Sample records for hamersley province western

  1. Major uranium provinces: Yilgarn block and Gascoyne Province, Western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, C.R.M.


    The Archaean Yilgarn Block and the adjacent Proterozoic Gascoyne Province, Western Australia, form the basement and source rocks for numerous occurrences of surficial uranium mineralization, the largest being the Yeelirrie deposit (35 million tonnes at 0.15% U 3 O 8 ). The mineralization, almost exclusively in the form of carnotite, has been deposited in the regolith and appears to be less than 1 Ma old, with some deposits still forming. The nature and distribution of the mineralization are controlled by basement and surface geology, geomorphology, hydrology and climate, being restricted to deeply weathered, semi-arid terrain with granitoid source rocks. A few small occurrences in the Gascoyne Province may be pedogenic in origin but the majority, in the north of Yilgarn Block, occur in unrejuvenated palaeodrainage channels now choked by colluvial, alluvial and chemical sediments. These sediments, which are aquifers for the present, predominantly sub-surface, drainage, can exceed 10-15 m. Uranium released from the weathering granitoids has been transported in groundwaters in uranyl carbonate complexes and precipitated as carnotite where, (i) concentrations of uranium and potassium have been elevated by evaporation and, (ii) dissolved vanadium has been oxidized to the 5-valent state. Precipitation is in calcretes and associated sediments in the drainage axes, in 'chemical deltas' where the drainages enter playas and in the playas themselves. This style of mineralization was first recognized in 1969-1970 as the result of investigations into the source of radiometric anomalies delineated by airborne surveys. The majority of discoveries have similarly been by radiometric surveys but hydrogeochemical surveys have promise and may become important in future search for blind mineralization and/or young deposits not in radioactive equilibrium. (author). 61 refs, 6 figs

  2. RTG resource book for western states and provinces: Final proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Western Interstate Energy Board held a workshop and liaison activities among western states, provinces, and utilities on the formation of Regional Transmission Groups (RTGs). Purpose of the activities was to examine the policy implications for western states and provinces in the formation of RTGs in the West, the implications for western ratepayers and utilities of the RTG formation and potential impacts of RTGs on the western electricity system. The workshop contributed to fulfilling the transmission access and competition objectives of Title VII of the Energy Policy Act of 1992.

  3. Basin and Range Province, Western US, USGS Grids #3 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These grid files were used to produce gravity and basin depth maps of the Basin and Range Province, western United States. The maps show gravity values and modeled...

  4. Basin and Range Province, Western US, USGS Grids #2 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These grid files were used to produce gravity and basin depth maps of the Basin and Range Province, western United States. The maps show gravity values and modeled...

  5. Basin and Range Province, Western US, USGS Grids, #1 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These grid files were used to produce gravity and basin depth maps of the Basin and Range Province, western United States. The maps show gravity values and modeled...

  6. Basin and Range Province, Western US, USGS Grids #5 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These grid files were used to produce gravity and basin depth maps of the Basin and Range Province, western United States. The maps show gravity values and modeled...

  7. Basin and Range Province, Western US, USGS Grids #4 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These grid files were used to produce gravity and basin depth maps of the Basin and Range Province, western United States. The maps show gravity values and modeled...

  8. A historical overview of the Western Province Senior Schools Sports ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First a brief overview of multi-coded school sport organization in Cape Town is present ed. Next, the emergence of the Western Province Senior Schools Sport Union (WPSSSU) and how this organization differed with all existing patterns of school sport management is explored. The ideology underpinning this organization, ...

  9. Risk assessment for yellow fever in western and North-Western provinces of Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusegun A Babaniyi


    Full Text Available Background: North-Western and Western provinces of Zambia were reclassified as low-risk areas for yellow fever (YF. However, the current potential for YF transmission in these areas is unclear. Aims: To determine the current potential risk of YF infection. Setting and Design: A cross sectional study was conducted in North-Western and Western provinces of Zambia. Materials and Methods: Samples were tested for both YF virus-specific IgG and IgM antibodies by the ELISA and YF virus confirmation was done using Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test. The samples were also tested for IgG and IgM antibodies against other flaviviruses. Results: Out of the 3625 respondents who participated in the survey, 46.7% were males and 9.4% were aged less than 5 years. Overall, 58.1% of the participants slept under an impregnated insecticide-treated net and 20.6% reported indoor residual spraying of insecticides. A total of 616 (17.0% samples were presumptive YF positive. The prevalence for YF was 0.3% for long-term infection and 0.2% for recent YF infection. None of the YF confirmed cases had received YF vaccine. Prevalence rates for other flaviviruses were 149 (4.1% for Dengue, 370 (10.2% for West Nile and 217 (6.0% for Zika. Conclusion: There is evidence of past and recent infection of YF in both provinces. Hence, they are at a low risk for YF infection. Yellow fever vaccination should be included in the EPI program in the two provinces and strengthen surveillance with laboratory confirmation.

  10. Assessing the Impacts of Wind Integration in the Western Provinces (United States)

    Sopinka, Amy

    Increasing carbon dioxide levels and the fear of irreversible climate change has prompted policy makers to implement renewable portfolio standards. These renewable portfolio standards are meant to encourage the adoption of renewable energy technologies thereby reducing carbon emissions associated with fossil fuel-fired electricity generation. The ability to efficiently adopt and utilize high levels of renewable energy technology, such as wind power, depends upon the composition of the extant generation within the grid. Western Canadian electric grids are poised to integrate high levels of wind and although Alberta has sufficient and, at times, an excess supply of electricity, it does not have the inherent generator flexibility required to mirror the variability of its wind generation. British Columbia, with its large reservoir storage capacities and rapid ramping hydroelectric generation could easily provide the firming services required by Alberta; however, the two grids are connected only by a small, constrained intertie. We use a simulation model to assess the economic impacts of high wind penetrations in the Alberta grid under various balancing protocols. We find that adding wind capacity to the system impacts grid reliability, increasing the frequency of system imbalances and unscheduled intertie flow. In order for British Columbia to be viable firming resource, it must have sufficient generation capability to meet and exceed the province's electricity self-sufficiency requirements. We use a linear programming model to evaluate the province's ability to meet domestic load under various water and trade conditions. We then examine the effects of drought and wind penetration on the interconnected Alberta -- British Columbia system given differing interconnection sizes.

  11. Seroprevalence of Human Fasciolosis in Pirabad, Lorestan Province, Western Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to perform seroepidemiological investigation for determining the status of human fasciolosis in Pirabad Village, Lorestan Province, western Iran. Methods: Blood samples were taken from residents of the village including 801 individuals. Sera were separated and stored at -20°C until used. The samples were analyzed using ELISA. Results: Anti-Fasciola antibodies were detected in 6 (0.7% individuals. Difference between age, sex and drinking or swimming in the surface water with seropositivity to fasciolosis was not significant. Out of 7 shepherds, 1 (14.3% was seropositive. Due to the small number of shepherds, comprehensive statistical inference in this regard cannot be done. Significant difference was detected between seropositivity to fasciolosis and consuming local freshwater vegetables during the last 6 months (P=0.001.Conclusion: Metacercariae carrying local freshwater plants might be the main source of contamination because consumption of these kinds of vegetables was confirmed by all participants. Awareness of local communities regarding the danger of freshwater plant consumption, through health education programs, will decrease the risk of infection.

  12. Phytotoponymy and Synphytotoponymy in Western Granada Province (Andalusia, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benítez Cruz, Guillermo


    Full Text Available Within the framework of a research project on the ethnobotany of the western section of the province of Granada, in southern Spain, a detailed study was made of place names derived from names related to plants (phytotoponyms and synphytotoponyms. The information —gathered from the Territorial Land Registry of Granada, the Regional Government of Andalusia and field work— has been included in a database written with the Microsoft Excel program. References to a total of 98 plant species were found in as many as 593 place names of the area. The authors comment on the environmental, paleophytogeographic and ethnobotanical significance of the species represented in the place names.

    En el marco de la investigación etnobotánica desarrollada en el poniente granadino, se ha realizado un estudio sobre la toponimia de la comarca con atención a los apelativos de origen vegetal (fitotopónimos y sinfitotopónimos. La información —obtenida de la Gerencia Territorial del Catastro de Granada, de la Junta de Andalucía y de nuestro trabajo de campo— se ha incluido en una base de datos con el programa Microsoft Excell®. Un total de 98 especies vegetales se encuentran representadas en la toponimia local, dando nombre a 593 lugares del territorio. Se aportan comentarios sobre el significado ecológico, paleofitogeográfico y etnobotánico de las especies reflejadas en la toponimia.

  13. Cross-sectional associations between intensity of animal and human infection with Schistosoma japonicum in Western Samar province, Philippines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGarvey, Stephen T.; Carabin, Hélène; Batalong, Ernesto Jr.


    To estimate the association between the intensity of animal infection with Schistosoma japonicum and human infection in Western Samar province, the Philippines......To estimate the association between the intensity of animal infection with Schistosoma japonicum and human infection in Western Samar province, the Philippines...

  14. Aspects of productivity of traditionally managed Barotse cattle in the Western Province of Zambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klink, van E.G.M.


    In sub-Saharan Africa, traditionally managed livestock is important because of the provision of draught power and manure, the provision of security and investment possibilities, for the provision of meat and milk, and for social purposes (eg. brideprice, gifts). In the Western Province of

  15. Condition and management of the rangelands in the western province of Zambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baars, R.M.T.


    A land evaluation for extensive grazing was conducted to determine the potential carrying capacity (CC) of the Western Province of Zambia. A hierarchical land classification resulted in Land Regions (9), Land Systems (32), Land Units (124) and Land Facets (415). The vegetation was

  16. View of sand dunes in the San Juan Province of Western Argentina (United States)


    A near vertical view of sand dunes in the San Juan Province of Western Argentina, as photographed from the Apollo spacecraft in Earth orbit during the joint U.S.-USSR Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) mission. The picture was taken at an altitude of 220 kilometers (136 statute miles). The photograph was taken at an altitude of 228 kilometers (141 statute miles).

  17. Uplift along the western margin of the Deccan Basalt Province: Is ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and Planetary Change 58 310–334. Powar K B 1981 Lineament fabric and dyke pattern in the western part of the Deccan Volcanic Province; Geol. Soc. India Memoir 3 45–57. Powar K B 1993 Geomorphological evolution of Konkan coastal belt and adjoining Sahyadri uplands with refer- ence to Quaternary uplift; Curr. Sci.

  18. Chronic arsenic toxicity in sheep of Kurdistan province, western Iran. (United States)

    Keshavarzi, Behnam; Seradj, Afsaneh; Akbari, Zahra; Moore, Farid; Shahraki, Alireza Rahmani; Pourjafar, Mehrdad


    After the detection of arsenic (As) toxicity in sheep from Ebrahim-abad and Babanazar villages in Kurdistan province, the concentration of this element in drinking water, cultivated soil, alfalfa hay, wool, and blood samples was evaluated. Total As concentrations ranged from 119 to 310 μg/L in drinking water, 46.70-819.20 mg/kg in soil 1.90-6.90 mg/kg in vegetation 1.56-10.79 mg/kg in sheep's wool, and 86.30-656 μg/L in blood samples. These very high As contents, in all parts of the biogeochemical cycle, exceed the recommended normal range for this element compared with a control area. Results indicate that As has moved through all compartments of the biogeochemical cycle by way of direct or indirect pathways. The present investigation illustrated decreased packed cell volume and hemoglobin in sheep from the As-contaminated zone. It was concluded that sheep from the contaminated areas suffer from anemia. Chronic As exposure of the liver was determined by liver function tests. For this purpose, blood aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) were measured. The results show that serum ALT and AST activities are increased significantly (p < 0.01) in the sheep population exposed to As in the contaminated zone. Moreover, chronic As exposure causes injury to hepatocytes and damages the liver.

  19. Oil and gas fiscal regimes of the western Canadian provinces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This report compares the fiscal regimes in British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba. During 1985-1988, federal and provincial governments have made numerous fiscal changes, many in response to the drop in world oil prices. The new fiscal policies generally have reflected governments' willingness to forego revenues in an effort to aid the oil and gas industry, with certain exemptions. Since 1988, changes have reflected trends of consolidation and less government willingness to forego revenues. A federal large corporations capital tax has been introduced, the natural gas exploration holiday in Alberta expired, new oil royalties were introduced, and changes were made in fiscal regimes to accomodate horizontal drilling in Saskatchewan and Manitoba. In this document, the existing corporate tax regime is described. A comparison of fiscal regimes must recognize the differing scale and nature of oil and gas operations among the 4 provinces, with Alberta accounting for 80-90% of Canada's oil and gas productions, while British Columbia, Saskatchewan and Manitoba are much smaller producers. The document describes Crown royalties and incentives and freehold taxes for each type of fuel (crude oil, natural gas, natural gas byproducts, nonconventional oil). 8 figs

  20. AHP 6: Matrilineal Marriage in Tibetan Areas In Western Sichuan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Féng Mǐn 冯敏


    Full Text Available The marriage and family organization of the Zhaba 扎巴 people in Western Sichuan 四川 Province is similar to that practiced by the Naxi Mosuo 纳西摩梭 during the 1960s. The Zhaba2 Region is another matrilineal culture region in addition to the Lugu 泸沽 Region in Yunnan 云南 Province. The area has only recently begun modernizing because of its isolation. 'Visiting marriages' and matrilineal family organization continue to play an important role in Zhaba culture. This research contributes new material to the anthropological study of matrilineal societies.

  1. AHP 6: Matrilineal Marriage in Tibetan Areas In Western Sichuan Province


    Féng Mǐn 冯敏; Mtsho mo skyid; Gerald Roche


    The marriage and family organization of the Zhaba 扎巴 people in Western Sichuan 四川 Province is similar to that practiced by the Naxi Mosuo 纳西摩梭 during the 1960s. The Zhaba2 Region is another matrilineal culture region in addition to the Lugu 泸沽 Region in Yunnan 云南 Province. The area has only recently begun modernizing because of its isolation. 'Visiting marriages' and matrilineal family organization continue to play an important role in Zhaba culture. This research contributes new material to ...

  2. Matrilineal Marriage in Tibetan Areas In Western Sìchuān Province (English translation)


    Feng Min


    The marriage and family organization of the Zhaba 扎巴 people in Western Sìchuān 四川 Province is similar to that practiced by the Nàxi Mósūo 纳西摩梭 during the 1960s. The Zhaba 扎坝2 Region is another matrilineal culture region in addition to the Lúgū 泸沽 Region in Yúnnán 云南 Province. The area has only recently begun modernizing because of its isolation. 'Visiting marriages' and matrilineal family organization continue to play an important role in Zhaba culture. This research contributes new material ...

  3. A Profile of the Western Cape Province: Demographics, Poverty, Inequality and Unemployment


    Pauw, Kalie


    This paper forms part of a series of papers that present profiles of South Africa's provinces, with a specific focus on key demographic statistics, poverty and inequality estimates, and estimates of unemployment. In this volume comparative statistics are presented for agricultural and non-agricultural households, as well as households from different racial groups, locations (metropolitan, urban and rural areas) and district municipalities of the Western Cape. Most of the data presented are dr...

  4. Monitoring of long-term pavement performance sites in the Western Cape Province of South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph


    Full Text Available of calibrated Highway Development and Management (HDM 4) type models. Generally, five years continuous data would give a complete view of the behaviour of the materials for the individual sites. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The Department of Transport and Public Works... purposes. 4. FIELD DATA COLLECTION The CSIR project team in partnership with the Department of Transport and Public Works of the Western Cape province project team conduct detailed field investigation of six sites biannually. Field (monitoring) data...

  5. Revisiting platinum group elements of Late Permian coals from western Guizhou Province, SW China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Liang [State Key Lab of Ore Deposit Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang, 550002 (China); Gao, Jianfeng [Department of Earth Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong SAR (China)


    Twenty five coal samples from the Late Permian coal-bearing strata in Weining, Nayong, and Zhijin, western Guizhou Province, SW, China, were analyzed for platinum group elements (PGEs). The coal ashes were digested by the Carius tube technique and accurately measured by isotope dilution-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-MS) for all PGEs. The results are much lower than the previous reported values. Our study suggested that the previously reported PGE values are incorrect and may due to the polyatomic interferences in ICP-MS measurements. In our study, samples from the Weining coalfield have the lowest PGE contents (from 0.019 Ir to 0.42 ng/g Pd), which represent the PGE background value in coal in western Guizhou province. Some of the coals have Pt and Pd contents about 20-times higher than the background value, indicating PGEs are concentrated. We also reported new and reliable PGE data and background value of coal in western Guizhou province, SW, China, and suggested to rework the PGE background values of Chinese coals. (author)

  6. Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Soil and Kiwifruit of Planting Base in Western Hunan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Ren-cai


    Full Text Available The heavy metals accumulation in soil and kiwi fruit plant in Western Hunan Province main kiwifruit planting base were analyzed, such as As, Pb, Hg, Cd, Cr. The results showed that the accumulation of heavy metals in soil of 6 kiwifruit planting areas were not obvious. The contents of heavy metals in most of areas of Western Hunan Province were below the national standard, except one area where the soil contents of cadmium (4.900 mg·kg-1, mercury (0.634 mg·kg-1were exceeded. At the same time, the comprehensive pollution index of heavy metals was less than 0.7 in these areas. There were 5 bases with no pollution of heavy metal, all which the kiwifruit could be safely produced in line with the requirements of the green kiwifruit planting base soil standards. At these areas, the contents of various heavy metals(except cadmium and mercurywere small in the branches and leaves of kiwifruit; kiwifruit had a very well capacity to absorb the cadmium when the cadmium content of its branches reached 12.73%. The heavy metal contents of the kiwifruit in the 6 regions, which belonging to the pollutionfree green fruits, were below or far lower than the national standard. According to the comprehensive analysis, the soil condition of the main cultivated land in Western Hunan Province was good, and the fruit had no heavy metal residues.

  7. Continuously increasing δ98Mo values in Neoarchean black shales and iron formations from the Hamersley Basin (United States)

    Kurzweil, Florian; Wille, Martin; Schoenberg, Ronny; Taubald, Heinrich; Van Kranendonk, Martin J.


    We present Mo-, C- and O-isotope data from black shales, carbonate- and oxide facies iron formations from the Hamersley Group, Western Australia, that range in age from 2.6 to 2.5 billion years. The data show a continuous increase from near crustal δ98Mo values of around 0.50‰ for the oldest Marra Mamba and Wittenoom formations towards higher values of up to 1.51‰ for the youngest sample of the Brockman Iron Formation. Thereby, the trend in increasing δ98Mo values is portrayed by both carbonate facies iron formations and black shales. Considering the positive correlation between Mo concentration and total organic carbon, we argue that this uniformity is best explained by molybdate adsorption onto organic matter in carbonate iron formations and scavenging of thiomolybdate onto sulfurized organic matter in black shales. A temporal increase in the seawater δ98Mo over the period 2.6-2.5 Ga is observed assuming an overall low Mo isotope fractionation during both Mo removal processes. Oxide facies iron formations show lowest Mo concentrations, lowest total organic carbon and slightly lower δ98Mo compared to nearly contemporaneous black shales. This may indicate that in iron formation settings with very low organic matter burial rates, the preferential adsorption of light Mo isotopes onto Fe-(oxyhydr)oxides becomes more relevant. A similar Mo-isotope pattern was previously found in contemporaneous black shales and carbonates of the Griqualand West Basin, South Africa. The consistent and concomitant increase in δ98Mo after 2.54 billion years ago suggests a more homogenous distribution of seawater molybdate with uniform isotopic composition in various depositional settings within the Hamersley Basin and the Griqualand West Basin. The modeling of the oceanic Mo inventory in relation to the Mo in- and outflux suggests that the long-term build-up of an isotopically heavy seawater Mo reservoir requires a sedimentary sink for isotopically light Mo. The search for this

  8. Long lead statistical forecasts of area burned in western U.S. wildfires by ecosystem province (United States)

    Westerling, A.L.; Gershunov, A.; Cayan, D.R.; Barnett, T.P.


    A statistical forecast methodology exploits large-scale patterns in monthly U.S. Climatological Division Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) values over a wide region and several seasons to predict area burned in western U.S. wildfires by ecosystem province a season in advance. The forecast model, which is based on canonical correlations, indicates that a few characteristic patterns determine predicted wildfire season area burned. Strong negative associations between anomalous soil moisture (inferred from PDSI) immediately prior to the fire season and area burned dominate in most higher elevation forested provinces, while strong positive associations between anomalous soil moisture a year prior to the fire season and area burned dominate in desert and shrub and grassland provinces. In much of the western U.S., above- and below-normal fire season forecasts were successful 57% of the time or better, as compared with a 33% skill for a random guess, and with a low probability of being surprised by a fire season at the opposite extreme of that forecast.

  9. The chemical conditions of the late Archean Hamersley basin inferred from whole rock and pyrite geochemistry with Δ33S and δ34S isotope analyses (United States)

    Gregory, Daniel D.; Large, Ross R.; Halpin, Jacqueline A.; Steadman, Jeffery A.; Hickman, Arthur H.; Ireland, Trevor R.; Holden, Peter


    The well-preserved late Archean sedimentary rocks of the Fortescue and Hamersley Basins in Western Australia offer fascinating insights into early earth ocean chemistry prior to the Great Oxidation Event (GOE). In this study, we use a combination of whole rock geochemistry, LA-ICPMS trace element analysis of sedimentary pyrite and pyrrhotite and SHRIMP-SI sulfur isotope analyses to elucidate the chemical changes in these sedimentary rocks. These proxies are used to examine chemical conditions of the ocean during the late Archean. Two to three periods of oxygen enrichment prior to the deposition of banded iron formations (BIF) can be identified. One minor stage of general increase in whole rock enrichment factors and trace element content of pyrite is observed up stratigraphy in the Jeerinah Formation, Fortescue Basin and a more substantial stage is present in the Paraburdoo and Bee Gorge Members of the Wittenoom Formation, Hamersley Basin. Some of the trace element enrichments indicate organic matter burial flux (Ni, Cr, Zn, Co and Cu) which suggests an increase in biological productivity. If the increased biological activity reflects an increase in cyanobacteria activity then an associated increase in oxygen is likely to have occurred during the deposition of the Bee Gorge Member. An increase in atmospheric oxygen would result in continental weathering of sulfide and other minerals, increasing the trace element content of the water column via erosion and avoiding excessive depletion of trace elements due to drawdown in seawater. Since some of these trace elements may also be limiting nutrients (such as Mo and Se) for the cyanobacteria, the degree of biological productivity may have further increased due to the increasing amount of trace elements introduced by oxygenation in a positive feedback loop. These periods of increased productivity and oxygen rise stopped prior to the onset of BIF deposition in the Hamersley Basin. This may be due to the ocean reaching an

  10. An outbreak investigation of scrub typhus in Western Province, Solomon Islands, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Marks


    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the etiology and risk factors of undifferentiated fever in a cluster of patients in Western Province, Solomon Islands, May 2014. Methods: An outbreak investigation with a case control study was conducted. A case was defined as an inpatient in one hospital in Western Province, Solomon Islands with high fever (> 38.5 °C and a negative malaria microscopy test admitted between 1 and 31 May 2014. Asymptomatic controls matched with the cases residentially were recruited in a ratio of 1:2. Serum samples from the subjects were tested for rickettsial infections using indirect micro-immunofluorescence assay. Results: Nine cases met the outbreak case definition. All cases were male. An eschar was noted in five cases (55%, and one developed pneumonitis. We did not identify any environmental factors associated with illness. Serum samples of all five follow-up cases (100% had strong-positive IgG responses to scrub typhus. All but one control (10% had a moderate response against scrub typhus. Four controls had low levels of antibodies against spotted fever group rickettsia, and only one had a low-level response to typhus group rickettsia. Discussion: This outbreak represents the first laboratory-confirmed outbreak of scrub typhus in the Western Province of Solomon Islands. The results suggest that rickettsial infections are more common than currently recognized as a cause of an acute febrile illness. A revised clinical case definition for rickettsial infections and treatment guidelines were developed and shared with provincial health staff for better surveillance and response to future outbreaks of a similar kind.

  11. Analysis of Poplar process value chain in Western Azerbaijan province aims to upgrading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    omid hosein zadeh


    Full Text Available Due to the size and importance of poplar culturing and its role in the West Azerbaijan province economy, evaluation of the poplar value chain is necessary. With drawing up a comprehensive value chain and identify the lacks, setting the value chain in the province were studied. Finally, due to lacks of the value chain, value chain strategy for development was identified using ANP. The results of the calculation of location quotient in the West Azerbaijan province showed that the LQ is equal to 0.65852. Due to its lower LQ than one, it can be concluded that the poplar costumers in Western Azerbaijan province are less than the country average. The results of the prioritization of criteria affecting poplar value chain development in West Azerbaijan province indicated the most important criterion is the access to wooden raw materials weighing 0.16. After that the stable supply of raw materials, machinery and equipment, manpower, proximity to local markets, expertise and financial resources are with weights, 0.132, 0.123, 0.116, 0.105, 0.102 and 0.07 respectively. The weights of the other criteria have a little importance in the development of the poplar value chain. Final results of alternatives prioritization showed, the maximum weight is related to particleboard with the 0.295. The following options are OSB, MDF and HDF which have a weight of 0.185 and 0.178 respectively. After the composite wood products is turn of chemical products, namely cellulose, pulp and paper weights 0.112, 0.1 and 0.066 respectively.

  12. Annual ryegrass toxicity in Thoroughbred horses in Ceres in the Western Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D. Grewar


    Full Text Available An outbreak of annual ryegrass toxicity occurred on a Thoroughbred stud in Ceres in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. This is the 1st report of annual ryegrass toxicity in horses in South Africa, although the condition has been reported in cattle and sheep populations in the past. Annual ryegrass toxicity is characterised by a variety of neurological signs including tremors, convulsions, recumbency and in many cases death. The description of the outbreak includes the history, clinical presentation and treatment protocol administered during the outbreak. Various epidemiological variables and their influence in the outbreak are also considered.

  13. Fauna and Geographical Distribution of Scorpions in Ilam Province, South Western Iran. (United States)

    Sharifinia, Narges; Gowhari, Iman; Hoseiny-Rad, Manijeh; Aivazi, Ali Ashraf


    Scorpions' stings and their own mortalities place them among the most important health and medical problems. The dreadful features and especially their poisonous stings are considered a major cause of human stress and abhorrence/phobia. The current study aimed to study the scorpion fauna of Ilam Province, south western Iran in order to manage scorpionism related problems. In this field-laboratory investigation during March 2014 to February 2015, different parts of Ilam Province were surveyed. Nine sampling parts were selected based on geographical situation, scorpionism reports, weather, flora, and local data. Capturing scorpion was done employing a black light, and a long forceps from dusk to midnight. The collected scorpions were placed to 70% ethyl alcohol. All specimens were determined based on the valid taxonomic keys, furthermore their sexes were studied. Out of the 391 collected scorpions, 11 species were identified as follows: Hottentotta saulcyi , Mesobuthus eupeus , Compsobuthus matthiesseni , Razianus zarudnyi , Hemiscorpius lepturus , Androctonus crassicauda , Orthochirus iranus , Odontobuthus bidentatus , Buthacus macrocentrus , Scorpio maurus , and Polisius persicus . Eleven species of Buthidae, Scorpionidae and Hemiscorpiidae families from high risk areas were identified. Despite the low surface of the province, such different species reveals a diverse scorpion fauna that, in turn, shows good and suitable habits of scorpions, as considered by health staff.

  14. Seroprevalence of Human Fasciolosis in Lorestan Province, Western Iran, in 2015-16

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyman HEYDARIAN


    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was the seroepidemiological survey for detecting the status of human fasciolosis in Lorestan Province, western Iran.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015-16. Based on statistical estimations, 1256 serum samples were collected from different parts of Lorestan Province, western Iran, and stored at -20 °C until use. The collected serum samples were analyzed at Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran using indirect ELISA method.Results: Anti-Fasciola antibodies were detected in 16 (1.3% individuals. Regarding the seropositivity to fasciolosis, no significant differences were found between age groups, sex, level of education and occupation; however significant differences were observed regarding location, consuming local freshwater plants and water resources (P<0.02.Conclusion: Local freshwater plants and unfiltered water resources were probably the main sources of the infection. Health education by local health centers to elevate awareness of people, and providing facilities for safer drinking water, especially in rural areas may help decrease the risk of fasciolosis infection in this region.

  15. Seroepidemiological survey of Q fever and brucellosis in Kurdistan Province, western Iran. (United States)

    Esmaeili, Saber; Pourhossein, Behzad; Gouya, Mohammad Mehdi; Amiri, Fahimeh Bagheri; Mostafavi, Ehsan


    Given that the there is little information about the current status of brucellosis and Q fever in most parts of Iran, the aim of this study was to assay the seroprevalence of these two diseases in high-risk populations of Kurdistan Province in western Iran. Two hundred fifty sera samples were collected from hunters and their families, butchers, health care workers, and those referred to medical diagnostic laboratories in the southwestern regions of Kurdistan Province. Sera were tested to detect specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against brucellosis and Coxiella burnetii (phase I and II). The seroprevalence of brucellosis and Q fever (C. burnetii IgG phase I and II) was 6.4% and 27.83% (20% and 14.52%), respectively. The highest seroprevalence of Q fever (38%) and brucellosis (12%) was seen in butchers, who handled cattle, sheep, and goats during their work. Age had a significant positive association with Q fever seropositivity (p=0.04). The seroprevalence of Q fever was higher in those people who had been in employment for more than 10 years (21.88%) compared to others (7.79%) (p=0.02). The keeping of animals (p=0.03), hunting and eating the meat of wild animals (p=0.02), and not disinfecting hands and faces after working (for health care workers and butchers) (p=0.02) were risk factors for Q fever seropositivity. This study showed a relatively high seroprevalence of brucellosis and Q fever in high-risk populations of Kurdistan Province. It is suggested that complementary studies be carried out in other parts of western Iran to clarify the epidemiological aspects of these diseases.

  16. Seroprevalence of Neospora infection in horses and donkeys in Hamedan province, Western Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Gharekhani


    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was to determine the seroprevalence of Neospora infection in horses and donkeys in Hamedan province, Western Iran.Materials and Methods:In cross-sectional study, Blood samples (n=220 were collected from 120 horses and 100 donkeys in 2012 year. All sera were screened for Neosporausing Neosporamodified direct agglutination test (N-MAT. Results:Antibodies to Neospora infection in horses and donkeys were reported in 40.8% and 52%, respectively. There was not significant correlation demonstrated between infection rates in different age groups and genders.Conclusion: The current study is the first report of Neospora infection in donkeys from Iran. Further investigations and designing control strategies is recommended

  17. Utility of qualitative methods in a clinical setting: perinatal care in the Western Province. (United States)

    Jayasuriya, V


    A peculiar paradox that has been observed in previous studies of antenatal care is where patients are satisfied with the services despite obvious lack of basic facilities. Qualitative methods were used to describe the experience of perinatal care in the Western province with the objective of demonstrating application of this method in a clinical setting. This paper used a 'naturalistic' approach of qualitative methods. In-depth interviews conducted with 20 postnatal mothers delivering in tertiary care institutions in the Western province was tape recorded, transcribed and content analysed. To ensure objectivity and validity of results, the principle investigator received only the anonymised data to prevent any prejudices or pre-conceptions affecting the results. The main themes emerging from the text demonstrated 'naïve trust' in the carer and a state of 'hero worship' where patients were distanced and therefore unable and unwilling to query the decisions made by the carers. This is similar to a state of patient-carer relationship described in a published model known as guarded alliance, where the relationship develops though four phases based on the level of trust and confidence in the relationship. This state explains not only why patients fail to recognise and report any deficiencies in the services but also the need for them to justify the behaviour of caregivers even when it amounts to incompetence and negligence. Qualitative methods allow the researcher to capture experiences in its 'natural' form rather than based on pre-determined protocols or plans, which may be limited to our own understanding and expectations and therefore unable to explain many idiosyncrasies of the programmes. This paper argues favourably for the use of qualitative methods in other clinical settings.

  18. Impact of an AI heifer calf rearing scheme on dairy stock development in the Western province of Sri Lanka.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nettisinghe, A.M.P.; Udo, H.M.J.; Steenstra, F.A.


    This study evaluated the impact of an AI heifer calf rearing scheme on dairy stock development, in a coconut grazing and a peri-urban smallholder dairy production system in the Western Province of Sri Lanka. The heifer rearing scheme included free advice on calf rearing, drugs, acaricides, minerals

  19. Checklist of the subfamilies Mirinae and Orthotylinae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Miridae in western parts of Kerman Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Shamsi


    Full Text Available A faunal study was carried out on the subfamilies Mirinae and Orthotylinae (Heteroptera: Miridae from different parts of western Kerman Province on various host plants. In total 16 species belonging to 14 genera were collected and identified from different host plants and localities.

  20. Tumuli and associated features from the western Deccan Volcanic Province, India (United States)

    Duraiswami, Raymond; Bondre, Ninad; Dole, Gauri; Phadnis, Vinit; Kale, Vivek


    Whale-back-shaped uplifts called "tumuli" are common in the pahoehoe flows of the western Deccan Volcanic Province (DVP). Although they usually occur in hummocky flows, they are also associated with thicker sheet lobes. They have been subjected to a detailed morphometric and petrographic study for the first time. The tumuli are characterised by positive relief and "lava-inflation clefts" occupied by squeeze-ups. They display elongate as well as equant forms; some are constituted of a single flow lobe, whereas others display multiple flow lobes. Some tumuli appear to have developed along anastomosing tube systems. The detailed study of one of the tumuli reveals considerable petrographic and textural variations among the constituent flow units. Some of these, such as the enrichment of phenocrysts in squeeze-ups and breakouts, could be related to the emplacement dynamics of the tumulus. All the observed tumuli display much evidence of inflation or endogenous growth. Field observations and measurements reveal that the tumuli and associated pahoehoe features display a close similarity with their Hawaiian counterparts. This is a very significant observation since it points out to a similarity in nature and style of eruptions in Hawaii and at least in the western part of the DVP. This has an important bearing on determining the short, medium and long-term effusion rates in the Deccan; however, any concrete inference will have to await systematic volcanological studies of the lava features in the DVP.

  1. A Systems Dynamic Model for Drug Abuse and Drug-Related Crime in the Western Cape Province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farai Nyabadza


    Full Text Available The complex problem of drug abuse and drug-related crimes in communities in the Western Cape province cannot be studied in isolation but through the system they are embedded in. In this paper, a theoretical model to evaluate the syndemic of substance abuse and drug-related crimes within the Western Cape province of South Africa is constructed and explored. The dynamics of drug abuse and drug-related crimes within the Western Cape are simulated using STELLA software. The simulation results are consistent with the data from SACENDU and CrimeStats SA, highlighting the usefulness of such a model in designing and planning interventions to combat substance abuse and its related problems.

  2. Hepatitis virus genotyping by Polymerase Chain Reaction and DNA Enzyme immunoassay among Saudi patients in the Western Province, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osoba, A.O.; Ibrahim, M.; Abdelaal, M.A.; Al-Mowallad, A.; Al-Shareef, B.; Hussein, B.A.


    The distribution of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes in the Western Province of Saudi Arabia is unknown. The purpose of our study was to determine the prevalent HCV genotypes among HCV seropositive Saudi patients in the Western Province and to study the relationship between types/subtypes, clinical status and liver histology. Serum samples were collected from 140 consecutive patients attending the Hematology Clinic with varying grades of liver diseases, high almandine transferees (ALT) for > 6 months, positive HCV, qualitative PCR and who had liver biopsy. HCV genotyping was determined on patients who had tested positive by both HCV enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and the recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA). Of the 140 patients, 97 (69.2%) had genotype 4, 18 (12.8%) had genotype 1a, and 16 (11.4%) had genotype 1b. Genotype 2b and 5 were found in two patients (1.4%) each, while 5 patients (3.6%) had mixed infections with genotype 4 and 5. Of the 97 patients infected with genotype 4, 84 (86.6%) had chronic active hepatitis (CAH), two (2.1%) had CAH with active cirrhosis, 9(9.3%) had cirrhosis and two (2.1%) had normal liver histology (NLH). The most prevalent HCV genotype in the Western Province of Saudi Arabia was genotype 4 (69.2%). Genotype 1b was encountered in 16 (11.4%) patients. For the first time, genotype 5 was identified in the Western Province of Saudi Arabia. Genotype 1b and 4 were associated with different histological grades of liver disease. (author)

  3. Factors affecting Thai rubber farmer production and marketing in the western province of Kanchanaburi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narisa Thongtrai


    Full Text Available This research aimed to study the factors affecting the production and marketing of rubber farmers in the western Thai province of Kanchanaburi. The sample group included 30 farmers involved in rubber production. From the questionnaire and statistical analysis by SPSS, 15 observed variables were determined to be factors affecting the production and marketing of rubber farmers. The conclusion from the researchers determined that 1 The area planted is not appropriate and is still expanding plantations without any control was found that the rubber plantations are expanding at high plains area flooding. 2 Farmers of rubber technology farmers are not valid and do not conform to the instructions of the Rubber Research Institute study found that the cause is the opportunity to access technology and lack of knowledge regarding the management, production, and marketing. 3 Use rubber tree tapping of the system to high frequency screaming systems correctly. Does not comply with the instructions of the Rubber Research Institute found that of rubber farmers and farmers opening tapped the tire rubber accelerator before opening a huge size tapped that affect productivity and the income of farmers depressed farmers. 4 Problems with the labor of producing rubber of the household. It was found that labor households in the production system are lower 5 Farmers of Thailand are not yet aware of the concept of livelihood along the sufficiency economy as should farmers be life according to the way of life that is not adjusted to prepare 6 Group integration it was found that is not yet strong.

  4. Waste-to-energy potential in the Western Province of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar K.M. Ouda


    Full Text Available Waste-to-energy (WTE is a viable option for municipal solid waste (MSW management and a renewable energy source. MSW is a chronic problem in Saudi Arabia and more specifically in Saudi Urban areas. The MSW practices in KSA are simply done by collecting the waste and dumping it in open landfill sites. KSA is considering WTE as a potential renewable energy source that can contribute to electricity demand in the Kingdom. This research aims to assess potential contribution of WTE facility to meet electricity demand in the three main cities in the Western Province of Saudi Arabia and to provide an alternative solution to landfills. Three scenarios for WTE utilization were developed: Mass Burn, Mass Burn with recycling, and refused derived fuel (RDF with biomethanation. The Mass Burn scenario implies full waste stream incineration; the Mass Burn with recycling scenario considers segregation of reusable materials and the waste leftover for incineration; while RDF with biomethanation considers segregation of general waste stream into inorganic and organic waste and utilizes organic waste for biomethanation and inorganic for RDF. The analyses were completed for Jeddah, Makkah, and Madina cities; with current total population of about 6.3 million. The results show that Jeddah has the potential to produce about 180 MW of electricity based on incineration scenario; about 11.25 MW based on incineration with recycling scenario; and about 87.3 MW based RDF with biomethanation scenario by the year 2032. These values and other two cities values are based on theoretical ideals and they help in identifying the optimal WTE techniques for each city.

  5. Pharmaceutical ethnobotany in the western part of Granada province (southern Spain): ethnopharmacological synthesis. (United States)

    Benítez, G; González-Tejero, M R; Molero-Mesa, J


    The aim of this work is to catalogue, document, and make known the uses of plants for folk medicine in the western part of the province of Granada (southern Spain). An analysis was made of the species used, parts of the plant employed, preparation methods, administration means, and the ailments treated in relation to pathological groups. The work was performed in 16 municipalities within the study zone. The participants were located mainly by questionnaires distributed in public and private centres. The information, gathered through semi-structured open interviews of a total of 279 people, was included in a database for subsequent analysis. A floristic catalogue of the territory was compiled, enabling analyses of the relevance of certain botanical families in popular medicine. Great diversity was established among medicinal species in the region. A total of 229 species of plants were catalogued for use in human medicine to prevent or treat 100 different health problems covering 14 different pathological groups. The number of references reached 1963. The popular pharmacopoeia of this area relies primarily on plants to treat digestive, respiratory, and circulatory problems, using mainly the soft parts of the plant (leaves and flowers) prepared in simple ways (decoction, infusion). An analysis of the medicinal ritual uses of 34 species and the different symptoms reflected a certain acculturation in relation to ethnobotanical knowledge in the last 20 years. The traditional knowledge of plants was shown in relation to medicinal use, reflecting a striking diversity of species and uses, as well as their importance in popular plant therapy in the study zone. These traditions could pave the way for future phytochemical and pharmacological studies and thereby give rise to new medicinal resources. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Relationship of soil terrestrial radionuclide concentrations and the excess of lifetime cancer risk in western Mazandaran Province, Iran. (United States)

    Abbaspour, M; Moattar, F; Okhovatian, A; Kharrat Sadeghi, M


    The main goal of this study is to lay out the map of the soil radionuclide activity concentrations and the terrestrial outdoor gamma dose rates in the western Mazandaran Province of Iran, and to present an evaluation scheme. Mazandaran Province was selected due to its special geographical characteristics, high population density and the long terrestrial and aquatic borders with the neighbouring countries possessing nuclear facilities. A total of 54 topsoil samples were collected, ranging from the Nour to Ramsar regions, and were based on geological conditions, vegetation coverage and the sampling standards outlined by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The excess lifetime cancer risks (ELCRs) were evaluated and the coordinates of sampling locations were determined by the global positioning system. The average terrestrial outdoor gamma dose rate was 612.38 ± 3707.93 nGy h(-1), at 1 m above the ground. The annual effective gamma dose at the western part of Mazandaran Province was 750 μSv, and the ELCR was 0.26 × 10(-2). Soil samples were analysed by gamma spectrometry with a high-purity germanium detector. The average (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K and (137)Cs activities were 1188.50 ± 7838.40, 64.92 ± 162.26, 545.10 ± 139.42 and 10.41 ± 7.86 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The average soil radionuclide concentrations at the western part of Mazandaran Province were higher than the worldwide range. The excess lifetime risks of cancer and the annual effective gamma doses were also higher than the global average.

  7. Inefficient procurement processes undermine access to medicines in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. (United States)

    Magadzire, Bvudzai P; Ward, Kim; Leng, Henry M J; Sanders, David


    South Africa (SA) has experienced several stock-outs of life-saving medicines for the treatment of major chronic infectious and non-communicable diseases in the public sector. To identify the causes of stock-outs and to illustrate how they undermine access to medicines (ATM) in the Western Cape Province, SA. This qualitative study was conducted with a sample of over 70 key informants (frontline health workers, sub-structure and provincial health service managers). We employed the critical incident technique to identify significant occurrences in our context, the consequences of which impacted on access to medicines during a defined period. Stock-outs were identified as one such incident, and we explored when, where and why they occurred, in order to inform policy and practice. Medicines procurement is a centralised function in SA. Health service managers unanimously agreed that stock-outs resulted from the following inefficiencies at the central level: (i) delays in awarding of pharmaceutical tenders; (ii) absence of contracts for certain medicines appearing on provincial code lists; and (iii) suppliers' inability to satisfy contractual agreements. The recurrence of stock-outs had implications at multiple levels: (i) health facility operations; (ii) the Chronic Dispensing Unit (CDU), which prepacks medicines for over 300 000 public sector patients; and (iii) community-based medicines distribution systems, which deliver the CDU's prepacked medicines to non-health facilities nearer to patient homes. For instance, stock-outs resulted in omission of certain medicines from CDU parcels that were delivered to health facilities. This increased workload and caused frustration for frontline health workers who were expected to dispense omitted medicines manually. According to frontline health workers, this translated into longer waiting times for patients and associated dissatisfaction. In some instances, patients were asked to return for undispensed medication at a later

  8. Inefficient procurement processes undermine access to medicines in the Western Cape Province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bvudzai P Magadzire


    Full Text Available Background. South Africa (SA has experienced several stock-outs of life-saving medicines for the treatment of major chronic infectious and non-communicable diseases in the public sector. Objective. To identify the causes of stock-outs and to illustrate how they undermine access to medicines (ATM in the Western Cape Province, SA. Methods. This qualitative study was conducted with a sample of over 70 key informants (frontline health workers, sub-structure and provincial health service managers. We employed the critical incident technique to identify significant occurrences in our context, the consequences of which impacted on access to medicines during a defined period. Stock-outs were identified as one such incident, and we explored when, where and why they occurred, in order to inform policy and practice. Results. Medicines procurement is a centralised function in SA. Health service managers unanimously agreed that stock-outs resulted from the following inefficiencies at the central level: (i delays in awarding of pharmaceutical tenders; (ii absence of contracts for certain medicines appearing on provincial code lists; and (iii suppliers’ inability to satisfy contractual agreements. The recurrence of stock-outs had implications at multiple levels: (i health facility operations; (ii the Chronic Dispensing Unit (CDU, which prepacks medicines for over 300 000 public sector patients; and (iii community-based medicines distribution systems, which deliver the CDU’s prepacked medicines to non-health facilities nearer to patient homes. For instance, stock-outs resulted in omission of certain medicines from CDU parcels that were delivered to health facilities. This increased workload and caused frustration for frontline health workers who were expected to dispense omitted medicines manually. According to frontline health workers, this translated into longer waiting times for patients and associated dissatisfaction. In some instances, patients were

  9. Hereditary angio-oedema in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. (United States)

    Coovadia, K M; Chothia, M-Y; Baker, S G; Peter, J G; Potter, P C


    Hereditary angio-oedema (HAE) is an autosomal dominant condition caused by a deficiency in the C1-esterase inhibitor protein, resulting in increased bradykinin release. It presents clinically with recurrent attacks of angio-oedema, commonly affecting the limbs, face, upper airway and gastrointestinal tract. Little is known about this condition in sub-Saharan Africa. To analyse and report on the clinical presentation and treatment of patients with HAE in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. A retrospective analysis was conducted on a series of 60 cases of HAE seen between 2010 and 2015 at the Allergy Diagnostic and Clinical Research Unit, University of Cape Town Lung Institute, and the Allergy Clinic at Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town. The findings in 43 cases of type 1 HAE are described. Parameters assessed included age, gender, age of diagnosis, duration of illness, family history, identifiable triggers, average duration of attack, number of attacks per year and type of attack. A total of 43 patients were included in this study. Of these, 65.1% (28/43) were female. The median age at diagnosis was 20 years (interquartile range (IQR) 10 - 27) and the median duration of illness 10.5 years (IQR 6 - 22). Of the patients, 62.8% (27/43), 32.6% (14/43) and 4.7% (2/43) were of mixed ancestry, white and black African, respectively; 51.2% (22/43) were index cases, with the remaining 48.8% (21/43) diagnoses via family member screening, 12 families making up the majority of the cohort. The mean (standard deviation) duration of an acute attack was 49 (25.8) hours, and 64.3% (27/42), 71.4% (30/42), 14.3% (6/42) and 88.1% (37/42) of patients experienced facial or upper airway, abdominal, external genitalia and limb attacks, respectively. Danazol for long-term prophylaxis was used in 21 patients, while C1-inhibitor concentrate (Berinert) was accessed for short-term prophylaxis in only four patients. Acute life-threating attacks were treated with fresh frozen plasma in 11

  10. Inter-professional collaboration as a health human resources strategy: moving forward with a western provinces research agenda. (United States)

    Mickelson, Grace; Suter, Esther; Deutschlander, Siegrid; Bainbridge, Lesley; Harrison, Liz; Grymonpre, Ruby; Hepp, Shelanne


    The current gap in research on inter-professional collaboration and health human resources outcomes is explored by the Western Canadian Interprofessional Health Collaborative (WCIHC). In a recent research planning workshop with the four western provinces, 82 stakeholders from various sectors including health, provincial governments, research and education engaged with WCIHC to consider aligning their respective research agendas relevant to inter-professional collaboration and health human resources. Key research recommendations from a recent knowledge synthesis on inter-professional collaboration and health human resources as well as current provincial health priorities framed the discussions at the workshop. This knowledge exchange has helped to consolidate a shared current understanding of inter-professional education and practice and health workforce planning and management among the participating stakeholders. Ultimately, through a focused research program, a well-aligned approach between sectors to finding health human resources solutions will result in sustainable health systems reform. Copyright © 2013 Longwoods Publishing.

  11. The study for the Spatial Distribution Pattern of NDVI in the Western of Jilin Province (United States)

    Yang, Shu-jie; Li, Xiao-dong; Yan, Shou-gang


    Using methods of spatial autocorrelation analysis and trend analysis, the paper studies the spatial distribution pattern of NDVI based on the GIMMS NDVI dataset (1998-2008), in Western Jilin. The maximum value for 15d is got through the method of MAX processing. Results show that: the NDVI in growing season shows a rising trend in western Jilin in 1998-2008. In the study area, the NDVI in Western Jilin shows positive spatial autocorrelation in the whole region, but the partial NDVI is apt to scattered distribution, which means the vegetation cover of Western Jilin is generally fragmental.

  12. Indoor radon survey in dwellings of nine cities in the eastern and western provinces of Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abu-Jarad, F.; Fazal-ur-Rehman; Al-Jarallah, M.I.; Al-Shukri, A


    The results of a first phase of an indoor survey in a total of 1610 dwellings distributed in nine cities of the Eastern and the Western provinces of Saudi Arabia are presented. The objective of this radon survey was to obtain representative indoor radon data for seven cities in the Eastern province, Khafji, Hafr Al-Batin, Abqaiq, Qatif, Al-Ahsa, Dammam and Khobar and to compare this with two cities in the Western province, Madina and Taif. So far, detailed radon data is not available for Saudi Arabia; therefore, this radon survey provides a base line for Saudi Arabia in the Radon World Atlas. On average, 200 indoor radon dosemeters were distributed in each city and placed for a period of one year starting from May 2001 to May 2002. The total number of collected dosemeters was 847. A total of 724 houses and 98 schools were covered in this survey. The results of the survey in the cities showed that the overall minimum, maximum and average radon concentrations were 1, 137 and 22 Bq m {sup -3}, respectively. Geometric mean and geometric standard deviations of the radon distribution were found to be 18 and 1.92, respectively. In one of the dwellings in Qatif city, radon concentration, measured by a passive system and then confirmed by an active system, was found to be 535 {+-} 23 and 523 {+-} 22 Bq m {sup -3}, respectively. The result of a radon survey in 98 schools showed that the minimum, maximum and average radon concentrations were 1, 70 and 19 Bq m{sup -3}, respectively. The average radon concentration for each city was also determined. The lowest average radon concentration (8 Bq m{sup -3}) was found in Al-Ahsa while the highest average concentration (40 Bq m {sup -3}) was found in Khafji. (author)

  13. Striking elevation in incidence and prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease in a province of western Hungary between 1977-2001 (United States)

    Lakatos, Laszlo; Mester, Gabor; Erdelyi, Zsuzsanna; Balogh, Mihaly; Szipocs, Istvan; Kamaras, Gyorgy; Lakatos, Peter Laszlo


    AIM: An investigation into inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer in Veszprem Province was conducted from 1977 to 2001. METHODS: Both hospital and outpatient records were collected and reviewed comprehensively. The majority of patients were followed up regularly. RESULTS: The population of the province was decreased from 386000 to 376000 during the period. Five hundred sixty new cases of ulcerative colitis (UC), 212 of Crohn’s disease (CD), and 40 of indeterminate colitis (IC) were diagnosed. The incidence rates increased from 1.66 to 11.01 cases per 100000 persons for UC, from 0.41 to 4.68 for CD and from 0.26 to 0.74 for IC. The prevalence rate at the end of 2001 was 142.6 for UC and 52.9 cases per 100000 persons for CD. The peak onset age in UC patients was between 30 and 40 years, in CD between 20 and 30 years. A family history of IBD was present in 3.4 % in UC and 9.9 % in CD patients. Smoking increased the risk for CD (OR = 1.94) while it decreased the risk for UC (OR = 0.25). Twelve colorectal carcinomas were observed in this cohort, the cumulative colorectal cancer risk after 10 years in UC was 2%, after 20 years 8.8%, after 30 years 13.3%. CONCLUSION: The incidence and prevalence rates of IBD have increased steadily in Veszprem Province, now equivalent to that in Western European countries. Rapid increase in incidence rates supports a probable role for environmental factors. The rate of colorectal cancers in IBD is similar to that observed in Western countries. PMID:14760767

  14. Human Visceral Leishmaniasis in Kermanshah Province, Western Iran, During 2011-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Bashiri


    Full Text Available Background: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL or kala-azar is a parasitic disease caused by the species of Leishmania donovani complex. It is endemic in some parts of provinces of Iran. According to the reported cases of VL in Kermanshah Province in recent years, this study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of VL in high risk villages of the province.Metods: Totally, 1622 serum samples obtained from children under 15 years old and 178 from adults in 22 villages of studied areas. Serum samples were examined by direct agglutination test (DAT for the detection of anti-Leishmania antibodies. Data were analyzed using SPSS software ver.11.5.Results: Only 6 serum samples (0.33% showed anti-Leishmania antibodies against L.infantum at titers ≥ 1/3200. Four of the seropositive cases had a history of kala-azar and Leishman bodies were seen in their bone marrows. The highest (0.5% and lowest (0.29% seroprevalence was seen in the age groups of 5-9 and 10-14 years old, respectively. None of the adults were seropositive. There were not any significant differences be­tween the rate of seropositivity in males (0.36% and females (0.31%. 66.7% of seropositive individuals showed clinical manifestations. The most important symptoms in Kala-azar patients were fever, hepato-spleenome­gally and anemia.Conclusion: Kala-azar is occurred sporadically in Kermanshah Province. But presence of significant number of positive sera confirms the necessity for attention of people and clinicians to kala-azar.

  15. Geographical accessibility and spatial coverage modeling of the primary health care network in the Western Province of Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huerta Munoz Ulises


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary health care is essential in improving and maintaining the health of populations. It has the potential to accelerate achievement of the Millennium Development Goals and fulfill the “Health for All” doctrine of the Alma-Ata Declaration. Understanding the performance of the health system from a geographic perspective is important for improved health planning and evidence-based policy development. The aims of this study were to measure geographical accessibility, model spatial coverage of the existing primary health facility network, estimate the number of primary health facilities working under capacity and the population underserved in the Western Province of Rwanda. Methods This study uses health facility, population and ancillary data for the Western Province of Rwanda. Three different travel scenarios utilized by the population to attend the nearest primary health facility were defined with a maximum travelling time of 60 minutes: Scenario 1 – walking; Scenario 2 – walking and cycling; and Scenario 3 – walking and public transportation. Considering these scenarios, a raster surface of travel time between primary health facilities and population was developed. To model spatial coverage and estimate the number of primary health facilities working under capacity, the catchment area of each facility was calculated by taking into account population coverage capacity, the population distribution, the terrain topography and the travelling modes through the different land categories. Results Scenario 2 (walking and cycling has the highest degree of geographical accessibility followed by Scenario 3 (walking and public transportation. The lowest level of accessibility can be observed in Scenario 1 (walking. The total population covered differs depending on the type of travel scenario. The existing primary health facility network covers only 26.6% of the population in Scenario 1. In Scenario 2, the use of a bicycle

  16. Wind Atlas for South Africa (WASA) Observational wind atlas for 10 met. stations in Northern, Western and Eastern Cape provinces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Hansen, Jens Carsten; Kelly, Mark C.

    As part of the “Wind Atlas for South Africa” project, microscale modelling has been carried out for 10 meteorological stations in Northern, Western and Eastern Cape provinces. Wind speed and direction data from the ten 60-m masts have been analysed using the Wind Atlas Analysis and Application...... Program (WAsP 11). The windclimatological inputs are the observed wind climates derived from the WAsP Climate Analyst. Topographical inputs are elevation maps constructed from SRTM 3 data and rough-ness length maps constructed from SWBD data and Google Earth satellite imagery. Summaries are given...... of the data measured at the 10 masts, mainly for a 3-year reference period from October 2010 to September 2013. The main result of the microscale modelling is observational wind atlas data sets, which can be used for verification of the mesoscale modelling. In addition, the microscale modelling itself has...

  17. Wind Atlas for South Africa (WASA) Observational wind atlas for 10 met. stations in Northern, Western and Eastern Cape provinces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Hansen, Jens Carsten; Kelly, Mark C.

    As part of the “Wind Atlas for South Africa” project, microscale modelling has been carried out for 10 meteorological stations in Northern, Western and Eastern Cape provinces. Wind speed and direction data from the ten 60-m masts have been analysed using the Wind Atlas Analysis and Application...... Program (WAsP 11). The wind-climatological inputs are the observed wind climates derived from the WAsP Climate Analyst. Topographical inputs are elevation maps constructed from SRTM 3 data and roughness length maps constructed from SWBD data and Google Earth satellite imagery. Summaries are given...... of the data measured at the 10 masts, mainly for a 3-year reference period from October 2010 to September 2013. The main result of the microscale modelling is observational wind atlas data sets, which can be used for verification of the mesoscale modelling. In addition, the microscale modelling itself has...

  18. Impact of Self Service Technology Quality on Customer Satisfaction: A Case of Retail Banks in Western Province in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunawardana H.M.R.S.S.


    Full Text Available Rapid technological advancement in the banking environment drives Sri Lankan banks to adopt self-service technologies to deliver services via SMS banking, Internet banking and telephone banking facilities, Automated Teller Machines (ATM etc. This study explored the perceived quality of the self-service technology of these services and its effect on customer satisfaction. The literature survey and in depth interviews helped to formulate quality dimensions: security, efficiency, eases of use, reliability and convenience and those dimensions were assessed through a questionnaire. This study surveyed 215 customers from branches of six dominating commercial banks located in Western Province of Sri Lanka. Data were subjected to Principal Component Analysis and retained factors were regressed using multiple regressions to assess the impact of quality dimensions on customer satisfaction. The results revealed that reliability and convenience have positive impacts on customer satisfaction but efficiency has a negative effect.

  19. Homework Policy Review: A Case Study of A Public School in the Western Cape Province (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Verbra


    A key concern today is the question of homework in our nation's public schools. In this study, an investigation was conducted with the first no-homework policy, which has been introduced in one of the primary schools in the Western Cape. This study seeks to determine whether a no-homework policy will validate a positive or negative effect on…

  20. Non-metropolitan residential gated developments in the Western Cape Province, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Spocter, M


    Full Text Available -metropolitan locale and the topic is also unexplored in the South African context. This research attempts to address this research gap by investigating the locations of gated developments in non-metropolitan towns of varying sizes in the Western Cape...

  1. Palystes kreutzmanni sp. n. – a new huntsman spider species from fynbos vegetation in Western Cape Province, South Africa (Araneae, Sparassidae, Palystinae (United States)

    Jäger, Peter; Kunz, Dirk


    Abstract Palystes kreutzmanni sp. n. is described from habitats close to Kleinmond, in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. Spiders of this new species live in the typical fynbos vegetation of the Western Cape region. They build retreats between apical leaves of Leucadendron bushes. The systematic position of Palystes kreutzmanni sp. n. is discussed. Male and female show characters of different species groups, especially the female copulatory organ seems to be unique within the genus Palystes L. Koch, 1875. PMID:21594031

  2. Comparison between indigenous and Western postnatal care practices in Mopani District, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roinah N. Ngunyulu


    Full Text Available Background: Postnatal care begins immediately after the expulsion of the placenta and continues for six to eight weeks post-delivery. High standard of care is required during the postnatal period because mothers and babies are at risk and vulnerable to complications related to postpartum haemorrhage and infections. Midwives and traditional birth attendants are responsible for the provision of postnatal care in different settings, such as clinics and hospitals, and homes. Methods: A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual research approach was followed in this study. Unstructured interviews were conducted with the traditional birth attendants. An integrated literature review was conducted to identify the Western postnatalcare practices. Tesch’s process was followed during data analysis. Findings: The following main categories were identified: similarities between indigenous and Western postnatal care practices, and differences between indigenous and Western postnatal care practices. Based on these findings, training of midwives and traditional birth attendants was recommended in order to empower them with knowledge and skills regarding the indigenous and Western postnatal care practices. Conclusions: It is evident that some indigenous postnatal care practices have adverse effects on the health of postnatal women and their newborn infants, but these are unknown to the traditional birth attendants. The employment of indigenous postnatal care practices by the traditional birth attendants is also influenced by their cultural beliefs, norms, values and attitudes. Therefore, there is an urgent need to train midwives and traditional birth attendants regarding the indigenous and Western postnatal care to improve the health of postnatal women and their babies.

  3. Evidence for a western extension of the Angaran phytogeographic province in the Early Permian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunderlin, David [Department of the Geophysical Sciences, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, 60637 (United States)


    A newly described Early Permian fossil plant assemblage in the Mt. Dall conglomerate in the Farewell terrane (Alaska Range, USA) is analyzed from a paleobiogeographic perspective. These data constitute the youngest paleontological dataset yet discovered in this terrane, represent the terrane's only predominantly terrestrial fossil assemblage, and are the only plant macrofossil remains of Early Permian age within a > 1500 km radius today. A suite of multivariate statistical analyses comparing the Mt. Dall paleoflora to similar age (Asselian-Artinskian) collections from the Angaran, Euramerican, and Cathaysian Permian phytogeographic provinces reveals that the Mt. Dall paleoflora has a paleobiogeographic affinity with Sub-Angaran plant fossil assemblages collected from Mongolia and the Primorye region of southeastern Russia. The paleoflora has dual importance in the construction and testing of hypotheses for which there are geographically and temporally few controls. First, these data may be used in association with other faunal and floral remains to test models of the assembly of Alaska, which seek, in part, an understanding of the paleogeographic and lithological origins of accreted terranes. That the Mt. Dall paleoflora indicates mixed Eurasia-North America paleobiogeographic affinity among individual taxa and plots in multivariate space with mid-latitude assemblages on northern Pangea may suggest deposition in that latitudinal belt. Second, contrary to the well-sampled fossil plant-bearing Permo-Carboniferous of the paleotropics and the northeastern temperate Pangean regions (Angaraland), terrestrial biome structure and vegetation type of northwestern Pangea are poorly known. This lack of understanding is due to the paucity of paleofloral collections from this region in this time period and the paleogeographic uncertainty of their position along the ancient active margin of Laurentia. The Mt. Dall paleoflora's phytogeographic affinity to paleobotanical

  4. A link of full-scale accelerated pavement testing to long-term pavement performance study in the Western Cape Province of South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph K


    Full Text Available of Accelerated Pavement Testing in Pavement Sustainability A Link of Full-Scale Accelerated Pavement Testing to Long-Term Pavement Performance Study in the Western Cape Province of South Africa J. K. Anochie-Boateng W. JvdM Steyn C. Fisher L. Truter...

