WorldWideScience

Sample records for hamburg federal republic

  1. HAMBURG ENERGIE makes biogas plants fit for the balancing energy market; HAMBURG ENERGIE macht Biogasanlagen fit fuer den Regelenergiemarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timmann, Bernd [HAMBURG ENERGIE, Hamburg (Germany). Direktvermarktung und Regelenergie; Bettinger, Carola [HAMBURG ENERGIE, Hamburg (Germany). Forschungsprojekt SMART POWER HAMBURG

    2013-04-15

    HAMBURG ENERGIE GmbH (Hamburg, Federal Republic of Germany) bundles 40 biogas plants with a total capacity of 15 megawatts to a virtual power plant. Thus, also small, decentralized plants may offer negative balancing power and achieve additional profits that were previously available only to large producers. In the medium term, HAMBURG ENERGIE wants to place a performance of 150 MW on the market.

  2. Location for new research facility determined X-ray laser XFEL to be realized in the federal states of Hamburg and Schleswig-Holstein starting in 2006

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "...The site for the XFEL has now been determined by the research center DESY (Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron); it was announced today at a press conference in Hamburg. The 3.3-kilometer-long facility is to be located in the federal states of Hamburg and Schleswig-Holstein. It will begin on the DESY site in Hamburg-Bahrenfeld and run in a north-western direction to the town of Schenefeld (district of Pinneberg), which borders on Hamburg" (1 page).

  3. Modern building envelope. Autentic optics. Emporio Tower, Hamburg; Moderne Gebaeudehuelle. Authentische Optik. Emporio Tower, Hamburg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2012-10-15

    The former Unilever skyscraper in Hamburg (Federal Republic of Germany) was retrofitted completely. Due to a regulatory submission, the original image of this architectural landmark from the early 1960ies with the new facade should be retrofitted authentically. This submission was fulfilled by means of an highly energetic efficient ''compact double facade''.

  4. From the landfill to the energy mountain. Landfill rehabilitation in Hamburg-Georgswerder; Von der Muelldeponie zum Energieberg. Deponiesanierung in Hamburg-Georgswerder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leder, Bernd [Eggers Tiefbau GmbH, Tangstedt (Germany)

    2011-01-15

    During 1983, a dioxin find from the landfill Hamburg-Georgswerder (Federal Republic of Germany) activated one of the greatest environmental scandals in Germany. Almost 30 years later Georgswerder plays an important role as an energy barrier in the energy concept of Hamburg and prospectively will provide 2,000 households with clean electricity. This is enabled by remedial measures which still are the largest among others of its kind and shaped the development of environmental procedures essentially.

  5. Federal Republic of Germany: Commodities report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) has compiled the facts and figures in a commodities report for 25 years. This report summarises Germany's mineral and energy commodities trading, consumption and supply situation. After fears of shortages in the early 70s, this 25-year-period was mainly characterised by the feeling that mineral resources would always be available on the international markets in adequate quantities. And although there has been no change in the situation even up to the present day, the world markets for mineral resources are currently undergoing a structural change: the old rule of thumb that 20% of humanity in Europe, the USA and Japan consumed more than 80% of resource production is no longer valid. With India, the People's Republic of China, not to mention other heavily populated emerging countries, over half of the world's population is now involved in the demand for minerals. This means that the growth in world economic demand for natural resources is at the beginning of a new growth curve. (orig.)

  6. Nuclear cooperation between Brazil and Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syllus, C.

    1989-01-01

    The Brazil-Federal Republic of Germany Cooperation Agreement for constructing nuclear power plants, and the process of nuclear tecnology transfer in the different areas of design, are discussed. (M.C.K.) [pt

  7. NP issues in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kussmaul, K.

    1994-01-01

    Status of nuclear energy production in Federal Republic of Germany is presented. Measures to qualify continuing operation of nuclear power plants and research activities on reactor materials aging studying are described

  8. Organizational aspects of the handling of radiation accidents in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fliedner, T.M.

    1977-01-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany it is a legal requirement that persons exposed to ionizing radiation as a consequence of their employment in radiation facilities should be monitored. Some 90000 persons constitute the population 'at risk' for occupational radiation exposure. The actual radiation accident rate has been very low indeed. Nevertheless, precautions must be taken. Four radiation accident categories may be distinguished: uncomplicated, complicated, contamination and incorporation accidents. In the Federal Republic, the 'Berufsgenossenschaften' (BGS) are required to organize radiation accident care if necessary and take all measures to prevent them. The BGS has issued a pamphlet 'First Aid in case of Increased Exposure to Ionizing Radiation' as a guide to all personnel concerned. The BGS has also organized 5 'Regional Radiation Protection Centres' available to give advice 7 days a week, 24 hours a day in Hamburg, Homburg (Saar), Juelich, Karlsruhe und Munich. These centres are all equipped to provide first aid and decontamination and to cater for a short term stay until a decision is reached as to how to handle a particular accident. The special burns hospital of the BGS in Ludwigshafen is equipped with sterile rooms to handle 'complicated accidents', in particular when skin burns are involved. Two mobile 'radiation protection units' are available in Karlsruhe and Munich to provide help in all problems of dosimetry and health physics. A medical advisory team has been formed to supplement local physicians in dealing with special problems in the handling of radiation accident victims. (author)

  9. Unlimited - nuclear liabilities in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arendt, W.

    1986-01-01

    Unlimited nuclear liabilities as in force in the Federal Republic of Germany go beyond the international rules of the Paris liability agreement. The unlimited liability mainly roots in the positive operational experiences and safety balance of the 20 nuclear power plants which meanwhile are in operation in the Federal Republic of Germany. Nuclear liabilities must not be confounded with scepticism as to the utilization of nuclear power. Extraordinary requirements of that kind should rather be reflecting responsibility and clear ideas and notions of the advantages and risks of nuclear energy. (HSCH) [de

  10. The Federal Republic of Germany and Left Wing Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    the Beatles ! Historically speaking, the soon to be dubbed “68ers”, were extremely conscious of the suppressive and authoritarian Nazi regime that...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited THE FEDERAL REPUBLIC...reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instruction

  11. School Psychology in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mietzel, Gerd; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Reviews origins and evaluation of the present status of school psychology in the Federal Republic of Germany, emphasizing strict separation of school tracks. Notes that system has been evolving into more flexible organizational structure in recent years. Discusses roles and functions of school psychology, administration, training, relationships…

  12. Support for Separatism in Ethnic Republics of the Russian Federation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagendoorn, Louk; Poppe, Edwin; Minescu, Anca

    2008-01-01

    This study examines popular support for separatism among Russians and non-Russian titular nationalities (titulars) in 10 ethnic republics of the Russian Federation: Karelia, Komi, Tatarstan, Bashkortostan, Udmurtia, Adygea, Dagestan, Kabardino-Balkaria, Sakha-Yakutia and Tuva. A survey was carried

  13. Space Research in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preuss, Karl-Heinz, Ed.; Simen, Rolf H., Ed.

    The Federal Republic of Germany's space policy is designed to promote basic research, contribute to the development of space technology, and apply the findings in the public and private sectors. It is also aimed at enhancing the competitiveness of the West German space industry and helping countries of the Third World to solve their development…

  14. 78 FR 22765 - Presidential Determination on Eligibility of the Federal Republic of Somalia To Receive Defense...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ... April 8, 2013 Presidential Determination on Eligibility of the Federal Republic of Somalia To Receive... find that the furnishing of defense articles and defense services to the Federal Republic of Somalia...

  15. Europe '92: Consequences of the European Unification for Cultural Federalism in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggreen, Ingeborg

    1990-01-01

    Discusses consequences of European unification in the Federal Republic of Germany. Focuses on the relationships between the European Community, the federal government of Germany, and the German states. Suggests that the German states are aware of their responsibility to give education and culture a European dimension. (NL)

  16. Energy policy in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The tenor and consensus of energy policy in the Federal Republic of Germany have been affected and shaken by the discussion of damage to forests at the beginning of 1985, the rapidly slumping petroleum prices, the Chernobyl reactor accident, and the resulting emotionalized energy policy debates overshadowing the elections for the Land government, the Senate and the Bundestag. However, the responsible decision making organs still seem to feel a strong need for a consensus of that kind. ET-editors have therefore been trying to find out about the situation of 'energy policy in the Federal Republic of Germany' late in 1986. The Federal Government, the parliamentary factions, the parties, Land governments, labor unions and BDI, the coal, petroleum and natural gas industry as well as the manufacturers and managers of nuclear power plants were asked to express their opinion on the following questions: How will the energy supply of the Federal Republic of Germany be provided for in the future. What are the pros and cons of a nuclear phase-out. Should energy economy be reorganized. What is expected from and desired for the development of individual regions or energy sources, respectively. All but a few of above organs answered the questions. The statements therefore give a representative survey of the opinions and attitudes of the relevant decision-making organs and of different institutions. (orig./UA) [de

  17. Solar technology in the Federal Republic of Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    A series of papers dealing with the status of solar research and development in the Federal Republic of Germany are presented at a conference in Greece with the object of promoting international cooperation in solar energy utilization. The reports focus on solar collector designs, solar systems, heat pumps, solar homes, solar cooling and refrigeration, desalination and electric power generation. Numerous examples of systems produced by German manufacturers are illustrated and described, and performance data are presented.

  18. Federal Republic of Yugoslavia : Country Financial Accountability Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2002-01-01

    This report is an assessment of the status of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia'sfinancial accountability at June 2002. This first CFAA for the FRY focuses on the most critical issues in the near-to-medium term. In this context, the CFAA concentrates on public sector accountability and on fiduciary arrangements for Bank-financed projects, with a limited review of private sector accounting...

  19. Earthquakes in the Federal Republic of Germany 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    A summary is given on the seismic events in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 1986. Further articles deal with statistics on the earthquakes in the period from 1974 to 1986, reports on single regions as well as a list of the earthquakes world-wide and the damages resulting in the year 1986. (orig./HP) With 12 figs., 5 tabs [de

  20. Underground storage development in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sponheuer, T.

    1990-01-01

    As the demand for gas in the Federal Republic of Germany is increasingly dependent upon temperature, underground storage is becoming a more and more important tool for the adjustment of supply load factors to the patterns of gas demand. Total working gas capacity is expected to double by the year 2000. Capacity requirements must be planned for a design winter, but allowances must also be made for operational flexibility, but management of incidents and the decrease in deliverability mainly from porous rock storage fields towards the end of the withdrawal season. Storage development potential in the Federal Republic of Germany is adequate for these requirements. However, the substantial uncertainties associated with the various factors determining future storage needs, administrative and licensing procedures, difficulties with regard to storage site acceptance by the general public and the resulting long project lead times confront gas companies from the Federal Republic of Germany with a complex planning problem and a major technical and commercial challenge, considering the estimated capital outlay of 4 to 5 billion DM in 1988 Deutschmarks. To master this challenge and to be able to provide secure and competitive gas supplies, the gas industry must continue to operate in a market economy which remains undistorted by new legislation and regulation. (author). 11 figs

  1. Measuring program of the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinemann, K.

    1991-10-01

    Form May 21 to June 11 1991 seven measuring vans from the Federal Republic of Germany conducted investigations of radioactivity of environmental samples in the Russian Federation. The measurements were concentrated in the areas of Tula, Kaluga and Brjansk, which were contaminated with different concentrations by the Chernobyl accident. These investigations were financed by the 'Bundesministerium fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit' and aimed at the information of the population. In this report, the measuring campaign is described and the results are presented. (orig.) [de

  2. Autopsy issues in German Federal Republic transplantation legislation until 1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweikardt, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the relevance of autopsy issues for German Federal Republic transplantation legislation until 1997 against the background of legal traditions and the distribution of constitutional legislative powers. It is based on Federal Ministry of Justice records and German Parliament documents on transplantation legislation. Transplantation and autopsy legislation started with close ties in the 1970s. Viewing transplantation legislation as relevant for future autopsy regulation contributed to the decision to stall transplantation legislation, because the interests of the federal government and the medical profession converged to avoid subsequent restrictions on the practice of conducting autopsies and procuring tissues for transplantation. Sublegal norms were insufficient for the prosecution of the organ trade and area-wide transplantation regulation after the reunification of Germany. In contrast to autopsy issues, legislative power for transplantation issues was extended to the federal level by an amendment to the constitution, allowing decision making for Germany as a whole.

  3. Food irradiation developments in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    Professor Diehl from Karlsruhe describes work in the Federal Republic of Germany, based on 30 years of research work at the Centre for Nutrition at Karlsruhe. The replacement of toxic chemical preservatives by irradiation is an attractive possibility and permission for commercial spice irradiation is expected later this year. Promising results had been demonstrated for onions, tropical fruits, fish, shrimps, certain meats and enzymes. Prolonged wholesomeness studies has failed to reveal detrimental health effects up to 50 kGy. In spite of certain adverse political and emotional pressures the author is convinced that food irradiation will be permitted in all E.E.C. countries in the not too distant future

  4. On nuclear development in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levi, H.W.

    1979-01-01

    Today's situation of nuclear energy is strongly influenced by political decisions often initiated by arguments in a public discussion with little rational background. This needs to be contrasted by a nuclear development strategy taking into account the long term needs of the Federal Republic of Germany. In the light of the situation at present a strategy would emerge which is based on the continuous use of and a moderate but steady increase in the number of light water reactors. Also high temperature reactors must find a well-defined position. However, a key role must be assigned to fast breeder reactors, unless the whole concept is to be endangered. (orig.) [de

  5. Agreement between the Republic of Argentina and the Federative Republic of Brazil for the exclusively peaceful use of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Agreement between the Republic of Argentina and the Federative Republic of Brazil for the Exclusively Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy, signed by the Ministers for Foreign Affairs of Argentina and Brazil in Guadalajara, Mexico, on 18 July 1991

  6. The principles of nuclear safety in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfaffelhuler, J.K.

    1980-01-01

    A survey of the nuclear installations in the Federal Republic of Germany is presented. Also, the necessary preparations for a country, which wants to introduce nuclear power and the legal basis, the technical principles and the licensing procedure as practised in the Federal Republic of Germany are discussed. (A.L.) [pt

  7. Federal Republic of Germany/backfilling and sealing program - outline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappei, G.

    1986-01-01

    After 1978 the Asse salt mine was used exclusively for research work which serves to make available scientific and technical data for the planning, construction and operation of repositories for radioactive wastes. This presentation delineates the advantages of the geological formation rock salt with a view to the final disposal of radioactive wastes subsequent to a short description of the 'Waste Management Concept' of the Federal Republic of Germany. The individual components of the internationally accepted 'Multiple Barrier System' are described, while the technical barriers 'backfilling and sealing' are subject of special consideration. A general formulation of the requirements and objectives of each specific component in the backfilling and sealing system is presented. (orig./DG)

  8. Treatment of radioactive waste in the Federal Republic of Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, H [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (F.R. Germany). Abt. Behandlung Radioaktiver Abfaelle

    1976-07-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany a nuclear generating capacity of approximately 65 GWe is anticipated by 1990 which, together with the fuel cycle industry and a reprocessing plant, will produce approximately 18,000 m/sup 3/ of preconcentrated liquids and 16,000 m/sup 3/ of solid waste with a total activity of some 3 x 10/sup 7/ Ci. The contribution to the total amount and activity of waste made by the individual types of waste in various nuclear installations differs widely. Waste from reprocessing plants contains some 99.9% of the radionuclides contained in liquid waste and 86% of those contained in solid waste. Waste from the rest of the fuel cycle, the nuclear power stations and the large research centers together contains only some 0.01% of the total activity of the solid waste. In terms of volume, most of the radioactive waste is low level waste.

  9. The electronuclear program of the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandel, Heinrich

    1978-01-01

    The preoccupation of the Federal Republic is to lessen its energy dependency on petroleum (now 52%) particularly by developing nuclear power which could in the year 2,000 meet 27% of its primary energy needs, equally with oil. At the end of 1977, West Germany had 6 industrial reactors operating representing a total power of 5,500 MW., 12 reactors under construction (of which 8 units of 1,300 MW.) for a total power of 13,000 MW., 9 reactors under investigation (11,300 MW.), and 2 reactors 2,700 M. whose construction had been postponed for political reasons. A centre for fuel reprocessing and waste storage is also being investigated [fr

  10. Hamburger hazards and emotions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nina Veflen; Røssvoll, Elin; Langsrud, Solveig

    2014-01-01

    on the emotions they experience when confronted with the food. A representative sample of 1046 Norwegian consumers participated in an online experiment. In the first part, participants were randomly divided into two groups. One group was confronted with a picture of a rare hamburger, whereas the other group...... was confronted with a picture of a well-done hamburger. The respondents were instructed to imagine that they were served the hamburger on the picture and then to indicate which emotions they experienced: fear, disgust, surprise, interest, pleasure, or none of these. In part two, all respondents were confronted...... with rare hamburgers evokes more fear and disgust than confrontation with well-done hamburgers, that all hamburgers trigger pleasure and interest, and that a consumer’s willingness to eat rare hamburgers depends on the particular type of emotion evoked. These findings indicate that emotions play...

  11. Nuclear export policy and regulation for non-proliferation: Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulanger, Werner.

    1978-01-01

    The nuclear export policy of the Federal Republic of Germany complies with the principle of non-proliferation of nuclear weapons. Already in 1967 the Federal Government stated in a Peace Note that no export was authorised to countries (outside Euratom) which did not comply with the IAEA Safeguards. In the bilateral agreement the Federal Republic signed with Brasil in 1975, emphasis was put on international safeguards and the control exercised on exported materials to avoid any diversion for military purposes. (NEA) [fr

  12. Alternative fuel cycle evaluation in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papp, R.; Closs, K.D.

    1986-01-01

    In compliance with a 1979 governmental decision, Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center managed the research and development (R and D) program ''Alternative Entsorgung,'' which had two major goals: (a) development of technical concepts for direct disposal of spent fuel and (b) comparison of the traditional back end of the nuclear fuel cycle based on fuel reprocessing with direct disposal. With respect to radiological safety, this comparison revealed that direct disposal scores better than the reprocessing path, but the difference is judged minor when compared to doses from natural radiation background. From the standpoint of cost, direct disposal proves more economical by a margin of 30% even though the reference system of direct disposal was not cost optimized. Finally, some unresolved but not unresolvable issues exist with regard to safeguarding a repository for spent fuel. In its decision in January 1985, the government of the Federal Republic of Germany stated that the results of the R and D program indicated that the legal requirement to ensure Entsorgung were better fulfilled by fuel reprocessing than by direct disposal of spent fuel

  13. Brine migration test - Asse salt mine, Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothfuchs, T.; Wieczorek, K.; Feddersen, H.K.; Staupendahl, G.; Coyle, A.J.; Kalia, H.; Eckert, J.

    1988-03-01

    This document is the final report on the Cooperative German-American 'Brine Migration Tests' that were performed at the Asse Salt Mine in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG), the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI), Columbus, Ohio, and the Institut fuer Tieflagerung (IfT), Braunschweig, of the Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH Muenchen (GSF). Final test and equipment design as well as manufacturing and installation was carried out by Westinghouse Electric Corporation. The tests were designed to simulate a nuclear waste repository to measure the effects of heat and gamma radiation on brine migration, salt decrepitation, disassociation of brine, and gases collected. The thermal mechanical behavior of salt, such as room closure, stresses and changes of the properties of salt are measured and compared with predicted behavior. The performance of an array of candidate waste package materials, test equipment and procedures under repository conditions will be evaluated with a view towards future in-depth testing of potential repository sites. (orig./RB)

  14. Contribution of the Federal Republic of Germany, October 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-10-01

    The paper refers to chapters A1 and A2 of the Working Group 5A report. The considerations made in the first part (A1) which are based on the SNR 2 ''standard reference'' core design, comparable to the reference core design of the WG 5A report, deal with the breeding characteristics as well as with the potential for improvements and/or adaptations to changing predominant objections. The second part (A2) deals with the future needs for electrical and non-electrical energy in the Federal Republic of Germany. The amount of uranium required is calculated for 3 strategies: LWR once-through, LWR with Pu recycle and FBR in a symbiotic system with LWR. In a comparison of these strategies it becomes evident, that the uranium requirement of the LWR recycle and the LWR/FBR systems diverge more and more beyond the year 2000. Up to 2050 the cumulative uranium requirements of the LWR/FBR system will not exceed a total of 500,000 t, equivalent to 11% of the ''known'' world resources. This high percentage means that the FBR system has to be introduced as early as possible

  15. Reactor licensing in the United States and Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvatore, J.E.L.

    1980-02-01

    The licensing procedure for nuclear power plants in the United States and in the Federal Republic of Germany is analysed. The security policy, the inspections and the supervision during their construction and operation are discussed. (A.L.) [pt

  16. Coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. The 1st quarter 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The paper reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the 1st quarter of 2015. Statistical data are presented for mining, exports and imports of hard coal and lignite and for employees.

  17. Coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. The 1st quarter 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    The paper reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the 1st quarter of 2017. Statistical data are presented for mining, exports and imports of hard coal and lignite and for employees.

  18. Licensing procedure, nuclear codes and standards in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultheiss, G.F.

    1980-01-01

    The present paper deals with legal background of licensing in nuclear technology and atomic energy use, licensing procedures for nuclear power plants and with codes, standards and guidelines in the Federal Republic of Germany. (orig./RW)

  19. Protest Movements and the Security Policy of the Federal Republic of Germany Since 1950.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    to rearmament. The state of mind that framed a majority of the members, however, remained one of 33 semi- abstentionism where German labor remained on...I 0D A132 201 PROTEST MOVEMENTS AND THE SECURI Y POLICY 0 THE FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF GERMANY SINCE 1950( U) NAVAL\\ POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONEREY CA A N...1 THESIS PROTEST MOVEMENTS AND THE SECURITY POLICY OF THE FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF GERMANY SINCE 1950 by Arthur Neil Black 0. December 1983 C-) LIJ Thesis

  20. Hamburg Accelerator Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Edmund J.N. [CERN Accelerator School (Switzerland)

    1992-10-15

    From 20-24 July, Hamburg welcomed the Fifteenth International Conference on High Energy Accelerators (HEACC). A natural highlight was the recent commissioning success of the HERA electron-proton collider at Hamburg's DESY Laboratory and its first high energy electron-proton collision data. This gave the meeting the feel of a family event celebrating a newborn.

  1. Hamburg Accelerator Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, Edmund J.N.

    1992-01-01

    From 20-24 July, Hamburg welcomed the Fifteenth International Conference on High Energy Accelerators (HEACC). A natural highlight was the recent commissioning success of the HERA electron-proton collider at Hamburg's DESY Laboratory and its first high energy electron-proton collision data. This gave the meeting the feel of a family event celebrating a newborn

  2. Hamburger hazards and emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Nina Veflen; Røssvoll, Elin; Langsrud, Solveig; Scholderer, Joachim

    2014-07-01

    Previous studies indicate that many consumers eat rare hamburgers and that information about microbiological hazards related to undercooked meat not necessarily leads to more responsible behavior. With this study we aim to investigate whether consumers' willingness to eat hamburgers depends on the emotions they experience when confronted with the food. A representative sample of 1046 Norwegian consumers participated in an online experiment. In the first part, participants were randomly divided into two groups. One group was confronted with a picture of a rare hamburger, whereas the other group was confronted with a picture of a well-done hamburger. The respondents were instructed to imagine that they were served the hamburger on the picture and then to indicate which emotions they experienced: fear, disgust, surprise, interest, pleasure, or none of these. In part two, all respondents were confronted with four pictures of hamburgers cooked to different degrees of doneness (rare, medium rare, medium well-done, well-done), and were asked to state their likelihood of eating. We analyzed the data by means of a multivariate probit model and two linear fixed-effect models. The results show that confrontation with rare hamburgers evokes more fear and disgust than confrontation with well-done hamburgers, that all hamburgers trigger pleasure and interest, and that a consumer's willingness to eat rare hamburgers depends on the particular type of emotion evoked. These findings indicate that emotions play an important role in a consumer's likelihood of eating risky food, and should be considered when developing food safety strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Draft of a Federal Mining Law (BBergG). [German Federal Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    Standardization and rearrangement is proposed for all the mining laws in the Federal Republic of Germany, especially of the regulations concerning prospecting and mining of natural resources. The draft provides; 1) creation of a modern, elastic system of concessions for particularly important natural resources withdrawn from the landed property; smoothing of the existing system of mineral rights; 2) development of the instruments of mining law adapted to the special requirements of mining natural resources in view of preventive and current control of the operation and its supervision; 3) first-time authorizations for federal safety and labor protection decrees; 4) reformation of the relationship with the employer's liability insurances and, resulting therefrom, improvement of the accident prevention measures; 5) stronger embodiment of damage-preventing measures in mining-damage law; improvement of the extent of liability and the protection of those damaged; 6) accounting for related new engineering developments (underground tankless storage); 7) final regulation for prospecting and mining of natural resources in the range of the continental shelf; 8) relief of mining law from alien legal matters as well as liquidation of antiquated institutes of mining law.

  4. LWR safety research in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seipel, H.G.

    1977-01-01

    . The new HDR project will comprise large non-nuclear tests in the former 100 MWth facility. The project will include blowdown experiments, investigation of the safety margins of the reactor pressure vessel, analysis of the efficiency and reliability of existing methods of non-destructive testing and earthquake simulation. Finally, the concept of a German risk study - specially adapted to the boundary conditions typical of the Federal Republic of Germany - is explained

  5. Military cooperation between the Federal Republic of Germany and South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostrowsky, J.; Geisler, W.

    1978-01-01

    In the books part called 'the military co-operation between the Federal Republic of Germany and South Africa', the authors report that the African National Congress was able to prove the existence of a long atomic co-operation between the Federal Republic and South Africa: with knowledge and support of the Federal Government, the Society for Nuclear Research, Karlsruhe and the STEAG, Essen, have given the separation nozzle method used for uranium enrichment to South Africa. Thus, it is said, the Federal Republic is helping a regime to possess this dreadful weapon which might use it for tis surrival. Scientists of German nationality have been working in leading positions in the war research in South Africa. (HSCH) [de

  6. Hamburg kui hiiglaslik ehitustander

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    6. novembrist Eesti Arhitektuurimuuseumis Rotermanni soolalaos näitus "arcHH - Architektur made in Hamburg", mis esitleb Hamburgi arhitektide viimase viie aasta loomingut. Näituse koostaja Dirk Meyhöfer, arhitekt Michael Karassowitch

  7. The development of the breeder reactor program of the German Federal Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haunschild, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    This article recapitulates the stages of the program which is in hand in the German Federal Republic concerning breeder reactors with fast neutrons. In particular, it describes in detail the causes for the delays in the construction of the demonstration reactor SRN 300 (Kalkar) for which the commissioning has now been fixed for 1987. It emphasizes the importance of the collaboration which exists in Europe for the establishment of the projects and the construction of fast neutron power stations, including the SNR 2 reactor; the construction of the latter could begin in the German Federal Republic at the end of the Eighties [fr

  8. Availability of nuclear fuels: an aspect of supply assurance. [German Federal Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolinski, U; Ziesing, H J [Deutsches Inst. fuer Wirtschaftsforschung, Berlin (F.R. Germany)

    1976-08-01

    The future supply possibilities for the Federal Republic of Germany with nuclear fuel are investigated by the German Institute for Economy Research in an expertise on 'the safety, price and environmental aspects in the energy supply'. The requirements of natural uranium in the Federal Republic of Germany are dealt with, as well as the world-wide assured and probable deposits of natural uranium in relation to the extraction costs. After indicating the restrictive changes in the export policy of the supplying countries, the international and national state of development of recycling is shown.

  9. Preventive radiation protection in Hamburg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boikat, U.; Lauer, R.; Plath, S.; Sachde, Z.G.

    2001-01-01

    Monitoring of environmental radioactivity as well as complex investigations for precautionary radiation protection are carried out in Hamburg by two radiation monitoring labs. The spectrum of their tasks is specified by the media to be investigated. The tasks are originating from the Federal Precautionary Radiation Protection Act and from local needs. Mostly since a lot of years all interesting materials are analysed for their radioactivity content, as a safe and precautionary radiation protection demands. Until today samples show the influence of global nuclear weapon fallout of the period until 1964. Partly they show the radioactivity of Caesium originating from the Chernobyl accident. Since ten years the radioactivity contents in the material investigated are decreasing. Mostly the activity reached levels as at the end of 1985. The basic food stuff investigated in Hamburg can be considered as to be uncontaminated by radioactivity. With the introduction of the Federal Precautionary Radiation Protection Act, a series of new investigation programs and investigation methods were developed. This allows a better preparedness for extraordinary situations of increased radioactivity in the environment as 12 years ago. Thus a precise assessment of situations of increased radioactivity levels can be given together with coordinated and solid information to the public concerning provisions and actions. (orig.) [de

  10. Communication dated 10 March 1994 received from the Permanent Mission of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The text of the aide memoire, dated 10 March 1994, of the Permanent Mission of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) to the IAEA is being circulated for the information of all Member States at the request of the Alternate Resident Representative of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)

  11. The development of high-temperature reactors in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelmann, P.; Krings, F.

    1980-01-01

    The principal features of high-temperature reactors are recalled, then the current state of technology of the line in the Federal Republic of Germany is described. Reference is made to the experience of operating the AVR reactor, the construction of the THTR-300 reactor as well as the HTT and PNP projects [fr

  12. Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-11-01

    The contribution under consideration reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2016. Statistical data are presented for the power market and coal market, hard coal mining as well as the brown coal mining. These data consider the energy consumption in Germany, power production, iron and steel production, utilization, re-cultivation and employees.

  13. Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-11-01

    The contribution under consideration reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2015. Statistical data are presented for the power market and coal market, hard coal mining as well as the brown coal mining. These data consider the energy consumption in Germany, power production, iron and steel production, utilization, re-cultivation and employees.

  14. Situation of coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany. Year 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The paper reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2014. Statistical data are presented for coal market, brown coal mining as well as the hard coal mining. These data consider the supply and demand of coal in Germany, and employees of the German coal industry.

  15. Licensing requirements for nuclear merchant ships in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schafstall, H.-G.

    1978-01-01

    The procedure of approval in the Federal Republic of Germany will be discussed, referring to the participated authorities and organizations. Rules and guidelines relevant for licensing are mentioned in the frame of legal positions. After presentation of general aspects of basic licensing requirements more detailed information is given relative to their accomplishment demonstrated on the German Nuclear Contained Ship NCS-80-Project

  16. The Russian Federation Islamic Republic of Dagestan: Curricular Decentralization, Social Cohesion, and Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Jana Sackman

    2005-01-01

    This article focuses on the curricular decentralization-sociopolitical stability nexus in the predominantly Muslim Russian Federation Republic of Dagestan, adjacent to war-torn Chechnya. Concomitant with the metamorphoses taking place in the economic and political sectors of society is the overhaul of institutionalized education. A major reform…

  17. Licensing procedures in Brazil and in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa Lima, W.A. da.

    1974-01-01

    The procedures for the licensing of nuclear power plants in Brazil and in the Federal Republic of Germany are described. The juridical situation, the administrative praxis and comparative aspects are discussed. Suggestions are made for the improvement of licensing procedures in both countries. (I.C.R.) [pt

  18. Operating experience with PWR in the FRG (Federal Republic of Germany)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, H.

    1980-01-01

    Operating experiences with PWR's in the Federal Republic of Germany has been exclusively with KWU turnkey power plants with U tube steam generators. Such experience started with the 345 MW Obrigheim plant in 1968 and includes the 670 MW Stade plant, the 1200/1300 MW Biblis plants, The 900 MW Neckarwestheim and the 1300 MW Unterweser plants. (E.G.) [pt

  19. The situation of nuclear power in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gassert, H.

    1982-01-01

    The industrial development of nuclear power, especially nuclear power plant technology, in the Federal Republic of Germany has reached a top level position worldwide with respect to availability and safety. The expansion of the use of nuclear power in the Federal Republic of Germany by comparison has been in a paradoxical situation for many years: the importance of this source of energy is being stressed again and again by politicians and industrialists, the speedy development of nuclear power described as indispensable for the national economy and the energy producing utilities. However, in actual practice, industry and the electricity utilities are facing no end of obstacles and difficulties which, ultimately, are beginning to jeopardize the major advantages of nuclear power, at least in the Federal Republic. Special difficulties arise not only in the completion of the prototypes of the two advanced reactor lines, i.e., the fast breeder and the high temperature reactor, but especially also in the completion of the fuel cycle by reprocessing plants, despite the fact that all legal conditions exist for allowing nuclear power to occupy the place found to be necessary also in the Federal Republic of Germany. Industry expects these complex effects on the economy to be recognized and taken into account especially on the political side before this important area of innovation suffers irreparable damage. (orig.) [de

  20. Coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. The 1st quarter 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The report on coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany in the 1st quarter 2010 contains the statistical data concerning the following issues: (i) black coal mining: part I: production, resources, accomplishments; employees, part II: marketing and foreign trade; (ii) brown coal mining: part I: production, resources, accomplishments; employees, part II: marketing and foreign trade.

  1. Persistent pollutants in the white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) in the Federal Republic of Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeman, J.H.; Hadderingh, R.H.; Bijleveld, M.F.I.J.

    1972-01-01

    A study was made of the possible relationship between persistent pollutants and the decline in reproductive success of the White-tailed Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) in Schleswig Holstein, Federal Republic of Germany. Chemical analyses were made of Eagle's eggs, of one adult Eagle which was found

  2. Coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. Year 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    The paper reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2016. Statistical data are presented for coal market, brown coal mining as well as the hard coal mining. These data consider the supply and demand of coal in Germany, and employees of the German coal industry.

  3. Coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. Year 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    The paper reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2015. Statistical data are presented for coal market, brown coal mining as well as the hard coal mining. These data consider the supply and demand of coal in Germany, and employees of the German coal industry.

  4. Requirements for electricity producing gas-cooled reactors in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, D.K.J.

    1989-01-01

    The paper describes requirements to a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor from the view-point of a utility in the Federal Republic of Germany. The requirements presented in the paper address different areas including plant size, availability, safety and economics. (author)

  5. Environmentally harmful subventions in the Federal Republic of Germany. Updating for the year 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeder, Lea; Burger, Andreas

    2016-12-01

    The contribution on environmentally harmful subventions in the Federal Republic of Germany (Updating for the year 2016) includes the following issues: Why the reduction of environmentally harmful subventions is necessary; subventions and related processes; international initiatives for the reduction of environmentally harmful subventions, routes for the reduction of environmentally harmful subventions.

  6. Transport of radioactive materials in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) since 3. October 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alter, U.; Collin, F.W.; Fasten, C.

    1993-01-01

    The paper presents a survey on the transport of radioactive materials in the FRG. For shipments of nuclear material and large sources in the FRG - and also in the former German Democratic Republic - a license from the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (the competent authority in the FRG) due to the Atomic law and Radiological Protection Requirements are necessary. (J.P.N.)

  7. Hamburg Accelerator Conference (2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Edmund J.N. [CERN Accelerator School (Switzerland)

    1992-11-15

    From 20-24 July, Hamburg welcomed the Fifteenth International Conference on High Energy Accelerators (HEACC). The HEACC Conference traditionally reviews the status of all major accelerator projects whether they are already running like clockwork, still in the construction phase, or waiting impatiently for financial approval.

  8. Hamburg Accelerator Conference (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, Edmund J.N.

    1992-01-01

    From 20-24 July, Hamburg welcomed the Fifteenth International Conference on High Energy Accelerators (HEACC). The HEACC Conference traditionally reviews the status of all major accelerator projects whether they are already running like clockwork, still in the construction phase, or waiting impatiently for financial approval

  9. The non-proliferation regime, vertical proliferation and the interests of the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, W.

    1988-12-01

    The disarmament orientation of the NPT, which stands beside the central aim of avoiding horizontal proliferation, raises a question: Does a compatibility exist between the non-proliferation policy of the Federal Republic and its security policy, which has its basic pillar in the nuclear deterrence strategy? Critics of this deterrence policy therefore, hinting to the disarmament determination of the NPT, demand that the Federal Republic should exercise its influence for the conclusion of a 'Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty' (CTBT), the establishment of a 'Nuclear-Weapons-Free-Zones' (NWFZ) in Europe, a 'No First Use'-Treaty (NFU) and finally the abolishment of all atomic weapons ('Zero Solution'). According to them such disarmament 'remedies' can reestablish or assure the waning or damaged international consensus for horizontal non-proliferation. This is a contribution for the establishment of a stable world order and will smooth the way for a prolongation of the NPT in the year 1995. An analysis of the history and the structure of interests shows that the policy of the Federal Republic of Germany is deeply rooted in the NPT and that a prolongation of the treaty and its own membership is a substantial object of the foreign and security policy. Consequently the Federal Republic has to face the demands for an intensification of 'anti-nuclear measures' and has to examine their acceptability and their usefulness with respect to non-proliferation. The structure of the problem encloses the following aspects: The security conception of the Federal Republic with its military-strategic essence; the provisions in article VI NPT for negotiations with the object of a world free of atomic weapons; the derived disarmament 'remedies' for strengthening the consensus for horizontal non-proliferation and, finally, the real interface between horizontal and vertical proliferation. (orig./DG) [de

  10. The local power supply in the German Federal Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tettinger, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    The article first examines the contours of the foundations of the communes' competence to act autonomously, which have been laid by constitutional jurisdiction and jurisprudence. Next, the limits that constitutional law sets to the communes' competence in the field of energy politics are scrutinized. These limits firstly result from the confinement of the communal administrative unions' competence to a local sphere, and secondly from the additional constraints of Federal law, particularly the Law Concerning the Power Economy, and of the law of the Laender, here primarily communal commercial law. It is concluded that the limits to the communal administrative unions' competence must be strictly observed and the constraints imposed by power law and communal commercial law respected. Under the present constitutional law the guarantee of communal autonomy at least provides no legal means of defying decisions and directives under the laws of the Federation or the Laender that apply supraregionally. (orig./HSCH) [de

  11. Availability of nuclear fuels: one aspect of the reliability of supply. [German Federal Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolinski, U; Ziesing, H J [Deutsches Inst. fuer Wirtschaftsforschung, Berlin (F.R. Germany)

    1976-09-01

    In connection with the future supply of nuclear fuels to the Federal Republic of Germany the authors discuss the problems which arise. They describe the future development of the demand for natural uranium and the work involved in separation and deal with the possibilities of meeting the demand. They pay particular attention to the changed market situation and to the policies of the countries which produce uranium. The article is a detailed examination of the report by the German Institute for Economic Research (DIW) on aspects of the reliability of supply to the electricity supply industry in the Federal Republic of Germany, which was prepared under the aegis of the Bavarian Ministry for Economic and Transport. This investigation will be published, omitting the regional aspects, towards the middle of 1976, by the German Institute for Economic Research under the title 'Reliability, price and environmental protection aspects of energy supply'.

  12. American cinema and the construction of masculinity in film in the Federal Republic after 1945.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Joanne

    2012-01-01

    Since 1945, film in the Federal Republic has maintained an ambivalent relationship to American cinema and its embedded ideologies and nowhere is this more evident than in (West) German film's representations of masculinity. This article focuses on three historical moments when political and social shifts resulted in a problematising of male identities in the Federal Republic: the mid-1950s, the early 1970s and the late 1990s. Cinema responded to a perceived destabilisation of gender norms by exploring constructions of German masculinity in relation to the ambivalently received models of male identity offered by American cinema. With a detailed analysis of three specific examples – Georg Tressler's Die Halbstarken (1956), Rainer Werner Fassbinder's Der amerikanische Soldat (1970) and Fatih Akin's Kurz und schmerzlos (1998) – this article investigates the manner in which German cinema engages with these competing conceptions of masculinity and demonstrates the ways in which divergent understandings of gender identity can impact on representations of national and ethnic identity.

  13. Limitation of releases of radioactive effluents for nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolksdorf, P.; Buehling, A.

    1981-01-01

    Empirical values relating to the effluents of nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany are now available. These values cover a period of several years of operation. The measured emissions of radioactive substances are often very much below the maximum permissible values, based on the dose limits for the environment stipulated in the legal regulations. Extensive technical and administrative measures contribute to the reduction of radioactive effluents. Furthermore, additional possibilities for improvement are mentioned which may lead to a further reduction of radioactive effluents. These are derived from investigations into the release of radioactive substances in nuclear power plants. The licensing procedure in the Federal Republic of Germany in fixing discharge limits is outlined. Proposals are made concerning licence values which may be determined for the radioactive effluents in modern standardized nuclear power plants with light-water reactors. The resulting radiation exposures are quoted for a typical nuclear power plant site. (author)

  14. The public opinion of nuclear energy in the Federal Republic of Germany 1955-1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dube, N.

    1988-01-01

    With this report an attempt is made to document all opinion polls concerning the peaceful use of nuclear energy in the Federal Republic of Germany. This documentation is designed to serve as a useful tool for social science research. It should support the historical analysis of long-term developments in public opinion and a systematic comparison of questions asked in different polls and at different times. (orig.) [de

  15. State of advanced reactor development in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reutler, H.

    1988-01-01

    The Federal Republic of Germany is engaged in development work on an advanced light-water reactor that is being designed to achieve a conversion factor of 0.9 on U-Pu fuel. With regard to breeder reactors, most efforts are being concentrated on further improving, with the aid of European partners, the safety standards and economic efficiency of fast breeders. Special efforts are being invested in the development and introduction of small, inherently safe high-temperature reactors

  16. The political setting of the environmentalist movement in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fietkau, H.J.; Kessel, H.

    1982-01-01

    This paper, aimed at the non-German public, gives a short impression of the political dimensions of the environmental movement in the Federal Republic of Germany. It shows that the former environmental protection groups have developed into new political parties which were successful in the last elections at the state level. Special emphasis is placed on the interrelations between the environmental movement and the peace movement. (orig.) [de

  17. Development of brown coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tilmann, W

    1985-01-01

    The significance of brown coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany for the development of opencast technology and the power industry is discussed with emphasis on mining in the Rhineland Area. In 1984, 126.7 mt of brown coal were produced in the Federal Republic of Germany. In the development of high-performance equipment it is essential that the efficiency of the bucket-wheel excavator is increased. Trains and conveyors are mainly used for mine transport in the Federal Republic of Germany. A high moral commitment is linked to land claims, recultivation and environmental issues on the part of brown coal mining. In 1984 the percentage share of brown coal supplied to the public power stations was 83.6%, corresponding to 105.9 mt. The installed capacity of all brown coal power stations amounted to 12,764 MW at the end of 1984, providing around one quarter of overall public power output. Charge coal for coal refining has become more important and the production of brown coal dust and brown coal coke has also increased. The share of brown coal in domestic primary energy production is currently around 24% of 151 mt hard-coal units or around 10% of 376.5 mt hard-coal units in terms of energy consumption. 12 references.

  18. An Examination of the Legal Authority for the 1999 NATO Air Campaign Against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Magnan, Richard

    2000-01-01

    ...?s use of force against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY). My objective for this article is to investigate the legal authority for NATO's use of force against the FRY during the Kosovo air campaign...

  19. From 40 to 35 Hours: Reduction and Flexibilisation of the Working Week in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Gerhard

    1990-01-01

    Reviews developments in the shortened work week in the Federal Republic of Germany. Discusses collective agreements and examines the methods used to implement the shorter working week at enterprise level and possible developments in the reunited Germany. (JOW)

  20. Safety philosophy and research program of the LWR development in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickel, H.

    1978-11-01

    In this paper the framework of the reactor safety concept in the Federal Republic of Germany will be described. It is grounded on several cornerstones the most important of which are a closed fuel cycle concept, a statutory licensing and supervision procedure, a set of compulsory safety-engineering requirements and comprehensive research in the field of reactor-safety. The main part of this last area is the Reactor Safety Research Program sponsored by the Federal Minister for Research and Technology. Furthermore, in this paper emphasis is laid on safety requirements particularly with regard to the quality of the reactor pressure vessel. (orig.) [de

  1. Deregulation potentials in the Federal Republic of Germany. Deregulierungspotentiale in der Bundesrepublik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soltwedel, R; Busch, A; Gross, A; Laaser, C F

    1986-01-01

    In December 1984 the Federal Minister of Economics commissioned the Institute of World Trade and Industry to work out an expertise on 'deregulation potentials in the Federal Republic of Germany'. The study gives access to major parts of the expertise. Analyses focus on regulations for different self-supporting occupations, retail trade, the finance markets, the communication sector, the supply industry, and the transportation sector. An examination of the grounds the regulations were based on is followed by a discussion of the pros and cons of a deregulation. The statements and arguments take into account experiences gained abroad.

  2. The electricity supply industry in the German Federal Republic in the year 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    The present report continues the series of the annual reports issued so far, in the same form and arrangement of the available statistical material, which have been published in 'Elektrizitaetswirtschaft' since 1950 and as special publication. On the basis of official data the report gives a statistical review of public electricity supply, the industrial private undertakings and the power supply to the German Federal Railways. By combining these three groups - after omitting any overlap of the available data - an overall review of the development of electricity supply in the whole of the German Federal Republic is made possible. (orig.) [de

  3. Recurrent hamburger thyrotoxicosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Malvinder S.; Sturge, Cecil

    2003-01-01

    RECURRENT EPISODES OF SPONTANEOUSLY RESOLVING HYPERTHYROIDISM may be caused by release of preformed hormone from the thyroid gland after it has been damaged by inflammation (recurrent silent thyroiditis) or by exogenous administration of thyroid hormone, which might be intentional or surreptitious (thyrotoxicosis factitia). Community-wide outbreaks of “hamburger thyrotoxicosis” resulting from inadvertent consumption of beef contaminated with bovine thyroid gland have been previously reported. Here we describe a single patient who experienced recurrent episodes of this phenomenon over an 11-year period and present an approach to systematically evaluating patients with recurrent hyperthyroidism. PMID:12952802

  4. Federalism and Lander Autonomy: The Higher Education Policy Network in the Federal Republic of Germany. Studies in Higher Education Dissertation Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onestini, Cesare

    This study traces the development of the German higher education system, examining the development of higher education policies from the postwar years to the postunification period. It focuses on federalism and the relative positions of"Lander" (German states) and the government of the Federal Republic (FRG) as revealed in higher…

  5. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-10-01

    The Federal Republic of Germany is situated in Central Europe. It covers an area of 250,000 square kilometres and has a population of 60 millions. The Federal Republic consists of 10 individual states. The capital of the country is Bonn. The northern and northwestern parts of the country are formed of flat lowlands, the Norddeutsche Tiefebene. Towards the south follow hilly and mountainous regions with elevations not exceeding 1000 m. In the southwestern and southeastern regions the elevations may reach 1500m in the Black Forest and Bayerischer Wald. The foreland of the Alps and the northern part of the Alps itself with elevations close to 3000 m make up the southern part of the Federal Republic. The main rivers - Rhine, Weser and Elbe - are directed towards northwest and drain the country to the North Sea. Only the southern part is drained by the southeast running river Danube. The climate is moderate, generally with frequent snow during the winter season and warm periods during the summer. The precipitation is distributed uniformly throughout the year. Due to the high industrialization a dense network of railroads, highways and motorroads exists.According to what is geologically known about the country, the chances for the discovery of large quantities of low-coast uranium resources must be considered to be limited. The potential for new discoveries of those deposits can be estimated to be around 10 000 t U. The potential for very low-grade uranium ore, such as granites, low-grade sedimentary rocks (sandstones, shales) can be estimated to range between 10,000 - 50,000 t U or possibly more taking into account very low-grade concentrations in shales. This material is not mineable under present conditions. Environmental considerations may prevent mining in the future

  6. Study tour of the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic (formerly Czechoslovakia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The radioactive Waste Management Advisory Committee (RWMAC) is the independent body that advises the Secretaries of State for the Environment, Scotland and Wales on civil radioactive waste management issues. In September 1992, a RWMAC Study Group visited the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic (CSFR - formerly Czechoslovakia) to learn about the radioactive waste management practices there. This publication reports on the Group's findings. The rapid political change, social conflicts over energy options, growing environmental concern, and lack of financial resources, being experienced by the CSFR, would point to the need for a body similar to RWMAC to advise on an overall policy. (Author)

  7. Management and storage of spent research reactor fuel within the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krull, W.

    1996-01-01

    Research reactors in the Federal Republic of Germany and their needs for the interim storage of spent nuclear fuel are described. Existing long-term interim storage facilities are described. Special licensing and legal restrictions imposed by the German Atomic Energy Act are outlined. Possible final solutions for the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle for research reactors, including reprocessing in the United Kingdom or France, return of US-origin fuel and a home-grown German solution are discussed. (author). 2 refs, 5 figs, 4 tabs

  8. Nuclear waste repository simulation experiments, Asse Salt Mine, Federal Republic of Germany. Annual report, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothfuchs, T.; Luebker, D.; Coyle, A.; Kalia, H.

    1984-10-01

    This is the First Annual report (1983) which describes experiments simulating a nuclear waste respository at the 800-meter level of the Asse Salt Mine in the Federal Republic of Germany. The report describes the test equipment, the Asse Salt Mine, the pretest properties of the salt in the test gallery, and the mine proper. Also included are test data for the first six months of operations on brine migration rates, room closure rates, extensometer readings, stress measurements, and thermal mechanical behavior of the salt. The duration of the experiments will be two years, ending in December 1985. 3 references, 34 figures, 13 tables

  9. Power programmes review: Power reactors in the Federal Republic of Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1960-04-15

    Compared with work in some other industrialized countries, the atomic energy programme in the Federal Republic of Germany got off to a somewhat late start. Nevertheless, after about four years of research and training of scientists, the country is today on the threshold of a major phase in atomic energy development. While research and training are being continued, the first concrete steps are also being initiated for the commercial utilization of nuclear energy as a source of power. Several experimental nuclear power stations are being set up, designed or planned

  10. Data concerning the development of the energy economy of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-07-01

    After an introductory survey concerning international and national energy policy in 1981 there follow statistics, tables and graphs concerning the balance of primary energy, the structure of energy consumption, the import and export of energy sources, as well as the development of the market (amount produced, utilisation, prices) especially for black coal, brown coal, mineral oil, electricity and gas. To extend these data referring to the Federal Republic of Germany and to compare them the most important energy data of the world are represented.

  11. Low disposal of radioactive wastes in salt formations of the Federal Republic of Germaany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, E.

