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Sample records for hamburgers frankfurters sausages

  1. Frankfurter Type Sausage Production with Sunflower Oil Substitution

    OpenAIRE

    ERTAŞ, A. Hamdi; KARABAŞ, Gülay

    2014-01-01

    Some quality characteristics of frankfurter type sausages (with 30% total fat) produced by adding sunflower oil at different levels (10%, 20% and 30%) were determined and compared to control with 30% animal fat. Increasing of sunflower oil content resulted in lower process yield. Cholesterol content and water holding capacity of frankfurters also decreased at the levels of sunflower oil from 10 to 30% (P

  2. The quality evaluation of frankfurter-type sausages from hand and mechanically deboned turkey meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radomyski, T; Niewiarowicz, A

    1987-03-01

    A quality evaluation was made of frankfurter-type sausages made from hand and mechanically deboned meat from various parts of turkey carcasses. The results led to the conclusions that despite some differences in objective measurements of the sausage quality, mechanically deboned turkey meat can be considered as an exclusive meat raw material for the production of frankfurter-type sausages. The quality of sausages from mechanically deboned turkey meat from wings and frames with skin was the least satisfactory.

  3. Correlation between the median particle size of chewed frankfurter sausage and almonds during masticatory performance test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumonsiri, P; Thongudomporn, U; Paphangkorakit, J

    2018-04-27

    The correlation between chewing and gastric function is best reflected when the same food type is used during both tests. We proposed frankfurter sausage as test food for masticatory performance as it can also be used in gastric emptying test. The suitability of frankfurter sausage to determine masticatory performance, however, has never been examined. To examine the correlations between the median particle size of frankfurter sausage and almonds (as standard test food) after different numbers of chewing cycles. Twenty-seven subjects performed masticatory performance tests by chewing 2 types of test foods, that is, a piece of almond or 5-g frankfurter sausage cubes placed in a sealed latex bag, for 5 and 15 chewing cycles. For each individual, right and left sides were tested separately. Chewed samples obtained from both sides were pooled. Median particle sizes were determined using a multiple sieving method. Spearman's rank correlation was used to examine any correlation between median particle sizes of the 2 test foods after 5 and 15 cycles. Median particle sizes after 5 and 15 cycles were 2.04 ± 0.87 and 0.95 ± 0.58 mm for almonds and 4.16 ± 0.19 and 3.73 ± 0.25 mm for frankfurter sausage, respectively. Significant correlations were observed between the median particle size of chewed frankfurter sausage after 15 cycles and that of chewed almonds after 5 and 15 cycles (r = .76, P < .01 and r = .52, P = .01, respectively). Frankfurter sausage chewed for 15 cycles may be suitable for the determination of masticatory performance in conjunction with gastric emptying test. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Physical, chemical, technological and sensory characteristics of Frankfurter type sausage containing okara flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Kitagawa Grizotto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The addition of okara flour to an emulsified meat product (Frankfurter type sausage was evaluated based on the physical, chemical, technological, and sensory characteristics of the final product. Okara, residue from soymilk production, was provided by two soymilk producing companies whose production systems were based on the hot disintegration of the decorticated (company B or undecorticated (company A soybeans. The okara was dehydrated using a flash dryer and then ground into flour (>420 µm. However, The okara flours A and B showed approximately the same amount of protein (35 and 40 g.100 g-1 dwb. However, the okara flour A presented higher values (p < 0.05 for all technological functional properties studied (emulsification capacity, emulsion stability, protein solubility, and water hold capacity than those of okara flour B. The A and B okara flours were used in a frankfurter sausage formulation as substitution of 1.5% and 4% of meat. The results showed that the sausages containing okara flours A and B, as well as the control sausage, were accepted by the sensory panel. Moreover, there were no significant differences (p < 0.05 in the physical (color, objective texture, and emulsion stability and chemical (pH and proximate composition measurements of the sausages with and without the okara flour.

  5. Effects of the addition of mechanically deboned poultry meat and collagen fibers on quality characteristics of frankfurter-type sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Anirene Galvão Tavares; Ramos, Eduardo Mendes; Teixeira, Jacyara Thaís; Cardoso, Giselle Pereira; Ramos, Alcinéia de Lemos Souza; Fontes, Paulo Rogério

    2011-12-01

    The effects of mechanically deboned poultry meat (MDPM) and levels of collagen fibers on comminuted, cooked sausage quality characteristics were investigated using the central composite rotatable design of response surface methodology (RSM). Use of collagen fiber as an additive affected the sausage characteristics, but the effect depended on the amount of the MDPM used. While MDPM additions resulted in higher cooking loss and darker and redder frankfurters, the addition of collagen fibers improved cooking yields and contributed to the lightness of the final product. Higher collagen fiber content was also accompanied by a significant increase in frankfurter hardness regardless of the MDPM content. Use of collagen fibers countered the negative effects of MDPM on sausage quality attributes, especially on cooking yields and final product color. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of microbial contamination of ready-to-eat foods (pizza, frankfurters, sausages) in the city of Ilam

    OpenAIRE

    Akbar Eslami; Zeinab Gholami; Shokofeh Nargesi; Bahareh Rostami; Moayed Avazpour

    2017-01-01

    Background: Today in the world, disease resulting from food is considered one of the most important problems in public health. This study aimed to determine the bacterial contamination of ready-to-eat foods, i.e. fast food, in Ilam city. Methods: In this cross-sectional, analytical study, 270 samples of ready-to-eat food, including pizza, frankfurters, and sausages, were randomly collected and tested for contamination with Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Shigella sonnei, Salmonell...

  7. Effect of plantain (Musa paradisiaca L. cv. Dominico Harton peel flour as binder in frankfurter-type sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilver Rosero Chasoy

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Agroindustrial residues such as plantain (Musa paradisiaca L. cv. Dominico Harton peel have functional properties, which made them suitable for use as a food ingredient. The aim of this research was to evaluate plantain peel flour (PPF as a binder in the production of frankfurter- type sausage. Five formulations were prepared in which wheat flour (WF was replaced by PPF as follows: 25%, 50%, 70% and 100%, respectively. Once the sausages are obtained, the water retention capacity (WRC, emulsifying stability (ES, and pH, were evaluated. When comparing treatments with the control sample, it was found that replacing up to 50% of WF by PPF, significantly increased WRC by 7.5%. When replacing 25%, Es, there were no statistically significant changes among treatments. When replacing 100%, the product pH, was significantly decreased. The results indicated, the sausages made with 50% of PPF, retain the formulation water, which is why the PPF has potential for this type of sausage manufacture. PPF could replace WF up to 25% in the frankfurter formulation, without affecting ES and pH and favoring WRC.

  8. Effects of adding red wine on the physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of uncured frankfurter-type sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xi; Sebranek, Joseph G; Lee, Hyun Yong; Ahn, Dong Uk

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the quality and sensory characteristics of RTE frankfurter-type sausage cured with celery juice powder and including red wine. Four frankfurter treatments including a conventionally cured treatment without red wine (control) and three treatments cured with pre-converted vegetable juice powder and 0%, 5% or 10% (v/w) red wine were prepared. Results showed that adding 5% red wine increased the a*-value, and the textural resilience, cohesiveness and springiness of the frankfurters, as well as decreased lipid/protein oxidation of the final products. Added wine also introduced new volatiles (alcohol and ester compounds) to the frankfurters. The principal component (PC) analysis showed that the pre-converted vegetable juice powder achieved the same effects as the conventional curing agents for typical frankfurter properties. However, the addition of excess amounts of red wine (10%) to the meat batter decreased the pH of meat batter and accelerated lipid oxidation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Color, sensory and textural attributes of beef frankfurter, beef ham and meat-free sausage containing tomato pomace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savadkoohi, Sobhan; Hoogenkamp, Henk; Shamsi, Kambiz; Farahnaky, Asgar

    2014-08-01

    The present investigation focuses on the textural properties, sensory attributes and color changes of beef frankfurter, beef ham and meat-free sausage produced by different levels of bleached tomato pomace. The texture and color profile were performed using an instrumental texture analyzer and colorimeter. The findings indicated that tomato pomace-added sausages had higher water holding capacity (WHC) compared to that of commercial samples. The frankfurters containing 5 and 7% (w/w) tomato pomace had the highest redness (a*), chroma (C*) and color differences (ΔE) values, while the meat-free sausages containing 7% (w/w) tomato pomace had significant (p0.05) color differences between beef ham samples (with and without tomato pomace). A significant progression in the textural hardness and chewiness of systems containing tomato pomace was observed as well as higher sensory scores by panelists. According to sensorial evaluations, bleached tomato pomace improved the consumer acceptability and preference. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of microbial contamination of ready-to-eat foods (pizza, frankfurters, sausages in the city of Ilam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Eslami

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today in the world, disease resulting from food is considered one of the most important problems in public health. This study aimed to determine the bacterial contamination of ready-to-eat foods, i.e. fast food, in Ilam city. Methods: In this cross-sectional, analytical study, 270 samples of ready-to-eat food, including pizza, frankfurters, and sausages, were randomly collected and tested for contamination with Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Shigella sonnei, Salmonella arizonae, and Enterococcus faecalis. After examination, the collected data was analyzed using SPSS 20 software and logistic regression. Results: From a total of 270 samples of ready-to-eat food, 27.77% was contaminated with E. coli, 21.48% with S. aureus, 13.33% with S. sonnei, 14.44% with S. arizonae, and 5.9% with E. faecalis. The results showed higher rates of E. coli and S. aureus contamination in pizza, frankfurters, and sausages. Also, a higher percentage of frankfurters were contaminated with microbial species than pizza or sausages. There were significant differences in microbial contamination rates (P < 0.05 among the three groups of food. In addition, factors such as indicators (health, sanitation, and lack of hygiene, age, gender, and education level of the operating staff had no effect on the results. Conclusion: Based on the results, it can be concluded that bacterial contamination of ready-to-eat foods is significantly high in the city of Ilam; therefore, it is suggested that the examination of food in various stages of production and distribution can help reduce bacterial contamination, and training for the operators of shopping centers’ ready-to-eat food shops and controlling pathogens are essential.

  11. Evaluation of microbial contamination of ready-to-eat foods (pizza, frankfurters, sausages in the city of Ilam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Eslami

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today in the world, disease resulting from food is considered one of the most important problems in public health. This study aimed to determine the bacterial contamination of ready-to-eat foods, i.e. fast food, in Ilam city. Methods: In this cross-sectional, analytical study, 270 samples of ready-to-eat food, including pizza, frankfurters, and sausages, were randomly collected and tested for contamination with Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Shigella sonnei, Salmonella arizonae, and Enterococcus faecalis. After examination, the collected data was analyzed using SPSS 20 software and logistic regression. Results: From a total of 270 samples of ready-to-eat food, 27.77% was contaminated with E. coli, 21.48% with S. aureus, 13.33% with S. sonnei, 14.44% with S. arizonae, and 5.9% with E. faecalis. The results showed higher rates of E. coli and S. aureus contamination in pizza, frankfurters, and sausages. Also, a higher percentage of frankfurters were contaminated with microbial species than pizza or sausages. There were significant differences in microbial contamination rates (P < 0.05 among the three groups of food. In addition, factors such as indicators (health, sanitation, and lack of hygiene, age, gender, and education level of the operating staff had no effect on the results. Conclusion: Based on the results, it can be concluded that bacterial contamination of ready-to-eat foods is significantly high in the city of Ilam; therefore, it is suggested that the examination of food in various stages of production and distribution can help reduce bacterial contamination, and training for the operators of shopping centers’ ready-to-eat food shops and controlling pathogens are essential.

  12. Physicochemical analysis of frankfurter type sausages made with red tilapia fillet waste (Oreochromis sp and quinoa flour (Chenopodium quinoa W.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Igor Hleap Zapata

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In Colombia, the production of red tilapia (Oreochromis sp has shown important development in recent years. It is a hydro-biological resource that generates fish fillet waste that can be used in the manufacture of fish products. The aim of this research was to analyze the influence of quinoa flour on the physicochemical properties, texture and oxidative stability during storage and sale of Frankfurter sausages made with red tilapia fillet waste when adding two concentrations of quinoa flour, 10 g/kg and 20 g/kg, and a control treatment with no quinoa flour. The sausages were vacuum packed and stored under refrigeration (2 °C ± 2 °C. The proximate chemical composition, pH, CIElab coordinates, lipid oxidation, water holding capacity, water binding ability and cooking yield were determined, along with an instrumental texture analysis for each of the sausages prepared. The addition of quinoa flour at a concentration of 10 g/kg presented the best water holding capacity, water binding ability, lighter coloration and cooking yield, as compared to the control sausage. By contrast, the sausages with 20 g/kg were harder and required greater effort to cut than the control (p < 0.05. The addition of quinoa flour increased fat oxidation after 6 days of monitoring. The addition of 10 g/kg of quinoa flour was the best concentration for the production of sausages made with red tilapia fillet waste, which represents a new alternative for hydro-biological-origin foodstuffs.

  13. Effect of fat volume fraction, sodium caseinate, and starch on the optimization of the sensory properties of frankfurter sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petridis, Dimitris; Ritzoulis, Christos; Tzivanos, Iakovos; Vlazakis, Eleuterios; Derlikis, Emmanuel; Patroklos, Vareltzis

    2013-01-01

    The effect of two important nonmeat constituents (starch and sodium caseinate) and fat content on the sensory perception of frankfurter sausages has been assessed for two mixture amounts (17% and 27%). A strong correlation among objective fattiness, elasticity, and chewiness has been established; these correlate negatively to consistency and hardness. This has been attributed to the protein gel disruption arising from local phase separations. Hedonic consistency, elasticity, and chewiness showed a very strong positive correlation to one another. Contour plots, based on responses of principal component axes, show that lard is important in increasing the objective sensory intensities of fattiness, chewiness, and elasticity, and for decreasing hardness and consistency. In higher lard proportions, caseinate and starch decrease the red color intensity and the acceptability of chewiness, elasticity, and consistency. Optimization of the component amounts was performed using response trace plots. After redundancy analysis, sensory and instrumental variables were found in very good mutual agreement; hardness was assessed as the most important mechanical variable, followed by chewiness.

  14. Spanish, Portuguese, and Neo-Latin Poetry Written and/or Published by Seventeenth-, Eighteenth-, and Nineteenth-Century Sephardim from Hamburg and Frankfurt (2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown, Kenneth

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study is the second in a three-part series (the first appearing in Sefarad 59 [1999] pp. 3-42; the third being in press on the phenomenon of Neo- Latin and Romance-Language —Spanish and Portuguese— poetry of the Sephardim in Hamburg and Frankfurt am Main from the early seventeenth to the midnineteenth centuries. Our collection expands the original poetic corpus from twenty-eight to forty-five works. In an historical and critical Introduction to the poems, the authors distinguish the creative genius of a new type of literary discourse, one which meshes neo-classical strophic forms with inspiration from Sephardic orthodox Judaism as it was practiced in the Dutch Netherlands, biblical events and Jewish philosophical constructs. In addition to the evaluation and edition of the poems and, in the cases of Neo-Latin works, their translation to English, the Introduction includes an argument for substantiating book printing of Sephardic-authored books in Frankfurt am Main during the period 1614-1634 as well as sporadically throughout the remainder of the seventeenth century.

    Nuestro estudio representa la segunda parte (la primera apareció en Sefarad 59 [1999] págs. 3-42; la tercera está en prensa de un trabajo sobre la poesía en latín y lenguas romances —español y portugués— de los sefardíes de Hamburgo y de Frankfurt am Main desde principios del siglo XVII hasta mediados del XVIII. Aquí el corpus poetarum se amplía de veintiocho a cuarenta y cinco obras; estas nuevas poesías evidencian un espíritu neoclasicista mezclado ingeniosamente con un discurso apegado a un judaísmo ortodoxo-sefardí tal como entonces se practicaba en los países protestantes del norte de Europa. En el apartado introductorio, que es tanto descriptivo como evaluativo de la obra poética, se defiende la tesis de que la ciudad protestante de Frankfurt am Main con su feria del libro anual servía como lugar de impresi

  15. Physical, chemical, technological and sensory characteristics of Frankfurter type sausage containing okara flour Características químicas, físicas, tecnológicas e sensoriais de salsicha tipo Frankfurter enriquecida com farinha de okara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Kitagawa Grizotto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The addition of okara flour to an emulsified meat product (Frankfurter type sausage was evaluated based on the physical, chemical, technological, and sensory characteristics of the final product. Okara, residue from soymilk production, was provided by two soymilk producing companies whose production systems were based on the hot disintegration of the decorticated (company B or undecorticated (company A soybeans. The okara was dehydrated using a flash dryer and then ground into flour (>420 µm. However, The okara flours A and B showed approximately the same amount of protein (35 and 40 g.100 g-1 dwb. However, the okara flour A presented higher values (p Avaliou-se a adição de farinha de okara em produto cárneo emulsionado (salsicha tipo Frankfurter com base nas características físicas, químicas e sensoriais do produto obtido. O okara, resíduo do processamento de 'leite' de soja, foi fornecido por duas empresas cujos sistemas de produção baseiam-se na desintegração a quente da soja com casca (empresa A e sem casca (empresa B. O okara foi desidratado em secador flash dryer e moído na forma de farinha (>420 µm. As farinhas de okara A e B apresentaram níveis aproximados de proteína (35 e 40 g.100 g-1 b.s., respectivamente. Entretanto, a farinha de okara A apresentou maiores valores (p < 0,05 para todas as propriedades funcionais tecnológicas estudadas (capacidade de emulsificação, estabilidade da emulsão, solubilidade da proteína e capacidade de retenção de água, em comparação com a farinha de okara B. As farinhas de okara A e B foram adicionadas à formulação de salsicha substituindo 1,5% e 4% do peso de carne, respectivamente. Os resultados mostraram que as salsichas contendo farinhas de okara A e B e a salsicha padrão foram igualmente aceitas pela equipe de provadores. Além disso, não houve diferenças signficativas (p < 0,05 entre as determinações físicas (cor, textura objetiva e estabilidade da emulsão e qu

  16. Water binding of proteins in the processing frankfurter-type sausages. Part. 1. Water-binding ability of freeze-dried meat fractions containing myofibrillar and stromal proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinevetter, L; Gassmann, B; Kroll, J

    1987-01-01

    As soon as possible and 48 h after slaughter respectively, from both blade-bone muscle groups of cattle and pig carcasses the "thick pieces" were excised, extracted, and fractionated. Residues and precipitates from water and salt extracts resulted were freeze-dried, and an improved Baumann capillary suction apparatus was used to measure their water binding capacity (WBC) with and without addition of 2% sodium chloride and/or heating to 80 degrees C. With one exception the WBC results followed a relative pattern demonstrating the final residues (stromal proteins and leavings of myofibrillar proteins) binding the highest amount of added water, precipitates of dialysis (mainly containing myofibrillar proteins) a remarkable amount and powdered meats the least. As scanning electron micrographs confirmed, there were no fibrous structures in the precipitates resulted from dialysis of salt solutions (1.0 mol/1). Heating decreased the spontaneous water uptake of all fractions. Addition of sodium chloride had only a noticeable capillary-suction and swelling effect on unheated samples. Hence swelling of undissolved protein structures (extraction of myosin and possibly of actomyosin) is therefore not the only way for water binding in frankfurter-type sausages.

  17. Monitoring of the dissemination of Salmonella in the chicken Frankfurt-sausage productionline of a sausage factory in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Alexandre de Freitas Luiz

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Poultry meat and its derivatives are among the foodstuffs considered by environmental health authorities to present the highest risks to the public. A total of 185 samples were collected in five monthly batches, from different processing stages in a sausage plant that uses mechanically-deboned chicken meat (MDCM, and testedfor the presence of Salmonella. Enrichment was carried out in both Kauffman's tetrathionate broth and Rappaport-Vassiliadis broth and isolation on Salmonella-Shigella agar and brilliant-green agar. Live Salmonella bacteria were isolated from six samples of the raw meat and from the emulsion, in batches three, four, and five, but not from any sample in batches one or two. The six isolated strains were all classified as Salmonella Albany, which has not previously been reported in MDCM. Of the two enrichment broths, Rappaport-Vassiliadis gave the better results. The pattern of contamination suggests a probable common source, given that a new supplier was used in the third, fourth, and fifth months. It was also shown that the industrial cooking was effective in preventing Salmonella surviving in the final product.

  18. Efecto de la Inclusión de un Extracto de Cereza (Prunus avium L. sobre el Estado de Oxidación y las Características Fisicoquímicas y Sensoriales de Salchichas Tipo Frankfurt Effect of the Inclusion of a Cherry Extract (Prunus avium L. on the Oxidation and Physicochemical and Sensory Characteristics of Frankfurter Type Sausages

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    Yeni Lorena Isaza Maya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Resúmen. Uno de los principales factores limitantes de la calidad y aceptabilidad de la carne y los derivados cárnicos es la oxidación lipídica. Con el objetivo de inhibir o minimizar el deterioro ocasionado por la misma en salchichas tipo Frankfurt, se adiciona un extracto de cereza comercial, y se evalúa el efecto de éste sobre el estado de oxidación y las características fisicoquímicas y sensoriales durante 60 días de almacenamiento. Se encontró que el extracto de cereza mantiene los valores de TBARS (ácido tiobarbitúrico y la concentración de peróxido de las salchichas por debajo de los del producto testigo (sin adición de extracto de cereza, pero con presencia de ascorbato de sodio. Las salchichas con adición del extracto de cereza no presentan diferencias con el producto testigo desde el punto de la percepción de los descriptores sensoriales y las diferencias de las características fisicoquímicas y de color no son demasiado grandes en comparación con el testigo, de esta manera, el extracto de cereza puede ser usado para minimizar la oxidación lipídica de las salchichas tipo Frankfurt, sin afectar en gran medida las características propias de la misma.Abstract. Lipid oxidation is a limiting factor in quality and acceptability of meat and meat products. In order to inhibit or to minimize lipid oxidation in Frankfurters sausages, a commercial cherry extract was added and evaluated the effect on oxidation and physicochemical and sensorial characteristics for 60 days of storage. It was found that commercial cherry extract hold TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances values and peroxides concentration, lesser than a product no added with cherry extract but added with sodium ascorbate. Frankfurters added with cherry extract no showed any difference with Frankfurters no added with cherry extract from sensorial descriptors perception and were no much greater differences in physicochemical and color characteristics

  19. Assessing the variability of the fatty acid profile and cholesterol content of meat sausages

    OpenAIRE

    Amaral, J.S.; Soares, S.; Mafra, I.; Oliveira, M.B.P.P.

    2014-01-01

    Eighteen different brands of meat sausages including pork, poultry and the mixture of both meats (pork and poultry) in sausages, were analysed for their nutritional composition (total fat, moisture, crude protein and ash), cholesterol content and fatty acid composition. As expected, the pork Frankfurter sausages presented a higher fat content compared to sausages that include poultry meat in their composition. A multivariate statistical analysis was applied to the data showing the existence o...

  20. Mechanically recovered poultry meat sausages manufactured with high hydrostatic pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuste, J; Mor-Mur, M; Capellas, M; Guamis, B; Pla, R

    1999-06-01

    The effect of high pressure processing at high temperature on texture and color of frankfurter-type sausages made with different contents of mechanically recovered poultry meat (MRPM) was evaluated and compared with that of a standard cooking process. Five types of sausages containing 100, 75, 50, 25, and 0% MRPM and 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% of minced pork meat (MPM), respectively, were manufactured. They were pressurized at 500 MPa for 30 min at 50, 60, 70, and 75 C or cooked at 75 C for 30 min. Pressure-treated sausages were less springy and firm, but more cohesive. Moreover, color of pressurized sausages was lighter and more yellow than that of conventionally cooked sausages. Addition of MPM increased cohesiveness, hardness, and force at 80% compression. Minced pork meat also caused the appearance of sausages to be lighter, less red, and less yellow. Cooked sausages made with MRPM can have an attractive appearance and texture via high pressure processing.

  1. Hamburger hazards and emotions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nina Veflen; Røssvoll, Elin; Langsrud, Solveig

    2014-01-01

    on the emotions they experience when confronted with the food. A representative sample of 1046 Norwegian consumers participated in an online experiment. In the first part, participants were randomly divided into two groups. One group was confronted with a picture of a rare hamburger, whereas the other group...... was confronted with a picture of a well-done hamburger. The respondents were instructed to imagine that they were served the hamburger on the picture and then to indicate which emotions they experienced: fear, disgust, surprise, interest, pleasure, or none of these. In part two, all respondents were confronted...... with rare hamburgers evokes more fear and disgust than confrontation with well-done hamburgers, that all hamburgers trigger pleasure and interest, and that a consumer’s willingness to eat rare hamburgers depends on the particular type of emotion evoked. These findings indicate that emotions play...

  2. dry sausage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2006-08-17

    Aug 17, 2006 ... production, proximate composition, sensory characteristics and microbial characteristics in sausage. (LAB count and .... flavour were determined by a twelve-member trained flavour and colour descriptive attribute panel using.

  3. Hamburg Accelerator Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Edmund J.N. [CERN Accelerator School (Switzerland)

    1992-10-15

    From 20-24 July, Hamburg welcomed the Fifteenth International Conference on High Energy Accelerators (HEACC). A natural highlight was the recent commissioning success of the HERA electron-proton collider at Hamburg's DESY Laboratory and its first high energy electron-proton collision data. This gave the meeting the feel of a family event celebrating a newborn.

  4. Hamburg Accelerator Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, Edmund J.N.

    1992-01-01

    From 20-24 July, Hamburg welcomed the Fifteenth International Conference on High Energy Accelerators (HEACC). A natural highlight was the recent commissioning success of the HERA electron-proton collider at Hamburg's DESY Laboratory and its first high energy electron-proton collision data. This gave the meeting the feel of a family event celebrating a newborn

  5. Physics and Frankfurt

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    Last weekend I had the pleasure of attending the Frankfurt book fair, where the Austrian publisher Edition Lammerhuber was launching a new book about the LHC.  It’s a beautiful volume, based on the photographs of Peter Ginter, who has been covering CERN for many years, and an essay by celebrated author Franzobel.   I had no doubt that the book would find success, but what really surprised me is how much interest there was at the book fair for CERN and the LHC in particular. Mr Lammerhuber had put on a splendid show, with CERN people available to explain our work, and a stand designed, also with the help of  CERN personnel, to resemble the CERN Control Centre. Throughout the time I was there, his stand was by far the most popular place to be in the hall where science and culture books were presented, and the book’s presence in Frankfurt generated much positive coverage for CERN in the German media. Coming hot on the heels of the Ars Electronica festival of...

  6. Hamburger hazards and emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Nina Veflen; Røssvoll, Elin; Langsrud, Solveig; Scholderer, Joachim

    2014-07-01

    Previous studies indicate that many consumers eat rare hamburgers and that information about microbiological hazards related to undercooked meat not necessarily leads to more responsible behavior. With this study we aim to investigate whether consumers' willingness to eat hamburgers depends on the emotions they experience when confronted with the food. A representative sample of 1046 Norwegian consumers participated in an online experiment. In the first part, participants were randomly divided into two groups. One group was confronted with a picture of a rare hamburger, whereas the other group was confronted with a picture of a well-done hamburger. The respondents were instructed to imagine that they were served the hamburger on the picture and then to indicate which emotions they experienced: fear, disgust, surprise, interest, pleasure, or none of these. In part two, all respondents were confronted with four pictures of hamburgers cooked to different degrees of doneness (rare, medium rare, medium well-done, well-done), and were asked to state their likelihood of eating. We analyzed the data by means of a multivariate probit model and two linear fixed-effect models. The results show that confrontation with rare hamburgers evokes more fear and disgust than confrontation with well-done hamburgers, that all hamburgers trigger pleasure and interest, and that a consumer's willingness to eat rare hamburgers depends on the particular type of emotion evoked. These findings indicate that emotions play an important role in a consumer's likelihood of eating risky food, and should be considered when developing food safety strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Hamburg kui hiiglaslik ehitustander

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    6. novembrist Eesti Arhitektuurimuuseumis Rotermanni soolalaos näitus "arcHH - Architektur made in Hamburg", mis esitleb Hamburgi arhitektide viimase viie aasta loomingut. Näituse koostaja Dirk Meyhöfer, arhitekt Michael Karassowitch

  8. Hamburg Accelerator Conference (2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Edmund J.N. [CERN Accelerator School (Switzerland)

    1992-11-15

    From 20-24 July, Hamburg welcomed the Fifteenth International Conference on High Energy Accelerators (HEACC). The HEACC Conference traditionally reviews the status of all major accelerator projects whether they are already running like clockwork, still in the construction phase, or waiting impatiently for financial approval.

  9. Hamburg Accelerator Conference (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, Edmund J.N.

    1992-01-01

    From 20-24 July, Hamburg welcomed the Fifteenth International Conference on High Energy Accelerators (HEACC). The HEACC Conference traditionally reviews the status of all major accelerator projects whether they are already running like clockwork, still in the construction phase, or waiting impatiently for financial approval

  10. Frankfurter Frauenzimmer um 1800 Frankfurter Broads around 1800

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Engel

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Der von Ursula Kern herausgegebene Sammelband dokumentiert mit acht wissenschaftlichen Essays und einem ausführlichen Katalogteil den gegenwärtigen Stand der Forschung zu bürgerlichen Frauen in Frankfurt am Main zwischen 1750 und 1820. Der Band veranschaulicht die kulturellen, sozialen und ökonomischen Handlungsspielräume von bürgerlichen Frauen innerhalb einer städtischen Kultur, die ihnen den Zugang zur politischen Macht verwehrte.The collected volume published by Usula Kern, which includes eight scholarly essays and an extensive catalogue, documents the current state of research on bourgeois women living in Frankfurt am Main between 1750 and 1820. The volume demonstrates the cultural, social, and economic latitude of bourgeois women in an urban culture that refuses them access to political power.

  11. Recurrent hamburger thyrotoxicosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Malvinder S.; Sturge, Cecil

    2003-01-01

    RECURRENT EPISODES OF SPONTANEOUSLY RESOLVING HYPERTHYROIDISM may be caused by release of preformed hormone from the thyroid gland after it has been damaged by inflammation (recurrent silent thyroiditis) or by exogenous administration of thyroid hormone, which might be intentional or surreptitious (thyrotoxicosis factitia). Community-wide outbreaks of “hamburger thyrotoxicosis” resulting from inadvertent consumption of beef contaminated with bovine thyroid gland have been previously reported. Here we describe a single patient who experienced recurrent episodes of this phenomenon over an 11-year period and present an approach to systematically evaluating patients with recurrent hyperthyroidism. PMID:12952802

  12. Energy saving consulting in Hamburg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-10-01

    For anyone who wants to realise the dream of his own house, the terms of thermal insulation and saving heating plant should be central in planning this. One needs advice from experts for this. A survey of the many consultants offices available in Hamburg is provided. The list was compiled with the assistance of the Hamburg Chamber of Commerce and the Hamburg Trades Council and of professional associations. The information on the special fields of activity of the named consultants is based on their statements.

  13. Teori Komunikasi dalam Perspektif Mazhab Frankfurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surahman Surahman

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Frankfurt School of Thought, which rooted in Marxism and Critical paradigm, provided many ways to interpret the meaning of communication. This school of thought is primarily based on the main tenets of Critical Theory, i.e. totality, consciousness, anomie, and critic. Some questions arise concerning the ontology, epistemology, and axiology dimensions of Frankfurt School of Thought. Ontology discussion concerning the nature of communication involved an intensive outlook of Giddens’s Structuration Theory. Epistemology involved a discussion with Gramscian concepts of hegemony. Meanwhile, the problem of axiology is best addressed in Habermas fashion of agent-structur-dialectics.

  14. Replacement of Pork Meat with Pork Head Meat for Frankfurters

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Song, Dong-Heon; Jeon, Ki-Hong; Park, Jong-Dae; Sung, Jung-Min; Kim, Young-Boong; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2016-01-01

    The effect of reducing pork meat concentrations from 50% to 30% and replacing it with up to 20% pork head meat on chemical composition, cooking characteristics, physicochemical and textural properties, apparent viscosity, and sensory characteristics of frankfurters was determined. The highest moisture content in frankfurters was found in the control and T1 (frankfurter with 45% pork meat + 5% pork head). Protein and fat contents in frankfurters with pork head meat added were significantly (p0...

  15. Replacement of Pork Meat with Pork Head Meat for Frankfurters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Song, Dong-Heon; Jeon, Ki-Hong; Park, Jong-Dae; Sung, Jung-Min; Kim, Young-Boong; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2016-01-01

    The effect of reducing pork meat concentrations from 50% to 30% and replacing it with up to 20% pork head meat on chemical composition, cooking characteristics, physicochemical and textural properties, apparent viscosity, and sensory characteristics of frankfurters was determined. The highest moisture content in frankfurters was found in the control and T1 (frankfurter with 45% pork meat + 5% pork head). Protein and fat contents in frankfurters with pork head meat added were significantly (ppork head meat was increased from 0% to 20%, cooking loss, total expressible fluid separation, fat separation, and pH of frankfurters were increased, while the lightness, redness, yellowness, and apparent viscosity of frankfurters were decreased. Ash contents, cohesiveness, color, and tenderness of sensory characteristics of frankfurters added with different amounts of pork meat or pork head meat were not significantly (p>0.05) different from those of the control or there treatments. Frankfurters in T4 (frankfurter with 30% pork meat + 20% pork head) had the lowest (p0.05) from that in the control. Frankfurters with higher pork head meat concentrations had lower flavor, juiciness, and overall acceptability scores. Therefore, replacing pork meat with pork head meat in the formulation could successfully produce results similar to those of control frankfurters. The best results were obtained when 10% pork head meat was used to replace pork meat. PMID:27621683

  16. Monitoring nitrite and nitrate residues in frankfurters during processing and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Rodríguez, M L; Bosch-Bosch, N; Garciá-Mata, M

    1996-09-01

    Frankfurter-type sausages were prepared in a pilot plant with different concentrations of NaNO(2) (75, 125 or 250 ppm) combined or not with 200 ppm KNO(3). A meat system, free of curing agents, was also used as control. Nitrite and nitrate levels were tested in various processing steps and over 120 days storage at 3 °C of the vacuum-packaged frankfurters. Little influence of the originally added nitrite level on the amount of nitrate formed was observed. Important losses of nitrite and nitrate were due to cooking. Thereafter about 50% of the nitrite added initially remained in this form in all samples (39, 59 and 146 ppm, respectively) and between 10 and 15% as nitrate. When only nitrate was initially added, formation of nitrite after cooking was observed (maximum level 43 ppm NaNO(2)). Formulations prepared with both nitrate and nitrite showed no significant differences (p nitrite or nitrate counterparts. A good correlation among nitrite and nitrate levels and storage time was showed by multiple linear regression analysis. It is concluded that the use of nitrate in combination with nitrite in cooked meat products seems to have little technological significance and adds to the total body burden of nitrite.

  17. FLSR - The Frankfurt low energy storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiebing, K.E.; Alexandrov, V.; Doerner, R.; Enz, S.; Kazarinov, N.Yu.; Kruppi, T.; Schempp, A.; Schmidt Boecking, H.; Voelp, M.; Ziel, P.; Dworak, M.; Dilfer, W.

    2010-01-01

    An electrostatic storage ring for low-energy ions with a design energy of 50 keV is presently being set up at the Institut fuer Kernphysik der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main, Germany (IKF). This new device will provide a basis for new experiments on the dynamics of ionic and molecular collisions, as well as for high precision and time resolved laser spectroscopy. In this article, the design parameters of this instrument are reported.

  18. Preventive radiation protection in Hamburg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boikat, U.; Lauer, R.; Plath, S.; Sachde, Z.G.

    2001-01-01

    Monitoring of environmental radioactivity as well as complex investigations for precautionary radiation protection are carried out in Hamburg by two radiation monitoring labs. The spectrum of their tasks is specified by the media to be investigated. The tasks are originating from the Federal Precautionary Radiation Protection Act and from local needs. Mostly since a lot of years all interesting materials are analysed for their radioactivity content, as a safe and precautionary radiation protection demands. Until today samples show the influence of global nuclear weapon fallout of the period until 1964. Partly they show the radioactivity of Caesium originating from the Chernobyl accident. Since ten years the radioactivity contents in the material investigated are decreasing. Mostly the activity reached levels as at the end of 1985. The basic food stuff investigated in Hamburg can be considered as to be uncontaminated by radioactivity. With the introduction of the Federal Precautionary Radiation Protection Act, a series of new investigation programs and investigation methods were developed. This allows a better preparedness for extraordinary situations of increased radioactivity in the environment as 12 years ago. Thus a precise assessment of situations of increased radioactivity levels can be given together with coordinated and solid information to the public concerning provisions and actions. (orig.) [de

  19. DETERMINANTS OF UNSAFE HAMBURGER COOKING BEHAVIOR

    OpenAIRE

    Ralston, Katherine L.; Starke, Yolanda; Adu-Nyako, Kofi; Lin, Chung-Tung Jordan

    1998-01-01

    We used a national hamburger preparation survey to estimate a simultaneous equation model of food safety knowledge, attitudes, and hamburger cooking behavior. The results suggest that food safety risk perceptions, palatability attributes, and food safety knowledge play important roles in determining food preparation behavior.

  20. The energy-efficient Frankfurt. Travel-guide; Das energieeffiziente Frankfurt. Reisefuehrer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehbauer-Schumacher, Bettina

    2013-06-01

    Frankfurt is well along the way to being a 'Green City'. Its CO{sub 2} emissions have been reduced by more than 10% in the last 20 years. The energy-efficient office buildings, the Passive Houses, the combined heat and power production, the solar installations and the biomass power stations all contribute to climate protection in Frankfurt. This book leads you with guided tours through suburbs, past office buildings, estates and cultural establishments, all having remarkable energy saving measures and splendid architectural features, whilst at the same time pointing out significant sights. (orig.)

  1. FLSR - The Frankfurt low energy storage ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiebing, K. E.; Alexandrov, V.; Dörner, R.; Enz, S.; Kazarinov, N. Yu.; Kruppi, T.; Schempp, A.; Schmidt Böcking, H.; Völp, M.; Ziel, P.; Dworak, M.; Dilfer, W.

    2010-02-01

    An electrostatic storage ring for low-energy ions with a design energy of 50 keV is presently being set up at the Institut für Kernphysik der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main, Germany (IKF). This new device will provide a basis for new experiments on the dynamics of ionic and molecular collisions, as well as for high precision and time resolved laser spectroscopy. In this article, the design parameters of this instrument are reported.

  2. Collisionless sausage instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppins, M.

    1989-01-01

    The Chew--Goldberger--Low (CGL) double adiabatic model [Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 236, 112 (1956)] is used to study the linear m = 0 (sausage) mode in a Z pinch operating in the collisionless, small ion Larmor radius regime. The model is valid in this case since the parallel heat flow is identically zero. A necessary and sufficient condition for stability, applicable to arbitrary (anisotropic) Z-pinch equilibria, is derived and the eigenvalue equation is solved for two classes of isotropic equilibria. Growth rates are shown to be lower than those of ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). It is found that, in contrast to ideal MHD, the CGL eigenfunctions are characterized by an unperturbed inner region

  3. Optimum use of CDOT French and Hamburg data (French and Hamburg tests).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The Colorado Department of Transportation (CDOT) has been collecting data from the Hamburg Rutter and the : French Rutter for over 20 years. No specifications have been written in that time for either the Hamburg Rutter : or the French Rutter. This r...

  4. Climate change experiments in Hamburg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubasch, U [DKRZ, Hamburg (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    Nowadays the anthropogenic climate change is been simulated world wide with a fair number of coupled ocean atmosphere general circulation models (IPCC, 1995). Typical model problems do not only blur the estimates of the anthropogenic climate change, but they also cause errors in the estimates of the natural variability. An accurate representation of the natural variability of the climate system is, however, essential for the detection of the anthropogenic climate change. All model simulations world wide show, even though they differ considerably in their technical details and the experimental setup and the forcing data, similar amplitudes and pattern of the predicted climate change. In the model world it is already at the beginning of the next century possible to detect the anthropogenic climate change in the global mean. If the model results are applied in a `fingerprint analysis`, then it is possible to prove that the climate change during the last 30 years is with a significance of 95 % larger than any other climate change during the last 100 years. The experiments performed in Hamburg show that the experimental conditions are of great importance for the estimate of the future climate. The usual starting point of most of the simulations with present day conditions (1980-1990) is too late, because then a considerable part of the warming since the beginning of the industrialization (ca. 1750) has been neglected. Furthermore it has only recently become clear that the sulphat-aerosols play an important role in the present day climate and in the future climate. The effect of the sulphat aerosols has first been simulated in a number of equilibrium simulations with mixed layer models, but nowadays with globally coupled ocean-atmosphere circulation models

  5. Climate change experiments in Hamburg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubasch, U. [DKRZ, Hamburg (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    Nowadays the anthropogenic climate change is been simulated world wide with a fair number of coupled ocean atmosphere general circulation models (IPCC, 1995). Typical model problems do not only blur the estimates of the anthropogenic climate change, but they also cause errors in the estimates of the natural variability. An accurate representation of the natural variability of the climate system is, however, essential for the detection of the anthropogenic climate change. All model simulations world wide show, even though they differ considerably in their technical details and the experimental setup and the forcing data, similar amplitudes and pattern of the predicted climate change. In the model world it is already at the beginning of the next century possible to detect the anthropogenic climate change in the global mean. If the model results are applied in a `fingerprint analysis`, then it is possible to prove that the climate change during the last 30 years is with a significance of 95 % larger than any other climate change during the last 100 years. The experiments performed in Hamburg show that the experimental conditions are of great importance for the estimate of the future climate. The usual starting point of most of the simulations with present day conditions (1980-1990) is too late, because then a considerable part of the warming since the beginning of the industrialization (ca. 1750) has been neglected. Furthermore it has only recently become clear that the sulphat-aerosols play an important role in the present day climate and in the future climate. The effect of the sulphat aerosols has first been simulated in a number of equilibrium simulations with mixed layer models, but nowadays with globally coupled ocean-atmosphere circulation models

  6. Yersinia enterocolitica in fermented sausages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrović, R.; Janković, V.; Baltić, B.; Ivanović, J.

    2017-09-01

    Different types of food, among them meat, can be the cause of food-borne diseases, and infections are commonly caused by Campylobacter, Salmonella, Yersinia enterocolitica, verotoxic Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes. All these bacteria, depending on a number of factors, including animal species, geographical origin, climatic factors, methods of animal breeding and meat production, could cause disease. Here, we summarise results on production of different groups of sausages produced with or without added starter culture, and contaminated with Y.enterocolitica (control sausages were not contaminated). During the ripening, changes in the microbiological status of the fermented sausages and their physical and chemical properties were monitored. For all tests, standard methods were used. In these fermented sausages, the number of Y. enterocolitica decreased during ripening. The number of Y. enterocolitica was statistically significantly lower in sausages with added starter culture on all days of the study Zoonotic pathogens in meat should be controlled through the complete production chain, from the farms to consumers, in order to reduce the probability of disease in humans. However, the necessary controls in the production chain are not the same for all bacteria.

  7. MICROBIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION OF DACIA SAUSAGE, A DRY CURED ROMANIAN SAUSAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Simion Ciuciu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Selected starter cultures were used to produce the traditional Romanian dry cured sausage, Dacia. A control sausage was produced without starter culture (sausage A, one with L. sakei CECT 5964 and S. equorum SA25 (sausage B and one with L. sakei CECT 5964, S. equorum SA25 and L. acidophilus CECT 903 (sausage C. Samples from each batch of sausages were taken at 0 (mix before stuffing, and after 2, 4, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of ripening. Counts of total aerobic mesophilic flora, lactic acid bacteria, salt tolerant flora, and Enterobacteriaceae and some physical-chemical parameters (moisture, NaCl, pH and aw values were determined. High microbial counts (log CFU were observed with values at the end of ripening period: for lactic acid bacteria 9.77 (A, 11.47 (B and 11.19 (C; for total aerobic mesophilic flora 9.89 (A, 11.38 (B and 11.30 (C; for salt tolerant flora 4.45 (A, 5.31 (B and 5.27 (C. The starter cultures had a significant inhibitory effect on Enterobacteriaceae counts (log CFU, values at the end of ripening period being 1.32 (A, 0.33 (B and not detected (C. A significant decrease in the pH values is observed until the seventh day of ripening, showing a slight, but progressive increase after the 14th day of ripening. Results show that the production and ripening process in a pilot scale chamber under controlled conditions contributes in obtaining safe and homogeneous products.

  8. O MARXISMO DE MARCUSE NA ESCOLA DE FRANKFURT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adauto Lopes da Silva Filho

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo pretende demonstrar a influencia do pensamento de Marx nas teses de Herbert Marcuse, um dos grandes representantes da Escola de Frankfurt. Ao mesmo tempo destaca alguns dos elementos aceitos e refutados por Marcuse acerca da teoria hegeliana. Os prolegômenos dessas questões são delineados com os fundamentos críticos da Escola de Frankfurt.

  9. UTILIZACIÓN DE ALMIDÓN DE MALANGA (Colocasia esculenta L. EN LA ELABORACIÓN DE SALCHICHAS TIPO FRANKFURT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALBERTO LUIS TORRES RAPELO

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Starch is an important ingredient in the food industry where it is used as a binder, thickener, gelling agent, agglutinant, humectant, and texturizer. It is also used in the manufacture of sausages and other cooked processed meats to give consistency to the product. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of substitution of wheat flour for taro starch (Colocasia esculenta L. obtained from white and purple varieties on cooking losses and acceptability of a meat emulsion. To evaluate the cooking losses, three different formulations of Frankfurt sausages were prepared, in which wheat flour was replaced by 50%, 75% and 100% of taro starch and one control. To assess the acceptability of the products was used a taste panel untrained composed of 50 judges and a 5 points-hedonic scale was used. The results showed that all treatments with taro starch had lower cooking losses than the control product (p<0,05. Likewise, the incorporation of taro starch did not affect the acceptability of the meat product (p<0,05. We conclude that taro starch incorporated in the meat industry as filler and thickener in sausages is achievable.

  10. Eurotheum Frankfurt/Main. New office and apartment building for cosmopolites; Eurotheum Frankfurt/Main. Buero- und Wohnhochhaus fuer Kosmopoliten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pielke, O.E.

    2000-07-01

    The Eurotheum in Frankfurt is Germany's first and only high-rise building which houses both offices and private apartments. [German] Das Eurotheum stellt im Spannungsfeld der Frankfurter Buerohochhaeuser ein voellig neues Konzept dar: Es ist das erste und bisher einzige Hochhaus in Deutschland, in dem die Funktionen 'Arbeiten' und 'Wohnen' in einem Hochhaus verbunden werden. (orig.)

  11. Verification of rapid method for estimation of added food colorant type in boiled sausages based on measurement of cross section color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, J.; Petronijević, R. B.; Lukić, M.; Karan, D.; Parunović, N.; Branković-Lazić, I.

    2017-09-01

    During the previous development of a chemometric method for estimating the amount of added colorant in meat products, it was noticed that the natural colorant most commonly added to boiled sausages, E 120, has different CIE-LAB behavior compared to artificial colors that are used for the same purpose. This has opened the possibility of transforming the developed method into a method for identifying the addition of natural or synthetic colorants in boiled sausages based on the measurement of the color of the cross-section. After recalibration of the CIE-LAB method using linear discriminant analysis, verification was performed on 76 boiled sausages, of either frankfurters or Parisian sausage types. The accuracy and reliability of the classification was confirmed by comparison with the standard HPLC method. Results showed that the LDA + CIE-LAB method can be applied with high accuracy, 93.42 %, to estimate food color type in boiled sausages. Natural orange colors can give false positive results. Pigments from spice mixtures had no significant effect on CIE-LAB results.

  12. Hamburg: privaatrechtelijk paradijsje aan de Aussenalster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hondius, E.H.

    2005-01-01

    In dit verslag wil ik mij beperken tot een beschrijving van mijn ervaringen aan het Max Planck Institut te Hamburg. Dat instituut telt een kleine honderd 'vaste' juridische onderzoekers, voornamelijk uit Duitsland, maar ook uit Frankrijk, Griekenland, Iran, Italië en Rusland. Nederlandse

  13. Preservation of ferm ented sausage by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Hong; Xiao Huan; Zhai Jianqing; Han Yan; Chen Xiulan; Yu Hai; Jiang Yunsheng

    2014-01-01

    To extend the shelf time of the fermented sausages. The fermented sausages were irradiated by different irradiation dose, and the quality of the fermented sausages were studied. The aerobic bacterial count of above 4 kGy irradiated sample was less than l.2 × lO"3 cfu/g at 90 d storage and lower than that of the state standards. The sensory evaluation of fermented sausages was acceptable. There were significant differences on the water contents between irradiated sausage and CK (p 0.05). pH values of 0∼2 kGy groups were significantly higher than that of 4∼6 kGy groups. The content of flavor, sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar protein in irradiated fermented sausages were higher than unirradiated. By irradiation, we can improve the fermented sausages hygiene, extend its shelf time and also increase the content and type of flavor in the fermented sausages, easy to form the unique flavor irradiated products accepted by customers. (authors)

  14. OBSERVATIONS OF SAUSAGE MODES IN MAGNETIC PORES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morton, R. J.; Erdelyi, R.; Jess, D. B.; Mathioudakis, M.

    2011-01-01

    We present here evidence for the observation of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) sausage modes in magnetic pores in the solar photosphere. Further evidence for the omnipresent nature of acoustic global modes is also found. The empirical decomposition method of wave analysis is used to identify the oscillations detected through a 4170 A 'blue continuum' filter observed with the Rapid Oscillations in the Solar Atmosphere (ROSA) instrument. Out of phase, periodic behavior in pore size and intensity is used as an indicator of the presence of magnetoacoustic sausage oscillations. Multiple signatures of the magnetoacoustic sausage mode are found in a number of pores. The periods range from as short as 30 s up to 450 s. A number of the magnetoacoustic sausage mode oscillations found have periods of 3 and 5 minutes, similar to the acoustic global modes of the solar interior. It is proposed that these global oscillations could be the driver of the sausage-type magnetoacoustic MHD wave modes in pores.

  15. New compliance management system of the University Hospital Frankfurt, Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Irmscher, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    The meaning of Corporate Governance is all values and principles guiding or regulating good and responsible business management. Clearly defined roles and responsibilities for managing compliance, risks and checks is the prerequisite for the latter. For that reason, a compliance management system was set up at the University Hospital Frankfurt in 2015.

  16. HAMBURG ENERGIE makes biogas plants fit for the balancing energy market; HAMBURG ENERGIE macht Biogasanlagen fit fuer den Regelenergiemarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timmann, Bernd [HAMBURG ENERGIE, Hamburg (Germany). Direktvermarktung und Regelenergie; Bettinger, Carola [HAMBURG ENERGIE, Hamburg (Germany). Forschungsprojekt SMART POWER HAMBURG

    2013-04-15

    HAMBURG ENERGIE GmbH (Hamburg, Federal Republic of Germany) bundles 40 biogas plants with a total capacity of 15 megawatts to a virtual power plant. Thus, also small, decentralized plants may offer negative balancing power and achieve additional profits that were previously available only to large producers. In the medium term, HAMBURG ENERGIE wants to place a performance of 150 MW on the market.

  17. Modern building envelope. Autentic optics. Emporio Tower, Hamburg; Moderne Gebaeudehuelle. Authentische Optik. Emporio Tower, Hamburg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2012-10-15

    The former Unilever skyscraper in Hamburg (Federal Republic of Germany) was retrofitted completely. Due to a regulatory submission, the original image of this architectural landmark from the early 1960ies with the new facade should be retrofitted authentically. This submission was fulfilled by means of an highly energetic efficient ''compact double facade''.

  18. Climate Education at the University of Hamburg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilly, Oliver; Stammer, Detlef; Pfeiffer, Eva-Maria

    2010-05-01

    The new graduate School of Integrated Climate Sciences (www.sicss.de) at the KlimaCampus of the University of Hamburg was opened at October 20, 2009 and includes a 2-yr MSc (120 ECTS, 30 compulsory, 90 eligible) and 3-yr doctoral program (12 ECTS). About 40 students were enrolled in early 2010. The interdisciplinary MSc program is based on a number of disciplines such as meteorology, geophysics, oceanography, geosciences and also economics and social sciences. These disciplines are required to address the faced key issues related to climate change effectively. The graduate school is guiding pupils and BSc students with competence in maths and physics on how to become a climate expert. Acquisition is done internationally at fairs, uni days and dircectly at schools and intuitions for higher education. BSc degree in the disciplines listed above is set for positive application. Climate experts are needed for both research and the professional world outside the university and research institutions. In accordance, connection within and outside the university are continuously explored and soft skills for the communication to politics and the public's are included in the MSc and PhD curricula. Since the graduate school was established within the cluster of excellence ‘Integrated Climate Analysis and Predication' (www.clisap.de), this school represents a prototype for graduate programs at the University of Hamburg. Advantages and limitations of this Climate System School concept will be discussed.

  19. Dalbybogen / The Dalby Book. Angersfragmentet / The Angers Fragment. Hamburgbibelen / The Hamburg Bible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Erik

    2006-01-01

    Dalbybogen / The Dalby Book; Angersfragmentet / The Angers Fragment; Hamburgbibelen / The Hamburg Bible......Dalbybogen / The Dalby Book; Angersfragmentet / The Angers Fragment; Hamburgbibelen / The Hamburg Bible...

  20. Status of the Frankfurt low energy electrostatic storage ring (FLSR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, F; Kruppi, T; Müller, J; Dörner, R; Schmidt, L Ph H; Schmidt-Böcking, H; Stiebing, K E

    2015-01-01

    Frankfurt low-energy storage ring (FLSR) is an electrostatic storage ring for low-energy ions up to q · 80 keV (q being the ion charge state) at Institut für Kernphysik der Goethe-Universität, Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It has especially been designed to provide a basis for experiments on the dynamics of ionic and molecular collisions in complete kinematics, as well as for high precision and time resolved laser spectroscopy. The ring has ‘racetrack’ geometry with a circumference of 14.23 m. It comprises four experimental/diagnostic sections with regions of enhanced ion density (interaction regions). First beam has successfully been stored in FLSR in summer 2013. Since then the performance of the ring has continuously been improved and an electron target for experiments on dissociative recombination has been installed in one of the experimental sections. (paper)

  1. Status of the Frankfurt low energy electrostatic storage ring (FLSR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, F.; Kruppi, T.; Müller, J.; Dörner, R.; Schmidt, L. Ph H.; Schmidt-Böcking, H.; Stiebing, K. E.

    2015-11-01

    Frankfurt low-energy storage ring (FLSR) is an electrostatic storage ring for low-energy ions up to q · 80 keV (q being the ion charge state) at Institut für Kernphysik der Goethe-Universität, Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It has especially been designed to provide a basis for experiments on the dynamics of ionic and molecular collisions in complete kinematics, as well as for high precision and time resolved laser spectroscopy. The ring has ‘racetrack’ geometry with a circumference of 14.23 m. It comprises four experimental/diagnostic sections with regions of enhanced ion density (interaction regions). First beam has successfully been stored in FLSR in summer 2013. Since then the performance of the ring has continuously been improved and an electron target for experiments on dissociative recombination has been installed in one of the experimental sections.

  2. Releyendo Frankfurt: la Experiencia Estética en Adorno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stra, Sebastián Matías

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available [es]Intentaremos en este trabajo explorar la noción de Experiencia Estética en la obra de Theodor Adorno, entendiéndola como una compleja mediación conceptual que nos puede permitir dar cuenta de las oscuras configuraciones de la relación entre arte, cultura y conocimiento en la producción del pensador de Frankfurt. En este marco, cruzaremos las reflexiones estéticas adornianas con lecturas más cercanas a nuestro campo disciplinar, como la noción de Industria Cultural y la interpretación del mito y su derivación en la conformación de la racionalidad moderna. [en] In this work, we will try to explore the notion of Aesthetic Experience in Theodor Adorno`s work, understanding it as a complex conceptual mediation that can allow us getting in the dark settings of the relationship between art, culture and knowledge in the production of Frankfurt`s thinker. Like this, we are going to cross adornians aesthetic reflections with readings that are going to be closer to our disciplinary field, as the notion of cultural industry and the interpretation of myth and its derivation in the configuration of modern rationality.

  3. Meat quality of goat and sheep sausages

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, A.; Pereira, Etelvina; Rodrigues, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to contribute to the characterization of a new product, based on goat and sheep meat with a strategy, which gives value-added to meat from culled goats and sheep, which have a very low commercial price. Carcasses from animals weighing more than the body weight allowed by PDO label specifications were used to produce fresh sausages. Sheep and goats sausages were produced in a traditional industry, in Northeast Portugal. The following character...

  4. Development of Sausages Containing Mechanically Deboned Chicken Meat Hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, S K; Choi, J S; Choi, Y J; Lee, S J; Lee, S Y; Hur, S J

    2015-07-01

    Pork meat sausages were prepared using protein hydrolysates from mechanically deboned chicken meat (MDCM). In terms of the color, compared to the controls before and after storage, the redness (a*) was significantly higher in sausages containing MDCM hydrolysates, ascorbate, and sodium erythorbate. After storage, compared to the other sausage samples, the yellowness (b*) was lower in the sausages containing ascorbate and sodium erythorbate. TBARS was not significantly different among the sausage samples before storage, whereas TBARS and DPPH radical scavenging activities were significantly higher in the sausagescontainingascorbate and sodium erythorbate, compared to the other sausage samples after 4 wk of storage. In terms of sensory evaluation, the color was significantly higher in the sausages containing MDCM hydrolysates, ascorbate, and sodium erythorbate, compared to the other sausage samples after 4 wk of storage. The "off-flavor" and overall acceptability were significantly lower in the sausages containing MDCM hydrolysates than in the other sausage samples. In most of the developed countries, meat from spent laying hens is not consumed, leading toan urgent need for effectively utilization or disposal methods. In this study, sausages were prepared using spent laying hens and protein hydrolysates from mechanically deboned chicken meat. Sausage can be made by spent laying hens hydrolysates, although overall acceptability was lower than those of other sausage samples. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. The Art of Memory: "Social Bookmarking Hamburg"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noga Stiassny

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available At the end of November 2016, a unique and intruding art project took place in the city of Hamburg, Germany, a result of collaboration between German artists and a Chinese artist, who all seek to commemorate the Chinese victims who lived in the city pre- World War II but had to suffer the injustices of the Nazi regime. The project lasted three days and was presented in various locations throughout the city, while including many artistic mediums alongside scholarly work. By referring to the main events of that weekend, the paper traces after a “forgotten” past that many people refuse to look at, not to say to take responsibility for it, while in contrast, the art continues to extract it from the depths of oblivion and forced amnesia – to the dismay of many.

  6. Health and Safety Considerations of Fermented Sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Askild Holck

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fermented sausages are highly treasured traditional foods. A large number of distinct sausages with different properties are produced using widely different recipes and manufacturing processes. Over the last years, eating fermented sausages has been associated with potential health hazards due to their high contents of saturated fats, high NaCl content, presence of nitrite and its degradation products such as nitrosamines, and use of smoking which can lead to formation of toxic compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Here we review the recent literature regarding possible health effects of the ingredients used in fermented sausages. We also go through attempts to improve the sausages by lowering the content of saturated fats by replacing them with unsaturated fats, reducing the NaCl concentration by partly replacing it with KCl, and the use of selected starter cultures with desirable properties. In addition, we review the food pathogenic microorganisms relevant for fermented sausages (Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium botulinum, and Toxoplasma gondii and processing and postprocessing strategies to inhibit their growth and reduce their presence in the products.

  7. Evaluation of a rapid method for measurement of catalase activity in cooked beef and sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, C E; Cyrus, S

    1998-02-01

    Catalase (CAT) activity in ground beef and pork was determined on samples cooked from 60 to 71.1 degrees C. One-gram samples of ground round (4% fat), hamburger (24% fat), and commercial pork sausage (38%fat) were cooked in a controlled-temperature waterbath at 65, 68.3 and 71 degrees C. Chilled samples were immersed in direct contact with the cooking water; the test samples were removed every 15 s and immediately immersed in an ice-water bath (O to 1 degrees C) to quick-chill the samples to prevent temperature over-run. Samples retained high (HMB value 20+, over range) CAT activity through 90, 60, and 45 s at 65, 68.3, and 71 degrees C, respectively, before showing rapid activity decreases. Four USDA-FSIS approved meat patty heating processes (66.1 degrees C, 41 s; 67.2 degrees C, 26 s; 68.3 degrees C, 16 s; and 69.4 degrees C, 10 s) were analyzed for CAT activity in meat frozen prior to cooking was slightly lower (P sausage products and may be useful to USDA FSIS process inspectors and food processors in quality assurance and HACCP (hazard analysis critical control points) programs for thermal input verification.

  8. sensory analysis of cooked fresh meat sausages containing beef offal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Sensory analysis of cooked fresh meat sausages containing beef offal. 22 .... Trained and consumer pan- els from the local black ... selected as the best formulations or recipes, as judged by the ... loosening of the sausage from the pan with a.

  9. Aroma components from dried sausages fermented with Staphylococcus xylosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahnke, Marie Louise Heller

    1994-01-01

    Sausages with and without Staphylococcus xylosus were manufactured with four replicates. Antibiotics and a fungicide to inhibit growth of naturally occuring microorganisms were added to the control sausages. The volatile compounds from the sausages were collected and identified by gas chromatogra...... amounts of free fatty acids, it seemed to be of no importance to aroma development. It is therefore questionable whether lipolytic activity of starter cultures has an influence on sausage flavour....

  10. Solidago canadensis und Solidago gigantea in Frankfurt am Main

    OpenAIRE

    Ottich, Indra

    2015-01-01

    Die beiden nordamerikanischen Goldruten-Arten Solidago canadensis und S. gigantea sind in Mitteleuropa weit verbreitet. Häufig wird nicht zwischen den beiden Arten unterschieden, die Angaben zur Ökologie scheinen für beide Arten weitgehend identisch. Durch eine Rasterkartierung des Stadtgebietes von Frankfurt am Main wird gezeigt, dass die Arten jedoch unterschiedliche Ansprüche haben. Während Solidago canadensis sehr häufig ist und alle typisch städtischen Bereiche besiedelt, wird Solidago g...

  11. Greentowers in Frankfurt. Second life cycle of the Deutsche Bank towers; Greentowers in Frankfurt. Zweiter Lebenszyklus fuer Hochhaustuerme der Deutschen Bank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauster, Marcus

    2011-07-01

    The two towers of the headquarters of Deutsche Bank in Frankfurt were modernized on the basis of a new climate strategy in order to minimize the operating cost and help protect the climate. (orig./AKB)

  12. 9 CFR 319.180 - Frankfurter, frank, furter, hotdog, weiner, vienna, bologna, garlic bologna, knockwurst, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Frankfurter, frank, furter, hot-dog, wiener, vienna, bologna, garlic bologna, knockwurst and similar cooked... accordance with the provisions of § 381.118 of this chapter. (b) Frankfurter, frank, furter, hot-dog, wiener..., lips, weasands, and spleens; and partially defatted pork fatty tissue, or partially defatted beef fatty...

  13. Effect of vegetable oils on fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of chicken frankfurters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belichovska, D.; Pejkovski, Z.; Belichovska, K.; Uzunoska, Z.; Silovska-Nikolova, A.

    2017-09-01

    To study the effect of pork adipose tissue substitution with vegetable oils in chicken frankfurters, six frankfurter formulations were produced: control; with pork backfat; with olive oil; with rapeseed oil; with sunflower oil; with palm oil, and; with a mixture of 12% rapeseed oil and 8% palm oil. Fatty acid composition and cholesterol content and some oxides thereof were determined in the final products. The use of vegetable oils resulted in improvement of the fatty acid composition and nutritional of frankfurters. Frankfurters with vegetable oils contained significantly less cholesterol and some of its oxides, compared to the frankfurters with pork fat. The formulation with palm oil had the least favourable fatty acid composition. The use of 12% rapeseed oil improved the ratio of fatty acids in frankfurters with a mixture of rapeseed and palm oils. Complete pork fat replacement with vegetable oils in chicken frankfurter production is technologically possible. The mixture of 12% rapeseed oil and 8% palm oil is a good alternative to pork fat from health aspects. Further research is needed to find the most appropriate mixture of vegetable oils, which will produce frankfurters with good sensory characteristics, a more desirable fatty acid ratio and high nutritional value.