  5. Exploring nurse preceptors’ perceptions of benefits and support of and commitment to the preceptor role in the Western Cape Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inez S. Cloete


    Full Text Available Background: A preceptor is a specialised tutor who provides practical training to students in the practice setting. They are frequently used to orientate nursing students to prepare them for their duties as professional nurses. In the Western Cape Province professional nurses attend a training programme to prepare them for the role of preceptor. After completion of the training it is unclear how the trained nurse preceptors perceive their preparation for the role. The perceptions of preceptors may influence their commitment to their role.Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore nurse preceptors’ perceptions of benefits, support and commitment to the preceptor role. A conceptual framework guided the study which replicated previous studies that explored nurse preceptors’ perceptions.Method: A quantitative approach utilising a descriptive correlational design was used in this study to address the research questions. A convenience sample was drawn from preceptors (n = 60 who had completed a preceptor training programme at the University of the Western Cape. Instrumentation for the study included the following scales: preceptors’ perceptions of benefits and rewards, preceptors’ perceptions of support, and commitment to the preceptor role. Data analysis was performed using SPSS 20.0.Results: The findings indicate that nurse preceptors were committed to their role.Conclusion: The findings of this study are supported by Kanter’s model of structural determinants of behaviour in organisations, since preceptors who see themselves as having access to opportunity and support are likely to be committed to their role.

  6. The gender gap among school children in poor rural areas of western China: evidence from a multi-province dataset. (United States)

    Zhou, Hua; Mo, Di; Zhou, Chengchao; Medina, Alexis; Shi, Yaojiang; Zhang, Linxiu; Rozelle, Scott


    The gender gap remains a major impediment in the path towards equality and it is especially wide in low-income countries. Up to the early 2000s, many studies documented extensive inequalities in China: girls had poorer health, less nutrition and less education than their male counterparts. The goal of this study is to examine whether the gender gap persists, given that China is now making the transition into the ranks of upper-middle income countries. We consider educational outcomes, mental and physical health status, as well as non-cognitive outcomes. We draw on a dataset containing 69,565 observations constructed by combining data from 7 different school-level surveys spanning 5 provinces. The surveys were all conducted by the authors between 2008 and 2013 using uniform survey instruments and data collection protocols in randomly selected schools across western provinces in rural China. The sample children range in age from 9 to 14 years (with 79 % of the sample being aged 10 to 12). Our analysis compares rural girls with rural boys in terms of 13 different indicators. With the exception of anemia rates, the health outcomes of girls are equal to those of boys. Girls and boys are statistically identical in terms of weight-for-age, height-for-age, and prevalence of intestinal worm infections. Girls performed better than boys on five of six cognitive and educational performance indicators. Girls performed worse than boys on all mental health indicators. All estimates are robust to the inclusion of different age ranges, controlling for the level of household assets, ethnic minority status, as well as the addition of provincial dummies. Our findings suggest that with the exception of non-cognitive outcomes, anemia and standardized math test scores, the gender gap in our study areas in China appears to be diminishing.

  7. Evaluation of Prevalence of Allergic Rhinitis Symptoms in Kurdistan, a Western Province in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasoul Nasiri


    Full Text Available Introduction Allergic rhinitis, like other allergic diseases, is one of the most common disorders during childhood; this study was conducted to assess and compare the prevalence and severity of allergic rhinitis in children and adolescents living in Kurdistan province. The study was aimed to provide a ground for the identification of likely causes and risk factors of this disorder. Materials and Methods This study was a cross-sectional study. In order to collect data, 4,000 questionnaires were distributed to elementary schools and junior high schools and 3,890 questionnaires were completed; as a result, the survey response rate was 97%. The study was carried out based on International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC: ISAAC questionnaire. After entering the data into SPSS version 13, they were analyzed using logistic regression and Chi- square test. Results Of a total 3,890 people, 29.7% of the subjects in this study reported a history of sneezing or runny nose in the past 12 months; it was reported more in boys in the age group 13-14 years and the difference between the sexes was significant [Odds ratio(OR=1.35, Confidence interval (CI]: 1.09-1.67, P < 0.01. Based on physician diagnosis, 9.37% of the subjects were overtaken by allergic rhinitis and it was more prevalent in boys at both educational levels and the difference was statistically significant in subjects aged 13-14 years old (OR=1.44 CI: 1.07-1.94, P

  8. Diffusion models for corona formation in metagabbros from the Western Grenville Province, Canada (United States)

    Grant, Shona M.


    Metagabbro bodies in SW Grenville Province display a variety of disequilibrium corona textures between spinel-clouded plagioclase and primary olivine or opaque oxide. Textural evidence favours a single-stage, subsolidus origin for the olivine coronas and diffusive mass transfer is believed to have been the rate-controlling process. Irreversible thermodynamics have been used to model two different garnet symplectite-bearing corona sequences in terms of steady state diffusion. In the models the flux of each component is related to the chemical potential gradients of all diffusing species by the Onsager or L-coefficients for diffusion. These coefficients are analogous to experimentally determined diffusion coefficients ( d), but relate the flux of components to chemical potential rather than concentration gradients. The major constraint on the relative values of Onsager coefficients comes from the observed mole fraction, X, of garnet in the symplectites; in (amph-gt) symplectites X {Gt/Sym}˜0.80, compared with ˜0.75 in (cpx-gt) symplectites. Several models using simple oxide components, and two different modifications of the reactant plagioclase composition, give the following qualitative results: the very low mobility of aluminium appears to control the rate of corona formation. Mg and Fe have similar mobility, and Mg can be up to 6 8 times more mobile than sodium. Determination of calcium mobility is problematical because of a proposed interaction with cross-coefficient terms reflecting “uphill” Ca-diffusion, i.e., calcium diffusing up its own chemical potential gradient. If these terms are not introduced, it is difficult to generate the required proportions of garnet in the symplectite. However, at moderate values of the cross-coefficient ratios, Mg can be up to 4 6 times more mobile than calcium ( L MgMg/LCaCaCaCa/LAlAl>3).

  9. Geochemistry of Late Mesozoic mafic dykes in western Fujian Province of China:Sr-Nd isotope and trace element constraints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The Bancun diabase dyke and the Bali hornblende gabbro dyke in western Fuiian Province were emplaced in the Early and Late Cretaceous periods,respectively;the former is designated to calc-alkaline series and the latter to K-high-calc-alkaline rock series.Both the dykes are characterized by such geochemical characteristics as high Al and Na2O>K2O.As for the Bancun dyke,A12O3=16.32%-17.54%and K2O/Na2O=0.65-0.77;as for the Bali dyke,A12O3=16.89%-17.81%and K2O,Na2O=O.93-O.99.Both the Bancun and Bali mafic dykes are relatively endched in LILE and LREE,but depleted in HSFE, displaying the geochemical characteristics of continental marginal arc,with high initial Sr isotopic ratios and low εNd values,The (87Sr/86Sr)i ratios of the Bancun diabase dyke are within the range of 0.708556-0.70903 and their εNd(t)values vary between-6.8 and-6.3;those of the Bali hornblende dyke are within the range of 0.708556-0.710746 and their εNd(t) values are -4.7--4.7,showing the characteristics of enriched mantle EM Ⅱ.The isotope and trace element data showed that the mafic dykes have not experienced obvious crustal contamination,and metasomatism caused by subduction fluids is the main factor leading to LILE and UREE enrichments.The enriched mantle is the source region for the mafic dykes,and mixing of subduction fluid metasomatized enriched mantle and EM Ⅱ-type mantle constituted the mantle source region of both the Bancun and Bali mafic dykes.Upwelling of the asthenosphere mantle provided sufficient heat energy for the generation of magmas.In accordance with the discrimination diagram of their tectonic settings as well as their trace element geochemical characteristics,it is considered that the dykes both at Bancun and Bali possess the characteristics of continental marginal arc,revealing the tectonic environment of formation of the mafic dykes,the continental dynamic background as an intraplate tensional belt in which the mafic dykes were emplaced.Meanwhile,it is also indicated

  10. The supplier relationship practices of travel agencies in the Western Cape Province - What is the status quo?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mornay Roberts-Lombard


    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the article is to explore the supplier relationship practices of travel agencies in the Western Cape province. The article wants to establish the current supplier relationship practices of travel agencies in the province and to identify limitations in supplier market relationships which might exist in the industry. Problem investigated: Relationships are the basis on which trade in the travel industry is built (George, 2006:224. The establishment and management of these relationships must be to the advantage of all parties in the relationship (Swart, 2003:120. Townes (2007 indicated that the current level of relationships that exists between travel agencies and their suppliers, especially the South African Airways (SAA, the Protea and Southern Sun hotel groups and motor vehicle rental companies such as AVIS is fragmented and negatively impairs on the ability of travel agents to deliver a quality service to their customers. To improve their overall level of service delivery to both corporate and leisure customers, it is important for travel agencies to know and understand the current level of their relationships with suppliers. It is against this background that the research was undertaken. Methodology: The target population for this study was 118 travel agencies of which 61 managers and/or owners participated through personal interviews in the completion of questionnaires. Data analysis was done by calculating averages and standard deviations, Explorative Factor Analysis (EFA, Cronbach Alpha-values and practical significance by means of effect sizes. Findings: The owners and managers of travel agencies are of the opinion that the strengthening of their existing relationships with suppliers must be prioritised. More emphasis should be placed on the strengthening of existing communication channels between travel agencies and their suppliers to secure the faster resolution of queries and complaints and to enhance the sharing

  11. Geothermic analysis of high temperature hydrothermal activities area in Western plateau of Sichuan province, China (United States)

    Zhang, J.


    There is a high temperature hydrothermal activity area in the western plateau of Sichuan. More than 200 hot springs points have been found in the region, including 11 hot spring water temperature above local boiling point. Most of these distribute along Jinshajjiang fracture, Dege-Xiangcheng fracture, Ganzi-Litang fracture as well as Xianshuihe fracture, and form three high-temperature hydrothermal activity strips in the NW-SE direction. Using gravity, magnetic, seismic and helium isotope data, this paper analyzed the crust-mantle heat flow structure, crustal heat source distribution and water heating system. The results show that the geothermal activity mainly controlled by the "hot" crust. The ratio of crustal heat flow and surface heat flow is higher than 60%. In the high temperature hydrothermal activities area, there is lower S wave velocity zone with VsGeothermal water mainly reserve in the Triassic strata of the containing water good carbonate rocks, and in the intrusive granite which is along the fault zone. The thermal energy of Surface heat thermal activities mainly comes from the high-temperature hot source which is located in the middle and lower crust. Being in the deep crustal fracture, the groundwater infiltrated to the deep crust and absorbed heat, then, quickly got back to the surface and formed high hot springs.

  12. Main geological problems of Western Anatolia and the significance of the Bodrum magmatic province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, Y


    Western Anatolian Extended Terrain in Turkey stretches from the Balkan region in the north to the Taurides in the south. It contains a number of major tectonic entities including the Menderes Massif, the volcanic associations and the Neogene terrestrial cover sequence. In recent years the initiation of the N-S extension is viewed as a major factor responsible from the development of all these tectonic units. The initiation of the extension is regarded going back to the early Oligocene period. The data derived from our mapping project reveal that these units have developed under different tectonic regimes during different periods; for example the Menderes Massif, began to have formed during the late Creteceous and its development continued into the Miocene period. The Magmatic associations were formed in two separated phases; the early phase began during the Eocene- Oligocene time long before the extension started. The late phase is closely associated with the extensional regime. The Neogene sedimentary successions have 3 stratigraphic units separated by unconformities. The field data displays further that the N-S extension has not been uninterrupted. A major interruption occurred during the Early Pliocene period, and a region-wide, flat-lying erosional surface, as a key horizon, was developed

  13. Coronitic metagabbro and eclogite from the Grenville Province of western Quebec: interpretation of U-Pb geochronology and metamorphism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indares, A.; Dunning, G.


    We present new U-Pb and metamorphic data on high-pressure coronitic metagabbros from three distinct structural settings in the Parautochthonous belt of the Grenville Province in western Quebec. Intrusive ages are (i) 1217 -10 +15 Ma, for metagabbro close to the Grenville Front, correlative with the Sudbury dykes, defined in Ontario; (ii) 1403 -11 +14 Ma for an eclogitized lens at the base of the highest structural level (SL4), a new age for mafic magmatism in the western Grenville; and (iii) 1218 -34 +53 Ma for metagabbro from SL4, interpreted as correlative with metagabbros from the Algonquin and Shawanaga domains in Ontario. Metamorphism in all cases is Grenvillian, with the best constrained age of 1069 ± 3 Ma for the metagabbro of SL4. Metamorphic grade increases from the Grenville Front to the south. The mafic rocks preserve relict igneous textures overprinted by garnet + clinopyroxene that developed as coronas and (or) pseudomorphs after igneous phases. The highest grade metagabbros contain omphacite and some lack primary plagioclase, therefore being eclogites. However, interpretation of textures and mineral chemistry indicates that they were equilibrated during decompression (at 1350 MPa and 720 o C, sample 51: and at 1200 MPa and 740 o C, sample 29), so maximum depths of burial remain unconstrained. Their evolution is interpreted as follows: (i) high-pressure metamorphism by burial of the Laurentian margin under accreted terranes thrust toward the northwest between 1080 and 1060 Ma; (ii) residence at intermediate crustal levels, for a few tens of millions of years; and (iii) rapid exhumation by renewed thrusting that led to the emplacement of the high-pressure units over the northerly adjacent structural units of the Parautochthonous Belt. (author)

  14. Chinese herbal therapy and Western drug use, belief and adherence for hypertension management in the rural areas of Heilongjiang province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Li

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM including Chinese herbal therapy has been widely practiced in China. However, little is known about Chinese herbal therapy use for hypertension management, which is one of the most prevalent chronic conditions in China. Thus we described Chinese herbal therapy and western drug users, beliefs, hypertension knowledge, and Chinese herbal and western drug adherence and determinants of Chinese herbal therapy use among patients with hypertension in rural areas of Heilongjiang Province, China.This face-to-face cross sectional survey included 665 hypertensive respondents aged 30 years or older in rural areas of Heilongjiang Province, China. Of 665 respondents, 39.7% were male, 27.4% were aged 65 years or older. At the survey, 14.0% reported using Chinese herbal therapy and 71.3% reported using western drug for hypertension management. A majority of patients had low level of treatment adherence (80.6% for the Chinese herbal therapy users and 81.2% for the western drug users. When respondents felt that their blood pressure was under control, 72.0% of the Chinese herbal therapy users and 69.2% of the western drug users sometimes stopped taking their medicine. Hypertensive patients with high education level or better quality of life are more likely use Chinese herbal therapy.Majority of patients diagnosed with hypertension use western drugs to control blood pressure. Chinese herbal therapy use was associated with education level and quality of life.

  15. Integrating multi-criteria decision analysis for a GIS-based hazardous waste landfill sitting in Kurdistan Province, western Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharifi, Mozafar; Hadidi, Mosslem; Vessali, Elahe; Mosstafakhani, Parasto; Taheri, Kamal; Shahoie, Saber; Khodamoradpour, Mehran


    The evaluation of a hazardous waste disposal site is a complicated process because it requires data from diverse social and environmental fields. These data often involve processing of a significant amount of spatial information which can be used by GIS as an important tool for land use suitability analysis. This paper presents a multi-criteria decision analysis alongside with a geospatial analysis for the selection of hazardous waste landfill sites in Kurdistan Province, western Iran. The study employs a two-stage analysis to provide a spatial decision support system for hazardous waste management in a typically under developed region. The purpose of GIS was to perform an initial screening process to eliminate unsuitable land followed by utilization of a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) to identify the most suitable sites using the information provided by the regional experts with reference to new chosen criteria. Using 21 exclusionary criteria, as input layers, masked maps were prepared. Creating various intermediate or analysis map layers a final overlay map was obtained representing areas for hazardous waste landfill sites. In order to evaluate different landfill sites produced by the overlaying a landfill suitability index system was developed representing cumulative effects of relative importance (weights) and suitability values of 14 non-exclusionary criteria including several criteria resulting from field observation. Using this suitability index 15 different sites were visited and based on the numerical evaluation provided by MCDA most suitable sites were determined.

  16. Assessment of iron status among preschool children (6 to 59 months) with and without malaria in Western Province, Kenya (United States)

    Kisiangani, Isaac; Mbakaya, Charles; Makokha, Anzelimo; Magu, Dennis


    Introduction Iron deficiency is a major public health concern. Globally, iron deficiency ranks number 9 and is responsible for about 60% of all anemia cases among preschool children. In Africa iron deficiency is 43-52% while in Kenya, children under 5 years constitute the largest burden with 69% of them being deficient. There is limited iron deficiency data in Kenya. This study determined haemoglobin levels, serum ferritin levels, nutritional status and P.falciparum malaria infection in preschool children. Methods A household cross sectional study was undertaken among 125 preschoolers in Western province, drawn from 37 clusters. Systematic random sampling was used for sample selection. Data was collected using pretested structured questionnaires, entered in Microsoft package. Data analysis was done in Statistical package for social science (SPSS) version 20 using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression and differences were considered significant at P iron deficiency (Serum ferritin iron deficiency and anaemia (OR = 3.43, 95% CI: 1.33-8.84, p = 0.008). A preschool child with anaemia was 3.43 times likely to be iron deficient compared to a preschool child who was not anaemic. Conclusion Iron deficiency, anaemia and plasmodium falciparum malaria was prevalent among preschool children. The findings revealed a significant association between iron deficiency and anaemia. Therefore effective interventions to improve iron status will have large health benefits by greatly reducing anaemia in preschool children. PMID:26405498

  17. Acute flaccid paralysis and its differential diagnosis in in kurdistan province, Western iran; an 11-year surveillance. (United States)

    Soltani, Jafar; Esmailnasab, Nader; Roshani, Daem; Karimi, Mohamad; Amjadi, Mohamad-Jamil


    The surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) is a key strategy for monitoring the progress of poliomyelitis eradication and is a sensitive measure for detecting potential cases of poliomyelitis and poliovirus infection. This study was conducted to describe the characteristics of patients reported with AFP, and to evaluate the performance of the surveillance system in Kurdistan province, western Iran, using indicators recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). This observational study was conducted from January 2000 to December 2010 at the Kurdistan Center for Disease Control and the Department of Pediatrics. All children who fulfilled the WHO definition for AFP were included in our study. The stool samples of all the children were sent for poliovirus isolation. All the patients were evaluated for 60 days after the onset of symptoms to identify the signs of residual weakness. One-hundred thirty nine children aged Kurdistan during the study period, we achieved the WHO target for AFP surveillance. All performance indicators but one consistently met the WHO requirements and therefore demonstrated the effectiveness of the AFP surveillance program in Kurdistan. The effective surveillance system in Kurdistan and its evaluation may serve as a model for the surveillance of other infectious diseases.

  18. [Effects of elevated temperature on soil organic carbon and soil respiration under subalpine coniferous forest in western Sichuan Province, China]. (United States)

    Pan, Xin-li; Lin, Bo; Liu, Qing


    To investigate the effects of elevated temperature on the soil organic carbon content, soil respiration rate, and soil enzyme activities in subalpine Picea asperata plantations in western Sichuan Province of China, a simulation study was conducted in situ with open-top chambers from November 2005 to July 2007. The results showed that under elevated temperature, the mean air temperature and soil temperature were 0.42 degrees C and 0.25 degrees C higher than the control, respectively. In the first and the second year, the increased temperature had somewhat decreasing effects on the soil organic carbon and the C/N ratio at the soil depths of 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm. In the first year the soil organic carbon and the C/N ratio in 0-10 cm soil layer decreased by 8.69%, and 8.52%, respectively; but in the second year, the decrements were lesser. Soil respiration rate was significantly enhanced in the first year of warming, but had no significant difference with the control in the second year. In the first year of warming, the activities of soil invertase, polyphenol oxidase, catalase, protease, and urease increased, and the invertase and polyphenol oxidase activities in 0-10 cm soil layer were significantly higher than the control. In the second year of warming, the activities of invertase, protease and urease still had an increase, but those of catalase and polyphenol oxidase had a downtrend, compared with the control.

  19. Epidemiological trends of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah Province, Western Region of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miskelyemen Abdelatti Elmekki


    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the epidemiological trends of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL in Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah, western region of KSA. Materials and Methods: Four hundred and sixty-seven parasitologically confirmed CL cases attending Al-Meeqat Hospital, Al-Madinah, during 2012–2015, were included in this study. Results: Both Saudi and non-Saudi nationals were infected, with the highest infection rate being among Saudis (68.7%. Males were more affected than females as 86.9% of the total CL cases were males. Moreover, CL was prevalent in all age groups with higher frequency among young adults and adolescents (23.1% and 22.7%, respectively. Interestingly, almost all the patients in the adolescent and child age groups were Saudis (96.2% and 93.5%, respectively. Considering geographical distribution, the highest percentage of the cases (40.5% were from the northern parts of Al-Madinah province while the eastern parts reported the least infection rate (7.3%. Few cases (2.5% were supposed to encounter the infection abroad. Additionally, the frequency of infection was found to follow a seasonal distribution. Regarding treatment, pentostam, ketoconazole, or cryotherapy were the treatment options usually used. Conclusion: CL is prevalent in Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah area and new foci are being introduced. Thus, detailed studies with large surveillances regarding vector and reservoir hosts in and around the area are needed.

  20. Water quality assessment by pollution-index method in the coastal waters of Hebei Province in western Bohai Sea, China. (United States)

    Liu, Shuguang; Lou, Sha; Kuang, Cuiping; Huang, Wenrui; Chen, Wujun; Zhang, Jianle; Zhong, Guihui


    Sources of pollution discharges and water quality samples at 27 stations in 2006 in the coastal waters of Hebei Province, western Bohai Sea, have been analyzed in this study. Pollutant loads from industrial sewages have shown stronger impact on the water environment than those from the general sewages. Analysis indicates that pollution of COD is mainly resulted from land-based point pollutant sources. For phosphate concentration, non-point source pollution from coastal ocean (fishing and harbor areas) plays an important role. To assess the water quality conditions, Organic Pollution Index and Eutrophication Index have been used to quantify the level of water pollution and eutrophication conditions. Results show that pollution was much heavier in the dry season than flood season in 2006. Based on COD and phosphate concentrations, results show that waters near Shahe River, Douhe River, Yanghe River, and Luanhe River were heavily polluted. Water quality in the Qinhuangdao area was better than those in the Tangshan and Cangzhou areas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Ethnopharmacological survey on medicinal plants used in snakebite treatments in Western and Sabaragamuwa provinces in Sri Lanka. (United States)

    Dharmadasa, R M; Akalanka, G C; Muthukumarana, P R M; Wijesekara, R G S


    Sri Lanka has a great diversity of snake species. In this relation, over 40,000 cases of snakebite accidents are reported annually from different agro-ecological regions of the country. Since more than 95% of victims rely on traditional treatments, there is an urgent necessity to improve the system. Traditional knowledge on snakebite treatments has been passed on from generation to generation within families. Unfortunately, there has been a limited update of information on pertinent issues related to this subject. In the present study we conducted a comprehensive survey on the types of medicinal plant materials, including the specific plant parts that are available for this purpose. In addition, various treatment types, frequency index, heavily used and rare materials, family wise distribution, challenges faced by traditional practitioners and future prospects were also explored. The present survey covered two provinces with a high population of traditional practitioners for snakebites treatment in Sri Lanka.Information was gathered from a total of seventy-four (74) traditional practitioners from the Sabaragamuwa and Western provinces. A questionnaire was prepared and pre-tested by 10-15 respondents prior to the survey. Actual data were gathered through face-to-face interviews. Collected data were tabulated and analyzed. A total of 341 different plant species belonging to 99 families were documented. The highest number of plants was reported from the family Fabaceae (32 species). This was followed by Malvaceae (16 species), Asteraceae (15 species), Rutaceae (13 species Apocyanaceae (14 species), Lamiaceae (11 species), Poaceae, Euphorbaceae and Phyllanthaceae (10 species per each) respectively. Different parts of the plant such as leaves (53.67%), barks (26.10%), entire plant (14.08%), roots (10.26%), bulbs (8.80%), seeds (7.62%), fruits (6.45%), buds (5.87%), flowers (3.23%) stems (2.93%) and latex (2.05%) were used for the preparation of nine different types of

  2. Western Cape Primary Care Assessment Tool (PCAT) study: Measuring primary care organisation and performance in the Western Cape Province, South Africa (2013) (United States)

    Sayed, Abdul-Rauf; le Grange, Cynthia; Bhagwan, Susheela; Manga, Nayna; Hellenberg, Derek


    Background Major health sector reform and the need for baseline measures of performance to determine impact. Aim Baseline audit of primary healthcare (PHC) performance. Setting Cape Town and Cape Winelands (rural) PHC facilities (PCFs) in Western Cape Province, South Africa. Method The South African cross-culturally validated ZA PCAT to audit PHC performance on 11 subdomains associated with improved health and reduced costs. Adult PCF users systematically sampled. All full-time doctors and nurse practitioners in PCFs sampled and all PCF managers in sub-districts sampled invited into the study. Results Data from 1432 users, 100 clinicians and 64 managers from 13 PCFs in 10 sub-districts analysed (figures show stakeholder percentages scoring subdomain performance ‘acceptable to good’). 11.5% users scored access ‘acceptable to good’; community orientation and comprehensive services provided 20.8% and 39.9%, respectively. Total PHC score for users 50.2%; for managers and practitioners 82.8% and 88.0%, respectively. Among practitioners access was lowest (33.3%); PHC team (98.0%) and comprehensive services available (100.0%) highest. Among managers, access (13.5%) and family centredness (45.6%) are lowest; PHC team (85.9%) and comprehensive services available (90.6%) highest. Managers scored access, family centredness and cultural competence significantly lower than practitioners. Users scored comprehensive services available, comprehensive services provided and community orientation significantly lower than practitioners and managers. Conclusion Gaps between users’ experience and providers’ assessments of PHC performance are identified. Features that need strengthening and alignment with best practice, provincial and national, and health policies are highlighted with implications for practitioner and manager training, health policy, and research. PMID:27247157

  3. Testing Timescales for Rhythms Recorded in the 2.5 Ga Banded Iron Formation of the Dales Gorge Member (Brockman Iron Formation, Hamersley Group, Australia) (United States)

    Hinnov, L. A.; de Oliveira Carvalho Rodrigues, P.; Franco, D.


    The classic, Superior-type banded iron formation (BIF) of the Precambrian Dales Gorge Member (DGM) of the Brockman Iron Formation, Hamersley Basin, Western Australia consists of a succession of micro- (millimeter-scale) and meso- (centimeter to decimeter-scale) bands of primarily iron-silica chemical sediment alternations, separated into macro- (meter to decameter-scale) bands by shales (1). Here, we present a time-frequency analysis of a gray-scale scan of the DGM "type section core" Hole 47A with small contributions from Hole EC10 (1) to provide a comprehensive characterization of banding patterns and periodicity throughout the 140 m section. SHRIMP zircon ages (2) indicate that the DGM was deposited over approximately 30 myr during the Archean-Proterozoic transition just prior to the Great Oxidation Event. This suggests that the banding patterns recorded Milankovitch cycles, although with orbital-rotational parameters significantly different from present-day due to Earth's tidal dissipation and chaotic episodes in the Solar System since 2.5 Ga. Banding patterns change systematically within the formation in response to slowly varying environmental conditions, which have been interpreted previously to be related to sea level change and basin evolution (3). Researchers, including (2), have questioned the 30 myr duration, suggesting instead that the micro-bands may be annual in scale. This would indicate a much shorter duration of less than 150 kyr for the DGM. In an attempt to determine whether Milankovitch cycles could have generated the meso-band patterns, we present detailed studies of BIF0 and BIF12, which typify the marked changes in meso-banding along the section. Objective procedures are also applied, including ASM (4) and TIMEOPT (5) to test for a range of potential alternative timescales assuming orbital-rotational parameter values modeled for 2.5 Ga. References: (1) Trendall, A.K., Blockley, J.G., GSWA Ann. Rep. 1967, 48, 1968; (2) Trendall, A.K., et al

  4. Women as whole blood donors: offers, donations and deferrals in the province of Huelva, south-western Spain. (United States)

    Prados Madrona, Dalmiro; Fernández Herrera, María Dolores; Prados Jiménez, Dalmiro; Gómez Giraldo, Sonsoles; Robles Campos, Rita


    Women seem more willing to donate blood than men despite the limitations that affect their donation rate. The aim of our study was to determine the role of women in altruistic donation of blood in Huelva, a province in south-western Spain. We registered 87,601 offers to donate whole blood between January 1st, 2005 and December 31st, 2009. We statistically analysed variables such as sex, age, offers, deferrals and donations, problems in venous access, vasovagal reactions, weight and blood pressure to establish their significance according to donor gender. With regards to gender, 52.3% of donors were women and 47.7% men. Of the 87,601 offers to donate blood, 46.5% were from females and 53.5% from males. More females than males made their first donation during the study period. However, 43.9 % of donations were from women, whereas 56.1% were from men. Overall 8.7% of offers were deferred, 62.7% of which due to a low haemoglobin concentration, which was the most frequent cause of deferral in women. Difficulties in venous access and vasovagal reactions were also more frequent in female donors than in male donors. By the end of the study period, donor fidelity was 58.6% for men and 48.6% for women. In the province of Huelva, women are more altruistically inclined than men to give blood, with the percentages of donors and first-time donors being higher among females. However, there are restrictions to women giving blood, especially low haemoglobin concentration, which reduce the number of female blood donations. Women also have more difficulty when blood is withdrawn and are more susceptible to vasovagal reactions, which negatively affect their experience as donors. Measures should be taken to reduce these barriers to encourage women to continue to offer to donate blood, thereby ensuring that they become regular donors, which is a key factor in guaranteeing an adequate supply of blood within the region of Andalusia.

  5. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal flora utilised by traditional healers in the management of sexually transmitted infections in Sesheke District, Western Province, Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.C. Chinsembu

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Since many rural-poor Lozi people of Sesheke District (Western Province, Zambia that suffer from sexually transmitted infections do not usually access public health facilities; they turn to traditional healers who administer remedies extracted from medicinal plants. However, the medicinal plants used for sexually transmitted infections and data on the usage of plants in Sesheke District in particular and Western Province in general have not been documented. In this study, an ethnobotanical survey was conducted to document the indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants that alleviate symptoms of sexually transmitted infections in Sesheke District, Western Province, Zambia. Using semi-structured interviews and questionnaires, ethnobotanical data were collected from twenty traditional healers that manage patients presenting with sexually transmitted infections. The results showed that 52 plant species in 25 families and 43 genera were used to treat gonorrhoea, syphilis, chancroid, chlamydia, genital herpes, and ano-genital warts. Sexually transmitted infections were frequently managed using the following plants: Terminalia sericea, Strychnos cocculoides, Ximenia caffra, Cassia abbreviata, Cassia occidentalis, Combretum hereroense, Combretum imberbe, Dichrostachys cinerea, Boscia albitrunca, Momordica balsamina and Peltophorum africanum. Many of these plants have putative antimicrobial activities which may justify their roles as natural remedies for sexually transmitted infections. Further studies are needed to determine the dosages, minimum inhibitory concentrations, biological activities and toxicities, and characterise the plants' chemical compounds.

  6. Diabetes mellitus in Zambia and the Western Cape province of South Africa: Prevalence, risk factors, diagnosis and management. (United States)

    Bailey, Sarah Lou; Ayles, Helen; Beyers, Nulda; Godfrey-Faussett, Peter; Muyoyeta, Monde; du Toit, Elizabeth; Yudkin, John S; Floyd, Sian


    To determine the prevalence of and risk factors for diabetes mellitus and examine its diagnosis and management in the study communities. This is a population-based cross-sectional study among adults in 24 communities from Zambia and the Western Cape (WC) province of South Africa. Diabetes is defined as a random blood glucose concentration (RBG)⩾11.1mmol/L, or RBGdiabetes diagnosis. For individuals with a prior diagnosis of diabetes, RBGprevalence of diabetes was 3.5% and 7.2% respectively. The highest risk groups identified were those of older age and those with obesity. Of those identified to have diabetes, 34.5% in Zambia and 12.7% in WC were previously unaware of their diagnosis. Among Zambian participants with diabetes, this proportion was lower among individuals with better education or with higher household socio-economic position. Of all those with previously diagnosed diabetes, 66.0% in Zambia and 59.4% in WC were not on any diabetes treatment, and 34.4% in Zambia and 32.7% in WC had a RBG concentration beyond the recommended level, ⩾7.8mmol/L. The diabetes risk factor profile for our study communities is similar to that seen in high-income populations. A high proportion of individuals with diabetes are not on diabetes treatment and of those on treatment a high proportion have high glycaemic concentrations. Such data may assist in healthcare planning to ensure timely diagnosis and management of diabetes. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. [Spatial distribution and ecological significance of heavy metals in soils from Chatian mercury mining deposit, western Hunan province]. (United States)

    Sun, Hong-Fei; Li, Yong-Hu; Ji, Yan-Fang; Yang, Lin-Sheng; Wang, Wu-Yi


    Ores, waste tailings and slag, together with three typical soil profiles (natural soil profiles far from mine entrance and near mine entrance, soil profile under slag) in Chatian mercury mining deposit (CMD), western Hunan province were sampled and their concentrations of mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn) were determined by HG-ICP-AES and ICP-MS. Enrichment factor and correlation analysis were taken to investigate the origins, distribution and migration of Hg, as well as other heavy metals in the CMD. The results show that Hg is enriched in the bottom of the soil profile far from mine entrance but accumulated in the surface of soil profiles near mine entrance and under slag. The soil profiles near mine entrance and under slag are both contaminated by Hg, while the latter is contaminated more heavily. In the soil profile under slag, Hg concentration in the surface soil, Hg average concentration in the total profile, and the leaching depth of soil Hg are 640 microg x g(-1), (76.74 +/- 171.71) microg x g(-1), and more than 100 cm, respectively; while 6.5 microg x g(-1), (2.74 +/- 1.90) microg x g(-1), and 40 cm, respectively, are found in the soil profile near mine entrance. Soil in the mercury mine area is also polluted by Cd, As, Pb, Zn besides metallogenic element Hg, among which Cd pollution is relatively heavier than others. The mobility of the studied heavy metals in soil follows the order as Hg > Cd > As > Zn approximately equal to Pb. The leaching depth of the heavy metals is influenced by total concentration in the surface soil and soil physico-chemical parameters. The origins, distribution and migration of heavy metals in soil profile in the mining area are related to primary geological environment, and strongly influenced by human mining activities.

  8. Clinical skills required of ophthalmic nurse practitioners in tertiary level public hospitals in the Western Cape Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Kyriacos


    Full Text Available Background: South Africa has a 32-year history of training ophthalmic nurse practitioners (ONPs. The role and required skills and competencies of ONPs are not well documented in the international literature and are also absent from South African publications, including South African Nursing Council publications. Aim: This study aims to inform curriculum development and human resource planning by reporting on the clinical skills expected of ONPs by members of multidisciplinary ophthalmology teams. Method: A limited survey was undertaken in the ophthalmology wards and outpatient departments of three tertiary level hospitals in the Western Cape Province. A researcher-designed structured self-completion questionnaire was distributed to 30 ophthalmology practitioners: doctors, nurses and technicians. Respondents were asked to indicate the expected clinical skills of ONPs. Findings: All questionnaires were completed. All respondents favoured ONPs taking histories and performing emergency eye irrigations. There was less support for more complex procedures, such as B-scans. One-third of respondents did not expect ONPs to have skills in eight key areas, including examination of the anterior chamber angle for glaucoma. No statistically significant differences were found between responses of doctors and nurses, with one exception: more nurses (15/18 than doctors (4/10 had confidence in the ONP undertaking basic eye examinations for ocular motility (Fisher‘s exact test, P = 0 .035. Conclusion: In the study settings, ONPs are not using their specialist skills to the full. Not all practitioners were receptive to ONPs using the skills that they had acquired during their postgraduate diploma, threatening the educational effectiveness of this initiative.

  9. Biogeography and molar morphology of Pleistocene African elephants: new evidence from Elandsfontein, Western Cape Province, South Africa (United States)

    Smith, Kathlyn M.; Stynder, Deano D.


    Elandsfontein (EFT) is a Middle Pleistocene archaeological/paleontological site located in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. The largest herbivore in the assemblage is Loxodonta atlantica zulu, an extinct member of the genus that includes modern African elephants. No Elephas recki specimens were recovered at EFT, despite their common occurrence in other regions of Africa at the same time. Because E. recki and L. atlantica molars are similar in appearance, but the two species are traditionally viewed as dominating different regions of Africa during the Pleistocene, isolated molars may on occasions have been assessed to species level on the basis of geography rather than morphology. The last morphologic evaluation of EFT elephants was conducted in the 1970s, and revisiting this issue with new specimens provides added insight into the evolution of elephants in Africa. Reevaluating morphological characteristics of EFT elephant molars, through qualitative and quantitative description and comparison with Middle Pleistocene E. recki recki, L. atlantica atlantica, and L. atlantica zulu molar morphology, corroborates assessment of EFT elephants as L. a. zulu. Two recently discovered, previously undescribed molars from EFT show that molars of L. a. zulu exhibit greater variation in enamel thickness, lamellar frequency, and occlusal surface morphology than previously reported. An update of the Pleistocene biogeography of Loxodonta and Elephas indicates that fossil remains of both are often found at the same localities in eastern Africa. Their rare co-occurrences in the north and south, however, suggest geographic separation of the two genera in at least some regions of Africa, which may have been based on habitat preference.

  10. Self-enrolment antenatal health promotion data as an adjunct to maternal clinical information systems in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. (United States)

    Heekes, Alexa; Tiffin, Nicki; Dane, Pierre; Mutemaringa, Themba; Smith, Mariette; Zinyakatira, Nesbert; Barron, Peter; Seebregts, Chris; Boulle, Andrew


    Information systems designed to support health promotion in pregnancy, such as the MomConnect programme, are potential sources of clinical information which can be used to identify pregnancies prospectively and early on. In this paper we demonstrate the feasibility and value of linking records collected through the MomConnect programme, to an emergent province-wide health information exchange in the Western Cape Province of South Africa, which already enumerates pregnancies from a range of other clinical data sources. MomConnect registrations were linked to pregnant women known to the public health services using the limited identifiers collected by MomConnect. Three-quarters of MomConnect registrations could be linked to existing pregnant women, decreasing over time as recording of the national identifier decreased. The MomConnect records were usually the first evidence of pregnancy in pregnancies which were subsequently confirmed by other sources. Those at lower risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes were more likely to register. In some cases, MomConnect was the only evidence of pregnancy for a patient. In addition, the MomConnect records provided gestational age information and new and more recently updated contact numbers to the existing contact registry. The pilot integration of the data in the Western Cape Province of South Africa demonstrates how a client-facing system can augment clinical information systems, especially in contexts where electronic medical records are not widely available.

  11. Recent state of stress change in the Walker Lane zone, western Basin and Range province, United States (United States)

    Bellier, Olivier; Zoback, Mary Lou


    The NW to north-trending Walker Lane zone (WLZ) is located along the western boundary of the northern Basin and Range province with the Sierra Nevada. This zone is distinguished from the surrounding Basin and Range province on the basis of irregular topography and evidence for both normal and strike-slip Holocene faulting. Inversion of slip vectors from active faults, historic fault offsets, and earthquake focal mechanisms indicate two distinct Quaternary stress regimes within the WLZ, both of which are characterized by a consistent WNW σ3 axis; these are a normal faulting regime with a mean σ3 axis of N85°±9°W and a mean stress ratio (R value) (R=(σ2-σ1)/(σ3-σ1)) of 0.63-0.74 and a younger strike-slip faulting regime with a similar mean σ3 axis (N65° - 70°W) and R values ranging between ˜ 0.1 and 0.2. This younger regime is compatible with historic fault offsets and earthquake focal mechanisms. Both the extensional and strike-slip stress regimes reactivated inherited Mesozoic and Cenozoic structures and also produced new faults. The present-day strike-slip stress regime has produced strike-slip, normal oblique-slip, and normal dip-slip historic faulting. Previous workers have explained the complex interaction of active strike-slip, oblique, and normal faulting in the WLZ as a simple consequence of a single stress state with a consistent WNW σ3 axis and transitional between strike-slip and normal faulting (maximum horizontal stress approximately equal to vertical stress, or R ≈ 0 in both regimes) with minor local fluctuations. The slip data reported here support previous results from Owens Valley that suggest deformation within temporally distinct normal and strike-slip faulting stress regimes with a roughly constant WNW trending σ3 axis (Zoback, 1989). A recent change from a normal faulting to a strike-slip faulting stress regime is indicated by the crosscutting striae on faults in basalts the dominantly strike-slip earthquake focal mechanisms and

  12. Determine The Factors Affecting The Blood Donors Of Selecting Blood Donor Program Me In Western Province Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perera D. A. K.


    Full Text Available Abstract Blood and blood component transfusion is one of the major therapeutic practices throughout the world. National Blood Transfusion Service NBTS in Sri Lanka requires approximately 300000 blood units annually. After initiating mobile donor programme there have been two types of blood donation programs in Sri Lanka since 1980. Since second half of first decade of 21st century Sri Lanka shifted to 100 non-replacement blood transfusion policy. That means whole blood and blood component requirement of NBTS has to be collected through mobile blood donor program and voluntary In-house blood donor program. Therefore the objective of this study was to determine the factors affecting the blood donors of selecting blood donor program in Western province Sri Lanka. Methodology This was a cross sectional descriptive study. The study composed of two components. .First the factors that cause the blood donor to select a blood donor programme second the facility survey of blood banks In-house donation. An interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect data from a sample of 410 Mobile blood donors. Facility survey was done using a checklist. The dependant variables were the attendance of the blood donors to Mobile blood donation and In-house blood donation. Independent variables included were the factors related to socio demography service quality accessibility availability and intrinsic extrinsic motivation. The analytical statistics applied for testing the association of factors with the blood donor programme was chi-square test. The study has shown some important findings. There was significant association between income level and donating blood. Only 3.3 of In-house blood donor population was female. Majority of In-house population belonged to 30-41 age group. A statistically significant association exists between age and repeat blood donation. The female blood donors tendency of becoming repeat donors was very low. Distance problem and non

  13. Ranking GCM Estimates of Twentieth Century Precipitation Seasonality in the Western U.S. and its Influence on Floristic Provinces. (United States)

    Cole, K. L.; Eischeid, J. K.; Garfin, G. M.; Ironside, K.; Cobb, N. S.


    Floristic provinces of the western United States (west of 100W) can be segregated into three regions defined by significant seasonal precipitation during the months of: 1) November-March (Mediterranean); 2) July- September (Monsoonal); or, 3) May-June (Rocky Mountain). This third region is best defined by the absence of the late spring-early summer drought that affects regions 1 and 2. Each of these precipitation regimes is characterized by distinct vegetation types and fire seasonality adapted to that particular cycle of seasonal moisture availability and deficit. Further, areas where these regions blend from one to another can support even more complex seasonal patterns and resulting distinctive vegetation types. As a result, modeling the effects of climates on these ecosystems requires confidence that GCMs can at least approximate these sub- continental seasonal precipitation patterns. We evaluated the late Twentieth Century (1950-1999 AD) estimates of annual precipitation seasonality produced by 22 GCMs contained within the IPCC Fourth Assessment (AR4). These modeled estimates were compared to values from the PRISM dataset, extrapolated from station data, over the same historical period for the 3 seasonal periods defined above. The correlations between GCM estimates and PRISM values were ranked using 4 measures: 1) A map pattern relationship based on the correlation coefficient, 2) A map pattern relationship based on the congruence coefficient, 3) The ratio of simulated/observed area averaged precipitation based on the seasonal precipitation amounts, and, 4) The ratio of simulated/observed area averaged precipitation based on the seasonal precipitation percentages of the annual total. For each of the four metrics, the rank order of models was very similar. The ranked order of the performance of the different models quantified aspects of the model performance visible in the mapped results. While some models represented the seasonal patterns very well, others

  14. Investigating a green economy transition of the electricity sector in the Western Cape province of South Africa: a system dynamics approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oosthuizen, Juan


    Full Text Available The Western Cape Government in South Africa has identified the concept of a green economy as a way to transform the Province’s economy to one that is more sustainable from an economic, social, and environmental perspective. System dynamics modelling was used to develop a better understanding of the implications of different green economy policies and investments in the electricity sector of the Western Cape Province. The results suggest that continuing on the current policy path would increase the gap between demand and supply, increase the carbon footprint of the electricity sector, and not provide growth in employment in the sector. Strategic green economy investments are therefore expected to impact positively on a number of indicators across a number of sectors.

  15. Access to affordable medicines after health reform: evidence from two cross-sectional surveys in Shaanxi Province, western China. (United States)

    Fang, Yu; Wagner, Anita K; Yang, Shimin; Jiang, Minghuan; Zhang, Fang; Ross-Degnan, Dennis


    Limited access to essential medicines is a global problem. Improving availability and affordability of essential medicines is a key objective of the National Essential Medicine Policy (NEMP) in China. In its initial implementation in 2009, the NEMP targeted primary hospitals with policies designed to increase availability of essential medicines and reduce patients' economic burden from purchasing medicines. We assessed medicine availability and price during the early years of the health reform in Shaanxi Province in underdeveloped western China. We undertook two public (hospitals) and private (pharmacy) sector surveys of prices and availability of medicines, in September, 2010 and April, 2012, by a standard methodology developed by WHO and Health Action International. We measured medicine availability in outlets at the time of the surveys and inflation-adjusted median unit prices (MUPs), taking 2010 as the base year. We used general estimating equations to calculate the significance of differences in availability from 2010 to 2012 and the Wilcoxon signed rank test to calculate the significance of differences in adjusted median prices. We collected data from 50 public sector hospitals and 36 private sector retail pharmacies in 2010 and 72 public hospitals and 72 retail pharmacies in 2012. Mean availability of surveyed medicines was low in both the public and private sectors; availability of many essential medicines decreased from 2010 to 2012, particularly in primary hospitals (from 27·4% to 22·3% for lowest priced generics; ppublic sector, the median adjusted patient price was significantly lower in 2012 than in 2010 for 16 originator brands (difference -11·7%; p=0·0019) and 29 lowest-priced generics (-5·2%; p=0·0015); the median government procurement price for originator brands also decreased significantly (-10·9%; p=0·0004), whereas the decrease in median procurement price for lowest-priced generics was not significant (-4·9%; p=0·17). In the private

  16. Geochemistry of granitoid rocks from the western Superior Province: Evidence for 2- and 3-stage crustal evolution models (United States)

    Beakhouse, G. P.; errane) are discussed.


    The Superior Province is divisible into subprovinces that can be classified as greenstone-tonalite, paragneiss, or batholitic terranes and are distinguished by differences in lithologic proportions, metamorphic grade, and structural style. The origin and significance of contrasting geochemical characteristics of plutonic rocks from the Winnipeg River subprovince (a batholithic terrane) and the Wabigoon subprovince (a greenstone-tonalite terrane) are discussed.

  17. A case study: Fish production in the integrated farming system of the Black Thai in Yen Chau district (Son La province) in mountainous North-western Vietnam - current state and potential


    Steinbronn, Silke


    Son La province is located in mountainous north-western Vietnam and belongs to the poorest regions of the country. In the valleys of this province, fish farming is one of the major activities among farmers who belong to the ethnic Black Thai minority. Up until now, the aquaculture system practiced here has not been scientifically investigated. There is generally very little data available regarding the aquaculture of resource-poor farmers in Southeast Asia. This lack of information can be par...

  18. The Cadmium Isotope Record of the Great Oxidation Event from the Turee Creek Group, Hamersley Basin, Australia (United States)

    Abouchami, W.; Busigny, V.; Philippot, P.; Galer, S. J. G.; Cheng, C.; Pecoits, E.


    The evolution of the ocean, atmosphere and biosphere throughout Earth's history has impacted on the biogeochemistry of some key trace metals that are of particular importance in regulating the exchange between Earth's reservoirs. Several geochemical proxies exhibit isotopic shifts that have been linked to major changes in the oxygenation levels of the ancient oceans during the Great Oxygenation Event (GOE) between 2.45 and 2.2 Ga and the Neoproterozoic Oxygenation Event at ca. 0.6 Ga. Studies of the modern marine biogeochemical cycle of the transition metal Cadmium have shown that stable Cd isotope fractionation is mainly driven by biological uptake of light Cd into marine phytoplankton in surface waters leaving behind the seawater enriched in the heavy Cd isotopes. Here we use of the potential of this novel proxy to trace ancient biological productivity which remains an enigma, particularly during the early stages of Earth history. The Turee Creek Group in the Hamersley Basin, Australia, provides a continuous stratigraphic sedimentary section covering the GOE and at least two glacial events, offering a unique opportunity to examine the changes that took place during these periods and possibly constrain the evolution, timing and onset of oxygenic photosynthesis. Stable Cd isotope data were obtained on samples from the Boolgeeda Iron Fm. (BIFs), the siliciclastic and carbonate successions of Kungara (including the Meteorite Bore Member) and the Kazputt Fm., using a double spike technique by TIMS (ThermoFisher Triton) and Cd concentrations were determined by isotope dilution. The Boolgeeda BIFs have generally low Cd concentrations varying between 8 and 50ppb, with two major excursions marked by an increase in Cd content, reaching similar levels to those in the overlying Kungarra Fm. (≥150 ppb). These variations are associated with a large range in ɛ112/110Cd values (-2 to +2), with the most negative values typically found in the organic and Cd-rich shales and

  19. Al SahawaThe Awakening Volume III: Al Anbar Province, Western Euphrates River Valley, Area of Operations Denver- Transcripts (United States)


    could not be stopped or stalled . On 1 September 2008, conditions were stable enough to hand over the province to the Iraqis Government. What jihadists]. On any given day, they’d play well together in the sand box; that probably wasn’t a good day for us. Other days they’d fight...roam around up there, by all means, go for it, just let us know for purposes of de-confliction. You’re free to operate anywhere ten clicks north of the

  20. The role of active and ancient geothermal processes in the generation, migration, and entrapment of oil in the basin and Range Province, western USA. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulen, J.B.; Collister, J.W.; Curtiss, D.K. [and others


    The Basin and Range (B&R) physiographic province of the western USA is famous not only for its geothermal and precious-metal wealth, but also for its thirteen oil fields, small but in some cases highly productive. The Grant Canyon field in Railroad Valley, for example, for years boasted production of more than 6000 barrels of oil (BO) per day from just two wells; aggregate current production from the Blackburn field in Pine Valley commonly exceeds 1000 BO per day. These two and several other Nevada oil fields are unusually hot at reservoir depth--up to 130{degrees}C at depths as shallow as 1.1 km, up to three times the value expected from the prevailing regional geothermal gradient.

  1. [The status of occupational health of female migrant workers in traditional Chinese medicine, western medicine and bio-pharmaceutical industry in Gansu province]. (United States)

    Liao, Ping-Tai; Kou, Zhen-Xia; Li, Zhi-Lan; He, Yu-Hong; Yu, Wen-Lan; Zho, An-Shou


    To understand the status of occupational health of female migrant workers in different kinds of pharmaceutical industries in Gansu province and to provide the basis for improving occupational health condition. One thousand eight hundreds and one female workers from 16 enterprises were selected by cluster sampling in Gansu province and investigated by interviewing and questionnaires. There were statistical significances of education level, status of residency registrations, employment relationship and occupational hazards among female workers in three types of enterprises (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). The morbidities of skin disease in female workers for three kinds of enterprises were 4.46%, 2.53% and 3.70%, respectively. The morbidities of reproductive system disease in female workers for three kinds of enterprises were 48.57%, 36.70% and 36.11%, respectively. The levels of education and working conditions of female workers in the traditional Chinese medicine, western medicine plants are low. There are more severe occupational hazards in female workers of the traditional Chinese medicine plants.

  2. Disparities in health system input between minority and non-minority counties and their effects on maternal mortality in Sichuan province of western China. (United States)

    Ren, Yan; Qian, Ping; Duan, Zhanqi; Zhao, Ziling; Pan, Jay; Yang, Min


    The maternal mortality rate (MMR) markedly decreased in China, but there has been a significant imbalance among different geographic regions (east, central and west regions), and the mortality in the western region remains high. This study aims to examine how much disparity in the health system and MMR between ethnic minority and non-minority counties exists in Sichuan province of western China and measures conceivable commitments of the health system determinants of the disparity in MMR. The MMR and health system data of 67 minority and 116 non-minority counties were taken from Sichuan provincial official sources. The 2-level Poisson regression model was used to identify health system determinants. A series of nested models with different health system factors were fitted to decide contribution of each factor to the disparity in MMR. The MMR decreased over the last decade, with the fastest declining rate from 2006 to 2010. The minority counties experienced higher raw MMR in 2002 than non-minority counties (94.4 VS. 58.2), which still remained higher in 2014 (35.7 VS. 14.3), but the disparity of raw MMR between minority and non-minority counties decreased from 36.2 to 21.4. The better socio-economic condition, more health human resources and higher maternal health care services rate were associated with lower MMR. Hospital delivery rate alone explained 74.5% of the difference in MMR between minority and non-minority counties. All health system indicators together explained 97.6% of the ethnic difference in MMR, 59.8% in the change trend, and 66.3% county level variation respectively. Hospital delivery rate mainly determined disparity in MMR between minority and non-minority counties in Sichuan province. Increasing hospital birth rates among ethnic minority counties may narrow the disparity in MMR by more than two-thirds of the current level.

  3. Molecular Assay on Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Ticks (Ixodidae) Collected from Kermanshah Province, Western Iran (United States)

    Mohammadian, Maria; Chinikar, Sadegh; Telmadarraiy, Zakkyeh; Vatandoost, Hassan; Oshaghi, Mohammad Ali; Hanafi-Bojd, Ahmad Ali; Sedaghat, Mohammad Mehdi; Noroozi, Mehdi; Faghihi, Faezeh; Jalali, Tahmineh; Khakifirouz, Sahar; Shahhosseini, Nariman; Farhadpour, Firoozeh


    Background: Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) is a feverous and hemorrhagic disease endemic in some parts of Iran and caused by an arbovirus related to Bunyaviridae family and Nairovirusgenus. The main virus reservoir in the nature is ticks, however small vertebrates and a wide range of domestic and wild animals are regarded as reservoir hosts. This study was conducted to determine the infection rate of CCHF virus in hard ticks of Sarpole-Zahab County, Kermanshah province, west of Iran. Methods: From total number of 851 collected ticks from 8 villages, 131 ticks were selected randomlyand investigated for detection of CCHF virus using RT-PCR. Results: The virus was found in 3.8% of the tested ticks. Hyalommaanatolicum, H. asiaticum and Rhipicephalus sanguineus species were found to have viral infection, with the highest infection rate (11.11%) in Rh. sanguineus. Conclusion: These findings provide epidemiological evidence for planning control strategies of the disease in the study area. PMID:27308296

  4. The Dynamic Coordinated Development of a Regional Environment-Tourism-Economy System: A Case Study from Western Hunan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaoqing Yuan


    Full Text Available Based on regional coordination theory and system theory, the authors constructed an evaluation index system for the coordinated development of a regional environment-tourism-economy system with a pressure-state-response (PSR model. With a coordinated development model, it further empirically analyzed the coordinated development state of an environment-tourism-economy system in western Hunan from 2001 to 2012. The results showed that, although this environment-tourism-economy system failed to achieve a high benefit index, inter-subsystem coupling extent, and coordinated development index, the three indices presented an increasing overall trend. This outcome suggested that the sub-systems in this system were developing towards their optimal proportions: the development of these sub-systems (environmental, tourism, and economic was unbalanced in western Hunan. The environment therein sees only slow development although provided with a favorable ecological foundation. Economic development, which has long been lagging, acted as the main factor restricting the coordinated development of a regional environment-tourism-economy system. To promote its coordinated development in western Hunan, the following recommendations were proposed: strengthen the prediction and warnings on the evolution of the whole system; optimize the industry’s structure; reinforce environmental management.

  5. Outsourcing vaccine logistics to the private sector: The evidence and lessons learned from the Western Cape Province in South-Africa. (United States)

    Lydon, Patrick; Raubenheimer, Ticky; Arnot-Krüger, Michelle; Zaffran, Michel


    With few exceptions, immunization supply chains in developing countries continue to face chronic difficulties in providing uninterrupted availability of potent vaccines up to service delivery levels, and in the most efficient manner possible. As these countries struggle to keep pace with an ever growing number of vaccines, more and more Ministries of Health are considering options of engaging the private sector to manage vaccine storage, handling and distribution on their behalf. Despite this emerging trend, there is limited evidence on the benefits or challenges of this option to improve public supply chain performance for national immunization programmes. To bridge this knowledge gap, this study aims to shed light on the value proposition of outsourcing by documenting the specific experience of the Western Cape Province of South Africa. The methodology for this review rested on conducting two key supply chain assessments which allowed juxtaposing the performance of the government managed segments of the vaccine supply chain against those managed by the private sector. In particular, measures of effective vaccine management best practice and temperature control in the cold chain were analysed. In addition, the costs of engaging the private sector were analysed to get a better understanding of the economics underpinning outsourcing vaccine logistics. The results from this analysis confirmed some of the theoretical benefits of outsourcing to the private sector. Yet, if the experience in the Western Cape can be deemed a successful one, there are several policy and practice implications that developing countries should be mindful of when considering engaging the private sector. While outsourcing can help improve the performance of the vaccine supply chain, it has the potential to do the reverse if done incorrectly. The findings and lessons learnt from the Western Cape experience can serve as a step towards understanding the role of the private sector in immunization

  6. Utilizing NASA Earth Observations to investigate habitat suitability of the Cape Vulture in the Western Cape Province of South Africa (United States)

    Gray, D.; Estes, M. G., Jr.; Griffin, R.; Estes, S. M.


    As the global urban population rapidly increases, many wild species lose habitat to human development. The Western Cape of South Africa contains one of Earth's 35 biodiversity hotspots, with remarkably high levels of species richness and endemism. Understanding the relationship between anthropogenic changes and key species in this region is crucial for conservation of its threatened ecosystems. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect that climate change and urbanization each have on habitat suitability of the Cape Vulture. This research utilized NASA satellite data and crowdsourced species sightings to model past, current, and future habitat suitability for this key species in the Western Cape. Data used from NASA Earth Observations included: Landsat 8- derived Land Cover, Modis Land Surface Temperature, Digital Elevation Models from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, and precipitation data which integrated in-situ stations with Infrared data. Species observations were sourced from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility online database. A geospatial modelling framework was used to generate maps of present, past and future suitable habitats for analysis and comparison. Changes in precipitation and temperature may be a factor in the extreme loss of habitat since 1995, and predict even more drastic loss in the future. This research provides insights on anthropogenic effects on a species' range which may be used to inform discussions of conservation as an element of environmentally sustainable development.

  7. Meteorological and oceanographic aspects of a winter storm over the south-western Cape Province, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jury, M.R.; Shillington, F.A.; Prestidge, G.; Maxwell, C.D.


    In May the southern hemisphere circumpolar jet stream accelerates in response to a growing temperature gradient between the pole and equator. Initially, the jet stream may 'spin up' in pulses, causing the upper air current to become unstable and to meander equatorwards out of the higher latitudes (40-50 degrees S). Winter storms induced by the jet stream and which move, from west to east, to the south of the African continent are then guided by the upper air currents further north. Between 15 and 17 May 1984, such a sequence of synoptic weather events developed and the south-western Cape came under the influence of the 'roaring 40's'. In this article a chronology of the storm and its meteorological effects are described using data collected at the Koeberg nuclear power station, the Cape Town Airport Weather Office and across the south-western Cape. The destructive effects of the storm, particularly felt along the coast as a result of large swells and a significant storm surge, are discussed

  8. Molecular Assay on Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Ticks (Ixodidae Collected from Kermanshah Province, Western Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Mohammadian


    Full Text Available Background: Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF is a feverous and hemorrhagic disease endemic in some parts of Iran and caused by an arbovirus related to Bunyaviridae family and Nairovirusgenus. The main virus reser­voir in the nature is ticks, however small vertebrates and a wide range of domestic and wild animals are regarded as reservoir hosts. This study was conducted to determine the infection rate of CCHF virus in hard ticks of Sarpole-Zahab County, Kermanshah province, west of Iran.Methods: From total number of 851 collected ticks from 8 villages, 131 ticks were selected randomlyand investi­gated for detection of CCHF virus using RT-PCR.Results: The virus was found in 3.8% of the tested ticks. Hyalommaanatolicum, H.asiaticum and Rhipicephalus sanguineus species were found to have viral infection, with the highest infection rate (11.11% in Rh. sanguineus.Conclusion: These findings provide epidemiological evidence for planning control strategies of the disease in the study area.

  9. Exploring nurse preceptors’ perceptions of benefits and support of and commitment to the preceptor role in the Western Cape Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inez S. Cloete


    Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore nurse preceptors’ perceptions of benefits, support and commitment to the preceptor role. A conceptual framework guided the study which replicated previous studies that explored nurse preceptors’ perceptions. Method: A quantitative approach utilising a descriptive correlational design was used in this study to address the research questions. A convenience sample was drawn from preceptors (n = 60 who had completed a preceptor training programme at the University of the Western Cape. Instrumentation for the study included the following scales: preceptors’ perceptions of benefits and rewards, preceptors’ perceptions of support, and commitment to the preceptor role. Data analysis was performed using SPSS 20.0. Results: The findings indicate that nurse preceptors were committed to their role. Conclusion: The findings of this study are supported by Kanter’s model of structural determinants of behaviour in organisations, since preceptors who see themselves as having access to opportunity and support are likely to be committed to their role.

  10. Predatory Ground Beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera: Carabidae) of the Gaoligong Mountain Region of Western Yunnan Province, China: the Tribe Cyclosomini (United States)

    Cueva-Dabkoski, M.; Kavanaugh, D.


    Between 1998 and 2007, the California Academy of Sciences (CAS) was the lead institution in a multi-national, multi-disciplinary biodiversity inventory project in the Gaoligong Shan region (GLGS) in the Yunnan province of China. The project surveyed the species diversity of both higher plants and bryophytes, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals and selected groups of arachnids and insects. The GLGS of China is one of the most biodiverse areas in all of Asia, yet it is also very poorly sampled and in great threat from increasing human activities in the region. CAS's biodiversity inventory project there has increased the number of carabid species known from just 50 to more than 550 species, an eleven-fold increase. The task that remains is to identify all of those 500 additional species and describe any that are new to science. This project is part of that larger biodiversity survey. Our objective was to identify and/or describe carabid beetles of the tribe Cyclosomini represented by nearly a hundred specimens collected in the GLSG. Among those specimens, six morphospecies were identified - one belonging to the genus Cyclosomus Latreille 1829, and the other five belonging to the genus Tetragonoderus Dejean 1829. Following this initial identification process, a list of known distributions of taxa in both genera was assembled to determine which described species to consider for comparative work. Original descriptions were then located for candidate species with known distributions in or near the GLGS; and these are being used now in morphological comparison of specimens. Type specimens for each of the candidate species have been requested from various academic institutions, and morphological comparisons with these types are underway. Morphological characteristics being examined include body proportions and overall shape, color of appendages, color and shape of pronotum, elytral color patterns, and shape and internal structure of male genitalia.