    1980-01-01

    The salt formations of northern Europe are generally suitable for the storage of radioactive wastes because the region is largely free from earthquakes and the salt formations known as diapires provide effective hydrological sealing. The Federal Republic of Germany employed the Asse Salt Mine of Lower Saxony for research in waste storage. More recently, exploratory work has begun on the construction of a large recycling and disposal plant at the Gorleben salt dome. The geology, hydrology, rock mechanics, and seismicity of the two sites are briefly discussed, including a discussion of experiences gained so far from the Asse site. 11 refs

  12. Chernobyl and the future of energy supply in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The reactor accident at Chernobyl has caused warning signals to sound internationally because of the intensity of the consequences of the accident and the degree of concern of the public. The 10 articles include descriptions of the course of the accident with its consequences regarding the radio-ecology, environment and safety. There are considerable consequences for the management of accident risks. The state of development of advanced nuclear energy techniques, fusion research and solar techniques are important for the prospects for future energy supplies, particularly for the Federal German Republic. (DG) [de

  13. Underground disposal of hazardous waste in the Federal Republic of Germany - principles and policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewitz, W.; Brasser, T.

    1991-01-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany the final disposal of radioactive waste and the permanent enclosure of defined types of toxic wastes in deep geological formations are being pursued with a view towards preventing hazardous material from reaching the biosphere. A detailed site- and waste-specific safety analysis will be required to substantiate the effiency of underground repositories. In this respect the longterm behaviour of wastes and possible interactions need to be evaluated, taking into consideration the geochemical-hydrogeological conditions such as groundwater movement and solution potentials. (au)

  14. Brine migration test for Asse Mine, Federal Republic of Germany: final test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-07-01

    The United States and the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) will conduct a brine migration test in the Asse Salt Mine in the FRG as part of the US/FRG Cooperative Radioactive Waste Management Agreement. Two sets of two tests each will be conducted to study both liquid inclusion migration and vapor migration in the two salt types chosen for the experiments: (1) pure salt, for its characteristics similar to the salt that might occur in potential US repositories, and (2) transitional salt, for its similarity to the salt that might occur in potential repositories in Germany

  15. Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria (Promulgation) Decree 1989 (No. 12 of 1989).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    This document contains major provisions of the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria which was promulgated by decree in 1989. The Constitution guarantees every citizen equality under the law. Opportunities to secure employment without discrimination are protected; working conditions are to be safe and humane; adequate medical and health facilities are to be available; pay equity is assured; vulnerable groups (children, the aged, and the disabled) are to receive social protection; and the free movement of citizens is assured. The third part of the constitution establishes a national population census which is to be submitted to the President of the country for acceptance.

  16. Regulatory inspection practices for nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellermann, Otto.

    1977-01-01

    Applicants for a licence as well as the competent bodies in this field are responsible for justifying the public's confidence in the quality and reliability of the uses of nuclear energy. This concern is reflected in the legal provisions and the philosophy applicable to statutory inspections in the Federal Republic of Germany. This paper describes the organisation, the purposes and the number of inspections performed at the design, the construction and the operational stages of nuclear power plants as well as the inspections organised following unexpected events and includes the comparison of various inspection costs with the overall costs of a nuclear power plant. (NEA) [fr

  17. Legal and practical aspects of radioactivity in comsumer products in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehner, F.

    1978-01-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany, the use of consumer products that contain radioactive substances is primarily controlled by the first radiation protection ordinance, the second radiation protection ordinance, and the ordinance on the approval of drugs that have been treated with ionizing radiation or that contain radioactive subtances. In October 1976, a new radiation protection ordinance was published. This new ordinance replaced the regulations of the first and second radiation protection ordinances. In this paper, the old regulations and the most important changes according to the new radiation protection ordinance are discussed

  18. Energy saving consulting in Hamburg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-10-01

    For anyone who wants to realise the dream of his own house, the terms of thermal insulation and saving heating plant should be central in planning this. One needs advice from experts for this. A survey of the many consultants offices available in Hamburg is provided. The list was compiled with the assistance of the Hamburg Chamber of Commerce and the Hamburg Trades Council and of professional associations. The information on the special fields of activity of the named consultants is based on their statements.

  19. Comparative geopolitical analysis of “hotspots” in the Russian federation and in the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković Nebojša

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Russian Federation and the Republic of Serbia have experienced internal challenges to their own unity and coherence for a long time. This work represents the analysis of these challenges, which can be defined, geopolitically speaking, as “hotspots”. Relying on the observations of Russian political scientists, the author of this work analyzed the so-called “crisis potential” in four “hotspots” in the Russian Federation. In the Republic of Serbia, five areas are marked that emit instability and jeopardise (or can jeopardise its unity, peace and prosperity. Certain similarities are found between the compared “hotspots”, and differences as well. The region of North Caucasus is marked as the most dangerous “hotspot” in the Russian Federation, which has not been completely solved yet by the Russian federal authorities, due to the constant terrorist attacks. The purpose of the attacks is to extort from Russia the withdrawal from the area and create conditions for the political independence. The author found a geopolitical analogy to the North Caucasus “hotspot” (Chechnya in the Republic of Serbia on the territory of Kosovo and Metohija. In the conclusion, it is stated that, at present, disparate geopolitical processes are taking place in the two countries - the Federal Centre is strengthening in the Russian Federation and the Federal Subjects are losing their attributes of statehood, whereas in the Republic of Serbia, the centrifugal tendencies are gaining prominence that can completely fragment it.

  20. Nuclear power plant licensing and supervision in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehrhardt, H.J.; Gottschalk, P.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper briefly describes nuclear power plant licensing and supervision in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). Peculiarities due to the federal structure of the FRG are outlined paying due regard to the long tradition of using consultation by qualified and independent technical experts. The participating authorities, commissions, expert organizations, vendors, utilities and the public as well as their respective competences are mentioned. Also, the hierarchy in nuclear legislation by means of ordinances, administrative regulations, guidelines and technical standards is pointed out. Typical examples are presented. The paper ends in mentioning important items concerning the evaluation of operating experience, recurrent tests, backfitting, lessons learned from the Chernobyl accident, safety research concerning accident management measures, on-site and off-site emergency planning, as well as qualification and occupational training of the responsible shift personnel. (orig.)

  1. Regional radiation protection center in the Federal Republic of Germany - Tasks and Organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelzer, W.

    1988-01-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany 220,000 staff members are classified at the moment as occupationally radiation exposed persons. For the maintenance of industrial health and safety for the workers in the companies and for the medical, professional and social rehabilitaion after an accident the so-called ''Berufsgenossenschaften'' (professional trade associations) are responsible. For employees in nuclear industry two trade associations are competent: - the Trade Association for Precision Engineering and Electrical Engineering for the 6,000 employees in nuclear power plants, - the Trade Association of the Chemical Industry for the 4,000 employees in fuel element fabrication and the reprocessing companies. In case of an accident workers from service companies e.g. construction and installation companies could be affected as well. Therefore these trade associations have founded a couple of years ago an ''Institute for Radiation Protection''. A special task of this institute is First Aid to overexposed people in case of radiation accidents. In addition, it organizes the 24-hours-service of the seven Regional Radiation Protection Centers of Federal Republic of Germany. The institute provides special training of radiation protection physicians and occupationally radiation exposed persons. (author) [pt

  2. Brine migration test report: Asse Salt Mine, Federal Republic of Germany: Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coyle, A.J.; Eckert, J.; Kalia, H.

    1987-01-01

    This report presents a summary of Brine Migration Tests which were undertaken at the Asse mine of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) under a bilateral US/FRG agreement. This experiment simulates a nuclear waste repository at the 800-m (2624-ft) level of the Asse salt mine in the Federal Republic of Germany. This report describes the Asse salt mine, the test equipment, and the pretest properties of the salt in the mine and in the vicinity of the test area. Also included are selected test data (for the first 28 months of operation) on the following: brine migration rates, thermomechaical behavior of the salt (including room closure, stress reading, and thermal profiles), borehole gas pressures, and borehole gas analyses. In addition to field data, laboratory analyses of pretest salt properties are included in this report. The operational phase of these experiments was completed on October 4, 1985, with the commencement of cooldown and the start of posttest activities. 7 refs., 68 figs., 48 tabs

  3. Research in the Federal Republic of Germany. Forschung in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Beispiele, Kritik, Vorschlaege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, C.

    1983-01-01

    This book is about research and, consequently, researchers. It shows the kinds of questions they ask themselves, how they solve them and how they use the results. A great deal of discussion is going on about research in the Federal Republic of Germany: the aims, the promotion measures, the quality of research by international standards and the yield in proportion to the expenditure. Are we doing enough research. What inner and outer conditions will best ensure the prosperity of research. This book is a plausible attempt to provide the discussion with a solid basis: in it scientists report their experiences, presenting, in a manner of speaking, a piece of their scientific autobiography, because that is most likely to throw a light on the multifariousness, complexity and, often enough, unpredictability of events, influences, thoughts and motives which finally bring about their scientific achievement in the form of results and effects. This book has the merit of giving a voice to men of the arts and of the sciences and to the engineering community as well. Successful research, today, always carries an aspect of associating diverging scientific domains. Yet it does not try to give a comprehensive view of research in the Federal Republic of Germany, but limits itself instead to examples. Each of them is illustrative in a particular way. In their totality, they convey a unique picture of the scientific culture of the present.

  4. Status and future aspects of nuclear fuel cycle transports in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blechschmidt, M.; Keese, H.

    1977-01-01

    The transport practices in the Federal Republic of Germany for materials of the nuclear fuel cycle are discussed. Particularly containers and modes of transport for UF 6 , fresh and spent fuel elements, plutonium and radwaste are described, with main emphasis on transport to reprocessing and waste storage facilities. In most cases nuclear materials have to be shipped across the borders because at present neither an enrichment nor an industrial reprocessing plant exists in the Federal Republic of Germany. Transports are therefore carried out according to international standards, such as the IAEA recommendations laid down in legal traffic regulations. Control and physical protection are being exercised on the basis of national regulations. The paper summarizes the experience gained in performing quite a number of various shipments and deals with the application of the relevant transport regulations. It also gives a brief outlook on future aspects, such as the increasing transport volume, and transport problems related to decommissioning and the operation of a nuclear fuel cycle center

  5. Final disposal of decommissioning wastes in the Federal Republic of Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewitz, W; Stippler, R

    1981-01-01

    The waste disposal concept of the Federal Republic of Germany for nuclear power plants provides for the final disposal of radioactive waste in deep geological formations and mines. The radiological safety of such a repository depends on a system of multiple barriers of which the geological barrier is the most important one. The isolation concept must guarantee the waste to decay below the limiting values of the German Radiation Protection Regulation within the repository. The expected total decommissioning waste masses from 12 nuclear power plants operating in the Federal Republic of Germany amounts to approxiametly 85000 Mg. For the final disposal of these wastes there are, under present aspects, two mines being considered as repositories. The pilot repository in the Asse II salt mine is in the state of licensing. The adandoned iron ore mine Konrad is being investigated for its feasibility and licensing will probably be initiated in 1982. Capacity and efficiency calculations have proved that both mines have got the technical requirements needed for the disposal of decommissioning and operating wastes from existent as well as from future built nuclear power plants.

  6. Actions at Hamburg International Association of Seismology and Physics of the Earth's Interior

    Science.gov (United States)

    The third Workshop on Historical Seismograms, held in Hamburg on August 18-19, 1983, in conjunction with the meeting of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics in Hamburg, Federal Republic of Germany, was specifically organized to discuss the status of historical seismic data for Latin America and Europe. Since it is unlikely that an additional workshop will be held on this subject, reports for other regions were included as well.In the first session, H. Meyers described the purpose of the workshop and gave some history of the previous activities of the IASPEI/Unesco Working Group on Historical Seismograms. E.R. Engdahl noted that thus far more than 500,000 seismograms have been filmed as part of the Historical Microfilming Project and emphasized the importance of the activities to be covered during the workshop. M. Hashizume, representing Unesco, described the importance of historical seismic data and the Unesco interests in having these data available for the analysis of seismic risks, particularly in areas where the recurrence rate of significant earthquakes is very low and for regions where much data do not exist. He mentioned that both these conditions occur frequently in developing nations.

  7. Comparison measurements of the official individual dosimetry systems in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, J.

    1988-01-01

    At present, about 220,000 radiation workers are subject to individual monitoring of external radiation in the Federal Republic of Germany in accordance with the X-Ray Ordinance and the Radiation Protection Ordinance and the Radiation Protection Ordinance. Each radiation worker must wear at least one individual dosemeter provided by one of the five officially authorized dosemeter services. Requirements for these dosemeter services with respect to technical equipment and personnel are published in the form of a national directive. The five dosemeter services must participate in the comparison measurements for photon radiation with the official dosemeters issued by them. The comparison measurements are organized at least once a year by the Physicalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in agreement with the Federal Minister of Economics. Film dosemeters evaluated with a filter analysis procedure are most frequently used (96.% of all evaluations in 1984) to monitor the whole body exposure to photon radiation. Glass dosemeters play a minor role (0.5%). They are issued by only two officially authorized dosemeter services and are approved for measurements of photons with energies above 45 keV. According to the national directive, thermoluminescence dosemeters may be used only for partial body dosimetry of photon and beta radiation (2.8%). Nuclear track emulsion films are distributed to measure neutrons of energies above 0.5 MeV. A thermoluminescence albedo dosemeter for the measurement of less energetic neutrons is being introduced. The dosimetry systems involved in the comparison measurements and the operational radiation protection monitoring system of the Federal Republic of Germany are described elsewhere. The objective of this work is to describe the performance of the comparison measurements and to give some results obtained from 1979 to 1984

  8. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of the Czech Republic [es

  9. Vocational Education and Training for the Hotel and Catering Industry in the Federal Republic of Germany. Report of a Visiting Party. Studies in Vocational Education and Training in the Federal Republic of Germany. Number Eight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripper, Chris, Ed.; Russell, Russ, Ed.

    A party of vocational educators from the United Kingdom (UK) traveled to the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) to examine West German vocational education and training for the hotel and catering industry. During the study, the investigators examined the training with respect to regulations, the content of training, and the structure of the…

  10. The legal framework for nuclear power stations in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt-Preuss, M.

    2008-01-01

    Within the range of the power generation the part of nuclear energy amounts 22 % in Germany in the year 2007. The author of the contribution under consideration describes the legal framework for nuclear power stations in the Federal Republic of Germany. The following aspects are described: (a) The atomic law and the completion of the power generation from nuclear energy; (b) The disposal of nuclear wastes; (c) The Euratom contract; (d) The institutional framework for the execution of the atomic energy law; (e) Legal protection opposite atom legal sovereignty documents; (f) future of the atomic law; (g) European Union-Russian partnership agreement and cooperation agreement. In order to guarantee a sustainable power supply for the production of goods and services in a national economy, also the legal framework for nuclear power stations in Germany must be realized

  11. The conflicts between labor and environmentalism in the Federal Republic of Germany and the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegmann, H.

    1985-01-01

    This report is the German-language short version of a book by the same author titled 'The Conflicts between Labor and Environmentalism in the Federal Republic of Germany and the United States' published by Gower, Aldershot, England and St. Martin's Press, New York in the summer 1985. It discusses the evolution of the relationship between organized labor and environmentalism in both countries since the mid-1960s. Five explanations for this relationship are examined: (1) The perceptions of the interdependencies between employment and environmental protection by both groups, (2) the demographic and socio-economic composition of both groups, (3) internal will-formation and decision-making, (4) the overall institutional and political frameworks, and (5) the historical and ideological backgrounds of both groups. (orig.) [de

  12. Manpower and areas of activity in the nuclear research centers in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miessner, H.

    1984-12-01

    A survey is presented of tasks and functions of the nuclear research centers, which belong to the 13 big research establishments in the Federal Republic of Germany. The central R+D-activities in the nuclear field (high temperature reactor, fast breeder, uranium enrichment, reprocessing, waste handling, nuclear safety, nuclear fusion, fusion technology, plasma physics and technology) and the manpower assigned to these activities are described. Future developments in R+D and in manpower are discussed. An outline is given of cooperation established with industry, universities and other institutions. The number of staff and its composition in terms of education and qualification are indicated. Staff mobility, especially transfer to industry, manpower development of junior staff and training efforts are discussed. (orig.) [de

  13. Air Pollution Studies in the Republic of Udmurtia, Russian Federation, using Moss Biomonitoring and INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pankratova, Yu. S.; Frontasyeva, M. V.; Pavlov, S. S.; Berdnikov, A. A.

    2007-01-01

    The concentrations of 36 elements were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis in 79 moss samples, collected in the southern part of the Republic of Udmurtia, Russian Federation, in the period 2005-2006. A factor analysis was applied to determine possible pollution sources over the territory. The seven resulting factors represent a natural and anthropogenic origin of the elemental deposition in Udmurt moss. Some of the factors are interpreted as being associated with the industry factor (W, Mo, Cr, Zn); chemical weapon destruction (As is the component of lewisite; Na is used for detoxication of lewisite). The results are compared to the data of atmospheric deposition of some regions of Russia and European countries

  14. Nuclear waste repository simulation experiments, Asse salt mine, Federal Republic of Germany. Annual report 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothfuchs, T.; Feddersen, H.K.; Schwarzianeck, P.; Staupendahl, G.; Coyle, A.J.; Eckert, J.; Kalia, H.

    1986-07-01

    This is the second joint annual report (1984) on experiments simulating a nuclear waste repository at the 800-m (2624-ft) level of the Asse salt mine in the Federal Republic of Germany. This report describes the Asse salt mine, the test equipment, and the pretest properties of the salt in the mine and in the vicinity of the test area. Also included are test data for the first 19 months of operation on the following: brine migration rates, thermal mechanical behavior of the salt (including room closure, stress reading, and thermal profiles), and borehole gas pressures. In addition to field data, laboratory analyses of results are included in this report. The duration of the experiment will be 2 years, ending in December 1985

  15. Nesting bird deterrents for the Federal Republic of Germany glass log storage pad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, R.M.

    1997-01-01

    A proposed storage pad wi11 be constructed in the 200 West Area for the storage of isotopic heat and radiation sources from the Federal Republic of Germany. The pad will be constructed in the southern portion of the Solid Waste Operations Complex near the existing Sodium Storage Pad (Figure 1). Following a biological review by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) personnel (Brandt 1996), it was determined that in order for construction to take place after March 15, 1997, actions would need to be taken to prevent migratory birds from nesting in the project area. Special attention was focused on preventing sage sparrows and loggerhead shrikes, both Hanford Site species of concern (DOE/RL 1996), from nesting in the area. This activity plan details the methods and procedures that will be used to implement these nesting deterrents

  16. Progress in instrumentation and control in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastl, W.

    1990-01-01

    The development of I and C in the Federal Republic of Germany is influenced mainly by three factors, the stagnation to order new plants, the need to retrofit operating plants, and the fast technological progress in electronics. Since the life time of I and C in a plant is about one third of the overall plant life, there is enough impact onto developing I and C using new technologies. This leads to more extensive use of signal processing by means of computers and to the introduction of algorithms for providing higher level information. Presentation techniques employ colored graphics or diagrams on CRTs, which in term can be used to initiate manual control actions. Advanced control room concepts aim at operator information which is adapted to the process situation. New methodologies focus on advanced information tasks like diagnosis and prognosis. In addition midterm research work started on developments for new I and C concepts. (author)

  17. Health physics assistant. A special training in health physics in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiefer, H.; Koelzer, W.

    1977-01-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany knowledge in health physics is imparted mainly as a supplement training in courses of some days up to a few weeks duration. This may be adequate for strictly defined sectors, although it is not sufficient as to the education of a true health physicist. Already in the early sixties the necessity of such special training was recognized at the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center and training was started of 'health physics assistants' as this profession is called. Significant details are given about training, the contributions of the individual training institutions (Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center, nuclear medical hospital, Euratom institute, S.C.P.R.I.) examinations and subjects examined, experience regarding future employments and activities

  18. Plutonium recycle in LWRs - The programme of the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This paper explains that in accordance with the Federal Republic of Germany's nuclear energy policy, spent fuel from their large programme of LWRs will be stored for some years in an interim storage pool until capacity for reprocessing, which is essential on environmental grounds, becomes available after 1990. The residual fissile content (uranium and plutonium) of the spent fuel can then be recovered and either be recycled into thermal LWRs or later on be burnt in Fast Reactors. A comprehensive R, D and D programme for plutonium recycle was launched in 1971. Up to the end of 1978 about 10,000 MOX fuel rods were designed, specified, fabricated and irradiated in several nuclear power plants. The methods used in this work and the results are described

  19. Safety concept of nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnurer, H.L.; Seipel, H.G.

    1983-01-01

    The safety philosophy of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) pertaining to nuclear power plants is presented. Its general approach makes much use of research and experience in other countries, especially the United States, but the FRG has also evolved approaches and aspects unique to itself. The article discusses the institutional interrelationships of the entities affecting German nuclear power plant safety and presents the resulting German safety philosophy. This philosophy is based, as in the United States, on multilevel defenses but with greater reliance on a number of accident-prevention and/or -mitigation concepts, including: (1) automated responses to off-normal conditions, (2) an operating-limit system that acts before initiation of protective actions by the reactor protection system, (3) multistrand independent safety trains, and (4) long-term self-contained safety under accident conditions without operator intervention. The practical realization of this philosophy in the design and operation of the chief reactor systems is described

  20. National energy and nuclear power system plans of the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt-Kuester, W.J.

    1977-01-01

    Continuous and secure procurement of energy is of vital importance for our national economy. This has been demonstrated drastically during and after the energy crisis in 1973. Therefore, the aim of energy policy in the Federal Republic of Germany is to make energy available: (1) in always sufficient quantities; (2) with a maximum degree of security of supply; (3) in a way to protect the environment to a maximum extent; (4) at the cheapest possible cost to the economy. The other aim of our energy policy is to diversify the basis of primary energy sources in order to reduce our dependence on imported oil as fast as this is possible under reasonable economic conditions. For these reasons our efforts are concentrated on the development of nuclear and new non-nuclear energy sources as well as on the development of technologies on energy conservation. The concept of the Federal Republic of Germany for the development of new energy sources is outlined in the FRG program of energy research and technology. It combines the continuation of the 4. nuclear program of FRG (1973-1976) and the skeleton program of non-nuclear energy research (1974-1977). In continuation of existing activites the main object of the new program will be again the development of nuclear energy concentrating on advanced reactor systems, nuclear fuel cycle and safety and radiation protection research. In addition large efforts are made in the area of coal technology, the development of new primary and secondary energy sources and methods for energy conservation. Until 1985 in the FRG the percentage of nuclear energy will be increased from 2% of today to 15% in 1985, i.e. approximately 45.000 MWe. The development of nuclear power systems will be performed by industry and nuclear research centers. At present there are about 25.000 people working in this area

  1. Radiation exposure control of nuclear power plant personnel in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehl, J.

    1980-01-01

    The analysis of exposure records of all persons engaged in radiation work at nuclear power plants of the Federal Republic of Germany has shown that annual collective doses increase rapidly with time. The annual gross electrical energy generated from nuclear power also increases rapidly with time, corresponding to about 11% of the total gross electrical energy produced in 1977/78. Therefore, it is obvious that there is an increase of both the risk and the benefit from nuclear power production. Whether in the course of time the situation develops more towards the risk or the benefit side is learned from the history of the annual ratio of the collective dose per gross electrical energy generated. This ratio shows a significant decrease since 1972. The decrease is due to the experience gained from operation of the first-generation plants, which led to several administrative measures aimed at an improved control of the collective doses of power plant personnel in the Federal Republic of Germany. The administrative measures include, among others, the introduction of the following requirements: (a) Everyone who applies for a nuclear power plant construction licence has to provide evidence that, in the design of the plant, full use is made of the experience gained from plants in operation with respect to reduction of collective doses of the power plant personnel. (b) Everyone who engages his employees on radiation work within operations for which an operation licence is required, but which is held by others, requires a special 'contractor licence'. (c) Every person engaged in radiation work on the basis of a contractor licence must carry a special exposure record book which is registered by the competent national authority. (author)

  2. The fuel cycle of the LWR system in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spalthoff, F.J.; Messer, K.P.

    1977-01-01

    Within the framework of a system analysis conducted to forecast the nuclear output capacity that would presumably be installed by the year 2000 in the Federal Republic of Germany, the demands for uranium, enrichment and reprocessing, the fuel fabrication of elements and transportation capacity are determined. The factors of uncertainty involved in forecasts concerning the demand are discussed (analysis of sensitivity). Furthermore, the study points out to what extent the demand for uranium and fuel cycle services is being covered in the FRG and what aspects related to the coverage not yet secured are important. The situation in the field of reprocessing and ultimate disposal in the FRG, and the role which the electrical utilities are to play are in particular dealt with. After a brief survey of the Federal Republic's plans concerning the reprocessing and ultimate disposal issues, the pending problems related to the technology, organization and financing of this sector of the fuel cycle are analyzed. Moreover, the paper deals with the past and probable future development of fuel cycle costs as well as with their influence on the further development of nuclear energy as a whole. It will be examined whether and to what extent the considerable increase in the costs for uranium, enrichment and reprocessing occurring simultaneously with the rise of capital expense for new nuclear power plants has affected the profitability of nuclear energy as compared with fossil primary energies. Finally, the paper discusses how the security of supply for nuclear power plants with fuel and all necessary services could be improved under economically justifiable conditions, and what measures could be taken in this area by the electric utilities, the fuel cycle industries, and the public authorities

  3. The text of the Safeguards Agreement of 26 February 1976 between the Agency, Brazil and the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Safeguards Agreement of 26 February 1976 between the Agency, Brazil and the Federal Republic of Germany relating to the agreement of 27 June 1975 between the two Governments for co-operation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy which entered into force on 26 February 1976

  4. The Text of the Safeguards Agreement of 26 February 1976 between the Agency, Brazil and the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The text of the Agreement of 26 February 1976 between the Agency, Brazil and the Federal Republic of Germany relating to the agreement of 27 June 1975 between the two Governments for co-operation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members [es

  5. Radioactive effluents and present and future radiation exposure to the population from nuclear facilities in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonka, H.; Edelhauser, H.; Gans, I.; Wolter, R.

    1977-01-01

    As this time ten light water cooled nuclear power plants are operated outside of nuclear research centers in the Federal Republic of Germany. A review of the releases of radioactivity in gaseous and liquid effluents shows that increasing operational experience and improved technology combined with restrictive licensing policy and comprehensive control systems have resulted in decreasing release rates. Therefore radiation exposure to the population and critical groups calculated from these release rates on a local scale via different exposure pathways have been low until now. Predictions of future radiation exposure are based on the energy program of the Federal Republic of Germany up to 1985 and continuing forecasts for future energy demands, release rates of new reactor types and reprocessing plants being taken into account. In calculations of exposures to the population local models are combined with regional models superimposing contributions from sources in the Federal Republic and neighbouring countries and with a global multi-compartment model. If, with view to a continued development of the present state of science and technology in connection with major reprocessing plants, retention rates from 90-99% are assumed to be obtainable for H 3 and Kr 85, 99,5-99,9% for iodine and approximately 90% for C 14 from reprocessing plants, it can be demonstrated that also the future radiation exposure can be kept below the dose limits established in the Federal Republic of Germany

  6. The Text of the Safeguards Agreement of 26 February 1976 between the Agency, Brazil and the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The text of the Agreement of 26 February 1976 between the Agency, Brazil and the Federal Republic of Germany relating to the agreement of 27 June 1975 between the two Governments for co-operation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members [fr

  7. The text of the Safeguards Agreement of 26 February 1976 between the Agency, Brazil and the Federal Republic of Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-05-26

    The document reproduces the text of the Safeguards Agreement of 26 February 1976 between the Agency, Brazil and the Federal Republic of Germany relating to the agreement of 27 June 1975 between the two Governments for co-operation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy which entered into force on 26 February 1976.

  8. Where are the differences between France and the Federal Republic of Germany in the final storage of radioactive waste?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehn, K.

    1990-01-01

    Given similar points of departure in the two countries compared here, the differences in the goals of final storage do not seem to be too marked. The state is responsible and executes the projects by working through state organizations. The practical execution of theses tasks, however, is characterized by major discrepancies. While most of the radioactive waste in France is disposed of by shallow land burial, all radioactive waste in the Federal Republic from the outset had been planned for final storage in an underground repository. Different waste categories result from this difference between the two countries. Other differences can be found in the progress attained in final storage. In France, shallow land burial of waste has been practiced since 1969, while low level radioactive waste was disposed of by repository storage for only one decade in the Federal Republic of Germany; since then, there has only been intermediate storage. Both countries have decided in favor of deep geologic formations to be used for the final storage of high level radioactive waste. The Federal Republic has opted for salt, while France has not yet decided on the type of rock to be used. The main differences, however, are of a political, organizational and administrative nature. In France, nuclear power is accepted by all political parties and receives neutral treatment in most of the media. Neither is true of the Federal Republic of Germany. (orig.) [de

  9. Optical design methods, applications, and large optics; Proceedings of the Meeting, Hamburg, Federal Republic of Germany, Sept. 19-21, 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Andre; Schulte In den Baeumen, J.; Zuegge, Hannfried

    1989-04-01

    Recent advances in the design of large optical components are discussed in reviews and reports. Sections are devoted to calculation and optimization methods, optical-design software, IR optics, diagnosis and tolerancing, image formation, lens design, and large optics. Particular attention is given to the use of the pseudoeikonal in optimization, design with nonsequential ray tracing, aspherics and color-correcting elements in the thermal IR, on-line interferometric mirror-deforming measurement with an Ar-ion laser, and the effect of ametropia on laser-interferometric visual acuity. Also discussed are a holographic head-up display for air and ground applications, high-performance objectives for a digital CCD telecine, the optics of the ESO Very Large Telescope, static wavefront correction by Linnik interferometry, and memory-saving techniques in damped least-squares optimization of complex systems.

  10. Research reactor spent nuclear fuel shipment from the Czech Republic to the Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svoboda, K.; Broz, V.; Novosad, P.; Podlaha, J.; Svitak, F.

    2009-01-01

    In May 2004, the Global Threat Reduction Initiative agreement was signed by the governments of the United States and the Russian Federation. The goal of this initiative is to minimize, in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna, the existing threat of misuse of nuclear and radioactive materials for terrorist purposes, particularly highly enriched uranium (HEU), fresh and spent nuclear fuel (SNF), and plutonium, which have been stored in a number of countries. Within the framework of the initiative, HEU materials and SNF from research reactors of Russian origin will be transported back to the Russian Federation for reprocessing/liquidation. The program is designated as the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return (RRRFR) Program and is similar to the U.S. Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Acceptance Program, which is underway for nuclear materials of United States origin. These RRRFR activities are carried out under the responsibilities of the respective ministries (i.e., U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Russian Federation Rosatom). The Czech Republic and the Nuclear Research Institute Rez, plc (NRI) joined Global Threat Reduction Initiative in 2004. During NRI's more than 50 years of existence, radioactive and nuclear materials had accumulated and had been safely stored on its grounds. In 1995, the Czech regulatory body , State Office for Nuclear Safety (SONS), instructed NRI that all ecological burdens from its past activities must be addressed and that the SNF from the research reactor LVR -15 had to be transported for reprocessing. At the end of November 2007, all these activities culminated with the unique shipment to the Russian Federation of 527 fuel assemblies of SNF type EK-10 (enrichment 10% U-235) and IRT-M (enrichment 36% and 80% U-235) and 657 irradiated fuel rods of EK-10 fuel, which were used in LVR-15 reactor. (authors)

  11. Program status of the high temperature reactor development in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The status of the HTR development program in the Federal Republic of Germany in 1984 is characterized by the beginning of a transition phase from a national program to a commercial program. In the last 20 years the HTR technology program was strongly, nearly completely supported by the Federal Government and the State Government of North-Rhine-Westfalia. Funding of the program up to now exceeded 5 billion DM. Within this framework it was possible to establish competent-reactor-system companies, to enable industries to supply HTR- specific components including fuel elements and nuclear graphites, to maintain the strong engagement of the national centre KFA Juelich in general R and D activities, to build and operate the AVR-plant for more than 16 years, to erect the demonstration plant THTR-300 now approaching completion and to build and operate many efficient test facilities. Thereby the HTR technology development achieved a stage of maturity which is not only considered to be most advanced, but is also ready now for commerical deployment. The assessment report which comprised both the fast breeder and the HTR development included all major impacts, such as history, status, prospects, benefits, industrial aspects and international developments of the technology. The program description is facilitated by distinguishing the five major program elements: AVR, THTR-300, THTR follow-up plant, nuclear process heat program, fuel cycle activities

  12. The structure of the electricity market in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiffer, H.W.

    1989-01-01

    The power industry in the Federal Republic of Germany can be subdivided into the three subareas of public electricity supply, industrial power generation, and electricity supply to the Federal Railways. The most important sector, public electricity supply, is organized in private companies. Its special characteristics are its decentralized, pluralistic structure. The public electricity supply sector is made up of approximately 1000 firms, half of which only have a market share of approx. 1%, however. 89% of the total deliveries of useful electricity come from the 91 largest companies; the 26 biggest firms are responsible for 64% of the total deliveries of useful electricity. In terms of electricity generation, the two largest firms contribute 43%, the 25 largest, 72%, and the 116 largest, 99%. The firms in the public electricity supply sector contributed well over 80% of the total electricity production in 1988 of approx. 425 billion kWh. Since its origins late in the past century, the public power industry has been arranged in a comprehensive network of agreements restricting competition. At the distribution level, for instance, the supply regions of the electricity utilities are divided up by agreements excluding competition, so-called demarcation agreements. (orig.) [de

  13. Federal Republic of Germany: Prospects for nuclear energy from 1972-1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilger-Haunschild, H [Federal Ministry for Education and Science, Bonn (Germany)

    1972-07-01

    The number of nuclear power stations, both built and planned, in the Federal Republic of Germany, bears witness to what has been achieved so far. At present, nuclear power stations in operation generate a total of about 2000 MWe, while power stations with a total capacity for a further 10 000 MWe are under construction. The first export orders demonstrate the competitiveness of the German nuclear power industry -power stations are now being built by West German firms at Atucha in Argentina, Borselle in the Netherlands, and Zwentendorf in Austria. Because of parallel technological advances reached by the world's major industrialized nations, and the large funds necessary for further nuclear development, international cooperation is increasingly important. The federal Government therefore follows a policy of joint-development projects, particularly within a European framework. The SNR 300 fast breeder reactor, which is to be constructed with Belgium and the Netherlands, and the development of the gas centrifuge technique being carried out with the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, are excellent examples of this policy.

  14. Mining in the Federal Republic of Germany 2012. Mining industries and statistics. 64th year 2013. Documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-11-01

    The annual report of the series ''The mining industry in the Federal Republic of Germany - Mountain Economics and Statistics'' is published by the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology in cooperation with the mining authorities of the federal states. It contains comprehensive data of all production facilities of mining industry in Germany and describes the position of the German industry in the context of the overall economic development. The report shows an interest in local raw materials as well as on the international raw materials economy. Moreover, the present publication provides a detailed statistics section. [de

  15. Situation Report--Austria, Cameroon, Canada, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Egypt, France, German Federal Republic, Greece, Hungary, Irish Republic, Jamaica, Malta, Norway, Sabah, Sarawak, Spain, Tahiti (French Polynesia), Tonga, Turkey, and United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in 21 foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Austria, Cameroon, Canada, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Egypt, France, German Federal Republic, Greece, Hungary, Irish Republic, Jamaica, Malta, Norway, Sabah, Sarawak, Spain, Tahiti, Tonga, Turkey, and United…

  16. Discussing euthanasia in two German states: scientific terminology and public discourse in the German Democratic Republic and the Federal Republic of Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettin, Hartmut; Nowak, Andreas; Roccia, Maria Gracia; Salloch, Sabine

    2017-08-18

    Discussions on euthanasia ("Sterbehilfe") that took place in the German Democratic Republic (GDR) have remained widely unnoticed by the historical sciences. By referring to various publications dating from the 1950s until today, this paper presents the basic ideas of the debate on euthanasia in the GDR and compares them-partly synchronically, partly diachronically-with the situation in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). A special focus is placed on positions and terminology related to medical ethics at the end of life in the former two German states. The methodical approach of the paper allows a transparent analysis of the question of whether the GDR debates on euthanasia are significant and independent, and whether they are relevant to current ethical debates on end-of-life practices in Germany.

  17. Status and development programme of the fast breeder reactor system in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daeunert, U.; Kessler, G.

    1977-01-01

    The Federal Republic of Germany depends on imports of raw materials for energy purposes, and special importance is therefore given to nuclear energy for reasons of energy policy. Against the background of a nuclear power station capacity amounting to 24,000MW(e) in 1976 (power stations being either on order, under construction or actually in operation), the fast breeder reactor (FBR) is outstandingly significant in the Federal Republic for the economic use both of the uranium and the plutonium accumulating in light-water reactors (LWRs). Work in this sector started in the FRG in 1960. Important stages in development were: the initial activities on the plutonium critical SNEAK at Karlsruhe; successful operation of the KNK 20-MW(e) experimental reactor (sodium-cooled) with the KNK II (plutonium core) follow-up stage; costruction of the 300-MW(e) FBR prototype nuclear power station at Kalkar; and initial planning carried out for a 1300-MW(e) FBR demonstration nuclear power station. A viable infrastructure for safety assessment must go hand in hand with the development of new reactor systems. Prototype reactors in the FRG are therefore already subjected to the same strict licensing procedures under nuclear legislation as are commercial nuclear power stations. Several years' practical experience have shown that this was the right approach. It was recognized in the FRG early on that major long-term technological projects could no longer be implemented by unaided single nations. The SNR-300 FBR prototype project combines the efforts of the governments, power supply companies, reactor manufacturers and nuclear research centres of the FRG, Belgium and the Netherlands. The agreement signed in 1971 by the Rheinisch-Westfaelische Elektrizitaetswerke AG (FRG), Ente Nazionale per l'Energia Elettrica (Italy) and Electricite de France (France) power supply companies on the joint construction of the Super-Phenix and SNR-2 FBR demonstration nuclear power stations, and the German

  18. The nuclear licensing and supervisory procedures for nuclear facilities in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzen, L.F.

    1982-02-01

    A combined system has been developed in the Federal Republic of Germany: the States execute the Atomic Energy Act on behalf of the Federal Government. Despite these differences, the safety requirements and the safety standard achieved vary only insignificantly, as a result of a world-wide communication and of international cooperation. The legal prerequesites for the German nuclear licensing procedures have been established about 20 years ago, and, by a number of amendments have been adapted to new perceptions and developments. Several supplementary ordinances, due to further developments in nuclear technology, are being prepared. The work on associated technical provision, which had been neglected for a long time, has in recent years been tackled systematically and should, before long, lead to a comprehensive programme of safety standards, which simplifies and expedites the nuclear licensing procedures. Essential features of the licensing procedure are the phased structure and the division into intermediate steps which render it possible to adapt the safety requirements to the advancing state of science and technology. The responsible authorities call in experts for the safety verification of the application documents. It is the task of these experts to make assessments and to conduct quality examinations in the manufacturing plants and at the site, and to carry out recurrent tests. The public is involved by the announcement of the projects, the display of the documents and by the opportunity to raise objections during the licensing procedure. Licenses granted can be contested before the administrative courts. This procedure paves the way for the achievement of a satisfactory balance between private and public interests. (orig./HP)

  19. State and development of nuclear energy utilization in the Federal Republic of Germany 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bredberg, Ines; Hutter, Johann; Kuehn, Kerstin; Philippczyk, Frank; Dose, Julia

    2013-11-15

    This report describes the use of nuclear energy in the Federal Republic of Germany as of December 2012. It contains the essential data of all nuclear power plants, research reactors and the facilities of the nuclear fuel cycle. At the reporting moment 31{sup st} of December in 2012, nine nuclear power plants were still in operation. The power generation from nuclear energy in 2012 amounted to 99.5 TWh (2011: 108.0 TWh). That is a share of 16.1 % of the total gross electricity production (2011: 17.7 %). The report summarises the essential operational results of the nuclear power plants and information on granted licences. A short description of the present state of the nuclear power plants that have been shut down or decommissioned and of the stopped projects is given. Concerning research reactors essential data on type, characteristics (thermal power, thermal neutron flux) and purpose of the facility are represented. Furthermore, an overview of the licensing and operation history and the present state of the operating condition is given. For the facilities of the nuclear fuel cycle data on purpose and capacity, the licensing history and the present state of operation and licensing are given. The current status of repository projects is presented. To give a survey, the data is summarised in tabular form in the report Annexes. The report will be updated and published once a year.

  20. Radioactive waste management in the Federal Republic of Germany: Industrial practices and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabener, K.H.

    1987-01-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG), the production and use of nuclear-generated electricity expanded steadily despite the fact that opposition from the environmentalists led to the impression of an upcoming moratorium for nuclear energy. With this increase in capacity--by the year 1990, nearly 25 000 MW will be on the line--there will be an increase in the volume of low-level (non-heat-generating) radwaste originating from nuclear power plants. Radwaste management has been influenced to a considerable extent by the requirements of the final repository. Following a period of trial storage in the Asse repository, preparations are now being made for storage in the Konrad ore mine. It is intended to begin storage in 1991. Requirements for the packages specify containers with a volume from 3.9 to 10.9 m/sup 3/ or cast iron safety drums. These drums are suitable for radioactive materials in powder form (resins, dried concentrates) without the need for embedding materials. Storage in standard 55-gal drums is no longer permitted. The costs for final storage will be very high so that volume reduction is of prime importance. Kraftwerk Union (KWU) as a supplier of nuclear power plants (NPPs) examined the radwaste market and decided to combine delivery of radwaste treatment systems to NPPs with service jobs including radwaste handling and conditioning in its own service and maintenance plant at Karlstein

  1. Amount of radioactive wastes in the Federal Republic of Germany - waste inquiry for the year 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennecke, P.; Schumacher, J.

    1986-09-01

    On December 31, 1985, about 61 400 waste packages were stored in intermediate storage facilities. The unconditioned radioactive wastes amounted to about 6 300 m 3 . The volume of the conditioned radioactive wastes amounted to about 29 600 m 3 . Thereof the waste from nuclear research establishments made up about 11 200 m 3 , the waste from the operation of nuclear power plants about 9 900 m 3 and the waste from reprocessing of spent fuel elements about 5 800 m 3 . In addition the future amount of conditioned radioactive wastes with negligible heat generation was prognosticated. Due to this forecast an amount of about 227 600 m 3 of these wastes is expected in the year 2000. In 1985 a capacity of about 88 700 m 3 for the intermediate storage of radioactive wastes was available in the Federal Republic of Germany. On December 31, 1985, this capacity was utilized by unconditioned and conditioned radioactive wastes at an average of about 40%. It may be concluded from the data on the expected amount of radioactive wastes with negligible heat generation and on the utilization factor of the intermediate storage facilities that no bottlenecks are to be assumed up to the planned operation of the Konrad repository. (orig./HP) [de

  2. Yield of radioactive wastes in the Federal Republic of Germany - waste survey for the year 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennecke, P.; Schumacher, J.

    1987-05-01

    On December 31, about 67600 waste packages were stored in interim storage facilities. The unconditioned radioactive wastes amounted to about 6600 m 3 . The volume of the conditioned radioactive wastes amounted to about 33900 m 3 . Thereof the waste from nuclear research establishments made up about 13300 m 3 , the waste from the operation of nuclear power plants about 10700 m 3 and the waste from reprocessing of spent fuel elements about 6700 m 3 . In addition the future amount of conditioned radioactive wastes with negligible heat generation was prognosticated. According to this forecast, the waste package volume will be approximately in the order of 218200 m 3 up to the year 2000. In 1986 a capacity of about 97500 m 3 for the interim storage of radioactive wastes was available in the Federal Republic of Germany. On December 31, 1986, this capacity was utilized by unconditioned and conditioned radioactive wastes at an average of about 38%. It may be concluded from the data on the expected amount of radioactive wastes with negligible heat generation and on the utilization factor of the interim storage facilities that no bottlenecks are to be assumed up to the planned operation of the Konrad repository. (orig./RB) [de

  3. Status of fast breeder reactor development in the Federal Republic of Germany, Belgium and the Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daeunert, U [Bundesministerium fuer Forschung und Technologie, Bonn (Germany); Kessler, G [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1978-07-01

    Problems of public acceptance of nuclear power have affected the development of fast breeder reactors in the Federal Republic of Germany. Besides cooperation with UK, USA and Japan, the most outstanding event in the field of international fast breeder cooperation was a set of the agreements between Germany and France. These agreements opened the possibility of joint fast breeder development by Germany together with Belgium and the Netherlands. Most activities on the site of Compact Sodium Cooled Nuclear Reactor KNK-II were concerned with commissioning of the plant and final construction work. Criticality was achieved in Oct. 1977 and low-power tests performed. This paper includes a description of the status of construction of SNR-300 reactor and the results of research and development programmes performed. These were concerned with fuel elements development and results of irradiation experiments; development of cladding materials and core element structural materials; interaction between fuel and cladding; sodium tests; development and verification of computer codes; experiments in fast critical assemblies; fast rector safety; core disruptive accidents; development of instrumentation; thermodynamics od fuel assemblies; fluid dynamics.

  4. Present and future use of TRIGA reactors in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menke, H.; Junker, D.; Krauss, O.

    1986-01-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany nine research reactors are presently in operation, three of which are TRIGA reactors. These are the TRIGA Mark I reactors at Hannover and Heidelberg with a steady state power of 250 kW and the TRIGA Mark II reactor at Mainz with a steady power of 100 kW and a peak pulsing power of 250 MW. The decommissioning of a number of research reactors, including the TRIGA Mark III reactor at Neuherberg near Munich, is reason enough to think about the present and future use of our reactors. The German TRIGA reactors met a lively interest of scientists, since they went into operation. Presently they are well used especially in biomedical (Hannover, Heidelberg) and basic research (Mainz). In the course of about 20 years of operation the techniques and requirements of experiments changed and consequently the use of the reactors too. Certainly this will be so in the future. But thanks to its versatile experimental facilities, this type of reactor can meet the various experimental demands. So we are looking forward to a good utilisation of our German TRIGA reactors in future and taking into account the low costs for personal, energy and fuel, we are quite confident that they will be in operation still for many years. (author)

  5. Road transport of LWR spent fuel in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bach, R.

    1987-01-01

    Since 1967, when fuel from LWRs was first transported by road from the Kahl reactor in the Federal Republic of Germany to the Eurochemic reprocessing plant in Belgium, a total of more than 400 road transports have been performed without any adverse effect on the environment. In the beginning, road transport was the dominant mode. However, in recent years large capacity rail flasks with a weight ranging from 80 to 110 tonnes have been put into service in order to cope with the increasing demand of transport services and to replace existing smaller flasks designed primarily for road transport. Therefore, the number of spent fuel transports by road has declined. However, road transport of heavy flasks from reactor sites without a direct rail link to a nearby rail terminal has become an important task and a number of special problems have had to be solved. The following items are discussed, with special emphasis placed on heavy load transports by road from the reactor to a nearby rail terminal: design of road transport equipment to meet the requirements of the national traffic law; application of technical and administrative procedures to meet the IAEA Regulations; transport restrictions due to overload/oversize; transfer of the flask from the reactor to the transport vehicle; handling of the flask at the rail terminal; turn-around inspection and periodic maintenance of equipment to ensure safe performance of transport; and physical protection during transport and handling at rail terminals. (author). 4 figs

  6. Status of Fast Breeder Reactor Development in the Federal Republic of Germany, Belgium and the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hüper, R.

    1988-01-01

    In 1967 and 1968, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Kingdom of Belgium and the Kingdom of the Netherlands (''DeBeNe'') agreed to develop breeder reactors in a joint program. The following research organizations have taken part in this effort: - Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK) - Interatom, Bergisch Gladbach Alkem, Hanau - SCK/CEN, Mol - Belgonucleaire, Brussels - ECN, Petten - TNO, Apeldoorn - Neratoom, The Hague. The first three institutions mentioned above have been associated in the Entwicklungsgemeinschaft Schneller Brüter since 1977. KfK, INTERATOM, and the French Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique entered into contracts in 1977 about close cooperation in the fast breeder field, to which the Belgian and Dutch partners acceded. The results of activities carried out by the DeBeNe partners in 1987 have been compiled in this report. The report begins with a survey of the fast reactor plants, which is followed by an R&D summary. In an additional chapter, a survey is given of international cooperation in 1987

  7. Report on nuclear power plant control and instrumentation activities in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastl, W.

    1986-01-01

    The overall situation in I and C of nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany can be characterized by three aspects. a) The improvement of man-machine communication by introducing integral information concepts for the control room by means of VDUs. b) Along with a) new data acquisition systems based upon process computers which facilitate the integration of operator aids like alarm analyses, disturbance analyses, post-mortem analyses, etc. c) The penetration of programmable processors into limitation systems in order to provide soft setback measures. d) The transition to I and C systems making use of the new generation of electronic components. The most important step towards advanced control rooms was the development of the Process Information System (PRINS) by KWU, which will be used with the German convoi-plants. The main emphasis regarding further R and D work in the field of operator aids is placed upon expert systems. Work will begin with a two years project aiming at the development of a basic module for a laboratory prototype

  8. The uses and abuses of participatory ideologies in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vranješ Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available After the formation of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY, the Communist Party of Yugoslavia (CPY has organized large work and youth actions aimed at rebuilding the country after the Second World War. The main hypothesis of this paper is that in Yugoslavia there was no participation in the true sense, but that there were mechanisms which represented the ideology of participation. Work actions had huge impact on rebuilding the land, but they were not voluntary - which is a basic requirement of modern theory of participation. Likewise, the term participation is further explained in this paper, in order to further explain the thesis of formal participation in the former Yugoslavia. Student protests in 1968 were not an isolated case of revolt against the system, the basic characteristics of popular revolt that had its roots back in the early sixties. The aim of this paper is theoretical analysis of the theory of participation and the basic characteristics of Yugoslavia, in order to show that the participation of the people in the exercise of power was just an illusion, ie. formal. Case Study about films of the sixties and seventies in Yugoslavia illustrates the processes of censorship and imposition of ideology of participation.

  9. Consequences of large-scale implementation of nuclear energy in the Federal Republic of Germany. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschen, H.; Tangen, H.; Wintzer, D.