  14. 9 CFR 319.309 - Beans with frankfurters in sauce, sauerkraut with wieners and juice, and similar products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Beans with frankfurters in sauce... STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.309 Beans with frankfurters in sauce, sauerkraut with wieners and juice, and similar products. “Beans with Frankfurters in...

  15. Evaluation of antioxidative properties of Geranium macrorrhizum and Potentilla fructiosa extracts in Dutch style fermented sausages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miliauskas, G.; Mulder, E.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Houben, J.H.; Beek, van T.A.; Venskutonis, P.R.

    2007-01-01

    Antioxidative properties of Geranium macrorrhizum, Potentilla fruticosa and Rosmarinus officinalis (as a reference) extracts were evaluated in Dutch style fermented sausages. Extracts were incorporated into sausages during preparation. The sausages were subsequently fermented, tested and compared to

  16. Meat mixture detection in Iberian pork sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Somovilla, V; España-España, F; De Pedro-Sanz, E J; Gaitán-Jurado, A J

    2005-11-01

    Five homogenized meat mixture treatments of Iberian (I) and/or Standard (S) pork were set up. Each treatment was analyzed by NIRS as a fresh product (N=75) and as dry-cured sausage (N=75). Spectra acquisition was carried out using DA 7000 equipment (Perten Instruments), obtaining a total of 750 spectra. Several absorption peaks and bands were selected as the most representative for homogenized dry-cured and fresh sausages. Discriminant analysis and mixture prediction equations were carried out based on the spectral data gathered. The best results using discriminant models were for fresh products, with 98.3% (calibration) and 60% (validation) correct classification. For dry-cured sausages 91.7% (calibration) and 80% (validation) of the samples were correctly classified. Models developed using mixture prediction equations showed SECV=4.7, r(2)=0.98 (calibration) and 73.3% of validation set were correctly classified for the fresh product. These values for dry-cured sausages were SECV=5.9, r(2)=0.99 (calibration) and 93.3% correctly classified for validation.

  17. THE MICROBIOLOGY OF SOUTH AFRICAN DRIED SAUSAGE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    THE MICROBIOLOGY OF SOUTH AFRICAN DRIED SAUSAGE. W.H. Holzapfel and A.N. Hail. Receipt of MS s.3.76. Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, University of hetoria and. Animol and Dairv Science Reseorch Institute, Irene. OPSOMMING: DIE MIKROBIOLOGIE VAN SUID.AFRIKAANSE DROiWORS.

  18. [The Frankfurt concept for health counseling for men].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickeböller, R; Busch, O; Peters, M; Jonas, D; Binder, J

    2002-01-01

    The discussion on the difference between the sexes received significant impulses from the formation of feminist theory. Masculinity was interpreted in a rather morally negative manner. Masculinity continuously endeavors to achieve reproduction and self-confirmation. Competitive pursuit of hegemony is the preeminent pattern by which masculine identity is formed. Male socialization leads to externalization, which impedes the development of communicative skills. Males tend to lead a high-risk life-style, which instrumentalizes their body. Symptoms are less often interpreted as warning signals, reflected in a significantly reduced life expectancy in comparison to females. In view of the specific male socialization, the Frankfurt concept of "men's health counseling" attempts to create a professional atmosphere in which men seeking advice are offered the opportunity to consult a specialist on all topics of men's health anonymously and, for the moment, free of charge.

  19. Aircraft Noise and Quality of Life around Frankfurt Airport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Eikmann

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In a survey of 2,312 residents living near Frankfurt Airport aircraft noise annoyance and disturbances as well as environmental (EQoL and health-related quality of life (HQoL were assessed and compared with data on exposure due to aircraft, road traffic, and railway noise. Results indicate higher noise annoyance than predicted from general exposure-response curves. Beside aircraft sound levels source-related attitudes were associated with reactions to aircraft noise. Furthermore, aircraft noise affected EQoL in general, although to a much smaller extent. HQoL was associated with aircraft noise annoyance, noise sensitivity and partly with aircraft noise exposure, in particular in the subgroup of multimorbid residents. The results suggest a recursive relationship between noise and health, yet this cannot be tested in cross-sectional studies. Longitudinal studies would be recommendable to get more insight in the causal paths underlying the noise-health relationship.

  20. Modified broken rice starch as fat substitute in sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Maria Limberger

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The demand for low-fat beef products has led the food industry to use fat substitutes such as modified starch. About 14% of broken rice is generated during processing. Nevertheless, this by-product contains high levels of starch; being therefore, great raw material for fat substitution. This study evaluated the applicability of chemically and physically modified broken rice starch as fat substitute in sausages. Extruded and phosphorylated broken rice was used in low-fat sausage formulation. All low-fat sausages presented about 55% reduction in the fat content and around 28% reduction in the total caloric value. Fat replacement with phosphorylated and extruded broken rice starch increased the texture acceptability of low-fat sausages, when compared to low-fat sausages with no modified broken rice. Results suggest that modified broken rice can be used as fat substitute in sausage formulations, yielding lower caloric value products with acceptable sensory characteristics.

  1. Consumer perception and acceptance of pork and chicken sausage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristić, M.; Troeger, K.; Đinović-Stojanović, J.; Knežević, N.; Damnjanović, M.

    2017-09-01

    This study was performed to evaluate consumers’ perception and acceptance of selected pork and chicken sausage (budim and chicken sausages, respectively) from Zlatiborac Meat Company. Sensory evaluation was performed by Serbian consumers (n=1157) in three retail stores in Belgrade. Consumers were asked for their preference for taste, salt content and smoke of two sausages and to recognize the kind of meat which was used to make these meat products. Consumers evaluated taste, salt content and smoke flavor of budim and chicken sausages with the highest percentage of the best offered answer. Between 47-55%, 72-76% and 82-84% of consumers evaluated the taste of sausages as good, the salt content as well-balanced and the smoke flavor as balanced, respectively. Tukey’s HSD test was applied to analyze variations of male and female perception and acceptance of analyzed sausages.

  2. Studies on the quality of duck meat sausages during refrigeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveen, Z; Naik, B R; Subramanyam, B V; Reddy, P M

    2016-01-01

    Duck farming is on the raise in the current scenario, but processed products from duck meat are still uncommon to find. Investigating the duck meat qualities during storage will provide information to enhance duck meat utilization. Development of ready-to-eat and ready-to-cook duck meat products is expected to increase and improve non-chicken meat-based protein. The Study was aimed to evaluate the changes in quality characteristics of duck meat sausages preserved by refrigeration (7 ± 1 °C). Duck meat sausages were prepared by utilizing raw and partially cooked duck meat with addition of soy flour at 10% level as a binder. Different quality characteristics like physical and chemical characteristics, proximate composition, and organoleptic characteristics were evaluated. Cooking loss of partially cooked meat sausages was lower than raw duck meat sausages, whereas emulsion stability and 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values of raw duck meat sausages were lesser than partially cooked meat sausages. Cooking loss and emulsion stability decreased in both types of meat sausages, while, 2-TBA values increased as refrigerated storage progressed for 14 days. Percent moisture content of raw duck meat sausages was higher than partially cooked meat sausages, which decreased in both types of meat sausages as refrigerated storage progressed for 14 days. Percent crude protein (CP) and percent ether extract (EE) content of partially cooked duck meat sausages were higher than raw duck meat sausages. Regardless of type of meat used, refrigerated storage of sausages increased CP and EE up to 10th day but decreased upon further storage up to 14th day. Organoleptic scores for raw duck meat sausages were higher than partially cooked duck meat sausages and all the scores decreased with an increase in the storage period. However the scores were within the acceptable limits. The findings prove that, duck meat can be effectively acclaimed as an alternative avenue to meet the escalating

  3. Insecure Identities: Unaccompanied Minors as Refugees in Hamburg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the financial circumstances and social income of nearly one hundred unaccompanied minors who have come to Hamburg as refugees from various regions of Africa. It is based on extensive qualitative surveys, analysing their objective conditions of life and in particular their legal situation. A wide range of interview material and…

  4. Volatile compounds analysis of Dacia sausage, a traditional Romanian dry cured sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria SIMION CIUCIU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Three batches of Dacia sausage were produced as follows: one without starter culture and two with a mix of starter cultures. Volatiles were extracted by a purgeand- trap method and analyzed by gas chromatographic/mass spectrometry. Approximately 43 compounds were identified. The substances identified belong to: aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, hydrocarbons, esters, acids, furans. Results indicated that the most abundant class of chemical substances in flavor at the end of the ripening process was esters, followed by aldehydes, hydrocarbures and terpenes. This could only indicate the high microbial esterification activity that took place in the batches. It was possible to differentiate between the three sausages applying a discriminant analysis.

  5. Stationary centrifugal mass energy storage at the Hamburg subway; Stationaerer Schwungmassen-Energiespeicher bei der Hamburger U-Bahn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinhorst, F. [Hamburger Hochbahn AG, Hamburg (Germany). Abt. Energieanlagen; Jonassen, I.; Peters, A. [Hamburger Hochbahn AG, Hamburg (Germany). Fachbereich Energieversorgung

    2008-07-01

    A stationary energy storage is to be used as a model in a substation of the Hamburg subway network with a view to the environmentally compatible and technically proper use of the brake energy available in electrified local public transport systems. A further question to be reviewed is whether the use of other energy storages in the subway network is a reasonable solution. (orig.)

  6. Extent of microbial contamination of sausages sold in two Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three shops were randomly selected in Abeokuta (South-West Nigeria) and Benin-City (South-South Nigeria) for the purchase of sausages which were then screened for microbial contamination. For the Abeokuta sausage samples the total aerobic counts ranged from 2.06-2.80 x 106 cfu/g; Staphylococcus aureus count ...

  7. 9 CFR 319.141 - Fresh pork sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fresh pork sausage. 319.141 Section... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Sausage Generally: Fresh...

  8. 9 CFR 319.160 - Smoked pork sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Smoked pork sausage. 319.160 Section... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Uncooked, Smoked Sausage...

  9. Interactions of fungi from fermented sausage with regenerated cellulose casings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan K. Sreenath; Thomas W. Jeffries

    2011-01-01

    This research examined cellulolytic effects of fungi and other microbes present in cured sausages on the strength and stability of regenerated cellulose casings (RCC) used in the sausage industry. Occasionally during the curing process, RCC would split or fail, thereby leading to loss of product. The fungus Penicillium sp. BT-F-1, which was isolated from fermented...

  10. Aspects of quality assurance in processing natural sausage casings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnker, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    Natural sausage casings are produced from the intestines of various species and used as edible containers for many different types of sausage around the world. Casings must therefore be fit for human consumption and must meet all food safety and hygiene requirements that apply to food of animal

  11. Freezing of meat raw materials affects tyramine and diamine accumulation in spontaneously fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bover-Cid, Sara; Miguelez-Arrizado, M Jesús; Luz Latorre Moratalla, L; Vidal Carou, M Carmen

    2006-01-01

    Biogenic amine accumulation was studied in spontaneously fermented sausages (Fuet) manufactured from unfrozen-fresh meat (U-sausages) and frozen-thawed meat (F-sausages). The aim was to investigate whether the frozen storage of raw materials affects the microbial composition and its aminogenic activity during sausage fermentation. Tyramine was the major amine in all sausages. Although the final levels were similar, tyramine accumulated more rapidly in F-sausages, which contained putrescine as the second amine. By contrast, U-sausages accumulated much more cadaverine than putrescine. F-sausages showed a slightly lower pH and free amino acid content as well as higher counts of technological flora (lactic acid and gram positive catalase positive bacteria) and lower counts of enterobacteria. Therefore, to freeze the meat raw materials for few days before sausage manufacture could be a useful practice, especially for the artisan fermented sausages (without starter), because it helps to reduce enterobacteria development and cadaverine production.

  12. Hamburg rules V Hague Visby rules an English perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Tozaj Dorian; Xhelilaj Ermal

    2010-01-01

    It has often been argued for the effect of defences provided to carriers under Art IV (2) of Hague Visby Rules to almost nullify the protection guaranteed to shippers in other provisions of this convention. Therefore an all embracing universal shipper friendly convention, merely the Hamburg Rules, need be incorporated in all countries in order to address this issue and fully satisfy the intentions of the parties for the establishment of international rules in international trade

  13. Processing, physicochemical, and sensory analyses of ostrich meat hamburger

    OpenAIRE

    Vera Lúcia Ferreira de Souza; Jaqueline Yumi Sasaki; Maria Luiza Rodrigues de Souza Franco; Maria José Baptista Barbosa; Rejane Machado Cardozo

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the potential utilization of ostrich meat trimming in hamburger preparation, as well as its physicochemical and sensory characterization. Using ostrich meat trimmings from the legs and neck, four different formulations were prepared with varied amounts of bacon and textured soybean protein. Physical analysis of yield, shrinkage percentage, and water retention capacity and chemical analysis of proximate composition, cholesterol levels, and calories wer...

  14. Offenheit: Poster zur Nacht des Wissens Hamburg 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Hapke, Thomas; Rajski, Beate; Bieler, Detlev

    2015-01-01

    Die Posterserie zum Thema Offenheit wurde von der Universitätsbibliothek der Technischen Universität Hamburg für die Nacht des Wissens am 7. November 2015 erstellt. Sie enthält die Poster Offenheit vonWissen Open Access Open Access Publizieren Offene Inhalte - Creative Commons Lizenzen TUBdok: Open Access Repository der TUHH Offene Bildung - Open Educational Resources Zur Geschichte der Offenheit des Wissens

  15. Pursuing the Emancipatory Purport of Subjectivity from Frankfurt to Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mesbahian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to investigating the philosophical place of Subjectivity in the contemporary thought. My justification for engaging in further study on this much-discussed concept is that three significant questions concerning subjectivity have remained insufficiently examined: What is the problem of philosophical foundation of modernity from Cartesian Cogito to the Kantian autonomous will and to the Hegelian subjectivity? Is there any possibility to overcome the proposed problem from an internal point of view and from the perspective of Jürgen Habermas? Whether the radical criticism of the Enlightenment idea of an autonomous subject by thinkers like Foucault and Derrida leads to loss of freedom or to the robust notion of freedom being deeply improved? This paper, accordingly, will examine the three above mentioned questions regarding subjectivity across three sections. I have argued, in the first section that the Enlightenment’s her¬itage is contradictory. On the one hand, the notion of subjectivity has generated a kind of emancipation. On the other hand, the subjectivity has enthroned a conception of reason and of method that can be interpreted as a new form of domination. In the second section, I have argued that Habermas’s answer to the philosophical dilemma of subjectivity is to accept the criticism of subject-centered reason but to find a basis for reason in communicative action. Habermas’s conception of subjectivity has been criticized by the help of some contemporary thinkers, in the third section of this paper, and it has been argued that based on his notions of modernity and subjectivity the marginalized populations of the World- namely the Other- can no longer expect intellectual and ethical support for their plight from Frankfurt and should immigrate to Paris in order to purse the emancipatory aspect of subjectivity.

  16. Education and Training in Peace Research in Hamburg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goettsche, M.; Kalinowski, M.; Neuneck, G.

    2013-01-01

    In Hamburg, peace and security education is mainly offered by the Carl Friedrich von Weizsaecker Centre for Science and Peace Research at the University of Hamburg and the Institute for Peace Research and Security Policy. The former institute offers interdisciplinary lectures and seminars open for students from all faculties; the latter institute offers the Master of Peace and Security Studies programme. This paper introduces these education and training opportunities in Hamburg. Special emphasis is put on simulation conferences that are offered each semester, the summer school 'Young Scientists Cooperate for Peace' (SCooP) and the workshop 'Teaching Ethics and Peace to Science and Engineering Students'. Specific lectures from the 'Scientific contributions to peace research' series include disarmament, the non-proliferation regime and nuclear verification. Specific lectures from the 'Physical basics of peace research' series include neutron and gamma detectors for nuclear verification, satellite imagery, detection of signatures from banned nuclear activities from long distances, and material accounting of plutonium, HEU and tritium. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation. (authors)

  17. The energy policy message of the Hamburg SPD party congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.

    2007-01-01

    On October 26-28 this year, the Social Democratic (SPD) party congress was held in Hamburg; its new party platform, the so-called ''Hamburg Program,'' constitutes a landmark for the party. The Program's chapter on ''Sustainable Progress and Qualitative Growth'' refers to energy policy in the section about ''Turning Point in Energy Policy; Environmental Protection.'' Emphasis is given to the fact that energy, like air and water, is a basis of life of our civilization, and that the present ways of wasting energy and resources have no future. For this reason, the turnaround in energy policy initiated by the SPD must be advanced in the key issue of switching from non-renewable to renewable energy resources and from polluting to non-polluting resources. The ultimate goal is a solar age. As far as nuclear power is concerned, the Social Democratic Party finds that nuclear fission appeared to many as the big hope for energy available forever, but that these hopes cannot come true. To put it in a nutshell: The SPD is fast embarking on the road into a solar age. The party does see the growing world population and the rising energy requirement as well as the resulting challenges. However, its energy policy concept is too rigidly focused on Germany and the country's pioneering role. At the present time, nuclear power stands no chance in the SPD, although the Hamburg declaration includes a cautious reminder of the fact that, until 1986, the SPD was among the proponents of nuclear power. (orig.)

  18. Effect of tomato paste and nitrite level on processing and quality characteristics of frankfurters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deda, M S; Bloukas, J G; Fista, G A

    2007-07-01

    Fourteen treatments of frankfurters (18% fat) were produced with two levels of sodium nitrite, 0 and 150mg/kg (0.015%), and seven levels (0%,2%,6%,8%,12% and 16%) of tomato paste with 12% soluble solids The higher the tomato paste level the higher the preference of consumers for frankfurters based on their colour. Frankfurters with 16% tomato paste had a sour taste while those with 12% tomato paste were the most acceptable. In a 2nd experiment three treatments of frankfurters (18% fat) were produced with 0, 50 and 100mg/kg of sodium nitrite and 12% tomato paste and a fourth (control) with only 150mg/kg sodium nitrite. Treatments with 12% tomato paste had lower (pnitrite, and higher (pnitrite (50 and 100mg/kg) and 12% tomato paste had the highest (pnitrites added to frankfurters can be reduced from 150mg/kg to 100mg/kg in combination with 12% tomato paste without any negative effect on the quality of the product.

  19. Production control system specified quality sausage products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Tokarev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of management of production target in technological system of production of sausages of the set quality is considered in article. Decomposition of technological system is considered. Functions of management are allocated: formation of an optimum compounding of forcemeat, expert analysis of a compounding, laboratory analysis of a compounding and its statement. Information technology of interaction of these functions is offered. The mathematical problem definition of finding of an optimum compounding meat product with use of possible substitutes of ingredients is presented. This mathematical problem is a classical linear programming problem whose solution has the standard program. Since the manufacture of the finished product are various nonlinear effects are taken into account at the present time it is practically impossible, the methodology provided in this operation "Expert analysis of the formulation" and "Laboratory analysis of the finished product." An example of calculating the optimum alternative base recipe "Sausages “Viennese with cheese”" TS 9213-010-40155161-2002. For an alternative formulation demands were made at a cost of meat, the ingredient composition, as well as the final product organoleptic and physic-chemical indicators should comply with regulatory requirements "Sausages “Viennese with cheese”" TS 9213-010-40155161-2002. Indicator acid activity (pH calculated stuffing formulation should be in the range 6.0-6.3. As a partial replacement for the main raw material have been proposed acceptable substitutes. It was necessary to calculate on the basis of the formulation "Sausages “Viennese with cheese”" TS 9213-010-40155161-2002 optimal price and quality alternative formulation. As a result of depreciation of the value of alternative stuffing recipe was 14,5 % when all of the restrictions on the consumer properties. The proposed information technology implemented in the software package "Multi

  20. Nutrient Composition of Retail Samples of Australian Beef Sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Cunningham

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Some nutrient data for beef sausages in Australia’s food composition table, NUTTAB 2010, is over 25 years old and may no longer reflect the composition of this popular food. To update this, 41 retail samples of fresh beef sausages were purchased in Melbourne, Australia, in May 2015. Each purchase was analysed, uncooked, for moisture, protein and fat. Sausages were then grouped by fat content into one of three composites and analysed for a wide range of nutrients, before and after dry heat cooking, the most popular sausage cooking method. Fat content in raw sausages averaged 14.9 g/100 g, 30% lower than NUTTAB values, varying from 7.3 to 22.6 g/100 g. This indicates it is possible to formulate leaner sausages that meet consumer expectations and may qualify for certain nutrition labelling statements. Under current Australian labelling requirements, two low fat sausages contain sufficient protein, B12, niacin, phosphorus and zinc to qualify as a good source of these nutrients and sufficient iron, selenium and vitamin A to qualify as a source of these. Sodium levels are higher than fresh beef, ranging from 680 to 840 mg/100 g. These data will be used to update NUTTAB and support product labelling and consumer education.

  1. Implication of human handling on packaged sausage rolls during sale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coolborn AKHARAIYI FRED

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In other to identify the implication of human handling of packaged sausage rolls after production, a microbiological safety evaluation was carried out on sausage rolls sold on street and in shops. Among the sausage rolls, gala purchased from street vendors has the highest bacterial load of 2.82 × 104 CFU/g and 4.3 × 106 spore/g of fungal load, followed by meaty with bacterial load of 1.71 × 104 CFU/g and fungal load of 1.6 × 105 spore/g and was least in rite sausage roll with 1.46 × 104 CFU/g and 1 × 105 spore/g bacterial and fungal loads respectively. Seventeen bacteria species were isolated from both street vended and shop sold sausage rolls, the isolates identified including: Bacillus cereus, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Alcaligenes faecalis, Citrobacter freundii, Klebsiella ozaenae, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterobacter aerogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Aeromonas hydrophila, Plesiomonas shigelloides, Moraxella catarhalis, Bacillus substilis, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Aeromonas anaerogenes, Aerococcus viridans and Azomonas agilis. Five fungi species were isolated from street vended sausage rolls only. The fungal species are Penicillium notatum, Aspergillus parasiticus, Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium italicum and Gliocephalis spp. From this study, street vended samples have higher microbial contamination than shop sold sausage rolls due to improper handling during sales.

  2. Quality Characteristics of Frankfurters Formulated with Apricot Pomace Obtained from Apricot Juice Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çilem Purma Adıbelli

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study the effects of dried apricot pomace (AP on the technological, nutritional and sensory quality of frankfurters were investigated. Frankfurters formulated with 5% AP showed better quality compared to the addition of 10 and 15% AP. Protein and fat content decreased as the concentration of added AP was over 5%. AP addition resulted in lower pH and energy values. Frankfurters formulated with AP had higher cooking and process yield values. AP addition resulted with decrement in lightness and increment in yellowness of samples. 5% addition of AP resulted in good sensory scores. The results indicate that apricot pomace could be an effective functional ingredient in emulsion type meat products.

  3. [Smoked sausages and food additives: evaluation of total mutagenic activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, A M; Tkacheva, D L

    2011-01-01

    The paper deals with the evaluation of the total mutagenic activity of samples of the inorganic and organic fractions of three technology smoked sausages (boiled-smoked, semi-smoked, and raw-smoked) and some food additives used to manufacture the above sausages. Their mild and moderate mutagenic effects were recorded in a Salmonella typhimurium bacterial test system with a metabolic activation system. Physicochemical analysis of the fractions of the smoked sausages has shown that their study samples are substantially contaminated with heavy metals and representatives of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, partially causing the mutagenic effects observed.

  4. Nonlinear integral equations for the sausage model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Changrim; Balog, Janos; Ravanini, Francesco

    2017-08-01

    The sausage model, first proposed by Fateev, Onofri, and Zamolodchikov, is a deformation of the O(3) sigma model preserving integrability. The target space is deformed from the sphere to ‘sausage’ shape by a deformation parameter ν. This model is defined by a factorizable S-matrix which is obtained by deforming that of the O(3) sigma model by a parameter λ. Clues for the deformed sigma model are provided by various UV and IR information through the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz (TBA) analysis based on the S-matrix. Application of TBA to the sausage model is, however, limited to the case of 1/λ integer where the coupled integral equations can be truncated to a finite number. In this paper, we propose a finite set of nonlinear integral equations (NLIEs), which are applicable to generic value of λ. Our derivation is based on T-Q relations extracted from the truncated TBA equations. For a consistency check, we compute next-leading order corrections of the vacuum energy and extract the S-matrix information in the IR limit. We also solved the NLIE both analytically and numerically in the UV limit to get the effective central charge and compared with that of the zero-mode dynamics to obtain exact relation between ν and λ. Dedicated to the memory of Petr Petrovich Kulish.

  5. Effect of ionizing radiation on the oxidation of cholesterol in frozen chicken and beef hamburgers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura, Andrea Figueiredo Procopio de

    2004-01-01

    Several technologies have been developed to assure food quality. Among these technological processes, ionizing radiation has been described as a feasible alternative for food conservation, mainly for meat products, since it keeps their natural properties. In hamburgers, the use of irradiation has been studied due to the frequent implication of such products in outbreaks of food-borne diseases. Some of the outbreaks, which even killed consumers, were caused by E. coli O157:H7. But the use of ionizing radiation in hamburgers may form free radicals able to trigger lipid oxidation in the muscle tissue. As a component of the cell membrane lipids, cholesterol may also undergo oxidation and form biologically active compounds, with atherogenic, mutagenic, cytotoxic and cancerous properties. The aim of this work was to evaluate the occurrence of cholesterol oxidation products in chicken hamburgers and beef hamburgers submitted to irradiation and stored frozen, aerobically and under vacuum. The results showed that irradiation caused an increase of around 11% in the concentration of cholesterol oxides in frozen hamburgers. In chicken hamburgers, an increase in the levels of cholesterol oxides was observed ali over the storage period, while in beef hamburgers it was observed only in the final part of the storage period. Packaging itself did not have a significant effect on the concentrations of cholesterol oxides in either of the types of hamburgers studied. However, it showed a significant interaction with irradiation, that is, vacuum packaging prevented the formation of cholesterol oxides in irradiated beef hamburgers. (author)

  6. Cheese powder as an ingredient in emulsion sausages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xiang; Ruiz Carrascal, Jorge; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin

    2017-01-01

    Different types of cheese powder were added to meat emulsion sausages in order to address its influence on chemical composition, volatile compounds profile and sensory properties, and its potential to reduce salt content through boosting saltiness. Addition of cheese powder to emulsion sausages...... modified their profile of volatile compounds. Blue cheese increased some ketones, alcohols, and esters, while brown cheese brought typical Maillard reaction compounds. Overall, addition of cheese powders to sausages enhanced the intensity of flavour traits. A mixture of hard and blue cheese powder showed...... the highest effect on boosting saltiness, while brown cheese powder showed the strongest umami and meat flavour boosting effect, and sausages with added blue cheese powder showed a more intense aftertaste. Hardness significantly increased due to the addition of blue cheese powder. Addition of cheese powder...

  7. Reducing fat and sodium content in pork sausage | Junior | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reducing fat and sodium content in pork sausage. Jonhny De Azevedo Maia Junior, Fábio Da Costa Henry, Felipe Roberto Ferreira Amaral Do Valle, Meire Lelis Leal Martins, Célia Raquel Quirino, Rafael Dos Santos Costa ...

  8. The effect of kefir starter on Thai fermented sausage product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Jatupornpipat

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of kefir starter from Wilderness Family Naturals Company on the initial formulation of Thai fermented sausage were evaluated. The differences found among batches in the main microbial populations and pH were not significant. Only, the total acid of batch D (added the kefir starter 15 ml was significantly higher (P0.05. It is concluded that the addition of kefir starter (7 ml could be useful to improve the final quality of Thai fermented sausages. The addition of kefir starter that initiates rapid acidification of the raw meat and that leads to a desirable sensory quality of the end-product are used for the production of fermented sausages, and represents a way of improving and optimizing the sausage fermentation process and achieving tastier, safer, and healthier products.

  9. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF HEATING AND COOLING OF SAUSAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Zhuchkov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the mathematical modeling of the processes of heating and cooling of sausage products in order to define reference characteristics of the processes was carried out. Basic regularities of the processes are graphically shown.

  10. Irradiation of meat for the production of fermented sausage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, J.S.; Maxcy, R.B.

    1985-01-01

    A study assessing the potential of gamma irradiation for reducing pathogenic microflora in the production of fermented sausage revealed that an irradiation dose of 500 Krad could reduce total aerobic microflora in commercial sausage meat batter for up to 2.2 log cycles. Coliform and staphylococci counts were reduced to acceptably safe levels, allowing the use of a lower inoculum level, a longer fermentation time, and a more uniform fermentation and fermented product

  11. Microbiological evaluation of poultry sausages stored at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Kunová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of poultry sausages, which were stored at different temperatures (4 °C, 15 °C. Total count of bacteria, coliform bacteria, yeasts and filamentous microscopic fungi were detected in poultry sausages. Microbiological quality was evaluated using the horizontal method for the determination number of microorganisms. Total count of bacteria in sausages stored at 4 °C ranged from 1 × 101 CFU.g-1 in sample 1 (after opening to 4.35 × 104 CFU.g-1  in sample 1 (7th day of storage. Total count of bacteria in sausages stored at 15 °C ranged from 3.25 × 103 CFU.g-1 in sample 1 (after opening to 3.12 × 106 CFU.g-1 in sample 1 to 3.12 × 106  CFU.g-1 in sample 1 (7th day of storage.  Coliform bacteria in sausages stored at 4 °C ranged from 1 × 101 CFU.g-1 to 3.15 × 105 CFU.g-1. Coliform bacteria in sausages stored at 15 °C ranged from 1.54 × 103 CFU.g-1 to 1.40 × 106 CFU.g-1.  Yeasts and microscopic filamentous fungi in sausages stored at 4 °C ranged from 2.75 × 104 CFU.g-1 to 1.40 × 106 CFU.g-1.  Yeasts and microscopic filamentous fungi in sausages stored at 15 °C ranged from 1.30 × 104 CFU.g-1 to 1.44 × 106  CFU.g-1. Total count of bacteria, coliform bacteria, yeast and microscopic fungi were not in accordance with Codex Alimentarius of Slovak Republic on 3rd day in samples stored at 15 °C.

  12. Sensory Evaluation of Cooked Sausages with Legumes Additive

    OpenAIRE

    Ilze Gramatina; Jelena Zagorska; Evita Straumite; Svetlana Sarvi

    2012-01-01

    In the meat processing industry the substitution of meat with non-meat ingredients is considered an important strategy for reducing overall production costs. The main purpose of the current research was to evaluate differences in physical-chemical composition of cooked sausage with different legumes additions. Peas (Pisum sativum), beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and lentil (Lens culinaris) were used in preparation of sausages. The legumes at proportion of 20% of the total wei...

  13. Irradiation of meat for the production of fermented sausage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickson, J. S.; Maxcy, R. B.

    1985-07-15

    A study assessing the potential of gamma irradiation for reducing pathogenic microflora in the production of fermented sausage revealed that an irradiation dose of 500 Krad could reduce total aerobic microflora in commercial sausage meat batter for up to 2.2 log cycles. Coliform and staphylococci counts were reduced to acceptably safe levels, allowing the use of a lower inoculum level, a longer fermentation time, and a more uniform fermentation and fermented product.

  14. Effect of wheat bran and dried carrot pomace addition on quality characteristics of chicken sausage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Objective Effect of addition of wheat bran (WB) and dried carrot pomace (DCP) on sensory, textural, colour, physico-chemical and nutritional characteristics of chicken sausage were evaluated. Methods WB and DCP were used as a source of dietary fibre at 3%, 6%, and 9% level individually. Different quality attributes of sausages were estimated. One product from each source with very good sensory acceptability was selected to analyze dietary fibre content and shelf life under refrigerated storage. Results Sensory acceptability of 3% fibre enriched sausage was comparable with control and a further increase in fibre level resulted in a decrease in sensory acceptability. Fibre enriched sausages were significantly harder and less cohesive than control sausage. Significant increase in gumminess and chewiness was observed at 6% level in WB treated sausages and 9% level in DCP treated sausages. Moisture content decreased significantly in all treated sausages, protein content decreased significantly in DCP-2 and DCP-3 sausages while fat content decreased in all WB and DCP-3 treated sausages in comparison to control. The fibre enriched sausage had significantly higher dietary fibre and lower cholesterol content. Cooking yield and emulsion stability increased in treated sausages and a significant difference was noticed at 6% level in both types of sausages. pH of WB treated sausages was significantly higher and DCP treated sausage significantly lower in comparison to control. Conclusion The results of present study indicate that fibre enriched chicken sausage with moderate acceptability can be developed by incorporating WB and DCP each up to 9% level. Chicken sausage with very good acceptability, higher dietary fibre content and storability up to 15 days at refrigerated temperature can be developed by incorporating WB and DCP at 6% level each. PMID:28823131

  15. Heterofermentative process in dry fermented sausages - a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Kameník

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In certain circumstances the fermentation process in dry fermented sausages converts to heterofermentation pathway leading to acetic acid and carbon dioxide beside lactic acid. The study describes two cases of undesirable heterofermentation in dry sausages from two different producers. In the sausage samples (n = 7 the pH value and the content of lactic and acetic acids were measured. Microbial analysis focused on quantitative and qualitative detection of lactic acid bacteria. The acetic acid content varied from 24.28 to 67.41 µmol·g-1 dry matter, in the case of samples from the second producer the content of acetic acid (48.45 to 67.41 µmol·g-1 dry matter was higher than the lactic acid content (20.98 to 29.02 µmol·g-1 dry matter. The lactobacilli strains from the sausages were assigned to the corresponding species by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization – Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS and classified to three groups according to the sugar fermentation pattern (obligately homofermentative, facultatively heterofermentative and obligately heterofermentative and they caused the heterofermentation process in the samples of dry fermented sausages. The description of the case of heterofermentation process in dry sausages is unique and there is little information about this topic.

  16. Properties of duck meat sausages supplemented with cereal flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H S; Ali, M S; Jeong, J Y; Moon, S H; Hwang, Y H; Park, G B; Joo, S T

    2009-07-01

    Duck meat sausages were prepared using 10% beef fat (FDS) and 10% hydrated cereal flours including rice (RDS), wheat, corn, millet, and barley to replace fat. Control duck sausages (DS) were also prepared only with duck meat and duck meat plus 10% beef fat. Results showed that protein and fat contents significantly decreased and total expressible fluid reduced with the addition of cereal flours in duck sausage batters. The FDS had higher fat content and lower pH compared with others. Duck sausages with 10% supplemented wheat flour showed the lowest cooking loss among sausages and had similar redness and chroma values to FDS and DS. Texture analysis indicated that hardness of duck sausage significantly decreased when cereal flours and beef fat were added. In particular, RDS showed the lowest values for all texture measurements compared with others. Result of moisture absorption capacity suggested that the decrease in hardness in RDS was due to higher moisture retention for rice flour treatment. Sensory evaluation indicated that DS had significantly lower overall acceptability than RDS, due to its off-flavor, whereas RDS had higher overall acceptability than DS.

  17. Quality of comminuted sausages formulated from mechanically deboned poultry meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielnik, Maria B; Aaby, Kjersti; Rolfsen, Knut; Ellekjær, Marit R; Nilsson, Astrid

    2002-05-01

    Comminuted sausages formulated with mechanically deboned poultry meat-MDPM (turkey or chicken, frame or neck) treated in different ways before production (vacuum packed MDPM or air packed skeletons deboned at production) and stored frozen for 6 or 18 weeks have been studied using a full-factorial design and chemical, physical and sensory analysis. MDPM was obtained from a Beehive separator. Comminuted sausages with MDPM from turkey frames, stored at -25 °C as skeletons, packed in air for 18 weeks developed marked rancid odour and flavour which could also be detected by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and the concentration of volatile compounds. Vacuum packed mechanically deboned meat irrespective of species and carcass part could be stored for up to 18 weeks and used in formulation of sausages without any serious changes in their sensory profiles. Instrumental colour differences between sausages were mainly due to species. Turkey sausages were darker, redder and less yellow than chicken sausages. Moisture and fat contents were influenced by carcass part and to a lesser extent depended on species and storage time. Principal least squares regression (PLS2) showed close relationships between instrumental parameters and sensory attributes. TBARS, hexanal and volatile compounds were highly correlated with rancid flavour while redness (a(∗)) was strongly related to sensory colour hue and colour strength.

  18. Color changes of vienna sausage by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, Tamikazu; Aoki, Shohei; Sato, Tomotaro

    1978-01-01

    Color change of vienna sausage induced by gamma irradiation was investigated. Discoloration of irradiated vienna sausage was evaluated by use of the color difference meter and sensory test. The discoloration by irradiation was influenced by oxygen contents in packing pouches. In the case of commercial vienna sausage, significant difference from unirradiated control by 99% of probability was recognized at the doses of 1.0 Mrad in nitrogen, 0.5 Mrad in air and 0.3 Mrad in oxygen, respectively. The color change of the specially prepared vienna sausage (40% pork, 40% mutton, 20% beef, and no additional preservatives) was less than that of the commercial one. The absorbance at 540 nm of extracts from vienna sausages with 80% acetone decreased with increasing irradiation dose and oxygen content. While, change in absorbance at 340 nm was practically unaffected by the oxygen concentration. These results suggest that the degradation of nitroso-heme complex by irradiation causes mainly the discoloration of vienna sausage. (auth.)

  19. Optimization of Replacing Pork Meat with Yellow Worm (Tenebrio molitor L.) for Frankfurters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2017-01-01

    The effects of replacing pork meat with yellow mealworms on the physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of frankfurters were investigated in this study. The control (50% pork ham), T1 (45% pork ham + 5% yellow mealworm), T2 (40% pork ham + 10% yellow mealworm), T3 (35% pork ham + 15% yellow mealworm), T4 (30% pork ham + 20% yellow mealworm), T5 (25% pork ham + 25% yellow mealworm), and T6 (20% pork ham + 30% yellow mealworm) were prepared, replacing lean pork meat with yellow mealworm. The moisture content, lightness, sarcoplasmic protein solubility, hardness, gumminess, chewiness, and apparent viscosity of frankfurters with yellow mealworm were lower than those of the control (pmealworm were higher than those of the control (pmealworm concentrations (pmealworm concentrations had lower color, flavor, off-flavor, and juiciness scores. The overall acceptability was not significantly different in the control, T1, and T2 (p>0.05). Thus, the results of this study showed that replacing lean pork meat with up to 10% yellow mealworm successfully maintained the quality of frankfurters at a level similar to that of the regular control frankfurters. PMID:29147084

  20. The Politics of Unreason : The Frankfurt School and the Origins of Modern Antisemitism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rensmann, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Although the Frankfurt School—most prominently associated with Theodor W. Adorno, Max Horkheimer, Leo Löwenthal and Herbert Marcuse—represents one of the most influential intellectual traditions of the 20th century, its multi-faceted work on modern antisemitism has so far largely been neglected. The

  1. Hamburg subway vehicles with new control and traction systems; Hamburger U-Bahn-Fahrzeuge mit neuer Leit- und Antriebstechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polster, H.J.; Lehr, G.; Werner-Wieland, P. [Bombardier Transportation, LRV, Mannheim (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    With a view to testing new technologies for future vehicle series for the Hamburg subway network, the last 17 DT4 cars to be delivered under a current contract were equipped with the latest generation of control and traction systems. A MITRAC control system was installed instead of the MICAS-S type used in the DT4 vehicles delivered before. The GTO converters were replaced by IGBT elements. The concept is designed to allow for the change-over of DT4 vehicles of previous series to the new system. (orig.)

  2. Nonlinear evolution of the sausage instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Book, D.L.; Ott, E.; Lampe, M.

    1976-01-01

    Sausage instabilities of an incompressible, uniform, perfectly conducting Z pinch are studied in the nonlinear regime. In the long wavelength limit (analogous to the ''shallow water theory'' of hydrodynamics), a simplified set of universal fluid equations is derived, with no radial dependence, and with all parameters scaled out. Analytic and numerical solutions of these one-dimensional equations show that an initially sinusoidal perturbation grows into a ''spindle'' or cylindrical ''spike and bubble'' shape, with sharp radial maxima. In the short wavelength limit, the problem is shown to be mathematically equivalent to the planar semi-infinite Rayleigh--Taylor instability, which also grows into a spike-and-bubble shape. Since the spindle shape is common to both limits, it is concluded that it probably obtains in all cases. The results are in agreement with dense plasma focus experiments

  3. Sausage mode stability boundaries: enumeration and verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, F.W.

    1980-01-01

    An axially symmetric sausage mode instability has been observed using particle simulation codes to propagate beams with a high degree of current neutralization. In this report the stability boundaries in terms of the magnitude and location of the return current are delineated for beams with square, Gaussian, and Bennett radial current profiles using the theoretical analysis of others. For the case in which the return current is held fixed as the beam propagates, a detailed comparison is made between the theoretical predictions and the results of the RINGFAST single disk particle simulation code. Agreement between theory and code results is good although the code results do show a slightly larger than predicted unstable region

  4. DEVELOPMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A TAMBAQUI SAUSAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Sleder

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In Brazil, fish are sold in retail fresh or frozen, whole, or gutted. To increase consumption, convenient products with good sensory attributes should be offered. The objective of this study was to develop and characterize, through physicochemical, microbiologica, and sensory traits, a fresh sausage of tambaqui fish (Colossoma macropomum. Three formulations, with different percentages of fat (0, 4.5, and 9% were developed. To determine shelf life, samples of the products were refrigerated at 4 ºC for 12 days and microbiological analyses were performed on days 0, 3, 7, and 12. Analyses of centesimal composition, shear force, cooking weight loss, and water-holding capacity were carried out. The shelf life of the fresh sausages was estimated at 7 days of storage. The sensory attributes evaluated were aroma, color, flavor, succulence, texture, and overall appearance. All treatments showed high acceptance rates, above 80%. The treatment with 9% fat showed the highest mean values in the evaluated attributes, with 86.6%, 83.4%, 92%, 88.2%, 87.2%, and 85.8% for aroma, color, flavor, succulence, texture and overall appearance, respectively. The centesimal composition of the treatments showed the following variations in g.100 g-1: moisture, 72.73 to 68.82; protein, 18.85 to 18.90; lipids, 2.90 to 8.33; and ash, 3.86 to 4.20. Shear force varied from 5.92 to 8.14 N; water-holding capacity varied from 71.83 to 74.71% and cooking weight loss, from 24.21 to 26.59%.

  5. ABC crescent. Energy concept with active storage system for a Hamburg office building; ABC - Bogen. Energiekonzept mit Aktivspeichersystem fuer ein Buerohaus in Hamburg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoll, J. [HL-Technik AG, Muenchen (Germany). Bereich Future Building Designs, Thermische Bauphysik-Bauklimatik

    1999-07-01

    This new multifunctional building will house a shopping mall and offices. Natural ventilation is favoured as far as possible. Technical facilities were minimised in order to save resources and reduce the operating cost. The architectural design was to be as functional as possible. [German] Mit dem ABC-Bogen in Hamburg entsteht in unmittelbarer Naehe zum Gaensemarkt ein multifunktionales Gebaeude mit Passagen, Laeden und Bueros - ein neuer Akzent in der Hamburger Innenstadt. Das grosszuegig verglaste Gebaeude sollte nach den Zielen der Hamburger Architekten BRT - Bothe, Richter, Teherani und der Projektentwicklung (SF-Bau Projektentwicklung GmbH, NL Hamburg) soweit wie moeglich natuerlich gelueftet werden. Die gebaeudetechnische Ausruestung der Bueros war zur Ressourcenschonung und Begrenzung der Betriebskosten auf ein Mindestmass zu beschraenken. Bei der Fassadengestaltung sollten funktionelle Aspekte absoluten Vorrang haben. (orig.)

  6. Arvi Hamburg : rumal arst võib tappa korraga ühe inimese, rumal insener tuhandeid / Arvi Hamburg ; interv. Taivo Paju

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hamburg, Arvi, 1948-

    2008-01-01

    Eesti Inseneride Liidu president Arvi Hamburg annab lühiülevaate insenerides arvukusest ja kutsekvalifikatsioonist. Projekt tehnikahariduse ja insenerikutse populaarsuse tõstmiseks. Vt. samas: Lühiülevaade inseneri kutseala kvalifikatsioonitasemetest

  7. Effects of Glasswort (Salicornia herbacea L.) Hydrates on Quality Characteristics of Reduced-salt, Reduced-fat Frankfurters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yun-Sang

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of adding glasswort hydrate containing non-meat ingredient (GM, carboxy methyl cellulose; GC, carrageenan; GI, isolated soy protein; GS, sodium caseinate) on the quality characteristics of reduced-salt, reduced-fat frankfurters. The pH and color evaluation showed significant differences, depending on the type of glasswort hydrate added (p<0.05). In the raw batters and cooked frankfurters, the addition of glasswort hydrate decreased the redness and increased the yellowness in comparison with frankfurters without glasswort hydrate. The reduction in salt and fat content significantly increased cooking loss and decreased hardness, tenderness and juiciness (p<0.05). Glasswort hydrate containing non-meat ingredient improved cooking loss, water holding capacity, emulsion stability, hardness, and viscosity of reduced-salt, reduced-fat frankfurters. The GM treatment had the highest myofibiliar protein solubility among all treatments, which was associated with emulsion stability and viscosity. The GC treatment had higher values for all texture parameters than the control. In the sensory evaluation, the addition of glasswort hydrate with non-meat ingredient improved tenderness and juiciness of reduced-salt, reduced-fat frankfurters. GM, GC, and GI treatments improved not only the physicochemical properties but also the sensory characteristics of reduced-salt, reduced-fat frankfurters. The results indicated that the use of glasswort hydrate containing non-meat ingredient was improved the quality characteristics of reduced-salt, reduced-fat frankfurters. PMID:26877638

  8. The Marginalization of Globally-Born Businesses: Ethnically Divided Trade in Hamburg and the World Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezaei, Shahamak

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: Persian carpets have long been a major commodity in the world. Persian carpets have long been a major commodity in the world market, controlled by the Tehran Carpet Bazaar and the Hamburg Free Harbor. Today about 200 private traders in the Hamburg Free Harbor area export...

  9. Consumer preferences, internal color and reduction of shigatoxigenic Escherichia coli in cooked hamburgers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Røssvoll, Elin; Sørheim, Oddvin; Heir, Even; Møretrø, Trond; Olsen, Nina Veflen; Langsrud, Solveig

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to relate consumer preferences and preparation of hamburgers to color change, internal temperature and reduction of shigatoxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups O157 and the "Big Six" (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145) under two ground beef packaging scenarios: 75% O2 MAP and vacuum. 75% O2 MAP hamburgers cooked to 60 °C core temperature appeared done and showed less internal red color (lower a*) than corresponding vacuum hamburgers. Similar STEC reduction (<4 log10) was found for both hamburgers at core temperatures ≤ 66 °C. In a representative survey (N=1046) most consumers reported to judge hamburger doneness by the color and many preferred undercooked hamburgers. Premature browning of 75% O2 MAP hamburgers represents a risk of foodborne illness, when considering consumers' food handling practices. The risk is even greater if such ground beef is prepared by consumers who prefer undercooked hamburgers and judge doneness by color. © 2013.

  10. From the landfill to the energy mountain. Landfill rehabilitation in Hamburg-Georgswerder; Von der Muelldeponie zum Energieberg. Deponiesanierung in Hamburg-Georgswerder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leder, Bernd [Eggers Tiefbau GmbH, Tangstedt (Germany)

    2011-01-15

    During 1983, a dioxin find from the landfill Hamburg-Georgswerder (Federal Republic of Germany) activated one of the greatest environmental scandals in Germany. Almost 30 years later Georgswerder plays an important role as an energy barrier in the energy concept of Hamburg and prospectively will provide 2,000 households with clean electricity. This is enabled by remedial measures which still are the largest among others of its kind and shaped the development of environmental procedures essentially.

  11. Double usage of biowaste in Hamburg. First energy then compost; Hamburger Bioabfall doppelt nutzen. Erst Energie dann Kompost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siechau, Ruediger; Thoerner, Rhea [Stadtreinigung Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-03-15

    Separate collection of biowaste is determined in the European Waste Framework Directive from 2008. The amendment of the German recycling act specifies this requirement by demanding the nationwide separate collection of biowaste by 2015. The Stadtreinigung Hamburg (SRH) has already responded to the requirements in advance: The recycling ordinance from Hamburg made all households to collect biowaste separately since January 1, 2011. Meanwhile, many households already use the green bin, so that the amount of separately collected biowaste has increased visibly. For the purposes of climate and resource protection, it is obviously not enough to simply increase the quantities. Rather, a sensible strategy for the treatment of organic waste is required. In 2008 SRH has already bought a composting plant (composting plant Buetzberg). The existing composting has now been extended by an upstream facility. The new built dry fermentation plant ferments biowaste. The gas is purified and supplied into the gas grid. Subsequently, the digestate is composted. The compost is used as a soil conditioner. The entire facility uses biowaste twice: First energetic, then substantial. The plant has an capacity of 70,000 tons per year. (orig.)

  12. Grading of Chinese Cantonese Sausage Using Hyperspectral Imaging Combined with Chemometric Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Aiping; Zhu, Susu; He, Yong; Zhang, Chu

    2017-01-01

    Fast and accurate grading of Chinese Cantonese sausage is an important concern for customers, organizations, and the industry. Hyperspectral imaging in the spectral range of 874–1734 nm, combined with chemometric methods, was applied to grade Chinese Cantonese sausage. Three grades of intact and sliced Cantonese sausages were studied, including the top, first, and second grades. Support vector machine (SVM) and random forests (RF) techniques were used to build two different models. Second derivative spectra and RF were applied to select optimal wavelengths. The optimal wavelengths were the same for intact and sliced sausages when selected from second derivative spectra, while the optimal wavelengths for intact and sliced sausages selected using RF were quite similar. The SVM and RF models, using full spectra and the optimal wavelengths, obtained acceptable results for intact and sliced sausages. Both models for intact sausages performed better than those for sliced sausages, with a classification accuracy of the calibration and prediction set of over 90%. The overall results indicated that hyperspectral imaging combined with chemometric methods could be used to grade Chinese Cantonese sausages, with intact sausages being better suited for grading. This study will help to develop fast and accurate online grading of Cantonese sausages, as well as other sausages. PMID:28757578

  13. Reduction of verotoxigenic Escherichia coli in production of fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holck, Askild L; Axelsson, Lars; Rode, Tone Mari; Høy, Martin; Måge, Ingrid; Alvseike, Ole; L'abée-Lund, Trine M; Omer, Mohamed K; Granum, Per Einar; Heir, Even

    2011-11-01

    After a number of foodborne outbreaks of verotoxigenic Escherichia coli involving fermented sausages, some countries have imposed regulations on sausage production. For example, the US Food Safety and Inspection Service requires a 5 log(10) reduction of E. coli in fermented products. Such regulations have led to a number of studies on the inactivation of E. coli in fermented sausages by changing processing and post-processing conditions. Several factors influence the survival of E. coli such as pre-treatment of the meat, amount of NaCl, nitrite and lactic acid, water activity, pH, choice of starter cultures and addition of antimicrobial compounds. Also process variables like fermentation temperature and storage time play important roles. Though a large variety of different production processes of sausages exist, generally the reduction of E. coli caused by production is in the range 1-2 log(10). In many cases this may not be enough to ensure microbial food safety. By optimising ingredients and process parameters it is possible to increase E. coli reduction to some extent, but in some cases still other post process treatments may be required. Such treatments may be storage at ambient temperatures, specific heat treatments, high pressure processing or irradiation. HACCP analyses have identified the quality of the raw materials, low temperature in the batter when preparing the sausages and a rapid pH drop during fermentation as critical control points in sausage production. This review summarises the literature on the reduction verotoxigenic E. coli in production of fermented sausages. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Antioxidant Activities of Nakai Extract and Its Application to the Pork Sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Park

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Influence of Achyranthes japonica Nakai Extract (AJNE on properties of pork sausages were studied in the present investigation. AJNE was added to sausages alone or in combination with ascorbic acid to obtain a comparative analysis on properties of control and ascorbic acid added-sausages. Results showed that addition of 0.05% AJNE led to a decrease in color L* and whiteness (W, and an increase in color b* of pork sausage samples (p<0.05. Although color a* of pork sausages containing AJNE was not significantly different, ascorbic acid added-sausages were highest amongst other treatments (p<0.05. Sausages containing AJNE had lower non-heme iron values and peroxide value (POV than control sausages (p<0.05; however, high nitrosomyoglobin content was observed in AJNE added-sausages (p<0.05. Ascorbic acid led to a decrease in residual nitrite concentration of sausages (p<0.05, but no difference was found in AJNE added-sausages. Free radical scavenging analysis showed that AJNE did not affect 1,1-diphenyl -2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH activity of sausages, whereas ascorbic acid added-sausages showed relatively higher activity among the samples (p<0.05. Addition of AJNE had no influence on texture properties of sausages. In sensory evaluation, AJNE treatment had significant effects on color (p<0.05, but no significant effects on aroma, flavor, springiness, juiciness, and overall acceptability. In conclusion, the addition of AJNE, as a natural supplement may offer natural antioxidants for pork sausages, and appears to be particularly effective in inducing changes in non-heme iron concentration, POV value and nitrosomyglobin content.

  15. Installation and performance of the Budapest-Hamburg proton microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, I.; Kocsonya, A.; Kostka, P.; Szokefalvi-Nagy, Z.; Schrang, K.; Krueger, A.; Niecke, M.

    2005-01-01

    A new scanning proton microprobe has been installed at the 5 MV Van de Graaff accelerator of the KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics. It is the energy-upgraded version of the Hamburg proton microprobe dismantled in 2001. The probe forming system includes a pair of focusing quadrupoles and an additional quadrupole pair in front of it, which is applied to increase the proton beam divergence. The average probe size at 2.5 MeV proton energy is 2.2 μm x 1.1 μm. The test results on stability and the preliminary experiments on cement corrosion and fish otoliths are also presented

  16. Development of shelf-stable meat sausages using gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seri Chempaka Mohd Yusof; Muhammad Lebai Juri; Mariani Deraman

    2006-01-01

    Irradiation techniques have been applied in development of ready to eat or shelf stable sausages. These sausages can be eaten directly without the need for prior heating or cooking procedure and displayed in the room temperature on the shelves of the retailers without frozen facilities. This study was designed to investigate the acceptability and microbial status of packed ready to eat sausages that had been sterilized using gamma irradiation at MINTec-Sinagama. Packed pre-cooked sausage samples (sealed in plastic-polyethylene individually) were irradiated with different doses of 2.5 kGy, 3.5 kGy and 5.5 kGy. Acceptability of the sausages was determined through sensory evaluation by 30 members of untrained panelists comprising of staffs of MINT. A 5 points hedonic rating scale was used. The attributes evaluated were rancidity, texture, chewiness, juiciness, aroma, colour, shape and overall acceptance. Samples irradiated with doses 3.5 kGy were the most acceptable followed by samples irradiated with doses 2.5 kGy and 5.5 kGy respectively. Irradiation with doses up to 2.5 kGy will virtually eliminate disease-causing microorganisms and pathogens. The total microbial count, detection of Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and fungi in these samples were determined and discussed. (Author)

  17. Effects of irradiation on quality of fermented sausage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Hai; Li Xiang; Li Suzheng; Qin Chunjun; Ge Qingfeng; Jiang Yunsheng; Wang Zhijun; Cao Hong; Chen Xiulan

    2010-01-01

    The fermented sausages were irradiated by 60 Co γ-rays at 0, 2, 4 and 6 kGy, and the quality of the fermented sausages were studied. The results showed that there were significant differences on the water contents between irradiated sausage and CK (P < 0.05), but no change on NaCl contents. pH values of 0 and 2 kGy groups were significantly higher than that of 4 and 6 kGy groups (P < 0.05). Amino acids contents of 4 kGy irradiated sausage were significantly higher than that of 2 and 6 kGy groups. The highest contents of esters, alkenes, acids and ketone were found in 4 kGy group and the highest content of alcohol was detected in 6 kGy group. SDS-PAGE results showed that the degradation rate of sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar protein in irradiated fermented sausages were lower than control. (authors)

  18. Evaluation of the physico-chemical, rheological and sensory characteristics of commercially available Frankfurters in Spain and consumer preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Viñas, M A; Caballero, A B; Gallego, I; García Ruiz, A

    2004-08-01

    The physico-chemical, rheological and sensory characteristics of different commercially available Frankfurters were studied. Samples presented values of A(w) and pH from 0.954 to 0.972 and 5.88 to 6.43, respectively. Greater differences were observed in parameters such as fat and salt content, with values ranging from 10.83% to 21.92% and 1.85% to 3.01%, respectively. With regard to total nitrogen, all samples presented values close to 2%. Free-choice profiling and generalised procrustes analysis of the sensory data permitted differentiation between samples and provided information about the attributes responsible for the observed differences. All the frankfurters scored in the moderate range for overall acceptability. Consumers identified reasons for purchasing frankfurters when evaluating the product's packaging. The most important criterion for consumers when purchasing frankfurters was the appetising aspect of the product in the packaging's illustration.

  19. Dried sausages fermented with Staphylococcus xylosus at different temperatures and with different ingredient levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahnke, Marie Louise Heller

    1995-01-01

    Sausages with added Staphylococcus xylosus were fermented at different temperatures and with different added levels of salt, glucose, nitrite, nitrate and Pediococcus pentosaceus in accordance with a six factor fractional design. The odour of the sausages was evaluated by a quantitative descriptive...... tested using multiple linear regression and analysis of variance. The study showed that salami odour was more pronounced in sausages fermented at low temperature than in sausages fermented at high temperature and added nitrite, glucose and P. pentosaceus. High temperature sausages had a more sour...

  20. Lichens as indicators for immission load in the urban region of Frankfurt/M

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirschbaum, U; Klee, R; Steubing, L

    1971-01-01

    The plotting of a map showing the natural lichen growth on trees has been undertaken in Frankfurt, and, in addition, the degree of air pollution has also been tested by means of Parmelia physodes planted at different measuring points. The city center is characterized by a complete absence of lichen which shows that the air in this zone is very unhealthy. In contrast to this, the middle and outer pollution control zones are to be considered as a residential district offering better hygienic conditions. The limits of the zone completely devoid of lichen is characterized in Frankfurt by an average SO/sub 2/ load of 0.11 mg SO/sub 2//m/sup 3/, and by a high dust concentration. 20 references.

  1. The isolation of salmonellas from British pork sausages and sausage meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, D; Boag, K; Hall, M L; Shipp, C R

    1975-10-01

    Between 1969 and 1974, 1467 packets (3309 samples) of pork sausages and sausage meat produced by two large and two medium sized manufacturers and several local butchers were examined for the presence of salmonellas. Of these, 435 packets (786 samples) were found to contain salmonellas, but there was a wide variation in the isolation rates according to the producer. The salmonella incidence in samples from several small and two medium sized producers was low (0-11%) while the results from the two large producers investigated showed a striking difference, the rate of salmonella contamination in the product of one was low (about 2%) and in that of the other consistently high (40-60%). A comparison of liquid enrichment media, incubation temperatures and selective agar media was also carried out to determine the most efficient combination for the isolation of salmonellas from minced meat products. The results showed that (a) incubation of enrichment cultures at 43 degrees C. yielded a consistently greater number of salmonella isolations that at 37 degrees C., regardless of plating medium, (b) tetrathionate broth A (Rolfe) was superior to selenite broth as en enrichment medium at both 37 and 43 degrees C. and (c) brilliant green agar gave better results than deoxycholate citrate sucrose agar and bismuth sulphite agar as a selective medium.

  2. Sensory characteristics and consumer liking of sausages with 10% fat and added rye or wheat bran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Louise Margrethe Arildsen; Vuholm, Stine; Aaslyng, Margit Dall

    2014-01-01

    and added rye or wheat bran. Sensory descriptive attributes (odor, appearance, texture, and flavor) of rye bran sausage (RBS) and wheat bran sausage (WBS) were evaluated by a trained sensory panel (n = 9). A sausage with wheat flour (WFS) and two commercial 20% (20%S) and 10% (10%S) (w/w) fat sausages were......Improving the nutritional profile of sausages through the addition of dietary fiber might affect appetite, sensory characteristics, and liking differently depending on the fiber source. This study investigates the sensory characteristics and consumer acceptance of sausages with 10% (w/w) fat...... also included. Liking was investigated in consumer tests with two Danish target groups (49 children aged between six and nine and 24 parents). RBS and WBS were similar with regard to their sensory descriptive attributes, but the structure of these sausages was coarser and the color was more brown than...

  3. Effect of Spices Mixture and Gamma Irradiation on Sausage Quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, M.M.; Sallam, E.M.

    2015-01-01

    This investigation was carried out to study the effect of spices mixture on reducing the oxidation of fat and to improve the quality and organoleptic characteristics as well as extension of shelf-life of beef sausage. Beef sausages were mixed with three different levels (0.5%, 1.5% and 2.5%) of spices mixture (cardamom, clove, cubeb, laurel leaves, cinnamon, black pepper, rosemary, parpicu, fennel and coriander). The sausages were packed in polyethylene bags and irradiated at 2.5, 5 and 7.5 kGy then stored at 5±1°C for 48 days. Microbiological, biochemical and physical analyses as well as organoleptic evaluation were carried out. Results indicated that increasing the spices level decreased the total bacterial count (TBC), molds, yeasts and psychrophilic bacteria (PB) while total volatile nitrogen (TVN), thiobarbituric acid (TBA), peroxide value (PV) and acid value (AV) were increased in treated samples (1.5% and 2.5%) as compared to control (0.5%). On the other hand, the spices decreased TVN, TBA, PV and AV in treated sausages during cold storage while the physical parameters were increased and the best qualities of cold irradiated sausages were observed at the level 2.5% then 1.5% of spices, and the cooking yield and cooking loss and the organoleptic scores (based on over all acceptability) were better than the control sample (0.5%). The results of spices mixture showed that the level 2.5% can reduce oxidation of fat and improve quality and organoleptic characteristics as well as extension of shelf-life of cold irradiated beef sausage stored for 48 days.

  4. Effects of vegetable juice powder concentration and storage time on some chemical and sensory quality attributes of uncured, emulsified cooked sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindelar, J J; Cordray, J C; Sebranek, J G; Love, J A; Ahn, D U

    2007-06-01

    Uncured, no-nitrate/nitrite-added meat products can be manufactured with vegetable juice powder (VJP) and a starter culture containing Staphylococcus carnosus, resulting in quality and sensory attributes similar to traditional cured products. The 1st objective of this study was to determine the effects of varying concentrations of VJP and incubation times (MIN-HOLD) on quality characteristics, including lipid oxidation, color, and cured meat pigment concentrations, of emulsified-frankfurter-style-cooked (EFSC) sausages over a 90-d storage period. The 2nd objective was to compare residual nitrate and nitrite content resulting from different processing treatments and the 3rd objective was to assess sensory properties of finished products. Four EFSC sausage treatments (TRT) (TRT 1: 0.20% VJP, 30 MIN-HOLD; TRT 2: 0.20% VJP, 120 MIN-HOLD; TRT 3: 0.40% VJP, 30 MIN-HOLD; TRT 4: 0.40% VJP, 120 MIN-HOLD) and a sodium nitrite-added control (C) were used for this study. No differences for lipid oxidation (TBARS) between any TRTs and C or over time were observed. No differences (P > 0.05) for CIE L* values were found between TRTs. CIE a* and reflectance ratio values revealed that TRTs 2, 4, and C were redder than TRTs 1 and 3 at day 0. Trained sensory intensity ratings for cured aroma, cured color, cured flavor, uniform color, and firmness determined that all but TRT 1 were similar to C. These results indicate a longer incubation time (120 compared with 30 min) was found more critical than VJP level (0.20% or 0.40%) to result in products comparable to a sodium nitrite-added control.

