell lines independently of the genetic background, mostly in cells with BRAF V600E mutation. In BRAF V600E mutated cells inhibition of BRAF pathway lead to a decrease in ERK1/2 phosphorylation and cyclin D1 levels and an increase in p27 Kip1 . Specific inhibition of BRAF by RNAi in cells with BRAF V600E mutation had no effect on apoptosis. In the case of sorafenib treatment, cells harbouring BRAF V600E mutation showed increase levels of apoptosis due to a balance of the anti-apoptotic proteins Mcl-1 and Bcl-2. Our results in thyroid cancer cells, namely those harbouring BRAF V600E mutation showed that BRAF signalling pathway provides important proliferation signals. We have shown that in thyroid cancer cells sorafenib induces apoptosis by affecting Mcl-1 and Bcl-2 in BRAF V600E mutated cells which was independent of BRAF. These results suggest that sorafenib may prove useful in the treatment of thyroid carcinomas, particularly those refractory to conventional treatment and

  15. Microbiology of Lonar Lake and other soda lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Antony, Chakkiath; Kumaresan, Deepak; Hunger, Sindy; Drake, Harold L; Murrell, J Colin; Shouche, Yogesh S

    2013-01-01

    Soda lakes are saline and alkaline ecosystems that are believed to have existed throughout the geological record of Earth. They are widely distributed across the globe, but are highly abundant in terrestrial biomes such as deserts and steppes and in geologically interesting regions such as the East African Rift valley. The unusual geochemistry of these lakes supports the growth of an impressive array of microorganisms that are of ecological and economic importance. Haloalkaliphilic Bacteria and Archaea belonging to all major trophic groups have been described from many soda lakes, including lakes with exceptionally high levels of heavy metals. Lonar Lake is a soda lake that is centered at an unusual meteorite impact structure in the Deccan basalts in India and its key physicochemical and microbiological characteristics are highlighted in this article. The occurrence of diverse functional groups of microbes, such as methanogens, methanotrophs, phototrophs, denitrifiers, sulfur oxidizers, sulfate reducers and syntrophs in soda lakes, suggests that these habitats harbor complex microbial food webs that (a) interconnect various biological cycles via redox coupling and (b) impact on the production and consumption of greenhouse gases. Soda lake microorganisms harbor several biotechnologically relevant enzymes and biomolecules (for example, cellulases, amylases, ectoine) and there is the need to augment bioprospecting efforts in soda lake environments with new integrated approaches. Importantly, some saline and alkaline lake ecosystems around the world need to be protected from anthropogenic pressures that threaten their long-term existence. PMID:23178675

  16. Lake trout rehabilitation in Lake Erie: a case history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Floyd C.; Muth, Kenneth M.; Kenyon, Roger

    1995-01-01

    Native lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) once thrived in the deep waters of eastern Lake Erie. The impact of nearly 70 years of unregulated exploitation and over 100 years of progressively severe cultural eutrophication resulted in the elimination of lake trout stocks by 1950. Early attempts to restore lake trout by stocking were unsuccessful in establishing a self-sustaining population. In the early 1980s, New York's Department of Environmental Conservation, Pennsylvania's Fish and Boat Commission, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service entered into a cooperative program to rehabilitate lake trout in the eastern basin of Lake Erie. After 11 years of stocking selected strains of lake trout in U.S. waters, followed by effective sea lamprey control, lake trout appear to be successfully recolonizing their native habitat. Adult stocks have built up significantly and are expanding their range in the lake. Preliminary investigations suggest that lake trout reproductive habitat is still adequate for natural reproduction, but natural recruitment has not been documented. Future assessments will be directed toward evaluation of spawning success and tracking age-class cohorts as they move through the fishery.