    1978-10-01

    Three scenarios of the future installation of nuclear capacity in the Federal Republic of Germany are selected on the basis of assumptions concerning long-term demand of primary energy and other factors of influence for the expansion of nuclear energy. The corresponding demand for natural uranium, the requirements for separative work and fuel fabrication, and the situation with regard to reactor construction capacity are described. Because of the heavy dependence of the Federal Republic of Germany on uranium imports, the world-wide development of uranium demand and supply is discussed in some detail. For this purpose, the dependence of the yearly and cumulative uranium demand on the type and the time and speed of introducting of breeding or high converting reactors is analysed. The uranium demand situation and possible difficulties on the supply side are described against the background of uranium reserve and resource data. (orig.) [de

  10. Government-guided market regulation in the Federal Republic of Germany. Zur staatlichen Marktregulierung in der Bundesrepublik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soltwedel, R; Busch, A; Gross, A; Laaser, C F

    1987-01-01

    The major part of the expertise 'Deregulation Potentials in the Federal Republic of Germany' - theoretical fundaments, justifying analysis of the regulation and the proposals relating to deregulation - was published as 'Kieler Studie No. 202'. However, the synopsis of the relevant legal prescriptions of the regulation systems, the historical development courses of regulations, analytic excursions and statistical information about the structures of the markets could not be included in the investigation. This gap is now closed by the special issue 'Government-guided market regulation in the Federal Republic of Germany'. Among others, it deals with the regulation of the supplying industry: it shows the structures of the most important sections and the market-regulating acts of the government: competition-restricting instruments, price regulation by the government and the restraint to contract. (orig./HSCH).

  11. In-situ stress measurements - results of experiments performed at the ASSE salt mine - Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feddersen, H.K.

    1989-01-01

    High-level nuclear wastes are heat generating wastes. Heat will be transferred to the surrounding salt formation. This heating of the host rock will result in an increased temperature and in stress changes. From 1983 through 1985 two underground tests were conducted in the Asse Salt Mine (Federal Republic of Germany) in which, among others, thermally induced stress changes were investigated. These tests are discussed in this paper

  12. The bomb as option. Motivation for the development of a nuclear infrastructure in the Federal Republic of Germany until 1963

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanel, Tilmann

    2015-01-01

    The book on the motivation for the development of a nuclear infrastructure in the Federal Republic of Germany until 1963 discusses the following issues: History of the German reactor development during the time of the National Socialism and World War II, reactor research abroad (examples Sweden and Switzerland), protagonists and motivation (politics, science, economy, army), the development of a nuclear infrastructure, results and consequences of the German nuclear policy until 1963.

  13. Communication Received from the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The Director General has received a note verbale, dated 1 October 2002, from the Permanent Mission of the Federal Republic of Germany to the IAEA in the enclosure of which the Government of Germany, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in document INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998) has made available the data on the plutonium inventory on German territory as of 31 December 2001

  14. Communication Received from the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The Director General has received a note verbale, dated 1 October 2002, from the Permanent Mission of the Federal Republic of Germany to the IAEA in the enclosure of which the Government of Germany, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in document INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998) has made available the data on the plutonium inventory on German territory as of 31 December 2001

  15. Methods and practice in the evaluation of potential radiation exposure around nuclear installations in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, A.; Franzen, L.F.; Handge, P.; Meurin, G.

    1977-01-01

    The estimation and evaluation of potential radiation exposure around nuclear installations resulting from airborne and aquatic releases of radioactivity has always been included in the Nuclear Authorization Procedures (atomrechtliches Genehmigungsverfahren) in the Federal Republic of Germany. Basic investigations have shown that first of all the radiological burden is expected via the pathway of external radiation exposure. Since about 1970 the pasture - cow - milk -pathway has been accorded an increased importance by introducing a corresponding dose rate guideline for the thyroid burden. With the rapid increase of energy production from nuclear power plants, a detailed analysis of the environmental radiological burden possibly brought about by these facilities was inserted into the Nuclear Authorization Procedures. In order to estimate in detail the consequences resulting from the release of radioactivity, nowadays the potential radiation exposure for a site is evaluated for exposures resulting from airborne discharges and for exposures resulting from aquatic discharges. Furthermore, some other pathways of exposure depending on local characteristics are taken into account. Particularly, extensive inquiry is needed concerning the deposition of radionuclides and the reconcentration by food chains. The choice of appropriate parameters often is difficult as site-specific values are not available. The determination of critical population groups and critical persons and their behavioral or dietary habits results in comparable difficulties. Therefore, a site-independent model for the evaluation of the potential radiological exposure in the Federal Republic of Germany was worked out and submitted to the nuclear regulatory commission. Moreover, some other groups - among others the Radiation Protection Commission (Strahlenschutzkommission) and the Federal Health Office (Bundesgesundheitsamt) - are investigating by theory and experiment ecological procedures and parameters

  16. Status report on the use of nuclear energy in the Federal Republic of Germany 2015; Statusbericht zur Kernenergienutzung in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bredberg, Ines; Hutter, Johann; Kuehn, Kerstin; Niedzwiedz, Katarzyna; Philippczyk, Frank; Thoemmes, Achim

    2016-05-15

    Status report on the use of nuclear energy in the Federal Republic of Germany 2015 covers the following topics: electricity generation on Germany, nuclear power plants in Germany, research reactors, facilities of nuclear fuel supply and nuclear waste management.

  17. Coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. The 1st quarter 2016; Zur Lage des Kohlenbergbaus in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. 1. Vierteljahr 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-06-06

    The paper reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the 1st quarter of 2016. Statistical data are presented for mining, exports and imports of hard coal and lignite and for employees.

  18. Note to the Secretariat from the Permanent Mission of the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic to the International Organizations in Vienna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The document reproduces the Note received by the Director General from the Permanent Mission of the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic to the International Organizations in Vienna in connection with the dissolution of the CSFR on 31 December 1992

  19. Coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. The 1st quarter 2015; Zur Lage des Kohlenbergbaus in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. 1. Vierteljahr 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-07-07

    The paper reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the 1st quarter of 2015. Statistical data are presented for mining, exports and imports of hard coal and lignite and for employees.

  20. Coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. The 1st quarter 2017; Zur Lage des Kohlenbergbaus in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. 1. Vierteljahr 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-06-14

    The paper reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the 1st quarter of 2017. Statistical data are presented for mining, exports and imports of hard coal and lignite and for employees.

  1. Status and programme of development of the fast breeder reactor systems in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daeunert, U.; Kessler, G.

    1977-01-01

    Owing to the dependence of the Federal Republic of Germany on imports of raw materials for energy purposes, special importance is given to nuclear energy for reasons of energy policy. Against the background of a nuclear power station capacity amounting to 24,000 MWe in 1976 (power stations being either on order, under construction or actually in operation), the Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) has quite outstanding significance in this country where the economical utilization both of uranium and of the plutonium accumulating in light water reactors is concerned. Work in this sector started in the Federal Republic of Germany in 1960. Milestones on the path of development were the initial activities on the plutonium critical SNEAK at Karlsruhe, the successful operation of the KNK 20 MWe experimental reactor (sodium-cooling) with the KNK II (plutonium core) follow-up stage, the construction of the 300 MWe FBR prototype nuclear power station at Kalkar, as well as the initial planning work carried out in connection with a 1,300 MWe FBR demonstration nuclear power station. The provision of a viable infrastructure for safety assessment must go hand in hand with the development of new reactor systems. For this reason, prototype reactors in the Federal Republic of Germany are already subjected to the same strict licensing procedures under nuclear legislation as are commercial nuclear power stations. After several years' practical experience, it is becoming evident that this approach was the right one to take. Already early on, it was recognized in the Federal Republic of Germany that the execution of long-term technological major projects were increasingly exceeding the capacities of unaided development by single nations. The SNR 300 FBR prototype project combines the efforts of the governments, power supply companies, reactor manufacturers and nuclear research centres of the Federal Republic of Germany and of the Kingdoms of both Belgium and the Netherlands. The Agreement signed

  2. Amount of radioactive wastes in the Federal Republic of Germany - waste survey for the year 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennecke, P.; Schumacher, J.

    1989-06-01

    On December 31, 1988, about 69 800 waste packages - about 40 700 m 3 - were stored in interim storage facilities. The unconditioned radioactive wastes amounted to about 11 700 m 3 . The volume of the conditioned radioactive wastes amounted to about 40 700 m 3 . Of this, the waste from nuclear research centres made up about 16 300 m 3 , the waste from the operation of nuclear power plants about 12 900 m 3 and that from the reprocessing of spent fuel elements about 8 300 m 3 . A prognosis was also made of the future amount of conditioned radioactive wastes. According to this forecast, the cumulated waste package volume of radioactive wastes with negligible heat generation will be approximately in the order of 173 400 m 3 up to the year 2000, whereas for heat-generating radioactive wastes a volume of about 5 800 m 3 is estimated. These figures already express the waste volume reduction according to modern conditioning techniques. In 1988 a capacity of about 123 800 m 3 for the interim storage of radioactive wastes was available in the Federal Republic of Germany. On December 31, 1988, an average of about 37% of this capacity was utilized by unconditioned and conditioned radioactive wastes. From the data on the expected amount of radioactive wastes and on the utilization factor of the interim storage facilities, it may be concluded that, taking an overall view, no bottlenecks in the interim storage of radioactive wastes with negligible heat generation are to be anticipated up to the planned operation of the Konrad repository in 1994. (orig./HP) [de

  3. Materials and welding process development for nuclear application in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kussmaul, K.; Stoppler, W.; Sinz, R.

    1982-01-01

    The concept of Basis Safety was developed in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) in order to achieve exclusion of catastrophic failure of pressure boundary components in Light Water Reactors (LWRs). This concept provides redundant safeties both for long-term service as well as for an accident by improving toughness properties of the base material (BM), heat-affected zone (HAZ) and deposited metal (DM) of components with relevance safety. With the help of the welding simulation technique, the toughness properties in the HAZ was investigated as a function of stress-relief temperature. Submerged-arc welding (SAW) on heavy section components were investigated during and after welding. This helped to delineate boundary conditions for a computer code for the design and optimization of a joint and its HAZ. The advantage of the narrow gap technique is the extremely low amount of sensitive coarse grained zones. Processing tough filler materials with optimum weld parameters will provide excellent material properties at an elevated strength level in shape-welded heavy section components. The martensitic steel X 20 CrMoV 12 has an excellent weldability of the BM (HAZ without problems), but it has not been possible up to now, to achieve equal properties for the deposited material. This is also the case for martensitic welding. As far as austenitic steels are concerned the sulfur content had also to be lowered. Sufficient toughness had to be proved also in the case of impact loading for austenitic welded joints subsequent to thermal aging. Susceptibility to corrosion of individual austenitic materials and material conditions was investigated and remedies elaborated. 33 figures, 7 tables

  4. Planning and development of nuclear power programmes in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haunschild, H.H.

    1983-01-01

    The development of the peaceful utilization of nuclear science and technology in the Federal Republic of Germany started in 1955. It concentrated on the development of nuclear energy with its important potential for energy supply, in order to cover the growing energy demand of the recovering economy, and on the application of nuclear radiation and radioactive isotopes in various areas of science and technology such as biology, medicine, chemistry, physics, materials research and development. From the beginning, the nuclear energy programme was a joint undertaking of government, industry and science. To achieve the necessary impetus and to supplement the activities of industry and universities, several nuclear research centres, in particular at Juelich and Karlsruhe, were founded. This comprehensive approach was the basis for the following rapid development of nuclear technology, as well as for its competitive structure and its safety record. With regard to nuclear energy utilization for electricity generation, heat supply, and ship propulsion a broad range of reactor concepts such as light- and heavy-water reactors, high-temperature reactors, and fast-breeder reactors was examined. Today, nuclear energy meets about 17% of the country's electricity demand. Fifteen nuclear power plants with a capacity of about 10,000 MW(e) are in operation; 11 plants with a total capacity of about 12,000 MW(e) are under construction, and the construction of another 10 plants is definitely planned. Activities in uranium enrichment, fuel element fabrication, and reprocessing have reached the industrial stage. The paper indicates possible future trends of the nuclear programme. The successful development of a national nuclear energy programme goes in parallel with broad international co-operation. Therefore the efforts to re-establish a stable system for co-operation in nuclear commerce and technology, based on international safeguards, should be strengthened

  5. Types and treatment of sewage sludges: Practice in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabasaran, M.O.

    1975-01-01

    The sludge that is formed by the various processes in the sewage treatment plant consists mainly of water with a small amount of organic and inorganic suspended solids. It contains pathogenic agents and biological inhibitors, and must be prepared and brought into a form where it is less dangerous to the environment. The de-watering of the sludge is the first step in sludge handling. The solids content of the raw sludge, which is usually between 5 and 10%, can be increased by gravity thickening to 15%, by centrifuging or straining-band-pressing up to 30%, and by pressure-filtration up to 40%. The process of drying enables a substance with almost no moisture to be obtained. Generally the sludge will be either mixed before de-watering with coagulation agencies, or preheated, or its colloidal components biochemically oxidized in order to accelerate the withdrawal of the water. One of the most common methods of disposal is the transport of sludge to a land filling, usually together with the solid refuse of the community. For this purpose the moisture content of the sludge should not be more than 60 to 70 percent. The disposal of sludge into the sea can be practised in coastal towns, but the ecological effects of this kind of sludge removal are still disputed. More expedient is the agricultural utilization of sludge, particularly if the sludge is composted together with a carbon carrier such as city refuse which would make it a very suitable soil improver. In the Federal Republic of Germany the wet oxidation of sludge is applied in a few cases. The most common process is anaerobic alkaline digestion. The incineration of sludge is more economical than drying, but still too, expensive in comparison with other approved processes. (author)

  6. 5 February 2010: Romanian Former Minister of Justice V. Stoica (4th from left) visiting SM18 with, from left to right, University of Bucharest Faculty of Physics A. Costescu, DESY Hamburg C. Diaconu; Mrs Valeriu Stoica; Université de Montpellier II S. Ciulli; Technology Department Vacuum, Surfaces and Coatings group S. Ilie; Technology Department Head F. Bordry and Adviser for Russian Federation, Central and Eastern Europe T. Kurtyka.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2010-01-01

    5 February 2010: Romanian Former Minister of Justice V. Stoica (4th from left) visiting SM18 with, from left to right, University of Bucharest Faculty of Physics A. Costescu, DESY Hamburg C. Diaconu; Mrs Valeriu Stoica; Université de Montpellier II S. Ciulli; Technology Department Vacuum, Surfaces and Coatings group S. Ilie; Technology Department Head F. Bordry and Adviser for Russian Federation, Central and Eastern Europe T. Kurtyka.

  7. Financial potential and economic development trend of Chuvash Republic, Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubovtseva E.G.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available this article discusses the economic potential and development trend of Chuvash Republic. All important economic indicators of Chuvash Republic like, Gross Regional Production (GRP, employment, export, import, performance of credit organization, per capita income have been taken into consideration to analyze economic performance. This paper also shows how any increase in per capita income effects socio-economic condition. Finally, this paper proposes adequate and proper measures to improve the efficiency and effectiveness in policy formation and use of financial resources in Chuvash Republic on the basis of analysis. Only secondary source of data has been used for analysis.

  8. Agreement between the Swiss Federal Council and the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany on Radiation Protection in Case of Emergency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon,

    1978-12-01

    This Agreement, translated from German, was concluded by the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany and the Swiss Federal Council on 31 May 1978. In view of the risk of radioactive contamination of air and water which might arise from the operation of nuclear installations and the transport of nuclear material, and also because the population in the neighbouring country might be affected, in particular in the case of international transport, both Parties have undertaken to take a number of measures to meet this contingency. Both Governments will inform each other in case of a radioactive emergency on their territory which is likely to have harmful consequences for the neighbouring country. An appropriate information system will be set up in each country.

  9. Agreement of 13 December 1991 between the Republic of Argentina, the Federative Republic of Brazil, the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    The text of the Agreement (and the Protocol thereto) between the Republic of Argentina, the Federative Republic of Brazil, the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 7 December 1991 and signed in Vienna on 13 December 1991

  10. Environmentally harmful subventions in the Federal Republic of Germany. Economy. Updating for the year 2010; Umweltschaedliche Subventionen in Deutschland. Wirtschaft. Aktualisierte Ausgabe 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-11-15

    In the background paper under consideration, the Federal Environment Agency (Dessau-Rosslau, Federal Republic of Germany) reports on the following topics: (a) The most important environmentally harmful subsidies; (b) State of the art and development of environmentally harmful subsidies at a glance; (c) Environmentally oriented controlling of subsidies: The 'environmental check' for subsidies.

  11. Studies on sprout inhibition of onions by irradiation in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruenewald, T.

    1978-01-01

    The Federal Republic of Germany imports about 97% of the onions for human consumption, especially from the Netherlands and from 7 other countries. The onions are distributed for sale immediately without long storage in storehouses. Therefore the objective of this study was not primarily to clear the irradiation and storage processing but to obtain better information about the quality of imported irradiated onions and about the parameters influencing the quality. Seven varieties cultivated in Germany with different physical and sensory properties were irradiated with 10MeV electrons at doses of 5 or 10krad and stored at temperatures of +4, +9, +10 or +20 0 C. The time between harvest and irradiation and the storage conditions for this time were also varied. In all periods physical, chemical and sensory properties of fresh and cooked bulbs were tested and statistically analysed during the storage periods of 8 to 10 months after harvest. It could be demonstrated that a dose of 5krad of 10MeV electrons was high enough to inhibit sprouting in all varieties, independent of the storage conditions, if the irradiation was applied within 4 weeks after harvest. If more time elapsed between harvest and irradiation, reduced sprout suppression was obtained. The sensory quality of the onion bulbs, irradiated and stored for 8 months, was evaluated as only 1 or 2 points lower than at the beginning of storage, when tested as cooked vegetables. The influence of the variety and storage conditions on the properties was more evident than the influence of irradiation, apart from sprouting. However, the browning in the growth centre of the irradiated onion bulbs could not be ignored. Varying the time between harvest and irradiation had no effect, and different storage conditions demonstrated only that lower storage temperatures delayed the browning but did not prevent it. This will probably not influence the marketability of the onions and would be compensated by lower prices for the

  12. Federal Republic of Germany. Report 1 [Marine Radioecology. Current Research and Future Scope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldt, W.

    1967-01-01

    Present research program (long term): Radioactive waste disposal - Investigations under this programme take place in an area which might be used for disposal of low-level waste from European countries. The first step of the programme is to get an idea of the ecological situation which will be worked out in co-operation with the German Hydrographic Institute and the Institute of Hydrology and Fisheries Science of the University of Hamburg. Samples of benthic fauna, plankton and fish will be analysed on their content of 90 Sr and 137 Cs, to get information of the long-term contamination with radioactive fall-out. Further the samples will be analysed on their content of stable zinc, manganese, iron, cobalt, molybdenum and chromium. This enables us to calculate the maximum concentration factors for these elements. The distribution of species and the number of organisms at various depths provide an impression of vertical biological transport

  13. Nuclear energy in a densely populated and built-up country such as the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnenberg, H.; Eschhaus, M.; Hensel, W.; Kayser, J.

    1975-01-01

    Nuclear energy is absolutely necessary for the Federal Republic of Germany. By 1995, 75% of the energy used in that country for electricity production will be nuclear, which means an installed nuclear power of approximately 100 000 MW with all its nuclear infrastructure such as fuel fabrication, reprocessing, waste disposal and transport of a great deal of radioactive material between these services. Many sites are needed for these activities, including transport, which is, in fact, comprised of moving sites on special lines. Risk analysis is also needed for all this, the basis of which is the use of land in the western part of the country by population and industry. The Federal Republic of Germany is one of the most densely populated and built-up areas in the world. A computer program with a voluminous information system which stores all the relevant land-use data was written. A simulation program was also written to analyse the required regional capacity for transport of nuclear material in respect of different sites for power plants, reprocessing plants and waste disposal. This simulation program makes optimization with variable criteria. All the railway lines which can be used for heavy transport are stored in the computer as well as the traffic routes and rivers. The computer calculations show that, especially for selection of sites for reprocessing plants, the minimization of transport should be an important criterion in an intensely used country like the Federal Republic of Germany. The country will be forced to undertake detailed regional planning for the introduction of nuclear energy to achieve minimum risk to the population and minimum risk to the introduction itself. (author)

  14. DETERMINANTS OF UNSAFE HAMBURGER COOKING BEHAVIOR

    OpenAIRE

    Ralston, Katherine L.; Starke, Yolanda; Adu-Nyako, Kofi; Lin, Chung-Tung Jordan

    1998-01-01

    We used a national hamburger preparation survey to estimate a simultaneous equation model of food safety knowledge, attitudes, and hamburger cooking behavior. The results suggest that food safety risk perceptions, palatability attributes, and food safety knowledge play important roles in determining food preparation behavior.

  15. Cs-137 in roe-deer and other game species in the Federal Republic of Germany, 1986-1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fielitz, U.

    1993-01-01

    The radiocesium contamination of several game species of the Federal Republic in Germany was studied between 1986 - 1987. There were large variations in Cs-137 activity concentration in game meat, depending on it's origin: the minimum measured value was 2 Bq.kg -1 , the maximum was 5400 Bq.kg -1 . The cesium-contamination of roe-deer, which is a good bioindicator, decreases significantly (P -1 , at the investigation site Fuhrberg (Lower Saxony) there were 75 of 600 (13%). (orig.) [de

  16. Gas reactor international cooperative program interim report: United States/Federal Republic of Germany nuclear licensing comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    In order to compare US and FRG Nuclear Licensing, a summary description of United States Nuclear Licensing is provided as a basis. This is followed by detailed information on the participants in the Nuclear Licensing process in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). FRG licensing procedures are described and the rules and regulations imposed are summarized. The status of gas reactor licensing in both the U.S. and the FRG is outlined and overall conclusions are drawn as to the major licensing differences. An appendix describes the most important technical differences between US and FRG criteria

  17. Evaluation of operating experience: The precursor study (GPS) performed in the Federal Republic of Germany. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Probabilistic Safety Assessments (PSAs) are systematic and quantitative predictions of possible accident scenarios at technical installations on the basis of data gained from the past experience on similar technical installations. For supporting PSAs by operational experience as far as possible Precursor studies are performed. An Accident Sequence Precursor is defined as an observed event which could results, in coincidence with additional postulated events, in a potential severe core damage accident. In the presented case study the procedure of such Precursor studies is explained. Particularly, the methodology and the results of the plant-specific Precursor (GPS) performed in the Federal Republic of Germany are shown in detail. 26 refs, 13 figs, 8 tabs

  18. Evaluation of operating experience: The precursor study (GPS) performed in the Federal Republic of Germany. Working material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-12-31

    Probabilistic Safety Assessments (PSAs) are systematic and quantitative predictions of possible accident scenarios at technical installations on the basis of data gained from the past experience on similar technical installations. For supporting PSAs by operational experience as far as possible Precursor studies are performed. An Accident Sequence Precursor is defined as an observed event which could results, in coincidence with additional postulated events, in a potential severe core damage accident. In the presented case study the procedure of such Precursor studies is explained. Particularly, the methodology and the results of the plant-specific Precursor (GPS) performed in the Federal Republic of Germany are shown in detail. 26 refs, 13 figs, 8 tabs.

  19. Status of fast breeder reactor development in the Federal Republic of Germany, Belgium and the Netherlands - January 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueper, R.

    1986-01-01

    In 1967 and 1968, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Kingdom of Belgium and the Kingdom of the Netherlands (DeBeNe) agreed to develop breeder reactors in a joint program. The French Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique entered into contracts in 1977 about dose cooperation in the fast breeder field. The results of activities carried out by DeBeNe partners in 1985 have been compiled in this report. The report begins with a survey of the fast reactor plants followed by the R and D summary. In an additional chapter, a survey is given of international cooperation in 1985

  20. Strontium measurement results from the Federal Republic of Germany and from Switzerland after the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neu, A.; Goll, L.; Voelkle, H.; Winter, M.

    1987-10-01

    The Working Group Environmental Monitoring (AKU) of Fachverband fuer Strahlenschutz e.V. (Radiation Protection Association) performed an inquiry about the time after the Chernobyl reactor accident concerning the results of strontium-90 measurements carried out for the territories of the Federal Republic of Germany and Switzerland. The data suppliers listed in the report furnished to AKU results of Sr-90 measurements made on approximately 1000 samples in total. The individual measuring results have been entered into separate tables in a uniform representation. The tables also include the results of Sr-89-measurements as well as the Cs-137/Sr-90 ratios as far as they were available. The results of measurements presented here taken together prove that contamination with Sr-90 of the environmental media including food as a result of the Chernobyl fallout were only low in the Federal Republic of Germany and in Switzerland compared with the contamination due to the nuclides I-/131 and Cs-137. The same applies to the amount of Sr-90 transferred into the soil as compared with the level of existing contamination due to nuclear weapons fallout which has accumulated since the 60ies. (orig.) [de

  1. FEATURES OF PRICING OF THE MORTGAGE MARKET IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA (Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana KASYANENKO

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the study is determined by the importance of the market of mortgage loans as the main instrument of social policy. The aim of the article is to identify the relationship between the volume of mortgage loans and the value of residential real estate on both the primary and secondary markets. The article consists of two parts. The main objective of the first part of this article is to clarify the concepts and features of mortgage loans, and identification of peculiarities of mortgage loans in the Russian Federation and the Republic of Moldova. The methodological basis of the work is made up of methods of analysis and synthesis, the combination of logical and historical approaches, methods of economic comparison and statistical analysis. The result of the study of the first part of the article is to identify the stages of development of mortgage loans in the Russian Federation, an analysis of prices in the primary and secondary markets of residential property on the basis of aggregate statistical indicators that reflect the status and characteristics of the housing market. The Russian experience is correlated with the peculiarities of the development of the mortgage market in the Republic of Moldova.

  2. Study the Attitude, Knowledge and Experience of Coaches of Karate Federation Islamic Republic Of Iran toward Sport Psychology Counseling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahnaz Sheikh Rahmati

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was study the attitude, knowledge and experience of coaches of Karate Federation Islamic Republic of Iran toward sport psychology counseling. For this purpose, 150 official coaches (75 women and 75 men of karate Federation of Islamic Republic of Iran who had grade 1 and 2 of certified coach and had participated in the senior Championships of Iran, championship adolescents of young people and under 21 years, national team qualifiers and teams participating in premier League, had participated in this research as individual. In order to collect the required information the researcher made and the research questionnaire Sports coaches on sports psychology was used. Research results by using a two variable Pearson correlation coefficient showed that there is meaningful relationship between experience and attitude to sport psychology consulting and as well as between knowledge and attitudes toward sport psychology consulting that is (p=0.001,p=0.001 respectively. also results of research using independent t-tests showed that there is not meaningful relationship between male and female attitudes towards sport psychology consulting (p=0.207 while there is meaningful difference between adult and youth educators' attitudes towards sports psychology counseling (p=0.001. It seems that according to common concerns that exist between coaches and athletes perhaps existence sport psychology can be effective to athletes and coaches in reducing stress and achieve the desired result.

  3. 2 April 2014 - H. E. Mr Joachim Gauck, President of the Federal Republic of Germany in the ATLAS experimental cavern with Director-General R. Heuer.

    CERN Multimedia

    Brice, Maximilien

    2014-01-01

    in the ATLAS cavern: Minister of State at the Federal Foreign Office M. Böhmer (green jacket) and Mrs daniela Schadt (First Lady). 201404-069_39.jpg: State Secretary, Federal Ministry of Education and Research G. Schütte, Minister of State at the Federal Foreign Office M. Böhmer, President Gauck, CERN DG, State Secretary, Chief of the Federal President´s Office D. Gill and Ambassador of the Federal Republic of Germany to the Swiss Confederation O. Lampe.

  4. Federal Republic of Germany R and D programme: A special issue of the journal radioactive waste management and the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merz, E.R.

    1986-01-01

    This book examines the issues of radioactive waste management and the nuclear fuel cycle in the Federal Republic of Germany. Topics considered include the challenges of waste handling and disposal, the borosilicate glass for Pamela, the treatment and conditioning of transuranelement bearing wastes in the Federal Republic of Germany, conditioning of low and intermediate level wastes, volume reduction of low level solid radioactive waste by incineration and compaction in the Federal Republic of Germany, MAW test emplacement in boreholes, treatment and disposal of special radioactive wastes comprising tritium, carbon 14, krypton 85 and iodine 129, and the German Project: ''Safety Studies for Nuclear Waste Management: Development of Safety Assessment Methodology for Final Disposal of Nuclear Waste in a Salt Dome

  5. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of Estonia and the Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Article 17.a. of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) provides that the Additional Protocol shall come into force on the date on which the Agency receives from the Community and the Signatory States written notification that their respective requirements for entry into force have been met. Article 23(a) of INFCIRC/193 provides the means for non-signatory States of the Additional Protocol to express their consent to be bound by the Additional Protocol

  6. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of Estonia and the Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Article 17.a. of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) provides that the Additional Protocol shall come into force on the date on which the Agency receives from the Community and the Signatory States written notification that their respective requirements for entry into force have been met. Article 23(a) of INFCIRC/193 provides the means for non-signatory States of the Additional Protocol to express their consent to be bound by the Additional Protocol [es

  7. AFM annual report 1983 (Petroleum Industry). [Export Federation for Mineral Oil, Federal Republic of Germany]. AFM Jahresbericht 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    The annual report 1983 of the Export Federation for Mineral Oil (AFM) contains informations about the mineral oil economics, the market development for selected main products and the environmental protection. The AFM terms (standard conditions for barge transactions) for the mineral oil industry are given. The AFM Oil Market Report Daily has extended the frame of its reports in 1983.

  8. Agreement of 13 December 1991 between the Republic of Argentina, the Federative Republic of Brazil, the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the applications of safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of an Agreement by exchange of letters with the Federative Republic of Brazil in connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean. The agreement reflected in the Exchange of Letters was approved by the Board of Governors on 10 June 1997 and entered into force on that date

  9. Ethnical distance of the citizens of Republika Srpska and the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina to the nations of former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puhalo Srđan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the study of Ethnical distance with the citizens of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The study was made using Bogardus' scale of social distance, on 1000 interviewees of the Federation of BiH and 850 interviewees of Republika Srpska. The citizens of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina reject the Romas the most, followed by the Albanians and Macedonians. This is followed by the Serbs and Montenegrians, while Slovenians and Croats are the least rejected. Prejudices of the citizens of Bosnia and Herzegovina to the Romas, Albanians, and Macedonians are much more important for the rejection or accepting of offered relations, than it was the case with open hostility and war conflicts with the Serbs, Montenegrians, and Croats. In the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina a distinction is made in the degree of ethnical distance of Bosniaks and Croats to the nations who lived in the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Offered relations are more rejected by the Croats than by the Bosniaks. The citizens of Republika Srpska accept the Muslims (Bosniaks and Romas the least. This is followed by the Croats, Slovenians, and Macedonians, and the Montenegrians are rejected the least. The citizens of Republika Srpska refuse that they or the members of their family marry a member of another nation. Thus they object any possibility for the members of other nations to be found on managing position, or any situation where they themselves would be in a subordinate position in society in relation to the members of other nationalities.

  10. External quality-control surveys of peptide hormone radioimmunoassays in the Federal Republic of Germany. The present status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breuer, H.; Jungbluth, D.; Roehle, G.; Marschner, I.; Scriba, P.C.; Wood, W.G.

    1978-01-01

    Two types of quality-control survey (QCS) of hormone assays are performed in the Federal Republic of Germany. In the one survey, the participating laboratories are requested to determine seven or eight different hormones in two lyophilized sera that are distributed several times a year. Because of the lack of reference methods for peptide hormones, the statistical evaluation of the results indicates only whether they are ''correct'' or subject to systematic or nonsystematic errors with respect to the findings of the other participants. In the other survey, the participating laboratories are requested to assay only one given hormone in some 20 deep-frozen sera (including standards in hormone-free sera for derivation of a standard curve) that are distributed at relatively long intervals. The statistical analysis of the data derived from these QCSs allows - together with the methodological inquiry form - detection of probable causes for discrepancies in the results. (author)

  11. Regulations and control of fuel reprocessing plants in the Federal Republic of Germany with regard to environmental effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    The principles of radiation protection in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) are reviewed. These principles are based on ICRP recommendations and are laid down in the Atomgesetz (Atomic Energy Act, 1959) and in the Strahlenschutzverordnung (Radiological Protection Ordinance, 1976). The licencing procedure in the FRG is outlined together with the extent of the information on environmental protection to be submitted by the applicant for a licence. Information is required about the site, safety against external and internal hazards, control of occupational radiation exposure, control of gaseous and liquid effluents, environmental dose limits and accident situations. The methods used to monitor releases to the environment are briefly discussed. Finally, figures for occupational and general public exposure in respect of the operation of the WAK reprocessing facility at Karlsruhe are given

  12. Regionally differentiated air pollution control regulations in the installation-related emission control law of the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buettner, T.W.

    1992-01-01

    The volume treats an issue from the boundary zone between environmental law and environmental economics, namely the regionalization of air pollution control standards in installation-related emission control law. In order to examine the question of whether this proposal, which originates in the field of environmental economics, can be adopted and is purposeful, the author initially performs a complete inventorization of applicable norms, this covering emission control law, the law of regional planning, and the provisions of international law. This status quo is then reviewed using conformity and optimization criteria developed by the political sciences. The assessment comes to the conclusion that the introduction of regionally differentiated air pollution control standards is not desirable. The author further submits proposals for the streamlining of the law of installation-related air pollution control in the Federal Republic of Germany. (orig.) [de

  13. Satisfaction with the quality of stroke care in the Russian Federation and the People's Republic of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on comparing and analyzing the satisfaction of quality of medical care for patients with acute stroke in the Russian Federation (RF and the People’s Republic of China (PRC to identify major problems and the most successful organizational solutions in the system of medical care for patients with stroke. The analysis of differences was performed by the following parameters: quality of care in hospital assessed by patients; the attitude of the medical and nursing staff and the physician to patients (assessed by patients; timely diagnosis and treatment; the level of staff qualifications assessed by patients; satisfaction with the outcome of treatment; availability and volume of conversations held with the patient about the nature and causes of the disease; test results by the life quality scale EQ-5D.

  14. Importance and topical problems of the industry of the nuclear fuel cycle in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warrikoff, A.

    1987-01-01

    32 companies belong to the industrial association 'Kernbrennstoffkreislauf e.V.'. They do business in the nuclear fuel cycle in the Federal Republic of Germany. This field comprises the different forms of dealing with nuclear fuels and the materials from which they are made, including the radioactive wastes resulting from the use of nuclear fuels, with the exception of the handling of such materials in nuclear power plants. Some 5000 persons - subcontractors not counted - are employed in this branch of industry. Turnover amounts to about 2 billion Deutsch Marks yearly. But it is a branch of industry that is important beyond the figures mentioned. Its existence constitutes the precondition for building, operating, and exporting nuclear power plants. This paper is concerned particularly with some topical political problems. (orig./UA) [de

  15. Protocol between the Russian Federation and the International Atomic Energy Agency Additional to the Agreement between the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The text of the Protocol between the Russian Federation and the International Atomic Energy Agency Additional to the Agreement between the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Protocol on 21 March 2000. It was signed on 22 March 2000 in Vienna. Pursuant to Article 11 of the Additional Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on 16 October 2007, the date on which the Agency received from the Russian Federation written notification that the procedures of the Russian Federation required for entry into force had been met

  16. Protocol between the Russian Federation and the International Atomic Energy Agency Additional to the Agreement between the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The text of the Protocol between the Russian Federation and the International Atomic Energy Agency Additional to the Agreement between the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Protocol on 21 March 2000. It was signed on 22 March 2000 in Vienna. Pursuant to Article 11 of the Additional Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on 16 October 2007, the date on which the Agency received from the Russian Federation written notification that the procedures of the Russian Federation required for entry into force had been met [es

  17. Coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. Year 2016; Zur Lage des Kohlenbergbaus in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Jahr 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-03-03

    The paper reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2016. Statistical data are presented for coal market, brown coal mining as well as the hard coal mining. These data consider the supply and demand of coal in Germany, and employees of the German coal industry.

  18. Situation of coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany. Year 2014; Zur Lage des Kohlenbergbaus in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Jahr 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-03-10

    The paper reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2014. Statistical data are presented for coal market, brown coal mining as well as the hard coal mining. These data consider the supply and demand of coal in Germany, and employees of the German coal industry.

  19. Coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. Year 2015; Zur Lage des Kohlenbergbaus in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Jahr 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-03-08

    The paper reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2015. Statistical data are presented for coal market, brown coal mining as well as the hard coal mining. These data consider the supply and demand of coal in Germany, and employees of the German coal industry.

  20. Coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. Year 2017; Zur Lage des Kohlenbergbaus in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Jahr 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2018-03-12

    The paper reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2017. Statistical data are presented for coal market, brown coal mining as well as the hard coal mining. These data consider the supply and demand of coal in Germany, and employees of the German coal industry.

  1. Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 2010; Der Kohlenbergbau in der Energiewirtschaft der Bundesrepublik Deutschland im Jahre 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-15

    The contribution under consideration reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2010. Statistical data are presented for the power market and coal market, brown coal mining as well as the hard coal mining. These data consider the energy consumption in Germany, power production, iron and steel production, utilization, re-cultivation and employees.

  2. Environmentally harmful subventions in the Federal Republic of Germany. Updating for the year 2016; Umweltschaedliche Subventionen in Deutschland. Aktualisierte Ausgabe 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koeder, Lea; Burger, Andreas

    2016-12-15

    The contribution on environmentally harmful subventions in the Federal Republic of Germany (Updating for the year 2016) includes the following issues: Why the reduction of environmentally harmful subventions is necessary; subventions and related processes; international initiatives for the reduction of environmentally harmful subventions, routes for the reduction of environmentally harmful subventions.

  3. Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 2013; Der Kohlenbergbau in der Energiewirtschaft der Bundesrepublik Deutschland im Jahre 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-11-15

    The contribution under consideration reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2013. Statistical data are presented for the power market and coal market, hard coal mining as well as the brown coal mining. These data consider the energy consumption in Germany, power production, iron and steel production, utilization, re-cultivation and employees.

  4. Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 2014; Der Kohlenbergbau in der Energiewirtschaft der Bundesrepublik Deutschland im Jahre 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-11-15

    The contribution under consideration reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2014. Statistical data are presented for the power market and coal market, hard coal mining as well as the brown coal mining. These data consider the energy consumption in Germany, power production, iron and steel production, utilization, re-cultivation and employees.

  5. Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 2016; Der Kohlenbergbau in der Energiewirtschaft der Bundesrepublik Deutschland im Jahre 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-11-15

    The contribution under consideration reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2016. Statistical data are presented for the power market and coal market, hard coal mining as well as the brown coal mining. These data consider the energy consumption in Germany, power production, iron and steel production, utilization, re-cultivation and employees.

  6. Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 2015; Der Kohlenbergbau in der Energiewirtschaft der Bundesrepublik Deutschland im Jahre 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-11-15

    The contribution under consideration reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2015. Statistical data are presented for the power market and coal market, hard coal mining as well as the brown coal mining. These data consider the energy consumption in Germany, power production, iron and steel production, utilization, re-cultivation and employees.

  7. Licensing and regulatory control of nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obenhaus, W.

    1976-01-01

    The paper deals with the legal background, the role of the 'Bund' (Federation) and the 'Laender' (States) in the field of atomic energy and radiation protection law and the licensing procedure for nuclear power plants. (RW) [de

  8. Nuclear fuels imports and exports of the Federal Republic of Germany 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The statistics compiled by the Federal Office for the Economy (Bundesamt fuer Wirtschaft) on behalf of the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Reactor Safety of the imports and exports of nuclear fuels and source material in 1989 show a drop in imports by 29.5% and a considerable increase in exports by 104%. For comparison, the relevant figures of the preceding year are given in brackets throughout this statistical survey. (orig.) [de

  9. Optimum use of CDOT French and Hamburg data (French and Hamburg tests).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The Colorado Department of Transportation (CDOT) has been collecting data from the Hamburg Rutter and the : French Rutter for over 20 years. No specifications have been written in that time for either the Hamburg Rutter : or the French Rutter. This r...

  10. Climate change experiments in Hamburg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubasch, U [DKRZ, Hamburg (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    Nowadays the anthropogenic climate change is been simulated world wide with a fair number of coupled ocean atmosphere general circulation models (IPCC, 1995). Typical model problems do not only blur the estimates of the anthropogenic climate change, but they also cause errors in the estimates of the natural variability. An accurate representation of the natural variability of the climate system is, however, essential for the detection of the anthropogenic climate change. All model simulations world wide show, even though they differ considerably in their technical details and the experimental setup and the forcing data, similar amplitudes and pattern of the predicted climate change. In the model world it is already at the beginning of the next century possible to detect the anthropogenic climate change in the global mean. If the model results are applied in a `fingerprint analysis`, then it is possible to prove that the climate change during the last 30 years is with a significance of 95 % larger than any other climate change during the last 100 years. The experiments performed in Hamburg show that the experimental conditions are of great importance for the estimate of the future climate. The usual starting point of most of the simulations with present day conditions (1980-1990) is too late, because then a considerable part of the warming since the beginning of the industrialization (ca. 1750) has been neglected. Furthermore it has only recently become clear that the sulphat-aerosols play an important role in the present day climate and in the future climate. The effect of the sulphat aerosols has first been simulated in a number of equilibrium simulations with mixed layer models, but nowadays with globally coupled ocean-atmosphere circulation models

  11. Climate change experiments in Hamburg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubasch, U. [DKRZ, Hamburg (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    Nowadays the anthropogenic climate change is been simulated world wide with a fair number of coupled ocean atmosphere general circulation models (IPCC, 1995). Typical model problems do not only blur the estimates of the anthropogenic climate change, but they also cause errors in the estimates of the natural variability. An accurate representation of the natural variability of the climate system is, however, essential for the detection of the anthropogenic climate change. All model simulations world wide show, even though they differ considerably in their technical details and the experimental setup and the forcing data, similar amplitudes and pattern of the predicted climate change. In the model world it is already at the beginning of the next century possible to detect the anthropogenic climate change in the global mean. If the model results are applied in a `fingerprint analysis`, then it is possible to prove that the climate change during the last 30 years is with a significance of 95 % larger than any other climate change during the last 100 years. The experiments performed in Hamburg show that the experimental conditions are of great importance for the estimate of the future climate. The usual starting point of most of the simulations with present day conditions (1980-1990) is too late, because then a considerable part of the warming since the beginning of the industrialization (ca. 1750) has been neglected. Furthermore it has only recently become clear that the sulphat-aerosols play an important role in the present day climate and in the future climate. The effect of the sulphat aerosols has first been simulated in a number of equilibrium simulations with mixed layer models, but nowadays with globally coupled ocean-atmosphere circulation models

  12. Public and political issues in radioactive waste management in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neis, A.

    1993-01-01

    The Federal Government's radioactive waste management concept and regulations governing formal public participation in licensing procedures for radioactive waste management facilities are presented. The paper focuses on public and political issues arising from widely diverging views in different social groups on nuclear energy and on radioactive waste management. The resulting conflict between Federal and Laender (Federal constituent states) authorities and the actual course of public participation in a licensing procedure are illustrated with the example of planned final disposal of radioactive waste in the Konrad mine. Major national efforts to overcome the unsatisfying present situation are presented and the role of international consensus is briefly touched. Concluding remarks will particularly justify admissibility and emphasize the need to discuss and eventually decide on radioactive waste management issues regardless of diverging views on nuclear energy

  13. Radiation protection laws, competences and organizational structures in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peinsipp, N.

    1990-01-01

    This paper points out the priorities and peculiarities of German radiation protection laws. With the coming into force of the unification agreement, the Atomic Energy Act, the Radiation Protection Ordinance, and the X-Ray Ordinance became valid in the five new Federal States and Berlin, with slight deviations and amendments. Radiation protection law is Federal law adapted to EC law, with several variations, such as the minimization rule in section 28, para 1, Radiation Protection Ordinance, compared to the ALARA principle, or lower partial body dose limits. The paper discusses licensing and protective regulations; the terms' officer responsible for radiation protection' and 'officer in charge of radiation protection'; radiation pass; physical radiation monitoring, and medical follow-up checks as well as governmental control functions and competences; executive functions of the Federal Government; import and export; Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz; transportation of radioactive materials; radioactive waste management. The annex comprises several tables to illustrate the aforesaid. (HSCH) [de

  14. Radionuclide imports and exports of the Federal Republic of Germany 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The statistics compiled by the Federal Office for the Economy (Bundesamt fuer Wirtschaft) on behalf of the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Reactor Safety of the imports and exports of radionuclides, irradiation samples, and sealed emitters above 1850 GBq in 1989 show an increase, in terms of radioactivity, in imports by 44.7% and a considerable drop in exports by 48%. The level of imports even exceeds that of 1986, which had been the highest import figure till then, while exports are at the lowest level for years. (orig.) [de

  15. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Article 17.a. of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) provides that the Additional Protocol shall come into force on the date on which the Agency receives from the Community and the Signatory States written notification that their respective requirements for entry into force have been met. Article 23(a) of Inference/193 provides the means for non-signatory States of the Additional Protocol to express their consent to be bound by the Additional Protocol [es

  16. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in the Annex to this document for the information of all Members. The Additional Protocol was approved by the Board of Governors on 11 June 1998. It was signed in Vienna on 22 September 1998

  17. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Article 17.a. of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) provides that the Additional Protocol shall come into force on the date on which the Agency receives from the Community and the Signatory States written notification that their respective requirements for entry into force have been met. Article 23(a) of INFCIRC/193 provides the means for non-signatory States of the Additional Protocol to express their consent to be bound by the Additional Protocol

  18. 1988 nuclear fuel imports and exports of the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    The statistic of imports and exports of nuclear fuels and source materials compiled by the Federal Office for Industry on behalf of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, and Reactor Safety show a 32.3% decrease in imports and a 17.6% increase in exports in 1988 compared to the previous year. Most of the imports are made up of source materials, natural uranium, and uranium enriched up to 10%. The term 'source material' as used in these statistics refers only to uranium concentrate. A considerable increase is reported in imports of uranium enriched 3 to 10% and of plutonium. All other products have suffered major or minor decreases. (orig.)

  19. 1987 nuclear fuel imports and exports of the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    The statistics of imports and exports of nuclear fuels and source materials compiled by the German Federal Office for Industry (Bundesamt fuer Wirtschaft) and the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Protection of Nature, and Reactor Safety (Bundesministerium fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit) shows a 29.1% increase in imports and a 16.9% decrease of exports in 1987 compared to the previous year. A major rise was experienced in imports of natural uranium, uranium enriched up to 3% and to 3-10%, and plutonium, while there was a decline in imports of depleted uranium, source materials, and more highly enriched uranium. Uranium enriched 3-10%, highly enriched uranium, and plutonium were exported in larger quantities, while only smaller quantities of depleted uranium, source materials, natural uranium, uranium enriched up to 3%, and uranium enriched 10-85% were exported. (orig.) [de

  20. The safety analysis report for nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohler, H.A.G.

    1976-01-01

    On the basis of the standard format for drawing up safety analysis reports for stationary fission reactors - this format was published in 1959 by the competent Federal Ministry for Atomic Energy - a report is made on the format and scope of German safety analysis reports. The reasons for drawing up a standard safety analysis report for nuclear power plants with pressurized water reactor or boiling water reactor and a KWU draft are discussed. (orig./RW) [de

  1. Dying forests and environmental policy in the Federal Republic of Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaertner, E.

    1984-01-01

    A survey is given on extent and causes of the dying forests in the Federal Republik of Germany and the scientific hypotheses of agents are discussed. The author focuses on the reasons of the widespread disease of forests and reviews from a historical-materialistic point of view the history of foresty and the coherences between industrial pollution and forest damages. A balance of the environmental policy since 1960 is given.

  2. The design of nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany as regards aircraft accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    On the basis of investigation results of aircraft crashes for the Federal territory and site assessment data of the Ministry of the Interior, air traffic does not present a notable hazard for a nuclear power plant. As a precautionary measure for reducing the remaining risk, design requirements for LWRs were developed which, independently of existing aircraft types, contain mainly an abstract predetermination of an idealized impact load - time diagramme. (HP) [de

  3. Agreement of 13 December 1991 between the Republic of Argentina, the Federative Republic of Brazil, the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Exchange of Letters concerning an agreement with the Federative Republic of Brazil in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons and the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean. The agreement reflected in the Exchange of Letters was approved by the Board of Governors on 20 September 1999, and entered into force on that date

  4. Earthquakes in the territory of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Seismic activity in the territory of the Federal Republik of Germany with marginal areas in 1981 was low on the whole; in accordance with the maximum intensity observed-category VI - no damage was recorded. As compared to the previous years only few and predominantly slight events occured in the areas known for their proneness to earthquakes: local magnitudes of M1 0 N - 55 0 N and 5 0 E - 15 0 E and corresponded to the magnitude M1 >= 2.0 or were recorded macroseismically. (orig./HP) [de

  5. Licensing and regulatory control of nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obenhaus, W.

    1977-01-01

    The lecture is divided into three parts: 1) the legal conception and requirements of the German Atomic Energy Law (with special view on construction and operation of nuclear power plants), 2) the role of the Federation ('Bund') and the 'Laender' in the field of atomic energy and the Radiation Protection Ordinance (especially for licensing and supervision of nuclear power plants), 3) the function, participants, types and sequence of the strongly formalised licensing procedure for nuclear power plants, technical assessment in the frame of this procedure, content of a licence, possibility for altering the licence at a later date, role of administrative courts, continual supervision. (orig./HP) [de

  6. Hamburg: privaatrechtelijk paradijsje aan de Aussenalster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hondius, E.H.

    2005-01-01

    In dit verslag wil ik mij beperken tot een beschrijving van mijn ervaringen aan het Max Planck Institut te Hamburg. Dat instituut telt een kleine honderd 'vaste' juridische onderzoekers, voornamelijk uit Duitsland, maar ook uit Frankrijk, Griekenland, Iran, Italië en Rusland. Nederlandse

  7. Concepts for the interim storage of spent fuel elements from research reactors in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niephaus, D.; Bensch, D.; Quaassdorff, P.; Plaetzer, S.

    1997-01-01

    Research reactors have been operated in the Federal Republic of Germany since the late fifties. These are Material Test Reactors (MTR) and training, Research and Isotope Facilities of General Atomic (TRIGA). A total of seven research reactors, i.e. three TRIGA and four MTR facilities were still in operation at the beginning of 1996. Provisions to apply to the back-end of the fuel cycle are required for their continued operation and for already decommissioned plants. This was ensured until the end of the eighties by the reprocessing of spent fuel elements abroad. In view of impeding uncertainties in connection with waste management through reprocessing abroad, the development of a national back-end fuel cycle concept was commissioned by the Federal Minister of Education, Science, Research and Technology in early 1990. Development work was oriented along the lines of the disposal concept for irradiated light-water reactor fuel elements from nuclear power plants. Analogously, the fuel elements from research reactors are to be interim-stored on a long-term basis in adequately designed transport and storage casks and then be directly finally disposed without reprocessing after up to forty years of interim storage. As a first step in the development of a concept for interim storage, several sites with nuclear infrastructure were examined and assessed with respect to their suitability for interim storage. A reasonably feasible reference concept for storing the research reactor fuel elements in CASTOR MTR 2 transport and storage casks at the Ahaus interim storage facility (BZA) was evaluated and the hot cell facility and AVR store of Forschungszentrum Juelich (KFA) were proposed as an optional contingency concept for casks that cannot be repaired at Ahaus. Development work was continued with detailed studies on these two conceptual variants and the results are presented in this paper. (author)

  8. The current state of external quality control surveys in the German Federal Republic in the field of peptide hormone radioimmunoassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marschner, I.; Scriba, P.C.; Wood, W.G.; Breuer, H.; Jungbluth, D.; Roehle, G.