  5. Reduction of the beam pulse repetition rate of the Hamburg Isochronous Cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, H; Langkau, R; Schirm, N [Hamburg Univ. (F.R. Germany). 1. Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik

    1976-04-01

    A system for the reduction of the beam pulse repetition rate of the energy-variable Hamburg Isochronous Cyclotron comprising beam pulse supression in the cyclotron center and in the external beam is described.

  6. Quarterly Costs Of Transporting Brazilian Soybeans From The North And Northeastern Ports To Hamburg, Germany

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Agriculture — Quarterly total landed costs (truck and ocean) of shipping Brazilian soybeans through the ports of Santarém and São Luís to Hamburg, Germany. This is table 6 of the...

  7. Nonvolatile organic pollutants in domestic dust samples from the urban Hamburg area; Schwerfluechtige organische Umweltchemikalien in Hamburger Hausstaeuben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    Nonvolatile organic pollutants were measured in 65 private apartments, i.e. biocides, softeners, flame protection agents, stabilisers, soot, tar and bitumen which are contained in many everyday products and building materials. The homes were the private homes of staff members of the Hamburg Environmental Office and their friends; none of the homes were problem cases. The information was obtained by collecting vacuum cleaner dust. The inhomogeneous dust was screened, and the < 63 {mu}m fraction was analyzed. This fraction was homogeneously enough to provide reproducible results. Chloroparaffins and organic tin compounds were measured for the first time ever in this project. While the concentrations of chloroparaffins were significant, organic tin compounds are rather scarce. Bis(2,ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) was the main component in nearly all household dust samples. Phthalates in general had the highest concentrations. Next to phthalates, chloroparaffins and the biocide permethrin were found in high concentrations, followed by organic phosphates, further biocides, organic tin compounds and benzo(a)pyrene. The individual substances wre assessed on the basis of 95 percent percentiles obtained from the measured frequency distributions. This figure means that 95 percent of the household dust have a lower or equal concentration than the 95 percent percentile. 95 percent percentiles are generally used as reference values in environmental measurements. The reference values presented here should be considered as preliminary values, owing to the fact that the apartments are not representative of the city of Hamburg, and 65 dust samples are too small a data base. Among the most important substances, owing to their high concentrations and/or toxic effects, are DEHP with a preliminary reference value of 1600 mg/kg of household dust, dibutyl phthalate with 180 mg/kg of dust, short-chain chloroparaffins with 180 mg/kg of dust, permethrin with 110 mg/kg of dust, monobutyl tin

  8. Comparison of Sensory Properties, Shelf-Life and Microbiological Safety of Industrial Sausages Produced with Autochthonous and Commercial Starter Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadranka Frece

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to use isolated and characterized autochthonous functional starter cultures from traditional Croatian dry sausages and to evaluate their capacity for industrial production of five sausages (Čajna sausage, Zimska sausage, Bečka sausage, Srijemska sausage and Slavonski kulen. These defined autochthonous functional starter cultures (combination of Lactobacillus and Staphylococcus strains were used to produce five different industrial sausages which were compared by a panel. The viability of introduced autochthonous Lactobacillus and Staphylococcus strains and their effect on the final product characteristics, namely microbiological, physicochemical and sensory properties were monitored. The obtained results indicate that autochthonous starter cultures survived industrial production of sausages and can be used for production of sausages under controlled conditions. Autochthonous starter cultures obtained better results in the organoleptic evaluation, microbial safety and prolonged shelf-life in comparison with commercial starter cultures.

  9. Acceptance of fish hamburgers in school meals in the Southwest Region of Paraná, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Leandra Schuastz BREDA; Anne Caroline BELUSSO; Barbara Arruda NOGUEIRA; Guilherme Holub CAMARGO; Marina Leite MITTERER-DALTOÉ

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The regular consumption of fish provides health gains for people, and its introduction in school meals is an important strategy to insert the habit of consuming this food by a population. Thus the objective of this study was to verify the acceptance of fish, presented in the form of hamburger, by children in municipal primary schools in the town of Pato Branco, Brazil, in which the school cooks had been trained to produce fish hamburgers. Acceptance was evaluated using a hedonic scal...

  10. Effect of leek and onion on processing and quality characteristics of Greek traditional sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fista, G A; Bloukas, J G; Siomos, A S

    2004-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of leek and onion on processing and quality characteristics of sausages and select the most appropriate, to determine the optimum level of selected vegetable and to improve its effectiveness on quality characteristics of sausages, in comparison to the addition of nitrites (100 ppm), by using a starter culture of Staphylococcus carnosus and ascorbate. The nitrate content of leek ranged from 213 to 255 ppm and that of onion was 79 ppm. Sausages produced with leek had higher (pnitrite content (1.3-2.1 ppm) and a (∗)(+) values and higher scores for sensory attributes than sausages with onion. Sausages made with the total leek plant had the highest score for overall acceptability. The higher the leek level the higher the nitrate and nitrite content of sausages and the lower the redness, a (∗)(+). Sausages with 240 g of leek/kg had the highest (pnitrite content, higher weight losses and lower pH values after the 3rd day of storage, compared to sausages produced with the addition of sodium nitrite. The addition of starter culture and ascorbic acid improved the redness (a (∗)) of sausages and reduced the 2-thiobarbituric acid value. Sausages with leek, starter culture and ascorbic acid had the highest score for odour and taste and overall acceptability.

  11. Impacts of Irradiation Sources on Quality Attributes of Low-salt Sausage during Refrigerated Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Choi, Yun-Sang

    2017-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the impacts of irradiation sources on quality attributes of low-salt sausage during refrigerated storage. Control sausage was prepared with 1.5% sodium chloride (NaCl), whereas low-salt sausage was formulated with 0.75% NaCl (a 50% reduction; L-control). Sausage samples were vacuum-packaged, and low-sausages were irradiated with gamma-ray, electron-beam and X-ray at 5 kGy, respectively. The samples were stored at 4°C for 28 d to determine changes in quality attributes. The pH of low-salt sausages was unaffected by irradiation at 5 kGy (p>0.05). Higher redness values were found at irradiated low-salt sausages compared to control (psausage were higher than those of low-salt sausages (psausage treatments. The overall sensory acceptability score of irradiated/low-salt sausages were lower than L-control due to decreased scores for cooked meat flavor but increased radiolytic off-flavor (psausages were higher than control and L-control (psausages (psausages, and suggest that further studies should be necessary to reducing radiolytic off-flavor of irradiated/low-salt sausages. PMID:29147093

  12. On the Five-Moment Hamburger Maximum Entropy Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summy, D. P.; Pullin, D. I.

    2018-05-01

    We consider the Maximum Entropy Reconstruction (MER) as a solution to the five-moment truncated Hamburger moment problem in one dimension. In the case of five monomial moment constraints, the probability density function (PDF) of the MER takes the form of the exponential of a quartic polynomial. This implies a possible bimodal structure in regions of moment space. An analytical model is developed for the MER PDF applicable near a known singular line in a centered, two-component, third- and fourth-order moment (μ _3 , μ _4 ) space, consistent with the general problem of five moments. The model consists of the superposition of a perturbed, centered Gaussian PDF and a small-amplitude packet of PDF-density, called the outlying moment packet (OMP), sitting far from the mean. Asymptotic solutions are obtained which predict the shape of the perturbed Gaussian and both the amplitude and position on the real line of the OMP. The asymptotic solutions show that the presence of the OMP gives rise to an MER solution that is singular along a line in (μ _3 , μ _4 ) space emanating from, but not including, the point representing a standard normal distribution, or thermodynamic equilibrium. We use this analysis of the OMP to develop a numerical regularization of the MER, creating a procedure we call the Hybrid MER (HMER). Compared with the MER, the HMER is a significant improvement in terms of robustness and efficiency while preserving accuracy in its prediction of other important distribution features, such as higher order moments.

  13. Processing, physicochemical, and sensory analyses of ostrich meat hamburger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia Ferreira de Souza

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the potential utilization of ostrich meat trimming in hamburger preparation, as well as its physicochemical and sensory characterization. Using ostrich meat trimmings from the legs and neck, four different formulations were prepared with varied amounts of bacon and textured soybean protein. Physical analysis of yield, shrinkage percentage, and water retention capacity and chemical analysis of proximate composition, cholesterol levels, and calories were performed. The formulations underwent sensory analysis by 52 potential ostrich meat consumers, who evaluated tenderness, juiciness, flavor, and purchase intent. The formulations containing textured soybean protein showed the highest yield, lowest shrinkage percentage, and highest water retention capacity. Lipid content varied from 0.58 to 4.99%; protein from 17.08 to 21.37%; ash from 3.00 to 3.62%; moisture from 73.87 to 76.27%; cholesterol from 22.54 to 32.11 mg.100 g-1; and calorie from 87.22 to 163.42 kcal.100 g-1. All formulations showed low cholesterol and calorie levels, even that containing 10% bacon and 3.5% textured soybean protein, which achieved the best scores and acceptance by the panelists.

  14. Interactions of fungi from fermented sausage with regenerated cellulose casings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenath, Hassan K; Jeffries, Thomas W

    2011-11-01

    This research examined cellulolytic effects of fungi and other microbes present in cured sausages on the strength and stability of regenerated cellulose casings (RCC) used in the sausage industry. Occasionally during the curing process, RCC would split or fail, thereby leading to loss of product. The fungus Penicillium sp. BT-F-1, which was isolated from fermented sausages, and other fungi, which were introduced to enable the curing process, produced small amounts of cellulases on RCC in both liquid and solid cultivations. During continued incubation for 15-60 days in solid substrate cultivation (SSC) on RCC support, the fungus Penicillium sp isolate BT-F-1 degraded the casings' dry weights by 15-50% and decreased their tensile strengths by ~75%. Similarly commercial cellulase(s) resulted in 20-50% degradation of RCC in 48 h. During incubation with Penicillium sp BT-F-1, the surface structure of RCC collapsed, resulting in loss of strength and stability of casings. The matrix of industrial RCC comprised 88-93% glucose polymer residues with 0.8-4% xylan impurities. Premature casing failure appeared to result from operating conditions in the manufacturing process that allowed xylan to build up in the extrusion bath. The sausage fungus Penicillium sp BT-F-1 produced xylanases to break down soft xylan pockets prior to slow cellulosic dissolution of RCC.

  15. Occurrence of Clostridium perfringens in sausages sold in Meknes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Morocco, the consumption of meat products has experienced a sharp increase in recent years despite the presence of pathogenic bacteria due to hygiene failure. The present study was designed to determine the prevalence of Clostridium perfringens in sausages sold in Meknes city (Morocco) and to study the different ...

  16. Fat substitutes in processing of sausages using piramutaba waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fátima Henriques Lourenço, Lúcia; Dos Santos Galvão, Giane Célia; da Conceição Amaral Ribeiro, Suezilde; de Fátima Amaral Ribeiro, Carmelita; Park, Kil Jin

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate fat substitute in processing of sausages prepared with surimi of waste from piramutaba filleting. The formulation ingredients were mixed with the fat substitutes added according to a fractional planning 2(4-1), where the independent variables, manioc starch (Ms), hydrogenated soy fat (F), texturized soybean protein (Tsp) and carrageenan (Cg) were evaluated on the responses of pH, texture (Tx), raw batter stability (RBS) and water holding capacity (WHC) of the sausage. Fat substitutes were evaluated in 11 formulations and the results showed that the greatest effects on the responses were found to Ms, F and Cg, being eliminated from the formulation Tsp. To find the best formulation for processing piramutaba sausage was made a complete factorial planning of 2(3) to evaluate the concentrations of fat substitutes in an enlarged range. The optimum condition found for fat substitutes in the sausages formulation were carrageenan (0.51%), manioc starch (1.45%) and fat (1.2%).

  17. Standard working procedures in production of traditionally fermented Sremska sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesković-Moračanin Slavica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigations conducted within project "Techonological and protective characteristics of autochthonous strains of lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional fermented sausages and possibilities for their implementation in the meat industry" (Project Number: 20127, financed on behalf of the Ministry for Science and Technology of the Republic of Serbia, have provided an answer on the characteristics of the quality of the used raw materials for the production of Sremska sausage - one of the most well-known Serbian traditionally fermented sausages (choice of meat, fatty tissue, additives and spices, and data have been registered in connection with the procedures of their processing, microclimatic conditions have been established (temperature, relative humidity, and air circulation during the entire process of production and fermentation, as well as the presence and types of microorganisms, primarily lactic acid bacteria (BMK, the carrier of lactic fermentation. The most important characteristics of the filling have been established, the smoking regimen, the regimens of fermentation, maturing, drying, as well as the parameters for quality and safety of the finished product. At the same time, the standard working procedure has been determined for the preparation of the meat, fatty tissue, the forming and inserting of the filling into the wrappers, as well as the characteristics of the finished products. The given standard working procedure should serve as a guideline for the meat industry in the production process of this traditional fermented sausage.

  18. NZ@Frankfurt: Imagining New Zealand’s Guest of Honour Presentation at the 2012 Frankfurt Book Fair from the Point of View of Literary Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Kölling

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available With over 7,000 exhibitors from over 100 countries and circa 300,000 visitors each year the Frankfurt Book Fair is a playground for political, economic, and cultural imaginings, including many domestic and foreign places. The Book Fair is often conceived of and studied as a site of intercultural politics and commerce but has not yet fully been explored as a site of translation and translator’s agency. This essay offers critical reflections upon metaphors for the translator, arguing that a shift of the base metaphor in comparative literature studies of translation from conflict to friction could redirect interdisciplinary translation studies. I propose that the friction metaphor leads toward an appropriate balance between complex detail and ordering reduction of data that allows us to describe the intensity and the challenges of translation without recreating the old-established realities we already know.

  19. Biogenic amines in dry fermented sausages: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzzi, Giovanna; Gardini, Fausto

    2003-11-15

    Biogenic amines are compounds commonly present in living organisms in which they are responsible for many essential functions. They can be naturally present in many foods such as fruits and vegetables, meat, fish, chocolate and milk, but they can also be produced in high amounts by microorganisms through the activity of amino acid decarboxylases. Excessive consumption of these amines can be of health concern because their not equilibrate assumption in human organism can generate different degrees of diseases determined by their action on nervous, gastric and intestinal systems and blood pressure. High microbial counts, which characterise fermented foods, often unavoidably lead to considerable accumulation of biogenic amines, especially tyramine, 2-phenylethylamine, tryptamine, cadaverine, putrescine and histamine. However, great fluctuations of amine content are reported in the same type of product. These differences depend on many variables: the quali-quantitative composition of microbial microflora, the chemico-physical variables, the hygienic procedure adopted during production, and the availability of precursors. Dry fermented sausages are worldwide diffused fermented meat products that can be a source of biogenic amines. Even in the absence of specific rules and regulations regarding the presence of these compounds in sausages and other fermented products, an increasing attention is given to biogenic amines, especially in relation to the higher number of consumers with enhanced sensitivity to biogenic amines determined by the inhibition of the action of amino oxidases, the enzymes involved in the detoxification of these substances. The aim of this paper is to give an overview on the presence of these compounds in dry fermented sausages and to discuss the most important factors influencing their accumulation. These include process and implicit factors as well as the role of starter and nonstarter microflora growing in the different steps of sausage production

  20. Effect of chard powder on colour and aroma formation in cooked sausages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasonova, V. V.; Tunieva, E. K.

    2017-09-01

    The use of nitrate-containing vegetable powders instead of sodium nitrite in meat products requires changes in technological production parameters in order to obtain traditional organoleptic characteristics in the finished products. The aim of this work was to study the effect of chard powder on colour and aroma formation in cooked sausages. Cooked sausage samples were: control with nitrite curing mixture; type 1 sausages with chard powder and ascorbic acid; type 2 sausages with chard powder and sodium ascorbate. To transform nitrate ions contained in the vegetable chard powder to nitrite ions using a denitrifying culture, preliminary thermal treatments were used: 30 and 60 min at 40±2°C, after which the sausages were cooked until a temperature of 72±2°C was achieved. The sausages were stored for 40 days at 0-6°C. When sausage meat was initially held at 40°C for 60 min, a homogenous pink colour formed in the sausages with the vegetable powder. The indicators of lightness, redness and yellowness in cooked sausages as well as the indicators of instrumental odour assessment did not differ significantly (p>0.05). The indicators of colour stability during storage were 1.1-3.0% higher in the sausages with the chard powder compared to the control. The mass fraction of sodium nitrite in the experimental sausages was 2.0-2.2 higher than in the control (p>0.05). As a result of cooked sausage storage, the differences in the sodium nitrite content in the control and types 1 and 2 sausages were similar. During storage, the mass fraction of sodium nitrite decreased in types 1 and 2 sausages by 55.6 and 54.8%, respectively (p<0.05). Cooked sausages with the chard powder contained 2.1-2.4 times more sodium nitrate than did control sausages (p<0.05). However, all tested sausage samples complied with legislative requirements in terms of their sodium nitrite and nitrate levels.

  1. Die Ärztliche Zentralbibliothek des Universitätsklinikums Hamburg-Eppendorf / The Medical Library of the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kintzel, Melanie

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces the Medical Library of the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf. Firstly, history, role and status of the library within the University Medical Center are illustrated, followed by a description of the library’s facilities and services. Finally, recent projects are presented as well as a selection of key figures.

  2. Building for the future: The Eurotheum at Frankfurt, Main - an office and domestic building for cosmopolites; Gebaeudetechnische Konzepte der Zukunft: Buero- und Wohnhochhaus fuer Kosmopoliten - Das Eurotheum in Frankfurt am Main

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pielke, O.E. [Brendel Ingenieure AG, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2002-09-01

    The 'Eurotheum' building in Frankfurt is the first high-rise building in Germany that houses both offices and private apartments. It received the 'Immobilien Award 1999 - Cimmit' for industrial buildings by Immobilien-Zeitung and the Institute for International Research of Projektentwicklungsgesellschaft Koellmann AG. [German] Das Eurotheum im Spannungsfeld der Frankfurter Buerohochhaeuser beruht auf einem voellig neuen Konzept: Es verbindet als erstes Hochaus in Deutschland die Funktionen 'Arbeiten' und 'Wohnen'. Fuer das bislang einmalige Konzept des Frankfurter Eurotheums verlieh die Immobilien-Zeitung und das Institute for International Research der Projektentwicklungsgesellschaft Koellmann AG den Immobilien Award 1999 - Cimmit in der Kategorie Gewerbeimmobilien. (orig.)

  3. Application of composite protective coatings on the surface of sausages with different water content

    OpenAIRE

    Andrzej Tyburcy; Patrycja Wasiak; Aneta Cegiełka

    2010-01-01

    Background. Emulsion coatings on the surface of sausages counteract weight loss during storage. Therefore they could be applied instead of synthetic foils, which are used for vacuum packaging. The aim of this study was the assessment of the properties of two emulsion coatings (with different carrageenan content) applied on the surface of two Polish sausages with various water content (kabanosy and frankfurterki). Material and methods. Sausages were coated with emulsions containing gelati...

  4. Dog rose (Rosa canina L.) as a functional ingredient in porcine frankfurters without added sodium ascorbate and sodium nitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vossen, Els; Utrera, Mariana; De Smet, Stefaan; Morcuende, David; Estévez, Mario

    2012-12-01

    The effect of dog rose (Rosa canina L.; RC), rich in polyphenols and ascorbic acid, on lipid and protein oxidation, colour stability and texture of frankfurters was investigated. Four treatments were prepared: with 5 or 30 g/kg RC extract and without sodium ascorbate and sodium nitrite (5RC and 30RC, respectively), a positive control (with sodium ascorbate and sodium nitrite; PC) and a negative control (without sodium ascorbate, sodium nitrite or RC extract; NC). Hexanal values were much higher throughout storage in NC compared to RC and PC frankfurters (Prose can act as a natural antioxidant in frankfurters, but not as full replacer for sodium nitrite. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Antioxidant Activities of Achyranthes japonica Nakai Extract and Its Application to the Pork Sausages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J. H.; Kang, S. N.; Shin, D.; Hur, I. C.; Kim, I. S.; Jin, S. K.

    2013-01-01

    Influence of Achyranthes japonica Nakai Extract (AJNE) on properties of pork sausages were studied in the present investigation. AJNE was added to sausages alone or in combination with ascorbic acid to obtain a comparative analysis on properties of control and ascorbic acid added-sausages. Results showed that addition of 0.05% AJNE led to a decrease in color L* and whiteness (W), and an increase in color b* of pork sausage samples (psausages containing AJNE was not significantly different, ascorbic acid added-sausages were highest amongst other treatments (pSausages containing AJNE had lower non-heme iron values and peroxide value (POV) than control sausages (psausages (psausages (psausages. Free radical scavenging analysis showed that AJNE did not affect 1,1-diphenyl -2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) activity of sausages, whereas ascorbic acid added-sausages showed relatively higher activity among the samples (psausages. In sensory evaluation, AJNE treatment had significant effects on color (psausages, and appears to be particularly effective in inducing changes in non-heme iron concentration, POV value and nitrosomyglobin content. PMID:25049789

  6. Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from artisanal sausages for application as starter cultures in meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentini, Angela Maria; Sawitzki, Maristela Cortez; Bertol, Teresinha Marisa; Sant'anna, Ernani S

    2009-01-01

    Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from artisanal sausages for application as starter cultures in meat products Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus strains AD1 and U5 isolated from natural fermented sausages was investigated as starter cultures in fermented sausages produced in the South Region of Brazil. The study demonstrated that the Staphylococcus xylosus strains AD1 and U5 showed significant growth during fermentation, stability over freeze-dried process, negative reaction for staphylococcal enterotoxins and viability for using as a single-strain culture or associated with lactic acid bacteria for production of fermented sausages.

  7. Stability of phenolic compounds in dry fermented sausages added with cocoa and grape seed extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Ribas-Agusti, Albert; Gratacós-Cubarsí, Marta; Sárraga, Carmen; Guàrdia, M. Dolors; García-Regueiro, José-Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The level of eleven target phenolic compounds was evaluated in dry fermented sausages added with vegetable extracts. Grape seed (GSE1 and GSE2) and cocoa extracts, rich in phenolic compounds, were added in the formulation of dry fermented sausages (“salchichón” and “fuet”). Evolution of the major monomeric and oligomeric phenolic compounds of these extracts was evaluated during sausage shelf life by UHPLC-MS/MS. Kind of sausage did not affect significantly overall stability of the target comp...

  8. [Habitus, capital and fields: the search for an acting head of the Hamburg Asylum Friedrichsberg in 1897].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammet, Kai

    2005-01-01

    In 1897 Hamburg was in search of an Oberarzt for the asylum Friedrichsberg who should function as the acting head of the head Wilhelm Reye (1833-1912). This search was part of the intended reformation of the outmoded psychiatric care in Hamburg. During this application procedure the Hamburg Physikus John Wahncau examined all possible candidates and applicants. The article explores the election process by using some sociological categories developed by Pierre Bourdieu (habitus, capital, field). The author argues that not only meritocratic attributes led to the choice of one candidate, but also his functional "fitting" into the field in Hamburg.

  9. Effects on traffic of a magnetic levitation system Frankfurt -96 Paris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, A; Keimel, H; Wuerdemann, G; Halten, W

    1982-01-01

    The study is based on an analysis and forecast of the volume and structure of passenger travel in the region under consideration for a situation without a Maglev system. For the case with a Maglev line Frankfurt-Paris, both the substitutional effects of this system on the travel demand of aeroplane, train and car and the newly generated traffic are estimated. As a result for 1990 a total of 6.6 million passenger trips per year on the Maglev system is expected, most of these (c. 60%) coming from original passenger train traffic. On account of feeder services to the Maglev system, demand for the existing rail system (in passenger kilometers) is diminished by only 20%. 15-20% of the total demand for the Maglev system between Frankfurt and Paris is estimated to originate from O-D-air-travel in the corridor (which is supposed to be totally substitutionable) and another 10-15% both from substituted car travel and from newly generated travel. Balances are struck for travel cost, travel time, and trip kilometers spent in the without- and with-case. Sensitivity analysis have been carried out for supply variants of the Maglev system and the classic rail system. Beside the study method there are some statements regarding inspected travel market shares which are supposed to be transferable to other planning cases.

  10. Texture and acceptability of goat meat frankfurters processed with 3 different sources of fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratcher, C L; Dawkins, N L; Solaiman, S; Kerth, C R; Bartlett, J R

    2011-05-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the texture and consumer acceptability of goat meat frankfurter formulations with no added fat (NAF), beef fat (BF), or canola oil (CO). Consumer sensory evaluation, fat, and moisture and texture profile analyses were performed on goat meat frankfurters produced with the fat sources BF, CO, and NAF. For sensory evaluations, NAF was less tender (P = 0.007; 4.90 vs. 4.11 and 4.35 for BF and CO, respectively) and the flavor was liked less (P = 0.004; 4.59 vs. 3.83 and 4.30 for BF and CO, respectively); BF was scored as the juiciest (P = 0.003; 3.86 vs. 4.49 and 4.58 for CO and NAF, respectively); and CO had the least amount of flavor (P = 0.029; 3.65 vs. 3.12 and 3.10 for BF and NAF, respectively). Moisture was least (P goat meat products received acceptable sensory scores; therefore, continued research and development will greatly expand the knowledge of goat meat and increase the acceptance of value-added products.

  11. Centro de la Industria Electrónica, en Frankfurt (Alemania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apel, Otto

    1965-10-01

    Full Text Available The set of buildings comprising the «House of the Electronics Industry», in Frankfurt, includes three main units. Building A, situated in the centre, and with three floor levels, houses the offices of the VDE Association. Building B, is taken up with the headquarters of the German Association of VDEM Electricity Firms. Building C, 7 storeys high, provides office space for the Central Association of the Electronics Industry. The three main structures are connected by other lower buildings, housing a testing department, lecture hall and a casino. The total project is extremely diaphanous and both the materials and constructional methods are the most advanced.El complejo de la «Casa de la Industria Electrónica, en Frankfurt, comprende tres edificios principales: el edificio A, de tres plantas, situado en el centro, que aloja las oficinas de la Asociación VDE; el edificio B, que alberga las oficinas de la Asociación Alemana de Fábricas de Electricidad VDEW, y el edificio C, de siete plantas, que contiene las oficinas de la Asociación Central de la Industria Electrónica. Dichos edificios están unidos por otros más bajos, que alojan una sección de ensayos, sala de conferencias y el casino. Todo ello es de una diafanidad notable, y los materiales y sistemas empleados en su construcción son los más avanzados del momento.

  12. Between Marxism and psychoanalysis: antifascism and antihomosexuality in the Frankfurt School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halle, R

    1995-01-01

    In their efforts to utilize individualist psychoanalysis as a tool for understanding mass behavior, the social theorists associated with the Frankfurt School increasingly came to rely on a static, essentializing construction of sexuality which ultimately led to an equation of fascism and homosexuality. Heretofore unexamined in studies of the Frankfurt School, this equation will here serve as the starting point for a fundamental critique of the concept of sexuality developed by this influential circle of Marxist thinkers. While directed at the concept of sexuality, such a critique more importantly opens up the underlying understanding of the social and psychological realms advanced by Critical Theory. Attending to the equation of homosexuality and fascism as the central point of concern, this essay will first trace the introduction of psychoanalysis into Critical Theory through Erich Fromm and then investigate the extent of Fromm's influence on the concept of sexuality propounded by his colleagues, especially Max Horkheimer and Theodor W. Adorno. Finally, it will take up a frequently overlooked essay by Herbert Marcuse which promoted a vision of sexuality radically different from that of his associates.

  13. Evaluation of Physicochemical and Microbiological Parameters of Smoked Sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda Nagy

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Meat and meat products continue to supply nutrients and play a vital role in human life because of their high biological value protein, iron, zinc, selenium and vitamin B12 contents, being a crucial component of a well balanced diet. The objective of this paper was to analyse the microbiological and physicochemical characteristics of smoked sausage obtain by a modern recipe. The meat  material was obtained from local butchery (Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The physicochemical analyses highlighted the moisture (Drying-oven at 105 ºC, protein (Kjeldahl method and fat (Soxhlet method content, as well as nitrite (Griess method and sodium chloride concentrations (Mohr method of the final products. Microbiological and physicochemical analysis of the examined samples found no deviations from legal norms imposed for smoked sausage.  All of the quality parameters comply with the limits stipulated by STAS. 

  14. Biocontrol strategies for Mediterranean-style fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Márcia; Ferreira, Vânia; Magalhães, Rui; Teixeira, Paula

    2018-01-01

    Naturally fermented meat sausages have a long tradition in Mediterranean countries and are one of the most important groups of traditional foods consumed throughout Europe. Despite all the advances in food science and technology and increased regulatory requirements and concerns for safety and quality during the last decades, the challenge to control important foodborne pathogens in this type of meat products still persists. Simultaneously, growing consumer interest in safe, high quality and minimal processed products, with less additives/preservatives have driven the food industry and scientists in a crusade for innovative technologies to maintain the safety of these products by natural means. Biological control (biocontrol) fits well within this tendency. This review summarizes the latest achievements on biocontrol strategies applied to Mediterranean-style fermented sausages, namely: (i) bioprotective cultures; (ii) bacteriocins; and, (iii) essential oils (EOs). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Superintegrability of geodesic motion on the sausage model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arutyunov, Gleb; Heinze, Martin; Medina-Rincon, Daniel

    2017-06-01

    Reduction of the η-deformed sigma model on AdS_5× S5 to the two-dimensional squashed sphere (S^2)η can be viewed as a special case of the Fateev sausage model where the coupling constant ν is imaginary. We show that geodesic motion in this model is described by a certain superintegrable mechanical system with four-dimensional phase space. This is done by means of explicitly constructing three integrals of motion which satisfy the sl(2) Poisson algebra relations, albeit being non-polynomial in momenta. Further, we find a canonical transformation which transforms the Hamiltonian of this mechanical system to the one describing the geodesic motion on the usual two-sphere. By inverting this transformation we map geodesics on this auxiliary two-sphere back to the sausage model. This paper is a tribute to the memory of Prof Petr Kulish.

  16. Evaluation of fat grains in gothaj sausage using image analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ludmila Luňáková; Matej Pospiech; Bohuslava Tremlová; Alena Saláková; Zdeňka Javůrková; Josef Kameník

    2016-01-01

    Fat is an irreplacable ingredient in the production of sausages and it determines the appearance of the resulting cut to a significant extent. When shopping, consumers choose a traditional product mostly according to its appearance, based onwhat they are used to. Chemical analysis is capable to determine the total fat content in the product, but it cannot accurately describe the shape and size of fat grains which the consumer observes when looking at the product. The size of fat grains consid...

  17. Sausage instability threshold in a low energy plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakaullah, M.; Nasir, M.; Khattak, F.Y.; Murtaza, G.

    1993-01-01

    Development of sausage instability (m = 0 mode) is studied in a small low energy Mather-type plasma focus. A shadow graphic study of the current sheath has shown that the focused plasma necks off during the radial phase before the maximum compression. This may indicate the lowering of the instability threshold. Three hook-type structures are observed which may not be due to the multifoci formation. The bubble shape structure is observed to be developed in the expansion phase. (author)

  18. Sheep and goat fermented meat sausages — health aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, A.; Rodrigues, Sandra; Dias, Teresa; Estevinho, Leticia M.

    2016-01-01

    The most common sausages use only pork meat and are ripened for long periods. However, some countries with great tradition of sheep and goat meat consumption have the habit of eating some processed products of these meats. In Mediterranean countries as well as in other parts of the world, the meat from young lamb or kid is very usual and appreciated. These young milk fed animals producing lightweight carcasses are highly appreciated by consumers and are traditionally comm...

  19. Spread of Measles Virus D4-Hamburg, Europe, 2008–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihneva, Zefira; Gold, Hermann; Baumgarte, Sigrid; Baillot, Armin; Helble, Rudolph; Roggendorf, Hedwig; Bosevska, Golubinka; Nedeljkovic, Jasminka; Makowka, Agata; Hutse, Veronik; Holzmann, Heidemarie; Aberle, Stefan W.; Cordey, Samuel; Necula, Gheorghe; Mentis, Andreas; Korukluoğlu, Gulay; Carr, Michael; Brown, Kevin E.; Hübschen, Judith M.; Muller, Claude P.; Mulders, Mick N.; Santibanez, Sabine

    2011-01-01

    A new strain of measles virus, D4-Hamburg, was imported from London to Hamburg in December 2008 and subsequently spread to Bulgaria, where an outbreak of >24,300 cases was observed. We analyzed spread of the virus to demonstrate the importance of addressing hard-to-reach communities within the World Health Organization European Region regarding access to medical care and vaccination campaigns. The D4-Hamburg strain appeared during 2009–2011 in Poland, Ireland, Northern Ireland, Austria, Greece, Romania, Turkey, Macedonia, Serbia, Switzerland, and Belgium and was repeatedly reimported to Germany. The strain was present in Europe for >27 months and led to >25,000 cases in 12 countries. Spread of the virus was prevalently but not exclusively associated with travel by persons in the Roma ethnic group; because this travel extends beyond the borders of any European country, measures to prevent the spread of measles should be implemented by the region as a whole. PMID:21801615

  20. Die App „Weltbrand 1914“ der SUB Hamburg – Ein Werkstattbericht

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Trapp

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wie kommt eine wissenschaftliche Bibliothek  dazu, eine App entwickeln zu lassen, auf der 100 Jahre alte Zeitungsseiten der Hamburger Nachrichten gelesen werden können, in denen auf Volltextebene recherchiert werden kann und die einen Einblick in Fotos gibt, die zu Beginn des Ersten Weltkrieges veröffentlicht wurden? Wie ist die Vorgeschichte der Tablet-App für iOS und Android, wie ist die SUB Hamburg an diese Aufgabe herangegangen und wie hat sie das Projekt zusammen mit dem Hamburger Softwareunternehmen CCS realisiert? Auf diese Fragen gibt der folgende Werkstattbericht eine Antwort und liefert auch ein erstes persönliches Zwischenfazit von einem der Projektbeteiligten.

  1. Sources and concentrations of indoor nitrogen dioxide in Hamburg (west Germany) and Erfurt (east Germany)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cyrys, J.; Woelke, G.; Wichmann, H.E.; Heinrich, J.; Richter, K.

    2000-01-01

    Here we report indoor and outdoor concentrations of NO 2 for Erfurt and Hamburg and assess the contribution of the most important indoor sources (e.g. the presence of gas cooking ranges, smoking) and outdoor sources (traffic exhaust emissions). We examined the relative contribution of the different sources of NO 2 to the total indoor NO 2 levels in Erfurt and Hamburg. NO 2 indoor concentrations in Hamburg were slightly higher than those in Erfurt (i.e. living room: 15 μg m -3 for Erfurt and 17 μg m -3 for Hamburg). A linear regression model including the variables, place of residence, season and outdoor NO 2 levels, location of the home within the city, housing and occupant characteristics accounted for 38% of the NO 2 variance. The most important predictors of indoor NO 2 concentrations were gas in cooking followed by other characteristics, such as ventilation or outdoor NO 2 level. Residences in which gas was used for cooking, or in which occupants smoked, had substantially higher indoor NO 2 concentrations (41 or 18% increase, respectively). An increase in the outdoor NO 2 concentration from the 25th to the 75th-percentile (17 μg m -3 ) was associated with a 33% increase in the living room NO 2 concentration. Multiple regression analysis for both cities separately illustrated that use of gas for cooking was the major indoor source of NO 2 . This variable caused a similar increase in the indoor NO 2 levels in each city (43% in Erfurt and 47% in Hamburg). However, outdoor sources of NO 2 (motor vehicle traffic) contributed more to indoor NO 2 levels in Hamburg than in Erfurt

  2. [Improving Mental Health Literacy and Mental Illness Stigma in the Population of Hamburg].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Martin; Härter, Martin; Arnold, Detlef; Dirmaier, Jörg; Tlach, Lisa; Liebherz, Sarah; Sänger, Sylvia; Karow, Anne; Brandes, Andreas; Sielaff, Gyöngyver; Bock, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    Evidence shows that poor mental health literacy and stigmatization have negative consequences on mental health. However, studies on interventions to improve both are often heterogenic in methodology and results. The psychenet-campaign in Hamburg was developed and implemented in collaboration with patients and relatives and comprised multidimensional interventions focusing on education and contact to patients. The main goals were the improvement of mental health literacy and destigmatization and the long-term implementation within Hamburg's mental health care system. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. TECHNOLOGICAL AND SENSORY PROPERTIES OF HAMBURGERS ENRICHED WITH CALCIUM STUDY OF THE IN VITRO BIOAVAILABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dolores Selgas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hamburgers were supplemented with three calcium salts (calcium gluconate CG, calcium lactate CL and calcium citrate-malate CCM. They were added in sufficient amount to that 100 g of hamburger gives 20 or 30% of the Ca RDA (1000 mg. Their technological and sensory properties were studied. CG 30% gave the worst sensory properties and it was discarded. Bioavailability of calcium depends on the type of salt used and the highest value was obtained with CCM (14.5%.For that, this salt is proposed as the most adequate for the enrichment of fresh meat products.

  4. Maturity acceleration of Italian dried sausage by Staphylococcus carnosus - Relationship between maturity and flavor compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahnke, Louise Heller; Holck, A.; Jensen, Anni

    2002-01-01

    . Sausages with S. carnosus 833 matured more than 2 wk faster than control sausages. Maturity correlated significantly with higher amounts of branched-chain aldehydes and alcohols and both branched- and straight-chain methyl ketones-compounds arising from the breakdown of the amino acids leucine, isoleucine...

  5. Dynamics of sausage instabilities of a gas-puff Z-pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sopkin, Yu.V.; Dorokhin, L.A.; Koshelev, K.N.; Sidelnikov, Yu.V.

    1991-01-01

    The early stage of the sausage instability in a gas-puff Z-pinch has been registered in VUV and soft X-rays with a 10 ns framing camera. We hypothesize that the rings of plasma expanding from the sausage instability enable an alternative current path to dominate the formation of 'micropinches'. (orig.)

  6. Hydroxytyrosol extracts, olive oil and walnuts as functional components in chicken sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Gema; Martínez, Lorena; Castillo, Julian; Ros, Gaspar

    2017-08-01

    Olive oil, hydroxytyrosol and walnut can be considered ideal Mediterranean ingredients for their high polyphenolic content and healthy properties. Three extracts of hydroxytyrosol obtained using different extraction processes (HXT 1, 2, 3) (50 ppm) were evaluated for use as antioxidants in eight different chicken sausage formulas enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids (2.5 g 100 g -1 walnut) or using extra virgin olive oil (20 g 100 g -1 ) as fat replacer. Lipid and protein oxidation, colour, emulsion stability, and the microstructure of the resulting chicken sausages were investigated and a sensory analysis was carried out. The sausages with HXT extracts were found to decrease lipid oxidation and to lead to the loss of thiol groups compared with control sausages. Emulsion stability (capacity to hold water and fat) was greater in the sausages containing olive oil and walnut than in control sausages. In contrast, the HXT extracts produced high emulsion instability (increasing cooking losses). Sensory analysis suggested that two of the HXT extracts studied (HXT 2 and HXT 3 ) were unacceptable, while the acceptability of the other was similar to that of the control products. Sausages incorporating HXT showed different structures than control samples or sausages with olive oil, related to the composition of the emulsion. These results suggest the possibility of replacing animal fat by olive oil and walnut in order to produce healthy meat products. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline - key aroma compound in Mediterranean dried sausages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahnke, Marie Louise Heller

    2000-01-01

    In a study characterising sausage types from various parts of Europe, ten Mediterranean and Northern European fermented, dried sausages were compared using static headspace gas chromatography-olfactometry and a sniffing panel of five members. The greatest difference between the Northern...

  8. Effect of Black Rice Powder Levels on Quality Properties of Emulsion-type Sausage

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sin-Young; Kim, Hack-Youn

    2016-01-01

    The effects of black rice powder on the quality of sausage were investigated. Samples were prepared with 0% (control), 1%, 3%, and 5% black rice powder. With increasing black rice powder content, the moisture and ash content of sausage increased, while protein content was significantly less than that observed for the control (p

  9. The Shape of a Sausage: A Challenging Problem in the Calculus of Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deakin, Michael A. B.

    2010-01-01

    Many familiar household objects (such as sausages) involve the maximization of a volume under geometric constraints. A flexible but inextensible membrane bounds a volume which is to be filled to capacity. In the case of the sausage, a full analytic solution is here provided. Other related but more difficult problems seem to demand approximate…

  10. Lipolytic Changes in Fermented Sausages Produced with Turkey Meat: Effects of Starter Culture and Heat Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Karslo?lu, Bet?l; ?i?ek, ?mran Ensoy; Kolsarici, Nuray; Cando?an, Kezban

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the effects of two different commercial starter culture mixes and processing methodologies (traditional and heat process) on the lipolytic changes of fermented sausages manufactured with turkey meat were evaluated during processing stages and storage. Free fatty acid (FFA) value increased with fermentation and during storage over 120 d in all fermented sausage groups produced with both processing methodologies (p

  11. Lipolytic Changes in Fermented Sausages Produced with Turkey Meat: Effects of Starter Culture and Heat Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsloğlu, Betül; Çiçek, Ümran Ensoy; Kolsarici, Nuray; Candoğan, Kezban

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the effects of two different commercial starter culture mixes and processing methodologies (traditional and heat process) on the lipolytic changes of fermented sausages manufactured with turkey meat were evaluated during processing stages and storage. Free fatty acid (FFA) value increased with fermentation and during storage over 120 d in all fermented sausage groups produced with both processing methodologies (p<0.05). After drying stage, free fatty acid values of traditional style and heat processed fermented sausages were between 10.54-13.01% and 6.56-8.49%, respectively. Thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values of traditionally processed fermented sausages were between 0.220-0.450 mg·kg(-1), and TBA values of heat processed fermented sausages were in a range of 0.405-0.795 mg·kg(-1). Oleic and linoleic acids were predominant fatty acids in all fermented sausages. It was seen that fermented sausage groups produced with starter culture had lower TBA and FFA values in comparison with the control groups, and heat application inhibited the lipase enzyme activity and had an improving effect on lipid oxidation. As a result of these effects, heat processed fermented sausages had lower FFA and higher TBA values than the traditionally processed groups.

  12. Control of bioflavour and safety in fermented sausages : first results of a European project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demeyer, D.; Raemaekers, M.; Rizzo, A.; Holck, A.; Smedt, A. de; Brink, B. ten; Hagen, B.; Montel, C.; Zanardi, E.; Murbrekk, E.; Leroy, F.; Vandendriessche, F.; Lorentsen, K.; Venema, K.; Sunesen, L.; Stahnke, L.; Vuyst, L. de; Talon, R.; Chizzolini, R.; Eerola, S.

    2000-01-01

    Four types of fermented sausages were prepared: two using Northern technology (Norway and Belgium) and two using Mediterranean technology (Belgium and Italy). Mediterranean sausages showed higher pH values and highest residual amounts of myosin and actin. Free fatty acid concentrations reflected the

  13. Combined effects of high hydrostatic pressure and sodium nitrite on color, water holding capacity and texture of frankfurter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, G.; Csehi, B.; Palotas, P.; Toth, A.; Kenesei, Gy; Pasztor-Huszar, K.; Friedrich, L.

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sodium nitrite and high hydrostatic pressure on the color, water holding capacity (WHC) and texture characteristics of frankfurter. Three hundred, 450 and 600 MPa (5 minutes; 20 °C) and 50, 75, 100 and 125 ppm (calculated on weight of meat) sodium nitrite were applied. Parameters were measured right after the pressure treatment. Data were evaluated with two-way analysis of variance (p 0.05) with pressure levels and sodium nitrite amounts as factors. Nitrite reduction significantly increased lightness (L*) and resulted in decreased redness (a*) value. The pressure treatments decreased the lightness at all nitrite concentrations and did not significantly affect the red color of frankfurters. Fifty and 75 ppm nitrite and pressurization at 300 or 450 MPa improved the water holding property of frankfurter. The pressure treatment did not significantly affect the WHC but changing the nitrite amount had significant effect on it. Interactive effect occurred between pressure levels and nitrite concentrations for hardness. The pressure treatment increased and the nitrite reduction decreased hardness. Significant changes were found in cohesiveness at 450 and 600 MPa in frankfurters containing 50 and 75 ppm nitrite: pressure treatment at higher levels and nitrite reduction decreased the value of cohesiveness.

  14. The Minimum Impact House : Applications of the Frankfurt Prototype for sustainable building in Cities of the European Rhine Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drexler, H.; Jauslin, D.; Curiel, F.

    2010-01-01

    The Minimum Impact House in Frankfurt am Main is a sustainable solution for low cost living within city centers - a prototype typology with minimal footprint, built on a leftover urban space. The planning process itself became part of a scientific study. The ecological advantages of building in the

  15. The Application of Clove Extract Protects Chinese-style Sausages against Oxidation and Quality Deterioration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xinyan

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of clove extract (CE) (0.25%, 0.5%, 1%, and 2%) on the oxidative stability and quality deterioration of Chinese-style sausage stored for 21 d at 4°C. The addition of clove extract to sausages significantly retarded increases in Thiobarbituric Reactive Substances (TBARS) values (psausages (pSausages amended with clove extract also had decreased L* values (psausage containing added clove extract when compared with the control during refrigerated storage. Moreover, the addition of clove extract had no negative effects on the sensory properties of sausages. These results suggested that clove extract was effective at protecting sausages from oxidation and quality deterioration during refrigerated storage for 21 d. PMID:28316478

  16. Irradiation and modified atmosphere packaging effects on residual nitrite, ascorbic acid, nitrosomyoglobin, and color in sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Hyun-Joo; Jo, Cheorun; Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Kee-Hyuk; Byun, Myung-Woo

    2003-02-26

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the irradiation and modified atmosphere packaging effects on emulsion-type cooked pork sausage during storage for 4 weeks. CO(2) (100%), N(2) (100%), or 25% CO(2)/75% N(2) packaged sausage were irradiated at 0, 5, and 10 kGy, and residual nitrite, residual ascorbic acid, nitrosomyoglobin (NO-Mb), color values, and their correlation were observed. Irradiation significantly reduced the residual nitrite content and caused partial reduction of NO-Mb during storage. No difference was observed in ascorbic acid content by irradiation. Irradiation decreased the Hunter color a value of sausage. CO(2) or CO(2)/N(2) packaging were more effective for reducing residual nitrite and inhibiting the loss of the red color of sausage compared to N(2) packaging. Results indicated that the proper combination of irradiation and modified atmosphere packaging could reduce the residual nitrite in sausage with minimization of color change.

  17. Quality properties of sausage made with gamma irradiated natural casing from intestine of pork or lamb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Cheorun; Lee, J.-W.; Cho, K.-H.; Yook, H.-S.; Byun, M.-W.

    2002-01-01

    Quality properties in emulsion-type sausage stuffed into irradiated natural casing were studied. The numbers of total aerobic bacteria, Enterococci and coliform bacteria in the sausage prepared with irradiated natural pork and lamb casing were significantly decreased or eliminated compared to those prepared with the nonirradiated control. The 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) value in the sausage with irradiated natural casing did not change significantly during storage with minor exceptions. The total working force of shear of the sausages were decreased in both irradiated casings but the sensory evaluation showed no difference. Therefore, the gamma irradiation was a useful technique to sanitize the natural pork and lamb casings and to extend the shelf-life of the sausage made with natural casings during distribution

  18. Quality properties of sausage made with gamma irradiated natural casing from intestine of pork or lamb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Cheorun; Lee, J.-W.; Cho, K.-H.; Yook, H.-S.; Byun, M.-W. E-mail: mwbyun@kaeri.re.kr

    2002-03-01

    Quality properties in emulsion-type sausage stuffed into irradiated natural casing were studied. The numbers of total aerobic bacteria, Enterococci and coliform bacteria in the sausage prepared with irradiated natural pork and lamb casing were significantly decreased or eliminated compared to those prepared with the nonirradiated control. The 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) value in the sausage with irradiated natural casing did not change significantly during storage with minor exceptions. The total working force of shear of the sausages were decreased in both irradiated casings but the sensory evaluation showed no difference. Therefore, the gamma irradiation was a useful technique to sanitize the natural pork and lamb casings and to extend the shelf-life of the sausage made with natural casings during distribution.

  19. Effect of starter cultures on survival of Listeria monocytogenes in Čajna sausage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bošković, M.; Tadić, V.; Đorđević, J.; Glišić, M.; Lakićević, B.; Dimitrijević, M.; Baltić, M. Ž.

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the survival of Listeria monocytogenes during the production of Čajna sausage with short maturation time. Sausage batter was inoculated with three different serotypes 4b and serotype 1/2a of L. monocytogenes. Control sausages were without any starter culture added; the second batch was inoculated with strains of Lactobacillus sakei, Staphylococcus carnosus and Staphylococcus xylosus, and the third batch was inoculated with strains of Debaryomyces hansenii, Lactobacillus sakei, Pediococcus acidilactici, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Staphylococcus carnosus and Staphylococcus xylosus. After 18 days of ripening, L. monocytogenes was not detected in any of the sausages, but during this fermentation and drying, the numbers of this pathogen was lower in the sausages inoculated with starter cultures.

  20. Location for new research facility determined X-ray laser XFEL to be realized in the federal states of Hamburg and Schleswig-Holstein starting in 2006

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "...The site for the XFEL has now been determined by the research center DESY (Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron); it was announced today at a press conference in Hamburg. The 3.3-kilometer-long facility is to be located in the federal states of Hamburg and Schleswig-Holstein. It will begin on the DESY site in Hamburg-Bahrenfeld and run in a north-western direction to the town of Schenefeld (district of Pinneberg), which borders on Hamburg" (1 page).

  1. Effects of Dietary Fiber Extracted from Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima Duch.) on the Physico-Chemical and Sensory Characteristics of Reduced-Fat Frankfurters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Cheon-Jei; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Ham, Youn-Kyung; Choi, Ji-Hun; Kim, Young-Boong; Choi, Yun-Sang

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of reducing fat levels from 30% to 25, 20, and 15% by substituting pork fat with water and pumpkin fiber (2%) on the quality of frankfurters compared with control. Decreasing the fat concentration from 30% to 15% significantly increased moisture content, redness of meat batter and frankfurter, cooking loss, and water exudation, and decreased fat content, energy value, pH, and lightness of meat batter and frankfurter, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness, and apparent viscosity. The addition of 2% pumpkin fiber was significantly increased moisture content, yellowness of meat batter and frankfurter, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness, and apparent viscosity, whereas reduced cooking loss and emulsion stability. The treatment of reduced-fat frankfurters formulated with 20 and 25% fat levels and with pumpkin fiber had sensory properties similar to the high-fat control frankfurters. The results demonstrate that when the reduced-fat frankfurter with 2% added pumpkin fiber and water replaces fat levels can be readily made with high quality and acceptable sensory properties.

  2. Effect of antioxidants on the quality of irradiated sausages prepared with turkey thigh meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, M; Ahn, D U

    2002-08-01

    The effects of antioxidants on the flavor and color of electron-beam-irradiated turkey sausages were studied. Sausages were prepared from turkey thigh meat, NaCl (2.0%), phosphate (0.5%), water (10%), and one of five antioxidant treatments (none, vitamin E, sesamol, rosemary extract, or gallic acid at 0.02%). Sausages were stuffed and cooked in an 85 C smokehouse to an internal temperature of 74 C, then chilled and sliced to 1.5-cm thickness, and vacuum-packaged. Packaged sausages were randomly divided into three groups and irradiated at 0, 1.5 or 3.0 kGy, using an electron beam. Volatiles, color, 2-TBA-reactive substances values, and sensory characteristics were analyzed. The antioxidant effect of sesamol was the highest, followed by vitamin E and gallic acid; rosemary extract had the weakest antioxidant effect. Irradiation induced red color in sausages, but addition of gallic acid, rosemary extract, or sesamol reduced it. Gallic acid was very effective in lowering the redness of irradiated and nonirradiated sausages. The redness (a*) values of sausages with added gallic acid that were irradiated at 0, 1.5, and 3.0 kGy were 1.49,2.03, and 2.29, respectively, whereas those of control sausages under the same irradiation conditions were 2.58, 2.81, and 3.25, respectively. The reduction of redness in irradiated sausages by antioxidants was not related to CO, because antioxidants had no effect on CO production by irradiation. The amount of total volatiles was decreased significantly by antioxidants, but antioxidants had minimal effect on the off-flavor of turkey sausages induced by irradiation.

  3. Pilot evaluation of the Frankfurt Social Skills Training for children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbrecht, Evelyn; Poustka, Fritz; Birnkammer, Sabine; Duketis, Eftichia; Schlitt, Sabine; Schmötzer, Gabriele; Bölte, Sven

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a group-based intervention aiming at improving social and communication skills in individuals with autism spectrum disorder. Over a period of 11 months, N = 17 children and adolescents received treatment according to the manualised Frankfurt Social Skills Training (KONTAKT). Parent, teacher, expert and blind expert ratings were assessed to judge outcome regarding peer interaction, autistic behaviours, adaptive functioning and family burden. The participants exhibited improvements pre to follow-up treatment, particularly in the area of autistic symptomatology. Effect sizes (partial eta squared) ranged from 0.02 to 0.69. Among other things, regression models showed a positive influence of IQ and language skills on gains in social skills. Findings indicate that KONTAKT might be useful for enhancing social skills and reducing autism-related psychopathology over time in different contexts. Nevertheless, controlled trials are needed to reassure its effectiveness.

  4. Radiation exposure profile and dose estimates to flyers en route Frankfurt to Mumbai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, D.D.; Hegde, A.G.

    2010-01-01

    The earth is continuously bombarded by the high energy radiation (galactic radiation) from solar system commonly known as cosmic radiation. Intensity of cosmic ray radiation exposures change with altitude and increases rapidly with the increase in altitude from the earth. Passenger and cargo flights fly at different altitudes and therefore the crew and passengers are exposed to radiation levels significantly higher than the average background levels on the earth. A typical commercial jet aircraft fly at an altitude of 30,000 - 40,000 feet (9-12 km) and at these heights radiation exposure rates increase by about 100 times from the background levels. European countries have guidelines and suggestions on radiation exposure to air crew members in sectors that may potentially expose them to levels exceeding 1 mSv per annum. The paper details the radiation exposure profile recorded in Frankfurt-Dubai-Mumbai sector and evaluation of average radiation exposure received by the flyers and air crew members

  5. Use of natural ingredients to control growth of Clostridium perfringens in naturally cured frankfurters and hams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Armitra L; Kulchaiyawat, Charlwit; Sullivan, Gary A; Sebranek, Joseph G; Dickson, James S

    2011-03-01

    A major concern for processed meats marketed as natural/organic is that they do not contain nitrite in concentrations known to be most effective for inhibiting foodborne pathogens. Supplemental treatments to increase the level and consistency of antimicrobial protection in these products may be important to provide consumers with the degree of safety that they have come to expect from conventionally cured meats. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify and test ingredients that might improve processed meat product safety without altering their natural/organic status. Eight treatments of hams and frankfurters were prepared: (A) uncured control (typical ingredients except nitrite and nitrate); (B) conventionally cured control (erythorbate, nitrite, and a lactate-diacetate blend); (C) natural nitrate cure (including starter culture containing Staphylococcus carnosus); (D) natural nitrate cure (culture and natural antimicrobial A containing a vinegar, lemon, and cherry powder blend); (E) natural nitrate cure (culture and antimicrobial B containing a cultured sugar and vinegar blend); (F) natural nitrite cure without additional antimicrobials; (G) natural nitrite cure with natural antimicrobial A; and (H) natural nitrite cure with antimicrobial B. For the hams, treatments C, D, E, and H impacted growth of Clostridium perfringens to the same extent (P cured control (approximately 2 log less growth over time than uncured control). For frankfurters, treatments D, G, and H had an effect (approximately 1 log) on growth equivalent to that of the conventionally cured control (P cured meats have more potential for pathogen growth than conventionally cured products, but supplemental natural ingredients offer safety improvement.

  6. An analysis of totalitarian consciousness in Frankfurt School socio-critical theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Demura

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the article there were analyzed the main ideas of Frankfurt School representatives, namely Theodor. W. Adorno, Max Horkheimer, Herbert Marcuse, Erich Fromm. The author attempted to identify the main causes of neototalitarianism formation and the formation of totalitarian regime in the 20th century. In the attempt the author based on the main researches and fundamental works of Frankfurt school representatives. It was established an interdependency between the Enlightenment practice and the mythologizing of consciousness; the role of culture was determined. The role of ideological system as one of the forms of social mythology was described. It was established the regularity between ‘happy consciousness’ of the Consumer Society and myths and ideological system effecting rooting in the society mass consciousness of the 20th century. The relevance of the article is determined by the need for critical thinking of the development of totalitarian states culture that today is becoming obvious. An awareness of the fact that social consciousness of post-Soviet states still guided by myths that were created and instituted by totalitarian culture makes us serious study of the problems mythologizing of consciousness and ideological influence. Therefore the deliverance from prejudice and the transition to a new round of democratic society is not possible without studying the formations foundations of mass society and the functions of culture in it. Moreover, the solution of modernity global problems and the transition on qualitatively new round of social and cultural development is impossible without definition of conditions that identified the construction of Western civilization.

  7. Twenty-five years of biomonitoring lead in the Frankfurt/Main area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballach, Hans-Joachim; Wittig, Rüdiger; Wulff, Svenja

    2002-01-01

    The present study is an example of the historical monitoring of heavy metals. The specific question it aims to explore is: to what extent has the lead content of selected organisms used for biomonitoring in Frankfurt/Main--one of the cities in Germany most heavily affected by automobile traffic--changed as a result of legislation on leaded gasoline? Data on the lead content of the moss species Bryum argenteum Hedw. from the years 1974, 1975 and 1978 and data on the lead content of the outer bark of the ash species Fraxinus excelsior L. from 1973 served as the basis for the repeated measurements. Remeasurement was successful in 76.5% (i.e. 124 trees at 26 growth sites). The study produced the following results: As was expected, the lead content of the short-term accumulator Bryum argenteum Hedw. was distinctly lowered with a decreasing particulate lead concentration. However, the reduction factor varied greatly between the different growth sites. On the other hand, the lead content measured in the outer bark layers of Fraxinus excelsior L. has risen markedly during the past two decades. Whereas in 1973 nearly all trees examined displayed very low concentrations of lead (225 ppm). Various factors have to be taken into account to explain this increase. First of all, bark is a long-term accumulator for heavy metals like lead and its enrichment capacity could have increased as the surface becomes rougher over time. Furthermore, lead is most probably leached out of the bark to a lesser degree now than in the 1970s, owing to the reduced concentration of sulphuric acid in the rain. The dramatic growth of automobile traffic in the Frankfurt/Main area during the period covered by the study undoubtedly plays an important role as well.

  8. Spectator Democracy: An Intersectional Analysis of Education Reform in Hamburg, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bale, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    This article uses the theoretical framework of intersectionality to analyze a partially failed school reform measure in Hamburg, Germany and the political conflict over it between 2008 and 2010. The analysis focuses on "the extent to which" and the "mechanisms by which" the interests of marginalized members of the proreform…

  9. Acceptance of fish hamburgers in school meals in the Southwest Region of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandra Schuastz BREDA

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The regular consumption of fish provides health gains for people, and its introduction in school meals is an important strategy to insert the habit of consuming this food by a population. Thus the objective of this study was to verify the acceptance of fish, presented in the form of hamburger, by children in municipal primary schools in the town of Pato Branco, Brazil, in which the school cooks had been trained to produce fish hamburgers. Acceptance was evaluated using a hedonic scale with 5 facial classifications (1 = disliked extremely to 5 = liked extremely. Students of both genders from 5 to 10 years of age (n = 142 were served the hamburgers for their midday meal, representing the protein portion of the meal. The results were analyzed by logistic regression. No effect of age or gender was observed between the children in the acceptance of the hamburgers, but the interaction between age and gender was significant. The cluster analysis was applied to distinguish this interaction using two-way joining to present the results, which showed the effect between specific age and gender situations. The acceptance index was 87% showing the potential for the consumption of this food by children.

  10. Physicochemical properties of low sodium frankfurter with added walnut: effect of transglutaminase combined with caseinate, KCl and dietary fibre as salt replacers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmenero, F Jiménez; Ayo, M J; Carballo, J

    2005-04-01

    This study compares the effects of combinations of microbial transglutaminase (TGase) and various non-meat ingredients (caseinate, KCl and wheat fibre) used as salt replacers, with the effects of NaCl on the physicochemical properties (cooking loss, emulsion stability, texture and colour) of frankfurters with added walnuts. The combination of TGase with caseinate, KCl or fibre led to harder, springier and chewier (Pcaseinate>KCl>fibre. Frankfurters with caseinate presented the highest lightness and the lowest redness values. Frankfurter with NaCl had a harder, springier and chewier gel/emulsion network with lower cooking loss than those NaCl free.

  11. Epidemiological and Ecological Characterization of the EHEC O104:H4 Outbreak in Hamburg, Germany, 2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maike Tahden

    Full Text Available In 2011, a large outbreak of entero-hemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS occurred in Germany. The City of Hamburg was the first focus of the epidemic and had the highest incidences among all 16 Federal States of Germany. In this article, we present epidemiological characteristics of the Hamburg notification data. Evaluating the epicurves retrospectively, we found that the first epidemiological signal of the outbreak, which was in form of a HUS case cluster, was received by local health authorities when already 99 EHEC and 48 HUS patients had experienced their first symptoms. However, only two EHEC and seven HUS patients had been notified. Middle-aged women had the highest risk for contracting the infection in Hamburg. Furthermore, we studied timeliness of case notification in the course of the outbreak. To analyze the spatial distribution of EHEC/HUS incidences in 100 districts of Hamburg, we mapped cases' residential addresses using geographic information software. We then conducted an ecological study in order to find a statistical model identifying associations between local socio-economic factors and EHEC/HUS incidences in the epidemic. We employed a Bayesian Poisson model with covariates characterizing the Hamburg districts as well as incorporating structured and unstructured spatial effects. The Deviance Information Criterion was used for stepwise variable selection. We applied different modeling approaches by using primary data, transformed data, and preselected subsets of transformed data in order to identify socio-economic factors characterizing districts where EHEC/HUS outbreak cases had their residence.

  12. The use of ionizing radiation as a method of eliminating pathogenic microorganism in hamburgers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarate, H.; Espinoza B, J; Maier, L; Silva, J.R

    2002-01-01

    The application of ionizing energy in hamburgers of a trade mark, was studied by the University Santo Tomas in conjunction with the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission in order to eliminate pathogens such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella sp and to search for organoleptic characteristic by means of determined doses. A total of 144 frozen hamburgers (-18 o C) were analyzed and divided into three equal groups. Each hamburger - weighting 115 g - was put into sealed polietilene bags. The first two sample groups were sterilized with an irradiation doses of 25 kGy, then inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain ATCC 25922 ISP (Instituto de Salud Publica) and Salmonella sp strain ATCC 2714-99 ISP. The third group was not sterilized because it corresponded to the control group. The samples of each group were treated with gamma irradiation ( 60 Co), with doses of 0, 1, 2 and 4 kGy analyzing the bacteria counts after 24 hours, 30 days and 60 days post radiation. D 10 values of 0,472 to 0,494 kGy for the Escherichia coli and 0,649 to 0,697 kGy for the Salmonella sp were found. The storage time did not time exert any influence on the D 10 values. The storage time also showed meaningful differences between the days 1, 30 and 60, nevertheless, this fact was not reflected in the results obtained in the D 10 value. The organoleptic analysis of hamburger was done by means of a trained sensorial panel who evaluated samples with 0; 1,5 and 3 kGy. Each person tasted 55 approximately of each sample and evaluated; appearance, color, aroma, sweetness, acidity, bitterness, texture, flavor and acceptability. Statistically, none attribute showed significant differences (p .05) between the radiated samples and the control group, concluding that the level of the hamburger acceptability was qualified as good (au)

  13. Molecular Method Development to Identify Foodborne Sarcocystishominis in Raw Beef Commercial Hamburger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahador Hajimohammadi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sarcocystisspp. is zoonotic parasitic pathogen endangering safety of meat and derived meat products such as hamburgers which is among the most popular fast foods worldwide. Objectives: The current study aimed to design a protocol for molecular identification of Sarcocystis hominis in commercial hamburgers using PCR-RFLP with target of 18S rRNA. Materials and Methods: A total of 25 raw commercial hamburger samples were randomly collected from supermarkets of Yazd city, Iran. Five mm slices from different parts of each sample were selected, well mixed, and then preserved in ethanol 70% at -20°C for the next steps. The genomic DNA was extracted using salting out method. Detection and identification of Sarcocystis isolates were performed using PCR RFLP. The 18s rRNA gene sequence was mined from GenBank and the specific primer pair was designed using Primer3 software. Restriction fragment length polymorphims (RFLP analysis was performed using BfaI and RsaI restriction enzymes. The digestion was analyzed, using agarose gel electrophoresis alongside 100base pair DNA ladder. Results: Among 25 commercial hamburger samples, 17 samples showed a PCR product around 900 bp which could detect Sarcocyst Spp. After RFLP with BfaI, the restriction fragments of 376 bp and 397 bp detected S. hominis or S. hirsuta and fragments of 184 bp, 371 bp and 382 bp detected S. cruzi. After RFLP with RsaI, the restriction fragments of 376 bp and 557 bp detected S. hirsuta and fragment of 926 bp, without any digestion, detected S. hominis. For verification, each species detected in samples was randomly selected and sent for sequencing and the results were analyzed with BLAST. Conclusions: In conclusion, the current study developed a practical technique to detect the prevalence of S. hominis in meat products such as hamburgers.