  17. The influence of magnetic field on the spatial orientation in zebrafish Danio rerio (Hamilton and roach Rutilus rutilus (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia A. Batrakova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Known, that some teleostei can perceive the geomagnetic field (GMF. However, the information about magnetosensitivity in Cyprinidae fish from artificial and natural habitats is obscure. We have registered preferred directions in Danio rerio (Hamilton from aquaria-cultivated line exposed to the natural GMF, 180 degrees reversal of horizontal GMF component, 180 degrees reversal of vertical GMF component, 180 degrees reversal of both vertical and horizontal GMF components and 90 degrees clockwise turn of horizontal GMF component. We also registered the preferred directions in Rutilus rutilus (L. from Rybinsk reservoir exposed to the natural GMF and 90 degrees clockwise turn of horizontal GMF component. It was found that zebrafish prefer two opposite directions towards east and west in the natural GMF. When the horizontal component of GMF was turned 90 degrees clockwise D. rerio prefer two opposite directions towards north and south. The possible reason of bimodality in zebrafish’s preferred directions distributions is discussed. The only direction towards east-north-east observed in roach under the natural GMF. This direction coincided with the way from the place of capture to the streamflow part of Rybinsk reservoir. And it was changed by south-south-east direction when turned the horizontal component of GMF 90 degrees clockwise. The possible reason of the choosing directions by fish with GMF is discussed.

  18. Axisymmetric black holes allowing for separation of variables in the Klein-Gordon and Hamilton-Jacobi equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konoplya, R. A.; Stuchlík, Z.; Zhidenko, A.

    2018-04-01

    We determine the class of axisymmetric and asymptotically flat black-hole spacetimes for which the test Klein-Gordon and Hamilton-Jacobi equations allow for the separation of variables. The known Kerr, Kerr-Newman, Kerr-Sen and some other black-hole metrics in various theories of gravity are within the class of spacetimes described here. It is shown that although the black-hole metric in the Einstein-dilaton-Gauss-Bonnet theory does not allow for the separation of variables (at least in the considered coordinates), for a number of applications it can be effectively approximated by a metric within the above class. This gives us some hope that the class of spacetimes described here may be not only generic for the known solutions allowing for the separation of variables, but also a good approximation for a broader class of metrics, which does not admit such separation. Finally, the generic form of the axisymmetric metric is expanded in the radial direction in terms of the continued fractions and the connection with other black-hole parametrizations is discussed.

  19. A new algorithm to find fuzzy Hamilton cycle in a fuzzy network using adjacency matrix and minimum vertex degree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagoor Gani, A; Latha, S R

    2016-01-01

    A Hamiltonian cycle in a graph is a cycle that visits each node/vertex exactly once. A graph containing a Hamiltonian cycle is called a Hamiltonian graph. There have been several researches to find the number of Hamiltonian cycles of a Hamilton graph. As the number of vertices and edges grow, it becomes very difficult to keep track of all the different ways through which the vertices are connected. Hence, analysis of large graphs can be efficiently done with the assistance of a computer system that interprets graphs as matrices. And, of course, a good and well written algorithm will expedite the analysis even faster. The most convenient way to quickly test whether there is an edge between two vertices is to represent graphs using adjacent matrices. In this paper, a new algorithm is proposed to find fuzzy Hamiltonian cycle using adjacency matrix and the degree of the vertices of a fuzzy graph. A fuzzy graph structure is also modeled to illustrate the proposed algorithms with the selected air network of Indigo airlines.

  20. Two new species of philometrid nematodes (Nematoda: Philometridae) in Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton, 1822) from the South Bali Sea, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, Kartika; Palm, Harry W

    2013-01-25

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopy, two new species of philometrid nematodes, Spirophilometra endangae sp. nov. and Philometra epinepheli sp. nov. (Nematoda: Dracunculoidea: Philometridae) are described from Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton, 1822) (Perciformes: Serranidae) from the South Bali Sea, Indonesia. Spirophilometra endangae sp. nov. was isolated from the fins of E. coioides. The new species can be distinguished from the most closely related S. eichleri Parukhin, 1971 by a larger total body length and the site of infection in the host. The new species differs from S. centropomi (Caballero, 1974) also in the larger body size of the gravid females and the site of infection in the host. S. en-dangae sp. nov. differs from S. pacifica (Moravec, Santana-Pineros, Gonzales-Solis & Torres-Huerta, 2007) in the struc-ture and arrangement of the spines on the middle part of the body, the infection site of the worm, the type host and the zoogeographical host distribution. Philometra epinepheli sp. nov. differs from all other Philometra spp. congeners so far recorded from Ephinepelus groupers in the total body length and the site of infection. This is the first opercula-infecting species of Philometra described from the fish family Serranidae.