    1977-01-01

    Two types of quality control surveys (QSC) are performed in the Federal Republic of Germany in the field of hormone assays: 1) The distribution of two lyophilized sera at regular intervals, in which the participants have to determine 7 or 8 different hormones. Because of the lack of reference methods for peptide hormones, the statistical evaluation of the results indicates only whether the results of the participants are 'correct' or contain systematic or nonsystematic errors with respect to the findings of the other participants. 2) The distribution of approximately 20 deep-frozen sera (including a standard curve in hormone-free serum) in which the participant has to assay a single hormone. These 20 sera-QCS are performed only at long intervals for a given hormone. The statistical analysis of the rate of the radioactive counts of the QCS-sera and those of the participants' standard curves allows - together with a methodological inquiry form - detection of probable causes for deviating results. (orig.) [de

  9. Nuclear fuel in water reactors: Manufacturing technology, operational experience and development objectives in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzer, R.; Knoedler, D.

    1977-01-01

    The nuclear fuel industry in the Federal Republic of Germany comprises the full range of manufacturing capabilities for pressurized-, boiling- and heavy-water reactor technology. The existing manufacturing companies are Reaktor-Brennelement Union (RBU) and Alkem. RBU makes natural and enriched UO 2 -fuel assemblies, starting with powder preparation. Facilities to produce UO 2 -gadolinia and UO 2 -ThO 2 fuel are also available. Alkem manufactures mixed-oxide UO 2 /PuO 2 fuel and fuel rods. Zircaloy cladding tubes are produced by Nuklearrohr-Gesellschaft (NRG) and Mannesmannroehren-Werke (MRW). Construction of a new fuel manufacturing plant has been announced by Exxon. Supplementary to quality control, an integrated quality assurance system has been established between the reactor vendor's fuel design and engineering division and the existing manufacturing companies for fuel and tubing. Operating experience with LWR and HWR fuel dates back to 1964/65 and has shown good performance. Possible reasons for a small fraction of defective rods could be identified quickly by a fast feedback system incorporating close co-operation between Kraftwerk Union (KWU) and the utilities. KWU combines fuel development, hot-cell and pool-side service facilities as well as fuel technology linked to manufacturing. The responsibility of KWU for core and fuel design, which enabled an integral optimization, was also an important reason for the successful operation and design flexibility. (author)

  10. Status of fast breeder reactor development in the Federal Republic of Germany, Belgium and Netherlands - February 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueper, R.

    1983-01-01

    In 1967 and 1968 the Federal Republic of Germany, the Kingdom of Belgium and the Kingdom of the Netherlands (''DeBeNe'') agreed to develop breeder reactors in a joint program. The following research organizations have taken part in this effort: Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK); INTERATOM, Bergisch Gladbach; ALKEM, Wolfgang near Hanau; SCK/CEN, Mol; Belgonucleaire, Brussels; ECN, Petten; TNO, Apeldoorn; NERATOOM, The Hague. The three German institutions mentioned above have been connected since 1977 in the Entwicklungsgemeinschaft (EG) Schneller Brueter. Kfk, INTERATOM, and the French Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique entered into contracts in 1977 about close cooperation in the fast breeder field, to which the Belgian and Dutch partners acceded. The results of activities carried out by the DeBeNe partners in 1982 have been compiled in this report. The report begins with a survey of the fast reactor plants and the political background, followed by an R and D summary. In an additional chapter, a survey is given of international cooperation in 1982

  11. Status of fast breeder reactor development in the Federal Republic of Germany, Belgium and the Netherlands - February 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueper, R.

    1986-01-01

    In 1967 and 1968, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Kingdom of Belgium and the Kingdom of the Netherlands (''DeBeNe'') agreed to develop breeder reactors in a joint program. The following research organizations have taken part in this effort: Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK); INTERATOM, Bergisch Gladbach; ALKEM, Wolfgang near Hanau; SCK/CEN, Mol; Belgonucleaire, Brussels; ECN, Petten; TNO, Apeldoorn; NERATOOM, The Hague. The three Germany institutions mentioned above have been associated since 1977 in the Entwicklungsgemeinschaft (EG) Schneller Brueter. KfK, INTERATOM, and the French Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique entered into contracts in 1977 about close cooperation in the fast breeder field, to which the Belgian and Dutch partners acceded. The results of activities carried out by the DeBeNe partners in 1984 have been compiled in this report. The report begins with a survey of the fast reactor plants followed by a R and D summary. In an additional chapter, a survey is given of international cooperation in 1984

  12. Status of fast breeder reactor development in the Federal Republic of Germany, Belgium and The Netherlands - February 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueper, R.

    1984-01-01

    In 1967 and 1968 the Federal Republic of Germany, the Kingdom of Belgium and the Kingdom of the Netherlands (''DeBeNe'') agreed to develop breeder reactors in a joint program. The following research organizations have taken part in this effort: Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK); INTERATOM, Bergisch Gladbach; ALKEM, Wolgang near Hanau; SCK/CEN, Mol; Belgonucleaire, Brussels; ECN, Petten; TNO, Apeldoorn; NERATOOM, The Hague. The three German institutions mentioned above have been connected since 1977 in the Entwicklungsgemeinschaft (EG) Schneller Brueter. KfK, INTERATOM, and the French Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique entered into contracts in 1977 about close cooperation in the fast breeder field, to which the Belgian and Dutch partners acceded. The results of activities carried out by the DeBeBe partners in 1983 have been compiled in this report. The report begins with a survey of the fast reactor plants followed by an R and D summary. In an additional chapter, a survey is given of international cooperation in 1983

  13. Feasibility study on energy conservation at Sao Paulo state primary schools in the Federative Republic of Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    A feasibility study has been performed on the energy conservation project aimed at the future CDM in relation with energy consumption in the lighting equipment at the Sao Paulo state primary schools in the Federative Republic of Brazil. Out of about 5,500 primary schools existing in Sao Paulo, 3,414 schools were selected as the objects of the surveys and discussions. The present program intends to introduce energy saving facilities such as high-efficiency fluorescent lamps and controls for illuminating the primary schools to save the energies and reduce emission of the global warming gases. In this economy project, the owners do not need to make initial investments, wherein the required funds are taken care by conservation of electric power during the service contract period. If about 3,000 schools are selected as the object, a fund of about 2.3 billion yen will be required in total. Total energy conservation quantity during 15 years from 2002 to 2016 as achieved by this project will be 532,740 MWh, corresponding to 114,540 tons of crude oil. The effect of reducing the emission of global warming gases will be 110,949 t-CO2 during the same period of time. (NEDO)

  14. Status of the fast breeder reactor development in the Federal Republic of Germany, Belgium and The Netherlands, February 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hueper, R; Friese, R [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1981-05-01

    In 1967 and 1968 the Federal Republic of Germany, the Kingdom of Belgium and the Kingdom of the Netherlands (DeBeNe) agreed to develop, in a joint program, breeder reactors to the point of commercial maturity. The following research organizations take part in this effort: Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK); INTERATOM, Bergisch Gladbach; ALKEM, Wolfgang near Hanau; SCK/CEW, Mol; Belgonucleaire, Brussels; ECN, Petten; TWO, Apeldoorn; NERATOOM, The Hague. The results of research and development activities carried out by the DeBeNe partners in 1980 have been compiled in this report. The report begins with a review of the energy policy background, followed by an R and D summary. The bulk of the report following next is organized by the Working Groups of the R and D Program Working Committee of the Fast Breeder Project; additional chapters provide information about the operation of KNK II and the construction of SNR 300. In the annexes a survey is given of international cooperation.

  15. Future plans for the design and construction of fast reactor power stations in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempken, M.; Koehler, M.; Wolff, M.

    1978-01-01

    Some important design features of future fast reactors in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) are presented, in particular for the demonstration plant SNR 2 which is to follow the prototype SNR 300, presently under construction in Kalkar. The SNR 2 conceptual design will be based on the SNR 300 design as far as possible. Programmes for the introduction of fast breeder reactor power stations on the part of the governments, the utilities and suppliers are based on broad international co-operation. The FRG is a country which imports a high proportion of its primary energy and it has rather small resources of natural uranium. The natural uranium realistically available to the FRG will allow nuclear energy to play a substantial role in the long-term energy supply only if present uranium utilization based on LWRs is supplemented and replaced by breeder reactor utilization later. To maintain this option, efforts towards the development, design and construction of fast breeder reactors have to be intensively continued in the FRG. The construction of the first large power station with a fast breeder reactor, SNR 2, will, according to present planning, start in the middle of the 80s. Operation can be expected to start at the beginning of the 90s. The present fast breeder programme in the FRG promises to develop reactors, reprocessing and fuel manufacturing plants to such a degree that by the end of this century the introduction of a substantial number of fast reactor power stations will be possible. (author)

  16. Threshold power. Nuclear energy and foreign policy of the Federal Republic of Germany from 1949 until 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geier, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    The proliferation of nuclear weapons is one of the most serious problems for international security today. Since the end of the Cold War states like India, Pakistan and North Korea performed tests of nuclear explosive devices and the number of nuclear weapons states seems to be growing even more. Iran is pursuing actively a nuclear programme with unclear prospects and despite the catastrophe at Fukushima other states remain interested in the use of nuclear energy. In principle it is not possible to distinguish clearly between civil and military use of nuclear technology. The international regime to prevent the misuse of nuclear power and the dissemination of nuclear weapons is based on the Nonproliferation Treaty of 1970 and several other treaties and informal agreements. While the legal aspects of the nonproliferation regime are well studied, much less attention has been paid to the evolution of this regime, which was set up during the Cold War. Especially the role of the nonnuclear weapons states in this process remains unclear. This work explores the influence of the Federal Republic of Germany, one of the most influential nuclear threshold powers, on the formulation of the international nonproliferation regime as well as the role of nuclear energy in German foreign policy in general.

  17. Status of the fast breeder reactor development in the Federal Republic of Germany, Belgium and the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueper, R.

    1982-01-01

    In 1967 and 1968 the Federal Republic of Germany, the Kingdom of Belgium and the Kingdom of the Netherlands (''DeBeNe'') agreed to develop, in a joint program, breeder reactors to the point of commercial maturity. The following research organizations take part in this effort: Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK); INTERATOM, Bergisch Gladbach; ALKEM, Wolfgang near Hanau; SCK/CEN, Mol; Belgonucleaire, Brussels; ECN, Petten; TNO, Apeldoorn; NERATOOM, The Hague. The three German institutions mentioned above have been interrelated since 1977 by the Entwicklungsgemeinschaft (EG) Schneller Brueter. Between KfK, INTERATOM, and the French Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique contracts were concluded in 1977 about close cooperation in the Fast Breeder field, with association of the Belgian and Dutch partners. The results of research and development activities carried out by the DeBeNe partners in 1981 have been compiled in this report. The report begins with a short survey of the fast reactor plants, followed by an R and D summary. The bulk of the report gives more detailed information about those plants and about results reported by the Working Groups of the R and D Program Working Committee of the Fast Breeder Project. In an additional chapter a survey is given of international cooperation. (author)

  18. Status of the fast breeder reactor development in the Federal Republic of Germany, Belgium and The Netherlands, February 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueper, R.; Friese, R.

    1981-01-01

    In 1967 and 1968 the Federal Republic of Germany, the Kingdom of Belgium and the Kingdom of the Netherlands (DeBeNe) agreed to develop, in a joint program, breeder reactors to the point of commercial maturity. The following research organizations take part in this effort: Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK); INTERATOM, Bergisch Gladbach; ALKEM, Wolfgang near Hanau; SCK/CEW, Mol; Belgonucleaire, Brussels; ECN, Petten; TWO, Apeldoorn; NERATOOM, The Hague. The results of research and development activities carried out by the DeBeNe partners in 1980 have been compiled in this report. The report begins with a review of the energy policy background, followed by an R and D summary. The bulk of the report following next is organized by the Working Groups of the R and D Program Working Committee of the Fast Breeder Project; additional chapters provide information about the operation of KNK II and the construction of SNR 300. In the annexes a survey is given of international cooperation

  19. The accident at Gorleben: A case study of risk communication and risk amplification in the Federal Republic of Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, H P; Hennen, L [Clark Univ., Worcester, MA (USA). Center for Technology, Environment, and Development

    1988-07-01

    On May 12, 1987 an accident happened in the ``pilot mine`` at Gorleben in the Federal Republic of Germany where the feasibility of a repository or high-radioactive nuclear waste is currently being investigated. A miner was killed during that accident and two others were severely injured. Although this accident happened during conventional mining work and had nothing to do with radioactive waste, this event received much public attention and news coverage and had a strong impact on the political debate on the Gorleben project of a repository mine for radioactive waste and even on the nuclear power controversy in general. This study does not aim to evaluate the accident that happened in the Gorleben pilot mine from a geological point of view nor does it aim to evaluate the West German waste disposal concept. All information given in chapter 2 on these aspects should be considered as background information, useful in understanding the subject of this case study: the risk communication concerning the Gorleben project in general and the accident in the shaft in particular.

  20. Methods of promotion of nuclear research and development in the Federal Republic of Germany and international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehr, G.

    1987-01-01

    The promotion of nuclear research and development in the Federal Republic of Germany is part of the overall R and D policy and is geared to the long-term energy policy goals. Nuclear energy development has been successfully promoted for more than thirty years, the non-nuclear energy technologies for almost 15 years. As a result of this support for new technologies, energy production has become more efficient and cost-effective and with regard to fossil energy sources also markedly less detrimental to the environment. Nuclear energy research policy is an integral part of energy research policy as a whole, which particularly aims to increasingly promote renewable energy sources, above all photovoltaic and wind energy, the utilization of biomass and geothermal energy as well as the development of various energy storage methods. In addition to some mining projects which aim to reduce coal production costs, promotion in the field of fossil energy sources concentrates above all on power plant engineering and combustion techniques - i.e. environment-oriented technologies. In view of future supply patterns, projects on coal conversion are continued; with present supply and price structures for mineral oil and natural gas, however, commercialization of coal conversion cannot be expected to be launched on a large scale. (J.P.N.)

  1. [The Early Years of Military Laser Research and Technology in the Federal Republic of Germany During the Cold War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Helmuth

    2014-01-01

    The invention of the laser in 1960 and the innovation process of laser technology during the following years coincided with the dramatic increase of the East-West-conflict during the 1960s - the peak of the so-called Cold War after the erection of the Berlin Wall in 1961. The predictable features of the new device, not only for experimental sciences, but also for technical and military applications, led instantly to a laser hype all over the world. Military funding and research played a major part in this development. Especially in the United States military laser research and development played an important role in the formation of Cold War sciences. The European allies followed this example to a certain degree, but their specific national environments led to quite different solutions and results. This article describes and analyzes the special features and background of this development for the Federal Republic of Germany in the area of conflict between science, politics and industry from 1960 to the early 1970s.

  2. A Case of Successful Transitional Justice: Fritz Bauer and his Late Recognition in the Federal Republic of Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Gortat

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Germany is an example of a country which has been implementing transitional justice for decades and is still active in this field. What is more, contemporary Germans have recently come to terms with their not-so-distant past and their negligence in this area by showing the falsehood, backwardness, and injustice as negative foundations of the young Federal Republic. This article evokes the person of Fritz Bauer, the prosecutor in the state of Hessen. His struggle for human dignity and the memory of his achievements after his death exemplify an accomplished case of transitional justice and the memory of it. During his lifetime he contributed to bringing to trial numerous Nazi criminals, even at the cost of habitual threats and disregard. Forgotten for a few decades, Bauer and his legacy have been recently rediscovered and studied. Eventually, Bauer became a movie character and was finally brought back to the collective memory of Germans. The belated, but a well-deserved wave of popularity of Fritz Bauer in the German culture memory proves that reflections on the transitional justice are still topical and important.

  3. The accident at Gorleben: A case study of risk communication and risk amplification in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, H.P.; Hennen, L.

    1988-07-01

    On May 12, 1987 an accident happened in the ''pilot mine'' at Gorleben in the Federal Republic of Germany where the feasibility of a repository or high-radioactive nuclear waste is currently being investigated. A miner was killed during that accident and two others were severely injured. Although this accident happened during conventional mining work and had nothing to do with radioactive waste, this event received much public attention and news coverage and had a strong impact on the political debate on the Gorleben project of a repository mine for radioactive waste and even on the nuclear power controversy in general. This study does not aim to evaluate the accident that happened in the Gorleben pilot mine from a geological point of view nor does it aim to evaluate the West German waste disposal concept. All information given in chapter 2 on these aspects should be considered as background information, useful in understanding the subject of this case study: the risk communication concerning the Gorleben project in general and the accident in the shaft in particular

  4. Comparative investigations of oiled seabirds and beaches in the Netherlands, Denmark, and the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlmann, G.; Timm, D.

    1993-01-01

    The Oiled Seabirds project (January 3, 1990, to March 31, 1993) consisted of two parts: regular surveillance of the beaches in the Netherlands, Denmark, and the Federal Republic of Germany, and sampling and analysis. The aims of the project were: To identify and compare the main sources of oil pollution in the countries involved; To trace definite sources (i.e., particular ships), in more severe cases, to promote prosecution of the offenders; and To gauge the efficiency of countermeasures, e.g., the joint material surveillance in the countries involved. Although the term open-quotes oiledclose quotes was used in the project title, the investigations were not restricted to petroleum. An attempt was made to identify all the products that could have caused the deaths of seabirds. The major sources of oil pollution in the Netherlands and Germany appear to be from normal shipping operations, e.g. engine room residues, while in Denmark the major component of chronic oil pollution is crude oil from tank washings of tanker ships

  5. Status and future developments of risk analysis for repositories of radioactive wastes in salt formations in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proske, R.

    1977-01-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany a hypothetical repository for High-Level Radioactive Waste in a salt formation was taken as basis for a first attempt to use the methodology of risk analysis in order to get statements on the safety of such a geologic and mining system. Several institutions were engaged in drawing up fault trees, development of release models and calculation of the risk. A lot of R+D-work is scheduled to be carried out in future which includes optimization of the application of risk analysis methodology to geologic and mining systems, further development of release models, development of a model describing the migration of radionuclides in typical geologic strata and soils of the Federal Republic of Germany and application of risk analysis methodology to different repositories and disposal technologies

  6. Safety requirements and safety experience of nuclear facilities in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnurer, H.L.

    1977-01-01

    Peaceful use of nuclear energy within the F.R.G. is rapidly growing. The Energy Programme of the Federal Government forecasts a capacity of up to 50.000 MW in 1985. Whereas most of this capacity will be of the LWR-Type, other activities are related to LMFBR - and HTGR - development, nuclear ships, and facilities of the nuclear fuel cycle. Safety of nuclear energy is the pacemaker for the realization of nuclear programmes and projects. Due to a very high population - and industrialisation density, safety has the priority before economical aspects. Safety requirements are therefore extremely stringent, which will be shown for the legal, the technical as well as for the organizational area. They apply for each nuclear facility, its site and the nuclear energy system as a whole. Regulatory procedures differ from many other countries, assigning executive power to state authorities, which are supervised by the Federal Government. Another particularity of the regulatory process is the large scope of involvement of independent experts within the licensing procedures. The developement of national safety requirements in different countries generates a necessity to collaborate and harmonize safety and radiation protection measures, at least for facilities in border areas, to adopt international standards and to assist nuclear developing countries. However, different nationally, regional or local situations might raise problems. Safety experience with nuclear facilities can be concluded from the positive construction and operation experience, including also a few accidents and incidents and the conclusions, which have been drawn for the respective factilities and others of similar design. Another tool for safety assessments will be risk analyses, which are under development by German experts. Final, a scope of future problems and developments shows, that safety of nuclear installations - which has reached a high performance - nevertheless imposes further tasks to be solved

  7. US NRC/LLL liaison with the Federal Republic of Germany for the GKSS-PSS steam condensation tests. Progress report No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCauley, E.W.

    1979-01-01

    This progress report for the USNRC/LLL Liaison program with the Federal Republic of Germany regarding boiling water reactor containment multivent steam condensation tests being conducted by GKSS (Gesellschaft fuer Kernenergieverwertung in Schiffbau und Schiffahrt) address program activity during the period of May-June 1979. During this period the program scope was defined, initial contacts between LLL and GKSS were established, and the first trip by an LLL representative to the GKSS test facility was taken

  8. External and internal accidents in PWR power plants. Comparison of current regulations in Belgium, United States, France, Federal Republic of Germany and United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maere, G. de; Roch, M.; Cavaco, A.; Preat, M.

    1986-01-01

    In this report a comparison is made of the rules and practices applied in various countries (Belgium, France, Federal Republic of Germany, United Kingdom and United States of America) in designing PWR plants to resist natural hazards (first part of the report) and hazards associated with human activities (second part). The third part of the report deals with the practices in different countries concerning the protection against accidents of internal origin [fr

  9. Progress report on nuclear data research in the Federal Republic of Germany for the Period April 1, 1981 to March 31, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This report has been prepared to promote exchange of nuclear data research information between the Federal Republic of Germany and the other member states of NEA and IAEA. The emphasis has been on measurement, evaluation and compilation of application-oriented nuclear data, such as those relevant to fission and fusion reactor technologies, development of intense spallation neutron sources, production of medically important short-lived radioisotopes, etc. Each contribution is presented under the laboratory heading where the work was done

  10. How can research be carried on without money. An interview with Andreas von Buelow, Minister of Research of Federal Republic of Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    von Buelow, A

    1981-06-01

    When the treasury are not as full as they were, the question automatically arises as to public support for large-scale research facilities and basic research. The new Minister for Research in the Federal Republic of Germany clearly discloses what is possible at present and what is not in the way of State support for research. Therefore the Minister demands that industry should share in basic research and in the large-scale technological facilities required for research.

  11. UNEP and IAEA exploring the possibility of sending depleted uranium missions to Bosnia-Herzegovina, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Vienna/Nairobi - Mohamed ElBaradei, the Director-General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Klaus Toepfer, Executive Director of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), have agreed to consider ways and means to respond to requests for fact-finding missions to Bosnia-Herzegovina, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and Iraq where depleted uranium (DU) was used during military conflicts. The two organizations will co-ordinate their action with the World Health Organization, which has recently decided to send a team to study the health effects of depleted uranium in Iraq, as well as with other relevant UN system organizations. Pekka Haavisto, Chairman of UNEP's Depleted Uranium Assessment Team, is meeting today with UN officials in Sarajevo for consultations on a possible future mission to Bosnia-Herzegovina. Mr. Haavisto will visit Belgrade tomorrow to meet with officials of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. The IAEA is considering holding a training course to improve the understanding and skills of specialist staff from concerned countries. The main focus will be on measurement methods and the assessment of risks from depleted uranium and other radioactivity. The possibility of sending fact-finding missions to Bosnia-Herzegovina, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and Iraq follows last year's mission to Kosovo by the UNEP-led DU Assessment Team. UNEP will wait for the scientific findings of the report of the Kosovo mission, expected to be released in early March, before it embarks on new DU field assessments. (author)

  12. His Excellency Mr Deepak Dhital Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Permanent Representative of the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva

    CERN Multimedia

    Bennett, Sophia Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    His Excellency Mr Deepak Dhital Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Permanent Representative of the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva

  13. GIS Map of Mosaicked LandSat 7 ETM+ Satellite Imagery of the Marshall Islands, Micronesia Federated States, and the Republic of Palau from January 1, 1999 to December 31, 2003 (NODC Accession 0067475)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These maps show for the first time an accurate georeferenced mosaic of the Marshall Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia, the Republic of Palau and their...

  14. Nuclear research and nuclear technology in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    The atomwirtschaft-atomtechnik has reflected the development of this quarter century. In this jubilee edition it describes the future lines of development. It has invited the Federal German companies and institutions of the branch to present their performance potential in the form of monography - more detailed than usually. This invitation was accepted by 81 of the most important enterprises. The figure also includes a number of important service companies, the research centres of the country, and last not least, a number of energy supply enterprises. Part 2 of this jubilee edition as a whole offers a crossection of the present performances offered in the German nuclear research, nuclear techniques, and the planning and service belonging to nuclear power operation. For the English-speaking readers, a digest part was set up in part 3 of the present edition. In part 4, the reader will find a product index in German and English. Each key-word indicates an offering firm by the page number allocated. Access to the monographies (part 2) and the digest (part 3) can be found in the listing of the monography-advertisers from page 102 on. The atw-jubilee edition closes with part 5, with product advertisements of companies from home and abroad. (orig./UA) [de

  15. [Hospital legislation in the Federal Republic of Germany and its effects on psychiatric hospitals (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumpe, V

    1978-02-01

    The article discusses the hospital laws of several land governments enacted subsequent to the hospital financing law of the Federal Government, in respect of the influence exercised by these laws on the internal structure of the hospital. The fact that the laws apply to all kinds of hospitals, and hence also to big psychiatric hospitals, is considered a disadvantage for psychiatric care. Such care is obviously hampered, on the one hand, by the legislative demand for departmentalization of the individual fields according to specialist subjects, representing a setup which is opposed to the realization of patient care in accordance with the requirements of the communities and citizens who expect to be cared for on an individual and not on a schematic basis, whereas, on the other hand, the new structures of management stipulated by the law do not provide for the inclusion of representatives of the new groups of professions now engaged in psychiatric activities. The model of regrouping the hospital structure into sectors instead of medical specialist departments, is presented and contrasted with the proposed model. It is recommended to arrange for representation of the non-medical and non-nursing professions in the managing boards, as well as to take into account the sociotherapeutico-rehabilitative interests as forming part of the conceptual approach to care in psychiatric hospitals, via special hospital committees.

  16. The Atomic Energy Law in the Federal Republic of Germany in 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, E.; Nobbe, U.

    1982-01-01

    Since nothing much was done in the way of legislation and ordinances to remove the uncertainties still prevailing from political quarters with regard to the legal bases of some questions of nuclear power, increased importance must be attributed to the other activities of the Bundestag and federal governments. Ever lengthier and more uncertain licensing procedures under the nuclear law have for years been adding to the construction time and thereby raising the cost while reducing the economic efficiency of nuclear power plants. In October 1981 the cabinet committee for the peaceful utilization of nuclear power has approved a catalogue of measures to accelerate these procedures in future. In the field of the administration of justice, supreme court rulings have contributed particularly to clarify the central questions related to court proceedings on nuclear construction licenses. Considerable uncertainty regarding the concept for radioactive waste disposal from nuclear power plants has been caused by administrative court rulings according to which the storage of spent-fuel elements beyond the decay time is not eligible for licensing for want of a legal basis. (orig./UA) [de

  17. Problem of drug addiction in the youth in the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania of the RF North Caucasian Federal District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Vladimirovich Dzutsev

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on the large-scale survey “the problem of drug addiction among the youth in the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania of the RF North Caucasian Federal District”. In April-May North Ossetian Center of Social Research of the Institute of Socio-Political Research RAS together with North Ossetian State University after K.L. Khetagurov conducted a monitoring aimed at evaluating the drug abuse situation in the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania and identifying the causes of drug abuse among young citizens of the republic. It studied the system of beliefs, habits and aspirations of young people. The research focused on the sociological assessment of the drug abuse situation in the Republic of North Ossetia and it was based on the study of systems of beliefs, habits and preferences of the residents, as well as on the identification of the reasons for the spread of drug addiction among the population. The achievement of this goal required solution of the following tasks: • to evaluate beliefs, value systems, life plans, the state of health of the North Ossetia-Alania citizens, learn their opinion on the possibility of rational leisure time and recreation by means of monitoring; • to assess bad habits of the republic citizens, estimate the society’s relation to the problems of drug addiction and drug addicts, analyze the reasons for the emergence and existence of this phenomenon in the society; • to evaluate effectiveness of the measures to combat drug addiction; • to identify reasons for drug addiction, most frequently used types of drugs, the cost of a single dose, a market place and consumers’ access to drugs; • to assess practical activities aimed at improving the drug abuse situation in the republic. The sample size was 600 people

  18. ECONOMIC COOPERATION BETWEEN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS IN THE FIELD OF MIGRATION POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Strel'chenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the general trends of migration processes between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Belarus, briefly describes the main features of the socio-economic development and migration policy of the two countries, including in the context of their cooperation within the framework of the Eurasian Economic Union. The article defines the key directions of economic cooperation between Russia and Belarus on migration policies and the promotion of desirable forms of migration. The relevance of the topic chosen due to both diversity and unsystematic legal framework that regulates the various aspects of migration policy and the lack of established legal concepts of migration, the migration process and the migration policy. In addition, in recent years can be seen working mobility growth in the context of globalization, which creates conditions for employment are not only highly qualified professionals in the fields of finance, insurance, banking, communications, and migrant workers employed in agriculture, construction, landscaping, catering, hotel service.Methodology. In conducting this study the main sources of raw data served as the information contained in scientific, reference, periodical literature on the subject in question, including the sources in the "Internet" information and telecommunications network. The basis of methodological developments laid the comparative methods of analysis and synthesis of the available data.Conclusions / relevance. Supporters of immigration openness believes that the strengthening of migration one of the solutions to the demographic problems of Russia and the problem of replenishment of the labor market. Their opponents believe that immigration creates an excess supply in the labor market, allowing employers to permanently reduce the level of payment of labor and social security, working conditions deteriorate.Practical application of the results of this work will improve the forecasting and

  19. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of the Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Article 17.a. of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of the Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) provides that the Additional Protocol shall come into force on the date on which the Agency receives from the Community and the Signatory States written notification that their respective requirements for entry into force have been met. Article 23(a) of INFCIRC/193 provides the means for non-signatory States of the Additional Protocol to express their consent to be bound by the Additional Protocol. The Additional Protocol which came into force for the above-mentioned original signatories (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, the Community and the Agency) on 30 April 2004, has also entered into force for Cyprus, Estonia, Hungary, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia. The Agency received from the Republic of Latvia on 17 March 2008 and from the European Atomic Energy Community on 1 October 2008, notification that their respective requirements had been met. Accordingly, the Additional Protocol came into force for Latvia on 1 October 2008

  20. Epidemiological and Ecological Characterization of the EHEC O104:H4 Outbreak in Hamburg, Germany, 2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maike Tahden

    Full Text Available In 2011, a large outbreak of entero-hemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS occurred in Germany. The City of Hamburg was the first focus of the epidemic and had the highest incidences among all 16 Federal States of Germany. In this article, we present epidemiological characteristics of the Hamburg notification data. Evaluating the epicurves retrospectively, we found that the first epidemiological signal of the outbreak, which was in form of a HUS case cluster, was received by local health authorities when already 99 EHEC and 48 HUS patients had experienced their first symptoms. However, only two EHEC and seven HUS patients had been notified. Middle-aged women had the highest risk for contracting the infection in Hamburg. Furthermore, we studied timeliness of case notification in the course of the outbreak. To analyze the spatial distribution of EHEC/HUS incidences in 100 districts of Hamburg, we mapped cases' residential addresses using geographic information software. We then conducted an ecological study in order to find a statistical model identifying associations between local socio-economic factors and EHEC/HUS incidences in the epidemic. We employed a Bayesian Poisson model with covariates characterizing the Hamburg districts as well as incorporating structured and unstructured spatial effects. The Deviance Information Criterion was used for stepwise variable selection. We applied different modeling approaches by using primary data, transformed data, and preselected subsets of transformed data in order to identify socio-economic factors characterizing districts where EHEC/HUS outbreak cases had their residence.

  1. Joint declaration on co-operation in the field of the peaceful use of nuclear energy between France and the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    This Declaration follows upon the signing of a Protocol of intent on 3 April 1989 by VEBA, the major energy consortium in the Federal Republic of Germany supplying nuclear power, and COGEMA, the French State-owned nuclear fuel company and aims to provide a broad framework for co-operation between the two countries. The Declaration, in particular, covers co-operation in the fields of reprocessing, production of MOX fuel (mixed oxide fuel), uranium enrichment, nuclear reactors, information relating to nuclear installations, transport of nuclear material [fr

  2. Nuclear war and other catastrophes. Civil and catastrophe protection in the Federal republic of Germany and the United Kingdom after 1945

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diebel, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The book civil and catastrophe protection in the Federal republic of Germany and the United Kingdom after 1945 discusses the following issues: aerial defense and the atomic bomb (1945 - 1968), crises and catastrophes in the shadow of the bomb (1962 - 1978), civil defense and the comeback of the (nuclear) war (1976 - 1979), civil defense and the second ''Cold War'' (1979 - 1986), Chernobyl and the end of the Cold War (1979 - 1990), war, catastrophe and safety in the 20th century - a conclusion.

  3. Nuclear waste repository simulation experiments (brine migration), Asse Mine of the Federal Republic of Germany: Quarterly brine migration data report, October--December 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckert, J.L.; Kalia, H.N.; Coyle, A.J.

    1988-03-01

    The tenth brine migration data report describes experiments simulating a nuclear waste repository at the 800-m (2624-ft) level of the Asse Salt Mine in the Federal Republic of Germany from May 1983 through December 1985. This report describes the test equipment, the Asse Salt Mine, and the pretest properties of the salt in the test gallery. This report includes test data for 31 months of operations on brine migration rates, borehole pressure, salt temperatures and thermomechanical behavior of the salt. 3 refs., 118 figs., 93 tabs

  4. Quarterly brine migration data report, May-September 1983: Nuclear Waste Repository simulation experiments (brine migration), Asse Mine of the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coyle, A.J.; Kalia, H.N.; Eckert, J.L.

    1987-04-01

    The first quarterly brine migration data report describes experiments simulating a nuclear waste repository at the 800-m (2624-ft) level of the Asse Salt Mine in the Federal Republic of Germany from May 1983 through September 1983. This report describes the test equipment, the Asse Salt Mine, and the pretest properties of the salt in the test gallery. This report also includes test data for the first 4 months of operations on brine migration rates, borehole pressure, salt temperatures, and thermomechanical behavior of the salt. The duration of the experiments will be approximately 2 years, ending in December 1985. 83 figs., 55 tabs

  5. Supervision of nuclear material in the Federal Republic of Germany by the Commission of the European Communities (Euratom) and the International Atomic Energy Organisation (IAEO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckner, C.

    1979-01-01

    Since the fifties Euratom has controlled nuclear material in the Federal Republic of Germany. When the verification agreement came into force in the treaty on the non-proliferation of atomic weapons in February 1977, the International Atomic Energy Organisation (IAEO) has commenced the supervision of nuclear material in German nuclear energy installations. The author describes the basic principle of the supervision and the possible effects on the installations. In addition, he also deals with the discussions which have flared up about the international supervision of nuclear material, and indicates possible future developments. (orig.) [de

  6. Agreements concluded by the Federal Republic of Germany under international law in the field of environmental protection. Annex: Treaties with the GDR. (Source index in the Federal Law Gazette, part II). (As of September 15, 1987)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohse, S.

    1987-01-01

    This compilation contains all agreements under international law in the field of environmental protection, the FRG has joined and that have been published and/or announced in the Federal Law Gazette, part II. The summary is of September 15, 1987. The classification is made according to the subjects: waste management law, pollution abatement law, nuclear law and energy and mining law and within these according to the date of treaty/agreement. For easier access, there are a chronological index, an index of the contracting states and an index of the places of contract. In the annex the relevant treaties with the German Democratic Republic are indicated. (orig./HP) [de

  7. Climate Education at the University of Hamburg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilly, Oliver; Stammer, Detlef; Pfeiffer, Eva-Maria

    2010-05-01

    The new graduate School of Integrated Climate Sciences (www.sicss.de) at the KlimaCampus of the University of Hamburg was opened at October 20, 2009 and includes a 2-yr MSc (120 ECTS, 30 compulsory, 90 eligible) and 3-yr doctoral program (12 ECTS). About 40 students were enrolled in early 2010. The interdisciplinary MSc program is based on a number of disciplines such as meteorology, geophysics, oceanography, geosciences and also economics and social sciences. These disciplines are required to address the faced key issues related to climate change effectively. The graduate school is guiding pupils and BSc students with competence in maths and physics on how to become a climate expert. Acquisition is done internationally at fairs, uni days and dircectly at schools and intuitions for higher education. BSc degree in the disciplines listed above is set for positive application. Climate experts are needed for both research and the professional world outside the university and research institutions. In accordance, connection within and outside the university are continuously explored and soft skills for the communication to politics and the public's are included in the MSc and PhD curricula. Since the graduate school was established within the cluster of excellence ‘Integrated Climate Analysis and Predication' (www.clisap.de), this school represents a prototype for graduate programs at the University of Hamburg. Advantages and limitations of this Climate System School concept will be discussed.

  8. Collection, documentation and assessment of data measured in the Federal Republic of Germany after the reactor accident in the nuclear power plant at Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayer, A.; Braun, H.; Dehos, R.; Frasch, G.; Haubelt, R.; Hoppe-Schoenhammer, J.; Kaul, A.; Loebke, A.; Werner, M.

    1989-08-01

    Representative for the Federal Republic of Germany, regions were selected that showed a lesser (Hesse) and higher (Bavaria) contamination. The contamination in individual environmental media (milk, i.a.) was demonstrated by values measured and assessed on a prognostic model and subsequently compared with each other. The intake was then evaluated on the basis of food basket and total body measurement data for determining the dose for various age groups and regions. Against those from food baskets, the doses derived from total body measurements were generally lower by 20-60%. This indicates change in consumption habits, adherence to recommendations and the effect of countermeasures, particularly in the higher contaminated southern region of the Federal Republic of Germany. The intake and dose assessments were compared to those measured during the time of contamination from fallout due to nuclear weapons tests. External radiation exposure and cumulative dose from fallout due to nuclear weapons tests and the Chernobyl accident were calculated. In 1986, the radiation exposure from external sources and from ingestion in consequence of the reactor accident had reached in the region of highest contamination (County of Berchtesgaden) 40%, in the lesser contaminated region (Hesse) about 5% of the average natural radiation exposure. (orig./HP) [de

  9. Panel: How relevant are the developments in the USA and their causes to the future situation of nuclear power in the Federal Republic of Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthelt, K; Kraemer, H; Schill, H; Mueller, W D; Radtke, G

    1984-01-01

    Recently the question has been increasingly discussed not only in the public but also among experts, whether nuclear energy still has its economic lead over other sources of energy and whether it will be able to keep it in the future in order to fulfil the expectations which have been placed in it. One important issue in this discussion is the fact that no new nuclear power plant has been ordered in the USA for the past five years. On the contrary, a considerable number of nuclear power plants already ordered or under construction have been postponed until an indefinite period of time or have been canceled altogether. Will this development have an effect on the Federal Republic of Germany with the ''usual'' time lag. Or is this a very special American situation. On this subject the journal ''atomwirtschaft'' organizes a colloquium in Duesseldorf on October 26, 1983 under the title ''Will nuclear energy remain economic. US-cancellations - a warning sign.'' After an address on principles a group of experts discusses the fact how relevant the developments in the USA and their causes are to the future situation of nuclear energy in the Federal Republic of Germany.

  10. 75 FR 38983 - Magnesium Metal From the People's Republic of China and the Russian Federation: Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-896, A-821-819] Magnesium Metal... sunset reviews of the antidumping duty orders on magnesium metal from the People's Republic of China..., as amended (``the Act''). On March 16, 2010, US Magnesium LLS, the petitioner in the magnesium metal...

  11. Landslide databases for applied landslide impact research: the example of the landslide database for the Federal Republic of Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damm, Bodo; Klose, Martin

    2014-05-01

    This contribution presents an initiative to develop a national landslide database for the Federal Republic of Germany. It highlights structure and contents of the landslide database and outlines its major data sources and the strategy of information retrieval. Furthermore, the contribution exemplifies the database potentials in applied landslide impact research, including statistics of landslide damage, repair, and mitigation. The landslide database offers due to systematic regional data compilation a differentiated data pool of more than 5,000 data sets and over 13,000 single data files. It dates back to 1137 AD and covers landslide sites throughout Germany. In seven main data blocks, the landslide database stores besides information on landslide types, dimensions, and processes, additional data on soil and bedrock properties, geomorphometry, and climatic or other major triggering events. A peculiarity of this landslide database is its storage of data sets on land use effects, damage impacts, hazard mitigation, and landslide costs. Compilation of landslide data is based on a two-tier strategy of data collection. The first step of information retrieval includes systematic web content mining and exploration of online archives of emergency agencies, fire and police departments, and news organizations. Using web and RSS feeds and soon also a focused web crawler, this enables effective nationwide data collection for recent landslides. On the basis of this information, in-depth data mining is performed to deepen and diversify the data pool in key landslide areas. This enables to gather detailed landslide information from, amongst others, agency records, geotechnical reports, climate statistics, maps, and satellite imagery. Landslide data is extracted from these information sources using a mix of methods, including statistical techniques, imagery analysis, and qualitative text interpretation. The landslide database is currently migrated to a spatial database system

  12. The Hamburg polonium-210 case. Monitoring of internal contaminations in a malevolent act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalheimer, A.; Koenig, K.; Nosske, D.; Schaefer, I.

    2009-01-01

    The dead of Alexander Litvinenko in London in the late 2006 was linked with the visit of Dimitri Kovtun. So an investigation was started by the Hamburg Police. As the presence of polonium-210 was uncertain, the action was supported by the Federal Defense against Nuclear Hazards (NGA) of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS). Radiation measurements in some flats in Hamburg confirmed the suspicion of polonium-210 contaminations. As incorporations by ingestion or inhalation could not generally be excluded, the Coordinating Office on Incorporation Monitoring of the BfS (Leitstelle Inkorporationsueberwachung des BfS) was requested to clarify this issue. The BfS office then coordinated the required bioassay analyses of urine samples carried out at four officially appointed in-vitro laboratories for incorporation monitoring. The group of people to be examined included the members of the family involved living in the contaminated flats, the emergency forces, as well as potentially exposed members of the public. The calculation of the internal dose was based on standard assumptions and also conducted by the BfS. The internal radiation doses proved to be within the range of radiation doses due to natural exposures. Retrospectively it should be stressed that the collaboration and cooperation of all institutions involved in the operation in Hamburg was extremely good despite their differing organisational structures. As a result of the incident in Hamburg various middle and long-term measures have been taken since then by the BfS Coordinating Office on Incorporation Monitoring. (orig.)

  13. Dalbybogen / The Dalby Book. Angersfragmentet / The Angers Fragment. Hamburgbibelen / The Hamburg Bible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Erik

    2006-01-01

    Dalbybogen / The Dalby Book; Angersfragmentet / The Angers Fragment; Hamburgbibelen / The Hamburg Bible......Dalbybogen / The Dalby Book; Angersfragmentet / The Angers Fragment; Hamburgbibelen / The Hamburg Bible...

  14. [DETERMINATION OF TYPES OF EPIDEMIC MANIFESTATIONS OF CHOLERA IN REGIONS OF THE CRIMEA FEDERAL DISTRICT (REPUBLIC OF CRIMEA)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onischenko, G G; Popova, A Yu; Moskvitina, E A; Penkovskaya, N A; Listopad, S A; Titova, S V; Kruglikov, V D

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was determination of the type of epidemic manifestations of cholera in the Republic of Crimea based on evaluation of epidemic manifestations of cholera risk of introduction and spread of the infection. It was concluded, that, based on the cholera outbreaks, that had taken place, contamination of surface water bodies (fresh and sea) and sewage by Vibrio cholerae O1 ctxA+ and Vibrio cholerae O1 ctXA- potential epidemic danger of introduction of the infection by various types of international transport, population migration, the presence of epidemiologic risk in realization of water pathway of transmission of cholera causative agent and several other social conditions, the Republic of Crimea remains in the group of territories of type I by epidemic manifestations of cholera.

  15. The Art of Memory: "Social Bookmarking Hamburg"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noga Stiassny

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available At the end of November 2016, a unique and intruding art project took place in the city of Hamburg, Germany, a result of collaboration between German artists and a Chinese artist, who all seek to commemorate the Chinese victims who lived in the city pre- World War II but had to suffer the injustices of the Nazi regime. The project lasted three days and was presented in various locations throughout the city, while including many artistic mediums alongside scholarly work. By referring to the main events of that weekend, the paper traces after a “forgotten” past that many people refuse to look at, not to say to take responsibility for it, while in contrast, the art continues to extract it from the depths of oblivion and forced amnesia – to the dismay of many.

  16. [The epidemiological characteristics and laboratory diagnosis of viral hepatitides among the Federal troops on the territory of the Chechen Republic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogarkov, P I; Malyshev, V V; Tsutsiev, S A; Mikhaĭlov, N V

    1996-08-01

    The items of information about epidemiologic peculiarities of virus hepatitis among military men of incorporated grouping of troops of MoD of RF in Republic of Chechnya and about creation of uniform system of laboratory diagnostics in interests of etiologic orientation of prophylaxis and control of these infections in military groups are submitted. Etiologic structure, the reasons and conditions of occurrence of virus hepatitis are established.

  17. How the Russian Federation Uses the Informational Instrument of National Power to Influence the Republic of Moldovas Strategic Security Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    describes what media and special techniques Russia uses to influence its target audience in Moldova. The final step outlines the effects of the Russian... social , economic and security problems, is vulnerable to the Russian Federation’s information influence . However, that does not mean that the Republic...of national power. Commonly, these three terms cover actions, activities, symbols, thoughts, beliefs, and media that an actor uses to influence public

  18. Progress report on nuclear data research in the Federal Republic of Germany for the period April 1, 1992 to March 31, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qaim, S.M.

    1993-07-01

    This report has been prepared to promote the exchange of nuclear data research information between the Federal Republic of Germany and other member states of OECD/NEA and IAEA. It covers progress reports from KfK Karlsruhe, KFA Juelich, the universities of Dresden, Hannover, Koeln, Mainz, Marburg as well as from PTB Braunschweig and FIZ Karlsruhe. The emphasis in the work reported here is on measurement, compilation and evaluation of nuclear data for pure and applied science programmes, such as those relevant to fission- and fusion-reactor technology, radioactive waste management, accelerator shielding and development, astrophysics research, cosmogenic and meteoritic investigations, production of medically important radioisotopes, etc. Each contribution is presented under the laboratory heading from where the work is reported. The names of other participating laboratories are also mentioned. When the work is relevant to the World Request List for Nuclear Data, WRENDA 87/88 (INDC(SEC)-095/URSF), the corresponding identification numbers are given. (orig.)

  19. [Is the structure of surgical clinics in Germany changing? A current investigation into the structure of surgical clinics in the Federal Republic of Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lob, G; Lob, T; Bauer, H; Niethard, F; Polonius, J; Siebert, H

    2009-04-01

    Medical developments have led to extensive specialization in the field of surgery. This has already been reflected for many years in altered structure and organization forms of surgical clinics. Indispensable quality standards, statutory general conditions, increasing competition in service providers and health insurance with transparency of the service procedure all intensify this trend. The aim of this investigation was, therefore, to determine how far this differentiation of service supply in the field of surgery is also reflected in the area and in surgical departments and clinics of basic and routine supply. To achieve this, all available published information on the structure and organization of surgical clinics in the Federal Republic of Germany was classified according to current departmentalization into "undivided" or general/visceral surgery facilities compared to orthopedic/trauma surgery departments.

  20. Proposal of a procedure of the operative program optimization of production in the petroleum refinery of PCK / Oder, Federal Republic of Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Maily

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The blended of raw petroleum is an operation that can be optimized and it is based on a great quantity of knowledge and experience. The planning of these operations consists in obtaining a mixture of components with different properties and specification as octane, flow, level of sulfur etc., besides keeping in mind the existent capacities and the demand. This is considered important in this type of industries, since their profitability depends on finding the good mixture, due to the variability of the prices in the final products. The objective of this paper is to determine the good variant of production of the refinery PCK/Oder, Federal Republic of Germany that achieves the maximum of utilities, by means of the Parametric Lineal Programming. The preliminary validation, presents advantages in the utilities of until 4 %, in comparison with the use of the current method.

  1. Proposed limiting values for performance criteria in acceptance testing of diagnostic X-ray equipment in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeuml, A.

    1989-01-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany a new X-ray ordinance came into force in 1988 containing a specific paragraph on quality assurance for all medical X-ray units stipulating acceptance tests, regular checks and supervision by medical bodies and the competent authorities. Acceptance testing is to be performed by engineers from equipment suppliers of manufacturers in new and existing installations. It is expected that the service engineers will adjust the equipment in such a way as to obtain optimal performance before measurements are made, the results of which are to be stated in a certificate describing quality status of the equipment. A working group has developed guidelines for these acceptance tests. Items to be measured are reported and proposed limiting values and their tolerances are discussed. (author)

  2. Proposed limiting values for performance criteria in acceptance testing of diagnostic X-ray equipment in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeuml, A.

    1989-01-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany a new X-ray ordinance came into force in 1988 containing a specific paragraph on quality assurance for all medical X-ray units stipulating acceptance tests, regular checks and supervision by medical bodies and the competent authorities. Acceptance testing is to be performed by engineers from the equipment suppliers or manufacturers in new and also existing installations. It is expected that the service engineers will adjust the equipment in such a way as to obtain optimal performance before measurements are made, the results of which are to be stated in a certificate describing the quality status of the equipment. A working group has developed guidelines for these acceptance tests. The items to be measured are reported and the proposed limiting values and their tolerances are discussed. (author)

  3. Establishment of a real-time electronic expert system to estimate and limit radiological consequences of nuclear facility accidents in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, P.; Eklund, J.; Gregor, J.; Mueller, H.; Paretzke, H.G.; Proehl, G.; Richter, M.; Stapel, R.