  14. Essential oils from herbs against foodborne pathogens in chicken sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Lidiane Nunes; Probst, Isabella Silva; Murbach Teles Andrade, Bruna Fernanda; Bérgamo Alves, Fernanda Cristina; Albano, Mariana; Mores Rall, Vera Lucia; Júnior, Ary Fernandes

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of chicken meat and its products, especially sausage, have increased in recent years. However, this product is susceptible to microbial contamination during manufacturing, which compromises its shelf life. The flavoring and preservative activities of essential oils (EO) have been recognized and the application of these antimicrobial agents as natural active compounds in food preservation has shown promise. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Ocimum basilicum and Origanum vulgare EO on Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella Enteritidis strains in artificially inoculated samples of fresh chicken sausage. First, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of EO in vitro was determined. The sausage was prepared and kept at ± 4°C; then, the inoculation of individual bacteria was carried out. EO were added at 0.3%, 1.0% and 1.5%v/w. After 0, 5, and 24 hours, the most probable number method (MPN) was performed. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to view the damage caused by these EO on bacterial morphology and/or structure. Only the 1.5% concentration was effective in reducing L. monocytogenes. 0.3% of O. vulgare EO was able to reduce the MPN/g of Salmonella Enteritidis (2 log) after 5 hours trials. O. basilicum EO showed no effect on Salmonella after 5 hours, but decreased by 2 log after 24 hours. O. vulgare EO at 1% gave a greater reduction of S. Enteritidis at 5 hours, increasing or maintaining this effect after 24 hours. The results confirmed the potential benefits of use EO in control of foodborne pathogens.

  15. Studies on the quality of duck meat sausages during refrigeration

    OpenAIRE

    Naveen, Z.; Naik, B. R.; Subramanyam, B. V.; Reddy, P. M.

    2016-01-01

    Duck farming is on the raise in the current scenario, but processed products from duck meat are still uncommon to find. Investigating the duck meat qualities during storage will provide information to enhance duck meat utilization. Development of ready-to-eat and ready-to-cook duck meat products is expected to increase and improve non-chicken meat-based protein. The Study was aimed to evaluate the changes in quality characteristics of duck meat sausages preserved by refrigeration (7???1??C). ...

  16. Sensory and microbiological evaluation of uncured fresh chicken sausage with reduced fat content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Cecilia Venturini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the acceptability and the microbiological safety of uncured fresh chicken sausages with reduced fat content, considering the scientific evidence that correlated cancer and cardiovascular diseases to this diet. Two formulations of uncured fresh chicken sausage were processed using different concentrations of cochineal carmine pigment, rosemary extracts and synthetic antioxidants, which are used to give color, appearance and pleasant flavor to the products. Then, instrumental color (L*, a*, b*, C* and h*, microbial contamination and sensory tests (ranking and acceptance were used to evaluate the quality of the uncured chicken sausages. The instrumental color (chroma and hue and the sensory properties of the A and B uncured sausages were similar to the commercial cured sausage (C. However, the sensory color and appearance of samples A and B were statistically higher than those of the commercial uncured sausages D, which are prepared without the addition of nitrite or pigments. The results showed that it is possible to produce safe and high-quality uncured fresh chicken sausage with reduced fat content, using natural pigments and antioxidants.

  17. Shallow irradiation of vienna sausage by electron beams in preventation of the slime production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Hiroshi; Kume, Tamikazu; Ito, Hitoshi; Aoki, Shohei; Sato, Tomotaro

    1975-01-01

    Vienna sausages get spoiled by slime production or putrefaction due to the propagation of microorganisms when stored for 3 to 5 days at 10 deg C. The radiation pasteurization of vienna sausages has mainly been studied with gamma irradiation. The slime of sausages is believed to be microorganisms themselves growing on the surface of the sausages. Pasteurization of the surface of vienna sausages with electron irradiation was thus investigated. The results obtained are as follows: The vienna sausages irradiated with a dose of 0.8 to approximately 1.0 Mrad by 0.5 MeV electrons could be stored without slime production or putrefaction for more than a week at 11 deg C. The effect of pasteurization increased with energy and dose of electrons. However, the changes in the organoleptic qualities of vienna sausages were detected when irradiated with a dose of over 0.7 Mrad by 2.0 MeV electrons. Consequently, the irradiation with a dose of 1.0 Mrad by 1.0 MeV electrons was effectual in lengthening their shelf-life without deterioration of the organoleptic qualities. (author)

  18. The influence of Lactobacillus paracasei LPC-37 on selected properties of fermented sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Mati

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Fermented sausages rank among non-heat-treated meat products. Their nutritional properties are similar to the raw material, simultaneously their microbial safety and stability is ensured using additives and specific microbial cultures. The use of probiotic cultures can positively affect the processing of fermented sausages, resulting in the new technological properties and beneficial effect on human health. However, commercial application of probiotic microorganisms in fermented sausages is not common yet. Lactobacillus paracasei LPC-37 is a gram-positive, non-spore forming, homofermentative rod, which according to studies may modulate immune responses in human organism and survives the passage through the gastrointestinal tract. The main object of this work was to evaluate technological properties of L. paracasei LPC-37, which have not been fully examined. Two groups of fermented sausages were analysed in this work. The first group of fermented sausages was prepared using lyophilized starter culture (Lyocarni RHM-33. The second group of fermented sausages was prepared by the combination of lyophilized starter culture and potential probiotic culture Lactobacillus paracasei LPC-37. The processing and ripening of sausages were carried out in meat processing plant to simulate real conditions of production. The changes of the products (water activity, pH, concentration of organic acids and microbial growth were evaluated during ripening (3 weeks, while sensory analysis was carried out in the final stage of the process and during storage (3 weeks. It was found that the environment of raw-fermented sausages is suitable for the growth and survival of Lactobacillus paracasei LPC-37 and the microbiological quality of the final product was very good (absence of Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes. The counts of lactobacilli reached 107 CFU/g of the product, which meet the requirements for functional foods. The results of the sensory evaluation showed

  19. Zgaga, P., Teichler, U., & Brennan, J. (Eds.) (2012). The globalisation challenge for European higher education / Convergence and Diversity, Centres and Peripheries. Frankfurt/M.: Peter Lang. [Book review

    OpenAIRE

    Strajn, Darko

    2013-01-01

    Book review of: Zgaga, P., Teichler, U., & Brennan, J. (Eds.) (2012). The globalisation challenge for European higher education / Convergence and Diversity, Centres and Peripheries. Frankfurt/M.: Peter Lang. 389 pp., ISBN 978-3-631- 6398-5.

  20. Modernization of the graphics post-processors of the Hamburg German Climate Computer Center Carbon Cycle Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, E.J.; McNeilly, G.S.

    1994-03-01

    The existing National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) code in the Hamburg Oceanic Carbon Cycle Circulation Model and the Hamburg Large-Scale Geostrophic Ocean General Circulation Model was modernized and reduced in size while still producing an equivalent end result. A reduction in the size of the existing code from more than 50,000 lines to approximately 7,500 lines in the new code has made the new code much easier to maintain. The existing code in Hamburg model uses legacy NCAR (including even emulated CALCOMP subrountines) graphics to display graphical output. The new code uses only current (version 3.1) NCAR subrountines.

  1. CHARACTERISTICS OF STRUCTURE FORMATION IN COOKED SAUSAGE PRODUCTS USING SONOCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Yevtushenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the features of formation of sausage product structure in the process of cooking. It is shown that the viscosity of sausage meat varies in a complex manner and has three characteristic areas. The characteristic parameters that determine the formation of the structure of sausages for each area were found. It is established that the use of the cavitation brine gives the finished product a gentle consistence, elasticity and distinct taste that makes it more preferable for the consumer.

  2. Europa Passage, Hamburg. Pumps ensure thermal comfort at all levels; Die Europa Passage in Hamburg. Pumpen sorgen fuer Komfort auf allen Ebenen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teders, Klaus

    2009-07-01

    The Europa Passage at Hamburg is a new shopping mall located directly on the Binnenalster river. It was constructed in 2006 and has 30,000 m{sup 2} of shop floor on five levels, which makes it one of Germany's biggest shopping malls. It is frequented every day by up to 40,000 visitors and more than 50,000 visitors on saturdays. In order to ensure optimum comfort even in peak times, the passage is equipped with state-of-the-art technical facilities. Energy-efficient pumps ensure reliable supply of all technical facilities. (orig.)

  3. Physico-chemical and microbiological properties of raw fermented sausages are not influenced by color differences of turkey breast meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, J; Krischek, C; Janisch, S; Wicke, M; Klein, G

    2013-05-01

    It has been suggested that the color of turkey breast meat influences both physico-chemical and microbiological properties of raw fermented sausages. In this study, raw fermented sausages were produced with turkey breast meat in 3 different colors (pale, normal, or dark), which were obtained from 2 fast-growing-genetic-line toms at 2 slaughterhouses. Prior to the sausage production, the breast muscles were sorted into color groups according to the lightness values determined at 24 h postmortem. This meat was subsequently processed to raw fermented sausages using 1.5 or 2.5% curing salt (CS). The pale meat had higher lightness, electrical conductivity, and drip loss, whereas the dark meat showed a darker color only. The physico-chemical (pH, water activity), visual (lightness, redness), and microbial (total plate count) properties of the sausages were not influenced by the color of the turkey breast meat. The sausage made with 2.5% CS had lower aw and higher ash and hardness values than the sausages produced with 1.5% CS. In conclusion, processing of differently colored turkey meat to raw fermented sausages does not influence the quality characteristics of the products. Based on these findings, there is no reason for the sausage producer to separate turkey breast muscles by color before producing raw fermented sausages.

  4. From Vienna to Frankfurt Inside Core-House Type 7: A History of Scarcity through the Modern Kitchen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Hochhaeusl

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper traces a history of war-induced scarcity through the material and technological properties of household appliances and kitchens from 1914 to 1930. Investigating the Austrian settlement and allotment garden movement, it argues that the practices of users, self-help builders, and inhabitants who reacted to living with limited resources in the state of emergency found their way into the designs of modern homes, and into the works of canonical modern architecture, in particular the famous Frankfurt Kitchen. This paper thus investigates the design and production of the modern kitchen and its transformations, from Vienna to Frankfurt, moving from a cooperative vernacular building movement to one of the largest construction endeavors to standardize and prefabricate modern housing in Germany.

  5. SAUSAGE WAVES IN TRANSVERSELY NONUNIFORM MONOLITHIC CORONAL TUBES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopin, I. [Ussuriisk astrophysical observatory, Russion Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation); Nagorny, I., E-mail: lopin78@mail.ru [Institute of Automation and Control Processes FEB RAS, Vladivostok (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-10

    We investigate fast sausage waves in a monolithic coronal magnetic tube, modeled as a local density inhomogeneity with a continuous radial profile. This work is a natural extension of our previous results, obtained for a slab loop model for the case of cylindrical geometry. Using Kneser’s oscillating theorem, we provided the criteria for the existence of trapped and leaky wave regimes as a function of the profile features. For a number of density profiles there are only trapped modes for the entire range of longitudinal wave numbers. The phase speed of these modes tends toward the external Alfvén speed in the long wavelength limit. The generalized results were supported by the analytic solution of the wave equation for the specific density profiles. The approximate Wentzel–Kramers–Brillouin solutions allowed us to obtain the desired dispersion relations and to study their properties as a function of the profile parameters. The multicomponent quasi-periodic pulsations in flaring loops, observed on 2001 May 2 and 2002 July 3, are interpreted in terms of the transversely fundamental trapped fast sausage mode with several longitudinal harmonics in a smooth coronal waveguide.

  6. Sausage mode of a high density Z-pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, N.; Rostoker, N.

    1983-01-01

    In Z-pinch experiments at Maxwell Laboratories, Inc., growth rates have been measured by observing optical emission along the pinch axis. Growth rates estimated by means of the usual model of a pinch involving an incompressible fluid and a surface current are too large by a factor of 2-4. X-ray pinhole photographs generally have the appearance of a series of beads that would be expected from instability of the sausage mode. In some cases, particularly the implosion of large diameter wire arrays with BLACKJACK 5, the beads disappear and only the kink instability is apparent. Generalizing the pinch model to include compressibility does not significantly alter the predictions. A further generalization to include distributed current has therefore been considered. It seems likely that the current can penetrate significantly during the lifetime of the pinch. We consider a model of the pinch that is initially an infinite cylinder. For the sausage mode, stability is determined by a simple second order differential equation together with the boundary condition that follows from the wave number and the frequency of the instability

  7. Multifunctionality of Urban Green Space -- An Analytical Framework and the Case Study of Greenbelt in Frankfurt am Main, Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Linlin

    2017-01-01

    This research emphasizes the significance of multifunctionality in urban green space planning practice and builds an analytical framework of multifunctionality for the holistic interpretation of the studied case, the Greenbelt Frankfurt am Main. Multifunctionality has been widely used in the context of urban green space planning practice and evaluation in recent years. It is considered as a key characteristic in several contemporary concepts like Green Infrastructure, Ecosystem Services a...

  8. Marketing in Germany: A market research for a start-up business of cake making/decorating business in Frankfurt

    OpenAIRE

    Bondar, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    The research problem was to make a market analysis of cake making/decorating business in Frankfurt, Germany. Based on the research process, customers’ attitudes towards cake making/decorating companies were found out. The main objective of the thesis was to know targeted customer behavior and opinions towards a business idea of initiating business in cake making/decorating, in order to find out if it will be profitable or not. This thesis consists of four sections: Introduction, Market ...

  9. Motivation in all spheres of life : program & abstracts / International Conference on Motivation 2012, August 28 - 30, Frankfurt am Main, Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Martens, Thomas; Vollmeyer, Regina; Rakoczy, Katrin

    2012-01-01

    This is the Proceedings of the "International Conference on Motivation 2012" carried out by the Special Interest Group "Motivation and Emotion" of the European Association for Research on Learning and Instruction (EARLI) in cooperation with the German Institute for International Educational Research (DIPF) and the Goethe University Frankfurt. (DIPF/author). Dies ist der Konferenzband der "International Conference on Motivation 2012", die von der Special Interest Group "Motivation and Emoti...

  10. Potential effects of the next 100 billion hamburgers sold by McDonald's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Elsa H; Frank, Erica; McIntosh, Nichole F

    2005-05-01

    McDonald's has sold >100 billion beef-based hamburgers worldwide with a potentially considerable health impact. This paper explores whether there would be any advantages if the next 100 billion burgers were instead plant-based burgers. Nutrient composition of the beef hamburger patty and the McVeggie burger patty were obtained from the McDonald's website; sales data were obtained from the McDonald's customer service. Consuming 100 billion McDonald's beef burgers versus the same company's McVeggie burgers would provide, approximately, on average, an additional 550 million pounds of saturated fat and 1.2 billion total pounds of fat, as well as 1 billion fewer pounds of fiber, 660 million fewer pounds of protein, and no difference in calories. These data suggest that the McDonald's new McVeggie burger represents a less harmful fast-food choice than the beef burger.

  11. CAS on Free-Electron Lasers and Energy Recovery Linacs in Hamburg

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Accelerator School

    2016-01-01

    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS) and DESY held a jointly-organised specialised course on Free-Electron Lasers and Energy Recovery Linacs (FELs and ERLs) in Hamburg, Germany, from 31 May to 10 June 2016.      The course was held in the Hotel Scandic Emporio in Hamburg and was attended by 68 participants of 13 nationalities, coming from countries as far away as China, Iran and Japan. The intensive programme comprised 44 lectures and one seminar. Following introductory lectures on electromagnetism, relativity and synchrotron radiation issues, the basic requirements of linacs and ERLs were discussed. Detailed lectures on the theory of FEL science followed. Undulators and the process of lasing and seeding were covered in some detail along with lectures on various beam dynamics and beam control issues. Case studies, for which seven hours were allocated, completed the academic programme. For these, the students were divided into small groups and tasked with completing the basic desig...

  12. Sensory characteristics of European, dried, fermented sausages and the correlation to volatile profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahnke, Marie Louise Heller; Sunesen, Lars Oddershede; De Smedt, Anny

    1999-01-01

    In the European FAIR-project: Control of Bioflavour and Safety in Northern and Mediterranean Fermented Meat Products (FAIR-CT97-3227) four different sausage types were manufactured in five replicates and characterised by sensory and analytical means. The objective of the present study was to char......In the European FAIR-project: Control of Bioflavour and Safety in Northern and Mediterranean Fermented Meat Products (FAIR-CT97-3227) four different sausage types were manufactured in five replicates and characterised by sensory and analytical means. The objective of the present study...... was to characterise the flavour pattern of the FAIR sausages with regards to sensory perceived compounds and volatile/sensory profiles. According to gas chromatography-olfactometry the greatest differences between the Northern and Mediterranean sausages were attributed to coffee/roasted, phenolic and vinegar odours...

  13. Effect of Chicory Fiber and Smoking on Quality Characteristics of Restructured Sausages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyun-Su; Choi, Hyung-Gyu; Choi, Yeong-Seok; Kim, Jong-Hee; Lee, Ju-Ho; Jung, Eun-Hee; Lee, Sang-Hwa; Choi, Yang-Il

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of chicory fiber for the replacement of fat and smoking on quality characteristics of restructured sausages. Treatments were as follows; Control: Pork backfat 20%, T1: Pork backfat 10% + Chicory fiber 10%, T2: Control + Smoking, T3: T1 + Smoking. The addition of chicory fiber significantly reduced the moisture, fat, hardness and pH values, whereas the smoking treatment increased the fat, redness and pH values of restructured sausages (psausages. As a result, although the addition of chicory fiber decreased the quality characteristics of sausage, smoking treatment improved the reduced quality. Therefore, the chicory fiber and smoking treatment is helpful to develop restructured sausage products with reduced fat and compensated quality. PMID:27499674

  14. Replacement of mechanically deboned chicken meat with its protein hydrolysate in mortadella-type sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Pasqualin Cavalheiro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mortadella-type sausage manufactured using mechanically deboned chicken meat were reformulated replacing MDCM with increasing amounts of MDCM protein hydrolysates (10%, 20%, and 30%, and their physicochemical, microbiological, and sensorial characteristics were evaluated for 60 days of storage at 4 °C. The higher substitutions resulted in sausages more susceptible to lipid oxidation with higher TBARS values during storage; however, these values were lower than the organoleptic perception threshold. The sausages were darker and less red, with lower lightness (L* and redness (a* values than those of the control treatment. They had soft texture, which was evidenced by both the instrumental and sensory analysis. Therefore, the formulation containing 10% of MDCM protein hydrolysates proved to be the most suitable for mortadella-type sausage elaboration.

  15. Growth and production of volatiles by Staphylococcus carnosus in dry sausages:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjener, Karsten; Stahnke, Louise Heller; Andersen, L.

    2004-01-01

    Three sausage batches inoculated with normal inoculation level of Pediococcus pentosaceus (5 x 10(6) CFU/g) and with low, intermediate, and high inoculation levels of Staphylococcus carnosus (10(5), 5 x 10(6), 5 x 10(7) CFU/g, respectively) were produced. Cell counts and formation of volatiles were...... followed throughout a ripening period of three weeks. The staphylococci exhibited the fastest growth in sausages with a low inoculation level, whereas growth was only moderate in sausages with a high initial level. Analysis of volatiles showed that methyl-branched aldehydes and acids, phenylacetaldehyde, 2......-methyl-l-butanol, dimethyldisulphide and dimethyltrisulphide were produced in higher amounts in sausages with a high inoculation level of S. carnosus, whercas a low inoculation level correlated with high amounts of diacetyl, ethanol and ethyl esters. The levels of most compounds increased over time...

  16. Aminogenesis control in fermented sausages manufactured with pressurized meat batter and starter culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre-Moratalla, M L; Bover-Cid, S; Aymerich, T; Marcos, B; Vidal-Carou, M C; Garriga, M

    2007-03-01

    The application of high hydrostatic pressure (200MPa) to meat batter just before sausage fermentation and the inoculation of starter culture were studied to improve the safety and quality of traditional Spanish fermented sausages (fuet and chorizo). Higher amounts of biogenic amines were formed in chorizo than in fuet. Without interfering with the ripening performance in terms of acidification, drying and proteolysis, hydrostatic pressure prevented enterobacteria growth but did not affect Gram-positive bacteria significantly. Subsequently, a strong inhibition of diamine (putrescine and cadaverine) accumulation was observed, but that of tyramine was not affected. The inoculated decarboxylase-negative strains, selected from indigenous bacteria of traditional sausages, were resistant to the HHP treatment, being able to lead the fermentation process, prevent enterococci development and significantly reduce enterobacteria counts. In sausages manufactured with either non-pressurized or pressurized meat batter, starter culture was the most protective measure against the accumulation of tyramine and both diamines.

  17. Laboratory method for fermentation of meat and poultry sausages in fibrous casings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M G; Acton, J C

    1975-06-01

    The construction and operation of a relatively inexpensive cabinet for sausage fermentation studies is described. Temperature can be controlled to +/-1 C with a relative humidity of approximately 95%.

  18. Laboratory Method for Fermentation of Meat and Poultry Sausages in Fibrous Casings1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michael G.; Acton, James C.

    1975-01-01

    The construction and operation of a relatively inexpensive cabinet for sausage fermentation studies is described. Temperature can be controlled to ±1 C with a relative humidity of approximately 95%. PMID:16350019

  19. EVALUASI FISIKOKIMIA SOSIS TEMPE-DUMBO [Physicochemical Evaluation of Tempeh-Fish Sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T J Moedjiharto

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation on the physicochemical property of “tempe-dumbo” sausage made from meat of Clarias gariepinus and tempeh flour has been carried out. Randomized design with tree replications were used. Sausages were prepared from tempeh flour and fish meat in the proportion of: 1:0; 1:0,2; 1:0,3; 1:10,4 and 1:0,5 (w /w. Hardness, total volatile bases (TVB, and taste were evaluated. The results showed that the proportion of flour tempeh influenced the content the quality of “tempe-dumbo” sausage in term of protein quality, TVB.and taste. The addition of tempeh flour had significant effect the decrease essential amino acids, of total amino acids content, and organoleptic ascore (taste and flavor. . “Tempeh-dumbo” sausage contained essential amino acid of 27,354 mg/ g, protein which was consisted of 7 essential amino acid.

  20. The Hamburg polonium-210 case. Monitoring of internal contaminations in a malevolent act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalheimer, A.; Koenig, K.; Nosske, D.; Schaefer, I.

    2009-01-01

    The dead of Alexander Litvinenko in London in the late 2006 was linked with the visit of Dimitri Kovtun. So an investigation was started by the Hamburg Police. As the presence of polonium-210 was uncertain, the action was supported by the Federal Defense against Nuclear Hazards (NGA) of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS). Radiation measurements in some flats in Hamburg confirmed the suspicion of polonium-210 contaminations. As incorporations by ingestion or inhalation could not generally be excluded, the Coordinating Office on Incorporation Monitoring of the BfS (Leitstelle Inkorporationsueberwachung des BfS) was requested to clarify this issue. The BfS office then coordinated the required bioassay analyses of urine samples carried out at four officially appointed in-vitro laboratories for incorporation monitoring. The group of people to be examined included the members of the family involved living in the contaminated flats, the emergency forces, as well as potentially exposed members of the public. The calculation of the internal dose was based on standard assumptions and also conducted by the BfS. The internal radiation doses proved to be within the range of radiation doses due to natural exposures. Retrospectively it should be stressed that the collaboration and cooperation of all institutions involved in the operation in Hamburg was extremely good despite their differing organisational structures. As a result of the incident in Hamburg various middle and long-term measures have been taken since then by the BfS Coordinating Office on Incorporation Monitoring. (orig.)

  1. Defining Moments in MMWR History: 1993 E. coli> O157:H7 Hamburger Outbreak

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    During the 1993 E. coli O157 outbreak, four children died, and approximately 700 persons in four states became ill with severe and often bloody diarrhea after eating hamburgers from fast food restaurants. The first reports of CDC's investigation into this deadly outbreak were published in MMWR. In this podcast, Dr. Beth Bell shares what it was like to serve as one of CDC's lead investigators - a boots-on-the-ground disease detective -- for the historic outbreak.

  2. Appetite and food intake after consumption of sausages with 10% fat and added wheat or rye bran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vuholm, Stine; Arildsen Jakobsen, Louise Margrethe; Sørensen, Karina Vejrum

    2014-01-01

    The use of dietary fibers as fat-replacers in sausages gives less energy-dense and thereby healthier foods. Also, dietary fibers have been shown to induce satiety. The objectives of this study were to investigate if appetite sensations and energy intake was affected by (1) addition of dietary...... fibers to sausages, (2) type of dietary fibers and (3) the food matrix of the dietary fibers. In this randomized cross-over study 25 young men were served four test meals; wheat bran sausages, rye bran sausages, rye bran bread and wheat flour sausages. The test meals were served as breakfast after...... an overnight fast. Appetite sensations were evaluated by visual analogue scales (VAS) assessed every 30 min for 240 min followed by an ad libitum lunch meal where energy intake was calculated. Both rye bran and wheat bran sausages increased satiety (P

  3. The use of atmospheric pressure plasma-treated water as a source of nitrite for emulsion-type sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Samooel; Kim, Hyun Joo; Park, Sanghoo; In Yong, Hae; Choe, Jun Ho; Jeon, Hee-Joon; Choe, Wonho; Jo, Cheorun

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the possible use of atmospheric pressure plasma-treated water (PTW) as a nitrite source in curing process. Emulsion-type sausages were manufactured with PTW, celery powder containing nitrite, and synthetic sodium nitrite at a concentration of nitrite ion 70mgkg(-1). In terms of sausage quality, there were no noticeable effects of PTW on the total aerobic bacterial counts, color, and peroxide values of sausages compared with those of celery powder and sodium nitrite throughout 28days of storage at 4°C. Sausage with added PTW had lower concentrations of residual nitrite compared to those of added celery powder and sodium nitrite during the storage period (Pnitrite-treated sausages were not different, whereas the sausage with added celery powder received the lowest scores in taste and acceptability. From the results, it is concluded that PTW can be used as a nitrite source equivalent to a natural curing agent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Eppendorf Schizophrenia Inventory (ESI) vs. Frankfurt Complaint Questionnaire (FCQ). Direct comparison in a clinical trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mass, R

    2005-09-01

    This study is the first to directly compare two clinical questionnaires which are both aimed at self-experienced cognitive dysfunctions of schizophrenia: Eppendorf Schizophrenia Inventory (ESI) and Frankfurt Complaint Questionnaire (FCQ). Evaluated were (a) diagnostic validity, (b) psychometric properties, (c) scale intercorrelations, and (d) factor analytic stability. Ad (a): schizophrenic subjects (n=36) show highly significant increases in the ESI scales and sum score when compared to other clinical groups (patients with depression, alcohol dependence, or obsessive-compulsive disorder, n>30, respectively); on the other hand, the FCQ yields no systematic group differences. Ad (b): mean of reliability coefficients (Cronbach alpha) of the ESI scales is r(tt)=0.86, mean of reliability coefficients of the FCQ scales is significantly lower. Ad (c): the mean intercorrelation between ESI and FCQ scales amounts to r(xy)=0.56 (minimum 0.29, maximum 0.73), corresponding to an average shared variance of about 31%. Ad (d): factor analysis yielded an ESI factor and a FBF factor; one-way ANOVA with the factor scores confirms the diagnostic validity of the ESI. ESI and FCQ measure essentially different aspects of schizophrenic psychopathology. Regarding reliability and diagnostic validity, the ESI is superior to the FCQ.

  5. Pregnancy complications in HIV-positive women: 11-year data from the Frankfurt HIV Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitter, A; Stücker, A U; Linde, R; Königs, C; Knecht, G; Herrmann, E; Schlößer, R; Louwen, F; Haberl, A

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the study was to assess pregnancy complications in HIV-positive women and changes in the rates of such complications over 11 years in the Frankfurt HIV Cohort. There were 330 pregnancies in HIV-positive women between 1 January 2002 and 31 December 2012. The rate of pregnancy-related complications, such as gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), pre-eclampsia and preterm delivery, the mode of delivery and obstetric history were analysed. Maternal and neonatal morbidity/mortality as well as HIV mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) were evaluated. In our cohort, GDM was diagnosed in 38 of 330 women (11.4%). Five women (1.5%) developed pre-eclamspia or hypertension. In 16 women (4.8%), premature rupture of membranes (PROM) occurred and 46 women (13.7%) were admitted with preterm contractions. The preterm delivery rate was 36.5% (n = 122), and 26.9% of deliveries (n = 90) were between 34+0 and 36+6 weeks of gestation. Over the observation period, the percentage of women with undetectable HIV viral load (VL) increased significantly (P HIV Association.

  6. Effect of thyme and oregano aqueous tea infusions on the microbiological characteristics of sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Kročko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work the antimicrobial effect of Thymus vulgare and Origanum vulgare aqueous tea infusion on the total mesophilic bacterial count (TVC, psychrotrophic bacteria count (PBC and enterococci count in the heat treated meat product - sausages were evaluated. To prepare 1 kg of sausage in experimental groups were used 10 cm3 of Thymus vulgare resp. Origanum vulgare aqueous tea infusions. It was found that value of TVC and PBC in the experimental groups of sausages with Thymus vulgare addition after 7 days of storage (4 °C were 2.78 resp. 2.14 log cfu.g-1 and with the Origanum vulgare addition were 2.49 resp. 1.90 log cfu.g-1. The value of TVC and PBC in the control group of sausage were 3.13 resp. 2.72 log cfu.g-1. During 10 days of storage (4 °C the TVC and PBC in the sausages with Thymus vulgare addition increase and reached the value 4.81 resp. 3.52 log cfu.g-1. In the sausages with the Origanum vulgare addition TVC and PBC after 10 days of storage reached the value 3.67 resp. 1.60 log cfu.g-1. The value of TVC and PBC in the control group of sausage after 10 days of storage were 6.47 resp. 5.47 log cfu.g-1. Counts of enterococci in control and experimental groups of sausages during 10 days of storage were not detected. Thyme and origanum aqueous tea infusions suppressed the development of TVC and PBC compare to control samples. Normal 0 21 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE

  7. Sensory Characterization and Consumer Preference Mapping of Fresh Sausages Manufactured with Goat and Sheep Meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulos, Kátia; Rodrigues, Sandra; Oliveira, António Filipe; Leite, Ana; Pereira, Etelvina; Teixeira, Alfredo

    2015-07-01

    The main objective of this study was the sensory characterization, by a taste and a consumers' panel, of fresh sausages from 140 culled goats and 140 culled ewes. Species and type of preparation effects were studied. All data were previously analyzed by analysis of variance. Taste panel data were analyzed by a Generalized Procrustes Analysis (GPA). Consumers' panel data were analyzed by Preference Mapping. The 1st 2 factors explained 88.22% of total variation in GPA. Different sausages samples were perfectly differentiated by assessors. Goat sausages have been considered harder, more fibrous, and less juicy than sheep sausages. The panelists observed that sheep sausages without paprika had greater intensity of flavor, tasted spicy, and had an off-odor, while goat sausages with paprika were considered sweeter. Consumers' panel did not show any preference for the different types of sausages. This means that all types of sausages can have market opportunity. The present study was a result of a project in co-promotion between 2 breeder associations, an industry unit and a research center. Results indicated that the meat from animals out of quality commercial brands could be useful as processed meat in a product with consumer acceptability. Also these new meat products brought diversity to meat industry to reach new markets and originating 2 new meat brands recorded at INPI (Instituto Nacional da Propriedade Industrial—Natl. Industrial Property Inst.) with the numbers of 489664 and 489662 of National Brands of sheep and goat meat, respectively. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. Growth potential of exponential- and stationary-phase Salmonella Typhimurium during sausage fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk, Tina; Henriksen, Sidsel; Müller, K.

    2016-01-01

    - and stationary-phase Salmonella Typhimurium (DT12 and DTU292) during freezing at − 18 °C and their subsequent growth potential during 72 h sausage fermentation at 25 °C. After 0, 7 and > 35 d of frozen storage, sausage batters were prepared with NaCl (3%) and NaNO2 (0, 100 ppm) and fermented with and without...

  9. Effect of Information about Animal Feeding on Consumer Acceptability of Sausages from Turopolje Pig Breed

    OpenAIRE

    Cerjak, Marija; Petrčić, Mario; Karolyi, Danijel

    2017-01-01

    Th e aim of this study was to examine the infl uence of information about pig feeding (conventional vs. acorn-fed) on consumer acceptability and probability of purchase of sausages made from local Turopolje pig breed. The study was conducted on a sample of 135 respondents using three step procedures: hedonic test in blind conditions, evaluation of expected preferences and informed hedonic test. Results showed that in the blind test sausage from conventionally-fed pigs were rated higher, but i...

  10. Comparison of textural atributes of selected meat sausages using instrumental analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimír Vietoris; Ľubomír Lopašovský; Peter Zajác; Jozef Čurlej; Jozef Čapla

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare textural atributes of selected meat sausages using instrumental analysis. For this purpose, seven different meat sausage samples were treated by instrumental analysis, by the use of Warner-Bratzler probe,  to find differences for two selected textural parameter firmness and work of shear. As expected, various values of mentioned atributes were obtained for different samples tested in fresh stage and after storage under controlled conditions (48 hrs., 30 °...

  11. Nutritional value and fatty acid composition of some traditional Argentinean meat sausages

    OpenAIRE

    Mara Cristina Romero; Ana María Romero; Mirtha Marina Doval; Maria Alicia Judis

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the nutritional composition (moisture, protein, carbohydrates, and total fat) of meat products elaborated in the northeast of Argentina, analyzing fatty acids composition, PUFA/SFA ratio, n-6/n-3 relation, and CLA content. Thirty traditional meat products from different processes were used. Samples were classified into 4 different categories as follows: salamín (dry cured and fermented sausage), chorizos (raw sausage), chorizo ahumado (cooked and smoked s...

  12. Composition and Fatty Acid Profile of Goat Meat Sausages with Added Rice Bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Malekian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A scientific consensus on the relationship between obesity, obesity related diseases, and diet has emerged. One of the factors is overconsumption of the red meats such as pork and beef. Goat meat has the potential to replace these traditionally consumed meats. Rice bran is a rich source of antioxidants such as vitamin E. In this study, goat meat sausages were formulated to contain 0, 1.5 or 3 percent stabilized rice bran. Proximate and fatty acid composition, α-tocopherol, cholesterol concentration, and antioxidant activities of cooked goat meat sausages containing varying percentages of rice bran were measured. Data were analyzed using a fixed effects model. The fat percentage in the goat meat sausages increased in response to increasing rice bran percentages (P<0.001. Saturated fatty acids concentration decreased linearly (P<0.01, while unsaturated fatty acids and omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids increased linearly in response to increasing rice bran percentages (P<0.05. The concentration of α-tocopherol in sausages increased linearly in response to increasing rice bran percentages (P<0.01. Also, antioxidant activity increased linearly in sausages in response to added rice bran (P<0.01. The cholesterol concentration of sausages did not vary significantly in response to added rice bran.

  13. Effect of the Addition of Schisandra chinensis Powder on the Physico-chemical Characteristics of Sausage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, S. K.; Park, J. H.

    2013-01-01

    The individual and interactive effects of Schisandra chinensis powder (SCP) and sodium nitrite additions on color, pH, water holding capacity, residual nitrite, 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), volatile basic nitrogen, texture properties, fatty acids, amino acids and sensory evaluation of cooked pork sausages were investigated after 20 d of storage at 4°C. The powders (0, 0.5 and 1.0%) were added to sausages either alone or in combination with nitrite (0 and 100 ppm). SCP added-sausages showed lower L* (lightness) and W (whiteness) values, and higher b* (yellowness) values than sausage containing no nitrite, and exhibited the highest a* values at a 0.5% addition (psausage showed gradually decreased brittleness, cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess and chewiness, while adhesiveness increased. Polyunsaturated fatty acid, n-6 and n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio concentrations were significantly higher in sausages containing SCP (psausage significantly (psausage meat resulted in a significant deterioration in quality characteristics of flavor, springiness, juiciness and overall acceptability (psausages, depended on the rate of addition of nitrite (psausages, but may beneficially affect TBARS, nitrite scavenging activity, fatty acid and amino acid content in pork sausages. PMID:25049766

  14. Effect of cooking temperatures on characteristics and microstructure of camel meat emulsion sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Hussein Mh; Emara, Mohamed Mt; Nouman, Taha M

    2016-07-01

    The camel is an excellent source of high quality meat and camel meat might be a potential alternative for beef. This study aimed to manipulate the raw camel meat for the production of stable and acceptable emulsion sausage, as well as to study the effect of cooking at different core temperatures on the tenderness, sensory quality and microstructure of produced sausage. Increasing the cooking temperature of sausages resulted in reduction of the shear force values from 2.67 kgf after cooking at 85 °C to 1.57 kgf after cooking at 105 °C. The sensory scores of sausages have been improved by increasing the cooking core temperature of meat batter. The light and scanning electron microscope micrographs revealed solubilisation of the high quantity of connective tissue of camel meat. High emulsion stability values for the camel meat batter associated with high values of water-holding capacity for raw camel meat and meat batter have been recorded. Stable and acceptable camel meat emulsion can be developed from camel meat. Increasing the cooking core temperature of meat batter improved the quality of produced sausages. Therefore, camel meat emulsion sausages might be a potential alternative for beef particularly in Asian and African countries. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Shelf-life Extension and Improvement of the Microbiological Quality of Fresh Sausage by Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammad, A.A.I.; El-Mongy, T.M.; Mabrouk, A.K.

    2000-01-01

    Fifty samples of fresh sausage were randomly collected from different meat products markets in Great Cairo. They were analysed for microbiological quality. The results showed that 26 (52%) samples had total aerobic bacterial counts more than 10 7 cfu/g. Staphylococcus aureus was present in all samples and 19 (38%) samples had counts more than maximum permissible level (10 3 cfu/g). Enterococcus faecalis numbers more than 10 5 cfu/g were found in 14 (28%) samples. Coliform bacteria were present in all sausage samples and 19(38%) samples had counts more than 10 3 cfu/g, while salmonella was detected in only 5 (10%) samples. Therefore, fresh sausages in local market were highly contaminated with different microorganisms including spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. Irradiation dose of 4 kGy greatly reduced the numbers of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, lactobacilli and yeasts without affecting the organoleptic properties of the samples. It extended the shelf-life of fresh sausage up to about 15 days at refrigeration temperature (5+-1) while the shelf-life was only 5 days for unirradiated samples. Irradiation dose of 6 kGy had greater effect on the microbiological counts and extended the shelf-life of fresh sausage more than 25 days, however, it slightly affected its organoleptic properties. Sausage samples exposed to this irradiation dose was microbiologically safe, being free from Enterobacteriaceae, Staph, aureus, Ent, faecalis, coliform bacteria, Salmonella and moulds

  16. Screening of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria for potential probiotic use in Iberian dry fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Moyano, Santiago; Martín, Alberto; Benito, María José; Nevado, Francisco Pérez; de Guía Córdoba, María

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to select lactic acid bacteria and bifibobacteria strains as potential probiotic cultures during the processing of Iberian dry fermented sausages. A total of 1000 strains were isolated from Iberian dry fermented sausages (363), and human (337) and pig faeces (300) in different culture media. Around 30% of these strains, mainly isolated from Iberian dry fermented sausages in LAMVAB agar, were pre-selected for testing as potential probiotics by their ability to grow adequately at the pH values and NaCl concentrations of these meat products during the ripening process. Of the in vitro investigations used to predict the survival of a strain in conditions present in the gastro intestinal tract, exposure to pH 2.5 showed itself to be a highly discriminating factor with only 51 out of 312 pre-selected strains resisting adequately after 1.5h of exposure. All acid-resistant isolates identified as lactobacilli originated from human faeces (Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus fermentum) and pig faeces (Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus animalis, Lactobacillus murinus, and Lactobacillus vaginalis). Pediococcus acidilactici strains were isolated from Iberian dry fermented sausages and pig faeces, whereas the greatest number of Enterococcus strains were identified as Enterococcus faecium, with this species being isolated from Iberian dry fermented sausages, and human and pig faeces. Most of these strains are promising probiotic meat culture candidates suitable for Iberian dry fermented sausages.

  17. Effects of composite surface coating and pre-drying on the properties of kabanosy dry sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyburcy, Andrzej; Kozyra, Daniel

    2010-10-01

    Coating of dry sausages with renewable materials could be an alternative to vacuum packaging. In this study kabanosy dry sausage was coated with a composite emulsion and stored for 7 or 15 days at 4-6 degrees C. Effects of different emulsion formulas (0.5 or 1% w/w of kappa-carrageenan and 5 or 10% w/w of glycerol) and pre-drying of coated sausages (at 50 degrees C for 1.5h) were investigated. Carrageenan concentration had a significant effect (Pemulsion adsorbed on the sausage surface but little influence on the barrier properties of the coatings. At both glycerol concentration levels, coatings had no visible cracks and were easily removed from the sausage surface after 7 and 15 days of storage. The colour values of coatings (L*, a*, and b*) changed along with the decreasing water activity during storage. Pre-drying of coated sausages reduced peeled product weight loss after storage. The financial analysis showed that among coatings tested the best proved to be the emulsion containing (w/w): 5% glycerol, 5% gelatin, 0.5% carrageenan, 20% lard, 20% beeswax, and 50% water. Copyright (c) 2010 The American Meat Science Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of Ripening Duration and Rosemary Powder Addition on Salchichon Modified Sausage Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Hyun Jung

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The ripening durations and ingredients for the Salchichon sausages were modified to increase pork rear leg consumption by Korean consumers. The salchichon, a ripened pork sausage, was produced to evaluate the efficacy of two different ripening durations with and without rosemary powder on salchichon sausage quality, and the treatments were: i 45 days of ripening without rosemary, ii 60 days of ripening without rosemary, iii 45 days of ripening with 0.05% rosemary, and iv 60 days of ripening with 0.05% rosemary. Significant differences were observed in both moisture and fat content for ripening durations, with the highest moisture and least fat content observed in salchichon modified sausage (SMS ripened for 45 days. Ripening duration and rosemary addition appeared to influence water activity (aw of salchichon sausages. The aw of SMS ripened for 45 days was 0.80, whereas the other had aw values <0.80. Lactic acid bacteria were predominant, as Korean traditional fermented red pepper paste was added to sausages; however, the Bacillus cereus population was significantly affected by rosemary powder addition. Chewiness and gumminess decreased significantly due to the addition of rosemary powder compared to SMS without rosemary powder, and both 45 days of ripening and rosemary powder addition influenced the hardness of SMS. In conclusion, ripening duration of SMS for 45 days in the presence of rosemary powder provided superior SMS quality with an economical ripening duration compared to that of ripening with rosemary powder or ripening for 60 days.

  19. Characterization of spoilage bacteria in pork sausage by PCR-DGGE analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Silva Dias

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available To investigate microbial diversity and identify spoilage bacteria in fresh pork sausages during storage, twelve industrial pork sausages of different trademarks were stored at 4 ºC for 0, 14, 28 and 42 days, 80% relative humidity and packaged in sterile plastic bags. Microbiological analysis was performed. The pH and water activity (a w were measured. The culture-independent method performed was the Polymerase Chain Reaction - Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE. The culture-dependent method showed that the populations of mesophilic bacteria and Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB increased linearly over storage time. At the end of the storage time, the average population of microorganisms was detected, in general, at the level of 5 log cfu g-1. A significant (P < 0.005 increase was observed in pH and a w values at the end of the storage time. The PCR-DGGE allowed a rapid identification of dominant communities present in sausages. PCR-DGGE discriminated 15 species and seven genera of bacteria that frequently constitute the microbiota in sausage products. The most frequent spoilage bacteria identified in the sausages were Lactobacillus sakei and Brochothrix thermosphacta. The identification of dominant communities present in fresh pork sausages can help in the choice of the most effective preservation method for extending the product shelf-life.

  20. Sensory evaluation of dry-fermented sausage containing ground deodorized yellow mustard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuliu; Aliani, Michel; Holley, Richard A

    2013-10-01

    Ground deodorized yellow mustard is used as a binder and meat protein substitute in cooked processed meat products. Recent studies have shown that it has the potential to be used in uncooked processed meat products because of its natural antimicrobial properties. In the present study, ground deodorized yellow mustard was added to uncooked dry-fermented sausage during manufacture at 1% to 4% (w/w) and analyzed for its effects on starter cultures, physico-chemical properties, and consumer acceptability. Mustard had a nondose-dependent inhibitory effect on the Staphylococcus starter culture, had no effect on water activity or instrumental texture, and tended to accelerate sausage pH reduction. At 3% and 4% mustard, consumer scores on all sensory attributes as well as overall acceptability were significantly lower. The appearance and color of 3% and 4% mustard-treated sausages were liked slightly, whereas flavor, texture, and overall acceptability scores were reduced. The control without mustard and 1% mustard-treated sausages had similar sensory properties and were the most acceptable, while 2% mustard-treated sausages were given "like moderately" and "like slightly" descriptors. Sensory results mean that at concentrations necessary for mandated regulatory control of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in dry sausages, mustard may have a negative effect on consumer acceptance. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Flavour profiles of dry sausages fermented by selected novel meat starter cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkkilä, S; Petäjä, E; Eerola, S; Lilleberg, L; Mattila-Sandholm, T; Suihko, M L

    2001-06-01

    Probiotic or bioprotective Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains GG, LC-705 and E-97800 as well as Pediococcus pentosaceus E-90390 and Lactobacillus plantarum E-98098 were studied for their ability to act as main fermenting organisms in the manufacturing process of dry sausages. In the preliminary tests, their abilities to produce lactic acid and biogenic amines, histamine or tyramine, were studied in MRS broth and analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The strains produced higher or equal amounts of lactic acid compared to control and were amine negative. During the actual fermentation process of dry sausages the numbers of inoculated bacteria increased from the level 6.5-7.0 log cfu/g to 8.0-9.0 log cfu/g. The most fast growing strains were P. pentosaceus E-90390 and the control while the growth of L. plantarum E-98098 and L. rhamnosus LC-705 were the slowest. The pH value of the sausages decreased from 5.6 to 4.9-5.0. The presence of these experimental strains as major organisms in the sausages after fermentation and ripening was confirmed on the bases of their genetic fingerprints. The flavour profiles of the experimental sausages produced by these probiotic or protective strains were similar with that produced by the commercial meat starter culture and commercial North European dry sausage recipe.

  2. Composition and Fatty Acid Profile of Goat Meat Sausages with Added Rice Bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekian, Fatemeh; Khachaturyan, Margarita; Gebrelul, Sebhatu; Henson, James F

    2014-01-01

    A scientific consensus on the relationship between obesity, obesity related diseases, and diet has emerged. One of the factors is overconsumption of the red meats such as pork and beef. Goat meat has the potential to replace these traditionally consumed meats. Rice bran is a rich source of antioxidants such as vitamin E. In this study, goat meat sausages were formulated to contain 0, 1.5 or 3 percent stabilized rice bran. Proximate and fatty acid composition, α-tocopherol, cholesterol concentration, and antioxidant activities of cooked goat meat sausages containing varying percentages of rice bran were measured. Data were analyzed using a fixed effects model. The fat percentage in the goat meat sausages increased in response to increasing rice bran percentages (P < 0.001). Saturated fatty acids concentration decreased linearly (P < 0.01), while unsaturated fatty acids and omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids increased linearly in response to increasing rice bran percentages (P < 0.05). The concentration of α-tocopherol in sausages increased linearly in response to increasing rice bran percentages (P < 0.01). Also, antioxidant activity increased linearly in sausages in response to added rice bran (P < 0.01). The cholesterol concentration of sausages did not vary significantly in response to added rice bran.

  3. Retardation of quality changes in camel meat sausages by phenolic compounds and phenolic extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqsood, Sajid; Manheem, Kusaimah; Abushelaibi, Aisha; Kadim, Isam Tawfik

    2016-11-01

    Impact of tannic acid (TA), date seed extract (DSE), catechin (CT) and green tea extract (GTE) on lipid oxidation, microbial load and textural properties of camel meat sausages during 12 days of refrigerated storage was investigated. TA and CT showed higher activities in all antioxidative assays compared to DSE and GTE. Lipid oxidation and microbial growth was higher for control sausages when compared to other samples. TA and CT at a level of 200 mg/kg were more effective in retarding lipid oxidation and lowering microbial count (P < 0.05). Sausages treated with TA and DSE were found to have higher hardness, gumminess and chewiness values compared to other treatments (P < 0.05). Addition of different phenolic compounds or extract did not influence the sensory color of sausages. Furthermore, sensory quality was also found to be superior in TA and CT treated sausages. Therefore, pure phenolic compounds (TA and CT) proved to be more effective in retaining microbial and sensorial qualities of camel meat sausages compared to phenolic extracts (GTE and DSE) over 12 days of storage at 4°C. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  4. Evaluation of fat grains in gothaj sausage using image analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Luňáková

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Fat is an irreplacable ingredient in the production of sausages and it determines the appearance of the resulting cut to a significant extent. When shopping, consumers choose a traditional product mostly according to its appearance, based onwhat they are used to. Chemical analysis is capable to determine the total fat content in the product, but it cannot accurately describe the shape and size of fat grains which the consumer observes when looking at the product. The size of fat grains considered acceptable by consumers can be determined using sensory analysis or image analysis. In recent years, image analysis has become widely used when examining meat and meat products. Compared to the human eye, image analysis using a computer system is highly effective, since a correctly adjusted computer program is able to evaluate results with lower error rate. The most commonly monitored parameter in meat products is the aforementioned fat. The fat is located in the cut surface of the product in the form of dispersed particles which can be fairly reliably identified based on color differences in the individual parts of the product matrix. The size of the fat grains depends on the input raw material used as well as on the production technology. The present article describes the application of image analysis when evaluating fat grains in the appearance of cut of the Gothaj sausage whose sensory requirements are set by Czech legislation, namely by Decree No. 326/2001 Coll., as amended. The paper evaluates the size of fat mosaic grains in Gothaj sausages from different manufacturers. Fat grains were divided into ten size classes according to various size limits; specifically, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 5.0, 8.0 and over 8 mm. The upper limit of up to 8 mm in diameter was chosen based on the limit for the size of individual fat grains set by the legislation. This upper limit was not exceeded by any of the products. On the other side the mosaic had the

  5. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of fermented sheepmeat sausage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yanjun; Young, Owen A; Brooks, John D

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of fermented, cured sausages made from equivalent muscle groups of beef, pork, and sheepmeat. The last has no commercial examples and represents an unexploited opportunity. Using seven replicates of shoulder meat and subcutaneous fat, sausages were made with 64%, 29%, 4%, 2%, 0.2%, and 0.01% of lean meat, fat, NaCl, glucose, sodium pyrophosphate, and lactic culture, respectively. Following anaerobic fermentation (96 h, 30°C), there were no significant differences between the species in mean texture (hardness, springiness, adhesiveness, cohesiveness) and pH, and only minor differences were seen in color. However, although not consumer tested, it is argued that consumers would be able to pick a texture difference due to different fat melting point ranges, highest for sheepmeat. This work was followed by a sensory experiment to find out if characteristic sheepmeat flavors could be suppressed to appeal to unhabituated consumers. To simulate a very strongly characteristic sheepmeat, beef sausage mixtures (above) were spiked, or not, with 4-methyloctanoic, 4-methylnonanoic acid, and skatole (5.0, 0.35, and 0.08 mg kg−1, respectively). Sodium nitrite (at 0.1 g kg−1) and a garlic/rosemary flavor were variably added to create a 23 factorial design. In a randomized design, 60 consumers found that spiked sheepmeat flavors caused an overall significant decrease in mean liking on a 1–9 scale (5.83 vs. 5.35,P = 0.003), but this was completely negated by the garlic/rosemary addition (5.18 vs. 6.00,P < 0.001). Nitrite had no effect on liking (5.61 vs. 5.58,P = 0.82), although nitrite might be included in commercial examples to minimize fat oxidation and suppress growth of clostridia. Thus, sheepmeat flavors could be suppressed to appeal to unhabituated consumers. Commercial examples could thus be made for these consumers, but the mandatory use of the name “mutton” in some

  6. Quality of low-fat pork sausages with tomato powder as colour and functional additive during refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Il-Suk; Jin, Sang-Keun; Mandal, Prabhat Kumar; Kang, Suk-Nam

    2011-10-01

    Low fat pork sausages were formulated with tomato powder at 0% (C), 0.8% (T1), 1.2% (T2) and 1.5% (T3) levels in basic formula. With the increase in tomato powder concentration the lightness of the sausage decreased but the redness and yellowness increased significantly (p sausages with tomato powder were significantly (p sausage with tomato powder up to 1.5% was found to be well acceptable up to 30 days at refrigerated storage. This new product will have special value due to the functional additive lycopene in tomato powder.

  7. The use of ionizing radiation as a method of eliminating pathogenic microorganisms in hamburgers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarate S, Herman; Espinoza B, Juan; Maier N, Liliana; Silva, Jose R

    2003-01-01

    Radiation as a food preservation method has long been used in many countries, among them Chile. The application of this technology to brand name hamburgers was studied by Santo Tomas University together with the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission in order to eliminate pathogens such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella sp and to identify organoleptic characteristics using specific doses. A total of 144 frozen hamburgers (-18 o C) were analyzed and divided into three equal groups. Each hamburger - weighing 115 g approximately - was put into sealed polyethylene bags. The first two sample groups were sterilized with irradiation doses of 25 kGy, then inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain ATCC 25922 ISP (Instituto de Salud Publica) and Salmonella sp strain ATCC 2714-99 ISP. The inoculating strains were prepared in the Microbiology Laboratory of Santo Tomas University. The third group was not sterilized because it was the control group. The samples were treated with gamma irradiation (Co 60 ), with doses of 0, 1, 2 and 4 kGy analyzing the bacteria counts after 24 hours, 30 days and 60 days post radiation. Their values D 10 were also investigated finding values of 0.472 to 0.494 kGy for the Escherichia coli and 0.649 to 0.697 kGy for the Salmonella sp. The storage time did not influence the values D 10 . The statistical analysis reveals that there are significant differences among the species (p 0,05), due to the diverse nature of the bacteria. Similarly, storage times also showed meaningful differences between days 1, 30 and 60, but this fact was not reflected in the results obtained in the D 10 . The organoleptic analysis of hamburger was done by means of a sensory evaluation panel of 12 members, which evaluated samples with 0; 1.5 and 3 kGy. Each person tasted about 55 of each sample and evaluated nine attributes such as appearance, color, aroma, sweetness, acidity, bitterness, texture, flavor and acceptability. Statistically, no attribute showed significant

  8. The use of ionizing radiation as a method of eliminating pathogenic microorganisms in hamburgers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarate Segovia, Herman Eduardo

    2002-01-01

    Radiation as a food preservation method has long been used in many countries, among them Chile. The application of this technology to brand name hamburgers was studied by Santo Tomas University together with the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission in order to eliminate pathogens such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella sp and to identify organoleptic characteristics using specific doses. A total of 144 frozen hamburgers (-18 deg C) were analyzed and divided into three equal groups. Each hamburger - weighing 115 g approximately - was put into sealed polyethylene bags. The first two sample groups were sterilized with irradiation doses of 25 kGy, then inoculated with Escherichia coli 0157:H7 strain ATCC 25922 ISP (Instituto de Salud Publica) and Salmonella sp strain ATCC 2714-99 ISP. The inoculating strains were prepared in the Microbiology Laboratory of Santo Tomas University. The third group was not sterilized because it was the control group. The samples were treated with gamma irradiation (Co 60 ), with doses of 0, 1, 2 and 4 kGy analyzing the bacteria counts after 24 hours, 30 days and 60 days post radiation. Their values D 10 were also investigated finding values of 0.472 to 0.494 kGy for the Escherichia coli and 0.649 to 0.697 kGy for the Salmonella sp. The storage time did not influence the values D 10 . The statistical analysis reveals that there are significant differences among the species (p ≤0,05), due to the diverse nature of the bacteria. Similarly, storage times also showed meaningful differences between days 1, 30 and 60, but this fact was not reflected in the results obtained in the D 10 . The organoleptic analysis of hamburger was done by means of a sensory evaluation panel of 12 members, which evaluated samples with 0; 1.5 and 3 kGy. Each person tasted about 55 of each sample and evaluated nine attributes such as appearance, color, aroma, sweetness, acidity, bitterness, texture, flavor and acceptability. Statistically, no attribute showed

  9. Portuguese traditional sausages: different types, nutritional composition, and novel trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Marcos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditional sausages—smoked, fermented or dried—are meat products that are part of the traditional daily diet in rural Portugal, and also highly valued in major cities with an increasing demand. These ethnic meat products are manufactured mainly by small-scale industries or artisanal producers according to and/or inspired by traditional processes. They are present in a wide variety of types, many recognized for their quality (38 certified products. Presently, cure technologies used are important for the potential they represent in transformation and diversification. Additionally, they add flavors and colors to meat that are much appreciated, surpassing meat preservation proposes. A review on the types and manufacturing technological aspects associated to Portuguese traditional sausages (PTS is provided in this article. Additionally, nutritional composition of the products is presented. Future developments foreseen in the field, in the light of current knowledge and market trends, are finally addressed.

  10. Lactobacillus versmoldensis sp. nov., isolated from raw fermented sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröckel, L; Schillinger, U; Franz, C M A P; Bantleon, A; Ludwig, W

    2003-03-01

    Lactobacillus versmoldensis sp. nov. (KU-3T) was isolated from raw fermented sausages. The new species was present in high numbers, and frequently dominated the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) populations of the products. 16S rDNA sequence data revealed that the isolates are closely related to the species Lactobacillus kimchii DSM 13961T, Lactobacillus paralimentarius DSM 13238T, Lactobacillus alimentarius DSM 20249T and Lactobacillus farciminis DSM 20184T. DNA-DNA reassociation data, however, clearly distinguished the new isolates from these species; they showed a low degree of DNA relatedness with the type strains of this group of phylogenetically closely related lactobacilli. These results warrant separate species status for strain KU-3T, for which the name Lactobacillus versmoldensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KU-3T (=DSM 14857T =NCCB 100034T =ATCC BAA-478T).

  11. The Main Physical-Chemical Characteristics of Smoked Sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Iuliana Costescu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the organoleptic and physical-chemical quality of smoked sausage, produced by a manufacturer in the western part of Romania. The organoleptic examination highlighted: product shape, exterior and in section aspect, consistency, color, taste and flavor. The physical-chemical examination highlighted the content of moisture, fat, sodium chloride, nitrites and easy hydrolyzed nitrogen. Water content was under the maximum admitted limit of 58%. Medium fat value was 32.24%, by 5.76% under the 38% maximum limit. Medium sodium chloride content was 2.1%, under the maximum admitted limit of 3%. Easy hydrolyzed nitrogen registered a medium value of 26.71 mg NH3/100g product under the 45% maximum admitted limit. Nitrites content was 5.18 ppm, under the 7 ppm imposed limit.

  12. Ein Frankfurter Sicherheitsregime. Neoliberale Sicherheitsproduktion in der ,Hauptstadt des Verbrechensʼ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kern

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Während sich staatliche Sicherheitspolitik fortwährend verändert, scheint die Kritik an ihr verhältnismäßig unflexibel. Vielmehr wird der ständige Prozess der Ausdifferenzierung und Transformation der staatlichen Sicherheitsapparate von ihren Kritiker_innen seit Jahrzehnten so vehement mit Warnungen vor der Herausbildung eines totalitären Überwachungsstaates begleitet, dass diese zunehmend zu Unkenrufen verkommen. Mit dem Begriff des Sicherheitsregimes wird im Folgenden gegen einen Alarmismus argumentiert, der sich in Hinweisen auf die ständige Eskalation von Sicherheitspolitiken und eine damit einhergehende Beschneidung der Freiheit von Bürger_innen, Prekarisierten, Exkludierten oder sozialen Bewegungen erschöpft. Denn eine Kritik, die bei Skandalisierungen verbleibt, ist einerseits blind für qualitative Veränderungen. Andererseits schreibt sie selbst tradierte Herrschaftsverhältnisse fest, indem sie Vergangenes romantisiert und so an der Erzählung von der grundsätzlichen Alternativlosigkeit einer herrschaftsförmig organisierten Gesellschaft mitwirkt.Dagegen wird eine materialistische Analyseperspektive eingenommen, die die Transformationen von Politiken der Sicherheit im Kontext der historischen Entwicklung der kapitalistischen Produktionsweise begreift. Anhand von Fallbeispielen zum Polizieren der Felder häusliche Gewalt und gewaltaffine Fußballfans in Frankfurt am Main wird die neoliberale Konzeption des umfassenden Zusammenwirkens öffentlicher, privatwirtschaftlicher und zivilgesellschaftlicher Akteure empirisch skizziert und das sich ausdifferenzierende Akteursfeld in diesem Bereich dargestellt. So können auch soziale Konfliktlinien identifiziert werden, die über die herkömmliche Gegenüberstellung von Freiheit und Sicherheit hinausweisen.

  13. Effect of mechanically deboned poultry meat content on technological properties and sensory characteristics of lamb and mutton sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Abel Massingue

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study aimed to develop a value-added product concerning technological and sensory characteristics changes of the use of mechanically deboned poultry meat (MDPM as meat replacer in lamb and mutton emulsion-type sausages (mortadella. Methods Sausages were produced with lamb and mutton and with different contents of MDPM. Six treatments, using lamb or mutton and 0%, 30%, and 60% of MDPM in relation to the meat batter, were produced and analyzed for pH, proximal composition, calcium and residual nitrite content, water activity, 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, instrumental color and texture profile. The sensory profile of the mortadella’s was also evaluated by acceptance test and check-all-that-applies (CATA analysis. Results The MDPM addition increased (p<0.05 fat, residual nitrite and calcium content in the all sausage formulations, but mutton sausage had (p<0.05 higher fat and lower moisture content than lamb sausage. The pH, water activity, TBARS index and color was not affected by MDPM additions, while the mutton sausages were significantly redder (higher a*, C*, and lower h° and darker (lower L* than lamb sausages. Adding up to 60% of MDPM reduced (p<0.05 sausages hardness and chewiness. Overall, the meat replacement by MDPM increased the sausages acceptance, but the mutton sausage with 30% of MDPM replacer were the most preferred. Consumers related that pink color, glossy appearance, poultry meat-like taste, soft texture, juicy and greasy mouth feel to all sausages contain MDPM according to CATA analysis. Conclusion Mutton from culled ewes can be utilized for mortadella production with 30% replacement of lean mutton and fat by MDPM.