  11. The challenges of reshaping disease specific and care oriented community based services towards comprehensive goals: a situation appraisal in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. (United States)

    Schneider, Helen; Schaay, Nikki; Dudley, Lilian; Goliath, Charlyn; Qukula, Tobeka


    Similar to other countries in the region, South Africa is currently reorienting a loosely structured and highly diverse community care system that evolved around HIV and TB, into a formalized, comprehensive and integrated primary health care outreach programme, based on community health workers (CHWs). While the difficulties of establishing national CHW programmes are well described, the reshaping of disease specific and care oriented community services, based outside the formal health system, poses particular challenges. This paper is an in-depth case study of the challenges of implementing reforms to community based services (CBS) in one province of South Africa. A multi-method situation appraisal of CBS in the Western Cape Province was conducted over eight months in close collaboration with provincial stakeholders. The appraisal mapped the roles and service delivery, human resource, financing and governance arrangements of an extensive non-governmental organisation (NGO) contracted and CHW based service delivery infrastructure that emerged over 15-20 years in this province. It also gathered the perspectives of a wide range of actors - including communities, users, NGOs, PHC providers and managers - on the current state and future visions of CBS. While there was wide support for new approaches to CBS, there are a number of challenges to achieving this. Although largely government funded, the community based delivery platform remains marginal to the formal public primary health care (PHC) and district health systems. CHW roles evolved from a system of home based care and are limited in scope. There is a high turnover of cadres, and support systems (supervision, monitoring, financing, training), coordination between CHWs, NGOs and PHC facilities, and sub-district capacity for planning and management of CBS are all poorly developed. Reorienting community based services that have their origins in care responses to HIV and TB presents an inter-related set of resource

  12. A new endemic focus of Chagas disease in the northern region of Veraguas Province, Western Half Panama, Central America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azael Saldaña

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chagas disease was originally reported in Panama in 1931. Currently, the best knowledge of this zoonosis is restricted to studies done in historically endemic regions. However, little is known about the distribution and epidemiology of Chagas disease in other rural areas of the country. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out between May 2005 - July 2008 in four rural communities of the Santa Fe District, Veraguas Province. The study included an entomologic search to collect triatomines, bloodmeal type identification and infection rate with trypanosomes in collected vectors using a dot- blot and PCR analysis, genotyping of circulating Trypanosoma cruzi (mini-exon gene PCR analysis and the detection of chagasic antibodies among inhabitants. The vector Rhodnius pallescens was more frequently found in La Culaca and El Pantano communities (788 specimens, where it was a sporadic household visitor. These triatomines presented darker coloration and larger sizescompared with typical specimens collected in Central Panama. Triatoma dimidiata was more common in Sabaneta de El Macho (162 specimens. In one small sub-region (El Macho, 60% of the houses were colonized by this vector. Of the examined R. pallescens, 54.7.0% (88/161 had fed on Didelphis marsupialis, and 24.6% (34/138 of T. dimidiata specimens collected inside houses were positive for human blood. R. pallescens presented an infection index with T. cruzi of 17.7% (24/136, with T. rangeli of 12.5% (17/136 and 50.7% (69/136 were mixed infections. In 117 T. dimidiata domestic specimens the infection index with T. cruzi was 21.4%. Lineage I of T. cruzi was confirmed circulating in these vectors. A T. cruzi infection seroprevalence of 2.3% (24/1,056 was found in this population. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of Chagas disease endemicity in Santa Fe District, and it should be considered a neglected public health problem in this area of Panama.

  13. Linking mortuary data improves vital statistics on cause of death of children under five years in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. (United States)

    Groenewald, Pam; Bradshaw, Debbie; Neethling, Ian; Martin, Lorna J; Dempers, Johan; Morden, Erna; Zinyakatira, Nesbert; Coetzee, David


    Reducing child mortality requires good information on its causes. Whilst South African vital registration data have improved, the quality of cause-of-death data remains inadequate. To improve this, data from death certificates were linked with information from forensic mortuaries in Western Cape Province. A local mortality surveillance system was established in 2007 by the Western Cape Health Department to improve data quality. Cause-of-death data were captured from copies of death notification forms collected at Department of Home Affairs Offices. Using unique identifiers, additional forensic mortuary data were linked with mortality surveillance system records. Causes of death were coded to the ICD-10 classification. Causes of death in children under five were compared with those from vital registration data for 2011. Cause-of-death data were markedly improved with additional data from forensic mortuaries. The proportion of ill-defined causes was halved (25-12%), and leading cause rankings changed. Lower respiratory tract infections moved above prematurity to rank first, accounting for 20.8% of deaths and peaking in infants aged 1-3 months. Only 11% of deaths from lower respiratory tract infections occurred in hospital, resulting in 86% being certified in forensic mortuaries. Road traffic deaths increased from 1.1-3.1% (27-75) and homicides from 3 to 28. The quality and usefulness of cause-of-death information for children in the WC was enhanced by linking mortuary and vital registration data. Given the death profile, interventions are required to prevent and manage LRTI, diarrhoea and injuries and to reduce neonatal deaths. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Timing of the volcanism of the southern Kivu province: Implications for the evolution of the western branch of the East African rift system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasteels, P.


    New K-Ar datings of a large rock sampling from the South Kivu volcanic province (Zaire, Rwanda, Burundi) are reported. No ages older than 10 Ma have been obtained. This result contrasts with older assumptions and puts severe constraints on the relations between volcanism and rift evolution. From 10 to 7.5 Ma tholeiitic volcanism predominates corresponding to an episode of fissural eruptions; from 7.5 to 5 Ma alkali basalts and their differentiates are mainly erupted in localized rifts. A culmination of activity occurs between 6.0 and 5.5 Ma ago. Pleistocene alkalic volcanism is restricted to localized areas. The transition from tholeiites to alkali-basaltic volcanism dated around 7.5 Ma would correspond to a major rifting phase which corresponds with the initiation of Lake Kivu Basin formation. The distribution of tholeiitic rocks in the central part of the rift, and predominantly alkalic rocks along the western active border fault, strengthens the idea that the former are associated with tension, the latter with vertical, possibly also strike-slip movements. Volcanism in the Western Rift is restricted to areas where tension occurs in a zone which is located between two zones of strike-slip. In the South Kivu area normal faults intersect strike-slip faults and this seems to have determined the location of volcanic activity. Magma formation is considered to be related with shear heating combined with adiabatic decompression in ascending diapirs. This implies heating at the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary as a result of extension. Generation of tholeiitic or alkalic magmas is connected with the variable ascent velocity of mantle diapirs or with variable shear heating along the shear zone. Changes in both magma composition and intensity of volcanic activity with time are considered to be related to major phases of rift evolution. (orig.)

  15. Echinococcus granulosus infection and options for control of cystic echinococcosis in Tibetan communities of Western Sichuan Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Rong Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human cystic echinococcosis (CE is highly endemic in the Tibetan regions of Sichuan where most families keep guard dogs and where there are considerable numbers of ownerless/stray dogs. Strong Buddhist beliefs do not allow for elimination of stray dogs, and many strays are actually fed and adopted by households or monasteries. On account of the high altitude (3900-5000 m, pasturage is the major agricultural activity in this area. The harsh mountainous climate often leads to many grazing animals dying on the pasture at the end of a hard winter. The skin and some meat are taken, and the rest of the animal is left for scavenging birds and animals. The poor sanitation and hygiene, the Buddhist doctrine of allowing old livestock to die naturally, plus the unrestricted disposal of animal viscera post-slaughter may be responsible for the high prevalence of human CE in this setting. METHODS AND FINDINGS: As part of a large collaborative control program for CE in Ganzi County, situated in the west of Sichuan Province, surveillance for Echinococcus infection in domestic dogs using a coproantigen method and necropsy of unwanted dogs was carried out prior to (in 2000 and after (in 2005 dog anthelminthic treatment (5 mg/kg oral praziquantal at 6 month intervals to determine the efficacy of the treatment for control. The prevalence of E. granulosus only in dogs by necropsy was 27% and 22%, and prevalence of both Echinococcus spp. by necropsy was 63% and 38%; prevalence of both Echinococcus spp. by coproantigen analysis was 50% and 17%. Necropsy of sheep/goats (age <1 to 12 years (prevalence of E. granulosus in 1-6-year-old animals was 38% and in 10-12-year-old animals was 70% and yaks (age 4 years (prevalence of E. granulosus was 38% was undertaken to determine the baseline transmission pressure. Protoscoleces were only found in very old sheep/goats and yaks. Necropsy of dogs in the Datangma district indicated that there was no apparent

  16. Sustainable solutions for cooling systems in residential buildings: case study in the Western Cape Province, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foudzai, F.; M' Rithaa, M. [Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Cape Town (South Africa). Dept. of Industrial Design


    sustainable cooling in residential buildings of Western Cape, South Africa are discussed.

  17. The development of an implementation framework for service-learning during the undergraduate nursing programme in the Western Cape Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hester Julie


    Full Text Available Background: Service-learning (SL is a contested field of knowledge and issues of sustainability and scholarship have been raised about it. The South African Higher Education Quality Committee (HEQC has provided policy documents to guide higher education institutions (HEIs in the facilitation of SL institutionalisation in their academic programmes. An implementation framework was therefore needed to institutionalise the necessary epistemological shifts advocated in the national SL policy guidelines. Objectives: This article is based on the findings of a doctoral thesis that aimed at developing an SL implementation framework for the School of Nursing (SoN at the University of the Western Cape (UWC. Method: Mixed methods were used during the first four phases of the design and developmenti ntervention research model developed by Rothman and Thomas. Results: The SL implementation framework that was developed during Phase 3 specified the intervention elements to address the gaps that had been identified by the core findings of Phases 1 and 2. Four intervention elements were specified for the SL implementation framework. The first intervention element focused on the assessment of readiness for SL institutionalisation. The development of SL capacity and SL scholarship was regarded as the pivotal intervention element for three of the elements: the development of a contextual SL definition, an SL pedagogical model, and a monitoring and evaluation system for SL institutionalisation. Conclusion: The SL implementation framework satisfies the goals of SL institutionalisation, namely to develop a common language and a set of principles to guide practice, and to ensure the allocation of resources in order to facilitate the SL teaching methodology.The contextualised SL definition that was formulated for the SoN contributes to the SL operationalisation discourse at the HEI.

  18. Site formation processes at Pinnacle Point Cave 13B (Mossel Bay, Western Cape Province, South Africa): resolving stratigraphic and depositional complexities with micromorphology. (United States)

    Karkanas, Panagiotis; Goldberg, Paul


    Site PP13B is a cave located on the steep cliffs of Pinnacle Point near Mossel Bay in Western Cape Province, South Africa. The depositional sequence of the cave, predating Marine Isotopic Stage 11 (MIS 11) and continuing to present, is in the form of isolated sediment exposures with different depositional facies and vertical and lateral variations. Micromorphological analysis demonstrated that a suite of natural sedimentation processes operated during the development of the sequence ranging from water action to aeolian activity, and from speleothem formations to plant colonization and root encrustation. At the same time, anthropogenic sediments that are mainly in the form of burnt remains from combustion features (e.g., wood ash, charcoal, and burnt bone) were accumulating. Several erosional episodes have resulted in a complicated stratigraphy, as discerned from different depositional and post-depositional features. The cave is associated with a fluctuating coastal environment, frequent changes in sea level and climate controlled patterns of sedimentation, and the presence or absence of humans. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of selected aspects of the Nutrition Therapeutic Programme offered to HIV-positive women of child-bearing age in Western Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tine T. Hansen


    Objective: To evaluate implementation of the NTP at PHCs that provide antiretroviral therapy. Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted at 17 PHCs located within 3 districts of Western Cape Province. Two target groups were chosen: 32 staff members working at the sites and 21 women of child-bearing age enrolled in the NTP. Questionnaires were used to obtain data. Results: Only 2 women (10% lived in food-secure households; the rest were either at risk of hunger (29% or classified as hungry (61%. Most of the women knew they had to take the supplements to improve their nutritional status, but the majority only recalled receiving basic nutritional advice, and the information was mainly given verbally. Ten of the women had shared their supplements with others, mostly with their children. The study identified lack of clearly defined NTP responsibilities at the PHCs, causing confusion amongst the staff. Although many staff members expressed problems with the NTP, only 38% of them reported having routine evaluations regarding the programme. Conclusion: Several aspects compromised the effectiveness of the NTP, including socio- economic factors leading to clients’ non-compliance. The strategic organisation and implementation of the NTP varied between different PHCs offering antiretroviral therapy, and staff experienced difficulties with the logistics of the programme.

  20. Crustal-scale shear zones recording 400 m.y. of tectonic activity in the North Caribou greenstone belt, western Superior Province of Canada (United States)

    Kalbfleisch, Netasha

    A series of crustal-scale shear zones demarcates the northern and eastern margins of the North Caribou greenstone belt (NCGB), proximal to a Mesoarchean terrane boundary in the core of the western Superior Province of Canada. The dominant deformation produced a pervasive steeply dipping fabric that trends broadly parallel to the doubly arcuate shape of the belt and was responsible for tight folding the banded iron formation host to Goldcorp's prolific gold deposit at Musselwhite mine. The shear zones in the North Caribou greenstone belt are of particular interest because of their ability to channel hydrothermal fluids with the potential to bear ore and cause alteration of the middle to shallow crust. Shear zones are commonly reactivated during subsequent tectonism, but exhibit a consistent and dominant dextral shear sense across the belt; fabric-forming micas and chlorite are generally Mg-rich. Although garnets samples from within the shear zones are dominantly almandine, they possess variable geochemical trends (HREEs of >2 orders of magnitude) and can be syn-, intra-, or post-tectonic in origin. In situ geochronological analysis of zircon (U-Pb) and monazite (total-Pb) in high strain rocks in and around the NCGB, interpreted in light of in situ geochemical analysis of garnet and fabric-forming micas and chlorite, reveals four relatively discrete events that span 400 million years. Metamorphism of the mid-crust was coeval with magmatism during docking of the Island Lake domain at c. 2.86 Ga and subsequent terrane accretion at the north and south margins of the North Caribou Superterrane from c. 2.75 to 2.71 Ga. Transpressive shear at c. 2.60 to 2.56 Ga and late re-activation of shear zones at c. 2.44 Ga produced a steeply-dipping pervasive fabric, and channeled fluids for late crystallization of garnet and monazite recorded in the Markop Lake deformation zone. These observations implicate a horizontal tectonic model similar to the modern eastern Pacific plate

  1. Study design of a cluster-randomized controlled trial to evaluate a large-scale distribution of cook stoves and water filters in Western Province, Rwanda. (United States)

    Nagel, Corey L; Kirby, Miles A; Zambrano, Laura D; Rosa, Ghislane; Barstow, Christina K; Thomas, Evan A; Clasen, Thomas F


    In Rwanda, pneumonia and diarrhea are the first and second leading causes of death, respectively, among children under five. Household air pollution (HAP) resultant from cooking indoors with biomass fuels on traditional stoves is a significant risk factor for pneumonia, while consumption of contaminated drinking water is a primary cause of diarrheal disease. To date, there have been no large-scale effectiveness trials of programmatic efforts to provide either improved cookstoves or household water filters at scale in a low-income country. In this paper we describe the design of a cluster-randomized trial to evaluate the impact of a national-level program to distribute and promote the use of improved cookstoves and advanced water filters to the poorest quarter of households in Rwanda. We randomly allocated 72 sectors (administratively defined units) in Western Province to the intervention, with the remaining 24 sectors in the province serving as controls. In the intervention sectors, roughly 100,000 households received improved cookstoves and household water filters through a government-sponsored program targeting the poorest quarter of households nationally. The primary outcome measures are the incidence of acute respiratory infection (ARI) and diarrhea among children under five years of age. Over a one-year surveillance period, all cases of acute respiratory infection (ARI) and diarrhea identified by health workers in the study area will be extracted from records maintained at health facilities and by community health workers (CHW). In addition, we are conducting intensive, longitudinal data collection among a random sample of households in the study area for in-depth assessment of coverage, use, environmental exposures, and additional health measures. Although previous research has examined the impact of providing household water treatment and improved cookstoves on child health, there have been no studies of national-level programs to deliver these interventions

  2. 1.8 billion years of fluid-crust interaction: A zircon oxygen isotope record for the lower crust, western Churchill Province, Canadian Shield (United States)

    Petts, Duane C.; Moser, Desmond E.; Longstaffe, Frederick J.; Davis, William J.; Stern, Richard A.


    The western Churchill Province of the Canadian Shield experienced a prolonged and complex formation history (ca. 4.04 to 1.70 Ga), with evidence for multiple episodes of orogenesis and regional magmatic activity. Here we report on the oxygen isotopic compositions of garnet and zircon recovered from lower crustal xenoliths, which have U-Pb ages between ca. 3.5 and 1.7 Ga. Overall, zircon from four metabasite xenoliths from the Rankin Inlet sample suite have δ18O values ranging from + 5.5 to + 8.6‰. Zircon from three metatonalite/anorthosite xenoliths and five metabasite xenoliths from the Repulse Bay sample suite have δ18O values of + 5.6 to + 8.3‰. High δ18O values (> + 6.0‰) for the oldest igneous zircon cores (ca. 3.5 Ga and 3.0-2.6 Ga) indicate that their metatonalite/anorthosite protolith magmas were generated from, or had assimilated, supracrustal rocks that interacted previously with surface-derived fluids. Igneous zircon cores (ca. 2.9-2.6 Ga) from one metabasite xenolith have δ18O values of + 5.6 to + 6.4‰, which suggests a formation from a mantle-derived basaltic/gabbroic magma. Metamorphic zircon cores (ca. 2.0-1.9 Ga) from one metabasite xenolith commonly have δ18O values between + 6.0 and + 6.3‰, which is indicative of a basalt/gabbro protolith and localized reworking of the lower crust caused by regional-scale plate convergence. The wide range of δ18O values (+ 5.5 to + 8.3‰) for ca. 1.75-1.70 Ga metamorphic zircon rims (identified in all xenoliths) indicates regional transient heating and reworking of mantle- and supracrustal-derived crust, induced by magmatic underplating along the crust-mantle boundary.

  3. Mapping the sub-trappean Mesozoic sediments in the western part of Narmada-Tapti region of Deccan Volcanic Province, India (United States)

    Murty, A. S. N.; Sarkar, Dipankar; Sen, Mrinal K.; Sridher, V.; Prasad, A. S. S. S. R. S.


    Deccan Traps spread over large parts of south, west and central India, possibly hiding underneath sediments with hydrocarbon potential. Here, we present the results of seismic refraction and wide-angle reflection experiments along three profiles, and analyze them together the results from all other refraction profiles executed earlier in the western part of Narmada-Tapti region of the Deccan Volcanic Province (DVP). We employ travel time modelling to derive the granitic basement configuration, including the overlying Trap and sub-trappean sediment thickness, if any. Travel time skips and amplitude decay in the first arrival refraction data are indicative of the presence of low velocity sediments (Mesozoic), which are the low velocity zones (LVZ) underneath the Traps. Reflection data from the top of LVZ and basement along with the basement refraction data have been used to derive the Mesozoic sediment thickness. In the middle and eastern parts of the study region between Narmada and Tapti, the Mesozoic sediment thickness varies between 0.5 and 2.0 km and reaches more than 2.5 km south of Sendhwa between Narmada and Tapti Rivers. Thick Mesozoic sediments in the eastern parts are also accompanied by thick Traps. The Mesozoic sediments along the present three profiles may not be much prospective in terms of its thickness, except inside the Cambay basin, where the subtrappean sediment thickness is about 1000-1500 m. In the eastern part of the study area, the deepest section (>4 km) has thick (∼2 km) Mesozoic sediments, but with almost equally thick Deccan Trap cover. Results of the present study provide important inputs for future planning for hydrocarbon exploration in this region.

  4. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used to manage High Blood Pressure and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Bitterfontein, Western Cape Province, South Africa. (United States)

    Davids, Denver; Gibson, Diana; Johnson, Quinton


    The aim of this study was to identify and document medicinal plants used to manage High Blood Pressure and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Bitterfontein, Western Cape Province, South Africa. One hundred and twelve (112) respondents were interviewed between August 2014 and September 2015 through semi-structured surveys to gather data on the percentage of people who had been diagnosed with High Blood Pressure and/or Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and to determine the frequency of medicinal plant and allopathic medicine use. Twelve (12) key respondents were subsequently selected, using a non-probability snowball sampling method. They were interviewed in-depth concerning their plant practices and assisted with plant collection. Twenty-four plant (24) species belonging to 15 families were identified for the management of High Blood Pressure and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. The most frequently reported families were Asteraceae (20.8%), Lamiaceae (16.67%), Crassulaceae (8.33%) and Aizoaceae (8.33%). The remaining (45.54%) were evenly split over eleven families- Fabaceae, Amaryllidaceae, Anacardiaceae, Capparaceae, Geraniaceae, Apiaceae, Convolvulaceae, Apocynaceae, Rutaceae, Asphodelaceae and Thymelaeaceae. The most commonly used plant species overall was Lessertia frutescens (96.55%). The most frequently used plant parts included leaves (57.63%) roots/bulbs (15.25%) and stems (11.86%), mostly prepared as infusions or decoctions for oral administration. Medicinal plants are widely used by High Blood Pressure and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus sufferers. They employ diverse plant species to manage both conditions. In addition, some sufferers often use prescribed allopathic medication, as well as medicinal plants, but at different intervals. Despite high usage the plants identified are not currently threatened (Red Data list status: least concern). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Surrogate Model Application to the Identification of Optimal Groundwater Exploitation Scheme Based on Regression Kriging Method—A Case Study of Western Jilin Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongkai An


    Full Text Available This paper introduces a surrogate model to identify an optimal exploitation scheme, while the western Jilin province was selected as the study area. A numerical simulation model of groundwater flow was established first, and four exploitation wells were set in the Tongyu county and Qian Gorlos county respectively so as to supply water to Daan county. Second, the Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS method was used to collect data in the feasible region for input variables. A surrogate model of the numerical simulation model of groundwater flow was developed using the regression kriging method. An optimization model was established to search an optimal groundwater exploitation scheme using the minimum average drawdown of groundwater table and the minimum cost of groundwater exploitation as multi-objective functions. Finally, the surrogate model was invoked by the optimization model in the process of solving the optimization problem. Results show that the relative error and root mean square error of the groundwater table drawdown between the simulation model and the surrogate model for 10 validation samples are both lower than 5%, which is a high approximation accuracy. The contrast between the surrogate-based simulation optimization model and the conventional simulation optimization model for solving the same optimization problem, shows the former only needs 5.5 hours, and the latter needs 25 days. The above results indicate that the surrogate model developed in this study could not only considerably reduce the computational burden of the simulation optimization process, but also maintain high computational accuracy. This can thus provide an effective method for identifying an optimal groundwater exploitation scheme quickly and accurately.

  6. Substance abuse treatment engagement, completion and short-term outcomes in the Western Cape province, South Africa: Findings from the Service Quality Measures Initiative. (United States)

    Myers, Bronwyn; Williams, Petal Petersen; Govender, Rajen; Manderscheid, Ron; Koch, J Randy


    Optimizing the effectiveness of substance use disorder (SUD) treatment is critical in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs) with limited opportunities for SUD treatment. This is the first study to identify targets for interventions to improve the quality of SUD treatment in a LMIC. We explored correlates of three indicators of treatment quality (treatment engagement, completion and abstinence at treatment exit) using data from a SUD performance measurement system implemented in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. The sample included data from 1094 adult treatment episodes representing 53% of the treatment episodes in 2016. Using multivariate logistic regression analyses, we modeled socio-demographic, substance use and program correlates of treatment engagement, completion, and abstinence at treatment exit. Overall, 59% of patients completed treatment (48% of patients from outpatient services). Treatment completion was associated with greater likelihood of abstinence at treatment exit. Patients were more likely to complete treatment if they engaged in treatment, were older, and had more severe drug problems (characterized by daily drug use and heroin problems) and attended programs of shorter duration. Residential treatment was associated with greater likelihood of treatment engagement, completion, and abstinence at treatment exit. Improving rates of outpatient treatment completion will enhance the effectiveness of South Africa's SUD treatment system. Interventions that promote engagement in treatment, particularly among younger patients; reduce program length through referral to step-down continuing care; and ensure better matching of drug problem to treatment level and type could improve rates of treatment completion. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. An introductory survey of helminth control practices in South Africa and anthelmintic resistance on Thoroughbred stud farms in the Western Cape Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Matthee


    Full Text Available Fifty-one per cent of 110 questionnaires, designed for obtaining information on helminth control practices and management on Thoroughbred stud farms in South Africa, were completed by farmers during 2000. The number of horses per farm included in the questionnaire survey ranged from 15 to 410. Foals, yearlings and adult horses were treated with anthelmintics at a mean of 7.3+ / -3.0, 6.6+ / -2.7 and 5.3+ / -2.3 times per year, respectively. An average of 3.4 different drugs were used annually, with ivermectin being used by most farmers during 1997-2000. On 43% of farms the weights of horses were estimated by weigh band and 45% of farmers estimated visually, while both were used on 7% of farms and scales on the remaining 5%. Doses were based on average group weight on 50% of the farms and on individual weights on 46%. Forty-three per cent of farmers performed faecal egg count reduction tests (FECRT. Most farmers rotated horses between pastures and treated new horses at introduction. Faecal removal was practiced on 61% of farms and less than 50% of farmers used alternate grazing with ruminants. Faecal egg count reduction tests were done on 283 horses, using oxibendazole, ivermectin and moxidectin on 10, 9 and 5 farms, respectively, in the Western Cape Province during 2001. While the efficacy of oxibendazole was estimated by FECRT to range from 0-88% and moxidectin from 99-100%, ivermectin resulted in a 100% reduction in egg counts. Only cyathostome larvae were recovered from post-treatment faecal cultures.

  8. HIV-1 subtypes B and C unique recombinant forms (URFs and transmitted drug resistance identified in the Western Cape Province, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme Brendon Jacobs

    Full Text Available South Africa has the largest worldwide HIV/AIDS population with 5.6 million people infected and at least 2 million people on antiretroviral therapy. The majority of these infections are caused by HIV-1 subtype C. Using genotyping methods we characterized HIV-1 subtypes of the gag p24 and pol PR and RT fragments, from a cohort of female participants in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. These participants were recruited as part of a study to assess the combined brain and behavioural effects of HIV and early childhood trauma. The partial HIV-1 gag and pol fragments of 84 participants were amplified by PCR and sequenced. Different online tools and manual phylogenetic analysis were used for HIV-1 subtyping. Online tools included: REGA HIV Subtyping tool version 3; Recombinant Identification Program (RIP; Context-based Modeling for Expeditious Typing (COMET; jumping profile Hidden Markov Models (jpHMM webserver; and subtype classification using evolutionary algorithms (SCUEAL. HIV-1 subtype C predominates within the cohort with a prevalence of 93.8%. We also show, for the first time, the presence of circulating BC strains in at least 4.6% of our study cohort. In addition, we detected transmitted resistance associated mutations in 4.6% of analysed sequences. With tourism and migration rates to South Africa currently very high, we are detecting more and more HIV-1 URFs within our study populations. It is still unclear what role these unique strains will play in terms of long term antiretroviral treatment and what challenges they will pose to vaccine development. Nevertheless, it remains vitally important to monitor the HIV-1 diversity in South Africa and worldwide as the face of the epidemic is continually changing.

  9. Anisian (Middle Triassic) marine ichnocoenoses from the eastern and western margins of the Kamdian Continent, Yunnan Province, SW China: Implications for the Triassic biotic recovery (United States)

    Feng, Xueqian; Chen, Zhong-Qiang; Woods, Adam; Pei, Yu; Wu, Siqi; Fang, Yuheng; Luo, Mao; Xu, Yaling


    Two Anisian (Middle Triassic) marine ichnocoenoses are reported from the Boyun and Junmachang (JMC) sections located along the eastern and western margins of the Kamdian Continent, Yunnan Province, Southwest China, respectively. The Boyun ichnoassemblage is middle Anisian in age and is dominated by robust Rhizocorallium, while the JMC ichnoassemblage is of an early Anisian age and is characterized by the presence of Zoophycos. The ichnoassemblage horizons of the Boyun section represent an inner ramp environment, while the JMC section was likely situated in a mid-ramp setting near storm wave base as indicated by the presence of tempestites. The ichnofossil-bearing successions are usually highly bioturbated in both the Boyun (BI 3-5, BPBI 5) and JMC (BI 3-4, BPBI 3-4) sections. Three large, morphologically complicated ichnogenera: 1) Rhizocorallium; 2) Thalassinoides; and, 3) Zoophycos characterize the Anisian ichnocoenoses. Of these, Rhizocorallium has mean and maximum tube diameters up to 20.4 mm and 28 mm, respectively, while Thalassinoides mean and maximum tube diameters are 14.2 mm and 22 mm, respectively. Zoophycos is present in the early Anisian strata of the JMC section, and represents the oldest known occurrence of this ichnogenus following the latest Permian mass extinction. Similar to coeval ichnoassemblages elsewhere in the world, the Yunnan ichnocoenoses embrace a relatively low ichnodiversity, but their burrows usually penetrate deeply into the sediment, and include large and complex Rhizocorallium and Thalassinoides. All of these ichnologic features are indicative of recovery stage 4 after the latest Permian crisis. Anisian ichnoassemblages occur globally in six different habitat settings, and all show similar ecologic characteristics except for slightly different degrees of ichnotaxonomic richness, indicating that depositional environment is not a crucial factor shaping the recovery of the trace-makers, but may have an impact on their ichnodiversity

  10. Implementation of the HealthKick intervention in primary schools in low-income settings in the Western Cape Province, South Africa: a process evaluation. (United States)

    de Villiers, Anniza; Steyn, Nelia P; Draper, Catherine E; Hill, Jillian; Dalais, Lucinda; Fourie, Jean; Lombard, Carl; Barkhuizen, Gerhard; Lambert, Estelle V


    The HealthKick intervention, introduced at eight primary schools in low-income settings in the Western Cape Province, South Africa, aimed to promote healthy lifestyles among learners, their families and school staff. Eight schools from similar settings without any active intervention served as controls. The Action Planning Process (APP) guided school staff through a process that enabled them to assess areas for action; identify specific priorities; and set their own goals regarding nutrition and physical activity at their schools. Educators were introduced to the APP and trained to undertake this at their schools by holding workshops. Four action areas were covered, which included the school nutrition environment; physical activity and sport environment; staff health; and chronic disease and diabetes awareness. Intervention schools also received a toolkit comprising an educator's manual containing planning guides, printed resource materials and a container with physical activity equipment. To facilitate the APP, a champion was identified at each school to drive the APP and liaise with the project team. Over the three-years a record was kept of activities planned and those accomplished. At the end of the intervention, focus group discussions were held with school staff at each school to capture perceptions about the APP and intervention activities. Overall uptake of events offered by the research team was 65.6% in 2009, 75% in 2010 and 62.5% in 2011. Over the three-year intervention, the school food and nutrition environment action area scored the highest, with 55.5% of planned actions being undertaken. In the chronic disease and diabetes awareness area 54.2% actions were completed, while in the school physical activity and sport environment and staff health activity areas 25.9 and 20% were completed respectively. According to educators, the low level of implementation of APP activities was because of a lack of parental involvement, time and available resources

  11. Miospores from the Frasnian-Famennian Boundary deposits in Eastern Europe (the Pripyat Depression, Belarus and the Timan-Pechora Province, Russia) and comparison with Western Europe (Northern France). (United States)

    Obukhovskaya; Avkhimovitch; Streel; Loboziak


    A zonal subdivision of the Frasnian-Famennian transitional deposits in the Pripyat Depression and Timan-Pechora Province, based on a detailed palynological study, has been completed. The data obtained on miospores and conodonts from the Timan-Pechora Province enable a correlation to be made with the Standard Conodont Zonation. The lateral extent of the palynozones in Eastern Europe and the correlation with Western Europe are discussed. The following previously published new combinations are validated: Auroraspora speciosa (Naumova) Obukhovskaya, comb. nov., Corbulispora viminea (Nekriata) Obukhovskaya and Nekriata, comb. nov., Cristatisporites imperpetuus (Sennova) Obukhovskaya, comb. nov., Cymbosporites acanthaceus (Kedo) Obukhovskaya, comb. nov., Grandispora subsuta (Nazarenko) Obukhovskaya, comb. nov., and Verrucosisporites evlanensis (Naumova) Obukhovskaya, comb. nov.

  12. Geochronological, geochemical, and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic characteristics of Cretaceous monzonitic plutons in western Zhejiang Province, Southeast China: New insights into the petrogenesis of intermediate rocks (United States)

    Liu, Liang; Qiu, Jian-Sheng; Zhao, Jiao-Long; Yang, Ze-Li


    We present comprehensive petrological, geochemical, and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic data for the Matou and Dalai plutons in western Zhejiang Province, Southeast China, with the aim of constraining the petrogenesis of monzonites and to offer new insights into the deep processes of interaction between crustal- and mantle-derived magmas beneath SE China. The Matou pluton comprises quartz monzonite, whereas the Dalai pluton consists of quartz monzodiorite. Zircon U-Pb ages obtained by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry show that both plutons were emplaced at 99-101 Ma. Rocks of both plutons are intermediate to silicic, metaluminous to weakly peraluminous, subalkaline, and K-rich in composition. Samples of the plutons are enriched in large ion lithophile (e.g., Rb, K, and Pb) and light rare earth elements, depleted in high-field strength elements (e.g., Nb, Ta, and Ti), and have small negative or no Eu anomalies. In addition, the rocks have high Mg# values (up to 53.9), high zircon ɛHf(t) values (up to - 1.4), and low Nb/U and Ta/U ratios. Geochemical evidence suggests that both depleted asthenospheric and metasomatically enriched mantle components were involved in the formation of these monzonitic rocks. The presence of inherited zircons with Palaeoproterozoic ages and zircons with unusually low ɛHf(t) values (- 12.9) in the Matou quartz monzonites indicates that ancient crustal materials were also involved in their petrogenesis. In combination with the presence of abundant mafic microgranular enclaves (MMEs) with spheroidal to ellipsoidal-ovoidal shapes and xenocrysts within the more diffused enclaves, and the results of trace element modelling, we suggest that the Matou quartz monzonites were generated by mixing between mantle-derived mafic magmas and crustally derived silicic magmas. The Dalai pluton is relatively homogeneous and contains fewer MMEs than the Matou pluton. Zircons from the Dalai pluton show no inherited components, indicating that

  13. Palynostratigraphical correlation of the excavated Miocene lignite seams of the Yataǧan basin (Muǧla Province, south-western Turkey) (United States)

    Bouchal, Johannes Martin; Grímsson, Friðgeir; Denk, Thomas


    The excavated main lignite seams and overlying lacustrine sediments of the opencast mines Eskihisar, Salihpaşalar, and Tı naz, Muǧla Province, south-western Turkey were investigated using a high taxonomic resolution palynological approach. The Eskihisar section comprises 47m and 56 samples of which 30 were usable for palynological analysis. The Tı naz section comprises 75 m and 29 samples of which 15 were usable for palynological analysis. Finally, the Salihpaşalar section comprises 25 m and 26 samples of which 16 were usable for palynological analysis. The age of the palynological sections is middle to late Miocene based on radiometric dating and vertebrate fossils. In order to investigate dispersed pollen and spores and their botanical affinities a combined light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy approach was used. The rich palynoflora comprises: seven types of algal cysts (Botryococcus, Zygnemataceae), seventeen spore types belonging to Lycopsida (club mosses), Marsileaceae (water-clover), Osmundaceae, Pteridaceae (brake), and Polypodiaceae; 14 types of gymnosperm pollen belonging to Ephedraceae (Mormon tea), Cupressaceae, Pinaceae (Cathaya, cedar, hemlock, pine, spruce); five types of monocotyledone pollen belonging to Poaceae (grasses, common reed), and Typhaceae (bulrush, bur-reed); ca 90 dicotyledone pollen types belonging to Altingiaceae (sweet gum), Amaranthaceae (goosefoot), Anacardiaceae (sumac family), Apiaceae (parsley family), Aquifoliaceae (holly), Asteraceae (sunflower family), Betulaceae (alder, birch, hazel, hophornbeam, hornbeam), Campanulaceae (bellflower family), Cannabaceae (hackberries), Caprifoliaceae (honeysuckle, teasel family), Caryophyllaceae (pink family), Ericaceae (heather family), Eucommiaceae, Euphorbiaceae (spurge family), Fabaceae (bean family), Fagaceae (beech, oak), Geraniaceae (storkbills), Juglandaceae (hickory, walnut, wingnut), Lamiaceae (bagflower), Linaceae (flax), Lythraceae (waterwillow), Malvaceae

  14. Electrical structure of the lithosphere across the Western Paraná suture zone: the role of a Neoproterozoic-Cambrian subduction in generating the Paraná Magmatic Province (United States)

    Dragone, G. N.; Bologna, M.; Gimenez, M. E.; Alvarez, O.; Lince Klinger, F. G.; Correa-Otto, S.; Ussami, N.


    The Paraná Magmatic Province (PMP) together with the Etendeka Province (EP) in Africa is one of the Earth's largest igneous provinces originated prior to the Western Gondwanaland break-up and the inception of the South Atlantic Ocean in the Lower Cretaceous. Geochemical data of PMP-EP basalts collected since late 1980's indicate the origin of PMP-EP by melting of a heterogeneous and enriched subcontinental lithospheric mantle with fast rate of eruption (borders of the PMP, the Western Paraná suture zone (WPS in Fig. 1). We discuss the electrical properties of the lithosphere along three MT profiles across the WPS. MT-A profile (Padilha et al., 2015, JGR) extends from Rio Apa craton towards the center of PMP (high-TiO2 basalts). Profile MT-B extends from Tebicuary craton towards the center of PMP (low-TiO2) and profile MT-C extends from Rio de la Plata craton towards the southern PMP (low- and high-TiO2). All profiles show a resistive ( 104 ohm m) and thick (> 150 km) lithosphere in the cratonic areas whereas the electrical lithosphere is thinner (<100 km) with alternating high and low resistivities within PMP. Vertically elongated and high electrical conductivity anomalies ( 10 ohm m) centered at 40 km depth occur along the -30 mGal contour line in the three profiles, and are interpreted as the location of the suture and former subduction zone. We will discuss the correlation between geochemical and petrological characteristics of basalts and the electrical properties of the lithospheric mantle underneath.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faishal Fadli


    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the direct and indirect effects of fiscal decentralization on regional disparity through economic growth in eastern and western Indonesia. The method used in this study is Path Analysis. The variables used in this study include the General Allocation Fund (DAU/Dana Alokasi Umum, Special Allocation Fund (DAK/Dana Alokasi Khusus, Revenue Sharing Fund (DBH/Dana Bagi Hasil, local revenue (PAD/Pendapatan Asli Daerah, Economic Growth (G, and regional disparity (IW. Comparing the analysis between eastern and western of Indonesia, the results show that there is no direct effect of fiscal decentralization on regional disparity and economic growth through direct fiscal decentralization on regional disparity in both eastern and western of Indonesia. However, using some measures of fiscal decentralization, in the case of eastern of Indonesia, DAU variable has significant effect whereas in the case of western Indonesia, DBH is the only one variable that has significant effect. This is consistent with the fact that composition of the balance funds disbursed by the central government to local governments, where the greatest composition of funds in eastern Indonesia come from the General Allocation Fund which reflects the dependence of local governments to the central government and for the western region of Indonesia, DBH is the greatest reflecting the independence of the local governments. As a result, to create fiscal decentralization working it is required a greater allocation of the fund balance.

  16. Reasons given by hypertensive patients for concurrently using traditional and Western medicine at Natalspruit Hospital in the Gauteng Province, South Africa (United States)

    Mabuza, Langalibalele H.; Okonta, Henry I.


    Abstract Background In 2007, a large number of hypertensive patients seen at Natalspruit Hospital had poor adherent to their anti-hypertension treatment which manifested itself through poor blood pressure control. On enquiry, they revealed that they were also taking traditional medicines. Objectives To explore the reasons given by hypertensive patients for concurrently using traditional and Western medicine. Methods A qualitative study was conducted amongst nine purposefully selected participants attending treatment at the hospital. Interviews were conducted in the Southern Sotho and IsiZulu languages and were audio-taped. The exploratory question was: ‘Would you tell us why you are taking traditional medicine together with the antihypertensive medicine your are receiving at this hospital?’ The transcribed and translated transcriptions were analysed using the ‘cut and paste’ method to identify themes. Results Themes that emerged were that traditional medicine was readily accessible; traditional healers displayed knowledge and confidence in their medicine; traditional medicine was perceived to counteract the side-effects of western medicine; the two streams were perceived to complement each other and both streams could lead to a ‘cure’. Patients were disappointed at the perceived bad attitude of the hospital staff. Conclusion The reasons given by hypertensive patients for their concurrent use of traditional and Western medicine centred around patients’ relatively favourable perception of traditional medicine and its practitioners. Western medicine health care practitioners should continue health education on antihypertensive medication in a manner acceptable to patients.

  17. Regional-scale fluxes of zinc, copper, and nickel into and out of the agricultural soils of the Kermanshah province in western Iran. (United States)

    Ahmadi Doabi, Shahab; Karami, Mahin; Afyuni, Majid


    It is important to study the status and trend of soil contamination with trace elements to make sustainable management strategies for agricultural soils. This study was conducted in order to model zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and nickel (Ni) accumulation rates in agricultural soils of Kermanshah province using input and output fluxes mass balance and to evaluate the associated uncertainties. The input and output fluxes of Zn, Cu, and Ni into (from) the agricultural soils of Kermanshah province via livestock manure, mineral fertilizers, municipal waste compost, pesticides, atmospheric deposition, and crop removal were assessed for the period 2000-2014. The data were collected to compute the fluxes at both township and regional scales from available databases such as regional agricultural statistics. The basic units of the balance were 9 townships of Kermanshah province. Averaged over the entire study region, the estimated net fluxes of Zn, Cu, and Ni into agricultural soils were 341, 84, and131 g ha year(-1), with a range of 211 to 1621, 61 to 463, and 114 to 679 among the townships. The livestock manure was responsible for 55, 56, and 67 % of the total Zn, Cu, and Ni inputs at regional scale, while municipal waste compost and mineral fertilizers accounted for approximately 19, 38, and 15 % and 24, 4, and 14 % of the total Zn, Cu, and Ni inputs, respectively. Atmospheric deposition was a considerable source only for Ni and at township scale (7-29 % of total Ni input). For Zn, Cu, and Ni, the input-to-output ratio of the fluxes ranged from 1.8 to 48.9, 2 to 48.2, and 4 to 303 among townships and averaged 2.8, 3, and 9 for the entire study area, respectively. Considering that outputs other than with crop harvests are minor, this means that Zn, Cu, and Ni (in particular Ni) stocks are rapidly building up in soils of some parts of the study region. Uncertainties in the livestock manure and crop removal data were the main sources of estimation uncertainty in this study

  18. Hydrogeological Modelling of Some Geothermal Waters of Ivrindi, Havran and Gönen in the Province Capital of Balikesir, Western Anatolia, Turkey (United States)

    Özgür, Nevzat; Ugurlu, Zehra; Memis, Ümit; Aydemir, Eda


    In this study, hydrogeological, hydrogeochemical and isotope geochemical features of Havran, Gönen and Ivrindi within the province capital of Balıkesir, Turkey were investigated in detail. The Early Triassic Karakaya formation in the study area of Havran forms the oldest rocks consisting of spilitic basalts, diabases, gabbros, mudstones, cherts and radiolarites. There are limestone blocks in this formation with intercalations with sandstones and with feldspar contents, quartzite, conglomerates and siltstones. Oligocene to Miocene granodiorite intrusions were generated in association with intensively volcanic events in the area. Between Upper Oligocene and Early Miocene, andesitic and dacitic pyroclastic rocks cropped out due to intensively volcanism. Later, conglomerates, sandstones, claystones, marls and limestones as lacustrine sediments formed from Middle to Upper Miocene in the study area. In the study area of Gönen, the Lower Triassic Karakaya formation consists of basalts, diabases, gabbros, mudstones, cherts and radiolarites and forms the basement rocks overlain by Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous sandy limestones. Upper and Middle Miocene volcanics which can be considered intensive Biga Peninsula volcanos outcrop in the area. These andesitic lava flows are of black, gray and red color with intensive fissures. Neogene lacustrine sediments consist of conglomerates, sandstones, marl, claystone and clayey limestones. Upper Miocene to Pliocene rhyolitic pyroclastics and dacitic lava flows are the volcanic rocks which are overlain by Pliocene conglomerates, sandstones and claystones. In the study area of Ivrindi, the Çaldağ limestones are the oldest formation in Permian age. Çavdartepe metamorphic rocks are of Lower Triassic in which can be observed marbles sporadically. The Kınık formation consisting of conglomerates, sandstones, siltstones and limestones are of Lower Triassic age and display a lateral Stratigraphic progress with volcanic rocks. Upper

  19. An analysis of the murder of women in a 10-year period in Eskişehir Province located in western Anatolia in Turkey. (United States)

    Karbeyaz, Kenan; Akkaya, Harun; Balci, Yasemin


    Murder of women generally occurs as a result of violence by their husbands and relatives. We evaluated the female victims of murder in Eskişehir, located in western Anatolia, where the education level is high in this study. Our aim was to assess and discuss data related to the victims and murderers. A total of 141 women's murder cases were analysed in the study. After a legal process and the results of the autopsies during 2002-2011 in Eskişehir, 715 subjects found to have died as a result of murder were chosen. Cases were evaluated in terms of their age, marital status, education level, relationship to the murderer, reasons for violence, type of action and reasons for death. It was determined that 48.2% (n = 68) of the victims had been killed by the husband and 7.8% (n = 11) by the ex-husband. Murderers generally stated that the reason of murder was the woman's request for divorce or breaking up (n = 40, 28.4%). In compliance with the literature, the women were most commonly killed by their husbands in our study. Enhancing women's status and preventing violence against women will decrease such murders. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. "HealthKick": formative assessment of the health environment in low-resource primary schools in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. (United States)

    de Villiers, Anniza; Steyn, Nelia P; Draper, Catherine E; Fourie, Jean M; Barkhuizen, Gerhard; Lombard, Carl J; Dalais, Lucinda; Abrahams, Zulfa; Lambert, Estelle V


    This study evaluated the primary school environment in terms of being conducive to good nutrition practices, sufficient physical activity and prevention of nicotine use, with the view of planning a school-based health intervention. A sample of 100 urban and rural disadvantaged schools was randomly selected from two education districts of the Western Cape Education Department, South Africa. A situation analysis, which comprised an interview with the school principal and completion of an observation schedule of the school environment, was done at all schools. Schools, on average, had 560 learners and 16 educators. Principals perceived the top health priorities for learners to be an unhealthy diet (50%) and to far lesser degree, lack of physical activity (24%) and underweight (16%). They cited lack of physical activity (33%) and non-communicable diseases (NCDs; 24%) as the main health priorities for educators, while substance abuse (66%) and tobacco use (31%) were prioritised for parents. Main barriers to health promotion programmes included lack of financial resources and too little time in the time table. The most common items sold at the school tuck shops were crisps (100%), and then sweets (96%), while vendors mainly sold sweets (92%), crisps (89%), and ice lollies (38%). Very few schools (8%) had policies governing the type of food items sold at school. Twenty-six of the 100 schools that were visited had vegetable gardens. All schools reported having physical activity and physical education in their time tables, however, not all of them offered this activity outside the class room. Extramural sport offered at schools mainly included athletics, netball, and rugby, with cricket and soccer being offered less frequently. The formative findings of this study contribute to the knowledge of key environmental and policy determinants that may play a role in the health behaviour of learners, their parents and their educators. Evidently, these show that school environments

  1. Phenology and population dynamics of sand flies in a new focus of visceral leishmaniasis in Eastern Azarbaijan Province, North western of Iran. (United States)

    Hazratian, Teimour; Rassi, Yavar; Oshaghi, Mohammad Ali; Yaghoobi-Ershadi, Mohammad Reza; Fallah, Esmael; Shirzadi, Mohammad Reza; Rafizadeh, Sina


    To investigate species composition, density, accumulated degree-day and diversity of sand flies during April to October 2010 in Azarshahr district, a new focus of visceral leishmaniasis in north western Iran. Sand flies were collected using sticky traps biweekly and were stored in 96% ethanol. All specimens were mounted in Puri's medium for species identification using valid keys of sandflies. The density was calculated by the formula: number of specimens/m(2) of sticky traps and number of specimens/number of traps. Degree-day was calculated as follows: (Maximum temperature + Minimum temperature)/2-Minimum threshold. Diversity indices of the collected sand flies within different villages were estimated by the Shannon-weaver formula ( H'=∑i=1sPilog(e)Pi). Totally 5 557 specimens comprising 16 Species (14 Phlebotomus, and 2 Sergentomyia) were indentified. The activity of the species extended from April to October. Common sand-flies in resting places were Phlebotomus papatasi, Phlebotomus sergenti and Phlebotomus mongolensis. The monthly average density was 37.6, 41.1, 40.23, 30.38 and 30.67 for Almalodash, Jaragil, Segaiesh, Amirdizaj and Germezgol villages, respectively. Accumulated degree-day from early January to late May was approximately 289 degree days. The minimum threshold temperature for calculating of accumulated degree-day was 17.32°. According on the Shannon-weaver (H'), diversity of sand flies within area study were estimated as 0.917, 1.867, 1.339, 1.673, and 1.562 in Almalodash, Jaragil, Segaiesh, Amirdizaj and Germezgol villages, respectively. This study is the first detailed research in terms of species composition, density, accumulated degree-day and diversity of sand flies in an endemic focus of visceral leishamaniasis in Azarshahr district. The population dynamics of sand flies in Azarshahr district were greatly affected by climatic factors. According to this study the highest activity of the collected sand fly species occurs at the teritary

  2. “HealthKick”: Formative assessment of the health environment in low-resource primary schools in the Western Cape Province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Villiers Anniza


    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study evaluated the primary school environment in terms of being conducive to good nutrition practices, sufficient physical activity and prevention of nicotine use, with the view of planning a school-based health intervention. Methods A sample of 100 urban and rural disadvantaged schools was randomly selected from two education districts of the Western Cape Education Department, South Africa. A situation analysis, which comprised an interview with the school principal and completion of an observation schedule of the school environment, was done at all schools. Results Schools, on average, had 560 learners and 16 educators. Principals perceived the top health priorities for learners to be an unhealthy diet (50% and to far lesser degree, lack of physical activity (24% and underweight (16%. They cited lack of physical activity (33% and non-communicable diseases (NCDs; 24% as the main health priorities for educators, while substance abuse (66% and tobacco use (31% were prioritised for parents. Main barriers to health promotion programmes included lack of financial resources and too little time in the time table. The most common items sold at the school tuck shops were crisps (100%, and then sweets (96%, while vendors mainly sold sweets (92%, crisps (89%, and ice lollies (38%. Very few schools (8% had policies governing the type of food items sold at school. Twenty-six of the 100 schools that were visited had vegetable gardens. All schools reported having physical activity and physical education in their time tables, however, not all of them offered this activity outside the class room. Extramural sport offered at schools mainly included athletics, netball, and rugby, with cricket and soccer being offered less frequently. Conclusion The formative findings of this study contribute to the knowledge of key environmental and policy determinants that may play a role in the health behaviour of learners, their parents and their

  3. A prospective cohort study on ambient air pollution and respiratory morbidities including childhood asthma in adolescents from the western Cape Province: study protocol. (United States)

    Olaniyan, Toyib; Jeebhay, Mohamed; Röösli, Martin; Naidoo, Rajen; Baatjies, Roslynn; Künzil, Nino; Tsai, Ming; Davey, Mark; de Hoogh, Kees; Berman, Dilys; Parker, Bhawoodien; Leaner, Joy; Dalvie, Mohamed Aqiel


    There is evidence from existing literature that ambient air pollutant exposure in early childhood likely plays an important role in asthma exacerbation and other respiratory symptoms, with greater effect among asthmatic children. However, there is inconclusive evidence on the role of ambient air pollutant exposures in relation to increasing asthma prevalence as well as asthma induction in children. At the population level, little is known about the potential synergistic effects between pollen allergens and air pollutants since this type of association poses challenges in uncontrolled real life settings. In particular, data from sub-Sahara Africa is scarce and virtually absent among populations residing in informal residential settlements. A prospective cohort study of 600 school children residing in four informal settlement areas with varying potential ambient air pollutant exposure levels in the Western Cape in South Africa is carried-out. The study has two follow-up periods of at least six-months apart including an embedded panel study in summer and winter. The exposure assessment component models temporal and spatial variability of air quality in the four study areas over the study duration using land-use regression modelling (LUR). Additionally, daily pollen levels (mould spores, tree, grass and weed pollen) in the study areas are recorded. In the panel study asthma symptoms and serial peak flow measurements is recorded three times daily to determine short-term serial airway changes in relation to varying ambient air quality and pollen over 10-days during winter and summer. The health outcome component of the cohort study include; the presence of asthma using a standardised ISAAC questionnaire, spirometry, fractional exhaled nitric-oxide (FeNO) and the presence of atopy (Phadiatop). This research applies state of the art exposure assessment approaches to characterize the effects of ambient air pollutants on childhood respiratory health, with a specific focus on

  4. A prospective cohort study on ambient air pollution and respiratory morbidities including childhood asthma in adolescents from the western Cape Province: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toyib Olaniyan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is evidence from existing literature that ambient air pollutant exposure in early childhood likely plays an important role in asthma exacerbation and other respiratory symptoms, with greater effect among asthmatic children. However, there is inconclusive evidence on the role of ambient air pollutant exposures in relation to increasing asthma prevalence as well as asthma induction in children. At the population level, little is known about the potential synergistic effects between pollen allergens and air pollutants since this type of association poses challenges in uncontrolled real life settings. In particular, data from sub-Sahara Africa is scarce and virtually absent among populations residing in informal residential settlements. Methods/design A prospective cohort study of 600 school children residing in four informal settlement areas with varying potential ambient air pollutant exposure levels in the Western Cape in South Africa is carried-out. The study has two follow-up periods of at least six-months apart including an embedded panel study in summer and winter. The exposure assessment component models temporal and spatial variability of air quality in the four study areas over the study duration using land-use regression modelling (LUR. Additionally, daily pollen levels (mould spores, tree, grass and weed pollen in the study areas are recorded. In the panel study asthma symptoms and serial peak flow measurements is recorded three times daily to determine short-term serial airway changes in relation to varying ambient air quality and pollen over 10-days during winter and summer. The health outcome component of the cohort study include; the presence of asthma using a standardised ISAAC questionnaire, spirometry, fractional exhaled nitric-oxide (FeNO and the presence of atopy (Phadiatop. Discussion This research applies state of the art exposure assessment approaches to characterize the effects of ambient air

  5. High-precision U-Pb geochronology of the Jurassic Yanliao Biota from Jianchang (western Liaoning Province, China): Age constraints on the rise of feathered dinosaurs and eutherian mammals (United States)

    Chu, Zhuyin; He, Huaiyu; Ramezani, Jahandar; Bowring, Samuel A.; Hu, Dongyu; Zhang, Lijun; Zheng, Shaolin; Wang, Xiaolin; Zhou, Zhonghe; Deng, Chenglong; Guo, Jinghui


    The Yanliao Biota of northeastern China comprises the oldest feathered dinosaurs, transitional pterosaurs, as well as the earliest eutherian mammals, multituberculate mammals, and new euharamiyidan species that are key elements of the Mesozoic biotic record. Recent discovery of the Yanliao Biota in the Daxishan section near the town of Linglongta, Jianchang County in western Liaoning Province have greatly enhanced our knowledge of the transition from dinosaurs to birds, primitive to derived pterosaurs, and the early evolution of mammals. Nevertheless, fundamental questions regarding the correlation of fossil-bearing strata, rates of dinosaur and mammalian evolution, and their relationship to environmental change in deep time remain unresolved due to the paucity of precise and accurate temporal constraints. These limitations underscore the importance of placing the rich fossil record of Jianchang within a high-resolution chronostratigraphic framework that has thus far been hampered by the relatively low precision of in situ radioisotopic dating techniques. Here we present high-precision U-Pb zircon geochronology by the chemical abrasion isotope dilution thermal ionization mass spectrometry (CA-ID-TIMS) from three interstratified ash beds previously dated by secondary-ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) technique. The results constrain the key fossil horizons of the Daxishan section to an interval spanning 160.89 to 160.25 Ma with 2σ analytical uncertainties that range from ±46 to ±69 kyr. These data place the Yanliao Biota from Jianchang in the Oxfordian Stage of the Late Jurassic, and mark the Daxishan section as the site of Earth's oldest precisely dated feathered dinosaurs and eutherian mammals.

  6. Alcohol Use, Working Conditions, Job Benefits, and the Legacy of the “Dop” System among Farm Workers in the Western Cape Province, South Africa: Hope Despite High Levels of Risky Drinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Phillip Gossage


    Full Text Available This study describes alcohol consumption in five Western Cape Province communities. Cross-sectional data from a community household sample (n = 591 describe the alcohol use patterns of adult males and females, and farm workers vs. others. Data reveal that men were more likely to be current drinkers than women, 75.1% vs. 65.8% (p = 0.033; farm laborers were more likely to be current drinkers than individuals in other occupations 83.1% vs. 66.8% (p = 0.004. Group, binge drinking on weekends was the norm; men were more likely to be binge drinkers in the past week than women 59.8% vs. 48.8% (p = 0.086; farm workers were more likely to binge than others 75.0% vs. 47.5% (p < 0.001. The legacy of “Dop” contributes to current risky drinking behaviors. Farm owners or managers were interviewed on 11 farms, they described working conditions on their farms and how the legacy of “Dop” is reflected in the current use of alcohol by their workers. “Dop” was given to farm workers in the past on six of the 11 farms, but was discontinued for different reasons. There is zero tolerance for coming to work intoxicated; farm owners encourage responsible use of alcohol and assist farm workers in getting help for alcohol problems when necessary. The farm owners report some positive initiatives, were ahead of the movement to provide meaningful wages, and provide other important amenities. Further research is needed to assess whether progressive practices on some farms will reduce harmful alcohol use.

  7. Isostatic model for the Tharsis province, Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sleep, N.H.; Phillips, R.J.


    A crust-upper mantle configuration is proposed for the Tharsis province of Mars which is isostatic and satisfies the observed gravity data. The model is that of a low density upper mantle compensating loads at both the surface and crust-mantle boundary. Solutions are found for lithospheric thickness greater than about 300 km, for which the stress differences are less than 750 bars. This model for Tharsis is similar to the compensation mechanism under the Basin and Range province of the western United States. These provinces also compare favorably in the sense that they are both elevated regions of extensional tectonics and extensive volcanism

  8. Policing powers, Politics, Pragmatism and the Provinces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The draft Western Cape Community Safety Bill, introduced in the provincial legislature in February 2012, is part of a broader provincial government initiative to tackle issues of safety in the province. The Bill sets out to concretise the powers allocated to provincial governments by the Constitution. Specific provisions reflect the ...

  9. Miocene weathering environments in Western Australia-Inferences from the abundance and 13C/12C of Fe(CO3)OH in CID goethite (United States)

    Fritz, Tyler O.; Yapp, Crayton J.


    The channel iron deposits (CID) of the Hamersley Province in Western Australia are dominated by pedogenic goethite/hematite-rich ooids and pisoids that were transported to, and deposited in, the meandering channels of Miocene rivers. Information about the Miocene weathering environments that produced the Fe(III) oxides is archived in the mole fraction (X) and δ13C of the Fe(CO3)OH component in solid solution in oolitic CID goethite (α-FeOOH). Values of X and δ13C were measured for 12 oolitic goethite samples from different depths in two cores drilled in CID of the Robe Formation of Mesa J. The weighted-average plateau values of X ranged from 0.0098 to 0.0334, which suggest ambient CO2 concentrations that ranged from ∼50,000 ppm V to perhaps as much as ∼200,000 ppm V at the time of goethite crystallization. In a vadose zone characterized by in situ production of CO2 with steady-state Fickian diffusive transport of the gas, such concentrations would correspond to modeled soil respiration rates (Q) ranging from about 10 to 30 mmol/m2/h. Values for Q of about 10 mmol/m2/h are reported for soils in modern tropical forests with MAP ≥ ∼2000 mm. However, model-derived values of Q that exceed 15 mmol/m2/h are larger than observed in modern systems. This could indicate that some of the CID goethites crystallized in conditions that were phreatic or near phreatic rather than vadose. The δ13C values of the Fe(CO3)OH component in these 12 CID samples ranged from -24.0‰ to -22.3‰, which are among the most negative measured to date. If they reflect steady-state diffusive transport of CO2 in vadose environments, the soil CO2 would have been derived from a source with δ13C values that ranged from ∼-31‰ to -29‰. If, on the other hand, the goethites crystallized in a nearly phreatic environment that was moderately acidic, the inferred δ13C of the ancient CO2 source would have been about -27.6‰ to -25.8‰. In either case, the δ13C values point to in situ

  10. Western Sufism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sedgwick, Mark

    Western Sufism is sometimes dismissed as a relatively recent "new age" phenomenon, but in this book, Mark Sedgwick argues that it actually has very deep roots, both in the Muslim world and in the West. In fact, although the first significant Western Sufi organization was not established until 1915......, the first Western discussion of Sufism was printed in 1480, and Western interest in some of the ideas that are central to Sufi thought goes back to the thirteenth century. Sedgwick starts with the earliest origins of Western Sufism in late antique Neoplatonism and early Arab philosophy, and traces later......, the year in which the first Western Sufi order based not on the heritage of the European Middle Ages, Renaissance and Enlightenment, but rather on purely Islamic models, was founded. Later developments in this and other orders are also covered. Western Sufism shows the influence of these origins...

  11. Winter food of the fox Vulpes vulpes in the Province of Cuneo (North-Western Italy / Alimentazione invernale della Volpe Vulpes vulpes nell'Albese (Provincia di Cuneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Debernardi


    Full Text Available Abstract The diet of the Fox Vulpes vulpes was studied by the analysis of 157 gastric contents coming from hilly areas of the Province of Cuneo. Samples were gathered during January-March of the years '86 (N. 41, '87 (N. 72 and '88 (N. 44. The mean percentage of frequency was determined for the following feeding categories: Fruits (26.1%, Other vegetable components (19.7%, Insects (2.5%, Wild birds (11.5%, Insectivores and Rodents (42.7%, Lepus capensis (13.4%, Indeterminate Lagomorphs (17.2%, Domestic animals (59.2% and Other (2.5%. The diet is analysed in relation to some available trophic resources (dumps, restoking of hares and of pheasants. Riassunto Vengono presentati i dati dell'analisi di 157 contenuti gastrici di Vulpes vulpes, provenienti da aree collinari della provincia di Cuneo; i campioni si riferiscono ai primi tre mesi delle annate '86 (N. 41, '87 (N. 72 e '88 (N. 44. Sono state determinate le frequenze percentuali delle seguenti categorie alimentari: Frutti (26,1%, Altre componenti vegetali (19,7%, Insetti (2,5%, Uccelli selvatici (11,5%, Insettivori e Roditori (42,7%, Lepus capensis (13,4%, Lagomorfi indeterminati (17,2%, Animali domestici (59,2% e Altro (2,5%. La dieta viene esaminata in relazione ad alcuni aspetti legati alle disponibilità trofiche del territorio (presenza di discariche, ripopolamenti di selvaggina.