    1991-12-01

    The programme system PARK is mainly based on the radioecological food chain model ECOSYS. PARK is subdivided into the system parts AUTOPARK and DIAPARK, and into the programme DOSISPARK. AUTOPARK is a mainly automatically running programme system which converts the measured data obtained by intensive operation of the 'Integrated measuring and information system for monitoring environmental radioactivity in the Federal Republic of Germany (IMIS)', and the propagation calculations provided by the German Weather Service, into a full-scale assessment of nuclide-specific contamination of air, soil and 20 plant species. Based on such calculation results, the potential radiation exposures of the public are assessed, the expected contamination of food is prognosticated, and the effects of the preventive measures 'recommendation of staying indoors' and 'prohibition of marketing higher-level contaminated food' are investigated for ten relevant radionuclides. (orig.) [de

  4. Market success proves the efficiency of directives in the gas industry in the Federal Republic of Germany; Markterfolg belegt Effizienz des gaswirtschaftlichen Ordnungsrahmens in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weyand, M

    1994-09-01

    Deregulation is the catchword which has been ruling the present debate about energy-economy regulations in the Federal Republic of Germany. Deregulation can be interpreted at least in two ways: 1. Maintenance of existing regulations but modification of regulations which are part of the energy economy laws, 2. Introduction of a compulsory gas transit regulation for the benefit of third parties, compulsory deconcentration of the utilities, and abrogation or change of basic legal conditions. Both approaches are discussed and evaluated. (HW) [Deutsch] Die jetzige Diskussion ueber den energiewirtschaftlichen Ordnungsrahmen in der BRD ist durch das Schlagwort Deregulierung gepraegt. Hierfuer existieren jedoch mindestens zwei verschiedene Interpretationen: 1. Grundsaetzliche Beibehaltung des bestehenden Ordnungsrahmens bei gleichzeitiger Modifizierung von Regelungen im Energiewirtschaftsgesetz; 2. Einfuehrung einer Zwangsdurchleitung zugunsten Dritter, Zwangsentflechtung der Versorgungsunternehmen sowie Abschaffung bzw. Aenderung grundlegender ordnungsrechtlicher Rahmenbedingungen. Der vorliegende Beitrag versucht eine kritische Auseinandersetzung mit den beiden Ansaetzen. (HW)

  5. Regulations in the Federal Republic of Germany. Exceptions to the law against competitive restrictions. Regulierung in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Die Ausnahmebereiche des Gesetzes gegen Wettbewerbsbeschraenkungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krakowski, M

    1988-01-01

    As a result of other countries' experiences, the Federal Republic has also been affected by the debate about regulation and deregulation. The discussion is centred particularly on exceptions to the law against competitive restrictions. This anthology aims to assist in clarifying the debate and gives a systematic account of the exceptions, including the theoretical justifications for regulation. Special weight is given to the description and explanation of the current status of regulation. The nature and scope of today's regulation can only be understood when its historical development is included in the examination. It is against this background that the authors make suggestions either for deregulation or for reformulation. The different chapters deal with: The theoretical basis of regulation, regulation in the areas of: The networked energy industry, telecommunications, traffic, banks, insurance markets. (orig./HSCH).

  6. Ecology trends in Greece and in the Federal Republic of Germany. Oekologiebewegung in Griechenland und in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland; Unter Beruecksichtigung historischer, gesellschaftspolitischer und theoretischer Aspekte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dede, I.

    1993-01-01

    This study evolves and discusses a thesis which maintains that ecology trends, both in Greece and in the Federal Republic of Germany, are the results of specific processes of social ''modernization'' based on different historical developments. A definition of ''modernization'' is given discussing the ''Fordism'' conception as part of the regulation theory: ''new'' social trends are interpreted as the results of the practice and crisis of Fordistic capitalism which, however, differs depending on its ''metropolitan'' (Germany) and ''peripheral'' (Greece) manifestations. The applicability of the Fordism theorem to Greece is discussed taking into account some political and cultural parameters. (orig.)

  7. Regulations in the Federal Republic of Germany. Exceptions to the law against competitive restrictions. Regulierung in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Die Ausnahmebereiche des Gesetzes gegen Wettbewerbsbeschraenkungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krakowski, M.

    1988-01-01

    As a result of other countries' experiences, the Federal Republic has also been affected by the debate about regulation and deregulation. The discussion is centred particularly on exceptions to the law against competitive restrictions. This anthology aims to assist in clarifying the debate and gives a systematic account of the exceptions, including the theoretical justifications for regulation. Special weight is given to the description and explanation of the current status of regulation. The nature and scope of today's regulation can only be understood when its historical development is included in the examination. It is against this background that the authors make suggestions either for deregulation or for reformulation. The different chapters deal with: The theoretical basis of regulation, regulation in the areas of: The networked energy industry, telecommunications, traffic, banks, insurance markets. (orig./HSCH).

  8. Lehrer in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Eine Kritische Analyse Statistischer Daten uber das Lehrpersonal an Allgemeinbildenden Schulen. (Education in the Federal Republic of Germany. A Statistical Study of Teachers in Schools of General Education.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Helmut

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the available statistics concerning teachers in schools of general education in the Federal Republic of Germany. An analysis of the demographic structure of the pool of full-time teachers showed that in 1971 30 percent of the teachers were under age 30, and 50 percent were under age 35. It was expected that…

  9. Communication dated 30 May 2008 received from the Permanent Mission of the Federal Republic of Germany to the Agency with regard to the German proposal for a Multilateral Enrichment Sanctuary Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a communication dated 30 May 2008 from the Permanent Mission of the Federal Republic of Germany, attaching a document entitled 'Ensuring Access to Nuclear Fuel and Enrichment Services Multilateral Enrichment Sanctuary Project (MESP)'. As requested in that communication, the document is herewith circulated for the information of Member States

  10. Proceedings of the US/FRG research symposium: effects of atmospheric pollutants on the spruce-fir forests of the Eastern United States and the Federal Republic of Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerard, tech. coord. Hertel; Gerard Hertel

    1988-01-01

    Includes 66 papers presented at the US/FRG research symposium: effects of atmospheric pollutants on the spruce-fir forests of the Eastern United States and the Federal Republic of Germany, which was held October 19-23, 1987, in Burlington, Vermont.

  11. The resolution of the All-Russia conference “Seismic security of a region and the impact of seismogeological and socioeconomic factors” (Kyzyl, Republic of Tuva, Russian Federation, November 17-18, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . . .

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This is a brief summary of the All-Russia conference “Seismic security of a region and the impact of seismogeological and socioeconomic factors” held in Kyzyl, Republic of Tuva, Russian Federation on November 17-18, 2015. Also provided is the full text of the resolution adopted at the conference.

  12. Status report on the use of nuclear energy in the Federal Republic of Germany 2013; Statusbericht zur Kernenergienutzung in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bredberg, Ines; Hutter, Johann; Kuehn, Kerstin; Niedzwiedz, Katarzyna; Philippczyk, Frank; Dose, Julia

    2014-08-15

    This report describes the use of nuclear energy in the Federal Republic of Germany as of 31 December, 2013. It contains the essential data of all nuclear power plants, research reactors and the facilities of the nuclear fuel cycle. At the reporting moment 31{sup st} of December in 2013, nine nuclear power plants were still in operation. The power generation from nuclear energy in 2013 amounted to 97.3 TWh (2012: 99.5 TWh). It is a share of 15.4 % of the total gross electricity production (2012: 15.8 %). The report summarizes the essential operational results of the nuclear power plants and information on granted licenses. A short description of the present state of the nuclear power plants that have been shut down or decommissioned and of the stopped projects is given. Concerning research reactors essential data on type, characteristics (thermal power, thermal neutron flux) and purpose of the facility are represented. Furthermore, an overview about the licensing and operation history and the present state of the operating condition is given. For the facilities of the nuclear fuel cycle data on purpose and capacity, the licensing history and the present state of operation and licensing are given. The current status of repository projects (ERAM and Konrad) Asse mine and the Gorleben site is presented. To give a survey, the data are summarized in tabular form in the report annexes. The report will be updated and published once a year. Due to the government reshuffle and the changed portfolio of some federal ministries, the former Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) was renamed to Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety (BMUB) on 17 December 2013.

  13. Survey of reportable incidents in nuclear power plants of the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    In 1991, there were 249 reportable nuclear power plant incidents in Germany (old and new federal Laender). The report comprehensively lists all these incidents. There was no release of radioactivity exceeding the maximum permissible limits, and there were no effects on man or the environment. There were no incidents of reporting category S (Urgent notification), and ten belonging to category E (immediate notification). The six incidents reported in the first half of 1991 from nuclear power plants in the new federal Laender all belonged to category AE 3, which is the lowest. (orig./DG) [de

  14. Specific features of acute stroke in the Russian Federation and in the People’s Republic of China (according to the data of some big stroke units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on comparison and analysis of the work of big stroke units in the Russian Federation and the People’s Republic of China specialized in the medical care for patients with acute stroke. 522 patients were surveyed in Russia’s and China’s regional stroke units. In the Russian Federation, patients being treated in the «City Hospital No.26» (SaintPetersburg took part in the study. In China patients of the First Affiliated Hospital of the Chongqing Medical University, Central Hospital Jiang jin, Regional People’s Hospital Yubei district, Regional People’s Hospital Bishan (Chongqing Province. The analysis of differences was performed by the following parameters: personality traits, age, gender, level of education, income, health insurance category, profession, employment, professional activities over the last year, place of residence of the patient, features of the stroke, time during the first symptoms of stroke to hospitalization, kinds of medical services, the main risk factors and value of prevention before stroke.

  15. Recent and future developments of the oil industry in Russian Federation and more particularly in the Republic of Baskortostan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garifullin, R.

    2001-09-01

    The objective of the thesis is to analyse the actual situation in the Russian oil industry and to envisage basic ways if its future development. The first chapter evaluates the place of the former USSR and Russia in the world and particularly European systems of energy supply. The three next chapters analyse the currents situation in the sectors of oil exploration and production, logistics and refining in Russia. The fifth chapter aims to figure out the perspectives of the refining industry taking into account the evolution of demand for basic petroleum products and the production capacities. Optimisation of refining and production volumes between the Russian refineries is done by minimising the transportation cost between the refineries and consuming regions by using linear programming. The last chapter analyses the regional impacts of the oil industry taking the Republic of Baskortostan as example. The contribution of the oil industry to regional development is evaluated in the framework of the export base theory using the Input-Output analysis as mathematical tool. (author)

  16. [Transfer and Implementation of Innovative Awareness and Education Measures, e-Mental Health and Care Models in psychenet - Hamburg Network for Mental Health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Martin; Härter, Martin; Brandes, Andreas; Hillebrandt, Bernd; Schlüter, Catarina; Quante, Susanne

    2015-07-01

    The Hamburg Network for Mental Health belongs to the healthcare regions in Germany, funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research from 2011 to 2015. More than 330 partners from research, health care, health industry and government are promoting innovative health care models and products to improve mental health care in Hamburg. The main objectives comprise the sustained implementation of the Network itself and of successful health care models and products. The article describes current and future implementation possibilities and the present state of the implementation process. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. European Conference on Advanced Materials and Processes Held in Aachen, Federal Republic of Germany on November 22-24, 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-24

    Development of Residual Stresses During Spray Deposition XX 8 J . B36a (Sp), M. Ferdinandy, J . Kril, D. U~ka, 1. Pec~r, VUKOV , Ko~ice (CSSR) Multilayer...actively in the programme. o8esloa For XTIS mumM DTIC WAD (3Unaraouned JUst ifloat o Aivailability Codem - J " -a I or i " l Diat Special 2 Contents5C...nercc ov4 Federation of European Materials Societies J ~ fr(~ 1 Welcoming Address q~jwqI - .2; qtt .4 Organizing Committee ~e~&’’~6 Introduction rc f

  18. Pharmacokinetics and Dosing of Levofloxacin in Children Treated for Active or Latent Multidrug-resistant Tuberculosis, Federated States of Micronesia and Republic of the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mase, Sundari R; Jereb, John A; Gonzalez, Daniel; Martin, Fatma; Daley, Charles L; Fred, Dorina; Loeffler, Ann M; Menon, Lakshmy R; Bamrah Morris, Sapna; Brostrom, Richard; Chorba, Terence; Peloquin, Charles A

    2016-04-01

    In the Federated States of Micronesia and then the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI), levofloxacin pharmacokinetics were studied in children receiving directly observed once-daily regimens (10 mg/kg, age >5 years; 15-20 mg/kg, age ≤5 years) for either multidrug-resistant tuberculosis disease or latent infection after multidrug-resistant tuberculosis exposure, to inform future dosing strategies. Blood samples were collected at 0 (RMI only), 1, 2 and 6 hours (50 children, aged 6 months to 15 years) after oral levofloxacin at >6 weeks of treatment. Clinical characteristics and maximal drug concentration (Cmax) of levofloxacin, elimination half-life and area under the curve from 0 to 24 hours (AUC0-24 hours × μg/mL) were correlated to determine the optimal dosage and to examine associations. Population pharmacokinetics and target attainment were modeled. With results from the Federated States of Micronesia, dosages were increased in RMI toward the target Cmax for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, 8-12 µg/mL. Cmax correlated linearly with per-weight dosage. Neither Cmax nor half-life was associated with gender, age, body mass index, concurrent medications or predose meals. At levofloxacin dosage of 15-20 mg/kg, Cmax ≥8 µg/mL was observed, and modeling corroborated a high target attainment across the ratio of the area under the free concentration versus time curve to minimum inhibitory concentration (fAUCss,0-24/MIC) values. Levofloxacin dosage should be 15-20 mg/kg for Cmax ≥8 µg/mL and a high target attainment across fAUCss,0-24/MIC values in children ≥2 years of age.

  19. Status report on the use of nuclear energy in the Federal Republic of Germany 2014; Statusbericht zur Kernenergienutzung in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bredberg, Ines; Hutter, Johann; Kuehn, Kerstin; Niedzwiedz, Katarzyna; Philippczyk, Frank; Thoemmes, Achim

    2015-05-15

    This report describes the use of nuclear energy in the Federal Republic of Germany as at 31 December 2014. It contains the essential data of all nuclear power plants, research reactors and the facilities of the nuclear fuel cycle. At the reporting date 31 December 2014, nine nuclear power plants were in operation. The power generation from nuclear energy in 2014 amounted to altogether 97.1 TWh (2013: 97.3 TWh). This is a share of 15.8% of the total gross electricity production (2013: 15.4%)1. The report summarises the essential operational results of the nuclear power plants and information on granted licences. A short description of the present state of the nuclear power plants that have been shut down or decommissioned and of the stopped projects is given. Concerning research reactors essential data on type, characteristics (thermal power, thermal neutron flux) and purpose of the facility are represented. Furthermore, an overview is given of the licensing and operation history and the present state of the operating condition. For the facilities of the nuclear fuel cycle data on purpose and capacity and output are given. Furthermore, the licensing history and the present status of operation and licensing are represented. The works on the running repository projects ERAM and Konrad and on the Asse II mine and the Gorleben mine are presented. To give a survey, the data is summarised in tabular form at the end of the report (Annexes). The report is updated and published once a year.

  20. The market potential of HTR modular reactors as a heat source for high - temperature processes in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The HTR is the only reactor system which can provide process heat in a wide temperature range up to 950 0 C. The HTR module is designed as an unsophisticated, safe and universal heat source with a large field of applications. The following applications have been considered: the steam reforming of natural gas and coal conversion processes for the production of methanol, hydrogen and SNG. They are investigated in many different modifications and nuclear and autothermal processes are compared. Other applications of nuclear process heat in the chemical and petrochemical industry seem to be appropriate and promising, but could not be analysed because of lack of data. The economic results show that for today's coal and gas processing the HTR can only compete against conventional conversion processes for specific premises. Especially, those processses in which valuable fossil fuels such as natural gas are substituted by nuclear process heat promise an economic bebefit. Looking to the market of the year 2030 and the need for process heat in the chemical and steel industries (including the demand for synthesis gas), cement and refinery industries, for the production of aluminium oxide and for tertiary oil recovery, a total theoretical market in the Federal Republic of Germany of up to 60 HTR-2 module plants is estimated

  1. In situ-experiments on the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes (HAW) at the Asse salt mine Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, K.; Rothfuchs, T.

    1989-01-01

    Deep geological salt formations are considered as being the most suitable medium for the disposal of radioactive wastes in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). This paper reports how, in order to develop and to prove the necessary disposal techniques, the Asse Salt Mine in the northern part of Germany is being used as a national R and D facility for the execution of representative in situ-tests. Besides the test-wise disposal of low-and medium-level radioactive waste, a series of in situ experiments was performed on the disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HAW). The so-called HAW repository is being performed from 1983 through 1994 will be the most important pilot test for the HAW repository in the FRG. During this experiment, 30 vitrified high-level radioactive heat and radiation sources will be emplaced in six underground boreholes. The duration of testing will be approximately five years. In addition to the investigations of the interactions of the heat and radiation sources and the host rock, a complete handling system for HAW-canisters is being developed and proved

  2. Energy supplies in the Federal Republic of Germany. The reliability of supplies and strategies to provide for it. Die Energieversorgung der Bundesrepublik. Sicherungsbedarf und Sicherungsstrategien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthies, K

    1985-06-01

    The IEA crisis management has so far not been required to demonstrate its full capacity and power. In spite of a number of crises in the Middle East oil has always been sufficiently available in the Western world. Even with the Gulf at war there have been abundant oil supplies and once again slackening petroleum prices on the world market for several years. This very situation did not fail to affect the different opinions on the reliability of supplies. While the Western German petroleum industry is being suffocated by accumulating idle refinery stocks and therefore protests against excessive provision making with the help of restrictive policies, the mining industry still meets with political support for a policy of stockpiling for the sake of reliable energy supplies. In view of the inflationary use of the reliability and safety concepts in political discussion the publication abstracted is trying to throw light on the meaning per se, the development of the supply situation in the Federal Republic of Germany since 1973 and on the applicability and costs of possible precautionary strategies taking effect in the case of suspended energy imports.

  3. Cost-effectiveness and risk associated with radiological chest screening programmes illustrated at the results of mass-screening in Bavaria/Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Th.; Stieve, F.E.

    1987-01-01

    In 1975 the German Central Committee on combating tuberculosis, in accordance with international recommendations, proposed to continue non-selected mass surveys as long as more than 4 cases of pulmonary tuberculosis are detected in a total of 10,000 persons whose disease has not yet been detected by other means. In December 1977 the same recommendation was repeated. Meantime, however, the incidence and mortality of pulmonary tuberculosis has decreased so much, that the concentration of an increased morbidity rate has already been limited to a few districts of the Federal Republic of Germany. In 1982 new cases of pulmonary tuberculosis decreased from 19 to 70 per 100,000 with a mean value of about 30. The number of deaths because of pulmonary tuberculosis came to approximately 2.0 per 100,000 inhabitants. Besides regional differences there are great ones between the native population and foreigners. The latter group is much more concerned with the total incidence as well as with regard to the age of the people affected. Therefore it will be necessary to think- over the practice of chest radiographic examination - in accordance the the recommendations of the International Radiation Commission discussed in 1977 and 1982 and the recommendations of the World Health Organisation (WHO) published in 1983

  4. [Systemic Antimicrobials Consumption and Expenditures in Departments of Surgery of Multi-Profile Hospitals in the Russian Federation and the Republic of Belarus: Results of Multicentre Pharmacoepidemiological Study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkova, Yu A; Rachina, S A; Kozlov, R S; Mishchenko, V M; Pavlukov, R A; Abubakirova, A I; Berezhanskiy, B V; Eliseeva, E V; Zubareva, N A; Karpov, I A; Kopylova, I A; Palyutin, Sh Kh; Portnyagina, U S; Pribytkova, O V; Samuylo, E K

    2016-01-01

    The results of the systemic antimicrobials (AM) consumption and expenditures assessment in the departments of surgery of multi-profile hospitals in different regions of the Russian Federation and the Republic of Belarus in 2009-2010 based on retrospective collection and analysis of the data from the hospital expenditure notes using ATC/DDD methodology are presented. The average AM consumption and expenditure rates in the above mentioned departments varied from 24.9 DDD/100 bed-days to 61.7 DDD/100 bed-days depending on the department profile, with beta-lactams (cephalosporins and penicillins) share in the consumption being as high as 70-90%, followed by fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides. Only 55-70% of the consumed AM belonged to the drugs of choice, whereas the improper AM consumption and expenditure rates amounted up to 10-18%. The study outputs can be used for the budget allocation and AM distribution improvement in the departments of surgery, as well as for the development and efficacy control of the local antimicrobial stewardship programs.

  5. Gestations and parturitions after the Chernoby1 reactor accident. A representative evaluation for the Federal Republic of Germany and Berlin (West)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeltz, J.; Hoeltz, A.; Potthoff, P.; Brachner, A.; Grosche, B.; Hinz, G.; Kaul, A.; Martignoni, K.; Roedler, H.D.; Schwarz, E.; Tsavachidis, C.

    1992-09-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany (former states) a cohort study was performed to find out, if there were any untoward pregnancy outcomes (preterm births) after the Chernobyl accident. It was also investigated, whether a possibly increased incidence of premature births was correlated to fears of the pregnant women for increased radiation exposure. The study was carried out in 3 stages: In the first stage (card-file monitoring) the data of 5,548 pregnant women (date of conception between April and August 1986) were taken from their gynaecologists' card-files, and in stage 2 and 3 (questionnaire/pregnancy record monitoring) 3,946 pregnant women (date of conception between January 1987 and February 1988) additionally filled in an extensive questionnaire. The influence of the following risk factors was studied: fears, smoking, drug consumption, biomedical and socio-economic factors. Both, in the card-file monitoring and the questionnaire, there was no statistically significant difference in the rate of preterm births in areas with different radiation exposure. From women living in areas with higher radiation exposure due to the Chernobyl fallout fears related to environmental risks were mentioned more frequently. There was a statistically significant increase in premature births for the risk factors smoking, psycho-drug consumption, and for biomedical risks as documented in the pregnancy records. When comparing this study with a similar one from 1981/1982, no difference in the rate of preterm births was observed. (orig.) [de

  6. Compensatory charge as guarantee of power supply. [Federal Republic of Germany]. Finanzwissenschaftliches Forschungsinstitut an der Universitaet zu Koeln. Sonderveroeffentlichung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voss, A

    1981-01-01

    First, the legal base of the compensatory charge is described, followed by an evaluation of its revenue systematics. Since the compensatory charge revenue does not go into the federal budget, but to a special fund, a budget evaluation follows. In the framework of a financial evaluation, the effects of imposing this charge are investigated. The differences between a political assessment and a financial evaluation of this charge are shown by giving MP statements made. According to the present situation, it is also possible to combine the various purposes of power taxation in an ingeniously contrieved manner under the aspects of finance and psychology. It follows that a power tax might still be levied at a time when the original purpose of its introduction is no longer applicable.

  7. The Text of the Agreement of 22 July 1977 between Argentina and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in connection with a Contract Concluded between the Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina) and the Reactor Brennelement Union Gmbh Hanau (Federal Republic Of Germany) for Co-Operation in The Field of Fabrication of Fuel Elements for Peaceful Nuclear Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Agreement between the Republic of Argentina, the Federative Republic of Brazil, the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards came into force on 4 March 1994 [es

  8. The Text of the Agreement between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    The text of the Agreement, and of the Protocol thereto, between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in implementation of Article III (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (reproduced in document INFCIRC/140) is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members

  9. The Text of the Agreement between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    The text of the Agreement, and of the Protocol thereto, between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in implementation of Article III (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (reproduced in document INFCIRC/140) is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members [es

  10. Official announcement concerning the conclusion of an agreement between the Federal Republic of Germany and utilities of the electric power industry for implementing the EC transboundary guideline of October 29, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Federal Republic of Germany, Badenwerk AG, Bayernwerk AG, Berliner Kraft- und Licht-AG, Energie-Versorgung Schwaben AG, Hamburgische Electricitaets-Werke AG, Preussen Elektra AG, RWE Energie AG and Vereinigte Elektrizitaetswerke Westfalen AG have concluded an agreement on 7 October 1991 in order to implement the EC Council's guideline of 29 October 1990 concerning transboundary transmission of electric power via large-scale power grids. (orig./HP) [de

  11. The bomb as option. Motivation for the development of a nuclear infrastructure in the Federal Republic of Germany until 1963; Die Bombe als Option. Motive fuer den Aufbau einer atomtechnischen Infrastruktur in der Bundesrepublik bis 1963

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanel, Tilmann

    2015-07-01

    The book on the motivation for the development of a nuclear infrastructure in the Federal Republic of Germany until 1963 discusses the following issues: History of the German reactor development during the time of the National Socialism and World War II, reactor research abroad (examples Sweden and Switzerland), protagonists and motivation (politics, science, economy, army), the development of a nuclear infrastructure, results and consequences of the German nuclear policy until 1963.

  12. The Text of the Agreement between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The Agreement of 5 April 1973, and the Protocol thereto, between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in implementation of Article 111(1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons entered into force, pursuant to the first sentence of Article 25(a) thereof, on 21 February 1977 [es

  13. Decree amending and adding various provisions to the Penal Code for the Federal District with respect to local jurisdiction and to the Penal Code for the whole Republic with respect to federal jurisdiction, 29 December 1988. [Selected provisions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Mexico's decree amending and adding various provisions to the penal code for the federal district, with respect to local jurisdiction, and to the penal code for the whole republic, with respect to federal jurisdiction, December 29, 1988, among other things, amends the penal code to strengthen provisions relating to sex crimes. Among the provisions are the following: anyone procuring or facilitating the corruption of a minor (under 18) or a person lacking capacity, by means of sexual acts, or who induces him to engage in begging, drunkenness, drug addiction, or some other vice; to form part of an unlawful association; or to commit whatever crimes will be imprisoned for 3-8 years and subjected to a fine. The sentence shall be enhanced if the minor or incapacitated person forms a habit due to repeated acts of corruption. Whoever encourages or facilitates a person's engaging in prostitution or obtains or delivers a person for the purpose of prostitution will be imprisoned for 2-9 years and fined. Pandering will be punished with imprisonment for 2-9 years and a fine. Whoever, without consent and without the purpose of achieving intercourse, performs on her a sexual act with lascivious intent, or forces her to perform it, will be sentenced to "15 days to 1 year's or to 10-40 days' community service work." If physical or moral violence is used, the penalty will be 2-7 years imprisonment. Performing the above act on a person under age 12 or on someone unable to resist increases the punishment. Whoever uses physical or moral violence to have intercourse with a person of whatever sex shall be imprisoned 8-14 years; using an object other than a penis either vaginally or anally on either a male or a female will result in imprisonment of 1-5 years. If the victim is under age 12, unable to resist, or if 2 or more persons commit the crime, an enhanced punishment will result.

  14. Communication Received from the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany Concerning its Policies Regarding the Management Of Plutonium. Statements on the Management of Plutonium and of Highly Enriched Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The Director General has received a note verbale dated 7 November 2001 from the Permanent Mission of the Federal Republic of Germany to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines') and with reference to the statement on the policies which it has decided to apply to the management of plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549/Add.2), has made available the data on the plutonium inventory on German territory as of 31 December 2000. The Government of the Federal Republic of Germany has conveyed in its note verbale that 'Regarding any material that has been shipped abroad, especially for reprocessing, Germany would like to point out that the data on such material are not available at the German side. This should be taken into consideration whenever these data are used for statistical purposes. All nuclear materials within the states of the EU are property of the European Union, represented by the EURATOM Supply Agency'

  15. Communication received from the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany concerning its policies regarding the management of plutonium. Statements on the management of plutonium and of high enriched uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The Director General has received a Note Verbale, dated 22 September 2003, from the Permanent Mission of the Federal Republic of Germany to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government of Germany, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998), and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2002. 2. The Government of the Federal Republic of Germany has also made available a statement of the estimated amounts of high enriched uranium (HEU) as of 31 December 2002. 3. In light of the request expressed by the Federal Republic of Germany in its Note Verbale of 1 December 1997 concerning its policies regarding the management of plutonium (INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998), the Note Verbale of 22 September 2003 and the enclosures thereto are attached for the information of all Member States

  16. Communication received from the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany concerning its policies regarding the management of plutonium. Statements on the management of plutonium and of high enriched uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The Director General has received a Note Verbale, dated 17 September 2004, from the Permanent Mission of the Federal Republic of Germany to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government of Germany, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines'), and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2003. The Government of the Federal Republic of Germany has also made available a statement of the estimated amounts of highly enriched uranium (HEU) as of 31 December 2003. In light of the request expressed by the Federal Republic of Germany in its Note Verbale of 1 December 1997 concerning its policies regarding the management of plutonium (INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998), the Note Verbale of 17 September 2004 and the enclosures thereto are attached for the information of all Member States

  17. Information on nuclear energy in the Federal Republic of Germany. Establishment of a dialogue between the public and Government authorities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, K.

    1977-01-01

    During recent years the public debate on nuclear energy has grown in importance. Events such as the occupation of a power plant construction site and many discussions in the press have led to a broadly based interest in questions related to the use of nuclear energy. In 1975, the Federal German Government launched a nuclear energy information programme, with the main objective of establishing a dialogue between the public and Government authorities. In several advertisements the public was asked to participate in this dialogue by applying for a booklet prepared by the Government or by taking part in direct discussions. General discussions were held, which were very well attended, and many seminars were organized, which allowed a more detailed discussion of special items among a limited number of participants. The scope of discussions was not limited to the environmental and safety aspects of nuclear energy; the Government also intended to illustrate the need for nuclear energy and its role in an overall energy strategy. Since all parliamentary political parties supported the use of nuclear energy and since power plant construction and planning was going ahead on the basis of the Government's energy programme, the dialogue was intended to provide a basis for a wider understanding of the problems and the advantages of nuclear energy. This information compaign has met with great interest. Up to the end of 1976, approximately 100,000 people have responded to the Government's initiative. (author)

  18. Report on the fuel cycle centre for spent fuel elements from nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The report takes into account the contents of the safety report which was presented on March 31st, 1977 to the Social Minister of Lower Saxony by the Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Wiederaufbereitung von Kernbrennstoffen mbH, Hanover, together with the application for a licence for the construction and operation of a fuel cycle centre. However, the report is not to be seen as the brief description of the facility, as it is required according to section 3, sub-section 3 of the AtVfV (Nuclear Installations Ordinance). It is more introductory information. Statements and drafts are preliminary; they have neither been decided on nor have they been licensed. However, the report gives a survey of the present state-of-the-art and of planning activities concerning the nuclear fuel cycle centre, while paying special attention to data relevant to the site. The government of Lower Saxony has proposed as a preliminary site on Febr. 22nd, 1977 an area near Gorleben in the rural district of Luechow-Dannenberg. The Federal government has adopted this proposal on July 5th, 1977. (orig.) [de

  19. Reduction of regional disparities in electric power prices by spatially effective measures and planning in the Federal Republic of Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, G

    1984-01-01

    For a long time energy policy has been trying to reduce disparities in electric power prices by administrative and financial measures alone. Governmental planning was opening up new prospects when long-range fuel transport - and in particular the transport of hard coal by ship or by rail - was seeing a drop in prices in the mid seventies. Since fuel transport has been lower-priced than the transport of equivalent quantities of electric power, regional disparities in electric power prices which are due to the respective supply structures may be levelled by way of power plant site selection and power plant installation according to the specific regional loads. A decentralized expansion of power generation within reach of the consumer requires but a minimum of wiring. Structural price disparities are reduced in particular in regions importing electric power at excessive prices. In addition, costs may be saved by rational energy utilization consisting above all in the application of dual-purpose power plants and by the rationalization of network infrastuctures. The study abstracted is part of a research project of the Federal Research Institute for Land Studies and Planning. The project is dealing with concepts of decentralized electric power supply and space heating. It adds to already existing related studies which deal above all with the basic problems of scheduling and planning the contents and inner structure of decentralized energy concepts.

  20. Protocol to suspend the application of safeguards pursuant to the Agreement of 26 February 1976 between the Agency, the Government of the Federative Republic of Brazil and the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany in the light of the provisions for the application of safeguards pursuant to the Quadripartite Safeguards Agreement between Argentina, Brazil, the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for the Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials and the IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Protocol of 16 October 1998 suspending the application of safeguards under the Safeguards Agreement (INFCIRC/237) of 26 February 1976 between the Agency, Brazil and the Federal Republic of Germany in the light of the provisions for the application of safeguards pursuant to the Quadripartite Safeguards Agreement between the Agency, Brazil, the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for the Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials and the IAEA. The Protocol entered into force on 21 October 1999

  1. Public relations work in the field of disposal of radioactive wastes in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, R.

    1996-01-01

    Many institutions have participated in public relations work concerning the final disposal of radioactive wastes in Germany since preliminary research work in this field was started in the early 1960's. The large number of institutions involved necessitates a uniform phraseology, kept up to date by permanent exchanges of information. The Press and Public Information Section of the Bundesamt fur Strahlenschutz (BfS) is responsible for co-ordination, with the aim of presenting both the general disposal concept of the Federal Government, and the work done within the scope of individual projects in the field of final waste disposal. Public relations activities are supported by the Deutsche Gesellschaft zum Bau and Betrieb von Endlagern fur Abfallstoffe mbH (DBE) which conducts public relations work at site level. Since the early sixties radioactive waste disposal policy in Germany has been based on the decision that all kinds of radioactive wastes should be disposed of in deep geological formations. One operating repository and two different disposal projects are currently under was in Germany. The paper discusses these three sites and their public relations efforts. A lot of work has been done in the public relations field in Germany, for more than 15 years now. Open, comprehensive information and reporting are essential for transparent and credible representations of the activities necessary for the disposal of radioactive waste, as well as to create a climate of confidence in order to fashion a position identity for such large-scale projects. In addition to personal contacts, target-group oriented information meetings and scientifically understandable information material are important means to achieved this end. The permanent presence of contact persons at the sites supports this objective, especially with regard to information directed towards the general public. (author)

  2. Site investigations and conceptual design for the repository in the nuclear 'Entsorgungszentrum' of the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roethemeyer, H.

    1980-01-01

    Site investigations are planned to enable the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt and the other institutions involved to scrutinize the suitability of the Gorleben site and its salt dome as the nuclear 'Entsorgungszentrum' repository, and to provide all data necessary for detailed site-specific planning and safe building and operation of the repository. The investigations include deep drillings and an extensive hydrogeological programme for exploring the general structure of the salt dome and its environment. The latter programme started on 17 April 1979. The Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (Federal Geological Survey) is in charge of the geoscientific side of the investigations. For the site-independent conceptual design the following requirements have been laid down: (1) for safety reasons retrievability is not to be considered; (2) standard mining techniques and the special experience gained at the Asse salt mine should be utilized as much as possible; (3) two shafts should be sufficient for the mine, for all transport and the ventilation system; (4) different forms of waste in terms of waste type and container shall be disposed of in different storage areas; (5) ventilated sections must permit the shutting off of each storage area from the rest of the mine; (6) the mining method of retreat working should be applied in order to explore the whole disposal area prior to the beginning of disposal, to enable an optimal fit of the mine to the structure of the salt dome, and to move away from the heat generated by heat-producing waste; (7) the mine works shall have a lateral safety distance to the cap rock of 200 m and a vertical safety zone of 300 m beneath the salt level. (8) all disposal areas shall be on one level; (9) salt and waste shall be transported in different drifts, mainly in a one-way system. (author)

  3. Insecure Identities: Unaccompanied Minors as Refugees in Hamburg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the financial circumstances and social income of nearly one hundred unaccompanied minors who have come to Hamburg as refugees from various regions of Africa. It is based on extensive qualitative surveys, analysing their objective conditions of life and in particular their legal situation. A wide range of interview material and…

  4. Nuclear fuel in water reactors: manufacturing technology operational experience and development activities in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzer, R.; Knoedler, D.

    1977-01-01

    Federal Government, and is a good example for a coordinated work between government industry and contributions from the utilities. Since several years water reactor fuel ''R and D'' is also an item of international cooperation

  5. The text of the agreement of 15 July 1981 between Argentina and the Agency for the application of Safeguards in connection with contracts concluded between the Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica Argentina and the Kraftwerk Union AG (Federal Republic of Germany) for the supply of the Atucha II Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Agreement between the Republic of Argentina, the Federative Republic of Brazil, the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards came into force on 4 March 1994. As a result of the coming into force of the aforesaid Agreement for Argentina, the application of safeguards under the Agreement of 15 July 1981 between Argentina and the IAEA for the application of safeguards in connection with contracts concluded between the Comision Nacional de Energia Atomic Argentina and the Kraftwerk Union AG (Federal Republic of Germany) for the supply of the Atucha II Nuclear Power Plant has been suspended

  6. Studies on cadmium exposure in the population of the Federal Republic of Germany. Untersuchungen zur Cadmiumbelastung der Bevoelkerung in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewers, U.

    1990-01-01

    The author reports on a number of studies performed on cadmium exposure in the population of the Federal Republic of Germany, in particular that of the Rhine-Ruhr region. The studies covered: - the examinations for Cd concentrations in full blood (CdB), in urine (CdU) in different population groups, and the analysis of various influencing factors; - an autopsy study involving 388 corpses from the Duesseldorf and Duisburg regions to determine the concentrations of cadmium, copper and zinc in the renal cortex - an epidemiological study on the occurrence and incidence of cadmium-induced renal function disorders in inhabitants of areas exposed to high Cd immission levels (Stolberg, Duisburg). The studies indicate CdB concentrations to be influenced by the following factors: - smoking; - age; - sex; - Cd immission level. Measurements of CdU concentrations were performed in children from Duisburg and Goch, and in women aged 65 and 66 from Stolberg, Duisburg and Duesseldorf. The results of the study performed in children did not reveal any influence of Cd immission levels. The results of the autopsy study showed that Cd concentrations in the renal cortex of persons not exposed to heavy metals occupationally, are well below the critical CdKc concentration on an average. The results of the epidemiological study on cadmium-induced renal function disorders in 286 women aged 65 and 66 from the cities of Stolberg, Duisburg and Duesseldorf revealed that no indications for renal dysfunctions clearly attributable to excessive Cd accumulation in the kidney, were verified even in a population group which had been exposed to relatively high Cd levels from the environment. (orig./MG).

  7. Approaches to the final storage of radioactive waste in the Federal Republic of Germany. Will responsibility be shifted to future generations?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomauske, B.

    2004-01-01

    With respect to the management of high-level radioactive waste in Germany, there is agreement on these premises: - The waste is to be stored permanently in the Federal Republic of Germany. - A repository is to be operational by 2030. - Final storage is to be achieved in geologic formations. Differences of opinion exist about these questions: - Should there be only one repository for all types of radioactive waste, or would a breakdown into waste generating heat and waste generating only negligible amounts of heat in different repositories be useful under aspects of safety and requirement? - Will a new site selection procedure be required in an effort to find a suitable site, and would such a selection procedure be able to meet the deadline of 2030 for an operational repository? - After the end of legal proceedings, should the Konrad repository be revamped for waste generating negligible amounts of heat? The analysis presented shows that an operational repository for waste generating heat can be made available only in connection with continued exploration work at Gorleben and demonstration of the suitability of that site and subsequent construction of the repository. If the search for a repository site were started from scratch, the date of commissioning such a facility would be after 2050. In this way, that approach would miss the purpose of not shifting the waste management issue to future generations. Acting responsibly means to build the Konrad repository speedily after completion of the legal proceedings about a permit and, in this way, avoid the addition of more interim stores for waste generating negligible amounts of heat. Further exploration of Gorleben is the way agreed upon and necessary for the creation of a repository for high-level radioactive waste generating heat by 2030. For this purpose, the 'points of doubt' must be resolved speedily. (orig.) [de

  8. Measurement of actinides in samples from effluent air, primary coolant and effluent water of nuclear power stations in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, R.; Hoetzl, H.; Rosner, G.

    1977-01-01

    Since the middle of 1973 the alpha radioactivity of a number of aerosol filters from the stack monitoring systems of some nuclear power stations, of water effluent samples from all german nuclear power stations and of samples from the primary coolant water of one nuclear power reactor was measured. Essentially, the following procedures of sample preparation for alpha spectrometry of the samples in large area gridded ionization chambers were used; cold ashing of the aerosol samples in 'excited' oxygen, coprecipitation of the alpha emitters from the effluent water samples with iron hydroxide and subsequent cold ashing of the precipitate, and evaporation of the samples from the primary cycle on stainless steel plates. The following transuranium nuclides, or some of them, were found in the samples of the primary coolant and in several aerosol filter samples: Pu-239/240, Pu-238 and/or Am-241, Cm-242 and Cm-244. Cm-242 contributes most to the alpha radioactivity in fresh samples. In the effluent water samples Cm-242, Pu-239/240 and Pu-238 and/or Am-241 were identified in some cases, in one case also Cm-244. Detection limits of the procedures used for the analysis of the above stated transuranium nuclides were in the order of 0,1 fCi per m 3 for the aerosol samples and of 0.2 pCi per 1 for the liquid samples. For the effluent air and water samples in most cases specific activities near the detection limit or somewhat higher were found. On the basis of the measurements, an estimation of the annual actinides releases from nuclear power stations in the Federal Republic of Germany is given

  9. Environmental exposure to cadmium and renal function of elderly women living in cadmium-polluted areas of the Federal Republic of Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewers, U.; Brockhaus, A.; Dolgner, R.; Freier, I.; Jermann, E.; Bernard, A.; Stiller-Winkler, R.; Hahn, R.; Manojlovic, N.

    1985-01-01

    An epidemiological study was performed to assess whether environmental pollution by cadmium as found in cadmium-polluted areas of the Federal Republic of Germany is associated with an increased prevalence of biological signs of kidney dysfunction in population groups non-occupationally exposed to heavy metals. The study was run in two industrial areas known to be highly contaminated by cadmium, lead and other heavy metals, viz. Stolberg and Duisburg. Duesseldorf was selected as a reference area. As a study population the authors selected 65- and 66-year-old women (n = 286) who had spent the major part of their lives in one of these areas. The average cadmium levels in blood (CdB) and urine (CdU) revealed significant differences in exposure to cadmium in the order Stolberg greater than Duisburg greater than Duesseldorf. Serum creatinine levels were, on average, significantly higher in the Stolberg group than in the Duisburg and Duesseldorf groups. However, with respect to the urinary excretion of low molecular weight proteins (beta 2-microglobulin, retinol-binding protein), albuminuria, total proteinuria, aminoaciduria, phosphaturia and some other biological findings, no significant differences between the study populations were noted. Similarly, the prevalence of clinically-confirmed hypertension as well as the relative frequency of hypertensive subjects (systolic greater than or equal to 160 and/or diastolic greater than or equal to 95 mm Hg) did not differ significantly among the three study groups. There was no exposure-response relationship between CdU and tubular proteinuria in the range of the CdU-levels found (0.1 to 5.2 micrograms/g creatinine). However, albuminuria tended to be increased at CdU levels greater than 2 micrograms/g creatinine.

  10. Stationary centrifugal mass energy storage at the Hamburg subway; Stationaerer Schwungmassen-Energiespeicher bei der Hamburger U-Bahn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinhorst, F. [Hamburger Hochbahn AG, Hamburg (Germany). Abt. Energieanlagen; Jonassen, I.; Peters, A. [Hamburger Hochbahn AG, Hamburg (Germany). Fachbereich Energieversorgung

    2008-07-01

    A stationary energy storage is to be used as a model in a substation of the Hamburg subway network with a view to the environmentally compatible and technically proper use of the brake energy available in electrified local public transport systems. A further question to be reviewed is whether the use of other energy storages in the subway network is a reasonable solution. (orig.)

  11. Hamburg rules V Hague Visby rules an English perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Tozaj Dorian; Xhelilaj Ermal

    2010-01-01

    It has often been argued for the effect of defences provided to carriers under Art IV (2) of Hague Visby Rules to almost nullify the protection guaranteed to shippers in other provisions of this convention. Therefore an all embracing universal shipper friendly convention, merely the Hamburg Rules, need be incorporated in all countries in order to address this issue and fully satisfy the intentions of the parties for the establishment of international rules in international trade

  12. Processing, physicochemical, and sensory analyses of ostrich meat hamburger

    OpenAIRE

    Vera Lúcia Ferreira de Souza; Jaqueline Yumi Sasaki; Maria Luiza Rodrigues de Souza Franco; Maria José Baptista Barbosa; Rejane Machado Cardozo

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the potential utilization of ostrich meat trimming in hamburger preparation, as well as its physicochemical and sensory characterization. Using ostrich meat trimmings from the legs and neck, four different formulations were prepared with varied amounts of bacon and textured soybean protein. Physical analysis of yield, shrinkage percentage, and water retention capacity and chemical analysis of proximate composition, cholesterol levels, and calories wer...

  13. Offenheit: Poster zur Nacht des Wissens Hamburg 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Hapke, Thomas; Rajski, Beate; Bieler, Detlev

    2015-01-01

    Die Posterserie zum Thema Offenheit wurde von der Universitätsbibliothek der Technischen Universität Hamburg für die Nacht des Wissens am 7. November 2015 erstellt. Sie enthält die Poster Offenheit vonWissen Open Access Open Access Publizieren Offene Inhalte - Creative Commons Lizenzen TUBdok: Open Access Repository der TUHH Offene Bildung - Open Educational Resources Zur Geschichte der Offenheit des Wissens

  14. Education and Training in Peace Research in Hamburg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goettsche, M.; Kalinowski, M.; Neuneck, G.

    2013-01-01

    In Hamburg, peace and security education is mainly offered by the Carl Friedrich von Weizsaecker Centre for Science and Peace Research at the University of Hamburg and the Institute for Peace Research and Security Policy. The former institute offers interdisciplinary lectures and seminars open for students from all faculties; the latter institute offers the Master of Peace and Security Studies programme. This paper introduces these education and training opportunities in Hamburg. Special emphasis is put on simulation conferences that are offered each semester, the summer school 'Young Scientists Cooperate for Peace' (SCooP) and the workshop 'Teaching Ethics and Peace to Science and Engineering Students'. Specific lectures from the 'Scientific contributions to peace research' series include disarmament, the non-proliferation regime and nuclear verification. Specific lectures from the 'Physical basics of peace research' series include neutron and gamma detectors for nuclear verification, satellite imagery, detection of signatures from banned nuclear activities from long distances, and material accounting of plutonium, HEU and tritium. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation. (authors)

  15. The energy policy message of the Hamburg SPD party congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.

    2007-01-01

    On October 26-28 this year, the Social Democratic (SPD) party congress was held in Hamburg; its new party platform, the so-called ''Hamburg Program,'' constitutes a landmark for the party. The Program's chapter on ''Sustainable Progress and Qualitative Growth'' refers to energy policy in the section about ''Turning Point in Energy Policy; Environmental Protection.'' Emphasis is given to the fact that energy, like air and water, is a basis of life of our civilization, and that the present ways of wasting energy and resources have no future. For this reason, the turnaround in energy policy initiated by the SPD must be advanced in the key issue of switching from non-renewable to renewable energy resources and from polluting to non-polluting resources. The ultimate goal is a solar age. As far as nuclear power is concerned, the Social Democratic Party finds that nuclear fission appeared to many as the big hope for energy available forever, but that these hopes cannot come true. To put it in a nutshell: The SPD is fast embarking on the road into a solar age. The party does see the growing world population and the rising energy requirement as well as the resulting challenges. However, its energy policy concept is too rigidly focused on Germany and the country's pioneering role. At the present time, nuclear power stands no chance in the SPD, although the Hamburg declaration includes a cautious reminder of the fact that, until 1986, the SPD was among the proponents of nuclear power. (orig.)

  16. Agreement of 13 December 1991 between the Republic of Argentina, the Federative Republic of Brazil, the Brazilian-Argentine agency for accounting and control of nuclear materials and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-08-01

    The document reproduces the text of an agreement by exchange of letters with the Argentine Republic in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons and the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean. The agreement was approved by the Board of Governors on 18 March 1997 and entered into force on that date

  17. Nuclear war and other catastrophes. Civil and catastrophe protection in the Federal republic of Germany and the United Kingdom after 1945; Atomkrieg und andere Katastrophen. Zivil- und Katastrophenschutz in der Bundesrepublik und Grossbritannien nach 1945

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diebel, Martin [Zentrum fuer Zeithistorische Forschung, Potsdam (Germany)

    2017-07-01

    The book civil and catastrophe protection in the Federal republic of Germany and the United Kingdom after 1945 discusses the following issues: aerial defense and the atomic bomb (1945 - 1968), crises and catastrophes in the shadow of the bomb (1962 - 1978), civil defense and the comeback of the (nuclear) war (1976 - 1979), civil defense and the second ''Cold War'' (1979 - 1986), Chernobyl and the end of the Cold War (1979 - 1990), war, catastrophe and safety in the 20th century - a conclusion.

  18. Environmental policy between repair and prevention. An introduction, with reference to the Federal Republic of Germany in the international context. Umweltpolitik zwischen Reparatur und Vorbeugung. Eine Einfuehrung am Beispiel Bundesrepublik im internationalen Kontext

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaeser, B

    1989-01-01

    With reference to the Federal Republic of Germany, the author first of all describes the origin and development of a national environmental policy and its instruments. Subsequently, selected problem fields (air, water, soil, waste, chemicals) are dealt with in greater detail. Basic facts and issues of 'transfrontier environmental pollution' of an 'external policy for the environment', and of environmental policy in developing countries form the objects of the following chapters. At last the 'consequences for environmental strategies in industrialized and developing countries' are discussed. The author pleads for greater emphasis to be placed on ecological ethics and calls for a more preventively oriented, i.e. prospective and anticipatory, environmental policy. (orig.).

  19. Effect of ionizing radiation on the oxidation of cholesterol in frozen chicken and beef hamburgers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura, Andrea Figueiredo Procopio de

    2004-01-01

    Several technologies have been developed to assure food quality. Among these technological processes, ionizing radiation has been described as a feasible alternative for food conservation, mainly for meat products, since it keeps their natural properties. In hamburgers, the use of irradiation has been studied due to the frequent implication of such products in outbreaks of food-borne diseases. Some of the outbreaks, which even killed consumers, were caused by E. coli O157:H7. But the use of ionizing radiation in hamburgers may form free radicals able to trigger lipid oxidation in the muscle tissue. As a component of the cell membrane lipids, cholesterol may also undergo oxidation and form biologically active compounds, with atherogenic, mutagenic, cytotoxic and cancerous properties. The aim of this work was to evaluate the occurrence of cholesterol oxidation products in chicken hamburgers and beef hamburgers submitted to irradiation and stored frozen, aerobically and under vacuum. The results showed that irradiation caused an increase of around 11% in the concentration of cholesterol oxides in frozen hamburgers. In chicken hamburgers, an increase in the levels of cholesterol oxides was observed ali over the storage period, while in beef hamburgers it was observed only in the final part of the storage period. Packaging itself did not have a significant effect on the concentrations of cholesterol oxides in either of the types of hamburgers studied. However, it showed a significant interaction with irradiation, that is, vacuum packaging prevented the formation of cholesterol oxides in irradiated beef hamburgers. (author)

  20. 'Penetrated system' or 'normal' state? An exploration of INF arms control policy, East-West economic relations, and inter-German policy in the Federal Republic of Germany, 1979-1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, C.S.