  14. Effect of mechanically deboned poultry meat content on technological properties and sensory characteristics of lamb and mutton sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massingue, Armando Abel; de Almeida Torres Filho, Robledo; Fontes, Paulo Rogério; de Lemos Souza Ramos, Alcinéia; Fontes, Edimar Aparecida Filomeno; Perez, Juan Ramon Olalquiaga; Ramos, Eduardo Mendes

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to develop a value-added product concerning technological and sensory characteristics changes of the use of mechanically deboned poultry meat (MDPM) as meat replacer in lamb and mutton emulsion-type sausages (mortadella). Sausages were produced with lamb and mutton and with different contents of MDPM. Six treatments, using lamb or mutton and 0%, 30%, and 60% of MDPM in relation to the meat batter, were produced and analyzed for pH, proximal composition, calcium and residual nitrite content, water activity, 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), instrumental color and texture profile. The sensory profile of the mortadella's was also evaluated by acceptance test and check-all-that-applies (CATA) analysis. The MDPM addition increased (p<0.05) fat, residual nitrite and calcium content in the all sausage formulations, but mutton sausage had (p<0.05) higher fat and lower moisture content than lamb sausage. The pH, water activity, TBARS index and color was not affected by MDPM additions, while the mutton sausages were significantly redder (higher a *, C *, and lower h °) and darker (lower L *) than lamb sausages. Adding up to 60% of MDPM reduced (p<0.05) sausages hardness and chewiness. Overall, the meat replacement by MDPM increased the sausages acceptance, but the mutton sausage with 30% of MDPM replacer were the most preferred. Consumers related that pink color, glossy appearance, poultry meat-like taste, soft texture, juicy and greasy mouth feel to all sausages contain MDPM according to CATA analysis. Mutton from culled ewes can be utilized for mortadella production with 30% replacement of lean mutton and fat by MDPM.

  15. Effect of the partial substitution of meat with irradiated sunflower meal on the quality of sausage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afifi, E.A.; Anwar, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    This work aims to study the effect of partial substitution of meat with gamma irradiated sunflower meal in the manufacturing of sausage. On the sensory and physical properties of manufactured sausage, Therefore, sunflower meal sample was divided into four groups and exposed to gamma irradiation at doses 0, 4, 8 and 12 kGy ( for improving the digestibility and functional properties protein of sunflower meal ). The polyphcnol content in-vitro protein digestibility (I.V.P.D), water absorption fat absorption and emulsion capacity of irradiated sunflower meal were determined. The obtained results indicated that the 12 kGy gamma irradiation . dose was the most effective treatment for removing the total polyphenol as the, removal percentage reached to 100%, and sequently increased the protein digestibility of sunflower to 83.24%, also the water fat absorption and emulsion capacity were markedly increased. Therefore the irradiated sample at 12 kGy was chosen for the treatment of sunflower meal using in manufacturing sausage at 2, 4 and 8% substitution level. The organoleptic evaluation of sausage samples under investigation showed that the sausage contained irradiated sunflower meal at dose of 12 kGy at 2% substitution level attained high scores in color and aroma and had the highest scores in taste and texture in comparison with the control (natural sausage ). Also it could be concluded that 2% irradiated sunflower meal at dose of 12 kGy might be used as a replacer of frozen meat in manufacturing of sausage without any adverse effect on its sensory, physical and chemical properties

  16. Effect of the Partial Substitution of Meat with Irradiated Sunflower Meal on the Quality of Sausage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afifi, E. A.M.; Anwar, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    This work aims to study the effect of partial substitution of meat with gamma irradiated sunflower meal in the manufacturing of sausage. On the sensory and physical properties of manufactured sausage, Therefore, sunflower meal sample was divided into four groups and exposed to gamma irradiation at doses 0 , 4 , 8 and 12 kGy ( for improving the digestibility and functional properties protein of sunflower meal ). The polyphenol content in-vitro protein digestibility (I.V.P.D), water absorption fat absorption and emulsion capacity of irradiated sunflower meal were determined .The obtained results indicated that the 12 kGy gamma irradiation dose was the most effective treatment for removing the total polyphenol as the removal percentage reached to 100%, and sequently increased the protein digestibility of sunflower to 83.24%, also the water fat absorption and emulsion capacity were markedly increased. Therefore the irradiated sample at 12 kGy was chosen for the treatment of sunflower meal using in manufacturing sausage at 2, 4 and 8% substitution level .The organoleptic evaluation of sausage samples under investigation showed that the sausage contained irradiated sunflower meal at dose of 12 kGy at 2% substitution level attained high scores in color and aroma and had the highest scores in taste and texture in comparison with the control (natural sausage ). Also it could be concluded that 2% irradiated sunflower meal at dose of 12 kGy might be used as a replacer of frozen meat in manufacturing of sausage without any adverse effect on its sensory, physical and chemical properties.

  17. Manufacturing of low-fat chicken sausage and keeping its quality by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Daiem, M.H.

    2007-01-01

    The present study was carried out to study the possibility of manufacturing low-fat chicken breast sausage formulated with aged fresh chicken breast meat, 8% beef fat ratio and other ingredients. Thc manufactured sausage was subjected to gamma irradiation at doses of 0, 2, 4 and 6 kGy to improve its hygienic quality and extending its shelf-life. The irradiated samples were stored at refrigeration temperature (4± degree C), and the effects of gamma irradiation and cold storage on their microbiological, chemical and Sensory attributes were studied. Irradiated samples at dose of 2 kGy reduced the counts of total bacterial, lactic acid bacteria, total molds and yeasts and Bacillus cereus. Irradiation doses of 4 and 6 kGy completely eliminated Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, enterobacteriaceae and Salmonella spp. On the other hand, applied doses gamma irradiation under investigation had no remarkable effects on thc chemical composition, ph values and total volatile nitrogen (TVN), but increased the amounts of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs) of these product. irradiation treatments had no effects on sensory properties (appearance, texture and odor) of all fresh sausage samples. Moreover, fried sausage prepared from irradiated raw sausage had high sensory acceptability similar to those prepared from non-irradiated raw sausage. irradiation at doses of 2, 4 and 6 kGy prolonged the refrigeration shelf-life of fresh low-fat chicken breast sausage to 11, 20 and 27 days, respectively, compared to 5 days for non-irradiated samples without any adverse effects on sensory properties. Thus, it can be recommended as a healthy product especially for those who need to low fat and cholesterol foods

  18. "PULS." - a blog-based online-magazine for students of medicine of the Goethe University Frankfurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurche, Bettina; Klauer, Gertrud; Nürnberger, Frank

    2013-01-01

    In the context of nationwide protests 2009 also students of the faculty of medicine/dentistry at Goethe-University in Frankfurt demanded more transparency and communication. To satisfy these demands, a web 2.0-tool offered an innovative solution: A blog-based online-magazine for students and other faculty-members. The online-magazine "PULS." is realized with the share-ware blog-software (wordpress version 3.1.3) and is conceived and written by an online-journalist. "PULS." is available from https://newsmagazin.puls.med.uni-frankfurt.de/wp/. The articles are generated from own investigations and from ideas of different groups of the faculty- deanship, students and lecturers. A user-analysis is conducted with the open-source software Piwik and considers the data security. Additionally, every year an anonymous online-user-survey (Survey Monkey) is conducted. "PULS." is continuously online since 14.02.2010 and has published 806 articles (state: 27.11.2012) and has about 2400 readers monthly. The content focuses on the needs of Frankfurt medical students. The close cooperation with different groups of the faculty - deanship, students and lecturers - furthermore guarantees themes relevant to the academic faculty. "PULS." flanks complex projects and decisions with background-information and communicates them understandable. The user-evaluation shows a growing number of readers and a high acceptance for the online-magazine, its themes and its style. The web 2.0-tool "Blog" and the web-specific language comply with media habits of the main target group, the students of the faculty medicine/dentistry. Thus, "PULS." has proven as a suitable and strategic instrument. It pushes towards a higher transparency, more communication and a stronger identification of the students with their faculty.

  19. "PULS." – a Blog-based Online-Magazine for Students of Medicine of the Goethe University Frankfurt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurche, Bettina; Klauer, Gertrud; Nürnberger, Frank

    2013-01-01

    In the context of nationwide protests 2009 also students of the faculty of medicine/dentistry at Goethe-University in Frankfurt demanded more transparency and communication. To satisfy these demands, a web 2.0-tool offered an innovative solution: A blog-based online-magazine for students and other faculty-members. The online-magazine „PULS.“ is realized with the share-ware blog-software (wordpress version 3.1.3) and is conceived and written by an online-journalist. „PULS.“ is available from https://newsmagazin.puls.med.uni-frankfurt.de/wp/. The articles are generated from own investigations and from ideas of different groups of the faculty– deanship, students and lecturers. A user-analysis is conducted with the open-source software Piwik and considers the data security. Additionally, every year an anonymous online-user-survey (Survey Monkey) is conducted. “PULS.” is continuously online since 14.02.2010 and has published 806 articles (state: 27.11.2012) and has about 2400 readers monthly. The content focuses on the needs of Frankfurt medical students. The close cooperation with different groups of the faculty - deanship, students and lecturers - furthermore guarantees themes relevant to the academic faculty. “PULS.” flanks complex projects and decisions with background-information and communicates them understandable. The user-evaluation shows a growing number of readers and a high acceptance for the online-magazine, its themes and its style. The web 2.0-tool “Blog” and the web-specific language comply with media habits of the main target group, the students of the faculty medicine/dentistry. Thus, “PULS.” has proven as a suitable and strategic instrument. It pushes towards a higher transparency, more communication and a stronger identification of the students with their faculty. PMID:23467571

  20. Analysis of Sources and Sinks of Mercury in the Urban Water Cycle of Frankfurt am Main, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imke Fricke

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Mercury (Hg is still a focus of environmental research, since its levels in fish frequently exceed the Environmental Quality Standard (EQS of 20 µg/kg for biota defined by the European Water Framework Directive (Directive 2008/105/EC. Current Hg levels in Abramis brama from German rivers are in the range of 73–346 µg/kg wet weight (2009 and exceed the EQS by a factor of 3.7–17.3. Therefore, it is important to identify the sources of Hg pollution in the aquatic environment and to develop effective strategies for reducing the input into associated river systems. The aim of the present study was to analyze Hg in the urban water cycle of the city of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. Samples were taken from the river Main crosscutting the city and its tributaries. In addition, precipitation, stormwater runoff, effluents of two municipal WWTPs, and stormwater management structures such as combined sewer overflows and stormwater retention basins have been analyzed. Loads of Hg have been determined based on the measured concentrations and a Hg mass balance for the aquatic system was created. A total of 160 water samples were analyzed by cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectroscopy (CVAFS according to US EPA Method 1631. Results from the mass balance have shown that approximately 5 kg Hg/a enter and 15 kg Hg/a leave the study area of Frankfurt am Main via the river Main. The largest amount of Hg (24.58 kg/a throughout the urban water cycle of Frankfurt am Main is transported via wastewater. However, municipal WWTPs in Frankfurt am Main have been identified as the largest Hg sink, since 99.7% (24.5 kg/a of the Hg is shifted from the sewage water and stormwater during treatment into the sewage sludge. Thus, the increase of the Hg load in the river Main from 5 to 15 kg/a has to be attributed to other sources such as 3 industrial WWTPs, groundwater and non-treated stormwater runoff during heavy rain events.

  1. Hamburg's Family Literacy project (FLY) in the context of international trends and recent evaluation findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabkin, Gabriele; Geffers, Stefanie; Hanemann, Ulrike; Heckt, Meike; Pietsch, Marcus

    2018-05-01

    The authors of this article begin with an introduction to the holistic concept of family literacy and learning and its implementation in various international contexts, paying special attention to the key role played by the notions of lifelong learning and intergenerational learning. The international trends and experiences they outline inspired and underpinned the concept of a prize-winning Family Literacy project called FLY, which was piloted in 2004 in Hamburg, Germany. FLY aims to build bridges between preschools, schools and families by actively involving parents and other family members in children's literacy education. Its three main pillars are: (1) parents' participation in their children's classes; (2) special sessions for parents (without their children); and (3) joint out-of-school activities for teachers, parents and children. These three pillars help families from migrant backgrounds, in particular, to develop a better understanding of German schools and to play a more active role in school life. To illustrate how the FLY concept is integrated into everyday school life, the authors showcase one participating Hamburg school before presenting their own recent study on the impact of FLY in a group of Hamburg primary schools with several years of FLY experience. The results of the evaluation clearly indicate that the project's main objectives have been achieved: (1) parents of children in FLY schools feel more involved in their children's learning and are offered more opportunities to take part in school activities; (2) the quality of teaching in these schools has improved, with instruction developing a more skills-based focus due to markedly better classroom management und a more supportive learning environment; and (3) children in FLY schools are more likely to have opportunities to accumulate experience in out-of-school contexts and to be exposed to environments that stimulate and enhance their literacy skills in a tangible way.

  2. Study on the synergic effect of natural compounds on the microbial quality decay of packed fish hamburger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbo, M R; Speranza, B; Filippone, A; Granatiero, S; Conte, A; Sinigaglia, M; Del Nobile, M A

    2008-10-31

    The effectiveness of natural compounds in slowing down the microbial quality decay of refrigerated fish hamburger is addressed in this study. In particular, the control of the microbiological spoilage by combined use of three antimicrobials, and the determination of their optimal composition to extend the fish hamburger Microbiological Stability Limit (MAL) are the main objectives of this work. Thymol, grapefruit seed extract (GFSE) and lemon extract were tested for monitoring the cell growth of the main fish spoilage microorganisms (Pseudomonas fluorescens, Photobacterium phosphoreum and Shewanella putrefaciens), inoculated in fish hamburgers, and the growth of mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria. A Central Composite Design (CCD) was developed to highlight a possible synergic effect of the above natural compounds. Results showed an increase in the MAL value for hamburgers mixed with the antimicrobial compounds, compared to the control sample. The optimal antimicrobial compound composition, which corresponds to the maximal MAL value determined in this study, is: 110 mgL(-1) of thymol, 100 mgL(-1) of GFSE and 120 mgL(-1) of lemon extract. The presence of the natural compounds delay the sensorial quality decay without compromising the flavor of the fish hamburgers.

  3. Defining Moments in MMWR History: 1993 E. coli O157:H7 Hamburger Outbreak

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-05-31

    During the 1993 E. coli O157 outbreak, four children died, and approximately 700 persons in four states became ill with severe and often bloody diarrhea after eating hamburgers from fast food restaurants. The first reports of CDC’s investigation into this deadly outbreak were published in MMWR. In this podcast, Dr. Beth Bell shares what it was like to serve as one of CDC’s lead investigators – a boots-on-the-ground disease detective -- for the historic outbreak.  Created: 5/31/2017 by MMWR.   Date Released: 5/31/2017.

  4. Technological and sensory characteristics of reduced/low-fat, low-salt frankfurters as affected by the addition of konjac and seaweed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Colmenero, F; Cofrades, S; López-López, I; Ruiz-Capillas, C; Pintado, T; Solas, M T

    2010-03-01

    This paper reports the effect of an edible seaweed, Sea Spaghetti (Himanthalia elongata), on the physicochemical (emulsion stability, cooking loss, colour, texture, residual nitrite and microstructure) and sensory characteristics of reduced- and low-fat, low-salt (NaCl) frankfurters prepared with konjac gel as a fat substitute. The effects on emulsion stability of substituting konjac gel for pork backfat were conditioned by the proportion of the substitution. Incorporation of a combination of Sea Spaghetti/konjac gel (accompanied by reduction in salt) increased (Psalt frankfurters varied depending on the proportion of konjac gel used in the formulation. Morphological differences in frankfurter microstructure were observed as fat content was reduced and konjac gel increased. Incorporation of a combination of Sea Spaghetti/konjac gel caused the formation of a more heterogeneous structure, in which the seaweed was integrated in the meat protein matrix. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Modeling Bacteriocin Resistance and Inactivation of Listeria innocua LMG 13568 by Lactobacillus sakei CTC 494 under Sausage Fermentation Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Frédéric; Lievens, Kristoff; De Vuyst, Luc

    2005-01-01

    In mixed cultures, bacteriocin production by the sausage isolate Lactobacillus sakei CTC 494 rapidly inactivated sensitive Listeria innocua LMG 13568 cells, even at low bacteriocin activity levels. A small fraction of the listerial population was bacteriocin resistant. However, sausage fermentation conditions inhibited regrowth of resistant cells. PMID:16269805

  6. Combined Effect of Kimchi Powder and Onion Peel Extract on Quality Characteristics of Emulsion Sausages Prepared with Irradiated Pork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Lee, Ju-Woon; Lee, Si-Kyung

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of kimchi powder and onion peel extract on the quality characteristics of emulsion sausage manufactured with irradiated pork. The emulsion sausages were formulated with 2% kimchi powder and/or 0.05% onion peel extract. The changes in pH value of all treatments were similar, depending on storage periods. The addition of kimchi powder increased the redness and yellowness of the emulsion sausage. The addition of onion peel extract decreased the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances value of the emulsion sausages prepared with irradiated pork. The volatile basic nitrogen value of the emulsion sausage prepared with kimchi powder was the highest, whereas that of the emulsion sausage prepared with onion peel extract was the lowest. The treatment without kimchi powder or onion peel extract and the treatments prepared with onion peel extract showed lower microbial populations than the other treatment. Sensory evaluations indicated that a higher acceptability was attained when kimchi powder was added to the emulsion sausages manufactured with irradiated pork. In conclusion, our results suggest that combined use of kimchi powder and onion peel extract could improve quality characteristics and shelf stability of the emulsion sausage formulated with irradiated pork during chilled storage. PMID:26761840

  7. Colour formation in fermented sausages by meat-associated staphylococci with different nitrite- and nitrate-reductase activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gøtterup, Jacob; Olsen, Karsten; Knøchel, Susanne; Tjener, Karsten; Stahnke, Louise H; Møller, Jens K S

    2008-04-01

    Three Staphylococcus strains, S. carnosus, S. simulans and S. saprophyticus, selected due to their varying nitrite and/or nitrate-reductase activities, were used to initiate colour formation during sausage fermentation. During fermentation of sausages with either nitrite or nitrate added, colour was followed by L(∗)a(∗)b measurements and the content of nitrosylmyoglobin (MbFe(II)NO) quantified by electron spin resonance (ESR). MbFe(II)NO was rapidly formed in sausages with added nitrite independent of the presence of nitrite reducing bacteria, whereas the rate of MbFe(II)NO formation in sausages with added nitrate depended on the specific Staphylococcus strain. Strains with high nitrate-reductase activity showed a significantly faster rate of pigment formation, but other factors were of influence as well. Product stability for the sliced, packaged sausage was evaluated as surface colour and oxidation by autofluorescence and hexanal content, respectively. No significant direct effect of the Staphylococcus addition was observed, however, there was a clear correspondence between high initial amount of MbFe(II)NO in the different sausages and the colour stability during storage. Autofluorescence data correlated well with hexanal content, and may be used as predictive tools. Overall, nitrite- and nitrate-reductase activities of Staphylococcus strains in nitrite-cured sausages were of limited importance regarding colour development, while in nitrate-cured sausages strains with higher nitrate reductase activity were crucial for ensuring optimal colour formation during initial fermentation stages.

  8. Studies on emulsion-type buffalo meat sausages incorporating skeletal and offal meat with different levels of pork fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, K R; Sharma, N

    1990-01-01

    Ready-to-eat emulsion-type buffalo meat sausages were developed by using a combination of 80% meat components with 20% pork back fat. The meat components were constituted of 70 parts buffalo skeletal meat and 30 parts offal meat (rumen meat and heart meat in equal proportions). The emulsion stability, cooking losses of emulsions and sausages, composition of cooked sausages, eating quality of sausages and the microscopic characteristics of the raw emulsion and cooked sausages were studied. The light microscope micrograph of the raw emulsion showed uniformly well distributed fat globules embedded in a dense protein gel. The cooked emulsion also showed uniformly sized fat globules well distributed in a fine, compact, coagulated protein gel, which retained their original spherical shape. Good quality emulsion-type sausages could be produced having a high emulsion stability (0·87 ± 0·07 ml fat release/100 g emulsion); a low emulsion cooking loss (9·60 ± 0·60%) and a low sausage cooking loss (8·83 ± 0·48%). The overall acceptability of sausages was also high. Copyright © 1990. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Sensory properties and fatty acids profiles of fermented dry sausages made of pork meat from various breeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parunović, N.; Radović, Č.; Savić, R.

    2017-09-01

    In this study, the parallel examinations on fatty acid profiles and sensory properties of fermented dry sausages are presented. Three types of kulen and sremska sausages were made, which varied depending on the percentage of meat and fat derived from different pig breeds: autochthonous (Swallow-Belly Mangalitsa and Moravka) and commercial (Swedish Landrace). In sausages made from meat of commercial pig breed, the highest cholesterol content was detected. However, sausage made from the Mangalitsa pork meat contained higher levels of monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) and unsaturated fatty acid (USFA), and lower saturated fatty acid levels (SFA).The level of polyunsaturated (PUFA) in sausage made of Landrace pork meat was significantly higher than levels in other types. These differences between fatty acids were mostly deriving by higher total n-6 PUFA content. In a sausage made of Mangulitsa meat, the values of atherogenic (IA) and thrombogenic (IT) health lipid indexes are lower. Kulen and sremska sausages made from the Mangalitsa pork meat was superior in terms of colour, odour, taste, after taste and overall acceptability. This study demonstrate that pig breed have an effect on the chemical content, fatty acids profiles and sensory properties of dry fermented sausages.

  10. Sensory evaluation of sausages with orange peel flour and maguey leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Bernardo Escalona-Buendia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Agroindustrial by-products are mainly used for animal feeding and biomass for biodiesel production. In fruit processing, around the 70% of the raw material weight is considered as a residue, mainly peels and seeds, but they have high insoluble fiber content. Orange peel and maguey leaf, previously used for barbacoa preparation, were employed as functional ingredients in sausages. To determinate the acceptance of new food products (neophobia 300 surveys were conducted to consumers in supermarkets in the south part of Mexico City. Additionally, R-index was determined to know if there were any difference between the texture and flavor of the sausages with these ingredients using consumers, and a quantitative descriptive profile was carried out. Results shown that most of the surveys showed interest to consume healthy foods, but certain neophobia was observed to this kind of meat products (sausages with orange peel or maguey leaf due to strange flavors. R index values showed that flavor is affected by this formulation, most in maguey leaf samples, but not in texture (firmness. Descriptive sensory profiles showed the attributes distinguishing the fiber added sausages versus a control. The conclusion is that the use of agroindustrial by-products is a good source of functional ingredient in sausages; however, its flavor has to be more developed to assure consumer acceptance.

  11. Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Effects of Pistacia lentiscus L. Extracts in Pork Sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botsaris, George; Orphanides, Antia; Yiannakou, Evgenia; Gekas, Vassilis; Goulas, Vlasios

    2015-12-01

    Pistacia lentiscus fruits are ingredients of traditional Cypriot sausages. The objective of this study is to evaluate P. lentiscus extracts as natural additives to the sausages. First, the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of fruit and leaf extracts were determined. Results revealed that leaves are richer source of polyphenolic antioxidants than fruits, with methanol being the better extraction solvent. In the next step, the antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of methanolic extracts (300 mg/kg) in the pork sausage formulation were investigated. Peroxide, acid and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance values demonstrated that both fruit and leaf extracts reduced the rate of lipid oxidation of sausages at 4 °C. Total viable count revealed significant differences on the fifth day of storage, with better microbial inhibition by leaf extract. No significant differences between the extracts were observed after the tenth day of storage. Overall, the extracts can be used to prevent lipid oxidation and reduce microbial spoilage during the first days of storage of fresh traditional pork sausages.

  12. Coupling of sausage, kink, and magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities in a cylindrical liner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weis, M. R.; Zhang, P.; Lau, Y. Y.; Gilgenbach, R. M.; Schmit, P. F.; Peterson, K. J.; Hess, M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the coupling of magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor (MRT), sausage, and kink modes in an imploding cylindrical liner, using ideal MHD. A uniform axial magnetic field of arbitrary value is included in each region: liner, its interior, and its exterior. The dispersion relation is solved exactly, for arbitrary radial acceleration (-g), axial wavenumber (k), azimuthal mode number (m), liner aspect ratio, and equilibrium quantities in each region. For small k, a positive g (inward radial acceleration in the lab frame) tends to stabilize the sausage mode, but destabilize the kink mode. For large k, a positive g destabilizes both the kink and sausage mode. Using the 1D-HYDRA simulation results for an equilibrium model that includes a pre-existing axial magnetic field and a preheated fuel, we identify several stages of MRT-sausage-kink mode evolution. We find that the m = 1 kink-MRT mode has a higher growth rate at the initial stage and stagnation stage of the implosion, and that the m = 0 sausage-MRT mode dominates at the main part of implosion. This analysis also sheds light on a puzzling feature in Harris' classic paper of MRT [E. G. Harris, Phys. Fluids 5, 1057 (1962)]. An attempt is made to interpret the persistence of the observed helical structures [Awe et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 235005 (2013)] in terms of non-axisymmetric eigenmode

  13. Quality of hurdle treated pork sausages during refrigerated (4 ± 1°C) storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R; Anjaneyulu, A S R; Kondaiah, N

    2010-06-01

    Pork sausages developed using hurdle technology was evaluated during refrigerated storage (4 ± 1°C). Hurdles incorporated were low pH, low water activity, vacuum packaging and post package reheating. Dipping in potassium sorbate solution prior to vacuum packaging was also tried. Hurdle treatment significantly (p sausages during storage, as indicated by TBARS and tyrosine values. Incorporation of hurdles decreased the growth of different spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. Combination of pH, water activity, vacuum packaging and reheating inhibited the growth of yeast and molds up to 12 days, while additional dipping of sausages in 1% potassium sorbate solution prior to packaging inhibited their growth even on 30(th) day of storage. Incorporation of hurdles resulted in initial reduction in all the sensory attributes, but they helped to maintain these attributes for significantly longer period compared to control. Hurdle treated sausages exhibited no spoilage signs even on day 30, while the control sausages were found acceptable only up to 18 days.

  14. Effect of heat treatment and packaging systems on the stability of fish sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Rafaela Dallabona

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical and microbiological stability of sausages produced from mechanically separated fish meat (MSM obtained from Nile tilapia filleting residues. Different heat treatments (pasteurization or smoking and packaging systems (conventional or vacuum were used. The sausages were characterized for chemical composition, weight loss, water activity, instrumental texture and sensorial analysis. Additionally, microbiological analysis, instrumental color, pH, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS and total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N were assessed during storage. No presence of Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp. or coagulase-positive Staphylococcus was detected; however, the psychrotrophic count in pasteurized sausages exceeded the limits allowed for consumption. pH and lipid oxidation speed (TBARS values were reduced when vacuum packaging was used. Volatile nitrogenous bases remained virtually constant during the storage period, and higher values were observed in smoked products. Pasteurized sausages remain stable for 10 and 15 days in conventional and vacuum packages, respectively, and smoked sausages remain stable for 25 and 45 days in conventional and vacuum packages, respectively.

  15. Partial substitution of nitrite by chitosan and the effect on the quality properties of pork sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario García

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of partial nitrite replacement by chitosan on the quality of Ham Visking (a type of pork sausages. Five Ham Visking formulations were elaborated modifying the sodium nitrite (0.011; 0.016 or 0.0212% and chitosan concentrations (0.25 or 0.5% in the products. Sausages were stored at 4 ºC and physicochemical, microbiological, and sensorial evaluations were performed in order to estimate their shelf life. Chitosan can be used in pork sausages without affecting ensory attributes such as color although the panelists detected textural differences among the samples with chitosan, which suggests that there is some influence of deacetylation degree of chitosan on the textural behavior of sausages which still needed to be explained for a successful application of chitosan in meat products. The reduction of residual sodium nitrite did not affect the color and flavor of such products, but the use of chitosan increasedsignificantly the shelf life of sausages.

  16. Features of Lactobacillus sakei isolated from Italian sausages: focus on strains from Ventricina del Vastese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Amadoro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study bacterial isolates from Ventricina del Vastese sausage, previously identified as Lactobacillus (L. sakei, were characterised genotypically, physiologically and on the basis of some technologically relevant traits. A total of 70 L. sakei isolates from sausages manufactured with spontaneous fermentation in the same producing plant were taken into account. Six genotypic groups were distinguished on the basis of Rep-polymerase chain reaction with the GTG5 primer, some of which were found only in the sausages ripened at temperatures lower than 10°C for the first two months and lower than 16°C for the remaining three months, according to the traditional ripening process. Six strains were selected as representative of the genotypic profiles and further characterised. A high diversity in their fermentation profiles was observed, and different groups were separated on the basis of growth and acidifying capacity in meat extract. None of the strains produced histamine or tyramine in vitro. One strain was able to slightly inhibit Listeria (L. monocytogenes and L. innocua and all six strains were able to slightly inhibit Enterobacteriaceae isolated from Ventricina del Vastese sausages in vitro. Results showed that most L. sakei strains can have a role in improving the safety of low acidity fermented sausages, even though a limited acidifying capacity was observed in a meat-like substrate, and that L. sakei strains able to produce biogenic amines are unlikely to occur in spontaneously fermented meat products.

  17. Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Effects of Pistacia lentiscus L. Extracts in Pork Sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antia Orphanides

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pistacia lentiscus fruits are ingredients of traditional Cypriot sausages. The objective of this study is to evaluate P. lentiscus extracts as natural additives to the sausages. First, the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of fruit and leaf extracts were determined. Results revealed that leaves are richer source of polyphenolic antioxidants than fruits, with methanol being the better extraction solvent. In the next step, the antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of methanolic extracts (300 mg/kg in the pork sausage formulation were investigated. Peroxide, acid and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance values demonstrated that both fruit and leaf extracts reduced the rate of lipid oxidation of sausages at 4 °C. Total viable count revealed significant differences on the fifth day of storage, with better microbial inhibition by leaf extract. No significant differences between the extracts were observed after the tenth day of storage. Overall, the extracts can be used to prevent lipid oxidation and reduce microbial spoilage during the first days of storage of fresh traditional pork sausages.

  18. Sensory properties, consumer liking and choice determinants of Lucanian dry cured sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braghieri, Ada; Piazzolla, Nicoletta; Carlucci, Angela; Bragaglio, Andrea; Napolitano, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Based on a food choice questionnaire we identified as the most influential aspects affecting consumer choice of Lucanian dry cured sausages: taste, animal health and addition of preservatives. Therefore, as a second step we conducted a study to assess the effect of preservative addition on sausage sensory properties and consumer liking, with a particular emphasis on taste. The addition of preservatives did not change the perception of taste attributes by an experienced panel, whereas differences were detected in terms of odor, texture and color attributes. However, consumers did not express a preference for a particular product in terms of overall liking, taste/flavor liking and texture liking, whereas appearance liking was higher for sausages containing preservatives. Since sausage taste was unaffected by the addition of preservative, in order to prevent the potentially detrimental effect of a label indicating their presence, producers should make an effort to obtain high quality Lucanian dry cured sausages without using them. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Bacteriological evaluation of fresh chicken sausage submitted to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, Alexandre

    2002-01-01

    light of the lack of present data on the irradiation of fresh chicken sausage, the objective of this study is to evaluate determine the efficiency of this method as a process for reducing the microbial load via measurement of the bacteriology of the product before and after gamma radiation. 45 sample of chicken sausage(acquired directly from the poultry industry) were prepared divided in 3 treatments: the first is a control, the second and third using application of 1,5 and 3,0 kGy, respectively. The chicken sausages irradiated with a dose of 1,5 kGy did not have, statistically significant results apparent in the bacteriological measures. Samples irradiated with 3,0 kGy did experience statistically significant reductions. It is concluded that the irradiating the product with a dose of 3,0 kGy is more effective for the reduction of bacterial population, with the data in these trials indicating a 95,3% reduction in total coliforms, 100% removal of fecal coliforms, and 84,0% reduction of mesophiles, relative to the control samples. (author)

  20. Effect of Caesalpinia sappan L. extract on physico-chemical properties of emulsion-type pork sausage during cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sang-Keun; Ha, So-Ra; Choi, Jung-Seok

    2015-12-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of extract from heart wood of Caesalpinia sappan on the physico-chemical properties and to find the appropriate addition level in the emulsion-type pork sausage during cold storage. The pH of treatments with C. sappan extract was significantly lower than control and T1 during cold storage periods (Pextract. Also, the texture properties and sensory of sausages containing C. sappan extract were decreased compared to control. Inclusion of the C. sappan extract in sausages resulted in lower lightness and higher yellowness, chroma and hue values. However, the antioxidant, antimicrobial activity, and volatile basic nitrogen in the emulsion-type pork sausages with C. sappan extract showed increased quality characteristics during cold storage. In conclusion, the proper addition level of C. sappan extract was 0.1% on the processing of emulsion-type pork sausage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Colour formation in fermented sausages by meat-associated staphylococci with different nitrite- and nitrate-reductase activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtterup, Jacob; Olsen, Karsten; Knøchel, Susanne

    2008-01-01

    nitrate depended on the specific Staphylococcus strain. Strains with high nitrate-reductase activity showed a significantly faster rate of pigment formation, but other factors were of influence as well. Product stability for the sliced, packaged sausage was evaluated as surface colour and oxidation......Three Staphylococcus strains, S. carnosus, S. simulans and S. saprophyticus, selected due to their varying nitrite and/or nitrate-reductase activities, were used to initiate colour formation during sausage fermentation. During fermentation of sausages with either nitrite or nitrate added, colour...... with hexanal content, and may be used as predictive tools. Overall, nitrite- and nitrate-reductase activities of Staphylococcus strains in nitrite-cured sausages were of limited importance regarding colour development, while in nitrate-cured sausages strains with higher nitrate reductase activity were crucial...

  2. Microbiological, physicochemical and sensory parameters of dry fermented sausages manufactured with high hydrostatic pressure processed raw meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omer, M K; Prieto, B; Rendueles, E; Alvarez-Ordoñez, A; Lunde, K; Alvseike, O; Prieto, M

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this trial was to describe physicochemical, microbiological and organoleptic characteristics of dry fermented sausages produced from high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) pre-processed trimmings. During ripening of the meat products pH, weight, water activity (aw), and several microbiological parameters were measured at zero, eight, fifteen days and after 6weeks. Sensory characteristics were estimated at day 15 and after six weeks by a test panel by using several sensory tests. Enterobacteriaceae were not detected in sausages from HHP-processed trimmings. Fermentation was little affected, but weight and aw of the HHP-processed sausages decreased faster during ripening. HHP-treated sausages were consistently less favoured than non HHP-treated sausages, but the strategy may be an alternative approach if the process is optimized. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) Rhizome as an Antioxidant Dietary Fiber in Cooked Sausage: Effects on Physicochemical and Sensory Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Youn-Kyung; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Kim, Yong-Jae; Shin, Dong-Jin; Kim, Kyung-Il; Lee, Hye-Jin; Kim, Na-Rae; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the physicochemical and sensory properties of cooked emulsion sausages containing different levels of lotus rhizome powder (0, 1, 2, and 3%, based on total weight). Lotus rhizome powder had no significant ( p >0.05) impact on pH, moisture, protein, or ash content of sausage. However, fat content was slightly but significantly ( p color of cooked sausage compared to control. Increase in lotus rhizome level slightly improved the emulsion stability and apparent viscosity. Significant ( p color and juiciness scores. However, cooked sausages exhibited similar overall acceptability regardless of the level of lotus rhizome powder added to sausages. Therefore, lotus rhizome powder, an antioxidant dietary fiber, could be used as an effective natural ingredient in meat products for the development of healthier and functional food.

  4. Against the wearing of anti-nuclear buttons by teachers. Hamburg Administrative Court, decision of March 6, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-01

    In its decision the Administrative Court of Hamburg confirms the interdiction of the Hamburg School Board, directed to a mistress of a secondary school, from wearing the button 'Nuclear power - No, thanks' at school and in classrooms, and it dismisses the teacher's appeal. According to the Hamburg Law on Civil Servants, and as a civil servant, she has to exercise restraint with regard to political activities, i.e., she has to stop wearing this button. Considering carefully both, her duties with regard to the educational task incumbent on schools, and her basic right to express her opinion freely, it has to be considered that this restraint only refers to the service rendered by her in school. In addition, she may express her views during classroom discussions, too, or when she deals with this problem in class.

  5. Changes in antigenicity of porcine serum albumin in gamma-irradiated sausage extract by treatment with pepsin and trypsin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Koth-Bong-Woo-Ri; Song, Eu-Jin [Department of Food Science and Technology/Institute of Food Science, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, So-Young [Traditional Food Research Group, Korea Food Research Institute, Seongnam 463-746 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin-Gyu [Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ju-Woon [National Federation of Fisheries Cooperatives, Fisheries Economic Institute, Seoul 138-827 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Myung-Woo [Department of Culinary Nutrition, Woosong University, Daejon 300-718 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Dong-Hyun, E-mail: dhahn@pknu.ac.kr [Department of Food Science and Technology/Institute of Food Science, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    Pork is known as an allergenic food with porcine serum albumin (PSA, 66 kDa) representing the major allergen. This study was conducted to investigate the change in antigenicity of PSA in gamma-irradiated sausage extract treated with pepsin and trypsin. Sausage products (A and B) were irradiated at 1, 3, 10, and 20 kGy. After irradiation, sausage proteins were extracted and digested with pepsin (1:200, 30 min) and trypsin (1:300, 5, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min). The binding ability of PSA in extracts of the irradiated sausages (A and B) decreased by over 3 kGy relative to the binding ability of PSA in extracts of intact sausages and showed no notable differences when the dose of radiation ranged from 3 to 20 kGy. After treatment with pepsin and trypsin, the binding ability of PSA in extracts of the irradiated sausages was decreased more relative to that of intact sausages and showed no significant differences when the period of trypsin treatment is increased or when the dose of irradiation is increased. The sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) results indicated that there was no visible change in the intensity of the PSA band in extracts of the irradiated sausages. After pepsin and trypsin treatment, the intensity of PSA band faded with increasing doses of irradiation. In conclusion, antigenicity of PSA in pork sausages could be reduced by gamma irradiation. - Highlights: > Change in antigenicity of PSA in irradiated sausage extract (ISE) was examined. > Binding ability of PSA in ISE was decreased compared to intact extract. > Binding ability of PSA in ISE after enzyme treatments was also further decreased. > Intensity of PSA band in ISE after enzyme treatments became weak.

  6. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella isolated from a variety of raw meat sausages in Gaborone (Botswana) retail stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaxa, Ronald Gaelekolwe; Matsheka, Maitshwarelo Ignatius; Mpoloka, Sununguko Wata; Gashe, Berhanu Abegaz

    2012-04-01

    The objective of the study was to provide baseline data on the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella in different types of raw meat sausages directly accessible to the consumers in Gaborone, Botswana. A total of 300 raw sausages comprising 79 beef, 78 pork, 72 chicken, and 71 mutton samples were concurrently analyzed for the presence of Salmonella using a conventional culture method and a validated PCR method. The PCR assay results were in full concordance with those of the conventional culture method for the detection of Salmonella. Sixty-five (21.7%) of 300 samples were positive for Salmonella by both the conventional culture method and PCR assay. Even though more chicken samples contained Salmonella than did any other sausage type, the difference in the presence of Salmonella among the four sausages types was not significant. Eleven serotypes were identified, and Salmonella enterica subsp. salamae II was most prevalent in all the sausage types. Beef sausages generally had higher mesophilic bacterial counts than did the other three sausage types. However, higher microbial counts were not reflective of the presence of salmonellae. Susceptibility of the Salmonella enterica serotypes to 20 antimicrobial agents was determined, and Salmonella Muenchen was resistant to the widest array of agents and was mostly isolated from chicken sausages. Regardless of the meat of origin, all 65 Salmonella isolates were resistant to at least four antimicrobial agents: amikacin, gentamicin, cefuroxime, and tombramycin. This resistance profile group was the most common in all four sausage types, comprising 90% of all Salmonella isolates from beef, 71% from pork, 63% from mutton, and 35% from chicken. These results suggest that raw sausages pose a risk of transmitting multidrug-resistant Salmonella isolates to consumers.

  7. Changes in antigenicity of porcine serum albumin in gamma-irradiated sausage extract by treatment with pepsin and trypsin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Koth-Bong-Woo-Ri; Song, Eu-Jin; Lee, So-Young; Park, Jin-Gyu; Lee, Ju-Woon; Byun, Myung-Woo; Ahn, Dong-Hyun

    2011-01-01

    Pork is known as an allergenic food with porcine serum albumin (PSA, 66 kDa) representing the major allergen. This study was conducted to investigate the change in antigenicity of PSA in gamma-irradiated sausage extract treated with pepsin and trypsin. Sausage products (A and B) were irradiated at 1, 3, 10, and 20 kGy. After irradiation, sausage proteins were extracted and digested with pepsin (1:200, 30 min) and trypsin (1:300, 5, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min). The binding ability of PSA in extracts of the irradiated sausages (A and B) decreased by over 3 kGy relative to the binding ability of PSA in extracts of intact sausages and showed no notable differences when the dose of radiation ranged from 3 to 20 kGy. After treatment with pepsin and trypsin, the binding ability of PSA in extracts of the irradiated sausages was decreased more relative to that of intact sausages and showed no significant differences when the period of trypsin treatment is increased or when the dose of irradiation is increased. The sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) results indicated that there was no visible change in the intensity of the PSA band in extracts of the irradiated sausages. After pepsin and trypsin treatment, the intensity of PSA band faded with increasing doses of irradiation. In conclusion, antigenicity of PSA in pork sausages could be reduced by gamma irradiation. - Highlights: → Change in antigenicity of PSA in irradiated sausage extract (ISE) was examined. → Binding ability of PSA in ISE was decreased compared to intact extract. → Binding ability of PSA in ISE after enzyme treatments was also further decreased. → Intensity of PSA band in ISE after enzyme treatments became weak.

  8. Consumer knowledge, storage, and handling practices regarding Listeria in frankfurters and deli meats: results of a Web-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cates, Sheryl C; Morales, Roberta A; Karns, Shawn A; Jaykus, Lee-Ann; Kosa, Katherine M; Teneyck, Toby; Moore, Christina M; Cowen, Peter

    2006-07-01

    Proper storage and handling of refrigerated ready-to-eat foods can help reduce the risk of listeriosis. A national Web-based survey was conducted to measure consumer awareness and knowledge of Listeria and to estimate the prevalence of the U.S. Department of Agriculture-recommended consumer storage and handling practices for frankfurters and deli meats. The demographic characteristics of consumers who are unaware of Listeria and who do not follow the recommended storage guidelines were also assessed. In addition, predictive models were developed to determine which consumers engage in risky storage practices. Less than half of the consumers surveyed were aware of Listeria, and most of those aware were unable to identify associated food vehicles. Awareness was lower among adults 60 years of age and older, an at-risk population for listeriosis, and individuals with relatively less education and lower incomes. Most households safely stored and prepared frankfurters. Most households stored unopened packages of vacuum-packed deli meats in the refrigerator within the U.S. Department of Agriculture-recommended storage guidelines (deli meats and freshly sliced deli meats for longer than the recommended time (< or =5 days). Men, more-educated individuals, and individuals living in metropolitan areas were more likely to engage in risky storage practices. This study identified the need to develop targeted educational initiatives on listeriosis prevention.

  9. Actions at Hamburg International Association of Seismology and Physics of the Earth's Interior

    Science.gov (United States)

    The third Workshop on Historical Seismograms, held in Hamburg on August 18-19, 1983, in conjunction with the meeting of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics in Hamburg, Federal Republic of Germany, was specifically organized to discuss the status of historical seismic data for Latin America and Europe. Since it is unlikely that an additional workshop will be held on this subject, reports for other regions were included as well.In the first session, H. Meyers described the purpose of the workshop and gave some history of the previous activities of the IASPEI/Unesco Working Group on Historical Seismograms. E.R. Engdahl noted that thus far more than 500,000 seismograms have been filmed as part of the Historical Microfilming Project and emphasized the importance of the activities to be covered during the workshop. M. Hashizume, representing Unesco, described the importance of historical seismic data and the Unesco interests in having these data available for the analysis of seismic risks, particularly in areas where the recurrence rate of significant earthquakes is very low and for regions where much data do not exist. He mentioned that both these conditions occur frequently in developing nations.

  10. Qualitative characteristics of hamburgers and koftas produced from meat of lambs fed glycerine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. H. Borghi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the qualitative (pH, color, water activity, water retention capacity, cooking loss, and shear force and sensory characteristics of processed meat produced from less noble cuts of the carcasses of lambs fed diets containing sugarcane as roughage and concentrates with and without 10 and 20% glycerine. Neck and rib meat of 30 lambs slaughtered at a body weight of 32.0 ± 0.2 kg was used for the elaboration of hamburgers and koftas. Except for color, the inclusion of glycerine in the lamb diet did not influence (P>0.05 the qualitative traits evaluated. The inclusion of glycerine reduced the redness (from 10.07 to 8.89, P=0.044 and yellowness (from 5.97 to 5.07, P=0.039 of hamburgers. The same effect was observed for the redness (from 10.83 to 9.61, P=0.031 and yellowness (from 5.86 to 5.12, P=0.047 of koftas. The sensory characteristics evaluated were not influenced (P>0.05 and the grades of overall acceptance ranged from 7.4 to 7.9. The inclusion of glycerine in the diet of lambs altered the color of processed meat products, but provided satisfactory sensory characteristics.

  11. Antimicrobial properties of clove essential oil on raw hamburger during storage in freezer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.E Hoseini

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Providing safe foods resistant to pathogens as well as replacing chemical preservatives with natural compounds including essential oils has attracted great attention in current studies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial properties of clove’s essential oil on hamburger. For this reason, clove essential oil was extracted by Clevenger apparatus method. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger was measured. The antimicrobial effect of the essence in the concentrations of 0.0015%, 0.01%, 0.1% and 0.15% was examined on hamburger. The samples were examined at 0, 7, 30, 60 and 90 days of cold storage. Sensory characteristics of the samples were assessed through Hedonic method. MICs resulted from the test for S. aureus, E. coli, C. albicans and A. niger were 0.1%, 0.065%, 0.03% and 0.01% (V/V, respectively. The results of microbial examinations indicated that with the increasing of the concentration of clove oil essence and also with the progression of storage time, the microbial load was gradually decreased. According to the sensory assays conducted by the consumers, low concentrations of 0.0015% and maximum of 0.01% were found desirable.

  12. Migrants' educational success through innovation: The case of the Hamburg bilingual schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Joana

    2011-12-01

    Although Germany has experienced net in-migration for the past five decades, this fact has only recently been officially acknowledged. Furthermore, Germany is marked by a general monolingual self-concept very much attached to the idea of a nation-state with one homogeneous language. However, in large urban areas of Germany about 35 per cent of the population has a migration background, as has almost every second child enrolling in primary school. Hence the country is marked by this dichotomy between a monolingual policy discourse and a multilingual society, manifested in everyday life and, as a consequence, in educational institutions. The fact is that this political attitude towards Germany's own migration history and migrants has led to an educational gap between students with a migration background and their monolingual peers. In 2000, a project was started in Hamburg, aiming to overcome this educational gap and involving the creation of bilingual schools for some of the largest migrant languages. Bilingual classes were thus set up for the following language combinations: German-Portuguese, German-Italian, German-Spanish and German-Turkish, and were evaluated by the University of Hamburg. This paper reports on the model used and the specific school outcomes of the students attending these classes.

  13. Combined effects of gamma irradiation and a modified atmospheric packaging on the physicochemical characteristics of sausage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, H-.J.; Kim, J.-H.; Jo, Cheorun; Lee, J.-W.; Yook, H.-S.; Kim, H.-Y.; Byun, M.-W.

    2004-01-01

    This study is to investigate the combined effects of irradiation and a modified atmospheric packaging (MAP) on the color, nitrosoheme pigments (NO-Mb), residual nitrite and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) in sausage during storage. Sausage with air, vacuum, CO 2 , N 2 , or CO 2 /N 2 packaging was irradiated at 5 kGy. Irradiation reduced the red color of sausage, and a vacuum or MAP was effective in minimizing the loss of redness. The reduction of NO-Mb was observed by irradiation, while the MAP was more effective in maintaining the NO-Mb than the aerobic ones. Residual nitrite was reduced by irradiation, and the contents were lower under vacuum or MAP than aerobic ones. NDMA was significantly reduced by irradiation

  14. Combined effects of gamma irradiation and a modified atmospheric packaging on the physicochemical characteristics of sausage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, H- J; Kim, J -H; Jo, Cheorun; Lee, J -W; Yook, H -S; Kim, H -Y; Byun, M -W

    2004-10-01

    This study is to investigate the combined effects of irradiation and a modified atmospheric packaging (MAP) on the color, nitrosoheme pigments (NO-Mb), residual nitrite and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) in sausage during storage. Sausage with air, vacuum, CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, or CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} packaging was irradiated at 5 kGy. Irradiation reduced the red color of sausage, and a vacuum or MAP was effective in minimizing the loss of redness. The reduction of NO-Mb was observed by irradiation, while the MAP was more effective in maintaining the NO-Mb than the aerobic ones. Residual nitrite was reduced by irradiation, and the contents were lower under vacuum or MAP than aerobic ones. NDMA was significantly reduced by irradiation.

  15. Effects of Lemon Balm on the Oxidative Stability and the Quality Properties of Hamburger Patties during Refrigerated Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyun-Joo; Choi, You-Jung; Choi, Yang-Il; Lee, Jae-Joon

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effects of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) on various quality and antioxidant activity of hamburger patties. Lemon balm extract (LBE) showed the highest amount of total polyphenol (801.00 mg TAE/g DW) and flavonoids (65.05 mg RA/g DW). The IC50 value of DPPH hydroxyl scavenging of LBE was 132 ?g/mL. The hamburger patties were prepared by 0% (N), 0.1% (L1), 0.5% (L2), and 1.0% (L3) of the lemon balm powder. The addition of lemon balm powder incre...

  16. DECREASING OF SODIUM NITRITE CONTENT IN COOKED SAUSAGES USING DENITRIFYING MICROORGANISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bal-Prylypko L. V.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to study reduction of sodium nitrite in cooked sausages by adding of the optimized amount of denitrifying microorganisms to the bacterial preparation maintaining quality characteristics of the product. To develop biotechnology of boiled sausages «Naturel» we selected bacterial preparation based on nitrite-reducing strains of Staphylococcus carnosus and S. carnosus ssp.utilis. It was used generally accepted and special methods. The content of total pigments and nitrozopigments was determined by a method based on the extraction of meat pigments by aqueous acetone; color stability of final products was evaluated as the difference in optical density of nitroso pigment extracts before and after exposure (40 min of the sample under the light source; analytical processing of the experimental data was carried out using modern software; quantitative evaluation of color characteristics was performed in the RGB using a multifunctional device Epson Stylus TX400. Mathematical modeling was carried out on the basis of full factorial experiment such as 22, the optimization was performed by Box–Wilson. According to the study, using of the bacterial preparation based on nitrite-reducing strains of Staphylococcus carnosus and S. carnosus ssp. utilis in biotechnology of boiled sausages «Naturel» has a positive effect on the formation of the complex of required color characteristics of final products (for prototypes of sausages the index redness was 1. 61 times higher compared to the control. Degradation of sodium nitrite and formation of nitroso pigments were intensified that improved the stability of color during the storage (the index of color fastness of experimental cooked sausages was higher by 19%. The results of performed investigations illustrate the possibility of production of cooked sausages with a minimized content of synthetic food additives and ingredients.

  17. Application of electron-beam irradiation combined with antioxidants for fermented sausage and its quality characteristic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, D.G.; Seol, K.H.; Jeon, H.J.; Jo, C.; Lee, M.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of various doses of electron-beam irradiation on the changes in microbiological attributes of fermented sausage and the combined effect of electron-beam irradiation and various antioxidants on the oxidative stability and sensory properties during cold storage were investigated. Results indicated that 2 kGy of irradiation was the most effective in manufacturing a fermented sausage, and the addition of rosemary extracts was effective in controlling the production of off-flavor and development of lipid oxidation during cold storage

  18. Control of Biogenic Amines in Fermented Sausages: Role of Starter Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre-Moratalla, M.L.; Bover-Cid, Sara; Veciana-Nogués, M.T.; Vidal-Carou, M.C.

    2012-01-01

    Biogenic amines show biological activity and exert undesirable physiological effects when absorbed at high concentrations. Biogenic amines are mainly formed by microbial decarboxylation of amino acids and thus are usually present in a wide range of foods, fermented sausages being one of the major biogenic amine sources. The use of selected starter cultures is one of the best technological measures to control aminogenesis during meat fermentation. Although with variable effectiveness, several works show the ability of some starters to render biogenic amine-free sausages. In this paper, the effect of different starter culture is reviewed and the factors determining their performance discussed. PMID:22586423

  19. Control of biogenic amines in fermented sausages: role of starter cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariluz eLatorre-Moratalla

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic amines show biological activity and exert undesirable physiological effects when absorbed at high concentrations. Biogenic amines are mainly formed by microbial decarboxylation of amino acids and thus are usually present in a wide range of foods, fermented sausages being one of the major biogenic amine sources. The use of selected starter cultures is one of the best technological measures to control aminogenesis during meat fermentation. Although with variable effectiveness, several works show the ability of some starters to render biogenic amine-free sausages. In this paper, the effect of different starter culture is reviewed and the factors determining their performance discussed.

  20. Addition of alpha-ketoglutarate enhances formation of volatiles by Staphylococcus carnosus during sausage fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjener, Karsten; Stahnke, Louise Heller; Andersen, L.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of leucine and alpha-ketoglutarate addition on transamination of branched-chain amino acids was studied in model minces inoculated with Pediococcus pentosaceus and Staphylococcus carnosus. Leucine addition changed the ratio of volatile breakdown products of leucine, isoleucine and valine....... The results were verified in real fermented sausages with no, low (0.09% w/w) and high (0.36% w/w) addition of added alpha-ketoglutarate since the levels of the flavour intensive methyl-branched aldehydes and acids were drastically increased in sausages added a-ketoglutarate. The catabolism of phenylalanine...

  1. Sausage instability in a proton-beam transport through wall-confined plasma channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Tetsuo; Masugata, Katsumi; Matsui, Masao; Yatsui, Kiyoshi

    1983-01-01

    An instability observed previously in a 800-keV of proton-beam transport through a wall-confined, z-discharged plasma channel (1-m long) has been identified as a sausage type from measurements made using an image converter campera. Clear evidence of the sausage instability has been obtained from the streak and framing photographs. When the instability grows with time, the wavelength tends to increase. The pinch velocity of the channel has also been measured in a parameter space, which gives reasonable agreement with the existing theory. (author)

  2. Application of electron-beam irradiation combined with antioxidants for fermented sausage and its quality characteristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, D. G.; Seol, K. H.; Jeon, H. J.; Jo, C.; Lee, M.

    2008-06-01

    The effects of various doses of electron-beam irradiation on the changes in microbiological attributes of fermented sausage and the combined effect of electron-beam irradiation and various antioxidants on the oxidative stability and sensory properties during cold storage were investigated. Results indicated that 2 kGy of irradiation was the most effective in manufacturing a fermented sausage, and the addition of rosemary extracts was effective in controlling the production of off-flavor and development of lipid oxidation during cold storage.

  3. Application of Baechu-Kimchi Powder and GABA-Producing Lactic Acid Bacteria for the Production of Functional Fermented Sausages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji Hun; Kang, Ki Moon

    2017-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the physicochemical, microbiological, and quality characteristics of a new type of fermented sausage manufactured by incorporating Baechu-kimchi powder and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The LAB count was at the maximum level by day nine of ripening in inoculated sausages, accompanied by a rapid decrease in the pH. The addition of kimchi powder decreased the lightness (L*) and increased the redness (a*) and, yellowness (b*) values, while also significantly increasing the hardness and chewiness of the sausage (p<0.05). Moreover, although the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances values increased in all samples during the study period, this increase was lower in the kimchi-treated samples, indicating a reduction in lipid oxidation. Overall, our results show that the addition of Baechu-kimchi powder to sausages reduced the off-flavor properties and improved the taste profile of the fermented sausage in sensory evaluations. The GABA content of all fermented sausages increased from 17.42-25.14 mg/kg on the third day of fermentation to 60.95-61.47 mg/kg on the thirtieth day. These results demonstrate that Baechu-kimchi powder and GABA-producing LAB could be functional materials in fermented sausage to improve quality characteristics. PMID:29725201

  4. Textural and sensory properties of low fat pork sausages with added hydrated oatmeal and tofu as texture-modifying agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Han-Sul; Choi, Sung-Gil; Jeon, Jin-Tae; Park, Gu-Boo; Joo, Seon-Tea

    2007-02-01

    Low fat sausages were prepared with added hydrated oatmeal or tofu as texture-modifying agents at levels of 10%, 15%, and 25% (w/w), respectively. The effects of the type and level of texture-modifying agents on the physical and sensory properties of low fat sausages were investigated. The water-holding capacity in sausage products increased by increasing the hydrated oatmeal level, but no significant differences was observed by the addition of tofu. The higher level of the agents produced a sausage product with less cooking loss and with a softer texture. The moisture absorption measurements suggest that the decrease in hardness of oatmeal-added sausage products may be due to the higher water-retention properties of oatmeal in response to heat treatment, while that of tofu-added sausage products may be associated with a weaker internal structure of tofu than the pork loin. The sensory evaluations indicated that the greatest overall acceptability in a low fat sausage was attained when the hydrated oatmeal or tofu were at their 15% addition level, respectively.

  5. Fermented sausage production using E. faecium as starter culture: Physicochemical and microbiological profile, sensorial acceptance and cellular viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catharina Calochi Pires de Carvalho

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Fermented sausages are defined as a mixture of lean meat and fat, curing salts, sucrose and spices, stuffed in a natural or artificial casing and submitted to fermentation and air-drying process. Starter culture and ripening process may affect the quality and acceptability of the final product. Current research evaluates the use of Enterococcus faecium as starter culture in fermented sausage production and its physicochemical and microbiological profile during maturation process, coupled to sausage sensory acceptance after ripening. Enterococcus faecium showed 10.9 log CFU g-1 and remained viable after the ripening period with 8.32 log CFU g-1. Fermented sausage was monitored during the ripening period by physicochemical (pH control, water activity and weight loss and microbiological (analysis of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus, coliforms and Salmonella spp. analyses. All tests complied with standards established by Brazilian legislation and did not interfere in final product quality. Results showed that E. faecium was resistant to curing salt and sodium chloride, maintaining its viability during ripening and conferring beneficial effects on fermented sausage technological characteristics. E. faecium also proved to be in vitro resistant to simulate passage through the human digestive tract. Fermented sausage containing E. faecium had better sensory acceptance than commercial sausage evaluated.

  6. Effect of sous vide processing on physicochemical, ultrastructural, microbial and sensory changes in vacuum packaged chicken sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveena, B M; Khansole, Panjab S; Shashi Kumar, M; Krishnaiah, N; Kulkarni, Vinayak V; Deepak, S J

    2017-01-01

    The processing of sous vide chicken sausages was optimized under vacuum packaging condition and cooking at 100 ℃ for 30 min (SV30), 60 min (SV60) and 120 min (SV120) and compared with aerobically cooked control at 100 ℃ for 30 min. Sous vide processing of chicken sausages (SV30) produced higher (p emulsion ultra-structure due to SV30 processing relative to control sausages. Sous vide processing of chicken sausages enriched with rosemary diterpene phenols retained the freshness and quality up to 120 days during storage at 4 ± 1 ℃ relative to control sausages that were spoiled on 20th day. Lipid oxidation and microbial growth remained below the spoilage levels for all the SV-processed sausages throughout the storage and addition of rosemary diterpene mixture at 0.02% v/w reduced the microbial growth and improved (p < 0.05) the sensory attributes. Our results demonstrate that sous vide processing minimizes lipid oxidation and microbial growth of chicken sausages with improved product quality and shelf-life at 4 ± 1 ℃. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Appetite and food intake after consumption of sausages with 10% fat and added wheat or rye bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuholm, Stine; Arildsen Jakobsen, Louise Margrethe; Vejrum Sørensen, Karina; Kehlet, Ursula; Raben, Anne; Kristensen, Mette

    2014-02-01

    The use of dietary fibers as fat-replacers in sausages gives less energy-dense and thereby healthier foods. Also, dietary fibers have been shown to induce satiety. The objectives of this study were to investigate if appetite sensations and energy intake was affected by (1) addition of dietary fibers to sausages, (2) type of dietary fibers and (3) the food matrix of the dietary fibers. In this randomized cross-over study 25 young men were served four test meals; wheat bran sausages, rye bran sausages, rye bran bread and wheat flour sausages. The test meals were served as breakfast after an overnight fast. Appetite sensations were evaluated by visual analogue scales (VAS) assessed every 30 min for 240 min followed by an ad libitum lunch meal where energy intake was calculated. Both rye bran and wheat bran sausages increased satiety (P appetite sensations and thereby has a potential added health benefit beyond the role as fat-replacer. The satisfying effect of dietary fibers appears to be more pronounced when added to sausages than when added to bread, stressing the importance of food matrix and food processing.

  8. Effect of gamma irradiation on microbial load, chemical and sensory properties of chicken kabab and sausage; as prepared chilled meals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Bachir, M.

    2009-05-01

    Chicken kabab and sausage were treated with 0, 2, 4 or 6 kGy doses of gamma irradiation in a 60 CO package irradiator. Treated and untreated samples were kept in a refrigerator (1-4 degree centigrade). Microbiological, chemical and sensory characteristics of chicken kabab and sausage were evaluated at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 months of storage. Proximate composition and sensory evaluation of the chicken kabab and sausage were also investigated, but only immediately after treatment. Irradiation did not influence the major constituents of chicken kabab and sausage (moisture, protein and fats). Gamma irradiation decreased the microbial load and increased the shelf-life of chicken kabab and sausage. The dose needed to decrease by 1 log cfu/g (D 1 0 value) of Salmonella spp and E coli. numbers were 213 and 400 Gy in chicken kabab, while 345 and 250 Gy in chicken sausage, respectively. The chemical parameters, total acidity, volatile basic nitrogen (VBN), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), which were chosen as the indices of freshness, were all well within the acceptable limit for up to 5 months for chicken kabab and sausage treated with 4 and 6 kGy. Sensory evaluation showed no significant differences between irradiated and non-irradiated samples. (author)

  9. How different are the Liège and Hamburg atlases of the solar spectrum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerr, H.-P.; Vitas, N.; Fabbian, D.