  12. Malnutrition in China's Rural Boarding Schools: The Case of Primary Schools in Shaanxi Province (United States)

    Luo, Renfu; Shi, Yaojiang; Zhang, Linxiu; Liu, Chengfang; Rozelle, Scott; Sharbono, Brian


    The main goal of this paper is to document the nature of boarding schools and empirically analyse the difference in nutrition intake and malnutrition status between boarding and non-boarding students in western rural China. By using two data sets on boarding schools and boarding students in Shaanxi Province, a representative province in western…

  13. Large igneous provinces (LIPs) and carbonatites (United States)

    Ernst, Richard E.; Bell, Keith


    There is increasing evidence that many carbonatites are linked both spatially and temporally with large igneous provinces (LIPs), i.e. high volume, short duration, intraplate-type, magmatic events consisting mainly of flood basalts and their plumbing systems (of dykes, sills and layered intrusions). Examples of LIP-carbonatite associations include: i. the 66 Ma Deccan flood basalt province associated with the Amba Dongar, Sarnu-Dandali (Barmer), and Mundwara carbonatites and associated alkali rocks, ii. the 130 Ma Paraná-Etendeka (e.g. Jacupiranga, Messum); iii. the 250 Ma Siberian LIP that includes a major alkaline province, Maimecha-Kotui with numerous carbonatites, iv. the ca. 370 Ma Kola Alkaline Province coeval with basaltic magmatism widespread in parts of the East European craton, and v. the 615-555 Ma CIMP (Central Iapetus Magmatic Province) of eastern Laurentia and western Baltica. In the Superior craton, Canada, a number of carbonatites are associated with the 1114-1085 Ma Keweenawan LIP and some are coeval with the pan-Superior 1880 Ma mafic-ultramafic magmatism. In addition, the Phalaborwa and Shiel carbonatites are associated with the 2055 Ma Bushveld event of the Kaapvaal craton. The frequency of this LIP-carbonatite association suggests that LIPs and carbonatites might be considered as different evolutionary ‘pathways’ in a single magmatic process/system. The isotopic mantle components FOZO, HIMU, EM1 but not DMM, along with primitive noble gas signatures in some carbonatites, suggest a sub-lithospheric mantle source for carbonatites, consistent with a plume/asthenospheric upwelling origin proposed for many LIPs.

  14. Westerns fra hele verden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Thomas Ærvold


    Om den amerikanske western, spaghettiwesterns, kommunistiske westerns og danske westerns - i forbindelse med Kristian Levrings The Salvation (2014).......Om den amerikanske western, spaghettiwesterns, kommunistiske westerns og danske westerns - i forbindelse med Kristian Levrings The Salvation (2014)....

  15. Hepatitis e virus: Western Cape, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.G. Madden (Richie); Wallace, S. (Sebastian); M. Sonderup; Korsman, S. (Stephen); Chivese, T. (Tawanda); Gavine, B. (Bronwyn); Edem, A. (Aniefiok); Govender, R. (Roxy); English, N. (Nathan); Kaiyamo, C. (Christy); Lutchman, O. (Odelia); A.A. Eijck (Annemiek); S.D. Pas (Suzan); Webb, G.W. (Glynn W); Palmer, J. (Joanne); Goddard, E. (Elizabeth); Wasserman, S. (Sean); H.R. Dalton (Harry); C.W. Spearman


    textabstractAIM To conduct a prospective assessment of anti-hepatitis E virus (HEV) IgG seroprevalence in the Western Cape Province of South Africa in conjunction with evaluating risk factors for exposure. METHODS Consenting participants attending clinics and wards of Groote Schuur, Red Cross

  16. The literacy of Geography teachers in the Western Cape Province

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    professional development programmes and support interventions in teacher ... multiple ecological and social issues linked to them, none of which can be ... adaptation (adjustment in natural or human systems in response to real or potential climatic stimuli and their ... American and Asian countries, is highly vulnerable.

  17. A case study in the Western Cape Province, So

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrition research should not lose touch with reality and ought to be ... School and supermarket environments, as well as the food industry, can play a pivotal role in ..... explained that time constraints, mostly as a result of them working, resulted ...

  18. Quality of asthma care: Western Cape Province, South Africa | Mash ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Asthma is the eighth leading contributor to the burden of disease in South Africa, but has received less attention than other chronic diseases. The Asthma Guidelines Implementation Project (AGIP) was established to improve the impact of the South African guidelines for chronic asthma in adults and ...

  19. (Bitis; Viperidae) from the Western Cape Province, South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Feb 25, 1997 ... Dwarf adders of the genus Bitis are popular in the interna- tional pet trade in reptiles, and although ... dwarf adder, B. schneideri) are already threatened, in pan, by illegal collecting for this trade (Branch .... between the eyes at the anterior edge of the orbit; I I right, 12 left circumorbitals; two scale rows ...

  20. Use of Space Technology in Flood Mitigation (Western Province, Zambia) (United States)

    Mulando, A.


    Disasters, by definition are events that appear suddenly and with little warning. They are usually short lived, with extreme events bringing death, injury and destruction of buildings and communications. Their aftermath can be as damaging as their physical effects through destruction of sanitation and water supplies, destruction of housing and breakdown of transport for food, temporary shelter and emergency services. Since floods are one of the natural disasters which endanger both life and property, it becomes vital to know its extents and where the hazards exists. Flood disasters manifest natural processes on a larger scale and information provided by Remote Sensing is a most appropriate input to analysis of actual events and investigations of potential risks. An analytical and qualitative image processing and interpretation of Remotely Sensed data as well as other data such as rainfall, population, settlements not to mention but a few should be used to derive good mitigation strategies. Since mitigation is the cornerstone of emergency management, it therefore becomes a sustained action that will reduce or eliminate long term risks to people and property from natural hazards such as floods and their effects. This will definitely involve keeping of homes and other sensitive structures away from flood plains. Promotion of sound land use planning based on this known hazard, "FLOODS" is one such form of mitigation that can be applied in flood affected areas within flood plain. Therefore future mitigation technologies and procedures should increasingly be based on the use of flood extent information provided by Remote Sensing Satellites like the NOAA AVHRR as well as information on the designated flood hazard and risk areas.

  1. Demand Response in the West: Lessons for States and Provinces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas C. Larson; Matt Lowry; Sharon Irwin


    OAK-B135 This paper is submitted in fulfillment of DOE Grant No. DE-FG03-015F22369 on the experience of western states/provinces with demand response (DR) in the electricity sector. Demand-side resources are often overlooked as a viable option for meeting load growth and addressing the challenges posed by the region's aging transmission system. Western states should work together with utilities and grid operators to facilitate the further deployment of DR programs which can provide benefits in the form of decreased grid congestion, improved system reliability, market efficiency, price stabilization, hedging against volatile fuel prices and reduced environmental impacts of energy production. This report describes the various types of DR programs; provides a survey of DR programs currently in place in the West; considers the benefits, drawbacks and barriers to DR; and presents lessons learned and recommendations for states/provinces.

  2. Municipal solid waste management in Kurdistan Province, Iran. (United States)

    Abduli, Mohammad Ali; Nasrabadi, Touraj


    Kurdistan Province, with an area of 28,203 square kilometers, is located in a mountainous area in the western part of Iran. From 1967 to 1997, the urban population in the major eight cities of the Kurdistan Province-namely, Baneh, Bijar, Divan Darreh, Saghez, Sanandaj, Ghorveh, Kamyaran, and Marivan-increased from 102,250 to 705,715. The proportion of the population residing in urban areas increased 90 percent during this period. In most of the cities, solid waste handling remains primitive, and well-organized procedures for it have not been established. Traditional methods of disposal, with marginal inclusion of modern conveniences, appear to be the common practice. In general, the shortcomings of the prevailing practices can be summarized as follows: The municipal solid waste management systems (MSWMSs) in this province include unsegregated collection and open dumping of municipal solid wastes. Separation of municipal solid waste in this province is in the hands of scavengers. The MSWMSs in this province lack essential infrastructure. Thus, design and implementation of modern MSWMSs in this province are essential. Principal criteria for and methods of implementing these systems are as follows: (1) rationally evaluating all functional elements so that they operate in a steady-state or equilibrium manner; (2) creating all support elements for the MSWMS in each city; (3) introducing gradual privatization of MSWMS activities; (4) creating guidelines, regulations, and instructions for all elements of MSWMSs; and (5) giving priorities to source separation and recycling programs. This paper reviews the present status of MSWMSs in eight major cities of Kurdistan Province and outlines the principle guidelines and alternatives for MSWMSs.

  3. Western blotting. (United States)

    Kurien, Biji T; Scofield, R Hal


    Western blotting (protein blotting or immunoblotting) is a powerful and important procedure for the immunodetection of proteins post-electrophoresis, particularly proteins that are of low abundance. Since the inception of the protocol for protein transfer from an electrophoresed gel to a membrane in 1979, protein blotting has evolved greatly. The scientific community is now confronted with a variety of ways and means to carry out this transfer. This review describes the various procedures that have been used to transfer proteins from a gel to a membrane based on the principles of simple diffusion, vacuum-assisted solvent flow and electrophoretic elution. Finally, a brief description of methods generally used to detect antigens on blots is also described.

  4. Entrepreneur achievement. Liaoning province. (United States)

    Zhao, R


    This paper reports the successful entrepreneurial endeavors of members of a 20-person women's group in Liaoning Province, China. Jing Yuhong, a member of the Family Planning Association at Shileizi Village, Dalian City, provided the basis for their achievements by first building an entertainment/study room in her home to encourage married women to learn family planning. Once stocked with books, magazines, pamphlets, and other materials on family planning and agricultural technology, dozens of married women in the neighborhood flocked voluntarily to the room. Yuhong also set out to give these women a way to earn their own income as a means of helping then gain greater equality with their husbands and exert greater control over their personal reproductive and social lives. She gave a section of her farming land to the women's group, loaned approximately US$5200 to group members to help them generate income from small business initiatives, built a livestock shed in her garden for the group to raise marmots, and erected an awning behind her house under which mushrooms could be grown. The investment yielded $12,000 in the first year, allowing each woman to keep more than $520 in dividends. Members then soon began going to fairs in the capital and other places to learn about the outside world, and have successfully ventured out on their own to generate individual incomes. Ten out of twenty women engaged in these income-generating activities asked for and got the one-child certificate.

  5. Solar PV Industry in Jiangsu Province [China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Jiangsu Province is a leading province in China both in terms of Solar PV application as well as its implementation. The Netherlands Business Support Office in Nanjing reports on the photovoltaic solar cell industry in Jiangsu Province with details on opportunities for foreign investors; applications of solar energy in the province; Chinese government; relevant organizations; and key Chinese players in this sector.

  6. Measures to Facilitate Necessity Entrepreneurship : Western Cape South Africa


    Macura, Alexander; Sjölund, John


    Problem- In the townships and rural areas of the Western Cape province of South Africa unemployment can be as high as 60%. For many, starting a business is the only viable option to survive. There are many organizations seeking to help entrepreneurs to successfully start and manage a business, but services are significantly lacking. We therefore wish to determine what business service providers in the Western Cape are doing today to help necessity entrepreneurs succeed, and what can be done b...

  7. Temporality and Patterns of ART Adherence in the Western Cape

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In an ethnographic study conducted over thirty months in South Africa's Western Cape Province ending in 2012, we explored ART adherence amongst almost 200 patients attending three clinics. This setting contained significant political, structural, economic and socio cultural barriers to the uptake of, and adherence to, ...

  8. Evaluating the Effectiveness of the Western Cape Liquor Act in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Alcohol is one of the key risk factors for the exceptionally high levels of interpersonal violence in South Africa's Western Cape Province. It is also an important contributor to disease. Reducing access to alcohol is one of several strategies recommended for lowering alcohol-related harm; it has been identified as a suitable ...

  9. The Central European, Tarim and Siberian Large Igneous Provinces, Late Palaeozoic orogeny and coeval metallogeny

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boorder, H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/098199056


    The formation of the Central European and Tarim Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) in the Early Permian coincided with the demise of the Variscan and the Southern Tianshan orogens, respectively. The Early Triassic Siberian LIP was formed in the wake of the Western Altaid orogeny in the Late Permian.

  10. A Palynological investigation of the Lower peat in the Province of Friesland, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donselaar, van J.; Jonker, F.P.


    Up till now the lower deposits of peat (in Dutch: veen-op-groterediepte = peat at greater depth) have been investigated in the Netherlands mainly in the Western part of the country, viz. in the provinces of Noord-Holland, Zuid-Holland and Zeeland. The analyses have shown that the development of

  11. [Epidemiology of caprine and ovine brucellosis in Formosa province, Argentina]. (United States)

    Russo, Ana M; Mancebo, Orlando A; Monzón, Carlos M; Gait, Juan J; Casco, Rubén D; Torioni de Echaide, Susana M


    An epidemiological study of brucellosis was carried out in 516 goats and mixed flocks (goat/sheep) from the three agro-ecological regions of Formosa province, Argentina. Serum samples from a total of 25401 goats and 2453 sheeps were analyzed using buffered plate agglutination test (BPAT) and complement fixation test (CFT). Bacteriological and PCR analyses on milk samples from goats in three flocks with a history of brucellosis and recent abortions were also performed. Brucellosis was detected in four of the nine departments of the province with an overall prevalence of 2% and an intra-flock prevalence ranging between 1% and 40%. The proportion of infected flocks was 3.6%, 12% and 36% for the eastern, central and western regions, respectively. Brucella melitensis bv. 1 was isolated efrom goats for the first time in the province. The expected fragments of 827bp from the omp2ab gene (Brucella spp.) and 731bp from the insert IS711 (B. melitensis) were amplified by PCR. Detection of antibodies by BPAT and FCT in sheep cohabiting with goats suggests that infections could have been caused by B. melitensis, posing an additional risk to public health. Control and eradication programs for brucellosis should consider mixed flocks as a single epidemiological unit. The results indicate that brucellosis by B. melitensis bv1 is highly endemic in the central and western regions of Formosa province. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. [Environmental efficiency evaluation under carbon emission constraint in Western China]. (United States)

    Rong, Jian-bo; Yan, Li-jiao; Huang, Shao-rong; Zhang, Ge


    This research used the SBM model based on undesirable outputs to measure the static environmental efficiency of Western China under carbon emission constraint from 2000 to 2012. The researchers also utilized the Malmquist index to further analyze the change tendency of environmental efficiency. Additionally, Tobit regression analysis was used to study the factors relevant to environmental efficiency. Practical solutions to improve environmental quality in Western China were put forward. The study showed that in Western China, environmental efficiency with carbon emission constraint was significantly lower than that without carbon emission constraint, and the difference could be described as an inverse U-shaped curve which increased at first and then decreased. Guang-xi and Inner Mongolia, the two provinces met the effective environmental efficiency levels all the time under carbon emission constraint. However, the five provinces of Guizhou, Gansu, Qinghai, Ningxia and Xinjiang did not. Furthermore, Ningxia had the lowest level of environmental efficiency, with a score between 0.281-0.386. Although the environmental efficiency of most provinces was currently at an ineffective level, the environmental efficiency quality was gradually improving at an average speed of 6.6%. Excessive CO2 emission and a large amount of energy consumption were the primary factors causing environmental inefficiency in Western China, and energy intensity had the most negative impact on the environmental efficiency. The increase of import and export trade reduced the environmental efficiency significantly in Western China, while the increase of foreign direct investment had a positive effect on its environmental efficiency.

  13. Distribution of cancer mortality rates by province in South Africa. (United States)

    Made, Felix; Wilson, Kerry; Jina, Ruxana; Tlotleng, Nonhlanhla; Jack, Samantha; Ntlebi, Vusi; Kootbodien, Tahira


    Cancer mortality rates are expected to increase in developing countries. Cancer mortality rates by province remain largely unreported in South Africa. This study described the 2014 age standardised cancer mortality rates by province in South Africa, to provide insight for strategic interventions and advocacy. 2014 deaths data were retrieved from Statistics South Africa. Deaths from cancer were extracted using 10th International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for cancer (C00-C97). Adjusted 2013 mid-year population estimates were used as a standard population. All rates were calculated per 100 000 individuals. Nearly 38 000 (8%) of the total deaths in South Africa in 2014 were attributed to cancer. Western Cape Province had the highest age standardised cancer mortality rate in South Africa (118, 95% CI: 115-121 deaths per 100 000 individuals), followed by the Northern Cape (113, 95% CI: 107-119 per 100 000 individuals), with the lowest rate in Limpopo Province (47, 95% CI: 45-49 per 100 000). The age standardised cancer mortality rate for men (71, 95% CI: 70-72 per 100 000 individuals) was similar to women (69, 95% CI: 68-70 per 100 000). Lung cancer was a major driver of cancer death in men (13, 95% CI: 12.6-13.4 per 100 000). In women, cervical cancer was the leading cause of cancer death (13, 95% CI: 12.6-13.4 per 100 000 individuals). There is a need to further investigate the factors related to the differences in cancer mortality by province in South Africa. Raising awareness of risk factors and screening for cancer in the population along with improved access and quality of health care are also important. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The potential for western Canada to become a leader in electrically powered land transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perl, A.; Gilbert, R.


    Canada's western provinces are among the most oil-intensive jurisdictions in the world. Per capita consumption in 2007 was 70 percent higher than that of eastern Canada. While western Canada will be buffered as a producer of oil, predicted swings in oil prices may disrupt the fiscal capacity of producer provinces. The price of crude oil in western Canada is the same price established in world markets. This paper examined some of the opportunities available for western Canada to move away from oil consumption by becoming a leader in electric traction. Methods of replacing oil-based transportation with the use of electric vehicles were discussed. Western Canada's capacity to produce electricity from renewable resources was evaluated. Economic opportunities related to the electrification of land transport were also examined. The report concluded by stating that a clear vision and policy framework for supporting new technologies for surface transport across western Canada are needed. 72 refs., 4 figs.

  15. 1. The Province of Philosophers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 4. Mapmakers - The Province of Philosophers. Harini Nagendra. Series Article Volume 4 Issue 4 April 1999 pp 6-11. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: ...

  16. The Illusion of Governance: The Challenges of Providing Effective Governance as a Tool of Counterinsurgency in Eastern Afghanistan’s Paktika Province (United States)


    Atlantic Treaty Organization NDS National Directorate of Security NWFI North Western Frontier of India NWFP North Western Frontier Province OCO...narrowed to Afghanistan and its history of poverty, illiteracy , conflict, foreign invasions, control and development of the current rural (district and...

  17. Book review: Large igneous provinces (United States)

    du Bray, Edward A.


    This book presents a comprehensive compilation of all aspects of large igneous provinces (LIPs). Published in 2014, the book is now the definitive source of information on the petrogenesis of this type of globally important, voluminous magmatic activity. In the first few pages, LIPs are characterized as magmatic provinces with areal extents >0.1 Mkm2 that are dominated by mafic magmas emplaced or erupted in intraplate settings during relatively short (1–5 m.y.) time intervals. Given these parameters, particularly areal extent, LIPs clearly represent significant contributions to global geologic evolution through time. This point is underscored, also in the introductory chapter, by a series of figures that aptly characterize the global time-space distribution of LIPs; an accompanying, particularly useful table identifies individual LIPs, quantifies their basic characteristics, and enumerates pertinent references. Accordingly, this compilation is a welcome addition to the geologic literature.

  18. Neotectonics in the maritime provinces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, G.L.


    Seismic risk assessment in the Maritime Provinces requires input from not just historical, but also geological sources. A detailed search through published and unpublished geological literature reveals many examples - some probable, some possible -of neotectonic movement in the area. Examples range in tectonic significance from those that reflect exaggerated local imbalance to those that signify deep-seated stress. Evidence for neotectonism in the Maritimes is multidisciplined. It includes deformation in bedrock and quaternary deposits, and regional warping. Recent movement also is indicated by changes in relative sea level, in situ stress fields and geodetic fluctuations. Finally, and most unequivocally, neotectonism in the Maritime Provinces is manifested as the seismic events that have sporadically affected the area throughout its recent geological history, and continue up to the present day. 288 refs

  19. Geologic setting and chemical characteristics of hot springs in central and western Alaska (United States)

    Miller, Thomas P.; Barnes, Ivan; Pattan, William Wallace


    Numerous hot springs occur in a variety of geologic provinces in central and western Alaska. Granitic plutons are common to all the provinces and the hot springs are spatially associated with the contacts of these plutons. Of 23 hot springs whose bedrock geology is known, all occur within 3 miles of a granitic pluton. The occurrence of hot springs, however, appears to be independent of the age, composition, or magmatic history of the pluton.

  20. Evaluation of Rural Primary Health Care in Western China: A Cross-Sectional Study. (United States)

    Wang, Manli; Fang, Haiqing; Bishwajit, Ghose; Xiang, Yuanxi; Fu, Hang; Feng, Zhanchun


    China's Ministry of Health has enacted Rural Primary Health Care Program (2001-2010) (HCP) guidelines to improve the quality of people's health. However, the program's success in Western China remains unevaluated. Thus, this study aims to begin to fill that gap by analyzing the provision and utilization of Rural Primary Health Care (RPHC) in Western China. A cross-sectional study was conducted to collect secondary data on the socio-economic characteristics, system construction, services use and implementation of RPHC, and the residents' health status of the sampled areas. Four hundred counties from 31 provinces in China were selected via stratified random sampling, including 171 counties from 12 Western provinces. Twenty-seven analysis indicators, covering system construction, services use and implementation of RPHC were chosen to assess Western China's primary health quality. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Least Significant Difference (LSD) methods were used to measure the RPHC disparities between Western and Eastern and Central China. Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) was used to rank Western, Eastern and Central internal provinces regarding quality of their RPHC. Of the 27 indicators, 13 (48.15%) were below the standard in Western China. These focused on rural health service system construction, Chinese medicine services, and public health. In the comparison between Western, Central and Eastern China, 12 indicators had statistical significance (p China, all indicators were statistically significant (p China overall. Western China's RPHC has proceeded well, but remains weaker than that of Eastern and Central China. Differences within Western internal provinces threaten the successful implementation of RPHC.

  1. Geology and total petroleum systems of the Gulf of Guinea province of West Africa (United States)

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.


    The Gulf of Guinea Province as defined by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) consists of the coastal and offshore areas of Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana, Togo, and Benin, and the western part of the coast of Nigeria, from the Liberian border east to the west edge of the Niger Delta. The province includes the Ivory Coast, Tano, Central, Saltpond, Keta, and Benin Basins and the Dahomey Embayment. The area has had relatively little hydrocarbon exploration since 1968, with only 33 small to moderate-sized oil and gas fields having been discovered prior to the USGS assessment. Most discoveries to 1995 have been located in water depths less than 500 m. Since 1995, only eight new offshore discoveries have been made, with four of the discoveries in the deep-water area of the province. Although as many as five total petroleum systems exist in the Gulf of Guinea Province, only one, the Cretaceous Composite Total Petroleum System, and its assessment unit, the Coastal Plain and Offshore Assessment Unit, had sufficient data to allow assessment. The province shows two important differences compared to the passive-margin basins south of the Niger Delta: (1) the influence of transform tectonics, and (2) the absence of evaporites and salt deformation. The province also lacks long-lived, large deltaic systems that typically result in rapid source rock burial and abundant high-quality hydrocarbon reservoirs. The USGS assessed the potential for undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources in the Gulf of Guinea Province as part of its World Petroleum Assessment 2000, estimating a mean of 1,004 million barrels of conventional undiscovered oil, 10,071 billion cubic feet of gas, and 282 million barrels of natural gas liquids. Most of the hydrocarbon potential is postulated to be in the offshore, deeper waters of the province. Gas resources may be large, as well as accessible, in areas where the zone of hydrocarbon generation is relatively shallow.

  2. The thrust belts of Western North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moulton, F.C.


    Most of the Basin and Range physiographic province of western North America is now believed to be part of the overthrust. The more obvious overthrust belt along the eastern edge of the Basin and Range Province is named the Sevier orogenic belt, where older rocks are observed thrust onto younger rocks. More detailed surface geological mapping, plus deep multiple-fold geophysical work and many oil and gas wildcat wells, have confirmed an east-vergent shortened and stacked sequence is present in many places in the Basin and Range. This western compressive deformed area in east central Nevada is now named the Elko orogenic belt by the U.S. Geological Survey. This older compressed Elko orogenic belt started forming approximately 250 m.y. ago when the North American plate started to move west as the Pangaea supercontinent started to fragment. The North American plate moved west under the sediments of the Miogeocline that were also moving west. Surface-formed highlands and oceanic island arcs on the west edge of the North American plate restricted the westward movement of the sediments in the Miogeocline, causing east-vergent ramp thrusts to form above the westward-moving North American plate. The flat, eastward-up-cutting thrust assemblages moved on the detachment surfaces.

  3. Transamazonic foundation from Borborema Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackpacher, P.C.; Dantas, E.L.; Van Schums, W.R.


    Geochronological data obtained in plutonic rocks of the Sao Vicente/Caico Groups present U/Pb values around 2.15 Ga. These rocks may have involved from an initial mantle or lower crust melting and fractionation process by 2.62-2.65 Ga., that is evidenced from Sm/Nd model ages. Relation betwen TTG-sequence and tectonic setting of the area and other localities in NE-Brazil suggest that the Transamazonic orogeny was the main crust-forming episode of the Borborema Province. (author)

  4. Staff and bed distribution in public sector mental health services in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Sukeri


    Full Text Available Background. The Eastern Cape Province of South Africa is a resource-limited province with a fragmented mental health service.  Objective. To determine the current context of public sector mental health services in terms of staff and bed distribution, and how this corresponds to the population distribution in the province. Method. In this descriptive cross-sectional study, an audit questionnaire was submitted to all public sector mental health facilities. Norms and indicators were calculated at provincial and district level. This article investigates staff and bed distribution only. Results. Results demonstrated that within the province, only three of its seven districts have acute beds above the national baseline norm requirement of 13/100 000. The private mental health sector provides approximately double the number of medium- to long-stay beds available in the public sector. Only two regions have staff/population ratios above the baseline norm of 20/100 000. However, there are significant differences in this ratio among specific staff categories. There is an inequitable distribution of resources between the eastern and western regions of the province. When compared with the western regions, the eastern regions have poorer access to mental health facilities, human resources and non-governmental organisations.  Conclusion. Owing to the inequitable distribution of resources, the provincial authorities urgently need to develop an equitable model of service delivery. The province has to address the absence of a reliable mental health information system.

  5. Suicide Mortality Trends in Four Provinces of Iran with the Highest Mortality, from 2006-2016. (United States)

    Nazari Kangavari, Hajar; Shojaei, Ahmad; Hashemi Nazari, Seyed Saeed


    Suicide is a major cause of unnatural deaths in the world. Its incidence is higher in western provinces of Iran. So far, there has not been any time series analysis of suicide in western provinces. The purpose of this study was to analyze suicide mortality data from 2006 to 2016 as well as to forecast the number of suicides for 2017 in four provinces of Iran (Ilam, Kermanshah and Lorestan and Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad). Descriptive-analytic study. Data were analyzed by time- series analysis using R software. Three automatic methods (Auto.arima, ETS (Error Transitional Seasonality) and time series linear model (TSLM)) were fitted on the data. The best model after cross validation according to the mean absolute error measure was selected for forecasting. Totally, 7004 suicidal deaths occurred of which, 4259 were male and 2745 were female. The mean age of the study population was (32.05 ± 15.48 yr). Hanging and self-immolation were the most frequent types of suicide in men and women, respectively. The maximum and minimum number of suicides was occurred in July and August as well as January respectively. It is suggested that intervention measures should be designed in order to decrease the suicide rate particularly in the age group of 15-29 yr, and implemented as a pilot study, especially in these four provinces of Iran, which have a relatively high suicide rate.

  6. Wind potential assessment of Quebec Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilinca, A.; Chaumel, J.-L.; Retiveau, J.-L.


    The paper presents the development of a comprehensive wind atlas of the Province of Quebec. This study differs from previous studies by 1) use of a standard classification index to categorize the wind resource, 2) extensive review of surface and upper air data available for the Province to define the wind resource, and 3) integration of available wind data with the topography of the Province. The wind resource in the Province of Quebec is classified using the scheme proposed by Battelle-Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The Battelle-PNL classification is a numerical one which includes rankings from Wind Power Class 1 (lowest) to Wind Power Class 7 (highest). Associated with each numerical classification is a range of wind power and associated mean wind speed at 10 m and 50 m above ground level. For this study, a classification for 30 m above ground level was interpolated and used. A significant amount of wind data was gathered for the Province. These data were obtained from Atmospheric Environment Service (AES), Canada, from wind project developers, and from climatological summaries of surface and upper air data. A total of 35 primary data sites were selected in the Province. Although a number of wind data sites in the Province were identified and used in the analysis, large areas of the Province lacked any specific wind information. The Province was divided into grid blocks having dimensions of 1/4 o latitude by 1/3 o longitude. Each grid block is assigned a numerical Wind Power Class value ranging from 1 to 7. This value is based on the integration of the available wind data and the topography within the square. The majority of the Province was classified as 1 or 2. Coastal locations and topographic features in the interior of the Province typically have Wind Power Class 3 or higher. (author)

  7. Geology and assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the North Kara Basins and Platforms Province, 2008 (United States)

    Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Moore, T.E.; Gautier, D.L.


    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources of the North Kara Basins and Platforms Province as part of the its Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal. This geologic province is north of western Siberia, Russian Federation, in the North Kara Sea between Novaya Zemlya to the west and Severnaya Zemlya to the east. One assessment unit (AU) was defined, the North Kara Basins and Platforms AU, which coincides with the geologic province. This AU was assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable resources. The total estimated mean volumes of undiscovered petroleum resources in the province are ~1.8 billion barrels of crude oil, ~15.0 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and ~0.4 billion barrels of natural-gas liquids, all north of the Arctic Circle.

  8. A review of the microbiology of the Rehai geothermal field in Tengchong, Yunnan Province, China


    Hedlund, Brian P.; Cole, Jessica K.; Williams, Amanda J.; Hou, Weiguo; Zhou, Enmin; Li, Wenjun; Dong, Hailiang


    The Rehai Geothermal Field, located in Tengchong County, in central-western Yunnan Province, is the largest and most intensively studied geothermal field in China. A wide physicochemical diversity of springs (ambient to ∼97 °C; pH from ≤1.8 to ≥9.3) provides a multitude of niches for extremophilic microorganisms. A variety of studies have focused on the cultivation, identification, basic physiology, taxonomy, and biotechnological potential of thermophilic microorganisms from Rehai. Thermophil...

  9. Customary Homicides in Diyarbakir Province. (United States)

    Yilmaz, Eyyup; Canturk, Nergis; Erkol, Zerrin; Kumral, Bahadir; Okumus, Ali M


    This study presents an analysis of the causes of so-called honor killings in the context of "customary homicide" and a discussion of preventive measures. Finalized case files of customary homicide between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2012 were retrospectively examined in Diyarbakir Province, Turkey. Of a total of 28 case victims, 17 (60.7%) were females and 11 (39.3%) were males. All perpetrators were male. There was a significant difference between male and female victims in terms of economic independence (p=0.000). A direct blood relationship or relationship by marriage (such as brother-in-law) was found to have a significant association with the gender of the victim (phomicide, which represents a multifaceted problem. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  10. The ;Sardinian cold-water coral province; in the context of the Mediterranean coral ecosystems (United States)

    Taviani, M.; Angeletti, L.; Canese, S.; Cannas, R.; Cardone, F.; Cau, A.; Cau, A. B.; Follesa, M. C.; Marchese, F.; Montagna, P.; Tessarolo, C.


    A new cold-water coral (CWC) province has been identified in the Mediterranean Sea in the Capo Spartivento canyon system offshore the southern coast of Sardinia. The 'Sardinia cold-water coral province' is characterized in the Nora canyon by a spectacular coral growth dominated by the branching scleractinian Madrepora oculata at a depth of 380-460 m. The general biohermal frame is strengthened by the common occurrence of the solitary scleractinian Desmophyllum dianthus and the occasional presence of Lophelia pertusa. As documented by Remotely Operated Vehicle survey, this area is a hotspot of megafaunal diversity hosting among other also live specimens of the deep oyster Neopycnodonte zibrowii. The new coral province is located between the central Mediterranean CWC provinces (Bari Canyon, Santa Maria di Leuca, South Malta) and the western and northern ones (Melilla, Catalan-Provençal-Ligurian canyons). As for all the best developed CWC situations in the present Mediterranean Sea, the new Sardinian province is clearly influenced by Levantine Intermediate Water which appears to be a main driver for CWC distribution and viability in this basin.

  11. Trend of cutaneous leishmaniasis in kermanshah province, west of iran from 1990 to 2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazdan Hamzavi


    Full Text Available This study was conducted to explain the trend of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL in Kermanshah Province, western Iran from 1991-2012.In this analytical-descriptive study, all of the patients suspected to CL in Kermanshah Province were studied. Smears were prepared from most of them, stained with Giemsa, and examined microscopically for Leishman bodies. A few of the patients were diagnosed according to physician diagnosis and response to glucantime. Questionnaires were completed for all of them. Collected data were analyzed using SPSS-21 and Spearman and Kendall tests.From 1991 to 2012, 1684 cases of CL were recorded. In the years 2011-12 the frequency of CL in the province reached to 7.4/100,000, which showed a remarkable increase in the frequency of new cases CL in the province. In the years 2011-12 about 47% of total cases of CL in the province, was seen in Ghasr-e-Shirin district,which the frequency of CL in this district reached to 264.5/100,000. Frequency of CL in males and females was 57% and 43% respectively. The most cases of CL were seen in housewives (32.1% and age groups of 20 to 29 years old (19.9%. In addition, the most cases of disease were seen in winter (41.8% and fall (28.9%.CL is increasing remarkably in warm climates of the province, and Ghasr-e-Shirin must be of particular interest, as the most infected district in the province.

  12. Teaching the Western. (United States)

    Lenihan, John H.


    Discusses the content of a course on the genre of western films that was utilized as a film study and a U.S. cultural history credit. Describes in detail the film, "Winchester '73," and addresses other films utilized in the course. States that the course also focuses on the development of the western genre. (CMK)

  13. Western Slope Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epis, R.C.; Callender, J.F.


    A conference on the geology and geologic resources of the Western Slope of western Colorado and eastern Utah is presented. Fourteen papers from the conference have been abstracted and indexed for the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base. These papers covered such topics as uranium resources, oil shale deposits, coal resources, oil and gas resources, and geothermal resources of the area

  14. Structure and tectonics of western continental margin of India: Implication for geologic hazards

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chaubey, A.K.; Ajay, K.K.

    characteristics of Western Continental Margin of India (WCMI) are closely related to the tectonic history of the Indian subcontinent, its break up during continental rifting, magmatic and sedimentary history, northward movement of India and finally collision... Continental Flood Basalt (DCFB) province on the western and central Indian (Duncan. 1990) as well as continental flood basalt on the Praslin Island in the Seychelles microcontinent (Devey and Stephens, 1991). The DCFB is the largest known continental flood...

  15. Cultural meanings of tuberculosis in Aceh Province, Sumatra. (United States)

    Caprara, A; Abdulkadir, N; Idawani, C; Asmara, H; Lever, P; De Virgilio, G


    This paper shows how disease transmission and particularly what biomedicine calls tuberculosis are interpreted in the non-Western context of Aceh Province, Sumatra, Indonesia. It tries also to focus on factors influencing perceptions and health-seeking behaviors. Results show that what biomedicine calls TB is represented by a semantic network of illnesses. Parts of this network are clearly identified as transmissible while others are related to specific phenomena affecting the individual, such as terbuk (poisoning) or trouk (fatigue produced by hard work), and are not considered contagious. Forms of transmission are interpreted mostly through empirical and analogic categories. TB is attributed to four different aspects: (a) biomedical categories such as germ theory; (b) socio-economic conditions; (c) transgression of social rules; and (d) poisoning and the influences of supernatural powers. Health-seeking behaviors are related to the perceived causes of the disease, economic factors, and the accessibility of health services.

  16. Reprint of "Modelling the influence of temperature and rainfall on malaria incidence in four endemic provinces of Zambia using semiparametric Poisson regression". (United States)

    Shimaponda-Mataa, Nzooma M; Tembo-Mwase, Enala; Gebreslasie, Michael; Achia, Thomas N O; Mukaratirwa, Samson


    Although malaria morbidity and mortality are greatly reduced globally owing to great control efforts, the disease remains the main contributor. In Zambia, all provinces are malaria endemic. However, the transmission intensities vary mainly depending on environmental factors as they interact with the vectors. Generally in Africa, possibly due to the varying perspectives and methods used, there is variation on the relative importance of malaria risk determinants. In Zambia, the role climatic factors play on malaria case rates has not been determined in combination of space and time using robust methods in modelling. This is critical considering the reversal in malaria reduction after the year 2010 and the variation by transmission zones. Using a geoadditive or structured additive semiparametric Poisson regression model, we determined the influence of climatic factors on malaria incidence in four endemic provinces of Zambia. We demonstrate a strong positive association between malaria incidence and precipitation as well as minimum temperature. The risk of malaria was 95% lower in Lusaka (ARR=0.05, 95% CI=0.04-0.06) and 68% lower in the Western Province (ARR=0.31, 95% CI=0.25-0.41) compared to Luapula Province. North-western Province did not vary from Luapula Province. The effects of geographical region are clearly demonstrated by the unique behaviour and effects of minimum and maximum temperatures in the four provinces. Environmental factors such as landscape in urbanised places may also be playing a role. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Potential uranium provinces in some arabian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salman, A A [Nuclear materials authority, El Maadi, Cairo, (Egypt)


    This work represents an attempt to delineate potential uranium provinces in some Arabian countries using various related recognition criteria. Definition of these provinces is based on the available geologic and tectonic setting beside geochronological sequence and some geochemical characteristics. This trial would be of a great help for interchanging the ideas and necessary data for the development in the fields of uranium exploration and production. As a result of this study, a number of promising potential uranium provinces are recommended in some arabian countries. 5 figs.

  18. Potential uranium provinces in some arabian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salman, A.A.


    This work represents an attempt to delineate potential uranium provinces in some Arabian countries using various related recognition criteria. Definition of these provinces is based on the available geologic and tectonic setting beside geochronological sequence and some geochemical characteristics. This trial would be of a great help for interchanging the ideas and necessary data for the development in the fields of uranium exploration and production. As a result of this study, a number of promising potential uranium provinces are recommended in some arabian countries. 5 figs

  19. Geographical distribution patterns of iodine in drinking-water and its associations with geological factors in Shandong Province, China. (United States)

    Gao, Jie; Zhang, Zhijie; Hu, Yi; Bian, Jianchao; Jiang, Wen; Wang, Xiaoming; Sun, Liqian; Jiang, Qingwu


    County-based spatial distribution characteristics and the related geological factors for iodine in drinking-water were studied in Shandong Province (China). Spatial autocorrelation analysis and spatial scan statistic were applied to analyze the spatial characteristics. Generalized linear models (GLMs) and geographically weighted regression (GWR) studies were conducted to explore the relationship between water iodine level and its related geological factors. The spatial distribution of iodine in drinking-water was significantly heterogeneous in Shandong Province (Moran's I = 0.52, Z = 7.4, p water were identified in the south-western and north-western parts of Shandong Province by the purely spatial scan statistic approach. Both GLMs and GWR indicated a significantly global association between iodine in drinking-water and geological factors. Furthermore, GWR showed obviously spatial variability across the study region. Soil type and distance to Yellow River were statistically significant at most areas of Shandong Province, confirming the hypothesis that the Yellow River causes iodine deposits in Shandong Province. Our results suggested that the more effective regional monitoring plan and water improvement strategies should be strengthened targeting at the cluster areas based on the characteristics of geological factors and the spatial variability of local relationships between iodine in drinking-water and geological factors.

  20. Violence the Western way. (United States)

    Roth, B E


    Despite the quiet revolution in response to changing conceptualizations of gender in psychoanalysis, the Western has remained the domain of aggressive phallic masculinity. The iconic imagery of the Western, when combined with its narrative trajectory, is used to tell stories of violent encounters between men. The acceptance of the genre, and its duplication by other cultures and film makers, indicates that the Westerns' imagery and moral solutions tap into some basic deep structures of anxiety and pleasure in violence between men. As long as societies require subtle sublimations of aggressive and violent drives, it is likely that men will seek imaginary regressive experiences to discharge frustrations.

  1. Slope Controls Grain Yield and Climatic Yield in Mountainous Yunnan province, China (United States)

    Duan, X.; Rong, L.; Gu, Z.; Feng, D.


    Mountainous regions are increasingly vulnerable to food insecurity because of limited arable land, growing population pressure, and climate change. Development of sustainable mountain agriculture will require an increased understanding of the effects of environmental factors on grain and climatic yields. The objective of this study was to explore the relationships between actual grain yield, climatic yield, and environmental factors in a mountainous region in China. We collected data on the average grain yield per unit area in 119 counties in Yunnan province from 1985 to 2012, and chose 17 environmental factors for the same period. Our results showed that actual grain yield ranged from 1.43 to 6.92 t·ha-1, and the climatic yield ranged from -0.15 to -0.01 t·ha-1. Lower climatic yield but higher grain yield was generally found in central areas and at lower slopes and elevations in the western and southwestern counties of Yunnan province. Higher climatic yield but lower grain yield were found in northwestern parts of Yunnan province on steep slopes. Annual precipation and temperature had a weak influence on the climatic yield. Slope explained 44.62 and 26.29% of the variation in grain yield and climatic yield. The effects of topography on grain and climatic yields were greater than climatic factors. Slope was the most important environmental variable for the variability in climatic and grain yields in the mountainous Yunnan province due to the highly heterogeneous topographic conditions. Conversion of slopes to terraces in areas with higher climatic yields is an effective way to maintain grain production in response to climate variability. Additionally, soil amendments and soil and water conservation measures should be considered to maintain soil fertility and aid in sustainable development in central areas, and in counties at lower slopes and elevations in western and southwestern Yunnan province.

  2. Spatio-temporal aspects of gated residential security estates in non-metropolitan Western Cape

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Spocter, M


    Full Text Available . This research attempts to address this research gap by focusing on the spatio-temporal aspects of non-metropolitan gated residential security estates in the Western Cape Province. It was found that most non-metropolitan gated residential security estates were...

  3. Student Performance and Family Socioeconomic Status: Results from a Survey of Compulsory Education in Western China (United States)

    Liu, Xiaofei; Lu, Ke


    This study used fifteen-year-old ninth-grade students from rural areas of five provinces in western China as samples to carry out research on the relationship between the socioeconomic status of Chinese families and student academic performance. Based on parents' educational background, occupation, family economic conditions, and other factors,…

  4. Western Mountain Initiative - Background (United States)

    unprecendented severity in the western United States, extensive tree mortality from outbreaks of bark beetles climatic stressors (Goals 1.1, 1.3) and identification of critical areas (Goal 1.2). Causal mechanisms

  5. Computer Simulation Western

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, H.


    Computer Simulation Western is a unit within the Department of Applied Mathematics at the University of Western Ontario. Its purpose is the development of computational and mathematical methods for practical problems in industry and engineering and the application and marketing of such methods. We describe the unit and our efforts at obtaining research and development grants. Some representative projects will be presented and future plans discussed. (author)

  6. Population-based Seroprevalence of HTLV-I Infection in Golestan Province, South East of Caspian Sea, Iran. (United States)

    Kalavi, Khodaberdi; Moradi, Abdolvahab; Tabarraei, Alijan


    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-1 is an oncornavirus that causes adult T cell leukemia (ATL) HTLV-I-associated myelopathy⁄tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Golestan province is located in North West of Khorasan province known as an endemic area for HTLV-I in Iran. This study aimed to evaluate seroprevalence of HTLV-I in Golestan province. In this cross-sectional descriptive study in 2007, blood samples were collected from 2034 healthy people residing in different parts of Golestan province. Sera were assessed for HTLV-I/II-specific antibodies by ELISA method and reactive samples were confirmed by Western blot. Demographic and serologic data were entered in SPSS version 11.5 and statistical analysis was performed. An overall HTLV-I/II prevalence of 0.7% was observed in 15 cases by ELISA. Six out of 15 were confirmed as HTLV-I by western blot. Regional variation in the prevalence of HTLV-I was observed; 0%, 0%, 0.1%, 1.9%, 0.3%, 0%, and 2.6% tested HTLV-I-positive from west to east of Golestan Province regions, respectively. Seropositivity increased with age. No association between HTLV-I infection and sex status was detected. Highest rate of HTLV-I seroprevalence was shown in east of this region located in neighborhood with Khorasan province, the only confirmed endemic area in Iran. It seems that eastern area of our province is endemic for HTLV-I. Further comprehensive detailed epidemiological and molecular studies are recommended.

  7. Study on Banana Cooperatives in Hainan Province


    Huang, Huide; Zhang, Wanzhen; Liu, Enping; Zhang, Xizhu


    This paper gives an overview of the distribution, member scale, production and operation of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province, and points out the market risk and natural risk faced by the production of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province. In order to promote the banana cooperatives to form new agricultural management system integrating organization and intensification, this paper puts forth the production and operation recommendations, such as joint production of banana cooperatives, ...

  8. An ethnobotanical survey on hormozgan province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Safa


    Full Text Available Objective: The present study is based on an ethnobotanical research project conducted in Hormozgan province that is located in south of Iran, bordering waters of the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea. This survey was carried out in order to recover the ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal knowledge of the residents of this province. They are using medicinal and functional plants for treating or preventing several diseases. Materials and Methods: Ethnobotanical data sheets were run with the native inhabitants and people of the province by arranging frequent field trips to different parts of the province and direct interviews with them especially those who were more familiar with the plants and their usage.Results: A total of 150 plant species belonging to 53 families were recorded for their ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal uses among the people of province. The records were developed by scientific names, family names, local names, medicinal parts used, different ways of their application, and traditional uses of the plants. There was high compliance in the use of plants in painful disorders, gastrointestinal, and dermatological diseases.Conclusion: This study revealed that the people of Hormozgan province have a rich knowledge of natural resources. The use and consumption of medicinal plants are still important parts of their life. Rational use of native medicinal plants may benefit and improve their living standards and quality of life. The results of this study can be used as a basis for selecting herbs for further pharmacological, phytochemical, and pharmacognostical studies.

  9. Bionomics of Aedes aegypti subpopulations (Diptera: Culicidae) from Misiones Province, northeastern Argentina. (United States)

    Tejerina, Edmundo Fabricio; Almeida, Francisco Felipe Ludueña; Almirón, Walter Ricardo


    Life statistics of four Aedes aegypti subpopulations from the subtropical province of Misiones were studied during autumn and winter, under semi-natural conditions, coming from the localities of Posadas (SW), San Javier (SE), Bernardo de Irigoyen (NE) and Puerto Libertad (NW). The eastern subpopulations are geographically separated by the central mountain system of the province from the western subpopulations. High percentages of larval and pupal survival (97-100%) were recorded, and no significant differences were detected among the four subpopulations. Larvae and pupae lasted approximately 8 days to complete their development, no significant differences being detected among the four subpopulations studied. Sex ratio recorded did not differ significantly from 1:1. Male longevity did not show difference among the different subpopulations, but female longevity was remarkably different among the four subpopulations (F=16.27; d.f.=(3;8); P=0.0009), ranging among 11.45 days for San Javier and 57.87 days for Posadas. Fecundity also varied considerably among subpopulations, the greatest number (307.44 eggs/female) being recorded for Posadas (F=4.13; d.f.=(3;8); P=0.04). Ae. aegypti females of the western subpopulations lived longer than the eastern subpopulations studied, therefore, the risk of dengue outbreak would be greater on the Misiones Province border with Paraguay.

  10. A Redescription of Acanthocreagris iranica (Pseudoscorpiones, Neobisiidae Inhabiting Soil Under Oak Trees in Zagros Forest, Western Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassirkhani M.


    Full Text Available During study on soil mesofauna in Choqa Sabz Forest and Dalab Protected Area in Ilam Province (western Iran, the following pseudoscorpions belonging to four families were collected and identified: Chthonius (Chthonius shelkovnikovi Redikorzev, 1930, Chthonius (Ephippiochthonius negarinae Nassirkhani and Vafai, 2015, Paramenthus nanus Mahnert, 2007, Cardiolpium asiaticum (Dashdamirov, 1990, and Acanthocreagris iranica Beier, in Mahnert 1976. All of these species are new to the fauna of western Iran. In this survey, the adults of A. iranica collected from Ilam and Lorestan Provinces are redescribed and figured. Additionally, its tritonymph and deutonymph are briefly described.

  11. Spatiotemporal characteristics of severe dry and wet conditions in the Free State Province, South Africa (United States)

    Mbiriri, M.; Mukwada, G.; Manatsa, D.


    This paper assesses the spatiotemporal characteristics of agricultural droughts and wet conditions in the Free State Province of South Africa for the period between 1960 and 2013. Since agriculturally, the Free State Province is considered the bread basket of the country, understanding the variability of drought and wet conditions becomes necessary. The Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI) computed from gridded monthly precipitation data was used to assess the rainfall extreme conditions. Hot spot analysis was used to divide the province into five homogenous clusters where the spatiotemporal characteristics for each cluster were analysed. The results show a west to east increase in seasonal average total precipitation. However, the eastern part of the province demonstrates higher occurrences of droughts, with SPI ≤ - 1.282. This is despite the observation that the region shows a recent increase in droughts unlike the western region. It is also noted that significant differences in drought/wet intensities between clusters are more pronounced during the early compared to the late summer period.

  12. Western Australian natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harman, Frank


    Western Australia has 80% of Australia's natural gas resources. These are currently exploited to supply the Western Australian market and LNG to Japan. Growth in the market is dependent on limited prospects for power generation and mineral resource processing. Future exploitation of gas resources will require new export LNG markets and/or the installations of a transcontinental pipeline to eastern Australia. The transcontinental option should only be considered after other options for energy supply in eastern Australia are eliminated. Competition to meet market growth in North-east Asia will be considerable and Australia lacks the policies to underpin future LNG capacity. (author)

  13. Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum in slaughtered native cattle in Kurdistan province, Iran. (United States)

    Heidari, Heidar; Mohammadzadeh, Abdolmajid; Gharekhani, Jamal


    Neospora caninum is a worldwide distributed pathogen which causes abortion in cattle leading to economic loss in the cattle industry. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of N. caninum antibodies in the native cattle slaughtered in various areas of Kurdistan province (western Iran) from September 2010 to September 2011. Serum samples from 368 cattle slaughtered in seven slaughterhouses in this region were taken for detection of anti-N. caninum antibodies using commercial N. caninum ELISA kit. Antibodies to N. caninum were found in 29 samples (7.80%). The present study was the first report of Neospora infection in this region and indicated that native cattle of Kurdistan province were exposed to this parasite.

  14. Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum in slaughtered native cattle in Kurdistan province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidar Heidari


    Full Text Available Neospora caninum is a worldwide distributed pathogen which causes abortion in cattle leading to economic loss in the cattle industry. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of N. caninum antibodies in the native cattle slaughtered in various areas of Kurdistan province (western Iran from September 2010 to September 2011. Serum samples from 368 cattle slaughtered in seven slaughterhouses in this region were taken for detection of anti-N. caninum antibodies using commercial N. caninum ELISA kit. Antibodies to N. caninum were found in 29 samples (7.80%. The present study was the first report of Neospora infection in this region and indicated that native cattle of Kurdistan province were exposed to this parasite.

  15. Stratigraphy of Neogene deposits in the Rethymnon Province, Crete, with special reference to the phylogeny of uniserial Uvigerina from the Mediterranean region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenkamp, J.E.


    Stratigraphical and micropaleontological investigations were performed on Neogene deposits of the Rethymnon Province, Western Crete. The Neogene succession includes marine as well as brackish and fresh-water sediments. Eight formations are recognized, several of which have to be regarded as

  16. Far Western: probing membranes. (United States)

    Einarson, Margret B; Pugacheva, Elena N; Orlinick, Jason R


    INTRODUCTIONThe far-Western technique described in this protocol is fundamentally similar to Western blotting. In Western blots, an antibody is used to detect a query protein on a membrane. In contrast, in a far-Western blot (also known as an overlay assay) the antibody is replaced by a recombinant GST fusion protein (produced and purified from bacteria), and the assay detects the interaction of this protein with target proteins on a membrane. The membranes are washed and blocked, incubated with probe protein, washed again, and subjected to autoradiography. The GST fusion (probe) proteins are often labeled with (32)P; alternatively, the membrane can be probed with unlabeled GST fusion protein, followed by detection using commercially available GST antibodies. The nonradioactive approach is substantially more expensive (due to the purchase of antibody and detection reagents) than using radioactively labeled proteins. In addition, care must be taken to control for nonspecific interactions with GST alone and a signal resulting from antibody cross-reactivity. In some instances, proteins on the membrane are not able to interact after transfer. This may be due to improper folding, particularly in the case of proteins expressed from a phage expression library. This protocol describes a way to overcome this by washing the membrane in denaturation buffer, which is then serially diluted to permit slow renaturation of the proteins.

  17. Imams in Western Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    As European Muslims and Muslims in the Middle East diverge, imams in Europe have emerged as major agents of religious authority who shape Islam’s presence in Western societies. This volume examines the theoretical and practical questions concerning the evolving role of imams in Europe. To what...

  18. Characterisation and genesis of the Singhbhum uranium province, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahadevan, T.M.


    The Singhbhum Uranium province is characterised by the late Archaean predominantly granitic Singhbhum Craton and the associated Proterozoic mobile belts, the boundaries of which are marked by major crustal dislocations. The Singhbhum craton had two-phase evolution during the time range 4000-2900 million years and its stabilisation around 2900 million years was marked by the emplacement of K-rich granitoids and the early crustal enrichment of uranium. Two distinctive types of uranium mineralisation occur in the Province - (i) the early Quartz Pebble Conglomerate (QPC) type and (ii) the later economically most significant shear-controlled hydrothermal type. The QPC type is confined to the cratonic volcano-sedimentary basins, characterised by basal fluvial high-energy deposits, near-continental volcanics and banded iron formations spanning the time band of 2900-2500 million years. The shear controlled hydrothermal mineralisation is predominantly developed in a 200 km-long arcuate zone of intense and deep tectonisation, acid-(?) alkaline-basic magmatism, hydrothermal activity and metallogenesis. This shear zone represents a belt of intense crust-mantle interaction. Uranium mineralisation is polyphasic, polymetallic. The mineralogy is complex and the chemistry of the ores is greatly influenced by the lithology of the host rocks involved in the shear. Part of the shear zone grazing the Dhanjori, predominantly volcanic supra-crustals is richer in U, Cu, Ni, Mo and also contains minor Bi, Au, Ag, Te and Se, while the western trans-Dhanjori sector of the shear zone characterised by schists and quartzites with lesser volcanic component is relatively poorer in these metals. The ore bodies in the trans-Dhanjori sector are more peneconcordant, gradational, stratabound and have spherical variograms, while those in the Dhanjori sector are transgressive, sharp, highly mobilised, vein type with Dewijsian variograms. A synthesis leads to the conclusion that uranium mineralisation is

  19. Uranium provinces and the exploration industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, J.; Michie, U.McL.


    There is little doubt that exploration by mining companies in established districts or 'provinces' has led to the discovery of substantial additional ore reserves. However, the competition for, and expenses of, land acquisitions in these known districts often prompts companies to search further afield. In some cases, new discoveries can merely be regarded as extensions of known provinces while others are located in completely new areas. Whether the explorers utilized concepts of metallogenic provinces in the course of such discoveries is questionable; rather, they would have sought the particular combinations of geological circumstances required by the model. Once a new deposit is found, however, the concept of a province, whether correct in that situation or not, is usually responsible for stimulating further activity. Recent examples of such behaviour are the Arizona Strip and NE Nebraska (USA) in provincial extensions and Roxby Downs, Lone Gull (NW Territories, Australia) and Lagoa Real (Brazil) in new areas. More routine and scientific application of metallogenic province theory by the uranium exploration industry would require evidence that not only the bulk of the world's uranium reserves but also the majority of the individual world-class deposits fall into geologically definable provinces. Such evidence should include the demonstration that particular areas of the Earth's crust had been enriched in uranium (with or without related elements) and that this enrichment had persisted through periods of crustal reworking and been responsible for concentrations of the metal ore deposits. The evidence described in the volume is critically reviewed in this context. (author). Refs, 4 figs

  20. The Emeishan large igneous province: A synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gregory Shellnutt


    Full Text Available The late Permian Emeishan large igneous province (ELIP covers ∼0.3 × 106 km2 of the western margin of the Yangtze Block and Tibetan Plateau with displaced, correlative units in northern Vietnam (Song Da zone. The ELIP is of particular interest because it contains numerous world-class base metal deposits and is contemporaneous with the late Capitanian (∼260 Ma mass extinction. The flood basalts are the signature feature of the ELIP but there are also ultramafic and silicic volcanic rocks and layered mafic-ultramafic and silicic plutonic rocks exposed. The ELIP is divided into three nearly concentric zones (i.e. inner, middle and outer which correspond to progressively thicker crust from the inner to the outer zone. The eruptive age of the ELIP is constrained by geological, paleomagnetic and geochronological evidence to an interval of ≤3 Ma. The presence of picritic rocks and thick piles of flood basalts testifies to high temperature thermal regime however there is uncertainty as to whether these magmas were derived from the subcontinental lithospheric mantle or sub-lithospheric mantle (i.e. asthenosphere or mantle plume sources or both. The range of Sr (ISr ≈ 0.7040–0.7132, Nd (ɛNd(t ≈ −14 to +8, Pb (206Pb/204Pb1 ≈ 17.9–20.6 and Os (γOs ≈ −5 to +11 isotope values of the ultramafic and mafic rocks does not permit a conclusive answer to ultimate source origin of the primitive rocks but it is clear that some rocks were affected by crustal contamination and the presence of near-depleted isotope compositions suggests that there is a sub-lithospheric mantle component in the system. The silicic rocks are derived by basaltic magmas/rocks through fractional crystallization or partial melting, crustal melting or by interactions between mafic and crustal melts. The formation of the Fe-Ti-V oxide-ore deposits is probably due to a combination of fractional crystallization of Ti-rich basalt and fluxing of CO2-rich fluids

  1. Outpatient prescription practices in rural township health centers in Sichuan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Qian


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sichuan Province is an agricultural and economically developing province in western China. To understand practices of prescribing medications for outpatients in rural township health centers is important for the development of the rural medical and health services in this province and western China. Methods This is an observational study based on data from the 4th National Health Services Survey of China. A total of 3,059 prescriptions from 30 township health centers in Sichuan Province were collected and analyzed. Seven indicators were employed in the analyses to characterize the prescription practices. They are disease distribution, average cost per encounter, number of medications per encounter, percentage of encounters with antibiotics, percentage of encounters with glucocorticoids, percentage of encounters with combined glucocorticoids and antibiotics, and percentage of encounters with injections. Results The average medication cost per encounter was 16.30 Yuan ($2.59. About 60% of the prescriptions contained Chinese patent medicine (CPM, and almost all prescriptions (98.07% contained western medicine. 85.18% of the prescriptions contained antibiotics, of which, 24.98% contained two or more types of antibiotics; the percentage of prescriptions with glucocorticoids was 19.99%; the percentage of prescriptions with both glucocorticoids and antibiotics was 16.67%; 51.40% of the prescriptions included injections, of which, 39.90% included two or more injections. Conclusions The findings from this study demonstrated irrational medication uses of antibiotics, glucocorticoids and injections prescribed for outpatients in the rural township health centers in Sichuan Province. The reasons for irrational medication uses are not only solely due to the pursuit of maximizing benefits in the township health centers, but also more likely attributable to the lack of medical knowledge of rational medication uses among rural doctors and the

  2. New findings of Pleistocene fossil turtles (Geoemydidae, Kinosternidae and Chelydridae from Santa Elena Province, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin A. Cadena


    Full Text Available New Pleistocene fossilized turtle remains from five localities of western Ecuador (Santa Elena Province are described here. All these shell (carapace and plastron fossil remains come from the Tablazo Formation and belong to three different lineages of cryptodires (“hidden-necked” turtles. The most abundant remains belong to geoemydids, attributed here to the genus Rhinoclemmys (indeterminate species. Less abundant in occurrence are the kinosternidids, attributed to Kinosternon (indeterminate species, and the first fossil record of chelydrids, Chelydra(indeterminate species, in the entirety of Central and South America.

  3. Rediscovery of the sun bear (Helarctos malayanus) in Yingjiang County,Yunnan Province,China. (United States)

    Li, Fei; Zheng, Xi; Jiang, Xue-Long; Chan, Bosco Pui Lok


    The sun bear, Helarctos malayanus (Raffles, 1821), is a forest-dependent bear species distributed in tropical Southeast Asia. The species was previously reported from scattered localities in southwestern China, which is at the northeastern edge of its global range. Due to the scarcity of reliable recent records, some authorities cast doubt on the continued existence of sun bear in China. Here we present the rediscovery of this species in Yingjiang County, western Yunnan Province, China, near the international border with Myanmar's Kachin State.

  4. Relationships between crustal structure and extension in the Basin and Range Province and East Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, G R [University of Oklahoma, School of Geology and Geophysics, Norman, Oklahoma, 73019 (United States)], E-mail:


    The Basin and Range Province of the western United States and northern Mexico is often cited as a classic example of a wide rift. It is also a region where metamorphic core complexes such as the ones observed in the Aegean region are observed. On the other hand, the eastern arm (Kenya rift) of the East African rift is considered to be the classic example of a continental rift, which is by some definitions narrow. In this paper, these two features are briefly compared in terms of crustal structure and associated manifestations of extension.

  5. The potential for western Canada to become a leader in electrically powered land transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perl, A.; Gilbert, R. [Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, BC (Canada)


    Canada's western provinces are among the most oil-intensive jurisdictions in the world. Per capita consumption in 2007 was 70 percent higher than that of eastern Canada. While western Canada will be buffered as a producer of oil, predicted swings in oil prices may disrupt the fiscal capacity of producer provinces. The price of crude oil in western Canada is the same price established in world markets. This paper examined some of the opportunities available for western Canada to move away from oil consumption by becoming a leader in electric traction. Methods of replacing oil-based transportation with the use of electric vehicles were discussed. Western Canada's capacity to produce electricity from renewable resources was evaluated. Economic opportunities related to the electrification of land transport were also examined. The report concluded by stating that a clear vision and policy framework for supporting new technologies for surface transport across western Canada are needed. 72 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Western Military Culture and Counterinsurgency:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    with a threat both abroad and within their homeland societies. Civilians fulfil a ..... we have now with the use of force and forces is their persistent structuring ... advanced equipment remains the main feature of Western military culture. Western.