    1991-01-01

    The thesis explores policy-making processes in the Federal Republic from 1979-1987 in three areas: INF arms control policy, East-West economic relations, and inter-German policy. Each case study assesses the degree of complexity and domestic accountability in policy-making processes and evaluates the relative influence of domestic and external factors on policy choices. It argues that the trends in West German foreign policy toward greater assertiveness reflected the evolution of the FRG as a state, society, and polity. The 'maturation' of the Federal Republic has introduced greater complexity into foreign policy-making processes, and more frequent societal intervention into what heretofore were elite deliberations. Domestic actors have begun to demand greater accountability, while West German leaders, in turn, have become more assertive and confident in defending German national interests. As the FRG has gained respect and self-respect, it has begun to assume the international role that might be expected of a state of its size, population, geo-political importance, and level of political and economic development. The FRG has become a 'normal' state

  1. Tarihsel Perspektif Işığında Türkiye Cumhuriyeti ve Rusya Federasyonu Arasındaki İlişkiler (Relations Between Republic of Turkey and Russian Federation In Consideration of Historical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail DEMİR

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In relations and state policies between Republic of Turkey and Russian Federation at present, we can see the traces of empires which were existent centuries before. Big wars occured between these empires, interests of these two empires conflicted with each other but both of them disappeared with the effect of nationalism movements, yet two new nation-states emerged from the ashes of these two empires: Republic of Turkey and Russian Federation. Long-term governments of Putin and Erdogan in Turkey and Russia provided these two states to make cooperation in the fields of politics, trade and energy, “win-win” strategy was followed but these two states had different policies in the areas of Cyprus, Chechnya, and Syrian Civil War. Especially the different oaths followed by two states in Syrian Civil War seems to be an important problem that can interrupt the good relations of these two countries. This study, while examining Russia and Turkey’s predecessors’ historical relations, at the same time reveals modern Russia and Turkey’s cooperation areas and foreign policy differences. In the light of these knowledges, predictions about relations between Turkey and Russia in the near future is left to readers’ discretion.

  2. Penetrated system' or normal' state An exploration of INF arms control policy, East-West economic relations, and inter-German policy in the Federal Republic of Germany, 1979-1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, C.S.

    1991-01-01

    The thesis explores policy-making processes in the Federal Republic from 1979-1987 in three areas: INF arms control policy, East-West economic relations, and inter-German policy. Each case study assesses the degree of complexity and domestic accountability in policy-making processes and evaluates the relative influence of domestic and external factors on policy choices. It argues that the trends in West German foreign policy toward greater assertiveness reflected the evolution of the FRG as a state, society, and polity. The maturation' of the Federal Republic has introduced greater complexity into foreign policy-making processes, and more frequent societal intervention into what heretofore were elite deliberations. Domestic actors have begun to demand greater accountability, while West German leaders, in turn, have become more assertive and confident in defending German national interests. As the FRG has gained respect and self-respect, it has begun to assume the international role that might be expected of a state of its size, population, geo-political importance, and level of political and economic development. The FRG has become a normal' state.

  3. Status report on the use of nuclear energy in the Federal Republic of Germany 2016; Statusbericht zur Kernenergienutzung in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bredberg, Ines; Hutter, Johann; Kuehn, Kerstin; Niedzwiedz, Katarzyna; Philippczyk, Frank [Bundesamt fuer kerntechnische Entsorgungssicherheit (BFE), Salzgitter (Germany); Thoemmes, Achim [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Salzgitter (Germany)

    2017-08-15

    On 7-30-2016, the ''Act on the Organisational Restructuring in the Field of Radioactive Waste Management'' came into force. It provides for bundling the governmental tasks of licensing and supervision in the field of nuclear technology, interim storage, site selection and repository monitoring in a new authority, the Federal Office for Nuclear Waste Disposal Safety (BfE). With the entry into force of the law, the corresponding specialist tasks of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) were transferred to the BfE. The task of preparing the annual status report on the use of nuclear energy is now the task of the BfE. A state-owned company, the Bundesgesellschaft fuer Endlager (BGE), will assume responsibility for the operational tasks of site search, construction and operation of the repository, the Asse II mine and Gorleben salt mine. This report as at 12-31-2016 provides an overview of the use of nuclear energy in the Federal Republic of Germany. The report lists the key data of all nuclear power plants, research reactors and nuclear fuel supply and disposal facilities. At the reporting date of December 31,2016, eight nuclear power plant units were in operation. Nuclear power generation in 2016 totalled approximately 84.6 TWh (2015:91.8 TWh). Nuclear energy accounted for 13.0% of total gross electricity generation (2015:14.2%)1. In the case of nuclear power plants, the report summarizes the main operating results and provides information on the nuclear licences granted in the year under review. A brief description of the current status of the decommissioned and decommissioned nuclear power plants as well as of the discontinued projects will be given. For the research reactors, the essential information on the type, the characteristics (thermal power, thermal neutron flux) and the intended use of the plant are presented. Furthermore, an overview of the approval and operating history as well as the current operating status is given

  4. Material flows of benzene with particular consideration of the Federal Republic of Germany; Stoffstroeme von Benzol unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung der Bundesrepublik Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehncke, A.; Mangelsdorf, I. [Fraunhofer Inst. fuer Toxikologie und Aerosolforschung, AG Dokumentation und Bewertung von Chemikalien, Hannover (Germany); Rosner, G. [ToxConsult, Merzhausen (Germany)

    1997-12-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany, benzene is one of the most important basic materials for the chemical industry. Only a relatively small proportion of the pure benzene processed in the chemical industry is emitted into the environment (ca. 40 t in 1991). But the substance is also a natural component of the crude oil in gasoline and is released during incomplete combustion or is formed out of other aromatic substances. The primary source of emissions, with more than 10,000 t/yr (approximately 85% of this from motor vehicles with Otto engines), is commercial motor vehicle transportation. Benzene concentrations in the environment are approximately <1 {mu}g/m{sup 3} in rural areas, 20-30 {mu}g/m{sup 3} near main roads (peak levels in highly urbanized regions with much traffic as high as approximately 100 {mu}g/m{sup 3}) and 7-15 {mu}g/m{sup 3} in the vicinity of industrial polluters. It has not been possible to detect a specific trend over time during the last ten years. An increased exposure (approx. 350-27,000 {mu}g/m{sup 3}) is likely while filling the tank and within the motor vehicle (approx. 10-200 {mu}g/m{sup 3}) due to gasoline volatilization from pipes, etc. Compared to outdoor air, higher concentrations of benzene (approx. 2-11 {mu}g/m{sup 3}) are measured in the indoor air which contains additionally benzene from tobacco smoke, equipment, renovating work and heating. The primary exposure pathway of benzene in humans is inhalation. Apart from individuals with occupational exposure, smokers have the highest internal benzene burden. Measures undertaken during recent years to reduce the amount of emissions have been counteracted at least in part by the increase in motor vehicle traffic. Further measures to reduce the emissions or to change the transportation policies must still be or have already been initiated. (orig.) [Deutsch] Benzol stellt fuer die chemische Industrie in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland einen der wichtigsten Grundstoffe dar. Das in der

  5. Convention on Nuclear Safety - CNS. Report by the government of the Federal Republic of Germany for the sixth review conference in March/April 2014; Uebereinkommen ueber nukleare Sicherheit. Bericht der Regierung der Bundesrepublik Deutschland fuer die Sechste Ueberpruefungstagung im Maerz/April 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-01

    The report by the government of the Federal Republic of Germany for the sixth review conference (Convention on Nuclear Safety - CNS) in March/April 2014 covers the following issues: reappraisal of nuclear energy in the Federal Republic of Germany; measures as consequence of the reactor accident in the nuclear power plant Fukushima; safety regulations; execution of the IRRS follow-up mission in Germany; safety management and technical qualification of the occupational personnel; safety surveillance; radiation protection, overview on important safety topics; events and incidents larger INES 0. Assessment of the existing nuclear facilities; progress and changes since 2011; future activities.

  6. Hamburg subway vehicles with new control and traction systems; Hamburger U-Bahn-Fahrzeuge mit neuer Leit- und Antriebstechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polster, H.J.; Lehr, G.; Werner-Wieland, P. [Bombardier Transportation, LRV, Mannheim (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    With a view to testing new technologies for future vehicle series for the Hamburg subway network, the last 17 DT4 cars to be delivered under a current contract were equipped with the latest generation of control and traction systems. A MITRAC control system was installed instead of the MICAS-S type used in the DT4 vehicles delivered before. The GTO converters were replaced by IGBT elements. The concept is designed to allow for the change-over of DT4 vehicles of previous series to the new system. (orig.)

  7. ABC crescent. Energy concept with active storage system for a Hamburg office building; ABC - Bogen. Energiekonzept mit Aktivspeichersystem fuer ein Buerohaus in Hamburg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoll, J. [HL-Technik AG, Muenchen (Germany). Bereich Future Building Designs, Thermische Bauphysik-Bauklimatik

    1999-07-01

    This new multifunctional building will house a shopping mall and offices. Natural ventilation is favoured as far as possible. Technical facilities were minimised in order to save resources and reduce the operating cost. The architectural design was to be as functional as possible. [German] Mit dem ABC-Bogen in Hamburg entsteht in unmittelbarer Naehe zum Gaensemarkt ein multifunktionales Gebaeude mit Passagen, Laeden und Bueros - ein neuer Akzent in der Hamburger Innenstadt. Das grosszuegig verglaste Gebaeude sollte nach den Zielen der Hamburger Architekten BRT - Bothe, Richter, Teherani und der Projektentwicklung (SF-Bau Projektentwicklung GmbH, NL Hamburg) soweit wie moeglich natuerlich gelueftet werden. Die gebaeudetechnische Ausruestung der Bueros war zur Ressourcenschonung und Begrenzung der Betriebskosten auf ein Mindestmass zu beschraenken. Bei der Fassadengestaltung sollten funktionelle Aspekte absoluten Vorrang haben. (orig.)

  8. Arvi Hamburg : rumal arst võib tappa korraga ühe inimese, rumal insener tuhandeid / Arvi Hamburg ; interv. Taivo Paju

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hamburg, Arvi, 1948-

    2008-01-01

    Eesti Inseneride Liidu president Arvi Hamburg annab lühiülevaate insenerides arvukusest ja kutsekvalifikatsioonist. Projekt tehnikahariduse ja insenerikutse populaarsuse tõstmiseks. Vt. samas: Lühiülevaade inseneri kutseala kvalifikatsioonitasemetest

  9. The Marginalization of Globally-Born Businesses: Ethnically Divided Trade in Hamburg and the World Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezaei, Shahamak

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: Persian carpets have long been a major commodity in the world. Persian carpets have long been a major commodity in the world market, controlled by the Tehran Carpet Bazaar and the Hamburg Free Harbor. Today about 200 private traders in the Hamburg Free Harbor area export...

  10. Consumer preferences, internal color and reduction of shigatoxigenic Escherichia coli in cooked hamburgers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Røssvoll, Elin; Sørheim, Oddvin; Heir, Even; Møretrø, Trond; Olsen, Nina Veflen; Langsrud, Solveig

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to relate consumer preferences and preparation of hamburgers to color change, internal temperature and reduction of shigatoxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups O157 and the "Big Six" (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145) under two ground beef packaging scenarios: 75% O2 MAP and vacuum. 75% O2 MAP hamburgers cooked to 60 °C core temperature appeared done and showed less internal red color (lower a*) than corresponding vacuum hamburgers. Similar STEC reduction (<4 log10) was found for both hamburgers at core temperatures ≤ 66 °C. In a representative survey (N=1046) most consumers reported to judge hamburger doneness by the color and many preferred undercooked hamburgers. Premature browning of 75% O2 MAP hamburgers represents a risk of foodborne illness, when considering consumers' food handling practices. The risk is even greater if such ground beef is prepared by consumers who prefer undercooked hamburgers and judge doneness by color. © 2013.

  11. Double usage of biowaste in Hamburg. First energy then compost; Hamburger Bioabfall doppelt nutzen. Erst Energie dann Kompost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siechau, Ruediger; Thoerner, Rhea [Stadtreinigung Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-03-15

    Separate collection of biowaste is determined in the European Waste Framework Directive from 2008. The amendment of the German recycling act specifies this requirement by demanding the nationwide separate collection of biowaste by 2015. The Stadtreinigung Hamburg (SRH) has already responded to the requirements in advance: The recycling ordinance from Hamburg made all households to collect biowaste separately since January 1, 2011. Meanwhile, many households already use the green bin, so that the amount of separately collected biowaste has increased visibly. For the purposes of climate and resource protection, it is obviously not enough to simply increase the quantities. Rather, a sensible strategy for the treatment of organic waste is required. In 2008 SRH has already bought a composting plant (composting plant Buetzberg). The existing composting has now been extended by an upstream facility. The new built dry fermentation plant ferments biowaste. The gas is purified and supplied into the gas grid. Subsequently, the digestate is composted. The compost is used as a soil conditioner. The entire facility uses biowaste twice: First energetic, then substantial. The plant has an capacity of 70,000 tons per year. (orig.)

  12. Mining in the Federal Republic of Germany 2012. Mining industries and statistics. 64th year 2013. Documentation; Der Bergbau in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland 2012. Bergwirtschaft und Statistik. 64. Jahrgang 2013. Dokumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-11-15

    The annual report of the series ''The mining industry in the Federal Republic of Germany - Mountain Economics and Statistics'' is published by the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology in cooperation with the mining authorities of the federal states. It contains comprehensive data of all production facilities of mining industry in Germany and describes the position of the German industry in the context of the overall economic development. The report shows an interest in local raw materials as well as on the international raw materials economy. Moreover, the present publication provides a detailed statistics section. [German] Der Jahresbericht in der Reihe ''Der Bergbau in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland - Bergwirtschaft und Statistik'' wird vom Bundesministerium fuer Wirtschaft und Technologie in Zusammenarbeit mit den Bergbehoerden der Bundeslaender herausgegeben. Er enthaelt umfassende Daten aller Produktionsbetriebe des Bergbaus in Deutschland und beschreibt die Lage des deutschen Bergbaus im Zusammenhang mit der gesamtwirtschaftlichen Entwicklung. Der Bericht geht sowohl auf heimische Rohstoffe als auch auf die internationale Rohstoffwirtschaft ein. Darueber hinaus liefert die vorliegende Publikation einen ausfuehrlichen Statistikteil.

  13. Legal bases of resource policy in the Federal Republic of Germany. A contribution towards law-related geography. Die rechtlichen Grundlagen der Ressourcenpolitik in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Ein Beitrag zur Rechtsgeographie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graafen, R

    1983-01-01

    This work from the field of law-related geography deals with the legal regulations issued in the framework of resource policy and with their territorial effects. One of the purpose of law-related geography is to present those legal regulations which bear on territory in a manner easy to survey. The different legal forms to be considered (law, legal regulation, administrative regulation, statutes, law of the (European Community etc.) provide a means of approach. From the peculiarities of the individual legal forms it is possible to tell for instance in how far they possess validity as against citizens or only as against authorities, in how far they are cogent or only constitute recommendations, or whether citizens are allowed to participate in the precise definition of regulations, what standard of European Community law are immediately applied in the Federal Republic of Germany, or what the order of priority of legal regulations is. The study investigates above all the territory-related consequences of regional and land use planning, the federal mining law, energy policy with regard to black coal, brown coal, petroleum and naturel gas, of the planning of power plans sites, local supply concepts, transport infra-structure policy, the federal immission protection law and of regulations for the protection of nature or governing forest and water management. (orig./HSCH).

  14. The text of the agreement of 22 July 1977 between Argentina and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with a contract concluded between the Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina) and the Reactor Brennelement Union GmbH Hanau (Federal Republic of Germany) for co-operation in the field of fabrication of fuel elements for peaceful nuclear activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Agreement between the Republic of Argentina, the Federative Republic of Brazil, the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards came into force on 4 March 1994. As a result of the coming into force of the aforesaid Agreement for Argentina, the application of safeguards under the Agreement of 22 July 1977 between Argentina and the IAEA for the application of safeguards in connection with a contract concluded between the Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina) and the Reactor Brennelement Union GmbH Hanau (Federal Republic of Germany) for co-operation in the field of fabrication of fuel elements for peaceful nuclear activities has been suspended

  15. The Text of the Safeguards Agreement of 26 February 1976 between the Agency, Brazil and the Federal Republic of Germany; Texto Del Acuerdo De 26 De Febrero De 1976 Entre El Organismo, El Brasil Y La Republica Federal De Alemania Para La Aplicacion De Salvaguardias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-05-27

    The text of the Agreement of 26 February 1976 between the Agency, Brazil and the Federal Republic of Germany relating to the agreement of 27 June 1975 between the two Governments for co-operation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members [Spanish] Para informacion de todos los Estados Miembros, en el presente documento se transcribe el texto del Acuerdo de 26 de febrero de 1976 concertado entre el Organismo, el Brasil y la Republica Federal de Alemania en relacion con el Acuerdo de 27 de junio de 1975 entre los dos Gobiernos relativo a la cooperacion en la esfera de los usos pacificos de la energia nuclear.

  16. A winter chronicle. The coldness of the winter in the Federal Republic of Germany between 1960/61 and 2007/2008; Eine Winterchronik. Die Kaelte der Winter in Deutschland von 1960/61 bis 2007/08

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinemann, Hans-Joachim

    2008-07-01

    Since the beginning of the nineteen-sixties a review of the past winter period was published each spring. These publications based on weather maps and measurements from different places across the Federal Republic of Germany. Since 1991 further locations from the new German states were added. With the aid of data such as the sum of negative daily mean air temperature from 1st November to 31st March and the amount of days with negative daily mean air temperature, the wintriness and the length of the winter for each season were calculated and compared with long-time statistical values. In addition, a no dimensional so called coldness value was generated to characterize the strength of each winter period with direct comparability between all locations in Germany. All essential information from these papers is presented chronologically.

  17. Methodological problems of monetary evaluations of complex environmental damages - the example of the forest damages in the Federal Republic of Germany. Zur monetaeren Bewertung von Umweltschaeden - methodische Untersuchung am Beispiel der Waldschaeden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewers, H J; Brabaender, H D; Brechtel, H M; Both, M; Hayessen, E; Jahn, A; Moehring, B; Moog, M; Nohl, W; Richter, U

    1986-01-01

    The study analyses the methodological problems of monetary evaluations of complex environmental damages by treating an actual example, the monetary evaluation of the present and further expectable forest damages in the Federal Republic of Germany. The state of the forest ecosystems, which can be expected under different plausible assumptions with respect to emissions and immissions of important air contaminants like SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/, is established by using expert surveys and scenario-techniques. The monetary consequences of different states of the forest system (status-quo-scenario: air pollution of the beginning 80ies continues; trend-scenario: strong, but possible reductions of SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ emissions during the simulation period; reference-scenario: development path as if no air pollution existed) are estimated for three fields (timber production, recreation and tourism, water and soil protection) and for a period of 77 years (1984 to 2060).

  18. Measuring program of the Federal Republic of Germany. Results of environmental measurement in Russia, Byelorussia and Ukraine in the time from May 17 to September 2, 1993, and from October 8 to November 1, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinemann, K.; Hille, R.

    1994-06-01

    This report gives an overview on the results of the environmental measurements 1993, which have been gained in the frame of the measuring program of the Federal Republic of Germany in Russia, Byelorussia and Ukraine. In the time from May 17, to the end of October 18 scientists and engineers conducted environmental measurements and determined the contamination of soil and foodstuff. Samples of food of the population were measured and the results were given in a certificate with short explanation in Russian language. In 3 appendices of this report all results are given in detail. They are discussed in the way of local mean values. In regard to the preceding year the external dose and the soil contaminations are nearly constant. However the milk contaminations decreased with the exception of a few villages. Possible explanations for these exceptions are discussed. (orig.) [de

  19. Installation and performance of the Budapest-Hamburg proton microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, I.; Kocsonya, A.; Kostka, P.; Szokefalvi-Nagy, Z.; Schrang, K.; Krueger, A.; Niecke, M.

    2005-01-01

    A new scanning proton microprobe has been installed at the 5 MV Van de Graaff accelerator of the KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics. It is the energy-upgraded version of the Hamburg proton microprobe dismantled in 2001. The probe forming system includes a pair of focusing quadrupoles and an additional quadrupole pair in front of it, which is applied to increase the proton beam divergence. The average probe size at 2.5 MeV proton energy is 2.2 μm x 1.1 μm. The test results on stability and the preliminary experiments on cement corrosion and fish otoliths are also presented

  20. The text of the Agreement between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-05-01

    On 5 April 1989 the Agency received in respect of the European Atomic Energy Community and Spain the notification required by Article 23(a) of the Agreement of 5 April 1973 between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency, which therefore came into force for Spain on that date

  1. 7 May 2013 - Ambassador of the Federal Republic of Germany to Switzerland and Liechtenstein P. Gottwald and Mrs Gottwald in the ATLAS experimental cavern and LHC tunnel with Collaboration Deputy Spokesperson T. Wengler and German Scientists A. Schopper and V. Mertens.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2013-01-01

    7 May 2013 - Ambassador of the Federal Republic of Germany to Switzerland and Liechtenstein P. Gottwald and Mrs Gottwald in the ATLAS experimental cavern and LHC tunnel with Collaboration Deputy Spokesperson T. Wengler and German Scientists A. Schopper and V. Mertens.

  2. 11 July 2012 - Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Ambassador M. Alemu Getahun, Permanent Representative of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva signing the guest book with Head of International relations F. Pauss.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2012-01-01

    11 July 2012 - Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Ambassador M. Alemu Getahun, Permanent Representative of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva signing the guest book with Head of International relations F. Pauss.

  3. The text of the Agreement of 9 June 1982 between the Federal Republic of Germany, Spain and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Agreement between the Governments on co-operation in the field of the utilization of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes of 5 December 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-07-01

    The full text of the agreement of 9 June 1982 between the Federal Republic of Germany, Spain and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the agreement between the Governments in co-operation in the field of the utilization of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes of 5 December 1978 is presented

  4. Infant mortality in the Federal Republic of Germany in the years after Chernobyl. Study into the influence of the Chernobyl reactor accident in April 1986 on infant mortality in lightly and heavily contaminated areas of the Federal Republic of Germany. Saeuglingssterblichkeit nach Tschernobyl in der BRD. Untersuchung der Auswirkungen des Reaktorunfalls von Tschernobyl im April 1986 auf die Saeuglingssterblichkeit in schwach- und hochbelasteten Gebieten der Bundesrepublik Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martini, W; Scholz, H; Hacker, C; Beushausen, S; Heydenreich, B; Platiel, G

    1991-04-01

    Study into the influence of the Chernobyl reactor accident in April 1986 on infant mortility in lightly and heavily contaminated areas of the Federal Republic of Germany. In connection with this scientific study, official quarterly reports on population developments released by the Wiesbaden-based Federal Office of Statistics were subjected to a time-dependent analysis. On the basis of generally applicable stastical laws infant mortality curves plotted after 1958 were examined for changes after Chernobyl. In view of regional differences in the effects from radioactive precipitations due to the Chernobyl ractor accident, the examinations were performed in subgroups that were largely derived from the results of a study covering all of the Federal territory. The analysis revealed the following links: The curve of the infant mortality rates for the first 7 days after delivery (7-day mortalities) pointed to a linear-exponential relationship between the point of time investigated and number of infants dying. In heavily contaminated areas the 7-day mortality rates determined after 1986 show statistically significant deviations from developments as expected from normal rates. (orig./MG).

  5. The Text of the Agreement between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of Estonia and the Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Article 23(a) of the Agreement, and the Protocol thereto, between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) provides that the Agreement shall come into force for non-nuclear-weapon States Party to NPT which become members of the European Atomic Energy Community upon: (i) Notification to the Agency by the State concerned that its procedures with respect to the coming into force of the Agreement have been completed; and (ii) Notification to the Agency by the European Atomic Energy Community that it is in a position to apply its safeguards in respect of that State for the purposes of the Agreement [es

  6. The Text of the Agreement between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of Estonia and the Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Article 23(a) of the Agreement, and the Protocol thereto, between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) provides that the Agreement shall come into force for non-nuclear-weapon States Party to NPT which become members of the European Atomic Energy Community upon: (i) Notification to the Agency by the State concerned that its procedures with respect to the coming into force of the Agreement have been completed; and (ii) Notification to the Agency by the European Atomic Energy Community that it is in a position to apply its safeguards in respect of that State for the purposes of the Agreement

  7. About the 'scientification' of politics by way of scientific expertise by advisory bodies. Social science expertise and desicion-making in social problem areas in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, P.

    1985-01-01

    Taking the examples of the Council of Economic Advisors, the Education Council and the Federal Parliament's Commission of Inquiry on Future Nuclear Energy Policy, this paper analyses political situations in the Federal Republic of Germany in which social science expertise entered public debate and decision-making in certain social problem areas in a very pronounced way. By considering the social context in which these advisory bodies were created, an attempt is made to link an analysis of different social actors' interests to a review of existing knowledge and patterns of interpretation in the social sciences. It is shown that by using social science findings some actors achieved advantages in justifying and legitimating their political positions and that subsequently the relations of actors in some arenas of conflict changed-without, however, allowing to relate this causally only to the use of scientific knowledge. If, however, the use of scientific arguments is rapidly generalized, the confrontation of expertise and counter-expertise by opposing actors becomes usual practice. This, in turn, provides for questions concerning their 'scientificity', which the social sciences are asked to take up in reflections of their relation to social practice. (orig./HSCH) [de

  8. The Texts of the Agreements Between the International Atomic Energy Agency, the United Nations and the Federal Government of the Republic of Austria Regarding the Headquarters Seat and Related Agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The texts of seven agreements concluded between the Agency and the Republic of Austria, as well as between the Agency, the United Nations and the Republic of Austria, are reproduced in this document for the information of all Members

  9. Reduction of the beam pulse repetition rate of the Hamburg Isochronous Cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, H; Langkau, R; Schirm, N [Hamburg Univ. (F.R. Germany). 1. Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik

    1976-04-01

    A system for the reduction of the beam pulse repetition rate of the energy-variable Hamburg Isochronous Cyclotron comprising beam pulse supression in the cyclotron center and in the external beam is described.

  10. Quarterly Costs Of Transporting Brazilian Soybeans From The North And Northeastern Ports To Hamburg, Germany

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Agriculture — Quarterly total landed costs (truck and ocean) of shipping Brazilian soybeans through the ports of Santarém and São Luís to Hamburg, Germany. This is table 6 of the...

  11. Nonvolatile organic pollutants in domestic dust samples from the urban Hamburg area; Schwerfluechtige organische Umweltchemikalien in Hamburger Hausstaeuben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    Nonvolatile organic pollutants were measured in 65 private apartments, i.e. biocides, softeners, flame protection agents, stabilisers, soot, tar and bitumen which are contained in many everyday products and building materials. The homes were the private homes of staff members of the Hamburg Environmental Office and their friends; none of the homes were problem cases. The information was obtained by collecting vacuum cleaner dust. The inhomogeneous dust was screened, and the < 63 {mu}m fraction was analyzed. This fraction was homogeneously enough to provide reproducible results. Chloroparaffins and organic tin compounds were measured for the first time ever in this project. While the concentrations of chloroparaffins were significant, organic tin compounds are rather scarce. Bis(2,ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) was the main component in nearly all household dust samples. Phthalates in general had the highest concentrations. Next to phthalates, chloroparaffins and the biocide permethrin were found in high concentrations, followed by organic phosphates, further biocides, organic tin compounds and benzo(a)pyrene. The individual substances wre assessed on the basis of 95 percent percentiles obtained from the measured frequency distributions. This figure means that 95 percent of the household dust have a lower or equal concentration than the 95 percent percentile. 95 percent percentiles are generally used as reference values in environmental measurements. The reference values presented here should be considered as preliminary values, owing to the fact that the apartments are not representative of the city of Hamburg, and 65 dust samples are too small a data base. Among the most important substances, owing to their high concentrations and/or toxic effects, are DEHP with a preliminary reference value of 1600 mg/kg of household dust, dibutyl phthalate with 180 mg/kg of dust, short-chain chloroparaffins with 180 mg/kg of dust, permethrin with 110 mg/kg of dust, monobutyl tin

  12. Acceptance of fish hamburgers in school meals in the Southwest Region of Paraná, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Leandra Schuastz BREDA; Anne Caroline BELUSSO; Barbara Arruda NOGUEIRA; Guilherme Holub CAMARGO; Marina Leite MITTERER-DALTOÉ

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The regular consumption of fish provides health gains for people, and its introduction in school meals is an important strategy to insert the habit of consuming this food by a population. Thus the objective of this study was to verify the acceptance of fish, presented in the form of hamburger, by children in municipal primary schools in the town of Pato Branco, Brazil, in which the school cooks had been trained to produce fish hamburgers. Acceptance was evaluated using a hedonic scal...

  13. Long-term planning frame of controlled fusion research in the Federal Republic of Germany and within the scope of EURATOM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Current R and D activities in the field of controlled nuclear fusion are investigating physics and technological problems rather than economic efficiency aspects of future fusion reactor systems. The report in hand compares the long-term plans and programmes set up on the European level with other countries' programmes, explains the international cooperative framework and activities, and goes into details of the Federal German research programme. Aspects of safety and environmental impacts are discussed. (HP) [de

  14. On the Five-Moment Hamburger Maximum Entropy Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summy, D. P.; Pullin, D. I.

    2018-05-01

    We consider the Maximum Entropy Reconstruction (MER) as a solution to the five-moment truncated Hamburger moment problem in one dimension. In the case of five monomial moment constraints, the probability density function (PDF) of the MER takes the form of the exponential of a quartic polynomial. This implies a possible bimodal structure in regions of moment space. An analytical model is developed for the MER PDF applicable near a known singular line in a centered, two-component, third- and fourth-order moment (μ _3 , μ _4 ) space, consistent with the general problem of five moments. The model consists of the superposition of a perturbed, centered Gaussian PDF and a small-amplitude packet of PDF-density, called the outlying moment packet (OMP), sitting far from the mean. Asymptotic solutions are obtained which predict the shape of the perturbed Gaussian and both the amplitude and position on the real line of the OMP. The asymptotic solutions show that the presence of the OMP gives rise to an MER solution that is singular along a line in (μ _3 , μ _4 ) space emanating from, but not including, the point representing a standard normal distribution, or thermodynamic equilibrium. We use this analysis of the OMP to develop a numerical regularization of the MER, creating a procedure we call the Hybrid MER (HMER). Compared with the MER, the HMER is a significant improvement in terms of robustness and efficiency while preserving accuracy in its prediction of other important distribution features, such as higher order moments.

  15. Processing, physicochemical, and sensory analyses of ostrich meat hamburger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia Ferreira de Souza

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the potential utilization of ostrich meat trimming in hamburger preparation, as well as its physicochemical and sensory characterization. Using ostrich meat trimmings from the legs and neck, four different formulations were prepared with varied amounts of bacon and textured soybean protein. Physical analysis of yield, shrinkage percentage, and water retention capacity and chemical analysis of proximate composition, cholesterol levels, and calories were performed. The formulations underwent sensory analysis by 52 potential ostrich meat consumers, who evaluated tenderness, juiciness, flavor, and purchase intent. The formulations containing textured soybean protein showed the highest yield, lowest shrinkage percentage, and highest water retention capacity. Lipid content varied from 0.58 to 4.99%; protein from 17.08 to 21.37%; ash from 3.00 to 3.62%; moisture from 73.87 to 76.27%; cholesterol from 22.54 to 32.11 mg.100 g-1; and calorie from 87.22 to 163.42 kcal.100 g-1. All formulations showed low cholesterol and calorie levels, even that containing 10% bacon and 3.5% textured soybean protein, which achieved the best scores and acceptance by the panelists.

  16. Merger control in the energy sector. An empirical investigation for the Federal Republic of Germany; Fusionskontrolle in der leitungsgebundenen Energiewirtschaft. Eine empirische Untersuchung fuer Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauk, Martina Margret

    2008-11-06

    In 1998, EU legislation initiated a liberalisation process among European energy markets. The process of market opening has significantly changed the functioning of the markets and the competition conditions of the energy sector. At the same time, the industry witnessed a surge of mergers and far-reaching changes in the structure of German electricity and natural gas markets occurred. Against this background, the doctoral thesis at hand surveys the merger activities in the energy sector as well as the merger control policy of the German Federal Cartel Office during the first years of liberalisation. The study starts with a portrayal of the institutional framework of the German merger control regime and a survey of the relevant economic literature on horizontal and vertical mergers. Subsequent to the legal and theoretical considerations, the merger activities and the merger control policy of the German Federal Cartel Office are investigated empirically. The data set is based on information taken from merger control files at the archive of the Federal Cartel Office in Bonn. It contains information on more than 250 merger cases and appendant decisions in the German natural gas and electricity sector put before the Federal Cartel Office between 1999 and 2003. In order to perform a statistical analysis, the information contained in the written decisions is transformed into variables. The data set is complemented by information on electricity and gas networks taken from external data sources. The empirical part of the study is divided into two parts: The aim of the first part is to investigate the integration strategies of energy utilities with respect to basic characteristics of the firms involved as well as structural factors of the markets affected by the respective mergers. In the descriptive section, key patterns of the integration strategies of the energy utilities can be identified. The results of the discrete choice analysis show that in addition to firm size of

  17. Merger control in the energy sector. An empirical investigation for the Federal Republic of Germany; Fusionskontrolle in der leitungsgebundenen Energiewirtschaft. Eine empirische Untersuchung fuer Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauk, Martina Margret

    2008-11-06

    In 1998, EU legislation initiated a liberalisation process among European energy markets. The process of market opening has significantly changed the functioning of the markets and the competition conditions of the energy sector. At the same time, the industry witnessed a surge of mergers and far-reaching changes in the structure of German electricity and natural gas markets occurred. Against this background, the doctoral thesis at hand surveys the merger activities in the energy sector as well as the merger control policy of the German Federal Cartel Office during the first years of liberalisation. The study starts with a portrayal of the institutional framework of the German merger control regime and a survey of the relevant economic literature on horizontal and vertical mergers. Subsequent to the legal and theoretical considerations, the merger activities and the merger control policy of the German Federal Cartel Office are investigated empirically. The data set is based on information taken from merger control files at the archive of the Federal Cartel Office in Bonn. It contains information on more than 250 merger cases and appendant decisions in the German natural gas and electricity sector put before the Federal Cartel Office between 1999 and 2003. In order to perform a statistical analysis, the information contained in the written decisions is transformed into variables. The data set is complemented by information on electricity and gas networks taken from external data sources. The empirical part of the study is divided into two parts: The aim of the first part is to investigate the integration strategies of energy utilities with respect to basic characteristics of the firms involved as well as structural factors of the markets affected by the respective mergers. In the descriptive section, key patterns of the integration strategies of the energy utilities can be identified. The results of the discrete choice analysis show that in addition to firm size of

  18. Measurement and analysis of environmental exposure factors in the Federal Republic of Germany 1985/86. 1. environmental survey. Vol. 3c. Indoor situation in homes: Indoor air. Description of VOC in the indoor air of the Federal Republic of Germany; Messung und Analyse von Umweltbelastungsfaktoren in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland 1985/86. 1. Umwelt-Survey. Bd. 3c. Wohn-Innenraum: Raumluft. Deskription fluechtiger organischer Verbindungen in der Raumluft der Bundesrepublik Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, C.; Chutsch, M.; Henke, M.; Huber, M.; Kliem, C.; Leiske, M.; Mailahn, M.; Schulz, C.; Schwarz, E.; Seifert, B.; Ullrich, D.

    1992-05-01

    This volume is based upon the data of the research project ``Environment and Health - Measurement and Analysis of Environmental Exposure Factors in the Federal Republic of Germany 1985/86`` (1st Environment Survey). These data were established for a representative sample of n=2731 cases selected by age, sex, and community size. It constitutes part C of the third report volume and contains the description of the concentrations of a large number of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in indoor air from households of the general population of the Federal Republic of Germany (sub-sample). Function and objectives of this third part of evaluated data are to give, as far as possible, a precise assessment of the exposure to VOC in households among the general population of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1985/86. This is to gie interested persons an orientation and a classifying survey of laboratory results to be evaluatd. In this sense, the estimated distributions of the measured concentrations are presented for the entire population as well as for the below menioned subpopulations classified by outdoor temperatures, community size, type of region, number of persons in industrial jobs in the urban/rural area, building density, year of construction of the house, floor area of home, type of heating, type of fuel, number of persons in household, children (below 14 years) in household, smokers in household, age of floor covering, age of wall coating, age of furniture, new painting/wall-paper/furniture in recent months, presence of chipboard on walls/floor, furniture from chipboard (in the case of formaldehyde only), use of insecticides, room fresheners/deodorants in toilet and of cleansing agents/disinfectants. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der vorliegende Berichtsband basiert auf den Daten der Studie ``Messung und Analyse von Umweltbelastungsfaktoren in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland 1985/86 - Umwelt und Gesundheit`` (1. Umwelt-Survey), der eine nach Alter, Geschlecht und

  19. Survey of special events recorded in nuclear power plants of the Federal Republic of Germany in the first quarter of 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    50 special events were reported in the old Federal States, 47 of them belonged to the reporting category N (normal notification), three to the reporting category E (immediate notification). According to the international evluation scale (INES = International Nuclear Events Scale) five of those events fell under INES category 1, the rest under category 0. The Greifswald nuclear power plant reported three events of category AE-3 (lowest category) at KGR-5. There was no release of radioactivity involved in these incidents, and there were no effects on man or the environment reported. (HP) [de

  20. Die Ärztliche Zentralbibliothek des Universitätsklinikums Hamburg-Eppendorf / The Medical Library of the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kintzel, Melanie

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces the Medical Library of the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf. Firstly, history, role and status of the library within the University Medical Center are illustrated, followed by a description of the library’s facilities and services. Finally, recent projects are presented as well as a selection of key figures.

  1. Convention on nuclear safety report by the government of the Federal Republic of Germany for the second extraordinary meeting in August 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear consequences of the earthquake disaster in Japan represent a profound change for the peaceful use of nuclear power, also in Germany. In the light of these events, the German Federal Government, together with the Prime Ministers of the Laender in which NPPs are operated had reviewed the safety of all German NPPs by the German Reactor Safety Commission in close collaboration with the competent nuclear regulatory authorities of the Laender and, through an Ethics Commission on ''Secure Energy Supply'', also started a dialogue among the German society on the risks involved in the use of nuclear power and on the possibility of an accelerated transition to the age of renewable energies. Taking into account the results of the Reactor Safety Commission and the Ethics Commission on ''Secure Energy Supply'' as well as the absolute priority of nuclear safety, the Federal Government decided to terminate the use of nuclear power at the earliest possible date. The amendments in the Atomic Energy Act that went into force in August 2011 induce the progressive abandonment of electricity generation by NPPs in Germany by the end of 2022 at the latest. Germany took an active part in the assessment of the robustness of the NPPs in Europe (EU stress test) under the leadership of the European Nuclear Safety Regulators Group (ENSREG). The results of these reviews show that the German plants partly have considerable safety margins and that additional precautionary measures have been taken in order to prevent (preventive measures) or limit (mitigative measures) the effects of the beyond-design-basis events considered in the reviews. Based on the results of the plant-specific reviews, the RSK has derived first recommendations for further examinations. Some plant-specific improvement measures are already in implementation or planned. The results of the EU stress test will be taken into account in future RSK recommendations. On behalf of the BMU, the Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und

  2. The materials programme for the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor in the Federal Republic of Germany: Status of the development of high-temperature materials, integrity concept, and design codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickel, H.; Bodmann, E.; Seehafer, H.J.

    1990-01-01

    During the last 15 years, the research and development of materials for high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) applications in the Federal Republic of Germany have been concentrated on the qualification of high-temperature structural alloys. Such materials are required for heat exchanger components of advanced HTGRs supplying nuclear process heat in the temperature range between 750 deg. and 950 deg. C. The suitability of the candidate alloys for service in the HTGR has been established, and continuing research is aimed at verification of the integrity of components over the envisaged service lifetimes. The special features of the HTGR which provide a high degree of safety are the use of ceramics for the core construction and the low power density of the core. The reactor integrity concept which has been developed is based on these two characteristics. Previously, technical guidelines and design codes for nuclear plants were tailored exclusively to light water reactor systems. An extensive research project was therefore initiated which led to the formulation of the basic principles on which a high temperature design code can be based. (author)

  3. Compilation of data on the release of radioactive substances in the vent air of nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany in 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkelmann, I.; Endrulat, H.J.; Haubelt, R.; Westpfahl, U.

    1976-04-01

    The present compilation of data on the release of radioactive substances in the vent air of nuclear power plants in the FRG is a continuation of a report series on aerosol filter and iodine filter samples from the exhaust air control systems of the nuclear power plants Gundremmingen, Obrigheim, Wuergassen, Stade, Lingen and Biblis A. The reports have been issued by the Federal public health office since 1972. This report is supplemented by annual release values on radioactive noble gases, on short- and long-lived aerosols, and on gaseous 131 I, supplied by the individual nuclear power plants as in previous years on uniform questionnaires. Data on the release of tritium are also available from some nuclear power plants. (orig.) [de

  4. [Habitus, capital and fields: the search for an acting head of the Hamburg Asylum Friedrichsberg in 1897].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammet, Kai

    2005-01-01

    In 1897 Hamburg was in search of an Oberarzt for the asylum Friedrichsberg who should function as the acting head of the head Wilhelm Reye (1833-1912). This search was part of the intended reformation of the outmoded psychiatric care in Hamburg. During this application procedure the Hamburg Physikus John Wahncau examined all possible candidates and applicants. The article explores the election process by using some sociological categories developed by Pierre Bourdieu (habitus, capital, field). The author argues that not only meritocratic attributes led to the choice of one candidate, but also his functional "fitting" into the field in Hamburg.

  5. Die Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Medizin in Köln und Bonn – Zentrale Fachbibliothek und Infrastruktureinrichtung für die Forschung in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland / The German National Library of Medicine in Cologne and Bonn – National Library and Infrastructure Organisation for Research in the Federal Republic of Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korwitz, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The German National Library of Medicine (ZB MED is the National Library for Medicine, Health, Nutrition, Environment and Agriculture in the Federal Republic of Germany. Founded 40 years ago, the library developed from a document supplier on the basis of its comprehensive collection to an infrastructure organisation especially for scientific users. Today, the emphasis is put – besides collection management and document delivery – on modern information services, Open Access Publishing and innovative projects.

  6. Climate protection in Germany: National report of the Federal Government on the Federal Republic of Germany on anticipation of Article 12 of the framework agreement of the United Nations on climate changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The report contains a comprehensive presentation by the Federal German Government on the subject greenhouse effect, its possible consequences and on the strategies and measures adopted for its containment. National, up-to-date inventories are made for greenhouse gases including a systematic survey of the direct greenhouse gases and an identification of the indirect greenhouse gases and taking into account the quantities yield up in reservoirs (forests). The report also gives the current stage in the implementation of the CO 2 abatement campaign, detailed data on framework conditions (economic development, population, land use), a description of those areas particularly endangered by the greenhouse effect, the current state of research, development and systematic climated observation and the current state of international cooperation in the areas of technology and finance. (KW) [de

  7. Annual report on reactor safety research projects sponsored by the Minister for Research and Technology of the Federal Republic of Germany 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-08-01

    Investigations on the safety of light water reactors (LWR) being performed in the framework of his research program on reactor safety are sponsored by the Bundesminister fuer Forschung und Technologie (BMFT) (Federal Minister for Research and Technology). Objective of this program is to investigate in greater detail the safety margins of nuclear power plants and their systems and the further development of safety technology. Besides the investigations of LWR tasks also projects on the safety of advanced reactors are sponsored by the BMFT. The Gesellschaft fuer Reaktorsicherheit (GRS), (Society for Reactor Safety), by order of the BMFT, informs continuously of the status of such investigations by means of semi-annual and annual publication of progress reports within the series GRS-F-Fortschrittsberichte (GRS-F-Progress Reports). Each progress report represents a compilation of individual reports about objectives, the work performed, the results, the next steps of the work etc. The individual reports are prepared in a standard form by the contractors themselves as a documentation of their progress in work and published by the Forschungsbetreuung at the GRS, (FB) (Research Coordination Department), within the framework of general informations of progress in reactor safety research. The individual reports are classified according to the same classification system as applied in the nuclear index of the CEC (Commission of the European Communities) and the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development). The reports are arranged in sequence of their project numbers. (orig./HP)

  8. Annual report on Reactor Safety Research Projects sponsored by the Ministry of Economics and Technology of the Federal Republic of Germany. Reporting period 1999. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Within its competence for energy research, the Bundesministerium fuer Wirtschaft und Technologie (BMWi) (Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology) sponsors investigations into the safety of nuclear power plants. The objective of these investigations is to provide fundamental knowledge, procedures and methods to contribute to realistic safety assessments of nuclear installations, to the further development of safety technology and to make use of the potential of innovative safety-related approaches. The Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, by order of the BMWi, continuously issues information on the status of such investigations by publishing semi-annual and annual progress reports within the series of GRS-F-Fortschrittsberichte (GRS-F-Progress Reports). Each progress report represents a compilation of individual reports about the objectives, work performed, results achieved, next steps of the work etc. The individual reports are prepared in a standard form by the research organisations themselves as documentation of their progress in work and are published by the Research Management Division of GRS within the framework of general information on the progress in reactor safety research. The compilation of the reports is classified according to the classification system ''Joint Safety Research Index'' of the CEC (commission of the European communities). The reports are arranged in sequence of their project numbers. (orig.)

  9. Nuclear energy information in the Federal Republic of Germany (and the establishment of a dialogue between the public and government authorities)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popp, M.; Lang, K.

    1977-01-01

    During the past years the public debate on nuclear energy has grown in importance. Events such as the occupation of a power plant construction site and many discussions in the press media have led to a broadly based interest in the questions related to nuclear energy utilization. In 1975, the Federal Government launched a special nuclear energy information programme. Its main effort was to establish a dialogue between the public and government authorities. In several advertisements, the public was asked to participate in this dialogue by applying for a pocket book prepared by the government or for a direct discussion. Discussions on general questions were held with a large number of participants and many seminars were organized allowing for a more detailed discussion of special items among a limited number of people. The scope of the discussions was not limited to the environmental and safety aspects of nuclear energy. It was also the government's incentive to illustrate the need for nuclear energy and its role in an overall energy stratey. With all political parties represented in the parliament supporting the utilization of nuclear energy and power plant construction and planning going ahead on the basis of the government's energy programme, the dialogue was meant to provide a basis for a more broadly based conciousness of the problems and advantages of nuclear energy. The government's information effort has met with great interest. Until mid-1976, appr. 50000 people had responded to the government's initiative

  10. Annual report on reactor safety research projects sponsored by the Ministry of Economics and Technology of the Federal Republic of Germany. Reporting period 2005. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Within its competence for energy research, the Bundesministerium fuer Wirtschaft und Technology (BMWi) (Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology) sponsors investigations into the safety of nuclear power plants. The objective of these investigations is to provide fundamental knowledge, procedures and methods to contribute to realistic safety assessments of nuclear installations, to the further development of safety technology and to make use of the potential of innovative safety-related approaches. The Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, by order of the BMWi, continuously issues information on the status of such investigations by publishing semi-annual and annual progress reports within the series of GRS-F-Fortschrittsberichte (GRS-F-Progress Reports). Each progress report represents a compilation of individual reports about the objectives, work performed, results achieved, next steps of the work etc. The individual reports are prepared in a standard form by the research organisations themselves as documentation of their progress in work and are published by the Research Management Division of GRS within the framework of general information on the progress in reactor safety research. The compilation of the reports is classified according to general topics related to reactor safety research. Further, use is made of the classification system 'Joint Safety Research Index' of the CEC (Commission of the European Communities). The reports are arranged in sequence of their project numbers. It has to be pointed out that the authors of the reports are responsible for the contents of this compilation. The BMWi does not take any responsibility for the correctness, exactness and completeness of the information nor for the observance of private claims of third parties. (orig.)

  11. Methods for registration and mapping of waste heat emissions and their application to the regions of Rastatt, Baden-Baden and Karlsruhe-City (Federal Republic of Germany)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartholomaei, G.; Kinzelbach, W.

    1978-05-01

    Methods are developed that allow the registration and mapping of waste heat emissions on a grid of 2 x 2 km 2 . They are directly applicable in the Federal Republik of Germany and may be extended to neighbouring countries. Such a mapping provides the distribution of anthropogeneous waste heat emissions in space and time and serves in the case of the upper Rhine Valley as a basis for the numerical evaluation of climate modification by man. In a close approximation the distribution of waste heat is equal to the distribution of energy consumption. Therefore, the first step is the registration and mapping of energy consumption. Data about the consumption of the most important types of energy such as coal, fuel oil, gas, electricity etc. are available only partially and on the level of administrative units which are considerably larger than the grid size. Therefore, models were developed which allow to determine energy consumption on the commune and grid level with the help of local structural data like the distribution of population, households, traffic etc. The second step to be taken is the transformation of energy of energy consumption into waste heat emissions categorized in terms of the components convection, radiation, latent heat and discharge of heated water. Energy consumption and waste heat were determined separately for the various sectors of economy. Large sources in the industrial and energy supply sectors were analyzed individually by questionnaires. The results obtained with foresaid methods in the districts of Rastatt and Baden-Baden and in the township of Karlsruhe are presented. (orig.) 891 HP [de

  12. Annual report on reactor safety research projects sponsored by the Ministry of Economics and Labour of the Federal Republic of Germany. Reporting period 2004. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Within its competence for energy research, the Bundesministerium fuer Wirtschaft und Technology (BMWi) (Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology) sponsors investigations into the safety of nuclear power plants. The objective of these investigations is to provide fundamental knowledge, procedures and methods to contribute to realistic safety assessments of nuclear installations, to the further development of safety technology and to make use of the potential of innovative safety-related approaches. The Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, by order of the BMWi, continuously issues information on the status of such investigations by publishing semi-annual and annual progress reports within the series of GRS-F-Fortschrittsberichte (GRS-F-Progress Reports). Each progress report represents a compilation of individual reports about the objectives, work performed, results achieved, next steps of the work etc. The individual reports are prepared in a standard form by the research organisations themselves as documentation of their progress in work and are published by the Research Management Division of GRS within the framework of general information on the progress in reactor safety research. The compilation of the reports is classified according to general topics related to reactor safety research. Further, use is made of the classification system 'Joint Safety Research Index' of the CEC (Commission of the European Communities). The reports are arranged in sequence of their project numbers. It has to be pointed out that the authors of the reports are responsible for the contents of this compilation. The BMWi does not take any responsibility for the correctness, exactness and completeness of the information nor for the observance of private claims of third parties. (orig.)