    2016-05-01

    Context. The high-fidelity solar spectral atlas prepared by http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1973apds.book.....D Delbouille et al. (Liège atlas, 1973) and the atlas by http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999SoPh..184..421N Neckel (Hamburg atlas, 1999, Sol. Phys., 184, 421) are widely recognised as the most important collection of reference spectra of the Sun at disc centre in the visible wavelength range. The two datasets serve as fundamental resources for many researchers, in particular for chemical abundance analyses. But despite their similar published specifications (spectral resolution and noise level), the shapes of the spectral lines in the two atlases differ significantly and systematically. Aims: Knowledge of any instrumental degradations is imperative to fully exploit the information content of spectroscopic data. We seek to investigate the magnitude of these differences and explain the possible sources. We provide the wavelength-dependent correction parameters that need to be taken into account when the spectra are to be compared with synthetic data, for instance. Methods: A parametrically degraded version of the Hamburg spectrum was fitted to the Liège spectrum. The parameters of the model (wavelength shift, broadening, intensity scaling, and intensity offset) represent the different characteristics of the respective instruments, observational strategies, and data processing. Results: The wavelength scales of the Liège and Hamburg atlases differ on average by 0.5 mÅ with a standard deviation of ± 2 mÅ, except for a peculiar region around 5500 Å. The continuum levels are offset by up to 18% below 5000 Å, but remain stably at a 0.8% difference towards the red. We find no evidence for spectral stray light in the Liège spectrum. Its resolving power is almost independent of wavelength but limited to about 216 000, which is between two to six times lower than specified. When accounting for the degradations determined in this work, the spectra of the two

  10. Pitch and Harmony in Gyorgy Ligeti's "Hamburg Concerto" and "Syzygy" for String Quartet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, Charles

    The analysis component of this dissertation focuses on intricate and complex pitch relationships in Gyorgy Ligeti's last work, the Hamburg Concerto. This piece uses two distinct tuning systems---twelve tone equal temperament and just intonation---throughout its seven movements. Often, these two systems are used simultaneously, creating complex harmonic relationships. This combination allows Ligeti to exploit the unique features of each system and explore their relationships to each other. Ligeti's just intonation in the Hamburg Concerto comes mainly from the five French horns, who are instructed to keep their hands out of the bell to allow the instrument to sound its exact harmonics. The horns themselves, however, are tuned to varying different fundamentals, creating a constantly changing series of just-intoned pitches anchored above an equal-tempered bass. This method of generating just-intoned intervals adds a second layer to the relationship between equal temperament and just intonation. This paper focuses on creating ways to understand this relationship, and describing the ramifications of these tunings as they unfold throughout the piece. Ligeti very carefully crafts this work in a way that creates a balance between the systems. Research done at the Paul Sacher Stiftung has uncovered a significant collection of errors in the published score. Clearing up these discrepancies allows for a much more accurate and more informed analysis. Throughout this dissertation, mistakes are corrected, and several aspects of the score are clarified. The tuning systems are described, and a likely tuning scheme for the horns is posited. (The analytical component of the dissertation delves into the many varying intervals which all fit into one interval class---a feature that is best explored when two distinct tuning systems are juxtaposed.) A language is created herein to better understand these pitch relationships that fit neither into equal temperament nor just intonation. The

  11. Rye and Wheat Bran Extracts Isolated with Pressurized Solvents Increase Oxidative Stability and Antioxidant Potential of Beef Meat Hamburgers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šulniūtė, Vaida; Jaime, Isabel; Rovira, Jordi; Venskutonis, Petras Rimantas

    2016-02-01

    Rye and wheat bran extracts containing phenolic compounds and demonstrating high DPPH• (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), ABTS(•+) (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) scavenging and oxygen radical absorbance capacities (ORAC) were tested in beef hamburgers as possible functional ingredients. Bran extracts significantly increased the indicators of antioxidant potential of meat products and their global antioxidant response (GAR) during physiological in vitro digestion. The extracts also inhibited the formation of oxidation products, hexanal and malondialdehyde, of hamburgers during their storage; however, they did not have significant effect on the growth of microorganisms. Hamburgers with 0.8% wheat bran extract demonstrated the highest antioxidant potential. Some effects of bran extracts on other quality characteristics such as pH, color, formation of metmyoglobin were also observed, however, these effects did not have negative influence on the overall sensory evaluation score of hamburgers. Consequently, the use of bran extracts in meat products may be considered as promising means of increasing oxidative product stability and enriching with functional ingredients which might possess health benefits. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  12. Determination of gamma radiation dose to the destruction of Escherichia coli O157: H7 in hamburger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orejuela Chirinos, Rodolfo Raul

    1999-01-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 has been incriminated in several foodborne outbreaks due to the consumption of different kinds of foods. Among these, hamburgers are the most common. Irradiation process is an effective method for food preservation because it causes no significant change in organoleptic and nutritional food characteristics and destroys pathogens and spoilage microorganisms. Hamburgers and nutrient broth inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 were submitted to gamma irradiation ( 60 Co) treatment, with doses ranging from 0,0 to 0,7 kGy in order to calculate the D 10 for this bacteria in these substrate. The D 10 for the pathogen nutrient broth ranged from 0.08 kGy to 0.10 kGy and in hamburger from 0.11 kGy to 0.21 kGy. Considering the highest D 10 value in hamburger, a dose of 0,8 kGy would not change the sensorial characteristics of the product, and would reduce the population of E. coli O157:H7 in 4 cycles logarithmic. (author)

  13. Studien zur Kirchenmusik und weltlichen Vokalmusik in Hamburg in der ersten Hälfte des 18. Jahrhunderts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voss, Steffen

    2014-01-01

    Hamburg was a main center for the development of protestant church music in the first half of the 18th century, especially for the oratorio, a genre which is stylistically indebted to operatic music. Works of two of the main composers of so called theatrical church music, Johann Mattheson and Georg

  14. PARÁMETROS FISICOQUÍMICOS DURANTE EL ALMACENAMIENTO DE SALCHICHAS ELABORADAS A PARTIR DE TILAPIA ROJA (Oreochromis sp. PARÂMETROS FISICO-QUÍMICOS DURANTE O ARMAZENAMENTO DE SALSICHAS FEITAS DE TILAPIA VERMELHA (Oreochromis sp. PHYSICOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS DURING STORAGE OF SAUSAGES MADE FROM RED TILAPIA (Oreochromis sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ IGOR HLEAP Z.

    2012-06-01

    ísico-químicos. As salsichas foram preparadas seguindo o procedimento desenvolvido no Laboratório de Tecnologia de Carnes, da Universidade Nacional da Colômbia - Palmira de um colar de tilapia previamente preparado. Determinada umidade, proteína, carboidrato, gordura, cinzas, valor energético, pH, capacidade de retenção de umidade e atividade de água. As descobertas sugerem que o valor nutricional e funcional da salsicha não e alterada durante os primeiros 30 dias de armazenamento, que são consistentes com os dados relatados na literatura, para salsichas feitas de carne crua demais.The growth of aquaculture of red tilapia (Oreochromis sp. in Colombia has allowed the development of food products of higher added value. One of these products are sausages Frankfurt. The aim of this study was to analyze the physicochemical parameters that affect the shelf life of sausages, prepared with addition of sagu starch (Maranthaarundinacea as a binder or extender material. The raised design allowed evaluation of sausages packed under vacuum and under refrigeration (2 °C ± 2 °C at 0, 2, 6, 10, 15, 22, 27, 31, 45, 58, 100 and 120 days of storage for physicochemical parameters. The sausages were prepared following the procedure developed at the Laboratory of Meat Technology, National University of Colombia - Palmira from a previously prepared tilapia paste. Determined moisture, protein, fat carbohydrate, ash, energy, value, pH, moisture holding capacity and water activity. The findings suggest that the nutritional and functional value of the sausage is not altered during first 30 days of storage, which are consistent with data reported in the literature, for sausages made from other raw meat.

  15. Hass avocado modulates postprandial vascular reactivity and postprandial inflammatory responses to a hamburger meal in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaoping; Wong, Angela; Henning, Susanne M; Zhang, Yanjun; Jones, Alexis; Zerlin, Alona; Thames, Gail; Bowerman, Susan; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Heber, David

    2013-02-26

    Hass avocados are rich in monounsaturated fatty acids (oleic acid) and antioxidants (carotenoids, tocopherols, polyphenols) and are often eaten as a slice in a sandwich containing hamburger or other meats. Hamburger meat forms lipid peroxides during cooking. After ingestion, the stomach functions as a bioreactor generating additional lipid peroxides and this process can be inhibited when antioxidants are ingested together with the meat. The present pilot study was conducted to investigate the postprandial effect of the addition of 68 g of avocado to a hamburger on vasodilation and inflammation. Eleven healthy subjects on two separate occasions consumed either a 250 g hamburger patty alone (ca. 436 cal and 25 g fat) or together with 68 grams of avocado flesh (an additional 114 cal and 11 g of fat for a total of 550 cal and 36 g fat), a common culinary combination, to assess effects on vascular health. Using the standard peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT) method to calculate the PAT index, we observed significant vasoconstriction 2 hours following hamburger ingestion (2.19 ± 0.36 vs. 1.56 ± 0.21, p = 0.0007), which did not occur when the avocado flesh was ingested together with the burger (2.17 ± 0.57 vs. 2.08 ± 0.51, NS p = 0.68). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from postprandial blood samples and the Ikappa-B alpha (IκBα) protein concentration was determined to assess effects on inflammation. At 3 hours, there was a significant preservation of IκBα (131% vs. 58%, p = 0.03) when avocado was consumed with the meat compared to meat alone, consistent with reduced activation of the NF-kappa B (NFκB) inflammatory pathway. IL-6 increased significantly at 4 hours in postprandial serum after consumption of the hamburger, but no change was observed when avocado was added. Postprandial serum triglyceride concentration increased, but did not further increase when avocado was ingested with the burger compared to burger alone despite the added fat and

  16. Status report on treatment planning with the fast neutron beam at Hamburg-Eppendorf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, A.; Schmidt, R.; Franke, H.D.

    1981-01-01

    For treatment planning with the fast neutron beam (DT, 14 MeV) at the Radiotherapy Department of the University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf the decrement line method is applied to compute isodose curves (total beam or neutrons and gamma-rays separately). The isodose curves are generated by a measured depth dose distribution and one lateral dose distribution at 10 cm phantom depth assuming two crossing points of the decrement lines at the edges of the collimator. By this method isodose charts have been generated for all available field sizes at 80 cm SSD. For the determination of depth dose values at different SSD a modified inverse square law has to be taken into account. Computerized treatment plans are calculated with the same technique used by the SIDOS-U1 (Siemens) planning system. (orig.)

  17. Storm surges-An option for Hamburg, Germany, to mitigate expected future aggravation of risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storch, Hans von; Goennert, Gabriele; Meine, Manfred

    2008-01-01

    Summary: Rising sea level together with regionally increased storm activity, caused by elevated and increasing levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere will in many parts of the world increase the risk of storm surges significantly. Reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere may mitigate the increasing risks somewhat, but the major task for regional and local stakeholders will be to prepare for appropriate adaptation. In most cases, possible strategies include intensification of coastal defense measures, in particular strengthening dykes, and adaptation to intermittent flooding. In case of Hamburg and the tidal Elbe river a third option seems to be available, which aims at mitigating storm surge risks by applying estuary engineering constructions. This option is sketched in this paper. The option has the potential to significantly reduce the expected future increases of local surge heights

  18. The characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated during the traditional production of Užička sausage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borović, B.; Velebit, B.; Vesković, S.; Lakićević, B.; Baltić, T.

    2017-09-01

    Užička sausage is a traditionally fermented dry sausage that is produced in western Serbia. It is made of beef and pork with the addition of solid fat and natural spices. The whole manufacturing process lasted for 21 days. The goal of this study was to create a collection of lactic acid bacteria isolated during the ripening and identify them using molecular methods. A total of 50 isolates from different stages of ripening (fermentation and drying) were identified by molecular methods. Leuconococcus mesenteroides, Lactobacillus brevis, and Lactobacillus sakei were the predominant microorganisms in Užička sausage.

  19. The Technical and Business Analysis of Using Shore Power Connection in The Port of Hamburg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Hotnauli Samosir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In port, when the ship is berthing the loading, unloading, and hospitality activity is using auxiliary engine. The combustion of marine fuels is a major contributor to air pollution, the air pollution is released 400 km around the port area. The impacts of the pollution are respiratory, health, and the environment around ports. Study indicates 60.000 of cardiopulmonary mortalities caused by ship air emission. Ship emission represents 3% of global CO2, 15% of global NOx, and 6% of global SOx emission. Because of that Hamburg Port is released the shore power facilities in July 2015 with idea of smart port and use the renewable energy such as wind turbine and solar panel compliance with IEC-ISO-IEEE 8005-1. In this bachelor thesis, the cost and also the condition between shore power and auxiliary engine will be analyzed and compared to find the most economical between shore power facilities and ship’s auxiliary engine. Shore power facilities in Hamburg are provided by SIEMENS with SIHARBOR and use a robot arm by Stemman Technik as the cable management system. The goal of this thesis is developed calculation tool to see the cost comparison and also the emission. And from the calculation tool the shore power is reducing the emission by 100% because of using the renewable energy and become economical than using auxiliary engine, it can save up to €1000. The other benefits  are ship owner can save maintenance of their auxiliary engine and also saved the file. It shows that the shore power is a proven technology to reduce the emission and saved berth cost.

  20. Impact of Innovation on Consumers Liking and Willingness to Pay for Traditional Sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żakowska-Biemans Sylwia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the study was to evaluate Polish consumers’ liking and willingness to pay for innovations in traditional sausages “Kabanos”. The study also attempted to determine whether regional differences may influence acceptance of innovations and the willingness to pay for such products. As both sensory factors and prices are important in food choice decisions, the methodological approach combined hedonic liking and experimental auctions. The study involved 221 consumers of traditional pork sausages who evaluated intrinsic and extrinsic product attributes in blind (tasting only, expectancy (product information only and fully informed (tasting and product information experimental conditions. The results show that acceptance of innovation in traditional sausages is determined by the type of innovation proposed. Innovation related to extrinsic attributes like packaging i.e. biodegradable packaging seem to be the most welcome regardless experimental conditions while innovations improving healthiness of traditional sausages but violating their sensory properties i.e. lower salt level tend to be disapproved. There are regional differences observed in acceptance and willingness to pay for innovative variants of Kabanos. In general, consumers in Warsaw are more inclined to pay more for innovative variants of Kabanos than consumers in Cracow. Participants from the two regions had also different hedonic reactions towards organic and spicy variant of Kabanos. Prior research concerning acceptance of innovation in traditional food products in Poland is scarce. Therefore, such information is particularly pertinent to SMEs and distributors operating in traditional food sector to support innovation and development of adequate communication strategies.

  1. When Carniolan Sausage Shines among the Stars. On the Consumption of “Cosmosausages”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernej Mlekuž

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Certain nations eat certain foods with particular enjoyment. These foods are usually not eaten merely for their caloric value (if there is any, but are consumed with pride (and of course there are many who analyze and/or caricature that pride. With these foods symbolic consumption is often more important than the physical (although we often cannot neglect their physical consumption, the paper will not dwell on this argument. One paradigmatic example of such a food is the space Carniolan sausage, which has been physically consumed (if at all only by an astronaut with Slovene roots. All other Slovenes can only enjoy it through language. When they consume the (space Carniolan sausage through language, they are most likely consuming that which it signifies. Carniolan sausage is probably the most common, most dominant, most satisfying (“culinary” signifier of Sloveneness; it is a sort of Slovene culinary flag. But, following Michael Billig, in the case of the consumption of the space Carniolan sausage, what kind of culinary flag are we dealing with: one that is being waved or not?

  2. The effect of hyaluronic acid addition on the properties of smoked homogenised sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zając, Marzena; Kulawik, Piotr; Tkaczewska, Joanna; Migdał, Władysław; Filipczak-Fiutak, Magda; Fiutak, Grzegorz

    2017-06-01

    This research studied the possibility of using hyaluronic acid (HA) as a food additive for meat emulsions to create a novel functional food with improved rheological and water binding properties. Sausages with 200 and 500 g kg -1 water addition were supplemented with 0, 0.01, 0.05 and 0.1 g kg -1 of HA and stored for 14 days in vacuum. Rheology, texture, weight losses, proximate composition and microbiological analyses were performed together with the sensory evaluation of produced sausages. Surprisingly, the results show that the addition of 0.05 and 0.1 g kg -1 HA reduced yield and the stability of meat emulsion by causing water outflow from the product and decreased the sensory scores of the produced sausages. The sausage with 500 g kg -1 water and 0.01 g kg -1 HA addition was the only economically viable option for introducing the product on the market. HA has a potential of being a perfect functional food additive for meat industry, although further research regarding processing conditions should be performed. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Physicochemical Properties and Sensory Evaluation of Reduced Fat Fermented Functional Beef Sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faleeha Hasan Hussein

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Semi-dry fermented sausages were manufactured from beef meat in three types: without starter culture (control, inoculated with Lactobacillus casei and inoculated with Lactobacillus paracasei. Probiotic fermented sausages are safe and healthy meat products, which receive high commercial interest and growing market shares.Material and Methods: The physico–chemical characteristics (Protein, Moisture, Fat, Ash, Lactic acid value and pH, microbiological features (total aerobic, total mold and yeast andlactic acid bacteria count and sensory evaluation (color, flavor, texture and overall acceptability were analyzed after 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 45 days of refrigerated storage at 4°C.Results and Conclusion: There was a significant difference (p≤0.05 in moisture content, which decreased in all samples during the period of refrigerated storage. However, all other parameters such as protein, fat and ash increased. The lactic acid produced during the fermentation by lactic acid bacteria resulted in a decrease in the pH value of all samples, and improved sensory evaluation of the fermented sausage inoculated with Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus paracasei during the storage period. The best results were obtained in the fermented sausage inoculated with Lactobacillus paracasei in physico-chemical, microbial and sensory characteristics. Also we could preserve the product at 4°C for 45 days.Conflict of interest: The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.

  4. Presence of Listeria monocytogenes in Mediterranean-Style Dry Fermented Sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Meloni

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The morphological, physiological and epidemiological features of L. monocytogenes, together with the severity of human listeriosis infections, make L. monocytogenes of particular concern for manufacturers of cold-stored “ready to eat” (RTE foods. L. monocytogenes has been isolated from a wide variety of RTE foods and is responsible for several outbreaks associated with the consumption of RTE meat, poultry, dairy, fish and vegetable products. Although L. monocytogenes is among the most frequently-detected pathogens in dry fermented sausages, these products could be included in the category of RTE products in which the growth of L. monocytogenes is not favored and have rarely been implicated in listeriosis outbreaks. However, L. monocytogenes is highly difficult to control in fermented sausage processing environments due to its high tolerance to low pH and high salt concentration. In many Mediterranean-style dry fermented sausages, an empirical application of the hurdle technology often occurs and the frequent detection of L. monocytogenes in these products at the end of ripening highlights the need for food business operators to properly apply hurdle technology and to control the contamination routes of L. monocytogenes in the processing plants. In the following, through an up-to-date review of (personal and un- published data, the main aspects of the presence of L. monocytogenes in Mediterranean-style dry fermented sausages will be discussed.

  5. Mechanical properties of a Gelidium corneum edible film containing catechin and its application in sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, K-J; Hong, Y-H; Song, K B

    2008-04-01

    We prepared an edible Gelidium corneum (GC) film containing catechin and examined the microbial growth and quality change during storage of sausages packaged with the film. Incorporation of catechin in the film improved film tensile strength and water vapor permeability. The film's antimicrobial activity against Eschericha coli O157:H7 increased with increasing catechin concentrations and resulted in a decrease in the populations of the bacteria by 1.93 log CFU/g at 150 mg of catechin. For the sausage samples inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes, the samples packed with the GC film showed a decrease in populations of E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes by 1.81 and 1.44 log CFU/g, respectively, compared to the control after 5 d of storage. In addition, the sausage samples packed with the GC film had lower degrees of lipid oxidation. The results suggest that sausages can be packed with GC film to extend shelf life.

  6. The effect of electron beam irradiation on lipid oxidation in sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    atefeh yousefi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Irradiation treatment is one of the best techniques to extend the shelf-life of meat, without emerging the nutritional properties and sensory quality of irradiated meat products.  However electron -beam  may cause transformations in foods but has been known as to the most easily-applied irradiation technique in food industries. Electron-beam irradiation is an environment friendly, low cost and time effective alternative to other decontamination technologies. Lipid oxidation could produce of irradiated meat. This study aimed at evaluating the state of lipid oxidation of irradiated sausages. Its findings could help the control, improve food safety and quality properties to food industries. Methods: Sausages were purchased in a local supermarket, minced sausages blended for thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS analysis and divided into 25 g pieces. The samples including one control group and four case groups. Packaged sausage were exposed at doses of 0 (control, 1, 2, 3 and 5 kGy and analyzed on various days 0, 5, 10 and 30. Results: Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS has increased as time goes on (P<0.05. A significant relationship was observed on different Doses. But, the maximum of TBARS was observed in 3 kGy. Conclusion: Utilizing of Electron-beam irradiation in low doses does not have significant difference on lipid oxidation. Irradiating of meat products by addition of antioxidants can minimize or avoid the development of rancidity.

  7. Two-stream sausage and hollowing instabilities in high-intensity particle beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhm, Han S.; Davidson, Ronald C.; Kaganovich, Igor

    2001-01-01

    Axisymmetric two-stream instabilities in high-intensity particle beams are investigated analytically by making use of the Vlasov-Maxwell equations in the smooth-focusing approximation. The eigenfunctions for the axisymmetric radial modes are calculated self-consistently in order to determine the dispersion relation describing collective stability properties. Stability properties for the sausage and hollowing modes, characterized by radial mode numbers n=1 and n=2, respectively, are investigated, and the dispersion relations are obtained for the complex eigenfrequency ω in terms of the axial wavenumber k and other system parameters. The eigenfunctions obtained self-consistently for the sausage and hollowing modes indicate that the perturbations exist only inside the beam. Therefore, the location of the conducting wall does not have an effect on stability behavior. The growth rates of the sausage and hollowing modes are of the same order of magnitude as that of the hose (dipole-mode) instability. Therefore, it is concluded that the axisymmetric sausage and hollowing instabilities may also be deleterious to intense ion beam propagation when a background component of electrons is presented

  8. Presence of Listeria monocytogenes in Mediterranean-Style Dry Fermented Sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloni, Domenico

    2015-03-12

    The morphological, physiological and epidemiological features of L. monocytogenes , together with the severity of human listeriosis infections, make L. monocytogenes of particular concern for manufacturers of cold-stored "ready to eat" (RTE) foods. L. monocytogenes has been isolated from a wide variety of RTE foods and is responsible for several outbreaks associated with the consumption of RTE meat, poultry, dairy, fish and vegetable products. Although L. monocytogenes is among the most frequently-detected pathogens in dry fermented sausages, these products could be included in the category of RTE products in which the growth of L. monocytogenes is not favored and have rarely been implicated in listeriosis outbreaks. However, L. monocytogenes is highly difficult to control in fermented sausage processing environments due to its high tolerance to low pH and high salt concentration. In many Mediterranean-style dry fermented sausages, an empirical application of the hurdle technology often occurs and the frequent detection of L. monocytogenes in these products at the end of ripening highlights the need for food business operators to properly apply hurdle technology and to control the contamination routes of L. monocytogenes in the processing plants. In the following, through an up-to-date review of (personal and un-) published data, the main aspects of the presence of L. monocytogenes in Mediterranean-style dry fermented sausages will be discussed.

  9. Nonlinear sausage-wave propagation in a magnetic slab in an incompressible fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruderman, M.S.

    1993-01-01

    Long nonlinear sausage-wave propagation in a magnetic slab in an incompressible plasma is considered. The governing equation is derived with the aid of the reductive perturbation method. The solutions of this equation in the form of periodic waves of permanent shape are found numerically. (Author)

  10. Nonlinear development of the sausage instability in dense Z-pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombant, D.; Mosher, D.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, a 2d envelope model is described for the nonlinear development of the sausage instability in dense Z-pinches. Numerical solutions for various cases of interest are provided which lay the foundation for a quantitative model of nonthermal neutron emission in dense Z-pinches by determining the induced electric fields associated with the development of the instability

  11. Effects of antioxidant combinations on shelf stability of irradiated chicken sausage during storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Ko-Eun; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Song, Dong-Heon; Kim, Yong-Jae; Ham, Yun-Kyung; Lee, Ju-Woon; Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to investigate the combined effects of gamma irradiation (0, 2.5, and 5 kGy) and antioxidant combination, mugwort extract (ME) and ascorbic acid (Aa), on the pH, total color difference (ΔE), hue angle (H°), 2-thiobarbituricacid-reactive substances (TBARS) values, residual nitrite contents, and sensory evaluation in chicken sausage during storage. The pH values and sensory properties, except for color, of chicken sausage were not significantly affected by adding ME or treating irradiation during storage. However, ΔE, and H° values of samples containing ME (either alone or with Aa) were higher than that of control, whereas irradiation had no significant effect during storage. A combination of ME+Aa (0.2% ME+0.05% Aa) was effective at delaying lipid oxidation in irradiated chicken sausage. In addition, nitrite contents were reduced by gamma ray as a dose dependent manner and, particularly in ME+Aa was most effective in decreasing the residual nitrite. Our results suggested that gamma irradiation combined with an antioxidant mixture is a useful technology for reducing the residual nitrite and retarding the lipid oxidation in chicken sausage.

  12. Dried sausages fermented with Staphylococcus xylosus at different temperatures and with different ingredient levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahnke, Marie Louise Heller

    1995-01-01

    headspace sampling and quantified and identified by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The effects of temperature and different ingredients on the levels of individual volatiles were tested using multiple linear regression and analysis of variance. The study showed that sausages...

  13. Biogenic amine content, histamine-forming bacteria, and adulteration of pork in tuna sausage products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Hsien-Feng; Tsai, Yung-Hsiang; Chang, Shih-Chih; Hong, Tang-Yao

    2012-10-01

    Twenty-five tuna sausage products were purchased from retail markets in Taiwan. The rates of occurrence of biogenic amines, histamine-forming bacteria, and adulteration by pork and poultry were determined. The average content of various biogenic amines in all tested samples was less than 2.0 mg/100 g (Makaira nigricans (blue marlin).

  14. Lipid oxidation in n-3 fatty acid enriched Dutch style fermented sausages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelser, W.M.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Legger, A.; Houben, J.H.

    2007-01-01

    Dutch style fermented sausages were manufactured with a substitution of 10%, 15% and 20% of pork backfat by flaxseed oil and canola oil, pre-emulsified with soy protein isolate. The 15% and 20% substitution were also reached by adding encapsulated flaxseed oil and encapsulated fish oil and by adding

  15. Characterisation and detection of spoilage mould responsible for black spot in dry-cured fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Ojalvo, Daniel; Rodríguez, Alicia; Cordero, Mirian; Bernáldez, Victoria; Reyes-Prieto, Mariana; Córdoba, Juan J

    2015-02-01

    Moulds responsible for black spot spoilage of dry-cured fermented sausages were characterised. For this purpose, samples were taken from those dry-cured fermented sausages which showed black spot alteration. Most of the mould strains were first tentatively identified as Penicillium spp. due to their morphological characteristics in different culture conditions, with one strain as Cladosporium sp. The Cladosporium strain was the only one which provoked blackening in culture media. This strain was further characterised by sequencing of ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rRNA and β-tubulin genes. This mould strain was able to reproduce black spot formation in dry-cured fermented sausage 'salchichón' throughout the ripening process. In addition, a specific and sensitive real-time PCR method was also developed to detect Cladosporium oxysporum responsible for the black spot formation in sausages. This method could be of great interest for the meat industry to detect samples contaminated with this mould before spoilage of product avoiding economic losses for this sector.

  16. Identification of small peptides arising from hydrolysis of meat proteins in dry fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Constanza M; Bru, Elena; Vignolo, Graciela M; Fadda, Silvina G

    2015-06-01

    In this study, proteolysis and low molecular weight (LMW) peptides (<3kDa) from commercial Argentinean fermented sausages were characterized by applying a peptidomic approach. Protein profiles and peptides obtained by Tricine-SDS-PAGE and RP-HPLC-MS, respectively, allowed distinguishing two different types of fermented sausages, although no specific biomarkers relating to commercial brands or quality were recognized. From electrophoresis, α-actin, myoglobin, creatine kinase M-type and L-lactate dehydrogenase were degraded at different intensities. In addition, a partial characterization of fermented sausage peptidome through the identification of 36 peptides, in the range of 1000-2100 Da, arising from sarcoplasmic (28) and myofibrillar (8) proteins was achieved. These peptides had been originated from α-actin, myoglobin, and creatine kinase M-type, but also from the hydrolysis of other proteins not previously reported. Although muscle enzymes exerted a major role on peptidogenesis, microbial contribution cannot be excluded as it was postulated herein. This work represents a first peptidomic approach for fermented sausages, thereby providing a baseline to define key peptides acting as potential biomarkers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Nutritional value and fatty acid composition of some traditional Argentinean meat sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Cristina Romero

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the nutritional composition (moisture, protein, carbohydrates, and total fat of some meat products produced in the northeastern Argentina, analyzing fatty acids composition, polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio PUFA/SFA ratio (polyunsaturated/ saturated fatty acids, n-6/n-3 ratio, and CLA (conjugated linoleic acid content. Thirty traditional meat products produced by different processes were used. The samples were classified into 4 different categories as follows: salamín (dry cured and fermented sausage, chorizos (raw sausage, chorizo ahumado (cooked and smoked sausage, and morcilla (cooked sausage. From the results obtained it can be said that the total carbohydrate contents of the salamín studied were slightly lower; fat content of raw chorizo was significantly lower, and protein content of chorizo ahumado was significantly higher than those comparison from databases from other regions of Argentina, USA, and Spain. Except for chorizo, which has a value lower than 0.4, the PUFA/SFA-stearic ratio of the other products were a little higher than those reported by other researchers. CLA (Conjugated linoleic acid contents between 0.03% and 0.19% were detected. The results obtained indicate that salamín produced in northeastern Argentina, Chaco state, shows high protein and PUFA (Polyunsaturated fatty acids contents, and low atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes, which makes it a more healthful product than those of similar composition produced in other countries.

  18. Comparison of various types of starch when used in meat sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrede, G

    1989-01-01

    Technological and sensory properties of meat sausages formulated with 4·0% of either potato flour, modified (acetylated distarch phosphate) potato starch, wheat, corn or tapioca starch were compared. Sausages were analyzed after cooking at temperatures between 65 and 85°C followed by storage at 5°C and -25°C. Characteristics evaluated were weight loss during cooking and storage, instrumentally and sensory assessed firmness, taste and smell of sausages. The results revealed differences in the suitability of starches for use in meat sausages. Part of the differences could be ascribed to differences in gelatination properties of the starches. With the criteria used for evaluating quality, potato flour was rated as the best suited starch followed by wheat starch while tapioca was rated as the least suited. Corn starch required cooking temperatures above 75°C and showed relatively low freeze/thaw stability. The modified potato starch stored well both above and below the freezing point. Copyright © 1989. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Ochratoxin A reduction in meat sausages using processing methods practiced in households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleadin, Jelka; Perši, Nina; Kovačević, Dragan; Vulić, Ana; Frece, Jadranka; Markov, Ksenija

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possibilities of ochratoxin A (OTA) reduction in home-made meat products. Meat sausages (n = 50) produced from raw materials coming from pigs exposed to OTA-contaminated feed, were subject to common heat processes practiced in households (cooking, frying and baking). Concentrations of OTA in pre- and post-processed products were quantified using a validated immunoassay method, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and confirmed using a high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. In line with the differences in recipes used and the degree of OTA accumulation in raw materials, OTA concentrations established in Mediterranean and roast sausages were lower than those found in liver and blood sausages. Baking of contaminated sausages at the temperatures of 190-220°C (for 60 min) resulted in significant reduction of OTA levels (75.8%), while 30-min cooking (at 100°C) and frying (at 170°C) proved to be significantly less effective (e.g. yielding OTA reductions of 7.4% and 12.6%, respectively). The results pointed out that despite high OTA stability, heat processes are capable of reducing its concentration in home-made meat products, depending on the processing modality used.

  20. Rapid quantitative detection of Lactobacillus sakei in meat and fermented sausages by real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Belén; Jofré, Anna; Garriga, Margarita; Pla, Maria; Aymerich, Teresa

    2006-09-01

    A quick and simple method for quantitative detection of Lactobacillus sakei in fermented sausages was successfully developed. It is based on Chelex-100-based DNA purification and real-time PCR enumeration using a TaqMan fluorescence probe. Primers and probes were designed in the L. sakei 16S-23S rRNA intergenic transcribed spacer region, and the assay was evaluated using L. sakei genomic DNA and an artificially inoculated sausage model. The detection limit of this technique was approximately 3 cells per reaction mixture using both purified DNA and the inoculated sausage model. The quantification limit was established at 30 cells per reaction mixture in both models. The assay was then applied to enumerate L. sakei in real samples, and the results were compared to the MRS agar count method followed by confirmation of the percentage of L. sakei colonies. The results obtained by real-time PCR were not statistically significantly different than those obtained by plate count on MRS agar (P > 0.05), showing a satisfactory agreement between both methods. Therefore, the real-time PCR assay developed can be considered a promising rapid alternative method for the quantification of L. sakei and evaluation of the implantation of starter strains of L. sakei in fermented sausages.

  1. Keeping quality of beef sausage using ethanolic extract of gamma-irradiated pomegranate peel powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Ibrahim Ali Soliman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to evaluate the antioxidant and antibacterial activity of ethanol extracts from gamma-irradiated pomegranate (Punica granatum peel powder (PE at the dose levels of 0, 3, 6, and 9 kGy. The аntioxidant activity of the extracts was estimated using the radical scavenging activity against 2,2′-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•, β-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching system, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP. Antibacterial activity of the extracts was assessed against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsilla penumoneae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Salmonella typhumurium. The results showed that PE treated with 6 kGy had a higher content of total phenolic compounds (TPC, total flavonoid compounds (TFC, and antioxidant activity. Hence, the PE of 6 kGy-irradiated peels were selected to be added to beef sausage. Different concentrations of 6 KGy-irradiated PE were applied to improve beef sausage hygienic quality and extend the shelf life during cold storage (4°C. The results indicated that when 12 mL of the extract were added to one kg of beef sausage, the shelf-life of the sausage was extended from 15 days to 50 days (at 4°C, compared with the control, without changes of the microbiological, chemical, and sensory attributes.

  2. Effects of antioxidant combinations on shelf stability of irradiated chicken sausage during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Ko-Eun; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Song, Dong-Heon; Kim, Yong-Jae; Ham, Yun-Kyung; Lee, Ju-Woon; Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to investigate the combined effects of gamma irradiation (0, 2.5, and 5 kGy) and antioxidant combination, mugwort extract (ME) and ascorbic acid (Aa), on the pH, total color difference (ΔE), hue angle (H°), 2-thiobarbituricacid-reactive substances (TBARS) values, residual nitrite contents, and sensory evaluation in chicken sausage during storage. The pH values and sensory properties, except for color, of chicken sausage were not significantly affected by adding ME or treating irradiation during storage. However, ΔE, and H° values of samples containing ME (either alone or with Aa) were higher than that of control, whereas irradiation had no significant effect during storage. A combination of ME+Aa (0.2% ME+0.05% Aa) was effective at delaying lipid oxidation in irradiated chicken sausage. In addition, nitrite contents were reduced by gamma ray as a dose dependent manner and, particularly in ME+Aa was most effective in decreasing the residual nitrite. Our results suggested that gamma irradiation combined with an antioxidant mixture is a useful technology for reducing the residual nitrite and retarding the lipid oxidation in chicken sausage. - Highlights: • We evaluate the combined effects of gamma irradiation and antioxidant combination. • Gamma irradiation is effective in reducing the nitrite levels. • Combination of antioxidants might be helpful in enhancing the oxidative stability

  3. Colorimetric and sensory characteristics of fermented cured sausage with Brazilian ostrich meat addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Pasqualin Cavalheiro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the colorimetric and sensory characteristics of a fermented cured sausage containing ostrich meat (Struthio camelus and pork meat. Four treatments were performed: one with no ostrich meat (TC and the others containing 19.08 (T1, 38.34 (T2, and 57.60% (T3 of ostrich meat and pork meat. Colorimetric analyses were measuring L*, a*, b*, C*, and hº. Sensory analysis was conducted assessing color, aroma, flavor, and texture at the end of the sausages' processing. The sausages containing ostrich meat were statistically different from the control in the instrumental colorimetric analysis. In the sensory analysis, no significant differences were observed between the treatments for aroma, flavor, and texture. However, significant differences were found in the color of the sausages due to the high myoglobin content present in the ostrich meat, which resulted in a very dark color in the treatment with the highest percentage of this type of meat.

  4. Conditions for excellence in teaching in medical education: The Frankfurt Model to ensure quality in teaching and learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giesler, Marianne

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is general consensus that the organizational and administrative aspects of academic study programs exert an important influence on teaching and learning. Despite this, no comprehensive framework currently exists to describe the conditions that affect the quality of teaching and learning in medical education. The aim of this paper is to systematically and comprehensively identify these factors to offer academic administrators and decision makers interested in improving teaching a theory-based and, to an extent, empirically founded framework on the basis of which improvements in teaching quality can be identified and implemented.Method: Primarily, the issue was addressed by combining a theory-driven deductive approach with an experience based, “best evidence” one during the course of two workshops held by the GMA Committee on Personnel and Organizational Development in Academic Teaching (POiL in Munich (2013 and Frankfurt (2014. Two models describing the conditions relevant to teaching and learning (Euler/Hahn and Rindermann were critically appraised and synthesized into a new third model. Practical examples of teaching strategies that promote or hinder learning were compiled and added to the categories of this model and, to the extent possible, supported with empirical evidence.Based on this, a checklist with recommendations for optimizing general academic conditions was formulated.Results: The covers six categories: and These categories have been supplemented by the interests, motives and abilities of the actual teachers and students in this particular setting. The categories of this model provide the structure for a checklist in which recommendations for optimizing teaching are given.Conclusions: The checklist derived from the Frankfurt Model for ensuring quality in teaching and learning can be used for quality assurance and to improve the conditions under which teaching and learning take place in medical schools.

  5. Effect of spices commercial mixture with GDL on the quality of fermented dry-cured sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Kročko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main fermented meat products are fermented sausages in which lactic acid bacteria (LAB are the essential agents of the ripening process. Their application as starter organisms ensures the dominance of the starter during the whole ripening process. However, when no starter cultures are used, direct addition of acids like a glucono-delta-lactone (GdL is preferred. The goal of this study was to determine the influence of commercial spices mixtur (containing GdL on selected technological parameters of fermented dry-cured sausages - Danube sausage in comparison with currently available conventional spices. Comparison was evaluated also with addition of starter cultures. Determinations of technological (value of pH, water activity, color and microbiological properties (count of Lactobacillus spp., Enterobacteriaceae family, yeasts and moulds were realized after 24 hours, 5 and 30 days. The sensory analysis of sausages was carried out after 30 days of ripening process. In sausages with the addition of commercial spice mixture in combination with starter culture were determined the lowest values of pH and aw at the end of ripening process (30 days. Bacteria of Enterobacteriaceae family were occurred in the samples with the addition of currently available conventional spices at the beginning of ripening, but after 5 days of ripening were bacteria of this family not detected. The counts of yeasts in analyzed samples were not detected. Counts of LAB at the end of ripening proccess (30 days were lower in coparison with result obtained after 5 days; however their count was comparable with count determined at the beginig of the ripening. Our results show, that the combination of starter culture and commercial spice mixture containig GdL may cause excesive sour taste and sensory defect of dry fermented meat products.

  6. Antioxidant Activities of Lactic Acid Bacteria for Quality Improvement of Fermented Sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yulong; Hu, Ping; Lou, Lijiao; Zhan, Jianlong; Fan, Min; Li, Dan; Liao, Qianwei

    2017-12-01

    Lactobacillus curvatus (SR6) and Lactobacillus paracasei (SR10-1) were assessed for their antioxidant activities and inoculated into sausages to investigate their effects on quality during fermentation. The results showed that L. curvatus SR6 had better DPPH• scavenging activity (59.67% ± 6.68%) and reducing power (47.31% ± 4.62%) and L. paracasei SR10-1 had better OH• scavenging activity (285.67% ± 2.00%) and anti-lipid peroxidation capacity (63.89% ± 0.93%). The superoxide dismutase activity of the cell culture fluid was greater than 47.00 U/mL, and the catalase activity of the cell-free extracts was greater than 1.00 U/mL. In the sausage model, lactic acid bacteria rapidly became the dominant microflora and reduced the moisture content, water activity, nitrite, and pH. The bacteria significantly enhanced the antioxidant activity of the sausage extracts, which improved the sensory characteristics and safety of the sausages. These results illustrate that both strains have excellent antioxidant activities and can be used as antioxidant starters in fermented meat products. The study illustrated the antioxidant and antioxidase activities of Lactobacillus curvatus SR6 and Lactobacillus paracasei SR10-1 and demonstrated the changes in the quality characteristics and antioxidant activities of fermented sausages. The findings provide valuable information for the meat industry on the application of functional starters in fermented meat products. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  7. Modelling the emissions from ships in ports and their impact on air quality in the metropolitan area of Hamburg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramacher, Martin; Karl, Matthias; Aulinger, Armin; Bieser, Johannes; Matthias, Volker; Quante, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Exhaust emissions from shipping contribute significantly to the anthropogenic burden of air pollutants such as nitrogen oxides (NOX) and particulate matter (PM). Ships emit not only when sailing on open sea, but also when approaching harbors, during port manoeuvers and at berth to produce electricity and heat for the ship's operations. This affects the population of harbor cities because long-term exposure to PM and NOX has significant effects on human health. The European Union has therefore has set air quality standards for air pollutants. Many port cities have problems meeting these standards. The port of Hamburg with around 10.000 ship calls per year is Germany's largest seaport and Europe's second largest container port. Air quality standard reporting in Hamburg has revealed problems in meeting limits for NO2 and PM10. The amount and contribution of port related ship emissions (38% for NOx and 17% for PM10) to the overall emissions in the metropolitan area in 2005 [BSU Hamburg (2012): Luftreinhalteplan für Hamburg. 1. Fortschreibung 2012] has been modelled with a bottom up approach by using statistical data of ship activities in the harbor, technical vessel information and specific emission algorithms [GAUSS (2008): Quantifizierung von gasförmigen Emissionen durch Maschinenanlagen der Seeschiffart an der deutschen Küste]. However, knowledge about the spatial distribution of the harbor ship emissions over the city area is crucial when it comes to air quality standards and policy decisions to protect human health. Hence, this model study examines the spatial distribution of harbor ship emissions (NOX, PM10) and their deposition in the Hamburg metropolitan area. The transport and chemical transformation of atmospheric pollutants is calculated with the well-established chemistry transport model TAPM (The Air Pollution Model). TAPM is a three-dimensional coupled prognostic meteorological and air pollution model with a condensed chemistry scheme including

  8. Magdalene Schoch und die Hamburger Universität - eine (ungewöhnliche) Wissenschaftskarriere der 1920er und 1930er Jahre

    OpenAIRE

    Oeter, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    Aus der Einleitung: „In einer akademischen Feierstunde am 15. Juni 2006 wurde der Hörsaal J im Hauptgebäude der Universität Hamburg in Magdalene-Schoch-Hörsaal benannt – die fünfte Namensgebung im Rahmen des 1999 begonnenen Programms zur Benennung restaurierter Hörsäle nach im „Dritten Reich“ vertriebenen Hamburger Wissenschaftlerinnen und Wissenschaftlern. [...] Das vorliegende Heft der Hamburger Universitätsreden dokumentiert die auf der Feier gehaltenen Reden [...] Bei den anschließend ...

  9. Water properties and structure of pork sausages as affected by high-pressure processing and addition of carrot fibre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Sandie Mejer; Grossi, Alberto Blak; Christensen, Mette

    2011-01-01

    The effects of high-pressure processing (HPP) and addition of carrot fibre on pork sausages have been studied using NMR T(2) relaxometry and measurements of water-binding capacity (WBC) by centrifugation. Significant effects of temperature (raw, 40, 50, or 60°C), holding time (1s, 3, 6, or 9min......), and addition of carrot fibre on the distribution and mobility of water were found. However, the effect of carrot fibre could not be explained by structural changes in the sausages when examined by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Correlations between T(2) relaxation measurements and WBC determined...... by centrifugation revealed that T(2) relaxation times were able to explain more than 90% of the variation in WBC for both non-pressure and pressure-treated sausages. However, only 49% of the variation was explained for pressure-treated sausages with carrot fibre, indicating that combining addition of fibre and high...

  10. ConFerm - A tool to predict the reduction of pathogens during the production of fermented and matured sausages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunvig, A.; Borggaard, C.; Hansen, F.

    2016-01-01

    the dynamics of the sausage environment during fermentation and maturation of fermented sausages.A total of 73 experiments were carried out in sausages containing different levels of NaCl in the water phase (WPS) (3.9-6.8%), NaNO2 (0-200 ppm) and pH(48h) (4.3-5.6). The minced meat was inoculated with approx....... 10(6) cfu/g of a multi-strain cocktail of 3 strains of Salmonella (S. Dublin, S. Typhimurium, S. Derby), 3 strains of STEC (O26:H-, O111:H- and O157) and five L. monocytogenes strains isolated from different meat products and environment. The sausages were fermented at 24 degrees C for 48 h using...... interested parties at http://dmripredict.dk (in English). (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  11. Effect of sage (Salvia officinalis) on the oxidative stability of Chinese-style sausage during refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L; Lin, Y H; Leng, X J; Huang, M; Zhou, G H

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of sage, at levels of 0.05%, 0.1% and 0.15% (w/w), on the oxidative stability of Chinese-style sausage stored at 4°C for 21 days. The results showed that inclusion of sage in sausages resulted in lower L* values (Psage showed significantly retarded increases in TBARS values, and in the formation of protein carbonyls (Psage to the sausages at levels of 0.1% and 0.15% reduced textural deterioration during refrigerated storage (PSage used in this study had no negative effects on the sensory properties of sausages. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Germinated barley as a functional ingredient in chicken sausages: effect on physicochemical and technological properties at different levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Kim, Yong-Jae; Ham, Youn-Kyung; Jeong, Tae-Jun; Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of germinated barley (GB) levels on physicochemical and technological properties of cooked chicken sausages. The chicken sausages were formulated with 0-4 % GB. Addition of GB increased pH and yellowness but decreased lightness of the cooked chicken sausages. However, there was no difference in redness among treatments (P > 0.05). Based on the positive effects of GB on measurements related to water and/or fat retention ability, such as emulsion stability, cooking loss, and thawing loss, such results depended upon the added amount of GB. In addition, apparent viscosity increased with increasing levels of GB, resulting in hardness, springiness, and chewiness (P technological properties of chicken sausages and optimal level of GB was determined as minimum 2 %.

  13. Study on physico-chemical properties of emulsion type sausage produced with aqueous extract of Biarum carduchcorum tenderizied meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Raeisi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the quality of meat such as tenderness, protein solubility, emulsification and water holding capacity, in the food industries, various methods have been employed. Application of the plant enzymes is considered as one of the most efficient methods for meat tenderization. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the characteristics of emulsion type sausage made from tenderized cattle meat by hydro extract of Biarum carduchcorum. The proteolytic activity of the extract was determined using bovine milk casein as substrate. Post rigor thigh meat were tenderized by 100 and 150 enzyme units/ kg of the extract before used for production of sausage. Fresh post rigor thigh meat was used as control. Nitrogen solubility index (NSI, stability of sausage emulsion, texture analysis and organoleptic properties of sausages were determined. Our results showed a significant increase in the NSI of the experimental groups compared with the control (P

  14. Effect of modified atmosphere packaging and irradiation in combination on content of nitrosamines in cooked pork sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, I H; Kim, W J; Jo, C; Ahn, H J; Kim, J H; Byun, M W

    2003-06-01

    The effect of modified atmosphere packaging and irradiation in combination on nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR) levels in pork sausage was studied. Emulsion-type cooked pork sausage was manufactured and packaged in aerobic, CO2 (100%), N2 (100%), and CO2/N2 (25%/75%) environments, respectively, and irradiated at 0, 5, 10, and 20 kGy with gamma irradiation. The nitrosamine contents were significantly reduced by irradiation, and the reduction of nitrosamines was more extensive with modified atmosphere packaging than with aerobic packaging. The correlation coefficient between irradiation dose and nitrosamine content indicated that irradiation can reduce the levels of nitrosamines. The combination of irradiation and modified atmosphere packaging is effective in enhancing the chemical safety of sausage by reducing nitrosamines, if present, as well as enhancing the microbial safety of cooked pork sausage.

  15. Physical and sensory characteristics of pork sausages from enzymatically modified blends of lard and rapeseed oil during storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheong, L.Z.; Zhang, H.; Nersting, L.

    2010-01-01

    Physical and sensory characteristic of pork sausages produced from enzymatic interesterified blends of lard and rapeseed oil during storage were evaluated. All three enzymatic interesterified blends (IE90, IE70 and IE50) had ratios of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids within the range of 1.......47-2.84 which is favourable for cardiovascular disease risk reduction. Blends of IE90 and IE70 were found to have suitable solid fat content, melting and crystallization profile suitable for sausages production. Sausages were produced from blends of IE90 and IE70 with different muscle types (musculus...... longissimus dorsi and musculus sternomandibularis) and processing conditions such as cooling rates and final processing temperature. Cooling rate was found to have no significant (P>0.05) effect on hardness of the sausages throughout storage. Both musculus longissimus dorsi and high final processing...

  16. Effects of chopping time, meat source and storage temperature on the colour of New Zealand type fresh beef sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boles, J A; Mikkelsen, V L; Swan, J E

    1998-05-01

    The colour stability of finely chopped fresh sausages made from post-rigor, pre-rigor salt added (1.5% w/w) or pre-rigor no salt added beef mince was evaluated using a Hunter Miniscan (L (∗) a (∗) b (∗)) and sensory colour panel. Batters were chopped for various times and sausages stored at -1.5 °, + 4.0 ° and + 8.0 °C. Regardless of meat source or chopping time, colour stability was greatest at -1.5 °C. Panellists found the colour of all sausages stored at -1.5 °C acceptable for at least six days. Sausages made from unsalted pre-rigor mince had markedly better colour stability than those made from the other meats, especially when stored at 4 °C or 8 °C.

  17. Application of Response Surface Methodology to Study the Effects of Brisket Fat, Soy Protein Isolate, and Cornstarch on Nutritional and Textural Properties of Rabbit Sausages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuri, Edward G.; Wanyoike, Margaret M. M.

    2017-01-01

    The effects of brisket fat, soy protein isolate, and cornstarch on chemical and textural properties of rabbit sausages were studied using surface response methodology. Sausage samples were prepared using a five-level three-variable Central Composite Rotatable Design with 16 combinations, including two replicates of the center point, carried out in random order. The level of brisket fat (BF), soy protein isolate (SPI), and cornstarch (CS) in the sausage formulation ranged within 8.3–16.7%, 0.7–2.3%, and 1.3–4.7%, respectively. Increasing BF decreased moisture and ash contents but increased protein and fat contents of the sausages (p sausages (p sausages than CS. PMID:28706941

  18. Image analysis with the computer vision system and the consumer test in evaluating the appearance of Lucanian dry sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girolami, Antonio; Napolitano, Fabio; Faraone, Daniela; Di Bello, Gerardo; Braghieri, Ada

    2014-01-01

    The object of the investigation was the Lucanian dry sausage appearance, meant as color and visible fat ratio. The study was carried out on dry sausages produced in 10 different salami factories and seasoned for 18 days on average. We studied the effect of the raw material origin (5 producers used meat bought from the market and other 5 producers used meat from pigs bred in their farms) and of the salami factories or brands on meat color, fat color and visible fat ratio in dry sausages. The sausages slices were photographed and the images were analysed with the computer vision system to measure the changes in the colorimetric characteristics L*, a*, b*, hue and chroma and in the visible fat area ratio. The last parameter was assessed on the slice surface using image binarization. A consumer test was conducted to determine the relationship between the perception of visible fat on the sausage slice surface and acceptability and preference of this product. The consumers were asked to look carefully at the 6 sausages slices in a photo, minding the presence of fat, and to identify (a) the slices they considered unacceptable for consumption and (b) the slice they preferred. The results show that the color of the sausage lean part varies in relation to the raw material employed and to the producer or brand (P<0.001). Besides, the sausage meat color is not uniform in some salami factories (P<0.05-0.001). In all salami factories the sausages show a high uniformity in fat color. The visible fat ratio of the sausages slices is higher (P<0.001) in the product from salami factories without pig-breeding farm. The fat percentage is highly variable (P<0.001) among the sausages of each salami factory. On the whole, the product the consumers consider acceptable and is inclined to eat has a low fat percentage (P<0.001). Our consumers (about 70%) prefer slices which are leaner (P<0.001). Women, in particular, show a higher preference for the leanest (P<0.001). © 2013.

  19. Dynamics investigation of change of freshness and properties of new types of semi-smoked sausages during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ірина Іллівна Маркович

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Stable quality of sausages during storage is achieved through improving processes, modes and storage conditions, use of various food additives and antioxidants that will positively affect the inhibition of hydrolytic and oxidative changes in lipids. In production technology of semi- smoked sausages we propose the use of plant material – flour of sprouted and not sprouted lentil, and to lengthen shelf life – thyme and juniper 

  20. Lipid oxidation, color changes and volatiles production in irradiated pork sausage with different fat content and packaging during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, C.; Lee, J.I.; Ahn, D.U.

    1999-01-01

    Effects of irradiation on lipid oxidation, color and volatiles production in pork sausages with different fat content and packaging were determined. Sausages (with 4.7, 10.5 and 15.8% fat content) were sliced and vacuum-packaged either in oxygen-permeable or impermeable bags, irradiated (0 or 4.5 kGy) and stored at 4°C for 7 days. Lipid oxidation, color and volatiles productions were analyzed at 0, 3 and 7 days of storage. TBARS (2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) values of cooked pork sausages increased with the increase of fat content regardless of storage, irradiation or packaging types. Irradiated samples had higher TBARS than nonirradiated at 0 day but the difference disappeared during storage in both packaging types. Lightness of sausages (Hunter L-value) increased with the increase of fat content and storage time but was not affected by irradiation. In aerobic packaging, irradiation reduced Hunter a-values of pork sausages at 0 day but irradiation effect on a-value disappeared during storage. In vacuum packaging, however, irradiated samples had higher Hunter a-values than nonirradiated samples. Irradiation increased 1-heptene and total volatiles, but the amount of 1-heptene was not associated well with TBARS values of pork sausages. In both irradiated and nonirradiated pork sausages, aerobic packaging produced more volatiles than vacuum packaging during storage. It was concluded that irradiation and fat content had significant effects on lipid oxidation, color and volatiles production of cooked pork sausages during storage but that oxygen availability had a stronger effect than irradiation and fat content

  1. Effect of freeze-dried leek powder (FDLP) and nitrite level on processing and quality characteristics of fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoukalas, D S; Katsanidis, E; Marantidou, S; Bloukas, J G

    2011-02-01

    Fermented sausages were produced with 0.84% and 1.68% freeze-dried leek powder (FDLP), providing 75 and 150 mg/kg NaNO(3), respectively, and three levels of added nitrite (0, 75, and 150 mg/kg NaNO(2). A control treatment was also produced with 150 mg/kg NaNO(2). Sausages with FDLP were darker and yellower (pnitrite. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Microbiological characteristics of "androlla", a Spanish traditional pork sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Fontán, María C; Lorenzo, José M; Parada, Ana; Franco, Inmaculada; Carballo, Javier

    2007-02-01

    Counts of total aerobic mesophilic microflora, lactic acid bacteria, salt-tolerant microflora, Enterobacteriaceae, enterococci, moulds and yeasts, and staphylococci, and some physico-chemical parameters (total solids, NaCl and nitrate contents and pH and aw values) were determined in 20 units of "androlla", a traditional dry-fermented sausage made in the NW of Spain. In general, high counts of all the investigated microbial groups were observed, with average values of 8.99 +/- 0.46 log cfu/g for the total aerobic mesophilic microflora, 9.11 +/- 0.16 log cfu/g for the lactic acid bacteria, 6.87 +/- 0.68 log cfu/g for the salt-tolerant microflora, 2.80+/-1.85 log cfu/g for the Enterobacteriaceae, 3.25 +/- 1.86 log cfu/g for the enterococci, 4.30 +/- 1.73 log cfu/g for the moulds and yeasts, and 3.62 +/- 0.60 log cfu/g for the staphylococci. From MRS agar, SPC agar + 7.5% NaCl, VRBG agar, and KAA agar, 10 colonies were randomly taken from each androlla unit and from each culture medium. A total of 200 strains per culture medium were then identified using the classical methods. Among the isolates from MRS agar, Lactobacillus sakei predominated, followed by Lactobacillus curvatus, Lactobacillus alimentarius and Lactobacillus plantarum. Of the 200 isolates obtained from SPC agar + 7.5% NaCl, only 56 strains belonged to the Staphylococcaceae or Micrococcaceae families. Among the Staphylococcaceae, Staphylococcus xylosus was the main species, followed by Staph. epidermidis; Staph. equorum, Staph. capitis and Staph. saprophyticus were isolated in very low proportions. Among the Micrococcaceae, Micrococcus luteus predominated, followed by Micrococcus lylae, Kocuria varians and Kocuria kristinae. Of the 150 isolates obtained from VRBG agar, Hafnia alvei was the main species, followed by Serratia liquefaciens and Enterobacter amnigenus; six isolates were identified as Salmonella. Among the 190 isolates obtained from KAA agar, 122 were considered enterococci; 20 isolates were

  3. Effects of electron beam irradiated natural casings on the quality properties and shelf stability of emulsion sausage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Choi, Ji-Hun; Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Hack-Youn; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2012-01-01

    The effect of electron beam irradiated hog and sheep casings (1, 3, and 8 kGy) on the physicochemical properties and shelf stability of emulsion sausage was evaluated. There were no significant differences in pH, instrumental color, sensory properties (overall acceptability), and hardness between all the samples. The cooking yields for the irradiated treated samples were larger than that of the yields obtained for the non-irradiated samples for both the hog and sheep casing. The irradiated natural casings accelerated lipid oxidation, and inhibited the formation of volatile basic nitrogen and the increase in total aerobic bacteria. In conclusion, the natural casings irradiated below at a dose of 3 kGy had no effect on physicochemical and sensory properties of the emulsion sausages, however, that improved the shelf-stability over 5 weeks. Therefore, natural casings irradiated at moderate doses are suitable for sausage production. - Highlights: ► The effect of E-beam irradiated natural casings on sausage quality was evaluated. ► The use of irradiated casings improved shelf stability of sausage. ► Natural casings irradiated below 3 kGy are suitable for sausage production.

  4. Physicochemical properties, fatty acid profile and sensory characteristics of sheep and goat meat sausages manufactured with different pork fat levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Ana; Rodrigues, Sandra; Pereira, Etelvina; Paulos, Kátia; Oliveira, António Filipe; Lorenzo, José Manuel; Teixeira, Alfredo

    2015-07-01

    The effect of three pork backfat levels (0% vs. 10% vs. 30%) on chemical composition, fatty acid profile and sensory properties on sheep and goat meat sausages was studied. All physicochemical parameters were affected by the addition of pork backfat in both types of sausages. Sausages manufactured with 30% of pork backfat showed the lowest moisture and protein contents and the highest total fat content. The lower a(w) values in sausages manufactured with higher fat content while in pH happened the reverse situation. The addition of pork backfat modified the total fatty acid profile, prompting a significant drop in the relative percentages of C14:0, C16:0, C17:0, C17:1, C18:0 and TVA (trans-vaccenic acid), together with a marked increase in oleic and linoleic acids. Finally, in goat sausages, the fat content significantly affected sensory parameters: taste, texture and overall acceptability (P<0.05). As expected, all physicochemical parameters were affected by the addition of pork backfat in both types of sausages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Application of high pressure processing to reduce verotoxigenic E. coli in two types of dry-fermented sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omer, M K; Alvseike, O; Holck, A; Axelsson, L; Prieto, M; Skjerve, E; Heir, E

    2010-12-01

    The effect of high pressure processing (HPP) on the survival of verotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) in two types of Norwegian type dry-fermented sausages was studied. Two different types of recipes for each sausage type were produced. The sausage batter was inoculated with 6.8 log(10) CFU/g of VTEC O103:H25. After fermentation, drying and maturation, slices of finished sausages were vacuum packed and subjected to two treatment regimes of HPP. One group was treated at 600 MPa for 10 min and another at three cycles of 600 MPa for 200 s per cycle. A generalized linear model split by recipe type showed that these two HPP treatments on standard recipe sausages reduced E. coli by 2.9 log(10) CFU/g and 3.3 log(10) CFU/g, respectively. In the recipe with higher levels of dextrose, sodium chloride and sodium nitrite E. coli reduction was 2.7 log(10) CFU/g in both treatments. The data show that HPP has a potential to make the sausages safer and also that the effect depends somewhat on recipe. Copyright © 2010 The American Meat Science Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of Mixing Ratio between Pork Loin and Chicken Breast on Textural and Sensory Properties of Emulsion Sausages

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This study is conducted to evaluate the effects of the mixing ratio between pork loin and chicken breast for textural and sensory properties of emulsion sausages. Meat homogenates are prepared by using five mixing ratios between pork loin and chicken breast (100:0, 70:30, 50:50, 30:70, and 0:100), and the emulsion sausages are also formulated with five mixing ratios. The additions of chicken breast increase the salt soluble protein solubility due to high pH levels of chicken breast, thereby resulting in the reduction of cooking losses. In addition, the apparent viscosity of meat homogenates increase with increasing amounts of chicken breast. In terms of emulsion sausages formulated with pork loin and chicken breast, the addition of chicken breast above 50% may contribute to a softer and more flexible texture of emulsion sausages. For sensory evaluations, an increase in the added amount of chicken breast contributes to a rich umami taste and deeper flavor within the emulsion sausages, resulting in the high overall acceptance score for the formulation of 0-30% pork loin and 70-100% chicken breast. Therefore, the optimal mixing ratios between pork loin and chicken breast are 0-30% and 70-100% for enhancing the textural and sensory properties of emulsion sausages. PMID:26760930

  7. Evaluation of quality parameters of sausages made with rabbit meat, lamb and pork, added with wheat fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E. Cobos-Velazsco

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The difference among animal species with which chorizo is made, resulting in changes in the techno-functional properties that affect the process and acceptance of product. Sausages made with meat from rabbit, pork and lamb sources were added with wheat fiber and dried at water activity of 0.94. The moisture content was not affected by the source, but it was reduced when fiber was added. The sausages without fiber showed a lower fat content than those samples with fiber. They can be considered stable at room temperature due to their acidity and drying degree. Regarding to the weight loss and diameter of the sausage parameters, there were no differences between source types, however, a reduction of diameter was observed with the addition of fiber. Sausages with lamb meat and fiber showed an increase in oxidation. Higher values of luminosity were obtained in pork sausages. The most preferred samples were the pork meat sausages with the presence of fiber.

  8. Real-time prediction of pre-cooked Japanese sausage color with different storage days using hyperspectral imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Chao-Hui; Makino, Yoshio; Yoshimura, Masatoshi; Rodríguez-Pulido, Francisco J

    2018-05-01

    Redness can greatly influence the freshness of sausages. A precise, rapid and noncontact analytical method or tool is needed to quantify the color. Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is an emerging technique that integrates spectroscopy and imaging to obtain the spectral and spatial information simultaneously. In the present study, the redness of cooked sausages stored up to 57 days was predicted using HSI in tandem with multivariate data analysis. The mean spectra of the sausages were extracted from the hyperspectral images. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) and forward stepwise multiple regression (FSMR) models were used to develop the relavent spectral profiles with the redness of the cooked sausages. Ten important wavelengths were selected based on the regression coefficient values from the PLSR model. The PLSR model established using the full wavelengths presented a good performance, with R c of 0.934 and a root mean square error of calibration of 0.642 (redness ranged between 14.99 and 21.48). The prediction maps for demonstrating evolution of redness in sausages were developed for the first time using R statistics (R Foundation for Statistical Computing) and Matlab (MathWorks Inc., Natick, MA, USA). HSI combined with PLSR and FSMR can be used to quantify and visualize evolution of sausage redness under different storage days. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Influence of inoculation levels and processing parameters on the survival of Campylobacter jejuni in German style fermented turkey sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, Thomas; Bori, Anouchka; Hamedi, Ahmad; Ellerbroek, Lüppo; Fehlhaber, Karsten

    2006-10-01

    This study investigated the influence of inoculum levels and manufacturing methods on the survival of Campylobacter (C.) jejuni in raw fermented turkey sausages. Sausages were prepared and inoculated with C. jejuni. After inoculation, these sausages were processed and ripened for 8 days. Samples were taken throughout the ripening process. The presence of C. jejuni was established bacteriologically. Additionally, lactic acid bacteria were enumerated, pH values and water activity were measured to verify the ripening process. To detect changes in genotype and verify the identity of the recovered clones, AFLP analysis was carried out on the re-isolated strains. Whereas no C. jejuni were detectable when inoculating the sausages with the lowest inoculum (0.08-0.44 log(10) cfu/g sausage emulsion), C. jejuni were detectable for 12-24h by enrichment when inoculated with approximately 2 log(10) cfu/g. After inoculation with 4 and 6 log(10) cfu/g respectively, C. jejuni were detectable without enrichment for 12-48 h and by enrichment for 144 h at the most. The greatest decrease of the C. jejuni population occurred during the first 4 h of ripening. Only a very high inoculum level allowed the survival of the organism during a fermentation process and during ripening to pose a potential risk for consumers. Lower initial Campylobacter inoculums will be eliminated during proper ripening of the sausages, if sufficient decrease in water activity and pH-value is ensured.