  7. Sedimentary rocks Uranium in Cerro Largo Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaron, P.; Garau Tous, M.


    With the aim of the uranium minerals exploration has been carried out several studies by UTE technicians in Cerro Largo Province from 1968 to 1969. In uranium concentration has been found pyrite, phosphate, iron oxides and manganese in uranium. Furthermore in La Divisa Ore were studied concentration Uranium enrichment has been studied in La Divisa ore

  8. Payenia volcanic province, southern Mendoza, Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søager, Nina; Holm, Paul Martin; Llambias, Eduardo Jorge


    The Pleistocene to Holocene Payenia volcanic province is a backarc region of 60,000 km2 in Mendoza, Argentina, which is dominated by transitional to alkaline basalts and trachybasalts. We present major and trace element compositions of 139 rocks from this area of which the majority are basaltic...

  9. Cogeneration opportunities in the maritime provinces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacPherson, S.W.


    With the arrival of natural gas in New Brunswick in November 1999, the province will be faced with new power generation development opportunities in four different categories of power projects. These include industrial self generation (including cogeneration), merchant power plants, power projects to replace aging facilities, and power projects to help meet future environmental needs. New Brunswick's competitive advantage in harnessing the power generation development opportunities lies in the fact that it is close to major electricity markets in Quebec and New England. It also has many available generation sites. The province's many pulp and paper plants with large process steam needs are also ideal candidates for cogeneration. Some of the major competitive advantages of natural gas over coal are its lower operation and maintenance costs, it is thermally more efficient, produces lower emissions to the environment and prices are competitive. One of the suggestions in New Brunswick Power's new restructuring proposal is to unbundle electricity service in the province into generation and transmission and distribution services. Three gas-fired projects have already been proposed for the province. The 284 MW Bayside Power Project at the Courtenay Bay Generating Station is the most advanced

  10. Western blotting: an introduction. (United States)

    Kurien, Biji T; Scofield, R Hal


    Western blotting is an important procedure for the immunodetection of proteins, particularly proteins that are of low abundance. This process involves the transfer of protein patterns from gel to microporous membrane. Electrophoretic as well as non-electrophoretic transfer of proteins to membranes was first described in 1979. Protein blotting has evolved greatly since the inception of this protocol, allowing protein transfer to be accomplished in a variety of ways.

  11. Latitudinal distribution of zooplankton communities in the Western Pacific along 160°E during summer 2014 (United States)

    Sun, Dong; Wang, Chunsheng


    A total of 51 mesozooplankton samples collected with a WP2 net from 0 to 200 m depth along 160°E (4°S-46°N) in the Western Pacific from June to July 2014 were analyzed. The latitudinal distribution of mesozooplankton community structure was analyzed. The average biomass and abundance in different provinces generally increased with latitude: the biomass of zooplankton ranged from 1.18 mg DW m- 3 (11°N) to 97.81 mg DW m- 3 (45°N), and the abundance of zooplankton ranged from 45.11 ind. m- 3 (3°S) to 439.84 ind. m- 3 (41°N). The community structure of zooplankton also showed a significant latitudinal variation. At lower latitudes, calanoid copepods were the most abundant group, while cyclopoid copepods were the most abundant group at higher latitudes. Multidimensional scaling analysis of community structure and other physical/chemical/biological characteristics supported five ecological provinces in the northwestern Pacific: the Western Pacific Warm Pool Province (WARM), the North Pacific Tropical Gyre (NPTG), the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (NPST), the Kuroshio Current Province (KURO) and the Pacific Subarctic Gyres Province (PSAG). The Kuroshio Current Province can be regarded as a transitional zone between the subarctic and northern subtropical area, and this transitional zone corresponds much more closely to the ecocline concept, rather than the ecotone concept.

  12. Suicide and Western culture. (United States)

    Pridmore, Saxby; McArthur, Milford


    The aim of this paper is to examine the cultural roots and transmission of Western suicide and suicidal behaviour. We explored a period of antiquity (mythical Greece-61 CE) and selected accounts of 10 prominent suicides. The precipitating circumstances were tabulated and an assessment made of the most likely attendant emotions. The same process was followed for a recent period (1994-2008), from which 10 suicides were identified. The precipitating circumstances and the attendant emotions were compared. These circumstances and emotions were then compared to statements commonly encountered in clinical practice from people demonstrating suicidal behaviour. Finally, we looked for evidence that these stories (and the response models) had entered Western culture. Precipitating circumstances, loss of a loved one, actual or imminent execution or imprisonment, other losses and public disgrace, and the negative emotions of shame, guilt, fear, anger, grief and sorrow were common to both historical periods. These circumstances and emotions are similar to those commonly expressed by people who have demonstrated suicidal behaviour. There was a clear record (literature, visual arts) of these stories forming part of our cultural heritage. Models of maladaptive responses to certain adverse circumstances are part of Western culture. Suicide as a response to certain circumstances and negative emotions can be traced back more than 2000 years. Cultural change will be necessary to minimize suicide.

  13. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Brucellosis in Jazan Province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    this study was to determine the sero-prevalence of brucellosis in Jazan Province, Saudi Arabia and assess the ... Conclusion: These results indicate the need for a vaccination program in Jazan Province and for public .... from blue to yellow.

  14. Internal globalization of Western Balkan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukotić Veselin


    Full Text Available What are potential and real effects of the globalization process on the economic connection between Western Balkan countries? What is the crucial change in relations between Western Balkan countries and its economies inexorably brought by globalization? What are the elements of political economy of Western Balkan globalization? What are reflections of the conflict between political and economic areas of Western Balkan? These are some of the issues discuses in this paper.

  15. Correlation between Resistin, Tuberculosis and Khat Addiction: A Study from South Western Province of Saudi Arabia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayesha Alvi

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis(TB is a disease of global significance, which accounts for a death in every 15 seconds. Recent studies shows TB is rising in certain parts of the world, and Saudi Arabia is one of them. Several factor contribute in predisposing the subjects for infection including but not limited to addiction to various compounds which have immune modulation properties, such as amphetamines and Heroin etc. Khat a plant whose leaves are chewed for its euphoric effect in east Africa and Arabian Peninsula including Saudi Arabia, is considered as mildly addictive, and its principle compound, Cathinone shares structural and functional similarity with amphetamine a known immunomodulator. Tuberculosis being a disease of immune modulation has a varied spectrum of complex interplay of proinflammatory molecules, resistin is one of them. In the present study, we try to explore the trinity of khat addiction, serum resistin level and tuberculosis by correlating the serum resistin level in non khat addicted healthy subjects, khat addicted healthy subjects, and in patients, both khat addicted and non khat addicted, with active tuberculosis. We observed significantly higher resistin level among the apparently healthy khat addicted subjects as compared to non addicted healthy controls. Thereafter, when we compare the resistin levels between khat addicted and non khat addicted TB patients we did not found significant difference between the two groups. However bacillary load was observe to be significantly higher among the khat addicted TB patient as compare to non addicted one. Validation of above results in animal model revealed dose dependant increase in bacillary growth in the Wistar rats treated with khat. Taken together these results suggest the role of khat in immune modulation albeit in the limited frame of resistin level.

  16. Epidemiological and demographic study of acute animal biting in Abdanan County, Ilam Province, Western Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Kassiri


    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the incidence, epidemiology and demography of acute animal bites referred to Abdanan health centers in the years 2009 to 2013.Methods: This study was a descriptive analytical research. Questionnaires for each case of acute animal bite was completed. Data about age, gender, kind of animal, residency, site of bite, etc taken from Abdanan health centers were analyzed. Data were analyzed in SPSS by using descriptive statistics.Results: Total number of exposed persons to acute animal bites was reported 67 in 2009 and 69 in 2013. The average incidence rate was 1.2 per 1 000 population. Bites were frequent among the age group of 20-30 years. Most of the cases were self-employment. Around 83.8% of cases were bitten by dogs. Of total 309 studied patients, 73.8% were male. Feet (71.5% and hands (22.7% were the most common body part affected. About 53.1% of cases were in rural population.Conclusions: Dogs seems to play a very important role in the epidemiology of rabies in Abdanan, Iran. No cases of human rabies were observed in our study. This may be because of increasing public awareness and the upgrading of health and treatment centers, all of which in study region provide post-exposure anti-rabies treatment including vaccination, immunoglobulin and wound washing.

  17. Present status of grouper fisheries at waters of Kotania Bay, Western Seram District Maluku Province (United States)

    Huliselan, N. V.; Wawo, M.; Tuapattinaja, M. A.; Sahetapy, D.


    Study on present status of groupers fishes at waters of Kotania Bay was conducted from 2016 to 2017. Survey and Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) method were used to collect and examine data and information concerning species potential and utilization of these species. The result shows that there are 35 species of grouper fishes inhabit Kotania Bay waters. From six genera recorded, Epinephelus found to have more varieties species richness compared to other five genera. In general, main habitat of adult grouper is coral reef, whilst mangrove and seagrass are habitat for nursery and grow out. The potency of the Epinephelus, Cephalopholis and Plectropomus genus tend to decrease started in 2000 up to 2017. At the same period, the production of these genera was also declined. Species potency and production declined was attributable to habitat (coral reef) degradation and high fishing intensity as a result of high market demand. Hand line, bottom long line and trap net are general fishing gear used in harvesting of theses fishes. Fishing activities took place all year round except for bottom long line which only lasted from June to October (East monsoon). Spatial fishing ground distribution is predominantly at coral reef ecosystem of Kotania Bay.

  18. Hereditary angio-oedema in the Western Cape Province, South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The parameters reviewed were age, gender, age of diagnosis, duration of ... upper airway, abdominal, external genitalia and limb attacks, respectively. ..... significant differences when analysing by ..... (sports, gardening, tight shoes), emotional.

  19. A different development model in China’s western and eastern provinces?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. van Dijk (Meine Pieter)


    textabstractAbstract. Economic growth in China has declined between 2008 and 2009. The global financial crisis of 2008/9 has shown a number of structural weaknesses in the Chinese economy, such as the functioning of its capital and labor markets and the substantial income differences between the

  20. Container terminal spatial planning - A 2041 paradigm for the Western Cape Province in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Havenga


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the suitable location for an intermodal inland container terminal (IICT in the city of Cape Town. A container market segmentation approach is used to project growth for container volumes over a 30-year period for all origin and destination pairings on a geographical district level in an identified catchment area. The segmentation guides the decision on what type of facility is necessary to fulfil capacity requirements in the catchment area and will be used to determine the maximum space requirements for a future IICT. Alternative sites are ranked from most suitable to least suitable using multi-criteria analysis, and preferred locations are identified. Currently, South Africa’s freight movement is dominated by the road sector. Heavy road congestion is thus prevalent at the Cape Town Container Terminal (CTCT. The paper proposes three possible alternative sites for an IICT that will focus on a hub-and-spoke system of transporting freight.

  1. Increased risk of default among previously treated tuberculosis cases in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. (United States)

    Marx, F M; Dunbar, R; Hesseling, A C; Enarson, D A; Fielding, K; Beyers, N


    To investigate, in two urban communities with high tuberculosis (TB) incidence and high rates of TB recurrence, whether a history of previous TB treatment is associated with treatment default. Retrospective cohort study of TB cases with an episode of treatment recorded in the clinic-based treatment registers between 2002 and 2007. Probabilistic record linkage was used to ascertain treatment history of TB cases back to 1996. Based on the outcome of their most recent previous treatment episode, previously treated cases were compared to new cases regarding their risk of treatment default. Previous treatment success (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.79; 95%CI 1.17-2.73), previous default (aOR 6.18, 95%CI 3.68-10.36) and previous failure (aOR 9.72, 95%CI 3.07-30.78) were each independently associated with treatment default (P default were male sex (P = 0.003) and age 19-39 years (P risk of treatment default, even after previous successful treatment. This finding is of particular importance in a setting where recurrent TB is very common. Adherence to treatment should be ensured in new and retreatment cases to increase cure rates and reduce transmission of TB in the community.

  2. A Call for More Religious Education in the Secondary Social Studies Curriculum of Western Canadian Provinces (United States)

    Patrick, Margaretta L.


    The inclusion of religion in public education remains contentious in many countries, including Canada. As multiple religions fill the public sphere, some religious education is necessary if Canadians are to understand each other. Social studies is seen as an appropriate subject to include such education given its foci on diversity and citizenship.…

  3. Mental illness in the Western Cape Province, South Africa: A review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    attending routine HIV follow-up care in Cape Town had mental disorders, including ... e.g. alcohol abuse is associated with depression and anxiety disorders and is also a risk factor for .... Poorly trained nursing staff. Lack of appropriate ...

  4. Climate Change Science: The Literacy of Geography Teachers in the Western Cape Province, South Africa (United States)

    Anyanwu, Raymond; Le Grange, Lesley; Beets, Peter


    One of the universal responses to tackling global climate change is teaching climate change concepts at all levels of formal education. This response requires, among other things, teachers who are fully literate about climate change science, so that they can explain the concepts underlying the causes, impacts and solutions of climate change as…

  5. Spatio-temporal variability of particulate matter in the key part of Gansu Province, Western China. (United States)

    Guan, Qingyu; Cai, Ao; Wang, Feifei; Yang, Liqin; Xu, Chuanqi; Liu, Zeyu


    To investigate the spatial and temporal behaviors of particulate matter in Lanzhou, Jinchang and Jiayuguan during 2014, the hourly concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 were collected from the Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP) in this study. The analysis indicated that the mean annual PM10 (PM2.5) concentrations during 2014 were 115 ± 52 μg/m 3 (57 ± 28 μg/m 3 ), 104 ± 75 μg/m 3 (38 ± 22 μg/m 3 ) and 114 ± 72 μg/m 3 (32 ± 17 μg/m 3 ) in Lanzhou, Jinchang and Jiayuguan, respectively, all of which exceeded the Chinese national ambient air quality II standards for PM. Higher values for both PM fractions were generally observed in spring and winter, and lower concentrations were found in summer and autumn. Besides, the trend of seasonal variation of particulate matter (PM) in each city monitoring site is consistent with the average of the corresponding cities. Anthropogenic activities along with the boundary layer height and wind scale contributed to diurnal variations in PM that varied bimodally (Lanzhou and Jinchang) or unimodally (Jiayuguan). With the arrival of dust events, the PM10 concentrations changed dramatically, and the PM10 concentrations during dust storm events were, respectively, 19, 43 and 17 times higher than the levels before dust events in Lanzhou, Jinchang and Jiayuguan. The ratios (PM2.5/PM10) were lowest, while the correlations were highest, indicating that dust events contributed more coarse than fine particles, and the sources of PM are similar during dust storms. The relationships between local meteorological parameters and PM concentrations suggest a clear association between the highest PM concentrations, with T ≤ 7 °C, and strong winds (3-4 scale). However, the effect of relative humidity is complicated, with more PM10 and PM2.5 exceedances being registered with a relative humidity of less than 40% and 40-60% in Lanzhou, while higher exceedances in Jinchang appeared at a relative humidity of 80-100%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Genotypic characterisation of Staphylococcus aureus isolates causing bacteraemia at Tygerberg hospital, western cape province, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orth, H.; Salaam-Dreyer, Z.; Makgotlho, E.; Sinha, B.; Wasserman, E.


    Objectives: There is a paucity of studies on the genotypic characterisation of invasive S. aureus strains and the incidence of communityacquired methicillin resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) infections in South Africa. In this study we characterized S. aureus isolates from bacteraemia episodes using

  7. Assessment of undiscovered continuous oil and gas resources in the Heath Formation, central Montana and western North Dakota, 2016 (United States)

    Drake, Ronald M.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers, Heidi M.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Finn, Thomas M.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.


    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resources of 884 million barrels of oil and 106 billion cubic feet of gas in the North-Central Montana and Williston Basin Provinces of central Montana and western North Dakota.

  8. Coal comprehensive utilization is the gateway for Shanxi Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, L.; Gui, G.


    Shanxi Province is abundant in coal reserve. Taiyuan Coal Gasification Corporation is a large sized union enterprise engaged in comprehensive use of coal in Shanxi province, and significant economic, social, environmental benefits have been brought forth with it. This leads people to believe that coal comprehensive utilization is the gateway for Shanxi Province in the fields of improvement of environment and development of economy

  9. Nuclear energy in Western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loennroth, M.; Walker, W.


    This is an overview of nuclear energy in Western Europe, as seen by two Western Europeans, attempting to place the topic into the context not only of energy supply but also of industrial relations, institutional structure, and sociocultural factors. Although its main focus is Western Europe, it is sometimes necessary to glance at the wider context, in particular the industrial relations with the United States and Japan. Export markets are also considered, in particular, in the Pacific. The paper does not, however, deal with nonproliferation policies and the possible difference of opinion within Western Europe and between Western Europe and other regions over this topic. (author)

  10. Proterozoic kimberlites and lamproites and a preliminary age for the Argyle lamproite pipe, Western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, E.M.W.; Bristow, J.W.; Smith, C.B.; Scott Smith, B.H.; Dawson, J.B.


    The Argyle pipe occurring in the East Kimberley Province of Western Australia is a unique, highly-diamondiferous lamproite. Although it resembles other lamproites located in the West Kimberley Province with respect to its setting, structure, petrography and geochemistry, it is probably Proterozoic in age and hence substantially older than Tertiary occurrences of the West Kimberley Province. Rb-Sr measurements on whole rock and phlogopite samples from magmatic olivine-phlogopite lamproite, reveals a two point model age of 1126 +- 9 Ma for the Argyle pipe. This age is consistent with ages of other, similar volcanic igneous rocks occurring in several localities worldwide. The widespread occurrence of Proterozoic kimberlites and lamproites suggests that this was an important period of worldwide alkalic intrusive activity

  11. Lake Carnegie, Western Australia (United States)


    Ephemeral Lake Carnegie, in Western Australia, fills with water only during periods of significant rainfall. In dry years, it is reduced to a muddy marsh. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on May 19, 1999. This is a false-color composite image made using shortwave infrared, infrared, and red wavelengths. The image has also been sharpened using the sensor's panchromatic band. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch. This image is part of the ongoing Landsat Earth as Art series.

  12. Political rotations and cross-province acquisitions in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muratova, Yulia; Arnoldi, Jakob; Chen, Xin


    The underdeveloped institutional framework and trade barriers between China’s provinces make cross-province acquisitions challenging. We explore how Chinese firms can mitigate this problem. Drawing on social network theory we propose that cross-province rotation of political leaders—a key element...... of the promotion system of political cadres in China—is a mechanism enabling growth through cross-province acquisitions. We conceptualize rotated leaders as brokers between two geographically dispersed networks. We contribute to the literature on the characteristics of Chinese social networks, the effect...... of political connections on firm strategy, and the impact of political rotations on firm growth in China’s provinces....

  13. Analysis on the inbound tourist source market in Fujian Province (United States)

    YU, Tong


    The paper analyzes the development and structure of inbound tourism in Fujian Province by Excel software and conducts the cluster analysis on the inbound tourism market by SPSS 23.0 software based on the inbound tourism data of Fujian Province from 2006 to 2015. The results show: the rapid development of inbound tourism in Fujian Province and the diversified inbound tourist source countries indicate the stability of inbound tourism market; the inbound tourist source market in Fujian Province can be divided into four categories according to the cluster analysis, and tourists from the United States, Japan, Malaysia, and Singapore are the key of inbound tourism in Fujian Province.

  14. The Snake River Plain Volcanic Province: Insights from Project Hotspot (United States)

    Shervais, J. W.; Potter, K. E.; Hanan, B. B.; Jean, M. M.; Duncan, R. A.; Champion, D. E.; Vetter, S.; Glen, J. M. G.; Christiansen, E. H.; Miggins, D. P.; Nielson, D. L.


    The Snake River Plain (SRP) Volcanic Province is the best modern example of a time-transgressive hotspot track beneath continental crust. The SRP began 17 Ma with massive eruptions of Columbia River basalt and rhyolite. After 12 Ma volcanism progressed towards Yellowstone, with early rhyolite overlain by basalts that may exceed 2 km thick. The early rhyolites are anorogenic with dry phenocryst assemblages and eruption temperatures up to 950C. Tholeiitic basalts have major and trace element compositions similar to ocean island basalts (OIB). Project Hotspot cored three deep holes in the central and western Snake River Plain: Kimama (mostly basalt), Kimberly (mostly rhyolite), and Mountain Home (lake sediments and basaslt). The Kimberly core documents rhyolite ash flows up to 700 m thick, possibly filling a caldera or sag. Chemical stratigraphy in Kimama and other basalt cores document fractional crystallization in relatively shallow magma chambers with episodic magma recharge. Age-depth relations in the Kimama core suggest accumulation rates of roughly 305 m/Ma. Surface and subsurface basalt flows show systematic variations in Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes with distance from Yellowstone interpreted to reflect changes in the proportion of plume source and the underlying heterogeneous cratonic lithosphere, which varies in age, composition, and thickness from west to east. Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes suggest <5% lithospheric input into a system dominated by OIB-like plume-derived basalts. A major flare-up of basaltic volcanism occurred 75-780 ka throughout the entire SRP, from Yellowstone in the east to Boise in the west. The youngest western SRP basalts are transitional alkali basalts that range in age from circa 900 ka to 2 ka, with trace element and isotopic compositions similar to the plume component of Hawaiian basalts. These observations suggest that ancient SCLM was replaced by plume mantle after the North America passed over the hotspot in the western SRP, which triggered renewed

  15. [Health care in today's Western Belarus in the inter-war period (1921-1939)]. (United States)

    Tiszczenko, E M


    During the inter-war period, today's Western Belarus, which under the Treaty of Riga constituted part of the Second Polish Republic, stood out for its higher morbidity in various disease categories than other regions of the country. Heightened threats of epidemics prevailed in that area, and typhoid fever, trachoma, tuberculois and venereal disease were serious health problems. Specific features of the health care of today's Western Belarus could be observed that set it apart from both that of Eastern Belarus forming a part of the Soviet Union as well as from the central and western provinces of Poland. Compared with Eastern Belarus, there was a lack of health services, including anti-tuberculosis, anti-venereal and paediatric dispensaries, or they were in the process of being created. But physicians' self-government bodies functioned, as did out-patient care with dispensary-like elements and health care provided by local health centres. There also existed the institution of full-time family doctors within the insured health-care system - something lacking in Eastern Belarus. As in other voivodships (provinces) of the Second Republic, there existed multi-sector health care: state, local, insurance-based and private. The Western Belarus had Poland's smallest number of physicians, new hospital beds and pharmacies. On the other hand, today's Western Belarus stands out by virtue of maintaining field-medicine traditions. To this day, assistant medical officers provide health care to the rural population - an arrangement not typical of the central and western provinces fo pre-war Poland.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zheng-hong; QIN Jun


    Through linear regression analysis to the trend of annual, seasonal and monthly precipitation of 72 meteorological stations in Hubei Province from 1961 to 1995, it is revealed that: l) annual precipitation was increasing by 61.0mm/10a in the eastern part of Hubei (112°E as a dividing line) and decreasing by 34.9mm/10a in the western part; 2) precipitation in winter and summer (January, February, March, June and July) was increasing in almost whole province which usually with non-uniformity of precipitation distribution from the south to the north. The precipitation in spring, autumn and winter (April, September, November and December) was decreasing in most of the areas which usually with non-uniformity of precipitation distribution from the east to the west. March and December were transition periods between two spatial distribution pattems mentioned above; 3) the eastem part of Hubei has beome one of precipitation increasing centers in China. The results was consistent with the trend that more frequent flood and drought events happened in Hubei Province which are more different in spatial and temporal scales.

  17. Flora, life form and chorology of plants in Jozak – Chaminbid area, North Khorassan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Floristic study of a region is of great importance as the list of plants represents the genetic resources of the area. The intended region (Jozak-Chaminbid with an area of ca. 3637.81 ha. is located in the western part of North Khorassan Province in the Maneh and Semelghan counties. Phytogeographically, this region is located in Khorassan-Kopet Dagh floristic province of the Irano-Turanian region. The mean altitude is 1415 meter and mean annual precipitation of the area is 559 mm. The plant species of the area were collected and identified according to the Floras. The floristic list of the area and its life forms and endemic species were presented. The results showed the presence of 53 families, 205 genera and 308 species. Among them 13 species were endemic to Khorassan-Kopet Dagh Province. The largest plant family was Asteraceae with 28 genera and 40 species. According to Raunkiaer’s life form categories, the identified species are categorized as hemicryptophytes 35.38%, therophytes 34.74%, cryptophytes (geophytes 12.33%, chamaephytes 11.03% and phanerophytes 6.49%. The high percentage of hemicryptophytes indicated that the area had a cold mountain climate. The chorotype of species was obtained on the basis of the available sources. Irano-Turanian plants were the most frequent chorotype of the area with 59%.

  18. Differences in antiretroviral scale up in three South African provinces: the role of implementation management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Rensburg Dingie


    Full Text Available Abstract Background South Africa’s antiretroviral programme is governed by defined national plans, establishing treatment targets and providing funding through ring-fenced conditional grants. However, in terms of the country’s quasi-federal constitution, provincial governments bear the main responsibility for provision of health care, and have a certain amount of autonomy and therefore choice in the way their HIV/AIDS programmes are implemented. Methods The paper is a comparative case study of the early management of ART scale up in three South African provincial governments – Western Cape, Gauteng and Free State – focusing on both operational and strategic dimensions. Drawing on surveys of models of ART care and analyses of the policy process conducted in the three provinces between 2005 and 2007, as well as a considerable body of grey and indexed literature on ART scale up in South Africa, it draws links between implementation processes and variations in provincial ART coverage (low, medium and high achieved in the three provinces. Results While they adopted similar chronic disease care approaches, the provinces differed with respect to political and managerial leadership of the programme, programme design, the balance between central standardisation and local flexibility, the effectiveness of monitoring and evaluation systems, and the nature and extent of external support and programme partnerships. Conclusions This case study points to the importance of sub-national programme processes and the influence of factors other than financing or human resource capacity, in understanding intervention scale up.

  19. USMC Rethinking Coin in Helmand Province Afghanistan (United States)


    the national power of Afghanistan, but continued to challenge each other for control at the provincial level . The Akhundzadek clan dominated...external powers dominating the central government of the province through the capital of Lashkar Gah, but demanded some autonomy at the local level .18...commands in a MAGTF are the ground combat element ( GCE ), air combat element (ACE), and logistic combat element (LCE). Flexibility and tempo are the

  20. A Glance at Bohai Bay Oil Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Shoubai


    @@ Chinese oil industry keeps on developing in 1994. The oil production of Bohai Bay Oil Province located in East China also keeps on growing. Geologically,the total area of Bohai Bay Basin is about 200 000 km2 and the main structural units are: Liaohe Depression, Huanghua Depression,Jizhong Depression, Linqing Depression, Jiyang Depression, Changwei Depression, Bozhong Depression,Chengning Uplift and Cangjing Uplift (see figure 1). Area of the main structural units is listed in following:

  1. An ethnobotanical survey on hormozgan province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Safa


    Conclusion: This study revealed that the people of Hormozgan province have a rich knowledge of natural resources. The use and consumption of medicinal plants are still important parts of their life.Rational use of native medicinal plants may benefit and improve their living standards and quality of life. The results of this study can be used as a basis for selecting herbs for further pharmacological, phytochemical, and pharmacognostical studies.

  2. Chemical profiling and histochemical analysis of Bupleurum marginatum roots from different growing areas of Hubei province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhitao Liang


    Full Text Available Bupleuri Radix has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine. In the current herbal market, the species Bupleurum marginatum Wall. ex DC. is the main source of Bupleuri Radix. Although Bupleuri Radix from the roots of B. marginatum grown wild in the North West of Hubei province has higher quality compared with those from other regions according to the previous investigations, the exhaustive exploitation driven by increasing demand has drastically reduced the wild resource. As a result, germplasm evaluation and quality resource exploration are important for the sustainable utilization and cultivation of B. marginatum. A preliminary study indicated differences in the tissue structure of B. marginatum grown in different areas of North Western Hubei province. In the current study, various tissues of the roots of B. marginatum grown in different areas of North Western Hubei were subjected to laser microdissection and analyzed by microscopy and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC–Q-TOF-MS. The results show that wild plants from Maqiao Town, Baokang County contain the most saikosaponins distributed mainly in cork, cortex and phloem. This study provides key chemical information for evaluating the quality of B. marginatum roots.

  3. Demographic and histopathological patterns of neuro-epithelial brain tumors in Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. (United States)

    Taha, Mahmoud S; Almsned, Fahad M; Hassen, Mohammed A; Atean, Ibrahim M; Alwbari, Ahmed M; Alharbi, Qasim K; Abdulkader, Marwah M; Almuhaish, Husam S


    To review the demographic and pathological pattern of neuro-epithelial brain tumors in a tertiary referral center in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia and to compare the results of our study with other national and international studies. This is a retrospective chart-review study of all patients with neuro-epithelial brain tumors referred and treated in our center between January 2010 and January 2015. The age, gender, tumor location, and histopathology were recorded. The total number of cases was 149 including 96 adult cases and 53 pediatric cases. 58% of cases were male, and 42% were female. The age group distribution showed 2 peaks; one in the first 5 years of life and the second was in the age range from 26-45 years old. Glioblastoma multiforme was the most common pathological type (32%), followed by medulloblastoma (13.3%). This study showed similar results to a previous study conducted in the Eastern Province in terms of age and gender distribution, but pathologically, the tumors diagnosed in our study were generally of a higher grading. When comparing our results to other international studies in nearby countries (Jordan and Egypt), we found similarities in pathological patterns and age distribution. However, when comparing our results to a western country (USA), we found considerable differences in the age group distribution. Neuro-epithelial brain tumors in Saudi Arabia affect younger population according to our study compared to Western countries. These findings are similar to other studies from Middle Eastern countries. In addition, our study showed a significant increase in high grade gliomas in the Eastern Province compared to an old historical study. This increase should be interpreted cautiously due to possible selection errors, changes in pathological grading, and expertise.

  4. Geology and assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the West Greenland-East Canada Province, 2008 (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Moore, Thomas E.; Gautier, Donald L.


    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources of the West Greenland-East Canada Province as part of the USGS Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal program. The province lies in the offshore area between western Greenland and eastern Canada and includes Baffin Bay, Davis Strait, Lancaster Sound, and Nares Strait west of, and including, part of Kane Basin. A series of major tectonic events led to the formation of several distinct structural domains that are the geologic basis for defining five assessment units (AU ) in the province, all of which are within the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Composite Total Petroleum System (TPS). Potential petroleum source rocks within the TPS include strata of Ordovician, Lower and Upper Cretaceous, and Paleogene ages. The five AUs defined for this study—the Eurekan Structures AU, Northwest Greenland Rifted Margin AU, Northeast Canada Rifted Margin AU, Baffin Bay Basin AU, and the Greater Ungava Fault Zone AU— encompass the entire province and were assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable resources. The estimated mean volumes of undiscovered resources for the West GreenlandEast Canada Province are 10.7 billion barrels of oil, 75 trillion cubic feet of gas, and 1.7 billion barrels of natural gas liquids. For the part of the province that is north of the Arctic Circle, the estimated mean volumes of these undiscovered resources are 7.3 billion barrels of oil, 52 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 1.1 billion barrels of natural-gas liquids.

  5. Western Canada uranium perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, R.E.


    The current situation in the exploration for uranium in British Columbia, the Yukon, the Northwest Territories, and Saskatchewan is reviewed. A moratorium on exploration has been in effect in British Columbia since 1980; it is due to expire in 1987. Only the Blizzard deposit appears to have any economic potential. The Lone Gull discovery in the Thelon Basin of the Northwest Territories has proven reserves of more than 35 million pounds U 3 O 8 grading 0.4%. Potentially prospective areas of the northern Thelon Basin lie within a game sanctuary and cannot be explored. Exploration activity in Saskatchewan continues to decline from the peak in 1980. Three major deposits - Cluff Lake, Rabbit Lake and Key Lake - are in production. By 1985 Saskatchewan will produce 58% of Canada's uranium, and over 13% of the western world's output. (L.L.) (3 figs, 2 tabs.)

  6. Production of hybrids between western gray wolves and western coyotes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L David Mech

    Full Text Available Using artificial insemination we attempted to produce hybrids between captive, male, western, gray wolves (Canis lupus and female, western coyotes (Canis latrans to determine whether their gametes would be compatible and the coyotes could produce and nurture offspring. The results contribute new information to an ongoing controversy over whether the eastern wolf (Canis lycaon is a valid unique species that could be subject to the U. S. Endangered Species Act. Attempts with transcervically deposited wolf semen into nine coyotes over two breeding seasons yielded three coyote pregnancies. One coyote ate her pups, another produced a resorbed fetus and a dead fetus by C-section, and the third produced seven hybrids, six of which survived. These results show that, although it might be unlikely for male western wolves to successfully produce offspring with female western coyotes under natural conditions, western-gray-wolf sperm are compatible with western-coyote ova and that at least one coyote could produce and nurture hybrid offspring. This finding in turn demonstrates that gamete incompatibility would not have prevented western, gray wolves from inseminating western coyotes and thus producing hybrids with coyote mtDNA, a claim that counters the view that the eastern wolf is a separate species. However, some of the difficulties experienced by the other inseminated coyotes tend to temper that finding and suggest that more experimentation is needed, including determining the behavioral and physical compatibility of western gray wolves copulating with western coyotes. Thus although our study adds new information to the controversy, it does not settle it. Further study is needed to determine whether the putative Canis lycaon is indeed a unique species.

  7. Indoor radon measurements and radon prognosis for the province of Kymi, southeastern Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennanen, M.; Maekelaeinen, I.; Voutilainen, A.


    The purpose of the regional radon prognosis is to classify areas with different levels of radon risk. The radon prognosis gives the percentages of future homes expected to have indoor radon concentrations exceeding the levels of 200 and 400 Bq/m 3 . It is assumed that no protection against the entry of radon is used in construction. In this study about 5900 indoor radon measurements made in single family houses, semi-detached houses and row houses were used. Data on the location, geology and construction of buildings were determined from maps and questionnaires. An empirical statistical model, the adjusted indoor radon measurements and geological data were used to assess the radon risk from soil and bedrock in different areas. The building sites of the province of Kymi were divided into thirteen sub-areas. The radon prognosis are calculated for the most radon-prone foundation types including 1) houses with a slab-on-grade and 2) houses with a basement or hillside houses with open stairwells between basement and first floor. The radon levels are generally greater in the western part of the area. The radon risk is highest in gravel-dominated esker areas in southwestern, western (in Pyhtaa, Kotka, Anjalankoski, litti, Valkeala) and central (Taipalsaari) parts of the area. The radon risk is also high in some bedrock and till areas, also in southwestern and western parts of the area. In these areas the level of 200 Bq/m 3 will be exceeded in 80 % of new houses. About half of the future houses in these areas will have indoor radon concentrations exceeding 400 Bq/m 3 . The radon risk is lowest in the eastern part of the province of Kymi in every soil type. In this area the level of 200 Bq/m 3 will be exceeded in 30 % of new houses. Below 10 % will exceed 400 Bq/m 3 . (orig.) (14 refs.)

  8. Assessing Hospital Disaster Preparedness of Bushehr province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakimeh Vahedparast


    Full Text Available Background: In disasters, large number of causalities rash into the hospitals in order to get health facilities. So, hospitals are the reference point for delivering the health services in all levels for helping to the most percent of injured people. Aim of study was to assess hospital disaster preparedness of Bushehr province. Maretial and Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study which has been done in all Bushehr province hospitals. In order to collect data, we used 210 questions checklist with 10 different aims each aim had consisted of 6 different domains (equipment, working stuff, physical space, structure, protocols and functional chart. The checklists were completed by direct observation and evaluation of equipment, programs and documents based on their domains with different people. Results: The hospital preparedness in traffic base was very poor with mean number of 19/04±16/10 evaluation of security education and management domain with mean number 35/29±26/52, 38/65±19/46, 36/36±24/05, respectively were poor. In logistics, workforce, communications, excused transportation and addition to the hospitals with the mean number of 53/26±26/31, 49/65±27/61, 45/53±18/29, 43/33±19/72, and 40/47±20/37 were estimated as average. The most number was belonged to the emergency with the mean number of 53/80±19/18. Conclusion: The Bushehr province hospitals have not enough preparation against unexpected disasters and cannot be a good supporter for disaster happening, and in the occasions of happenings so many serious problems will occur. It will be suggested that the hospital managers should pay more attention to the unexpected disasters.

  9. Competitive edge of western coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keith, R.D.


    This paper expresses views on the competitive advantages of one of the nation's most remarkable energy resources--Western coal. It covers utilization of Western coal, and its advantages. The Arkansas Power and Light Company and its demand for coal are also covered

  10. Usher syndrome clinical characterization. Holguin province


    Santana Hernández, Elayne Esther; Lantigua Cruz, Paulina Araceli


    Fundamento: El síndrome de Usher es una enfermedad determinada genéticamente, con una gran heterogeneidad clínica y genética; está caracterizada por hipoacusia neurosensorial de moderada a severa, retinosis pigmentaria progresiva y puede acompañarse de alteración vestibular. Por la alta prevalencia de esta enfermedad en la provincia de Holguín, se considera necesario este estudio. Objetivo: Caracterizar clínicamente todos los enfermos con diagnóstico clínico de síndrome de Usher en la provinc...

  11. Globalisation and western music historiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanou Katy


    Full Text Available Globalisation of musicology and music history aims to fuse the divisions created during Western music’s acme, and is referred to as “post-European historical thinking”. Therefore, “post” and “pre” European historical thinking have much in common. One aspect of this process of fragmentation was that music history was separated from theory and that Western Music Histories succeeded General Music Histories (a development described in some detail in the article. Connecting global music history with “post-European” historical thinking is one among numerous indications of Western awareness that European culture has reached some sort of a terminal phase. Concurrently, countries that have been developing by following Western Europe as a prototype, are leading today some past phase of Western development, which, with the ideas of cultural relativism prevailing, are not considered inferior.

  12. Sustainable Development of Rural Tourism in An Giang Province, Vietnam


    Nguyen Thanh Long; Thanh-Lam Nguyen


    This study aims at sustainably developing rural tourism in An Giang Province, an agricultural province located in the South of Vietnam, by identifying the determinants of the satisfaction and revisit intention of tourists based on both qualitative and quantitative approaches. From exploratory interviews with experts and comprehensive group discussions, we developed a questionnaire for an official survey of 507 tourists at different tour-sites in An Giang Province. It is found that: (1) there ...

  13. Western Nuclear Science Alliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reese, Steve; Miller, George; Frantz, Stephen; Beller, Denis; Morse, Ed; Krahenbuhl, Melinda; Flocchini, Bob; Elliston, Jim


    The Western Nuclear Science Alliance (WNSA) was formed at Oregon State University (OSU) under the DOE Innovations in Nuclear Infrastructure and Education (INIE) program in 2002. The primary objective of the INIE program is to strengthen nuclear science and engineering programs at the member institutions and to address the long term goal of the University Reactor Infrastructure and Education Assistance Program. WNSA has been very effective in meeting these goals. The infrastructure at several of the WNSA university nuclear reactors has been upgraded significantly, as have classroom and laboratory facilities for Nuclear Engineering, Health Physics, and Radiochemistry students and faculty. Major nuclear-related education programs have been inaugurated, including considerable assistance by WNSA universities to other university nuclear programs. Research has also been enhanced under WNSA, as has outreach to pre-college and college students and faculty. The INIE program under WNSA has been an exceptional boost to the nuclear programs at the eight funded WNSA universities. In subsequent years under INIE these programs have expanded even further in terms of new research facilities, research reactor renovations, expanded educational opportunities, and extended cooperation and collaboration between universities, national laboratories, and nuclear utilities.

  14. Mantle accretion evidence during the neoproterozoic of the Pernambuco-Alagoas terrane, and its significance to the evolution of the Borborema Province, NE Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Filho, A.F.; Guimaraes, I.P; Van Schmus, W.R


    The Borborema Province is located in NE Brazil, corresponding to the western part of a major fold belt, which extends from Brazil to West Africa. According to paleogeographic reconstruction, it is located between the Congo, Sao Francisco and West Africa cratons. The Pernambuco-Alagoas Terrane is a major tectonic unit of the Borborema Province and comprises high-grade metamorphic sequences and the greatest granitic batholiths of this province. The granitic batholiths Maribondo-Correntes, Buique-Paulo Afonso and Aguas Belas-Caninde and their ortho derived country rocks show metaluminous and peraluminous compositions, and εNd(0,60 Ga) between +3,2 and -2,0 and T DM between 0,90 Ga and 1,20 Ga. These Nd isotope data favour a crustal evolution hypothesis involving accretion of juvenile material at least during the Brasiliano orogenesis collision and perhaps the formation of a juvenile lithosphere during the end of the Mesoproterozoic (au)

  15. Comparison of two occurrence risk assessment methods for collapse gully erosion ——A case study in Guangdong province (United States)

    Sun, K.; Cheng, D. B.; He, J. J.; Zhao, Y. L.


    Collapse gully erosion is a specific type of soil erosion in the red soil region of southern China, and early warning and prevention of the occurrence of collapse gully erosion is very important. Based on the idea of risk assessment, this research, taking Guangdong province as an example, adopt the information acquisition analysis and the logistic regression analysis, to discuss the feasibility for collapse gully erosion risk assessment in regional scale, and compare the applicability of the different risk assessment methods. The results show that in the Guangdong province, the risk degree of collapse gully erosion occurrence is high in northeastern and western area, and relatively low in southwestern and central part. The comparing analysis of the different risk assessment methods on collapse gully also indicated that the risk distribution patterns from the different methods were basically consistent. However, the accuracy of risk map from the information acquisition analysis method was slightly better than that from the logistic regression analysis method.

  16. Dynamic biogeochemical provinces in the global ocean (United States)

    Reygondeau, Gabriel; Longhurst, Alan; Martinez, Elodie; Beaugrand, Gregory; Antoine, David; Maury, Olivier


    In recent decades, it has been found useful to partition the pelagic environment using the concept of biogeochemical provinces, or BGCPs, within each of which it is assumed that environmental conditions are distinguishable and unique at global scale. The boundaries between provinces respond to features of physical oceanography and, ideally, should follow seasonal and interannual changes in ocean dynamics. But this ideal has not been fulfilled except for small regions of the oceans. Moreover, BGCPs have been used only as static entities having boundaries that were originally established to compute global primary production. In the present study, a new statistical methodology based on non-parametric procedures is implemented to capture the environmental characteristics within 56 BGCPs. Four main environmental parameters (bathymetry, chlorophyll a concentration, surface temperature, and salinity) are used to infer the spatial distribution of each BGCP over 1997-2007. The resulting dynamic partition allows us to integrate changes in the distribution of BGCPs at seasonal and interannual timescales, and so introduces the possibility of detecting spatial shifts in environmental conditions.

  17. Radiogeochemical provinces of the Eastern Central Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baratov, R.B.; Kozyrev, V.I.; Shchukin, S.I.


    The principal space-time regularities are studied of the U and Th geochemical evolution as well as ratios of values of the U and Th accumulation in dominating formations of the region to their probable concentrations in a basaltic (0.6x10 -4 per cent of U and 2.2x10 -4 per cent of Th) and a granite-metamorphic (2.7x10 -4 per cent of U and 18x10 -4 per cent of Th) layers. Six types of radiogeochemical provinces are distinguished; 1 - of simatic profile with the continuous tendency to the accumulation of Th accompanied with the deficit of U; 2 - of sialitic profile with the normal distribution of radioactive elements; 3 - of simatic profile with the normal distribution of radioactive elements and with the tendency to the sialitic accumulation; 4 - of sialitic profile with the disturbed distribution of radioactive elements and with the tendency to the U accumulation; 5 - of sialitic profile with the tendency towards the accumulation of radioactive elements; 6 - of sialitic profile with the tendency towards the U accumulation - regions of the spread of Mezozoic - Cenozoic formations of the mantle of Turans plateau. For the U and Th accumulation in provinces of the first four principal types endogeneous factors have been the most essential, the degree of the accumulation of these elements being the function of their concentration in a granite - metamorphic and a basaltic layers. For the 5-th and 6-th types exogenous factors have been determination

  18. Decommissioning in western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundqvist, K.


    This report gives an overview of the situation in Western Europe. The original aim was to focus on organisational and human issues with regard to nuclear reactor decommissioning, but very few articles were found. This is in sharp contrast to the substantial literature on technical issues. While most of the reports on decommissioning have a technical focus, several provide information on regulatory issues, strategies and 'state of the art'. The importance of the human and organizational perspective is however discovered, when reading between the lines of the technical publications, and especially when project managers summarize lessons learned. The results are to a large extent based on studies of articles and reports, mainly collected from the INIS database. Decommissioning of nuclear facilities started already in the sixties, but then mainly research and experimental facilities were concerned. Until now about 70 reactors have been shutdown world-wide. Over the years there have been plenty of conferences for exchanging experiences mostly about technical matters. Waste Management is a big issue. In the 2000s there will be a wave of decommissioning when an increasing amount of reactors will reach the end of their calculated lifetime (40 years, a figure now being challenged by both life-extension and pre-shutdown projects). Several reactors have been shut-down for economical reasons. Shutdown and decommissioning is however not identical. A long period of time can sometimes pass before an owner decides to decommission and dismantle a facility. The conditions will also differ depending on the strategy, 'immediate dismantling' or 'safe enclosure'. If immediate dismantling is chosen the site can reach 'green-field status' in less than ten years. 'Safe enclosure', however, seems to be the most common strategy. There are several pathways, but in general a safe store is constructed, enabling the active parts to remain in safe and waterproof conditions for a longer period of

  19. Introduction: Imams in Western Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinding, Niels Valdemar; Hashas, Mohammed; de Ruiter, Jan Jaap


    by this source of religious authority in the context of the secular-liberal societies of Western Europe since the Second World War and the subsequent migration and refugee flows. At the same time, this research also serves to highlight secular-liberal institutions and their adaptation, or lack thereof......, to the multiculturalism that characterizes Western European states. The social facts of globalization, transnational migration, and various interpretations of secularism have challenged the visibility of religion in the public sphere in Western societies. This has most importantly and urgently required religious...

  20. Genetic conservation planning for forest tree species in Western North America under future climate change: Employing a novel approach to identify conservation gaps (United States)

    L.K. Gray; E.J. Russell; Q.E. Barber; A. Hamann


    Among the 17 provinces, territories, and states that comprise western North America, approximately 18 percent of the 8.4 million km2 of forested land base is designated as protected areas to ensure the in situ conservation of forest biodiversity. Jurisdictions vary substantially however, in their responsibilities, protected area coverage, and conservation policies....

  1. Forest ecosystem vulnerability assessment and synthesis for northern Wisconsin and western Upper Michigan: a report from the Northwoods Climate Change Response Framework project (United States)

    Maria K. Janowiak; Louis R. Iverson; David J. Mladenoff; Emily Peters; Kirk R. Wythers; Weimin Xi; Leslie A. Brandt; Patricia R. Butler; Stephen D. Handler; P. Danielle Shannon; Chris Swanston; Linda R. Parker; Amy J. Amman; Brian Bogaczyk; Christine Handler; Ellen Lesch; Peter B. Reich; Stephen Matthews; Matthew Peters; Anantha Prasad; Sami Khanal; Feng Liu; Tara Bal; Dustin Bronson; Andrew Burton; Jim Ferris; Jon Fosgitt; Shawn Hagan; Erin Johnston; Evan Kane; Colleen Matula; Ryan O' Connor; Dale Higgins; Matt St. Pierre; Jad Daley; Mae Davenport; Marla R. Emery; David Fehringer; Christopher L. Hoving; Gary Johnson; David Neitzel; Michael Notaro; Adena Rissman; Chadwick Rittenhouse; Robert Ziel


    Forest ecosystems across the Northwoods will face direct and indirect impacts from a changing climate over the 21st century. This assessment evaluates the vulnerability of forest ecosystems in the Laurentian Mixed Forest Province of northern Wisconsin and western Upper Michigan under a range of future climates. Information on current forest conditions, observed climate...

  2. Medicinal plants used in traditional herbal medicine in the province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Phyto-therapy studies on Chimborazo province in Ecuador are really limited. This area, located within the Andes, is considered a millenarian and intercultural province, where multiples cultures and ethnic groups coexist. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted through direct interviews with 84 ...

  3. Migrant Rights in Fujian Province (China) | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Migrant Rights in Fujian Province (China). China has the largest internal migrant population in the world, and women account for nearly half of it. Fujian province has been a traditional source of large numbers of Chinese migrants to Southeast Asia and the United States. Now, with the burgeoning economies of southeast ...

  4. Challenges for emerging livestock farmers in Limpopo province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Challenges for emerging livestock farmers in Limpopo province, South Africa. ND MacLeod, CK McDonald, FP van Oudtshoorn. Abstract. Land redistribution schemes (e.g. Settlement Land Acquisition Grant and Land Redistribution for Agricultural Development) initiated since the mid-1990s in Limpopo province under ...

  5. Province of Ontario nuclear emergency plan. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The Province of Ontario Nuclear Emergency Plan has been developed pursuant to Section 8 of the Emergency Plans Act, 1983. This plan replaces the Province of Ontario Nuclear Contingency Off-Site Plan (June 1980) which is no longer applicable. The wastes plan includes planning, preparation, emergency organization and operational responsibilities and policy

  6. Western Pacific Typhoon Aircraft Fixes (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Western Pacific typhoon aircraft reconnaissance data from the years 1946 - 1965 and 1978, excluding 1952, were transcribed from original documents, or copy of...

  7. The Western Sahara conflict I

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polisario unilaterally declared a "Saharawi Arab Democratic Republic" (27 Feb. 1976). Since .... Furthermore, Frente Polisario managed to keep the Western Sahara question on .... these countries and their fragile ethnic and political balance.

  8. A Tiny Bilbao in the Province?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Line Marie Bruun


    the size of the province communities have in relation to the application of experience economy thinking in cultural planning. The paper presents a reading of the current 13 Danish “Culture Agreements” made between the ministry of culture and the cultural regions (Kulturstyrelsen) The reading has a special...... the utilization of cultural institutions, creative industries and the demands of the creative class were drivers in the development of the major cities, i.e. the ”Bilbao Effect”. From the major cities these ideas spread to smaller cities, which raised questions about critical mass, etc. This ”second wave...... of the welfare state, which focus on accessibility, a democratic and inclusive approach expressed in the form of culture projects that will enhance the quality of life and liveability in the local community. The paper discusses how and if the two rationales can be executed in the same projects: economic growth...

  9. Geochemistry of volcanic series of Aragats province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meliksetyan, Kh.B.


    In this contribution we discuss geochemical and isotope characteristics of volcanism of the Aragats volcanic province and possible petrogenetical models of magma generation in collision zone of Armenian highland. We talk about combination of some specific features of collision related volcanism such as dry and high temperature conditions of magma generation, that demonstrate some similarities to intraplate-like petrogenesis and presence of mantle source enriched by earlier subductions, indicative to island-arc type magma generation models. Based on comprehensive analysis of isotope and geochemical data and some published models of magma generation beneath Aragats we lead to a petrogenetic model of origin of Aragats system to be a result of magma mixture between mantle originated mafic magma with felsic, adakite-type magmas

  10. Western forests and air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, R.K.; Binkley, D.; Boehm, M.


    The book addresses the relationships between air pollution in the western United States and trends in the growth and condition of Western coniferous forests. The major atmospheric pollutants to which forest in the region are exposed are sulfur and nitrogen compounds and ozone. The potential effects of atmospheric pollution on these forests include foliar injury, alteration of growth rates and patterns, soil acidification, shifts in species composition, and modification of the effects of natural stresses

  11. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in western Austria. (United States)

    Allerberger, F; Kofler, H; Brezinka, C; Guggenbichler, J P; Dierich, M P


    From January to October 1992 24 Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from clinical specimens were collected at the Federal Public Health Laboratory in Innsbruck (Austria) and screened for resistance to penicillin G, erythromycin, tetracycline, spectinomycin, ceftriaxone, cefuroxime, ciprofloxacine, and silver nitrate. Patients originated from the Austrian provinces Salzburg, Tirol, and Vorarlberg, and presented with manifest gonorrhoea. Two of 24 isolates were penicillinase-producing N. gonorrhoeae. Both strains were isolated from men who had just returned from Thailand or Kenya. The isolate from Africa was also resistant to tetracycline. Five of 24 infections were acquired abroad, sex tourism being involved in four cases. The antimicrobial resistance pattern found in gonococci in western Austria revealed that topical silver nitrate and erythromycin are equally acceptable for use in prophylaxis of neonatal ophthalmia. Penicillin is still the drug of choice in the treatment of endemic infections. If gonorrhoea has been acquired abroad, especially in Asia or Africa, ceftriaxone, spectinomycin or ciprofloxazine are recommended for therapy.

  12. Heritage and the Development of Stellenbosch, Western Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Todeschini


    Full Text Available The jurisdiction of Stellenbosch, located adjacent to, but outside of, the Cape Town metropolitan area in the Western Cape Province of South Africa, comprises over one thousand square kilometers of landscapes spanning: spectacular mountain wilderness areas; many productive rural valleys that are an integral part of the celebrated Cape Winelands; and a number of historic, characterful urban centres founded during the 17th century. Overall, this blend of domains attracts increasing numbers of tourists, while the places are also home to a growing population. The pressures for change and growth are significant: so is the need for appropriate policies and plans in the longer-term public interest. The authors report on a three-year project they are conducting for the local authority that focuses on the definition of the natural and cultural heritage and, in principle, on how development should be channelled.

  13. Prevalence of Coccidiosis in Broiler Chicken Farms in Western Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Gharekhani


    Full Text Available The main goal of current study was to investigate the prevalence of coccidiosis in broiler farms in Hamedan province, western Iran. Chicks and fecal samples were collected in all of the 220 broiler farms in this region. All viscera were examined for gross pathological changes. The mucosa of small intestine and the caeca were examined for the presence and identification of parasitic forms using parasitology methods. The overall rate of coccidiosis was 31.8%; E. acervulina (75.7%, E. tenella (54.3%, E. necatrix (28.6%, and E. maxima (20% were determined. Mixed infections were observed in all of the positive farms. There was a statistical significant difference (P0.05. This is the first report of coccidiosis rate in broiler farms in this region. Further additional researches and design control strategies for improving management in farms are necessary.

  14. Western Canadian wood residue production and consumption trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCloy, B.


    This presentation considered various trends in western Canadian wood residue production and consumption. Potential markets for wood residue products were also discussed. Trends were reviewed by province for the years 2000-2004. British Columbia (BC) is currently the largest producer of residue in the country, and also retains the largest surpluses of bark, sawdust and shavings. Wood residues in BC are used in pulp and plywood mill production, as well as in the creation of particleboard and MDF. Surplus mill wood residue production in the province has greatly increased due to the Mountain Pine Beetle (MPB) infestation, which has in turn spurred expansion of the BC interior sawmill industry. The infestation has also resulted in a glut of pulp chips. Current wood residue products in Alberta are mostly used in pulp mill combined heat and power (CHP) systems, as well as for wood pellet production and the creation of particleboard and MDF. It was noted that surplus residues are rapidly declining in the province. Saskatchewan's wood residue storage piles are estimated to contain 2,900,000 BDt, while Manitoba surpluses are relatively minor. It was suggested that high natural gas prices have increased the payback on wood energy systems to approximately 2 years. The value of wood residue is now greater than $100/BDt as a substitute for natural gas once the wood energy system has been fully depreciated. Sawmills may now wish to consider equipping themselves to sell wood residue products, as most sawmills only require 20 per cent of their residues for heating purposes. It was concluded that markets for hog fuel wood pellets should be developed in Canada and internationally. Future markets may also develop if natural gas currently used in pulp mill power boilers and lime kilns is replaced with wood residue energy systems. refs., tabs., figs

  15. Mutational spectrum of phenylketonuria in Jiangsu province. (United States)

    Chen, Ya-fen; Jia, Hai-tao; Chen, Zhong-hai; Song, Jia-ping; Liang, Yu; Pei, Jing-jing; Wu, Zhi-jun; Wang, Jing; Qiu, Ya-li; Liu, Gang; Sun, Dong-mei; Jiang, Xin-ye


    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is caused by variants in the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene. We systematically investigated all 13 exons of the PAH gene and their flanking introns in 31 unrelated patients and their parents using next-generation sequencing (NGS). A total of 33 different variants were identified in 58 of 62 mutant PAH alleles. The prevalent variants with a relative frequency of 5 % or more were c.721C > T, c.1068C > A, c.611A > G, c.1197A > T, c.728G > A, c.331C > T, and c.442-1G > A. One novel variant was identified in this study-c.699C > G. We studied genotype-phenotype correlations using the Guldberg arbitrary value (AV) system, which revealed a consistency rate of 38 % (8/21) among the 21 predicted phenotypes. The genotype-based prediction of BH4 responsiveness was also evaluated, and 14 patients (45.2 %) were predicted to be BH4 responsive. This study presents the spectrum of PAH variants in Jiangsu province. The information obtained from the genotype-based prediction of BH4 responsiveness might be used for the rational selection of candidates for BH4 testing. • Phenylketonuria (PKU) is caused by variants in the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene. • The spectrum of PAH variants in different Chinese populations has been reported. What is new: • This is the first report on the spectrum of PAH variants in Jiangsu province. • This study identified one novel PAH variant-c.699C>G-and and tries to show a genotype-phenotype relationship also regarding BH4-responsiveness.

  16. The Bocono Fault Zone, Western Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, C. (I.V.I.C., Caracas (Venezuela)); Estevez, R. (Universidad de los Andes, Merida (Venezuela)); Henneberg, H.G. (Universidad del Zulia, Maracaibo (Venezuela))


    The Bocono Fault Zone, the western part of the Bocono Moron-El Pilar Fault System of the southern Caribbean plate boundary, consists of aligned valleys, linear depressions, pull-apart basins and other morphological features, which extend for about 500 km in a N45[degrees]E direction, between the Tachira depression (Venezuela-Colombia border) and the Caribbean Sea. It crosses obliquely the Cordillera de Merida and cuts across the Caribbean Mountains, two different geologic provinces of Late Tertiary-Quaternary and Late Cretaceous-Early Tertiary age, respectively. Therefore, the maximum age that can be assigned to the Bocono Fault Zone is Late Tertiary (probably Pliocene). A total maximum right-lateral offset rate of 3.3 mm/a. The age of the sedimentary fill o[approximately] the La Gonzalez pull-apart basin suggests that the 7-9 km right-lateral offset necessary to produce it took place in Middle to Late Pleistocene time. The majority of seismic events are well aligned with the main fault trace; minor events are distributed in a belt several kilometers wide. Focal depth is typically 15 km and focal mechanisms indicate an average east-west compression across the zone. Return periods of 135-460 a (Richter M = 8), 45-70 a (M = 7), and 7-15 a (M = 6) have been calculated. Geodetic studies of several sites along the zone indicate compressive and right-lateral components; at Mucubaji the rate of right-lateral displacement observed is about 1 mm every 5 months (15 a of measurements).

  17. Western Hemisphere Knowledge Partnerships (United States)

    Malone, T. F.


    , and application of knowledge concerning the nature of -- and interaction among -- matter, living organisms, energy, information, and human behavior. This strategy calls for innovative partnerships among the physical, biological, health, and social sciences, engineering, and the humanities. New kinds of partnership must also be forged among academia, business and industry, governments, and nongovernmental organizations. Geophysicists can play an important role in these partnerships. A focus for these partnerships is to manage the individual economic productivity that drives both human development and global change. As world population approaches stability during the twenty-first century, individual economic productivity will be the critical link between the human and the natural systems on planet Earth. AGU is among a core group of individuals and institutions proposing Western Hemisphere Knowledge Partnerships (WHKP) to test the hypothesis that knowledge, broadly construed, is an important organizing principle in choosing a path into the future. The WHKP agenda includes: (1) life-long learning, (2) the health and resilience of natural ecosystems, (3) eco-efficiency in economic production and consumption, (4) extension of national income accounts, (5) environmentally benign sources of energy, (6) delivery of health care, (7) intellectual property rights, and (8) networks for action by local communities.Collaboratories and distance education technologies will be major tools. A panel of experts will explore this proposal.

  18. Spatial distribution and risk factors of influenza in Jiangsu province, China, based on geographical information system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Cheng Zhang


    Full Text Available Influenza poses a constant, heavy burden on society. Recent research has focused on ecological factors associated with influenza incidence and has also studied influenza with respect to its geographic spread at different scales. This research explores the temporal and spatial parameters of influenza and identifies factors influencing its transmission. A spatial autocorrelation analysis, a spatial-temporal cluster analysis and a spatial regression analysis of influenza rates, carried out in Jiangsu province from 2004 to 2011, found that influenza rates to be spatially dependent in 2004, 2005, 2006 and 2008. South-western districts consistently revealed hotspots of high-incidence influenza. The regression analysis indicates that railways, rivers and lakes are important predictive environmental variables for influenza risk. A better understanding of the epidemic pattern and ecological factors associated with pandemic influenza should benefit public health officials with respect to prevention and controlling measures during future epidemics.

  19. XML Geohelminthic: human ascariasis and trichuriasis in Mazandaran province, northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajar Ziaei


    Full Text Available Background: Ascariasis and trichuriasis are the most common intestinal geohelminthic diseases, and as such they are significant in terms of clinical and public health. This study was done to determine prevalence, status and geographic distribution patterns for Ascariasis and Trichuriasis. The study was done in the period 1991-2014 in northern Iran using Aregis 9.2 software. Methods: This was a review study, using description and analysis, of geographical distribution of Ascaris and Trichuris relating to townships in Mazandran province, northern Iran, covering a 23-year period. Data were collected from a review of the relevant literature, summarized and classified using Arc GIS, 9.2 to design maps and tables. Results: Based on results presented in tables and maps, means for prevalence of Ascaris and Trichuris were divided into five groups. The maximum prevalence rate of Ascaris was 16.3% reported in rural areas of Tonkabon in 1981-1982. Prevalence means for Ascaris in the central and western areas of Mazandaran province were 2%-4% and 4%, respectively. The maximum prevalence of Trichuris in the rural area of Tonkabon was 22.5% and the lowest 0.06% was among the cattle breeder’s in rural areas of the province at in 2002-2003. Conclusion: Data presented in this study provides information useful to health care workers researchers and health administrators, especially for physicians, clinicians and for future research. Also, it is necessary to control and prevent geohelminthic parasitic infections, particularly in rural areas by public education for families, health authorities and health care systems.