  13. Annual report on reactor safety research projects sponsored by the Ministry of Economics and Labour of the Federal Republic of Germany. Reporting period 2004. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Within its competence for energy research, the Bundesministerium fuer Wirtschaft und Technology (BMWi) (Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology) sponsors investigations into the safety of nuclear power plants. The objective of these investigations is to provide fundamental knowledge, procedures and methods to contribute to realistic safety assessments of nuclear installations, to the further development of safety technology and to make use of the potential of innovative safety-related approaches. The Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, by order of the BMWi, continuously issues information on the status of such investigations by publishing semi-annual and annual progress reports within the series of GRS-F-Fortschrittsberichte (GRS-F-Progress Reports). Each progress report represents a compilation of individual reports about the objectives, work performed, results achieved, next steps of the work etc. The individual reports are prepared in a standard form by the research organisations themselves as documentation of their progress in work and are published by the Research Management Division of GRS within the framework of general information on the progress in reactor safety research. The compilation of the reports is classified according to general topics related to reactor safety research. Further, use is made of the classification system 'Joint Safety Research Index' of the CEC (Commission of the European Communities). The reports are arranged in sequence of their project numbers. It has to be pointed out that the authors of the reports are responsible for the contents of this compilation. The BMWi does not take any responsibility for the correctness, exactness and completeness of the information nor for the observance of private claims of third parties. (orig.)

  14. Annual report on reactor safety research projects sponsored by the Ministry of Economics and Technology of the Federal Republic of Germany. Reporting period 2007. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Within its competence for energy research the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (BMWi) sponsors research projects on the safety of nuclear power plants currently in operation. The objective of these projects is to provide fundamental knowledge, procedures and methods to contribute to realistic safety assessments of nuclear installations, to the further development of safety technology and to make use of the potential of innovative safety-related approaches. The Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, by order of the BMWi, continuously issues information on the status of such research projects by publishing semi-annual and annual progress reports within the series of GRS-F-Fortschrittsberichte (GRS-F-Progress Reports). Each progress report represents a compilation of individual reports about the objectives, work performed, results achieved, next steps of the work etc. The individual reports are prepared in a standard form by the research organisations themselves as documentation of their progress in work. The progress reports are published by the Research Management Division of GRS. The reports as of the year 2000 are available in the Internet-based information system on results and data of reactor safety research (http://www.grs-fbw.de). The compilation of the reports is classified according to the classification system 'Joint Safety Research Index (JSRI)'. The reports are arranged in sequence of their project numbers. It has to be pointed out that the authors of the reports are responsible for the contents of this compilation. The BMWi does not take any responsibility for the correctness, exactness and completeness of the information nor for the observance of private claims of third parties. (orig.)

  15. Disposal of Radioactive Waste in the Subsurface of the Federal Republic of Germany: Geological and Hydro-Geological Problems; Elimination des Dechets Radioactifs dans le Sous-Sol de la Republique Federale d'Allemagne: Problemes Geologiques et Hydrogeologiques; 041f 041e 0414 ; Evacuacion de Desechos Radiactivos en el Subsuelo de la Republica Federal de Alemania Problemas Geologicos e Hidrogeologicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, R.; Richter, W. [Bundesanstalt fuer Bodenforschung, Hannover (Germany)

    1960-07-01

    The geological and hydrogeological problems related to the subsurface disposal of radioactive wastes in the Federal Republic of Germany are outlined. Special consideration is given to the possibility of storing solid and liquid wastes in the salt-domes widespread in the north-west, and of injecting liquid waste into deep reservoirs containing briny water and located in favourable geologic structures. (author) [French] Les auteurs decrivent les problemes geologiques et hydrogeologiques que pose, dans la Republique federale d'Allemagne, l'elimination des dechets radioactifs dans le sous-sol. Ils examinent notamment la possibilite d'emmagasiner des dechets solides et liquides dans les salines, qui abondent dans la partie nord-ouest et d'injecter des dechets liquides dans de profonds reservoirs d'eau saline, situes dans des formations geologiques presentant des conditions favorables. (author) [Spanish] Los autores exponen los problemas geologicos e hidrogeologicos que plantea la evacuacion de desechos radiactivos en el subsuelo de la Republica Federal de Alemania. Examinan sobre todo la posibilidad de almacenar desechos solidos y liquidos en los domos de sal, muy abundantes en el noroeste del pais, y de inyectar desechos liquidos en depositos profundos de agua salobre situados en estructuras geologicas que presentan condiciones favorables. (author) [Russian] Privoditsja opisanie geologicheskih i gidrogeologicheskih problem, svjazannyh s podzemnym udaleniem radioaktivnyh othodov v Federal'noj Respublike Germanii. Osoboe vnimanie udeljaetsja vozmozhnosti skladirovanija tverdyh i zhidkih othodov v soljanyh kupolah, imejushhihsja v bol'shom kolichestve v severo- zapadnoj chasti Germanii, i zahoronenija zhidkih othodov v glubokie rezervuary, soderzhashhie solenye vody i raspolozhennye v podhodjashhih geologicheskih strukturah. (author)

  16. Spread of Measles Virus D4-Hamburg, Europe, 2008–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihneva, Zefira; Gold, Hermann; Baumgarte, Sigrid; Baillot, Armin; Helble, Rudolph; Roggendorf, Hedwig; Bosevska, Golubinka; Nedeljkovic, Jasminka; Makowka, Agata; Hutse, Veronik; Holzmann, Heidemarie; Aberle, Stefan W.; Cordey, Samuel; Necula, Gheorghe; Mentis, Andreas; Korukluoğlu, Gulay; Carr, Michael; Brown, Kevin E.; Hübschen, Judith M.; Muller, Claude P.; Mulders, Mick N.; Santibanez, Sabine

    2011-01-01

    A new strain of measles virus, D4-Hamburg, was imported from London to Hamburg in December 2008 and subsequently spread to Bulgaria, where an outbreak of >24,300 cases was observed. We analyzed spread of the virus to demonstrate the importance of addressing hard-to-reach communities within the World Health Organization European Region regarding access to medical care and vaccination campaigns. The D4-Hamburg strain appeared during 2009–2011 in Poland, Ireland, Northern Ireland, Austria, Greece, Romania, Turkey, Macedonia, Serbia, Switzerland, and Belgium and was repeatedly reimported to Germany. The strain was present in Europe for >27 months and led to >25,000 cases in 12 countries. Spread of the virus was prevalently but not exclusively associated with travel by persons in the Roma ethnic group; because this travel extends beyond the borders of any European country, measures to prevent the spread of measles should be implemented by the region as a whole. PMID:21801615

  17. Die App „Weltbrand 1914“ der SUB Hamburg – Ein Werkstattbericht

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Trapp

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wie kommt eine wissenschaftliche Bibliothek  dazu, eine App entwickeln zu lassen, auf der 100 Jahre alte Zeitungsseiten der Hamburger Nachrichten gelesen werden können, in denen auf Volltextebene recherchiert werden kann und die einen Einblick in Fotos gibt, die zu Beginn des Ersten Weltkrieges veröffentlicht wurden? Wie ist die Vorgeschichte der Tablet-App für iOS und Android, wie ist die SUB Hamburg an diese Aufgabe herangegangen und wie hat sie das Projekt zusammen mit dem Hamburger Softwareunternehmen CCS realisiert? Auf diese Fragen gibt der folgende Werkstattbericht eine Antwort und liefert auch ein erstes persönliches Zwischenfazit von einem der Projektbeteiligten.

  18. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The Agency received from the Republic of Bulgaria on 15 September 2008 and from the European Atomic Energy Community on 1 May 2009, notification that their respective requirements had been met. Accordingly, the Additional Protocol came into force for Bulgaria on 1 May 2009 [es

  19. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The Agency received from the Republic of Bulgaria on 15 September 2008 and from the European Atomic Energy Community on 1 May 2009, notification that their respective requirements had been met. Accordingly, the Additional Protocol came into force for Bulgaria on 1 May 2009 [fr

  20. Sources and concentrations of indoor nitrogen dioxide in Hamburg (west Germany) and Erfurt (east Germany)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cyrys, J.; Woelke, G.; Wichmann, H.E.; Heinrich, J.; Richter, K.

    2000-01-01

    Here we report indoor and outdoor concentrations of NO 2 for Erfurt and Hamburg and assess the contribution of the most important indoor sources (e.g. the presence of gas cooking ranges, smoking) and outdoor sources (traffic exhaust emissions). We examined the relative contribution of the different sources of NO 2 to the total indoor NO 2 levels in Erfurt and Hamburg. NO 2 indoor concentrations in Hamburg were slightly higher than those in Erfurt (i.e. living room: 15 μg m -3 for Erfurt and 17 μg m -3 for Hamburg). A linear regression model including the variables, place of residence, season and outdoor NO 2 levels, location of the home within the city, housing and occupant characteristics accounted for 38% of the NO 2 variance. The most important predictors of indoor NO 2 concentrations were gas in cooking followed by other characteristics, such as ventilation or outdoor NO 2 level. Residences in which gas was used for cooking, or in which occupants smoked, had substantially higher indoor NO 2 concentrations (41 or 18% increase, respectively). An increase in the outdoor NO 2 concentration from the 25th to the 75th-percentile (17 μg m -3 ) was associated with a 33% increase in the living room NO 2 concentration. Multiple regression analysis for both cities separately illustrated that use of gas for cooking was the major indoor source of NO 2 . This variable caused a similar increase in the indoor NO 2 levels in each city (43% in Erfurt and 47% in Hamburg). However, outdoor sources of NO 2 (motor vehicle traffic) contributed more to indoor NO 2 levels in Hamburg than in Erfurt

  1. [Improving Mental Health Literacy and Mental Illness Stigma in the Population of Hamburg].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Martin; Härter, Martin; Arnold, Detlef; Dirmaier, Jörg; Tlach, Lisa; Liebherz, Sarah; Sänger, Sylvia; Karow, Anne; Brandes, Andreas; Sielaff, Gyöngyver; Bock, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    Evidence shows that poor mental health literacy and stigmatization have negative consequences on mental health. However, studies on interventions to improve both are often heterogenic in methodology and results. The psychenet-campaign in Hamburg was developed and implemented in collaboration with patients and relatives and comprised multidimensional interventions focusing on education and contact to patients. The main goals were the improvement of mental health literacy and destigmatization and the long-term implementation within Hamburg's mental health care system. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. TECHNOLOGICAL AND SENSORY PROPERTIES OF HAMBURGERS ENRICHED WITH CALCIUM STUDY OF THE IN VITRO BIOAVAILABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dolores Selgas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hamburgers were supplemented with three calcium salts (calcium gluconate CG, calcium lactate CL and calcium citrate-malate CCM. They were added in sufficient amount to that 100 g of hamburger gives 20 or 30% of the Ca RDA (1000 mg. Their technological and sensory properties were studied. CG 30% gave the worst sensory properties and it was discarded. Bioavailability of calcium depends on the type of salt used and the highest value was obtained with CCM (14.5%.For that, this salt is proposed as the most adequate for the enrichment of fresh meat products.

  3. The Text of the Agreement between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The Agency received from the Czech Republic on 18 May 2009 and from the European Atomic Energy Community on 1 October 2009, the notifications required by Article 23(a) of the Agreement. Accordingly, the Agreement entered into force for the Czech Republic on 1 October 2009 [es

  4. The Text of the Agreement between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The Agency received from the Czech Republic on 18 May 2009 and from the European Atomic Energy Community on 1 October 2009, the notifications required by Article 23(a) of the Agreement. Accordingly, the Agreement entered into force for the Czech Republic on 1 October 2009 [fr

  5. The Text of the Agreement between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The Agency received from the Czech Republic on 18 May 2009 and from the European Atomic Energy Community on 1 October 2009, the notifications required by Article 23(a) of the Agreement. Accordingly, the Agreement entered into force for the Czech Republic on 1 October 2009

  6. Spectator Democracy: An Intersectional Analysis of Education Reform in Hamburg, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bale, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    This article uses the theoretical framework of intersectionality to analyze a partially failed school reform measure in Hamburg, Germany and the political conflict over it between 2008 and 2010. The analysis focuses on "the extent to which" and the "mechanisms by which" the interests of marginalized members of the proreform…

  7. Acceptance of fish hamburgers in school meals in the Southwest Region of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandra Schuastz BREDA

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The regular consumption of fish provides health gains for people, and its introduction in school meals is an important strategy to insert the habit of consuming this food by a population. Thus the objective of this study was to verify the acceptance of fish, presented in the form of hamburger, by children in municipal primary schools in the town of Pato Branco, Brazil, in which the school cooks had been trained to produce fish hamburgers. Acceptance was evaluated using a hedonic scale with 5 facial classifications (1 = disliked extremely to 5 = liked extremely. Students of both genders from 5 to 10 years of age (n = 142 were served the hamburgers for their midday meal, representing the protein portion of the meal. The results were analyzed by logistic regression. No effect of age or gender was observed between the children in the acceptance of the hamburgers, but the interaction between age and gender was significant. The cluster analysis was applied to distinguish this interaction using two-way joining to present the results, which showed the effect between specific age and gender situations. The acceptance index was 87% showing the potential for the consumption of this food by children.

  8. The Text of the Agreement between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons; Texto del Acuerdo Concertado Entre Belgica, Dinamarca, La Republica Federal De Alemania, Irlanda, Italia, Luxemburgo, Los Paises Bajos, La Comunidad Europea De Energia Ato Mica Y El Organismo En Relacion Con El Tratado Sobre La No Proliferacion De Las Armas Nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1973-09-14

    The text of the Agreement, and of the Protocol thereto, between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in implementation of Article III (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (reproduced in document INFCIRC/140) is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members [Spanish] Para informacion de todos los Estados Miembros, en el presente documento se transcribe el texto del Acuerdo concertado entre Belgica, Dinamarca, la Republica Federal de Alemania, Irlanda, Italia, Luxemburgo, los Paises Bajos, la Comunidad Europea de Energia Atomica y el Organismo en ejecucion de lo dispuesto en los parrafos 1 y 4 del articulo III del Tratado sobre la no proliferacion de las armas nucleares, asi como el del Protocolo que acompana a dicho Acuerdo.

  9. The use of ionizing radiation as a method of eliminating pathogenic microorganism in hamburgers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarate, H.; Espinoza B, J; Maier, L; Silva, J.R

    2002-01-01

    The application of ionizing energy in hamburgers of a trade mark, was studied by the University Santo Tomas in conjunction with the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission in order to eliminate pathogens such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella sp and to search for organoleptic characteristic by means of determined doses. A total of 144 frozen hamburgers (-18 o C) were analyzed and divided into three equal groups. Each hamburger - weighting 115 g - was put into sealed polietilene bags. The first two sample groups were sterilized with an irradiation doses of 25 kGy, then inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain ATCC 25922 ISP (Instituto de Salud Publica) and Salmonella sp strain ATCC 2714-99 ISP. The third group was not sterilized because it corresponded to the control group. The samples of each group were treated with gamma irradiation ( 60 Co), with doses of 0, 1, 2 and 4 kGy analyzing the bacteria counts after 24 hours, 30 days and 60 days post radiation. D 10 values of 0,472 to 0,494 kGy for the Escherichia coli and 0,649 to 0,697 kGy for the Salmonella sp were found. The storage time did not time exert any influence on the D 10 values. The storage time also showed meaningful differences between the days 1, 30 and 60, nevertheless, this fact was not reflected in the results obtained in the D 10 value. The organoleptic analysis of hamburger was done by means of a trained sensorial panel who evaluated samples with 0; 1,5 and 3 kGy. Each person tasted 55 approximately of each sample and evaluated; appearance, color, aroma, sweetness, acidity, bitterness, texture, flavor and acceptability. Statistically, none attribute showed significant differences (p .05) between the radiated samples and the control group, concluding that the level of the hamburger acceptability was qualified as good (au)

  10. Molecular Method Development to Identify Foodborne Sarcocystishominis in Raw Beef Commercial Hamburger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahador Hajimohammadi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sarcocystisspp. is zoonotic parasitic pathogen endangering safety of meat and derived meat products such as hamburgers which is among the most popular fast foods worldwide. Objectives: The current study aimed to design a protocol for molecular identification of Sarcocystis hominis in commercial hamburgers using PCR-RFLP with target of 18S rRNA. Materials and Methods: A total of 25 raw commercial hamburger samples were randomly collected from supermarkets of Yazd city, Iran. Five mm slices from different parts of each sample were selected, well mixed, and then preserved in ethanol 70% at -20°C for the next steps. The genomic DNA was extracted using salting out method. Detection and identification of Sarcocystis isolates were performed using PCR RFLP. The 18s rRNA gene sequence was mined from GenBank and the specific primer pair was designed using Primer3 software. Restriction fragment length polymorphims (RFLP analysis was performed using BfaI and RsaI restriction enzymes. The digestion was analyzed, using agarose gel electrophoresis alongside 100base pair DNA ladder. Results: Among 25 commercial hamburger samples, 17 samples showed a PCR product around 900 bp which could detect Sarcocyst Spp. After RFLP with BfaI, the restriction fragments of 376 bp and 397 bp detected S. hominis or S. hirsuta and fragments of 184 bp, 371 bp and 382 bp detected S. cruzi. After RFLP with RsaI, the restriction fragments of 376 bp and 557 bp detected S. hirsuta and fragment of 926 bp, without any digestion, detected S. hominis. For verification, each species detected in samples was randomly selected and sent for sequencing and the results were analyzed with BLAST. Conclusions: In conclusion, the current study developed a practical technique to detect the prevalence of S. hominis in meat products such as hamburgers.

  11. Federal Republic of Germany, A Country Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-01

    toes, and sugar beets. Raising livestock, largely for milk and meat, more important than cropping. Country about 70 percent self- sufficient in foods ...ministries of economics and of food , agriculture, and forests. The FDP lost the powerful ministry of the interior, however. Friedrich Zimmer- man, a...34........................... PALATINATE S k 9:: ANSCAAACH LO RAIN 9 41, - - ( I ) WORTTEMBiRG L 0SUNDGA . .......... .. ............ 0 FRANCHE ::::::::::::. S w I S C 0 N F E D E R A T

  12. Modernization of the graphics post-processors of the Hamburg German Climate Computer Center Carbon Cycle Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, E.J.; McNeilly, G.S.

    1994-03-01

    The existing National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) code in the Hamburg Oceanic Carbon Cycle Circulation Model and the Hamburg Large-Scale Geostrophic Ocean General Circulation Model was modernized and reduced in size while still producing an equivalent end result. A reduction in the size of the existing code from more than 50,000 lines to approximately 7,500 lines in the new code has made the new code much easier to maintain. The existing code in Hamburg model uses legacy NCAR (including even emulated CALCOMP subrountines) graphics to display graphical output. The new code uses only current (version 3.1) NCAR subrountines.

  13. Project of law authorizing the approval of the agreement between the government of the French republic and the government of the Russian federation relative to the civil liability by way of nuclear damage owing to the supply of materials from the French republic devoted to nuclear facilities in the Russian federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raffarin, J.P.; Villepin, D. de

    2002-01-01

    An agreement between France and Russia was signed on June 20, 2000 about the civil liability of Russia because of the supply of French material devoted to Russian nuclear facilities. This agreement was necessary because Russia do not belong to any of the two big international civil liability systems relative to nuclear energy, i.e. the Paris convention from July 29, 1960 (in the OECD framework) and the Vienna convention from May 21, 1963 (in the IAEA framework). This agreement offers a protection to the French nuclear suppliers against any damage claims in the case of a nuclear accident occurring on the Russian federation territory. This project of law aims at approving this agreement. (J.S.)

  14. The Text of the Agreement of 22 July 1977 between Argentina and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with a Contract Concluded between the Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina) and the Reaktor Brennelement Union Gmbh Hanau (Federal Republic of Germany) for Co-Operation in the Field of Fabrication of Fuel Elements for Peaceful Nuclear Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The text of the Agreement of 22 July 1977 between Argentina and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Contract of 13 August 1976 concluded between the Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina) and the Reaktor Brennelement Union GmbH (Federal Republic of Germany) for co-operation in the field of fabrication of fuel elements for peaceful nuclear activities is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement entered into force, pursuant to Section 26, on 22 July 1977.

  15. The Text of the Agreement of 22 July 1977 between Argentina and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with a Contract Concluded between the Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina) and the Reaktor Brennelement Union Gmbh Hanau (Federal Republic of Germany) for Co-Operation in the Field of Fabrication of Fuel Elements for Peaceful Nuclear Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-11-30

    The text of the Agreement of 22 July 1977 between Argentina and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Contract of 13 August 1976 concluded between the Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina) and the Reaktor Brennelement Union GmbH (Federal Republic of Germany) for co-operation in the field of fabrication of fuel elements for peaceful nuclear activities is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement entered into force, pursuant to Section 26, on 22 July 1977.

  16. Convention on Nuclear Safety - CNS. Report by the government of the Federal Republic of Germany for the seventh review conference in March/April 2017; Uebereinkommen ueber nukleare Sicherheit. Bericht der Regierung der Bundesrepublik Deutschland fuer die Siebte Ueberpruefungstagung im Maerz/April 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-06-22

    The CNS (Convention on Nuclear Safety) report by the government of the Federal Republic of Germany for the seventh review conference in March/April 2017 covers the following topics: Summary of the most important results since the sixth review conference: existing nuclear facilities, frame for legislation and execution, licensing system, regulatory authority, governmental organizations, responsibility of the licensee, priority of safety, financing and personnel, human factors, quality assurance, safety assessment, radiation protection, emergency preparedness, site selection for nuclear facilities, design and construction, operation.

  17. Europa Passage, Hamburg. Pumps ensure thermal comfort at all levels; Die Europa Passage in Hamburg. Pumpen sorgen fuer Komfort auf allen Ebenen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teders, Klaus

    2009-07-01

    The Europa Passage at Hamburg is a new shopping mall located directly on the Binnenalster river. It was constructed in 2006 and has 30,000 m{sup 2} of shop floor on five levels, which makes it one of Germany's biggest shopping malls. It is frequented every day by up to 40,000 visitors and more than 50,000 visitors on saturdays. In order to ensure optimum comfort even in peak times, the passage is equipped with state-of-the-art technical facilities. Energy-efficient pumps ensure reliable supply of all technical facilities. (orig.)

  18. Energy report of the Federal German Government

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    In its governmental declaration of May 4th, 1983, the Federal German Government has pointed out how it will safeguard the continuous, economical, and non-polluting supply of energy to the Federal Republic of Germany. By that report the Federal Government strikes a balance of its policy and defines its position with regard to topical questions, especially the peaceful use of nuclear energy. The report comprises four chapters: 1. peaceful use of nuclear energy in the Federal Republic of Germany, 2. Summary statement on energy policy, 3. Current situation in the energy market and long-term perspectives, 4. Points of main emphasis of future energy policy. (orig./UA) [de

  19. Potential effects of the next 100 billion hamburgers sold by McDonald's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Elsa H; Frank, Erica; McIntosh, Nichole F

    2005-05-01

    McDonald's has sold >100 billion beef-based hamburgers worldwide with a potentially considerable health impact. This paper explores whether there would be any advantages if the next 100 billion burgers were instead plant-based burgers. Nutrient composition of the beef hamburger patty and the McVeggie burger patty were obtained from the McDonald's website; sales data were obtained from the McDonald's customer service. Consuming 100 billion McDonald's beef burgers versus the same company's McVeggie burgers would provide, approximately, on average, an additional 550 million pounds of saturated fat and 1.2 billion total pounds of fat, as well as 1 billion fewer pounds of fiber, 660 million fewer pounds of protein, and no difference in calories. These data suggest that the McDonald's new McVeggie burger represents a less harmful fast-food choice than the beef burger.

  20. CAS on Free-Electron Lasers and Energy Recovery Linacs in Hamburg

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Accelerator School

    2016-01-01

    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS) and DESY held a jointly-organised specialised course on Free-Electron Lasers and Energy Recovery Linacs (FELs and ERLs) in Hamburg, Germany, from 31 May to 10 June 2016.      The course was held in the Hotel Scandic Emporio in Hamburg and was attended by 68 participants of 13 nationalities, coming from countries as far away as China, Iran and Japan. The intensive programme comprised 44 lectures and one seminar. Following introductory lectures on electromagnetism, relativity and synchrotron radiation issues, the basic requirements of linacs and ERLs were discussed. Detailed lectures on the theory of FEL science followed. Undulators and the process of lasing and seeding were covered in some detail along with lectures on various beam dynamics and beam control issues. Case studies, for which seven hours were allocated, completed the academic programme. For these, the students were divided into small groups and tasked with completing the basic desig...

  1. Factors fragmenting the Russian Federation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, E.

    1993-10-06

    This paper examines the factors that threaten the future of the Russian Federation (RF). The observations are based on a study that focused on eight republics: Mordova, Udmurtia, Tatarstan, Mari El, Bashkortostan, Kabardino-Balkaria, Buryatia, and Altay Republic. These republics were selected for their geographic and economic significance to the RF. Tatarstan, Bashkortostan, Udmurtia, and Mari El are located on important supply routes, such as the Volga River and the trans-Siberian railroad. Some of these republics are relatively wealthy, with natural resources such as oil (e.g., Tatarstan and Bashkortostan), and all eight republics play significant roles in the military-industrial complex. The importance of these republics to the RF contrasts to the relative insignificance of the independence-minded Northern Caucasus area. The author chose not to examine the Northern Caucasus region (except Kabardino-Balkaria) because these republics may have only a minor impact on the rest of the RF if they secede. Their impact would be minimized because they lie on the frontiers of the RF. Many Russians believe that {open_quotes}it might be best to let such a troublesome area secede.{close_quotes}

  2. Defining Moments in MMWR History: 1993 E. coli> O157:H7 Hamburger Outbreak

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    During the 1993 E. coli O157 outbreak, four children died, and approximately 700 persons in four states became ill with severe and often bloody diarrhea after eating hamburgers from fast food restaurants. The first reports of CDC's investigation into this deadly outbreak were published in MMWR. In this podcast, Dr. Beth Bell shares what it was like to serve as one of CDC's lead investigators - a boots-on-the-ground disease detective -- for the historic outbreak.

  3. Approaches to the final storage of radioactive waste in the Federal Republic of Germany. Will responsibility be shifted to future generations?; Wege zur Endlagerung radioaktiver Abfaelle in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Wird die Verantwortung auf zukuenftige Generationen verschoben?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomauske, B. [Vattenfall Europe Nuclear Power GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    2004-04-01

    With respect to the management of high-level radioactive waste in Germany, there is agreement on these premises: - The waste is to be stored permanently in the Federal Republic of Germany. - A repository is to be operational by 2030. - Final storage is to be achieved in geologic formations. Differences of opinion exist about these questions: - Should there be only one repository for all types of radioactive waste, or would a breakdown into waste generating heat and waste generating only negligible amounts of heat in different repositories be useful under aspects of safety and requirement? - Will a new site selection procedure be required in an effort to find a suitable site, and would such a selection procedure be able to meet the deadline of 2030 for an operational repository? - After the end of legal proceedings, should the Konrad repository be revamped for waste generating negligible amounts of heat? The analysis presented shows that an operational repository for waste generating heat can be made available only in connection with continued exploration work at Gorleben and demonstration of the suitability of that site and subsequent construction of the repository. If the search for a repository site were started from scratch, the date of commissioning such a facility would be after 2050. In this way, that approach would miss the purpose of not shifting the waste management issue to future generations. Acting responsibly means to build the Konrad repository speedily after completion of the legal proceedings about a permit and, in this way, avoid the addition of more interim stores for waste generating negligible amounts of heat. Further exploration of Gorleben is the way agreed upon and necessary for the creation of a repository for high-level radioactive waste generating heat by 2030. For this purpose, the 'points of doubt' must be resolved speedily. (orig.) [German] Im Hinblick auf die Entsorgung hochradioaktiver Abfaelle in Deutschland besteht

  4. The use of ionizing radiation as a method of eliminating pathogenic microorganisms in hamburgers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarate S, Herman; Espinoza B, Juan; Maier N, Liliana; Silva, Jose R

    2003-01-01

    Radiation as a food preservation method has long been used in many countries, among them Chile. The application of this technology to brand name hamburgers was studied by Santo Tomas University together with the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission in order to eliminate pathogens such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella sp and to identify organoleptic characteristics using specific doses. A total of 144 frozen hamburgers (-18 o C) were analyzed and divided into three equal groups. Each hamburger - weighing 115 g approximately - was put into sealed polyethylene bags. The first two sample groups were sterilized with irradiation doses of 25 kGy, then inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain ATCC 25922 ISP (Instituto de Salud Publica) and Salmonella sp strain ATCC 2714-99 ISP. The inoculating strains were prepared in the Microbiology Laboratory of Santo Tomas University. The third group was not sterilized because it was the control group. The samples were treated with gamma irradiation (Co 60 ), with doses of 0, 1, 2 and 4 kGy analyzing the bacteria counts after 24 hours, 30 days and 60 days post radiation. Their values D 10 were also investigated finding values of 0.472 to 0.494 kGy for the Escherichia coli and 0.649 to 0.697 kGy for the Salmonella sp. The storage time did not influence the values D 10 . The statistical analysis reveals that there are significant differences among the species (p 0,05), due to the diverse nature of the bacteria. Similarly, storage times also showed meaningful differences between days 1, 30 and 60, but this fact was not reflected in the results obtained in the D 10 . The organoleptic analysis of hamburger was done by means of a sensory evaluation panel of 12 members, which evaluated samples with 0; 1.5 and 3 kGy. Each person tasted about 55 of each sample and evaluated nine attributes such as appearance, color, aroma, sweetness, acidity, bitterness, texture, flavor and acceptability. Statistically, no attribute showed significant

  5. The use of ionizing radiation as a method of eliminating pathogenic microorganisms in hamburgers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarate Segovia, Herman Eduardo

    2002-01-01

    Radiation as a food preservation method has long been used in many countries, among them Chile. The application of this technology to brand name hamburgers was studied by Santo Tomas University together with the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission in order to eliminate pathogens such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella sp and to identify organoleptic characteristics using specific doses. A total of 144 frozen hamburgers (-18 deg C) were analyzed and divided into three equal groups. Each hamburger - weighing 115 g approximately - was put into sealed polyethylene bags. The first two sample groups were sterilized with irradiation doses of 25 kGy, then inoculated with Escherichia coli 0157:H7 strain ATCC 25922 ISP (Instituto de Salud Publica) and Salmonella sp strain ATCC 2714-99 ISP. The inoculating strains were prepared in the Microbiology Laboratory of Santo Tomas University. The third group was not sterilized because it was the control group. The samples were treated with gamma irradiation (Co 60 ), with doses of 0, 1, 2 and 4 kGy analyzing the bacteria counts after 24 hours, 30 days and 60 days post radiation. Their values D 10 were also investigated finding values of 0.472 to 0.494 kGy for the Escherichia coli and 0.649 to 0.697 kGy for the Salmonella sp. The storage time did not influence the values D 10 . The statistical analysis reveals that there are significant differences among the species (p ≤0,05), due to the diverse nature of the bacteria. Similarly, storage times also showed meaningful differences between days 1, 30 and 60, but this fact was not reflected in the results obtained in the D 10 . The organoleptic analysis of hamburger was done by means of a sensory evaluation panel of 12 members, which evaluated samples with 0; 1.5 and 3 kGy. Each person tasted about 55 of each sample and evaluated nine attributes such as appearance, color, aroma, sweetness, acidity, bitterness, texture, flavor and acceptability. Statistically, no attribute showed

  6. The Berlin Mission Society and German linguistic roots of volkekunde: The background, training and Hamburg writings of Werner Eiselen, 1899-1924

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Bank

    Full Text Available This article presents a case for the centrality of race and racism in the training and early ethnographic writings of Werner Eiselen (1899-1977. Together with further discussion in two other articles, it demonstrates that Eiselen was not the consolidator of the British functionalist anthropological tradition in South Africa nor a strong affiliate of the liberal school of African studies in South Africa as other scholars have proposed. On the contrary, he was the founder of a radically different ethnographic tradition: an anti-humanist and deeply racialised tradition of cultural study with its roots in Berlin Mission Society ideology and German Africanist linguistics. I track the origins of Eiselens volkekunde to his missionary background in a former Boer Republic, his Afrikaner nationalist schooling and university career, and especially to his training in African linguistics in Hamburg (and Berlin between 1921 and 1924 under the leading international figure in the field, the German linguist and ethnologist Carl Meinhof (1857-1944, whose racially informed theories and politics profoundly shaped Eiselen and the school of volkekunde that he would father during his decade-long tenure at Stellenbosch University.

  7. Radioactive waste in Federal Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennecke, P.; Schumacher, J.; Warnecke, E.

    1988-01-01

    The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) is responsible for the long-term storage and disposal of radioactive waste according to the Federal Atomic Energy Act. On behalf of the Federal Minister of the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, since 1985, the PTB has been carrying out annual inquiries into the amounts of radioactive waste produced in the Federal Republic of Germany. Within the scope of this inquiry performed for the preceding year, the amounts of unconditioned and conditioned waste are compiled on a producer- and plant-specific basis. On the basis of the inquiry for 1986 and of data presented to the PTB by the waste producers, future amounts of radioactive waste have been estimated up to the year 2000. The result of this forecast is presented. In the Federal Republic of Germany two sites are under consideration for disposal of radioactive waste. In the abandoned Konrad iron mine in Salzgitter-Bleckenstedt it is intended to dispose of such radioactive waste which has a negligible thermal influence upon the host rock. The Gorleben salt dome is being investigated for its suitability for the disposal of all kinds of solid and solidified radioactive wastes, especially of heat-generating waste. Comparing the estimated amount of radioactive wastes with the capacity of both repositories it may be concluded that the Konrad and Gorleben repositories will provide sufficient capacity to ensure the disposal of all kinds of radioactive waste on a long-term basis in the Federal Republic of Germany. 1 fig., 2 tabs

  8. Hamburg's Family Literacy project (FLY) in the context of international trends and recent evaluation findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabkin, Gabriele; Geffers, Stefanie; Hanemann, Ulrike; Heckt, Meike; Pietsch, Marcus

    2018-05-01

    The authors of this article begin with an introduction to the holistic concept of family literacy and learning and its implementation in various international contexts, paying special attention to the key role played by the notions of lifelong learning and intergenerational learning. The international trends and experiences they outline inspired and underpinned the concept of a prize-winning Family Literacy project called FLY, which was piloted in 2004 in Hamburg, Germany. FLY aims to build bridges between preschools, schools and families by actively involving parents and other family members in children's literacy education. Its three main pillars are: (1) parents' participation in their children's classes; (2) special sessions for parents (without their children); and (3) joint out-of-school activities for teachers, parents and children. These three pillars help families from migrant backgrounds, in particular, to develop a better understanding of German schools and to play a more active role in school life. To illustrate how the FLY concept is integrated into everyday school life, the authors showcase one participating Hamburg school before presenting their own recent study on the impact of FLY in a group of Hamburg primary schools with several years of FLY experience. The results of the evaluation clearly indicate that the project's main objectives have been achieved: (1) parents of children in FLY schools feel more involved in their children's learning and are offered more opportunities to take part in school activities; (2) the quality of teaching in these schools has improved, with instruction developing a more skills-based focus due to markedly better classroom management und a more supportive learning environment; and (3) children in FLY schools are more likely to have opportunities to accumulate experience in out-of-school contexts and to be exposed to environments that stimulate and enhance their literacy skills in a tangible way.

  9. Study on the synergic effect of natural compounds on the microbial quality decay of packed fish hamburger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbo, M R; Speranza, B; Filippone, A; Granatiero, S; Conte, A; Sinigaglia, M; Del Nobile, M A

    2008-10-31

    The effectiveness of natural compounds in slowing down the microbial quality decay of refrigerated fish hamburger is addressed in this study. In particular, the control of the microbiological spoilage by combined use of three antimicrobials, and the determination of their optimal composition to extend the fish hamburger Microbiological Stability Limit (MAL) are the main objectives of this work. Thymol, grapefruit seed extract (GFSE) and lemon extract were tested for monitoring the cell growth of the main fish spoilage microorganisms (Pseudomonas fluorescens, Photobacterium phosphoreum and Shewanella putrefaciens), inoculated in fish hamburgers, and the growth of mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria. A Central Composite Design (CCD) was developed to highlight a possible synergic effect of the above natural compounds. Results showed an increase in the MAL value for hamburgers mixed with the antimicrobial compounds, compared to the control sample. The optimal antimicrobial compound composition, which corresponds to the maximal MAL value determined in this study, is: 110 mgL(-1) of thymol, 100 mgL(-1) of GFSE and 120 mgL(-1) of lemon extract. The presence of the natural compounds delay the sensorial quality decay without compromising the flavor of the fish hamburgers.

  10. Defining Moments in MMWR History: 1993 E. coli O157:H7 Hamburger Outbreak

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-05-31

    During the 1993 E. coli O157 outbreak, four children died, and approximately 700 persons in four states became ill with severe and often bloody diarrhea after eating hamburgers from fast food restaurants. The first reports of CDC’s investigation into this deadly outbreak were published in MMWR. In this podcast, Dr. Beth Bell shares what it was like to serve as one of CDC’s lead investigators – a boots-on-the-ground disease detective -- for the historic outbreak.  Created: 5/31/2017 by MMWR.   Date Released: 5/31/2017.

  11. The text of the agreement between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Article 23(a) of the Agreement, and the Protocol thereto, between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) provides that the Agreement shall come into force for non-nuclear-weapon States Party to NPT which become members of the European Atomic Energy Community upon: (i) Notification to the Agency by the State concerned that its procedures with respect to the coming into force of the Agreement have been completed; and (ii) Notification to the Agency by the European Atomic Energy Community that it is in a position to apply its safeguards in respect of that State for the purposes of the Agreement. The Agreement and the Protocol thereto, which came into force for the above-mentioned original signatories on 21 February 1977, have also entered into force for Austria, Cyprus, Estonia, Finland, Greece, Hungary, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain and Sweden. The Agency received from the Republic of Latvia on 17 March 2008 and from the European Atomic Energy Community on 1 October 2008, the notifications required by Article 23(a) of the Agreement. Accordingly, the Agreement entered into force for Latvia on 1 October 2008

  12. Against the wearing of anti-nuclear buttons by teachers. Hamburg Administrative Court, decision of March 6, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-01

    In its decision the Administrative Court of Hamburg confirms the interdiction of the Hamburg School Board, directed to a mistress of a secondary school, from wearing the button 'Nuclear power - No, thanks' at school and in classrooms, and it dismisses the teacher's appeal. According to the Hamburg Law on Civil Servants, and as a civil servant, she has to exercise restraint with regard to political activities, i.e., she has to stop wearing this button. Considering carefully both, her duties with regard to the educational task incumbent on schools, and her basic right to express her opinion freely, it has to be considered that this restraint only refers to the service rendered by her in school. In addition, she may express her views during classroom discussions, too, or when she deals with this problem in class.

  13. The Text of the Agreement between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Article 23(a) of the Agreement, and the Protocol thereto, between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) provides that the Agreement shall come into force for non-nuclear-weapon States Party to NPT which become members of the European Atomic Energy Community upon: (i) Notification to the Agency by the State concerned that its procedures with respect to the coming into force of the Agreement have been completed; and (ii) Notification to the Agency by the European Atomic Energy Community that it is in a position to apply its safeguards in respect of that State for the purposes of the Agreement [es

  14. The Text of the Agreement between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Article 23(a) of the Agreement, and the Protocol thereto, between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) provides that the Agreement shall come into force for non-nuclear-weapon States Party to NPT which become members of the European Atomic Energy Community upon: (i) Notification to the Agency by the State concerned that its procedures with respect to the coming into force of the Agreement have been completed; and (ii) Notification to the Agency by the European Atomic Energy Community that it is in a position to apply its safeguards in respect of that State for the purposes of the Agreement [fr

  15. The Text of the Agreement between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Article 23(a) of the Agreement, and the Protocol thereto, between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) provides that the Agreement shall come into force for non-nuclear-weapon States Party to NPT which become members of the European Atomic Energy Community upon: (i) Notification to the Agency by the State concerned that its procedures with respect to the coming into force of the Agreement have been completed; and (ii) Notification to the Agency by the European Atomic Energy Community that it is in a position to apply its safeguards in respect of that State for the purposes of the Agreement [es

  16. The Text of the Agreement between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Article 23(a) of the Agreement, and the Protocol thereto, between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) provides that the Agreement shall come into force for non-nuclear-weapon States Party to NPT which become members of the European Atomic Energy Community upon: (i) Notification to the Agency by the State concerned that its procedures with respect to the coming into force of the Agreement have been completed; and (ii) Notification to the Agency by the European Atomic Energy Community that it is in a position to apply its safeguards in respect of that State for the purposes of the Agreement

  17. The Text of the Agreement between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of Cyprus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Article 23(a) of the Agreement, and the Protocol thereto, between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) provides that the Agreement shall come into force for non-nuclear-weapon States Party to NPT which become members of the European Atomic Energy Community upon: (i) Notification to the Agency by the State concerned that its procedures with respect to the coming into force of the Agreement have been completed; and (ii) Notification to the Agency by the European Atomic Energy Community that it is in a position to apply its safeguards in respect of that State for the purposes of the Agreement

  18. The Text of the Agreement between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Article 23(a) of the Agreement, and the Protocol thereto, between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) provides that the Agreement shall come into force for non-nuclear-weapon States Party to NPT which become members of the European Atomic Energy Community upon: (i) Notification to the Agency by the State concerned that its procedures with respect to the coming into force of the Agreement have been completed; and (ii) Notification to the Agency by the European Atomic Energy Community that it is in a position to apply its safeguards in respect of that State for the purposes of the Agreement

  19. Qualitative characteristics of hamburgers and koftas produced from meat of lambs fed glycerine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. H. Borghi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the qualitative (pH, color, water activity, water retention capacity, cooking loss, and shear force and sensory characteristics of processed meat produced from less noble cuts of the carcasses of lambs fed diets containing sugarcane as roughage and concentrates with and without 10 and 20% glycerine. Neck and rib meat of 30 lambs slaughtered at a body weight of 32.0 ± 0.2 kg was used for the elaboration of hamburgers and koftas. Except for color, the inclusion of glycerine in the lamb diet did not influence (P>0.05 the qualitative traits evaluated. The inclusion of glycerine reduced the redness (from 10.07 to 8.89, P=0.044 and yellowness (from 5.97 to 5.07, P=0.039 of hamburgers. The same effect was observed for the redness (from 10.83 to 9.61, P=0.031 and yellowness (from 5.86 to 5.12, P=0.047 of koftas. The sensory characteristics evaluated were not influenced (P>0.05 and the grades of overall acceptance ranged from 7.4 to 7.9. The inclusion of glycerine in the diet of lambs altered the color of processed meat products, but provided satisfactory sensory characteristics.

  20. Antimicrobial properties of clove essential oil on raw hamburger during storage in freezer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.E Hoseini

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Providing safe foods resistant to pathogens as well as replacing chemical preservatives with natural compounds including essential oils has attracted great attention in current studies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial properties of clove’s essential oil on hamburger. For this reason, clove essential oil was extracted by Clevenger apparatus method. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger was measured. The antimicrobial effect of the essence in the concentrations of 0.0015%, 0.01%, 0.1% and 0.15% was examined on hamburger. The samples were examined at 0, 7, 30, 60 and 90 days of cold storage. Sensory characteristics of the samples were assessed through Hedonic method. MICs resulted from the test for S. aureus, E. coli, C. albicans and A. niger were 0.1%, 0.065%, 0.03% and 0.01% (V/V, respectively. The results of microbial examinations indicated that with the increasing of the concentration of clove oil essence and also with the progression of storage time, the microbial load was gradually decreased. According to the sensory assays conducted by the consumers, low concentrations of 0.0015% and maximum of 0.01% were found desirable.

  1. Migrants' educational success through innovation: The case of the Hamburg bilingual schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Joana

    2011-12-01

    Although Germany has experienced net in-migration for the past five decades, this fact has only recently been officially acknowledged. Furthermore, Germany is marked by a general monolingual self-concept very much attached to the idea of a nation-state with one homogeneous language. However, in large urban areas of Germany about 35 per cent of the population has a migration background, as has almost every second child enrolling in primary school. Hence the country is marked by this dichotomy between a monolingual policy discourse and a multilingual society, manifested in everyday life and, as a consequence, in educational institutions. The fact is that this political attitude towards Germany's own migration history and migrants has led to an educational gap between students with a migration background and their monolingual peers. In 2000, a project was started in Hamburg, aiming to overcome this educational gap and involving the creation of bilingual schools for some of the largest migrant languages. Bilingual classes were thus set up for the following language combinations: German-Portuguese, German-Italian, German-Spanish and German-Turkish, and were evaluated by the University of Hamburg. This paper reports on the model used and the specific school outcomes of the students attending these classes.

  2. Federal Holidays

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — Federal law (5 U.S.C. 6103) establishes the following public holidays for Federal employees. Please note that most Federal employees work on a Monday through Friday...

  3. Effects of Lemon Balm on the Oxidative Stability and the Quality Properties of Hamburger Patties during Refrigerated Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyun-Joo; Choi, You-Jung; Choi, Yang-Il; Lee, Jae-Joon

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effects of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) on various quality and antioxidant activity of hamburger patties. Lemon balm extract (LBE) showed the highest amount of total polyphenol (801.00 mg TAE/g DW) and flavonoids (65.05 mg RA/g DW). The IC50 value of DPPH hydroxyl scavenging of LBE was 132 ?g/mL. The hamburger patties were prepared by 0% (N), 0.1% (L1), 0.5% (L2), and 1.0% (L3) of the lemon balm powder. The addition of lemon balm powder incre...

  4. What matters 2010. Annual report of the Federal Environment Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-04-27

    The annual report under consideration of the Federal Environment Agency (Dessau-Rosslau, Federal Republic of Germany) reports on the following themes: (1) Future mobility - Today's best investment; (2) Environmental protection - A barrier to investment for agriculture ?; (3) Emissions trading - The engine of climate policy ?; (4) The Federal Environment Agency (Departmental research, credo, organisation, data and facts, publications).

  5. Report of the Federal Government on the consequences of the report 'Global 2000'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The required equipment for environmental policy and planning in the Federal Republic of Germany is largely available. At present, the Federal Government is intensively cooperating in the United Nations' Environmental Programme (UNEP). (orig./HSCH) [de

  6. Constitutional overhaul of the Assembly of the Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatmire Lumani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper is a scientific study that aims at analyzing the overhaul of the Assembly of the Republic of Macedonia in the Albanian Constitution. Assembly of the Republic of Macedonia is a representative body of citizens and the bearer of legislative power in the Republic. It is a unicameral body. Its status and its activity is regulated by the Constitution and special laws on Parliament. The Republic of Macedonia is a unitary state, with a multiethnic society. The population is made up, by two ethnic groups, Macedonians and Albanians. In the Republic of Macedonia are included the minority of Turks, Serbs, Vlachs, Romas, Bosniaks and others. As a result of many minorities and 2 ethnic groups, the structure of the Assembly of the Republic of Macedonia, which is unicameral, does not respond and fit into the actual reality of the country. Therefore, changes should be made to this regard. This reality requires also a federalization of the Republic of Macedonia by guaranteeing the freedom and the right of self-determination of both majority groups, in this case Macedonians and Albanians. It should be noted, that the Republic of Macedonia, is divided into six electoral districts, with unequal numbers of voters and in this sense, changes in the Electoral Code should be undertaken.

  7. How different are the Liège and Hamburg atlases of the solar spectrum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerr, H.-P.; Vitas, N.; Fabbian, D.