  10. Reliability of a science admission test (HAM-Nat) at Hamburg medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hissbach, Johanna; Klusmann, Dietrich; Hampe, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    The University Hospital in Hamburg (UKE) started to develop a test of knowledge in natural sciences for admission to medical school in 2005 (Hamburger Auswahlverfahren für Medizinische Studiengänge, Naturwissenschaftsteil, HAM-Nat). This study is a step towards establishing the HAM-Nat. We are investigating parallel forms reliability, the effect of a crash course in chemistry on test results, and correlations of HAM-Nat test results with a test of scientific reasoning (similar to a subtest of the "Test for Medical Studies", TMS). 316 first-year students participated in the study in 2007. They completed different versions of the HAM-Nat test which consisted of items that had already been used (HN2006) and new items (HN2007). Four weeks later half of the participants were tested on the HN2007 version of the HAM-Nat again, while the other half completed the test of scientific reasoning. Within this four week interval students were offered a five day chemistry course. Parallel forms reliability for four different test versions ranged from r(tt)=.53 to r(tt)=.67. The retest reliabilities of the HN2007 halves were r(tt)=.54 and r(tt )=.61. Correlations of the two HAM-Nat versions with the test of scientific reasoning were r=.34 und r=.21. The crash course in chemistry had no effect on HAM-Nat scores. The results suggest that further versions of the test of natural sciences will not easily conform to the standards of internal consistency, parallel-forms reliability and retest reliability. Much care has to be taken in order to assemble items which could be used interchangeably for the construction of new test versions. The test of scientific reasoning and the HAM-Nat are tapping different constructs. Participation in a chemistry course did not improve students' achievement, probably because the content of the course was not coordinated with the test and many students lacked of motivation to do well in the second test.

  11. The Comparative Effect of Carrot and Lemon Fiber as a Fat Replacer on Physico-chemical, Textural, and Organoleptic Quality of Low-fat Beef Hamburger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soncu, Eda Demirok; Kolsarıcı, Nuray; Çiçek, Neslihan; Öztürk, Görsen Salman; Akoğlu, Ilker T; Arıcı, Yeliz Kaşko

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the usability of lemon fiber (LF-2%, 4%, 6%) and carrot fiber (CF-2%, 4%, 6%) to produce low-fat beef hamburgers. To that end, a certain amount of fat was replaced with each fiber. The proximate composition, pH value, cholesterol content, cooking characteristics, color, texture profile, and sensory properties of low-fat beef hamburgers were investigated. LF increased moisture content and cooking yield due to its better water binding properties, while CF caused higher fat and cholesterol contents owing to its higher fat absorption capacity (pretention, and fat retention. However it is suggested that CF produces better low-fat hamburgers since up to 2% CF presented sensory and textural properties similar to those of regular hamburgers.

  12. Relationship between ecophysiological factors, growth and ochratoxin A contamination of dry-cured sausage based matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Alicia; Capela, Daniela; Medina, Ángel; Córdoba, Juan J; Magan, Naresh

    2015-02-02

    Dry-cured sausages are colonised by moulds during the ripening process. The temperature and the salt content (which affects water activity, aw) predispose the surface to colonisation by Penicillium species, including Penicillium nordicum and Penicillium verrucosum which can lead to contamination of the sausages with ochratoxin A (OTA). The objective of this work was to obtain scientific data on the impact that interaction between ionic water stress (aw; 0.97, 0.94, 0.90, 0.87 and 0.84) and temperature (30, 25, 20, 15 and 10°C) may have on lag phases prior to growth, growth and OTA production by some P. verrucosum and P. nordicum strains isolated from dry-cured meat products on a dry-cured sausage-based medium over a period of 12days. Although P. nordicum had shorter lag phases than P. verrucosum, the latter grew faster than P. nordicum in most conditions tested. For both species, there was no growth and OTA production at 0.84 aw at all the temperatures tested. The fungi were more tolerant at moderate ionic aw conditions (0.94 and 0.90) and 20 and 25°C. In contrast, the patterns of production of OTA were very different from those for growth. Different OTA production profiles between the two OTA-producing species were found. While P. nordicum began producing OTA in most of the conditions tested by day 6, P. verrucosum only produced the toxin in these conditions when the temperature and aw were >10°C and >0.90, respectively. However, the P. verrucosum strain produced much higher concentrations of OTA than the P. nordicum strain in all conditions. We developed contour maps of the optimum and marginal aw×temperature conditions for growth/OTA production on dry-cured sausage-based medium for the first time. This suggests that these interacting conditions during the early phases of production must be effectively controlled as these favour growth of the toxigenic Penicillia. Knowledge on the ecophysiology of these two important Penicillium species on these matrices

  13. Molecular assay to fraud identification of meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doosti, Abbas; Ghasemi Dehkordi, Payam; Rahimi, Ebrahim

    2014-01-01

    Detection of species fraud in meat products is important for consumer protection and food industries. A molecular technique such as PCR method for detection of beef, sheep, pork, chicken, donkey, and horse meats in food products was established. The purpose of this study was to identification of fraud and adulteration in industrial meat products by PCR-RFLP assay in Iran. In present study, 224 meat products include 68 sausages, 48 frankfurters, 55 hamburgers, 33 hams and 20 cold cut meats were collected from different companies and food markets in Iran. Genomic DNA was extracted and PCR was performed for gene amplification of meat species using specific oligonucleotid primers. Raw meat samples are served as the positive control. For differentiation between donkey's and horse's meat, the mitochondrial DNA segment (cytochrome-b gene) was amplified and products were digested with AluI restriction enzyme. Results showed that 6 of 68 fermented sausages (8.82%), 4 of 48 frankfurters (8.33%), 4 of 55 hamburgers (7.27%), 2 of 33 hams (6.6%), and 1 of 20 cold cut meat (5%) were found to contain Haram (unlawful or prohibited) meat. These results indicate that 7.58% of the total samples were not containing Halal (lawful or permitted) meat and have another meat. These findings showed that molecular methods such as PCR and PCR-RFLP are potentially reliable techniques for detection of meat type in meat products for Halal authentication.

  14. The Zoology Department at Washington University (1944-1954): from undergraduate to graduate studies with Viktor Hamburger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunnebacke, T H

    2001-04-01

    Beginning from an undergraduate's perspective and continuing through graduate school, this student's experiences in the Department of Zoology at Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri was a time of many rewarding experiences. Now, on this occasion of his 100th birthday, I wish to express my appreciation to the Chairman, Dr. Viktor Hamburger, for his teachings, his encouragement, and his friendship that has lasted over the past 56 years.

  15. "Book Review: FRANKFURT, Harry G. On Inequality. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2015, 102 pp., $14.95 (hbk, ISBN 9780691167145."

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Luisa Bucchile Faggion

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT On Inequality is a short book that skillfully handles a challenging topic. As its title suggests, its focus is a major theme in contemporary theories of justice: equality. Contrary to what one might expect, however, Frankfurt's critique of equality is not grounded in libertarian arguments or an ideal of the minimal state. Rather, it aims to clarify a cluster of alleged conceptual confusions about equality as a constitutive moral value.

  16. The architecture of Hamburg-Bergedorf Observatory 1906 - 1912, compared with other observatories (German Title: Die Architektur der Hamburg-Bergedorfer Sternwarte 1906 - 1912 im Vergleich mit anderen Observatorien)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Peter

    The foundation of the astrophysical observatories in Potsdam-Telegrafenberg in 1874, in Meudon near Paris in 1875 and in Mount Hamilton in California in 1875 resulted in a complete change of observatory architecture. Astrometry had become irrelevant; meridian halls, i.e. an exact north-south orientation, were no longer necessary. The location in the centre of a (university) town was disadvantageous, due to vibrations caused by traffic and artificial light at night. New principles were defined: considerable distance (from the city center), secluded and exposed position (on a mountain) and construction of pavilions: inside a park a pavilion was built for each instrument. Other observatories of this type are: Pic du Midi in the French Alps, built as from 1878 as the first permanent observatory in the high mountains; Nice, Mont Gros, (1879); Brussels, Uccle (1883); Edinburgh, Blackford Hill (1892); Heidelberg, Königstuhl (1896); Barcelona, Monte Tibidado (1902). The original Hamburg Observatory was a modest rectangular building near the Millernrtor; in 1833 it became a State institute. As from 1906 erection of a spacious complex in Bergedorf, 20 km northeast of the city center, took place. Except for the unavailable position on a mountain, this complex fulfilled all principles of a modern observatory: in a park pavilion architecture in an elegant neo-baroque style designed by Albert Erbe (architect of the new Hamburger Kunsthalle with cupola). At the Hamburg Observatory the domed structures were cleverly hierarchised leaving an open view to the south. At the beginning astrometry and astrophysics were equally important; there was still a meridian circle. Apart from that, the instruments were manifold: a large refractor 0.60 m (installed by Repsold/Hamburg, 9 m focal length) and a large reflector 1 m (Zeiss/Jena, 3m focal length). Both were the largest instruments of their kind in the German Empire. In addition, there was the Lippert Astrograph on an elegant polar

  17. Measurements to check vapour recovery systems of public retail stations in Hamburg (Phase 1); Messaktion zur Ueberpruefung von Gasrueckfuehrungssystemen an oeffentlichen Tankstellen in der Freien und Hansestadt Hamburg (Phase 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altmann, B.R. [Deutsche Wissenschaftliche Gesellschaft fuer Erdoel, Erdgas und Kohle e.V., Hamburg (Germany); Golgert, R. [Gesundheits- und Umweltamt, Hamburg (Germany). Bezirksamt Wandsbek; Okelmann, J. [Umweltbehoerde, Hamburg (Germany). Amt fuer Immissionsschutz und Betriebe; Schenck, H.G. [Gesundheits- und Umweltamt, Hamburg (Germany). Bezirksamt Eimsbuettel, Abt. fuer Umweltschutz

    2000-06-01

    DGMK jointly with the local authorities of health and environment, in close co-operation with the environmental authorities of the city of Hamburg, are thoroughly examining the vapour recovery systems at all public service stations in Hamburg. In phase I 50 sites were examined in August/September 1999 by several measuring methods called liquid-measurement, liquid-check, quick-check (UPA 50/Flo-Tester) and dry-measurement procedure. They delivered proportions and causes of bad performing and defective devices leading to appropriate maintenance. The dry-measurement procedure commonly used with regular checks by itself is not satisfactory to prove overall performance of the vapour recovery equipment. It should always be supplemented by a liquid-check procedure in order to ensure that the assigned vapour pumps work. As the dry-measurement procedure simulates a fuel flow it cannot detect such defects. Complete breakdowns of vapour recovery systems can be localised reliably with the quick check devices UPA 50/Flo-Tester. But due to high error tolerances, quick check devices are not suitable for quantitative measurement of vapour recovery rates on service stations. (orig.) [German] Die DGMK fuehrt unter Beteiligung der Umweltbehoerde Hamburg zusammen mit den Gesundheits- und Umweltaemtern der Bezirke und den Tankstellenbetreibern in einem Gemeinschaftsprojekt detaillierte Untersuchungen der Gasrueckfuehrungssysteme an allen Hamburger Tankstellen durch. Ziel der Untersuchung ist die Ueberpruefung und Verbesserung des technischen Zustandes der Gasrueckfuehrsysteme an allen Hamburger Tankstellen. Darueber hinaus sollen genaue Kenntnisse ueber die Verlaesslichkeit von gaengigen Messverfahren zur Ueberpruefung von Gasrueckfuehrsystemen erworben werden. In der Phase I wurden an 50 Tankstellen Messungen im August/September 1999 unter Anwendung des Nassmessverfahrens, des Trockenmessverfahrens, der Schnelltester (Flo-Tester und UPA 50) sowie der Nasskontrolle zur Ueberpruefung

  18. "PULS." – ein Blog als Online-Magazin für Medizinstudierendeder Goethe-Universität Frankfurt ["PULS." – a Blog-based Online-Magazine for Students of Medicine of the Goethe University Frankfurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nürnberger, Frank

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available [english] In the context of nationwide protests 2009 also students of the faculty of medicine/dentistry at Goethe-University in Frankfurt demanded more transparency and communication. To satisfy these demands, a web 2.0-tool offered an innovative solution: A blog-based online-magazine for students and other faculty-members.The online-magazine „PULS.“ is realized with the share-ware blog-software (wordpress version 3.1.3 and is conceived and written by an online-journalist. „PULS.“ is available from .The articles are generated from own investigations and from ideas of different groups of the faculty– deanship, students and lecturers. A user-analysis is conducted with the open-source software Piwik and considers the data security. Additionally, every year an anonymous online-user-survey (Survey Monkey is conducted.“PULS.” is continuously online since 14.02.2010 and has published 806 articles (state: 27.11.2012 and has about 2400 readers monthly. The content focuses on the needs of Frankfurt medical students. The close cooperation with different groups of the faculty - deanship, students and lecturers - furthermore guarantees themes relevant to the academic faculty. “PULS.” flanks complex projects and decisions with background-information and communicates them understandable.The user-evaluation shows a growing number of readers and a high acceptance for the online-magazine, its themes and its style. The web 2.0-tool “Blog” and the web-specific language comply with media habits of the main target group, the students of the faculty medicine/dentistry.Thus, “PULS.” has proven as a suitable and strategic instrument. It pushes towards a higher transparency, more communication and a stronger identification of the students with their faculty.[german] Im Herbst 2009 forderten Studierende im Rahmen landesweiter Proteste auch am Fachbereich Medizin/Zahnmedizin der Goethe-Universität Frankfurt mehr Transparenz und Kommunikation zu

  19. Performance Evaluation of the Approaches and Algorithms Using Hamburg Airport Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhifan; Okuniek, Nikolai; Gerdes, Ingrid; Schier, Sebastian; Lee, Hanbong; Jung, Yoon

    2016-01-01

    The German Aerospace Center (DLR) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) have been independently developing and testing their own concepts and tools for airport surface traffic management. Although these concepts and tools have been tested individually for European and US airports, they have never been compared or analyzed side-by-side. This paper presents the collaborative research devoted to the evaluation and analysis of two different surface management concepts. Hamburg Airport was used as a common test bed airport for the study. First, two independent simulations using the same traffic scenario were conducted; one by the DLR team using the Controller Assistance for Departure Optimization (CADEO) and the Taxi Routing for Aircraft: Creation and Controlling (TRACC) in a real-time simulation environment, and one by the NASA team based on the Spot and Runway Departure Advisor (SARDA) in a fast-time simulation environment. A set of common performance metrics was defined. The simulation results showed that both approaches produced operational benefits in efficiency, such as reducing taxi times, while maintaining runway throughput. Both approaches generated the gate pushback schedule to meet the runway schedule, such that the runway utilization was maximized. The conflict-free taxi guidance by TRACC helped avoid taxi conflicts and reduced taxiing stops, but the taxi benefit needed be assessed together with runway throughput to analyze the overall performance objective.

  20. Performance Evaluation of the Approaches and Algorithms for Hamburg Airport Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhifan; Okuniek, Nikolai; Gerdes, Ingrid; Schier, Sebastian; Lee, Hanbong; Jung, Yoon

    2016-01-01

    The German Aerospace Center (DLR) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) have been independently developing and testing their own concepts and tools for airport surface traffic management. Although these concepts and tools have been tested individually for European and US airports, they have never been compared or analyzed side-by-side. This paper presents the collaborative research devoted to the evaluation and analysis of two different surface management concepts. Hamburg Airport was used as a common test bed airport for the study. First, two independent simulations using the same traffic scenario were conducted: one by the DLR team using the Controller Assistance for Departure Optimization (CADEO) and the Taxi Routing for Aircraft: Creation and Controlling (TRACC) in a real-time simulation environment, and one by the NASA team based on the Spot and Runway Departure Advisor (SARDA) in a fast-time simulation environment. A set of common performance metrics was defined. The simulation results showed that both approaches produced operational benefits in efficiency, such as reducing taxi times, while maintaining runway throughput. Both approaches generated the gate pushback schedule to meet the runway schedule, such that the runway utilization was maximized. The conflict-free taxi guidance by TRACC helped avoid taxi conflicts and reduced taxiing stops, but the taxi benefit needed be assessed together with runway throughput to analyze the overall performance objective.

  1. Field-free molecular alignment probed by the free electron laser in Hamburg (FLASH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnsson, P; Rouzee, A; Siu, W; Huismans, Y; Vrakking, M J J [FOM Institute for Atomic and Molecular Physics (AMOLF), Science Park 113, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lepine, F [Universite Lyon 1, CNRS, LASIM, UMR 5579, 43 bvd. du 11 novembre 1918, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); Marchenko, T [Laboratoire d' Optique Applique, ENSTA/Ecole Polytechnique, Chemin de la Huniere, 91761 Palaiseau (France); Duesterer, S; Tavella, F; Stojanovic, N; Azima, A; Treusch, R [Hamburger Synchrotronstrahlungslabor (HASYLAB) at Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY) Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Kling, M F [Max-Planck Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann Strasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany)], E-mail: per.johnsson@fysik.lth.se

    2009-07-14

    High flux extreme ultraviolet (XUV) sources like the free electron laser (FEL) in Hamburg (FLASH) offer the possibility of diffractive imaging of small objects. Irrespective of whether the diffraction is based on the detection of photons or photoelectrons, it is required that the measurement is done in the reference frame of the molecule meaning that, for a sample of several molecules, it is necessary to pre-align the molecules in the sample. As a step towards performing molecular frame diffraction experiments, we report experiments on field-free molecular alignment performed at FLASH. The impulsive alignment induced by a 100 fs near-infrared laser pulse in a rotationally cold CO{sub 2} sample is characterized by ionizing and dissociating the molecules with a time-delayed XUV-FEL pulse. The time-dependent angular distributions of ionic fragments measured by a velocity map imaging spectrometer exhibit rapid changes associated with the induced rotational dynamics. The experimental results show hints of a dissociation process that depends nonlinearly on the XUV intensity.

  2. [Home treatment--a treatment model of integrated care in Hamburg].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöttle, Daniel; Ruppelt, Friederike; Karow, Anne; Lambert, Martin

    2015-03-01

    Treatment models like "Crisis Resolution and Hometreatment (CRHT)" or "Assertive Community Treatment" (ACT), were found to be effective, enhancing the qualitative level of treatment for patients with severe mental disorders. In Germany, these are implemented only sporadically until today, often as part of a cross-sectoral Integrated Care (IC) treatment system. We will present the implementation of an "Assertive Community Treatment" embedded into an IC-treatment model in Hamburg and discuss the 3-year-outcomes. The IC-treatment model has been designed for severe mentally ill patients with psychotic disorders. Since May 2007 the model is financed by different health insurances as a managed-care "capitation-model" and its effectiveness gets continuously evaluated. The model proved to be effective in earlier studies were compared with standard care low rates of service disengagement were found as well as significantly improved psychopathology, psychosocial functioning, quality of life, satisfaction with care and adherence, while being cost effective. The rates of involuntary admissions declined to 10% in comparison to the years before. In 2011 the model was specified to the indication "first-episode adolescents and young adults in the age of 12-29" in a government-funded study "Integrated Care in Early Psychosis, ICEP Study". In this study an interdisciplinary team of child, adolescent and adult psychiatrists was implemented and since 2012 it is financed by the involved health insurances throughout an expansion of the §140 SGB V agreement. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. [Death caused by projectile guns--a retrospective analysis of 34 cases in Berlin and Hamburg].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lignitz, E; Koops, E; Püschel, K

    1988-01-01

    The autopsy material of the institutes for forensic medicine in Berlin/GDR and Hamburg was analyzed retrospectively (period from 1961 till 1987; 70,000 autopsies) for fatalities caused by "humane killers" (n = 22) and stud guns (n = 12).-Epidemiological, criminological and morphological findings: The decreased were all men aged between 18 and 75 years (mean 48 years) except one 61 year-old paraplegic women who was killed by her husband with a humane killer. The great majority of cases consisted of suicides; two accidents at work were caused by stud guns. These unusual weapons are normally used by skilled people (i.e. butchers or constructional workers respectively). The fatal wounds were situated at the head, especially the forehead, seldom at the nape of the neck or in the mouth, or sometimes in the chest when using stud guns. Combined suicides (especially together with hanging) are not unusual. Survival periods (with or without acting capacity) can range between minutes or even months (after neurosurgical intervention).-The frequency of such unusual and overall rare cases did not raise during the investigation period.

  4. Health hazards to the population of Hamburg, due to the Chernobyl reactor accident. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Estimations of cancer incidence within a time period of 50 years are stated and in brackets for comparison the cancer deaths within a time period of 50 years based on the Hamburg cancer register for 1985: 1) Pulmonary cancer 0-2 (47 100) 2) Thyroid (thyroida. 3) Hepatic cancer 1-69 (5 700) 4) Leucaemia 3-609 (8 850) 5) All cancer diseases 3-609 (259 000). Presuming that all cancer diseases caused by the Chernobyl accident lead to death and taking into consideration the total cancer risk of the next 50 years, the number of cancer deaths increases at maximum by a little more than one five hundredth (0.23%) As concerns the genetic risk, it is to be noticed that the estimated numbers of 1 to up to 55 cases per generation above all refer to the minor modifications of hereditary factor. With regard to severe hereditary diseases within the next two generations the health authority estimates that in comparison to the single case of clinical importance caused by the reactor accident there are 1760 spontaneous hereditary diseases. (orig./HP) [de

  5. Low-fat frankfurters formulated with a healthier lipid combination as functional ingredient: microstructure, lipid oxidation, nitrite content, microbiological changes and biogenic amine formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Pando, Gonzalo; Cofrades, Susana; Ruiz-Capillas, Claudia; Solas, Maria Teresa; Triki, Mehdi; Jiménez-Colmenero, Francisco

    2011-09-01

    Oil (healthier lipid combination of olive, linseed and fish oils)-in-water emulsions stabilized with different protein systems (prepared with sodium caseinate (SC), soy protein isolate (SPI), and microbial transglutaminase (MTG)) were used as pork backfat replacers in low-fat frankfurters. Microstructure, lipid oxidation, nitrite content, microbiological changes and biogenic amine formation of frankfurters were analyzed and found to be affected by the type of oil-in-water emulsion and by chilling storage (2° C, 41 days). Although the lipid oxidation levels attained were low, replacement of animal fat by healthier oil combinations in frankfurter formulation did promote a slight increase in lipid oxidation. Residual nitrite was affected (P nitrite was detectable in the product after processing and 17-46% at the end of storage. The microbial population was low in all formulations during chilling storage. Spermine was the most abundant amine (19-20 mg/kg), but similar in level to all samples. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of beet sugar, calcium lactate, and Staphylococcus xylosus (with nitrate reductase activity) on the chemical, microbiological, and sensorial properties of Persian uncured frankfurters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmouzi, Saeed; Razavi, Seyed Hadi; Safari, Mohammad; Emam-Djomeh, Zahra

    2012-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of beet sugar (BS), calcium lactate (CL), and Staphylococcus xylosus (SX) on the general characteristics of uncured frankfurters. Minimum residual nitrite was observed in samples with a high level of BS and S. xylosus (8log(10) l0 viable cfu/g) after 2 mo. There was an increase in total aerobic counts in frankfurters after 4 wk. Samples containing higher BS and CL had no Clostridium perfringens at storage time. Histamine content was similar for all treatments except SX. No differences were observed in textural properties among the treatments. Water activity was decreased significantly in treatment CL1+BS2. The results indicated that samples treated with BS or CL had (P meat products in many countries. Health problems (such as cancer) associated with the overconsumption of cured meat have led to searches for new, alternative methods of preservation. Hurdle technology (combinations of beet sugar, calcium lactate, and Staphylococcus xylosus in different concentrations) can be developed for frankfurter processing. Results of this research will be useful for meat manufacturers; however, any new process may affect the strategies chosen for marketing these products. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. PCR-RFLP Using BseDI Enzyme for Pork Authentication in Sausage and Nugget Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Erwanto

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR–RFLP using BseDI restriction enzyme had been applied for identifying the presence of pork in processed meat (beef sausage and chicken nugget including before and after frying. Pork sample in various levels (1%, 3%, 5%, 10%, and 25 % was prepared in a mixture with beef and chicken meats and processed for sausage and nugget. The primers CYTb1 and CYTb2 were designed in the mitochondrial cytochrome b (cyt b gene and PCR successfully amplified fragments of 359 bp. To distinguish existence of porcine species, the amplified PCR products of mitochondrial DNA were cut by BseDI restriction enzyme. The result showed pig mitochondrial DNA was cut into 131 and 228 bp fragments. The PCR-RFLP species identification assay yielded excellent results for identification of porcine species. It is a potentially reliable technique for pork detection in animal food processed products for Halal authentication.

  8. Comparison of textural atributes of selected meat sausages using instrumental analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Vietoris

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE The aim of the study was to compare textural atributes of selected meat sausages using instrumental analysis. For this purpose, seven different meat sausage samples were treated by instrumental analysis, by the use of Warner-Bratzler probe,  to find differences for two selected textural parameter firmness and work of shear. As expected, various values of mentioned atributes were obtained for different samples tested in fresh stage and after storage under controlled conditions (48 hrs., 30 °C temp., and 60 % R.H. before and after cooking. For statistical evaluation of results, paired T test was used, statistically significant differences were taken at pdoi:10.5219/273

  9. Quantitative microbial risk assessment of Salmonella in dry fermented sausage (salami) in Southern Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corbellini, Luis Gustavo; Costa, Eduardo de Freitas; Cardoso, Marisa

    2017-01-01

    Dry fermented sausage (salami) is a very popular ready-to-eat product in Southern Brazil, of which the raw materials can be contaminated with pathogens such as Salmonella. This product can put consumers at risk if a failure occurs during the manufacturing process. To investigate this risk...... and heterogeneous). In general, it was observed that the mean exposure to Salmonella due to ingestion of a portion of contaminated salami was very low; "zero risks" (with no cases of salmonellosis among 100,000 consumed portions of salami) were found in 65% of the scenarios (265/405) assessed and low risks were...... low, selling dry fermented sausage before complete maturation of the product and failure in fermentation can pose a risk to the consumers from the studied region. It was found that a maturation period of 24 days can be considered safe, even in a situation with high initial levels of contamination....

  10. [Experiments with sausage meat on the formation of N epsilon-carboxymethyllysine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartkopf, J; Erbersdobler, H F

    1995-07-01

    In model experiments the influence of ingredients normally used for sausage production to a meat homogenate on the formation of N epsilon-carboxymethyllysine (CML) was investigated. The formation of CML is obviously more promoted from the reaction of ascorbate with lysine than from that of glucose with lysine. The addition of ascorbate in a practical concentration yielded 35 mg, the addition of glucose only 23 mg compared to 17 mg CML/kg protein in the control sample. The addition of diphosphate in a practical concentration besides glucose significantly increased the CML values from 23 mg to 30 mg CML/kg protein. On the other hand, nitrite did not enhance the formation of CML (21 mg/kg protein) in the sausage when used in concentrations usually applied in meat processing. Generally the values found in the meat products are quite low compared to data in other foods like milk products.

  11. Developments of sausages in a z-pinch with short-wave perturbation of a boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikhrev, V.V.; Ivanov, V.V.; Rozanova, G.A.

    1989-01-01

    A numeric simulation of sausage evolution in z-pinch during short-wave excitation of the boundary of plasma column pinch is carried out. The simulation has shown that due to nonlinear development of sausages in a pinch plasma colomn the cavities filled with a magnetic field in a rarefied pinch plasma are formed. Simultaneously compact column of tense plasma whose temperature is much higher than the average temperature of pinch plasma column are formed on the pinch axis. In the region of inlet in the cavity plasma is radially directed due to ponderomotoric force 1/2 x jB up to velocities greatly increasing the thermal velocity of ions in a plasma column

  12. Effects of Electron Beam Irradiated Natural Casings on the Quality Characteristics of Emulsion Sausage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyunwook; Kim, Hackyoun; Hwang, Koeun; Choi, Sunmi; Kim, Cheonjei; Choi, Jihun; Choi, Yunsang; Lee, Juwoon

    2011-01-01

    The effects of electron beam irradiated hog and sheep casings (1, 3, and 8 KGy) on the physicochemical properties and shelf stability of emulsion sausage were evaluated. There were no significantly differences in ph, instrumental color, and sensory evaluation among all the samples tested (p>0.05). The cooking yields for the irradiated treated samples were larger than the yields obtained for the non-irradiated samples for both the hog and sheep casing. However, the results on the purge loss after storage for 5 weeks were contradictory. The hardness of the sausage was lower when the irradiated natural casings were used. The irradiated natural casings accelerated lipid oxidation. The volatile basic nitrogen values were lower in samples treated with electron beam irradiation. The natural casings irradiated up to a dose of 3kGy not only had different total aerobic bacteria counts during the initial storage period but also displayed higher TAB counts at the final storage period

  13. Waste utilization of apple pomace as a source of functional ingredient in buffalo meat sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiser Younis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Apple pomace was analyzed for its proximate analysis which showed protein content of 4.50% and total dietary fiber of 62.67%. Its functional properties were also carried out which showed high water- and oil-holding capacity of 3.89 gH2O g−1 Solid and 1.92 ml g−1, respectively. Its antimicrobial activity was also found against S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, and L. monocytogenes. Further, it has shown lower in vitro glucose retardation index. Buffalo meat sausages incorporated with apple pomace powder showed high cooking yield and emulsion stability of 94.46% and 74.70, respectively, as compared to control sausage. Additionally, the dietary fiber content got enhanced with the incorporation of apple pomace powder as expected.

  14. Effect of starter cultures combinations on lipolytic activity and ripening of dry fermented sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enver Baris Bingol

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of starter culture combinations on the quality of Turkish type dry fermented sausage (sucuk were evaluated during ripening and storage periods. Sucuk formulations were produced without (control and with three different starter culture combinations; i Staphylococcus carnosus+Pediococcus pentosaceus, ii Staphylococcus carnosus+ Lactobacillus sakei, and iii Staphylococcus carnosus+Pediococcus pentosaceus+Lactobacillus sakei. Analysis of microbiological, physico-chemical and lipase enzyme levels of samples were conducted until the 60th day. Interactions among the presence of lipolytic starter cultures, lipase enzyme levels and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were also evaluated both in ripening and drying periods. There were apparent differences on microbiological and chemical properties between samples prepared with starters and control. It has been concluded that the use of lipolytic starter cultures in suitable combination would have positive effect on the acceleration of ripening and improvement of the quality of dry fermented sausages.

  15. Antibacterial activity of bacteriocin-like substance P34 on Listeria monocytogenes in chicken sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voltaire Sant'Anna

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of the bacteriocin-like substance (BLS P34 against Listeria monocytogenes was investigated in chicken sausage. The BLS was applied to chicken sausages (256 AU g-1 previously inoculated with a suspension of 10² cfu g-1 of L. monocytogenes. BLS P34 inhibited the indicator microorganism in situ in all incubation times for up to 10 days at 5 °C. The effectiveness of BLS P34 was increased when it was added in combination with nisin. The bacteriocin was also tested in natural eatable natural bovine wrapping (salty semi-dried tripe against the same indicator microorganism, also showing inhibitory capability in vitro. BLS P34 showed potential to control L. monocytogenes in refrigerated meat products.

  16. Stabilizing effect of gas conductivity evolution on the resistive sausage mode of a propagating beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lampe, M.; Joyce, G.

    1983-01-01

    Previous theoretical work has shown that a highly current-neutralized charged particle beam propagating in a preionized plasma channel of fixed conductivity is subject to a resistive sausage instability. It is shown that the instability is stabilized, for the case of beam propagation into an initially un-ionized gas, when the effect of beam-collisional ionization on the gas conductivity is modeled fully self-consistently

  17. Nonlinear full two-fluid study of m=0 sausage instabilities in an axisymmetric Z pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loverich, J.; Shumlak, U.

    2006-01-01

    A nonlinear full five-moment two-fluid model is used to study axisymmetric instabilities in a Z pinch. When the electron velocity due to the current J is greater than the ion acoustic speed, high wave-number sausage instabilities develop that initiate shock waves in the ion fluid. This condition corresponds to a pinch radius on the order of a few ion Larmor radii

  18. Sausage instability of Z-discharged plasma channel in LIB-fusion device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, H.; Kawata, S.; Niu, K.

    1982-07-01

    Current-carring plasma channels have been proposed for transporting intense ion beams from diodes to a target in a LIB-fusion device. In this paper, the growth rate of the most dangerous surface mode, that is, axisymmetric sausage instability is examined for the plasma channel. The growth rate is shown to be smaller than that of the plasma channel with no fluid motion in a sharp boundary. It is concluded that the stable plasma channel can be formed. (author)

  19. Quality and shelf life evaluation of fermented sausages of buffalo meat with different levels of heart and fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, S; Srivastava, P K

    2007-04-01

    Investigations were carried to study the effect of heart incorporation (0%, 15% and 20%) and increasing levels of fat (20% and 25%) on physicochemical (pH, moisture content and thiobarbituric acid, TBA number) and microbiological (total plate count and yeast and mold count) quality and shelf life of semi dry sausages of buffalo meat during refrigerated storage (4°C). Different levels of fat significantly (p<0.05) increased the pH of the sausage samples. However different levels of heart incorporation did not significantly (p<0.05) affect pH, moisture content and TBA number of sausage samples. Fresh samples had pH, moisture content and TBA number in the range of 5.15-5.28, 42.4-47.4% and 0.073-0.134 respectively. Refrigerated storage significantly (p<0.05) increased TBA number of control samples while storage did not significantly (p<0.05) increase the TBA number of sodium ascorbate (SA) treated samples. Total plate counts of twelve sausage samples were f under the TFTC (too few to count) limit at the initial stage. Incorporation of different levels of heart and also increasing levels of fat did not significantly (p<0.05) increase the log TPC/g values. Yeast and molds were not detected in twelve samples of semi dry fermented sausages in their fresh condition. Storage revealed that there was a consistent decrease in pH, and moisture content. Refrigerated storage significantly (p<0.05) reduced both pH and moisture contents. TBA number and total plate counts and yeast and mold counts of controls were found to increase significantly (p<0.05) during refrigerated storage. However, in SA treated sausage, only TPC and yeast and mold count significantly (p<0.05) increased during refrigerated storage. Shelf life of the sausages was found to be 60 days under refrigerated storage (4°C).

  20. [Recreational athletes and doping--a survey in 11 gyms in the area of Frankfurt/Main].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raschka, C; Chmiel, C; Preiss, R; Boos, C

    2013-07-25

    Doping no longer concerns exclusively competitive sports, but also recreational sports. Survey of 484 recreational athletes in 11 gyms in the area of Frankfurt/Main. 12.9% of the men and 3.6% of the women reported to take anabolic drugs. Theyconsumed anabolic steroids (100%; 35% p.o., 71% parenterally), stimulants (14%) and growth hormone (5%). Suppliers were friends (39%), sports mates (28%), physicians (28%) and coaches (6%). The acquisition costs amounted to an average intake over 9 weeks to 175 Euro. Information about doping side effects came from literature (67%), physicians (38%), sports mates and the so-called Black Book (14% respectively), coaches, friends and Internet (5% respectively). 2% of the athletes with abuse of doping substances were smokers, 11% had a drink several times a week, 3% also consumed other drugs, 35% had consumed other drugs in the past. Abusers of doping substances primarily intended to increase muscle size (86%) and strength (61%). From a sports medical point of view it is concerning that the proportion of doping drugs prescribed by physicians has doubled in the decade after the publication of the predecessor study in Northern Germany despite optimized sports medical and legal education measures.

  1. Outbreak of Salmonella Goldcoast infections linked to consumption of fermented sausage, Germany 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremer, V; Leitmeyer, K; Jensen, E; Metzel, U; Meczulat, H; Weise, E; Werber, D; Tschaepe, H; Kreienbrock, L; Glaser, S; Ammon, A

    2004-10-01

    Salmonella Goldcoast (SGC), an uncommon serotype in Germany, was identified in 25 isolates between 1 April and 7 May 2001. To determine the cause of the outbreak, we conducted a matched case-control study including 24 cases and 51 controls. In a multivariable regression model, only consumption of a raw fermented sausage manufactured by a local company remained significant (adjusted odds ratio 20.0, 95 % confidence interval 2.7-302.5). SGC isolated from case-patients shared an indistinguishable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern. A part of the produced raw fermented sausage was sold after only 4 days of fermentation. Samples from the premises and products of the company were negative for SGC. However, short-time raw fermented sausage is more likely to contain pathogens. Irradiation of raw ingredients is not accepted by German consumers, thus strict adherence to good manufacturing practices, the use of HACCP programmes as well as on-farm programmes remain crucial to reduce Salmonella.

  2. Application of Lemongrass Oil-Containing Polylactic Acid Films to the Packaging of Pork Sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hyun-Ju; Song, Kyung Bin

    2016-01-01

    Polylactic acid (PLA) is a biodegradable and renewable polymer, which represents a valuable alternative to plastic packaging films, often associated with environmental problems. In this study, we tested the suitability of PLA as a biodegradable packaging film and assessed the antimicrobial activity of lemongrass oil (LO), incorporated into the PLA film in different concentrations. To obtain the optimal physical properties for PLA films, tensile strength, elongation at break, and water vapor permeability were measured under different preparation conditions. In addition, the antimicrobial activity of the LO contained in the PLA film against Listeria monocytogenes was investigated by disc diffusion and viable cell count. Among all concentrations tested, 2% LO was the most suitable in terms of antimicrobial activity and physical properties of the PLA film. Based on these results, we used the PLA film containing 2% LO to pack pork sausages; after 12 d of storage at 4℃, the population of inoculated L. monocytogenes in the sausage samples wrapped with the PLA film containing 2% LO was reduced by 1.47 Log CFU/g compared with the control samples. Our data indicate that PLA films containing 2% LO represent a valuable means for antimicrobial sausage packaging.

  3. Adding value to the meat of spent laying hens manufacturing sausages with a healthy appeal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KMR de Souza

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the viability of the use of spent laying hens' meat in the manufacturing of mortadella-type sausages with healthy appeal by using vegetable oil instead of animal fat. 120 Hy-line® layer hens were distributed in a completely randomized design into two treatments of six replicates with ten birds each. The treatments were birds from light Hy-line® W36 and semi-heavy Hy-line® Brown lines. Cold carcass, wing, breast and leg fillets yields were determined. Dry matter, protein, and lipid contents were determined in breast and leg fillets. The breast and legg fillets of three replicates per treatment were used to manufacture mortadella. After processing, sausages were evaluated for proximal composition, objective color, microbiological parameters, fatty acid profile and sensory acceptance. The meat of light and semi-heavy spent hens presented good yield and composition, allowing it to be used as raw material for the manufacture of processed products. Mortadellas were safe from microbiological point of view, and those made with semi-heavy hens fillets were redder and better accepted by consumers. Values for all sensory attributes were evaluated over score 5 (neither liked nor disliked. Both products presented high polyunsaturated fatty acid contents and good polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio. The excellent potential for the use of meat from spent layer hens of both varieties in the manufacturing of healthier mortadella-type sausage was demonstrated.

  4. Replacement of nitrite with annatto and red rice in sausage products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Javadi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, by increasing consumer awareness about the hazards of chemical preservatives, the demand for foods with increased natural preservatives has increased. The main objective of this study was to replace the annatto and the red rice instead of nitrite in sausage. For this purpose, annatto replaced by zero, 25, 50, 75 and 100 % of nitrite then sausage with 60 % red meat and 0.05 % fixed amount of red rice were made. Chemical, microbiological and sensory testing on days 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 were performed in triplicate. The results of chemical and microbial tests showed that the annatto and red rice do not have negative effects on sausage with 60% meat. According to the results of sensory evaluation, samples with 50% annatto, and 75 % annatto, had the highest satisfaction in terms of color, taste, smell, consistency and compliance. Only the group with 100% of annatto in all sensory factors in the study showed significant differences with the rest of the group. Finally, the group with 75% annatto and 0.05% red rice, In terms of five different times, microbiological, chemical and sensory evaluation had a higher approval rating than other samples and was closer to control sample.

  5. Nitrite promotes protein carbonylation and Strecker aldehyde formation in experimental fermented sausages: are both events connected?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaverde, A; Ventanas, J; Estévez, M

    2014-12-01

    The role played by curing agents (nitrite, ascorbate) on protein oxidation and Strecker aldehyde formation is studied. To fulfill this objective, increasing concentrations of nitrite (0, 75 and 150ppm) and ascorbate (0, 250 and 500ppm) were added to sausages subjected to a 54day drying process. The concurrence of intense proteolysis, protein carbonylation and formation of Strecker aldehydes during processing of sausages suggests that α-aminoadipic semialdehyde (AAS) and γ-glutamic semialdehyde (GGS) may be implicated in the formation of Strecker aldehydes. The fact that nitrite (150ppm, ingoing amount) significantly promoted the formation of protein carbonyls at early stages of processing and the subsequent formation of Strecker aldehydes provides strength to this hypothesis. Ascorbate (125 and 250ppm) controlled the overall extent of protein carbonylation in sausages without declining the formation of Strecker aldehydes. These results may contribute to understanding the chemistry fundamentals of the positive influence of nitrite on the flavor and overall acceptability of cured muscle foods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Application of Lemongrass Oil-Containing Polylactic Acid Films to the Packaging of Pork Sausages

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Polylactic acid (PLA) is a biodegradable and renewable polymer, which represents a valuable alternative to plastic packaging films, often associated with environmental problems. In this study, we tested the suitability of PLA as a biodegradable packaging film and assessed the antimicrobial activity of lemongrass oil (LO), incorporated into the PLA film in different concentrations. To obtain the optimal physical properties for PLA films, tensile strength, elongation at break, and water vapor permeability were measured under different preparation conditions. In addition, the antimicrobial activity of the LO contained in the PLA film against Listeria monocytogenes was investigated by disc diffusion and viable cell count. Among all concentrations tested, 2% LO was the most suitable in terms of antimicrobial activity and physical properties of the PLA film. Based on these results, we used the PLA film containing 2% LO to pack pork sausages; after 12 d of storage at 4℃, the population of inoculated L. monocytogenes in the sausage samples wrapped with the PLA film containing 2% LO was reduced by 1.47 Log CFU/g compared with the control samples. Our data indicate that PLA films containing 2% LO represent a valuable means for antimicrobial sausage packaging. PMID:27433114

  7. Stabilization of sausage and kink instability modes of a plasma pinch by radial oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bud'ko, A.B.; Kravchenko, Y.P.; Liberman, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    The growth of the global sausage (m=0) and kink (m=1) perturbations of a Z-pinch subject to radial oscillations is considered. It is demonstrated that the oscillations result in significant reduction of the growth rate of both kink and sausage instability modes with wavelengths long compared to the pinch radius. The analysis of stability is carried out in two ways. The first method is based on the averaging magnetohydrodynamic equations over the period of radial oscillations. The second one consists in the analysis of the growth of Fourier-components of perturbations. Numerical simulation demonstrates that even moderate radial oscillations cause reduction of the growth rate of long-wavelength sausage instabilities and complete stabilization of long kinks. This can be understood as a result of the effective gravitational field produced in the pinch by the oscillations. The effect in question can explain the anomalous stability of pinches with respect to the kink perturbations observed in experiments. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  8. A solvable self-similar model of the sausage instability in a resistive Z pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lampe, M.

    1991-01-01

    A solvable model is developed for the linearized sausage mode within the context of resistive magnetohydrodynamics. The model is based on the assumption that the fluid motion of the plasma is self-similar, as well as several assumptions pertinent to the limit of wavelength long compared to the pinch radius. The perturbations to the magnetic field are not assumed to be self-similar, but rather are calculated. Effects arising from time dependences of the z-independent perturbed state, e.g., current rising as t α , Ohmic heating, and time variation of the pinch radius, are included in the analysis. The formalism appears to provide a good representation of ''global'' modes that involve coherent sausage distortion of the entire cross section of the pinch, but excludes modes that are localized radially, and higher radial eigenmodes. For this and other reasons, it is expected that the model underestimates the maximum instability growth rates, but is reasonable for global sausage modes. The net effect of resistivity and time variation of the unperturbed state is to decrease the growth rate if α approx-lt 1, but never by more than a factor of about 2. The effect is to increase the growth rate if α approx-gt 1

  9. Simulation of high-energy particle production through sausage and kink instabilities in pinched plasma discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haruki, Takayuki; Yousefi, Hamid Reza; Masugata, Katsumi; Sakai, Jun-Ichi; Mizuguchi, Yusuke; Makino, Nao; Ito, Hiroaki

    2006-01-01

    In an experimental plasma, high-energy particles were observed by using a plasma focus device, to obtain energies of a few hundred keV for electrons, up to MeV for ions. In order to study the mechanism of high-energy particle production in pinched plasma discharges, a numerical simulation was introduced. By use of a three-dimensional relativistic and fully electromagnetic particle-in-cell code, the dynamics of a Z-pinch plasma, thought to be unstable against sausage and kink instabilities, are investigated. In this work, the development of sausage and kink instabilities and subsequent high-energy particle production are shown. In the model used here, cylindrically distributed electrons and ions are driven by an external electric field. The driven particles spontaneously produce a current, which begins to pinch by the Lorentz force. Initially the pinched current is unstable against a sausage instability, and then becomes unstable against a kink instability. As a result high-energy particles are observed

  10. Kinetics of Texture and Colour Changes in Chicken Sausage during Superheated Steam Cooking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhameed Asmaa A.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop a kinetic model to describe the texture and colour changes of chicken sausage during superheated steam cooking. Chicken sausages were cooked at temperature ranging from 150-200°C with treatment times ranging from 2-6 mins. The texture profile was evaluated in terms of hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, and chewiness, while the colour parameters were estimated in terms of lightness (L*, redness (a*, yellowness (b*, and total colour difference (∆E. Experimental data showed a gradual reduction in texture parameters as cooking times and temperatures increased. The L* value of the colour showed a linear reduction with cooking condition, while the a*, b*, and ∆E values showed a contrary effects. The decrease in texture parameters and L*-value of colour parameter followed the first-order kinetic model. While, zero-order kinetic model was adapted to fit the a* and b*. The modified first order kinetic showed a good fit for total ∆E. Significant correlations between colour and texture parameters were observed, which showed that a* alone could be used to predict the texture of chicken sausage.

  11. Fermented meat sausages from game and venison: what are the opportunities and limitations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakanya, Chido; Arnaud, Elodie; Muchenje, Voster; Hoffman, Louwrens C

    2018-04-10

    An increase in the acceptance, demand and production of game meat and venison has been experienced globally. Game meat and venison fit into consumers' ideology of healthy and environmentally friendly meat when compared to domesticated animals. Opportunities exist to explore the use of these meat sources in developing new products, particularly as game meat and venison in their fresh state are sometimes perceived as being tough. Consumers have shown a trend for trying exciting new products with different organoleptic qualities, and fermented sausages occupy a special niche in the gastro-economic trade. In this review, the production potential of game meat and venison and its prospective use in the development of fermented sausages are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the importance of meat characteristics in textural and sensorial development as well as the safety of fermented sausages. Additionally, consumers' perception of venison and game meat is discussed. Possible areas of research and knowledge gaps are highlighted, particularly the potential use of meat with high pH and microbial load. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Incorporation of nisin in natural casing for the control of spoilage microorganisms in vacuum packaged sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Regina de Barros

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of natural casing treatment with nisin and phosphoric acid on control of spoilage microorganisms in vacuum packaged sausages. Ovine casings were dipped in the following baths: 1 0.1% food grade phosphoric acid; 2 5.0 mg/L nisin; 3 0.1% phosphoric acid and 5.0 mg/L nisin; and 4 sterile water (control. The sausages were produced in a pilot plant, stuffed into the pretreated natural casings, vacuum packaged and stored at 4 and 10 °C for 56 days. The experiments were performed according to a full factorial design 2³, totalizing 8 treatments that were repeated in 3 blocks. Aerobic plate counts and lactic acid bacteria analysis were conducted at 1, 14, 28, 42 and 56 days of storage. Treatment of casings with phosphoric acid 0.1% alone did not inhibit the growth of lactic acid bacteria and reduced the aerobic plate count by 1 log. The activity of nisin against lactic acid bacteria was enhanced by the addition of phosphoric acid, demonstrating a synergistic effect. Furthermore nisin activity was more evident at lower storage temperature (4 ºC. Therefore treatment of the natural casings with nisin and phosphoric acid, combined with low storage temperature, are obstacles that present a potential for controlling the growth of lactic acid bacteria in vacuum packaged sausage.

  13. Effect of hot-boned pork on the keeping quality of fresh pork sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero Legarreta, I; Usborne, W R; Ashton, G C

    1987-01-01

    The first experiment evaluated the effect of solid carbon dioxide (dry ice) addition to hot-boned meat, in different proportions, upon the keeping quality of fresh pork sausage patties. Dry ice had some negative effects at levels of 20% to 40%, such as hardening and colour fading of samples, although it increased water-holding capacity of the sausage. In the second experiment three proportions of hot-boned meat and chilled meat were evaluated as a means to extend the retail storage time of fresh pork sausage links. Hot-boned pork was treated by three methods: freezing the meat before grinding, salting and freezing, and salting plus dry ice addition. The results favoured the use of 50% hot-boned meat and 50% chilled meat, for which the lowest hardness and oxidation values were obtained. Microbial counts and hue values showed no significant variation among the three treatments. Salting and freezing hot-boned meat before grinding was the method which produced the best overall quality. Copyright © 1987. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Streaming sausage, kink and tearing instabilities in a current sheet with applications to the earth's magnetotail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, L. C.; Wang, S.; Wei, C. Q.; Tsurutani, B. T.

    1988-01-01

    This paper investigates the growth rates and eigenmode structures of the streaming sausage, kink, and tearing instabilities in a current sheet with a super-Alfvenic flow. The growth rates and eigenmode structures are first considered in the ideal incompressible limit by using a four-layer model, as well as a more realistic case in which all plasma parameters and the magnetic field vary continuously along the direction perpendicular to the magnetic field and plasma flow. An initial-value method is applied to obtain the growth rate and eigenmode profiles of the fastest growing mode, which is either the sausage mode or kink mode. It is shown that, in the earth's magnetotail, where super-Alfvenic plasma flows are observed in the plasma sheet and the ratio between the plasma and magnetic pressures far away from the current layer is about 0.1-0.3 in the lobes, the streaming sausage and streaming tearing instabilities, but not kink modes, are likely to occur.

  15. Rheological and microstructural properties of beef sausage batter formulated with fish fillet mince.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Ala; Jafarpour, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Rheological properties and microstructure of beef meat sausage batter, incorporated with different percentages of fish fillet mince (5 %, 20 %, 35 % and 50 %), were investigated and compared to the control (0 % fish). By increasing the proportion of fish fillet mince to the sausage formula up to 35 % and 50 %, hardness was increased by 40 % and 16 %, respectively, (P  0.05). In terms of temperature sweep test, storage modulus (G') of control sample faced a substantial slop from 10 °C to 58 °C, corresponding to the lowest magnitude of G' at its gelling point (~58°), but completed at around 70 °C, as same as the other treatments. Whereas the gelling point of batter sample with 50 % fish mince remained at nearly 42 °C, which was remarkably lowest among all treatments, indicating the better gel formation process. SEM micrographs revealed a previous orderly set gel before heating in all treatments whereas after heating up to 90 °C gel matrices became denser with more obvious granular pattern and aggregated structure, specifically in sample with 50 % fish mince. In conclusion, addition of fish mince up to 50 % into beef sausage formula, positively interacted in gel formation process, without diminishing its rheological properties.

  16. Effect of irradiation and storage on biogenic amine contents in ripened Egyptian smoked cooked sausage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabie, Mohamed A.; Toliba, Abbas O.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of γ-irradiation upon the biogenic amine inventory in Egyptian smoked cooked sausages were investigated for the first time during storage for up to 90 days at 4 ° C. Typical contents of biogenic amines in non-irradiated sausages ranged between 125.50 and 596.18 mg/kgDW; irradiation with 4 and 6 kGy decreased said total contents to 105.20-94.82 and 104.98-26.44 mg/kgDW respectively, by the end of storage. Putrescine and cadaverine were the major amines in non-irradiated samples - where it accounted for 33% and 29% respectively, of the total by 90 days; however, tyramine dominated in irradiated samples with 2, 4 and 6 kGy, where it accounted for 44, 52 and 42%. On the other hand, the histamine content in non-irradiated sausage by 90 days of storage (i.e. 109.12 mg/kgDW) clearly exceeded the maximum allowable of 50 mg/kg, unlike happened in their irradiated counterparts. Therefore, the dramatic reduction observed in the histamine levels suggests use of this preservation technique for that traditional meat food. (author)

  17. Antagonistic effect of chosen lactic acid bacteria strains on Salmonella species in meat and fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomółka-Pawlicka, M; Uradziński, J

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine of influence of 15 strains of lactic acid bacteria on the growth of 7 Salmonella spp. strains in model set-ups, and in meat and ripened fermented sausages. The investigations were performed within the framework of three alternate stages which differed in respect to the products studied, the number of Lactobacillus spp. strains and, partly, methodological approach. The ratio between lactic acid bacteria and Salmonella strains studied was, depending on the alternate, 1:1, 1:2 and 2:1, respectively. The investigations also covered the water activity (a(w)) and pH of the tested products. The results obtained are shown in 12 figures and suggest that all the lactic acid bacteria strains used within the framework of the model set-ups showed antagonistic effect on all the Salmonella spp. strains. However, these abilities were not observed with respect to some lactic acid bacteria strains in meat and fermented sausage. The temperature and length of the incubation period of sausages, but not a(w) and pH, were found to have a distinct influence on the antagonistic interaction between the bacteria.

  18. Dry fermented buffalo sausage with sage oil extract: Safety and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim, Hayam M.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Sage oil extract was added during the preparation of dry fermented buffalo meat sausage. Some chemical, microbial and sensory characteristics of sausages were evaluated during the ripening period. In particular, pH, lipid oxidation, biogenic amines and micro flora were analyzed. Results of this study pointed out that sage oil extract as natural antioxidant could be utilized in dry fermented sausage, prepared from buffalo meat, in order to obtain a final product within acceptable lipid oxidation and biogenic amine levels, as well as improved sensory quality.Extractos de aceite de salvia fueron añadidos a embutidos de carne de búfalo. Las características químicas, microbiológicas y sensoriales de los embutidos fueron evaluadas durante el periodo de maduración. En particular, pH, oxidación lipídica, aminas biogénicas y microflora fueron analizadas. Los resultados de este estudio indican que los extractos de aceite de salvia, como antioxidantes naturales, podrían ser utilizados en embutidos preparados con carnes de búfalo, con objeto de obtener un producto final con unos niveles de aminas biogénicas y de oxidación lipídica aceptable, así como con una calidad sensorial mejorada.

  19. Is there a potential consumer market for low-sodium fermented sausages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Bibiana A; Campagnol, Paulo C B; da Cruz, Adriano G; Morgano, Marcelo A; Wagner, Roger; Pollonio, Marise A R

    2015-05-01

    The NaCl levels in dry fermented sausages were reduced by 50% or were substituted with KCl, CaCl2 , or a blend of KCl and CaCl2 (1:1). The quality, safety, and the potential consumer market of dry fermented sausages were assessed. Neither 50% reduction of the NaCl content nor the substitution of 50% of the NaCl with KCl influenced the fermentation and maturation process. However, when CaCl2 was used as the substitute salt (50%), there was a significant decrease in pH, an increase in the water activity, and a decrease in lactic acid and micrococcus bacterial counts. Overall, the sensory acceptance decreased in dry fermented sausages with reduced sodium content. However, cluster analysis and internal preference mapping revealed potential for commercialization of samples with 50% of the NaCl content substituted with KCl or with a mixture of KCl and CaCl2 (1:1). © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. Effect of ice storage on muscle protein properties and qualities of emulsion fish sausage from bigeye snapper (Priacanthus tayenus and lizardfish (Saurida undosquamis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittayanont, M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical changes in fish muscle and natural actomyosin (NAM from bigeye snapper (Priacanthus tayenus and lizardfish (Saurida undosquamis muscle during 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14 days of iced storage were studied. Myosin heavy chain (MHC of NAM extracted from two fish species was degraded throughout iced storage. However, no changes in actin were observed. The total volatile base (TVB. trimethylamine (TMA and surface hydrophobicity increased, while the total sulfhydryl content and emulsion capacity of NAM from both fish species decreased significantly as the storage time increased (p<0.05. A Texture ProfileAnalysis (TPA and shear force of emulsion fish sausages prepared from two fish species kept in ice for 0, 4, 8 and 12 days were investigated. The results showed that hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness and shear force of sausage prepared from fish kept in ice were lower than those produced from fresh fish. However, no significant differences in adhesiveness were observed. Cooking loss of emulsion fish sausage from two fish species increased throughout storage time (p<0.05. The texture of bigeye snapper sausage was better than that of lizardfish sausages. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM micrographs of emulsion fish sausage from two fish species revealed bigger voids, thicker strands and less continuity of protein strands with increasing storage time. More microstructural changes were observed in sausages from lizardfish, compared to those in sausages from bigeye snapper.

  1. Fatty acid composition and quality characteristics of low-fat cooked sausages made with beef and chicken meat, tomato juice and sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Í; Simşek, O; Işıklı, M

    2002-10-01

    Low-fat (5.9-10.3% fat) cooked sausages were produced with seven different formulations. Sausages produced with total replacement of fat with sunflower oil had significantly lower oleic acid (C18:1) and higher linoleic (C18:2) and behenic (C22:0) fatty acid contents. Their ratio of TUFA/TS was 3.65 compared to 0.95-1.14 for the other sausages. Also these sausages had the lowest moisture content, highest overall palatability and were less firm. Sausages with tomato juice had the lowest pH value, total aerobic count and nitrite content, but were firmer. Sausages produced with reduced beef contents had lower fat contents, lower stearic (C18:0) and higher oleic (C18:1) fatty acid contents than sausages of high beef content, their texture was very soft and had the lowest score for juiciness. Finally the sausages with chicken meat had the lowest fat and highest salt contents, and lower stearic (C18:0) and higher linoleic (C18:3) fatty acid contents than those made with beef . Also their colour was lighter, less red and more yellow and they had the lowest flavor intensity and overall acceptability.

  2. Nutritional characteristics and consumer acceptability of sausages with different combinations of goat and beef meats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Malekian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity and cardiovascular heart diseases are growing problems in the United States. This is partially due to the consumption of the primary red meats such as pork and beef. Goat meat has the potential to replace these traditionally consumed meats. Rice bran is a rich source of antioxidants such as vitamin E and can be utilized as a binder in meat and meat products. Methods: Goat meat/beef sausages were formulated to contain either 50/50, 75/25 or 100/0 percent goat meat/beef, with either no added rice bran (NRB or 3 percent stabilized rice bran (RB. Proximate analysis, fatty acids, -tocopherol and cholesterol concentrations of the six cooked formulations were determined. The six sausage formulations were compared in a consumer acceptability taste test. Results: The fat concentration of the NRB and RB formulations decreased linearly with increasing percentages of goat meat (p < 0.001. The sum of the saturated fatty acids decreased linearly with increasing percentages of goat meat (p < 0.01. Polyunsaturated fatty acids, omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid and conjugated linoleic acid concentrations increased linearly (p < 0.05 with increasing percentages of goat meat in both the NRB and RB sausage formulations. The α-tocopherol concentration of the NRB formulations did not change across the goat meat percentages, but in the RB formulations it increased linearly with increasing percentages of goat meat (p < 0.001. The cholesterol concentration decreased linearly with increasing percentages of goat meat in both the NRB and RB formulations (p <0.01, < 0.05 respectively. The tasters preferred the NRB with higher goat meat percentage to the RB formulations. Conclusions: The NRB and RB sausage formulations with higher percentages of goat meat had higher concentrations of -tocopherol, CLA (18:2 cis 9 Trans 11, total n-3, total PUFA, total n-3/total n-6 ratio, and a lower cholesterol concentration. The RB sausage formulations with higher

  3. Differences between spent hens of different genotype in performance, meat yield and suitability of the meat for sausage production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loetscher, Y; Albiker, D; Stephan, R; Kreuzer, M; Messikommer, R E

    2015-02-01

    The valorization of spent hens via the food chain has some major limitations, which include low meat yield and tough meat. The latter issue can be overcome by producing convenience foods; the first may be alleviated by employing a genotype with higher meatiness. To quantitatively compare two common layer genotypes in production performance, meat yield and sausage quality, 2200 57 weeks old Institut de Sélection Animale (ISA) Warren and Dekalb White hens each were investigated during the last 60 days of egg laying. The hens were housed in an aviary system in 2×10 compartments (10 compartments/each genotype). Measurements included feed intake, laying performance, egg weight and feed conversion ratio as measured per compartment. BW was determined twice on 10 animals per compartment. Finally, two sub-groups of five hens per compartment were slaughtered, meat yield was recorded and bratwurst-type sausages were produced (n=20 per genotype). Fat proportion, cooking loss, connective tissue properties and Kramer shear energy were measured. After 1, 4, 7 and 10 months of frozen storage, oxidative stability (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)) and microbiological status were determined as shelf-life related criteria. ANOVA was performed considering genotype as the main effect. The ISA Warren hens were inferior in laying performance (-11%) and feed conversion ratio (+10%) compared with Dekalb White, but had the same feed intake. The ISA Warren had higher BW and carcass weight than the Dekalb White. Carcass yield was higher by 5.9%. There were 80 g (23%) more meat available for sausage production from ISA Warren compared with Dekalb White. Sausages prepared from meat of ISA Warren hens contained less fat than those from Dekalb White, but showed the same cooking loss. Although the collagen proportion of the sausages produced from ISA Warren was lower than from Dekalb White, collagen solubility was lower and shear energy was higher. During the 10 months of frozen

  4. Outbreak of ciguatera fish poisoning on a cargo ship in the port of hamburg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaich, Clara; Hagelstein, Jan-Gerd; Burchard, Gerd-Dieter; Schmiedel, Stefan

    2012-07-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning is a travel-related illness characterized by a combination of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms in persons who eat ciguatoxic seafood in endemic areas. In 2009, an outbreak of the disease on a refrigerator vessel in the port of Hamburg was investigated. The ship's crew fell ill after they ate fish from a catch in the Caribbean 2 weeks earlier. All 15 sailors on board were examined by port medical officers. Samples of blood and stool specimens were taken from symptomatic sailors. The frozen fish was secured for the prevention of further disease spreading and additional diagnostic tests. All but one sailor ate the fish. The intoxication resulted in gastrointestinal or neurological symptoms in all 14 sailors who consumed the fish and persisted in varying degrees in 93% of sailors over at least 14 days. No fatality occurred, but two seamen were "unfit for duty" on the ship due to severity of symptoms. The diagnosis was supported by the fact that all seafarers who consumed the same reef fish, experienced typical signs, symptoms, and time course consistent with ciguatera fish poisoning. The fish from the catch in the Caribbean was identified as Caranx sexfasciatus (Bigeye Trevally) and Cephalopholis miniata (Red Grouper). An experimental assay later confirmed presence of the ciguatoxin in the fish. Sailors are an occupational group at risk for ciguatera fish poisoning due to potentially unsafe food sources during international travel. Even if no fatality occurred, the disease affected marine operations due to high attack rates and chronicity of symptoms. Medical doctors must be aware that ciguatera fish poisoning is a risk for seafarers traveling in tropical and subtropical areas. Stocking of food in affected ports from safe sources, adequate training of ship cooks, and informing sailors about the risk of fishing are needed to prevent disease occurrence in seafarers in international trade and traffic. © 2012 International Society of

  5. Dioxin/POPs legacy of pesticide production in Hamburg: part 1--securing of the production area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Roland; Varbelow, Hans Gerhard

    2013-04-01

    α-Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), β-HCH, and γ-HCH (lindane) were recently included as new persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the Stockholm Convention. Therefore, the chemicals need to be globally addressed, including the disposal of historic wastes. At most sites, the approximately 85% of HCH waste isomers were dumped. At a former lindane factory in Hamburg and some other factories the HCH, waste was recycled producing residues with high polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/PCDF) levels. The soil and ground water under the former pesticide factory was/is highly contaminated with HCH (260 tons), chlorobenzenes (550 tons), and PCDD/PCDF (6 kg toxic equivalents (TEQ)). This contamination did not result from disposal operations but from spillages and leakages during the 30 years of the factory's production history. A containment wall has been constructed around the production area to prevent the dispersal of the pollutants. The ground water is managed by a pump and treat system. Over the last 15 years, approximately 10-30 tons of this pollution reservoir has been pumped and incinerated. For the contaminated production buildings, specific assessment and demolition technologies have been applied. In addition to their HCH waste isomer deposition, former lindane/HCH productions need to be assessed for possible recycling practice of HCH and related PCDD/PCDF contamination of the production area and buildings. Since such recycling activities have taken place at several factories in different countries, the experience of assessment and management of the described production area and contaminated buildings could be valuable. Such assessment could be addressed within the frame of the Stockholm Convention.