  20. Formation and distribution of large lithologic-stratigraphic oil & gas fields (provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shizhen Tao


    Full Text Available Since the “Tenth Five-Year Plan”, lithologic and stratigraphic reservoirs have been the main contribution of both the discovery as well as reserve and production increase in China; there were about 80% of proven reserves. The typical reservoirs in six major basins in the eastern, central, and western China were adopted as reservoir forming models. The reservoir forming models in three types of slopes, three types of depressions, and three types of lithologic reservoir assemblages have been built on the basis of application of new technologies, physical modeling of reservoir forming mechanism, and investigation to the formation and distribution of the reservoirs. The evaluation methods for large lithologic reservoirs provinces were established based on the forming mechanism and main controlling factors mentioned above. In addition, the study reveals the main controlling factors and the laws of enrichment of two types of stratigraphic reservoirs (pinch-out and weathered karst reservoirs based on the evaluation methods for large stratigraphic reservoir provinces that have been established. By comprehensively understanding the laws of enrichment of lithologic-stratigraphic reservoirs in four types of basins, specific evaluation methods and fine exploration techniques have been developed. The findings led to an exploration direction in the “Thirteenth Five-Year Plan” period. The study supported the exploration and selection of oil and gas plays, as well as promoted the exploration of lithologic and stratigraphic reservoirs. Keywords: Lithologic trap, Stratigraphic trap, Lithostratigraphic reservoir, Large oil and gas field, Large oil and gas province, Formation and distribution, Exploration potential

  1. A Space-Time Study of Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS and Its Climatic Associations in Heilongjiang Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyu He


    Full Text Available Background: Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS is highly endemic in China, especially in Heilongjiang province (90% of all reported HFRS cases worldwide occur in China. The dynamic identification of high HFRS incidence spatiotemporal regions and the quantitative assessment of HFRS associations with climate change in Heilongjiang province can provide valuable guidance for HFRS monitoring, preventing and control. Yet, so far there exist very few and of limited scope quantitative studies of the spatiotemporal HFRS spread and its climatic associations in Heilongjiang province. Making up for this lack of quantitative studies is the reason for the development of the present work.Method: To address this need, the well-known Bayesian maximum entropy (BME method of space-time modeling and mapping together with its recently proposed variant, the projected BME (P-BME method, were employed in this work to perform a composite space-time analysis and mapping of HFRS incidence in Heilongjiang province during the years 2005–2013. Also, using multivariate El Niño-Southern Oscillation index as a proxy, we proposed a combination of Hilbert-Huang transform and wavelet analysis to study the “HFRS incidence-climate change” associations.Results: The main results of this work were two-fold: (1 three core areas were identified with high HFRS incidences that were spatially distributed and exhibited distinct biomodal temporal patterns in the eastern, western, and southern parts of Heilongjiang province; and (2 there exists a considerable association between HFRS incidence and climate change, particularly, an ~6 months period coherency was clearly detected.Conclusions: The combination of modern space-time modeling and mapping techniques (P-BME theory, Hilbert-Huang spectrum analysis, and wavelet analysis used in this work led to valuable quantitative findings concerning the spatiotemporal spread of HFRS incidence in Heilongjiang province and its association

  2. U-Pb ages in zircon of some classic granites from the Borborema province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neves, Benjamin Bley de Brito; Basei, Miguel Angelo Stipp; Passarelli, Claudia Regina; Santos, Edilton Jose dos


    The Neoproterozoic evolution of the Borborema Province in the east-northeast part of the South American platform exhibits remarkable, much studied granitic plutonism. In 1967 F. F. Almeida and co-workers discriminated a series of granitic typologies as 'Conceicao type', 'Itaporanga type' etc, mostly based upon general geological features and petrographic grounds. This preliminary classification has somehow been maintained in all subsequent papers up to now, despite all the newly observed plutons and the newly generated tectonic, geochemical and isotopic data since then. Samples of these classical types of granites from their type-localities were analyzed geo chronologically using the U-Pb method in zircons in response to the felt needs of the geological community, because previous age-determinations involved less accurate methods. The new data have been added to all other preexisting U-Pb data (from other granitic bodies) obtained over the last decade, making it possible to recognize three main stages of granitic magmatism for the Borborema Province: 650-625 Ma, 580-570 Ma and 545-520 Ma. The last group of dates is closely association with the escape tectonics of the Brasiliano-Pan African collage, which preceded the assembly of the super continental landmass of Western Gondwana. (author)

  3. Medicine prices, availability, and affordability in the Shaanxi Province in China: implications for the future. (United States)

    Jiang, Minghuan; Zhou, Zhongliang; Wu, Lina; Shen, Qian; Lv, Bing; Wang, Xiao; Yang, Shimin; Fang, Yu


    In 2009, China implemented the National Essential Medicines System (NEMS) to improve access to high-quality low-cost essential medicines. To measure the prices, availability and affordability of medicines in China following the implementation of the NEMS. 120 public hospitals and 120 private pharmacies in ten cities in Shaanxi Province, Western China. The standardized methodology developed by the World Health Organization and Health Action International was used to collect data on prices and availability of 49 medicines. Median price ratio; availability as a percentage; cost of course of treatment in days' wages of the lowest-paid government workers. In the public hospitals, originator brands (OBs) were procured at 8.89 times the international reference price, more than seven times higher than the lowest-priced generics (LPGs). Patients paid 11.83 and 1.69 times the international reference prices for OBs and generics respectively. A similar result was observed in the private pharmacies. The mean availabilities of OBs and LPGs were 7.1 and 20.0 % in the public hospitals, and 12.6 and 29.2 % in the private pharmacies. Treatment with OBs is therefore largely unaffordable, but the affordability of the LPGs is generally good. High prices and low availability of survey medicines were observed. The affordability of generics, but not OBs, is reasonable. Effective measures should be taken to reduce medicine prices and improve availability and affordability in Shaanxi Province.

  4. Natural radioactivity in various water samples and radiation dose estimations in Bolu province, Turkey. (United States)

    Gorur, F Korkmaz; Camgoz, H


    The level of natural radioactivity for Bolu province of north-western Turkey was assessed in this study. There is no information about radioactivity measurement reported in water samples in the Bolu province so far. For this reason, gross α and β activities of 55 different water samples collected from tap, spring, mineral, river and lake waters in Bolu were determined. The mean activity concentrations were 68.11 mBq L(-1), 169.44 mBq L(-1) for gross α and β in tap water. For all samples the gross β activity is always higher than the gross α activity. All value of the gross α were lower than the limit value of 500 mBq L(-1) while two spring and one mineral water samples were found to have gross β activity concentrations of greater than 1000 mBq L(-1). The associated age-dependent dose from all water ingestion in Bolu was estimated. The total dose for adults had an average value exceeds the WHO recommended limit value. The risk levels from the direct ingestion of the natural radionuclides in tap and mineral water in Bolu were determinated. The mean (210)Po and (228)Ra risk the value of tap and mineral waters slightly exceeds what some consider on acceptable risk of 10(-4) or less. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessing Agricultural Drought Vulnerability by a VSD Model: A Case Study in Yunnan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiansheng Wu


    Full Text Available Drought vulnerability of agriculture is significant to economic development and sustainable food production. In this paper, we proposed a framework to evaluate the regional agricultural-eco environment in the face of drought caused by climate change. Based on a vulnerability scoping diagram (VSD model, we built up a comprehensive system to evaluate the agricultural drought vulnerability of Yunnan Province in China. The model highlights the human-land relationship by considering both natural conditions and human activities. Twelve indicators were generated to construct three components of the model: exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity. During the construction of the VSD model, the entropy and the analytic hierarchy process (AHP comprehensive analysis method were adopted to generate the weights and to compute the composite index for each section. Furthermore, the factor analysis method was used to determine the dominant factors of different cities and the main indicators driving the system. The results indicated a spatial pattern that the vulnerability value was high on the eastern and western sides, but low in the middle of Yunnan Province. Most of the vulnerable regions were concentrated in remote areas. Indicators such as population density, irrigation level, annual average precipitation, cultivation land ratio, and difficulty of water supply were the main driving factors. This means that there is a deep connection between agricultural drought vulnerability and urbanization. The evaluation system developed during this research will provide guidance for drought mitigation in regions of complex terrain.

  6. Evaluation of Social Vulnerability to Natural Disasters on a County Scale in Henan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shanfeng HE; Liping DU; Xiuhua GAO


    Social vulnerability evaluation is of important significance to analyzing risks of natural disasters to human society and economy. By using expert investigation and AHP method,12 indicators from four aspects( population,economy,infrastructure and disaster prevention and mitigation capacity) are selected to assess social vulnerability to natural disasters on a county scale in Henan Province. The results show that the population vulnerability and economic vulnerability to natural disasters in the eastern region is generally higher than in the western region,while the areas with high infrastructure vulnerability are mainly located in the northwest; the disaster prevention and mitigation capacity in northwest is higher than in east and south,and this capacity of various districts is obviously higher than that of counties; in terms of the spatial pattern,social vulnerability to natural disasters is roughly higher in a belt from northeast to southwest,and lower on both sides of the belt. The results can provide scientific basis for disaster risk management and disaster prevention and mitigation planning in Henan Province.

  7. Decreasing Net Primary Productivity in Response to Urbanization in Liaoning Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Chen


    Full Text Available Regional ecosystems have been greatly affected by the rapid expansion of urban areas. In order to explore the impact of land use change on net primary productivity (NPP in rapidly developing cities during the current urbanization process, we quantified land use change in Liaoning province between 2000 and 2010 using net primary productivity as an indicator of ecosystem productivity and health. The Carnegie–Ames–Stanford Approach model was used to estimate NPP by region and land use. We used a unit circle-based evaluation model to quantify local urbanization effects on NPP around eight representative cities. The dominant land use types were farmland, woodland and urban, with urban rapidly replacing farmland. Mean annual NPP and total NPP decreased faster from 2005 to 2010 than from 2000 to 2005, reflecting increasing urbanization rates. The eastern, primarily woodland part of Liaoning province had the greatest reduction in NPP, while the western part, which was primarily farmland and grassland, had the lowest reduction.

  8. An Attempt to Construction of Seismotectonic Province Map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, Myung Hyun; Shim, Taek Mo


    A seismotectonic province is a kind of seismic source where, in general, seismic characteristics are assumed to be uniform. It is different from earthquake-generating geological structures such as faults or folds. It is an area or a zone where earthquakes diffusely occur but no specific geological structure is identified to be responsible for those earthquakes. The terminology, a seismotectonic province is originated from a tectonic province of U.S. federal code, with emphasis on earthquakes. The seismotectonic province is called the seismogenic source in the regulatory guides of U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and the zone of diffuse seismicity in a guide of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). In Korea, existing seismotectonic province maps were constructed based on the geological information due to insufficient earthquake data. As understood in its name, however, a seismotectonic province map should be based on the seismic information. Moreover, it should be noted that the Korean (geologic) tectonic structures cannot correctly represent the current tectonic regime because they were formed before the Cenozoic. In this context, we attempted to construct a seismotectonic province map by using seismic and geophysical information as well as geologic information

  9. Highlights from Johannesburg, Gauteng Province, South Africa (United States)


    Although the extraction of mineral wealth has been the major influence in the history of Johannesburg and the surrounding Witwatersrand regions (with about 45% of all gold ever mined coming from there), the discovery of now-famous hominid fossils at the Sterkfontein Caves, and the convening of the world's largest-ever conference on environment and development, are setting a new stage for the future. The United Nations began the second Development and Environment Conference in Johannesburg on August 26, 2002. This meeting addresses the implementation of international goals to fight poverty and protect the global environment that were established at the first such conference held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. The Johannesburg summit involves about forty thousand participants, and perhaps 100 world leaders. One of several official opening ceremonies for the conference was held at the Sterkfontein Caves to recognize the outstanding universal value of the paleo-anthropological fossils found there.These views from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) highlight a number of the land use, vegetation, and geological features found within Gauteng Province (including the urban center of Johannesburg and the capital city Pretoria) and parts of the North West and Free State Provinces. The image on the right displays vegetation in red hues and is a false-color view utilizing data from MISR's near-infrared, red and blue bands. Both the natural-color view (left) and the false-color version were acquired by MISR's nadir camera on June 16, 2002. The urban areas appear as gray-colored pixels in the natural-color view, and exhibit colors corresponding with the relative abundance of vegetation found in the urban parts of this arid region.The mountains trending east-west near the center of the images extend from Pretoria in the east to Rustenberg in the west. These ranges, the Magaliesberg and Witwatersberg, separate the low-lying, hotter bushveld to the north from the cooler

  10. Western blotting using capillary electrophoresis. (United States)

    Anderson, Gwendolyn J; M Cipolla, Cynthia; Kennedy, Robert T


    A microscale Western blotting system based on separating sodium-dodecyl sulfate protein complexes by capillary gel electrophoresis followed by deposition onto a blotting membrane for immunoassay is described. In the system, the separation capillary is grounded through a sheath capillary to a mobile X-Y translation stage which moves a blotting membrane past the capillary outlet for protein deposition. The blotting membrane is moistened with a methanol and buffer mixture to facilitate protein adsorption. Although discrete protein zones could be detected, bands were broadened by ∼1.7-fold by transfer to membrane. A complete Western blot for lysozyme was completed in about one hour with 50 pg mass detection limit from low microgram per milliliter samples. These results demonstrate substantial reduction in time requirements and improvement in mass sensitivity compared to conventional Western blots. Western blotting using capillary electrophoresis shows promise to analyze low volume samples with reduced reagents and time, while retaining the information content of a typical Western blot.

  11. Political Ideology and Economic Freedom across Canadian Provinces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Potrafke, Niklas

    This paper examines how political ideology influenced economic freedom in the Canadian provinces. We analyze the dataset of economic freedom indicators compiled by the Fraser Institute in 10 Canadian provinces over the 1981-2005 period and introduce two different indices of political ideology......: government and parliament ideology. The results suggest that government ideology influenced labor market reforms: market-oriented governments promoted liberalization of the labor market. Parliamentary ideology did not influence economic liberalization at all. This finding (1) identifies differences between...... leftist and rightwing governments concerning the role of government in the economy and (2) indicates that ideological polarization concerns governments but less parliamentary fractions in the Canadian provinces. ...

  12. Seabird Colonies in Western Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boertmann, D.; Mosbech, A.; Falk, K.

    About 1 million seabirds (indvs) breed in 1032 colonies distributed along the coasts of western Greenland (Fig. 1). However, this figure does not include the little auk colonies in Avanersuaq. These colonies are roughly estimated to hold about 20 mill. pairs. All the basic information on seabird...... colonies in Greenland is compiled in a database maintained by NERI-AE. This report presents data on distribution, population numbers and population trends of 19 species of breeding colonial seabirds in western Greenland. Distributions are depicted on maps in Fig. 18-39. It is apparent that the major...... colonies are found in the northern part of the region, viz. Upernavik and Avanersuaq. The numbers of birds recorded in the database for each species are presented in Tab. 4, and on the basis of these figures estimates of the populations in western Greenland are given (Tab. 5). The most numerous species...

  13. Sending our child to college. Heilongjiang province. (United States)

    Zhang, W


    An educational program for female farmers in Keshan County, Heilongjiang Province, originally limited to the topics of women's health care and family planning has not only improved health status, but has also helped increase income level among the participants. Keshan County is one of China's grain bases composed of seventeen townships with a total population of 460,000. The education program resulted from the health check-up for women conducted in 1985 which found 62.1% of local women with gynecological diseases, largely ignorant of health care, and too shy to visit doctors. A textbook was subsequently compiled on women's health care and family planning, and lectures were commenced on the topics. Lectures were soon expanded to cover health care for teenagers, newlyweds, pregnant women, young mothers, and middle-aged and elderly people. It was also found after some time that farmers wanted to be wealthier, to secure good educations for their children, and enjoy good health and longevity. Education topics were again expanded to include subjects relevant to farmers' income-production desires. These education sessions are now being replicated in most rural areas countrywide.

  14. ICT Strategic Planning for Mazandaran Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Shojaie


    Full Text Available Today, regarding rapid changes in the environment, any organization, institution or country that overlooks its capabilities, strengths and weaknesses, will face real challenges. Strategic planning in organizations is a common response to these challenges which also facilitate achieving goals in an organization. Today, the importance of ICT is increased, which necessitates ICT strategic planning to use ICT in organizations. So, this study aimed to propose ICT strategic plans for Mazandaran province. For this end, at first using stakeholders' viewpoints, the vision, mission and goals are provided. Then, Internal & External Matrix was suggested and identified factors were ranked using Analytic Network Processing (ANP. Then, concerning strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats, and using SWOT analysis, ICT strategies were provided. Finally, using QSPM matrix, the strategies were ranked. Regarding this ranking, dedicated budget to ICT in governmental organizations, using integration architecture, developing organizational and inter-organizational information systems, developing mechanisms to absorb national and local financial resources for extending ICT infrastructures and finally concerning ICT trainings for managers and people, were in the top of the list.

  15. Bovine trypanosomosis in north province of cameroon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ndamkou, C N; Nchare, A [Laboratoire National Veterinaire de Bokle (LANAVET), Garoua (Cameroon)


    The results of the examination of 2959 bovine blood samples collected from four divisions of North Province of Cameroon showed a prevalence of 1.72 for T. brucei, 0.98 for T. congolense and 4.03 for T. vivax using parasitological techniques, such as the buffy coat technique (BCT) and the microhaematrocrit centrifugation technique (MHCT). Prevalence rates in tsetse infested areas were higher than in tsetse free areas for T. brucei and T. congolense, but not for T. vivax. The Antigen ELISA was used to detect trypanosomal antigens in serum samples of a subset of the same animals. By using the Ag-ELISA many more animals were detected positive for T. brucei and T. vivax, but not for T. congolense, than when just the two parasitological techniques were used. As a matter of fact 90% of the T. brucei infections were detected by the Ag-ELISA and 10% by using either the BCT or the MHCT. (author).6 refs, 5 figs, 6 tabs.

  16. Dinoflagellates of the Trentino Province, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna FLAIM


    Full Text Available The Trentino Province (Italy has more than 320 lakes diverse in size, geological substrate, altitude and trophic status, and representing most physico-chemical types of temperate lakes. A recent research project (SALTO offered the opportunity to study the dinoflagellate flora of 27 of these water bodies representing all lake types. In this paper 34 taxa of dinoflagellates assigned to eight genera (Ceratium, Glenodiniopsis, Glochidinium, Gymnodinium, Gyrodinium, Peridinium, Peridiniopsis and Tovellia in five families (Ceratiaceae, Glenodiniopsidaceae, Gymnodiniaceae, Peridiniaceae and Tovelliaceae and four genera of uncertain collocation (Baldinia, Borghiella, Durinskia and Staszicella are described. Two previously undescribed species and two new combinations are also included. Classification is based in part on Popovsk´y and Pfiester (1990, modified according to the results of recent molecular and ultrastructural analyses. Dinoflagellate taxonomy is currently undergoing extensive revision, and taxonomic decisions in the present article follow the recent orientations in dinoflagellate systematics. The taxonomical issues of the more problematic genera are discussed. Where appropriate, comments on ecological features of the species are also given.

  17. Bovine trypanosomosis in north province of cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ndamkou, C.N.; Nchare, A.


    The results of the examination of 2959 bovine blood samples collected from four divisions of North Province of Cameroon showed a prevalence of 1.72 for T. brucei, 0.98 for T. congolense and 4.03 for T. vivax using parasitological techniques, such as the buffy coat technique (BCT) and the microhaematrocrit centrifugation technique (MHCT). Prevalence rates in tsetse infested areas were higher than in tsetse free areas for T. brucei and T. congolense, but not for T. vivax. The Antigen ELISA was used to detect trypanosomal antigens in serum samples of a subset of the same animals. By using the Ag-ELISA many more animals were detected positive for T. brucei and T. vivax, but not for T. congolense, than when just the two parasitological techniques were used. As a matter of fact 90% of the T. brucei infections were detected by the Ag-ELISA and 10% by using either the BCT or the MHCT. (author).6 refs, 5 figs, 6 tabs

  18. Floristic study of Khargushan Mountain, Lorestan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Dehshiri


    Full Text Available The aim of this research was plant identification, introduction to the flora, determination of life forms and geographical distribution in Khargushan Mountain. This Mountain, with 6000 hectares, situated on the east of Poldokhtar and south-west of Khorramabad. The maximum altitude of this mountain is thought 2329 m. Plant specimens were collected from different parts of the area during two growing seasons 2013-2014. The plant biological spectrum of the area was plotted by means of life forms results. The position of the area within Iran’s phytogeography classification was studied based on geographical distribution data and references. From 211 identified species in the studied area, 3 Pteridophytes, 1 Gymnosperm, 176 dicotyledons and 31 monocotyledons were presented. These species belong to 50 families and 150 genera. The important families are Fabaceae, Asteraceae, Apiaceae and Lamiaceae with 12.79%, 10.42%, 8.05% and 7.58%, respectively. Life forms of the plant species include Therophytes 36.49%, Hemicryptophytes 31.28%, Cryptophytes 18.96%, Phanerophytes 8.06%, and Chamaephytes 5.21%. 138 species (65.4% were endemics of Irano-Turanian region; 32 species of them were endemics of Iran which among them, distribution of 4 species (Astragalus lurorum, Dionysia gaubae, Hedysarum gypsophilum and Phlomis lurestanica limited to Lorestan province.

  19. Church Tourism in Batangas Province, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Church tourism has clearly increased over the past ten years. Churches are an important part of the tourism product of many parts of the country. This study aimed to determine the contribution of the churches in terms of social, cultural and economic aspects of the place, to identify the problems encountered in the promoting church tourism and propose plan of action to sustain the tourism of the Province of Batangas through churches. The researchers used the descriptive method of research and utilized self-made questionnaire as the main data gathering instrument of the study. The respondents were consisting of 5 people in the offices of the pilgrim churches from Batangas City and 10 churchgoers. The respondents agree that pilgrim churches contribute to tourism in terms of social and economics aspect while they strongly agree in term of cultural aspect. The most commonly experienced problems were the accessibility of the transportation and an action plan was proposed to address the problems encountered. The recommendation addressed that roving guards should be provided to ensure the safety and security of the tourists during their visit in the church. The church personnel may provide creative and command activities that will encourage people. Also they may have a briefing about the history of the church so that if visitor needs information it easy for them to answer and an action plan may be implemented to solve the problem encountered.

  20. The effect of urban basic medical insurance on health service utilisation in Shaanxi Province, China: a comparison of two schemes. (United States)

    Zhou, Zhongliang; Zhou, Zhiying; Gao, Jianmin; Yang, Xiaowei; Yan, Ju'e; Xue, Qinxiang; Chen, Gang


    Urban population in China is mainly covered by two medical insurance schemes: the Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance (UEBMI) for urban employees in formal sector and the Urban Resident Basic Medical Insurance (URBMI) for the left urban residents, mainly the unemployed, the elderly and children. This paper studies the effects of UEBMI and URBMI on health services utilisation in Shaanxi Province, Western China. Cross-sectional data from the 4th National Health Services Survey - Shaanxi Province was studied. The propensity score matching and the coarsened exact matching methods have been used to estimate the average medical insurance effect on the insured. Compared to the uninsured, robust results suggest that UEBMI had significantly increased the outpatient health services utilisation in the last two weeks (pinsured was associated with higher health services utilisation, compared with the uninsured, none of the improvement was statistically significant (p>0.10). It was also found that compared with the uninsured, basic medical insurance enrollees were more likely to purchase inpatient treatments in lower levels of hospitals, consistent with the incentive of the benefit package design. Basic Medical insurance schemes have shown a positive but limited effect on increasing health services utilisation in Shaanxi Province. The benefit package design of higher reimbursement rates for lower level hospitals has induced the insured to use medical services in lower level hospitals for inpatient services.

  1. The Western Denmark Heart Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Morten; Maeng, Michael; Madsen, Morten


    The WDHR (Western Denmark Heart Registry) is a seminational, multicenter-based registry with longitudinal registration of detailed patient and procedure data since 1999. The registry includes as of January 1, 2017 approximately 240,000 coronary angiographies, 90,000 percutaneous coronary interven......The WDHR (Western Denmark Heart Registry) is a seminational, multicenter-based registry with longitudinal registration of detailed patient and procedure data since 1999. The registry includes as of January 1, 2017 approximately 240,000 coronary angiographies, 90,000 percutaneous coronary...

  2. Western Canada Sedimentary Basin competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millar, R.H.G.


    Recent dramatic expansion of the natural gas industry in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin provided ample proof of the potential of this area for further development of natural gas supply. However, the inherent competitive advantages provided by the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin were said to have been offset by low netback prices resulting in poor producer economics when competitiveness is measured by availability of opportunities to find and develop gas supply at costs low enough to ensure attractive returns. Technology was identified as one of the key elements in improving basin competitiveness, but the greatest potential lies in reduced transportation costs and increased access to North American market centres. 8 figs

  3. Investigating adolescents' sweetened beverage consumption and Western fast food restaurant visits in China, 2006-2011. (United States)

    Lee, Yen-Han; Chiang, Timothy C; Liu, Ching-Ti; Chang, Yen-Chang


    Background China has undergone rapid Westernization and established dramatic social reforms since the early 21st century. However, health issues led to challenges in the lives of the Chinese residents. Western fast food and sweetened beverages, two food options associated with chronic diseases and obesity, have played key roles to alter adolescents' dietary patterns. This study aims to examine the association between adolescents' visits to Western fast food restaurants and sweetened beverage consumption. Methods Applying three waves of the China Health and Nutrition Study (CHNS) between 2006 and 2011 (n = 1063), we used generalized Poisson regression (GPR) to investigate the association between adolescents' Western fast food restaurant visits and sweetened beverage consumption, as the popularity of fast food and sweetened beverages has skyrocketed among adolescents in contemporary China. A linear-by-linear association test was used as a trend test to study general patterns between sweetened beverage consumption and Western fast food restaurant visits. We adjusted all models with sweetened beverage consumption frequency, four food preferences (fast food, salty snacks, fruits and vegetables), school status, gross household income, provinces, rural/urban regions, age and gender. Results From the results of the trend test, frequent sweetened beverage consumption was highly associated with more Western fast food restaurant visits among Chinese adolescents in the three waves (p beverage consumption or did not drink them at all, had much less likelihood of visiting Western fast food restaurants (p beverage consumption was highly associated with Western fast food restaurant visits in contemporary China. Further actions are needed from the Chinese central government to create a healthier dietary environment for adolescents.

  4. Application of eco-economy regionalization in western China (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaojun; Dong, Suocheng; Weihong, Yin


    Ecological economics crossed extensively with some disciplines such as ecology, geography, economics, etc in China. And it is promoting the relevant disciplines to develop effectively in depth fields. The key research direction of eco-economic regionalizing is eco-economic space pattern, rule of territorial differentiation and eco-economic topological optimization. Based on GIS spatial analyze, the article elaborates the main characteristics and the problems of every eco-economic zones, districts and regions with the comprehensive geographical statistic data. The western eco-economic regionalizing was delimited by analyzing the superposition for ecological environment value and human actives value, refer to the topography and administrative boundary between provinces and the cities, the attachment of the regionalizing plans and territorial the continuity. There have several main indexes used in the regionalizing and the results to show the main character of each region, which comprise precipitation, temperature, primary production potential, while the population carrying capacity, and the index of water resources, land resources, landscape degradation, urbanization, and economic development, etc. To each type of eco-economic region, there are other analyzes respectively from the social, economic, and natural environment aspects. The result shows that there does now have serious economic development in western China, while the environmental problem still cannot be ignored.

  5. [Evolution of maize climate productivity and its response to climate change in Heilongjiang Province, China. (United States)

    Li, Xiu Fen; Zhao, Hui Ying; Zhu, Hai Xia; Wang, Ping; Wang, Qiu Jing; Wang, Ming; Li, Yu Guang


    Under the background of climate change, revealing the change trend and spatial diffe-rence of maize climate productivity in-depth and understanding the regularity of maize climatic resources utilization can provide scientific basis for the macro-decision of agricultural production in Heilongjiang Province. Based on the 1981-2014 meteorological data of 72 weather stations and the corresponding maize yield data in Heilongjiang Province, by the methods of step by step revisal, spatial interpolation and linear trend analysis, this paper studied the photosynthetic productivity (PP), light-temperature productivity (LTP), and climatic productivity (CP) of spring maize, and their temporal and spatial variation characteristics, main influencing factors and light energy utilization efficiency, and evaluated the maize climate productivities under different climate scenarios in the future. The results showed that during the study period, the mean PP, LTP and CP in Heilongjiang Province were 26558, 19953, 18742 kg·hm -2 , respectively. Maize PP, LTP and CP were high in plains and low in mountains, and gradually decreased from southwest to northeast. PP, LTP and CP presented significantly increasing trends, and the increase rates were 378, 723 and 560 kg·hm -2 ·(10 a) -1 , respectively. The increase of radiation and temperature had positive effect on maize production in Heilongjiang Province. The potential productivity of maize presented significant response to climate change. The decrease of solar radiation led to the decline of PP in western Songnen Plain, but the increased temperature compensated the negative effect of solar radiation, so the downward trend of LTP was slowed. The response to climate warming was particularly evident in North and East, and LTP was significantly increased, which was sensitive to the change of precipitation in southwest of Songnen Plain and part of Sanjiang Plain. The average ratio of maize actual yield to its climate productivity was only 24

  6. Lateral Variability of Lava flow Morphologies in the Deccan Traps Large Igneous Province (India) (United States)

    Vanderkluysen, L.; Rader, E. L.; Self, S.; Clarke, A. B.; Sheth, H.; Moyer, D. K.


    In continental flood basalt provinces (CFBs), lava flow morphologies have traditionally been classified in two distinct groups recognizable in the field, expressing two different modes of lava flow emplacement mechanisms: (a) compound lava flow fields dominated by meter-sized pāhoehoe toes and lobes; and (b) inflated sheet lobes tens to hundreds of meters in width and meters to tens of meters in height. Temporal transitions between these two emplacement styles have been recognized in many mafic large igneous provinces worldwide and seem to be a fundamental feature of CFBs. However, lateral variations in these morphologies remain poorly studied and understood. In the Deccan CFB of India, two principal hypotheses have been proposed to account for possible lateral variations in lava flow facies: that smaller toes and lobes occur in distal regions of flow fields, representing breakouts at the edges of larger inflated lavas; or on the contrary that smaller toes and lobes represent proximal facies. We conducted a field study focusing on two of the Deccan's formations, the Khandala and the Poladpur, located in the middle and upper sections of the province's defined chemostratigraphy. We studied nine sections along a 600 km long E-W transect, with the easternmost sections representing the most distal outcrops, ≥ 500 km away from inferred vents. The Khandala Formation is traditionally described as a sequence of three thick inflated sheet lobes in the well-exposed sections of the western Deccan. However, in the central Deccan, we find the Khandala to be much thicker overall, with half of its thickness dominated by small, meter-sized toes and lobes. Inflated sheet lobes of the Khandala are thinner on average in the central Deccan than further to the east or west. We document this transition as occurring progressively in outcrops only 80 km apart. In the Poladpur, the average thickness of inflated sheet lobes increases in distal outcrops of the eastern Deccan. We interpret

  7. Lagoa Real uranium province - The History of an example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raposo, C.; Matos, E.C. de


    It is narrated a historic about the anomalies descovered in Lagoa Real province (BA), focusing the aspects related to geology, mineralization, drillings data and reserves evaluation. Geologic and radiometric maps of the anomalies are shown. (A.B.) [pt

  8. Metallogenic epoch of the Jiapigou gold belt, Jilin Province, China

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Metallogenic epoch of the Jiapigou gold belt, Jilin Province, China: ... The Jiapigou gold belt is located on the northern margin of the North China Craton, and is one of the ... 29, Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100083, People's Republic of China.

  9. Zoning Of Apple Trees In Province Of Khorasan Razavi Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhtar Karami


    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of prone areas for apple cultivation in Razavi Khorasan province. Therefore in this study criteria and sub criteria were considered to determine suitable areas for growing apple trees and due to the importance of data integration Analytic Hierarchy Process AHP was selected to determine the weight of layers. The software ArcGIS version 10.2.2 was used to analyze the spatial and overlapping layers after data analysis in terms of growing apple trees Razavi Khorasan province was divided into four levels very good good average and bad. The results showed that suitable areas for growing apple trees in the studied area are located in the south east northeast and center of the province including Sarakhs Neyshaboor Gonabad and Kashmar stations with an area of over 4364789.32 hectares which is about 48.34 of the total area of the province.

  10. Evidences for a volcanic province in the Central Indian Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iyer, S.D.; Sudhakar, M.

    Based on various lines of evidence such as the widespread occurrence of basalts, pumice, volcanic glass shards and their transformational products (zeolites, palagonites, and smectite-rich sediments), we suggest the presence of a volcanic province...

  11. When biogeographical provinces collide: Hybridization of reef fishes at the crossroads of marine biogeographical provinces in the Arabian Sea

    KAUST Repository

    DiBattista, Joseph


    Aim: Suture zones are areas where closely related species from different biogeographical regions come into contact and interbreed. This concept originated from the study of terrestrial ecosystems but it remains unclear whether a similar phenomenon occurs in the marine environment. Here we investigate a potential suture zone from a previously unknown hybrid hotspot at the Socotra Archipelago (Yemen), located in the Arabian Sea, where fauna from the Red Sea, Gulf of Aden, Arabian Sea, western Indian Ocean and greater Indo-Polynesian Province intersect. Location: Red Sea, Gulf of Aden, Arabian Sea and Indian Ocean. Methods: Putative hybrid reef fish were identified based on intermediate coloration and morphology. Underwater observations and collections were conducted to determine: (1) whether parent species form heterospecific social groups or breeding pairs; (2) the sex and reproductive status of morphologically intermediate individuals; and (3) whether parent species were forming mixed species associations owing to a dearth of conspecific partners. To support hybrid status, morphologically intermediate and parental individuals were genotyped using mitochondrial DNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), nuclear recombination-activating gene 2 (RAG2) and the nuclear TMO-4C4 (TMO) gene. Results: We observed putative hybrids involving 14 species from four reef fish families at Socotra. Most cases involved a parental species with a restricted distribution (e.g. Red Sea or Arabian Sea) and a broadly distributed Indo-Pacific species. In most cases, at least one of the parent species was rare at Socotra. Hybrid gene flow was largely unidirectional, and although introgression was rare, we found evidence that some butterflyfish and surgeonfish hybrids were fertile and formed breeding groups with parental species. Main conclusions: The rate of hybrid discovery at Socotra is much greater than that recorded elsewhere in the marine environment and involved both allopatric and

  12. Infertility in Mazandaran province - north of Iran: an etiological study


    Nadali Musanejad; Gholamali Jursarayee; Ayyub Barzegarnejad; Sepideh Peivandi; Narges Moslemizadeh; Amir Esmailnejad Moghaddam; Abbasali Karimpour Malekshah


    Background: The prevalence and etiology of infertility are not similar in different parts of the world. There are only few reports of this topic in Iran. Objective: This study was conducted to determine the clinical patterns and major causes of infertility in Mazandaran province in north of Iran. Materials and Methods: The medical records of 3734 consecutive couples attending two infertility clinics in Mazandaran province, from 2003 to 2008, were reviewed. The couples had not had a viable bir...

  13. The Path Analysis of Farmers' Income Structure in Yunnan Province


    XIAO, Yongtian; CUI, Yu; HU, Lijia


    The problem of farmers' income growth is the key of issues concerning agriculture, countryside and farmers, so the farmers’ income growth is the fundamental starting point for agricultural and rural economic development. In this paper, we use the statistics concerning farmers' income in Yunnan Province from 1995 to 2012, to perform the path analysis of components of farmers' income in Yunnan Province, study the path of influence of components of farmers' income on farmers' net income, and t...

  14. Self-Burns in Fars Province, Southern Iran


    Mohammadi, Ali Akbar; Tohidinik, Hamid Reza; Zardosht, Mitra; Seyed Jafari, Seyed Morteza


    BACKGROUND The alarming incidence of self- burning provoked to set up a multidisciplinary preventive program to decrease the incidence and complications of this harmful issue. This study investigated the incidence and the preventive measures in self-burn in Fars Province, southern Iran. METHODS This study was a longitudinal prospective design on trend of self-inflicted burn injuries in Fars province after setting up a regional multidisciplinary preventive plan (2009-2012). RESULTS From 18862 ...

  15. The The geothermal potentials for electric development in Maluku Province


    Isnaniawardhani, Vijaya; Sukiyah, Emi; Sudradjat, Adjat; Nanlohy, Martha Magdalena


    The characteristic of small to medium size islands is the limited amount of natural resources for electric generation. Presently the needs of energy in Maluku Province are supplied by the diesel generation units. The electricity distributes through an isolated grid system of each island. There are 10 separate systems in Maluku Province, namely Ambon, Namlea, Tual, Saumlaki, Mako, Piru, Bula, Masohi, Dobo and Langgur. From the geothermal point of view, this condition is suitable because the na...

  16. Smoke exposure at western wildfires. (United States)

    Timothy E. Reinhardt; Roger D. Ottmar


    Smoke exposure measurements among firefighters at wildfires in the Western United States between 1992 and 1995 showed that altogether most exposures were not significant, between 3 and 5 percent of the shift-average exposures exceeded occupational exposure limits for carbon monoxide and respiratory irritants. Exposure to benzene and total suspended particulate was not...

  17. Western blotting using chemiluminescent substrates. (United States)

    Alegria-Schaffer, Alice


    Western blotting is a powerful and commonly used tool to identify and quantify a specific protein in a complex mixture (Towbin et al., 1979). The technique enables indirect detection of protein samples immobilized on a nitrocellulose or polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Shell Trumpets from Western Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Novella


    Full Text Available Marine shells have been used as musical instruments in almost all parts of the world (Izikowitz 1935, including Mesoamerica, where large univalves, also called conch shells in the literature, had a utilitarian function as trumpets. Their use is well documented in most cultural areas of Mesoamerica, as in Western Mexico, through their various occurrences in archaeological contexts and museums collections.

  19. Outbreak of Sporotrichosis, Western Australia (United States)

    Feeney, Kynan T.; Whittle, Amanda J.; Altman, Shelley A.; Speers, David J.


    A cluster of sporotrichosis cases occurred in the Busselton-Margaret River region of Western Australia from 2000 to 2003. Epidemiologic investigation and mycologic culture for Sporothrix schenckii implicated hay initially distributed through a commercial hay supplier as the source of the outbreak. Declining infection rates have occurred after various community measures were instigated. PMID:17953099


    The USEPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program conducted a five year probability sample of permanent mapped streams in 12 western US states. The study design enables us to determine the extent of selected riparian invasive plants, alien aquatic vertebrates, and some ...

  1. Pigmentary disorders in Western countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, J. P. Wietze


    Countries in the so-called "Western" world, especially in Europe, witnessed a dramatic change in ethnic backgrounds of their populations starting in the last decennia of the last century. This had repercussions on various aspects of our society, including medical practice. In dermatology for

  2. Gendering Citizenship in Western Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte; Lister, Ruth; Williams, Fiona

    The first part of the book clarifies the ways that the concept of citizenship has developed historically and is understood today in a range of Western European welfare states. It elaborates on the contempory framing of debates and struggles around citizenship. This provides a framework for thee...

  3. Western Transitology and Chinese Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik

    It is the object of considerable debate in Western scholarship whether an authoritarian political order dominated by a strong communist party can continue to exist in China given the many challenges stemming from internal reform and the impact of globalization. Will China eventually turn democratic...

  4. Skywatch: The Western Weather Guide. (United States)

    Keen, Richard A.

    The western United States is a region of mountains and valleys with the world's largest ocean next door. Its weather is unique. This book discusses how water, wind, and environmental conditions combine to create the climatic conditions of the region. Included are sections describing: fronts; cyclones; precipitation; storms; tornadoes; hurricanes;…

  5. The Shape of a Western

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jakob Isak


    The article is written for an issue on the Western genre. By means of a comparative analysis of Winchester '73 (Anthony Mann, 1950) and The Man from Laramie (Anthony Mann, 1955) the article accounts for stylistic, narrative, generic and theoretical implications of the transition from Academy ratio...

  6. The estimation of phenological thresholds of Saffron cultivation in Isfahan province based on the daily temperature statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamabbas Fallahghalhary


    Full Text Available In this research, the statistics of daily temperature of meteorology stations for estimating the probable occurrence of the first and last frost temperature, the phonological thresholds of saffron and its flowering and irrigation dates were explored. Furthermore, by applying different methods, the probabilities of the attained dates in different probability levels were fit in Smada software. The estimated probability level of 95 percent, as the optimum date, was donated for the entire Isfahan province in ArcGIS9/3 software environment using the interpolation method of Cokriging. The time of occurrence of minimum temperatures is under the influence of the geographical and height condition of each region and the first fall season frost occurs in high regions of the eastern half of Isfahan province at the beginning of November and in the low-lying eastern regions in the late December. The occurrence of daily temperature is changeable from the first half of October and the second half of November. From the west to the east of Isfahan, the time of occurrence of this threshold has a delay of about one month. The optimum flowering date of saffron, based on climatic conditions, is from the first half of October to the late of November. By considering the flowering date and daily temperature requirement of saffron, the irrigation date prior to flowering continues from the second half of September in the western parts and the beginning of November in the eastern regions. From the perspective of thermal condition, the western, central, northern and eastern parts of Isfahan province are more suited to the cultivation and development of saffron product. The amount of water requirement in the study area based on evapotranspiration and crop coefficients of saffron occurred in the mid-season, late season and Initial.

  7. Current Situation, Determinants, and Solutions to Drug Shortages in Shaanxi Province, China: A Qualitative Study. (United States)

    Yang, Caijun; Wu, Lina; Cai, Wenfang; Zhu, Wenwen; Shen, Qian; Li, Zongjie; Fang, Yu


    Drug shortages were a complex global problem. The aim of this study was to analyze, characterize, and assess the drug shortages, and identify possible solutions in Shaanxi Province, western China. A qualitative methodological approach was conducted during May-June 2015 and December 2015-January 2016. Semi-structured interviews were performed to gather information from representatives of hospital pharmacists, wholesalers, pharmaceutical producers, and local health authorities. Thirty participants took part in the study. Eight traditional Chinese medicines and 87 types of biologicals and chemicals were reported to be in short supply. Most were essential medicines. Five main determinants of drug shortages were detected: too low prices, too low market demands, Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) issues, materials issues, and approval issues for imported drugs. Five different solutions were proposed by the participants: 1) let the market decide the drug price; 2) establish an information platform; 3) establish a reserve system; 4) enhance the communication among the three parties in the supply chain; and 5) improve hospital inventory management. Western China was currently experiencing a serious drug shortage. Numerous reasons for the shortage were identified. Most drug shortages in China were currently because of "too low prices." To solve this problem, all of the stakeholders, especially the government, needed to participate in managing the drug shortages.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available RACT Protein consumption level of society in Yogyakarta Province has yet to meet the target, but the beef is a source of animal protein that is easily obtainable. Therefore, research on the analysis of demand for beef in this province needs to be done. Objective: (1 Determine the factors that affect the demand for beef in Yogyakarta. (2 Determine the own price elasticity and income elasticity of demand for beef in this province, and to know the cross-price elasticity of demand for beef to changes in the price of mutton, chicken, rice, and cooking oil. Metode: descriptive statistics, followed by inductive statistics , and hypothesis testing. The data used are primary and secondary data. Data were analyzed by multiple linear regression with the value of t and F tests, and analysis of the coefficient of determination. Results: Taken together, the factors that affect the demand for beef in the province is the price of beef, mutton, chicken, rice, cooking oil, income, number of inhabitants. Individually, beef demand is influenced by the price of beef and income residents. Beef inelastic demand means that beef is the daily necessities that are affordable and easy to obtain population of Yogyakarta Province. The increase in income population does not add to demand for beef. Substitutes of beef in the province is goat and chicken, while the complementary goods are rice and cooking oil.

  9. Crust structure beneath Jilin Province and Liaoning Province in China based on seismic ambient noise tomography (United States)

    Pang, Guanghua; Feng, Jikun; Lin, Jun


    We imaged the crust structure beneath Jilin Province and Liaoning Province in China with fundamental mode Rayleigh waves recorded by 60 broadband stations deployed in the region. Surface-wave empirical Green's functions were retrieved from cross-correlations of inter-station data and phase velocity dispersions were measured using a frequency-time analysis method. Dispersion measurements were then utilized to construct 2D phase velocity maps for periods between 5 and 35 s. Subsequently, the phase-dispersion curves extracted from each cell of the 2D phase velocity maps were inverted to determine the 3D shear wave velocity structures of the crust. The phase velocity maps at different periods reflected the average velocity structures corresponding to different depth ranges. The maps in short periods, in particular, were in excellent agreement with known geological features of the surface. In addition to imaging shear wave velocity structures of the volcanoes, we show that obvious low-velocity anomalies imaged in the Changbaishan-Tianchi Volcano, the Longgang-Jinlongdingzi Volcano, and the system of the Dunmi Fault crossing the Jingbohu Volcano, all of which may be due to geothermal anomalies.

  10. Oil and gas developments in western Canada in 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, P.W.; Robertson, D.C.


    In 1981 there was a marked slump in drilling activity in western Canada, resulting from the combined effects of the National Energy Program (NEP), economic recession and a worldwide oil surplus. The number of wells drilled dropped by 22% to a total of 6,904. Exploratory drilling decreased 19% to 3,074 wells, and development drilling decreased 25% to 3,830 wells. The exploratory success rate also decreased to 62% in 1981, based on 740 oil discoveries and 1,172 gas discoveries. The development success rate decreased slightly to 88%, with 1,334 oil discoveries and 2,034 gas discoveries. Average well depth increased in four of the five western areas, but total revenue from land sales plummetted to half of the previous years' record totals. Average price per hectare also dropped. In Alberta, significant exploration activity was centred in the Shekilie, Golden-Evi and West Pembina areas, while major gas discoveries were made at Whiskey and Elmworth, and oil discoveries at Tangent. No significant new discoveries were made in British Columbia or Saskatchewan, but the 1980 Manitoba oil discovery at Waskada continued to stimulate activity. Preliminary results from the Nechako Basin drilling in central British Columbia proved to be disappointing with three successive dry holes. In the Arctic Islands, two major oil discoveries were made at Skate and Cisco, off Lougheed Island and a gas discovery at MacLean. Beaufort Sea drilling was hampered by weather, but nonetheless resulted in major oil discoveries a Koakoak and at a Kopanoar follow-up well. The year 1981 will probably be viewed as a major turning point in exploration in western Canada, with interest shifting from the provinces to the frontiers, and the participants now mainly Canadian-controlled companies.

  11. Laboratory quality improvement in Thailand's northernmost provinces. (United States)

    Kanitvittaya, S; Suksai, U; Suksripanich, O; Pobkeeree, V


    In Thailand nearly 1000 public health laboratories serve 65 million people. A qualified indicator of a good quality laboratory is Thailand Medical Technology Council certification. Consequently, Chiang Rai Regional Medical Sciences Center established a development program for laboratory certification for 29 laboratories in the province. This paper seeks to examine this issue. The goal was to improve laboratory service quality by voluntary participation, peer review, training and compliance with standards. The program consisted of specific activities. Training and workshops to update laboratory staffs' quality management knowledge were organized. Staff in each laboratory performed a self-assessment using a standard check-list to evaluate ten laboratory management areas. Chiang Rai Regional Medical Sciences Center staff supported the distribution of quality materials and documents. They provided calibration services for laboratory equipment. Peer groups performed an internal audit and successful laboratories received Thailand Medical Technology Council certification. By December 2007, eight of the 29 laboratories had improved quality sufficiently to be certified. Factors that influenced laboratories' readiness for quality improvement included the number of staff, their knowledge, budget and staff commitment to the process. Moreover, the support of each hospital's laboratory working group or network was essential for success. There was no clear policy for supporting the program. Laboratories voluntarily conducted quality management using existing resources. A bottom-up approach to this kind of project can be difficult to accomplish. Laboratory professionals can work together to illustrate and highlight outcomes for top-level health officials. A top-down, practical approach would be much less difficult to implement. Quality certification is a critical step for laboratory staff, which also encourages them to aspire to international quality standards like ISO. The

  12. Prospects of gold mineralization in the Gilgit-Baltistan Province of Pakistan (United States)

    Shah, M. T.; Khan, S. D.; Tahirkheli, T.; Ahmad, L.; Miandad, S.; Rehman, A. U.; Ali, L.


    Gilgit-Baltistan province is the northern most province of Pakistan having its eastern, northern and western boarders with India, China and Afghanistan respectively. The geology of this province is unique as it has the spectacular tectonic entities of Asiatic plate (AP), Indian plate (IP) and the Kohistan-Ladakh arc (KLA). The Northern Suture Zone (NSZ) or Main Karakoram Thrust (MKT) separate the KLA from AP in the north while the Maim Mantle Thrust (MMT) separate the KLA from IP in the south. These different tectonic events have generated various types of igneous and metamorphic rocks in the form of gigantic mountain chains in the region. Considering the metallogenic provinces related to such types of tectonic environments world over, it can be suggested that the Gigit-Baltistan province may have the potential for the occurrence of economic mineral deposits. The present study is the follow-up of the previous studies for exploration of gold and base metals conducted by the Austrominerals and the Pakistan Mineral Development Corporation (PMDC) in the region. On the basis of PMDC extensive stream sediments geochemical survey of the province and delineated number of anomalous catchment areas for gold mineralization. In order to find the source bed-rock of gold, we have identified various alteration zones in these catchment areas by applying Remote sensing techniques by using both multispectral (LANDSAT, ASTER and Geoeye) and hyperspectral (Hyperion) data. Most of the alteration zones were found in steep high altitude inaccessible terrains. During this study, few of the accessible alteration zones in Golo Das, Bagrot valley, Shigri Bala, Machulu and Ranthak areas were selected for geological filed work and collection of proper samples from the alteration zones and host rocks for the identification of possible gold mineralization. In all these localities, the alteration zones are present along shear zones where the sulfide mineralization commonly occurs in the form of

  13. Using Facilities And Potential Of Geothermal Resources In The Canakkale Province - NW Turkey (United States)

    Deniz, Ozan; Acar Deniz, Zahide


    Turkey, due to its geological location, has a rich potential in point of geothermal resources. Çanakkale province is located northwestern (NW) part of Turkey and it has important geothermal fields in terms of geothermal energy potential. Geothermal resources reach to the surface both effects of past volcanic activity and extensions of fault zones associated with complex tectonic systems in the region. The aim of this study is to summarize hydrogeochemical characteristics, using facilities and potential of hot springs and spas located in the Çanakkale province. There are 13 geothermal fields in the region and the surface temperatures of hot springs are ranging between 28 centigrade degree and 175 centigrade degree. Hydrogeochemical compositions of thermal water display variable chemical compositions. Na, Ca, SO4, HCO3 and Cl are the dominant ions in these waters. Thermal waters of Tuzla and Kestanbol geothermal fields which is located the near coastal area can be noted NaCl type. Because these two geothermal waters have high TDS values, scaling problems are seen around the hot springs and pipelines. Geothermal waters in the province are meteoric origin according to oxygen-18, deuterium and tritium isotopes data. Long underground residence times of these waters and its temperatures have caused both more water - rock interaction and low tritium values. Geothermal energy is utilized in many areas in Turkey today. It is generally used for space heating, balneotherapy and electricity generation. Explorations of geothermal resources and investments in geothermal energy sector have risen rapidly in the recent years particularly in western Turkey. High-temperature geothermal fields are generally located in this region related to the Aegean Graben System and the North Anotalian Fault Zone. All geothermal power plants in Turkey are located in this region. Considering the Çanakkale province, most geothermal fields are suitable for multipurpose usage but many of them have

  14. The Teles Pires volcanic province: A paleogeoproterozoic silicic-dominated large igneous province in southwest Amazon craton and tectonic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite, Jayme Alfredo Dexheimer; Saes, Gerson Souza; Macambira, Moacir Jose Buenano


    Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) are important features of the Earth history especially recognized during Paleo to Mezosoic times when they are related to the break up of supercontinents (Coffin and Eldhom, 1994). These provinces occur in several different tectonic settings such as volcanic passive margins, submarine ridges and continental and oceanic plateaux. Mafic-dominanted provinces are the most well known among the LIPs and the best examples are the Karoo, Kerguelem and Ontong-Java. LIPs including an important silicic component have been described in some basaltic provinces of southern Africa (Milner et al. 1992). More recently, silicic-dominated LIPs have been recognized in eastern Australia (Bryan et al., 2000), in southern South America (Pankhurst et al. 1998) and in Antartica Penninsula (Riley and Leat, 1999). The common characteristics of this kind of LIP include: 1) large volume of silicic rocks with dominance of ignimbrites, 2) active over 40 to 50 m.y.; and 3) spatially and temporally associated with plate break up. In this paper we present the main geologic and geochronologic characteristics of the Teles Pires volcanic province from southwest Amazon Craton, which allow its classification as a Paleoprotorozoic silicic-dominated LIP. Geologic implications of this suggestion includes the existence of a large cratonic plate as old as 1.81Ga for the Amazon Craton, therefore the proposed 1.85-1.55 Ga magmatic arc of Rio Negro-Juruena Province should be reviewed (au)

  15. Parasites of South African wildlife. XIX. The prevalence of helminths in some common antelopes, warthogs and a bushpig in the Limpopo province, South Africa. (United States)

    Van Wyk, Ilana C; Boomker, Joop


    Little work has been conducted on the helminth parasites of artiodactylids in the northern and western parts of the Limpopo province, which is considerably drier than the rest of the province. The aim of this study was to determine the kinds and numbers of helminth that occur in different wildlife hosts in the area as well as whether any zoonotic helminths were present. Ten impalas (Aepyceros melampus), eight kudus (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), four blue wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus), two black wildebeest (Connochaetes gnou), three gemsbok (Oryx gazella), one nyala (Tragelaphus angasii), one bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus), one waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus), six warthogs (Phacochoerus aethiopicus) and a single bushpig (Potamochoerus porcus) were sampled from various localities in the semi-arid northern and western areas of the Limpopo province. New host-parasite associations included Trichostrongylus deflexus from blue wildebeest, Agriostomum gorgonis from black wildebeest, Stilesia globipunctata from the waterbuck and Fasciola hepatica in a kudu. The mean helminth burden, including extra-gastrointestinal helminths, was 592 in impalas, 407 in kudus and blue wildebeest, 588 in black wildebeest, 184 in gemsbok, and 2150 in the waterbuck. Excluding Probstmayria vivipara, the mean helminth burden in warthogs was 2228 and the total nematode burden in the bushpig was 80. The total burdens and species richness of the helminths in this study were consistently low when compared with similar studies on the same species in areas with higher rainfall. This has practical implications when animals are translocated to areas with higher rainfall and higher prevalence of helminths.

  16. Traditional beliefs and practices in the postpartum period in Fujian Province, China: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raven Joanna H


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zuo yuezi is the month postpartum in China associated with a variety of traditional beliefs and practices. We explored the current status of zuo yuezi from social, cultural and western medical perspectives. Methods We interviewed family members (36 and health workers (8 in Fujian Province, selecting one rural and one rapidly developing urban county. We asked about their traditional beliefs and their behaviour postpartum. We used a framework approach to identify main themes. We categorised reported behaviour against their probable effects on health, drawing on Western standards. Results Respondents reported that zuo yuezi was commonly practiced in urban and rural families to help the mother regain her strength and protect her future health. Zuo yuezi included: dietary precautions, such as eating more food and avoiding cold food; behavioural precautions, such as staying inside the home, avoiding housework and limiting visitors; hygiene precautions, such as restricting bathing and dental hygiene; and practices associated with infant feeding, including supplementary feeding and giving honeysuckle herb to the infant. Respondents reported that the main reasons for adhering to these practices were respect for tradition, and following the advice of elders. Categorised against Western medical standards, several zuo yuezi practices are beneficial, including eating more, eating protein rich food, avoiding housework, and daily vulval and perineal hygiene. A few are potentially harmful, including giving honeysuckle herb, and avoiding dental hygiene. Some women reported giving infants supplementary feeds, although zuo yuezi emphasises breast feeding. Conclusion Zuo yuezi is an important ritual in Fujian. In medical terms, most practices are beneficial, and could be used by health staff to promote health in this period. Further research on reported potentially harmful practices, such as supplements to breast feeding, is needed.

  17. Fire Behavior in Pelalawan Peatland, Riau Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available During dry season it is easily recognized that smoke will emerge at certain place both in Sumatra and Kalimantan that is in peatland. The worst situation occurred when fire burnt buried log in the logged over area where the fire fighter did not have any experience and knowledge on how to work with fire in peatland. Finally it had been found that one of the reasons why firefighter failed to fight fire in peatland is because they do not have any knowledge and experience on it. In order to know the fire behavior characteristics in different level of peat decomposition for fire management and sustainable management of the land for the community, research done in Pelalawan area, Riau Province, Indonesia, during dry season 2001. Three level of peat decomposition named Sapric, Hemic, and Fibric used. To conduct the research, two 400 m2 of plot each was established in every level of the peat decomposition. Burning done three weeks following slashing, cutting and drying at different time using circle method. During burning, flame length, rate of the spread of fire, flame temperature and following burning fuel left and the depth of peat destruction were measured. Results of research shown that in sapric site where sapric 2 has fuel load 9 ton ha-1 less than sapric 1, fire behavior was significantly different while peat destructed was deepest in sapric 2 with 31.87 cm. In hemic site where hemic 2 has fuel load 12.3 ton ha-1 more than hemic 1, fire behavior was significantly different and peat destructed deeper than hemic 1 that was 12.6 cm. In fibric site where fibric 1 has fuel load 3.5 ton ha-1 more than fibric 1, fire behavior was significantly different that has no burnt peat found. This results found that the different fuel characteristics (potency, moisture, bed depth, and type at the same level of peat decomposition will have significantly different fire behavior as it happened also on the depth of peat destruction except fibric. The same condition

  18. Magmatic systems of large continental igneous provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sharkov


    Full Text Available Large igneous provinces (LIPs formed by mantle superplume events have irreversibly changed their composition in the geological evolution of the Earth from high-Mg melts (during Archean and early Paleoproterozoic to Phanerozoic-type geochemically enriched Fe-Ti basalts and picrites at 2.3 Ga. We propose that this upheaval could be related to the change in the source and nature of the mantle superplumes of different generations. The first generation plumes were derived from the depleted mantle, whereas the second generation (thermochemical originated from the core-mantle boundary (CMB. This study mainly focuses on the second (Phanerozoic type of LIPs, as exemplified by the mid-Paleoproterozoic Jatulian–Ludicovian LIP in the Fennoscandian Shield, the Permian–Triassic Siberian LIP, and the late Cenozoic flood basalts of Syria. The latter LIP contains mantle xenoliths represented by green and black series. These xenoliths are fragments of cooled upper margins of the mantle plume heads, above zones of adiabatic melting, and provide information about composition of the plume material and processes in the plume head. Based on the previous studies on the composition of the mantle xenoliths in within-plate basalts around the world, it is inferred that the heads of the mantle (thermochemical plumes are made up of moderately depleted spinel peridotites (mainly lherzolites and geochemically-enriched intergranular fluid/melt. Further, it is presumed that the plume heads intrude the mafic lower crust and reach up to the bottom of the upper crust at depths ∼20 km. The generation of two major types of mantle-derived magmas (alkali and tholeiitic basalts was previously attributed to the processes related to different PT-parameters in the adiabatic melting zone whereas this study relates to the fluid regime in the plume heads. It is also suggested that a newly-formed melt can occur on different sides of a critical plane of silica undersaturation and can

  19. A new family programme in Zhejiang province. (United States)

    Xu, B


    Zhejiang Province in China has promoted a new family planning program since April 1993. The program stresses delayed marriage and childbearing, fewer and healthier births, modernization of family life, and prosperity through hard work. The people are receptive to the new program out of a desire for an improved standard of living. The objective is to build small, modern families who 1) practice deferred marriage and childbearing; 2) voluntarily practice family planning and have no unplanned births; 3) practice avoidance of consanguineous marriage, become sterilized if a carrier of a hereditary disease of chromosomal abnormality, and use premarital education and counseling and proper prenatal care; 4) uphold the laws and maintain discipline in action to avoid criminal behavior; 5) establish families that respect the old, care for children, and help their neighbors; 6) complete 9 years of compulsory education; and 7) create well being through hard work. The program is compatible with the strategy of the "three stresses" and an integrated approach. IEC and service provision are important components in program implementation. The target population are the masses and grassroots cadres, particularly those in the childbearing ages. IEC will be directed in different ways to different groups. Those aged 18-35 years will receive education. Face to face interaction with family planning workers and lectures will be directed to grassroots cadres. The mass media will be employed to reach the masses. The messages will include information and persuasion to adopt new families, accept family planning regulations, and learn about contraceptive use, healthy births and childrearing, education, health care, sex education, and income generation skills. Classes will be conducted for groups, such as teenagers, unmarried youth, pregnant women, and lactating women. Priority will be given to couples that accept the certificates for one child; favoritism will be granted for allocation of

  20. Iodine-123 in Western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qaim, S.M.; Stoecklin, G.; Weinreich, R.


    The major object of this panel was to obtain information on the state of art of Iodine-123 production in Western Europe. Technical, medical and organizational problems were discussed extensively during the one-day meeting and a stimulating exchange of information between the various 123 I-producers and users has been initiated. Some specific examples of medical application were also included in order to get a feeling of the degree of acceptance by the medical community and the demand for this isotope. The meeting clearly demonstrated the great demand for this isotope but it also showed that the present rate of production is well below the demand. In order to fill this gap, not only further technical development is needed but also the organizational question of distribution has to be solved, perhaps within a network of collaborating cyclotrons, a task which is considerably more difficult in Western Europe than in the USA. (orig./HP) [de

  1. Western Blotting using Capillary Electrophoresis


    Anderson, Gwendolyn J.; Cipolla, Cynthia; Kennedy, Robert T.


    A microscale Western blotting system based on separating sodium-dodecyl sulfate protein complexes by capillary gel electrophoresis followed by deposition onto a blotting membrane for immunoassay is described. In the system, the separation capillary is grounded through a sheath capillary to a mobile X-Y translation stage which moves a blotting membrane past the capillary outlet for protein deposition. The blotting membrane is moistened with a methanol and buffer mixture to facilitate protein a...

  2. The western Veil nebula (Image) (United States)

    Glenny, M.


    The western Veil nebula in Cygnus. 15-part mosaic by Mike Glenny, Gloucestershire, taken over several months mostly in the autumn of 2008. 200mm LX90/f10 autoguided, Meade UHC filter, 0.3xFR/FF, Canon 20Da DSLR. Exposures each typically 10x360 secs at ISO1600, processed in Registax4, PixInsight (for flat field correction) & Photoshop CS.

  3. A contribution to the bryoflora of the Western Ghats in Karnataka State, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarz Uwe


    Full Text Available Based on fieldtrips of the authors in 2012, a list of species collected in a small area of the Western Ghats (Coorg District, state of Karnataka is presented. It includes 18 species of liverworts and hornworts as well as 76 species of mosses. 27 species of mosses are newly reported for the state of Karnataka, 6 species are new for Coorg province. Holomitrium javanicum Dozy & Molk. is reported as new to India. Campylopus sedgwickii Dix. described from Sri Lanka and so far only known from the type locality is a new synonym of C. recurvus Mitt. The list gives a rough inventory of the bryoflora in altitudes between 900 m and 1750 m and can be regarded as typical for the northern Western Ghats.

  4. Radioactive mineral potential of carbonatites in western parts of the South American shields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Premoli, C.; Kroonenberg, S.B.