    2016-05-01

    Context. The high-fidelity solar spectral atlas prepared by http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1973apds.book.....D Delbouille et al. (Liège atlas, 1973) and the atlas by http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999SoPh..184..421N Neckel (Hamburg atlas, 1999, Sol. Phys., 184, 421) are widely recognised as the most important collection of reference spectra of the Sun at disc centre in the visible wavelength range. The two datasets serve as fundamental resources for many researchers, in particular for chemical abundance analyses. But despite their similar published specifications (spectral resolution and noise level), the shapes of the spectral lines in the two atlases differ significantly and systematically. Aims: Knowledge of any instrumental degradations is imperative to fully exploit the information content of spectroscopic data. We seek to investigate the magnitude of these differences and explain the possible sources. We provide the wavelength-dependent correction parameters that need to be taken into account when the spectra are to be compared with synthetic data, for instance. Methods: A parametrically degraded version of the Hamburg spectrum was fitted to the Liège spectrum. The parameters of the model (wavelength shift, broadening, intensity scaling, and intensity offset) represent the different characteristics of the respective instruments, observational strategies, and data processing. Results: The wavelength scales of the Liège and Hamburg atlases differ on average by 0.5 mÅ with a standard deviation of ± 2 mÅ, except for a peculiar region around 5500 Å. The continuum levels are offset by up to 18% below 5000 Å, but remain stably at a 0.8% difference towards the red. We find no evidence for spectral stray light in the Liège spectrum. Its resolving power is almost independent of wavelength but limited to about 216 000, which is between two to six times lower than specified. When accounting for the degradations determined in this work, the spectra of the two

  8. Pitch and Harmony in Gyorgy Ligeti's "Hamburg Concerto" and "Syzygy" for String Quartet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, Charles

    The analysis component of this dissertation focuses on intricate and complex pitch relationships in Gyorgy Ligeti's last work, the Hamburg Concerto. This piece uses two distinct tuning systems---twelve tone equal temperament and just intonation---throughout its seven movements. Often, these two systems are used simultaneously, creating complex harmonic relationships. This combination allows Ligeti to exploit the unique features of each system and explore their relationships to each other. Ligeti's just intonation in the Hamburg Concerto comes mainly from the five French horns, who are instructed to keep their hands out of the bell to allow the instrument to sound its exact harmonics. The horns themselves, however, are tuned to varying different fundamentals, creating a constantly changing series of just-intoned pitches anchored above an equal-tempered bass. This method of generating just-intoned intervals adds a second layer to the relationship between equal temperament and just intonation. This paper focuses on creating ways to understand this relationship, and describing the ramifications of these tunings as they unfold throughout the piece. Ligeti very carefully crafts this work in a way that creates a balance between the systems. Research done at the Paul Sacher Stiftung has uncovered a significant collection of errors in the published score. Clearing up these discrepancies allows for a much more accurate and more informed analysis. Throughout this dissertation, mistakes are corrected, and several aspects of the score are clarified. The tuning systems are described, and a likely tuning scheme for the horns is posited. (The analytical component of the dissertation delves into the many varying intervals which all fit into one interval class---a feature that is best explored when two distinct tuning systems are juxtaposed.) A language is created herein to better understand these pitch relationships that fit neither into equal temperament nor just intonation. The

  9. Rye and Wheat Bran Extracts Isolated with Pressurized Solvents Increase Oxidative Stability and Antioxidant Potential of Beef Meat Hamburgers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šulniūtė, Vaida; Jaime, Isabel; Rovira, Jordi; Venskutonis, Petras Rimantas

    2016-02-01

    Rye and wheat bran extracts containing phenolic compounds and demonstrating high DPPH• (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), ABTS(•+) (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) scavenging and oxygen radical absorbance capacities (ORAC) were tested in beef hamburgers as possible functional ingredients. Bran extracts significantly increased the indicators of antioxidant potential of meat products and their global antioxidant response (GAR) during physiological in vitro digestion. The extracts also inhibited the formation of oxidation products, hexanal and malondialdehyde, of hamburgers during their storage; however, they did not have significant effect on the growth of microorganisms. Hamburgers with 0.8% wheat bran extract demonstrated the highest antioxidant potential. Some effects of bran extracts on other quality characteristics such as pH, color, formation of metmyoglobin were also observed, however, these effects did not have negative influence on the overall sensory evaluation score of hamburgers. Consequently, the use of bran extracts in meat products may be considered as promising means of increasing oxidative product stability and enriching with functional ingredients which might possess health benefits. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Determination of gamma radiation dose to the destruction of Escherichia coli O157: H7 in hamburger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orejuela Chirinos, Rodolfo Raul

    1999-01-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 has been incriminated in several foodborne outbreaks due to the consumption of different kinds of foods. Among these, hamburgers are the most common. Irradiation process is an effective method for food preservation because it causes no significant change in organoleptic and nutritional food characteristics and destroys pathogens and spoilage microorganisms. Hamburgers and nutrient broth inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 were submitted to gamma irradiation ( 60 Co) treatment, with doses ranging from 0,0 to 0,7 kGy in order to calculate the D 10 for this bacteria in these substrate. The D 10 for the pathogen nutrient broth ranged from 0.08 kGy to 0.10 kGy and in hamburger from 0.11 kGy to 0.21 kGy. Considering the highest D 10 value in hamburger, a dose of 0,8 kGy would not change the sensorial characteristics of the product, and would reduce the population of E. coli O157:H7 in 4 cycles logarithmic. (author)

  11. Studien zur Kirchenmusik und weltlichen Vokalmusik in Hamburg in der ersten Hälfte des 18. Jahrhunderts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voss, Steffen

    2014-01-01

    Hamburg was a main center for the development of protestant church music in the first half of the 18th century, especially for the oratorio, a genre which is stylistically indebted to operatic music. Works of two of the main composers of so called theatrical church music, Johann Mattheson and Georg

  12. Hass avocado modulates postprandial vascular reactivity and postprandial inflammatory responses to a hamburger meal in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaoping; Wong, Angela; Henning, Susanne M; Zhang, Yanjun; Jones, Alexis; Zerlin, Alona; Thames, Gail; Bowerman, Susan; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Heber, David

    2013-02-26

    Hass avocados are rich in monounsaturated fatty acids (oleic acid) and antioxidants (carotenoids, tocopherols, polyphenols) and are often eaten as a slice in a sandwich containing hamburger or other meats. Hamburger meat forms lipid peroxides during cooking. After ingestion, the stomach functions as a bioreactor generating additional lipid peroxides and this process can be inhibited when antioxidants are ingested together with the meat. The present pilot study was conducted to investigate the postprandial effect of the addition of 68 g of avocado to a hamburger on vasodilation and inflammation. Eleven healthy subjects on two separate occasions consumed either a 250 g hamburger patty alone (ca. 436 cal and 25 g fat) or together with 68 grams of avocado flesh (an additional 114 cal and 11 g of fat for a total of 550 cal and 36 g fat), a common culinary combination, to assess effects on vascular health. Using the standard peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT) method to calculate the PAT index, we observed significant vasoconstriction 2 hours following hamburger ingestion (2.19 ± 0.36 vs. 1.56 ± 0.21, p = 0.0007), which did not occur when the avocado flesh was ingested together with the burger (2.17 ± 0.57 vs. 2.08 ± 0.51, NS p = 0.68). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from postprandial blood samples and the Ikappa-B alpha (IκBα) protein concentration was determined to assess effects on inflammation. At 3 hours, there was a significant preservation of IκBα (131% vs. 58%, p = 0.03) when avocado was consumed with the meat compared to meat alone, consistent with reduced activation of the NF-kappa B (NFκB) inflammatory pathway. IL-6 increased significantly at 4 hours in postprandial serum after consumption of the hamburger, but no change was observed when avocado was added. Postprandial serum triglyceride concentration increased, but did not further increase when avocado was ingested with the burger compared to burger alone despite the added fat and

  13. Status report on treatment planning with the fast neutron beam at Hamburg-Eppendorf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, A.; Schmidt, R.; Franke, H.D.

    1981-01-01

    For treatment planning with the fast neutron beam (DT, 14 MeV) at the Radiotherapy Department of the University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf the decrement line method is applied to compute isodose curves (total beam or neutrons and gamma-rays separately). The isodose curves are generated by a measured depth dose distribution and one lateral dose distribution at 10 cm phantom depth assuming two crossing points of the decrement lines at the edges of the collimator. By this method isodose charts have been generated for all available field sizes at 80 cm SSD. For the determination of depth dose values at different SSD a modified inverse square law has to be taken into account. Computerized treatment plans are calculated with the same technique used by the SIDOS-U1 (Siemens) planning system. (orig.)

  14. Storm surges-An option for Hamburg, Germany, to mitigate expected future aggravation of risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storch, Hans von; Goennert, Gabriele; Meine, Manfred

    2008-01-01

    Summary: Rising sea level together with regionally increased storm activity, caused by elevated and increasing levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere will in many parts of the world increase the risk of storm surges significantly. Reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere may mitigate the increasing risks somewhat, but the major task for regional and local stakeholders will be to prepare for appropriate adaptation. In most cases, possible strategies include intensification of coastal defense measures, in particular strengthening dykes, and adaptation to intermittent flooding. In case of Hamburg and the tidal Elbe river a third option seems to be available, which aims at mitigating storm surge risks by applying estuary engineering constructions. This option is sketched in this paper. The option has the potential to significantly reduce the expected future increases of local surge heights

  15. The Technical and Business Analysis of Using Shore Power Connection in The Port of Hamburg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Hotnauli Samosir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In port, when the ship is berthing the loading, unloading, and hospitality activity is using auxiliary engine. The combustion of marine fuels is a major contributor to air pollution, the air pollution is released 400 km around the port area. The impacts of the pollution are respiratory, health, and the environment around ports. Study indicates 60.000 of cardiopulmonary mortalities caused by ship air emission. Ship emission represents 3% of global CO2, 15% of global NOx, and 6% of global SOx emission. Because of that Hamburg Port is released the shore power facilities in July 2015 with idea of smart port and use the renewable energy such as wind turbine and solar panel compliance with IEC-ISO-IEEE 8005-1. In this bachelor thesis, the cost and also the condition between shore power and auxiliary engine will be analyzed and compared to find the most economical between shore power facilities and ship’s auxiliary engine. Shore power facilities in Hamburg are provided by SIEMENS with SIHARBOR and use a robot arm by Stemman Technik as the cable management system. The goal of this thesis is developed calculation tool to see the cost comparison and also the emission. And from the calculation tool the shore power is reducing the emission by 100% because of using the renewable energy and become economical than using auxiliary engine, it can save up to €1000. The other benefits  are ship owner can save maintenance of their auxiliary engine and also saved the file. It shows that the shore power is a proven technology to reduce the emission and saved berth cost.

  16. 75 FR 34982 - Aluminum Extrusions from the People's Republic of China: Notice of Postponement of Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-570-968] Aluminum Extrusions from the... in the Federal Register a notice of initiation of the countervailing duty investigation of aluminum extrusions from the People's Republic of China. See Aluminum Extrusions From the People's Republic of China...

  17. 76 FR 64301 - High Pressure Steel Cylinders From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Affirmative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-570-978] High Pressure Steel... producers and exporters of high pressure steel cylinders from the People's Republic of China. For... initiation in the Federal Register. See High Pressure Steel Cylinders From the People's Republic of China...

  18. Federalism Lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, A. E. Dick

    1987-01-01

    Examines the concept of federalism in terms of its past history and its encouraging future. Calls for a revival of concern for federalism not simply as a convenient administrative arrangement but as a fundamental constitutional value. (BSR)

  19. Modelling the emissions from ships in ports and their impact on air quality in the metropolitan area of Hamburg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramacher, Martin; Karl, Matthias; Aulinger, Armin; Bieser, Johannes; Matthias, Volker; Quante, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Exhaust emissions from shipping contribute significantly to the anthropogenic burden of air pollutants such as nitrogen oxides (NOX) and particulate matter (PM). Ships emit not only when sailing on open sea, but also when approaching harbors, during port manoeuvers and at berth to produce electricity and heat for the ship's operations. This affects the population of harbor cities because long-term exposure to PM and NOX has significant effects on human health. The European Union has therefore has set air quality standards for air pollutants. Many port cities have problems meeting these standards. The port of Hamburg with around 10.000 ship calls per year is Germany's largest seaport and Europe's second largest container port. Air quality standard reporting in Hamburg has revealed problems in meeting limits for NO2 and PM10. The amount and contribution of port related ship emissions (38% for NOx and 17% for PM10) to the overall emissions in the metropolitan area in 2005 [BSU Hamburg (2012): Luftreinhalteplan für Hamburg. 1. Fortschreibung 2012] has been modelled with a bottom up approach by using statistical data of ship activities in the harbor, technical vessel information and specific emission algorithms [GAUSS (2008): Quantifizierung von gasförmigen Emissionen durch Maschinenanlagen der Seeschiffart an der deutschen Küste]. However, knowledge about the spatial distribution of the harbor ship emissions over the city area is crucial when it comes to air quality standards and policy decisions to protect human health. Hence, this model study examines the spatial distribution of harbor ship emissions (NOX, PM10) and their deposition in the Hamburg metropolitan area. The transport and chemical transformation of atmospheric pollutants is calculated with the well-established chemistry transport model TAPM (The Air Pollution Model). TAPM is a three-dimensional coupled prognostic meteorological and air pollution model with a condensed chemistry scheme including

  20. Magdalene Schoch und die Hamburger Universität - eine (ungewöhnliche) Wissenschaftskarriere der 1920er und 1930er Jahre

    OpenAIRE

    Oeter, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    Aus der Einleitung: „In einer akademischen Feierstunde am 15. Juni 2006 wurde der Hörsaal J im Hauptgebäude der Universität Hamburg in Magdalene-Schoch-Hörsaal benannt – die fünfte Namensgebung im Rahmen des 1999 begonnenen Programms zur Benennung restaurierter Hörsäle nach im „Dritten Reich“ vertriebenen Hamburger Wissenschaftlerinnen und Wissenschaftlern. [...] Das vorliegende Heft der Hamburger Universitätsreden dokumentiert die auf der Feier gehaltenen Reden [...] Bei den anschließend ...

  1. Understanding Federalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickok, Eugene W., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Urges returning to the original federalist debates to understand contemporary federalism. Reviews "The Federalist Papers," how federalism has evolved, and the centralization of the national government through acts of Congress and Supreme Court decisions. Recommends teaching about federalism as part of teaching about U.S. government…

  2. Central Asian Republic Info

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — CAR Info is designed and managed by the Central Asian Republic Mission to fill in the knowledge and reporting gaps in existing agency systems for that Mission. It...

  3. Kyrgyz Republic; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2013-01-01

    Performance of the banking sector during the crisis and challenges are discussed. The impact of the political crisis on the banking sector is outlined. The Kyrgyz Republic is one of the most open economies in the world. Gross international reserves (GIR) in the Kyrgyz Republic have increased more than sixfold in the last decade. Gold exports, remittances, and official development assistance have become important sources of reserve accumulation. The current level of reserves in the Kyrgyz Repu...

  4. Project of law authorizing the approval of the agreement between the government of the French republic and the government of the Russian federation relative to the civil liability by way of nuclear damage owing to the supply of materials from the French republic devoted to nuclear facilities in the Russian federation; Projet de loi autorisant l'approbation de l'accord entre le gouvernement de la republique francaise et le gouvernement de la federation de Russie relatif a la responsabilite civile au titre de dommages nucleaires du fait de fournitures en provenance de la republique francaise destinees a des installations nucleaires en federation de Russie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raffarin, J.P.; Villepin, D. de

    2002-07-01

    An agreement between France and Russia was signed on June 20, 2000 about the civil liability of Russia because of the supply of French material devoted to Russian nuclear facilities. This agreement was necessary because Russia do not belong to any of the two big international civil liability systems relative to nuclear energy, i.e. the Paris convention from July 29, 1960 (in the OECD framework) and the Vienna convention from May 21, 1963 (in the IAEA framework). This agreement offers a protection to the French nuclear suppliers against any damage claims in the case of a nuclear accident occurring on the Russian federation territory. This project of law aims at approving this agreement. (J.S.)

  5. Reliability of a science admission test (HAM-Nat) at Hamburg medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hissbach, Johanna; Klusmann, Dietrich; Hampe, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    The University Hospital in Hamburg (UKE) started to develop a test of knowledge in natural sciences for admission to medical school in 2005 (Hamburger Auswahlverfahren für Medizinische Studiengänge, Naturwissenschaftsteil, HAM-Nat). This study is a step towards establishing the HAM-Nat. We are investigating parallel forms reliability, the effect of a crash course in chemistry on test results, and correlations of HAM-Nat test results with a test of scientific reasoning (similar to a subtest of the "Test for Medical Studies", TMS). 316 first-year students participated in the study in 2007. They completed different versions of the HAM-Nat test which consisted of items that had already been used (HN2006) and new items (HN2007). Four weeks later half of the participants were tested on the HN2007 version of the HAM-Nat again, while the other half completed the test of scientific reasoning. Within this four week interval students were offered a five day chemistry course. Parallel forms reliability for four different test versions ranged from r(tt)=.53 to r(tt)=.67. The retest reliabilities of the HN2007 halves were r(tt)=.54 and r(tt )=.61. Correlations of the two HAM-Nat versions with the test of scientific reasoning were r=.34 und r=.21. The crash course in chemistry had no effect on HAM-Nat scores. The results suggest that further versions of the test of natural sciences will not easily conform to the standards of internal consistency, parallel-forms reliability and retest reliability. Much care has to be taken in order to assemble items which could be used interchangeably for the construction of new test versions. The test of scientific reasoning and the HAM-Nat are tapping different constructs. Participation in a chemistry course did not improve students' achievement, probably because the content of the course was not coordinated with the test and many students lacked of motivation to do well in the second test.

  6. The Comparative Effect of Carrot and Lemon Fiber as a Fat Replacer on Physico-chemical, Textural, and Organoleptic Quality of Low-fat Beef Hamburger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soncu, Eda Demirok; Kolsarıcı, Nuray; Çiçek, Neslihan; Öztürk, Görsen Salman; Akoğlu, Ilker T; Arıcı, Yeliz Kaşko

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the usability of lemon fiber (LF-2%, 4%, 6%) and carrot fiber (CF-2%, 4%, 6%) to produce low-fat beef hamburgers. To that end, a certain amount of fat was replaced with each fiber. The proximate composition, pH value, cholesterol content, cooking characteristics, color, texture profile, and sensory properties of low-fat beef hamburgers were investigated. LF increased moisture content and cooking yield due to its better water binding properties, while CF caused higher fat and cholesterol contents owing to its higher fat absorption capacity (pretention, and fat retention. However it is suggested that CF produces better low-fat hamburgers since up to 2% CF presented sensory and textural properties similar to those of regular hamburgers.

  7. The Cyclotron Center of the Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podhorsky, D.; Ruzicka, J.; Macasek, F.; Makaiova, I.; Saro, S.; Kristiak, J.; Fulup, M.

    2001-01-01

    The Cyclotron Center of the Slovak Republic was established at the beginning of August 1999 - within the Slovak-Office of Standards, Metrology and Testing (SOSMT), in Bratislava, Slovak Republic. It will have two cyclotrons - a large heavy and light cyclotron DC-72, which will be constructed by the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna, Russian Federation, and a small commercial light ion cyclotron IBA 18/9. The heavy ion source of the electron resonance type (DECRS-2M) will be used for low and medium energy experiments in physics. The small electron accelerator is planned for different applications, including improving the properties of plastics, increasing the resistance of cables to fire and temperature, the sterilization of medical disposables in the CC SR. The main purpose of the Cyclotron Center of the Slovak Republic (CC SR) is to catch the present approach and trends in the area of improving of inhabitants life and health quality using the progressive technology, which is introduced by bringing into practice of the physical equipment - accelerators, producing beams of high energy particles. Experts of nuclear physics and of the related branches have no experimental basis in Slovakia, as after dissolution of the former the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic all bigger nuclear equipment were left in the Czech Republic. The Slovak Republic is one of the European countries where cancer and cardiovascular diseases have a rapidly increasing tendency (the rate of new oncological cases is approximately 20,000/year at the population of 5 million inhabitants) - early diagnostics of population is necessary to be updated urgently. The Slovak Republic use a great part of electricity (about 60 %) from its own nuclear power stations and thus it is in need of education of rising generations of experts from different nuclear fields. The Government of the Slovak republic on June 18, 1996 approved the strategic aim of building up the Cyclotron Laboratory at the

  8. Convention on nuclear safety report by the government of the Federal Republic of Germany for the second extraordinary meeting in August 2012; Uebereinkommen ueber nukleare Sicherheit. Bericht der Regierung der Bundesrepublik Deutschland fuer die Zweite ausserordentliche Tagung im August 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-04-25

    The nuclear consequences of the earthquake disaster in Japan represent a profound change for the peaceful use of nuclear power, also in Germany. In the light of these events, the German Federal Government, together with the Prime Ministers of the Laender in which NPPs are operated had reviewed the safety of all German NPPs by the German Reactor Safety Commission in close collaboration with the competent nuclear regulatory authorities of the Laender and, through an Ethics Commission on ''Secure Energy Supply'', also started a dialogue among the German society on the risks involved in the use of nuclear power and on the possibility of an accelerated transition to the age of renewable energies. Taking into account the results of the Reactor Safety Commission and the Ethics Commission on ''Secure Energy Supply'' as well as the absolute priority of nuclear safety, the Federal Government decided to terminate the use of nuclear power at the earliest possible date. The amendments in the Atomic Energy Act that went into force in August 2011 induce the progressive abandonment of electricity generation by NPPs in Germany by the end of 2022 at the latest. Germany took an active part in the assessment of the robustness of the NPPs in Europe (EU stress test) under the leadership of the European Nuclear Safety Regulators Group (ENSREG). The results of these reviews show that the German plants partly have considerable safety margins and that additional precautionary measures have been taken in order to prevent (preventive measures) or limit (mitigative measures) the effects of the beyond-design-basis events considered in the reviews. Based on the results of the plant-specific reviews, the RSK has derived first recommendations for further examinations. Some plant-specific improvement measures are already in implementation or planned. The results of the EU stress test will be taken into account in future RSK recommendations. On behalf of the

  9. Teaching the Holocaust in the Republic of Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Marsha

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to observe the approaches used by educators to facilitate learning about the Holocaust. The examples provided in this paper are one of various approaches that are used by educators teaching in the Federal Republic of Germany. Approaches will be different from country to country, from school to school, and from educator…

  10. The Zoology Department at Washington University (1944-1954): from undergraduate to graduate studies with Viktor Hamburger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunnebacke, T H

    2001-04-01

    Beginning from an undergraduate's perspective and continuing through graduate school, this student's experiences in the Department of Zoology at Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri was a time of many rewarding experiences. Now, on this occasion of his 100th birthday, I wish to express my appreciation to the Chairman, Dr. Viktor Hamburger, for his teachings, his encouragement, and his friendship that has lasted over the past 56 years.

  11. Immigration of Roma from Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Vukelić

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The questions of immigration are topics of high interest for the contemporary migration studies. Particularly relevant for the Western European countries is the immigration of Roma. This study analyzes the case of Roma asylum-seekers from Republic of Serbia to Federal Republic of Germany, which assumed a new dimension following the visa liberation. Focus of this article are the links among the social, economical, transitional and political conditions of Roma asylum-seeking, as well as an analysis of potential networks and knowledge transfer among Roma. In particular is to be understand if there is any transnational networking between Roma in home countries and abroad as well if Roma asylum-seekers have to be seen as perpetrators or rather victims of the political occurrences in the concerning country.

  12. Basic investigation on promotion of joint implementation in fiscal 2000. Energy saving program for the Sao Paulo State Primary Schools in the Federative Republic of Brazil; 2000 nendo kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa hokokusho. Brazil Renpo Kyowakoku Sao Paulo shuritsu shoto gakko no sho energy keikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    With an objective of saving energy and reducing greenhouse gas emission, discussions have been given on improvement measures for lighting equipment in the Sao Paulo State Primary Schools in the Federative Republic of Brazil. Measures for the energy saving are composed of modification to high-efficiency lighting equipment using electronic ballasts, high-efficiency fluorescent lamps, and reflectors, and introduction of control systems using lighting control sensors. In the survey, taking up 3,000 schools as the objects of implementation, a project scheme was established that the energy saving measures will be introduced, and the investment cost will be recovered by concluding the ESCO service for five years, after which the school side enjoys the profit for five years. As a result of the discussions, the total project cost will amount to 2.82 billion yen, with which the energy saving quantity would be 7,636 tons annually as converted to crude oil, or 114,540 tons during a period of 15 years as the achievement of the project as a whole. Greenhouse gas emission would be reduced by 7,397 t-CO2 on an annual average, or 110,949 t-CO2 in the project as a whole. Discussions on the profitability revealed that the internal profit rate can be calculated as 15.73%, indicating that the profitability can be envisaged. (NEDO)

  13. The text of the agreement between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Finland, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Article 23(a) of the Agreement of 5 April 1973 between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in implementation of Article III (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) provides that the Agreement shall come into force for non-nuclear-weapon States Party to NPT which become members of the European Atomic Energy Community upon: (i) Notification to the Agency by the State concerned that its procedures with respect to the coming into force of the Agreement have been completed; and (ii) Notification to the Agency by the European Atomic Energy Community that it is in a position to apply its safeguards in respect of that State for the purposes of the Agreement. On 18 September 1995 the Agency received in respect of the European Atomic Energy Community and Finland the notifications required by Article 23(a) of the Agreement. For practical accounting purposes as proposed in the notifications, the Agreement came into force for Finland on 1 October 1995

  14. The Text of the Agreement between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of Hungary and Malta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Article 23(a) of the Agreement, and the Protocol thereto, between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) provides that the Agreement shall come into force for non-nuclear-weapon States Party to NPT which become members of the European Atomic Energy Community upon: (i) Notification to the Agency by the State concerned that its procedures with respect to the coming into force of the Agreement have been completed; and (ii) Notification to the Agency by the European Atomic Energy Community that it is in a position to apply its safeguards in respect of that State for the purposes of the Agreement. The Agreement and the Protocol thereto, which came into force for the above-mentioned original signatories on 21 February 1977, have also entered into force for Austria, Estonia, Finland, Greece, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Slovakia, Slovenia and Sweden

  15. Site-specific cultivation systems for energy plants. Results of the joint project ''Development and comparison of optimized cultivation systems for the agricultural production of energy plants at different site-specific conditions in the Federal Republic of Germany, EVA I''. 3. rev. and enl. ed.; Standortangepasste Anbausysteme fuer Energiepflanzen. Ergebnisse des Verbundprojektes ''Entwicklung und Vergleich von optimierten Anbausystemen fuer die landwirtschaftliche Produktion von Energiepflanzen unter den verschiedenen Standortbedingungen Deutschlands, EVA I''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-03-15

    With respect to the estimations of the Agency for Renewable Ressources (Guelzow, Federal Republic of Germany), nearly 2 millions ha of the area of arable land in Germany were used for the production of renewable raw materials in the last years. The production of vegetable energy sources only was limited on few cultural species. This led to criticism by organisations of nature protection and environmental protection. The joint project 'Development and comparison of optimized cultivation system for the agricultural production of energy plants at different site specific conditions in the Federal Republic of Germany' was one of the most extensive national agrarian research projects of the past years. This joint project offers practice-relevant knowledge to efficient and sustainable cultivation systems of energy plants. The brochure under consideration reports on the results of the first project phase of this joint project.

  16. Quality control in nuclear medicine. Addendum to 'Quality assurance in nuclear medicine', World Health Organization, 1982. Following a training workshop in Neuherberg, Munich, Federal Republic of Germany, November 23-30, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cradduck, T.D.; Busemann Sokole, E.

    2006-01-01

    Based on the results of a workshop, sponsored by the German Federal Ministry of the Interior (BMI) and the World Health Organization (WHO), held in Neuherberg, Munich, 1983, a revised concept of quality control (QC) in nuclear medicine is proposed. In a previous document published by the WHO in 1982, a set of rigorous daily, weekly, monthly, quarterly and half-quarterly QC protocols was recommended. The revised concept suggested by the 1983 workshop participants is that of a simple, total system, QC test that can be applied on a frequent, probably daily, basis. Any deviation of the results of such a test from the accepted norm will require further investigation and decision trees can then be applied to localize faults

  17. The architecture of Hamburg-Bergedorf Observatory 1906 - 1912, compared with other observatories (German Title: Die Architektur der Hamburg-Bergedorfer Sternwarte 1906 - 1912 im Vergleich mit anderen Observatorien)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Peter

    The foundation of the astrophysical observatories in Potsdam-Telegrafenberg in 1874, in Meudon near Paris in 1875 and in Mount Hamilton in California in 1875 resulted in a complete change of observatory architecture. Astrometry had become irrelevant; meridian halls, i.e. an exact north-south orientation, were no longer necessary. The location in the centre of a (university) town was disadvantageous, due to vibrations caused by traffic and artificial light at night. New principles were defined: considerable distance (from the city center), secluded and exposed position (on a mountain) and construction of pavilions: inside a park a pavilion was built for each instrument. Other observatories of this type are: Pic du Midi in the French Alps, built as from 1878 as the first permanent observatory in the high mountains; Nice, Mont Gros, (1879); Brussels, Uccle (1883); Edinburgh, Blackford Hill (1892); Heidelberg, Königstuhl (1896); Barcelona, Monte Tibidado (1902). The original Hamburg Observatory was a modest rectangular building near the Millernrtor; in 1833 it became a State institute. As from 1906 erection of a spacious complex in Bergedorf, 20 km northeast of the city center, took place. Except for the unavailable position on a mountain, this complex fulfilled all principles of a modern observatory: in a park pavilion architecture in an elegant neo-baroque style designed by Albert Erbe (architect of the new Hamburger Kunsthalle with cupola). At the Hamburg Observatory the domed structures were cleverly hierarchised leaving an open view to the south. At the beginning astrometry and astrophysics were equally important; there was still a meridian circle. Apart from that, the instruments were manifold: a large refractor 0.60 m (installed by Repsold/Hamburg, 9 m focal length) and a large reflector 1 m (Zeiss/Jena, 3m focal length). Both were the largest instruments of their kind in the German Empire. In addition, there was the Lippert Astrograph on an elegant polar

  18. Measurements to check vapour recovery systems of public retail stations in Hamburg (Phase 1); Messaktion zur Ueberpruefung von Gasrueckfuehrungssystemen an oeffentlichen Tankstellen in der Freien und Hansestadt Hamburg (Phase 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altmann, B.R. [Deutsche Wissenschaftliche Gesellschaft fuer Erdoel, Erdgas und Kohle e.V., Hamburg (Germany); Golgert, R. [Gesundheits- und Umweltamt, Hamburg (Germany). Bezirksamt Wandsbek; Okelmann, J. [Umweltbehoerde, Hamburg (Germany). Amt fuer Immissionsschutz und Betriebe; Schenck, H.G. [Gesundheits- und Umweltamt, Hamburg (Germany). Bezirksamt Eimsbuettel, Abt. fuer Umweltschutz

    2000-06-01

    DGMK jointly with the local authorities of health and environment, in close co-operation with the environmental authorities of the city of Hamburg, are thoroughly examining the vapour recovery systems at all public service stations in Hamburg. In phase I 50 sites were examined in August/September 1999 by several measuring methods called liquid-measurement, liquid-check, quick-check (UPA 50/Flo-Tester) and dry-measurement procedure. They delivered proportions and causes of bad performing and defective devices leading to appropriate maintenance. The dry-measurement procedure commonly used with regular checks by itself is not satisfactory to prove overall performance of the vapour recovery equipment. It should always be supplemented by a liquid-check procedure in order to ensure that the assigned vapour pumps work. As the dry-measurement procedure simulates a fuel flow it cannot detect such defects. Complete breakdowns of vapour recovery systems can be localised reliably with the quick check devices UPA 50/Flo-Tester. But due to high error tolerances, quick check devices are not suitable for quantitative measurement of vapour recovery rates on service stations. (orig.) [German] Die DGMK fuehrt unter Beteiligung der Umweltbehoerde Hamburg zusammen mit den Gesundheits- und Umweltaemtern der Bezirke und den Tankstellenbetreibern in einem Gemeinschaftsprojekt detaillierte Untersuchungen der Gasrueckfuehrungssysteme an allen Hamburger Tankstellen durch. Ziel der Untersuchung ist die Ueberpruefung und Verbesserung des technischen Zustandes der Gasrueckfuehrsysteme an allen Hamburger Tankstellen. Darueber hinaus sollen genaue Kenntnisse ueber die Verlaesslichkeit von gaengigen Messverfahren zur Ueberpruefung von Gasrueckfuehrsystemen erworben werden. In der Phase I wurden an 50 Tankstellen Messungen im August/September 1999 unter Anwendung des Nassmessverfahrens, des Trockenmessverfahrens, der Schnelltester (Flo-Tester und UPA 50) sowie der Nasskontrolle zur Ueberpruefung

  19. Religious Freedoms In Republic Of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metaj-Stojanova Albana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With the independence of Republic of Macedonia and the adoption of the Constitution of Macedonia, the country went through a substantial socio-political transition. The concept of human rights and freedoms, such as religious freedoms in the Macedonian Constitution is based on liberal democratic values. The Macedonian Constitution connects the fundamental human rights and freedoms with the concept of the individual and citizen, but also with the collective rights of ethnic minorities, respecting the international standards and responsibilities taken under numerous international human rights conventions and treaties, of which the country is a party. Republic of Macedonia has ratified all the so called “core human right treaties” and now the real challenge lies in the implementation of the international standards. Some of these international conventions and treaties of the United Nations and of the Council of Europe are inherited by succession from the former Yugoslavian federation. Religious freedoms are guaranteed by the Universal Declaration of human rights (1948, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1966, the European Convention on Human Rights (1953, the Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Intolerance and of Discrimination Based on Religion or Belief (1981 (all documents ratified by the Republic of Macedonia. According to the Constitution of the Republic of Macedonia “The freedom of religious confession is guaranteed. The right to express one's faith freely and publicly, individually or with others, is guaranteed„. After the conflict of 2001 the Ohrid Framework Agreement secured group rights for ethnicities that are not in majority in the Republic of Macedonia. The present Law on the legal status of the church, religious communities and religious groups of 2007, repealed the Law on religion and religious groups of 1997.

  20. Performance Evaluation of the Approaches and Algorithms Using Hamburg Airport Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhifan; Okuniek, Nikolai; Gerdes, Ingrid; Schier, Sebastian; Lee, Hanbong; Jung, Yoon

    2016-01-01

    The German Aerospace Center (DLR) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) have been independently developing and testing their own concepts and tools for airport surface traffic management. Although these concepts and tools have been tested individually for European and US airports, they have never been compared or analyzed side-by-side. This paper presents the collaborative research devoted to the evaluation and analysis of two different surface management concepts. Hamburg Airport was used as a common test bed airport for the study. First, two independent simulations using the same traffic scenario were conducted; one by the DLR team using the Controller Assistance for Departure Optimization (CADEO) and the Taxi Routing for Aircraft: Creation and Controlling (TRACC) in a real-time simulation environment, and one by the NASA team based on the Spot and Runway Departure Advisor (SARDA) in a fast-time simulation environment. A set of common performance metrics was defined. The simulation results showed that both approaches produced operational benefits in efficiency, such as reducing taxi times, while maintaining runway throughput. Both approaches generated the gate pushback schedule to meet the runway schedule, such that the runway utilization was maximized. The conflict-free taxi guidance by TRACC helped avoid taxi conflicts and reduced taxiing stops, but the taxi benefit needed be assessed together with runway throughput to analyze the overall performance objective.

  1. Performance Evaluation of the Approaches and Algorithms for Hamburg Airport Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhifan; Okuniek, Nikolai; Gerdes, Ingrid; Schier, Sebastian; Lee, Hanbong; Jung, Yoon

    2016-01-01

    The German Aerospace Center (DLR) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) have been independently developing and testing their own concepts and tools for airport surface traffic management. Although these concepts and tools have been tested individually for European and US airports, they have never been compared or analyzed side-by-side. This paper presents the collaborative research devoted to the evaluation and analysis of two different surface management concepts. Hamburg Airport was used as a common test bed airport for the study. First, two independent simulations using the same traffic scenario were conducted: one by the DLR team using the Controller Assistance for Departure Optimization (CADEO) and the Taxi Routing for Aircraft: Creation and Controlling (TRACC) in a real-time simulation environment, and one by the NASA team based on the Spot and Runway Departure Advisor (SARDA) in a fast-time simulation environment. A set of common performance metrics was defined. The simulation results showed that both approaches produced operational benefits in efficiency, such as reducing taxi times, while maintaining runway throughput. Both approaches generated the gate pushback schedule to meet the runway schedule, such that the runway utilization was maximized. The conflict-free taxi guidance by TRACC helped avoid taxi conflicts and reduced taxiing stops, but the taxi benefit needed be assessed together with runway throughput to analyze the overall performance objective.

  2. Field-free molecular alignment probed by the free electron laser in Hamburg (FLASH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnsson, P; Rouzee, A; Siu, W; Huismans, Y; Vrakking, M J J [FOM Institute for Atomic and Molecular Physics (AMOLF), Science Park 113, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lepine, F [Universite Lyon 1, CNRS, LASIM, UMR 5579, 43 bvd. du 11 novembre 1918, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); Marchenko, T [Laboratoire d' Optique Applique, ENSTA/Ecole Polytechnique, Chemin de la Huniere, 91761 Palaiseau (France); Duesterer, S; Tavella, F; Stojanovic, N; Azima, A; Treusch, R [Hamburger Synchrotronstrahlungslabor (HASYLAB) at Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY) Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Kling, M F [Max-Planck Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann Strasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany)], E-mail: per.johnsson@fysik.lth.se

    2009-07-14

    High flux extreme ultraviolet (XUV) sources like the free electron laser (FEL) in Hamburg (FLASH) offer the possibility of diffractive imaging of small objects. Irrespective of whether the diffraction is based on the detection of photons or photoelectrons, it is required that the measurement is done in the reference frame of the molecule meaning that, for a sample of several molecules, it is necessary to pre-align the molecules in the sample. As a step towards performing molecular frame diffraction experiments, we report experiments on field-free molecular alignment performed at FLASH. The impulsive alignment induced by a 100 fs near-infrared laser pulse in a rotationally cold CO{sub 2} sample is characterized by ionizing and dissociating the molecules with a time-delayed XUV-FEL pulse. The time-dependent angular distributions of ionic fragments measured by a velocity map imaging spectrometer exhibit rapid changes associated with the induced rotational dynamics. The experimental results show hints of a dissociation process that depends nonlinearly on the XUV intensity.

  3. [Home treatment--a treatment model of integrated care in Hamburg].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöttle, Daniel; Ruppelt, Friederike; Karow, Anne; Lambert, Martin

    2015-03-01

    Treatment models like "Crisis Resolution and Hometreatment (CRHT)" or "Assertive Community Treatment" (ACT), were found to be effective, enhancing the qualitative level of treatment for patients with severe mental disorders. In Germany, these are implemented only sporadically until today, often as part of a cross-sectoral Integrated Care (IC) treatment system. We will present the implementation of an "Assertive Community Treatment" embedded into an IC-treatment model in Hamburg and discuss the 3-year-outcomes. The IC-treatment model has been designed for severe mentally ill patients with psychotic disorders. Since May 2007 the model is financed by different health insurances as a managed-care "capitation-model" and its effectiveness gets continuously evaluated. The model proved to be effective in earlier studies were compared with standard care low rates of service disengagement were found as well as significantly improved psychopathology, psychosocial functioning, quality of life, satisfaction with care and adherence, while being cost effective. The rates of involuntary admissions declined to 10% in comparison to the years before. In 2011 the model was specified to the indication "first-episode adolescents and young adults in the age of 12-29" in a government-funded study "Integrated Care in Early Psychosis, ICEP Study". In this study an interdisciplinary team of child, adolescent and adult psychiatrists was implemented and since 2012 it is financed by the involved health insurances throughout an expansion of the §140 SGB V agreement. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. [Death caused by projectile guns--a retrospective analysis of 34 cases in Berlin and Hamburg].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lignitz, E; Koops, E; Püschel, K

    1988-01-01

    The autopsy material of the institutes for forensic medicine in Berlin/GDR and Hamburg was analyzed retrospectively (period from 1961 till 1987; 70,000 autopsies) for fatalities caused by "humane killers" (n = 22) and stud guns (n = 12).-Epidemiological, criminological and morphological findings: The decreased were all men aged between 18 and 75 years (mean 48 years) except one 61 year-old paraplegic women who was killed by her husband with a humane killer. The great majority of cases consisted of suicides; two accidents at work were caused by stud guns. These unusual weapons are normally used by skilled people (i.e. butchers or constructional workers respectively). The fatal wounds were situated at the head, especially the forehead, seldom at the nape of the neck or in the mouth, or sometimes in the chest when using stud guns. Combined suicides (especially together with hanging) are not unusual. Survival periods (with or without acting capacity) can range between minutes or even months (after neurosurgical intervention).-The frequency of such unusual and overall rare cases did not raise during the investigation period.

  5. Health hazards to the population of Hamburg, due to the Chernobyl reactor accident. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Estimations of cancer incidence within a time period of 50 years are stated and in brackets for comparison the cancer deaths within a time period of 50 years based on the Hamburg cancer register for 1985: 1) Pulmonary cancer 0-2 (47 100) 2) Thyroid (thyroida. 3) Hepatic cancer 1-69 (5 700) 4) Leucaemia 3-609 (8 850) 5) All cancer diseases 3-609 (259 000). Presuming that all cancer diseases caused by the Chernobyl accident lead to death and taking into consideration the total cancer risk of the next 50 years, the number of cancer deaths increases at maximum by a little more than one five hundredth (0.23%) As concerns the genetic risk, it is to be noticed that the estimated numbers of 1 to up to 55 cases per generation above all refer to the minor modifications of hereditary factor. With regard to severe hereditary diseases within the next two generations the health authority estimates that in comparison to the single case of clinical importance caused by the reactor accident there are 1760 spontaneous hereditary diseases. (orig./HP) [de

  6. Text of the Agreement between the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Succession by the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    In a communication received on 24 March 1993, the Government of the Czech Republic informed the Director General, inter alia, that by virtue of succession to the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic, it was a Party, with effect from 1 January 1993, to the Agreement between the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons [es

  7. Federal Investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Sheila; Tawil, Natalie

    2013-01-01

    The federal government pays for a wide range of goods and services that are expected to be useful some years in the future. Those purchases, called investment, fall into three categories: physical capital, research and development (R&D), and education and training. There are several economic rationales for federal investment. It can provide…

  8. The punishment of gene doping - The relation between WADA prohibited lists, German Medicinal Products Act, German Doping Agents Amounts Ordinance, and Basic Law of the Federal Republic of Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parzeller, Markus

    2011-10-01

    The genetic constitution of athletes influences efficiency. Knowledge of genetic influences provides an opportunity for medical diagnostic and therapeutic attempts. Beside risks and therapeutic aspects, however, the possibilities of abuse for gene doping purposes in sports also exist. Genetic screening or gene therapy may have an advantage for athletes who use these methods. In juridical comments, it is pointed out that gene doping so far plays no role in sports, but that the legislator must consider a development in this area. Preventing abuse requires legal regulations. These regulations can include sanctions. This paper deals with the gene doping prohibition of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) as confirmed and accepted by the monitoring group according to Articles 10 and 11 of the European Anti-Doping Convention by the Council of Europe, the prohibition of (gene) doping in sports of the German Medicinal Products Act (Arzneimittelgesetz - AMG) and the German Doping Agents Amounts Ordinance (Dopingmittel-Mengen-Verordnung-DmMV) of the German Federal Ministry of Health (BMG). The comprehensibility of the doping ban on the norm addressee was tested with a questionnaire. In connection with legal regulations of the German constitution, gene doping is discussed and problems which may arise by a state doping prohibition are pointed out. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Outbreak of ciguatera fish poisoning on a cargo ship in the port of hamburg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaich, Clara; Hagelstein, Jan-Gerd; Burchard, Gerd-Dieter; Schmiedel, Stefan

    2012-07-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning is a travel-related illness characterized by a combination of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms in persons who eat ciguatoxic seafood in endemic areas. In 2009, an outbreak of the disease on a refrigerator vessel in the port of Hamburg was investigated. The ship's crew fell ill after they ate fish from a catch in the Caribbean 2 weeks earlier. All 15 sailors on board were examined by port medical officers. Samples of blood and stool specimens were taken from symptomatic sailors. The frozen fish was secured for the prevention of further disease spreading and additional diagnostic tests. All but one sailor ate the fish. The intoxication resulted in gastrointestinal or neurological symptoms in all 14 sailors who consumed the fish and persisted in varying degrees in 93% of sailors over at least 14 days. No fatality occurred, but two seamen were "unfit for duty" on the ship due to severity of symptoms. The diagnosis was supported by the fact that all seafarers who consumed the same reef fish, experienced typical signs, symptoms, and time course consistent with ciguatera fish poisoning. The fish from the catch in the Caribbean was identified as Caranx sexfasciatus (Bigeye Trevally) and Cephalopholis miniata (Red Grouper). An experimental assay later confirmed presence of the ciguatoxin in the fish. Sailors are an occupational group at risk for ciguatera fish poisoning due to potentially unsafe food sources during international travel. Even if no fatality occurred, the disease affected marine operations due to high attack rates and chronicity of symptoms. Medical doctors must be aware that ciguatera fish poisoning is a risk for seafarers traveling in tropical and subtropical areas. Stocking of food in affected ports from safe sources, adequate training of ship cooks, and informing sailors about the risk of fishing are needed to prevent disease occurrence in seafarers in international trade and traffic. © 2012 International Society of

  10. Dioxin/POPs legacy of pesticide production in Hamburg: part 1--securing of the production area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Roland; Varbelow, Hans Gerhard

    2013-04-01

    α-Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), β-HCH, and γ-HCH (lindane) were recently included as new persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the Stockholm Convention. Therefore, the chemicals need to be globally addressed, including the disposal of historic wastes. At most sites, the approximately 85% of HCH waste isomers were dumped. At a former lindane factory in Hamburg and some other factories the HCH, waste was recycled producing residues with high polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/PCDF) levels. The soil and ground water under the former pesticide factory was/is highly contaminated with HCH (260 tons), chlorobenzenes (550 tons), and PCDD/PCDF (6 kg toxic equivalents (TEQ)). This contamination did not result from disposal operations but from spillages and leakages during the 30 years of the factory's production history. A containment wall has been constructed around the production area to prevent the dispersal of the pollutants. The ground water is managed by a pump and treat system. Over the last 15 years, approximately 10-30 tons of this pollution reservoir has been pumped and incinerated. For the contaminated production buildings, specific assessment and demolition technologies have been applied. In addition to their HCH waste isomer deposition, former lindane/HCH productions need to be assessed for possible recycling practice of HCH and related PCDD/PCDF contamination of the production area and buildings. Since such recycling activities have taken place at several factories in different countries, the experience of assessment and management of the described production area and contaminated buildings could be valuable. Such assessment could be addressed within the frame of the Stockholm Convention.

  11. [Characteristics of children and adolescents with gender dysphoria referred to the Hamburg Gender Identity Clinic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Inga; Gjergji-Lama, Voltisa; Romer, Georg; Möller, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    Given the increasing demand for counselling in gender dysphoria in childhood in Germany, there is a definite need for empirical data on characteristics and developmental trajectories of this clinical group. This study aimed to provide a first overview by assessing demographic characteristics and developmental trajectories of a group of gender variant boys and girls referred to the specialised Gender Identity Clinic in Hamburg. Data were extracted from medical charts, transcribed and analysed using qualitative content analysis methods. Categories were set up by inductive-deductive reasoning based on the patients' parents' and clinicians' information in the files. Between 2006 and 2010, 45 gender variant children and adolescents were seen by clinicians; 88.9% (n = 40) of these were diagnosed with gender identity disorder (ICD-10). Within this group, the referral rates for girls were higher than for boys (1:1.5). Gender dysphoric girls were on average older than the boys and a higher percentage of girls was referred to the clinic at the beginning of adolescence (> 12 years of age). At the same time, more girls reported an early onset age. More girls made statements about their (same-sex) sexual orientation during adolescence and wishes for gender confirming medical interventions. More girls than boys revealed self-mutilation in the past or present as well as suicidal thoughts and/or attempts. Results indicate that the presentation of clinically referred gender dysphoric girls differs from the characteristics boys present in Germany; especially with respect to the most salient age differences. Therefore, these two groups require different awareness and individual treatment approaches.

  12. Monitoring the Soil Water Availability of Young Urban Trees in Hamburg, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titel, Selina; Gröngröft, Alexander; Eschenbach, Annette

    2017-04-01

    In large cities numerous trees have to be planted each year to replace died off or cut down trees or for greening of constructed roads and newly built quarters. The typical age of planted trees is between five and fifteen years. Often the planting takes place in special planting pits to stimulate the tree growth under the restricted urban conditions. Consequently, trees are surrounded by different soil substrates: the soil from the nursery in the root ball, the special planting pit substrate and the surrounding urban soil which is often anthropogenic influenced. Being relocated in the city, trees have to cope with the warmer urban climate, the soil sealing and compaction and the low water storage capacity of the substrate. All factors together increase the probability of dry phases for roadside trees. The aim of this study is to monitor the soil water availability at sites of planted roadside trees during the first years after planting. Therefore, a measuring design was developed, which works automatically and takes the complex below ground structure of the soil into account. This approach consists of 13 soil water tension sensors inside and outside of each planting pit up to one meter depth connected to a data logger. The monitoring devices will finally be installed at 20 roadside trees (amongst others Quercus cerris, Quercus robur, Acer platanoides 'Fairview') in Hamburg, Germany, to identify phases of drought stress. The young trees were mainly planted in spring 2016. Data of the first year of measurements show, that the water tension varied between the different soil substrates and the depth. In the first year of tree growth in the city, soil in the tree root ball became significantly drier than the surrounding soil material. In late summer 2016 the water tension in the topsoil had the potential to cause drought stress below some trees.

  13. 76 FR 61088 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of New Shipper...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-552-801] Certain Frozen Fish Fillets... antidumping duty order on certain frozen fish fillets from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, received between... on certain frozen fish fillets from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam was published in the Federal...

  14. 77 FR 15397 - Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement; Notice of Determination...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... lack thereof denied workers their rights under the laws of the Dominican Republic relating to freedom of association, the right to organize, child labor, forced labor, the right to bargain collectively... (``submissions'') regarding labor law matters in Central America and the Dominican Republic. A Federal Register...

  15. Retention and Attrition of Pacific School Teachers and Administrators (RAPSTA) Study: Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI). Research Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research and Development Cadre, Honolulu, HI.

    Pacific Resources for Education and Learning (PREL) works with 10 American-affiliated Pacific entities: American Samoa, the Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia (Chuuk, Kosrae, Pohnpei, Yap), Guam, Hawaii, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, and the Republic of Palau. The survey raises awareness of the…

  16. Recent and future developments of the oil industry in Russian Federation and more particularly in the Republic of Baskortostan; Evolution recente et perspectives d'evolution de l'industrie petroliere en federation de Russie et plus specialement dans la Republique du Bachkortostan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garifullin, R

    2001-09-01

    The objective of the thesis is to analyse the actual situation in the Russian oil industry and to envisage basic ways if its future development. The first chapter evaluates the place of the former USSR and Russia in the world and particularly European systems of energy supply. The three next chapters analyse the currents situation in the sectors of oil exploration and production, logistics and refining in Russia. The fifth chapter aims to figure out the perspectives of the refining industry taking into account the evolution of demand for basic petroleum products and the production capacities. Optimisation of refining and production volumes between the Russian refineries is done by minimising the transportation cost between the refineries and consuming regions by using linear programming. The last chapter analyses the regional impacts of the oil industry taking the Republic of Baskortostan as example. The contribution of the oil industry to regional development is evaluated in the framework of the export base theory using the Input-Output analysis as mathematical tool. (author)

  17. Life Sciences at the Cyclotron Center of the Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podhorsky, D.; Kovac, P.; Macasek, F.

    2004-01-01

    In this presentation the history and present status of the Cyclotron Center of the Slovak (CC SR) are presented. A state run scientific center and production facility ensuring: - the basic and applied research in nuclear physics, chemistry, biology and medicine; - production of radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals; - and applications of heavy ions and electron accelerator technologies in medicine and material science. Current financial status of the CC SR is following: Deblocation of the Russian; Federation debt to the Slovak Republic (94 %); State budget of the Slovak Republic (3 %); IAEA (3 %)

  18. Federal Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer consists of federally owned or administered lands of theUnited States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Only areas of 640 acres or more are...

  19. Guardians of the Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    them reason to make use of it to the best advantage of life and convenience." John Locke, An Essay Concerning the True Original Extent and End of Civil...a contextual conception of justice early in the Republic, when the young character Polemarchus offers and adopts the opinion of the lyric poet

  20. Czech Republic [2016

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kudrnáč, Aleš; Petrúšek, Ivan; Linek, Lukáš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 1 (2016), s. 69-75 ISSN 2047-8852 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-29032S Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : Czech politics * political parties * Czech Republic Subject RIV: AD - Politology ; Political Sciences http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/2047-8852.12130/full