  6. [Characteristics of children and adolescents with gender dysphoria referred to the Hamburg Gender Identity Clinic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Inga; Gjergji-Lama, Voltisa; Romer, Georg; Möller, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    Given the increasing demand for counselling in gender dysphoria in childhood in Germany, there is a definite need for empirical data on characteristics and developmental trajectories of this clinical group. This study aimed to provide a first overview by assessing demographic characteristics and developmental trajectories of a group of gender variant boys and girls referred to the specialised Gender Identity Clinic in Hamburg. Data were extracted from medical charts, transcribed and analysed using qualitative content analysis methods. Categories were set up by inductive-deductive reasoning based on the patients' parents' and clinicians' information in the files. Between 2006 and 2010, 45 gender variant children and adolescents were seen by clinicians; 88.9% (n = 40) of these were diagnosed with gender identity disorder (ICD-10). Within this group, the referral rates for girls were higher than for boys (1:1.5). Gender dysphoric girls were on average older than the boys and a higher percentage of girls was referred to the clinic at the beginning of adolescence (> 12 years of age). At the same time, more girls reported an early onset age. More girls made statements about their (same-sex) sexual orientation during adolescence and wishes for gender confirming medical interventions. More girls than boys revealed self-mutilation in the past or present as well as suicidal thoughts and/or attempts. Results indicate that the presentation of clinically referred gender dysphoric girls differs from the characteristics boys present in Germany; especially with respect to the most salient age differences. Therefore, these two groups require different awareness and individual treatment approaches.

  7. Monitoring the Soil Water Availability of Young Urban Trees in Hamburg, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titel, Selina; Gröngröft, Alexander; Eschenbach, Annette

    2017-04-01

    In large cities numerous trees have to be planted each year to replace died off or cut down trees or for greening of constructed roads and newly built quarters. The typical age of planted trees is between five and fifteen years. Often the planting takes place in special planting pits to stimulate the tree growth under the restricted urban conditions. Consequently, trees are surrounded by different soil substrates: the soil from the nursery in the root ball, the special planting pit substrate and the surrounding urban soil which is often anthropogenic influenced. Being relocated in the city, trees have to cope with the warmer urban climate, the soil sealing and compaction and the low water storage capacity of the substrate. All factors together increase the probability of dry phases for roadside trees. The aim of this study is to monitor the soil water availability at sites of planted roadside trees during the first years after planting. Therefore, a measuring design was developed, which works automatically and takes the complex below ground structure of the soil into account. This approach consists of 13 soil water tension sensors inside and outside of each planting pit up to one meter depth connected to a data logger. The monitoring devices will finally be installed at 20 roadside trees (amongst others Quercus cerris, Quercus robur, Acer platanoides 'Fairview') in Hamburg, Germany, to identify phases of drought stress. The young trees were mainly planted in spring 2016. Data of the first year of measurements show, that the water tension varied between the different soil substrates and the depth. In the first year of tree growth in the city, soil in the tree root ball became significantly drier than the surrounding soil material. In late summer 2016 the water tension in the topsoil had the potential to cause drought stress below some trees.

  8. Lipid oxidative changes in traditional dry fermented sausage Petrovská klobása during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šojić Branislav V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of drying and ripeninig conditions (traditional and industrial in the production of dry fermented sausage Petrovská klobása, on fatty-acid composition and oxidative changes in lipids, during 7 months of storage, was investigated. During the storage period, the sum of unsaturated fatty acids and the content of free fatty acids were significantly higher (p<0.05, while the content of malondialdehyde was significantly lower in the sausage subjected to traditional conditions of drying and ripening. At the end of the storage period, contents of pentanal and hexanal in the sausage subjected to traditional conditions of drying and ripening (4.03 μg/g and 1.67 μg/g, respectively were significantly lower (p<0.05 in comparison with these contents in the sausage subjected to industrial conditions of drying and ripening. Traditional conditions of drying and ripening at lower temperatures have led to lower oxidative changes in lipids in traditional dry fermented sausage Petrovská klobása during storage period. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31032

  9. Physicochemical, sensory attributes and protein profile by SDS-PAGE of beef sausage substituted with texturized vegetable protein

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    Hidayat, B.T.,

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of texturized vegetable protein (TVP on the quality of beef sausages was investigated in this research. Several formulations which replaced by beef meat with TVP ranging from 10-20% w/w were investigated for their physical, chemical, sensory properties and also protein profile by SDS-PAGE. The addition of TVP concentration significantly influences physicochemical characteristics e.g. water, fat content, the color parameter (L and b value, WHC, Texture (Hardness and cooking yield (P<0.05. The protein profile also influenced by the addition of TVP in beef sausage formula. Higher substitution of meat with TVP will increase the water and will decrease fat content significantly (P<0.05. The highest water content is 40% TVP (64.02 ± 1.15% where the lowest water content is control (61.29 ± 1.88%. The highest fat content is control (12.16 ± 1.87% where the highest fat content is (8.53 ± 2.09%. For the physicochemical properties, e.g. L* and b* value, WHC and Cooking yield will increase during the substitution of meat with TVP in sausage products (P<0.05. The hardness will decrease during the substitution of meat with TVP in sausage products (P<0.05. Sensory results indicated that sensory attributed of beef sausage showed good acceptance until 30% of TVP substitution.

  10. Development of dry-cured sausages using spent-hen meat: manufacturing practices and product physical, chemical and microbiological quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Boodhoo

    2015-06-01

    No Salmonella was detected in any samples analyzed. Counts of Staphylococcus spp. were high with 104/g to 108/g at the end of the fermentation/drying period. L. plantarum counts increasedduring the first five days of fermentation from 4.9 to 8.7 log10 CFU/g and remained practically at this level for the rest of the drying period. There was unwanted mould growth on the cel­lulose casings as from day 3. In all cases, the sausages lacked the compactness typical of dry-cured sausages. The meat and fat particles in the final sausages were not uniformly distributed. This may be due to the low melting point of the fat thereby caus­ing smearing of fat particles. Overall, the potential of using spent-layer meat for the manu­facture of dry-fermented sausage was shown to be technologi­cally feasible. However there is a need to optimize the process­ing steps, especially with regard to the starter culture, and the temperature and relative humidity of fermentation/drying, to improve the safety and quality of the sausages.

  11. The sensory quality of allergen-controlled, fat-reduced, salt-reduced pork-ostrich sausages during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzek, Dominika; Głąbska, Dominika; Brodowska, Marta; Godziszewska, Jolanta; Górska-Horczyczak, Elżbieta; Pogorzelska, Ewelina; Wojtasik-Kalinowska, Iwona; Wierzbicka, Agnieszka

    2017-12-01

    New meat products tailored to consumer health should be characterised by reduced sodium, fat and cholesterol contents and other health-promoting benefits. However, the food sector's greatest challenge is allergen-free production. Consumers are not willing to compromise the sensory quality of meat products for health. The aim of the present study was to analyse the influence of the storage time on the physical properties and consumer acceptance of allergen-controlled, fat-reduced, salt-reduced pork-ostrich sausages. The study focused on pork-ostrich sausages produced in accordance with a new patented technology, which focused on eliminating cross-contamination on-line in the plant, eliminating cross-contamination after preparation, and eliminating spices with high allergy potential. The production was focused on reducing fat (by approximately 50%) and salt (by approximately 30%) levels. No changes in the texture parameters of the sausage were observed during storage time; however, some changes in colour were observed. There were no significant differences in sensory consumer acceptability of pork-ostrich sausage after 14 days of storage; thus, it may be stated that the instrumentally assessed differences in colour did not influence consumer acceptance. The applied fat and NaCl reduction in the pork-ostrich sausages contributed to high consumer ratings and was not correlated with saltiness acceptability. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Physicochemical, biochemical and sensory properties for the characterization of Petrovská klobása (traditional fermented sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikonić Predrag M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out on a typical homemade Petrovská klobasá in order to characterize this traditional dry-fermented sausage, to provide a basis for establishing the quality standard and protecting designation of origin. This paper reviews the chemical composition, some physicochemical, proteolytic and sensory parameters of Petrovská klobasá made by five manufacturers chosen as representatives. Beside the differences between sausages made by different manufacturers the main properties of this traditional product were though recognized. Compared to other dry-fermented sausages Petrovská klobasá is characterized by a high content of protein (23.36-30.45% and low contents of NaCl (2.99-3.28%. With some minor exceptions, the values of other chemical parameters are within the range of those observed for various dry-cured sausages. Weight loss during the processing is high (up to 45.71% and pH value (~ 5.4 corresponds to the values for this parameter in other European traditional fermented sausages. Contents of different nitrogen fractions show that Petrovská klobasá undergoes significant proteolytic changes. At the end of ripening, Petrovská klobasá is characterized by aromatic and spicy-hot flavor, dark-red color and hard consistency.

  13. ASSESSMENT OF MICROBIAL LOAD OF SAUSAGES PREPARED FROM DIFFERENT COMBINATION OF SPENT DUCK AND SPENT HEN MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the present study was to assess the microbial load of sausages prepared from different combination of spent duck and spent hen meat. The combination are 100% spent duck (T1, 75%+ 25% spent duck and spent hen (T2, 50%+50% spent duck and spent hen (T3, 25%+75% spent duck and spent hen (T4 and 100% spent hen (T5. All the samples of different combination were subjected to total plate count (TPC, total psychrophilic count (TPSC and total Coliform count (TCC. Mean of TPC for T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5 were 4.69, 4.62, 4.60, 4.49 and 4.46 log 10 CFU/gm respectively, while mean TPSC were 4.46, 4.46, 4.43, 4.36 and 4.36 log CFU/gm respectively There were no significant (p<0.05 difference between the different group of combination of sausages for TPS as well as TPSC but varies significantly (p<0.05 from 14th day of storage in both cases. The coliform group of bacteria will not be detected in any combination of sausages. It is concluded that microbial load of sausage prepared from spent duck is high and it is decreases as the percentage of duck meat decreases but, the upper limit of bacteria in each group of sausages is within limit and hence it is safe for human consumption.

  14. Effectiveness of the Red Dragon Fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus Peel Extract as the Colorant, Antioxidant, and Antimicrobial on Beef Sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitri M Manihuruk

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of red dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus peel extracts addition on beef sausages. Red dragon fruit peel extracts were obtained by maceration using solvent at pH 5. Phytochemical characteristics, total phenols, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activity of the peel extracts were observed. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the extracts were associated with high phytochemical compounds and total phenols contained in the extracts. Red dragon fruit peel extracts with various percentages (0%, 20%, 30%, and 40% were added on beef sausages, and their physicochemical characteristics, nutrients, antioxidant activity, and microbiological profile were analyzed. The data were analyzed using analysis of variance and Duncan’s multiple range test. Results showed that the addition of red dragon fruit peel extracts significantly reduced texture values, but increased intensity of luminosity, intensity of red color, and intensity of yellow color (P<0.05 beef sausages. It could be concluded that red dragon fruit peel extract containing phytochemical compounds was effective as an antibacterial agent and natural antioxidant. The addition of red dragon fruit peel extracts was effective in increasing the antioxidant activity and decreasing TBARS values. The addition of red dragon fruit peel extract did not affect the reddish colorization of beef sausages, but it was capable of increasing the yellowish colorization on beef sausage.

  15. Quantification of meat proportions by measuring DNA contents in raw and boiled sausages using matrix-adapted calibrators and multiplex real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köppel, René; Eugster, Albert; Ruf, Jürg; Rentsch, Jürg

    2012-01-01

    The quantification of meat proportions in raw and boiled sausage according to the recipe was evaluated using three different calibrators. To measure the DNA contents from beef, pork, sheep (mutton), and horse, a tetraplex real-time PCR method was applied. Nineteen laboratories analyzed four meat products each made of different proportions of beef, pork, sheep, and horse meat. Three kinds of calibrators were used: raw and boiled sausages of known proportions ranging from 1 to 55% of meat, and a dilution series of DNA from muscle tissue. In general, results generated using calibration sausages were more accurate than those resulting from the use of DNA from muscle tissue, and exhibited smaller measurement uncertainties. Although differences between uses of raw and boiled calibration sausages were small, the most precise and accurate results were obtained by calibration with fine-textured boiled reference sausages.

  16. Effect of ionizing radiation on the oxidation of cholesterol in frozen chicken and beef hamburgers;Efeito da radiacao ionizante sobre a oxidacao do colesterol em hamburgueres de frango e bovino congelados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Andrea Figueiredo Procopio de

    2004-07-01

    Several technologies have been developed to assure food quality. Among these technological processes, ionizing radiation has been described as a feasible alternative for food conservation, mainly for meat products, since it keeps their natural properties. In hamburgers, the use of irradiation has been studied due to the frequent implication of such products in outbreaks of food-borne diseases. Some of the outbreaks, which even killed consumers, were caused by E. coli O157:H7. But the use of ionizing radiation in hamburgers may form free radicals able to trigger lipid oxidation in the muscle tissue. As a component of the cell membrane lipids, cholesterol may also undergo oxidation and form biologically active compounds, with atherogenic, mutagenic, cytotoxic and cancerous properties. The aim of this work was to evaluate the occurrence of cholesterol oxidation products in chicken hamburgers and beef hamburgers submitted to irradiation and stored frozen, aerobically and under vacuum. The results showed that irradiation caused an increase of around 11% in the concentration of cholesterol oxides in frozen hamburgers. In chicken hamburgers, an increase in the levels of cholesterol oxides was observed ali over the storage period, while in beef hamburgers it was observed only in the final part of the storage period. Packaging itself did not have a significant effect on the concentrations of cholesterol oxides in either of the types of hamburgers studied. However, it showed a significant interaction with irradiation, that is, vacuum packaging prevented the formation of cholesterol oxides in irradiated beef hamburgers. (author)

  17. [Cleaning and disinfection of surfaces in hospitals: Data on structure, process and result in the Frankfurt/Main Metropolitan Area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausemann, A; Hofmann, H; Otto, U; Heudorf, Ursel

    2015-06-01

    In addition to hand hygiene and reprocessing of medical products, cleaning and disinfection of surfaces is also an important issue in the prevention of germ transmission and by implication infections. Therefore, in 2014, the quality of the structure, process and result of surface preparation of all hospitals in Frankfurt am Main, Germany, was monitored. All 17 hospitals transferred information on the quality of structure. Process quality was obtained through direct observation during cleaning and disinfection of rooms and their plumbing units. Result quality was gained using the fluorescent method, i.e. marking surfaces with a fluorescent liquid and testing if this mark has been sufficiently removed by cleaning. Structure quality: in all hospitals the employees were trained regularly. In 12 of them, the foremen had the required qualifications, in 6 hospitals unclarity as to the intersection of the cleaning and care services remained. In 14 hospitals only visible contamination was cleaned on the weekends, whereas complete cleaning was reported to take place in 12 hospitals on Saturdays and in 2 hospitals on Sundays. The contractually stipulated cleaning (observations specified in brackets) averaged 178 m(2)/h (148 m(2)/h) per patient room and 69 m(2)/h (33 m(2)/h) for bathrooms. Process quality: during process monitoring, various hand contact surfaces were prepared insufficiently. Result quality: 63 % of fluorescent markings were appropriately removed. The need for improvement is given especially in the area of the qualification of the foremen and a in a clear definition of the intersection between cleaning and care services, as well as in the regulations for weekends and public holidays.

  18. Listeria monocytogenes presence during fermentation, drying and storage of Petrovská klobása sausage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janković, V.; Mitrović, R.; Lakićević, B.; Velebit, B.; Baltić, T.

    2017-09-01

    The majority of human listeriosis cases appear to be caused by consumption of ready-to-eat (RTE) foods contaminated at the time of consumption with high levels of Listeria monocytogenes. Although strategies to prevent growth of L. monocytogenes in RTE products are critical for reducing the incidence of human listeriosis, this pathogen is highly difficult to control in fermented sausage processing environments due to its high tolerance to low pH and high salt concentration. The aims of the present study were to investigate the occurrence, presence and elimination of L. monocytogenes in Petrovská klobása sausage during processing, fermentation, drying and storage. L. monocytogenes, which was detected at the beginning of the production cycle, disappeared before day 30. The pathogen decline was much faster in those sausages which were dried in controlled, industrial conditions than in those dried applying the traditional, household technique.

  19. Effects of electron beam irradiated natural casings on the quality properties and shelf stability of emulsion sausage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Choi, Ji-Hun; Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Hack-Youn; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2012-05-01

    The effect of electron beam irradiated hog and sheep casings (1, 3, and 8 kGy) on the physicochemical properties and shelf stability of emulsion sausage was evaluated. There were no significant differences in pH, instrumental color, sensory properties (overall acceptability), and hardness between all the samples. The cooking yields for the irradiated treated samples were larger than that of the yields obtained for the non-irradiated samples for both the hog and sheep casing. The irradiated natural casings accelerated lipid oxidation, and inhibited the formation of volatile basic nitrogen and the increase in total aerobic bacteria. In conclusion, the natural casings irradiated below at a dose of 3 kGy had no effect on physicochemical and sensory properties of the emulsion sausages, however, that improved the shelf-stability over 5 weeks. Therefore, natural casings irradiated at moderate doses are suitable for sausage production.

  20. Combined effect of γ-irradiation and bacterial-fermented dextrose on microbiological quality of refrigerated pork sausages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dussault, D.; Benoit, C.; Lacroix, M.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a concentrated fermented dextrose (FD), a natural antimicrobial product, combined with low dose γ-irradiation (1.5 kGy) on the microbiological quality of fresh pork sausages. Fresh pork sausages containing the FD (0.25%, 0.5% and 0.75%) were prepared in a meat pilot plant and were irradiated using a UC-15A irradiator equipped with a 60 Cobalt source. The γ-irradiation treatment alone was able to reduce the initial psychrophilic and mesophilic bacteria by more than 2 log CFU/g and kept the lactobacillus population under the detection limit (100 CFU/g). Results also showed that the FD alone was able to extend the shelf life of the sausages from 5 days up to 13 days. At day 13, the FD or irradiation alone showed 2 log CFU/g less mesophilic bacteria than the control. After combining FD and irradiation another reduction of the microbial count of 1 log CFU/g was observed. When combining the irradiation treatment with the FD results it showed a reduced growth rate of the psychrophilic and mesophilic bacteria compared to both treatments alone. This study demonstrated that FD with low dose gamma irradiation act in synergy to reduce the multiplication of the total bacterial flora in fresh sausages. - Highlights: ► A fermented dextrose (FD) with γ-irradiation in pork sausages was investigated. ► Pork sausages containing the FD were prepared and then irradiated. ► Combined treatment reduced the bacterial growth compared to the treatments alone. ► Combined treatment increased the shelf-life compared to both treatments alone.

  1. Effect of caliber size and fat level on the inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 in dry fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Souza, James; Ahmed, Rafath; Strange, Philip; Barbut, Shai; Balamurugan, S

    2018-02-02

    Dry fermented sausages (DFS) have been subject to numerous validation studies, as pathogen reduction heavily relies on both ingredients and processing. In this study the effect of product caliber size (32, 55, 80mm), and fat level (low, 9.67%; high, 18.46% wt/wt) on the inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 during DFS production was examined. Sausages containing a five-strain cocktail of E. coli O157:H7 at 10 7 CFU/g were manufactured and monitored for changes in physicochemical properties and inoculated E. coli O157:H7 numbers were enumerated during the DFS production stages and log reduction rates were calculated. Significant (P0.05) different among sausages of different caliber size or fat levels. No significant (P>0.05) reduction in a w was observed during fermentation of the sausages. However, during the drying phase, sausages with larger caliber sizes required a significantly longer duration of drying to achieve the same a w of smaller caliber size sausages. For instance, to achieve an a w of ≤0.9, following 5days of fermentation/curing, 80mm caliber sausages required up to 27days of drying compared with 13 and 6days for 55 and 32mm caliber size sausages, respectively. Fat levels on the other hand did not significantly (P>0.05) effect the reduction of a w during drying of the sausages. During the fermentation stage there was a significant and rapid reduction in E. coli O157:H7 counts by about 1.1- to 1.4-log units, but was not significantly different among sausages of different caliber size and fat levels. Considering the whole process, only caliber size had a significant effect on log reduction of E. coli O157:H7. ANOVA of log reduction rates of E. coli O157:H7 among sausages of different caliber size and fat levels revealed no significant differences during the fermentation, however, during the drying of the sausages, log reduction rate of E. coli O157:H7 was significantly (PE. coli O157:H7 in high fat large caliber sausages was the lowest at -0.082±0.004 log

  2. Protracted outbreak of S. Enteritidis PT 21c in a large Hamburg nursing home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domke Paul-Gerhard

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During August 2006, a protracted outbreak of Salmonella (S. Enteritidis infections in a large Hamburg nursing home was investigated. Methods A site visit of the home was conducted and food suppliers' premises tested for Salmonella. Among nursing home residents a cohort study was carried out focusing on foods consumed in the three days before the first part of the outbreak. Instead of relying on residents' memory, data from the home's patient food ordering system was used as exposure data. S. Enteritidis isolates from patients and suspected food vehicles were phage typed and compared. Results Within a population of 822 nursing home residents, 94 case patients among residents (1 fatality and 17 among staff members were counted 6 through 29 August. The outbreak peaked 7 through 9 August, two days after a spell of very warm summer weather. S. Enteritidis was consistently recovered from patients' stools throughout the outbreak. Among the food items served during 5 through 7 August, the cohort study pointed to afternoon cake on all three days as potential risk factors for disease. Investigation of the bakery supplying the cake yielded S. Enteritidis from cakes sampled 31 August. Comparison of the isolates by phage typing demonstrated both isolates from patients and the cake to be the exceedingly rare phage type 21c. Conclusion Cake (various types served on various days contaminated with S. Enteritidis were the likely vehicle of the outbreak in the nursing home. While the cakes were probably contaminated with low pathogen dose throughout the outbreak period, high ambient summer temperatures and failure to keep the cake refrigerated led to high pathogen dose in cake on some days and in some of the housing units. This would explain the initial peak of cases, but also the drawn out nature of the outbreak with cases until the end of August. Suggestions are made to nursing homes, aiding in outbreak prevention. Early outbreak detection is

  3. Simulation of the dynamics of sausage development in a z pinch with a high rate of thermonuclear heat production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikhrev, V.V.; Rozanova, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    The development of the sausage instability in a z pinch is accompanied by the formulation of a high-temperature plasma. This high-temperature region initiates a wave of thermonuclear burning propagating along the pinch. A numerical solution of the MHD equations has been carried out, taking into account plasma energy losses through radiation and thermonuclear heating. Results of calculations on the growth of the sausage instability are presented for ρr = 0.23 g/cm 2 . It is accompanied by the development of a stable wave of thermonuclear burning. 12 refs., 4 figs

  4. Effect of Replacing Pork Fat with Vegetable Oils on Quality Properties of Emulsion-type Pork Sausages

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyun-Jin; Jung, Eun-Hee; Lee, Sang-Hwa; Kim, Jong-Hee; Lee, Jae-Joon; Choi, Yang-II

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the quality properties of emulsion-type pork sausages when pork fat is replaced with vegetable oil mixtures during processing. Pork sausages were processed under six treatment conditions: T1 (20% pork fat), T2 (10% pork fat + 2% grape seed oil + 4% olive oil + 4% canola oil), T3 (4% grape seed oil + 16% canola oil), T4 (4% grape seed oil + 4% olive oil + 12% canola oil), T5 (4% grape seed oil + 8% olive oil + 8% canola oil), and T6 (4% grape seed oil + 12%...

  5. ''Die Dependance'' - Logistic center of the fair at Francfort; ''Die Dependance'' - Das Logistikzentrum der Messe Frankfurt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, W.; Fleischer, J. [Brendel Ingenieure, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Hummel, D. [FH Zwickau (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    In early November 2004, the logistic center ''Die Dependance'' was commissioned after a construction time of 21 months. It is the second building (after Hall 3) designed by London's star architect Nicholas Grimshow for the Frankfurt Fair. The new building will house the fairground managers and the Accente Gastronomie Service GmbH. Accente is a modern caterer for the fairground halls, Its kitchen in the new building is big enough for preparing up to 10,000 meals every day. (orig.)

  6. Control of Listeria monocytogenes on vacuum-packaged frankfurters sprayed with lactic acid alone or in combination with sodium lauryl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byelashov, Oleksandr A; Kendall, Patricia A; Belk, Keith E; Scanga, John A; Sofos, John N

    2008-04-01

    U.S. regulations require that processors employ lethal or inhibitory antimicrobial alternatives in production of ready-to-eat meat and poultry products that support growth of Listeria monocytogenes and may be exposed to the processing environment after a lethality treatment. In this study, lactic acid (LA; 5%, vol/vol) and sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS; 0.5%, wt/vol) were evaluated individually or as a mixture (LASLS) for control of L. monocytogenes on frankfurters. Frankfurters were inoculated with a 10-strain mixture of L. monocytogenes, sprayed for 10 s (20 bar, 23 +/- 2 degrees C) with antimicrobials or distilled water (DW) before (LASLS or DW) or after (LA, SLS, LASLS, or DW) inoculation (4.8 +/- 0.1 log CFU/cm2), vacuum packaged, and stored at 4 degrees C for 90 days. Samples were analyzed for numbers of the pathogen (on PALCAM agar) and for total microbial counts (on tryptic soy agar with yeast extract) during storage. Spraying with DW, LA, or SLS after inoculation reduced numbers of L. monocytogenes by 1.3 +/- 0.2, 1.8 +/- 0.5, and 2.0 +/- 0.4 log CFU/cm2, respectively. The LASLS mixture applied before or after inoculation reduced pathogen populations by 1.8 +/- 0.4 and 2.8 +/- 0.2 log CFU/cm2, respectively. No further reduction by any treatment was observed during storage. The bacterial growth curves (fitted by the model of Baranyi and Roberts) indicated that the lag-phase duration of the bacterium on control samples (13.85 to 15.18 days) was extended by spraying with all solutions containing LA. For example, LA suppressed growth of L. monocytogenes for 39.14 to 41.01 days. Pathogen growth rates also were lower on frankfurters sprayed after inoculation with LA or LASLS compared to those sprayed with DW. Therefore, spraying frankfurters with a mixture of LA and SLS may be a useful antilisterial alternative treatment for ready-to-eat meat and poultry products.

  7. Safer and healthier reduced nitrites turkey meat sausages using lyophilized Cystoseira barbata seaweed extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellimi, Sabrine; Benslima, Abdelkarim; Ksouda, Ghada; Montero, Veronique Barragan; Hajji, Mohamed; Nasri, Moncef

    2017-10-21

    Background Nitrite salts are still common additives in the meat industry. The present study provides a first approach on the employment of the lyophilized aqueous extract (WE) of the Tunisian seaweed Cystoseira barbata for the quality enhancement of turkey meat sausage. Methods WE was supplemented as a natural antioxidant agent to investigate its effectiveness in delaying lipid oxidation turkey meat sausages containing reduced amounts of sodium nitrites. Results On storage day 5, all concentrations of WE (0.01-0.4 %) reduced the meat lipid oxidation by approximately 36 %, as compared to the negative control containing only 80 mg/kg of meat of sodium nitrites as antioxidant. It was noted that within 15 days of refrigerated storage, a meat system containing 80 mg/kg of meat of sodium nitrites and 0.02 % and 0.04 % of WE had similar Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS) levels (19±1.32 and 17±1.12 µmol/kg of meat, respectively), which were comparable to the positive control containing sodium nitrites (150 mg/kg of meat) and 0.045 % vitamin C (18.46±1.27 µmol/kg of meat). In-depth, the metabolomic profiling using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and liquid chromatography-quadripole-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS) analyses of the Tunisian seaweed C. barbata solvent extracts showed that the main active compounds were phenolic compounds, fatty acids and sterols. Conclusions Overall, the cold medium containing C. barbata lyophilized aqueous extrac, with strong antioxidant activity and antihypertensive properties, may open the way to the development of a natural quality enhancement strategy for new functional and ever healthier reduced nitrites meat sausages based on algae.

  8. Consumer-orientated development of hybrid beef burger and sausage analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, Michelle; Tarrega, Amparo; Hewson, Louise; Foster, Tim

    2017-07-01

    Hybrid meat analogues, whereby a proportion of meat has been partially replaced by more sustainable protein sources, have been proposed to provide a means for more sustainable diets in the future. Consumer testing was conducted to determine consumer acceptability of different formulations of Hybrid beef burgers and pork sausages in comparison with both meat and meat-free commercial products. Acceptability data were generated using the 9-point hedonic scale. Check-all-that-apply (CATA) questioning was used to determine the sensory attributes perceived in each product as well as information on the attributes of consumers' ideal products. It was identified that Hybrid products were generally well liked among consumers and no significant differences in consumer acceptability (p > .05) were identified between Hybrid and full meat products, whereas meat-free products were found to be less accepted. However, Hybrid sausages received higher acceptability scores (6.00-6.51) than Hybrid burgers (5.84-5.92) suggesting that format may have a large impact on consumer acceptability of Hybrid products. Correspondence Analysis (CA) indicated that Hybrid products were grouped with meat products in their sensory attributes. Penalty analysis found that a "meaty flavor" was the largest factor driving consumer acceptability in both burgers and sausages. Cluster analysis of consumer acceptability data identified key differences in overall acceptability between different consumer groups (consumers who only eat meat products and consumers who eat both meat and meat-free products). The Hybrid concept was found to bridge the acceptability gap between meat and meat-free products; however, further product reformulation is required to optimize consumer acceptability.

  9. Effects of low-level gamma irradiation on the characteristics of fermented pork sausage during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, I.S.; Jo, C.; Lee, K.H.; Lee, E.J.; Ahn, D.U.; Kang, S.N.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation (0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kGy) on the quality of vacuum-packaged dry fermented sausages during refrigerated storage was evaluated. At Day 0 of irradiation, the pH, redness (CIE a ⁎ ), yellowness (CIE b ⁎ ), 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) values of samples irradiated at 2 and 4 kGy were higher (p ⁎ values (lightness) were lower than those of the non-irradiated control (p ⁎ , CIE a ⁎ and CIE b ⁎ -value of samples were not significantly influenced by irradiation. The CIE a ⁎ , and CIE b ⁎ -values of samples irradiated at 2 and 4 kGy decreased with the increase of storage time. The VBN, TBARS, and CIE L ⁎ -values of samples irradiated at 4 kGy were not changed significantly during refrigerated storage for 90 days (p>0.05). The total plate counts (TPC) and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in the samples irradiated at 4 kGy were significantly lower (p<0.01) than those with lower irradiation doses. At the end of storage, the TPC, coliform, and LAB in the samples were not increased after irradiation at 1, 0.5 and 1 kGy, respectively. TPC and LAB were not detected in samples irradiated at 4 kGy at Day 90. In addition, no coliform bacteria were found in samples irradiated at 1 kGy during refrigerated storage. Sensory evaluation indicated that the rancid flavor of samples irradiated at 4 kGy was significantly higher, but aroma and taste scores were lower than those of the control at Day 3 of storage. Irradiation of dry fermented sausages at 2 kGy was the best conditions to prolong the shelf-life and decrease the rancid flavor without significant quality deterioration. - Highlights: ► Effect of gamma irradiation on the quality of vacuum-packaged dry fermented sausages during refrigerated storage was evaluated. ► At Day 90, the TPC, coliform, and LAB in the dry fermented sausages were not increased after irradiation at 2, 0.5 and 4 kGy, respectively. ► TPC and LAB were not detected in

  10. Dried sausages fermented with Staphylococcus xylosus at different temperatures and with different ingredient levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waade, C.; Waade, Charlotte

    1997-01-01

    Sausages with added Staphylococcus xylosus were fermented at different temperatures and with different added levels of salt, glucose, nitrite, nitrate and Pediococcus pentosaceus in accordance with a six-factor fractional design. The amounts of individual amino acids were measured and the effects...... that the amounts of the volatile compounds, 2-methyl propanal, 2- and 3-methyl butanal, were inversely correlated with the amounts of valine, isoleucine and leucine, respectively, indicating that those volatiles were degradation products of the latter. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd....

  11. Sensory and chromatographic evaluations of water soluble fractions from air-dried sausages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Anders Peter; Stahnke, Marie Louise Heller

    1997-01-01

    Low molecular weight water soluble compounds were extracted from Danish salami, Italian sausage, and Spanish Chorizo. The extracts were fractionated by gel filtration chromatography revealing peptides with a molecular weight less than 4200 Dalton. Fractions consisting of smaller peptides and free...... amino acids had enhanced savory taste impressions described as mainly bouillon, bitter, sour, salty and plastic with odor notes of boiled potato. Determination of amino acids in the fractions before and after hydrolysis revealed the presence of mainly hydrophilic peptides in all fractions. Partial least...

  12. Studies Concerning the Economic Efficiency and Quality of the Vegetal Sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Dan Salagean

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of performed research aimed to establish the influence of protein supplements on the quality and economic efficiency in the processing of a certain semi-smoked sausage assortment using two experimental processing technologies: with 3% soy protein derivatives as supplements and 100% soy protein derivatives as vegetal raw materials. The results revealed that, from an economical point of view, the vegetal processing technology (with exclusively vegetal raw materials was more efficiently than the supplemented processing technology (with protein derivatives as supplements and from qualitatively point of view, the obtained values have been in accordance with the in force STAS-es.

  13. Proton-beam propagation through wall-confined plasma channel stabilized against sausage instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahama, Masao; Nemoto, Masahiro; Masugata, Katsumi; Ito, Michiaki; Matsui, Masao; Yatsui, Kiyoshi

    1986-01-01

    Experimental results are presented of proton-beam (energy ∼ 650 keV) propagation through wall-confined plasma channel that is stabilized against sausage instability by an externally-applied longitudinal magnetic field. Significant improvement of beam-propagation efficiency has been obtained of ∼ 70 % compared with the previous experiment of ∼ 55 % without the magnetic field. The propagation can also be available up to ∼ 30 % even in a non-propagation region in a non-stabilized channel. (author)

  14. preservation of irradiated mechanically separated turkey hen meat based Vienna sausages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Abderabba, N.

    1996-01-01

    This study evaluates the influence of growing doses of irradiation on the microbiological quality (pathogenic bacteria, faecal contaminants, total germs) and the physical and chemical characteristics (pH, humidity, total free fat materials, chloride and protein) of mechanically separated turkey hen meat. This study also permitted the measuring of the effects of incorporation of mechanical y separated turkey hen meat irradiated at 5 KGy on the microbiological, physical, chemical and structural qualities of Vienna sausages, as manufactured in a private company in Tunis (author)

  15. Moscow wholesale market meat delicacies and sausages in late 1999 and early 2000.

    OpenAIRE

    Sidorchuk, Roman

    2010-01-01

    The main goal of our marketing research is to obtain an overview of the status of the Moscow wholesale market meat delicacies and sausages at the end of 2000. The study was laid expert method, which includes: choice of the form the survey of experts, the definition of the structure and strength of the expert group, the development of survey methodology, survey, list of problems. By the expert survey involved managers and specialists, who know how deeply the problem of organization as a whole,...

  16. An annotated type catalogue of the camel spiders (Arachnida: Solifugae) held in the Zoological Museum Hamburg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, Danilo; DupÉrrÉ, Nadine

    2018-01-23

    Solifuges are an enigmatic and poorly studied group of arachnids. Commonly referred to as camel spiders or sun spiders, these animals are voracious predators of small animals and found in arid biomes of the Old World and the Americas. In this paper, we provide a catalogue for the solifuges (Arachnida: Solifugae) that are held at the Center of Natural History in Hamburg. The collections in Hamburg are predominantly historical and were accumulated by Karl Kraepelin between 1889 and 1914 with the help of other famous arachnologists such as Ferdinant Karsch and Eugène Simon. The re-study of these collections indicates that there are 38 type species and 65 type specimens from 10 families. We provide a detailed account of this material, including collection data, taxonomic updates, measurements and high-resolution images for species that are either poorly or not at all illustrated. Most specimens (70%) were collected in Africa as part of colonial expeditions or field surveys but there are also types from Western Asia (11%), and North and South America (19%). We provide an overview of the history of this collection, including a summary of the field surveys during which the specimens were collected and the arachnologists who described the material. Overall, this is the third-largest collection of solifuges in Germany with a distinct biogeographical focus and one of the largest collections of camel spiders in Europe.

  17. Effect of the addition of chia's by-product on the composition of fatty acids in hamburgers through chemometric methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Aloisio H P; Gohara, Aline K; Rotta, Eliza M; Chaves, Marcia A; Silva, Claudia M; Dias, Lucia F; Gomes, Sandra T M; Souza, Nilson E; Matsushita, Makoto

    2015-03-30

    Hamburger is a meat-based food that is easy to prepare and is widely consumed. It can be enriched using different ingredients, such as chia's by-product, which is rich in omega-3. Chemometrics is a very interesting tool to assess the influence of ingredients in the composition of foods. A complete factorial design 2(2) (two factors in two levels) with duplicate was performed to investigate the influence of the factors (1) concentration of textured soy proteins (TSP) and (2) concentration of chia flour partially defatted (CFPD) as a partial replacement for the bovine meat and porcine fat mix in hamburgers. The results of proximal composition, lipid oxidation, fatty acids sums, ratios, and nutritional indexes were used to propose statistical models. The factors TSP and CFPD were significant, and the increased values contributed to improve the composition in fatty acids, crude protein, and ash. Principal components analysis distinguished the samples with a higher content of chia. In desirability analysis, the highest level of TSP and CFPD was described as the optimal region, and it was not necessary to make another experimental point. The addition of chia's by-product is an alternative to increase the α-linolenic contents and to obtain nutritionally balanced food. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. "History had taken such a large piece out of my life" - Neuroscientist refugees from Hamburg during National Socialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidman, Lawrence A; von Villiez, Anna; Stellmann, Jan-Patrick; van den Bussche, Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 9,000 physicians were uprooted for so-called "racial" or "political" reasons by the Nazi regime and 6,000 fled Germany. These refugees are often seen as survivors who contributed to a "brain drain" from Germany. About 432 doctors (all specialties, private and academic) were dismissed from the major German city of Hamburg. Of these, 16 were Hamburg University faculty members dismissed from their government-supported positions for "racial" reasons, and, of these, five were neuroscientists. In a critical analysis, not comprehensively done previously, we will demonstrate that the brain drain did not equal a "brain gain." The annihilation of these five neuroscientists' careers under different but similar auspices, their shameful harassment and incarceration, financial expropriation by Nazi ransom techniques, forced migration, and roadblocks once reaching destination countries stalled and set back any hopes of research and quickly continuing once-promising careers. A major continuing challenge is finding ways to repair an open wound and obvious vacuum in the German neuroscience community created by the largely collective persecution of colleagues 80 years ago.

  19. ["Anti-stigma campaign from below" at schools--experience of the initiative "Irre menschlich Hamburg e.V."].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Thomas; Naber, Dieter

    2003-10-01

    In the process of stigmatisation psychiatry is not neutral but it is up-to-date as well as historically involved. That is why it is responsible to influence not only the social perception of psychiatry but also the public picture of mentally disturbed people in a positive way. Doing so it is dependent on the help of psychosis-experienced persons and relatives. Only working together a plausible enlightenment, that points beyond the status quo, can be achieved. Anti-stigma work must critically reflect the interactions in psychiatry itself. After an analysis of the different concepts of stigmatisation and anti-stigma work there follows the evaluation of an information campaign at schools in Hamburg, which emerged from the Hamburg psychosis seminar. The personal meeting of students and psychosis experienced persons is of immediate importance. In addition to that media about the subject "being different, madness, mental disturbation" are being placed at the teachers disposal according to their wishes. In the meantime experience is there of more then 50 teaching units in primary advanced and secondary education as well as of a special open day attended by over 500 students. The response of students and teachers is definitely positive. For the psychosis experienced persons involved there is a special benefit in the sense of empowerment. The more health politically based motives of the anti-stigma work have meanwhile been completed by educational justifications. This way of open meeting is also being discussed as a completion to the symptom based early diagnosis.

  20. Effect of Thyme and Rosemary on The Quality Characteristics, Shelf-life, and Residual Nitrite Content of Sausages During Cold Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sang Keun; Choi, Jung Seok; Lee, Seung Jae

    2016-01-01

    The effects of thyme and rosemary on the quality characteristics of sausages during cold storage were investigated. Sausages were prepared with thyme and rosemary powder (1 and 2%) and stored for 6 weeks at 10℃. The pH was significantly decreased in sausages by addition of thyme and rosemary compared to that observed in the control before and after storage. At 4 weeks of storage, the residual nitrite content was decreased by thyme and rosemary compared to the control. Lightness (L*) and yellowness (b*) were increased during storage, whereas redness (a*) and whiteness (W) were decreased before and after storage by addition of thyme and rosemary. The amount of TPC and lactic acid bacteria was lower at the end of storage in sausage containing thyme and rosemary. The 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity of sausages was increased by addition of thyme and rosemary compared to that in the control before and after storage. In particular, T2 (0.2% thyme addition) showed the highest DPPH radical scavenging capacity during storage. In a sensory evaluation, flavor and overall acceptability were lower in sausages containing thyme and rosemary than in the control. However, at the end of storage (6 wk), aroma, flavor and overall acceptability were not significantly different among the sausage samples. PMID:27857542

  1. Impact on the physical and sensory properties of salt-and fat-reduced traditional Irish breakfast sausages on various age cohorts acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Paula M; O'Sullivan, Maurice G; Hamill, Ruth M; Kerry, Joseph P

    2018-09-01

    The properties of varying salt and fat levels in traditional breakfast sausages were investigated. Sausages were produced with fat levels of: 30%, 20% and 15%. Fat was replaced with pea extract. Salt levels employed were: 2.5%, 1.1% and 0.0%. A reduced sodium salt which contains 45% less sodium than standard salt was used. Sensory analysis was conducted on consumers (n = 228): 18-40 yrs., 41-64 yrs. and 65-85 yrs. The 18-40 yr. olds preferred sausages containing 20% fat, 41-64 yr. olds preferred sausages with 15% fat, 65+ age group preferred sausages containing 30% fat. The 18-40 yr. olds preferred high salt samples, 41-64 yr. olds displayed no salt preference, while the 65+ age group preferred high salt sausages. Sausage formulation choice was found to be driven by texture for the younger age cohort, flavour for the middle age cohort and visual aspects from the oldest age cohort. There is a need to understand how meat products might be reformulated different age palates. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Modelling the urban air quality in Hamburg with the new city-scale chemistry transport model CityChem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, Matthias; Ramacher, Martin; Aulinger, Armin; Matthias, Volker; Quante, Markus

    2017-04-01

    Air quality modelling plays an important role by providing guidelines for efficient air pollution abatement measures. Currently, most urban dispersion models treat air pollutants as passive tracer substances or use highly simplified chemistry when simulating air pollutant concentrations on the city-scale. The newly developed urban chemistry-transport model CityChem has the capability of modelling the photochemical transformation of multiple pollutants along with atmospheric diffusion to produce pollutant concentration fields for the entire city on a horizontal resolution of 100 m or even finer and a vertical resolution of 24 layers up to 4000 m height. CityChem is based on the Eulerian urban dispersion model EPISODE of the Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU). CityChem treats the complex photochemistry in cities using detailed EMEP chemistry on an Eulerian 3-D grid, while using simple photo-stationary equilibrium on a much higher resolution grid (receptor grid), i.e. close to industrial point sources and traffic sources. The CityChem model takes into account that long-range transport contributes to urban pollutant concentrations. This is done by using 3-D boundary concentrations for the city domain derived from chemistry-transport simulations with the regional air quality model CMAQ. For the study of the air quality in Hamburg, CityChem was set-up with a main grid of 30×30 grid cells of 1×1 km2 each and a receptor grid of 300×300 grid cells of 100×100 m2. The CityChem model was driven with meteorological data generated by the prognostic meteorology component of the Australian chemistry-transport model TAPM. Bottom-up inventories of emissions from traffic, industry, households were based on data of the municipality of Hamburg. Shipping emissions for the port of Hamburg were taken from the Clean North Sea Shipping project. Episodes with elevated ozone (O3) were of specific interest for this study, as these are associated with exceedances of the World

  3. [Transfer and Implementation of Innovative Awareness and Education Measures, e-Mental Health and Care Models in psychenet - Hamburg Network for Mental Health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Martin; Härter, Martin; Brandes, Andreas; Hillebrandt, Bernd; Schlüter, Catarina; Quante, Susanne

    2015-07-01

    The Hamburg Network for Mental Health belongs to the healthcare regions in Germany, funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research from 2011 to 2015. More than 330 partners from research, health care, health industry and government are promoting innovative health care models and products to improve mental health care in Hamburg. The main objectives comprise the sustained implementation of the Network itself and of successful health care models and products. The article describes current and future implementation possibilities and the present state of the implementation process. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Effects of Purple-fleshed Sweet Potato (Ipomoera batatas Cultivar Ayamurasaki) Powder Addition on Color and Texture Properties and Sensory Characteristics of Cooked Pork Sausages during Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sang-Keun; Kim, Yeong-Jung; Park, Jae Hong; Hur, In-Chul; Nam, Sang-Hae; Shin, Daekeun

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding purple-fleshed sweet potato (PFP) powder on the texture properties and sensory characteristics of cooked pork sausage. Sodium nitrite alone and sodium nitrite in combination with PFP were added to five different treatments sausages (CON (control) = 0.01% sodium nitrite, SP25 = 0.005% sodium nitrite and 0.25% purple-fleshed sweet potato powder combination, SP50 = 0.005% sodium nitrite and 0.5% purple-fleshed sweet potato powder combination, PP25 = 0.25% purple-fleshed sweet potato powder, PP50 = 0.5% purple-fleshed sweet potato powder). The sausages were cooked to 74°C, stored at 4°C for 6 wks, and used for chemical analysis, textural properties, and a sensory evaluation on 0, 2, 4 and 6 wks of storage, respectively. Similar CIE a* and b* values were determined in sausages from CON, SP25 and SP50 at the end of storage, and they were higher in CIE a* but lower in CIE b* than that of the PP25 and PP50 sausages. Significant differences were observed for brittleness and hardness when PFP was added to the sausages but were not confirmed after 4 wks of storage. The objective color score was influenced by adding PFP; however, the effect was not dose dependent. In overall acceptability, panelists favored the CON, SP25, SP50, and PP50 sausages but did not prefer PP25 sausages at the end of storage. Therefore, adding PFP to cooked pork sausages improved color and texture properties and sensory characteristics, but further study is needed to determine the proper ratio of sodium nitrite and PFP. PMID:25049698

  5. Inactivation of foot-and-mouth disease virus in various bovine tissues used for the production of natural sausage casings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnker, J.J.; de Haas, B.; Berends, B.R.

    2012-01-01

    Bovine intestines, bladders and oesophagus are used for the production of natural casings ("beef casings") as edible sausage containers. Derived from cattle experimentally infected with FMDV (initial dosage 10(4) TCID(50)/mL, strain A Iran 97), these beef casings were treated with sodium chloride

  6. Lipid oxidative changes in traditional dry fermented sausage Petrovská klobása during storage

    OpenAIRE

    Šojić, Branislav V.; Petrović, Ljiljana S.; Mandić, Anamarija I.; Sedej, Ivana J.; Džinić, Natalija R.; Tomović, Vladimir M.; Jokanović, Marija R.; Tasić, Tatjana A.; Škaljac, Snežana B.; Ikonić, Predrag M.

    2014-01-01

    The influence of drying and ripeninig conditions (traditional and industrial) in the production of dry fermented sausage Petrovská klobása, on fatty-acid composition and oxidative changes in lipids, during 7 months of storage, was investigated. During the storage period, the sum of unsaturated fatty acids and the content of free fatty acids were significantly higher (p

  7. Prediction of benzo[a]pyrene content of smoked sausage using back-propagation artificial neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Cai, Kezhou; Tu, Zehui; Nie, Wen; Ji, Tuo; Hu, Bing; Chen, Conggui; Jiang, Shaotong

    2017-11-29

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a potent mutagen and carcinogen, is reported to be present in processed meat products and, in particular, in smoked meat. However, few methods exist for predictive determination of the BaP content of smoked meats such as sausage. In this study, an artificial neural network (ANN) model based on the back-propagation (BP) algorithm was used to predict the BaP content of smoked sausage. The results showed that the BP network based on the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm was the best suited for creating a nonlinear map between the input and output parameters. The optimal network structure was 3-7-1 and the learning rate was 0.6. This BP-ANN model allowed for accurate predictions, with the correlation coefficients (R) for the experimentally determined training, validation, test and global data sets being 0.94, 0.96, 0.95 and 0.95 respectively. The validation performance was 0.013, suggesting that the proposed BP-ANN may be used to predictively detect the BaP content of smoked meat products. An effective predictive model was constructed for estimation of the BaP content of smoked sausage using ANN modeling techniques, which shows potential to predict the BaP content in smoked sausage. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Combined effect of γ-irradiation and bacterial-fermented dextrose on microbiological quality of refrigerated pork sausages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussault, D.; Benoit, C.; Lacroix, M.

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a concentrated fermented dextrose (FD), a natural antimicrobial product, combined with low dose γ-irradiation (1.5 kGy) on the microbiological quality of fresh pork sausages. Fresh pork sausages containing the FD (0.25%, 0.5% and 0.75%) were prepared in a meat pilot plant and were irradiated using a UC-15A irradiator equipped with a 60Cobalt source. The γ-irradiation treatment alone was able to reduce the initial psychrophilic and mesophilic bacteria by more than 2 log CFU/g and kept the lactobacillus population under the detection limit (100 CFU/g). Results also showed that the FD alone was able to extend the shelf life of the sausages from 5 days up to 13 days. At day 13, the FD or irradiation alone showed 2 log CFU/g less mesophilic bacteria than the control. After combining FD and irradiation another reduction of the microbial count of 1 log CFU/g was observed. When combining the irradiation treatment with the FD results it showed a reduced growth rate of the psychrophilic and mesophilic bacteria compared to both treatments alone. This study demonstrated that FD with low dose gamma irradiation act in synergy to reduce the multiplication of the total bacterial flora in fresh sausages.

  9. The effect of inulin as a fat substitute on the physicochemical and sensory properties of chicken sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaei, Fereshteh; Hojjatoleslamy, Mohammad; Hashemi Dehkordi, Seyyed Majid

    2018-03-01

    Due to its high thermal resistance and compatibility with the sausage emulsion system, the long-chain inulin can be used as a fat substitute in the formulation of this product. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of inulin on the physicochemical, textural, and sensory properties of chicken sausages. The study included treatments of 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% substitution. After preparing the samples, their physicochemical, textural, calorimetric, and sensory properties were evaluated. The treatment of 100% substitution of inulin had the maximum amount of sugar (29.90%), moisture (72.63%), protein (51.34), ash (6.95%), and salt (4.02%) (dry basis). The fat content was decreased with the increased levels of inulin substitution (p inulin reduced hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, and stringiness, but increased springiness and chewiness up to the 25% substitution of inulin. The highest color difference and hue angle were related to 100% substitution treatment. The sensory evaluation of the samples showed that with the increase in the amount of inulin, the mean scores of the factors including color, appearance, and texture were increased, but the mean scores of smell and mouthfeel were decreased. Overall, the substitution of the entire fat existing in the formulation of the sausage with inulin led to the best physicochemical, textural, colorimetric, and sensory results. The use of inulin could be recommended as a fat substitute in the formulation of chicken sausages.

  10. Selected Ion Flow Tube-Mass Spectrometry for Absolute Quantification of Aroma Compounds in the Headspace of Dry Fermented Sausages

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Olivares, A.; Dryahina, Kseniya; Navarro, J. L.; Flores, M.; Smith, D.; Španěl, Patrik

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 13 (2010), s. 5819-5829 ISSN 0003-2700 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/0256 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : mass spectrometry * aroma compounds * dry fermented sausages Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 5.874, year: 2010

  11. Outbreak of Non-O157 Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Infection from Consumption of Beef Sausage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ethelberg, S.; Smith, B.; Torpdahl, M.

    2009-01-01

    We describe an outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O26: H11 infection in 20 patients (median age, 2 years). The source of the infection was an organic fermented beef sausage. The source was discovered by using credit card information to obtain and compare customer transaction records...

  12. Effects of Freeze-Dried Vegetable Products on the Technological Process and the Quality of Dry Fermented Sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisinaite, Viktorija; Vinauskiene, Rimante; Viskelis, Pranas; Leskauskaite, Daiva

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the chemical composition of freeze-dried vegetable powders: celery, celery juice, parsnip and leek. The effect of different freeze-dried vegetables onto the ripening process and the properties of dry fermented sausages was also evaluated. Vegetable products significantly (p products contained higher amounts of nitrates, total phenolic compounds and lower amounts of sucrose, parsnip had higher concentration of proteins, leek was rich in fat. The analysis of pH, water activity, lactic acid bacteria, coagulase-positive staphylococci and coliforms content showed that the incorporation of freeze-dried vegetables had no negative effect on the fermentation and ripening process of dry fermented sausages. In addition, the color parameters for sausages with the added lyophilised celery products were considerable (p products and control. Freeze-dried celery, celery juice, parsnip and leek have some potential for the usage as a functional ingredient or as a source for indirect addition of nitrate in the production of fermented sausages. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  13. Characterization and Technological Features of Autochthonous Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci as Potential Starters for Portuguese Dry Fermented Sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semedo-Lemsaddek, Teresa; Carvalho, Laura; Tempera, Carolina; Fernandes, Maria H; Fernandes, Maria J; Elias, Miguel; Barreto, António S; Fraqueza, Maria J

    2016-05-01

    The manufacture of dry fermented sausages is an important part of the meat industry in Southern European countries. These products are usually produced in small shops from a mixture of pork, fat, salt, and condiments and are stuffed into natural casings. Meat sausages are slowly cured through spontaneous fermentation by autochthonous microbiota present in the raw materials or introduced during manufacturing. The aim of this work was to evaluate the technological and safety features of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) isolated from Portuguese dry fermented meat sausages in order to select autochthonous starters. Isolates (n = 104) obtained from 2 small manufacturers were identified as Staphylococcus xylosus, Staphylococcus equorum, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, and Staphylococcus carnosus. Genomically diverse isolates (n = 82) were selected for further analysis to determine the ability to produce enzymes (for example, nitrate-reductases, proteases, lipases) and antibiotic susceptibility. Autochthonous CNS producing a wide range of enzymes and showing low antibioresistance were selected as potential starters for future use in the production of dry fermented meat sausages. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. Prevalence of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes at small-scale spanish factories producing traditional fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Belen; Garriga, Margarita; Aymerich, Teresa

    2011-05-01

    The manufacturing of fermented sausages is subject to natural contamination processes that can potentially carry foodborne pathogens along the process chain and result in contamination of the final product. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes at different sampling points during the manufacturing process of fuet, a type of traditional fermented sausage, at 10 small-scale Spanish factories. The presence of both pathogens was studied in the raw materials (19 casings and 19 meat batters), the final products (19 fermented sausages), and the factory equipment (12 mincing, 12 mixing, and 19 stuffing machines, 19 cutting tables, 11 knives, and 12 cold rooms) by using classical microbiological techniques and real-time PCR. Salmonella was not detected in the equipment analyzed or in the final products, but it was detected in the raw materials (23.7% of samples). L. monocytogenes showed higher incidence than Salmonella and was detected in the equipment (11.8% of samples), the raw materials (28.9%), and the final products (15.8%), confirming its ubiquity throughout the manufacturing process of fermented sausages. Five factories were further investigated to study the changes in the distribution of pathogens in the fuet production process over a period of either 2 or 3 years. There was considerable variation in the incidence of both pathogens at different sampling periods, and there was no relation between seasonal variations or geographic location of the factories.

  15. Impulsively Generated Wave Trains in Coronal Structures. II. Effects of Transverse Structuring on Sausage Waves in Pressurelesss Slabs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Guo, Ming-Zhe; Yu, Hui; Chen, Shao-Xia

    2018-03-01

    Impulsively generated sausage wave trains in coronal structures are important for interpreting a substantial number of observations of quasi-periodic signals with quasi-periods of order seconds. We have previously shown that the Morlet spectra of these wave trains in coronal tubes depend crucially on the dispersive properties of trapped sausage waves, the existence of cutoff axial wavenumbers, and the monotonicity of the dependence of the axial group speed on the axial wavenumber in particular. This study examines the difference a slab geometry may introduce, for which purpose we conduct a comprehensive eigenmode analysis, both analytically and numerically, on trapped sausage modes in coronal slabs with a considerable number of density profiles. For the profile descriptions examined, coronal slabs can trap sausage waves with longer axial wavelengths, and the group speed approaches the internal Alfvén speed more rapidly at large wavenumbers in the cylindrical case. However, common to both geometries, cutoff wavenumbers exist only when the density profile falls sufficiently rapidly at distances far from coronal structures. Likewise, the monotonicity of the group speed curves depends critically on the profile steepness right at the structure axis. Furthermore, the Morlet spectra of the wave trains are shaped by the group speed curves for coronal slabs and tubes alike. Consequently, we conclude that these spectra have the potential for inferring the subresolution density structuring inside coronal structures, although their detection requires an instrumental cadence of better than ∼1 s.

  16. Effect of chosen lactic acid bacteria strains on Staphylococcus aureus in vitro as well as in meat and raw sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomółka-Pawlicka, M; Uradziński, J; Wiszniewska, A

    2004-01-01

    The present study was aimed at determining the influence of 15 strains of lactic acid bacteria on the growth of 2 Staphylococcus aureus strains in vitro as well as in meat and raw sausages. The investigations were performed within the framework of three alternate stages which differed in respect to the products studied, the number of Lactobacillus sp. strains and, partly, methodological approach. The study also considered water activity (a(w)) and pH of the products investigated. The results obtained are demonstrated in 5 diagrams. It was found that among 15 strains of Lactobacillus aureus investigated only one strain, Lactobacillus helveticus T 78, showed antagonistic effect on studied strains of Staphylococcus aureus both in vitro as well as in meat and raw sausages. Five other strains of Lactobacillus spp. displayed the antagonistic effect in vitro only. The temperature and incubation time of sausages, but also the type of sausage stuffing were found to have a distinct or slight influence, respectively, on the antagonistic interaction between the bacteria. However, this phenomenon was affected by neither a(w) nor pH.

  17. Identification and tracing of Enterococcus spp. by RAPD-PCR in traditional fermented sausages and meat environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, B; Corominas, L; Garriga, M; Aymerich, T

    2009-01-01

    Four local small-scale factories were studied to determine the sources of enterococci in traditional fermented sausages. Different points during the production of a traditional fermented sausage type (fuet) were evaluated. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR was used to type 596 Enterococcus isolates from the final products, the initial meat batter, the casing, the workers' hands and the equipment. Species-specific PCR-multiplex and the partial sequencing of atpA gene and 16S rRNA gene sequencing allowed the identification of the isolates: Enterococcus faecalis (31.4%), Enterococcus faecium (30.7%), Enterococcus sanguinicola (14.9%), Enterococcus devriesei (9.7%), Enterococcus malodoratus (7.2%), Enterococcus gilvus (1.0%), Enterococcus gallinarum (1.3%), Enterococcus casseliflavus (3.4%), Enterococcus hermanniensis (0.2%), and Enterococcus durans (0.2%). A total of 92 different RAPD-PCR profiles were distributed among the different factories and samples evaluated. Most of the genotypes found in fuet samples were traced back to their source. The major sources of enterococci in the traditional fermented sausages studied were mainly the equipment followed by the raw ingredients, although a low proportion was traced back to human origin. This work contributes to determine the source of enterococcal contamination in fermented sausages and also to the knowledge of the meat environment.

  18. Physicochemical, microbiological and sensory assessments of Italian salami sausages with probiotic potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Nogueira Ruiz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are live microorganisms that confer a health benefit on the host by improving the intestinal microbial balance. We evaluated the viability of Lactobacillus acidophilus (La and Bifidobacterium lactis (Bl probiotics and their effects on the technology and sensorial characteristics of fermented sausage. The presence of probiotic cultures reduced water activity and promoted faster pH reduction in the salamis, which presented pH values between 4.71 and 5.23 and water activity between 0.84 and 0.89. Lactic acid content ranged between 0.19 and 0.29 g, and the samples lost up to 35 % of their weight during ripening. As regards color, no differences were found between the probiotic salamis and the control, presenting an overall mean of 40.85 for L* (lightness, 14.48 for a* (redness and 6.46 for b* (yellowness. High consumer acceptance was observed for the probiotic salamis, which showed an average acceptance of approximately 7.0 on a nine-point hedonic scale for all attributes evaluated, with no differences (p < 0.05 when compared with the control. The performance of La was better, as the salamis treated with this microorganism presented less weight loss, better acceptance and greater purchase intention. Flavor and texture were the attributes that most influenced sensory acceptance. Salamis supplemented with probiotic cultures may be a viable option for the formulation of fermented sausages in the food industry.

  19. Frequency of contamination Listeria monocytogenes of raw dried cured vacuum packed sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristo Daskalov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to collect actual data concerning the frequency of contamination with Listeria monocytogenes of some very popular in Bulgaria raw dried cured vacuum packed sausages, produced from October 2004 till May 2008. 148 vacuum-packed samples were taken from 9 different food business operators during all seasons of the year. The samples were analyzed according to USDA method for meat foods. Ten specimens were positive for presence of Listeria monocytogenes equal to 6,75% of all tested samples. In two other raw dried cured sausages L.welshimeri and L.innocua were found, but these species are not pathogenic for consumers. In the period before the official implementation of HACCP system (01.01.2006 in Bulgaria, 52 samples were examined and 5 Listeria monocytogenes isolates were found (~10%. 2,5 years after the HACCP implementation, 96 specimens from the same meat factories were tested and 5 Listeria monocytogenes isolates (5,2% were detected. Samples taken from lots, produced in winter time were contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes more often (7 of all 10 than specimens taken during other seasons. Data were discussed through the point of view of the effectiveness of hygienic practices and HACCP system application. Also, application of ‘microbiological criterion’ set in COMMISSION REGULATION (EC No 2073/2005 for ready-to-eat foods unable to support the growth of L. monocytogenes was considered.

  20. Suppression of Listeria monocytogenes by the Native Micro-Flora in Teewurst Sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michline Brice

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Modern consumers are interested in the use of non-chemical methods to control pathogens when heat sterilization is not an option. Such is the case with teewurst sausage, a raw spreadable sausage and a popular German commodity. Although Listeria was not found in teewurst, the optimal microbial growing conditions of teewurst coupled with the ubiquity of L. monocytogenes in nature, makes the possibility of contamination of products very possible. This pilot study was conducted to examine teewurst’s native micro-flora’s ability to suppress the outgrowth of L. monocytogenes at 10 °C using standard plate counts and PCR-DGGE. Traditional plating methods showed L. monocytogenes growth significantly decreased when in competition with the teewurst’s native micro-flora (p < 0.05. The native micro-flora of the teewurst suppressed the overall growth of L. monocytogenes by an average of two logs, under these conditions. Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE amplicons with unique banding patterns were extracted from DGGE gel for identification. Brochothrix thermosphacta and Lactobacillus curvatus were identified as a part of the teewurst’s native micro-flora. Although the native micro-flora did not decrease L. monocytogenes to below limits of detection, it was enough of a decrease to warrant further investigation.