    During the last eight years at least six carbonatites or clusters of carbonatites have been discovered in the western parts of the South American cratons. In contrast to the carbonatites of the eastern part of the South American shields, which have been well studied and placed in a tectonic context together with the West African carbonatite provinces, those of the western part of the South American cratons have received litte attention. This paper is a compilation of published and original data on these occurrences, their geology, geochemistry, structural setting and radioactive mineral potential. An exploration strategy is devised based on experiences in this rainforest-clad area and the peculiar genetic aspect of carbonatites. Some details of a possibly new uranium mineral encountered in Cerro Cora carbonatite are given. (author)

  5. Ethics, Gesture and the Western

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Minden


    Full Text Available This paper relates the Western Movie to Agamben’s implied gestural zone between intention and act. Film is important in the realisation of this zone because it was the first means of representation to capture the body in movement. The Western movie explores the space of ethical indistinction between the acts of individual fighters and the establishment of a rule of law, or putting this another way, between violence and justice. Two classic examples of an archetypal Western plot (Shane, 1953 and Unforgiven, 1991 that particularly embodies this are cited. In both a gunfighter who has forsworn violence at the start is led by the circumstances of the plot to take it up once more at the conclusion. In these terms all the gestures contained between these beginning- and end-points are analysable as an ethics of gesture because, captured as gestures, they occupy the human space between abstraction and action, suspended between them, and reducible to neither.  David Foster Wallace's definition of this narrative arc in Infinite Jest (and embodied in it is adduced in order to suggest a parallel between Agamben's notion of an ethics of gesture, and an ethics of genre.

  6. Buddha philosophy and western psychology. (United States)

    Aich, Tapas Kumar


    Four noble truths as preached by Buddha are that the life is full of suffering (Duhkha), that there is a cause of this suffering (Duhkha-samudaya), it is possible to stop suffering (Duhkha-nirodha), and there is a way to extinguish suffering (Duhkha-nirodha-marga). Eight fold Path (astangika-marga) as advocated by Buddha as a way to extinguish the sufferings are right views, right resolve/aspiration, right speech, right action/conduct, right livelihood, right effort right mindfulness and right concentration. Mid-twentieth century saw the collaborations between many psychoanalysts and Buddhist scholars as a meeting between "two of the most powerful forces" operating in the Western mind. Buddhism and Western Psychology overlap in theory and in practice. Over the last century, experts have written on many commonalities between Buddhism and various branches of modern western psychology like phenomenological psychology, psychoanalytical psychotherapy, humanistic psychology, cognitive psychology and existential psychology. Orientalist Alan Watts wrote 'if we look deeply into such ways of life as Buddhism, we do not find either philosophy or religion as these are understood in the West. We find something more nearly resembling psychotherapy'. Buddha was a unique psychotherapist. His therapeutic methods helped millions of people throughout the centuries. This essay is just an expression of what little the current author has understood on Buddha philosophy and an opportunity to offer his deep tribute to one of the greatest psychotherapists the world has ever produced!

  7. Buddha philosophy and western psychology (United States)

    Aich, Tapas Kumar


    Four noble truths as preached by Buddha are that the life is full of suffering (Duhkha), that there is a cause of this suffering (Duhkha-samudaya), it is possible to stop suffering (Duhkha-nirodha), and there is a way to extinguish suffering (Duhkha-nirodha-marga). Eight fold Path (astangika-marga) as advocated by Buddha as a way to extinguish the sufferings are right views, right resolve/aspiration, right speech, right action/conduct, right livelihood, right effort right mindfulness and right concentration. Mid-twentieth century saw the collaborations between many psychoanalysts and Buddhist scholars as a meeting between “two of the most powerful forces” operating in the Western mind. Buddhism and Western Psychology overlap in theory and in practice. Over the last century, experts have written on many commonalities between Buddhism and various branches of modern western psychology like phenomenological psychology, psychoanalytical psychotherapy, humanistic psychology, cognitive psychology and existential psychology. Orientalist Alan Watts wrote ‘if we look deeply into such ways of life as Buddhism, we do not find either philosophy or religion as these are understood in the West. We find something more nearly resembling psychotherapy’. Buddha was a unique psychotherapist. His therapeutic methods helped millions of people throughout the centuries. This essay is just an expression of what little the current author has understood on Buddha philosophy and an opportunity to offer his deep tribute to one of the greatest psychotherapists the world has ever produced! PMID:23858249

  8. Annosus Root disease of Western Conifers (FIDL) (United States)

    Craig L. Schmitt; John R. Parmeter; John T. Kliejunas


    Annosus root disease is found on all western conifer species but is of most concern on true firs, hemlocks, and pines. Incense cedar, coast redwood and sequoia are sometimes infected in California. Western juniper is infected throughout its range. Annosus is common and causes extensive decay in old-growth western and mountain hemlock stands. Many mixed conifer stands...

  9. Women and Islam in the Western Media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vintges, K.; Ennaji, M.


    This chapter focuses on recent debates on women and Islam as framed in the Western media. The first section discusses the way these debates are organized through the presentations and self-presentations of Muslim women in the Western media. The second section (titled “The Restyling of Western

  10. The geothermal potentials for electric development in Maluku Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaya Isnaniawardhani


    Full Text Available The characteristic of small to medium size islands is the limited amount of natural resources for electric generation. Presently the needs of energy in Maluku Province are supplied by the diesel generation units. The electricity distributes through an isolated grid system of each island. There are 10 separate systems in Maluku Province, namely Ambon, Namlea, Tual, Saumlaki, Mako, Piru, Bula, Masohi, Dobo and Langgur. From the geothermal point of view, this condition is suitable because the nature of the generation is small to medium and the locations are dispersed. The geological condition of Maluku Province is conducive for the formation of geothermal resources. The advanced utilization of geothermal energy in Maluku Province is in Tulehu located about 8 kilometers NE of Ambon. It is expected that 60 MW electric will be produced at the first stage in 2019. A total of 100 MW resources were estimated. Other places of geothermal potentials are Lauke and Tawen both located in Ambon Island with the potentials of 25 MW respectively. In Oma Haruku, Saparua and Nusa Laut the geothermal potentials were estimated to be 25 MW each. The total amount of geothermal energy in Maluku Province is thus, 225 MW which will contribute significantly to the needs of projected 184 MW in the year 2025.

  11. Spatial distribution of cancer in Kohgilooyeh and Boyerahmad province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Fararouei


    Full Text Available Spatial distribution of cancer is one of the powerful tools in epidemiology of cancer. The present study is designed to understand the geographical distribution of most frequent types of cancer in K&B province. Methods: All registered cases of cancer are reviewed and duplicate cases were removed. The data was analyzed using Arcgis software. Results: Of all registered cases, 1273  remained for analysis of which 57% were residences of urban areas. Cities including  Sisakht, Yasuj and Dehdsasht were shown to have highest incidence rates among the Urban areas. Dena, Sepidar and Kohmare Khaleghi had the highest rates among the rural areas in the province. Skin cancer was the most common type of cancer which had the highest rates of incidence in Sisakht and Dehdasht and Dena and Sepidar among urban and rural areas respectively. Conclusion: The distribution of cancer was not even in the province. Attitude and consumption of wild and regional plants are introduced as the potential risk factors for such a spatial distribution of the common cancers I the province. The results of this study could be used for further analytical studies to understand the regional etiology of cancer in the province.

  12. Sustainable Development of Rural Tourism in An Giang Province, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Thanh Long


    Full Text Available This study aims at sustainably developing rural tourism in An Giang Province, an agricultural province located in the South of Vietnam, by identifying the determinants of the satisfaction and revisit intention of tourists based on both qualitative and quantitative approaches. From exploratory interviews with experts and comprehensive group discussions, we developed a questionnaire for an official survey of 507 tourists at different tour-sites in An Giang Province. It is found that: (1 there are seven key factors affecting the satisfaction of the tourists, including: spirituality, tourism safety and security, people, food and beverage, natural environment, service prices and tourism infrastructure; and (2 revisit intention of tourists is affected by six factors, including: satisfaction, spirituality, tourism safety and security, people, food and beverage and service prices. Among them, spirituality is a new factor to be thoughtfully considered due to its significant influence on both the tourist satisfaction and revisit intention. From these findings, we proposed some managerial implications for the sustainable development of rural tourism in An Giang Province by enhancing the satisfaction and revisit intention of the tourists after they visit the province.

  13. Northeast Atlantic Igneous Province volcanic margin development (United States)

    Mjelde, R.; Breivik, A. J.; Faleide, J. I.


    Early Eocene continental breakup in the NE Atlantic Volcanic Province (NAIP) was associated with voluminous extrusive and intrusive magmatism, and initial seafloor spreading produced anomalously thick oceanic crust. Recent publications based on crustal-scale wide-angle seismic data show that there is a positive correlation between igneous crustal thickness (H) and average P-wave velocity (Vp) on all investigated margins in the NAIP. Vp can be used as a proxy for crustal composition, which can be related to the mode of mantle melting. A positive H-Vp correlation indicates that excessive mantle melting the first few million years after breakup was driven by an initial increased temperature that cools off as seafloor spreading develops, consistent with a mantle plume model. Variations in mantle composition can explain excess magmatism, but will generate a negative H-Vp correlation. Active mantle convection may increase the flux of mantle rocks through the melting zone above the rate of passive corner flow, which can also produce excessive magmatism. This would produce little H-Vp correlation, and place the curve lower than the passive flow melting curve in the diagram. We have compiled earlier published results with our own analyses of published and unpublished data from different groups to look for systematic variations in the mantle melting mode along the NAIP margins. Earlier studies (Holbrook et al., 2002, White et al, 2008) on the southeast Greenland conjugate system, indicate that the thick igneous crust of the southern NAIP (SE Greenland ? Hatton Bank) was dominated by increased mantle temperature only, while magmatism closer to the southern side of and including the Greenland-Iceland-Færøy Ridge (GIFR) was created by combined temperature increase and active mantle convection. Recent publications (Breivik et al., 2008, White et al, 2008) north of the GIFR for the Norway Basin segment, indicate temperature dominated magmatism between the Jan Mayen Fracture

  14. Central Ukraine Uranium Province: The genetic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emetz, A.; Cuney, M.


    Ukraine produces ~1,100 t U per year from the Michurinske, Centralne, Novokostantynivske and Vatutinske U deposits in the Kirovograd U district of the Central Ukraine Uranium Province (CUUP) consisting of about 20 deposits and numerous showings related to ~1.8 Ga sodium metasomatites developed in the Lower Paleoproterozoic granite-gneiss and iron formations of the Ingul Megablock of the Ukrainian Shield. Two deposits (the Zhovta Richka and Pervomayske) were mined out tens kilometers eastward in iron formations of the Kryvy Rig – Kremenchug mining district. Nametasomatite fields with scarce sub-economical U-mineralization were revealed by geophysical (magnetometry and gravimetry) and drilling programs northward in granitised gneisses around the younger Korsun-Novomyrgorod rapakivi pluton consisting of A2-type within plate granitoids which were emplaced during decompression melting at ~1.75 Ga. The present work aims to demonstrate structural and geochemical factors related to Na-metasomatism, and to mark out geochemical and tectonical parameters which were favorable for U-accumulation using data on deep seismic survey, geological structure analysis, and mineralogical and geochemical investigations of metasomatites. In the Ingul Megablock, Na-metasomatites occur along shear fault zones mostly oriented N-S. Metasomatites form complicate systems of plate- and lens-like bodies of aegirine-riebeckite albitites surrounded by dequartzified host rocks. Elemental alteration during Na-metasomatism demonstrates simple exchange of Si, K, Rb, Ba and Cs by Na, Ca, and locally V and U. δ 18 O H 2 O (300-400ºC) for albitizing hydrothermal solutions is near “zero”, typically for surficial water. These data suggest host rock interaction with hot marine waters. Persistent Na-metasomatic alterations extend along major tectonic faults for several kilometres with variable thicknesses reaching some hundreds meters in the zones of intense brecciation developed in the places of fault

  15. Some Environmental Consequences of Large Igneous Provinces (United States)

    Coffin, M. F.


    The formation of large igneous provinces (LIPs)—continental flood basalts, ‘volcanic’ margins, and oceanic plateaus—may impact the atmosphere, oceans, and biosphere by rapidly releasing huge amounts of particulates, magmatic volatiles (CO2, SO2, Cl, F, etc.), and potentially volatiles (CO2, CH4, SO2, etc.) from intruded sediments (e.g., carbonates, organic-rich shales, evaporites). A key factor affecting the magnitude of volatile release is whether eruptions are subaerial or marine; hydrostatic pressure inhibits vesiculation and degassing of relatively soluble volatile components (H2O, S, Cl, F) in deep water submarine eruptions, although low solubility components (CO2, noble gases) are mostly degassed even at abyssal depths. Directly or indirectly, such injections may cause changes in the atmosphere/ocean system that can lead to perturbations of atmosphere/ocean chemistry, circulation, ecology, and biological productivity. These changes can be global in extent, particularly if environmental conditions were at or near a threshold state or tipping point. LIPs may have been responsible for some of the most dramatic and rapid changes in the global environment. For example, between ~145 and ~50 Ma, the global ocean was characterized by chemical and isotopic variations (especially in C and Sr isotope ratios, trace metal concentrations, and biocalcification), relatively high temperatures, high relative sea level, episodic deposition of black shales (oceanic anoxic events), high production of hydrocarbons, mass extinctions of marine organisms, and radiations of marine flora and fauna. Temporal correlations between the intense pulses of igneous activity associated with LIP formation and environmental changes suggest more than pure coincidence. The 1783-84 eruption of Laki on Iceland provides the only historical record of the type of volcanism that constructs transient LIPs. Although Laki produced a basaltic lava flow representing only ~1% of the volume of a typical

  16. Population Genomics Reveals Seahorses (Hippocampus erectus) of the Western Mid-Atlantic Coast to Be Residents Rather than Vagrants (United States)

    Boehm, J. T.; Waldman, John; Robinson, John D.; Hickerson, Michael J.


    Understanding population structure and areas of demographic persistence and transients is critical for effective species management. However, direct observational evidence to address the geographic scale and delineation of ephemeral or persistent populations for many marine fishes is limited. The Lined seahorse (Hippocampus erectus) can be commonly found in three western Atlantic zoogeographic provinces, though inhabitants of the temperate northern Virginia Province are often considered tropical vagrants that only arrive during warm seasons from the southern provinces and perish as temperatures decline. Although genetics can locate regions of historical population persistence and isolation, previous evidence of Virginia Province persistence is only provisional due to limited genetic sampling (i.e., mitochondrial DNA and five nuclear loci). To test alternative hypotheses of historical persistence versus the ephemerality of a northern Virginia Province population we used a RADseq generated dataset consisting of 11,708 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) sampled from individuals collected from the eastern Gulf of Mexico to Long Island, NY. Concordant results from genomic analyses all infer three genetically divergent subpopulations, and strongly support Virginia Province inhabitants as a genetically diverged and a historically persistent ancestral gene pool. These results suggest that individuals that emerge in coastal areas during the warm season can be considered “local” and supports offshore migration during the colder months. This research demonstrates how a large number of genes sampled across a geographical range can capture the diversity of coalescent histories (across loci) while inferring population history. Moreover, these results clearly demonstrate the utility of population genomic data to infer peripheral subpopulation persistence in difficult-to-observe species. PMID:25629166

  17. Population genomics reveals seahorses (Hippocampus erectus of the western mid-Atlantic coast to be residents rather than vagrants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J T Boehm

    Full Text Available Understanding population structure and areas of demographic persistence and transients is critical for effective species management. However, direct observational evidence to address the geographic scale and delineation of ephemeral or persistent populations for many marine fishes is limited. The Lined seahorse (Hippocampus erectus can be commonly found in three western Atlantic zoogeographic provinces, though inhabitants of the temperate northern Virginia Province are often considered tropical vagrants that only arrive during warm seasons from the southern provinces and perish as temperatures decline. Although genetics can locate regions of historical population persistence and isolation, previous evidence of Virginia Province persistence is only provisional due to limited genetic sampling (i.e., mitochondrial DNA and five nuclear loci. To test alternative hypotheses of historical persistence versus the ephemerality of a northern Virginia Province population we used a RADseq generated dataset consisting of 11,708 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP sampled from individuals collected from the eastern Gulf of Mexico to Long Island, NY. Concordant results from genomic analyses all infer three genetically divergent subpopulations, and strongly support Virginia Province inhabitants as a genetically diverged and a historically persistent ancestral gene pool. These results suggest that individuals that emerge in coastal areas during the warm season can be considered "local" and supports offshore migration during the colder months. This research demonstrates how a large number of genes sampled across a geographical range can capture the diversity of coalescent histories (across loci while inferring population history. Moreover, these results clearly demonstrate the utility of population genomic data to infer peripheral subpopulation persistence in difficult-to-observe species.

  18. Scarab Beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae Fauna in Ardabil Province, North West Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Mowlavi


    Full Text Available "nBackground: Dung beetles of Coleoptera associated to undisturbed cattle droppings in pastures present great diver¬sity and abundance. Dung beetles also play an important role for transmission of some helminthes to human and cat¬tle. This study was made to survey the biodiversity and abundance of these beetles in Ardebil Province, western Iran."nMethods: According to the field study all beetles attracted to fresh cow dung in five areas of Ardebil Province in¬cluding Namin, Ardabil, Meshkinshahr, Neer and Sarein were collected and identified. They were collected during summer 2007 from June to September, with general peaks appearing to be correlated with temperature mainly at 11 a.m to 15 p.m. The samples were identified using appropriate systematic key "nResults: A total of 231 specimens belonging to 9 beetle genera and at least 15 species were identified as Euoniticel¬lus fulvus, Sisyphus schaffaer, Euonthophagus taurus, Copris lunaris, Chironitis pamphilus, Gymnopleurus coriarus, Euonthophagus amyntas, Caccobius schreberi, Onthophagus speculifer, Onthophagus furcatus, Aphodius, lugens, Apho¬dius fimetarius, A. scrutator, Geotrupes spiniger and G. stercorarius"nThe most abundant and diverse subfamilies were Coprinae, Geotrupinae, and Aphodiinae. "nConclusion: We found 15 species of dung beetles occurred in the region. The prevalence of each species is varied depending on location. Some of them play an important role for helminths transmission of veterinary and public health importance. The finding will provide a clue for pasture management as well as public health monitoring and surveillance of the disease transmitted by dung beetles. 

  19. Spatiotemporal patterns of drought at various time scales in Shandong Province of Eastern China (United States)

    Zuo, Depeng; Cai, Siyang; Xu, Zongxue; Li, Fulin; Sun, Wenchao; Yang, Xiaojing; Kan, Guangyuan; Liu, Pin


    The temporal variations and spatial patterns of drought in Shandong Province of Eastern China were investigated by calculating the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) at 1-, 3-, 6-, 12-, and 24-month time scales. Monthly precipitation and air temperature time series during the period 1960-2012 were collected at 23 meteorological stations uniformly distributed over the region. The non-parametric Mann-Kendall test was used to explore the temporal trends of precipitation, air temperature, and the SPEI drought index. S-mode principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to identify the spatial patterns of drought. The results showed that an insignificant decreasing trend in annual total precipitation was detected at most stations, a significant increase of annual average air temperature occurred at all the 23 stations, and a significant decreasing trend in the SPEI was mainly detected at the coastal stations for all the time scales. The frequency of occurrence of extreme and severe drought at different time scales generally increased with decades; higher frequency and larger affected area of extreme and severe droughts occurred as the time scale increased, especially for the northwest of Shandong Province and Jiaodong peninsular. The spatial pattern of drought for SPEI-1 contains three regions: eastern Jiaodong Peninsular and northwestern and southern Shandong. As the time scale increased to 3, 6, and 12 months, the order of the three regions was transformed into another as northwestern Shandong, eastern Jiaodong Peninsular, and southern Shandong. For SPEI-24, the location identified by REOF1 was slightly shifted from northwestern Shandong to western Shandong, and REOF2 and REOF3 identified another two weak patterns in the south edge and north edge of Jiaodong Peninsular, respectively. The potential causes of drought and the impact of drought on agriculture in the study area have also been discussed. The temporal variations and spatial patterns

  20. Reference dose levels for dental periapical radiography in Chonnam Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Mi Ra; Kang, Byung Cheol; Yoon, Suk Ja; Lee, Jae Seo; Kim, Young Hee


    To establish reference doses of periapical radiography in Chonnam Province, Korea. The target-skin distances were measured for dental patient's 1235 exposures including 345 mandibular molar areas. Each periapical radiation exposure was simulated with exactly the same patients exposure parameters and the simulated radiation doses were measured utilizing Mult-O-Meter (Unfors Instruments, Billadal, Sweden). The measurements were done in 44 dental clinics with 49 dental x-ray sets in Chonnam Province for one or two weeks at each dental clinic during year 2006. The third quartile patient surface doses were 2.8 mGy for overall periapical exposures and 3.2 mGy for periapical mandibular molar exposures. The third quartile patient surface doses in Chonnam Province can be used as a guide to accepted clinical practice to reduce patient radiation exposure for the surveyed reference doses were below the recommended dental periapical radiography dose of 7 mGy by IAEA.

  1. Location Selection for Hardboard Industry in Mazandaran Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Azizi


    Full Text Available This research presents an optimum framework for hardboard industry location selection in Mazandaran Province. Considering the existence of only two depreciated hardboard plants with very old technology in Iran, the establishment of new plants are vital. To materialize this goal, Mazandaran province enjoys priorities to other provinces based on its resources of raw lignocellulosic materials required for wood and paper industries. The model presented in this article uses AHP benefit/cost ratios. The results indicate that the criterion of ‘material and production’ with a weight of 0.327 and the sub-criterion of ‘reliability of supply’ with a weight of 0.146 have the highest priorities, and the city of Sari is the best alternative.

  2. Reference dose levels for dental periapical radiography in Chonnam Province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Mi Ra; Kang, Byung Cheol; Yoon, Suk Ja [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Dental Science Research Institute, Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Seo [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Chonnan National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Hee [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)


    To establish reference doses of periapical radiography in Chonnam Province, Korea. The target-skin distances were measured for dental patient's 1235 exposures including 345 mandibular molar areas. Each periapical radiation exposure was simulated with exactly the same patients exposure parameters and the simulated radiation doses were measured utilizing Mult-O-Meter (Unfors Instruments, Billadal, Sweden). The measurements were done in 44 dental clinics with 49 dental x-ray sets in Chonnam Province for one or two weeks at each dental clinic during year 2006. The third quartile patient surface doses were 2.8 mGy for overall periapical exposures and 3.2 mGy for periapical mandibular molar exposures. The third quartile patient surface doses in Chonnam Province can be used as a guide to accepted clinical practice to reduce patient radiation exposure for the surveyed reference doses were below the recommended dental periapical radiography dose of 7 mGy by IAEA.

  3. The Mycetophagidae (Coleoptera of the Maritime Provinces of Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Majka


    Full Text Available The Mycetophagidae (hairy fungus beetles of the Maritime Provinces of Canada are surveyed. Seven species in the genera Mycetophagus, Litargus, and Typhaea are found in the region. Six new provincial records are reported including Mycetophagus punctatus and Mycetophagus flexuosus, whichare newly recorded in the Maritime Provinces. The distribution of all species is mapped, colour habitus photographs of all species are figured, and an identification key to species is provided. The discussion notes that four of the species found in the region are apparently rare, possibly due to the history of forest management practices in the region; a situation similar to that of a significant proportion of other saproxylic beetles found in the Maritime Provinces.

  4. [Analysis on the exposure level and geographic distribution trend of toxicological indicators in rural drinking water, Shandong Province, in 2015]. (United States)

    Shi, F; Lyu, S P; Kong, F L; Yang, X T; Zhou, J Y


    Objective: To analyze the exposure level and the geographical distribution trend of toxicological indicators of rural drinking water in Shandong Province. Methods: The drawing method was used to randomly select no less than 60% villages and towns from 137 counties (cities, districts) of 17 cities in Shandong Province in 2015, and then 1-3 rural centralized water supply units were selected according to the circumstance of rural centralized water supply units in each village and town. In total, 735 villages and towns, 1 473 rural centralized water supply units were selected, and 1 473 water samples were collected. The water treatment process, water supply population and other circumstances of the rural centralized water supply units were investigated, the water quality was monitored, the content of toxicological indicators of drinking water in different areas was compared, and the trend surface isogram of excessive toxicological indicators was drawn. Results: The qualified rate of toxicological indicators in 1 473 water samples was 83.64% ( n =1 232). The main toxicological indicators that affected the qualified rate of toxicological indicators of drinking water in rural areas in Shandong Province were nitrate and fluoride. The excessive rate of fluoride was 5.70% ( n =84) and the exposed population was 1 736 709 (4.22%). The excessive rate of nitrate (as nitrogen) was 12.29% ( n =181) and the exposed population was 1 393 612 (3.39%). The P (5)0 content of fluoride in the eastern, middle and western regions was 0.24, 0.29 and 0.59 mg/L, respective;which was higher in the western region than in the east and the middle regions ( P 0.05). The P (50) content of nitrate (as nitrogen) in the eastern, middle and western regions was 8.00, 7.48, and 2.00 mg/L, which was higher in the eastern and middle regions than in the west region ( P 0.05). The trend surface isogram of nitrate and fluoride content showed that the content of nitrate (as nitrogen) in rural drinking water in

  5. Esophageal cancer in north rift valley of Western Kenya. (United States)

    Wakhisi, Johnston; Patel, Kritika; Buziba, Nathan; Rotich, Joseph


    Cancer of esophagus is the 9 th It is aggressive with poor prognosis especially in its late stage. Cancer of esophagus is geographically unevenly distributed with high incidence found within sharply demarcated geographic confines. Earlier reports from this country indicated relatively high proportion of cases in residents of Western and Central provinces with low incidence in the residents of the Rift Valley Province. This does not seem to be in agreement with our findings. Several aetiological factors have been associated with this type of cancer although their definitive mechanistic role is not clear. The main aim of this study was to describe the incidence, clinical epidemiology and histology of esophageal cancer in the North Rift region of Western Kenya, which forms the patients catchment area of Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital, Eldoret. This study involved a review of all available pathology reports beginning from January 1994 up to May 2001 from Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital. All reports of esophageal cancer were abstracted and analyzed according to gender, age and ethnical background. All cases were based on histological diagnosis. Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS software package. Esophageal cancer in this area is the most common cancer in men, yet it is the third common cancer in women. A male to female ratio of 1.5 to 1 was observed. Our finding also contrast with an earlier reported study that indicated that Rift Valley is a low prevalence area for this type of cancer. The mean age of the patients with this cancer was 58.7 years. The ethnic group most afflicted were Nandis and Luhyas. They are the majority tribes in this area. Squamous cell carcinoma accounted for 90% of the cases. Cancer of the esophagus is the most common malignancy in males and the third common malignancy in females in the catchment area of Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital, Eldoret. There is need to carry out further work to establish the aetiologic factors

  6. Feasibility analysis of nuclear power development in Sichuan province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Qi; Li Jie


    Sichuan province should take this opportunity to develop nuclear power actively since the application of nuclear power has been enhanced worldwide. It is accepted that nuclear power is one kind of safe and clean energy, and the economic has been improved greatly. Considering the electricity demands and structure conflict in near 20 years, nuclear power could solve the problem of electricity shortness in Sichuan, optimize the electricity structure and meliorate the environment, and thus maintain the sustainable development of the economy in Sichuan Province

  7. Note on Cladonia species (lichenized Ascomycota from Ardahan province (Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Osyczka


    Full Text Available This paper is the first report on Cladonia species from Ardahan, a north-eastern province of Turkey. A circumpolar boreal-low arctic species, Cladonia acuminata, rarely reported from Asia, and the recently described Cladonia monomorpha are reported as new for Turkey. Their detailed descriptions and taxonomical remarks are provided. Localities of other ascertained Cladonia species in the province supplement the knowledge of their distribution patterns in the country. In addition, the typically corticolous/lignicolous species Vulpicida pinastri is mentioned as also growing on primary squamules and podetia of C. pyxidata.

  8. The Analysis on Leading industries in Central Java Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setyani Irmawati


    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is for identifying the types of industriesthat become leading industries in Central Java Province. The methods, used are LQ (SLQ and DLQ and Shift Share. The result of this research shows that the the leading industries in Central Java Province are beverage industry, tobacco processing industry, textile industry, apparel industry, wood industry, printing industry, furniture industry and other processing industries.In the future, the development of the industry should not only focus on the leading industries  but also onnon-leading industries, so that the non leading industries will not be left behind.

  9. A Low-Li Geochemical Province in the NE Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bailey, J. C.; Gwozdz, R.


    Lithium was analysed in 392 basalts and related igneous rocks from the North Atlantic Tertiary-Recent province using activation analysis and Čerenkov counting. Monotonous Li values of 5.5±2 ppm in NE Atlantic basalts define a low-Li geochemical province which has persisted for 60 million years...... basalt series. No whole-rock coherence is observed between Li and Mg, K, Rb or Ca. Mantle phlogopite is considered to play an insignificant rôle in controlling the Li levels of NE Atlantic basalts....

  10. Establishment and Operation of Crop Genebank in Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong WANG; Yingjie LIN; Xiaodong ZHANG; Runfang LI; Shihua LIU; Cun'e WANG; Lingyun LU; Nana LI; Hanfeng DING; Xiaomu WANG; Xiaohong GU


    Shandong Province has abundant and diverse crop germplasm resources, but it is in lack of unified and effective preservation and management, leading to the decline and even extinction of many rare germplasm resources. In this study, the necessity for the establishment of crop genebank in Shandong Province was briefly described. In addition, the type, functions and technical indicators, as well as the operation of the crop genebank were introduced comprehensively to provide a reference for the establishment of genebank by other units or organizations.

  11. A new species of Liolaemus (Reptilia: Squamata: Tropiduridae from Mendoza province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etheridge, Richard


    Full Text Available Una nueva especie del complejo Liolaemus darwinii es descrita para el centro de la provincia de Mendoza, Argentina. Se parece más a L. olongasta y L. laurenti en que los machos adultos tienen pigmento negro en el pliegue antehumeral y manchas escapulares que no son agrandadas. Difiere de estas especies en tener un cuerpo adulto menor, un número mayor de escamas en la mitad del cuerpo, una cola más corta y un mayor número de poros precloacales en machos, y un patrón ventral distinto en machos adultos. En el norte de su distribución se encuentra L. darwinii en el norte de la provincia de Mendoza y en la provincia de San Luis, y en el sur en el oeste de la provincia de La Pampa, en el noroeste de la provincia de Neuquén y en la provincia de Río Negro, pero se desconoce si estas poblaciones del norte y del sur de L. darwtnii están separadas por la distribución de la nueva especie. Análisis cladísticos basados en comportamiento, morfología y secuencias de DNA muestran filogenias conflictivas, pero concuerdan en que la nueva especie es un miembro del grupo boulengeri, con afinidades más cercanas a L. darwinii, L. olongasta y L. laurenti. A new species,of the Liolaemus darwinii complex is described from central Mendoza Province, Argentina. It most closely resembles L. olongasta and L. laurenti in that adult males have black pigment in the antehumeral fold and scapular spots that are not enlarged. It differs from these species in having a smaller adult body size, a higher number of midbody scales, a shorter tail, more precloacal pores in males, and a different adult male ventral body pattern. Its range is bordered by L. darwinii on the north in northern Mendoza and San Luis provinces, and on the south in western La Pampa and northwestern Neuquén and Río Negro provinces, but it is unknown whether these northern and southern populations of L. darwinii are separated by the range of the new species. Cladistic analyses based on behaviour

  12. Western Areas new U plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    On March 30, 1982 Western Areas Gold Mining Company Limited's uranium plant was officialy opened. The plant is designed to treat 100 000t/month of uranium bearing ore. The majority of this ore is from the Middle Elsburg series, while the miner part comes from routing upgrated Upper Elsburg products into the uranium plant treatment route. The forward leach concept of gold and uranium extraction is adopted, i.e. the gold is extracted before the uranium. The flow of work, instrumentation, electrical installation and other facilities at the plant are also discussed

  13. Nuclear power in western society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, N.L.


    The degree to which problems of public acceptance have contributed to the slowdown in progress of nuclear power in Western European countries and the USA is discussed. Some of the effects on the nuclear power industry, i.e. the electrical utilities, the power station suppliers, and the fuel cycle contractors are described. The problem of the lack of public acceptance is examined by consideration of four areas: the position of the employee working in nuclear installations, opposition from the local community, the question of terrorism and its impact on nuclear policy, and finally, what is felt to constitute the greatest anxiety concerning nuclear power, that of proliferation. (U.K.)

  14. Report on the first government-funded opioid substitution programme for heroin users in the Western Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme Michie


    Full Text Available Background. Although pharmacological opioid substitution treatment (OST is a well-established treatment modality for heroin addiction, it is a relatively recent introduction in low- and middle-income countries. Objective. To report on a pilot OST programme initiated in 2013 that was the only public-funded programme in South Africa (SA at the time. Participants were offered standard care only (n=68 or, for the OST group (n=67, standard care plus Suboxone (Reckitt Benckiser, a synthetic partial opioid agonist, in a 12-week clinician-monitored programme. Methods. Clinical records of 135 participants in the rehabilitation programme at Sultan Bahu Rehabilitation Centre in Mitchell’s Plain, Cape Town, SA, from 1 January to 31 December 2014 were reviewed. Data collected included demographics and duration in treatment (retention as well as number of urine samples provided, positive tests or self-reported use events and dates of first positive/negative tests. Results. Significantly more participants in the OST group (65.7% than controls (44.1% completed the treatment (p=0.019. Among the non-completers, retention was higher in the OST group than in the standard care group (48.2 v. 30.1 days; p=0.001. The groups did not differ in respect of number of missed appointments and time to first positive test. However, the proportion of participants testing positive was higher in the OST group (80.6% than in the standard care group (61.8%, although the former were tested nearly three times (18.3 v. 6.6 times more. Consequently, the positive rate (proportion of positive tests was substantially lower in the OST group (16.8% than in the standard care group (23.3%. Conclusions. The results demonstrate modest success of this pilot OST programme in terms of completion and retention and should argue for a move to increase availability of and accessibility to OSTs for the management of opioid use disorder.

  15. Report on the first government-funded opioid substitution programme for heroin users in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. (United States)

    Michie, Graeme; Hoosain, Shuaib; Macharia, Muiruri; Weich, Lize


    Although pharmacological opioid substitution treatment (OST) is a well-established treatment modality for heroin addiction, it is a relatively recent introduction in low- and middle-income countries. To report on a pilot OST programme initiated in 2013 that was the only public-funded programme in South Africa (SA) at the time. Participants were offered standard care only (n=68) or, for the OST group (n=67), standard care plus Suboxone (Reckitt Benckiser), a synthetic partial opioid agonist, in a 12-week clinician-monitored programme. Clinical records of 135 participants in the rehabilitation programme at Sultan Bahu Rehabilitation Centre in Mitchell's Plain, Cape Town, SA, from 1 January to 31 December 2014 were reviewed. Data collected included demographics and duration in treatment (retention) as well as number of urine samples provided, positive tests or self-reported use events and dates of first positive/negative tests. Significantly more participants in the OST group (65.7%) than controls (44.1%) completed the treatment (p=0.019). Among the non-completers, retention was higher in the OST group than in the standard care group (48.2 v. 30.1 days; p=0.001). The groups did not differ in respect of number of missed appointments and time to first positive test. However, the proportion of participants testing positive was higher in the OST group (80.6%) than in the standard care group (61.8%), although the former were tested nearly three times (18.3 v. 6.6 times) more. Consequently, the positive rate (proportion of positive tests) was substantially lower in the OST group (16.8%) than in the standard care group (23.3%). The results demonstrate modest success of this pilot OST programme in terms of completion and retention and should argue for a move to increase availability of and accessibility to OSTs for the management of opioid use disorder.

  16. Land use and land cover change in the Western Cape Province: quantification of changes & understanding of driving factors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tizora, P


    Full Text Available changes in land use and land cover (LULC) and incited issues such as urban sprawl, marginalization of the poor, limited public access to resources, land degradation and climate change. This paper seeks to understand the most significant drivers of LULC...

  17. Measuring and modelling the water use of fruit tree orchards in the Western Cape province of South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gush, Mark B


    Full Text Available There is increasing competition among the various sectors of the South African economy for limited water resources, and irrigated agriculture is estimated to use approximately 60% of available surface water (NWRS2, 2012). With a 90% dependence on irrigation... ?Cripps Pink? (?Pink Lady?) apple (Malus domestica) orchard in the Koue Bokkeveld region near Ceres (S33? 12? 03.57?; E19? 20? 15.06?), and an eight- year old ?Alpine? nectarine (Prunus persica) orchard near Wolseley (S33? 25? 0.59? and E19? 14? 44...

  18. Introduction of the flora, life forms and chorology of plants of some regions in western Chabahar (Sistan and Baluchestan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Salimi


    Full Text Available This study focused on Zarabad, Cheraghabad and Nogombecom plants of sub-basin watershed city of Chabahar, Iran. The studied flora included 78 species which belonged to 66 genera and 29 families. Poaceae with 16 genera and 19 species, Asteraceae with 7 genera and 8 species, Chenopodiaceae with 5 genera and 4 species, Papilionaceae, with 5 genera and 6 species, constituted the largest plant families respectively. The largest genera of the region were: Salsola, Heliotropium and Plantago, respectively. 42% of the flora belonged to Nobo-Sindian elements, 35%to Irano-Turanian, 18%were bioregional elements and 5% of the species were cosmopolitan. Flora of the studied area, included therophytes (56%, chamaephytes (15%, phanerophytes (14%, geophytes (12% and hemicryptophytes (3%.

  19. Agricultural land purchases for alternative uses – evidence from two farming areas in the Western Cape province, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Reed, LL


    Full Text Available to spend on other activities (Healy & Short, 1978:185; Parris, 2004:197; Maybery et al., 2005:59; Holmes, 2006:142-144). Increased incomes around the world have led to a change in tastes and societal values, where people have become more environmentally... al., 2003:22). Rural areas with open space, close to natural amenities with aesthetic or recreational appeal has become an attractive alternative for people who want to escape from overpopulated cities with congested traffic, or as a place to cash...

  20. Agricultural land purchases for alternative uses - evidence from two farming areas in the Western Cape Province, South Africa - AEASA Conference

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Reed, L


    Full Text Available The presentation starts with a look at the variety of uses of agricultural lands and the transition towards a multifunctional rural environment. A study to determine the extent of alternative land use transactions in WC, and to collect info...

  1. Paradiplomacy : a comparative analysis of the international relations of South Africa’s Gauteng, North West and Western Cape provinces



    D.Litt. et Phil. (Politics) South Africa’s 1996 Constitution makes provision for relatively autonomous provincial administrations, which share responsibility with the national government for important functional areas while also exercising exclusive authority over others. Although the Constitution is not explicit on the distribution of foreign policy competence, the dominant interpretation among South African policy-makers is that this functional area is the exclusive domain of the nationa...

  2. Overcoming SMEs Challenges through Critical Success Factors: A Case of SMEs in the Western Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takalani Ramukumba


    Full Text Available SMEs comprise over 90% of African business operations and contribute to over 50% of African employment and Growth Domestic Product (GDP. SMEs sector has shown positive signs in South Africa, Mauritius and North Africa. In South Africa, SMEs constitute 55% of all jobs. Research of Bowler, Dawood and Page (2007 reveal that 40% of new business ventures fail in their first year, 60% in their second year, and 90% in their first 10 years of existence. It seems that a number of challenges have been identified as contributing to the failure of SMEs in South Africa and worldwide. The purpose of this paper is to identify some of the critical success factors for the SMEs to improve their performance in order to overcome the challenges they are faced within the competitive market environment. The research problem of this study emanates from the current high business failure rate. The research investigates what are the critical success factors that can help these SMEs to be sustainable and have positive growth so to limit the high business failure rate in South Africa. The research established that attracting repeat customers and the performance of the product are the critical success factors that can lead to the sustenance of these SMEs. The study concluded that the resource-constraint SMEs need to focus on critical success factors to build competitive advantage to stay competitive amidst the challenges from globalisation and liberalisation. This study will make further contribution on understanding these critical success factors as they are central to business success, especially in South Africa where it is estimated that the failure rate of small, medium and micro enterprises (SMEs is between 70% and 80% (Brink and Cant, 2009.

  3. Access to affordable medicines after health reform: evidence from two cross-sectional surveys in Shaanxi Province, western China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Yu Fang, PhD


    Funding: The National Natural Science Fund (71103141/G0308, the China Medical Board Faculty Development Awards, the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (2011jdhz62, the Shaanxi Provincial Social Science Fund (10E066, and the Harvard Medical School Pharmaceutical Policy Research Fellowship.

  4. Economic Impact and Challenges of Jatropha curcas L. Projects in North-Western Province, Zambia: A Case of Solwezi District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chester Kalinda


    Full Text Available Forest products, wood and non-wood, remain vital among smallholder households in Zambia with charcoal being the most sought after product. This has led to increased exploitation of forest trees to meet the needs for fuel wood, among others. However, Jatropha curcas plant has been identified as a potential fuel source. In the early 2000s, profit-making organizations encouraged smallholder households to grow Jatropha for use as an alternative fuel source. This paper reports on a study conducted in Solwezi between 2011 and 2014 to evaluate the impact of Jatropha cultivation for biofuel production. A sample of 100 small-scale farmers involved in Jatropha cultivation and key informants were interviewed to evaluate the impact of growing Jatropha at the small-scale level. Results show that farmers lost out on time; income from sale of edible non-wood forest products; and experienced reduction in maize (Zea mays and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris production, worsening household economic conditions. Farmers attributed this loss to unclear policy alignment on biofuel production by government. We therefore recommend that project implementation should involve interactions of all legislative bodies and any other concerned stakeholders. There is also a need to promote the value chain, from production to marketing, which focuses on minimizing detrimental effects on the livelihood of small-scale farmers.

  5. Field-trip guides to selected volcanoes and volcanic landscapes of the western United States (United States)



    The North American Cordillera is home to a greater diversity of volcanic provinces than any comparably sized region in the world. The interplay between changing plate-margin interactions, tectonic complexity, intra-crustal magma differentiation, and mantle melting have resulted in a wealth of volcanic landscapes.  Field trips in this guide book collection (published as USGS Scientific Investigations Report 2017–5022) visit many of these landscapes, including (1) active subduction-related arc volcanoes in the Cascade Range; (2) flood basalts of the Columbia Plateau; (3) bimodal volcanism of the Snake River Plain-Yellowstone volcanic system; (4) some of the world’s largest known ignimbrites from southern Utah, central Colorado, and northern Nevada; (5) extension-related volcanism in the Rio Grande Rift and Basin and Range Province; and (6) the eastern Sierra Nevada featuring Long Valley Caldera and the iconic Bishop Tuff.  Some of the field trips focus on volcanic eruptive and emplacement processes, calling attention to the fact that the western United States provides opportunities to examine a wide range of volcanological phenomena at many scales.The 2017 Scientific Assembly of the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth’s Interior (IAVCEI) in Portland, Oregon, was the impetus to update field guides for many of the volcanoes in the Cascades Arc, as well as publish new guides for numerous volcanic provinces and features of the North American Cordillera. This collection of guidebooks summarizes decades of advances in understanding of magmatic and tectonic processes of volcanic western North America. These field guides are intended for future generations of scientists and the general public as introductions to these fascinating areas; the hope is that the general public will be enticed toward further exploration and that scientists will pursue further field-based research.

  6. Peritoneal Dialysis in Western Countries. (United States)

    Struijk, Dirk G


    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) for the treatment of end-stage renal failure was introduced in the 1960s. Nowadays it has evolved to an established therapy that is complementary to hemodialysis (HD), representing 11% of all patients treated worldwide with dialysis. Despite good clinical outcomes and similar results in patient survival between PD and HD, the penetration of PD is decreasing in the Western world. First the major events in the history of the development of PD are described. Then important insights into the physiology of peritoneal transport are discussed and linked to the changes in time observed in biopsies of the peritoneal membrane. Furthermore, the developments in peritoneal access, more biocompatible dialysate solutions, automated PD at home, the establishment of parameters for dialysis adequacy and strategies to prevent infectious complications are mentioned. Finally non-medical issues responsible for the declining penetration in the Western world are analyzed. Only after introduction of the concept of continuous ambulatory PD by Moncrief and Popovich has this treatment evolved in time to a renal replacement therapy. Of all structures present in the peritoneal membrane, the capillary endothelium offers the rate-limiting hindrance for solute and water transport for the diffusive and convective transport of solutes and osmosis. The functional and anatomical changes in the peritoneal membrane in time can be monitored by the peritoneal equilibrium test. Peritonitis incidence decreased by introduction of the Y-set and prophylaxis using mupirocin on the exit site. The decrease in the proportion of patients treated with PD in the Western world can be explained by non-medical issues such as inadequate predialysis patient education, physician experience and training, ease of HD initiation, overcapacity of in-center HD, lack of adequate infrastructure for PD treatment, costs and reimbursement issues of the treatment. (1) PD is cheaper than HD and provides a

  7. Determinants of Elongation of the Labia Minora in Tete Province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    au hasard pour participer. Cette étude est la première étude sur les femmes dans la province de Tete, Mozambique qui a été basée ... sex, or as a symbol of cultural identity. The population-level ... component informed the development of the.

  8. Radon concentrations in well water in Sichuan Province, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yibin; Wu Qun; Zhang Bo; Chen Daifu


    There are 110 million people in Sichuan Province, China. Although most of the people in cities of Sichuan use river water, which contains low levels of radon, as potable water, people in countryside and in some communities of big cities still use well water as domestic consumption. This paper reports the radon concentrations in well water investigated in four cities, i.e. Chengdu, Chongqing, Leshan and Leijiang in Sichuan Province. Of the 80 wells investigated, the radon concentrations range from 3.5 to 181.6 KBqm -3 . Of the four cities, Chongqing has the highest well water radon concentration with the average 49.6 ± 54.1 KBqm -3 and the greatest variation. The investigation in four cities showed that the radon concentrations in well water are much higher than that in tap-water. In Chongqing where there are complex geological structures, mainly granite stratum, for example, the average radon concentration in well water is 112 times higher than that in the tap-water, and even much higher than that in river water in Yangtse River, Jialing River, Jinsha River and Mingjiang River. The population in four cities is about one sixth of the total population in Sichuan Province. Because of the common use of well water and the high radon concentrations in well water in Sichuan Province, the health effect of radon in well water to the public should be stressed. (author)

  9. Child Maltreatment among School Children in the Kurdistan Province, Iran (United States)

    Stephenson, Rob; Sheikhattari, Payam; Assasi, Nazilla; Eftekhar, Hassan; Zamani, Qasem; Maleki, Bahram; Kiabayan, Hamid


    Objective: This study examines the determinants of three types of child maltreatment: physical maltreatment, mental maltreatment, and child neglect among school children in the Kurdistan Province of Iran. The analysis examines the impact of socioeconomic, familial, demographic, and household dynamic factors on the three child maltreatment…

  10. Life Interference Due to Gambling in Three Canadian Provinces. (United States)

    Afifi, Tracie O; Sareen, Jitender; Taillieu, Tamara; Turner, Sarah; Fortier, Janique


    The gambling landscape among provinces in Canada is diverse. Yet, few studies have investigated provincial differences related to life interference due to gambling. The objectives of the current study were to examine: (1) provincial differences with regard to gambling types and (2) if gender, family history of gambling, and alcohol or drug use while gambling were related to an increased likelihood of life interference in three Canadian provinces. Data were drawn from the 2013 and 2014 cycles of the Canadian Community Health Survey from Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and British Columbia (n = 30,150). Analyses were conducted stratified by provinces and also combined using logistic regression models. Provincial differences were noted with individuals from British Columbia compared to Manitoba being less likely to play VLTs outside of casinos, play live horse racing at a track or off track, and participate in sports gambling. Those in Saskatchewan compared to Manitoba were more likely to play VLTs inside a casino. When examining all provinces combined, family history of gambling was associated with increased odds of life interference. Gender was not associated with life interference. Provincial differences were noted, which may be in part related to differences in gambling landscapes. Family history of gambling may have clinical relevance for understanding which individuals may be more likely to experience life interference due to gambling. Further research is needed to clarify the link between alcohol and drug use while gambling and life interference due to gambling as the models in the current research were likely underpowered.

  11. Strategic planning for Halal tourism development in Gilan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam KamalZade Gilani


    Full Text Available Tourism as a necessity for economic development in many countries, therefore, in this study we intended to investigate the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of Halal tourism in Gilan province, by using SWOT model to introduce strategic solutions to further developments. This study is practical based on questionnaire in terms of practical objectives, in terms of data collection. The population of this study was 25 tourism experts, which according to Morgan table, 24 people were selected as sample size.To identify relationships and priority setting criteria , at first internal and external factors were identified and then multi-criteria decision-making models and AHP model was used. After that by using internal factors evaluation matrix (IFE and external (EFE final weight determined and at the end the model was design and the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats were analyzed .The result of SWOT analysis in this research indicates that strategies for Gilan provinces according its environmental strengths and opportunities should be offensive strategy. Surveys show that due to the diversity of tourist attractions and geographical location of Gilan province, this province has the necessary capabilities to develop Halal tourism

  12. Hepatitis B virus Genotypes in West Azarbayjan Province, Northwest Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hasan Khadem Ansari


    CONCLUSIONS: The results reveal that D genotype is the main genotype of HBV in West Azarbayjan province. Presence of this genotype conformed with the low rate of acute liver diseases caused by hepatitis B chronic infection, cirrhosis of the liver and hepatocellular carcinoma.

  13. Focus on 14 sewage treatment plants in the Mpumalanga Province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to identify the treatment methods used in different sewage treatment plants (STPs) in the Mpumalanga Province and to determine the efficiency of wastewater treatment by these plants, municipal STPs were surveyed, and raw and treated wastewater samples collected. A total of 14 STPs were visited and the ...

  14. Evaluation of health care system reform in Hubei Province, China. (United States)

    Sang, Shuping; Wang, Zhenkun; Yu, Chuanhua


    This study established a set of indicators for and evaluated the effects of health care system reform in Hubei Province (China) from 2009 to 2011 with the purpose of providing guidance to policy-makers regarding health care system reform. The resulting indicators are based on the "Result Chain" logic model and include the following four domains: Inputs and Processes, Outputs, Outcomes and Impact. Health care system reform was evaluated using the weighted TOPSIS and weighted Rank Sum Ratio methods. Ultimately, the study established a set of indicators including four grade-1 indicators, 16 grade-2 indicators and 76 grade-3 indicators. The effects of the reforms increased year by year from 2009 to 2011 in Hubei Province. The health status of urban and rural populations and the accessibility, equity and quality of health services in Hubei Province were improved after the reforms. This sub-national case can be considered an example of a useful approach to the evaluation of the effects of health care system reform, one that could potentially be applied in other provinces or nationally.

  15. Seismic hazard analysis of Sinop province, Turkey using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Jan 11, 1997 ... 2008 in the Sinop province of Turkey this study presents a seismic hazard analysis based on ... Considering the development and improvement ... It is one of the most populated cities in the coun- ... done as reliably as the seismic hazard of region per- .... Seismic safety work of underground networks was.

  16. Epidemiology of malt fever in Kermanshah province in 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazdan Hamzavi


    Full Text Available Background: Brucellosis is a zoonotic, chronic and infectious disease in many developing countries, including Iran. This study investigated some of the epidemiological features of the disease in Kermanshah province in 2011. Methods: In this descriptive study, all of the patients with brucellosis reported to the health center of the province during the year 2011 were studied. The demographic and some epidemiologic parameters of the disease were recorded in the questionnaires. All collected data were analyzed using SPSS (version19 software. Results: Totally, 777 cases of brucellosis were reported to the health center of the province in 2011. The lowest incidence of brucellosis in the province was 40.8/100000 .The highest and lowest incidence rates were seen in Dalahoo (215.2/100 000 and Javanrood (12.6/100 000 districts, respectively. 47.4% of the patients were female and about half of the patients were under 30 years old. Raw milk was the most common cause of the disease consumed by 81.9% of the cases. Also, 87.6% of the patients were living in rural areas and the peak of disease was seen in the spring and summer months. Conclusion: Despite the significant reduction, it seems that the incidence of disease in some rural areas of the districts such as Dalahoo and Sarpol-e-Zahab are very high.

  17. Studies on possibility of building radiation centre in Hunan Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Chuandao


    Hunan province is rich in agriculture products and their by-products. The processing and preservation of those products after porduction is an urgent problem to solve. However, radiation techniques can solve the problem of the processing and preservation of part of those products which can not be solved by normal ways. Only in Changsha area, the products such as leather and their products, dried and fresh fruit, medical equipments, industrial chemicals and so on, which can be provided to irradiate, weigh over 1 x 10 5 tons a year. In order to advance the research and application of radiation techniques in the province, over 40 units have been investigated in the province and other provinces. Since 1983, six informal discussions or demonstration meetings were held. 15 pieces of various reports and materials have been put forward. The necessity, possibility, size, place, development aim and united research of building a radiation centre have been scientificly demonstrated and a certain basis have been provided for building radiation centre

  18. Chinalco Signed Framework Agreement for Strategic Cooperation with Gansu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>Recently,Chinalco and Gansu Provincial People’s Government signed"Framework Agreement for Strategic Cooperation on Reform,Restructuring and Transition Development of Chinalco’s Electrolytic Aluminum Enterprises in Gansu",signifying that the strategic cooperation between Chinalco and Gansu Province had made new substantive progress.

  19. Spatial pattern of agricultural land conversion in West Java Province (United States)

    Maryati, S.; Humaira, A. N. S.; Pratiwi, F.


    Population growth has an implication on increasing demand for land. The demand for built-up area is filled by land conversion, mostly from agricultural land. On the other hand, population growth requires an increase in food production as well as land for agriculture. Conversion of agricultural land can threaten the availability and food security. The purpose of this study is to identify the spatial pattern of changes in agricultural land in West Java Province as input to improve food security condition in this province. Descriptive statistics and spatial analysis were used to analyse the area of agricultural land, conversion of agricultural land, and spatial pattern of changes in agricultural land in West Java Province. The data used is time series data in the period of 2005-2014. The result of analysis shows that there are still areas with a high percentage of agricultural land in West Java Province. The rate of conversion of agricultural land varies widely. Cities or regions with very high land conversion rate tend to concentrate in metropolitan areas.

  20. The deforestation of rural areas in the Lower Congo Province. (United States)

    Iloweka, Ernest Manganda


    The Lower Congo is one of eleven provinces in the Democratic Republic of Congo, and is located southwest of Kinshasa Town Province. It has an area of approximately 53.947 km2 with a population of 1,504,361 at an estimated 237 persons per km2. The Province comprises five districts, including Lukaya and Cataracts where rural poverty is severe and the population struggle to make a living through agriculture and woodcutting. These activities result in excessive resource exploitation. The high demand for foodstuffs and the high consumption of wood (for energy, construction and export) in Kinshasa, the capital city of the Democratic Republic of Congo and the expanding towns of Matadi and Boma in the Lower Congo Province, are speeding the deforestation rate and unbalancing forest ecosystems. In addition there is the stress resulting from reduced josher (the rest period for agriculture ground), plus climate change and erosion. The phenomena that that we need to address in these two districts include deforestation, reduced josher, excessive agriculture, erosion, burning and climate change which taken together largely explain the current soil degradation. These areas are marked by excessive post deforestation savannah formation and extended areas of sandy soil, distributed throughout grass and shrub savannahs. This desertification, which is rampant in Lukaya and Cataracts, risks imprisoning the rural population in a vicious cycle of poverty if adequate solutions are not found.

  1. Environmental quality in the Dutch province North-Holland 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosma, S.


    An overview is given of the environmental quality in the Dutch province Noord-Holland in the year 2002. Special attention is paid to safety, energy, agriculture and the airport Schiphol. The report is available in electronic form in parts, discussing Social developments, the quality of Air, Soil, and Water, Public Health, Nature, Safety, Energy, Agriculture, and Schiphol (airport) [nl

  2. Genotyping Cryptosporidium andersoni in cattle in Shaanxi Province, Northwestern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Hui Zhao

    Full Text Available The present study examined the prevalence and genotypes of Cryptosporidium andersoni in cattle in Shaanxi province, China. A total of 2071 fecal samples (847 from Qinchuan cattle and 1224 from dairy cattle were examined for the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts, and 70 samples (3.4% were C. andersoni-positive and those positive samples were identified by PCR amplification of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA and the Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein (COWP genes. C. andersoni was the only species found in the examined cattle in this province. Fifty-seven C. andersoni isolates were characterized into 5 MLST subtypes using multilocus sequence typing analysis, including a new subtype in the native beef breed Qinchuan cattle. All of these C. andersoni isolates presented a clonal genetic structure. These findings provide new insights into the genetic structure of C. andersoni isolates in Shaanxi province and basic data of Cryptosporidium prevalence status, which in turn have implications for controlling cryptosporidiosis in this province.

  3. Birds of Mount Kisingiri, Nyanza Province, including a preliminary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mount Kisingiri comprises a much overlooked highland massif in southern Nyanza. Province with a hitherto ..... This imbalance in relative species abundance within a defined ecological niche could .... Hills is unsuitable for foraging or breeding but there is extensive savanna grassland and suitable ..... Columba guinea nf.

  4. Spectrum of α-thalassemia mutations in Qazvin Province, Iran

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Dec 5, 2011 ... α-Thalassemia is a widespread inherited disease particularly prevalent in the middle East Asia population, including Iran. The aim of this study was to define the molecular spectrum and frequency of α-thalassemia mutations in prospective couples of Qazvin province. A total of 120,000 subjects were.

  5. Maternal mortality in the Cape Province, 1990 - 1992

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Design. A descriptive study with analytic components. Characteristics of patients who died from the most ... authorities on how to collect data on maternal deaths throughout a whole region. This surveillance may be ... Following the publication of perinatal data from 18 ruraJ. hospitalsT in the Cape Province, the Continuing ...

  6. Diversity and Distribution of Myrmecophytes in Bengkulu Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safniyeti Safniyeti


    Full Text Available Myrmecophyte is a common medicinal plant used by local people in Indonesia for treating various diseases especially in Papua. Bengkulu province is one of the Myrmecophyte habitats, but there has no report on its identity and distribution. The objectives of this research were to identify the diversity and analyze the Myrmecophytes distribution as well as factor affecting its presence. This study used purposive sampling method by exploring the area where Myrmecophytes commonly found. The Myrmecophyte distribution based on host tree was analyzed using Morishita index and the autecological analysis of abiotic factors was performed using Principal Component Analysis (PCA generated from Minitab 16. The results of this research showed that there were two species of Myrmecophytes in Bengkulu province, namely Hydnophytum formicarum and Myrmecodia tuberosa, as well as two variants of M. tuberosa i.e. M. tuberosa ‘armata’ and M. tuberosa ‘siberutensis’. The distribution of Myrmecophytes based on host tree was mostly randomly scattered in Central Bengkulu regency, Seluma, North Bengkulu, South Bengkulu, and Kaur. Their distributions were affected by light intensity and temperature. The data of this research can be used as basic information for carried out conservation efforts in Bengkulu province. The abundance of Myrmecophytes is also used as a source of additional income for local people in Bengkulu province.     

  7. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Brucellosis in Jazan Province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Brucellosis is responsible for considerable public health issues involving economic losses due to abortion, loss of milk production and infertility in adult males. The purpose of this study was to determine the sero-prevalence of brucellosis in Jazan Province, Saudi Arabia and assess the possible risk factors.

  8. Malaria Epidemiology in Mersin Province, Turkey from 2002 to 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Background: Malaria is an infectious disease caused by Plasmodium spp. with high morbidity and mortality in human in tropical and subtropical regions. In recent years, number of malaria cases has been significantly reduced because of fight with the disease in Turkey. This study intended to investigate the malaria epidemiology in Mersin Province from 2002 to 2011 using data from the provincial Public Health Directorate.Methods: Over ten years, 303573 blood samples were taken from the people by active and passive surveillance methods and blood smears were prepared. Smears were stained with Giemsa and examined under the microscope.Results: Totally, 73 people including 44 male and 29 female were positive in terms of Plasmodium spp. It was determined that P. vivax observed in 67 cases while P. falciparum in 6 cases. Cases were mainly observed in 15 to 44 years old range, showed an increase between June-September periods and a significant decrease after 2006. Out of the 73 malaria cases, 54 cases were from Mersin Province and 13 cases were imported from another province of Turkey. Six cases were transmitted from abroad.Conclusion: These results provide information about malaria epidemiology in an endemic area in Turkey and contribute its prevention in Mersin Province

  9. Heavy daily-rainfall characteristics over the Gauteng Province

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Feb 9, 2009 ... the lowest number of heavy and very heavy rainfall days. The highest 24-h ... With regard to seasonal rainfall, the 1995/96 summer rainfall season had ..... The Gauteng Province is approximately 16 500 km2 in size. When the ...

  10. Designing Roads and Retaining Structures for Nangarhar Province, Afghanistan (United States)


    2010). The province has 9 hospitals and 229 clinics . Water is obtained from ka- rezes, shallow wells, rivers, and springs. Safe drinking water is...compiled into USACE Hydrologic Engineering Center Data Storage System (HEC- DSS ) obtained through National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). and varies ac

  11. Odyssean malaria outbreaks in Gauteng Province, South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Odyssean malaria cases are inevitable in South Africa, given the volume of road, rail and air traffic from malaria risk areas into Gauteng and other non-endemic provinces. It is likely that many cases are missed, owing to the rare and sporadic nature of the condition. Malaria should always be kept in mind as a cause of ...

  12. Primary cutaneous malignancies in the Northern Cape Province of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    size, the Northern Cape (NC) Province has the smallest population of the ... whether skin cancer incidence in SA has followed the global trend.[12] ... high risk of mortality.[16] As ... 2012 was conducted using public and private health sector databases. .... majority of KSs occurred in the younger age group 30 - 39 years.

  13. Thyroid Diseases among Patients from Hadhramout Province, Yemen

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the histopathological pattern of thyroid diseases among patients in Hadhramout Province, Yemen. Materials and Methods: A descriptive retrospective study was conducted at Ibn Sina Central Teaching Hospital, in Mukalla city, Hadhramout, Yemen between January 2007 and December 2012.

  14. Characterizing preventive activity in Camagüey province


    Hernández, María


    The article describes the characteristic features of preventive activities within the System of Education at Camaguey province. This information herein gathers results from a research investigation project and might be of interest for teachers, principals and investigators as a professional tool.

  15. Remediation of Legacy Arsenic Mining Areas in Yunnan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian H. von Lindern


    Conclusions. The success of the demonstration project was recognized and has provided direction and momentum for a wider effort by the Province to address mining pollution and water contamination challenges. It demonstrates the success of using known techniques for environmental remediation in the US, with local partners in China responding to their communities’ health and environmental problems.

  16. Railway Endowment in Italy’s Provinces, 1839-1913

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groote, Peter D.; Ciccarelli, Carlo

    This paper presents new annual estimates of railway extension in Italian provinces at 1913 borders for the period 1839-1913. The main operator of the Italian railway network (Ferrovie dello Stato) published in 1911 a unique set of homogeneous historical five year maps illustrating the routes of

  17. An Epidemiological Study of Psychiatric Disorders in Hamadan Province , 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Mohammadi


    Full Text Available The burden of psychiatric disorders in the developed countries has been identified by the screening questionnaires and standard clinical interviews at a high level, but the epidemiological studies of psychiatric disorders in our country are brief and their numbers are few. Planning for providing essential mental health services to the people requires us to be knowledgeable about the present status of psychiatric disorders in the society. The objective of this research was to carry out the epidemiological study of the psychiatric disorders in the individuals 18 years and above in urban and rural areas of Hamadan province. 664 individuals selected through randomized clustered and systematic sampling methods among the existing families of Hamadan province and the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS questionnaires completed by the clinical psychologist. The diagnosis of the disorders was based on DSM-IV classification criteria.The results of the study showed that the overall prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the province was 11.28% (17.2% in women , 5.8% in men. The anxiety and mood disorders with 5.87 and 2.71% respectively had the highest prevalence in the province. The prevalence of psychotic disorders in this study was 0.60% , neuro- cognitive disorders 1.35% and dissociative disorders 0.75%. In the group of mood disorders, major depression with 2.56% and in the group of anxiety disorders, phobia with 2.56% had the higher prevalence. This study showed that 8.13% of studied individuals suffered from at least one of the psychiatric disorders. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the province among the individuals in the age group of 66 years and above was 13.33%, individuals whose spouses had passed away 18.75%, urban residents of province 9.81%, illiterate individuals 12.80% and housewife individuals 12.31% was more than other individuals in the sample. Being aware of this matter reveals the responsibility of the

  18. Determination of Aflatoxin M1 in Pasteurized and Traditional Milk in Hamadan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Babolhavaegi


    Conclusion: The results of this study indicate the presence of AFM1 toxin contamination in traditional and pasteurized milks of Hamedan province. Further investigation and monitoring is needed in Hamedan province.

  19. Collective action for effective tobacco control: one province at a time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharanappa Dhage


    What started with one province Gadag has now been replicated in 23 other provinces throughout Karnataka. COTPA compliance or comprehensive tobacco control is achievable, replicable and will aid in building momentum for endgame of tobacco in India

  20. The genesis of a lava cave in the Deccan Volcanic Province (Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil R. Pawar


    Full Text Available Lava tubes and channels forming lava distributaries have been recognized from different parts of western Deccan Volcanic Province (DVP. Openings of smaller dimension have been documented from the pāhoehoe flows around Pune, in the western DVP. A small lava cave is exposed in Ghoradeshwar hill, near Pune. Detailed field studies of the physical characteristics, structure and morphology of the flows hosting the lava tube has been carried out. This is the first detailed documentation of a lava cave from the DVP. The lava cave occurs in a compound pāhoehoe flow of Karla Formation, characterized by the presence of lobes, toes and small scale features like squeeze-ups. Field observations and measurements reveal that the dimensions of the cave are small, with low roof and a maximum width of 108 cm. The cave morphology along the 20 m passage varies from circular to semi-circular, with a twilight zone to the north. The gentle micro-topography at Ghoradeshwar controlled the advancement of pāhoehoe lobes and toes within the sheet lobe. The pre-flow gradients towards the north led to the progression of flow from the east, where the cave opening is presently seen. Dimensions and related morphology of the lava cave suggest that it can be best described as a small sub-crustal cave formed by draining of an inflated of pāhoehoe lava lobe. At Ghoradeshwar, besides the natural lava cave, Buddhist caves carved in pāhoehoe lava flows are also observed, indicating that early man took advantage of the existing openings in pāhoehoe flows and sculpted the caves to suit their requirements.

  1. Perinatal services and outcomes in Quang Ninh province, Vietnam. (United States)

    Nga, Nguyen T; Målqvist, Mats; Eriksson, Leif; Hoa, Dinh P; Johansson, Annika; Wallin, Lars; Persson, Lars-Åke; Ewald, Uwe


    We report baseline results of a community-based randomized trial for improved neonatal survival in Quang Ninh province, Vietnam (NeoKIP; ISRCTN44599712). The NeoKIP trial seeks to evaluate a method of knowledge implementation called facilitation through group meetings at local health centres with health staff and community key persons. Facilitation is a participatory enabling approach that, if successful, is well suited for scaling up within health systems. The aim of this baseline report is to describe perinatal services provided and neonatal outcomes. Survey of all health facility registers of service utilization, maternal deaths, stillbirths and neonatal deaths during 2005 in the province. Systematic group interviews of village health workers from all communes. A Geographic Information System database was also established. Three quarters of pregnant women had ≥3 visits to antenatal care. Two hundred and five health facilities, including 18 hospitals, provided delivery care, ranging from 1 to 3258 deliveries/year. Totally there were 17 519 births and 284 neonatal deaths in the province. Neonatal mortality rate was 16/1000 live births, ranging from 10 to 44/1000 in the different districts, with highest rates in the mountainous parts of the province. Only 8% had home deliveries without skilled attendance, but those deliveries resulted in one-fifth of the neonatal deaths. A relatively good coverage of perinatal care was found in a Vietnamese province, but neonatal mortality varied markedly with geography and level of care. A remaining small proportion of home deliveries generated a substantial part of mortality. © 2010 The Author(s)/Journal Compilation © 2010 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  2. Seroprevalence of Toxocariasis in Children in East- Azerbaijan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yagoob Garedaghi


    Full Text Available Purpose: Toxocariasis is a zoonotic disease caused by the ascarid of dogs and cats, the main representative of which is a Toxocara canis. Distribution of the disease is world wide and is more prevalent in children. The present study was carried out in children of East Azerbaijan Province, Iran, to determine the toxocariasis seropositivity. Material and Methods: For the present seroepidemiological study, blood samples were collected at random from children of all the five districts of the East Azerbaijan Province. A total of 336 children, 187 males and 149 females in age group of 0-15 years were selected for the present study. ELISA was used for detection of IgG antibodies against Toxocara excretory secretary antigen. A questionnaire interview was conducted to obtain the data concerning their age, sex and habits. The particular points in the questionnaire asked were recorded on the format right on the spot. Results: Gender was found to be a significant risk factor for the Toxocara infection in children population. Male children were found more infected (41.71% as compared to females (24.16%. The total seroprevalence of T. canis antibodies in children of East Azerbaijan Province was 29.46 %. The risk factors that were found associated with the infection of toxocariasis in children population of East Azerbaijan Province include family back ground, status of living conditions, awareness, etc. Conclusion: The present study reveals high prevalence of T. canis infection in children of East Azerbaijan Province. It is important to raise the awareness of health professionals, public and educators to the fact that toxocariasis is a public health problem. Health promotion by means of a school based educational approach, diagnosis and continuous programme of treatment are necessary. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(4.000: 581-586

  3. Timing and Duration of Volcanism in the North Atlantic Igneous Province: Implications for Geodynamics and Links to the Iceland Hotspot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storey, M.; Duncan, R. A.; Tegner, Christian


    estimates of erupted magmas and their cumulates to calculate melt production rates for the early Tertiary flood basalts of East Greenland and the Faeroes Islands. The lavas lie at opposite ends of the Greenland-Iceland-Faeroes Ridge, the postulated Iceland hotspot track, and record volcanic activity leading...... of plate separation. The upper part of this crust comprises seismically imaged, seaward-dipping, subaerially erupted lavas. By  50 Ma, eruption rates had diminished drastically and volcanic activity had narrowed to a much restricted portion of the East Greenland margin, at the western end of the Greenland......We combine new and published 40Ar/39Ar age determinations from incremental heating experiments on whole rocks and mineral separates to assess the timing, duration and distribution of volcanic activity during construction of the North Atlantic Igneous Province. We use these ages together with volume...

  4. Thermal and mineral resource exploitation in Angaco department, province of San Juan, Argentina, as therapeutic and recreational resort area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera, M.; Martinez Iillanes, S.; Luccato, M; Herrera, C.


    In this paper the development of the Guayaupa thermal and mineral spring water intended as therapeutic and recreational resort area is presented. This area is located on the western piedmont of the Pie de Palo range, Department of Angaco, province of San Juan. From the analysis of the information related to geological, hydrogeological, hydrochemical, location, accessibility and climate aspects and also to the processing of the Landsat Tms satellite images to evaluate the geomorphologic and flora features an ordered diagnosis of the organization internal reality and its relation with the environment (FODA analysis) is presented. Internal strengths and weaknesses and the external factors that generate both opportunities and/or hazards were identified to define strategy guidelines that meet the legal and environmental standards in force. Results obtained from the strategic planning process conclude the availability and convenience of the project.(author)

  5. Community Structure and Productivity in Western Mongolian Steppe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyokazu Kawada


    Full Text Available The people of the Mongolian steppe have maintained a sustainable, nomadic lifestyle. However, several ecological processes are threatening their way of life. Ecological changan be detected through the analysis of quantitative and qualitative data. It is therefore, imperative to develop a sustainable rangeland management system aimed at combating desertifi cation. In this study we quantitatively and qualitatively describe several western Mongolian steppe plant communities by examining species composition, plant volume and community structure. Study sites were located in the Uvs and Khovd provinces and had all been affected by livestock grazing. A total of 48 species were found. Stipa krylovii , S . gobica , Cleistogenes songorica , Koeleria cristata and Ajania achilleoides were dominant. There was a signifi cant relationship between biomass and plant volume at all sites. Study sites were classifi ed into four groups using cluster analysis, based on the presence or absence of several species. More than 90% of plant volumes at all groups were perennial grasses and perennial forbs. The ratio of C 3 to C 4 plants at site 3 was reversed in comparison to the other sites. Species highly palatable to livestock were dominant at all sites. To ensure the sustainable use of biological resources in these arid areas, these fi ndings should be taken into account in designing land-use plans.

  6. PSAC 1998 - Western Canada Activity forecast: Mid-stream update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This mid-term update of drilling activity in Western Canada during the last quarter of 1997 and the first quarter of 1998 was prepared as a tool to aid oilfield service companies in their near-term planning. The forecast is based on an examination of the activity in the last two quarters and identifiable developing trends. Cost figures have been updated based on the revised activity projections and a review of current costs of goods and services as compared to the 1997 Well Cost Study. The data provided is based on information supplied by the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB) and similar agencies in the other provinces. The data has been reorganized and reinterpreted to meet the needs of the intended target group, the oilfield service companies. This reorganization was needed because the data had been originally provided by operators to a regulatory agency and these various provincial agencies are not standardized in their information requirements. In general, oil well drilling activity is projected to decline in the near-term due to a significant decline in world oil prices. Gas drilling activity is expected to increase substantially over 1997, possibly by as much as 10 per cent

  7. Seroepidemiological survey of tularemia among different groups in western Iran. (United States)

    Esmaeili, Saber; Gooya, Mohammad Mehdi; Shirzadi, Mohammad Reza; Esfandiari, Behzad; Amiri, Fahimeh Bagheri; Behzadi, Manijeh Yousefi; Banafshi, Omid; Mostafavi, Ehsan


    The first human case of tularemia in Iran was reported in 1980 and there have been no subsequent reports of tularemia in the country. The aim of this study was to carry out a survey of tularemia among different groups in the province of Kurdistan in western Iran. The following information was collected by means of an in-house questionnaire: participant demographic characteristics, exposure to risks, and use of appropriate personal protective equipment and disinfectant in their occupation. A blood sample was collected from each participant. Sera were tested using an ELISA kit (Virion\\Serion) to detect specific IgG antibodies against Francisella tularensis. Of a total of 250 serum samples, 14.40% had anti-tularemia IgG antibodies. The highest seroprevalence was found in hunters (18%) and the lowest in health care workers (12%). Age had a significant positive association with tularemia seroprevalence (ptularemia in people exposed to foxes (hunting or eating the meat) (25%) was significantly higher than in others (8.65%) (p = 0.01). According to the findings of this study, it is highly recommended that physicians and health care workers are informed about bacteria circulating in this area. By sensitizing the health system, it is expected that some cases of the clinical disease will be reported in the near future. Similar studies in other parts of the country and on domestic and wild animals will clarify the epidemiology of tularemia in Iran. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Alkali aggregate reactivity in concrete structures in western Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, D.R.; Empey, D.


    In several regions of Canada, particularly parts of Ontario, Quebec and the Maritime Provinces, research, testing and evaluation of aged concrete structures in the field has shown that alkali aggregate reactivity can give rise to pronounced concrete deterioration, particularly in hydraulic structures subjected to saturation or alternate wetting and drying such as locks, dams, canals, etc. Concrete deterioration is mainly caused by alkali-silica reactions and alkali-carbonate reactions, but a third type of deterioration involves slow/late expanding alkali-silicate/silica reactivity. The alkalies NaOH and KOH in the concrete pore solutions are mainly responsible for attack on expansive rocks and minerals in concrete. Methods for evaluating alkali-aggregate reaction potential in aggregates, and field and laboratory methods for detecting deterioration are discussed. Examples of alkali-aggregate reactions in structures is western Canada are detailed, including a water reservoir at Canadian Forces Base Chilliwack in British Columbia, the Oldman River diversion and flume, the Lundbreck Falls Bridge, and the St Mary's Reservoir spillway, all in southern Alberta. Mitigative measures include avoidance of use of suspect aggregates, but if this cannot be avoided it is recommended to keep the total alkalies in the concrete as low as possible and minimize opportunities for saturation of concrete by moisture. 16 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab

  9. Barriers to sustainable water resources management : Case study in Omnogovi province, Mongolia


    Enkhtsetseg, Mandukhai


    This study examines the barriers to sustainable water resources management in water vulnerable, yet a mining booming area. The case study is conducted in Omnogovi province of Mongolia in Nov-Dec 2016. This study presents how the Omnogovi province manages its water with increased mining and examines what hinders the province from practicing sustainable water resources management and examines the involvement of residents in the water resources management of Omnogovi province. Qualitative approa...

  10. Western Canada : changing pricing dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, B.


    Natural gas supply and demand trends in Western Canada are reviewed in a series of overhead viewgraphs. Production versus pipeline capacity, required gas well completions in the WCSB to meet local demand and fill export pipeline capacity to year 2005, NYMEX and AECO price trends during 1995-2000, and the question of what will happen to prices with additional pipeline capacity to the U.S. Midwest were summarized. The best guess is that Midwest prices will need to be high enough to attract marginal supplies from the Gulf, i.e. prices have be around the Henry Hub + five cents/ mmbtu. The new Canadian pipelines, (Northern Border and Alliance) will lower Midwest prices somewhat, but the impact will be modest. Assuming that additional planned pipeline expansion come on-stream, the pressure to expand east of Chicago will be considerable. tabs., figs

  11. Western states uranium resource survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinney, J.F.


    ERDA's National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program was established to provide a comprehensive description of uranium resources in the United States. To carry out this task, ERDA has contracted with various facilities, including universities, private companies, and state agencies, to undertake projects such as airborne radiometric surveys, geological and geochemical studies, and the development of advanced geophysical technology. LLL is one of four ERDA laboratories systematically studying uranium distribution in surface water, groundwater, and lake and stream sediments. We are specifically responsible for surveying seven western states. This past year we have designed and installed facilities for delayed-neutron counting and neutron-activation analysis, completed seven orientation surveys, and analyzed several thousand field samples. Full-scale reconnaissance surveys began last fall

  12. [Migratory circuits in western Mexico]. (United States)

    Durand, J


    The author examines patterns of internal and international migration in western Mexico. "Drawing on data from different sources and statistics, the essay demonstrates the importance of both types of migration, the changes in endogenous and exogenous factors which have affected the life and the migratory patterns of the population of this region. The migratory circuit being a flow not only of persons, but of goods and capital as well, the cities, specifically that of Guadalajara, have a strategic importance. They fulfill various functions and have become the backbone of the migratory process: they serve as centers for attracting and 'hosting' internal migrants as well as places of origin for other migrants; jumping-off points for international migrants; and the milieu in which many returning migrants of rural origin settle." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND FRE) excerpt

  13. Monitoring presence and advance of the alien invasive western corn rootworm beetle in eastern Slovenia with highly sensitive Metcalf traps. (United States)

    Hummel, H E; Urek, G; Modic, S; Hein, D F


    The American Chrysomelid beetle Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (D.v.v.), also called the western corn rootworm, spread from the location of its original introduction into Europe, Belgrade airport (BACA 1993), in all directions. Within a decade it occupied almost all countries of South-eastern and Central Europe. However, it reached Slovenia as late as 2003: Only 19 specimen were found in maize fields of the eastern and also western provinces. Already in the summer of 2004, their number had risen to 386 which were mainly found in the eastern provinces near the borders to Croatia, Austria and Hungary. For their monitoring, a simple trap is being described which can be acquired in high numbers at a very low price and can guaranty a most sensitive detection of beetles. The Metcalf cup trap which in Slovenia so far has been unknown performed the task of monitoring quite well at five locations. It will also facilitate the future search for new and increasing infestations. Comparing 2004 with the year 2003, D.v.v. expanded its range in eastern Slovenia by about 15 km. These new infestations will include territories in which fields of the regionally Important oil seed pumpkin Cucurbita pepo are located. With important traffic connections between South-eastern and Central Europe, Slovenia will occupy a bridgehead function in the preventive protection of maize from D.v.v. spreading into more northerly European regions including western Austria and southern Germany.

  14. Province/Ministry-Coordinated Industry-University-Institute Cooperation and University Development: Based on the Experiences of Guangdong Province (United States)

    Yang, Liu


    The industry S&T missioners, industry-university-institute innovation alliances, industry-university-institute regional model bases, and other provincial-level industry-university-institute cooperation mechanisms that Guangdong Province has formed through its practical efforts play an important role in training a large batch of practical…

  15. Scaphitid ammonites from the Upper Cretaceous of KwaZulu-Natal and Eastern Cape Province, South Africa (United States)

    Kennedy, William James; Klinger, Herbert Christian


    Kennedy, W.J. and Klinger, H.C. 2013. Scaphitid ammonites from the Upper Cretaceous of KwaZulu-Natal and Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Acta Geologica Polonica, 63 (4), 527-543. Warszawa. Scaphitid ammonites are described and illustrated from the Upper Cretaceous of the coastal region of north-eastern South Africa. Scaphites kieslingswaldensis Langenhan and Grundey, 1891, Scaphites manasoaensis Collignon, 1965, and Yezoites concinna sp. nov. occur in the Coniacian part of the St Lucia Formation in northern KwaZulu-Natal. A further Yezoites sp. may also be from this level. Argentoscaphites corrugatus sp. nov. occurs in the Santonian to Lower Campanian Mzamba Formation on the northernmost coast of Eastern Cape Province. Yezoites australis sp. nov. occurs in the Upper Santonian part of the St Lucia and Mzamba formations of these areas, and Scaphites reesidei Collignon, 1969, is recorded from the Lower Campanian part of the Mzamba Formation. The scaphitid assemblage includes species previously described from Western Europe and Madagascar, together with Argentoscaphites, previously known only from Patagonia (and possibly South India). Dimorphism is recognised in Scaphites reesidei, Yezoites concinna sp. nov. and Y. australis sp. nov. Argentoscaphites corrugatus sp. nov. and Yezoites sp. are represented by microconchs only. Dimorphism has not been recognised in Scaphites kieslingswaldensis.

  16. Epidemiological study of gastrointestinal helminthes of canids in chaharmahal and bakhtiari province of iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Nabavi


    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to describe the epidemiological aspects of gastrointestinal helminthic infections of canids in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province, the central western part of Iran.Forty nine canid species including, dogs, jackals, foxes and wolves were included in this study. The contents of their alimentary canal were inspected in order to isolate and identify the parasitic helminthes of this system. To identify the worms, the Soulsbey and Anderson identification key and light microscopy were used.Based on necropsy findings, 35 (71.4% of examined animals were infected with at least one helminth. The prevalence of identified worms was as follows: Mesocestoides lineatus (55.1%, Joyeuxiella echinorinchoides (26.5%, Taenia hydatigena (12.2%, T. multiceps (8.2%, T. ovis (2%, Dipylidium caninum (2% and Spirura spp. (2%. No significant difference was noticed between the sampling areas, age and helminth infection. Only a significant difference was observed for prevalence of T. multiceps in wolf (25%, dog (21.4%, jackal and fox (0%, respectively (P < 0.05.The canids in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari harbor several parasites that some kind of them have zoonotic importance and may pose a threat to community health specially in rural areas.

  17. Transmission solutions : a 10 year plan for the province of Ontario 2005-2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This paper present a 10 year transmission plan for Ontario by Hydro One Networks Inc., the largest electricity delivery company in the province. A history of Hydro One Network's activities during the past century was provided as well as information about the company and details of their mission and objectives. A list of their accomplishments during 2004 was also presented. An outline of the current transmission infrastructure system was presented. Elements of the plan include customer connections; area supply reliability; facilitation of electricity supply; and transmission needs and solutions. Plans specific to central, western, eastern and northeastern zones were also presented, including zone maps of transmission lines and generating stations. Changes included: Bill 100, the Electricity Restructuring Act in 2004 and the establishment of the Ontario Power Authority (OPA); changes to the Ontario Energy Board's Transmission System Code (TSC); government measures to increase the supply of electricity through requests for proposals (RFPs) for new renewable and clean energy; and the announcement of an increase in the amount of wind energy through the Wind Power Production Incentive program. refs., tabs., figs

  18. Endemic goitre and iodine metabolism in schoolchildren from the Daunia uplands (province of Foggia, Italy). (United States)

    De Filippis, V; Cenderelli, G; Cocco, U; Di Cerbo, A; Lo Iudice, G; Costa, A


    A study of endemic goitre was carried out in the western part of the province of Foggia (Daunia's pre-Appennines). About 50% of a total of 2719 children aged 6-15 years examined in the agricultural and hill towns of Accadia, Bovino, Candela, Deliceto and Sant'Agata di Puglia (500 to 800 m above sea level), presented a thyroid enlargement (usually of Grade 1). Urinary creatinine values were normal, while urinary iodine was low: 37.7 +/- 28.39 mug/g creatinine (mean +/- SD for 319 subjects). Serum levels of thyroid hormones were normal: T4 = 7.89 +/- 2.61 mug/dl; T3 = 114.72 +/- 40 ng/dl; T3 (T4 X 100) = 0.166 +/- 0.09. Subjects with Grade 2 thyroid enlargement had significant lower urinary iodine and serum T4, and higher T3 and T3/T4 ratio than children without goitre (Grade 0). Serum thyrotropin was rather high (3.79 +/- 4.17 muU/ml), but bore no straight relation to the thyroid size; in subjects with Grade 2 thyroids there was an inverse relationship between plasma T4 and TSH levels. Drinking water iodine was generally low (2-3 mug/l), though some richer sources (18, 38, 66 mug/l) were noted. Iodine contents of locally produced foodstuffs were below those found in food on Turin markets.

  19. Presence of Rhodnius ecuadoriensis in sylvatic habitats in the southern highlands (Loja Province) of Ecuador. (United States)

    Grijalva, M J; Villacis, A G


    The main vectors of Chagas disease in Ecuador are Triatoma dimidiata and Rhodnius ecuadoriensis. The latter species occupies domestic and peridomestic habitats, as well as sylvatic ecotopes--particularly associated with Phytelephas aequatorialis palm trees--in the western coastal region of Ecuador. In the southern highlands, however, such palm tree habitats are uncommon, and sylvatic populations of R. ecuadoriensis have not previously been reported to date. This study was carried out in five rural communities in Loja Province in southern Ecuador, where manual triatomine searches were conducted in various sylvatic habitats. A total of 81 squirrel nests (Sciurus stramineus) and > 200 bird nests and other habitats were searched. One hundred three R. ecuadoriensis individuals were found in 11 squirrel nests (infestation index = 13.6%, density = 2 bugs per nest searched, crowding = 9.5 bugs per infested nest, colonization index = 72.7% of infested nests with nymphs). No triatomines were found in bird nests or other sylvatic habitats. The presence of sylvatic R. ecuadoriensis in the southern highlands of Ecuador has important implications for the long-term control of Chagas disease in the region because of the possibility of reinfestation of dwellings after insecticide-based control interventions.

  20. Surveillance of Water Quality in the Songhuajiang River System in Heilongjiang Province - Pre-feasibility study - 1995. Travel report from Heilongjiang Province, China, Oct./Nov


    Wathne, B.


    A request for co-operation on a system for water quality surveillance of Songhuajiang River System in Heilongjiang Province, China, was received by NIVA from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of the Heilongjiang Province. Funds were made available from NORAD, to initiate a co-operative work with the EPA. T. Skancke, NORGIT Centre, and B. M. Wathne, NIVA, travelled to Harbin, capital of Heilongjiang Province, to make a pre-feasibility study and project plans for further co-operation. T...

  1. The economic support index evaluation study on the pig breeding scale of the six provinces in central China (United States)

    Leng, Bi-Bin; Le, Xi-lin; Yuan, Gang; Ji, Xue-Qiang


    Shanxi province, Anhui province, Jiangxi province, Henan province, Hubei province and Hunan province are located in the central part of China. They are playing an essential role in China’s economic and social development. In this article, we use analytic hierarchy process(AHP), on the basis of the statistical yearbook data of 2016, conduct an appraisal research about the economic support index of the pig breeding scale in the six provinces of central China. The evaluation shows that Hubei tops all of the provinces on the economic support index, followed by Hunan, Anhui, Henan, Jiangxi. The lowest index is in Shanxi province. It indicates the economic conditions in Hubei province is the most capable for it to support the pig breeding scale, Shanxi province is the opposite.

  2. First description of Trypanosoma cruzi human infection in Esmeraldas province, Ecuador. (United States)

    Guevara, Ángel; Moreira, Juan; Criollo, Hipatia; Vivero, Sandra; Racines, Marcia; Cevallos, Varsovia; Prandi, Rosanna; Caicedo, Cynthia; Robinzon, Francisco; Anselmi, Mariella


    Chagas disease was described in Ecuador in 1930 in the province of Guayas and thereafter in various provinces. Triatomine were reported in the province of Esmeraldas but no human infection has been described. Here we report the first evidence that the disease does exist in the province of Esmeraldas. In indigenous Awá communities located in the northwest jungle of the Esmeraldas province, 144 individuals were tested using ELISA and PCR for T.cruzi of which 5 (3.47%) were positive. Twenty eight triatomine were collected, 27 were Triatoma dispar and 1 Pastrongylus rufotuberculatus, T.cruzi was detected in 11 (42.3%) of 26 insects.

  3. Western Australian food security project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maycock Bruce


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the Western Australian (WA Food Security Project was to conduct a preliminary investigation into issues relating to food security in one region within the Perth metropolitan area in Western Australia. The first phase of the project involved a food audit in one lower income area that was typical of the region, to identify the range, variety and availability of foods in the region. Methods A comprehensive food audit survey was provided to all food outlet owners/operators in one lower socio-economic region within the City of Mandurah (n = 132 outlets. The purpose of the survey was to investigate the range, variety and availability of foods in the Mandurah region as well as examining specific in-store characteristics such as the types of clientele and in-store promotions offered. Surveys were competed for 99 outlets (response rate = 75%. Results The range of foods available were predominantly pre-prepared with more than half of the outlets pre-preparing the majority of their food. Sandwiches and rolls were the most popular items sold in the outlets surveyed (n = 51 outlets followed by pastries such as pies, sausage rolls and pasties (n = 33 outlets. Outlets considered their healthiest food options were sandwiches or rolls (n = 51 outlets, salads (n- = 50 outlets, fruit and vegetables (n = 40 outlets, seafood (n = 27 outlets, meats such as chicken (n = 26 outlets and hot foods such as curries, soups or quiches (n = 23 outlets. The majority of outlets surveyed considered pre-prepared food including sandwiches, rolls and salads, as healthy food options regardless of the content of the filling or dressings used. Few outlets (n = 28% offered a choice of bread type other than white or wholemeal. High fat pastries and dressings were popular client choices (n = 77% as were carbonated drinks (n = 88% and flavoured milks (n = 46%. Conclusion These findings clearly indicate the need for further investigation of the impact of

  4. Expert Western Classical Music Improvisers' Strategies (United States)

    Després, Jean-Philippe; Burnard, Pamela; Dubé, Francis; Stévance, Sophie


    The growing interest in musical improvisation is exemplified by the body of literatures evidencing the positive impacts of improvisation learning on the musical apprentice's aptitudes and the increasing presence of improvisation in Western classical concert halls and competitions. However, high-level Western classical music improvisers' thinking…

  5. Body image in non-western societies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edmonds, A.; Cash, T.


    This article discusses a range of body modification and conceptions of the body in non-Western societies. It also analyzes difficulties in applying the primarily Western psychological notion of body image to different societies. Body modification is a near human universal, but has many meanings and

  6. Malaria in Sokoto, North Western Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Dec 15, 2009 ... Malaria prevalence studies had been undertaken in many parts of Nigeria but there is probably no data available from the far North Western region. This research study was undertaken to determine the prevalence, monthly distribution of malaria in Sokoto, North Western Nigeria in order to generate base-.

  7. Management strategies for sustainable western water (United States)

    Scott Tyler; Sudeep Chandra; Gordon Grant


    With the effects of the dramatic western US drought still reverberating through the landscape, researchers gathered in advance of the 20th annual Lake Tahoe Summit to discuss western US water issues in the 21st century. This two-day workshop brought together ~40 researchers from universities and agencies (federal and state) to discuss the prospects that...

  8. Holocene compression in the Acequión valley (Andes Precordillera, San Juan province, Argentina): Geomorphic, tectonic, and paleoseismic evidence (United States)

    Audemard, M.; Franck, A.; Perucca, L.; Laura, P.; Pantano, Ana; Avila, Carlos R.; Onorato, M. Romina; Vargas, Horacio N.; Alvarado, Patricia; Viete, Hewart


    The Matagusanos-Maradona-Acequión Valley sits within the Andes Precordillera fold-thrust belt of western Argentina. It is an elongated topographic depression bounded by the roughly N-S trending Precordillera Central and Oriental in the San Juan Province. Moreover, it is not a piggy-back basin as we could have expected between two ranges belonging to a fold-thrust belt, but a very active tectonic corridor coinciding with a thick-skinned triangular zone, squeezed between two different tectonic domains. The two domains converge, where the Precordillera Oriental has been incorporated to the Sierras Pampeanas province, becoming the western leading edge of the west-verging broken foreland Sierras Pampeanas domain. This latter province has been in turn incorporated into the active deformation framework of the Andes back-arc at these latitudes as a result of enhanced coupling between the converging plates due to the subduction of the Juan Fernández ridge that flattens the Nazca slab under the South American continent. This study focuses on the neotectonics of the southern tip of this N-S elongated depression, known as Acequión (from the homonym river that crosses the area), between the Del Agua and Los Pozos rivers. This depression dies out against the transversely oriented Precordillera Sur, which exhibits a similar tectonic style as Precordillera Occidental and Central (east-verging fold-thrust belt). This contribution brings supporting evidence of the ongoing deformation during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene of the triangular zone bounded between the two leading and converging edges of Precordillera Central and Oriental thrust fronts, recorded in a multi-episodic lake sequence of the Acequión and Nikes rivers. The herein gathered evidence comprise Late Pleistocene-Holocene landforms of active thrusting, fault kinematics (micro-tectonic) data and outcrop-scale (meso-tectonic) faulting and folding of recent lake and alluvial sequences. In addition, seismically

  9. Geochronology, geochemistry and tectonic evolution of the Western and Central cordilleras of Colombia (United States)

    Villagómez, Diego; Spikings, Richard; Magna, Tomas; Kammer, Andreas; Winkler, Wilfried; Beltrán, Alejandro


    Autochthonous rocks of the pre-Cretaceous continental margin of NW South America (the Tahami Terrane) are juxtaposed against a series of para-autochthonous rock units that assembled during the Early Cretaceous. Allochthonous, oceanic crust of the Caribbean Large Igneous Province collided with and accreted onto the margin during the Late Cretaceous. We present the first regional-scale dataset of zircon U-Pb LA-ICP-MS ages for intrusive and metamorphic rocks of the autochthonous Tahami Terrane, Early Cretaceous igneous para-autochthonous rocks and accreted oceanic crust. The U-Pb zircon data are complemented by multiphase 40Ar/ 39Ar crystallization and cooling ages. The geochronological data are combined with whole rock major oxide, trace element and REE data acquired from the same units to constrain the tectonic origin of the rock units and terranes exposed in the Western Cordillera, Cauca-Patía Valley and the Central Cordillera of Colombia. The Tahami Terrane includes lower Paleozoic orthogneisses (~ 440 Ma) that may have erupted during the active margin stage of the Rheic Ocean. Basement gneisses were intruded by Permian, continental arc granites during the final assembly of Pangea. Triassic sedimentary rocks were subsequently deposited in rift basins and partially melted during high-T metamorphism associated with rifting of western Pangea during 240-220 Ma. Continental arc magmatism during 180-145 Ma is preserved along the whole length of the Central Cordillera and was followed by an Early Cretaceous out-board step of the arc axis and the inception of the Quebradagrande Arc that fringed the continental margin. Back-stepping of the arc axis may have been caused by the collision of buoyant seamounts, which were coeval with plateau rocks exposed in the Nicoya Peninsular of Costa Rica. Rapid westward drift of South America closed the Quebradagrande basin in the late Aptian and caused medium-high P-T metamorphic rocks of the Arquía Complex to exhume and obduct onto

  10. Regional setting, distribution and genesis of surficial uranium deposits in calcretes and associated sediments in Western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, C.R.M.; Mann, A.W.; Horwitz, R.C.


    Surficial uranium deposits in Western Australia are largely in the Yilgarn Block in areas of Archean granitoids and greenstones, and in the Gascoyne Province in Proterozoic granites and gneisses. The region has had a long weathering history marked by continuous planation developing a regolith up to 100 metres thick. The distribution of calcrete type uranium deposits is controlled by geologic as well as weathering, erosion and climatic factors. Valley, playa and terrace deposits are recognized. The principal known surficial uranium deposit, Yeelirrie, occurs in the Yilgarn block as a valley deposit. (author)

  11. Supervolcanoes within an ancient volcanic province in Arabia Terra, Mars. (United States)

    Michalski, Joseph R; Bleacher, Jacob E


    Several irregularly shaped craters located within Arabia Terra, Mars, represent a new type of highland volcanic construct and together constitute a previously unrecognized Martian igneous province. Similar to terrestrial supervolcanoes, these low-relief paterae possess a range of geomorphic features related to structural collapse, effusive volcanism and explosive eruptions. Extruded lavas contributed to the formation of enigmatic highland ridged plains in Arabia Terra. Outgassed sulphur and erupted fine-grained pyroclastics from these calderas probably fed the formation of altered, layered sedimentary rocks and fretted terrain found throughout the equatorial region. The discovery of a new type of volcanic construct in the Arabia volcanic province fundamentally changes the picture of ancient volcanism and climate evolution on Mars. Other eroded topographic basins in the ancient Martian highlands that have been dismissed as degraded impact craters should be reconsidered as possible volcanic constructs formed in an early phase of widespread, disseminated magmatism on Mars.

  12. Philippine Plecopteran with four new records in Compostela Valley Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Norman Dejadena Medina


    Full Text Available The present paper is the updated list of Philippine Plecoptera starting from the 1940’s Philippine Zoological Expedition up to the recent discoveries of Sivec and Stark on 2011. A poorly known group, there is scanty literature and several part of the Philippine archipelago is poorly explored. In order to address this information gap particularly in Compostela Valley Province, a provincial survey was conducted from January to November 2012. Opportunistic sampling using hand netting and standard light trapping methods were used to collect species from nine municipalities. There were 181 individuals collected representing two genera and four species comprising about 11.76% of the recorded species to occur in the archipelago. This paper reports the first record of Plecoptera in the province.

  13. Advances and prospects for induced mutation breeding in Helongjiang Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Guangzu


    Induced mutation breeding employed on soybean, spring wheat, maize, millet, fiber flax, chinese cabbage, kidney been and garlic in Heilongjiang province. Thirty-six new varieties had introduced and released from 1980 to 1994, made up 20.6% of total released varieties for the same period, accumulated cultivated area of 3.746 million hm 2 , and increased the income of formers to US dollar 168 million; 72 mutants having specific and utilizing values and traits have also been bred in the province. Basic research such as radiation breeding in combination with distant hybridization, biotechnology, and application new induced factors, improving selection methods, have been achieved; 91 articles have been published. These researches play an important role for increasing induced mutation breeding. Three items of suggestion to develop induced mutation breeding are made. (1 tab.)

  14. Accounting for variation in wind deployment between Canadian provinces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson-Martin, Christopher J.; Hill, Stephen D.


    Wind energy deployment varies widely across regions and this variation cannot be explained by differences in natural wind resources alone. Evidence suggests that institutional factors beyond physical wind resources can influence the deployment of wind energy systems. Building on the work of , this study takes a historical institutionalist approach to examine the main factors influencing wind energy deployment across four Canadian provinces Canada: Alberta, Manitoba, Ontario and Nova Scotia. Our case studies suggest that wind energy deployment depends upon a combination of indirect causal factors-landscape values, political and social movements, government electricity policy, provincial electricity market structure and incumbent generation technologies and direct causal factors-grid architecture, ownership patterns, renewable incentive programs, planning and approvals processes and stakeholder support and opposition. - Research highlights: → Examines the reasons for variations in wind deployment between Canadian provinces. → Employs a historical institutional approach to the analysis. → Discusses social factors that affect wind deployment across Canadian jurisdictions.

  15. The east coast petroleum province: Science and society (United States)

    Jordan, R.R.


    The U.S. Atlantic offshore, especially the mid-Atlantic, was an exciting exploration area from the 1970s into the 1980s. Much pioneering 'frontier' activity in both scientific and policy matters occurred in this area. Although production was not achieved, objective geological evidence indicates that the province does have potential. Major population centers of the mid-Atlantic area demand large amounts of energy and enormous amounts of crude and product are shipped through East Coast waters. Nevertheless, exploration has been shut down by moratoria, environmental concerns, and international pricing. It is suggested that the province will be revisited in the future and that the geologic and environmental information that has been generated at great cost should be preserved for use by the next generation of explorationists and policy-makers.

  16. Ground-water geology of Kordofan Province, Sudan (United States)

    Rodis, Harry G.; Hassan, Abdulla; Wahadan, Lutfi


    For much of Kordofan Province, surface-water supplies collected and stored in hafirs, fulas, and tebeldi trees are almost completely appropriated for present needs, and water from wells must serve as the base for future economic and cultural development. This report describes the results of a reconnaissance hydrogeologic investigation of the Province and the nature and distribution of the ground-water resources with respect to their availability for development. Kordofan Province, in central Sudan, lies within the White Nile-Nile River drainage basin. The land surface is largely a plain of low relief; jebels (hills) occur sporadically, and sandy soils are common in most areas except in the south where clayey soils predominate. Seasonal rainfall, ranging from less than 100 millimeters in the north to about 800 millimeters in the south, occurs almost entirely during the summer months, but little runoff ever reaches the Nile or White Nile Rivers. The rocks beneath the surficial depsits (Pleistocene to Recent) in the Province comprise the basement complex (Precambrian), Nawa Series (upper Paleozoic), Nubian Series (Mesozoic), laterite (lower to middle Tertiary), and the Umm Ruwaba Series (Pliocene to Pleistocene). Perennial ground-water supplies in the Province are found chiefly in five hydrologic units, each having distinct geologic or hydrologic characteristics. These units occur in Nubian or Umm Ruwaba strata or both, and the sandstone and conglomerate beds form the :principal aquifers. The water is generally under slight artesian head, and the upper surface of the zone of saturation ranges from about 50 meters to 160 meters below land surface. The surficial deposits and basement rocks are generally poor sources of ground water in most of the Province. Supplies from such sources are commonly temporary and may dissipate entirely during the dry season. Locally, however, perennial supplies are obtained from the surficial deposits and from the basement rocks. Generally

  17. OPG Western Waste Management Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julian, J. [Ontario Power Generation, Western Waste Management Facility, Tiverton, ON (Canada)


    The Ontario Power Generation (OPG) Western Waste Management Facility (WWMF) uses a computer based Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system to monitor its facility, and control essential equipment. In 2007 the WWMF Low and Intermediate Level Waste (L&ILW) technical support section conducted a review of outstanding corrective maintenance work. Technical support divided all work on a system by system basis. One system under review was the Waste Volume Reduction Building (WVRB) control room SCADA system. Technical support worked with control maintenance staff to assess all outstanding work orders on the SCADA system. The assessment identified several deficiencies in the SCADA system. Technical support developed a corrective action plan for the SCADA system deficiencies, and in February of 2008 developed an engineering change package to correct the observed deficiencies. OPG Nuclear Waste Engineering approved the change package and the WVRB Control Room Upgrades construction project started in January of 2009. The WVRB control room upgrades construction work was completed in February of 2009. This paper provides the following information regarding the WWMF SCADA system and the 2009 WVRB Control Room Upgrades Project: A high-level explanation of SCADA system technology, and the various SCADA system components installed in the WVRB; A description of the state of the WVRB SCADA system during the work order assessment, identifying all deficiencies; A description of the new design package; A description of the construction project; and, A list of lessons learned during construction and commissioning, and a path forward for future upgrades. (author)

  18. 2000 Western Canada activity forecast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuntz, D.L.


    All wells drilled in Western Canada during the first nine months of 1999 are listed and sorted into 12 geographical areas used in the Petroleum Services Association of Canada (PSAC) well cost study. Each area represents wells of common drilling, production and depth characteristics. Area totals for well counts and meters drilled were determined from the sorting process. Previous years' activities are reviewed and various operators and PSAC members contacted to review upcoming programs. In addition, trends and other projections were consulted to develop an estimate of drilling activity for the rest of 1999 as well as a projection of drilling activity for 2000. The historical and projected drilling activities were tabulated and plotted for each area. Average drilling costs for each area were determined, and the total expenditures were calculated for each area by multiplying the the projected meterage by the adjusted drilling costs. All costs were allocated to various services and products utilizing percentages determined in the Well Cost Study. During the sorting process, a list was developed of the major operators in each area, which list is included in the report along with average depths and types of wells drilled by the various operators in each area. The costs included in the report include only drilling and completion operations, starting with the building of the location prior to drilling, and ending with the installation of the wellhead after construction. 5 tabs

  19. Western Canada drilling cycle optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The oil and gas industry in western Canada operates in annual and seasonal cycles with peak activity periods that require a large skilled labour force for short periods of time. This study examines why seismic and drilling activity is greatest during the first quarter of the year instead of being distributed evenly over the year. The objective of the study was to provide recommendations that would help optimize the industry cycle. The study includes an analysis of historical trends that validate the industry first quarter peaking activity. It also includes interviews with 36 industry representatives and provides insight and validation of trends. The final phase of the report includes recommendations that both industry and governments may wish to implement. The study includes financial, operational and environmental considerations. It was shown that natural gas directed drilling activity is strongly correlated with changes in natural gas prices. In the case of oil drilling activity, peak activity responds to oil prices from the prior quarter. In general, drilling and seismic costs are higher in the winter months because of increased demand for equipment and services. In addition winter drilling operations require a diesel fired boiler to generate steam. 36 refs., 2 tabs., 52 figs

  20. Western water and climate change (United States)

    Dettinger, Michael; Udall, Bradley; Georgakakos, Aris P.


    The western United States is a region long defined by water challenges. Climate change adds to those historical challenges, but does not, for the most part, introduce entirely new challenges; rather climate change is likely to stress water supplies and resources already in many cases stretched to, or beyond, natural limits. Projections are for continued and, likely, increased warming trends across the region, with a near certainty of continuing changes in seasonality of snowmelt and streamflows, and a strong potential for attendant increases in evaporative demands. Projections of future precipitation are less conclusive, although likely the northernmost West will see precipitation increases while the southernmost West sees declines. However, most of the region lies in a broad area where some climate models project precipitation increases while others project declines, so that only increases in precipitation uncertainties can be projected with any confidence. Changes in annual and seasonal hydrographs are likely to challenge water managers, users, and attempts to protect or restore environmental flows, even where annual volumes change little. Other impacts from climate change (e.g., floods and water-quality changes) are poorly understood and will likely be location dependent.

  1. Heat pumps in western Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freymond, A.


    The past ten years have seen an extraordinary expansion of heat-pump market figures in the western (French speaking) part of Switzerland. Today, more than 14,000 units are in operation. This corresponds to about 18% of all the machines installed in the whole country, compared to only 10 to 12% ten years ago. This success illustrates the considerable know-how accumulated by the leading trade and industry during these years. It is also due to the promotional program 'Energy 2000' of the Swiss Federal Department of Energy that included the heat pump as a renewable energy source. Already in 1986, the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne was equipped with a huge heat pump system comprising two electrically driven heat pumps of 3.5 MW thermal power each. The heat source is water drawn from the lake of Geneva at a depth of 70 meters. An annual coefficient of performance of 4.5 has been obtained since the commissioning of the plant. However, most heat pump installations are located in single-family dwellings. The preferred heat source is geothermal heat, using borehole heat exchangers and an intermediate heat transfer fluid. The average coefficient of performance of these installations has been increased from 2.5 in 1995 to 3.1 in 2002

  2. Risk perception in western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeberg, Lennart


    This paper describes empirical work on risk perception and some related dimensions, in particular with regard to radiation and nuclear power hazards. Most of the data cited come from a current CEC project in which 5 countries in Western Europe have participated. Models of risk perception are discussed and some generally valid findings concerning risk perception are summarized. Risk is seen to be a primary factor in many policy matters and clearly, to the public, more important than utility considerations. Previously formulated models (the Psychometric Model and Cultural Theory) are found to be deficient and a much more efficient alternative is suggested. It is stressed that risk perception is of interest foremost because it can be of value to decision makers in making difficult policy decisions in matters of risk. Hence, it is important to ask what facets of perceived risk are most strongly related to demand for risk mitigation. It is found that expected severity of consequences of an hazard is the clearly most important dimension. The paper concludes with a brief summary of a case study of Swedish experience with high-level nuclear waste repository siting

  3. OPG Western Waste Management Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julian, J.


    The Ontario Power Generation (OPG) Western Waste Management Facility (WWMF) uses a computer based Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system to monitor its facility, and control essential equipment. In 2007 the WWMF Low and Intermediate Level Waste (L&ILW) technical support section conducted a review of outstanding corrective maintenance work. Technical support divided all work on a system by system basis. One system under review was the Waste Volume Reduction Building (WVRB) control room SCADA system. Technical support worked with control maintenance staff to assess all outstanding work orders on the SCADA system. The assessment identified several deficiencies in the SCADA system. Technical support developed a corrective action plan for the SCADA system deficiencies, and in February of 2008 developed an engineering change package to correct the observed deficiencies. OPG Nuclear Waste Engineering approved the change package and the WVRB Control Room Upgrades construction project started in January of 2009. The WVRB control room upgrades construction work was completed in February of 2009. This paper provides the following information regarding the WWMF SCADA system and the 2009 WVRB Control Room Upgrades Project: A high-level explanation of SCADA system technology, and the various SCADA system components installed in the WVRB; A description of the state of the WVRB SCADA system during the work order assessment, identifying all deficiencies; A description of the new design package; A description of the construction project; and, A list of lessons learned during construction and commissioning, and a path forward for future upgrades. (author)

  4. Data report: western United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.; Fay, W.M.


    This abbreviated summary data report, presents results of ground water and stream surface sediment reconnaissance in the western United States. Surface sediment samples were collected at 67,741 sites, at a target sampling density of one site per 13 square kilometers. Ground water samples were collected at 13,979 sites, and surface water samples were collected at 2,958 sites. Neutron activaton analysis results are given for uranium and 16 other elements in sediments, and for uranium and 9 other elements in waters. Mass spectrometry results are given for helium in ground waters. Supplemental analyses of the sediments for extractable uranium and 22 other elements are given where they are available. Supplemental analyses of water samples for 33 additional elements are also reported where they are available. Analytical data and field measurements are presented in tables on microfiche. Data from ground water sites (on microfiche in pocket) include (1) water chemistry measurements (pH, conductivity, and alkalinity), (2) physical measurements where applicable (water temperature, well description, and scintillometer reading), and (3) elemental analyses (U, Al, Br Cl, Dy, F, Mg, Mn, Na, and V by neutron activation and Ag, Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nb, Ni, P, Sc, Se, Si, Sr, Th, Ti, V, Y, Zn, and Zr by spectrophotometry). Helium analyses are given for ground water

  5. The Brazil-Angola alkaline - carbonatite province and its main economic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loureiro, F.E.V.L.; Di Valderano, M.H.W.


    The principal characteristics of the Brazil-Angola Alkaline Carbonatite Province are defined and described with specific reference to tectonic setting and economic aspects. The economic aspects of the Brazilian uranium deposits are emphasised. The Brazil-Angola Alkaline-Carbonatite Province can be divided into six Brazilian sub-provinces and two Angolan sub-provinces. Correlation between the sub-provinces of Brazil and Angola remains speculative due to the lack of detailed information, especially age determinations on the Angolan rocks. However, an analysis of the tectonic and petrochemical aspects suggests that the two Brazilian sub-provinces situated along the littoral of Rio de Janeiro/ Sao Paulo and around the periphery of the Parana Basin may be more easily comparable to the two Angolan sub-provinces than the remaining four. (Author) [pt

  6. Marketing orientation vs. innovativeness of SMEs of the Podlaskie province


    Ejdys, Joanna


    This research aims to examine the impact of marketing orientation on the innovation level among Small and Medium Size (SMEs) from Podlaskie Province. A survey utilizing a questionnaire was conducted among 137 companies in the Podlaskie Voivodeship. Altogether 3 hypotheses concerning marketing orientation and innovativeness level have been examined with the use of the hierarchical regression techniques. The relation between three types of marketing orientation and innovativeness has been analy...

  7. Quality Control Assessment of Radiology Devices in Kerman Province, Iran


    Zahra Jomehzadeh; Ali Jomehzadeh; Mohammad Bagher Tavakoli


    Introduction Application of quality control (QC) programs at diagnostic radiology departments is of great significance for optimization of image quality and reduction of patient dose. The main objective of this study was to perform QC tests on stationary radiographic X-ray machines, installed in 14 hospitals of Kerman province, Iran. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study, QC tests were performed on 28 conventional radiographic X-ray units in Kerman governmental hospitals, based ...

  8. Gestion des parcours dans la province de Rhamna (Maroc) | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Au Maroc, les parcours font l'objet d'une grave dégradation, et cela a suscité des interventions publiques visant à réduire les pressions exercées sur les ressources naturelles et à favoriser une gestion durable. Dans la province de Rhamna, où l'on pratique depuis des générations la transhumance, les interventions n'ont ...

  9. Coastal and Marine Environment Problems in East Kalimantan Province




    Coastal and marine problems were collected from the coastal community in area of the Municipality of Balikpapan East Kalimantan Province, from fishermen, NGO's and government officials. The technique used was that of the Field Participatory Workshop's. the result of the study revealed some coastal community awarenees, coastal resources USAge, and governmental policy. The local government's failure to solve those problems was mainly due to lack of social awarenees for environmental coastal man...

  10. Natural radioactivity in soils of the province of Caceres (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeza, A; Del Rio, M; Miro, C; Paniagua, J M [Extremadura Univ., Caceres (Spain). Facultad de Veterinaria


    Soils from all over the province of Caceres (Spain) were studied by gamma spectrometry to determine their [sup 226]Ra, [sup 232]Th and [sup 40]K concentrations. The rock types are fundamentally granites, shales and sedimentary materials. The analyses were designed for three different studies of the radionuclide concentration: at the surface, as a function of depth, and as a function of grain size. (author).

  11. Social inequalities in maternal mortality among the provinces of Ecuador. (United States)

    Sanhueza, Antonio; Roldán, Jakeline Calle; Ríos-Quituizaca, Paulina; Acuña, Maria Cecilia; Espinosa, Isabel


    This study set out to describe the association between the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) estimates and a set of socioeconomic indicators and compute the MMR inequalities among the provinces of Ecuador. A cross-sectional ecological study was conducted, using data for 2014 from the country's 24 provinces. The MMR estimate was calculated for each province, as well as the association and its strength between MMR and specific socioeconomic indicators. For the indicators that were found to be significantly associated with MMR, inequality measurements were computed. Despite a relatively low MMR for Ecuador overall, ratios differed substantially among the provinces. Five socioeconomic indicators proved to be statistically significantly associated with MMR: total fertility rate, the percentage of indigenous population, the percentage of households with children who do not attend school, gross domestic product, and the percentage of houses with electrical service. Of these five, only three had MMR inequalities that were significant: total fertility rate, gross domestic product, and the percentage of households with electricity. This study supports research arguing that national averages can be misleading, as they often hide differences among subgroups at the local level. The findings also suggest that MMR is significantly associated with some socioeconomic indicators, including ones linked with significant health outcome inequalities. In order to reduce health inequities, it is crucial that countries look beyond national averages and identify the subgroups being left behind, explore the particular social determinants that generate these health inequalities, and examine the specific barriers and other factors affecting the subgroups most vulnerable to maternal health inequalities.

  12. The Alto Paraguay Alkaline Province: petrographic, geochemical and geochronological characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velazquez Fernandez, Victor


    The Alto Paraguay Province is located at the border of the State of Mato Grosso do Sul and Paraguay, between the coordinates 21 deg 10 ' to 23 deg 25 ' of Southern latitude and 57 deg 10 ' to 58 deg 00 ' , having the city of Porto Murtinho as the main reference point. The geotectonic domain of the area is governed by the precambric units of the Southern extreme of the Amazonic craton which developed a long and accentuated activity, giving rise to folds and important faults, that in several cases seem to have exerted an effective control of the magmatic manifestations. Radiometric data indicate that the emplacement of the syenitic bodies took place in the Permo-Triassic period, with a major incidence in the interval 260-240 Ma, representing thus, an important phase of alkaline magmatic affinity associated to the Parana Basin which is believed is to be unique, since the other known areas (Central, Amambay and Rio Apa Provinces, Paraguay, Velasco Province, Bolivia) are considerably younger (140-120 Ma). Syenitic rocks from the Alto Paraguay Province show wide variation in the ratio 87 Sr/ 86 Sr (0.703361 - 0.707734). Excluding the Cerro Boggiani rocks (0.703837-0.707734), values for the nepheline syenites (0.703361-0.703672) general lower than those of the other syenites types. Alkaline syenites cover the interval 0.703510- 0.703872, while quartz syenites and syenogranites are 0.704562 and 0.707076, respectively. geologic evidence, in addition to petrographic, geochemical and isotopic (Sr) data, suggest that the syenitic rocks have been derived from an unique mantelic parental liquid, by fractional crystallization and assimilation processes, which are assumed to be occurred during the emplacement of the magma in the crust. (author)

  13. Pediatric hypertension in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia (United States)

    Alkahtani, Shaea A.


    Objectives: To compare the levels of blood pressure (BP) between male and female adolescents in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia and reference percentiles for Saudi adolescents. A secondary aim was to explore the distribution of BP among the participants based on age and gender. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 146 boys and girls attending intermediate and secondary schools in 2 regions (Al-Mallaha and Al-Mubarraz) in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Weight, random blood glucose, and BP were collected by a team of health educators in the morning of the school day between April and May 2014. Results: Of the current sample of adolescents originally from the Eastern Province, 30% had systolic blood pressure (SBP) of ≥140 mm Hg and 22% had diastolic blood pressure of ≥90 mm Hg. For girls between 13 and 16 years old, the SBP was greater than the 95th percentile of Saudi national norms. Participants were classified by gender and school stage, and one-way analysis of variance showed significant differences in the means of SBP between intermediate boys (127±2.5 mm Hg) and secondary boys (136±2.1 mm Hg) (p<0.05), and between intermediate boys and intermediate girls (138±1.6 mm Hg) (p<0.01). Conclusion: The increased level of BP among adolescents originally from the Eastern Province raises the need to update the current BP nomograms, considering possible differences for specific geographic areas across the country. Implementing therapeutic life style management in girls’ schools is recommended. PMID:25987114

  14. Patients' satisfaction evaluation with the health center of elis province. (United States)

    Karavida, Angeliki; Stamouli, Maria-Aggeliki; Balis, Charalampos


    Patient satisfaction related to the provided health services is a key indicator of the quality of the health sector. The SERVQUAL model was employed as a way of measuring the level of patient satisfaction with the services of the Health Center of Elis Province. Although certain aspects such as "Assurance" and "Empathy" meet the users' needs, improvements like a detailed medical record and an overhaul of the equipment need to be introduced.

  15. Prevalence of Hepatitis B virus infection in Isfahan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zary Nokhodian


    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV is a serious global health problem. It is estimated that 1.5-2.5 million people are suffering from this infection in Iran. A review on HBV infection prevalence in Isfahan, Iran is conducted in this article. It will help researchers for further studies and also will be helpful for control the infection. Medline, Embase, Ovid, Google Scholar, Scientific Information Database, Iranmedex, Magiran and Scientific Journal of Iran Blood Transfusion Organization and also students′ thesis and projects of Isfahan and Kashan universities of medical sciences were searched for key words "HBV," "HBsAg," "prevalence," "Isfahan," "Esfahan," and "Kashan in titles and/or abstracts. Overall, 24 articles, including 4, 14, 5 and 1 were assessed in Isfahan province, and Isfahan, Kashan, and Foulad-shahr cities, respectively. The highest and lowest participants were 542705 and 73, respectively. The highest prevalence of HBsAg was reported in HIV-infected patients and the lowest one was seen in the thalassemic patients. We collected the articles about the prevalence of HBV in Isfahan to help researchers and determine prevalence HBV in Isfahan province. The similar studies in other province of Iran are necessary for marking decision.

  16. Behavior Disorders Prevalence in High School Students in Hamedan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Zolfaghari


    Full Text Available Objective: Behavioral disorders of childhood and adolescence represent a range of problems and Its prevalence varies in different parts of Iran and the world. Knowledge of them is essential to the prevention, treatment and rehabilitation of patients. The aim of this survey is assessment of behavior disorders prevalence in high school students in Hamedan province. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive and cross sectional study, 500 boy and girl students were selected from Hamedan high schools by multistep cluster sampling, based on region and gender. Data were gathered by Achenbach experience questionnaire (YSR form and analyzed by Friedman and independent T tests. Results: The findings showed that prevalence of behavioral problems among students in the province is 10 percent and it was higher in girls than boys. Most disorders were withdrawal disorder / anxiety and attention problems and somatization disorder was the least problem. Conclusion: Prevalence of behavior disorders in Hamedan province compared to other studies is moderate, but the behavior disorders prevalence of boys and girls are different from other researchs.

  17. Petroleum systems of the Malay Basin Province, Malaysia (United States)

    Bishop, Michele G.


    The offshore Malay Basin province is a Tertiary oil and gas province composed of a complex of half grabens that were filled by lacustrine shales and continental clastics.These deposits were overlain by clastics of a large delta system that covered the basin.Delta progradation was interupted by transgressions of the South China Sea to the southeast, which finally flooded the basin to form the Gulf of Thailand.Oil and gas from the Oligocene to Miocene lacustrine shales and Miocene deltaic coals is trapped primarily in anticlines formed by inversion of the half grabens during the late Miocene.Hydrocarbon reserves that have been discovered amount to 12 billion barrels of oil equivalent.The U.S. Geological Survey assessment of the estimated quantities of conventional oil, gas and condensate that have the potential to be added to reserves by the year 2025 for this province is 6.3 billion barrels of oil equivalent (BBOE) (U. S. Geological Survey World Energy Assessment Team, 2000).

  18. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in Lorestan Province, West of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Badparva


    Full Text Available Objective: To study the prevalence of intestinal parasites in Lorestan Province, West of Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 2 838 stool samples in Khorramabad, Lorestan Province in 2013. Samples were examined by the several techniques. Results: The frequency of intestinal parasites was 465 (16.4% of which 188 (13.5% samples were for urban areas and 277 (19.2% for rural areas. Infection in rural areas was significantly higher than urban areas. Out of 465 infected samples, 456 (98% were contaminated with protozoan parasites and 9 (2% with helminthes. Infection in people who sometimes used the soap to wash hands was significantly more than those who always used soap (P<0.001. Infection in people with poor economic conditions was significantly more than the two groups with moderate and good economic conditions (P<0.001. Conclusions: Effective reasons for the reducing incidence of intestinal parasites in Lorestan Province could be the development of universities with more students led to increased awareness, improvement of the environment, increase of the ease of access to health care centers, increase of advertising in provincial mass media about health training, increased health culture, and dispose of sanitary waste properly.

  19. Spatial and Statistical Analysis of Leptospirosis in Guilan Province, Iran (United States)

    Nia, A. Mohammadi; Alimohammadi, A.; Habibi, R.; Shirzadi, M. R.


    The most underdiagnosed water-borne bacterial zoonosis in the world is Leptospirosis which especially impacts tropical and humid regions. According to World Health Organization (WHO), the number of human cases is not known precisely. Available reports showed that worldwide incidences vary from 0.1-1 per 100 000 per year in temperate climates to 10-100 per 100 000 in the humid tropics. Pathogenic bacteria that is spread by the urines of rats is the main reason of water and soil infections. Rice field farmers who are in contact with infected water or soil, contain the most burden of leptospirosis prevalence. In recent years, this zoonotic disease have been occurred in north of Iran endemically. Guilan as the second rice production province (average=750 000 000 Kg, 40% of country production) after Mazandaran, has one of the most rural population (Male=487 679, Female=496 022) and rice workers (47 621 insured workers) among Iran provinces. The main objectives of this study were to analyse yearly spatial distribution and the possible spatial clusters of leptospirosis to better understand epidemiological aspects of them in the province. Survey was performed during the period of 2009-2013 at rural district level throughout the study area. Global clustering methods including the average nearest neighbour distance, Moran's I and General G indices were utilized to investigate the annual spatial distribution of diseases. At the end, significant spatial clusters have been detected with the objective of informing priority areas for public health planning and resource allocation.

  20. Molecular Identification of Nosema species in East Azerbaijan province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razmaraii, N.


    Full Text Available Nosema is a genus of microsporidia, which have significant negative impacts on honeybees. The aim of thisstudy is the epidemiological evaluation and molecular characterization of Nosema spices in various countiesof East-Azerbaijan province (Northwest of Iran. 387 samples were collected from colonies maintained invarious counties of East-Azerbaijan province. Samples after preparation were examined by a lightmicroscope for presence of Nosema spores. PCR method (SSUrRNA gene was used to differentiatebetween Nosema apis (N. apis and N. ceranae. Descriptive statistics were used for data analysis. Totalinfection prevalence of the microscopic evaluation and PCR tests were 225 (58.1% and 260 (67.1%respectively, total validity of PCR test against the microscopic test was computed equal to 1.1 in this case.Disease distribution in various counties of study area was variable and N. ceranae was the only Nosema species found to infect honeybees. The one species presence and different distribution of Nosema positive samples in various counties of East-Azerbaijan province may be due to multiple reasons. Furthermore,epidemiological information helps us to improve disease management practices in the studied area, apply new hygiene policy and reduce extra costs of production.